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Sample records for zebrafish ugt repertoire

  1. A shifted repertoire of endocannabinoid genes in the zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    McPartland, J M; Glass, Michelle; Matias, Isabel; Norris, Ryan W; Kilpatrick, C William

    2007-05-01

    The zebrafish has served as a model organism for developmental biology. Sequencing its genome has expanded zebrafish research into physiology and drug-development testing. Several cannabinoid pharmaceuticals are in development, but expression of endocannabinoid receptors and enzymes remains unknown in this species. We conducted a bioinformatics analysis of the zebrafish genome using 17 human endocannabinoid genes as a reference set. Putative zebrafish orthologs were identified in filtered BLAST searches as reciprocal best hits. Orthology was confirmed by three in silico methods: phylogenetic testing, synteny analysis, and functional mapping. Zebrafish expressed orthologs of cannabinoid receptor 1, transient receptor potential channel vanilloid receptor 4, GPR55 receptor, fatty acid amide hydrolase 1, monoacylglycerol lipase, NAPE-selective phospholipase D, abhydrolase domain-containing protein 4, and diacylglycerol lipase alpha and beta; and paired paralogs of cannabinoid receptor 2, fatty acid amide hydrolase 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2, and transient receptor potential cation channel subtype A1. Functional mapping suggested the orthologs of transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma lack specific amino acids critical for cannabinoid ligand binding. No orthologs of N-acylethanolamine acid amidase or protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 22 were identified. In conclusion, the zebrafish genome expresses a shifted repertoire of endocannabinoid genes. In vitro analyses are warranted before using zebrafish for cannabinoid development testing.

  2. Behavioral repertoire of larval zebrafish: Baseline activity and response to drug treatment.

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the EPA’s effort to develop an in vivo, vertebrate screen for toxic chemicals, we have begun to characterize basic behaviors of 6-day post-fertilization (dpf) zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae in a microtiter plate format. Our main goal is to develop a method for rapidly ...

  3. Predicting Flavonoid UGT Regioselectivity

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Rhydon; Knisley, Debra; McIntosh, Cecilia; Pfeiffer, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Machine learning was applied to a challenging and biologically significant protein classification problem: the prediction of avonoid UGT acceptor regioselectivity from primary sequence. Novel indices characterizing graphical models of residues were proposed and found to be widely distributed among existing amino acid indices and to cluster residues appropriately. UGT subsequences biochemically linked to regioselectivity were modeled as sets of index sequences. Several learning techniques incorporating these UGT models were compared with classifications based on standard sequence alignment scores. These techniques included an application of time series distance functions to protein classification. Time series distances defined on the index sequences were used in nearest neighbor and support vector machine classifiers. Additionally, Bayesian neural network classifiers were applied to the index sequences. The experiments identified improvements over the nearest neighbor and support vector machine classifications relying on standard alignment similarity scores, as well as strong correlations between specific subsequences and regioselectivities. PMID:21747849

  4. Magnetic Flyer Facility Correlation and UGT Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-05-01

    AND UGT SIMULATION (U) Kaman Sciences Corporation L ~ P.O. Box 7463 I Colorado Springs, Colcerado 80933 ý4 May 1978DC Final Report CONTRACT No. DNA O01...selected underground test ( UGT ) environment on 3DQP; and, (2) To correlate the magnetically driven flyer plate facilities of VKSC with those of the...tailored to matcb the pressure vs. time anid total impulse measurements obtained on UGT events. This matching of experi- mental data required considerable

  5. Inhibition of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) by phthalate monoesters.

    PubMed

    Du, Zuo; Cao, Yun-Feng; Li, Sai-Nan; Hu, Cui-Min; Fu, Zhi-Wei; Huang, Chun-Ting; Sun, Xiao-Yu; Liu, Yong-Zhe; Yang, Kun; Fang, Zhong-Ze

    2018-04-01

    Phthalate monoesters are important metabolites of phthalate esters (PAEs) which have been extensively utilized in industry. This study aims to investigate the inhibition of phthalate monoesters on the activity of various isoforms of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), trying to elucidate the toxicity mechanism of environmental endocrine disruptors from the new perspectives. In vitro recombinant UGTs-catalyzed glucuronidation of 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) was employed to evaluate 8 kinds of phthalate monoesters on 11 sorts of main human UGT isoforms. 100 μM phthalate monoesters exhibited negligible inhibition towards the activity of UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A6, UGT1A8, UGT1A10, UGT2B4, UGT2B7, UGT2B15 and UGT2B17. The activity of UGT1A7 was strongly inhibited by monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), but slightly inhibited by all the other phthalate monoesters. UGT1A9 was broadly inhibited by monobenzyl phthalate (MBZP), monocyclohexyl phthalate (MCHP), MEHP, monohexyl phthalate (MHP) and monooctyl phthalate (MOP), respectively. MEHP exhibited competitive inhibition towards UGT1A7, and MBZP, MCHP, MEHP, MHP and MOP showed competitive inhibition towards UGT1A9. The inhibition kinetic parameters (K i ) were calculated to be 11.25 μM for MEHP-UGT1A7, and 2.13, 0.09, 1.17, 7.47, 0.16 μM for MBZP-UGT1A9, MCHP-UGT1A9, MEHP-UGT1A9, MHP-UGT1A9, MOP-UGT1A9, respectively. Molecular docking indicated that both hydrogen bonds formation and hydrophobic interactions significantly contributed to the interaction between phthalate monoesters and UGT isoforms. All these information will be beneficial for understanding the adverse effects of PAEs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Differences in UGT1A1, UGT1A7, and UGT1A9 polymorphisms between Uzbek and Japanese populations.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hiromichi; Hazama, Shoichi; Shavkat, Abdiev; Okamoto, Ken; Oba, Koji; Sakamoto, Junichi; Takahashi, Kenichi; Oka, Masaki; Nakamura, Daisuke; Tsunedomi, Ryouichi; Okayama, Naoko; Mishima, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Michiya

    2014-06-01

    Uridine-diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A (UGT1A) is a key enzyme involved in irinotecan metabolism, and polymorphisms in the UGT1A gene are associated with irinotecan-induced toxicity. The aim of this study was to elucidate the allele frequencies of UGT1A polymorphisms in healthy Uzbek volunteers, and to compare them with those of the Japanese population. A total of 97 healthy volunteers from Uzbekistan were enrolled and blood samples were collected from each participant. Genotyping analysis was performed by fragment size analysis for UGT1A1*28, direct sequencing for UGT1A7*3 and UGT1A9*22, and TaqMan assays for UGT1A1*93, UGT1A1*6, UGT1A1*27, UGT1A1*60, and UGT1A7*12. The frequencies of polymorphisms were compared with the Japanese population by using the data previously reported from our study group. When the Uzbek and Japanese populations were compared, heterozygotes or homozygotes for UGT1A1*28, UGT1A1*60, and UGT1A1*93 were significantly more frequent in the Uzbek population (P < 0.01). The rate of UGT1A7*12 was not significantly different between the two populations, whereas UGT1A1*6 and UGT1A9*22 were significantly less frequent in the Uzbek population (P < 0.05). UGT1A7*1 were less prevalent in the Uzbek population than in the Japanese population (P < 0.01). The Uzbek population has different frequencies of polymorphisms in UGT1A genes compared with the Japanese population. A comprehensive study of the influence of UGT1A1 polymorphisms on the risk of irinotecan-induced toxicity is necessary for optimal use of irinotecan treatment.

  7. Genetic variations in UGT2B28, UGT2B17, UGT2B15 genes and the risk of prostate cancer: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Mohsen; Mirfakhraie, Reza; Khani, Maryam; Rakhshan, Azadeh; Azargashb, Eznollah; Pouresmaeili, Farkhondeh

    2017-11-15

    Glucuronidation is a major pathway for elimination of exogenous and endogenous compounds such as environmental carcinogens and androgens from the body. This biochemical pathway is mediated by enzymes called uridine diphosphoglucuronosyltransferases (UGTs). Null (del/del) genes polymorphisms in UGT2B17, and UGT2B28 and D85Y single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of UGT2B15 have been reported to increase the risk of prostate cancer. The goal of this study was to determine the association of mentioned genetic variants with the risk of prostate cancer. We investigated the copy number variations (CNVs) of UGT2B17 and UGT2B28 loci and the association between rs1902023 polymorphism of UGT2B15 gene in 360 subjects consisted of 120 healthy controls, 120 prostate cancer (PC) patients and 120 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients. No association was detected for the mentioned polymorphisms and the risk of PC. However, a significant association was detected between UGT2B17 copy number variation and BPH risk (OR=2.189; 95% CI, 1.303-3.675; p=0.003). Furthermore, we observed that the D85Y polymorphism increases the risk of BPH when analyzed in combination with the copy number variation of UGT2B17 gene (OR=0.135; 95% CI, 0.036-0.512; p=0.003). Our findings suggest that the D85Y polymorphism of UGT2B15 and CNVs in UGT2B28 and UGT2B17 genes is not associated with prostate cancer risk in Iranian patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report that implicates the role of CNV of UGT2B17 gene in BPH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. UGT1A and UGT2B genetic variation alters nicotine and nitrosamine glucuronidation in european and african american smokers.

    PubMed

    Wassenaar, Catherine A; Conti, David V; Das, Soma; Chen, Peixian; Cook, Edwin H; Ratain, Mark J; Benowitz, Neal L; Tyndale, Rachel F

    2015-01-01

    Identifying sources of variation in the nicotine and nitrosamine metabolic inactivation pathways is important to understanding the relationship between smoking and cancer risk. Numerous UGT1A and UGT2B enzymes are implicated in nicotine and nitrosamine metabolism in vitro; however, little is known about their roles in vivo. Within UGT1A1, UGT1A4, UGT1A9, UGT2B7, UGT2B10, and UGT2B17, 47 variants were genotyped, including UGT2B10*2 and UGT2B17*2. The association between variation in these UGTs and glucuronidation activity within European and African American current smokers (n = 128), quantified as urinary ratios of the glucuronide over unconjugated compound for nicotine, cotinine, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), was investigated in regression models assuming a dominant effect of variant alleles. Correcting for multiple testing, three UGT2B10 variants were associated with cotinine glucuronidation, rs2331559 and rs11726322 in European Americans and rs835309 in African Americans (P ≤ 0.0002). Additional variants predominantly in UGT2B10 were nominally associated with nicotine (P = 0.008-0.04) and cotinine (P = <0.001-0.02) glucuronidation in both ethnicities in addition to UGT2B10*2 in European Americans (P = 0.01, P < 0.001). UGT2B17*2 (P = 0.03) in European Americans and UGT2B7 variants (P = 0.02-0.04) in African Americans were nominally associated with 3HC glucuronidation. UGT1A (P = 0.007-0.01), UGT2B10 (P = 0.02), and UGT2B7 (P = 0.02-0.03) variants in African Americans were nominally associated with NNAL glucuronidation. Findings from this initial in vivo study support a role for multiple UGTs in the glucuronidation of tobacco-related compounds in vivo, in particular UGT2B10 and cotinine glucuronidation. Findings also provide insight into ethnic differences in glucuronidation activity, which could be contributing to ethnic disparities in the risk for smoking-related cancers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev

  9. Glucuronidation of OTS167 in Humans Is Catalyzed by UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A8, and UGT1A10

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Jacqueline; Mirkov, Snezana; House, Larry K.

    2015-01-01

    OTS167 is a potent maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase inhibitor undergoing clinical testing as antineoplastic agent. We aimed to identify the UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) involved in OTS167 metabolism, study the relationship between UGT genetic polymorphisms and hepatic OTS167 glucuronidation, and investigate the inhibitory potential of OTS167 on UGTs. Formation of a single OTS167-glucuronide (OTS167-G) was observed in pooled human liver (HLM) (Km = 3.4 ± 0.2 µM), intestinal microsomes (HIM) (Km = 1.7 ± 0.1 µM), and UGTs. UGT1A1 (64 µl/min/mg) and UGT1A8 (72 µl/min/mg) exhibited the highest intrinsic clearances (CLint) for OTS167, followed by UGT1A3 (51 µl/min/mg) and UGT1A10 (47 µl/min/mg); UGT1A9 was a minor contributor. OTS167 glucuronidation in HLM was highly correlated with thyroxine glucuronidation (r = 0.91, P < 0.0001), SN-38 glucuronidation (r = 0.79, P < 0.0001), and UGT1A1 mRNA (r = 0.72, P < 0.0001). Nilotinib (UGT1A1 inhibitor) and emodin (UGT1A8 and UGT1A10 inhibitor) exhibited the highest inhibitory effects on OTS167-G formation in HLM (68%) and HIM (47%). We hypothesize that OTS167-G is an N-glucuronide according to mass spectrometry. A significant association was found between rs6706232 and reduced OTS167-G formation (P = 0.03). No or weak UGT inhibition (range: 0–21%) was observed using clinically relevant OTS167 concentrations (0.4–2 µM). We conclude that UGT1A1 and UGT1A3 are the main UGTs responsible for hepatic formation of OTS167-G. Intestinal UGT1A1, UGT1A8, and UGT1A10 may contribute to first-pass OTS167 metabolism after oral administration. PMID:25870101

  10. Glucuronidation of OTS167 in Humans Is Catalyzed by UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A8, and UGT1A10.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Jacqueline; Mirkov, Snezana; House, Larry K; Ratain, Mark J

    2015-07-01

    OTS167 is a potent maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase inhibitor undergoing clinical testing as antineoplastic agent. We aimed to identify the UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) involved in OTS167 metabolism, study the relationship between UGT genetic polymorphisms and hepatic OTS167 glucuronidation, and investigate the inhibitory potential of OTS167 on UGTs. Formation of a single OTS167-glucuronide (OTS167-G) was observed in pooled human liver (HLM) (Km = 3.4 ± 0.2 µM), intestinal microsomes (HIM) (Km = 1.7 ± 0.1 µM), and UGTs. UGT1A1 (64 µl/min/mg) and UGT1A8 (72 µl/min/mg) exhibited the highest intrinsic clearances (CLint) for OTS167, followed by UGT1A3 (51 µl/min/mg) and UGT1A10 (47 µl/min/mg); UGT1A9 was a minor contributor. OTS167 glucuronidation in HLM was highly correlated with thyroxine glucuronidation (r = 0.91, P < 0.0001), SN-38 glucuronidation (r = 0.79, P < 0.0001), and UGT1A1 mRNA (r = 0.72, P < 0.0001). Nilotinib (UGT1A1 inhibitor) and emodin (UGT1A8 and UGT1A10 inhibitor) exhibited the highest inhibitory effects on OTS167-G formation in HLM (68%) and HIM (47%). We hypothesize that OTS167-G is an N-glucuronide according to mass spectrometry. A significant association was found between rs6706232 and reduced OTS167-G formation (P = 0.03). No or weak UGT inhibition (range: 0-21%) was observed using clinically relevant OTS167 concentrations (0.4-2 µM). We conclude that UGT1A1 and UGT1A3 are the main UGTs responsible for hepatic formation of OTS167-G. Intestinal UGT1A1, UGT1A8, and UGT1A10 may contribute to first-pass OTS167 metabolism after oral administration. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  11. Identification of UGT2B9*2 and UGT2B33 isolated from female rhesus monkey liver.

    PubMed

    Dean, Brian; Arison, Byron; Chang, Steve; Thomas, Paul E; King, Christopher

    2004-06-01

    Two UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT2B9(*)2 and UGT2B33) have been isolated from female rhesus monkey liver. Microsomal preparations of the cell lines expressing the UGTs catalyzed the glucuronidation of the general substrate 7-hydroxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)coumarin in addition to selected estrogens (beta-estradiol and estriol) and opioids (morphine, naloxone, and naltrexone). UGT2B9(*)2 displayed highest efficiency for beta-estradiol-17-glucuronide production and did not catalyze the glucuronidation of naltrexone. UGT2B33 displayed highest efficiency for estriol and did not catalyze the glucuronidation of beta-estradiol. UGT2B9(*)2 was found also to catalyze the glucuronidation of 4-hydroxyestrone, 16-epiestriol, and hyodeoxycholic acid, while UGT2B33 was capable of conjugating 4-hydroxyestrone, androsterone, diclofenac, and hyodeoxycholic acid. Three glucocorticoids (cortisone, cortisol, and corticosterone) were not substrates for glucuronidation by liver or kidney microsomes or any expressed UGTs. Our current data suggest the use of beta-estradiol-3-glucuronidation, beta-estradiol-17-glucuronidation, and estriol-17-glucuronidation to assay UGT1A01, UGT2B9(*)2, and UGT2B33 activity in rhesus liver microsomes, respectively.

  12. The Linguistic Repertoire Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Brigitta

    2012-01-01

    This article argues for the relevance of poststructuralist approaches to the notion of a linguistic repertoire and introduces the notion of language portraits as a basis for empirical study of the way in which speakers conceive and represent their heteroglossic repertoires. The first part of the article revisits Gumperz's notion of a linguistic…

  13. Impacts of the Glucuronidase Genotypes UGT1A4, UGT2B7, UGT2B15 and UGT2B17 on Tamoxifen Metabolism in Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Lorca, Alicia; Novillo, Apolonia; Gaibar, María; Bandrés, Fernando; Fernández-Santander, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Tamoxifen is used to prevent and treat estrogen-dependent breast cancer. It is described as a prodrug since most of its antiestrogen effects are exerted through its hydroxylated metabolites 4-OH-tamoxifen and endoxifen. In prior work, we correlated optimal plasma levels of these metabolites with certain genotypes of CYP2D6 and SULT1A2. This descriptive study examines correlations between concentrations of tamoxifen's glucuronide metabolites and genotypes UGT1A4 Pro24Thr, UGT1A4 Leu48Val, UGT2B7 His268Tyr, UGT2B15 Asp85YTyr UGT2B15 Lys523Thr and UGT2B17del in 132 patients with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer under treatment with tamoxifen. Patients were genotyped by real-time and conventional PCR-RFLP. The glucuronides 4-OH-tamoxifen-N-glucuronide, 4-OH-tamoxifen-O-glucuronide and endoxifen-O-glucuronide were isolated from blood plasma and quantified using a high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry system. Individuals who were homozygous for UGT1A448VAL showed significantly lower mean concentrations of both glucuronide metabolites compared to subjects genotyped as wt/wt plus wt/48Val (p=0.037 and p=0.031, respectively). Women homozygous for UGT2B7268Tyr also showed mean substrate/product ratios of 4-OH-tamoxifen/4-OH-tamoxifen-O-glucuronide and 4-OH-tamoxifen/4-OH-tamoxifen-N-glucuronide indicative of reduced glucuronidase activity compared to wt homozygotes or to heterozygotes for the polymorphism (p=0.005 and p=0.003, respectively). In contrast, UGT2B15 Lys523Thr and UGT2B17del were associated with possibly increased enzyme activity. Patients with at least one variant allele UGT2B15523Thr showed significantly higher 4-OH-tamoxifen-O-glucuronide and endoxifen-glucuronide levels (p=0.023 and p=0.025, respectively) indicating a variant gene-dose effect. Higher 4-OH-tamoxifen-N-glucuronide levels observed in UGT2B17del genotypes (p=0.042) could be attributed to a mechanism that compensates for the greater expression of other genes in UGT2B

  14. Use Of Transgenic Mice In UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Zhimin; Huang, Min; Zhao, Lizi; Xie, Wen

    2009-01-01

    Transgenic mouse models are useful to understand the function and regulation of drug metabolizing enzymes in vivo. This article is intended to describe the general strategies and to discuss specific examples on how to use transgenic, gene knockout, and humanized mice to study the function as well as genetic and pharmacological regulation of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs). The physiological and pharmacological implications of transcription factor-mediated UGT regulation will also be discussed. The UGT-regulating transcription factors to be discussed in this article include nuclear hormone receptors (NRs), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). PMID:20070245

  15. Analyzing Immunoglobulin Repertoires

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Neha; Wesemann, Duane R.

    2018-01-01

    Somatic assembly of T cell receptor and B cell receptor (BCR) genes produces a vast diversity of lymphocyte antigen recognition capacity. The advent of efficient high-throughput sequencing of lymphocyte antigen receptor genes has recently generated unprecedented opportunities for exploration of adaptive immune responses. With these opportunities have come significant challenges in understanding the analysis techniques that most accurately reflect underlying biological phenomena. In this regard, sample preparation and sequence analysis techniques, which have largely been borrowed and adapted from other fields, continue to evolve. Here, we review current methods and challenges of library preparation, sequencing and statistical analysis of lymphocyte receptor repertoire studies. We discuss the general steps in the process of immune repertoire generation including sample preparation, platforms available for sequencing, processing of sequencing data, measurable features of the immune repertoire, and the statistical tools that can be used for analysis and interpretation of the data. Because BCR analysis harbors additional complexities, such as immunoglobulin (Ig) (i.e., antibody) gene somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination, the emphasis of this review is on Ig/BCR sequence analysis. PMID:29593723

  16. Association of UGT2B7 and UGT1A4 Polymorphisms with Serum Concentration of Antiepileptic Drugs in Children.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhongliang; Jiao, Yukun; Shi, Lianting

    2016-10-31

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to analyze the relationship of UGT2B7 and UGT1A4 polymorphisms with metabolism of valproic acid (VPA) and lamotrigine (LTG) in epileptic children. MATERIAL AND METHODS We administered VPA (102) and LTG (102) to 204 children with epilepsy. Blood samples were collected before the morning dose. Serum concentration of LTG was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Serum VPA concentration was tested by fluorescence polarization immunoassay. UGT2B7 A268G, C802T, and G211T polymorphisms, as well as UGT1A4 L48V polymorphism, were assayed by direct automated DNA sequencing after PCR. Evaluation of efficacy was conducted using the Engel method. RESULTS The adjusted serum concentration of VPA was 4.26 μg/mL per mg/kg and LTG was 1.56 μg/mL per mg/kg. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that VPA or LTG adjusted concentration showed a good linear relation with sex and age. UGT2B7 A268G and C802T polymorphisms were demonstrated to affect the serum concentration of VPA (F=3.147, P=0.047; F=22.754, P=0.000). UGT1A4 L48V polymorphism was not related with the serum concentration of LTG (F=5.328, P=0.006). In the efficacy analysis, we found that C802T polymorphism exerted strong effects on efficacy of VPA (χ²=9.265, P=0.010). L48V polymorphism also showed effects on efficacy of LTG (χ²=17.397, P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS UGT2B7, UGT1A4 polymorphisms play crucial roles in metabolism of VPA and LTG.

  17. Chirality Influence of Zaltoprofen Towards UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) Inhibition Potential.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lin; Hu, Cuimin; Wang, Haina; Liu, Yongzhe; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Yan-Yan; Li, Wei; Wang, Li-Xuan; Cao, Yun-Feng; Fang, Zhong-Ze

    2015-06-01

    Zaltoprofen (ZLT) is a nonsteroidal antiinflammation drug, and has been clinically employed to treat rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and other chronic inflammatory pain conditions. The present study aims to investigate the chirality influence of zaltoprofen towards the inhibition potential towards UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) isoforms. In vitro a recombinant UGT isoforms-catalyzed 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) glucuronidation incubation system was employed to investigate the inhibition of (R)-zaltoprofen and (S)-zaltoprofen towards UGT isoforms. The inhibition difference capability was observed for the inhibition of (R)-zaltoprofen and (S)-zaltoprofen towards UGT1A8 and UGT2B7, but not for other tested UGT isoforms. (R)-zaltoprofen exhibited noncompetitive inhibition towards UGT1A8 and competitive inhibition towards UGT2B7. The inhibition kinetic parameters were calculated to be 35.3 μM and 19.2 μM for UGT1A8 and UGT2B7. (R)-zaltoprofen and (S)-zaltoprofen exhibited a different inhibition type towards UGT1A7. Based on the reported maximum plasma concentration of (R)-zaltoprofen in vivo, a high drug-drug interaction between (R)-zaltoprofen and the drugs mainly undergoing UGT1A7, UGT1A8, and UGT2B7-catalyzed glucuronidation was indicated. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Effects of UGTs on the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argo, P. E.; Fitzgerald, T. J.

    The processes that propagate local effects of underground nuclear tests from the ground into the upper atmosphere, and produce a detectable signal in the ionosphere are described. Initially, the blast wave from a underground test (UGT) radially expands, until it reaches the surface of the earth. The wave is both reflected and transmitted at this sharp discontinuity in propagation media. Tne reflected wave combines with the incident wave to form an 'Airy surface,' at which very strong ripping forces tear the earth apart. This broken region is called the 'spat zone,' and is launched into ballistic motion. The resultant ground motion launches an acoustical wave into the atmosphere. This acoustic wave, with overpressures of a few tenths of one percent, propagates upwards at the speed of sound. Assuming purely linear propagation, the path of the acoustic energy can be tracked using raytracing models. Most of the wave energy, which is radiated nearly vertically, tends to propagate into the upper atmosphere, while wave energy radiated at angles greater than about 30 degrees to the vertical will be reflected back to earth and is probably what is seen by most infrasonde measurements.

  19. UGT74S1 is the key player in controlling secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) formation in flax.

    PubMed

    Fofana, Bourlaye; Ghose, Kaushik; McCallum, Jason; You, Frank M; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2017-02-02

    Flax lignan, commonly known as secoisolariciresinol (SECO) diglucoside (SDG), has recently been reported with health-promoting activities, including its positive impact in metabolic diseases. However, not much was reported on the biosynthesis of SDG and its monoglucoside (SMG) until lately. Flax UGT74S1 was recently reported to sequentially glucosylate SECO into SMG and SDG in vitro. However, whether this gene is the only UGT achieving SECO glucosylation in flax was not known. Flax genome-wide mining for UGTs was performed. Phylogenetic and gene duplication analyses, heterologous gene expression and enzyme assays were conducted to identify family members closely related to UGT74S1 and to establish their roles in SECO glucosylation. A total of 299 different UGTs were identified, of which 241 (81%) were duplicated. Flax UGTs diverged 2.4-153.6 MYA and 71% were found to be under purifying selection pressure. UGT74S1, a single copy gene located on chromosome 7, displayed no evidence of duplication and was deemed to be under positive selection pressure. The phylogenetic analysis identified four main clusters where cluster 4, which included UGT74S1, was the most diverse. The duplicated UGT74S4 and UGT74S3, located on chromosomes 8 and 14, respectively, were the most closely related to UGT74S1 and were differentially expressed in different tissues. Heterologous expression levels of UGT74S1, UGT74S4 and UGT74S3 proteins were similar but UGT74S4 and UGT74S3 glucosylation activity towards SECO was seven fold less than UGT74S1. In addition, they both failed to produce SDG, suggesting neofunctionalization following their divergence from UGT74S1. We showed that UGT74S1 is closely related to two duplicated genes, UGT74S4 and UGT74S3 which, unlike UGT74S1, failed to glucosylate SMG into SDG. The study suggests that UGT74S1 may be the key player in controlling SECO glucosylation into SDG in flax although its closely related genes may also contribute to a minor extent in supplying

  20. Isothiocyanates induce UGT1A1 in humanized UGT1 mice in a CAR dependent fashion that is highly dependent upon oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Yoda, Emiko; Paszek, Miles; Konopnicki, Camille; Fujiwara, Ryoichi; Chen, Shujuan; Tukey, Robert H

    2017-04-19

    Isothiocyanates, such as phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), are formed following the consumption of cruciferous vegetables and generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that lead to the induction of cytoprotective genes such as the UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs). The induction of ROS activates the Nrf2-Keap 1 pathway leading to the induction of genes through antioxidant response elements (AREs). UGT1A1, the sole enzyme responsible for the metabolism of bilirubin, can be induced following activation of Nrf2. When neonatal humanized UGT1 (hUGT1) mice, which exhibit severe levels of total serum bilirubin (TSB) because of a developmental delay in expression of the UGT1A1 gene, were treated with PEITC, TSB levels were reduced. Liver and intestinal UGT1A1 were induced, along with murine CYP2B10, a consensus CAR target gene. In both neonatal and adult hUGT1/Car -/- mice, PEITC was unable to induce CYP2B10. A similar result was observed following analysis of UGT1A1 expression in liver. However, TSB levels were still reduced in hUGT1/Car -/- neonatal mice because of ROS induction of intestinal UGT1A1. When oxidative stress was blocked by exposing mice to N-acetylcysteine, induction of liver UGT1A1 and CYP2B10 by PEITC was prevented. Thus, new findings in this report link an important role in CAR activation that is dependent upon oxidative stress.

  1. Statin Lactonization by Uridine 5'-Diphospho-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs).

    PubMed

    Schirris, Tom J J; Ritschel, Tina; Bilos, Albert; Smeitink, Jan A M; Russel, Frans G M

    2015-11-02

    Statins are cholesterol-lowering drugs that have proven to be effective in lowering the risk of major cardiovascular events. Although well tolerated, statin-induced myopathies are the most common side effects. Compared to their pharmacologically active acid form, statin lactones are more potent inducers of toxicity. They can be formed by glucuronidation mediated by uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), but a systematic characterization of subtype specificity and kinetics of lactonization is lacking. Here, we demonstrate for six clinically relevant statins that only UGT1A1, 1A3, and 2B7 contribute significantly to their lactonization. UGT1A3 appeared to have the highest lactonization capacity with marked differences in statin conversion rates: pitavastatin ≫ atorvastatin > cerivastatin > lovastatin > rosuvastatin (simvastatin not converted). Using in silico modeling we could identify a probable statin interaction region in the UGT binding pocket. Polymorphisms in these regions of UGT1A1, 1A3, and 2B7 may be a contributing factor in statin-induced myopathies, which could be used in personalization of statin therapy with improved safety.

  2. A two-scale model for correlation between B cell VDJ usage in zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Keyao; Deem, Michael

    2011-03-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is one of the model animals for study of immunology. The dynamics of the adaptive immune system in zebrafish is similar to that in higher animals. In this work, we built a two-scale model to simulate the dynamics of B cells in primary and secondary immune reactions in zebrafish and to explain the reported correlation between VDJ usage of B cell repertoires in distinct zebrafish. The first scale of the model consists of a generalized NK model to simulate the B cell maturation process in the 10-day primary immune response. The second scale uses a delay ordinary differential equation system to model the immune responses in the 6-month lifespan of zebrafish. The generalized NK model shows that mature B cells specific to one antigen mostly possess a single VDJ recombination. The probability that mature B cells in two zebrafish have the same VDJ recombination increases with the B cell population size or the B cell selection intensity and decreases with the B cell hypermutation rate. The ODE model shows a distribution of correlation in the VDJ usage of the B cell repertoires in two six-month-old zebrafish that is highly similar to that from experiment. This work presents a simple theory to explain the experimentally observed correlation in VDJ usage of distinct zebrafish B cell repertoires after an immune response.

  3. Zebrafish Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Charles K

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma skin cancer is a potentially deadly disease in humans and has remained extremely difficult to treat once it has metastasized. In just the last 10 years, a number of models of melanoma have been developed in the zebrafish that are biologically faithful to the human disease and have already yielded important insights into the fundamental biology of melanoma and offered new potential avenues for treatment. With the diversity and breadth of the molecular genetic tools available in the zebrafish, these melanoma models will continue to be refined and expanded upon to keep pace with the rapidly evolving field of melanoma biology.

  4. Involvement of three putative glucosyltransferases from the UGT72 family in flavonol glucoside/rhamnoside biosynthesis in Lotus japonicus seeds

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Qinggang; Shen, Guoan; Chang, Zhenzhan; Tang, Yuhong; Gao, Hongwen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Flavonols are one of the largest groups of flavonoids that confer benefits for the health of plants and animals. Flavonol glycosides are the predominant flavonoids present in the model legume Lotus japonicus. The molecular mechanisms underlying the biosynthesis of flavonol glycosides as yet remain unknown in L. japonicus. In the present study, we identified a total of 188 UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) in L. japonicus by genome-wide searching. Notably, 12 UGTs from the UGT72 family were distributed widely among L. japonicus chromosomes, expressed in all tissues, and showed different docking scores in an in silico bioinformatics docking analysis. Further enzymatic assays showed that five recombinant UGTs (UGT72AD1, UGT72AF1, UGT72AH1, UGT72V3, and UGT72Z2) exhibit activity toward flavonol, flavone, and isoflavone aglycones. In particular, UGT72AD1, UGT72AH1, and UGT72Z2 are flavonol-specific UGTs with different kinetic properties. In addition, the overexpression of UGT72AD1 and UGT72Z2 led to increased accumulation of flavonol rhamnosides in L. japonicus and Arabidopsis thaliana. Moreover, the increase of kaempferol 3-O-rhamnoside-7-O-rhamnoside in transgenic A. thaliana inhibited root growth as compared with the wild-type control. These results highlight the significance of the UGT72 family in flavonol glycosylation and the role of flavonol rhamnosides in plant growth. PMID:28204516

  5. Bisphenol-A glucuronidation in human liver and breast: identification of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) and influence of genetic polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Street, Christina M; Zhu, Zhaohui; Finel, Moshe; Court, Michael H

    2017-01-01

    1. Bisphenol-A is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant that is primarily metabolized by glucuronidation and associated with various human diseases including breast cancer. Here we identified UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) and genetic polymorphisms responsible for interindividual variability in bisphenol-A glucuronidation in human liver and breast. 2. Hepatic UGTs showing the highest bisphenol-A glucuronidation activity included UGT2B15 and UGT1A9. Relative activity factor normalization indicated that UGT2B15 contributes >80% of activity at bisphenol-A concentrations under 5 μM, while UGT1A9 contributes up to 50% of activity at higher concentrations. 3. Bisphenol-A glucuronidation by liver microsomes (46 donors) ranged from 0.25 to 4.3 nmoles/min/mg protein. Two-fold higher glucuronidation (p = 0.018) was observed in UGT1A9 *22/*22 livers compared with *1/*1 and *1/*22 livers. However, no associations were observed for UGT2B15*2 or UGT1A1*28 genotypes. 4. Bisphenol-A glucuronidation by breast microsomes (15 donors) ranged from <0.2 to 56 fmoles/min/mg protein. Breast mRNA expression of UGTs capable of glucuronidating bisphenol-A was highest for UGT1A1, followed by UGT2B4, UGT1A9, UGT1A10, UGT2B7 and UGT2B15. Bisphenol-A glucuronidation was over 10-fold lower in breast tissues with the UGT1A1*28 allele compared with tissues without this allele (p = 0.006). 5. UGT2B15 and UGT1A9 contribute to glucuronidation variability in liver, while UGT1A1 is important in breast.

  6. Comparison of inhibition capability of scutellarein and scutellarin towards important liver UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoforms.

    PubMed

    Ma, Guang-You; Cao, Yun-Feng; Hu, Cui-Min; Fang, Zhong-Ze; Sun, Xiao-Yu; Hong, Mo; Zhu, Zhi-Tu

    2014-03-01

    Scutellarin is an important bioactive flavonoid extracted from Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand-Mazz, and scutellarein is the corresponding aglycone of scutellarin. The present study aims to compare the inhibition potential of scutellarin and scutellarein towards several important UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoforms, including UGT1A1, UGT1A6, UGT1A9 and UGT2B7. It was demonstrated that scutellarein exerted stronger inhibition towards the tested UGT isoforms than scutellarin. Furthermore, the inhibition kinetic type and parameters (Ki ) were determined for the scutellarein's inhibition towards these UGT isoforms. Competitive inhibition of scutellarein towards all these UGT isoforms was demonstrated, and the Ki values were calculated to be 0.02, 5.0, 5.8 and 35.9 μM for UGT1A1, 1A6, 1A9 and 2B7, respectively. Using in vivo maximum plasma concentration of scutellarein in rat, the in vitro-in vivo extrapolation was performed to predict in vivo situation, indicating the most possible in vivo adverse effects due to the inhibition of scutellarein towards UGT1A1. All these results remind us to monitor the utilization of scutellarin and scutellarein, and the herbs containing these two components. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Effects of Andrographis paniculata and Orthosiphon stamineus extracts on the glucuronidation of 4-methylumbelliferone in human UGT isoforms.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Sabariah; Hanapi, Nur Aziah; Ab Halim, Mohd Rohaimi; Uchaipichat, Verawan; Mackenzie, Peter I

    2010-05-14

    The effects of Andrographis paniculata and Orthosiphon stamineus extracts on the in vitro glucuronidation of 4-methylumbelliferone (4MU) by recombinant human UGTs, UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A6, UGT1A7, UGT1A8, UGT1A10, UGT2B7 and UGT2B15 were determined. The potential inhibitory effects of both of the extracts on the activity of each of the UGT isoforms were investigated using 4MU as the substrate. Incubations contained UDP-glucuronic acid (UDPGA) as the cofactor, MgCl(2), cell lysate of respective isoform, and 4MU at the approximate apparent K(m) or S(50) value of each isoform. Final concentrations of Andrographis paniculata and Orthosiphon stamineus extracts used were 0.025, 0.25, 2.5, 25 and 50 microg/mL and 0.01, 0.10, 1.0, 10 and 50 microg/mL respectively. Both extracts variably inhibited the activity of most of the isoforms in a concentration dependent manner. Andrographis paniculata extract was the better inhibitor of all the isoforms studied (IC(50) 1.70 microg/mL for UGT1A3, 2.57 microg/mL for UGT1A8, 2.82 microg/mL for UGT2B7, 5.00 micorg/mL for UGT1A1, 5.66 microg/mL for UGT1A6, 9.88 microg/mL for UGT1A7 and 15.66 microg/mL for UGT1A10). Both extracts showed less than 70% inhibition of UGT2B15, so the IC(50) values were >50 microg/mL. The inhibition of human UGTs by Andrographis paniculata and Orthosiphon stamineus extracts in vitro suggests a potential for drug-herbal extract interactions in the therapeutic setting.

  8. Effect of UGT2B10, UGT2B17, FMO3, and OCT2 Genetic Variation on Nicotine and Cotinine Pharmacokinetics and Smoking in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Taghavi, Taraneh; St. Helen, Gideon; Benowitz, Neal L.; Tyndale, Rachel F.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Nicotine metabolism rates differ greatly among individuals, even after controlling for variation in the major nicotine metabolizing enzyme, CYP2A6. In this study, the impact of genetic variation in alternative metabolic enzymes and transporters on nicotine and cotinine pharmacokinetics and smoking was investigated. METHODS We examined the impact of UGT2B10, UGT2B17, FMO3, NAT1, and OCT2 variation on pharmacokinetics and smoking (total nicotine equivalents and topography), before and after stratifying by CYP2A6 genotype in 60 African American smokers who received a simultaneous intravenous infusion of deuterium-labeled nicotine and cotinine. RESULTS Variants in UGT2B10 and UGT2B17 were associated with urinary glucuronidation ratios (glucuronide/free substrate). UGT2B10 rs116294140 was associated with significant alterations in cotinine and modest alterations in nicotine pharmacokinetics. These alterations, however, were not sufficient to change nicotine intake or topography. Neither UGT2B10 rs61750900, UGT2B17*2, FMO3 rs2266782, nor NAT1 rs13253389 altered nicotine or cotinine pharmacokinetics among all subjects (n=60); or among individuals with reduced CYP2A6 activity (n=23). The organic cation transporter OCT2 rs316019 significantly increased nicotine and cotinine Cmax (p=0.005, p=0.02, respectively) and decreased nicotine clearance (p=0.05). UGT2B10 rs116294140 had no significant impact on the plasma or urinary trans-3’-hydroxycotinine/cotinine ratio, commonly used as a biomarker of CYP2A6 activity. CONCLUSIONS We demonstrated that polymorphisms in genes other than CYP2A6 represent minor sources of variation in nicotine pharmacokinetics, insufficient to alter smoking in African Americans. The change in cotinine pharmacokinetics with UGT2B10 rs116294140 highlights the UGT2B10 gene as a source of variability in cotinine as a biomarker of tobacco exposure among African American smokers. PMID:28178031

  9. UGT1A1*6 and UGT1A1*28 polymorphisms are correlated with irinotecan-induced toxicity: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuwei; Zhou, MengMeng; Hu, Mingjun; Cui, Yanjie; Zhong, Qi; Liang, Ling; Huang, Fen

    2018-06-22

    Previous articles explored the role of UGT1A1 polymorphism on predicting irinotecan-induced toxicity, but the conclusions were still inconsistent and not comprehensive. We performed this meta-analysis to investigate the association between UGT1A1 polymorphism and irinotecan-induced toxicity. PubMed and Web of Science were searched for articles before July 2017. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were set to select eligible articles, and corresponding data were extracted from those articles. Subgroup analyses based on different cancer categories, doses and races were carried out to achieve comprehensive results. Statistical analyses were conducted using STATA 11.0. A total of 38 studies with 6742 cases were included after reading full text. Both UGT1A1*6 and UGT1A1*28 polymorphism are significantly associated with severe irinotecan-induced toxicity. Both Asian and Caucasian cancer patients with UGT1A1*28 variant had an increased risk. Compared with heterozygous variant, patients with homozygous variant suffered from a higher risk of toxicity. The effect of UGT1A1*28 polymorphism on diarrhea was less than on neutropenia. Subgroup analysis exhibited that for UGT1A1*6 polymorphism, patients treated with low-dose irinotecan were at a notable risk of toxicity. Moreover, the association between UGT1A1*6 polymorphism and irinotecan-induced toxicity was found in patients suffering from respiratory system cancers. Both UGT1A1*6 and UGT1A1*28 polymorphisms can be considered as predictors of irinotecan-induced toxicity, with effect varying by race, cancer type and irinotecan dose. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Defensive repertoire of Drosophila larvae in response to toxic fungi.

    PubMed

    Trienens, Monika; Kraaijeveld, Ken; Wertheim, Bregje

    2017-10-01

    Chemical warfare including insecticidal secondary metabolites is a well-known strategy for environmental microbes to monopolize a food source. Insects in turn have evolved behavioural and physiological defences to eradicate or neutralize the harmful microorganisms. We studied the defensive repertoire of insects in this interference competition by combining behavioural and developmental assays with whole-transcriptome time-series analysis. Confrontation with the toxic filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans severely reduced the survival of Drosophila melanogaster larvae. Nonetheless, the larvae did not behaviourally avoid the fungus, but aggregated at it. Confrontation with fungi strongly affected larval gene expression, including many genes involved in detoxification (e.g., CYP, GST and UGT genes) and the formation of the insect cuticle (e.g., Tweedle genes). The most strongly upregulated genes were several members of the insect-specific gene family Osiris, and CHK-kinase-like domains were over-represented. Immune responses were not activated, reflecting the competitive rather than pathogenic nature of the antagonistic interaction. While internal microbes are widely acknowledged as important, our study emphasizes the underappreciated role of environmental microbes as fierce competitors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. S-Naproxen and desmethylnaproxen glucuronidation by human liver microsomes and recombinant human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT): role of UGT2B7 in the elimination of naproxen

    PubMed Central

    Bowalgaha, Kushari; Elliot, David J; Mackenzie, Peter I; Knights, Kathleen M; Swedmark, Stellan; Miners, John O

    2005-01-01

    Aims To characterize the kinetics of S-naproxen (‘naproxen’) acyl glucuronidation and desmethylnaproxen acyl and phenolic glucuronidation by human liver microsomes and identify the human UGT isoform(s) catalysing these reactions. Methods Naproxen and desmethylnaproxen glucuronidation were investigated using microsomes from six and five livers, respectively. Human recombinant UGTs were screened for activity towards naproxen and desmethylnaproxen. Where significant activity was observed, kinetic parameters were determined. Naproxen and desmethylnaproxen glucuronides were measured by separate high-performance liquid chromatography methods. Results Naproxen acyl glucuronidation by human liver microsomes followed biphasic kinetics. Mean apparent Km values (±SD, with 95% confidence interval in parentheses) for the high- and low-affinity components were 29 ± 13 µm (16, 43) and 473 ± 108 µm (359, 587), respectively. UGT 1A1, 1A3, 1A6, 1A7, 1A8, 1A9, 1A10 and 2B7 glucuronidated naproxen. UGT2B7 exhibited an apparent Km (72 µm) of the same order as the high-affinity human liver microsomal activity, which was inhibited by the UGT2B7 selective ‘probe’ fluconazole. Although data for desmethylnaproxen phenolic glucuronidation by human liver microsomes were generally adequately fitted to either the single- or two-enzyme Michaelis–Menten equation, model fitting was inconclusive for desmethylnaproxen acyl glucuronidation. UGT 1A1, 1A7, 1A9 and 1A10 catalysed both the phenolic and acyl glucuronidation of desmethylnaproxen, while UGT 1A3, 1A6 and 2B7 formed only the acyl glucuronide. Atypical glucuronidation kinetics were variably observed for naproxen and desmethylnaproxen glucuronidation by the recombinant UGTs. Conclusion UGT2B7 is responsible for human hepatic naproxen acyl glucuronidation, which is the primary elimination pathway for this drug. PMID:16187975

  12. Genome-wide analysis of family-1 UDP glycosyltransferases (UGT) and identification of UGT genes for FHB resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    He, Yi; Ahmad, Dawood; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Yu; Wu, Lei; Jiang, Peng; Ma, Hongxiang

    2018-04-19

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), a devastating disease in wheat worldwide, results in yield loses and mycotoxin, such as deoxynivalenol (DON), accumulation in infected grains. DON also facilitates the pathogen colonization and spread of FHB symptoms during disease development. UDP-glycosyltransferase enzymes (UGTs) are known to contribute to detoxification and enhance FHB resistance by glycosylating DON into DON-3-glucoside (D3G) in wheat. However, a comprehensive investigation of wheat (Triticum aestivum) UGT genes is still lacking. In this study, we carried out a genome-wide analysis of family-1 UDP glycosyltransferases in wheat based on the PSPG conserved box that resulted in the identification of 179 putative UGT genes. The identified genes were clustered into 16 major phylogenetic groups with a lack of phylogenetic group K. The UGT genes were invariably distributed among all the chromosomes of the 3 genomes. At least 10 intron insertion events were found in the UGT sequences, where intron 4 was observed as the most conserved intron. The expression analysis of the wheat UGT genes using both online microarray data and quantitative real-time PCR verification suggested the distinct role of UGT genes in different tissues and developmental stages. The expression of many UGT genes was up-regulated after Fusarium graminearum inoculation, and six of the genes were further verified by RT-qPCR. We identified 179 UGT genes from wheat using the available sequenced wheat genome. This study provides useful insight into the phylogenetic structure, distribution, and expression patterns of family-1 UDP glycosyltransferases in wheat. The results also offer a foundation for future work aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the resistance to FHB and DON accumulation.

  13. Studies on induction of lamotrigine metabolism in transgenic UGT1 mice

    PubMed Central

    Argikar, U. A.; Senekeo-Effenberger, K.; Larson, E. E.; Tukey, R. H.; Remmel, R. P.

    2010-01-01

    A transgenic ‘knock-in’ mouse model expressing a human UGT1 locus (Tg-UGT1) was recently developed and validated. Although these animals express mouse UGT1A proteins, UGT1A4 is a pseudo-gene in mice. Therefore, Tg-UGT1 mice serve as a ‘humanized’ UGT1A4 animal model.Lamotrigine (LTG) is primarily metabolized to its N-glucuronide (LTGG) by hUGT1A4. This investigation aimed at examining the impact of pregnane X receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) activators on LTG glucuronidation in vivo and in vitro. Tg-UGT1 mice were administered the inducers phenobarbital (CAR), pregnenolone-16α-carbonitrile (PXR), WY-14643 (PPAR-α), ciglitazone (PPAR-γ), or L-165041 (PPAR-β), once daily for 3 or 4 days. Thereafter, LTG was administered orally and blood samples were collected over 24 h. LTG was measured in blood and formation of LTGG was measured in pooled microsomes made from the livers of treated animals.A three-fold increase in in vivo LTG clearance was seen after phenobarbital administration. In microsomes prepared from phenobarbital-treated Tg-UGT1 animals, 13-fold higher CLint (Vmax/Km) value was observed as compared with the untreated transgenic mice. A trend toward induction of catalytic activity in vitro and in vivo was also observed following pregnenolone-16α-carbonitrile and WY-14643 treatment. This study demonstrates the successful application of Tg-UGT1 mice as a novel tool to study the impact of induction and regulation on metabolism of UGT1A4 substrates. PMID:19845433

  14. The impact of the UGT1A1*60 allele on bilirubin serum concentrations.

    PubMed

    Pasternak, Amy L; Crews, Kristine R; Caudle, Kelly E; Smith, Colton; Pei, Deqing; Cheng, Cheng; Broeckel, Ulrich; Gaur, Aditya H; Hankins, Jane; Relling, Mary V; Haidar, Cyrine E

    2017-01-01

    Identify the functional status of the uridine-diphosphate glucuronyl transferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) -3279T>G (*60) variant. Retrospective review of clinically obtained serum bilirubin concentrations in pediatric patients to evaluate the association of the UGT1A1 -3279T>G (*60) variant with bilirubin concentrations and assessed linkage disequilibrium of the UGT1A1 -3279T>G (*60) and A(TA)7TAA (*28) variants. Total bilirubin concentration did not differ between patients who had a UGT1A1*1/*1 diplotype and patients homozygous for the UGT1A1 -3279T>G (*60/*60) variant. Total bilirubin concentration was lower in patients homozygous for the UGT1A1 -3279T>G (*60/*60) variant than in patients homozygous for the UGT1A1 A(TA)7TAA (*28/*28) variant (p < 0.01). The -3279T>G (*60) and A(TA)7TAA (*28) variants were in strong incomplete linkage disequilibrium in both black and white patients. The presence of the UGT1A1 -3279T>G (*60) variant is not associated with increased bilirubin concentrations.

  15. Two UGT84 Family Glycosyltransferases Catalyze a Critical Reaction of Hydrolyzable Tannin Biosynthesis in Pomegranate (Punica granatum)

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Nadia N.; Qin, Xiaoqiong; Wilson, Alexander E.; Li, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Hydrolyzable tannins (HTs) play important roles in plant herbivore deterrence and promotion of human health. A critical step in HT production is the formation of 1-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (β-glucogallin, ester-linked gallic acid and glucose) by a UDP-glucosyltransferase (UGT) activity. We cloned and biochemically characterized four candidate UGTs from pomegranate (Punica granatum), of which only UGT84A23 and UGT84A24 exhibited β-glucogallin forming activities in enzyme assays. Although overexpression and single RNAi knockdown pomegranate hairy root lines of UGT84A23 or UGT84A24 did not lead to obvious alterations in punicalagin (the prevalent HT in pomegranate) accumulation, double knockdown lines of the two UGTs resulted in largely reduced levels of punicalagins and bis-hexahydroxydiphenyl glucose isomers. An unexpected accumulation of galloyl glucosides (ether-linked gallic acid and glucose) was also detected in the double knockdown lines, suggesting that gallic acid was utilized by an unidentified UGT activity for glucoside formation. Transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves and immunogold labeling in roots of pomegranate seedlings collectively indicated cytosolic localization of UGT84A23 and UGT84A24. Overall, functional characterization and localization of UGT84A23 and UGT84A24 open up opportunities for further understanding the regulatory control of HT metabolism in plants and its coordination with other biochemical pathways in the metabolic network. PMID:27227328

  16. Two UGT84 Family Glycosyltransferases Catalyze a Critical Reaction of Hydrolyzable Tannin Biosynthesis in Pomegranate (Punica granatum).

    PubMed

    Ono, Nadia N; Qin, Xiaoqiong; Wilson, Alexander E; Li, Gang; Tian, Li

    2016-01-01

    Hydrolyzable tannins (HTs) play important roles in plant herbivore deterrence and promotion of human health. A critical step in HT production is the formation of 1-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (β-glucogallin, ester-linked gallic acid and glucose) by a UDP-glucosyltransferase (UGT) activity. We cloned and biochemically characterized four candidate UGTs from pomegranate (Punica granatum), of which only UGT84A23 and UGT84A24 exhibited β-glucogallin forming activities in enzyme assays. Although overexpression and single RNAi knockdown pomegranate hairy root lines of UGT84A23 or UGT84A24 did not lead to obvious alterations in punicalagin (the prevalent HT in pomegranate) accumulation, double knockdown lines of the two UGTs resulted in largely reduced levels of punicalagins and bis-hexahydroxydiphenyl glucose isomers. An unexpected accumulation of galloyl glucosides (ether-linked gallic acid and glucose) was also detected in the double knockdown lines, suggesting that gallic acid was utilized by an unidentified UGT activity for glucoside formation. Transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves and immunogold labeling in roots of pomegranate seedlings collectively indicated cytosolic localization of UGT84A23 and UGT84A24. Overall, functional characterization and localization of UGT84A23 and UGT84A24 open up opportunities for further understanding the regulatory control of HT metabolism in plants and its coordination with other biochemical pathways in the metabolic network.

  17. Enantioselective inhibition of carprofen towards UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B7.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhong-Ze; Wang, Haina; Cao, Yun-Feng; Sun, Dong-Xue; Wang, Li-Xuan; Hong, Mo; Huang, Ting; Chen, Jian-Xing; Zeng, Jia

    2015-03-01

    UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs)-catalyzed glucuronidation conjugation reaction plays an important role in the elimination of many important clinical drugs and endogenous substances. The present study aims to investigate the enantioselective inhibition of carprofen towards UGT isoforms. In vitro a recombinant UGT isoforms-catalyzed 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) glucuronidation incubation mixture was used to screen the inhibition potential of (R)-carprofen and (S)-carprofen towards multiple UGT isoforms. The results showed that (S)-carprofen exhibited stronger inhibition potential than (R)-carprofen towards UGT2B7. However, no significant difference was observed for the inhibition of (R)-carprofen and (S)-carprofen towards other UGT isoforms. Furthermore, the inhibition kinetic behavior was compared for the inhibition of (S)-carprofen and (R)-carprofen towards UGT2B7. A Lineweaver-Burk plot showed that both (S)-carprofen and (R)-carprofen exhibited competitive inhibition towards UGT2B7-catalyzed 4-MU glucuronidation. The inhibition kinetic parameter (Ki ) was calculated to be 7.0 μM and 31.1 μM for (S)-carprofen and (R)-carprofen, respectively. Based on the standard for drug-drug interaction, the threshold for (S)-carprofen and (R)-carprofen to induce a drug-drug interaction is 0.7 μM and 3.1 μM, respectively. In conclusion, enantioselective inhibition of carprofen towards UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B7 was demonstrated in the present study. Using the in vitro inhibition kinetic parameter, the concentration threshold of (S)-carprofen and (R)-carprofen to possibly induce the drug-drug interaction was obtained. Therefore, clinical monitoring of the plasma concentration of (S)-carprofen is more important than (R)-carprofen to avoid a possible drug-drug interaction between carprofen and the drugs mainly undergoing UGT2B7-catalyzed metabolism. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Hepatic expression of transcription factors affecting developmental regulation of UGT1A1 in the Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Nie, Ya-Li; He, Hang; Li, Jiang-Feng; Meng, Xiang-Guang; Yan, Liang; Wang, Pei; Wang, Shu-Jie; Bi, Hong-Zheng; Zhang, Li-Rong; Kan, Quan-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Complete or partial inactivity of UGT1A1, the unique enzyme responsible for bilirubin glucuronidation, is commonly associated with hyperbilirubinemia. We investigated the dynamic expression of UGT1A1, and that of the transcription factors (TFs) involved in its developmental regulation, during human hepatic growth in Han Chinese individuals. Eighty-eight prenatal, pediatric, and adult liver samples were obtained from Han Chinese individuals. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate mRNA expression of UGT1A1 and TFs including PXR, CAR, HNF1A, HNF4A, PPARA, etc. UGT1A1 protein levels and metabolic activity were determined by western blotting and high-performance liquid chromatography. Direct sequencing was employed to genotype UGT1A1*6 (211G˃A) and UGT1A1*28 (TA6˃TA7) polymorphisms. UGT1A1 expression was minimal in prenatal samples, but significantly elevated during pediatric and adult stages. mRNA and protein levels and metabolic activity were prominently increased (120-, 20-, and 10-fold, respectively) in pediatric and adult livers compared to prenatal samples. Furthermore, expression did not differ appreciably between pediatric and adult periods. Dynamic expression of TFs, including PXR, CAR, HNF1A, HNF4A, and PPARA, was consistent with UGT1A1 levels at each developmental stage. A pronounced correlation between expression of these TFs and that of UGT1A1 (P < 0.001) was observed. Moreover, UGT1A1*6 and UGT1A1*28 polymorphisms reduced levels of UGT1A1 by up to 40-60 %. Hepatic expression of transcription factors is associated with developmental regulation of UGT1A1 in the Han Chinese population. Moreover, UGT1A1 polymorphisms are associated with reduced expression of UGT1A1 mRNA and protein, as well as enzyme activity.

  19. Glycyrrhetinic acid exhibits strong inhibitory effects towards UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A3 and 2B7.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yin-Peng; Cao, Yun-Feng; Fang, Zhong-Ze; Zhang, Yan-Yan; Hu, Cui-Min; Sun, Xiao-Yu; Yu, Zhen-Wen; Zhu, Xu; Hong, Mo; Yang, Lu; Sun, Hong-Zhi

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the inhibitory effects of liver UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) by glycyrrhizic acid and glycyrrhetinic acid, which are the bioactive ingredients isolated from licorice. The results showed that glycyrrhetinic acid exhibited stronger inhibition towards all the tested UGT isoforms, indicating that the deglycosylation process played an important role in the inhibitory potential towards UGT isoforms. Furthermore, the inhibition kinetic type and parameters were determined for the inhibition of glycyrrhetinic acid towards UGT1A3 and UGT2B7. Data fitting using Dixon and Lineweaver-Burk plots demonstrated that the inhibition of UGT1A3 and UGT2B7 by glycyrrhetinic acid was best fit to competitive and noncompetitive type, respectively. The second plot using the slopes from Lineweaver-Burk plots versus glycyrrhetinic acid concentrations was employed to calculate the inhibition kinetic parameters (K(i)), and the values were calculated to be 0.2 and 1.7 μM for UGT1A3 and UGT2B7, respectively. All these results remind us the possibility of UGT inhibition-based herb-drug interaction. However, the explanation of these in vitro parameters should be paid more caution due to complicated factors, including the probe substrate-dependent UGT inhibition behaviour, environmental factors affecting the abundance of herbs' ingredients, and individual difference of pharmacokinetic factors. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Potent and selective inhibition of magnolol on catalytic activities of UGT1A7 and 1A9.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liangliang; Ge, Guangbo; Liu, Yong; He, Guiyuan; Liang, Sicheng; Fang, Zhongze; Dong, Peipei; Cao, Yunfeng; Yang, Ling

    2012-10-01

    1. Human exposure to magnolol can reach a high dose in daily life. Our previous studies indicated that magnolol showed high affinities to several UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) This study was designed to examine the in vitro inhibitory effects of magnolol on UGTs, and further to evaluate the possibility of the in vivo inhibition that might happen. 2. Assays with recombinant UGTs and human liver microsomes (HLM) indicated that magnolol (10 µM) can selectively inhibit activities of UGT1A9 and extra-hepatic UGT1A7. Inhibition of magnolol on UGT1A7 followed competitive inhibition mechanism, while the inhibition on UGT1A9 obeyed either competitive or mixed inhibition mechanism, depending on substrates. The K(i) values for UGT1A7 and 1A9 are all in nanomolar ranges, lower than possible magnolol concentrations in human gut lumen and blood, indicating the in vivo inhibition on these two enzymes would likely occur. 3. In conclusion, UGT1A7 and 1A9 can be strongly inhibited by magnolol, raising the alarm for safe application of magnolol and traditional Chinese medicines containing magnolol. Additionally, given that UGT1A7 is an extra-hepatic enzyme, magnolol can serve as a selective UGT1A9 inhibitor that will act as a new useful tool in future hepatic glucuronidation phenotyping.

  1. Fluoride caused thyroid endocrine disruption in male zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Jianjie, Chen; Wenjuan, Xue; Jinling, Cao; Jie, Song; Ruhui, Jia; Meiyan, Li

    2016-02-01

    Excessive fluoride in natural water ecosystem has the potential to detrimentally affect thyroid endocrine system, but little is known of such effects or underlying mechanisms in fish. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of fluoride on growth performance, thyroid histopathology, thyroid hormone levels, and gene expressions in the HPT axis in male zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to different determined concentrations of 0.1, 0.9, 2.0 and 4.1 M of fluoride to investigate the effects of fluoride on thyroid endocrine system and the potential toxic mechanisms caused by fluoride. The results indicated that the growth of the male zebrafish used in the experiments was significantly inhibited, the thyroid microtrastructure was changed, and the levels of T3 and T4 were disturbed in fluoride-exposed male fish. In addition, the expressional profiles of genes in HPT axis displayed alteration. The expressions of all studied genes were significantly increased in all fluoride-exposed male fish after exposure for 45 days. The transcriptional levels of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroglobulin (TG), sodium iodide symporter (NIS), iodothyronine I (DIO1), and thyroid hormone receptor alpha (TRα) were also elevated in all fluoride-exposed male fish after 90 days of exposure, while the inconsistent expressions were found in the mRNA of iodothyronineⅡ (DIO2), UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1 family a, b (UGT1ab), transthyretin (TTR), and thyroid hormone receptor beta (TRβ). These results demonstrated that fluoride could notably inhibit the growth of zebrafish, and significantly affect thyroid endocrine system by changing the microtrastructure of thyroid, altering thyroid hormone levels and endocrine-related gene expressions in male zebrafish. All above indicated that fluoride could pose a great threat to thyroid endocrine system, thus detrimentally affected the normal function of thyroid of male zebrafish. Copyright © 2015

  2. Praxis and Poiesis in Piano Repertoire Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dos Santos, Regina Antunes Teixeira; Hentschke, Liane

    2011-01-01

    The piano repertoire preparation of three undergraduate students at three different academic levels--the first, fifth and eighth semesters--was followed during an academic semester. A phenomenological approach was used to collect data in three stages: an introductory interview, observations of the repertoire under preparation and a final…

  3. Comparative analysis of the feline immunoglobulin repertoire.

    PubMed

    Steiniger, Sebastian C J; Glanville, Jacob; Harris, Douglas W; Wilson, Thomas L; Ippolito, Gregory C; Dunham, Steven A

    2017-03-01

    Next-Generation Sequencing combined with bioinformatics is a powerful tool for analyzing the large number of DNA sequences present in the expressed antibody repertoire and these data sets can be used to advance a number of research areas including antibody discovery and engineering. The accurate measurement of the immune repertoire sequence composition, diversity and abundance is important for understanding the repertoire response in infections, vaccinations and cancer immunology and could also be useful for elucidating novel molecular targets. In this study 4 individual domestic cats (Felis catus) were subjected to antibody repertoire sequencing with total number of sequences generated 1079863 for VH for IgG, 1050824 VH for IgM, 569518 for VK and 450195 for VL. Our analysis suggests that a similar VDJ expression patterns exists across all cats. Similar to the canine repertoire, the feline repertoire is dominated by a single subgroup, namely VH3. The antibody paratope of felines showed similar amino acid variation when compared to human, mouse and canine counterparts. All animals show a similarly skewed VH CDR-H3 profile and, when compared to canine, human and mouse, distinct differences are observed. Our study represents the first attempt to characterize sequence diversity in the expressed feline antibody repertoire and this demonstrates the utility of using NGS to elucidate entire antibody repertoires from individual animals. These data provide significant insight into understanding the feline immune system function. Copyright © 2017 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pharmacological analyses of learning and memory in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Bailey, Jordan M; Oliveri, Anthony N; Levin, Edward D

    2015-12-01

    Over the last decade, zebrafish (Danio rerio) have become valuable as a complementary model in behavioral pharmacology, opening a new avenue for understanding the relationships between drug action and behavior. This species offers a useful intermediate approach bridging the gap between in vitro studies and traditional mammalian models. Zebrafish offer great advantages of economy compared to their rodent counterparts, their complex brains and behavioral repertoire offer great translational potential relative to in vitro models. The development and validation of a variety of tests to measure behavior, including cognition, in zebrafish have set the stage for the use of this animal for behavioral pharmacology studies. This has led to research into the basic mechanisms of cognitive function as well as screening for potential cognition-improving drug therapies, among other lines of research. As with all models, zebrafish have limitations, which span pharmacokinetic challenges to difficulties quantifying behavior. The use, efficacy and limitations associated with a zebrafish model of cognitive function are discussed in this review, within the context of behavioral pharmacology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of the UGT2B17 deletion in exemestane pharmacogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Shaman; Chen, Gang; Truica, Cristina; Baird, Cynthia C.; Leitzel, Kim; Lazarus, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Exemestane (EXE) is an aromatase inhibitor used for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer. The major metabolic pathway for EXE is reduction to form the active 17β-dihydro-EXE (17β-DHE) and subsequent glucuronidation to 17β-hydroxy-EXE-17-O-β-D-glucuronide (17β-DHE-Gluc) by UGT2B17. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of UGT2B17 copy number variation on the levels of urinary and plasma 17β-DHE-Gluc and 17β-DHE in patients taking EXE. Ninety-six post-menopausal Caucasian breast cancer patients with ER+ breast tumors taking 25 mg EXE daily were recruited into this study. UGT2B17 copy number was determined by a real-time PCR copy number variant assay and the levels of EXE, 17β-DHE and 17β-DHE-Gluc were quantified by UPLC/MS in patients’ urine and plasma. A 39-fold decrease (P<0.0001) in the levels of creatinine-adjusted urinary 17β-DHE-Gluc was observed among UGT2B17 (*2/*2) subjects vs. subjects with the UGT2B17 (*1/*1) genotype. The plasma levels of 17β-DHE-Gluc was decreased 29-fold (P<0.0001) in subjects with the UGT2B17 (*2/*2) genotype vs. subjects with UGT2B17 (*1/*1) genotype. The levels of plasma EXE-adjusted 17β-DHE was 28% higher (P=0.04) in subjects with the UGT2B17 (*2/*2) genotype vs. subjects with the UGT2B17 (*1/*1) genotype. These data indicate that UGT2B17 is the major enzyme responsible for 17β-DHE-Gluc formation in vivo and that the UGT2B17 copy number variant may play a role in inter-individual variability in 17β-DHE levels in vivo. PMID:28534527

  6. Role of the UGT2B17 deletion in exemestane pharmacogenetics.

    PubMed

    Luo, S; Chen, G; Truica, C; Baird, C C; Leitzel, K; Lazarus, P

    2018-04-01

    Exemestane (EXE) is an aromatase inhibitor used for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer. The major metabolic pathway for EXE is reduction to form the active 17β-dihydro-EXE (17β-DHE) and subsequent glucuronidation to 17β-hydroxy-EXE-17-O-β-D-glucuronide (17β-DHE-Gluc) by UGT2B17. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of UGT2B17 copy number variation on the levels of urinary and plasma 17β-DHE-Gluc and 17β-DHE in patients taking EXE. Ninety-six post-menopausal Caucasian breast cancer patients with ER+ breast tumors taking 25 mg EXE daily were recruited into this study. UGT2B17 copy number was determined by a real-time PCR copy number variant assay and the levels of EXE, 17β-DHE and 17β-DHE-Gluc were quantified by UPLC/MS in patients' urine and plasma. A 39-fold decrease (P<0.0001) in the levels of creatinine-adjusted urinary 17β-DHE-Gluc was observed among UGT2B17 (*2/*2) subjects vs subjects with the UGT2B17 (*1/*1) genotype. The plasma levels of 17β-DHE-Gluc was decreased 29-fold (P<0.0001) in subjects with the UGT2B17 (*2/*2) genotype vs subjects with UGT2B17 (*1/*1) genotype. The levels of plasma EXE-adjusted 17β-DHE was 28% higher (P=0.04) in subjects with the UGT2B17 (*2/*2) genotype vs subjects with the UGT2B17 (*1/*1) genotype. These data indicate that UGT2B17 is the major enzyme responsible for 17β-DHE-Gluc formation in vivo and that the UGT2B17 copy number variant may play a role in inter-individual variability in 17β-DHE levels in vivo.

  7. Optimized UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) activity assay for trout liver S9 fractions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This publication provides an optimized UGT assay for trout liver S9 fractions which can be used to perform in vitro-in vivo extrapolations of measured UGT activityThis dataset is associated with the following publication:Ladd, M., P. Fitzsimmons , and J. Nichols. Optimization of a UDP-glucuronosyltransferase assay for trout liver S9 fractions: Activity enhancement by alamethicin, a pore-forming peptide. XENOBIOTICA. Taylor & Francis, Inc., Philadelphia, PA, USA, 46(12): 1066-1075, (2016).

  8. [Detection of UGT1A1*28 Polymorphism Using Fragment Analysis].

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Su, Jian; Huang, Xiaosui; Lu, Danxia; Xie, Zhi; Yang, Suqing; Guo, Weibang; Lv, Zhiyi; Wu, Hongsui; Zhang, Xuchao

    2017-12-20

    Uridine-diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase 1A1 (UGT1A1), UGT1A1*28 polymorphism can reduce UGT1A1 enzymatic activity, which may lead to severe toxicities in patients who receive irinotecan. This study tries to build a fragment analysis method to detect UGT1A1*28 polymorphism. A total of 286 blood specimens from the lung cancer patients who were hospitalized in Guangdong General Hospital between April 2014 to May 2015 were detected UGT1A1*28 polymorphism by fragment analysis method. Comparing with Sanger sequencing, precision and accuracy of the fragment analysis method were 100%. Of the 286 patients, 236 (82.5% harbored TA6/6 genotype, 48 (16.8%) TA 6/7 genotype and 2 (0.7%) TA7/7 genotype. Our data suggest hat the fragment analysis method is robust for detecting UGT1A1*28 polymorphism in clinical practice. It's simple, time-saving, and easy-to-carry.

  9. [Hepatotoxicity of emodin based on UGT1A1 enzyme-mediated bilirubin in liver microsomes].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Dai, Zhong; Zhang, Yu-Jie; Ma, Shuang-Cheng

    2016-12-01

    To study the hepatotoxicity of emodin based on bilirubin metabolism mediated by glucuronidation of UGT1A1 enzyme. In this study, three different incubation systems were established by using RLM, HLM, and rUGT1A1, with bilirubin as the substrate. Different concentrations of bilirubin and emodin were added in the incubation systems. The double reciprocal Michaelis equation was drawn based on the total amount of bilirubin glucuronidation. The apparent inhibition constant Ki was then calculated with the slope curve to predict the hepatotoxicity. The results indicated that emodin had a significant inhibition to the UGT1A1 enzyme in all of the three systems, with Ki=5.400±0.956(P<0.05) in HLM system, Ki =10.020±0.611(P<0.05) in RLM system, Ki=4.850±0.528(P<0.05) in rUGT1A1 system. Meanwhile, emodin had no significant difference between rat and human in terms of inhibition of UGT1A1 enzyme. Emodin had a potential risk of the hepatotoxicity by inhibiting the UGT1A1 enzyme activity. And the method established in this study provides a new thought and new method to evaluate hepatotoxicity and safety of traditional Chinese medicines. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  10. Screening of recombinant glycosyltransferases reveals the broad acceptor specificity of stevia UGT-76G1.

    PubMed

    Dewitte, Griet; Walmagh, Maarten; Diricks, Margo; Lepak, Alexander; Gutmann, Alexander; Nidetzky, Bernd; Desmet, Tom

    2016-09-10

    UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) are a promising class of biocatalysts that offer a sustainable alternative for chemical glycosylation of natural products. In this study, we aimed to characterize plant-derived UGTs from the GT-1 family with an emphasis on their acceptor promiscuity and their potential application in glycosylation processes. Recombinant expression in E. coli provided sufficient amounts of enzyme for the in-depth characterization of the salicylic acid UGT from Capsella rubella (UGT-SACr) and the stevia UGT from Stevia rebaudiana (UGT-76G1Sr). The latter was found to have a remarkably broad specificity with activities on a wide diversity of structures, from aliphatic and branched alcohols, over small phenolics to larger flavonoids, terpenoids and even higher glycoside compounds. As an example for its industrial potential, the glycosylation of curcumin was thoroughly evaluated. Under optimized conditions, 96% of curcumin was converted within 24h into the corresponding curcumin β-glycosides. In addition, the reaction was performed in a coupled system with sucrose synthase from Glycine max, to enable the cost-efficient (re)generation of UDP-Glc from sucrose as abundant and renewable resource. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Glucuronidation of trans-resveratrol by human liver and intestinal microsomes and UGT isoforms.

    PubMed

    Brill, Shirley S; Furimsky, Anna M; Ho, Mark N; Furniss, Michael J; Li, Yi; Green, Adam G; Bradford, Wallace W; Green, Carol E; Kapetanovic, Izet M; Iyer, Lalitha V

    2006-04-01

    Resveratrol (trans-resveratrol, trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) is a naturally occurring stilbene analogue found in high concentrations in red wine. There is considerable research interest to determine the therapeutic potential of resveratrol, as it has been shown to have tumour inhibitory and antioxidant properties. This study was performed to investigate the glucuronidation of resveratrol and possible drug interactions via glucuronidation. Two glucuronide conjugates, resveratrol 3-O-glucuronide and resveratrol 4'-O-glucuronide, were formed by human liver and intestinal microsomes. UGT1A1 and UGT1A9 were predominantly responsible for the formation of the 3-O-glucuronide (Km = 149 microM) and 4'-O-glucuronide (Km = 365 microM), respectively. The glucuronide conjugates were formed at higher levels (up to 10-fold) by intestinal rather than liver microsomes. Resveratrol was co-incubated with substrates of UGT1A1 (bilirubin and 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38)) and UGT1A9 (7-hydroxytrifluoromethyl coumarin (7-HFC)). No major changes were noted in bilirubin glucuronidation in the presence of resveratrol. Resveratrol significantly inhibited the glucuronidation of SN-38 (Ki = 6.2 +/- 2.1 microM) and 7-HFC (Ki = 0.6 +/- 0.2 microM). Hence, resveratrol has the potential to inhibit the glucuronidation of concomitantly administered therapeutic drugs or dietary components that are substrates of UGT1A1 and UGT1A9.

  12. UGT-29 protein expression and localization during bacterial infection in Caenorhabditis elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Rui-Rui; Lee, Song-Hua; Nathan, Sheila

    2014-09-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is routinely used as an animal model to delineate complex molecular mechanisms involved in the host response to pathogen infection. Following up on an earlier study on host-pathogen interaction, we constructed a ugt-29::GFP transcriptional fusion transgenic worm strain to examine UGT-29 protein expression and localization upon bacterial infection. UGT-29 orthologs can be found in higher organisms including humans and is proposed as a member of the UDP-Glucoronosyl Transferase family of proteins which are involved in phase II detoxification of compounds detrimental to the host organism. Under uninfected conditions, UGT-29::GFP fusion protein was highly expressed in the C. elegans anterior pharynx and intestine, two major organs involved in detoxification. We further evaluated the localization of the enzyme in worms infected with the bacterial pathogen, Burkholderia pseudomallei. The infected ugt-29::GFP transgenic strain exhibited increased fluorescence in the pharynx and intestine with pronounced fluorescence also extending to body wall muscle. This transcriptional fusion GFP transgenic worm is a convenient and direct tool to provide information on UGT detoxification enzyme gene expression and could be a useful tool for a number of diverse applications.

  13. Enhanced UGT1A1 Gene and Protein Expression in Endometriotic Lesions.

    PubMed

    Piccinato, Carla A; Neme, Rosa M; Torres, Natália; da Silva Victor, Elivane; Brudniewski, Heloísa F; Rosa E Silva, Júlio C; Ferriani, Rui A

    2018-01-01

    The cellular function in endometriosis lesions depends on a highly estrogenic milieu. Lately, it is becoming evident that, besides the circulating levels of estrogens, the balance of synthesis versus inactivation (metabolism) of estrogens by intralesion steroid-metabolizing enzymes also determines the local net estrogen availability. In order to extend the knowledge of the role of estrogen-metabolizing enzymes in endometriosis, we investigated the gene and protein expression of a key uridine diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) for estrogen glucuronidation, UGT1A1, in eutopic endometrial samples obtained from nonaffected and endometriosis-affected women and also from endometriotic lesions. Although UGT1A1 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression was detected at similar frequencies in endometriotic lesions and in eutopic endometrial samples, the levels of mRNA expression were greater in deep-infiltrating endometriotic lesions and in non-deep-infiltrating lesions when compared with either control endometrium or eutopic endometrium from women with endometriosis. Overall, we observed that protein expression of UGT1A1 was significantly more frequent in samples from endometriotic lesions in comparison with endometria. In addition, expression of UGT1A1 protein was greater in deep-infiltrating than in non-deep-infiltrating endometriotic lesions. We suggest that the finding of increased expression of UGT1A1 in lesions versus endometria might be related to impairment of regulatory mechanisms, in response to a highly estrogenic milieu, and that this enzyme may be a new target for therapy.

  14. Structure–inhibition relationship of ginsenosides towards UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs)

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Zhong-Ze; Joint Center for Translational Medicine, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences and The first Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning Medical University, No.457, Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023; Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892

    The wide utilization of ginseng provides the high risk of herb–drug interaction (HDI) with many clinical drugs. The inhibition of ginsenosides towards drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) has been regarded as an important reason for herb–drug interaction (HDI). Compared with the deep studies on the ginsenosides' inhibition towards cytochrome P450 (CYP), the inhibition of ginsenosides towards the important phase II enzymes UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) remains to be unclear. The present study aims to evaluate the inhibition behavior of ginsenosides towards important UGT isoforms located in the liver and intestine using in vitro methods. The recombinant UGT isoform-catalyzed 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) glucuronidation reaction was employedmore » as in vitro probe reaction. The results showed that structure-dependent inhibition existed for the inhibition of ginsenosides towards UGT isoforms. To clarify the possibility of in vivo herb–drug interaction induced by this kind of inhibition, the ginsenoside Rg{sub 3} was selected as an example, and the inhibition kinetic type and parameters (K{sub i}) were determined. Rg{sub 3} competitively inhibited UGT1A7, 2B7 and 2B15-catalyzed 4-MU glucuronidation reaction, and exerted noncompetitive inhibition towards UGT1A8-catalyzed 4-MU glucuronidation. The inhibition parameters (K{sub i} values) were calculated to be 22.6, 7.9, 1.9, and 2.0 μM for UGT1A7, 1A8, 2B7 and 2B15. Using human maximum plasma concentration of Rg{sub 3} (400 ng/ml (0.5 μM)) after intramuscular injection of 60 mg Rg{sub 3}, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) was extrapolated to increase by 2.2%, 6.3%, 26.3%, and 25% for the co-administered drugs completely undergoing the metabolism catalyzed by UGT1A7, 1A8, 2B7 and 2B15, respectively. All these results indicated that the ginsenosides' inhibition towards UGT isoforms might be an important reason for ginseng–drug interaction. - Highlights: ► Structure-dependent inhibition

  15. A multi-scale model for correlation in B cell VDJ usage of zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Keyao; Deem, Michael W.

    2011-10-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is one of the model animals used for the study of immunology because the dynamics in the adaptive immune system of zebrafish are similar to that in higher animals. In this work, we built a multi-scale model to simulate the dynamics of B cells in the primary and secondary immune responses of zebrafish. We use this model to explain the reported correlation between VDJ usage of B cell repertoires in individual zebrafish. We use a delay ordinary differential equation (ODE) system to model the immune responses in the 6-month lifespan of a zebrafish. This mean field theory gives the number of high-affinity B cells as a function of time during an infection. The sequences of those B cells are then taken from a distribution calculated by a 'microscopic' random energy model. This generalized NK model shows that mature B cells specific to one antigen largely possess a single VDJ recombination. The model allows first-principle calculation of the probability, p, that two zebrafish responding to the same antigen will select the same VDJ recombination. This probability p increases with the B cell population size and the B cell selection intensity. The probability p decreases with the B cell hypermutation rate. The multi-scale model predicts correlations in the immune system of the zebrafish that are highly similar to that from experiment.

  16. Effects of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of febuxostat in healthy Chinese volunteers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Meihua; Liu, Jian; Zhou, Huili; Wu, Minglan; Lv, Duo; Huang, Yujie; Zheng, Yunliang; Shentu, Jianzhong; Wu, Lihua

    2017-02-01

    The pharmacokinetics (PKs) of febuxostat varies among individuals, while the main causes are still unknown. We investigated whether the polymorphisms of UGT1A1 and UGT1A3 played an important role in the disposition of the drug after oral administration of febuxostat tablet in Chinese subjects. A total of 42 healthy subjects were from two previous independent clinical bioequivalence (BE) trials of febuxostat, in which the same reference formulation (ULORIC ® tablet, 80 mg) was taken, and thus the PK data were combined for the evaluation of pharmacogenomic effect on febuxostat PKs. Our study clearly indicated that the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) in the heterozygote and homozygote of UGT1A1*6 (c.211G > A, rs4148323) was significantly higher than that in the wild-type. Meanwhile, the clearance (CL/F) exhibited a significant reduction by 22.2%. Interestingly, UGT1A1*28, in perfect linkage disequilibrium (LD) with UGT1A3*2a, significantly increased its clearance. These results indicate that UGT1A1*6 was an important factor influencing the drug disposition, thus providing a probable explanation for interindividual variation of febuxostat PKs in Chinese subjects. In addition, by considering of the different allele distribution of UGT1A1*6 and *28 in Eastern and Western populations, these findings might further interpret the ethnic difference of febuxostat PKs. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Elucidating Cannabinoid Biology in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Krug, Randall G.; Clark, Karl J.

    2015-01-01

    The number of annual cannabinoid users exceeds 100,000,000 globally and an estimated 9 % of these individuals will suffer from dependency. Although exogenous cannabinoids, like those contained in marijuana, are known to exert their effects by disrupting the endocannabinoid system, a dearth of knowledge exists about the potential toxicological consequences on public health. Conversely, the endocannabinoid system represents a promising therapeutic target for a plethora of disorders because it functions to endogenously regulate a vast repertoire of physiological functions. Accordingly, the rapidly expanding field of cannabinoid biology has sought to leverage model organisms in order to provide both toxicological and therapeutic insights about altered endocannabinoid signaling. The primary goal of this manuscript is to review the existing field of cannabinoid research in the genetically tractable zebrafish model—focusing on the cannabinoid receptor genes, cnr1 and cnr2, and the genes that produce enzymes for synthesis and degradation of the cognate ligands anandamide and 2-arachidonylglycerol. Consideration is also given to research that has studied the effects of exposure to exogenous phytocannabinoids and synthetic cannabinoids that are known to interact with cannabinoid receptors. These results are considered in the context of either endocannabinoid gene expression or endocannabinoid gene function, and are integrated with findings from rodent studies. This provides the framework for a discussion of how zebrafish may be leveraged in the future to provide novel toxicological and therapeutic insights in the field of cannabinoid biology, which has become increasingly significant given recent trends in cannabis legislation. PMID:26192460

  18. Pan-neuronal calcium imaging with cellular resolution in freely swimming zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dal Hyung; Kim, Jungsoo; Marques, João C; Grama, Abhinav; Hildebrand, David G C; Gu, Wenchao; Li, Jennifer M; Robson, Drew N

    2017-11-01

    Calcium imaging with cellular resolution typically requires an animal to be tethered under a microscope, which substantially restricts the range of behaviors that can be studied. To expand the behavioral repertoire amenable to imaging, we have developed a tracking microscope that enables whole-brain calcium imaging with cellular resolution in freely swimming larval zebrafish. This microscope uses infrared imaging to track a target animal in a behavior arena. On the basis of the predicted trajectory of the animal, we applied optimal control theory to a motorized stage system to cancel brain motion in three dimensions. We combined this motion-cancellation system with differential illumination focal filtering, a variant of HiLo microscopy, which enabled us to image the brain of a freely swimming larval zebrafish for more than an hour. This work expands the repertoire of natural behaviors that can be studied with cellular-resolution calcium imaging to potentially include spatial navigation, social behavior, feeding and reward.

  19. Effect of UGT1A1, UGT1A3, DIO1 and DIO2 polymorphisms on L-thyroxine doses required for TSH suppression in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Ana B; Vargens, Daniela D; Barros Filho, Mateus de Camargo; Bulzico, Daniel A; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo; Meirelles, Ricardo M R; Paula, Daniela P; Neves, Ronaldo R S; Pessoa, Cencita N; Struchine, Claudio J; Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the impact of genetic polymorphisms in uridine 5'-glucuronosylytansferases UGT1A1 and UGT1A3 and iodothyronine-deiodinases types 1 and 2 on levothyroxine (T4 ; 3,5,3',5'-triiodo-L-thyronine) dose requirement for suppression of thyrotropin (TSH) secretion in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Patients (n = 268) submitted to total thyroidectomy and ablation by (131) I, under T4 therapy for at least 6 months were recruited in three public institutions in Brazil. Multivariate regression modelling was applied to assess the association of T4 dosing with polymorphisms in UGT1A1 (rs8175347), UGT1A3 (rs3806596 and rs1983023), DIO1 (rs11206244 and rs2235544) and DIO2 (rs225014 and rs12885300), demographic and clinical variables. A regression model including UGT1A haplotypes, age, gender, body weight and serum TSH concentration accounted for 39% of the inter-individual variation in the T4 dosage. The association of T4 dose with UGT1A haplotype is attributed to reduced UGT1A1 expression and T4 glucuronidation in liver of carriers of low expression UGT1A1 rs8175347 alleles. The DIO1 and DIO2 genotypes had no influence of T4 dosage. UGT1A haplotypes associate with T4 dosage in DTC patients, but the effect accounts for only 2% of the total variability and recommendation of pre-emptive UGT1A genotyping is not warranted. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  20. Effect of UGT1A1, UGT1A3, DIO1 and DIO2 polymorphisms on L-thyroxine doses required for TSH suppression in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Ana B; Vargens, Daniela D; Barros Filho, Mateus de Camargo; Bulzico, Daniel A; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo; Meirelles, Ricardo M R; Paula, Daniela P; Neves, Ronaldo R S; Pessoa, Cencita N; Struchine, Claudio J; Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme

    2014-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the impact of genetic polymorphisms in uridine 5′-glucuronosylytansferases UGT1A1 and UGT1A3 and iodothyronine-deiodinases types 1 and 2 on levothyroxine (T4; 3,5,3′,5′-triiodo-L-thyronine) dose requirement for suppression of thyrotropin (TSH) secretion in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Methods Patients (n = 268) submitted to total thyroidectomy and ablation by 131I, under T4 therapy for at least 6 months were recruited in three public institutions in Brazil. Multivariate regression modelling was applied to assess the association of T4 dosing with polymorphisms in UGT1A1 (rs8175347), UGT1A3 (rs3806596 and rs1983023), DIO1 (rs11206244 and rs2235544) and DIO2 (rs225014 and rs12885300), demographic and clinical variables. Results A regression model including UGT1A haplotypes, age, gender, body weight and serum TSH concentration accounted for 39% of the inter-individual variation in the T4 dosage. The association of T4 dose with UGT1A haplotype is attributed to reduced UGT1A1 expression and T4 glucuronidation in liver of carriers of low expression UGT1A1 rs8175347 alleles. The DIO1 and DIO2 genotypes had no influence of T4 dosage. Conclusion UGT1A haplotypes associate with T4 dosage in DTC patients, but the effect accounts for only 2% of the total variability and recommendation of pre-emptive UGT1A genotyping is not warranted. PMID:24910925

  1. Inhibition of UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) Isoforms by Arctiin and Arctigenin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Zhenying; Wang, Tao; Wang, Yijia; Cui, Xiao; Zhang, Huijuan; Fang, Zhong-Ze

    2016-07-01

    Arctiin is the major pharmacological ingredient of Fructus Arctii, and arctigenin is the metabolite of arctiin formed via the catalysis of human intestinal bacteria. The present study aims to investigate the inhibition profile of arctiin and arctigenin on important phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), indicating the possible herb-drug interaction. In vitro screening experiment showed that 100 μM of arctiin and arctigenin inhibited the activity of UGT1A3, 1A9, 2B7, and 2B15. Homology modeling-based in silico docking of arctiin and arctigenin into the activity cavity of UGT2B15 showed that hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions contributed to the strong binding free energy of arctiin (-8.14 kcal/mol) and arctigenin (-8.43 kcal/mol) with UGT2B15. Inhibition kinetics study showed that arctiin and arctigenin exerted competitive and noncompetitive inhibition toward UGT2B15, respectively. The inhibition kinetic parameters (Ki ) were calculated to be 16.0 and 76.7 μM for the inhibition of UGT2B15 by arctiin and arctigenin, respectively. Based on the plasma concentration of arctiin and arctigenin after administration of 100 mg/kg of arctiin, the [I]/Ki values were calculated to be 0.3 and 0.007 for arctiin and arctigenin, respectively. Based on the inhibition evaluation standard ([I]/Ki  < 0.1, low possibility; 0.1 < [I]/Ki  < 1, medium possibility; [I]/Ki  > 1, high possibility), arctiin might induce drug-drug interaction with medium possibility. Based on these results, clinical monitoring the utilization of Fructus Arctii is very important and necessary. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Characterization of raloxifene glucuronidation. Potential role of UGT1A8 genotype on raloxifene metabolism in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Dongxiao; Jones, Nathan R; Manni, Andrea; Lazarus, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Raloxifene is a 2nd-generation selective estrogen receptor modulator used for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and the prevention of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Raloxifene is extensively metabolized by glucuronidation to form raloxifene-6-glucuronide (ral-6-Gluc) and raloxifene-4′-glucuronide (ral-4′-Gluc). The goal of the present study was to determine whether functional polymorphisms in active UGTs could play a role in altered raloxifene glucuronidation in vivo. Using homogenates from HEK293 UGT-overexpressing cell lines, raloxifene was shown to be glucuronidated primarily by the hepatic UGTs 1A1 and 1A9 and the extra-hepatic UGTs 1A8 and 1A10; no detectable raloxifene glucuronidation activity was found for UGT2B enzymes. Functional UGT1A1 transcriptional promoter genotypes were significantly (ptrend=0.005) associated with ral-6-Gluc formation in human liver microsomes, and, consistent with the decreased raloxifene glucuronidation activities observed in vitro with cell line over-expressing UGT1A8 variants, the UGT1A8*2 variant was significantly (p=0.023) correlated with total raloxifene glucuronide formation in human jejunum homogenates. While ral-4′-Gluc exhibited 1/100th the anti-estrogenic activity of raloxifene itself as measured by binding to the estrogen receptor, raloxifene glucuronides comprised ∼99% of the circulating raloxifene dose in raloxifene-treated subjects, with ral-4′-Gluc comprising ∼70% of raloxifene glucuronides. Plasma ral-6-Gluc (ptrend=0.0025), ral-4′-Gluc (ptrend=0.001), and total raloxifene glucuronides (ptrend=0.001) were increased in raloxifene-treated subjects who were predicted slow metabolizers [UGT1A8 (*1/*3)] vs intermediate metabolizers [UGT1A8 (*1/*1) or UGT1A8 (*1/*2)] vs fast metabolizers [UGT1A8 (*2/*2). These data suggest that raloxifene metabolism may be dependent on UGT1A8 genotype and that UGT1A8 genotype may play an important role in overall response to raloxifene. PMID:23682072

  3. Use of Isoform-Specific UGT Metabolism to Determine and Describe Rates and Profiles of Glucuronidation of Wogonin and Oroxylin A by Human Liver and Intestinal Microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qiong; Zheng, Zhijie; Xia, Bijun; Tang, Lan; Lv, Chang; Liu, Wei; Liu, Zhongqiu; Hu, Ming

    2010-01-01

    Purposes Glucuronidation via UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (or UGTs) is a major metabolic pathway. The purposes of this study are to determine the UGT-isoform specific metabolic fingerprint (or GSMF) of wogonin and oroxylin A, and to use isoform-specific metabolism rates and kinetics to determine and describe their glucuronidation behaviors in tissue microsomes. Methods In vitro glucuronidation rates and profiles were measured using expressed UGTs and human intestinal and liver microsomes. Results GSMF experiments indicated that both flavonoids were metabolized mainly by UGT1As, with major contributions from UGT1A3 and UGT1A7-1A10. Isoform-specific metabolism showed that kinetic profiles obtained using expressed UGT1A3 and UGT1A7-1A10 could fit to known kinetic models. Glucuronidation of both flavonoids in human intestinal and liver microsomes followed simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics. A comparison of the kinetic parameters and profiles suggests that UGT1A9 is likely the main isoform responsible for liver metabolism. In contrast, a combination of UGT1As with a major contribution from UGT1A10 contributed to their intestinal metabolism. Correlation studies clearly showed that UGT isoform-specific metabolism could describe their metabolism rates and profiles in human liver and intestinal microsomes. Conclusion GSMF and isoform-specific metabolism profiles can determine and describe glucuronidation rates and profiles in human tissue microsomes. PMID:20411407

  4. Germline V repertoires: Origin, maintenance, diversification.

    PubMed

    Steele, E J; Lindley, R A

    2018-06-01

    In our view, Melvin Cohn (Scand J Immunol. 2018;87:e12640) has set out the logical guidelines towards a resolution of the very real enigma of the selectability of vertebrate germline Ig V repertoires under the current evolutionary paradigm…" A somatically derived repertoire scrambles this (germline VL + VH) substrate so that its specificities are lost, making it un-selectable in the germline. Consequently, evolution faced an incompatibility." It is argued here in Reply that a reverse transcriptase-based soma-to-germline process (S->G) targeting germline V segment arrays goes some considerable way to resolving fundamental contradictions on the origin, maintenance and then real-time adaptive diversification of these limited sets of V segments encoded within various V repertoire arrays. © 2018 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  5. Zebrafish Health Conditions in the China Zebrafish Resource Center and 20 Major Chinese Zebrafish Laboratories.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liyue; Pan, Luyuan; Li, Kuoyu; Zhang, Yun; Zhu, Zuoyan; Sun, Yonghua

    2016-07-01

    In China, the use of zebrafish as an experimental animal in the past 15 years has widely expanded. The China Zebrafish Resource Center (CZRC), which was established in 2012, is becoming one of the major resource centers in the global zebrafish community. Large-scale use and regular exchange of zebrafish resources have put forward higher requirements on zebrafish health issues in China. This article reports the current aquatic infrastructure design, animal husbandry, and health-monitoring programs in the CZRC. Meanwhile, through a survey of 20 Chinese zebrafish laboratories, we also describe the current health status of major zebrafish facilities in China. We conclude that it is of great importance to establish a widely accepted health standard and health-monitoring strategy in the Chinese zebrafish research community.

  6. Zebrafish and Streptococcal Infections.

    PubMed

    Saralahti, A; Rämet, M

    2015-09-01

    Streptococcal bacteria are a versatile group of gram-positive bacteria capable of infecting several host organisms, including humans and fish. Streptococcal species are common colonizers of the human respiratory and gastrointestinal tract, but they also cause some of the most common life-threatening, invasive infections in humans and aquaculture. With its unique characteristics and efficient tools for genetic and imaging applications, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has emerged as a powerful vertebrate model for infectious diseases. Several zebrafish models introduced so far have shown that zebrafish are suitable models for both zoonotic and human-specific infections. Recently, several zebrafish models mimicking human streptococcal infections have also been developed. These models show great potential in providing novel information about the pathogenic mechanisms and host responses associated with human streptococcal infections. Here, we review the zebrafish infection models for the most relevant streptococcal species: the human-specific Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes, and the zoonotic Streptococcus iniae and Streptococcus agalactiae. The recent success and the future potential of these models for the study of host-pathogen interactions in streptococcal infections are also discussed. © 2015 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  7. Measuring zebrafish turning rate.

    PubMed

    Mwaffo, Violet; Butail, Sachit; di Bernardo, Mario; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-06-01

    Zebrafish is becoming a popular animal model in preclinical research, and zebrafish turning rate has been proposed for the analysis of activity in several domains. The turning rate is often estimated from the trajectory of the fish centroid that is output by commercial or custom-made target tracking software run on overhead videos of fish swimming. However, the accuracy of such indirect methods with respect to the turning rate associated with changes in heading during zebrafish locomotion is largely untested. Here, we compare two indirect methods for the turning rate estimation using the centroid velocity or position data, with full shape tracking for three different video sampling rates. We use tracking data from the overhead video recorded at 60, 30, and 15 frames per second of zebrafish swimming in a shallow water tank. Statistical comparisons of absolute turning rate across methods and sampling rates indicate that, while indirect methods are indistinguishable from full shape tracking, the video sampling rate significantly influences the turning rate measurement. The results of this study can aid in the selection of the video capture frame rate, an experimental design parameter in zebrafish behavioral experiments where activity is an important measure.

  8. In vitro inhibition of human UGT isoforms by ritonavir and cobicistat.

    PubMed

    Algeelani, Sara; Alam, Novera; Hossain, Md Amin; Mikus, Gerd; Greenblatt, David J

    2018-08-01

    1. Ritonavir and cobicistat are pharmacokinetic boosting agents used to increase systemic exposure to other antiretroviral therapies. The manufacturer's data suggests that cobicistat is a more selective CYP3A4 inhibitor than ritonavir. However, the inhibitory effect of ritonavir and cobicistat on human UDP glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes in Phase II metabolism is not established. This study evaluated the inhibition of human UGT isoforms by ritonavir versus cobicistat. 2. Acetaminophen and ibuprofen were used as substrates to evaluate the metabolic activity of the principal human UGTs. Metabolite formation rates were determined by HPLC analysis of incubates following in vitro incubation of index substrates with human liver microsomes (HLMs) at different concentrations of ritonavir or cobicistat. Probenecid and estradiol served as positive control inhibitors. 3. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC 50 ) of cobicistat and ritonavir were at least 50 µM, which substantially exceeds usual clinical plasma concentrations. Probenecid inhibited the glucuronidation of acetaminophen (IC 50 0.7 mM), but not glucuronidation of ibuprofen. At relatively high concentrations, estradiol inhibited ibuprofen glucuronidation (IC 50 17 µM). 4. Ritonavir and cobicistat are unlikely to produce clinically important drug interactions involving drugs metabolized to glucuronide conjugates by UGT1A1, 1A3, 1A6, 1A9, 2B4 and 2B7.

  9. Preparation of reference material for UGT1A1 (TA)n polymorphism genotyping.

    PubMed

    Mlakar, Vid; Mlakar, Simona Jurković; Marc, Janja; Ostanek, Barbara

    2014-08-05

    Gilbert's syndrome is one of the most common metabolic syndromes in the human population characterised by mild unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia resulting from reduced activity of the bilirubin conjugating enzyme UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT1A1). Although Gilbert's syndrome is usually quite benign UGT1A1(TA)n genotyping is important in exclusion of more serious causes of hyperbilirubinemia and since it has significant implications for personalised medicine. The aim of our study was to develop plasmid based reference materials which could be used for UGT1A1(TA)n genotyping. Plasmids were generated using recombinant DNA technology and their number of repeats as well as the entire sequence verified by Sanger sequencing. Their suitability as reference materials was tested using sizing by capillary electrophoresis and denaturing high performance liquid chromatography. Plasmids containing all four different alleles (TA)5, (TA)6, (TA)7 and (TA)8 that are present in the human population as well as a plasmid with (TA)4 repeats were successfully generated. Prepared plasmid reference materials allow the creation of all possible UGT1A1(TA)n polymorphism genotypes and can serve as an efficient substitute for the human genomic DNA reference material in routine genotyping and in the development of new genotyping tests. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Studies on the flavonoid substrates of human UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT) 2B7.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shenggu; You, Linya; Zeng, Su

    2007-08-01

    Flavonoids are found in fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, herbs, spices, stems and flowers, as well as in tea and red wine. They are prominent components of citrus fruits and other food sources, are consumed regularly with the human diet, and have been shown to have many biological functions, including antioxidant and chelating properties. This study suggests features of the flavonoid structure necessary for it to act as a substrate of human UGT2B7. Generally speaking, flavonol has higher glucuronidation activity than flavones and isoflavones. Differences in C3' position have an important effect on UGT2B7 glucuronidation activity, and the various substituents have different influences on glucuronidation activity. For flavonol, the bulky group at C4' can enhance glucuronidation activity. Increasing the number of hydroxyl groups of flavonoids will increase their glucuronidation activity towards UGT2B7, while conjugation of glycon will weaken the activity, and hydroxyl position can also have an important role in activity. The high glucuronidation efficiency observed with many flavonoids suggests that the contribution of UGT2B7 to the metabolism of flavonoids may be significant. The results suggest that we should not only pay attention to glucuronidation activity, but should also attach importance to the regioselectivity of glucuronidation.

  11. Bilirubin glucuronidation revisited: proper assay conditions to estimate enzyme kinetics with recombinant UGT1A1.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jin; Tracy, Timothy S; Remmel, Rory P

    2010-11-01

    Bilirubin, an end product of heme catabolism, is primarily eliminated via glucuronic acid conjugation by UGT1A1. Impaired bilirubin conjugation, caused by inhibition of UGT1A1, can result in clinical consequences, including jaundice and kernicterus. Thus, evaluation of the ability of new drug candidates to inhibit UGT1A1-catalyzed bilirubin glucuronidation in vitro has become common practice. However, the instability of bilirubin and its glucuronides presents substantial technical challenges to conduct in vitro bilirubin glucuronidation assays. Furthermore, because bilirubin can be diglucuronidated through a sequential reaction, establishment of initial rate conditions can be problematic. To address these issues, a robust high-performance liquid chromatography assay to measure both bilirubin mono- and diglucuronide conjugates was developed, and the incubation conditions for bilirubin glucuronidation by human embryonic kidney 293-expressed UGT1A1 were carefully characterized. Our results indicated that bilirubin glucuronidation should be assessed at very low protein concentrations (0.05 mg/ml protein) and over a short incubation time (5 min) to assure initial rate conditions. Under these conditions, bilirubin total glucuronide formation exhibited a hyperbolic (Michaelis-Menten) kinetic profile with a K(m) of ∼0.2 μM. In addition, under these initial rate conditions, the relative proportions between the total monoglucuronide and the diglucuronide product were constant across the range of bilirubin concentration evaluated (0.05-2 μM), with the monoglucuronide being the predominant species (∼70%). In conclusion, establishment of appropriate incubation conditions (i.e., very low protein concentrations and short incubation times) is necessary to properly characterize the kinetics of bilirubin glucuronidation in a recombinant UGT1A1 system.

  12. Expression of the human UDP-galactose transporter gene hUGT1 in tobacco plants' enhanced plant hardness.

    PubMed

    Abedi, Tayebeh; Khalil, Mohamed Farouk Mohamed; Koike, Kanae; Hagura, Yoshio; Tazoe, Yuma; Ishida, Nobuhiro; Kitamura, Kenji; Tanaka, Nobukazu

    2018-04-09

    We reported previously that tobacco plants transformed with the human UDP-galactose transporter 1 gene (hUGT1) had enhanced growth, displayed characteristic traits, and had an increased proportion of galactose (hyper-galactosylation) in the cell wall matrix polysaccharides. Here, we report that hUGT1-transgenic plants have an enhanced hardness. As determined by breaking and bending tests, the leaves and stems of hUGT1-transgenic plants were harder than those of control plants. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the cell walls of palisade cells in leaves, and those of cortex cells and xylem fibers in stems of hUGT1-transgenic plants, were thicker than those of control plants. The increased amounts of total cell wall materials extracted from the leaves and stems of hUGT1-transgenic plants supported the increased cell wall thickness. In addition, the cell walls of the hUGT1-transgenic plants showed an increased lignin contents, which was supported by the up-regulation of lignin biosynthetic genes. Thus, the heterologous expression of hUGT1 enhanced the accumulation of cell wall materials, which was accompanied by the increased lignin content, resulting in the increased hardness of the leaves and stems of hUGT1-trangenic plants. The enhanced accumulation of cell wall materials might be related to the hyper-galactosylation of cell wall matrix polysaccharides, most notably arabinogalactan, because of the enhanced UDP-galactose transport from the cytosol to the Golgi apparatus by hUGT1, as suggested in our previous report. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Differences of acute versus chronic ethanol exposure on anxiety-like behavioral responses in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Priya; Guo, Su

    2011-06-01

    Zebrafish, a vertebrate model organism amenable to high throughput screening, is an attractive system to model and study the mechanisms underlying human diseases. Alcoholism and alcoholic medical disorders are among the most debilitating diseases, yet the mechanisms by which ethanol inflicts the disease states are not well understood. In recent years zebrafish behavior assays have been used to study learning and memory, fear and anxiety, and social behavior. It is important to characterize the effects of ethanol on zebrafish behavioral repertoires in order to successfully harvest the strength of zebrafish for alcohol research. One prominent effect of alcohol in humans is its effect on anxiety, with acute intermediate doses relieving anxiety and withdrawal from chronic exposure increasing anxiety, both of which have significant contributions to alcohol dependence. In this study, we assess the effects of both acute and chronic ethanol exposure on anxiety-like behaviors in zebrafish, using two behavioral paradigms, the Novel Tank Diving Test and the Light/Dark Choice Assay. Acute ethanol exposure exerted significant dose-dependent anxiolytic effects. However, withdrawal from repeated intermittent ethanol exposure disabled recovery from heightened anxiety. These results demonstrate that zebrafish exhibit different anxiety-like behavioral responses to acute and chronic ethanol exposure, which are remarkably similar to these effects of alcohol in humans. Because of the accessibility of zebrafish to high throughput screening, our results suggest that genes and small molecules identified in zebrafish will be of relevance to understand how acute versus chronic alcohol exposure have opposing effects on the state of anxiety in humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. BDE-99, but not BDE-47, is a transient aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist in zebrafish liver cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jie; Zhu, Jinyong; Chan, King Ming, E-mail:

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are endocrine-disrupting chemicals that affect the environment and the health of humans and wildlife. In this study, the zebrafish liver (ZFL) cell line was used in vitro to investigate two major PBDE contaminants: 2, 2′, 4, 4′, 5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99) and 2, 2′, 4, 4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47). BDE-99 was found to significantly induce cytochrome P450 (CYP1A), uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl transferase 1 family a, b (ugt1ab), 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity and an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) dependent xenobiotic response element luciferase reporter system, confirming the Ahr-mediated activation of CYP1A by BDE-99. The time-course effect indicated that the role ofmore » BDE-99 in Ahr-mediated signaling is likely to be transient and highly dependent on the ability of BDE-99 to induce CYP1A and ugt1ab, and presumably its metabolism. BDE-99 also exhibited a significant dose-response effect on a developed zebrafish pregnane X receptor luciferase reporter gene system. However, the other abundant contaminant under study, BDE-47, did not exhibit the above effects. Together, these results indicated that the molecular mechanism of PBDEs induced in ZFL cells is a chemically specific process that differs between members of the PBDE family. CYP1A induction derived by BDE-99 warrants further risk assessment as the humans, wildlife and environment are exposed to a complex mixture including dioxin-like compounds and carcinogenic compounds. - Highlights: • BDE-99 is an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) agonist in zebrafish liver cell-line ZFL. • BDE-99 induced EROD activity, CYP1A and ugt1ab gene expression, in ZFL. • BDE-99 induced the pregnane X receptor (Pxr) luciferase reporter gene system in ZFL. • BDE-47 did not show any effects in ZFL to induce CYP1A, ugt1ab, and EROD. • BDE-47 and -99 showed no induction of Rxr and Pxr pathways in ZFL cells.« less

  15. Chamber Specific Gene Expression Landscape of the Zebrafish Heart

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Angom Ramcharan; Sivadas, Ambily; Sabharwal, Ankit; Vellarikal, Shamsudheen Karuthedath; Jayarajan, Rijith; Verma, Ankit; Kapoor, Shruti; Joshi, Adita; Scaria, Vinod; Sivasubbu, Sridhar

    2016-01-01

    The organization of structure and function of cardiac chambers in vertebrates is defined by chamber-specific distinct gene expression. This peculiarity and uniqueness of the genetic signatures demonstrates functional resolution attributed to the different chambers of the heart. Altered expression of the cardiac chamber genes can lead to individual chamber related dysfunctions and disease patho-physiologies. Information on transcriptional repertoire of cardiac compartments is important to understand the spectrum of chamber specific anomalies. We have carried out a genome wide transcriptome profiling study of the three cardiac chambers in the zebrafish heart using RNA sequencing. We have captured the gene expression patterns of 13,396 protein coding genes in the three cardiac chambers—atrium, ventricle and bulbus arteriosus. Of these, 7,260 known protein coding genes are highly expressed (≥10 FPKM) in the zebrafish heart. Thus, this study represents nearly an all-inclusive information on the zebrafish cardiac transcriptome. In this study, a total of 96 differentially expressed genes across the three cardiac chambers in zebrafish were identified. The atrium, ventricle and bulbus arteriosus displayed 20, 32 and 44 uniquely expressing genes respectively. We validated the expression of predicted chamber-restricted genes using independent semi-quantitative and qualitative experimental techniques. In addition, we identified 23 putative novel protein coding genes that are specifically restricted to the ventricle and not in the atrium or bulbus arteriosus. In our knowledge, these 23 novel genes have either not been investigated in detail or are sparsely studied. The transcriptome identified in this study includes 68 differentially expressing zebrafish cardiac chamber genes that have a human ortholog. We also carried out spatiotemporal gene expression profiling of the 96 differentially expressed genes throughout the three cardiac chambers in 11 developmental stages and 6

  16. Vocal repertoire of the social giant otter.

    PubMed

    Leuchtenberger, Caroline; Sousa-Lima, Renata; Duplaix, Nicole; Magnusson, William E; Mourão, Guilherme

    2014-11-01

    According to the "social intelligence hypothesis," species with complex social interactions have more sophisticated communication systems. Giant otters (Pteronura brasiliensis) live in groups with complex social interactions. It is likely that the vocal communication of giant otters is more sophisticated than previous studies suggest. The objectives of the current study were to describe the airborne vocal repertoire of giant otters in the Pantanal area of Brazil, to analyze call types within different behavioral contexts, and to correlate vocal complexity with level of sociability of mustelids to verify whether or not the result supports the social intelligence hypothesis. The behavior of nine giant otters groups was observed. Vocalizations recorded were acoustically and statistically analyzed to describe the species' repertoire. The repertoire was comprised by 15 sound types emitted in different behavioral contexts. The main behavioral contexts of each sound type were significantly associated with the acoustic variable ordination of different sound types. A strong correlation between vocal complexity and sociability was found for different species, suggesting that the communication systems observed in the family mustelidae support the social intelligence hypothesis.

  17. Red wine and component flavonoids inhibit UGT2B17 in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The metabolism and excretion of the anabolic steroid testosterone occurs by glucuronidation to the conjugate testosterone glucuronide which is then excreted in urine. Alterations in UGT glucuronidation enzyme activity could alter the rate of testosterone excretion and thus its bioavailability. The aim of this study is to investigate if red wine, a common dietary substance, has an inhibitory effect on UGT2B17. Methods Testosterone glucuronidation was assayed using human UGT2B17 supersomes with quantification of unglucuronidated testosterone over time using HPLC with DAD detection. The selected red wine was analyzed using HPLC; and the inhibitory effects of the wine and phenolic components were tested independently in a screening assay. Further analyses were conducted for the strongest inhibitors at physiologically relevant concentrations. Control experiments were conducted to determine the effects of the ethanol on UGT2B17. Results Over the concentration range of 2 to 8%, the red wine sample inhibited the glucuronidation of testosterone by up to 70% over 2 hours. The ethanol content had no significant effect. Three red wine phenolics, identified by HPLC analyses, also inhibited the enzyme by varying amounts in the order of quercetin (72%), caffeic acid (22%) and gallic acid (9%); using a ratio of phenolic:testosterone of 1:2.5. In contrast p-coumaric acid and chlorogenic acid had no effect on the UGT2B17. The most active phenolic was selected for a detailed study at physiologically relevant concentrations, and quercetin maintained inhibitory activity of 20% at 2 μM despite a ten-fold excess of testosterone. Conclusion This study reports that in an in vitro supersome-based assay, the key steroid-metabolizing enzyme UGT2B17 is inhibited by a number of phenolic dietary substances and therefore may reduce the rate of testosterone glucuronidation in vivo. These results highlight the potential interactions of a number of common dietary compounds on

  18. Mycobacteriosis in zebrafish colonies.

    PubMed

    Whipps, Christopher M; Lieggi, Christine; Wagner, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacteriosis, a chronic bacterial infection, has been associated with severe losses in some zebrafish facilities and low-level mortalities and unknown impacts in others. The occurrence of at least six different described species (Mycobacterium abscessus, M. chelonae, M. fortuitum, M. haemophilum, M. marinum, M. peregrinum) from zebrafish complicates diagnosis and control because each species is unique. As a generalization, mycobacteria are often considered opportunists, but M. haemophilum and M. marinum appear to be more virulent. Background genetics of zebrafish and environmental conditions influence the susceptibility of fish and progression of disease, emphasizing the importance of regular monitoring and good husbandry practices. A combined approach to diagnostics is ultimately the most informative, with histology as a first-level screen, polymerase chain reaction for rapid detection and species identification, and culture for strain differentiation. Occurrence of identical strains of Mycobacterium in both fish and biofilms in zebrafish systems suggests transmission can occur when fish feed on infected tissues or tank detritus containing mycobacteria. Within a facility, good husbandry practices and sentinel programs are essential for minimizing the impacts of mycobacteria. In addition, quarantine and screening of animals coming into a facility is important for eliminating the introduction of the more severe pathogens. Elimination of mycobacteria from an aquatic system is likely not feasible because these species readily establish biofilms on surfaces even in extremely low nutrient conditions. Risks associated with each commonly encountered species need to be identified and informed management plans developed. Basic research on the growth characteristics, disinfection, and pathogenesis of zebrafish mycobacteria is critical moving forward.

  19. A tandem array of UDP-glycosyltransferases from the UGT73C subfamily glycosylate sapogenins, forming a spectrum of mono- and bisdesmosidic saponins.

    PubMed

    Erthmann, Pernille Østerbye; Agerbirk, Niels; Bak, Søren

    2018-05-01

    This study identifies six UGT73Cs all able to glucosylate sapogenins at positions 3 and/or 28 which demonstrates that B. vulgaris has a much richer arsenal of UGTs involved in saponin biosynthesis than initially anticipated. The wild cruciferous plant Barbarea vulgaris is resistant to some insects due to accumulation of two monodesmosidic triterpenoid saponins, oleanolic acid 3-O-β-cellobioside and hederagenin 3-O-β-cellobioside. Insect resistance depends on the structure of the sapogenin aglycone and the glycosylation pattern. The B. vulgaris saponin profile is complex with at least 49 saponin-like metabolites, derived from eight sapogenins and including up to five monosaccharide units. Two B. vulgaris UDP-glycosyltransferases, UGT73C11 and UGT73C13, O-glucosylate sapogenins at positions 3 and 28, forming mainly 3-O-β-D-glucosides. The aim of this study was to identify UGTs responsible for the diverse saponin oligoglycoside moieties observed in B. vulgaris. Twenty UGT genes from the insect resistant genotype were selected and heterologously expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana and/or Escherichia coli. The extracts were screened for their ability to glycosylate sapogenins (oleanolic acid, hederagenin), the hormone 24-epibrassinolide and sapogenin monoglucosides (hederagenin and oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucosides). Six UGTs from the UGT73C subfamily were able to glucosylate both sapogenins and both monoglucosides at positions 3 and/or 28. Some UGTs formed bisdesmosidic saponins efficiently. At least four UGT73C genes were localized in a tandem array with UGT73C11 and possibly UGT73C13. This organization most likely reflects duplication events followed by sub- and neofunctionalization. Indeed, signs of positive selection on several amino acid sites were identified and modelled to be localized on the UGT protein surface. This tandem array is proposed to initiate higher order bisdesmosidic glycosylation of B. vulgaris saponins, leading to the recently discovered

  20. IgRepertoireConstructor: a novel algorithm for antibody repertoire construction and immunoproteogenomics analysis

    PubMed Central

    Safonova, Yana; Bonissone, Stefano; Kurpilyansky, Eugene; Starostina, Ekaterina; Lapidus, Alla; Stinson, Jeremy; DePalatis, Laura; Sandoval, Wendy; Lill, Jennie; Pevzner, Pavel A.

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of concentrations of circulating antibodies in serum (antibody repertoire) is a fundamental, yet poorly studied, problem in immunoinformatics. The two current approaches to the analysis of antibody repertoires [next generation sequencing (NGS) and mass spectrometry (MS)] present difficult computational challenges since antibodies are not directly encoded in the germline but are extensively diversified by somatic recombination and hypermutations. Therefore, the protein database required for the interpretation of spectra from circulating antibodies is custom for each individual. Although such a database can be constructed via NGS, the reads generated by NGS are error-prone and even a single nucleotide error precludes identification of a peptide by the standard proteomics tools. Here, we present the IgRepertoireConstructor algorithm that performs error-correction of immunosequencing reads and uses mass spectra to validate the constructed antibody repertoires. Availability and implementation: IgRepertoireConstructor is open source and freely available as a C++ and Python program running on all Unix-compatible platforms. The source code is available from http://bioinf.spbau.ru/igtools. Contact: ppevzner@ucsd.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26072509

  1. IgRepertoireConstructor: a novel algorithm for antibody repertoire construction and immunoproteogenomics analysis.

    PubMed

    Safonova, Yana; Bonissone, Stefano; Kurpilyansky, Eugene; Starostina, Ekaterina; Lapidus, Alla; Stinson, Jeremy; DePalatis, Laura; Sandoval, Wendy; Lill, Jennie; Pevzner, Pavel A

    2015-06-15

    The analysis of concentrations of circulating antibodies in serum (antibody repertoire) is a fundamental, yet poorly studied, problem in immunoinformatics. The two current approaches to the analysis of antibody repertoires [next generation sequencing (NGS) and mass spectrometry (MS)] present difficult computational challenges since antibodies are not directly encoded in the germline but are extensively diversified by somatic recombination and hypermutations. Therefore, the protein database required for the interpretation of spectra from circulating antibodies is custom for each individual. Although such a database can be constructed via NGS, the reads generated by NGS are error-prone and even a single nucleotide error precludes identification of a peptide by the standard proteomics tools. Here, we present the IgRepertoireConstructor algorithm that performs error-correction of immunosequencing reads and uses mass spectra to validate the constructed antibody repertoires. IgRepertoireConstructor is open source and freely available as a C++ and Python program running on all Unix-compatible platforms. The source code is available from http://bioinf.spbau.ru/igtools. ppevzner@ucsd.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. UGT1A1*6 polymorphism is most predictive of severe neutropenia induced by irinotecan in Japanese cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Onoue, Masahide; Terada, Tomohiro; Kobayashi, Masahiko; Katsura, Toshiya; Matsumoto, Shigemi; Yanagihara, Kazuhiro; Nishimura, Takafumi; Kanai, Masashi; Teramukai, Satoshi; Shimizu, Akira; Fukushima, Masanori; Inui, Ken-ichi

    2009-04-01

    Gene polymorphisms of the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1 family, polypeptide A1 (UGT1A1) contribute to individual variations in adverse events among patients administered irinotecan, and the distribution of the polymorphisms shows large interethnic differences. Variation in the solute carrier organic anion-transporter family, member 1B1 (SLCO1B1) gene also has a significant effect on the disposition of irinotecan in Asian cancer patients. In the present study, we evaluated the association of genetic polymorphisms of UGT1A1 and SLCO1B1 with irinotecanrelated neutropenia in Japanese cancer patients. One hundred and thirty-five consecutive patients treated with irinotecan were enrolled. Genotypes of UGT1A1 (*60, *28, *6, and *27) and SLCO1B1 (*1b, *5, and haplotype *15) were determined by direct sequencing. Severe neutropenia refers to events observed during the first cycle of irinotecan treatment. Severe neutropenia was observed in 29 patients (22%). Six patients were homozygous and 48 heterozygous for UGT1A1*6. Only 1 patient was homozygous for UGT1A1*28. Homozygosity for UGT1A1*6 was associated with a high risk of severe neutropenia (odds ratio [OR], 7.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36 to 44.51). No significant association was found between severe neutropenia and other UGT1A1 polymorphisms or SLCO1B1 polymorphisms. These findings suggest that the UGT1A1*6 polymorphism is a potential predictor of severe neutropenia caused by irinotecan in Japanese cancer patients.

  3. The Astonishing Diversity of Ig Classes and B Cell Repertoires in Teleost Fish

    PubMed Central

    Fillatreau, Simon; Six, Adrien; Magadan, Susanna; Castro, Rosario; Sunyer, J. Oriol; Boudinot, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    With lymphoid tissue anatomy different than mammals, and diverse adaptations to all aquatic environments, fish constitute a fascinating group of vertebrate to study the biology of B cell repertoires in a comparative perspective. Fish B lymphocytes express immunoglobulin (Ig) on their surface and secrete antigen-specific antibodies in response to immune challenges. Three antibody classes have been identified in fish, namely IgM, IgD, and IgT, while IgG, IgA, and IgE are absent. IgM and IgD have been found in all fish species analyzed, and thus seem to be primordial antibody classes. IgM and IgD are normally co-expressed from the same mRNA through alternative splicing, as in mammals. Tetrameric IgM is the main antibody class found in serum. Some species of fish also have IgT, which seems to exist only in fish and is specialized in mucosal immunity. IgM/IgD and IgT are expressed by two different sub-populations of B cells. The tools available to investigate B cell responses at the cellular level in fish are limited, but the progress of fish genomics has started to unravel a rich diversity of IgH and immunoglobulin light chain locus organization, which might be related to the succession of genome remodelings that occurred during fish evolution. Moreover, the development of deep sequencing techniques has allowed the investigation of the global features of the expressed fish B cell repertoires in zebrafish and rainbow trout, in steady state or after infection. This review provides a description of the organization of fish Ig loci, with a particular emphasis on their heterogeneity between species, and presents recent data on the structure of the expressed Ig repertoire in healthy and infected fish. PMID:23408183

  4. Anesthesia and euthanasia in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Monte; Varga, Zoltán M

    2012-01-01

    Because of the relative ease of embryonic manipulation and observation, the ability to produce a great number of genetic mutations, efficient screening methods, and the continued advance of molecular genetic tools, such as the progress in sequencing and mapping of the zebrafish genome, the use of zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a biomedical model organism continues to expand. However, studies involving zebrafish husbandry and veterinary care struggle to keep pace with scientific progress. This article outlines some of the current, acceptable methods for providing anesthesia and euthanasia and provides some examples of how performance-based approaches can be used to advance the relatively limited number of anesthetic and euthanizing techniques available for zebrafish.

  5. Exome-Wide Association Study Identifies New Low-Frequency and Rare UGT1A1 Coding Variants and UGT1A6 Coding Variants Influencing Serum Bilirubin in Elderly Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Oussalah, Abderrahim; Bosco, Paolo; Anello, Guido; Spada, Rosario; Guéant-Rodriguez, Rosa-Maria; Chery, Céline; Rouyer, Pierre; Josse, Thomas; Romano, Antonino; Elia, Maurizzio; Bronowicki, Jean-Pierre; Guéant, Jean-Louis

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified loci contributing to total serum bilirubin level. However, no exome-wide approaches have been performed to address this question. Using exome-wide approach, we assessed the influence of protein-coding variants on unconjugated, conjugated, and total serum bilirubin levels in a well-characterized cohort of 773 ambulatory elderly subjects from Italy. Coding variants were replicated in 227 elderly subjects from the same area. We identified 4 missense rare (minor allele frequency, MAF < 0.5%) and low-frequency (MAF, 0.5%–5%) coding variants located in the first exon of the UGT1A1 gene, which encodes for the substrate-binding domain (rs4148323 [MAF = 0.06%; p.Gly71Arg], rs144398951 [MAF = 0.06%; p.Ile215Val], rs35003977 [MAF = 0.78%; p.Val225Gly], and rs57307513 [MAF = 0.06%; p.Ser250Pro]). These variants were in strong linkage disequilibrium with 3 intronic UGT1A1 variants (rs887829, rs4148325, rs6742078), which were significantly associated with total bilirubin level (P = 2.34 × 10−34, P = 7.02 × 10−34, and P = 8.27 × 10−34), as well as unconjugated, and conjugated bilirubin levels. We also identified UGT1A6 variants in association with total (rs6759892, p.Ser7Ala, P = 1.98 × 10−26; rs2070959, p.Thr181Ala, P = 2.87 × 10−27; and rs1105879, p.Arg184Ser, P = 3.27 × 10−29), unconjugated, and conjugated bilirubin levels. All UGT1A1 intronic variants (rs887829, rs6742078, and rs4148325) and UGT1A6 coding variants (rs6759892, rs2070959, and rs1105879) were significantly associated with gallstone-related cholecystectomy risk. The UGT1A6 variant rs2070959 (p.Thr181Ala) was associated with the highest risk of gallstone–related cholecystectomy (OR, 4.58; 95% CI, 1.58–13.28; P = 3.21 × 10−3). Using an exome-wide approach we identified coding variants on UGT1A1 and UGT1A6 genes in association with serum bilirubin

  6. Role of UGT1A1*6, UGT1A1*28 and ABCG2 c.421C>A polymorphisms in irinotecan-induced neutropenia in Asian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Jada, Srinivasa Rao; Lim, Robert; Wong, Chiung Ing; Shu, Xiaochen; Lee, Soo Chin; Zhou, Qingyu; Goh, Boon Cher; Chowbay, Balram

    2007-09-01

    The objectives of the present study were (i) to study the pharmacogenetics of UGT1A1*6, UGT1A1*28 and ABCG2 c.421C>A in three distinct healthy Asian populations (Chinese, Malays and Indians), and (ii) to investigate the polygenic influence of these polymorphic variants in irinotecan-induced neutropenia in Asian cancer patients. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenetic analyses were done after administration of irinotecan as a 90-min intravenous infusion of 375 mg/m(2) once every 3 weeks (n = 45). Genotypic-phenotypic correlates showed a non-significant influence of UGT1A1*28 and ABCG2 c.421C>A polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of SN-38 (P > 0.05), as well as severity of neutropenia (P > 0.05). Significantly higher exposure levels to SN-38 (P = 0.018), lower relative extent of glucuronidation (REG; P = 0.006) and higher biliary index (BI; P = 0.003) were found in cancer patients homozygous for the UGT1A1*6 allele compared with patients harboring the reference genotype. The mean absolute neutrophil count (ANC) was 85% lower and the prevalence of grade 4 neutropenia (ANC < or = 500/microL) was 27% in patients homozygous for UGT1A1*6 compared with the reference group. Furthermore, the presence of the UGT1A1*6 allele was associated with an approximately 3-fold increased risk of developing severe grade 4 neutropenia compared with patients harboring the reference genotype. These exploratory findings suggest that homozygosity for UGT1A1*6 allele may be associated with altered SN-38 disposition and may increase the risk of severe neutropenia in Asian cancer patients, particularly in the Chinese cancer patients who comprised 80% (n = 36) of the patient population in the present study.

  7. Role of UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B2 in Metabolism of Triiodothyronine: Effect of Microsomal Enzyme Inducers in Sprague Dawley and UGT2B2-Deficient Fischer 344 Rats

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Terrilyn A.; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2010-01-01

    Microsomal enzyme inducers (MEI) that increase UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) can impact thyroid hormone homeostasis in rodents. Increased glucuronidation can result in reduction of serum thyroid hormone and a concomitant increase in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). UGT2B2 is thought to glucuronidate triiodothyronine (T3). The purposes of this study were to determine the role of UGT2B2 in T3 glucuronidation and whether increased T3 glucuronidation mediates the increased TSH observed after MEI treatment. Sprague Dawley (SD) and UGT2B2-deficient Fischer 344 (F344) rats were fed a control diet or diet containing pregnenolone-16α-carbonitrile (PCN; 800 ppm), 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC; 200 ppm), or Aroclor 1254 (PCB; 100 ppm) for 7 days. Serum thyroxine (T4), T3, and TSH concentrations, hepatic androsterone/T4/T3 glucuronidation, and thyroid follicular cell proliferation were determined. In both SD and F344 rats, MEI treatments decreased serum T4, whereas serum T3 was maintained (except with PCB treatment). Hepatic T4 glucuronidation increased significantly after MEI in both rat strains. Compared with the other MEI, only PCN treatment significantly increased T3 glucuronidation (281 and 497%) in both SD and UGT2B2-deficient F344 rats, respectively, and increased both serum TSH and thyroid follicular cell proliferation. These data demonstrate an association among increases in T3 glucuronidation, TSH, and follicular cell proliferation after PCN treatment, suggesting that T3 is glucuronidated by other PCN-inducible UGTs in addition to UGT2B2. These data also suggest that PCN (rather than 3-MC or PCB) promotes thyroid tumors through excessive TSH stimulation of the thyroid gland. PMID:20421340

  8. Contextual Fear Conditioning in Zebrafish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Justin W.; Scott, Ian C.; Josselyn, Sheena A.; Frankland, Paul W.

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish are a genetically tractable vertebrate that hold considerable promise for elucidating the molecular basis of behavior. Although numerous recent advances have been made in the ability to precisely manipulate the zebrafish genome, much less is known about many aspects of learning and memory in adult fish. Here, we describe the development…

  9. Correlation of UGT1A1(*)28 and (*)6 polymorphisms with irinotecan-induced neutropenia in Thai colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Atasilp, Chalirmporn; Chansriwong, Pichai; Sirachainan, Ekapob; Reungwetwattana, Thanyanan; Chamnanphon, Montri; Puangpetch, Apichaya; Wongwaisayawan, Sansanee; Sukasem, Chonlaphat

    2016-02-01

    UDP-glucuronosyltransferase1A1 (UGT1A1) polymorphisms have been related with irinotecan toxicity. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between UGT1A1(*)28 and (*)6 polymorphisms and irinotecan toxicity in Thai patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. 44 metastatic colorectal cancer patients received irinotecan-based chemotherapy. Hematologic toxicities were determined in the first and second cycles of treatment. The genotypes of UGT1A1(*)28 and (*)6 were analyzed by pyrosequencing technique. The frequencies of genetic testing for UGT1A1(*)28 and (*)6 polymorphisms were 22.8% (TA6/TA7; 20.5%, TA7/TA7; 2.3%) and 15.9% (GA), respectively. No patients had the homozygous UGT1A1(*)6 (AA). Neither UGT1A1(*)28 nor UGT1A1(*)6 polymorphisms were significantly associated with severe hematologic toxicities. However, analysis of UGT1A1(*)28 and (*)6 in combination revealed an association with severe neutropenia in the first and second cycles (P = 0.044, P = 0.017, respectively). Both UGT1A1(*)28 and (*)6 polymorphisms may have an increased risk of irinotecan-induced neutropenia in Thai colorectal cancer patients. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of Arabidopsis sterol glycosyltransferase TTG15/UGT80B1 role during freeze and heat stress

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Manoj K; Singh, Gaurav; Tiwari, Shalini; Singh, Ruchi; Kumari, Nishi; Misra, Pratibha

    2015-01-01

    Sterol glycosyltransferases regulate the properties of sterols by catalyzing the transfer of carbohydrate molecules to the sterol moiety for the synthesis of steryl glycosides and acyl steryl glycosides. We have analyzed the functional role of TTG15/UGT80B1 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana in freeze/thaw and heat shock stress using T-DNA insertional sgt knockout mutants. Quantitative study of spatial as well as temporal gene expression showed tissue-specific and dynamic expression patterns throughout the growth stages. Comparative responses of Col-0, TTG15/UGT80B1 knockout mutant and p35S:TTG15/UGT80B1 restored lines were analyzed under heat and freeze stress conditions. Heat tolerance was determined by survival of plants at 42°C for 3 h, MDA analysis and chlorophyll fluorescence image (CFI) analysis. Freezing tolerance was determined by survival of the plants at -1°C temperature in non-acclimatized (NA) and cold acclimatized (CA) conditions and also by CFI analysis, which revealed that, p35S:TTG15/UGT80B1 restored plants were more adapted to freeze stress than TTG15/UGT80B1 knockout mutant under CA condition. HPLC analysis of the plants showed reduced sterol glycoside in mutant seedlings as compared to other genotypes. Following CA condition, both β-sitosterol and sitosterol glycoside quantity was more in Col-0 and p35S:TTG15/UGT80B1 restored lines, whereas it was significantly less in TTG15/UGT80B1 knockout mutants. From these results, it may be concluded that due to low content of free sterols and sterol glycosides, the physiology of mutant plants was more affected during both, the chilling and heat stress. PMID:26382564

  11. UGT2B17 minor histocompatibility mismatch and clinical outcome after HLA-identical sibling donor stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Santos, N; Rodríguez-Romanos, R; Nieto, J B; Buño, I; Vallejo, C; Jiménez-Velasco, A; Brunet, S; Buces, E; López-Jiménez, J; González, M; Ferrá, C; Sampol, A; de la Cámara, R; Martínez, C; Gallardo, D

    2016-01-01

    Minor histocompatibility Ags (mHags) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of GVHD after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Uridine diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase 2B17 (UGT2B17) gene deletion may act as a mHag and its association with acute GVHD (aGVHD) has been described. We retrospectively studied the clinical impact of a UGT2B17 mismatch in a cohort of 1127 patients receiving a HSCT from an HLA-identical sibling donor. UGT2B17 mismatch was present in 69 cases (6.1%). Incidence of severe aGVHD was higher in the UGT2B17 mismatched pairs (22.7% vs 14.6%), but this difference was not statistically significant (P: 0.098). We did not detect differences in chronic GVHD, overall survival, relapse-free survival, transplant-related mortality or relapse. Nevertheless, when we analyzed only those patients receiving grafts from a male donor (616 cases), aGVHD was significantly higher in the UGT2B17 mismatched group (25.1% vs 12.8%; P: 0.005) and this association was confirmed by the multivariate analysis (P: 0.043; hazard ratio: 2.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.03-4.57). Overall survival was worse for patients mismatched for UGT2B17 (P: 0.005). We conclude that UGT2B17 mismatch has a negative clinical impact in allogeneic HSCT from HLA-identical sibling donors only when a male donor is used. These results should be confirmed by other studies.

  12. Automatic zebrafish heartbeat detection and analysis for zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Pylatiuk, Christian; Sanchez, Daniela; Mikut, Ralf; Alshut, Rüdiger; Reischl, Markus; Hirth, Sofia; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Just, Steffen

    2014-08-01

    A fully automatic detection and analysis method of heartbeats in videos of nonfixed and nonanesthetized zebrafish embryos is presented. This method reduces the manual workload and time needed for preparation and imaging of the zebrafish embryos, as well as for evaluating heartbeat parameters such as frequency, beat-to-beat intervals, and arrhythmicity. The method is validated by a comparison of the results from automatic and manual detection of the heart rates of wild-type zebrafish embryos 36-120 h postfertilization and of embryonic hearts with bradycardia and pauses in the cardiac contraction.

  13. UDP-Glycosyltransferases from the UGT73C Subfamily in Barbarea vulgaris Catalyze Sapogenin 3-O-Glucosylation in Saponin-Mediated Insect Resistance1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Augustin, Jörg M.; Drok, Sylvia; Shinoda, Tetsuro; Sanmiya, Kazutsuka; Nielsen, Jens Kvist; Khakimov, Bekzod; Olsen, Carl Erik; Hansen, Esben Halkjær; Kuzina, Vera; Ekstrøm, Claus Thorn; Hauser, Thure; Bak, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Triterpenoid saponins are bioactive metabolites that have evolved recurrently in plants, presumably for defense. Their biosynthesis is poorly understood, as is the relationship between bioactivity and structure. Barbarea vulgaris is the only crucifer known to produce saponins. Hederagenin and oleanolic acid cellobioside make some B. vulgaris plants resistant to important insect pests, while other, susceptible plants produce different saponins. Resistance could be caused by glucosylation of the sapogenins. We identified four family 1 glycosyltransferases (UGTs) that catalyze 3-O-glucosylation of the sapogenins oleanolic acid and hederagenin. Among these, UGT73C10 and UGT73C11 show highest activity, substrate specificity and regiospecificity, and are under positive selection, while UGT73C12 and UGT73C13 show lower substrate specificity and regiospecificity and are under purifying selection. The expression of UGT73C10 and UGT73C11 in different B. vulgaris organs correlates with saponin abundance. Monoglucosylated hederagenin and oleanolic acid were produced in vitro and tested for effects on P. nemorum. 3-O-β-d-Glc hederagenin strongly deterred feeding, while 3-O-β-d-Glc oleanolic acid only had a minor effect, showing that hydroxylation of C23 is important for resistance to this herbivore. The closest homolog in Arabidopsis thaliana, UGT73C5, only showed weak activity toward sapogenins. This indicates that UGT73C10 and UGT73C11 have neofunctionalized to specifically glucosylate sapogenins at the C3 position and demonstrates that C3 monoglucosylation activates resistance. As the UGTs from both the resistant and susceptible types of B. vulgaris glucosylate sapogenins and are not located in the known quantitative trait loci for resistance, the difference between the susceptible and resistant plant types is determined at an earlier stage in saponin biosynthesis. PMID:23027665

  14. Herb–drug interaction prediction based on the high specific inhibition of andrographolide derivatives towards UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B7

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Hai-Ying, E-mail: cmu4h-mhy@126.com; Sun, Dong-Xue; Cao, Yun-Feng

    2014-05-15

    Herb–drug interaction strongly limits the clinical application of herbs and drugs, and the inhibition of herbal components towards important drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) has been regarded as one of the most important reasons. The present study aims to investigate the inhibition potential of andrographolide derivatives towards one of the most important phase II DMEs UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs). Recombinant UGT isoforms (except UGT1A4)-catalyzed 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) glucuronidation reaction and UGT1A4-catalyzed trifluoperazine (TFP) glucuronidation were employed to firstly screen the andrographolide derivatives' inhibition potential. High specific inhibition of andrographolide derivatives towards UGT2B7 was observed. The inhibition type and parameters (K{sub i}) were determined for themore » compounds exhibiting strong inhibition capability towards UGT2B7, and human liver microsome (HLMs)-catalyzed zidovudine (AZT) glucuronidation probe reaction was used to furtherly confirm the inhibition behavior. In combination of inhibition parameters (K{sub i}) and in vivo concentration of andrographolide and dehydroandrographolide, the potential in vivo inhibition magnitude was predicted. Additionally, both the in vitro inhibition data and computational modeling results provide important information for the modification of andrographolide derivatives as selective inhibitors of UGT2B7. Taken together, data obtained from the present study indicated the potential herb–drug interaction between Andrographis paniculata and the drugs mainly undergoing UGT2B7-catalyzed metabolic elimination, and the andrographolide derivatives as potential candidates for the selective inhibitors of UGT2B7. - Highlights: • Specific inhibition of andrographolide derivatives towards UGT2B7. • Herb-drug interaction related withAndrographis paniculata. • Guidance for design of UGT2B7 specific inhibitors.« less

  15. Zebrafish pancreas development.

    PubMed

    Tiso, Natascia; Moro, Enrico; Argenton, Francesco

    2009-11-27

    An accurate understanding of the molecular events governing pancreas development can have an impact on clinical medicine related to diabetes, obesity and pancreatic cancer, diseases with a high impact in public health. Until 1996, the main animal models in which pancreas formation and differentiation could be studied were mouse and, for some instances related to early development, chicken and Xenopus. Zebrafish has penetrated this field very rapidly offering a new model of investigation; by joining functional genomics, genetics and in vivo whole mount visualization, Danio rerio has allowed large scale and fine multidimensional analysis of gene functions during pancreas formation and differentiation.

  16. Programming in the Zone: Repertoire Selection for the Large Ensemble

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Michael

    2013-01-01

    One of the great challenges ensemble directors face is selecting high-quality repertoire that matches the musical and technical levels of their ensembles. Thoughtful repertoire selection can lead to increased student motivation as well as greater enthusiasm for the music program from parents, administrators, teachers, and community members. Common…

  17. History, applications, and challenges of immune repertoire research.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Wu, Jinghua

    2018-02-27

    The diversity of T and B cells in terms of their receptor sequences is huge in the vertebrate's immune system and provides broad protection against the vast diversity of pathogens. Immune repertoire is defined as the sum of T cell receptors and B cell receptors (also named immunoglobulin) that makes the organism's adaptive immune system. Before the emergence of high-throughput sequencing, the studies on immune repertoire were limited by the underdeveloped methodologies, since it was impossible to capture the whole picture by the low-throughput tools. The massive paralleled sequencing technology suits perfectly the researches on immune repertoire. In this article, we review the history of immune repertoire studies, in terms of technologies and research applications. Particularly, we discuss several aspects of challenges in this field and highlight the efforts to develop potential solutions, in the era of high-throughput sequencing of the immune repertoire.

  18. Over-expression of UDP-glycosyltransferase gene UGT2B17 is involved in chlorantraniliprole resistance in Plutella xylostella (L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuxia; Zhu, Bin; Gao, Xiwu; Liang, Pei

    2017-07-01

    UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) are phase II detoxification enzymes widely distributed within living organisms. Their involvement in the biotransformation of various lipophilic endogenous compounds and phytoalexins in insects has been documented. However, the roles of this enzyme family in insecticide resistance have rarely been reported. Here, the functions of UGTs in chlorantraniliprole resistance in Plutella xylostella were investigated. Treatment with sulfinpyrazone and 5-nitrouracil (both inhibitors of UGT enzymes) significantly increased the toxicity of chlorantraniliprole against the third instar larvae of P. xylostella. Among the 23 UGT transcripts examined, only UGT2B17 was found to be over-expressed (with a range from 30.7- to 77.3-fold) in all four chlorantraniliprole-resistant populations compared to the susceptible one (CHS). The knock-down of UGT2B17 by RNA interference (RNAi) dramatically increased the toxicity of chlorantraniliprole by 27.4% and 29.8% in the CHS and CHR (resistant) populations, respectively. In contrast, exposure to phenobarbital significantly increased the relative expression of UGT2B17 while decreasing the toxicity of chlorantraniliprole to the larvae by 14.0%. UGT2B17 is involved in the detoxification of chlorantraniliprole, and its over-expression may play an important role in chlorantraniliprole resistance in P. xylostella. These results shed some light upon and further our understanding of the mechanisms of diamide insecticide resistance in insects. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Zebrafish Pronephros Development.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Richard W; Qubisi, Sarah S; Davidson, Alan J

    The pronephros is the first kidney type to form in vertebrate embryos. The first step of pronephrogenesis in the zebrafish is the formation of the intermediate mesoderm during gastrulation, which occurs in response to secreted morphogens such as BMPs and Nodals. Patterning of the intermediate mesoderm into proximal and distal cell fates is induced by retinoic acid signaling with downstream transcription factors including wt1a, pax2a, pax8, hnf1b, sim1a, mecom, and irx3b. In the anterior intermediate mesoderm, progenitors of the glomerular blood filter migrate and fuse at the midline and recruit a blood supply. More posteriorly localized tubule progenitors undergo epithelialization and fuse with the cloaca. The Notch signaling pathway regulates the formation of multi-ciliated cells in the tubules and these cells help propel the filtrate to the cloaca. The lumenal sheer stress caused by flow down the tubule activates anterior collective migration of the proximal tubules and induces stretching and proliferation of the more distal segments. Ultimately these processes create a simple two-nephron kidney that is capable of reabsorbing and secreting solutes and expelling excess water-processes that are critical to the homeostasis of the body fluids. The zebrafish pronephric kidney provides a simple, yet powerful, model system to better understand the conserved molecular and cellular progresses that drive nephron formation, structure, and function.

  20. Zebrafish as tools for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    MacRae, Calum A; Peterson, Randall T

    2015-10-01

    The zebrafish has become a prominent vertebrate model for disease and has already contributed to several examples of successful phenotype-based drug discovery. For the zebrafish to become useful in drug development more broadly, key hurdles must be overcome, including a more comprehensive elucidation of the similarities and differences between human and zebrafish biology. Recent studies have begun to establish the capabilities and limitations of zebrafish for disease modelling, drug screening, target identification, pharmacology, and toxicology. As our understanding increases and as the technologies for manipulating zebrafish improve, it is hoped that the zebrafish will have a key role in accelerating the emergence of precision medicine.

  1. Association between UGT2B7 gene polymorphisms and fentanyl sensitivity in patients undergoing painful orthognathic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Muraoka, Wataru; Nishizawa, Daisuke; Fukuda, Kenichi; Kasai, Shinya; Hasegawa, Junko; Wajima, Koichi; Nakagawa, Taneaki

    2016-01-01

    Background Fentanyl is often used instead of morphine for the treatment of pain because it has fewer side effects. The metabolism of morphine by glucuronidation is known to be influenced by polymorphisms of the UGT2B7 gene. Some metabolic products of fentanyl are reportedly metabolized by glucuronate conjugation. The genes that are involved in the metabolic pathway of fentanyl may also influence fentanyl sensitivity. We analyzed associations between fentanyl sensitivity and polymorphisms of the UGT2B7 gene to clarify the hereditary determinants of individual differences in fentanyl sensitivity. Results This study examined whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the UGT2B7 gene affect cold pain sensitivity and the analgesic effects of fentanyl, evaluated by a standardized pain test and fentanyl requirements in healthy Japanese subjects who underwent uniform surgical procedures. The rs7439366 SNP of UGT2B7 is reportedly associated with the metabolism and analgesic effects of morphine. We found that this SNP is also associated with the analgesic effects of fentanyl in the cold pressor-induced pain test. It suggested that the C allele of the rs7439366 SNP may enhance analgesic efficacy. Two SNPs of UGT2B7, rs4587017 and rs1002849, were also found to be novel SNPs that may influence the analgesic effects of fentanyl in the cold pressor-induced pain test. Conclusions Fentanyl sensitivity for cold pressor-induced pain was associated with the rs7439366, rs4587017, and rs1002849 SNPs of the UGT2B7 gene. Our findings may provide valuable information for achieving satisfactory pain control and open to new avenues for personalized pain treatment. PMID:28256933

  2. Effect of the β-glucuronidase inhibitor saccharolactone on glucuronidation by human tissue microsomes and recombinant UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs)

    PubMed Central

    Oleson, Lauren; Court, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    Glucuronidation studies using microsomes and recombinant UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (rUGTs) can be complicated by the presence of endogenous β-glucuronidases leading to underestimation of glucuronide formation rates. Saccharolactone is the most frequently used β-glucuronidase inhibitor, although as of yet it is not clear whether this reagent should be routinely added to glucuronidation incubations. Here we determined the effect of saccharolactone on eight different UGT probe activities using pooled human liver microsomes (pHLMs) and rUGTs. Despite the use of buffered incubation solutions it was necessary to adjust the pH of saccharolactone solutions to avoid effects (enhancement or inhibition) of lowered pH on UGT activity. Saccharolactone at concentrations ranging from 1 to 20 mM failed to show enhancement of any of the glucuronidation activities evaluated that could be considered consistent with inhibition of β-glucuronidase. However, for most activities, higher saccharolactone concentrations resulted in a modest degree of inhibition. The greatest inhibitory effect was observed for 5-hydroxytryptamine and estradiol glucuronidation by pHLMs with 35% decrease at 20 mM saccharolactone concentration. Endogenous β-glucuronidase activities were also measured using various human tissue microsomes and rUGTs with estradiol-3-glucuronide and estradiol-17-glucuronide as substrates. Glucuronide hydrolysis was observed for pHLMs, lung microsomes, and insect-cell expressed rUGTs, but not for kidney or intestinal microsomes, or HEK293 microsomes. However, the extent of hydrolysis was relatively small representing only 9 to 19% of the glucuronide formation rate measured in the same preparations. Consequently, these data do not support the routine inclusion of saccharolactone in glucuronidation incubations and, if used, saccharolactone concentrations should be titrated to achieve activity enhancement without inhibition. PMID:18718121

  3. Green cocoons in silkworm Bombyx mori resulting from the quercetin 5-O-glucosyltransferase of UGT86, is an evolved response to dietary toxins.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xu; Wang, Meng; Wang, Ying; Sima, Yanghu; Zhang, Dayan; Li, Juan; Yin, Weiming; Xu, Shiqing

    2013-05-01

    The glycosylation of UDP-glucosyltransferases (UGTs) is of great importance in the control and elimination of both endogenous and exogenous toxins. Bm-UGT10286 (UGT86) is the sole provider of UGT activity against the 5-O position of quercetin and directly influences the formation of green pigment in the Bombyx cocoon. To evaluate whether cocoon coloration evolved for mimetic purposes, we concentrated on the expression pattern of Ugt86 and the activities of the enzyme substrates. The expression of Ugt86 was not only detected in the cocoon absorbing and accumulating tissues such as the digestive tube and silk glands, but also in quantity in the detoxification tissues of the malpighian tubes and fat body, as well as in the gonads. As in the green cocoon strains, Ugt86 was clearly expressed in the yellow and white cocoon strains. In vitro, the fusion protein of UGT86 showed quercetin metabolic activity. Nevertheless, Ugt86 expression of 5th instar larvae was not up-regulated in the silk gland by exogenous quercetin. However, it was significantly up-regulated in the digestive tube and gonads (P < 0.05). A similar result was observed in experiments where larvae were exposed to rutin, an insect resistance inducer and growth inhibitor typically found in plants, and to 20-hydroxylecdysone (20E), an insect endocrine and plant source hormone. On the contrary, up-regulated Ugt86 expression was almost nil in larvae exposed to juvenile hormone III (P > 0.05). The results of HPLC revealed that a new substance was formed by mixing 20E with the recombinant UGT86 protein in vitro, indicating that the effect of Ugt86 on 20E was similar to that on exogenous quercetin derived from plant food, and that the effect probably initiated the detoxification reaction against rutin. The conclusion is that the reaction of Ugt86 on the silkworm cocoon pigment quercetin is not the result of active mimetic ecogenesis, but derives from the detoxification of UGTs.

  4. Caspase-mediated apoptosis induction in zebrafish cerebellar Purkinje neurons.

    PubMed

    Weber, Thomas; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Winter, Barbara; Müller-Brown, Karina; Kühn, Ralf; Wurst, Wolfgang; Köster, Reinhard W

    2016-11-15

    The zebrafish is a well-established model organism in which to study in vivo mechanisms of cell communication, differentiation and function. Existing cell ablation methods are either invasive or they rely on the cellular expression of prokaryotic enzymes and the use of antibiotic drugs as cell death-inducing compounds. We have recently established a novel inducible genetic cell ablation system based on tamoxifen-inducible Caspase 8 activity, thereby exploiting mechanisms of cell death intrinsic to most cell types. Here, we prove its suitability in vivo by monitoring the ablation of cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) in transgenic zebrafish that co-express the inducible caspase and a fluorescent reporter. Incubation of larvae in tamoxifen for 8 h activated endogenous Caspase 3 and cell death, whereas incubation for 16 h led to the near-complete loss of PCs by apoptosis. We observed synchronous cell death autonomous to the PC population and phagocytosing microglia in the cerebellum, reminiscent of developmental apoptosis in the forebrain. Thus, induction of apoptosis through targeted activation of caspase by tamoxifen (ATTAC TM ) further expands the repertoire of genetic tools for conditional interrogation of cellular functions. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Distinct retinal pathways drive spatial orientation behaviors in zebrafish navigation.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Harold A; Schoch, Hannah; Granato, Michael

    2010-02-23

    Navigation requires animals to adjust ongoing movements in response to pertinent features of the environment and select between competing target cues. The neurobiological basis of navigational behavior in vertebrates is hard to analyze, partly because underlying neural circuits are experience dependent. Phototaxis in zebrafish is a hardwired navigational behavior, performed at a stage when larvae swim by using a small repertoire of stereotyped movements. We established conditions to elicit robust phototaxis behavior and found that zebrafish larvae deploy directional orienting maneuvers and regulate forward swimming speed to navigate toward a target light. Using genetic analysis and targeted laser ablations, we show that retinal ON and OFF pathways play distinct roles during phototaxis. The retinal OFF pathway controls turn movements via retinotectal projections and establishes correct orientation by causing larvae to turn away from nontarget areas. In contrast, the retinal ON pathway activates the serotonergic system to trigger rapid forward swimming toward the target. Computational simulation of phototaxis with an OFF-turn, ON-approach algorithm verifies that our model accounts for key features of phototaxis and provides a simple and robust mechanism for behavioral choice between competing targets. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. UGT74AN1, a Permissive Glycosyltransferase from Asclepias curassavica for the Regiospecific Steroid 3-O-Glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Wen, Chao; Huang, Wei; Zhu, Xue-Lin; Li, Xiao-San; Zhang, Fan; Jiang, Ren-Wang

    2018-02-02

    A permissive steroid glycosyltransferase (UGT74AN1) from Asclepias curassavica exhibited robust capabilities for the regiospecific C3 glycosylation of cardiotonic steroids and C 21 steroid precursors, and unprecedented promiscuity toward 53 structurally diverse natural and unnatural compounds to form O-, N-, and S-glycosides, along with the catalytic reversibility for a one-pot transglycosylation reaction. These findings highlight UGT74AN1 as the first regiospecific catalyst for cardiotonic steroid C3 glycosylation and exhibit significant potential for glycosylation of diverse bioactive molecules in drug discovery.

  7. Human Gut Microbiota: Repertoire and Variations

    PubMed Central

    Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Million, Matthieu; Hugon, Perrine; Armougom, Fabrice; Raoult, Didier

    2012-01-01

    The composition of human gut microbiota and their relationship with the host and, consequently, with human health and disease, presents several challenges to microbiologists. Originally dominated by culture-dependent methods for exploring this ecosystem, the advent of molecular tools has revolutionized our ability to investigate these relationships. However, many biases that have led to contradictory results have been identified. Microbial culturomics, a recent concept based on a use of several culture conditions with identification by MALDI-TOF followed by the genome sequencing of the new species cultured had allowed a complementarity with metagenomics. Culturomics allowed to isolate 31 new bacterial species, the largest human virus, the largest bacteria, and the largest Archaea from human. Moreover, some members of this ecosystem, such as Eukaryotes, giant viruses, Archaea, and Planctomycetes, have been neglected by the majority of studies. In addition, numerous factors, such as age, geographic provenance, dietary habits, antibiotics, or probiotics, can influence the composition of the microbiota. Finally, in addition to the countless biases associated with the study techniques, a considerable limitation to the interpretation of studies of human gut microbiota is associated with funding sources and transparency disclosures. In the future, studies independent of food industry funding and using complementary methods from a broad range of both culture-based and molecular tools will increase our knowledge of the repertoire of this complex ecosystem and host-microbiota mutualism. PMID:23130351

  8. INDUCED AND SPONTANEOUS NEOPLASIA IN ZEBRAFISH.

    EPA Science Inventory

    To address the potential of zebrafish as a cancer model, it is important to determine the susceptibility of zebrafish to tumors, and to compare zebrafish tumors with human tumors. To determine whether the commonly-used germ line mutagen, ethylnitrosourea (ENU) induces tumors, we ...

  9. Genetic polymorphism of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT2B15) and glucuronidation of paracetamol in healthy population.

    PubMed

    Mehboob, Huma; Iqbal, Tahira; Jamil, Amer; Khaliq, Tanweer

    2016-05-01

    Inter individual variability in polymorphic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT2B15) has been associated with varied glucuronidation level. The present project was designed to determine the genetic polymorphism of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT2B15) and glucuronidation of paracetamol in healthy (male=59 and female=50) population. The association between genotype (UGT2B15) and phenotype (paracetamol glucuronidation) has been evaluated. According to trimodal model, genotypes and phenotypes were categorized as fast, intermediate and slow glucuronidators. Presence of wild type allele illustrated a UGT2B15 genotype as fast glucuronidator. The glucuronidation status was investigated by HPLC analysis of paracetamol. Ratio of paracetamol glucuronide to paracetamol was determined with two antimodes at glucuronidation ratio of 0.3 and 1.8. In our study, 7% and 12% of population was distributed as slow glucuronidators by phenotype and genotype, respectively and association between phenotype and genotype was good for analysis of glucuronidation status as displayed by kappa value (0.792).

  10. [Examination of UGT1A1 polymorphisms and irinotecan-induced neutropenia in patients with Colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Teruya, Tsuyoshi; Nakachi, Atsushi; Shimabukuro, Nobuhiro; Toritsuka, Daisuke; Azuma, Yasuharu; Hanashiro, Kiyotoshi; Nishiki, Takehiro; Ota, Morihito; Shimabuku, Masamori; Shiroma, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    Irinotecan is an effective drug in the treatment of colorectal cancer. However, there are reports of an association between certain UGT1A1 genetic polymorphisms and the development of adverse reactions(such as neutropenia)related to irinotecan metabolism. We retrospectively investigated UGT1A1 genetic polymorphisms and the occurrences of irinotecan-induced neutropenia in 25 patients of colorectal cancer at our hospital. Analysis of UGT1A1 genetic polymorphisms in these patients yielded the following classifications: a wild-type group( *1/*1)comprising 13 patients(52%), a heterozygous group(*1/ *28, *1/*6)of 10 patients(40%), and a homozygous group(*28/*28, *6/*6)of 2 patients(8%). The frequency of neutropenia was 15.4%(2/13)in the wild-type group, 30%(3/10)in the heterozygous group, and 100%(2/2)in the homozygous group. Grade 4 neutropenia only occurred in the homozygous group. These results suggest that a dose reduction of irinotecan should be considered for patients who fall into the homozygous group upon analysis of their UGT1A1 genetic polymorphisms, as such patients might be susceptible to grade 4 neutropenia.

  11. BDE-99, but not BDE-47, is a transient aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist in zebrafish liver cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Zhu, Jinyong; Chan, King Ming

    2016-08-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are endocrine-disrupting chemicals that affect the environment and the health of humans and wildlife. In this study, the zebrafish liver (ZFL) cell line was used in vitro to investigate two major PBDE contaminants: 2, 2', 4, 4', 5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99) and 2, 2', 4, 4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47). BDE-99 was found to significantly induce cytochrome P450 (CYP1A), uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl transferase 1 family a, b (ugt1ab), 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity and an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) dependent xenobiotic response element luciferase reporter system, confirming the Ahr-mediated activation of CYP1A by BDE-99. The time-course effect indicated that the role of BDE-99 in Ahr-mediated signaling is likely to be transient and highly dependent on the ability of BDE-99 to induce CYP1A and ugt1ab, and presumably its metabolism. BDE-99 also exhibited a significant dose-response effect on a developed zebrafish pregnane X receptor luciferase reporter gene system. However, the other abundant contaminant under study, BDE-47, did not exhibit the above effects. Together, these results indicated that the molecular mechanism of PBDEs induced in ZFL cells is a chemically specific process that differs between members of the PBDE family. CYP1A induction derived by BDE-99 warrants further risk assessment as the humans, wildlife and environment are exposed to a complex mixture including dioxin-like compounds and carcinogenic compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Selective Detoxification of Phenols by Pichia pastoris and Arabidopsis thaliana Heterologously Expressing the PtUGT72B1 from Populus trichocarpa

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Lin, Ya-Qiu; Xu, Jing; Zhu, Bo; Zhao, Wei; Peng, Ri-He; Yao, Quan-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Phenols are present in the environment and commonly in contact with humans and animals because of their wide applications in many industries. In a previous study, we reported that uridine diphosphate-glucose-dependent glucosyltransferase PtUGT72B1 from Populus trichocarpa has high activity in detoxifying trichlorophenol by conjugating glucose. In this study, more experiments were performed to determine the substrate specificity of PtUGT72B1 towards phenolic compounds. Among seven phenols tested, three were glucosylated by PtUGT72B1 including phenol, hydroquinone, and catechol. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing the enzyme PtUGT72B1 showed higher resistance to hydroquinone and catechol but more sensitivity to phenol than wild type plants. Transgenic Pichia pastoris expressing PtUGT72B1 showed enhanced resistance to all three phenols. Compared with wild type Arabidopsis plants, transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed higher removal efficiencies and exported more glucosides of phenol, phenyl β-D-glucopyranoside, to the medium after cultured with the three phenols. Protein extracts from transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed enhanced conjugating activity towards phenol, hydroquinone and catechol. PtUGT72B1 showed much higher expression level in Pichia pastoris than in Arabidopsis plants. Kinetic analysis of the PtUGT72B1 was also performed. PMID:23840543

  13. Repertoire of Intensive Care Unit Pneumonia Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Bousbia, Sabri; Papazian, Laurent; Saux, Pierre; Forel, Jean Marie; Auffray, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Claude; Raoult, Didier; La Scola, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Despite the considerable number of studies reported to date, the causative agents of pneumonia are not completely identified. We comprehensively applied modern and traditional laboratory diagnostic techniques to identify microbiota in patients who were admitted to or developed pneumonia in intensive care units (ICUs). During a three-year period, we tested the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia, community-acquired pneumonia, non-ventilator ICU pneumonia and aspiration pneumonia, and compared the results with those from patients without pneumonia (controls). Samples were tested by amplification of 16S rDNA, 18S rDNA genes followed by cloning and sequencing and by PCR to target specific pathogens. We also included culture, amoeba co-culture, detection of antibodies to selected agents and urinary antigen tests. Based on molecular testing, we identified a wide repertoire of 160 bacterial species of which 73 have not been previously reported in pneumonia. Moreover, we found 37 putative new bacterial phylotypes with a 16S rDNA gene divergence ≥98% from known phylotypes. We also identified 24 fungal species of which 6 have not been previously reported in pneumonia and 7 viruses. Patients can present up to 16 different microorganisms in a single BAL (mean ± SD; 3.77±2.93). Some pathogens considered to be typical for ICU pneumonia such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus species can be detected as commonly in controls as in pneumonia patients which strikingly highlights the existence of a core pulmonary microbiota. Differences in the microbiota of different forms of pneumonia were documented. PMID:22389704

  14. UGT2B17 gene deletion associated with an increase in bone mineral density similar to the effect of hormone replacement in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Giroux, S; Bussières, J; Bureau, A; Rousseau, F

    2012-03-01

    UGT2B17 is one of the most important enzymes for androgen metabolism. In addition, the UGT2B17 gene is one of the most commonly deleted regions of the human genome. The deletion was previously found associated with higher femoral bone density in men and women, and we replicated this association in a sample of postmenopausal who never used hormone therapy. Deletion of the UGT2B17 gene was previously shown to be associated with a higher hip bone mineral density (BMD). Using a PCR assay, we tried to replicate the association among a large group of 2,379 women. We examined the effect of the deletion on femoral neck BMD and lumbar spine BMD according to the menopausal status and hormone replacement therapy (HRT). We used a high-throughput PCR assay to identify the gene and the deletion in a population of well-characterized women. Two additional polymorphisms, UGT2B28 deletion and UGT2B15 rs1902023 G > T were also investigated. Only UGT2B17 deletion was associated with LS and FN BMD. Furthermore, the association was seen only among postmenopausal women who had never used hormone replacement as in the first reported association. We confirmed the association between UGT2B17 deletion and a higher LS and FN BMD. In addition, we show that the association is observed among postmenopausal women who never used HRT consistent with the enzymatic function of UGT2B17. The analysis shows that those having one or two UGT2B17 alleles benefit from HRT, which is not the case for null carriers.

  15. Maintenance of Zebrafish Lines at the European Zebrafish Resource Center.

    PubMed

    Geisler, Robert; Borel, Nadine; Ferg, Marco; Maier, Jana Viktoria; Strähle, Uwe

    2016-07-01

    We have established a European Zebrafish Resource Center (EZRC) at the KIT. This center not only maintains and distributes a large number of existing mutant and transgenic zebrafish lines but also gives zebrafish researchers access to screening services and technologies such as imaging and high-throughput sequencing, provided by the Institute of Toxicology and Genetics (ITG). The EZRC maintains and distributes the stock collection of the Nüsslein-Volhard laboratory, comprising over 2000 publicly released mutations, as frozen sperm samples. Within the framework of the ZF-HEALTH EU project, the EZRC distributes over 10,000 knockout mutations from the Sanger Institute (United Kingdom), as well as over 100 mutant and transgenic lines from other sources. In this article, we detail the measures we have taken to ensure the health of our fish, including hygiene, quarantine, and veterinary inspections.

  16. Thinking through Text Comprehension III: The Programing of Verbal and Investigative Repertoires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon, Marta; Layng, T. V. Joe; Sota, Melinda

    2011-01-01

    Reading comprehension can be considered a complex human performance involving two integrated repertoires: a verbal repertoire and an investigative (generative) repertoire. The analytical and reasoning skills necessary to demonstrate reading comprehension can be systematically taught by analyzing the verbal and investigative repertoires involved…

  17. Neurochemical measurements in the zebrafish brain

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Lauren J.; McCutcheon, James E.; Young, Andrew M. J.; Norton, William H. J.

    2015-01-01

    The zebrafish is an ideal model organism for behavioral genetics and neuroscience. The high conservation of genes and neurotransmitter pathways between zebrafish and other vertebrates permits the translation of research between species. Zebrafish behavior can be studied at both larval and adult stages and recent research has begun to establish zebrafish models for human disease. Fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is an electrochemical technique that permits the detection of neurotransmitter release and reuptake. In this study we have used in vitro FSCV to measure the release of analytes in the adult zebrafish telencephalon. We compare different stimulation methods and present a characterization of neurochemical changes in the wild-type zebrafish brain. This study represents the first FSCV recordings in zebrafish, thus paving the way for neurochemical analysis of the fish brain. PMID:26441575

  18. Accurate and High-Coverage Immune Repertoire Sequencing Reveals Characteristics of Antibody Repertoire Diversification in Young Children with Malaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ning

    Accurately measuring the immune repertoire sequence composition, diversity, and abundance is important in studying repertoire response in infections, vaccinations, and cancer immunology. Using molecular identifiers (MIDs) to tag mRNA molecules is an effective method in improving the accuracy of immune repertoire sequencing (IR-seq). However, it is still difficult to use IR-seq on small amount of clinical samples to achieve a high coverage of the repertoire diversities. This is especially challenging in studying infections and vaccinations where B cell subpopulations with fewer cells, such as memory B cells or plasmablasts, are often of great interest to study somatic mutation patterns and diversity changes. Here, we describe an approach of IR-seq based on the use of MIDs in combination with a clustering method that can reveal more than 80% of the antibody diversity in a sample and can be applied to as few as 1,000 B cells. We applied this to study the antibody repertoires of young children before and during an acute malaria infection. We discovered unexpectedly high levels of somatic hypermutation (SHM) in infants and revealed characteristics of antibody repertoire development in young children that would have a profound impact on immunization in children.

  19. Genomic Approaches to Zebrafish Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The zebrafish has emerged as an important model for studying cancer biology. Identification of DNA, RNA and chromatin abnormalities can give profound insight into the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and the there are many techniques for analyzing the genomes of these tumors. Here, I present an overview of the available technologies for analyzing tumor genomes in the zebrafish, including array based methods as well as next-generation sequencing technologies. I also discuss the ways in which zebrafish tumor genomes can be compared to human genomes using cross-species oncogenomics, which act to filter genomic noise and ultimately uncover central drivers of malignancy. Finally, I discuss downstream analytic tools, including network analysis, that can help to organize the alterations into coherent biological frameworks that can then be investigated further. PMID:27165352

  20. New frontiers for zebrafish management.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, C

    2016-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a preeminent model organism with a wide and expanding utility for numerous scientific disciplines. The same features that once endeared this small freshwater minnow to developmental biologists combined with its relatively high genetic similarity to mammals and the advent of new, more efficient methods for genome editing are now helping to spur expanded growth in its usage in various fields, including toxicology, drug discovery, transplant biology, disease modeling, and even aquaculture. Continued maturation and adoption of the zebrafish model system in these and other fields of science will require that methods and approaches for husbandry and management of these fish in controlled settings be refined and improved to the extent that, ultimately, zebrafish research becomes more reproducible, defined, cost-effective, and accessible to the masses. Knowledge and technology transfer from laboratory animal science and commercial aquaculture will be a necessary part of this development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mayo Clinic Zebrafish Facility Overview.

    PubMed

    Leveque, Ryan E; Clark, Karl J; Ekker, Stephen C

    2016-07-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a premier nonmammalian vertebrate model organism. This small aquatic fish is utilized in multiple disciplines in the Mayo Clinic community and by many laboratories around the world because of its biological similarity to humans, its advanced molecular genetics, the elucidation of its genome sequence, and the ever-expanding and outstanding new biological tools now available to the zebrafish researcher. The Mayo Clinic Zebrafish Facility (MCZF) houses ∼2,000 tanks annotated using an in-house, Internet cloud-based bar-coding system tied to our established zfishbook.org web infrastructure. Paramecia are the primary food source for larval fish rearing, using a simplified culture protocol described herein. The MCZF supports the specific ongoing research in a variety of laboratories, while also serving as a local hub for new scientists as they learn to tap into the potential of this model system for understanding normal development, disease, and as models of health.

  2. Interference with xenobiotic metabolic activity by the commonly used vehicle solvents dimethylsulfoxide and methanol in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae but not Daphnia magna

    PubMed Central

    David, Rhiannon M.; Jones, Huw S.; Panter, Grace H.; Winter, Matthew J.; Hutchinson, Thomas H.; Kevin Chipman, J.

    2012-01-01

    Organic solvents, such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and methanol are widely used as vehicles to solubilise lipophilic test compounds in toxicity testing. However, the effects of such solvents upon innate detoxification processes in aquatic organisms are poorly understood. This study assessed the effect of solvent exposure upon cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated xenobiotic metabolism in Daphnia magna and zebrafish larvae (4 d post fertilisation). Adult D. magna were demonstrated to have a low, but detectable, metabolism of ethoxyresorufin in vivo and this activity was not modulated by pre-exposure to DMSO or methanol (24 h, up to 0.1% and 0.05% v/v, respectively). In contrast, the metabolism of ethoxyresorufin in zebrafish larvae was significantly reduced by both solvents (0.1% and 0.05% v/v, respectively) after 24 h of exposure. In zebrafish, these observed decreases in activity towards ethoxyresorufin were accompanied by decreased expression of a variety of genes coding for drug metabolising enzymes (corresponding to CYP1, CYP2, CYP3 and UDP-glucuronyl transferase [UGT] family enzymes), measured by quantitative PCR. Reduction of gene expression and CYP1 enzyme activities by methanol (0.05% v/v) in zebrafish larvae was partially reversed by co-exposure with Aroclor 1254 (100 μg L−1). Overall this study suggests that relatively low concentrations of organic solvents can impact upon the biotransformation of certain xenobiotics in zebrafish larvae, and that this warrants consideration when assessing compounds for metabolism and toxicity in this species. PMID:22472102

  3. The Implication of the Polymorphisms of COX-1, UGT1A6, and CYP2C9 among Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Patients Treated with Aspirin.

    PubMed

    Jalil, Nur Jalinna Abdul; Bannur, Zakaria; Derahman, A; Maskon, O; Darinah, Noor; Hamidi, Hamat; Gunasekaran, Osama Ali; Rafizi, Mohd; Azreen, Nur Izatul; Kek, Teh Lay; Salleh, Mohd Zaki

    2015-01-01

      Enzymes potentially responsible for the pharmacokinetic variations of aspirin include cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT1A6) and P450 (CYP) (CYP2C9). We therefore aimed to determine the types and frequencies of variants of COX-1 (A-842G), UGT1A6 (UGT1A6*2; A541G and UGT1A6*3; A522C) and CYP2C9 (CYP2C9*3; A1075C) in the three major ethnic groups in Malaysia. In addition, the role of these polymorphisms on aspirin-induced gastritis among the patients was investigated. A total of 165 patients with cardiovascular disease who were treated with 75-150 mg daily dose of aspirin and 300 healthy volunteers were recruited. DNA was extracted from the blood samples and genotyped for COX-1 (A-842G), UGT1A6 (UGT1A6*2 and UGT1A6*3) and CYP2C9 (CYP2C9*3; A1075C) using allele specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR). Variants UGT1A6*2,*3 and CYP2C9*3 were detected in relatively high percentage of 22.83%, 30.0% and 6.50%, respectively; while COX-1 (A-842G) was absent. The genotype frequencies for UGT1A6*2 and *3 were significantly different between Indians and Malays or Chinese. The level of bilirubin among patients with different genotypes of UGT1A6 was significantly different (p-value < 0.05). In addition, CYP2C9*3 was found to be associated with gastritis with an odd ratio of 6.8 (95 % Cl OR: 1.39 - 33.19; P = 0.033). Screening of patients with defective genetic variants of UGT1A6 and CYP2C9*3 helps in identifying patients at risk of aspirin induced gastritis. However, a randomised clinical study of bigger sample size would be needed before it is translated to clinical use.

  4. Limited MHC class I intron 2 repertoire variation in bonobos.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Natasja G; Heijmans, Corrine M C; Helsen, Philippe; Otting, Nel; Pereboom, Zjef; Stevens, Jeroen M G; Bontrop, Ronald E

    2017-10-01

    Common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) experienced a selective sweep, probably caused by a SIV-like virus, which targeted their MHC class I repertoire. Based on MHC class I intron 2 data analyses, this selective sweep took place about 2-3 million years ago. As a consequence, common chimpanzees have a skewed MHC class I repertoire that is enriched for allotypes that are able to recognise conserved regions of the SIV proteome. The bonobo (Pan paniscus) shared an ancestor with common chimpanzees approximately 1.5 to 2 million years ago. To investigate whether the signature of this selective sweep is also detectable in bonobos, the MHC class I gene repertoire of two bonobo panels comprising in total 29 animals was investigated by Sanger sequencing. We identified 14 Papa-A, 20 Papa-B and 11 Papa-C alleles, of which eight, five and eight alleles, respectively, have not been reported previously. Within this pool of MHC class I variation, we recovered only 2 Papa-A, 3 Papa-B and 6 Papa-C intron 2 sequences. As compared to humans, bonobos appear to have an even more diminished MHC class I intron 2 lineage repertoire than common chimpanzees. This supports the notion that the selective sweep may have predated the speciation of common chimpanzees and bonobos. The further reduction of the MHC class I intron 2 lineage repertoire observed in bonobos as compared to the common chimpanzee may be explained by a founding effect or other subsequent selective processes.

  5. Significantly decreased and more variable expression of major CYPs and UGTs in liver microsomes prepared from HBV-positive human hepatocellular carcinoma and matched pericarcinomatous tissues determined using an isotope label-free UPLC-MS/MS method.

    PubMed

    Yan, Tongmeng; Gao, Song; Peng, Xiaojuan; Shi, Jian; Xie, Cong; Li, Qiang; Lu, Linlin; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Fuyuan; Liu, Zhongqiu; Hu, Ming

    2015-03-01

    To determine the liver expression of cytochrome P450 (CYPs) and uridine 5'-diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), the major phase I and II metabolism enzymes responsible for clearance and detoxification of drugs, xenobiotic and endogenous substances. A validated isotope label-free method was established for absolute and simultaneous quantification of 9 CYPs (1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D, 2E1 and 3A4) and 5 UGTs (1A1, 1A4, 1A6, 1A9 and 2B7) in human liver microsomes using LC-MS/MS. The LC-MS/MS method displayed excellent dynamic range (at least 250-fold) and high sensitivity for each of the signature peptides with acceptable recovery, accuracy and precision. The protein expression profile of CYP and UGT isoforms were then determined in match microsomes samples prepared from patients with HBV-positive human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the tumor microsomes, the average absolute amounts of 8 major CYP isoforms (except CYP2C19) and 3 UGT isoforms (UGT1A1, UGT1A4 and UGT2B7) were decreased significantly (p < 0.05), whereas UGT1A6 and UGT1A9 levels were unchanged (p > 0.05). In addition, among isoforms with altered expression, 6 of 8 CYP isoforms and all three UGT isoforms were much more variable in tumor microsomes. Lastly, the importance of CYP3A4 was greatly diminished whereas the importance of UGT1A6 was enhanced in tumor microsomes. The use of an isotope label-free absolute quantification method for the simultaneous determination of 9 CYPs and 5 UGTs in human liver microsomes reveals that expression levels of CYPs and UGTs in human liver are severely impact by HCC, which could impact drug metabolism, disposition and pharmacotherapy.

  6. Body Fat Percentage Is a Major Determinant of Total Bilirubin Independently of UGT1A1*28 Polymorphism in Young Obese

    PubMed Central

    Kohlova, Michaela; Bronze-da-Rocha, Elsa; Fernandes, João; Costa, Elísio; Catarino, Cristina; Aires, Luísa; Mansilha, Helena Ferreira; Rocha-Pereira, Petronila; Quintanilha, Alexandre; Rêgo, Carla; Santos-Silva, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Bilirubin has potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The UGT1A1*28 polymorphism (TA repeats in the promoter region) is a major determinant of bilirubin levels and recent evidence suggests that raised adiposity may also be a contributing factor. We aimed to study the interaction between UGT1A1 polymorphism, hematological and anthropometric variables with total bilirubin levels in young individuals. Methods 350 obese (mean age of 11.6 years; 52% females) and 79 controls (mean age of 10.5 years; 59% females) were included. Total bilirubin and C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels, hemogram, anthropometric data and UGT1A1 polymorphism were determined. In a subgroup of 74 obese and 40 controls body composition was analyzed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results The UGT1A1 genotype frequencies were 49.9%, 42.7% and 7.5% for 6/6, 6/7 and 7/7 genotypes, respectively. Patients with 7/7 genotype presented the highest total bilirubin levels, followed by 6/7 and 6/6 genotypes. Compared to controls, obese patients presented higher erythrocyte count, hematocrit, hemoglobin and CRP levels, but no differences in bilirubin or in UGT1A1 genotype distribution. Body fat percentage was inversely correlated with bilirubin in obese patients but not in controls. This inverse association was observed either in 6/7 or 6/6 genotype obese patients. UGT1A1 polymorphism and body fat percentage were the main factors affecting bilirubin levels within obese patients (linear regression analysis). Conclusion In obese children and adolescents, body fat composition and UGT1A1 polymorphism are independent determinants of total bilirubin levels. Obese individuals with 6/6 UGT1A1 genotype and higher body fat mass may benefit from a closer clinical follow-up. PMID:24901842

  7. Epidemiological investigation of the UGT2B17 polymorphism in doping control urine samples and its correlation to T/E ratios.

    PubMed

    Anielski, Patricia; Simmchen, Juliane; Wassill, Lars; Ganghofner, Dirk; Thieme, Detlef

    2011-10-01

    The deletion polymorphism of the enzyme UGT2B17 is known to correlate with the level of the testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E) ratio in urine specimen. Due to the importance of the T/E ratio to detect testosterone abuse in doping analysis, a PCR-ELISA system (Genotype® UGT test, AmplexDiagnostics) was established to identify the UGT2B17 phenotype in urine samples. Epidemiological investigations in a set of 674 routine doping controls (in- and out-of-competition) resulted in 22.8% homozygote gene-deleted and 74.5% UGT2B17-positive athletes. The validated test system has shown to be robust and sensitive: in only 18 cases (2.7%) isolation of cell material from urine failed. Following hydrolysis of glucuronidated conjugates, steroids were analyzed as bis-TMS derivatives by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), for example, testosterone (T) and epitestosterone (E). Additionally, isotope ration mass spectrometry (IRMS) analysis and luteinizing hormone (LH) measurement were applied. Mean T/E ratios significantly correlated with the UGT2B17 phenotype (del: T/E 0.9; pos: 1.7), however the values did not differ as distinctive as reported in previous studies. Additionally, the T/E ratios in the gene-deleted group did not show a normal curve of distribution (median of T/E 0.5). Obviously, beside the UGT2B17 deletion further influences have to be taken into account, for example, polymorphisms or induction of other metabolizing enzymes. Our results indicate that the UGT2B17 polymorphism might be insufficient when utilized solely as a crucial parameter for individual interpretation of T/E in urine. Nevertheless, the detection of the UGT2B17-gene deletion in urine samples would provide additional information important for gathering evidence in analysis of steroids in doping control. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Zebrafish sex: a complicated affair

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Woei Chang

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we provide a detailed overview of studies on the elusive sex determination (SD) and gonad differentiation mechanisms of zebrafish (Danio rerio). We show that the data obtained from most studies are compatible with polygenic sex determination (PSD), where the decision is made by the allelic combinations of several loci. These loci are typically dispersed throughout the genome, but in some teleost species a few of them might be located on a preferential pair of (sex) chromosomes. The PSD system has a much higher level of variation of SD genotypes both at the level of gametes and the sexual genotype of individuals, than that of the chromosomal sex determination systems. The early sexual development of zebrafish males is a complicated process, as they first develop a ‘juvenile ovary’, that later undergoes a transformation to give way to a testis. To date, three major developmental pathways were shown to be involved with gonad differentiation through the modulation of programmed cell death. In our opinion, there are more pathways participating in the regulation of zebrafish gonad differentiation/transformation. Introduction of additional powerful large-scale genomic approaches into the analysis of zebrafish reproduction will result in further deepening of our knowledge as well as identification of additional pathways and genes associated with these processes in the near future. PMID:24148942

  9. Knockdown of prothrombin in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Day, Kenneth; Krishnegowda, Naveen; Jagadeeswaran, Pudur

    2004-01-01

    Thrombin is a serine protease generated from its zymogen, prothrombin, and plays a central role in the coagulation cascade. It is also important for mammalian development. The zebrafish has now been established as an excellent genetic model for studies on mammalian hemostasis and development. In this report, we used prothrombin-specific antisense morpholinos to knock down the levels of prothrombin to characterize the effects of prothrombin deficiency in the zebrafish embryo. Prothrombin morpholino-injected zebrafish embryos yielded an early phenotype exhibiting severe abnormalities that later showed occasional bleeding. In a second late phenotype, the embryos had no observable morphological abnormalities in early stages, but showed occasional bleeding at later stages. These phenotypes resembled characteristics shown by prothrombin knockout mice. Laser-induced vascular injury on some of the normal appearing phenotypic larvae showed a prolonged time to occlusion, and recombinant zebrafish prothrombin injected into these larvae restored a normal time to occlusion thus showing the specificity of the morpholino effect. The system developed here should be useful for investigation of the role of thrombin in vertebrate development.

  10. Contextual fear conditioning in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Justin W; Scott, Ian C; Josselyn, Sheena A; Frankland, Paul W

    2017-10-01

    Zebrafish are a genetically tractable vertebrate that hold considerable promise for elucidating the molecular basis of behavior. Although numerous recent advances have been made in the ability to precisely manipulate the zebrafish genome, much less is known about many aspects of learning and memory in adult fish. Here, we describe the development of a contextual fear conditioning paradigm using an electric shock as the aversive stimulus. We find that contextual fear conditioning is modulated by shock intensity, prevented by an established amnestic agent (MK-801), lasts at least 14 d, and exhibits extinction. Furthermore, fish of various background strains (AB, Tu, and TL) are able to acquire fear conditioning, but differ in fear extinction rates. Taken together, we find that contextual fear conditioning in zebrafish shares many similarities with the widely used contextual fear conditioning paradigm in rodents. Combined with the amenability of genetic manipulation in zebrafish, we anticipate that our paradigm will prove to be a useful complementary system in which to examine the molecular basis of vertebrate learning and memory. © 2017 Kenney et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  11. Establishment and Use of New MDCK II Cells Overexpressing Both UGT1A1 and MRP2 to Characterize Flavonoid Metabolism via the Glucuronidation Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meifang; Yang, Guangyi; He, Yu; Xu, Beibei; Zeng, Min; Yin, Taijun; Gao, Song; Hu, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Scope The purpose of this study is to characterize how overexpression of an efflux transporter and an UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) affects the cellular kinetics of glucuronidation processes. Methods and Results A new MDCK II cell line overexpressing both MRP2 and UGT1A1 (MDCKII-UGT1A1/MRP2 cells) was developed and used to determine how overexpression of an efflux transporter affects the kinetics of cellular flavonoid glucuronide production. The results showed that most model flavonoids (from a total of 13) were mainly metabolized into glucuronides in the MDCKII-UGT1A1/MRP2 cells and the glucuronides were rapidly excreted. Flavonoids with three or fewer hydroxyl group at 7, 3′ or 6 hydroxyl group were also metabolized into sulfates. Mechanistic studies using 7-hydroxylflavone showed that its glucuronide was mainly (90%) effluxed by BCRP with a small (10%) but significant contribution from MRP2. Maximal velocity of glucuronide production MDCK-MRP2/UGT1A1 cells showed a fairly good correlation (R2 >0.8) with those derived using UGT1A1 microsomes, but other kinetic parameters (e.g., Km) did not correlate. Conclusion Overexpression of a second efficient efflux transporter did not significantly change the fact that BCRP is the dominant transporter for flavonoid glucuronide nor did it diminish the influence of the efflux transporter as the “gate keeper” of glucuronidation process. PMID:26833852

  12. Behavioural fever in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Rey, Sonia; Moiche, Visila; Boltaña, Sebastian; Teles, Mariana; MacKenzie, Simon

    2017-02-01

    Behavioural fever has been reported in different species of mobile ectotherms including the zebrafish, Danio rerio, in response to exogenous pyrogens. In this study we report, to our knowledge for the first time, upon the ontogenic onset of behavioural fever in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. For this, zebrafish larvae (from first feeding to juveniles) were placed in a continuous thermal gradient providing the opportunity to select their preferred temperature. The novel thermal preference aquarium was based upon a continuous vertical column system and allows for non-invasive observation of larvae vertical distribution under isothermal (T R at 28 °C) and thermal gradient conditions (T CH : 28-32 °C). Larval thermal preference was assessed under both conditions with or without an immersion challenge, in order to detect the onset of the behavioural fever response. Our results defined the onset of the dsRNA induced behavioural fever at 18-20 days post fertilization (dpf). Significant differences were observed in dsRNA challenged larvae, which prefer higher temperatures (1-4 °C increase) throughout the experimental period as compared to non-challenged larvae. In parallel we measured the abundance of antiviral transcripts; viperin, gig2, irf7, trim25 and Mxb mRNAs in dsRNA challenged larvae under both thermal regimes: T R and T Ch . Significant increases in the abundance of all measured transcripts were recorded under thermal choice conditions signifying that thermo-coupling and the resultant enhancement of the immune response to dsRNA challenge occurs from 18 dpf onwards in the zebrafish. The results are of importance as they identify a key developmental stage where the neuro-immune interface matures in the zebrafish likely providing increased resistance to viral infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A Polymorphism (rs8330 and rs10929303) on Glucuronidation Status of Acetaminophen

    PubMed Central

    Tahir, Imtiaz Mahmood; Iqbal, Tahira; Saleem, Sadaf; Perveen, Sofia; Farooqi, Aboubakker

    2017-01-01

    Interindividual variability in polymorphic uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) ascribed to genetic diversity is associated with relative glucuronidation level among individuals. The present research was aimed to study the effect of 2 important single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs8330 and rs10929303) of UGT1A1 gene on glucuronidation status of acetaminophen in healthy volunteers (n = 109). Among enrolled volunteers, 54.13% were male (n = 59) and 45.87% were female (n = 50). The in vivo activity of UGT1A1 was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography-based analysis of glucuronidation status (ie, acetaminophen and acetaminophen glucuronide) in human volunteers after oral intake of a single dose (1000 mg) of acetaminophen. The TaqMan SNP genotyping assay was used for UGT1A1 genotyping. The wild-type genotype (C/C) was observed the most frequent one for both SNPs (rs8330 and rs10929303) and associated with fast glucuronidator phenotypes. The distribution of variant genotype (G/G) for SNP rs8330 was observed in 5% of male and 8% of the female population; however, for SNP rs10929303, the G/G genotype was found in 8% of both genders. A trimodal distribution (fast, intermediate, and slow) based on phenotypes was observed. Among the male participants, the glucuronidation phenotypes were observed as 7% slow, 37% intermediate, and 56% fast glucuronidators; however, these findings for the females were slightly different as 8%, 32%, and 60% respectively. The k-statistics revealed a compelling evidence for good concordance between phenotype and genotype with a k value of 1.00 for SNP rs8330 and 0.966 for SNP rs10929303 in our population. PMID:28932176

  14. Induced Mutagenesis in UGT74S1 Gene Leads to Stable New Flax Lines with Altered Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside (SDG) Profiles.

    PubMed

    Fofana, Bourlaye; Ghose, Kaushik; Somalraju, Ashok; McCallum, Jason; Main, David; Deyholos, Michael K; Rowland, Gordon G; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2017-01-01

    Flax secoisolariciresinol (SECO) diglucoside (SDG) lignan is an emerging natural product purported to prevent chronic diseases in humans. SECO, the aglycone form of SDG, has shown higher intestinal cell absorption but it is not accumulated naturally in planta . Recently, we have identified and characterized a UDP-glucosyltransferase gene, UGT74S1 , that glucosylates SECO into its monoglucoside (SMG) and SDG forms when expressed in yeast. However, whether this gene is unique in controlling SECO glucosylation into SDG in planta is unclear. Here, we report on the use of UGT74S1 in reverse and forward genetics to characterize an ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) mutagenized flax population from cultivar CDC Bethune and consisting of 1996 M2 families. EMS mutagenesis generated 73 SNP variants causing 79 mutational events in the UGT74S1 exonic regions of 93 M2 families. The mutation frequency in the exonic regions was determined to be one per 28 Kb. Of these mutations, 13 homozygous missense mutations and two homozygous nonsense mutations were observed and all were transmitted into the M3 and M4 generations. Forward genetics screening of the population showed homozygous nonsense mutants completely lacking SDG biosynthesis while the production of SMG was observed only in a subset of the M4 lines. Heterozygous or homozygous M4 missense mutants displayed a wide range of SDG levels, some being greater than those of CDC Bethune. No additional deleterious mutations were detected in these mutant lines using a panel of 10 other genes potentially involved in the lignan biosynthesis. This study provides further evidence that UGT74S1 is unique in controlling SDG formation from SECO and this is the first report of non-transgenic flax germplasm with simultaneous knockout of SDG and presence of SMG in planta .

  15. Induced Mutagenesis in UGT74S1 Gene Leads to Stable New Flax Lines with Altered Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside (SDG) Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Fofana, Bourlaye; Ghose, Kaushik; Somalraju, Ashok; McCallum, Jason; Main, David; Deyholos, Michael K.; Rowland, Gordon G.; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2017-01-01

    Flax secoisolariciresinol (SECO) diglucoside (SDG) lignan is an emerging natural product purported to prevent chronic diseases in humans. SECO, the aglycone form of SDG, has shown higher intestinal cell absorption but it is not accumulated naturally in planta. Recently, we have identified and characterized a UDP-glucosyltransferase gene, UGT74S1, that glucosylates SECO into its monoglucoside (SMG) and SDG forms when expressed in yeast. However, whether this gene is unique in controlling SECO glucosylation into SDG in planta is unclear. Here, we report on the use of UGT74S1 in reverse and forward genetics to characterize an ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) mutagenized flax population from cultivar CDC Bethune and consisting of 1996 M2 families. EMS mutagenesis generated 73 SNP variants causing 79 mutational events in the UGT74S1 exonic regions of 93 M2 families. The mutation frequency in the exonic regions was determined to be one per 28 Kb. Of these mutations, 13 homozygous missense mutations and two homozygous nonsense mutations were observed and all were transmitted into the M3 and M4 generations. Forward genetics screening of the population showed homozygous nonsense mutants completely lacking SDG biosynthesis while the production of SMG was observed only in a subset of the M4 lines. Heterozygous or homozygous M4 missense mutants displayed a wide range of SDG levels, some being greater than those of CDC Bethune. No additional deleterious mutations were detected in these mutant lines using a panel of 10 other genes potentially involved in the lignan biosynthesis. This study provides further evidence that UGT74S1 is unique in controlling SDG formation from SECO and this is the first report of non-transgenic flax germplasm with simultaneous knockout of SDG and presence of SMG in planta. PMID:28983308

  16. Modulation of bilirubin neurotoxicity by the Abcb1 transporter in the Ugt1-/- lethal mouse model of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.

    PubMed

    Bockor, Luka; Bortolussi, Giulia; Vodret, Simone; Iaconcig, Alessandra; Jašprová, Jana; Zelenka, Jaroslav; Vitek, Libor; Tiribelli, Claudio; Muro, Andrés F

    2017-01-01

    Moderate neonatal jaundice is the most common clinical condition during newborn life. However, a combination of factors may result in acute hyperbilirubinemia, placing infants at risk of developing bilirubin encephalopathy and death by kernicterus. While most risk factors are known, the mechanisms acting to reduce susceptibility to bilirubin neurotoxicity remain unclear. The presence of modifier genes modulating the risk of developing bilirubin-induced brain damage is increasingly being recognised. The Abcb1 and Abcc1 members of the ABC family of transporters have been suggested to have an active role in exporting unconjugated bilirubin from the central nervous system into plasma. However, their role in reducing the risk of developing neurological damage and death during neonatal development is still unknown.To this end, we mated Abcb1a/b-/- and Abcc1-/- strains with Ugt1-/- mice, which develop severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. While about 60% of Ugt1-/- mice survived after temporary phototherapy, all Abcb1a/b-/-/Ugt1-/- mice died before postnatal day 21, showing higher cerebellar levels of unconjugated bilirubin. Interestingly, Abcc1 role appeared to be less important.In the cerebellum of Ugt1-/- mice, hyperbilirubinemia induced the expression of Car and Pxr nuclear receptors, known regulators of genes involved in the genotoxic response.We demonstrated a critical role of Abcb1 in protecting the cerebellum from bilirubin toxicity during neonatal development, the most clinically relevant phase for human babies, providing further understanding of the mechanisms regulating bilirubin neurotoxicity in vivo. Pharmacological treatments aimed to increase Abcb1 and Abcc1 expression, could represent a therapeutic option to reduce the risk of bilirubin neurotoxicity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Inhibition of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)-mediated glycyrrhetinic acid 3-O-glucuronidation by polyphenols and triterpenoids.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Mayuko; Shirahata, Tatsuya; Hirashima, Rika; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Itoh, Tomoo; Fujiwara, Ryoichi

    2017-08-01

    Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) is an active metabolite of glycyrrhizin, which is a main constituent in licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra). While GA exhibits a wide variety of pharmacological activities in the body, it is converted to a toxic metabolite GA 3-O-glucuronide by hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs). To avoid the development of the toxic metabolite-induced pseudohyperaldosteronism (pseudoaldosteronism), there is a limitation in maximum daily dosage of licorice and in combined usage of other glycyrrhizin-containing natural medicine. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of various polyphenols and triterpenoids on the UGT-mediated GA 3-O-glucuronidation. In human liver microsomes, UGT-mediated GA glucuronidation was significantly inhibited by protopanaxadiol with an IC 50 value of 59.2 μM. Isoliquiritigenin, rosmarinic acid, alisol B, alisol acetate, and catechin moderately inhibited the GA glucuronidation with IC 50 values of 96.4 μM, 125 μM, 160 μM, 163 μM, and 164 μM. Other tested 19 polyphenols and triterpenoids, including liquiritigenin, did not inhibit UGT-mediated GA glucuronidation in human liver microsomes. Our data indicate that relatively higher dosage of licorice can be used without a risk of developing pseudohyperaldosteronism in combination of natural medicine containing protopanaxadiol such as Panax ginseng. Furthermore, supplemental protopanaxadiol and isoliquiritigenin might be useful in preventing licorice-inducing pseudoaldosteronism. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of a new DHPLC assay for genotyping UGT1A (TA)n polymorphism associated with Gilbert's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mlakar, Simona Jurkovic; Ostanek, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Gilbert's syndrome is the most common hereditary disorder of bilirubin metabolism. The causative mutation in Caucasians is almost exclusively a (TA) dinucleotide insertion in the UGT1A1 promoter. Affected individuals are homozygous for the variant promoter and have 7 TA repeats instead of 6. Promoters with 5 and 8 TA repeats also exist but are extremely rare in Caucasians. The aim of our study was to develop denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) assay for genotyping UGT1A1(TA)n polymorphism and to compare it with a previously described single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) assay. Fifty DNA samples with common genotypes ((TA)6/6, (TA)6/7, (TA)7/7) as well as 7 samples with one of the following rare genotypes- (TA)5/6, (TA)5/7, (TA)6/8 or (TA)7/8 were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genotyped by DHPLC using sizing mode. All samples were previously genotyped by SSCP assay which was validated by sequencing analysis. All samples with either common or rare genotypes showed completely concordant results between DHPLC and SSCP assays. Our results show that sizing DHPLC assay is more efficient compared to classical SSCP assay due to shorter time of genotyping analysis, ability of genotyping increased number of samples per day, higher robustness, reproducibility and cost-effectiveness with no loss of accuracy in detection of all UGT1A1(TA)n genotypes. We developed a new DHPLC assay which is suitable for accurate, automated, highthroughput, robust genotyping of all UGT1A1(TA)n polymorphism variants, compared to a labour intensive and time-consuming SSCP assay.

  19. Serum Bilirubin Levels and Promoter Variations in HMOX1 and UGT1A1 Genes in Patients with Fabry Disease.

    PubMed

    Jirásková, Alena; Bortolussi, Giulia; Dostálová, Gabriela; Eremiášová, Lenka; Golaň, Lubor; Danzig, Vilém; Linhart, Aleš; Vítek, Libor

    2017-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the possible relationships among heme oxygenase (HMOX), bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT1A1) promoter gene variations, serum bilirubin levels, and Fabry disease (FD). The study included 56 patients with FD (M : F ratio = 0.65) and 185 healthy individuals. Complete standard laboratory and clinical work-up was performed on all subjects, together with the determination of total peroxyl radical-scavenging capacity. The (GT)n and (TA)n dinucleotide variations in the HMOX1 and UGT1A1 gene promoters, respectively, were determined by DNA fragment analysis. Compared to controls, patients with FD had substantially lower serum bilirubin levels (12.0 versus 8.85  μ mol/L, p = 0.003) and also total antioxidant capacity ( p < 0.05), which showed a close positive relationship with serum bilirubin levels ( p = 0.067) and the use of enzyme replacement therapy ( p = 0.036). There was no association between HMOX1 gene promoter polymorphism and manifestation of FD. However, the presence of the TA 7 allele UGT1A1 gene promoter, responsible for higher systemic bilirubin levels, was associated with a twofold lower risk of manifestation of FD (OR = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.27-0.97, p = 0.038). Markedly lower serum bilirubin levels in FD patients seem to be due to bilirubin consumption during increased oxidative stress, although UGT1A1 promoter gene polymorphism may modify the manifestation of FD as well.

  20. Elucidation and functional characterization of CsPSY and CsUGT promoters in Crocus sativus L.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Archana; Mishra, Sonal; Kaul, Sanjana; Dhar, Manoj K

    2018-01-01

    The dried stigmas of Crocus sativus constitute the saffron, which is considered to be the costliest spice of the world. Saffron is valuable for its constituents, which are mainly apocarotenoids. In order to enhance the production of apocarotenoids, it is imperative to understand the regulation of apocarotenoid biosynthetic pathway. In C. sativus, although the pathway has been elucidated, the information regarding the regulation of the pathwaygenes is scanty. During the present investigation, the characterization of promoters regulating the expression of two important genes i.e. CsPSY and CsUGT was performed. We successfully cloned the promoters of both the genes, which were functionally characterized in Crocus sativus and Nicotiana tabaccum. In silico analysis of the promoters demonstrated the presence of several important cis regulatory elements responding tolight, hormonesand interaction with transcription factors (TFs). Further analysis suggested the regulation of CsPSY promoter by Abscisic acid (ABA) and that of CsUGT by Gibberellic acid (GA). In addition, we also observed ABA and GA mediated modulation in the expression of significant TFs and CsPSY and CsUGT transcripts. Overall, the study addresses issues related to regulation of key genes of apocarotenoid pathway in C.sativus.

  1. Elucidation and functional characterization of CsPSY and CsUGT promoters in Crocus sativus L.

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Archana; Mishra, Sonal; Kaul, Sanjana

    2018-01-01

    The dried stigmas of Crocus sativus constitute the saffron, which is considered to be the costliest spice of the world. Saffron is valuable for its constituents, which are mainly apocarotenoids. In order to enhance the production of apocarotenoids, it is imperative to understand the regulation of apocarotenoid biosynthetic pathway. In C. sativus, although the pathway has been elucidated, the information regarding the regulation of the pathwaygenes is scanty. During the present investigation, the characterization of promoters regulating the expression of two important genes i.e. CsPSY and CsUGT was performed. We successfully cloned the promoters of both the genes, which were functionally characterized in Crocus sativus and Nicotiana tabaccum. In silico analysis of the promoters demonstrated the presence of several important cis regulatory elements responding tolight, hormonesand interaction with transcription factors (TFs). Further analysis suggested the regulation of CsPSY promoter by Abscisic acid (ABA) and that of CsUGT by Gibberellic acid (GA). In addition, we also observed ABA and GA mediated modulation in the expression of significant TFs and CsPSY and CsUGT transcripts. Overall, the study addresses issues related to regulation of key genes of apocarotenoid pathway in C.sativus. PMID:29634744

  2. SCN1A, ABCC2 and UGT2B7 gene polymorphisms in association with individualized oxcarbazepine therapy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chun-Lai; Wu, Xun-Yi; Jiao, Zheng; Hong, Zhen; Wu, Zhi-Yuan; Zhong, Ming-Kang

    2015-01-01

    Associations between the effects of SCN1A, SCN2A, ABCC2 and UGT2B7 genetic polymorphisms and oxcarbazepine (OXC) maintenance doses in Han Chinese epileptic patients were investigated. Genetic polymorphisms were detected in 184 epileptic patients receiving OXC monotherapy by high-resolution melting curve and TaqMan method. Carriers of the SCN1A IVS5-91G>A, UGT2B7 c.802T>C and ABCC2 c.1249G>A variant alleles required significantly higher OXC maintenance doses than noncarriers (p < 0.05). Corresponding relative ln (concentration-dose ratios) values for SCN1A IVS5-91 variants differed by the genotypic order GG > GA > AA. SCN1A, UGT2B7 and ABCC2 genetic polymorphisms are associated with OXC maintenance doses and may be useful for the personalization of OXC therapy in epileptic patients. Further studies are needed. Original submitted 6 June 2014; Revision submitted 5 September 2014.

  3. DPD and UGT1A1 deficiency in colorectal cancer patients receiving triplet chemotherapy with fluoropyrimidines, oxaliplatin and irinotecan

    PubMed Central

    Falvella, Felicia Stefania; Cheli, Stefania; Martinetti, Antonia; Mazzali, Cristina; Iacovelli, Roberto; Maggi, Claudia; Gariboldi, Manuela; Pierotti, Marco Alessandro; Di Bartolomeo, Maria; Sottotetti, Elisa; Mennitto, Roberta; Bossi, Ilaria; de Braud, Filippo; Clementi, Emilio; Pietrantonio, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Aims Triplet chemotherapy with fluoropyrimidines, oxaliplatin and irinotecan is a standard therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DPYD and UGT1A1 influence fluoropyrimdines and irinotecan adverse events (AEs). Low frequency DPYD variants (c.1905 + 1G > A, c.1679 T > G, c.2846A > T) are validated but more frequent ones (c.496A > G, c.1129-5923C > G and c.1896 T > C) are not. rs895819 T > C polymorphism in hsa-mir-27a is associated with reduced DPD activity. In this study, we evaluated the clinical usefulness of a pharmacogenetic panel for patients receiving triplet combinations. Methods Germline DNA was available from 64 CRC patients enrolled between 2008 and 2013 in two phase II trials of capecitabine, oxaliplatin and irinotecan plus bevacizumab or cetuximab. SNPs were determined by Real-Time PCR. We evaluated the functional variants in DPYD (rare: c.1905 + 1G > A, c.1679 T > G, c.2846A > T; most common: c.496A > G, c.1129-5923C > G, c.1896 T > C), hsa-mir-27a (rs895819) and UGT1A1 (*28) genes to assess their association with grade 3–4 AEs. Results None of the patients carried rare DPYD variants. We found DPYD c.496A > G, c.1129-5923C > G, c.1896 T > C in heterozygosity in 19%, 5% and 8%, respectively, homozygous rs895819 in hsa-mir-27a in 9% and homozygous UGT1A1*28 in 8%. Grade 3–4 AEs were observed in 36% patients and were associated with DPYD c.496A > G (odds ratio (OR) 4.93, 95% CI 1.29, 18.87; P = 0.021) and homozygous rs895819 in hsa-mir-27a (OR 11.11, 95% CI 1.21, 102.09; P = 0.020). Carriers of DPYD c.1896 T > C and homozygous UGT1A1*28 showed an OR of 8.42 (95% CI 0.88, 80.56; P = 0.052). Multivariate analysis confirmed an independent value for DPYD c.496A > G and c.1896 T > C. Conclusions Concomitant assessment of DPYD variants and the UGT1A1*28 allele is a promising strategy needing further validation for dose personalization. PMID:25782327

  4. The Communicative Response Repertoire of Children's Television Cartoon Characters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobkins, David H.; And Others

    In order to determine some of the effects of children's television, a study investigated the communicative response repertoire of primary female characters in Saturday morning children's cartoons as perceived by children. Those perceptions were then compared with those of the researchers, formulated through previous studies, showing a relationship…

  5. TCR repertoires of intratumoral T-cell subsets.

    PubMed

    Linnemann, Carsten; Mezzadra, Riccardo; Schumacher, Ton N M

    2014-01-01

    The infiltration of human tumors by T cells is a common phenomenon, and over the past decades, it has become increasingly clear that the nature of such intratumoral T-cell populations can predict disease course. Furthermore, intratumoral T cells have been utilized therapeutically in clinical studies of adoptive T-cell therapy. In this review, we describe how novel methods that are either based on T-cell receptor (TCR) sequencing or on cancer exome analysis allow the analysis of the tumor reactivity and antigen-specificity of the intratumoral TCR repertoire with unprecedented detail. Furthermore, we discuss studies that have started to utilize these techniques to probe the link between cancer exomes and the intratumoral TCR pool. Based on the observation that both the cancer epitope repertoire and intratumoral TCR repertoire appear highly individual, we outline strategies, such as 'autologous TCR gene therapy', that exploit the tumor-resident TCR repertoire for the development of personalized immunotherapy. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Perspectives on Linguistic Repertoires in Adult Multilinguals: An Epilogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorter, Durk

    2017-01-01

    This article introduces this special issue by declaring that the studies contained here build on the idea that multilinguals, in the sense of learners or speakers that have more than two languages in their linguistic repertoire, are different from bilinguals and monolinguals in various ways. Several authors in the area of third language…

  7. Beyond Languages, beyond Modalities: Transforming the Study of Semiotic Repertoires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusters, Annelies; Spotti, Massimiliano; Swanwick, Ruth; Tapio, Elina

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a critical examination of key concepts in the study of (signed and spoken) language and multimodality. It shows how shifts in conceptual understandings of language use, moving from bilingualism to multilingualism and (trans)languaging, have resulted in the revitalisation of the concept of language repertoires. We discuss key…

  8. Accelerated Loss of TCR Repertoire Diversity in Common Variable Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Gabriel K.; Millar, David; Penny, Sarah; Heather, James M.; Mistry, Punam; Buettner, Nico; Bryon, Jane; Huissoon, Aarnoud P.

    2016-01-01

    Although common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) has long been considered as a group of primary Ab deficiencies, growing experimental data now suggest a global disruption of the entire adaptive immune response in a segment of patients. Oligoclonality of the TCR repertoire was previously demonstrated; however, the manner in which it relates to other B cell and T cell findings reported in CVID remains unclear. Using a combination approach of high-throughput TCRβ sequencing and multiparametric flow cytometry, we compared the TCR repertoire diversity between various subgroups of CVID patients according to their B cell immunophenotypes. Our data suggest that the reduction in repertoire diversity is predominantly restricted to those patients with severely reduced class-switched memory B cells and an elevated level of CD21lo B cells (Freiburg 1a), and may be driven by a reduced number of naive T cells unmasking underlying memory clonality. Moreover, our data indicate that this loss in repertoire diversity progresses with advancing age far exceeding the expected physiological rate. Radiological evidence supports the loss in thymic volume, correlating with the decrease in repertoire diversity. Evidence now suggests that primary thymic failure along with other well-described B cell abnormalities play an important role in the pathophysiology in Freiburg group 1a patients. Clinically, our findings emphasize the integration of combined B and T cell testing to identify those patients at the greatest risk for infection. Future work should focus on investigating the link between thymic failure and the severe reduction in class-switched memory B cells, while gathering longitudinal laboratory data to examine the progressive nature of the disease. PMID:27481850

  9. Maternal nodal and zebrafish embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bennett, James T; Stickney, Heather L; Choi, Wen-Yee; Ciruna, Brian; Talbot, William S; Schier, Alexander F

    2007-11-08

    In fish and amphibians, the dorsal axis is specified by the asymmetric localization of maternally provided components of the Wnt signalling pathway. Gore et al. suggest that the Nodal signal Squint (Sqt) is required as a maternally provided dorsal determinant in zebrafish. Here we test their proposal and show that the maternal activities of sqt and the related Nodal gene cyclops (cyc) are not required for dorsoventral patterning.

  10. Development of the zebrafish mesonephros.

    PubMed

    Diep, Cuong Q; Peng, Zhenzhen; Ukah, Tobechukwu K; Kelly, Paul M; Daigle, Renee V; Davidson, Alan J

    2015-01-01

    The vertebrate kidney plays an essential role in removing metabolic waste and balancing water and salt. This is carried out by nephrons, which comprise a blood filter attached to an epithelial tubule with proximal and distal segments. In zebrafish, two nephrons are first formed as part of the embryonic kidney (pronephros) and hundreds are formed later to make up the adult kidney (mesonephros). Previous studies have focused on the development of the pronephros while considerably less is known about how the mesonephros is formed. Here, we characterize mesonephros development in zebrafish and examine the nephrons that form during larval metamorphosis. These nephrons, arising from proliferating progenitor cells that express the renal transcription factor genes wt1b, pax2a, and lhx1a, form on top of the pronephric tubules and develop a segmentation pattern similar to pronephric nephrons. We find that the pronephros acts as a scaffold for the mesonephros, where new nephrons fuse with the distal segments of the pronephric tubules to form the final branching network that characterizes the adult zebrafish kidney. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Development of the zebrafish mesonephros

    PubMed Central

    Diep, Cuong Q.; Peng, Zhenzhen; Ukah, Tobechukwu K.; Kelly, Paul M.; Daigle, Renee V.; Davidson, Alan J.

    2015-01-01

    The vertebrate kidney plays an essential role in removing metabolic waste and balancing water and salt. This is carried out by nephrons, which comprise a blood filter attached to an epithelial tubule with proximal and distal segments. In zebrafish, two nephrons are first formed as part of the embryonic kidney (pronephros) and hundreds are formed later to make up the adult kidney (mesonephros). Previous studies have focused on the development of the pronephros while considerably less is known about how the mesonephros is formed. Here, we characterize mesonephros development in zebrafish and examine the nephrons that form during larval metamorphosis. These nephrons, arising from proliferating progenitor cells that express the renal transcription factor genes wt1b, pax2a, and lhx1a, form on top of the pronephric tubules and develop a segmentation pattern similar to pronephric nephrons. We find that the pronephros acts as a scaffold for the mesonephros, where new nephrons fuse with the distal segments of the pronephric tubules to form the final branching network that characterizes the adult zebrafish kidney. PMID:25677367

  12. Zebrafish Discoveries in Cancer Epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Chernyavskaya, Yelena; Kent, Brandon; Sadler, Kirsten C

    2016-01-01

    The cancer epigenome is fundamentally different than that of normal cells. How these differences arise in and contribute to carcinogenesis is not known, and studies using model organisms such as zebrafish provide an opportunity to address these important questions. Modifications of histones and DNA comprise the complex epigenome, and these influence chromatin structure, genome stability and gene expression, all of which are fundamental to the cellular changes that cause cancer. The cancer genome atlas covers the wide spectrum of genetic changes associated with nearly every cancer type, however, this catalog is currently uni-dimensional. As the pattern of epigenetic marks and chromatin structure in cancer cells is described and overlaid on the mutational landscape, the map of the cancer genome becomes multi-dimensional and highly complex. Two major questions remain in the field: (1) how the epigenome becomes repatterned in cancer and (2) which of these changes are cancer-causing. Zebrafish provide a tractable in vivo system to monitor the epigenome during transformation and to identify epigenetic drivers of cancer. In this chapter, we review principles of cancer epigenetics and discuss recent work using zebrafish whereby epigenetic modifiers were established as cancer driver genes, thus providing novel insights into the mechanisms of epigenetic reprogramming in cancer.

  13. Quantitative Analysis of Repertoire-Scale Immunoglobulin Properties in Vaccine-Induced B-Cell Responses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-10

    repertoire-wide properties. Finally, through 75 the use of appropriate statistical analyses, the repertoire profiles can be quantitatively compared and 76...cell response to eVLP and 503 quantitatively compare GC B-cell repertoires from immunization conditions. We partitioned the 504 resulting clonotype... Quantitative analysis of repertoire-scale immunoglobulin properties in vaccine-induced B-cell responses Ilja V. Khavrutskii1, Sidhartha Chaudhury*1

  14. Transvection Arising from Transgene Interactions in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Matthew D; Bonkowsky, Joshua L

    2017-02-01

    There has been a rapid expansion in use of transgenic technologies in zebrafish. We report a novel example of transinteractions of genetic elements, or transvection. This interaction led to a novel expression pattern and illustrates a precautionary example regarding use of transgenes in zebrafish.

  15. Application of Zebrafish Model to Environmental Toxicology.

    PubMed

    Komoike, Yuta; Matsuoka, Masato

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a tropical freshwater fish, the zebrafish, has been generally used as a useful model organism in various fields of life science worldwide. The zebrafish model has also been applied to environmental toxicology; however, in Japan, it has not yet become widely used. In this review, we will introduce the biological and historical backgrounds of zebrafish as an animal model and their breeding. We then present the current status of toxicological experiments using zebrafish that were treated with some important environmental contaminants, including cadmium, organic mercury, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and tributyltin. Finally, the future possible application of genetically modified zebrafish to the study of environmental toxicology is discussed.

  16. Mycophenolic acid AUC in Thai kidney transplant recipients receiving low dose mycophenolate and its association with UGT2B7 polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Pithukpakorn, Manop; Tiwawanwong, Tiwat; Lalerd, Yupaporn; Assawamakin, Anunchai; Premasathian, Nalinee; Tasanarong, Adis; Thongnoppakhun, Wanna; Vongwiwatana, Attapong

    2014-01-01

    Despite use of a lower mycophenolate dose in Thai kidney transplant patients, acceptable graft and patient outcomes can be achieved. We therefore examined the pharmacokinetics of mycophenolic acid (MPA) by area under the curve (AUC) and investigated genetic contribution in mycophenolate metabolism in this population. Kidney transplant recipients with stable graft function who were receiving mycophenolate mofetil 1,000 mg/d in combination with either cyclosporine or tacrolimus, and prednisolone were studied. The MPA concentration was measured by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA), at predose and 1, 1.5, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 hours after dosing. Genetic polymorphisms in UGT1A8, UGT1A9, and UGT2B7 were examined by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC)-based single-base extension (SBE) analysis. A total 138 patients were included in study. The mean AUC was 39.49 mg-h/L (28.39-89.58 mg-h/L), which was in the therapeutic range. The correlation between the predose MPA concentration and AUC was poor. The mean AUC in the tacrolimus group was higher than that in the cyclosporine group. Polymorphisms in UGT2B7 showed significant association with AUC. Most of our patients with reduced mycophenolate dose had the AUC within the therapeutic range. Genetic polymorphisms in UGT2B7 may play a role in MPA metabolism in Thai kidney transplant patients.

  17. Friendship Repertoires and Care Arrangement: A Praxeological Approach.

    PubMed

    Hahmann, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Friends are important companions and serve as sources for diverse dimensions of social support, including elderly care. Rather than researching populations that have already established care arrangements including friends, the author seeks to understand relationship systems with a focus on the inner logic friendship to consequently describe and understand involved care arrangements, be it with family members or friends. To illustrate the diversity of friendship repertoires, qualitative interviews with older adult Germans are analyzed regarding cognitive concepts of friendships in contrast to familiar ties as well as social practices around relationship systems. While some repertoires successfully include chosen ties in their care arrangements, others not only focus on family, they do not wish to receive care from friends. The article's praxeological approach highlights the need to reflect habitual differences when thinking about elderly informal care arrangements. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. The Early ANTP Gene Repertoire: Insights from the Placozoan Genome

    PubMed Central

    Schierwater, Bernd; Kamm, Kai; Srivastava, Mansi; Rokhsar, Daniel; Rosengarten, Rafael D.; Dellaporta, Stephen L.

    2008-01-01

    The evolution of ANTP genes in the Metazoa has been the subject of conflicting hypotheses derived from full or partial gene sequences and genomic organization in higher animals. Whole genome sequences have recently filled in some crucial gaps for the basal metazoan phyla Cnidaria and Porifera. Here we analyze the complete genome of Trichoplax adhaerens, representing the basal metazoan phylum Placozoa, for its set of ANTP class genes. The Trichoplax genome encodes representatives of Hox/ParaHox-like, NKL, and extended Hox genes. This repertoire possibly mirrors the condition of a hypothetical cnidarian-bilaterian ancestor. The evolution of the cnidarian and bilaterian ANTP gene repertoires can be deduced by a limited number of cis-duplications of NKL and “extended Hox” genes and the presence of a single ancestral “ProtoHox” gene. PMID:18716659

  19. Linking experiences with emotions and the development of interpretive repertoires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McRae, Norah I.

    2010-03-01

    In this paper I consider the case of one student, Todd Alexander, through analyzing the transcripts of his interviews between him and his teacher (Wolff-Michael Roth). I examine the role that emotions play in the development of the interpretive repertoires that Todd employed as he talked about his scientific and his religious beliefs. I identify how lived experiences support the development of emotions and what educational conditions are necessary to allow for appropriate lived experiences. In so doing we might be able to support educational conditions that result in interpretive repertoires that allow for acceptance of multiple perspectives with a moral grounding, leading to students who are well positioned to be valuable contributors to society.

  20. Association of UGT1A1 variants and hyperbilirubinemia in breast-fed full-term Chinese infants.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Youyou; Wang, San-nan; Li, Hong; Zha, Weifeng; Wang, Xuli; Liu, Yuanyuan; Sun, Jian; Peng, Qianqian; Li, Shilin; Chen, Ying; Jin, Li

    2014-01-01

    A retrospective case control study of breast-fed full-term infants was carried out to determine whether variants in Uridine Diphosphate Glucuronosyl Transferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) and Heme Oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) were associated with neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Eight genetic variants of UGT1A1 and 3 genetic variants of HMOX1 were genotyped in 170 hyperbilirubinemic newborns and 779 controls. Five significant associations with breast-fed hyperbilirubinemia were detected after adjusting for gender, birth season, birth weight, delivery mode, gestational age and False Discovery Rate (FDR) correction: the dominant effect of rs887829 (c-364t) (Odds Ratio (OR): 0.55; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.34-0.89; p = 0.014), the additive effect of (TA)n repeat (OR: 0.59; 95%CI: 0.38-0.91; p = 0.017), the dominant effect of rs4148323 (Gly71Arg, G211A) (OR: 2.02; 95%CI: 1.44-2.85; p = 5.0×10-5), the recessive effect of rs6717546 (g+914a) (OR: 0.30; 95%CI: 0.11-0.83; p = 0.021) and rs6719561 (t+2558c) (OR: 0.38; 95%CI: 0.20-0.75; p = 0.005). Neonates carrying the minor allele of rs887829 (TA)n repeat had significantly lower peak bilirubin than wild types, while the minor allele carriers of rs4148323 had significantly higher peak bilirubin than wild types. No association was found in HMOX1. Our findings added to the understanding of the significance of UGT1A1 in association with neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in East Asian population. Additional studies were required to investigate the mechanisms of the protective effects.

  1. Next-Generation Sequencing of Antibody Display Repertoires

    PubMed Central

    Rouet, Romain; Jackson, Katherine J. L.; Langley, David B.; Christ, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    In vitro selection technology has transformed the development of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. Using methods such as phage, ribosome, and yeast display, high affinity binders can be selected from diverse repertoires. Here, we review strategies for the next-generation sequencing (NGS) of phage- and other antibody-display libraries, as well as NGS platforms and analysis tools. Moreover, we discuss recent examples relating to the use of NGS to assess library diversity, clonal enrichment, and affinity maturation. PMID:29472918

  2. From rabbit antibody repertoires to rabbit monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Weber, Justus; Peng, Haiyong; Rader, Christoph

    2017-03-24

    In this review, we explain why and how rabbit monoclonal antibodies have become outstanding reagents for laboratory research and increasingly for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Starting with the unique ontogeny of rabbit B cells that affords highly distinctive antibody repertoires rich in in vivo pruned binders of high diversity, affinity and specificity, we describe the generation of rabbit monoclonal antibodies by hybridoma technology, phage display and alternative methods, along with an account of successful humanization strategies.

  3. Highly sensitive and unbiased approach for elucidating antibody repertoires

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Sherry G.; Ba, Zhaoqing; Du, Zhou; Zhang, Yu; Hu, Jiazhi; Alt, Frederick W.

    2016-01-01

    Developing B lymphocytes undergo V(D)J recombination to assemble germ-line V, D, and J gene segments into exons that encode the antigen-binding variable region of Ig heavy (H) and light (L) chains. IgH and IgL chains associate to form the B-cell receptor (BCR), which, upon antigen binding, activates B cells to secrete BCR as an antibody. Each of the huge number of clonally independent B cells expresses a unique set of IgH and IgL variable regions. The ability of V(D)J recombination to generate vast primary B-cell repertoires results from a combinatorial assortment of large numbers of different V, D, and J segments, coupled with diversification of the junctions between them to generate the complementary determining region 3 (CDR3) for antigen contact. Approaches to evaluate in depth the content of primary antibody repertoires and, ultimately, to study how they are further molded by secondary mutation and affinity maturation processes are of great importance to the B-cell development, vaccine, and antibody fields. We now describe an unbiased, sensitive, and readily accessible assay, referred to as high-throughput genome-wide translocation sequencing-adapted repertoire sequencing (HTGTS-Rep-seq), to quantify antibody repertoires. HTGTS-Rep-seq quantitatively identifies the vast majority of IgH and IgL V(D)J exons, including their unique CDR3 sequences, from progenitor and mature mouse B lineage cells via the use of specific J primers. HTGTS-Rep-seq also accurately quantifies DJH intermediates and V(D)J exons in either productive or nonproductive configurations. HTGTS-Rep-seq should be useful for studies of human samples, including clonal B-cell expansions, and also for following antibody affinity maturation processes. PMID:27354528

  4. Prolonged neutropenia after irinotecan-based chemotherapy in a child with polymorphisms of UGT1A1 and SLCO1B1.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, S; Garcia-Bournissen, F; Kim, R; Schwarz, U I; Nathan, P C; Ito, S

    2009-12-01

    Genetic polymorphisms of uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl transferase 1A1 (UGT1A1), and SLCO1B1 coding organic anion-transporter polypeptide 1B1, are independent risk factors known to increase irinotecan toxicity in adults. Although combined occurrence of polymorphisms in these 2 genes is likely to influence susceptibility to irinotecan toxicity, data are scarce, especially in children. We report an 11-year-old female with severe and prolonged neutropenia after irinotecan-based chemotherapy. The patient's genotyping revealed polymorphisms in both UGT1A1 and SLCO1B1. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of combined genotyping of both UGT1A1 and SLCO1B1 in a child with severe irinotecan toxicity.

  5. Influence of substrates on the in vitro kinetics of steviol glucuronidation and interaction between steviol glycosides metabolites and UGT2B7.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun-Ming; Xia, Yong-Mei; Zhang, Yan-Dong; Zhang, Tong-Tong; Peng, Qing-Rui; Fang, Yun

    2018-06-01

    Steviol glycosides, a natural sweetener, may perform bioactivities via steviol, their main metabolite in human digestion. The metabolising kinetics, i.e. glucuronidation kinetics and interaction between steviol glycosides or their metabolites and metabolising enzyme, are important for understanding the bioactivity and cytotoxicity. The present study investigated kinetics of steviol glucuronidation in human liver microsome and a recombinant human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases isomer, UGT2B7, along with molecular docking to analyse interaction between UGT2B7 and steviol or glucose. The active pocket of UGT2B7 is consisted of Arg352, Leu347, Lys343, Phe339, Tyr354, Lys355 and Leu353. The influence of stevioside, rebaudioside A, glucose and some chemotherapy reagents on the glucuronidation was also studied. The predicted hepatic clearence suggested that steviol could be classified as high-clearence drug. The steviol glycosides did not affect the glucuronidation of steviol notably.

  6. A depauperate immune repertoire precedes evolution of sociality in bees.

    PubMed

    Barribeau, Seth M; Sadd, Ben M; du Plessis, Louis; Brown, Mark J F; Buechel, Severine D; Cappelle, Kaat; Carolan, James C; Christiaens, Olivier; Colgan, Thomas J; Erler, Silvio; Evans, Jay; Helbing, Sophie; Karaus, Elke; Lattorff, H Michael G; Marxer, Monika; Meeus, Ivan; Näpflin, Kathrin; Niu, Jinzhi; Schmid-Hempel, Regula; Smagghe, Guy; Waterhouse, Robert M; Yu, Na; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Schmid-Hempel, Paul

    2015-04-24

    Sociality has many rewards, but can also be dangerous, as high population density and low genetic diversity, common in social insects, is ideal for parasite transmission. Despite this risk, honeybees and other sequenced social insects have far fewer canonical immune genes relative to solitary insects. Social protection from infection, including behavioral responses, may explain this depauperate immune repertoire. Here, based on full genome sequences, we describe the immune repertoire of two ecologically and commercially important bumblebee species that diverged approximately 18 million years ago, the North American Bombus impatiens and European Bombus terrestris. We find that the immune systems of these bumblebees, two species of honeybee, and a solitary leafcutting bee, are strikingly similar. Transcriptional assays confirm the expression of many of these genes in an immunological context and more strongly in young queens than males, affirming Bateman's principle of greater investment in female immunity. We find evidence of positive selection in genes encoding antiviral responses, components of the Toll and JAK/STAT pathways, and serine protease inhibitors in both social and solitary bees. Finally, we detect many genes across pathways that differ in selection between bumblebees and honeybees, or between the social and solitary clades. The similarity in immune complement across a gradient of sociality suggests that a reduced immune repertoire predates the evolution of sociality in bees. The differences in selection on immune genes likely reflect divergent pressures exerted by parasites across social contexts.

  7. Domain repertoires as a tool to derive protein recognition rules.

    PubMed

    Zucconi, A; Panni, S; Paoluzi, S; Castagnoli, L; Dente, L; Cesareni, G

    2000-08-25

    Several approaches, some of which are described in this issue, have been proposed to assemble a complete protein interaction map. These are often based on high throughput methods that explore the ability of each gene product to bind any other element of the proteome of the organism. Here we propose that a large number of interactions can be inferred by revealing the rules underlying recognition specificity of a small number (a few hundreds) of families of protein recognition modules. This can be achieved through the construction and characterization of domain repertoires. A domain repertoire is assembled in a combinatorial fashion by allowing each amino acid position in the binding site of a given protein recognition domain to vary to include all the residues allowed at that position in the domain family. The repertoire is then searched by phage display techniques with any target of interest and from the primary structure of the binding site of the selected domains one derives rules that are used to infer the formation of complexes between natural proteins in the cell.

  8. The Contribution of Common UGT2B10 and CYP2A6 Alleles to Variation in Nicotine Glucuronidation among European Americans

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, A. Joseph; von Weymarn, Linda B.; Martinez, Maribel; Bierut, Laura J.; Goate, Alison; Murphy, Sharon E.

    2014-01-01

    UDP-glucuronosytransferase-2B10 (UGT2B10) is the primary catalyst of nicotine glucuronidation. To develop a predictive genetic model of nicotine metabolism, the conversion of deuterated (D2)-nicotine to D2-nicotine-glucuronide, D2-cotinine, D2-cotinine-glucuronide, and D2-trans-3'-hydroxycotinine were quantified in 188 European Americans, and the contribution of UGT2B10 genotype to variability in first-pass nicotine glucuronidation assessed, following a procedure previously applied to nicotine C-oxidation. The proportion of total nicotine converted to nicotine-glucuronide (D2-nicotine-glucuronide/ (D2-nicotine +D2-nicotine-glucuronide +D2-cotinine +D2-cotinine-glucuronide +D2-trans-3'-hydroxycotinine)) was the primary phenotype. The variant, rs61750900T (D67Y) (minor allele frequency (MAF) = 10%), is confirmed to abolish nicotine glucuronidation activity. Another variant, rs112561475G (N397D) (MAF = 2%), is significantly associated with enhanced glucuronidation. rs112561475G is the ancestral allele of a well-conserved amino acid, indicating that the majority of human UGT2B10 alleles are derived hypomorphic alleles. CYP2A6 and UGT2B10 genotype explain 53% of the variance in oral nicotine glucuronidation in this sample. CYP2A6 and UGT2B10 genetic variants are also significantly associated with un-deuterated (D0) nicotine glucuronidation in subjects smoking ad libitum. We find no evidence for further common variation markedly influencing hepatic UGT2B10 expression in European Americans. PMID:24192532

  9. Ectopic expression of UGT84A2 delayed flowering by indole-3-butyric acid-mediated transcriptional repression of ARF6 and ARF8 genes in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gui-Zhi; Jin, Shang-Hui; Li, Pan; Jiang, Xiao-Yi; Li, Yan-Jie; Hou, Bing-Kai

    2017-12-01

    Ectopic expression of auxin glycosyltransferase UGT84A2 in Arabidopsis can delay flowering through increased indole-3-butyric acid and suppressed transcription of ARF6, ARF8 and flowering-related genes FT, SOC1, AP1 and LFY. Auxins are critical regulators for plant growth and developmental processes. Auxin homeostasis is thus an important issue for plant biology. Here, we identified an indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-specific glycosyltransferase, UGT84A2, and characterized its role in Arabidopsis flowering development. UGT84A2 could catalyze the glycosylation of IBA, but not indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). UGT84A2 transcription expression was clearly induced by IBA. When ectopically expressing in Arabidopsis, UGT84A2 caused obvious delay in flowering. Correspondingly, the increase of IBA level, the down-regulation of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 6 (ARF6) and ARF8, and the down-regulation of flowering-related genes such as FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO1(SOC1), APETALA1 (AP1), and LEAFY(LFY) were observed in transgenic plants. When exogenously applying IBA to wild-type plants, the late flowering phenotype, the down-regulation of ARF6, ARF8 and flowering-related genes recurred. We examined the arf6arf8 double mutants and found that the expression of flowering-related genes was also substantially decreased in these mutants. Together, our results suggest that glycosyltransferase UGT84A2 may be involved in flowering regulation through indole-3-butyric acid-mediated transcriptional repression of ARF6, ARF8 and downstream flowering pathway genes.

  10. Zebrafish Model Systems for Developmental Neurobehavioral Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Jordan; Oliveri, Anthony; Levin, Edward D.

    2014-01-01

    Zebrafish offer many advantages that complement classic mammalian models for the study of normal development as well as for the teratogenic effects of exposure to hazardous compounds. The clear chorion and embryo of the zebrafish allow for continuous visualization of the anatomical changes associated with development, which, along with short maturation times and the capability of complex behavior, makes this model particularly useful for measuring changes to the developing nervous system. Moreover, the rich array of developmental, behavioral, and molecular benefits offered by the zebrafish have contributed to an increasing demand for the use of zebrafish in behavioral teratology. Essential for this endeavor has been the development of a battery of tests to evaluate a spectrum of behavior in zebrafish. Measures of sensorimotor plasticity, emotional function, cognition and social interaction have been used to characterize the persisting adverse effects of developmental exposure to a variety of chemicals including therapeutic drugs, drugs of abuse and environmental toxicants. In this review, we present and discuss such tests and data from a range of developmental neurobehavioral toxicology studies using zebrafish as a model. Zebrafish provide a key intermediate model between high throughput in vitro screens and the classic mammalian models as they have the accessibility of in vitro models and the complex functional capabilities of mammalian models. PMID:23723169

  11. The importance of Zebrafish in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Bárbara; Santos Lopes, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an ideal model organism for the study of vertebrate development. This is due to the large clutches that each couple produces, with up to 200 embryos every 7 days, and to the fact that the embryos and larvae are small, transparent and undergo rapid external development. Using scientific literature research tools available online and the keywords Zebrafish, biomedical research, human disease, and drug screening, we reviewed original studies and reviews indexed in PubMed. In this review we summarized work conducted with this model for the advancement of our knowledge related to several human diseases. We also focused on the biomedical research being performed in Portugal with the zebrafish model. Powerful live imaging and genetic tools are currently available for zebrafish making it a valuable model in biomedical research. The combination of these properties with the optimization of automated systems for drug screening has transformed the zebrafish into "a top model" in biomedical research, drug discovery and toxicity testing. Furthermore, with the optimization of xenografts technology it will be possible to use zebrafish to aide in the choice of the best therapy for each patient. Zebrafish is an excellent model organism in biomedical research, drug development and in clinical therapy.

  12. Zebrafish model systems for developmental neurobehavioral toxicology.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Jordan; Oliveri, Anthony; Levin, Edward D

    2013-03-01

    Zebrafish offer many advantages that complement classic mammalian models for the study of normal development as well as for the teratogenic effects of exposure to hazardous compounds. The clear chorion and embryo of the zebrafish allow for continuous visualization of the anatomical changes associated with development, which, along with short maturation times and the capability of complex behavior, makes this model particularly useful for measuring changes to the developing nervous system. Moreover, the rich array of developmental, behavioral, and molecular benefits offered by the zebrafish have contributed to an increasing demand for the use of zebrafish in behavioral teratology. Essential for this endeavor has been the development of a battery of tests to evaluate a spectrum of behavior in zebrafish. Measures of sensorimotor plasticity, emotional function, cognition and social interaction have been used to characterize the persisting adverse effects of developmental exposure to a variety of chemicals including therapeutic drugs, drugs of abuse and environmental toxicants. In this review, we present and discuss such tests and data from a range of developmental neurobehavioral toxicology studies using zebrafish as a model. Zebrafish provide a key intermediate model between high throughput in vitro screens and the classic mammalian models as they have the accessibility of in vitro models and the complex functional capabilities of mammalian models. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. 2017 Midwest Zebrafish Meeting Report.

    PubMed

    Sandquist, Elizabeth; Petersen, Sarah C; Smith, Cody J

    2017-12-01

    The 2017 Midwest Zebrafish meeting was held from June 16 to 18 at the University of Cincinnati, sponsored by the Cincinnati Children's Hospital Divisions of Developmental Biology, Molecular Cardiovascular Biology, and Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. The meeting, organized by Saulius Sumanas, Joshua Waxman, and Chunyue Yin, hosted >130 attendees from 16 different states. Scientific sessions were focused on morphogenesis, neural development, novel technologies, and disease models, with Steve Ekker, Stephen Potter, and Lila Solnica-Krezel presenting keynote talks. In this article, we highlight the results and emerging themes from the meeting.

  14. Bilirubin UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) Gene Promoter Polymorphisms and HPRT, Glycophorin A, and Micronuclei Mutant Frequencies in Human Blood

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, D; Hall, I J; Eastmond, D

    2004-10-06

    A dinucleotide repeat polymorphism (5-, 6-, 7-, or 8-TA units) has been identified within the promoter region of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 gene (UGT1A1). The 7-TA repeat allele has been associated with elevated serum bilirubin levels that cause a mild hyperbilirubinemia (Gilbert's syndrome). Studies suggest that promoter transcriptional activity of UGT1A1 is inversely related to the number of TA repeats and that unconjugated bilirubin concentration increases directly with the number of TA repeat elements. Because bilirubin is a known antioxidant, we hypothesized that UGT1A1 repeats associated with higher bilirubin may be protective against oxidative damage. We examined the effect of UGT1A1 genotypemore » on somatic mutant frequency in the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl-transferase (HPRT) gene in human lymphocytes and the glycophorin A (GPA) gene of red blood cells (both N0, NN mutants), and the frequency of lymphocyte micronuclei (both kinetochore (K) positive or micronuclei K negative) in 101 healthy smoking and nonsmoking individuals. As hypothesized, genotypes containing 7-TA and 8-TA displayed marginally lower GPA{_}NN mutant frequency relative to 5/5, 5/6, 6/6 genotypes (p<0.05). In contrast, our analysis showed that lower expressing UGT1A1 alleles (7-TA and 8-TA) were associated with modestly increased HPRT mutation frequency (p<0.05) while the same low expression genotypes were not significantly associated with micronuclei frequencies (K-positive or K-negative) when compared to high expression genotypes (5-TA and 6-TA). We found weak evidence that UGT1A1 genotypes containing 7-TA and 8-TA were associated with increased GPA{_}N0 mutant frequency relative to 5/5, 5/6, 6/6 genotypes (p<0.05). These data suggest that UGT1A1 genotype may modulate somatic mutation of some types, in some cell lineages, by a mechanism not involving bilirubin antioxidant activity. More detailed studies examining UGT1A1 promoter variation, oxidant/antioxidant balance and

  15. Sprouting Buds of Zebrafish Research in Malaysia: First Malaysia Zebrafish Disease Model Workshop.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Kazuhide Shaun; Tan, Pei Jean; Patel, Vyomesh

    2016-04-01

    Zebrafish is gaining prominence as an important vertebrate model for investigating various human diseases. Zebrafish provides unique advantages such as optical clarity of embryos, high fecundity rate, and low cost of maintenance, making it a perfect complement to the murine model equivalent in biomedical research. Due to these advantages, researchers in Malaysia are starting to take notice and incorporate the zebrafish model into their research activities. However, zebrafish research in Malaysia is still in its infancy stage and many researchers still remain unaware of the full potential of the zebrafish model or have limited access to related tools and techniques that are widely utilized in many zebrafish laboratories worldwide. To overcome this, we organized the First Malaysia Zebrafish Disease Model Workshop in Malaysia that took place on 11th and 12th of November 2015. In this workshop, we showcased how the zebrafish model is being utilized in the biomedical field in international settings as well as in Malaysia. For this, notable international speakers and those from local universities known to be carrying out impactful research using zebrafish were invited to share some of the cutting edge techniques that are used in their laboratories that may one day be incorporated in the Malaysian scientific community.

  16. Automated measurement of zebrafish larval movement

    PubMed Central

    Cario, Clinton L; Farrell, Thomas C; Milanese, Chiara; Burton, Edward A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The zebrafish is a powerful vertebrate model that is readily amenable to genetic, pharmacological and environmental manipulations to elucidate the molecular and cellular basis of movement and behaviour. We report software enabling automated analysis of zebrafish movement from video recordings captured with cameras ranging from a basic camcorder to more specialized equipment. The software, which is provided as open-source MATLAB functions, can be freely modified and distributed, and is compatible with multiwell plates under a wide range of experimental conditions. Automated measurement of zebrafish movement using this technique will be useful for multiple applications in neuroscience, pharmacology and neuropsychiatry. PMID:21646414

  17. Zebrafish tracking using convolutional neural networks.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhiping; Cheng, Xi En

    2017-02-17

    Keeping identity for a long term after occlusion is still an open problem in the video tracking of zebrafish-like model animals, and accurate animal trajectories are the foundation of behaviour analysis. We utilize the highly accurate object recognition capability of a convolutional neural network (CNN) to distinguish fish of the same congener, even though these animals are indistinguishable to the human eye. We used data augmentation and an iterative CNN training method to optimize the accuracy for our classification task, achieving surprisingly accurate trajectories of zebrafish of different size and age zebrafish groups over different time spans. This work will make further behaviour analysis more reliable.

  18. Automated measurement of zebrafish larval movement.

    PubMed

    Cario, Clinton L; Farrell, Thomas C; Milanese, Chiara; Burton, Edward A

    2011-08-01

    The zebrafish is a powerful vertebrate model that is readily amenable to genetic, pharmacological and environmental manipulations to elucidate the molecular and cellular basis of movement and behaviour. We report software enabling automated analysis of zebrafish movement from video recordings captured with cameras ranging from a basic camcorder to more specialized equipment. The software, which is provided as open-source MATLAB functions, can be freely modified and distributed, and is compatible with multiwell plates under a wide range of experimental conditions. Automated measurement of zebrafish movement using this technique will be useful for multiple applications in neuroscience, pharmacology and neuropsychiatry.

  19. Zebrafish tracking using convolutional neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhiping; Cheng, Xi En

    2017-02-01

    Keeping identity for a long term after occlusion is still an open problem in the video tracking of zebrafish-like model animals, and accurate animal trajectories are the foundation of behaviour analysis. We utilize the highly accurate object recognition capability of a convolutional neural network (CNN) to distinguish fish of the same congener, even though these animals are indistinguishable to the human eye. We used data augmentation and an iterative CNN training method to optimize the accuracy for our classification task, achieving surprisingly accurate trajectories of zebrafish of different size and age zebrafish groups over different time spans. This work will make further behaviour analysis more reliable.

  20. Learning and memory in zebrafish larvae

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Adam C.; Bill, Brent R.; Glanzman, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Larval zebrafish possess several experimental advantages for investigating the molecular and neural bases of learning and memory. Despite this, neuroscientists have only recently begun to use these animals to study memory. However, in a relatively short period of time a number of forms of learning have been described in zebrafish larvae, and significant progress has been made toward their understanding. Here we provide a comprehensive review of this progress; we also describe several promising new experimental technologies currently being used in larval zebrafish that are likely to contribute major insights into the processes that underlie learning and memory. PMID:23935566

  1. Systematic approaches to toxicology in the zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Randall T; Macrae, Calum A

    2012-01-01

    As the current paradigms of drug discovery evolve, it has become clear that a more comprehensive understanding of the interactions between small molecules and organismal biology will be vital. The zebrafish is emerging as a complement to existing in vitro technologies and established preclinical in vivo models that can be scaled for high-throughput. In this review, we highlight the current status of zebrafish toxicology studies, identify potential future niches for the model in the drug development pipeline, and define the hurdles that must be overcome as zebrafish technologies are refined for systematic toxicology.

  2. A review of monoaminergic neuropsychopharmacology in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Maximino, Caio; Herculano, Anderson Manoel

    2010-12-01

    Monoamine neurotransmitters are the major regulatory mechanisms in the vertebrate brain, involved in the adjustment of motivation, emotion, and cognition. The chemical anatomy of these systems is thought to be highly conserved in the brain of all vertebrates, including zebrafish. Recently, the development of behavioral assays in zebrafish allowed the neuropsychopharmacological investigation of these circuits and its functions. Here we review neuroanatomical, genetic, neurochemical, and psychopharmacological evidence regarding the roles of histaminergic, dopaminergic, noradrenergic, serotonergic, and melatonergic systems in this species. We conclude that, in spite of species differences, zebrafish are suitable for the investigation of neuropsychopharmacology of drugs that affect theses systems; nonetheless, more thorough validation of behavioral methods is still needed.

  3. The UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A Polymorphism c.2042C>G (rs8330) Is Associated with Increased Human Liver Acetaminophen Glucuronidation, Increased UGT1A Exon 5a/5b Splice Variant mRNA Ratio, and Decreased Risk of Unintentional Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver FailureS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Freytsis, Marina; Wang, Xueding; Peter, Inga; Guillemette, Chantal; Hazarika, Suwagmani; Duan, Su X.; Greenblatt, David J.; Lee, William M.

    2013-01-01

    Acetaminophen is cleared primarily by hepatic glucuronidation. Polymorphisms in genes encoding the acetaminophen UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes could explain interindividual variability in acetaminophen glucuronidation and variable risk for liver injury after acetaminophen overdose. In this study, human liver bank samples were phenotyped for acetaminophen glucuronidation activity and genotyped for the major acetaminophen-glucuronidating enzymes (UGTs 1A1, 1A6, 1A9, and 2B15). Of these, only three linked single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the shared UGT1A-3′UTR region (rs10929303, rs1042640, rs8330) were associated with acetaminophen glucuronidation activity, with rs8330 consistently showing higher acetaminophen glucuronidation at all the tested concentrations of acetaminophen. Mechanistic studies using luciferase-UGT1A-3′UTR reporters indicated that these SNPs do not alter mRNA stability or translation efficiency. However, there was evidence for allelic imbalance and a gene-dose proportional increase in the amount of exon 5a versus exon 5b containing UGT1A mRNA spliced transcripts in livers with the rs8330 variant allele. Cotransfection studies demonstrated an inhibitory effect of exon 5b containing cDNAs on acetaminophen glucuronidation by UGT1A1 and UGT1A6 cDNAs containing exon 5a. In silico analysis predicted that rs8330 creates an exon splice enhancer site that could favor exon 5a (over exon 5b) utilization during splicing. Finally, the prevalence of rs8330 was significantly lower (P = 0.027, χ2 test) in patients who had acute liver failure from unintentional acetaminophen overdose compared with patients with acute liver failure from other causes or a race- or ethnicity-matched population. Together, these findings suggest that rs8330 is an important determinant of acetaminophen glucuronidation and could affect an individual’s risk for acetaminophen-induced liver injury. PMID:23408116

  4. Fetal Origins of Life Stage Disease: A Zebrafish Model for the ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In the U.S., childhood obesity has more than doubled in children and quadrupled in adolescents in the past 30 years, affects 35% of adults, and costs the U.S. healthcare industry >$200 billion annually. The chemical environment in the womb may cause susceptibility to different life-stage and life-long metabolic diseases including obesity. The challenge is to understand if exposures during developmentally sensitive windows impact life-stage disease, such as obesity, by increasing adipose tissue mass. In vitro models lack the integrated systems approach needed to assess adipose development, while mammalian models are impractical in a screen of thousands of chemicals. Therefore, an obesogen screening method was developed to interrogate bioactivity using a full systems approach, in a vertebrate zebrafish model with complete metabolic activity, at a time when the full signaling repertoire is expressed and active, to optimally examine how chemical dose and duration impact life-stage adipose mass. A time-line for adipose depot formation was mapped in zebrafish 6−14 days post fertilization (dpf) using the lipophilic dye, Nile Red, in combination with fluorescent microscopy. Those time points were then used to investigate the impact of embryonic tributyltin chloride (TBT, a known obesogen) exposure (10nM daily renewal, 0−5dpf) on adipose mass. Fluorescent microscopy revealed adipose depots that were larger and appeared 2 days earlier in TBT treated compared to contro

  5. Morphologic analysis of the zebrafish digestive system.

    PubMed

    Trotter, Andrew J; Parslow, Adam C; Heath, Joan K

    2009-01-01

    The zebrafish provides an ideal model for the study of vertebrate organogenesis, including the formation of the digestive tract and its associated organs. Despite optical transparency of embryos, the internal position of the developing digestive system and its close juxtaposition with the yolk initially made morphological analysis relatively challenging, particularly during the first 3 d of development. However, methodologies have been successfully developed to address these problems and comprehensive morphologic analysis of the developing digestive system has now been achieved using a combination of light and fluorescence microscope approaches-including confocal analysis-to visualize wholemount and histological preparations of zebrafish embryos. Furthermore, the expanding number of antibodies that cross-react with zebrafish proteins and the generation of tissue-specific transgenic green fluorescent protein reporter lines that mark specific cell and tissue compartments have greatly enhanced our ability to successfully image the developing zebrafish digestive system.

  6. Zebrafish Models for Human Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Faria, Melissa; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Padrós, Francesc; Babin, Patrick J; Sebastián, David; Cachot, Jérôme; Prats, Eva; Arick Ii, Mark; Rial, Eduardo; Knoll-Gellida, Anja; Mathieu, Guilaine; Le Bihanic, Florane; Escalon, B Lynn; Zorzano, Antonio; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Raldúa, Demetrio

    2015-10-22

    Terrorist use of organophosphorus-based nerve agents and toxic industrial chemicals against civilian populations constitutes a real threat, as demonstrated by the terrorist attacks in Japan in the 1990 s or, even more recently, in the Syrian civil war. Thus, development of more effective countermeasures against acute organophosphorus poisoning is urgently needed. Here, we have generated and validated zebrafish models for mild, moderate and severe acute organophosphorus poisoning by exposing zebrafish larvae to different concentrations of the prototypic organophosphorus compound chlorpyrifos-oxon. Our results show that zebrafish models mimic most of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this toxidrome in humans, including acetylcholinesterase inhibition, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation, and calcium dysregulation as well as inflammatory and immune responses. The suitability of the zebrafish larvae to in vivo high-throughput screenings of small molecule libraries makes these models a valuable tool for identifying new drugs for multifunctional drug therapy against acute organophosphorus poisoning.

  7. Episodic-like memory in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Trevor J; Myggland, Allison; Duperreault, Erika; May, Zacnicte; Gallup, Joshua; Powell, Russell A; Schalomon, Melike; Digweed, Shannon M

    2016-11-01

    Episodic-like memory tests often aid in determining an animal's ability to recall the what, where, and which (context) of an event. To date, this type of memory has been demonstrated in humans, wild chacma baboons, corvids (Scrub jays), humming birds, mice, rats, Yucatan minipigs, and cuttlefish. The potential for this type of memory in zebrafish remains unexplored even though they are quickly becoming an essential model organism for the study of a variety of human cognitive and mental disorders. Here we explore the episodic-like capabilities of zebrafish (Danio rerio) in a previously established mammalian memory paradigm. We demonstrate that when zebrafish were presented with a familiar object in a familiar context but a novel location within that context, they spend more time in the novel quadrant. Thus, zebrafish display episodic-like memory as they remember what object they saw, where they saw it (quadrant location), and on which occasion (yellow or blue walls) it was presented.

  8. Polygenic Sex Determination System in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Woei Chang; Bartfai, Richard; Lim, Zijie; Sreenivasan, Rajini; Siegfried, Kellee R.; Orban, Laszlo

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the popularity of zebrafish as a research model, its sex determination (SD) mechanism is still unknown. Most cytogenetic studies failed to find dimorphic sex chromosomes and no primary sex determining switch has been identified even though the assembly of zebrafish genome sequence is near to completion and a high resolution genetic map is available. Recent publications suggest that environmental factors within the natural range have minimal impact on sex ratios of zebrafish populations. The primary aim of this study is to find out more about how sex is determined in zebrafish. Methodology/Principal Findings Using classical breeding experiments, we found that sex ratios across families were wide ranging (4.8% to 97.3% males). On the other hand, repeated single pair crossings produced broods of very similar sex ratios, indicating that parental genotypes have a role in the sex ratio of the offspring. Variation among family sex ratios was reduced after selection for breeding pairs with predominantly male or female offspring, another indication that zebrafish sex is regulated genetically. Further examinations by a PCR-based “blind assay" and array comparative genomic hybridization both failed to find universal sex-linked differences between the male and female genomes. Together with the ability to increase the sex bias of lines by selective breeding, these data suggest that zebrafish is unlikely to utilize a chromosomal sex determination (CSD) system. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, our study suggests that zebrafish sex is genetically determined with limited, secondary influences from the environment. As we have not found any sign for CSD in the species, we propose that the zebrafish has a polygenic sex determination system. PMID:22506019

  9. What is the Thalamus in Zebrafish?

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Current research on the thalamus and related structures in the zebrafish diencephalon identifies an increasing number of both neurological structures and ontogenetic processes as evolutionary conserved between teleosts and mammals. The patterning processes, for example, which during the embryonic development of zebrafish form the thalamus proper appear largely conserved. Yet also striking differences between zebrafish and other vertebrates have been observed, particularly when we look at mature and histologically differentiated brains. A case in point is the migrated preglomerular complex of zebrafish which evolved only within the lineage of ray-finned fish and has no counterpart in mammals or tetrapod vertebrates. Based on its function as a sensory relay station with projections to pallial zones, the preglomerular complex has been compared to specific thalamic nuclei in mammals. However, no thalamic projections to the zebrafish dorsal pallium, which corresponds topologically to the mammalian isocortex, have been identified. Merely one teleostean thalamic nucleus proper, the auditory nucleus, projects to a part of the dorsal telencephalon, the pallial amygdala. Studies on patterning mechanisms identify a rostral and caudal domain in the embryonic thalamus proper. In both, teleosts and mammals, the rostral domain gives rise to GABAergic neurons, whereas glutamatergic neurons originate in the caudal domain of the zebrafish thalamus. The distribution of GABAergic derivatives in the adult zebrafish brain, furthermore, revealed previously overlooked thalamic nuclei and redefined already established ones. These findings require some reconsideration regarding the topological origin of these adult structures. In what follows, I discuss how evolutionary conserved and newly acquired features of the developing and adult zebrafish thalamus can be compared to the mammalian situation. PMID:22586363

  10. Flexible knowledge repertoires: communication by leaders in trauma teams

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In emergency situations, it is important for the trauma team to efficiently communicate their observations and assessments. One common communication strategy is “closed-loop communication”, which can be described as a transmission model in which feedback is of great importance. The role of the leader is to create a shared goal in order to achieve consensus in the work for the safety of the patient. The purpose of this study was to analyze how formal leaders communicate knowledge, create consensus, and position themselves in relation to others in the team. Methods Sixteen trauma teams were audio- and video-recorded during high fidelity training in an emergency department. Each team consisted of six members: one surgeon or emergency physician (the designated team leader), one anaesthesiologist, one nurse anaesthetist, one enrolled nurse from the theatre ward, one registered nurse and one enrolled nurse from the emergency department (ED). The communication was transcribed and analyzed, inspired by discourse psychology and Strauss’ concept of “negotiated order”. The data were organized and coded in NVivo 9. Results The findings suggest that leaders use coercive, educational, discussing and negotiating strategies to work things through. The leaders in this study used different repertoires to convey their knowledge to the team, in order to create a common goal of the priorities of the work. Changes in repertoires were dependent on the urgency of the situation and the interaction between team members. When using these repertoires, the leaders positioned themselves in different ways, either on an authoritarian or a more egalitarian level. Conclusion This study indicates that communication in trauma teams is complex and consists of more than just transferring messages quickly. It also concerns what the leaders express, and even more importantly, how they speak to and involve other team members. PMID:22747848

  11. Units of analysis and kinetic structure of behavioral repertoires

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Travis; Lubinski, David

    1986-01-01

    It is suggested that molar streams of behavior are constructed of various arrangements of three elementary constituents (elicited, evoked, and emitted response classes). An eight-cell taxonomy is elaborated as a framework for analyzing and synthesizing complex behavioral repertoires based on these functional units. It is proposed that the local force binding functional units into a smoothly articulated kinetic sequence arises from temporally arranged relative response probability relationships. Behavioral integration is thought to reflect the joint influence of the organism's hierarchy of relative response probabilities, fluctuating biological states, and the arrangement of environmental and behavioral events in time. PMID:16812461

  12. panhandling repertoires and routines for overcoming the nonperson treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lankenau, Stephen E.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, I present panhandling as a dynamic undertaking that requires conscious actions and purposeful modifications of self, performances, and emotions to gain the attention and interest of passersby. I show that describing and theorizing panhandling in terms of dramaturgical routines is useful in understanding the interactions and exchanges that constitute panhandling. In addition, repertoires rightly portray panhandlers as agents engaging the social world rather than as passive social types. From this perspective, sidewalks serve as stages on which panhandlers confront and overcome various forms of the nonperson treatment. The research is based on a street ethnography of homeless panhandlers living in Washington, DC. PMID:17541452

  13. Suppression of abnormal morphology and extracytoplasmic function sigma activity in Bacillus subtilis ugtP mutant cells by expression of heterologous glucolipid synthases from Acholeplasma laidlawii.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Satoshi; Seki, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Kouji; Hara, Hiroshi

    2016-12-01

    Glucolipids in Bacillus subtilis are synthesized by UgtP processively transferring glucose from UDP-glucose to diacylglycerol. Here we conclude that the abnormal morphology of a ugtP mutant is caused by lack of glucolipids, since the same morphology arises after abolition of glucolipid production by disruption of pgcA and gtaB, which are involved in UDP-glucose synthesis. Conversely, expression of a monoglucosyldiacylglycerol (MGlcDG) produced by 1,2-diacylglycerol 3-glucosyltransferase from Acholeplasma laidlawii (alMGS) almost completely suppressed the ugtP disruptant phenotype. Activation of extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigmas (SigM, SigV, and SigX) in the ugtP mutant was decreased by alMGS expression, and was suppressed to low levels by MgSO 4 addition. When alMGS and alDGS (A. laidlawii 1,2-diacylglycerol-3-glucose (1-2)-glucosyltransferase producing diglucosyldiacylglycerol (DGlcDG)) were simultaneously expressed, SigX activation was repressed to wild type level. These observations suggest that MGlcDG molecules are required for maintenance of B. subtilis cell shape and regulation of ECF sigmas, and DGlcDG regulates SigX activity.

  14. Effects of ABCB1, ABCC2, UGT2B7 and HNF4α genetic polymorphisms on oxcarbazepine concentrations and therapeutic efficacy in patients with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chunhong; Zhang, Bijun; Liu, Zhirong; Tang, Yelei; Zhang, Yinxi; Wang, Shan; Guo, Yi; Ding, Yao; Wang, Shuang; Ding, Meiping

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the effects of ABCB1, ABCC2, UGT2B7 and HNF4α genetic polymorphisms on plasma oxcarbazepine (OXC) concentrations and therapeutic efficacy in Han Chinese patients with epilepsy. We recruited 116 Han Chinese patients with epilepsy who were receiving OXC monotherapy. Blood samples were taken and OXC levels were measured. The polymorphisms of ABCB1 rs1045642, ABCC2 rs2273697, UGT2B7 rs7439366, and HNF4α rs2071197 were determined. The therapeutic efficacy of OXC at the 1-year time-point was assessed. Data analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics 22.0. The genetic polymorphism of ABCB1 rs1045642 was found to be associated with normalized OXC concentration and therapeutic efficacy in patients with epilepsy (P<0.05). As for UGT2B7 rs7439366, the allele polymorphism exhibited a correlation with treatment outcome, but not OXC concentration. The polymorphisms of ABCC2 rs2273697 and HNF4α rs2071197 was not associated with OXC concentrations and therapeutic efficacy. These results suggested that ABCB1 rs1045642 and UGT2B7 rs7439366 may affect OXC pharmacokinetics and therapeutic efficacy in Han Chinese patients with epilepsy. However, further studies in larger populations and other ethnic groups are required. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. PBPK Model of Morphine Incorporating Developmental Changes in Hepatic OCT1 and UGT2B7 Proteins to Explain the Variability in Clearances in Neonates and Small Infants.

    PubMed

    Emoto, Chie; Johnson, Trevor N; Neuhoff, Sibylle; Hahn, David; Vinks, Alexander A; Fukuda, Tsuyoshi

    2018-06-19

    Morphine has large pharmacokinetic variability, which is further complicated by developmental changes in neonates and small infants. The impacts of organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1) genotype and changes in blood-flow on morphine clearance (CL) were previously demonstrated in children, whereas changes in UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 (UGT2B7) activity showed a small effect. This study, targeting neonates and small infants, was designed to assess the influence of developmental changes in OCT1 and UGT2B7 protein expression and modified blood-flow on morphine CL using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. The implementation of these three age-dependent factors into the pediatric system platform resulted in reasonable prediction for an age-dependent increase in morphine CL in these populations. Sensitivity of morphine CL to changes in cardiac output increased with age up to 3 years, whereas sensitivity to changes in UGT2B7 activity decreased. This study suggests that morphine exhibits age-dependent extraction, likely due to the developmental increase in OCT1 and UGT2B7 protein expression/activity and hepatic blood-flow. © 2018 The Authors CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  16. The UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT) superfamily expressed in humans, insects and plants: Animal-plant arms-race and co-evolution.

    PubMed

    Bock, Karl Walter

    2016-01-01

    UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) are major phase II enzymes of a detoxification system evolved in all kingdoms of life. Lipophilic endobiotics such as hormones and xenobiotics including phytoalexins and drugs are conjugated by vertebrates mainly with glucuronic acid, by invertebrates and plants mainly with glucose. Plant-herbivore arms-race has been the major driving force for evolution of large UGT and other enzyme superfamilies. The UGT superfamily is defined by a common protein structure and signature sequence of 44 amino acids responsible for binding the UDP moiety of the sugar donor. Plants developed toxic phytoalexins stored as glucosides. Upon herbivore attack these conjugates are converted to highly reactive compounds. In turn, animals developed large families of UGTs in their intestine and liver to detoxify these phytoalexins. Interestingly, phytoalexins, exemplified by quercetin glucuronides and glucosinolate-derived isocyanates, are known insect attractant pigments in plants, and antioxidants, anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive compounds of humans. It is to be anticipated that phytochemicals may provide a rich source in beneficial drugs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Subchronic atrazine exposure changes defensive behaviour profile and disrupts brain acetylcholinesterase activity of zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Schmidel, Ademir J; Assmann, Karla L; Werlang, Chariane C; Bertoncello, Kanandra T; Francescon, Francini; Rambo, Cassiano L; Beltrame, Gabriela M; Calegari, Daiane; Batista, Cibele B; Blaser, Rachel E; Roman Júnior, Walter A; Conterato, Greicy M M; Piato, Angelo L; Zanatta, Leila; Magro, Jacir Dal; Rosemberg, Denis B

    2014-01-01

    Animal behaviour is the interaction between environment and an individual organism, which also can be influenced by its neighbours. Variations in environmental conditions, as those caused by contaminants, may lead to neurochemical impairments altering the pattern of the behavioural repertoire of the species. Atrazine (ATZ) is an herbicide widely used in agriculture that is frequently detected in surface water, affecting non-target species. The zebrafish is a valuable model organism to assess behavioural and neurochemical effects of different contaminants since it presents a robust behavioural repertoire and also all major neurotransmitter systems described for mammalian species. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of subchronic ATZ exposure in defensive behaviours of zebrafish (shoaling, thigmotaxis, and depth preference) using the split depth tank. Furthermore, to investigate a putative role of cholinergic signalling on ATZ-mediated effects, we tested whether this herbicide alters acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in brain and muscle preparations. Fish were exposed to ATZ for 14days and the following groups were tested: control (0.2% acetone) and ATZ (10 and 1000μg/L). The behaviour of four animals in the same tank was recorded for 6min and biological samples were prepared. Our results showed that 1000μg/L ATZ significantly increased the inter-fish distance, as well as the nearest and farthest neighbour distances. This group also presented an increase in the shoal area with decreased social interaction. No significant differences were detected for the number of animals in the shallow area, latency to enter the shallow and time spent in shallow and deep areas of the apparatus, but the ATZ 1000 group spent significantly more time near the walls. Although ATZ did not affect muscular AChE, it significantly reduced AChE activity in brain. Exposure to 10μg/L ATZ did not affect behaviour or AChE activity. These data suggest that ATZ impairs defensive

  18. Zebrafish neurobehavioral phenomics for aquatic neuropharmacology and toxicology research.

    PubMed

    Kalueff, Allan V; Echevarria, David J; Homechaudhuri, Sumit; Stewart, Adam Michael; Collier, Adam D; Kaluyeva, Aleksandra A; Li, Shaomin; Liu, Yingcong; Chen, Peirong; Wang, JiaJia; Yang, Lei; Mitra, Anisa; Pal, Subharthi; Chaudhuri, Adwitiya; Roy, Anwesha; Biswas, Missidona; Roy, Dola; Podder, Anupam; Poudel, Manoj K; Katare, Deepshikha P; Mani, Ruchi J; Kyzar, Evan J; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Nguyen, Michael; Song, Cai

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are rapidly emerging as an important model organism for aquatic neuropharmacology and toxicology research. The behavioral/phenotypic complexity of zebrafish allows for thorough dissection of complex human brain disorders and drug-evoked pathological states. As numerous zebrafish models become available with a wide spectrum of behavioral, genetic, and environmental methods to test novel drugs, here we discuss recent zebrafish phenomics methods to facilitate drug discovery, particularly in the field of biological psychiatry. Additionally, behavioral, neurological, and endocrine endpoints are becoming increasingly well-characterized in zebrafish, making them an inexpensive, robust and effective model for toxicology research and pharmacological screening. We also discuss zebrafish behavioral phenotypes, experimental considerations, pharmacological candidates and relevance of zebrafish neurophenomics to other 'omics' (e.g., genomic, proteomic) approaches. Finally, we critically evaluate the limitations of utilizing this model organism, and outline future strategies of research in the field of zebrafish phenomics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Can Zebrafish be used to Identify Developmentally Neurotoxic Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Can Zebrafish be Used to Identify Developmentally Neurotoxic Chemicals? The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is evaluating methods to screen and prioritize large numbers of chemicals for developmental neurotoxicity. We are exploring behavioral methods using zebrafish by desig...

  20. Quantitative Analysis of Repertoire Scale Immunoglobulin properties in Vaccine Induced B cell Responses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Immunosequencing now readily generates 103105 sequences per sample ; however, statistical analysis of these repertoires is challenging because of the high genetic...diversity of BCRs and the elaborate clonal relationships among them. To date, most immunosequencing analyses have focused on reporting qualitative ...repertoire differences, (2) identifying how two repertoires differ, and (3) determining appropriate confidence intervals for assessing the size of the differences and their potential biological relevance.

  1. UGT1A1*6 polymorphisms are correlated with irinotecan-induced neutropenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue; Yin, Jia-Fu; Zhang, Jiao; Kong, Shu-Jia; Zhang, Hong-Yin; Chen, Xue-Mei

    2017-07-01

    Irinotecan (IRI) chemotherapy toxicities can be severe, and may result in treatment delay, morbidity and in some rare cases death. Neutropenia is a life-threatening side effect of irinotecan, and UDP glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) gene polymorphisms could predict the side effects in cancer patients and then reduce IRI-induced toxicity by preventative treatment or a decrease in dose. Both UGT1A1*6 and *28 were reliably demonstrated to be risk factors for IRI-induced neutropenia, with tests for both polymorphisms potentially being particularly useful in Asian cancer patients. However, some researchers reported that UGT1A1*6 could predict IRI-induced toxicities in Asian populations, controversial conclusions still remained. Thus, the association between UGT1A1*6 polymorphisms and IRI-induced severe toxicity in cancer patients is still needed to be explored. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the association between UGT1A1*6 polymorphisms and IRI-related severe neutropenia in cancer patients on a large scale. A total of 12 studies that included 746 wild genotype (G/G) cases and 394 variant genotype (G/A and A/A) cases were included on the basis of inclusion criteria. Then we assessed the methodologies quality; odds ratio (OR), risk difference (RD) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were used to assess the strength of association. Overall, an increased risk of severe neutropenia in cancer patients with UGT1A1*6 polymorphisms was found. Patients with recessive models (GA + AA vs. GG) of UGT1A1*6 showed an increased risk (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.54-2.68; RD = 0.11, P < 0.001). Specifically, the heterozygous variant of UGT1A1*6 showed an increased risk (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.36-2.46; RD = 0.09, P < 0.001), and homozygous mutation showed also high risk (OR 2.95, 95% CI 1.83-4.75; RD = 0.18, P < 0.001) for severe neutropenia. Subgroup meta-analysis revealed that for patients harboring both heterozygous and homozygous variants, cancer types, low dose of IRI and

  2. UGT1A1 gene polymorphism: Impact on toxicity and efficacy of irinotecan-based regimens in metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Christoph; Heinemann, Volker; Schalhorn, Andreas; Moosmann, Nikolas; Zwingers, Thomas; Boeck, Stefan; Giessen, Clemens; Stemmler, Hans-Joachim

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the correlation between uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl transferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) gene polymorphisms and irinotecan-associated side effects and parameters of drug efficacy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) receiving a low-dose weekly irinotecan chemotherapeutic regimen. METHODS: Genotypes were retrospectively evaluated by gene scan analysis on the ABI 310 sequencer of the TATAA box in the promoter region of the UGT1A1 gene in blood samples from 105 patients who had received 1st line irinotecan-based chemotherapy for mCRC. RESULTS: The distribution of the genotypes was as follows: wild type genotype (WT) (6/6) 39.0%, heterozygous genotype (6/7) 49.5%, and homozygous genotype (7/7) 9.5%. The overall response rate (OR) was similar between patients carrying the (6/7, 7/7) or the WT genotype (6/6) (44.3% vs 43.2%, P = 0.75). Neither time to progression [(TTP) 8.1 vs 8.2 mo, P = 0.97] nor overall survival [(OS) 21.2 vs 18.9 mo, P = 0.73] differed significantly in patients who carried the (6/6) when compared to the (6/7, 7/7) genotype. No significant differences in toxicity were observed: Grade 3 and 4 delayed diarrhoea [(6/7, 7/7) vs (6/6); 13.0% vs 6.2%, P = 0.08], treatment delays [(6/7, 7/7) vs (6/6); 25.1% vs 19.3%, P =0.24] or dose reductions [(6/7, 7/7) vs (6/6); 21.5% vs 27.2%, P = 0.07]. CONCLUSION: This analysis demonstrates the non-significant influence of the UGT1A1 gene polymorphism on efficacy and rate of irinotecan-associated toxicity in mCRC patients receiving low-dose irinotecan based chemotherapy. PMID:19859999

  3. Mixtures, Metabolites, and Mechanisms: Understanding Toxicology Using Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Gamse, Joshua T.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract For more than 60 years, zebrafish have been used in toxicological studies. Due to their transparency, genetic tractability, and compatibility with high-throughput screens, zebrafish embryos are uniquely suited to study the effects of pharmaceuticals and environmental insults on embryonic development, organ formation and function, and reproductive success. This special issue of Zebrafish highlights the ways zebrafish are used to investigate the toxic effects of endocrine disruptors, pesticides, and heavy metals. PMID:27618129

  4. Mixtures, Metabolites, and Mechanisms: Understanding Toxicology Using Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Gamse, Joshua T; Gorelick, Daniel A

    2016-10-01

    For more than 60 years, zebrafish have been used in toxicological studies. Due to their transparency, genetic tractability, and compatibility with high-throughput screens, zebrafish embryos are uniquely suited to study the effects of pharmaceuticals and environmental insults on embryonic development, organ formation and function, and reproductive success. This special issue of Zebrafish highlights the ways zebrafish are used to investigate the toxic effects of endocrine disruptors, pesticides, and heavy metals.

  5. Evolving a Behavioral Repertoire for a Walking Robot.

    PubMed

    Cully, A; Mouret, J-B

    2016-01-01

    Numerous algorithms have been proposed to allow legged robots to learn to walk. However, most of these algorithms are devised to learn walking in a straight line, which is not sufficient to accomplish any real-world mission. Here we introduce the Transferability-based Behavioral Repertoire Evolution algorithm (TBR-Evolution), a novel evolutionary algorithm that simultaneously discovers several hundreds of simple walking controllers, one for each possible direction. By taking advantage of solutions that are usually discarded by evolutionary processes, TBR-Evolution is substantially faster than independently evolving each controller. Our technique relies on two methods: (1) novelty search with local competition, which searches for both high-performing and diverse solutions, and (2) the transferability approach, which combines simulations and real tests to evolve controllers for a physical robot. We evaluate this new technique on a hexapod robot. Results show that with only a few dozen short experiments performed on the robot, the algorithm learns a repertoire of controllers that allows the robot to reach every point in its reachable space. Overall, TBR-Evolution introduced a new kind of learning algorithm that simultaneously optimizes all the achievable behaviors of a robot.

  6. Systematic Characterization and Comparative Analysis of the Rabbit Immunoglobulin Repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Lavinder, Jason J.; Hoi, Kam Hon; Reddy, Sai T.; Wine, Yariv; Georgiou, George

    2014-01-01

    Rabbits have been used extensively as a model system for the elucidation of the mechanism of immunoglobulin diversification and for the production of antibodies. We employed Next Generation Sequencing to analyze Ig germline V and J gene usage, CDR3 length and amino acid composition, and gene conversion frequencies within the functional (transcribed) IgG repertoire of the New Zealand white rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Several previously unannotated rabbit heavy chain variable (VH) and light chain variable (VL) germline elements were deduced bioinformatically using multidimensional scaling and k-means clustering methods. We estimated the gene conversion frequency in the rabbit at 23% of IgG sequences with a mean gene conversion tract length of 59±36 bp. Sequencing and gene conversion analysis of the chicken, human, and mouse repertoires revealed that gene conversion occurs much more extensively in the chicken (frequency 70%, tract length 79±57 bp), was observed to a small, yet statistically significant extent in humans, but was virtually absent in mice. PMID:24978027

  7. The mimetic repertoire of the spotted bowerbird Ptilonorhynchus maculatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Laura A.; Healy, Susan D.

    2011-06-01

    Although vocal mimicry in songbirds is well documented, little is known about the function of such mimicry. One possibility is that the mimic produces the vocalisations of predatory or aggressive species to deter potential predators or competitors. Alternatively, these sounds may be learned in error as a result of their acoustic properties such as structural simplicity. We determined the mimetic repertoires of a population of male spotted bowerbirds Ptilonorhynchus maculatus, a species that mimics predatory and aggressive species. Although male mimetic repertoires contained an overabundance of vocalisations produced by species that were generally aggressive, there was also a marked prevalence of mimicry of sounds that are associated with alarm such as predator calls, alarm calls and mobbing calls, irrespective of whether the species being mimicked was aggressive or not. We propose that it may be the alarming context in which these sounds are first heard that may lead both to their acquisition and to their later reproduction. We suggest that enhanced learning capability during acute stress may explain vocal mimicry in many species that mimic sounds associated with alarm.

  8. Motor pathway convergence predicts syllable repertoire size in oscine birds

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Jordan M.; Székely, Tamás; Büki, József; DeVoogd, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral specializations are frequently associated with expansions of the brain regions controlling them. This principle of proper mass spans sensory, motor, and cognitive abilities and has been observed in a wide variety of vertebrate species. Yet, it is unknown if this concept extrapolates to entire neural pathways or how selection on a behavioral capacity might otherwise shape circuit structure. We investigate these questions by comparing the songs and neuroanatomy of 49 species from 17 families of songbirds, which vary immensely in the number of unique song components they produce and possess a conserved neural network dedicated to this behavior. We find that syllable repertoire size is strongly related to the degree of song motor pathway convergence. Repertoire size is more accurately predicted by the number of neurons in higher motor areas relative to that in their downstream targets than by the overall number of neurons in the song motor pathway. Additionally, the convergence values along serial premotor and primary motor projections account for distinct portions of the behavioral variation. These findings suggest that selection on song has independently shaped different components of this hierarchical pathway, and they elucidate how changes in pathway structure could have underlain elaborations of this learned motor behavior. PMID:21918109

  9. Gestural communication in subadult bonobos (Pan paniscus): repertoire and use.

    PubMed

    Pika, Simone; Liebal, Katja; Tomasello, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This article aims to provide an inventory of the communicative gestures used by bonobos (Pan paniscus), based on observations of subadult bonobos and descriptions of gestural signals and similar behaviors in wild and captive bonobo groups. In addition, we focus on the underlying processes of social cognition, including learning mechanisms and flexibility of gesture use (such as adjustment to the attentional state of the recipient). The subjects were seven bonobos, aged 1-8 years, living in two different groups in captivity. Twenty distinct gestures (one auditory, eight tactile, and 11 visual) were recorded. We found individual differences and similar degrees of concordance of the gestural repertoires between and within groups, which provide evidence that ontogenetic ritualization is the main learning process involved. There is suggestive evidence, however, that some form of social learning may be responsible for the acquisition of special gestures. Overall, the present study establishes that the gestural repertoire of bonobos can be characterized as flexible and adapted to various communicative circumstances, including the attentional state of the recipient. Differences from and similarities to the other African ape species are discussed. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Repertoire of free-living protozoa in contact lens solutions.

    PubMed

    Bouchoucha, Ibtissem; Aziz, Aurore; Hoffart, Louis; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-10-29

    The repertoire of free-living protozoa in contact lens solutions is poorly known despite the fact that such protozoa may act as direct pathogens and may harbor intra-cellular pathogens. Between 2009 and 2014, the contact lens solutions collected from patients presenting at our Ophthalmology Department for clinically suspected keratitis, were cultured on non-nutrient agar examined by microscope for the presence of free-living protozoa. All protozoa were identified by 18S rRNA gene sequencing. A total of 20 of 233 (8.6 %) contact lens solution specimens collected from 16 patients were cultured. Acanthamoeba amoeba in 16 solutions (80 %) collected from 12 patients and Colpoda steini, Cercozoa sp., Protostelium sp. and a eukaryotic more closely related to Vermamoeba sp., were each isolated in one solution. Cercozoa sp., Colpoda sp., Protostelium sp. and Vermamoeba sp. are reported for the first time as contaminating contact lens solutions. The repertoire of protozoa in contact lens solutions is larger than previously known.

  11. Nicotine N-glucuronidation relative to N-oxidation and C-oxidation and UGT2B10 genotype in five ethnic/racial groups

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Sharon E.; Park, Sung-Shim L.; Thompson, Elizabeth F.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Patel, Yesha; Stram, Daniel O.; Le Marchand, Loic

    2014-01-01

    Nicotine metabolism influences smoking behavior and differences in metabolism probably contribute to ethnic variability in lung cancer risk. We report here on the proportion of nicotine metabolism by cytochrome P450 2A6-catalyzed C-oxidation, UDP-glucuronosyl transferase 2B10 (UGT2B10)-catalyzed N-glucuronidation and flavin monooxygenase 3-catalyzed N-oxidation in five ethnic/racial groups and the role of UGT2B10 genotype on the metabolic patterns observed. Nicotine and its metabolites were quantified in urine from African American (AA, n = 364), Native Hawaiian (NH, n = 311), White (n = 437), Latino (LA, n = 453) and Japanese American (JA, n = 674) smokers. Total nicotine equivalents, the sum of nicotine and six metabolites, and nicotine metabolism phenotypes were calculated. The relationship of UGT2B10 genotype to nicotine metabolic pathways was determined for each group; geometric means were computed and adjusted for age, sex, creatinine, and body mass index. Nicotine metabolism patterns were unique across the groups, C-oxidation was lowest in JA and NH (P < 0.0001), and N-glucuronidation lowest in AA (P < 0.0001). There was no difference in C-oxidation among Whites and AA and LA. Nicotine and cotinine glucuronide ratios were 2- and 3-fold lower in AA compared with Whites. Two UGT variants, a missense mutation (Asp67Tyr, rs61750900) and a splice variant (rs116294140) accounted for 33% of the variation in glucuronidation. In AA, the splice variant accounted for the majority of the reduced nicotine glucuronidation. UGT2B10 variant allele carriers had increased levels of C-oxidation (P = 0.0099). Our data indicate that the relative importance of nicotine metabolic pathways varies by ethnicity, and all pathways should be considered when characterizing the role of nicotine metabolism on smoking behavior and cancer risk. PMID:25233931

  12. Modeling Leukemogenesis in the Zebrafish Using Genetic and Xenograft Models.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Vinothkumar; Dellaire, Graham; Berman, Jason N

    2016-01-01

    The zebrafish is a widely accepted model to study leukemia. The major advantage of studying leukemogenesis in zebrafish is attributed to its short life cycle and superior imaging capacity. This chapter highlights using transgenic- and xenograft-based models in zebrafish to study a specific leukemogenic mutation and analyze therapeutic responses in vivo.

  13. Viral Diseases in Zebrafish: What Is Known and Unknown

    PubMed Central

    Crim, Marcus J.; Riley, Lela K.

    2013-01-01

    Naturally occurring viral infections have the potential to introduce confounding variability that leads to invalid and misinterpreted data. Whereas the viral diseases of research rodents are well characterized and closely monitored, no naturally occurring viral infections have been characterized for the laboratory zebrafish (Danio rerio), an increasingly important biomedical research model. Despite the ignorance about naturally occurring zebrafish viruses, zebrafish models are rapidly expanding in areas of biomedical research where the confounding effects of unknown infectious agents present a serious concern. In addition, many zebrafish research colonies remain linked to the ornamental (pet) zebrafish trade, which can contribute to the introduction of new pathogens into research colonies, whereas mice used for research are purpose bred, with no introduction of new mice from the pet industry. Identification, characterization, and monitoring of naturally occurring viruses in zebrafish are crucial to the improvement of zebrafish health, the reduction of unwanted variability, and the continued development of the zebrafish as a model organism. This article addresses the importance of identifying and characterizing the viral diseases of zebrafish as the scope of zebrafish models expands into new research areas and also briefly addresses zebrafish susceptibility to experimental viral infection and the utility of the zebrafish as an infection and immunology model. PMID:23382345

  14. Acute exposure to synthetic pyrethroids causes bioconcentration and disruption of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis in zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Tu, Wenqing; Xu, Chao; Lu, Bin; Lin, Chunmian; Wu, Yongming; Liu, Weiping

    2016-01-15

    Synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) have the potential to disrupt the thyroid endocrine system in mammals; however, little is known of the effects of SPs and underlying mechanisms in fish. In the current study, embryonic zebrafish were exposed to various concentrations (1, 3 and 10 μg/L) of bifenthrin (BF) or λ-cyhalothrin (λ-CH) until 72 h post fertilization, and body condition, bioaccumulation, thyroid hormone levels and transcription of related genes along the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis examined. Body weight was significantly decreased in the λ-CH exposure groups, but not the BF exposure groups. BF and λ-CH markedly accumulated in the larvae, with concentrations ranging from 90.7 to 596.8 ng/g. In both exposure groups, alterations were observed in thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels. In addition, the majority of the HPT axis-related genes examined, including CRH, TSHβ, TTR, UGT1ab, Pax8, Dio2 and TRα, were significantly upregulated in the presence of BF. Compared to BF, λ-CH induced different transcriptional regulation patterns of the tested genes, in particular, significant stimulation of TTR, Pax8, Dio2 and TRα levels along with concomitant downregulation of Dio1. Molecular docking analyses revealed that at the atomic level, BF binds to thyroid hormone receptor (TRα) protein more potently than λ-CH, consequently affecting HPT axis signal transduction. In vitro and in silico experiments disclosed that during the early stages of zebrafish development, BF and λ-CH have the potential to disrupt thyroid endocrine system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Production of Androgenetic Zebrafish (Danio Rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Corley-Smith, G. E.; Lim, C. J.; Brandhorst, B. P.

    1996-01-01

    To help investigate the evolutionary origin of the imprinting (parent-of-origin mono-allelic expression) of paternal genes observed in mammals, we constructed haploid and diploid androgenetic zebrafish (Danio rerio). Haploid androgenotes were produced by fertilizing eggs that had been X-ray irradiated to eliminate the maternal genome. Subsequent inhibition of the first mitotic division of haploid androgenotes by heat shock produced diploid androgenotes. The lack of inheritance of maternal-specific DNA markers (RAPD and SSR) by putative diploid and haploid androgenotes confirmed the androgenetic origin of their genomes. Marker analysis was performed on 18 putative androgenotes (five diploids and 13 haploids) from six families. None of 157 maternal-specific RAPD markers analyzed, some of which were apparently homozygous, were passed on to any of these putative androgenotes. A mean of 7.7 maternal-specific markers were assessed per family. The survival of androgenetic zebrafish suggests that if paternal imprinting occurs in zebrafish, it does not result in essential genes being inactivated when their expression is required for development. Production of haploid androgenotes can be used to determine the meiotic recombination rate in male zebrafish. Androgenesis may also provide useful information about the mechanism of sex determination in zebrafish. PMID:8846903

  16. The zebrafish genome: a review and msx gene case study.

    PubMed

    Postlethwait, J H

    2006-01-01

    Zebrafish is one of several important teleost models for understanding principles of vertebrate developmental, molecular, organismal, genetic, evolutionary, and genomic biology. Efficient investigation of the molecular genetic basis of induced mutations depends on knowledge of the zebrafish genome. Principles of zebrafish genomic analysis, including gene mapping, ortholog identification, conservation of syntenies, genome duplication, and evolution of duplicate gene function are discussed here using as a case study the zebrafish msxa, msxb, msxc, msxd, and msxe genes, which together constitute zebrafish orthologs of tetrapod Msx1, Msx2, and Msx3. Genomic analysis suggests orthologs for this difficult to understand group of paralogs.

  17. Development of a Tool to Evaluate Lecturers' Verbal Repertoire in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Rijst, R. M.; Visser-Wijnveen, G. J.; Verloop, N.; van Driel, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    A broad communicative repertoire can help university lecturers to motivate and engage diverse student populations. The aim of this study is to develop and explore the usefulness and validity of a tool to identify patterns in lecturers' verbal repertoire. Speech act theory is presented as a framework to study lecturers' verbal…

  18. A Comparison of the Basic Song Repertoire of Vocal/Choral and Instrumental Music Education Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prickett, Carol A.; Bridges, Madeline S.

    2000-01-01

    Explores whether the basic song repertoire of vocal/choral music education majors is significantly better than instrumental music education majors. Participants attempted to identify 25 standard songs. Reveals no significant difference between the two groups, indicating that neither had developed a strong repertoire of songs. (CMK)

  19. Iterative Design toward Equity: Youth Repertoires of Practice in a High School Maker Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Lee; Dixon, Colin; Betser, Sagit

    2018-01-01

    Despite their potential, maker activities do not always support equitable engagement. The authors report on a design research study where they worked to support equitable engagement of youth repertoires of practice in a high school makerspace. Their orientation toward equity is grounded in the construct of repertoires of practice, and they focus…

  20. Rule-Governed Behavior: Teaching a Preliminary Repertoire of Rule-Following to Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarbox, Jonathan; Zuckerman, Carrie K.; Bishop, Michele R.; Olive, Melissa L.; O'Hora, Denis P.

    2011-01-01

    Rule-governed behavior is generally considered an integral component of complex verbal repertoires but has rarely been the subject of empirical research. In particular, little or no previous research has attempted to establish rule-governed behavior in individuals who do not already display the repertoire. This study consists of two experiments…

  1. REPERTOIRE OF MESOSCOPIC CORTICAL ACTIVITY IS NOT REDUCED DURING ANESTHESIA

    PubMed Central

    HUDETZ, ANTHONY G.; VIZUETE, JEANNETTE A.; PILLAY, SIVESHIGAN; MASHOUR, GEORGE A.

    2016-01-01

    Consciousness has been linked to the repertoire of brain states at various spatiotemporal scales. Anesthesia is thought to modify consciousness by altering information integration in cortical and thalamocortical circuits. At a mesoscopic scale, neuronal populations in the cortex form synchronized ensembles whose characteristics are presumably state-dependent but this has not been rigorously tested. In this study, spontaneous neuronal activity was recorded with 64-contact microelectrode arrays in primary visual cortex of chronically instrumented, unrestrained rats under stepwise decreasing levels of desflurane anesthesia (8%, 6%, 4%, and 2% inhaled concentrations) and wakefulness (0% concentration). Negative phases of the local field potentials formed compact, spatially contiguous activity patterns (CAPs) that were not due to chance. The number of CAPs was 120% higher in wakefulness and deep anesthesia associated with burst-suppression than at intermediate levels of consciousness. The frequency distribution of CAP sizes followed a power–law with slope −1.5 in relatively deep anesthesia (8–6%) but deviated from that at the lighter levels. Temporal variance and entropy of CAP sizes were lowest in wakefulness (76% and 24% lower at 0% than at 8% desflurane, respectively) but changed little during recovery of consciousness. CAPs categorized by K-means clustering were conserved at all anesthesia levels and wakefulness, although their proportion changed in a state-dependent manner. These observations yield new knowledge about the dynamic landscape of ongoing population activity in sensory cortex at graded levels of anesthesia. The repertoire of population activity and self-organized criticality at the mesoscopic scale do not appear to contribute to anesthetic suppression of consciousness, which may instead depend on large-scale effects, more subtle dynamic properties, or changes outside of primary sensory cortex. PMID:27751957

  2. Repertoire of mesoscopic cortical activity is not reduced during anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Hudetz, Anthony G; Vizuete, Jeannette A; Pillay, Siveshigan; Mashour, George A

    2016-12-17

    Consciousness has been linked to the repertoire of brain states at various spatiotemporal scales. Anesthesia is thought to modify consciousness by altering information integration in cortical and thalamocortical circuits. At a mesoscopic scale, neuronal populations in the cortex form synchronized ensembles whose characteristics are presumably state-dependent but this has not been rigorously tested. In this study, spontaneous neuronal activity was recorded with 64-contact microelectrode arrays in primary visual cortex of chronically instrumented, unrestrained rats under stepwise decreasing levels of desflurane anesthesia (8%, 6%, 4%, and 2% inhaled concentrations) and wakefulness (0% concentration). Negative phases of the local field potentials formed compact, spatially contiguous activity patterns (CAPs) that were not due to chance. The number of CAPs was 120% higher in wakefulness and deep anesthesia associated with burst-suppression than at intermediate levels of consciousness. The frequency distribution of CAP sizes followed a power-law with slope -1.5 in relatively deep anesthesia (8-6%) but deviated from that at the lighter levels. Temporal variance and entropy of CAP sizes were lowest in wakefulness (76% and 24% lower at 0% than at 8% desflurane, respectively) but changed little during recovery of consciousness. CAPs categorized by K-means clustering were conserved at all anesthesia levels and wakefulness, although their proportion changed in a state-dependent manner. These observations yield new knowledge about the dynamic landscape of ongoing population activity in sensory cortex at graded levels of anesthesia. The repertoire of population activity and self-organized criticality at the mesoscopic scale do not appear to contribute to anesthetic suppression of consciousness, which may instead depend on large-scale effects, more subtle dynamic properties, or changes outside of primary sensory cortex. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  3. Immune repertoire: A potential biomarker and therapeutic for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Han, Yingxin; Li, Hongmei; Guan, Yanfang; Huang, Jian

    2016-09-01

    The immune repertoire (IR) refers to the sum of B cells and T cells with functional diversity in the circulatory system of one individual at any given time. Immune cells, which reside within microenvironments and are responsible for protecting the human body, include T cells, B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. These dedicated immune cells have a characteristic structure and function. T and B cells are the main lymphocytes and are responsible for cellular immunity and humoral immunity, respectively. The T cell receptor (TCR) and B cell receptor (BCR) are composed of multiple peptide chains with antigen specificity. The amino acid composition and sequence order are more diverse in the complementarity-determining regions (including CDR1, CDR2 and CDR3) of each peptide chain, allowing a vast library of TCRs and BCRs. IR research is becoming increasingly focused on the study of CDR3 diversity. Deep profiling of CDR3s using high-throughput sequencing is a powerful approach for elucidating the composition and distribution of the CDR3s in a given sample, with in-depth information at the sequence level. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies in the world. To identify novel biomarkers for diagnosis and drug targets for therapeutic interventions, several groups attempted to describe immune repertoire characteristics of the liver in the physiological environment or/and pathological conditions. This paper reviews the recent progress in IR research on human diseases, including hepatocellular carcinoma, attempting to depict the relationships between hepatocellular carcinogenesis and the IR, and discusses the possibility of IR as a potential biomarker and therapeutic for hepatocellular carcinoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The effects of clobazam treatment in rats on the expression of genes and proteins encoding glucronosyltransferase 1A/2B (UGT1A/2B) and multidrug resistance‐associated protein-2 (MRP2), and development of thyroid follicular cell hypertrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Miyawaki, Izuru, E-mail: izuru-miyawaki@ds-pharma.co.jp; Tamura, Akitoshi; Matsumoto, Izumi

    Clobazam (CLB) is known to increase hepatobiliary thyroxine (T4) clearance in Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats, which results in hypothyroidism followed by thyroid follicular cell hypertrophy. However, the mechanism of the acceleration of T4-clearance has not been fully investigated. In the present study, we tried to clarify the roles of hepatic UDP-glucronosyltransferase (UGT) isoenzymes (UGT1A and UGT2B) and efflux transporter (multidrug resistance–associated protein-2; MRP2) in the CLB-induced acceleration of T4-clearance using two mutant rat strains, UGT1A-deficient mutant (Gunn) and MRP2-deficient mutant (EHBR) rats, especially focusing on thyroid morphology, levels of circulating hormones (T4 and triiodothyronine (T3)) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and mRNAmore » or protein expressions of UGTs (Ugt1a1, Ugt1a6, and Ugt2b1/2) and MRP2 (Mrp). CLB induced thyroid morphological changes with increases in TSH in SD and Gunn rats, but not in EHBR rats. T4 was slightly decreased in SD and Gunn rats, and T3 was decreased in Gunn rats, whereas these hormones were maintained in EHBR rats. Hepatic Ugt1a1, Ugt1a6, Ugt2b1/2, and Mrp2 mRNAs were upregulated in SD rats. In Gunn rats, UGT1A mRNAs (Ugt1a1/6) and protein levels were quite low, but UGT2B mRNAs (Ugt2b1/2) and protein were prominently upregulated. In SD and Gunn rats, MRP2 mRNA and protein were upregulated to the same degree. These results suggest that MRP2 is an important contributor in development of the thyroid cellular hypertrophy in CLB-treated rats, and that UGT1A and UGT2B work in concert with MRP2 in the presence of MRP2 function to enable the effective elimination of thyroid hormones. -- Highlights: ► Role of UGT and MRP2 in thyroid pathology was investigated in clobazam-treated rats. ► Clobazam induced thyroid cellular hypertrophy in SD and Gunn rats, but not EHBR rats. ► Hepatic Mrp2 gene and protein were upregulated in SD and Gunn rats, but not EHBR rats. ► Neither serum thyroid hormones

  5. Association between the low-dose irinotecan regimen-induced occurrence of grade 4 neutropenia and genetic variants of UGT1A1 in patients with gynecological cancers

    PubMed Central

    MORIYA, HIROYUKI; SAITO, KATSUHIKO; HELSBY, NUALA; SUGINO, SHIGEKAZU; YAMAKAGE, MICHIAKI; SAWAGUCHI, TAKERU; TAKASAKI, MASAHIKO; KATO, HIDENORI; KUROSAWA, NAHOKO

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of severe neutropenia during treatment with irinotecan (CPT-11) is associated with the *6 and *28 alleles of uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1). However, the correlation between these variants and the occurrence of severe neutropenia in a low-dose CPT-11 regimen for the treatment of gynecological cancers has not been extensively studied. There are also no studies regarding the association between the 421C>A mutation in ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 (ABCG2) and the occurrence of severe neutropenia in CPT-11-treated patients with gynecological cancers. The present study was designed to determine the factors associated with the occurrence of grade 4 neutropenia during chemotherapy for gynecological cancers with combinations of CPT-11 and cisplatin or mitomycin C. In total, 44 patients with gynecological cancer were enrolled in the study. The association between the absolute neutrophil count (ANC) nadir values, the total dose of CPT-11 and the genotypes of UGT1A1 or ABCG2 was studied. No correlation was observed between the ANC nadir values and the total dose of CPT-11. The ANC nadir values in the UGT1A1*6/*28 and *6/*6 groups were significantly lower compared with those in the *1/*1 group (P<0.01). Univariate analysis showed no association between the occurrence of grade 4 neutropenia and the ABCG2 421C>A mutation. Subsequent to narrowing the factors by univariate analysis, multivariate logistic regression analysis only detected significant correlations between the occurrence of grade 4 neutropenia and the UGT1A1*6/*6 and *6/*28 groups (P=0.029; odds ratio, 6.90; 95% confidence interval, 1.22–38.99). No associations were detected between the occurrence of grade 4 neutropenia and the heterozygous variant (*1/*6 or *1/*28) genotype, type of regimen or age. In conclusion, the UGT1A1*6/*28 and *6/*6 genotypes were found to be associated with the occurrence of severe neutropenia in the low-dose CPT-11 regimen for

  6. Effects of UGT1A9 genetic polymorphisms on monohydroxylated derivative of oxcarbazepine concentrations and oxcarbazepine monotherapeutic efficacy in Chinese patients with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yao; Fang, Youxin; Wu, Xunyi; Ma, Chunlai; Wang, Yue; Xu, Lan

    2017-03-01

    The human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase which is genetically polymorphic catalyzes glucuronidations of various drugs. The interactions among UGT1A4, UGT1A6, UGT1A9, and UGT2B15 genetic polymorphisms, monohydroxylated derivative (MHD) of oxcarbazepine (OXC) plasma concentrations, and OXC monotherapeutic efficacy were explored in 124 Chinese patients with epilepsy receiving OXC monotherapy. MHD is the major active metabolite of OXC, and its plasma concentration was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography when patients reached their maintenance dose of OXC. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood and SNP genotyping performed using PCR followed by dideoxy chain termination sequencing. We followed the patients for at least 1 year to evaluate the OXC monotherapy efficacy. Patients were divided into two groups according to their therapeutic outcome: group 1, seizure free; group 2, not seizure free. The data were analyzed using T test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Kruskal-Wallis test, chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, correlation analysis, and multivariate regression analysis. T test analysis showed that MHD plasma concentrations were significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.002). One-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni post hoc testing of four candidate SNPs revealed that carriers of the UGT1A9 variant allele I399 C > T (TT 13.28 ± 7.44 mg/L, TC 16.41 ± 6.53 mg/L) had significantly lower MHD plasma concentrations and poorer seizure control than noncarriers (CC 22.24 ± 8.49 mg/L, p < 0.05). In our study, we have demonstrated the effects of UGT1A9 genetic polymorphisms on MHD plasma concentrations and OXC therapeutic efficacy. Through MHD monitoring, we can predict OXC therapeutic efficacy, which may be useful for the personalization of OXC therapy in epileptic patients.

  7. Zebrafish heart failure models: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xingjuan; Chen, Ru; Zhang, Yu; Yun, Junghwa; Brand-Arzamendi, Koroboshka; Liu, Xiangdong; Wen, Xiao-Yan

    2018-05-03

    Heart failure is a complex pathophysiological syndrome of pumping functional failure that results from injury, infection or toxin-induced damage on the myocardium, as well as genetic influence. Gene mutations associated with cardiomyopathies can lead to various pathologies of heart failure. In recent years, zebrafish, Danio rerio, has emerged as an excellent model to study human cardiovascular diseases such as congenital heart defects, cardiomyopathy, and preclinical development of drugs targeting these diseases. In this review, we will first summarize zebrafish genetic models of heart failure arose from cardiomyopathy, which is caused by mutations in sarcomere, calcium or mitochondrial-associated genes. Moreover, we outline zebrafish heart failure models triggered by chemical compounds. Elucidation of these models will improve the understanding of the mechanism of pathogenesis and provide potential targets for novel therapies.

  8. Midline signals regulate retinal neurogenesis in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Masai, I; Stemple, D L; Okamoto, H; Wilson, S W

    2000-08-01

    In zebrafish, neuronal differentiation progresses across the retina in a pattern that is reminiscent of the neurogenic wave that sweeps across the developing eye in Drosophila. We show that expression of a zebrafish homolog of Drosophila atonal, ath5, sweeps across the eye predicting the wave of neuronal differentiation. By analyzing the regulation of ath5 expression, we have elucidated the mechanisms that regulate initiation and spread of neurogenesis in the retina. ath5 expression is lost in Nodal pathway mutant embryos lacking axial tissues that include the prechordal plate. A likely role for axial tissue is to induce optic stalk cells that subsequently regulate ath5 expression. Our results suggest that a series of inductive events, initiated from the prechordal plate and progressing from the optic stalks, regulates the spread of neuronal differentiation across the zebrafish retina.

  9. Tributyltin and Zebrafish: Swimming in Dangerous Water

    PubMed Central

    Berto-Júnior, Clemilson; de Carvalho, Denise Pires; Soares, Paula; Miranda-Alves, Leandro

    2018-01-01

    Zebrafish has been established as a reliable biological model with important insertion in academy (morphologic, biochemical, and pathophysiological studies) and pharmaceutical industry (toxicology and drug development) due to its molecular complexity and similar systems biology that recapitulate those from other organisms. Considering the toxicological aspects, many efforts using zebrafish models are being done in order to elucidate the effects of endocrine disruptors, and some of them are focused on tributyltin (TBT) and its mechanism of action. TBT is an antifouling agent applied in ship’s hull that is constantly released into the water and absorbed by marine organisms, leading to bioaccumulation and biomagnification effects. Thus, several findings of malformations and changes in the normal biochemical and physiologic aspects of these marine animals have been related to TBT contamination. In the present review, we have compiled the most significant studies related to TBT effects in zebrafish, also taking into consideration the effects found in other study models. PMID:29692757

  10. 15 years of zebrafish chemical screening

    PubMed Central

    Rennekamp, Andrew J.; Peterson, Randall T.

    2015-01-01

    In 2000, the first chemical screen using living zebrafish in a multi-well plate was reported. Since then, more than 60 additional screens have been published describing whole-organism drug and pathway discovery projects in zebrafish. To investigate the scope of the work reported in the last 14 years and to identify trends in the field, we analyzed the discovery strategies of 64 primary research articles from the literature. We found that zebrafish screens have expanded beyond the use of developmental phenotypes to include behavioral, cardiac, metabolic, proliferative and regenerative endpoints. Additionally, many creative strategies have been used to uncover the mechanisms of action of new small molecules including chemical phenocopy, genetic phenocopy, mutant rescue, and spatial localization strategies. PMID:25461724

  11. Waterborne exposure to BPS causes thyroid endocrine disruption in zebrafish larvae

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dan-hua; Zhou, En-xiang; Yang, Zhu-lin

    2017-01-01

    Bisphenol S (BPS) is widely used as a raw material in industry, resulting in its ubiquitous distribution in natural environment, including the aqueous environment. However, the effect of BPS on the thyroid endocrine system is largely unknown. In this study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to BPS at 1, 3, 10, and 30 μg/L, from 2 h post-fertilization (hpf) to 168hpf. Bioconcentration of BPS and whole-body thyroid hormones (THs), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations as well as transcriptional profiling of key genes related to the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis were examined. Chemical analysis indicated that BPS was accumulated in zebrafish larvae. Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels were significantly decreased at ≥ 10 and 30 μg/L of BPS, respectively. However, TSH concentration was significantly induced in the 10 and 30 μg/L BPS-treated groups. After exposure to BPS, the mRNA expression of corticotrophin releasing hormone (crh) and thyroglobulin (tg) genes were up-regulated at ≥10 μg/L of BPS, in a dose-response manner. The transcription of genes involved in thyroid development (pax8) and synthesis (sodium/iodide symporter, slc5a5) were also significantly increased in the 30 μg/L of BPS treatment group. Moreover, exposure to 10 μg/L or higher concentration of BPS significantly up-regulated genes related to thyroid hormone metabolism (deiodinases, dio1, dio2 and uridinediphosphate glucoronosyltransferases, ugt1ab), which might be responsible for the altered THs levels. However, the transcript of transthyretin (ttr) was significantly down-regulated at ≥ 3 μg/L of BPS, while the mRNA levels of thyroid hormone receptors (trα and trβ) and dio3 remained unchanged. All the results indicated that exposure to BPS altered the whole-body THs and TSH concentrations and changed the expression profiling of key genes related to HPT axis, thus triggering thyroid endocrine disruption. PMID:28467477

  12. Culturable Gut Microbiota Diversity in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Sørby, Jan Roger Torp; Aleström, Peter; Sørum, Henning

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an increasingly used laboratory animal model in basic biology and biomedicine, novel drug development, and toxicology. The wide use has increased the demand for optimized husbandry protocols to ensure animal health care and welfare. The knowledge about the correlation between culturable zebrafish intestinal microbiota and health in relation to environmental factors and management procedures is very limited. A semi-quantitative level of growth of individual types of bacteria was determined and associated with sampling points. A total of 72 TAB line zebrafish from four laboratories (Labs A–D) in the Zebrafish Network Norway were used. Diagnostic was based on traditional bacterial culture methods and biochemical characterization using commercial kits, followed by 16S rDNA gene sequencing from pure subcultures. Also selected Gram-negative isolates were analyzed for antibiotic susceptibility to 8 different antibiotics. A total of 13 morphologically different bacterial species were the most prevalent: Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas sobria, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Photobacterium damselae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas luteola, Comamonas testosteroni, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus capitis, and Staphylococcus warneri. Only Lab B had significantly higher levels of total bacterial growth (OR=2.03), whereas numbers from Lab C (OR=1.01) and Lab D (OR=1.12) were found to be similar to the baseline Lab A. Sexually immature individuals had a significantly higher level of harvested total bacterial growth than mature fish (OR=0.82), no statistically significant differences were found between male and female fish (OR=1.01), and the posterior intestinal segment demonstrated a higher degree of culturable bacteria than the anterior segment (OR=4.1). Multiple antibiotic (>3) resistance was observed in 17% of the strains. We propose that a rapid

  13. Culturable gut microbiota diversity in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Cantas, Leon; Sørby, Jan Roger Torp; Aleström, Peter; Sørum, Henning

    2012-03-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an increasingly used laboratory animal model in basic biology and biomedicine, novel drug development, and toxicology. The wide use has increased the demand for optimized husbandry protocols to ensure animal health care and welfare. The knowledge about the correlation between culturable zebrafish intestinal microbiota and health in relation to environmental factors and management procedures is very limited. A semi-quantitative level of growth of individual types of bacteria was determined and associated with sampling points. A total of 72 TAB line zebrafish from four laboratories (Labs A-D) in the Zebrafish Network Norway were used. Diagnostic was based on traditional bacterial culture methods and biochemical characterization using commercial kits, followed by 16S rDNA gene sequencing from pure subcultures. Also selected Gram-negative isolates were analyzed for antibiotic susceptibility to 8 different antibiotics. A total of 13 morphologically different bacterial species were the most prevalent: Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas sobria, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Photobacterium damselae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas luteola, Comamonas testosteroni, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus capitis, and Staphylococcus warneri. Only Lab B had significantly higher levels of total bacterial growth (OR=2.03), whereas numbers from Lab C (OR=1.01) and Lab D (OR=1.12) were found to be similar to the baseline Lab A. Sexually immature individuals had a significantly higher level of harvested total bacterial growth than mature fish (OR=0.82), no statistically significant differences were found between male and female fish (OR=1.01), and the posterior intestinal segment demonstrated a higher degree of culturable bacteria than the anterior segment (OR=4.1). Multiple antibiotic (>3) resistance was observed in 17% of the strains. We propose that a rapid conventional

  14. Zebrafish embryo developmental toxicology assay.

    PubMed

    Panzica-Kelly, Julieta M; Zhang, Cindy X; Augustine-Rauch, Karen

    2012-01-01

    A promising in vitro zebrafish developmental toxicology assay was generated to test compounds for their teratogenic potential. The assay's predictivity is approximately 87% in AB strain fish (Brannen KC et al., Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol 89:66-77, 2010). The procedure entails exposing dechorionated gastrulation-stage embryos to a range of compound concentrations for 5 days throughout embryonic and larva development. The larvae are evaluated for viability in order to identify an LC25 (the compound concentration in which 25% lethality is observed) and morphological anomalies using a numerical score system to identify the NOAEL (no observed adverse effect level). These values are used to calculate the teratogenic index (LC25/NOAEL ratio) of each compound. If the teratogenic index is equal to or greater than 10 then the compound is classified as a teratogen, and if the ratio is less than 10 then the compound is classified as a nonteratogen (Brannen KC et al., Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol 89:66-77, 2010).

  15. Glyphosate induces neurotoxicity in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Roy, Nicole M; Carneiro, Bruno; Ochs, Jeremy

    2016-03-01

    Glyphosate based herbicides (GBH) like Roundup(®) are used extensively in agriculture as well as in urban and rural settings as a broad spectrum herbicide. Its mechanism of action was thought to be specific only to plants and thus considered safe and non-toxic. However, mounting evidence suggests that GBHs may not be as safe as once thought as initial studies in frogs suggest that GBHs may be teratogenic. Here we utilize the zebrafish vertebrate model system to study early effects of glyphosate exposure using technical grade glyphosate and the Roundup(®) Classic formulation. We find morphological abnormalities including cephalic and eye reductions and a loss of delineated brain ventricles. Concomitant with structural changes in the developing brain, using in situ hybridization analysis, we detect decreases in genes expressed in the eye, fore and midbrain regions of the brain including pax2, pax6, otx2 and ephA4. However, we do not detect changes in hindbrain expression domains of ephA4 nor exclusive hindbrain markers krox-20 and hoxb1a. Additionally, using a Retinoic Acid (RA) mediated reporter transgenic, we detect no alterations in the RA expression domains in the hindbrain and spinal cord, but do detect a loss of expression in the retina. We conclude that glyphosate and the Roundup(®) formulation is developmentally toxic to the forebrain and midbrain but does not affect the hindbrain after 24 h exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Curcumin affects development of zebrafish embryo.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jheng-Yu; Lin, Chin-Yi; Lin, Tien-Wei; Ken, Chuian-Fu; Wen, Yu-Der

    2007-07-01

    Embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of curcumin on the development of zebrafish embryo were investi-gated in this study. The LD(50) values of curcumin (24-h incubation) were estimated at 7.5 microM and 5 microM for embryos and larvae, respectively. The developmental defects caused by curcumin treatments include bent or hook-like tails, spinal column curving, edema in pericardial sac, retarded yolk sac resorption, and shorter body length. In curcumin-treated larvae, fluorescence signals of curcumin were found in edamae sac and some skin cells. Together, these results indicate that zebrafish are suitable model organisms to study the toxic effects of curcumin.

  17. Reversible grade 4 hyperbilirubinemia in a patient with UGT1A1 7/7 genotype treated with irinotecan and cetuximab.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Bhavna; LeVea, Charles; Litwin, Alan; Fakih, Marwan G

    2007-03-01

    Irinotecan-induced gastrointestinal toxicities are common and typically present in the form of diarrhea or nausea and vomiting. However, severe hyperbilirubinemia (grade 3/4) has not been previously reported in association with this chemotherapeutic agent. We report a case of prolonged grade 4 hyperbilirubinemia after a single dose of irinotecan at 125 mg/m(2). This severe toxicity was attributed to a UGT1A1 7/7 genotype and resolved to grade 2 after 8 weeks of supportive care. This case outlines the possibility of severe hepatic toxicity with moderate doses of irinotecan in patients with a UGT1A1 7/7 genotype. Despite the severity and prolonged duration of the associated irinotecan-induced hepatic toxicity, the management of similar cases should focus on intensive supportive measures because the toxicity is likely to resolve eventually.

  18. Synthesis of Mono- and Di-Glucosides of Zearalenone and α-/β-Zearalenol by Recombinant Barley Glucosyltransferase HvUGT14077

    PubMed Central

    Michlmayr, Herbert; Varga, Elisabeth; Lupi, Francesca; Malachová, Alexandra; Hametner, Christian; Berthiller, Franz; Adam, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is an estrogenic mycotoxin occurring in Fusarium-infected cereals. Glucosylation is an important plant defense mechanism and generally reduces the acute toxicity of mycotoxins to humans and animals. Toxicological information about ZEN-glucosides is limited due to the unavailability of larger amounts required for animal studies. HvUGT14077, a recently-validated ZEN-conjugating barley UDP-glucosyltransferase was expressed in Escherichia coli, affinity purified, and characterized. HvUGT14077 possesses high affinity (Km = 3 µM) and catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km = 190 s−1·mM−1) with ZEN. It also efficiently glucosylates the phase-I ZEN-metabolites α-zearalenol and β-zearalenol, with kcat/Km of 40 and 74 s−1·mM−1, respectively. HvUGT14077 catalyzes O-glucosylation at C-14 and C-16 with preference of 14-glucoside synthesis. Furthermore, relatively slow consecutive formation of 14,16-di-glucosides was observed; their structures were tentatively identified by mass spectrometry and for ZEN-14,16-di-glucoside confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Recombinant HvUGT14077 allowed efficient preparative synthesis of ZEN-glucosides, yielding about 90% ZEN-14-glucoside and 10% ZEN-16-glucoside. The yield of ZEN-16-glucoside could be increased to 85% by co-incubation with a β-glucosidase highly selective for ZEN-14-glucoside. Depletion of the co-substrate UDP-glucose was counteracted by a sucrose synthase based regeneration system. This strategy could also be of interest to increase the yield of minor glucosides synthesized by other glucosyltransferases. PMID:28208765

  19. Cremophor EL-based nanoemulsion enhances transcellular permeation of emodin through glucuronidation reduction in UGT1A1-overexpressing MDCKII cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianpeng; Dong, Dong; Lu, Danyi; Wang, Shuai; Wu, Baojian

    2016-03-30

    Oral emodin, a natural anthraquinone and active component of many herbal medicines, is poorly bioavailable because of extensive first-pass glucuronidation. Here we aimed to prepare emodin nanoemulsion (EMO-NE) containing cremophor EL, and to assess its potential for enhancing transcellular absorption of emodin using UGT1A1-overexpressing MDCKII cells (or MDCK1A1 cells). EMO-NE was prepared using a modified emulsification technique and subsequently characterized by particle size, morphology, stability, and drug release. MDCKII cells were stably transfected with UGT1A1 using the lentiviral transfection approach. Emodin transport and metabolism were evaluated in Transwell-cultured MDCK1A1 cells after apical dosing of EMO-NE or control solution. The obtained EMO-NE (116 ± 6.5 nm) was spherical and stable for at least 2 months. Emodin release in vitro was a passive diffusion-driven process. EMO-NE administration increased the apparent permeability of emodin by a 2.3-fold (p<0.001) compared to the pure emodin solution (1.2 × 10(-5) cm/s vs 5.3 × 10(-6) cm/s). Further, both apical and basolateral excretion of emodin glucuronide (EMO-G) were significantly decreased (≥56.5%, p<0.001) in EMO-NE group. This was accompanied by a marked reduction (57.4%, p<0.001) in total emodin glucuronidation. It was found that the reduced glucuronidation was due to inhibition of cellular metabolism by cremophor EL. Cremophor EL inhibited UGT1A1-mediated glucuronidation of emodin using the mixed-type inhibition mechanism. In conclusion, cremophor EL-based nanoemulsion greatly enhanced transcellular permeation of emodin through inhibition of UGT metabolism. This cremophor EL-based nanoformulation may be a promising strategy to improve the oral bioavailability of emodin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Dose-dependent testosterone sensitivity of the steroidal passport and GC-C-IRMS analysis in relation to the UGT2B17 deletion polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Strahm, Emmanuel; Mullen, Jenny E; Gårevik, Nina; Ericsson, Magnus; Schulze, Jenny J; Rane, Anders; Ekström, Lena

    2015-01-01

    The newly implemented Steroid Module of the Athlete Biological Passport has improved doping tests for steroids. A biomarker included in this passport is the urinary testosterone glucuronide to epitestosterone glucuronide (T/E) ratio, a ratio greatly affected by a deletion polymorphism in UGT2B17. Suspect urine doping tests are further analyzed with gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) to determine the origin of the androgen. In this study, we investigated the sensitivity of the steroidal module and the IRMS analysis, in subjects administered with three doses of testosterone enanthate (500, 250, and 125 mg), in relation to the UGT2B17 polymorphism. All subjects carrying the UGT2B17 enzyme reached the traditionally used threshold, a T/E ratio of 4, after all three administered doses, whereas none of the subjects devoid of this enzyme reached a T/E of 4. On the other hand, using the athlete biological passport and IRMS analysis, all three doses could be detected to a high degree of sensitivity. The concentrations of all steroids included in the steroidal module were dose dependently increased, except for epitestosterone which decreased independent of dose. The decrease in epitestosterone was significantly associated with circulatory levels of testosterone post dose (rs =0.60 and p=0.007). In conclusion, these results demonstrate that administration of a single dose of 125-500 mg testosterone enanthate could be detected using the athlete biological passport, together with IRMS. Since IRMS is sensitive to testosterone doping independent of UGT2B17 genotype, also very small changes in the steroidal passport should be investigated with IRMS. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. "Is English Also the Place Where I Belong?": Linguistic Biographies and Expanding Communicative Repertoires in Central Java

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zentz, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    This article employs the term "communicative repertoire" in order to highlight that when one learns any new "language", one introduces new communicative resources into a unified communicative repertoire. As repertoires represent such singular "grammars" in individuals' minds, learned communicative resources can…

  2. Memory B lymphocytes determine repertoire oligoclonality early after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    OMAZIC, B; LUNDKVIST, I; MATTSSON, J; PERMERT, J; NÄSMAN-BJÖRK, I

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if oligoclonality of the Ig repertoire post-haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is restricted to memory B lymphocytes or if it is a general property among B lymphocytes. As a measure of B lymphocyte repertoire diversity, we have analysed size distribution of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified Ig H complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) in naive and memory B lymphocytes isolated from patients before HSCT and at 3, 6 and 12 months after HSCT as well as from healthy controls. We demonstrate a limited variation of the IgH CDR3 repertoire in the memory B lymphocyte population compared to the naive B cell population. This difference was significant at 3 and 6 months post-HSCT. Compared to healthy controls there is a significant restriction of the memory B lymphocyte repertoire at 3 months after HSCT, but not of the naive B lymphocyte repertoire. Twelve months after HSCT, the IgH CDR3 repertoire in both memory and naive B lymphocytes are as diverse as in healthy controls. Thus, our findings suggest a role for memory B cells in the restriction of the oligoclonal B cell repertoire observed early after HSCT, which may be of importance when considering reimmunization of transplanted patients. PMID:12974769

  3. Immune Repertoire after Immunization As Seen by Next-Generation Sequencing and Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    VanDuijn, Martijn M.; Dekker, Lennard J.; van IJcken, Wilfred F. J.; Sillevis Smitt, Peter A. E.; Luider, Theo M.

    2017-01-01

    The immune system produces a diverse repertoire of immunoglobulins in response to foreign antigens. During B-cell development, VDJ recombination and somatic mutations generate diversity, whereas selection processes remove it. Using both proteomic and NGS approaches, we characterized the immune repertoires in groups of rats after immunization with purified antigens. Proteomics and NGS data on the repertoire are in qualitative agreement, but did show quantitative differences that may relate to differences between the biological niches that were sampled for these approaches. Both methods contributed complementary information in the characterization of the immune repertoire. It was found that the immune repertoires resulting from each antigen had many similarities that allowed samples to cluster together, and that mutated immunoglobulin peptides were shared among animals with a response to the same antigen significantly more than for different antigens. However, the number of shared sequences decreased in a log-linear fashion relative to the number of animals that share them, which may affect future applications. A phylogenetic analysis on the NGS reads showed that reads from different individuals immunized with the same antigen populated distinct branches of the phylogram, an indication that the repertoire had converged. Also, similar mutation patterns were found in branches of the phylogenetic tree that were associated with antigen-specific immunoglobulins through proteomics data. Thus, data from different analysis methods and different experimental platforms show that the immunoglobulin repertoires of immunized animals have overlapping and converging features. With additional research, this may enable interesting applications in biotechnology and clinical diagnostics. PMID:29085363

  4. Food repertoire history in children with autism spectrum disorder in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tanoue, Koji; Takamasu, Tetsuya; Matsui, Kiyoshi

    2017-03-01

    Food selectivity is commonly reported in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The aim of this study was to investigate eating habit history in children with ASD. We analyzed 3 day food records completed by the parents and assessed how many unique foods each child consumed. The parents were also interviewed about their child's diet of complementary (i.e. transition) foods and estimated food repertoire at the ages of 3, 6, 12 and 18 years. A total of 28 participants were enrolled in this study. Some participants had ongoing changes in food repertoire from the age of 3 years onward. In two cases, although the number of foods consumed at age 3 years was approximately 50, this decreased markedly, becoming severely limited, by age 5 years. One of the reasons for diminished repertoire was infection, such as acute gastroenteritis and upper respiratory tract infection. In contrast, five patients had a severely limited food repertoire at age 3 years, which later increased to 15 or more. Four patients had good opportunity at school to increase their food repertoire. Diet history varied and changed in response to new opportunities, education and/or the environment. In some cases the number of foods consumed decreased gradually due to anxiety and stress, resulting in a severely limited food repertoire. Some patients had good opportunities to increase their repertoire at school. If an effective program in the early years achieves progress, the eating habits of children with ASD might be changed. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  5. UGT2B17 and SULT1A1 gene copy number variation (CNV) detection by LabChip microfluidic technology.

    PubMed

    Gaedigk, Andrea; Gaedigk, Roger; Leeder, J Steven

    2010-05-01

    Gene copy number variations (CNVs) are increasingly recognized to play important roles in the expression of genes and hence on their respective enzymatic activities. This has been demonstrated for a number of drug metabolizing genes, such as UDP-glucuronosyltransferases 2B17 (UGT2B17) and sulfotransferase 1A1 (SULT1A1), which are subject to genetic heterogeneity, including CNV. Quantitative assays to assess gene copy number are therefore becoming an integral part of accurate genotype assessment and phenotype prediction. In this study, we evaluated a microfluidics-based system, the Bio-Rad Experion system, to determine the power and utility of this platform to detect UGT2B17 and SULT1A1 CNV in DNA samples derived from blood and tissue. UGT2B17 is known to present with 0, 1 or 2 and SULT1A1 with up to 5 gene copies. Distinct clustering (p<0.001) into copy number groups was achieved for both genes. DNA samples derived from blood exhibited less inter-run variability compared to DNA samples obtained from liver tissue. This variability may be caused by tissue-specific PCR inhibitors as it could be overcome by using DNA from another tissue, or after the DNA had undergone whole genome amplification. This method produced results comparable to those reported for other quantitative test platforms.

  6. DPYD and UGT1A1 genotyping to predict adverse events during first-line FOLFIRI or FOLFOXIRI plus bevacizumab in metastatic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Cremolini, Chiara; Del Re, Marzia; Antoniotti, Carlotta; Lonardi, Sara; Bergamo, Francesca; Loupakis, Fotios; Borelli, Beatrice; Marmorino, Federica; Citi, Valentina; Cortesi, Enrico; Moretto, Roberto; Ronzoni, Monica; Tomasello, Gianluca; Zaniboni, Alberto; Racca, Patrizia; Buonadonna, Angela; Allegrini, Giacomo; Ricci, Vincenzo; Di Donato, Samantha; Zagonel, Vittorina; Boni, Luca; Falcone, Alfredo; Danesi, Romano

    2018-01-30

    Our study addresses the issue of the clinical reliability of three candidate DPYD and one UGT single nucleotide polymorphisms in predicting 5-fluorouracil- and irinotecan-related adverse events. To this purpose, we took advantage of a large cohort of metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with first-line 5-fluorouracil- and irinotecan-based chemotherapy regimens (i.e., FOLFIRI or FOLFOXIRI) plus bevacizumab in the randomized clinical trial TRIBE by GONO (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00719797), in which adverse events were carefully and prospectively collected at each treatment cycle. Here we show that patients bearing DPYD c.1905+1G/A and c.2846A/T genotypes, together with UGT1A1*28 variant carriers, have an increased risk of experiencing clinically relevant toxicities, including hematological AEs and stomatitis. No carrier of the DPYD c.1679T>G minor allele was identified. Present results support the preemptive screening of mentioned DPYD and UGT1A1 variants to identify patients at risk of clinically relevant 5-fluoruracil- and irinotecan-related AEs, in order to improve treatments' safety through a "genotype-guided" approach.

  7. UGT1A1 (TA)n genotyping in sickle-cell disease: high resolution melting (HRM) curve analysis or direct sequencing, what is the best way?

    PubMed

    Thomas, Vincent; Mazard, Blandine; Garcia, Caroline; Lacan, Philippe; Gagnieu, Marie-Claude; Joly, Philippe

    2013-09-23

    Minucci et al. have proposed in 2010 a rapid, simple and cost-effective HRM method on the LightCycler 480® apparatus (Roche) for the determination of the 6/6, 6/7 and 7/7 genotypes of the (TA)n UGT1A1 promoter polymorphism. However, they have not studied the n=5 and n=8 alleles which can be quite frequent in sickle-cell disease patients. The aim of our study was to test this HRM protocol to all the 10 possible (TA)n UGT1A1 genotypes (i.e. 5/5, 5/6, 5/7, 5/8, 6/6, 6/7, 6/8, 7/7, 7/8 and 8/8) by using our SCD cohort of patients. All genotypes could be unambiguously identified except 6/7 and 6/8 which give a similar HRM profile. For those two genotypes, the differentiation necessitates either a direct Sanger sequencing or a second PCR protocol followed by a 3% agarose gel migration. For the (TA)n UGT1A1 promoter genotyping of African patients, each lab has to wonder what is the best way between (i) direct Sanger sequencing of all patients and (ii) HRM protocol for all patients followed by a complementary analysis to differentiate the 6/7 and 6/8 genotypes. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Detecting Developmental Neurotoxicants Using Zebrafish Embryos

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of EPA’s program on the screening and prioritization of chemicals for developmental neurotoxicity, a rapid, cost-effective in vivo vertebrate screen is being developed using an alternative species approach. Zebrafish (Danio rerio), a small freshwater fish with external f...

  9. Teaching Stress Physiology Using Zebrafish ("Danio Rerio")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Michael; Dhawale, Shree; Mustafa, Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    A straightforward and inexpensive laboratory experiment is presented that investigates the physiological stress response of zebrafish after a 5 degree C increase in water temperature. This experiment is designed for an undergraduate physiology lab and allows students to learn the scientific method and relevant laboratory techniques without causing…

  10. Zebrafish in Toxicology and Environmental Health.

    PubMed

    Bambino, Kathryn; Chu, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    As manufacturing processes and development of new synthetic compounds increase to keep pace with the expanding global demand, environmental health, and the effects of toxicant exposure are emerging as critical public health concerns. Additionally, chemicals that naturally occur in the environment, such as metals, have profound effects on human and animal health. Many of these compounds are in the news: lead, arsenic, and endocrine disruptors such as bisphenol A have all been widely publicized as causing disease or damage to humans and wildlife in recent years. Despite the widespread appreciation that environmental toxins can be harmful, there is limited understanding of how many toxins cause disease. Zebrafish are at the forefront of toxicology research; this system has been widely used as a tool to detect toxins in water samples and to investigate the mechanisms of action of environmental toxins and their related diseases. The benefits of zebrafish for studying vertebrate development are equally useful for studying teratogens. Here, we review how zebrafish are being used both to detect the presence of some toxins as well as to identify how environmental exposures affect human health and disease. We focus on areas where zebrafish have been most effectively used in ecotoxicology and in environmental health, including investigation of exposures to endocrine disruptors, industrial waste byproducts, and arsenic. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Behavorial assessments of larval zebrafish neurotoxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fishes have long been a popular organism in ecotoxicology research, and are increasingly used in human health research as an alternative animal model for chemical screening. Our laboratory incorporates a zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo/larval assay to screen chemicals for developm...

  12. Functional and Structural Characterization of Zebrafish ASC.

    PubMed

    Li, Yajuan; Huang, Yi; Cao, Xiaocong; Yin, Xueying; Jin, Xiangyu; Liu, Sheng; Jiang, Jiansheng; Jiang, Wei; Xiao, Tsan Sam; Zhou, Rongbin; Cai, Gang; Hu, Bing; Jin, Tengchuan

    2018-05-23

    The zebrafish genome encodes homologs for most of the proteins involved in inflammatory pathways; however, the molecular components and activation mechanisms of fish inflammasomes are largely unknown. ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase-recruitment domain (CARD)) is the only adaptor involved in the formation of multiple types of inflammasomes. Here, we demonstrate that zASC is also involved in inflammasome activation in zebrafish. When overexpressed in vitro and in vivo in zebrafish, both the zASC and zASC pyrin domain (PYD) proteins form speck and filament structures. Importantly, the crystal structures of the N-terminal PYD and C-terminal CARD of zebrafish ASC were determined independently as two separate entities fused to maltose-binding protein (MBP). Structure-guided mutagenesis revealed the functional relevance of the PYD hydrophilic surface found in the crystal lattice. Finally, the fish caspase-1 homolog Caspy, but not the caspase-4/11 homolog Caspy2, interacts with zASC through homotypic PYD-PYD interactions, which differ from those in mammals. These observations establish the conserved and unique structural/functional features of the zASC-dependent inflammasome pathway. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. An outbreak of Plesimonus Shigelloides in Zebrafish

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plesiomonas shigelloides is a flagellated, gram-negative rod that is an emergent pathogen associated with human gastroenteritis. Recently, we experienced a disease outbreak in zebrafish that were obtained from a commercial source. Fourteen days after being held at 27°C in our flow-through quarantine...

  14. Habenular kisspeptin modulates fear in the zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Satoshi; Nathan, Fatima M.; Parhar, Ishwar S.

    2014-01-01

    Kisspeptin, a neuropeptide encoded by the KISS1/Kiss1, and its cognate G protein-coupled receptor, GPR54 (kisspeptin receptor, Kiss-R), are critical for the control of reproduction in vertebrates. We have previously identified two kisspeptin genes (kiss1 and kiss2) in the zebrafish, of which kiss1 neurons are located in the habenula, which project to the median raphe. kiss2 neurons are located in the hypothalamic nucleus and send axonal projections to gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons and regulate reproductive functions. However, the physiological significance of the Kiss1 expressed in the habenula remains unknown. Here we demonstrate the role of habenular Kiss1 in alarm substance (AS)-induced fear response in the zebrafish. We found that AS-evoked fear experience significantly reduces kiss1 and serotonin-related genes (plasmacytoma expressed transcript 1 and solute carrier family 6, member 4) in the zebrafish. Furthermore, Kiss1 administration suppressed the AS-evoked fear response. To further evaluate the role of Kiss1 in fear response, zebrafish Kiss1 peptide was conjugated to saporin (SAP) to selectively inactivate Kiss-R1-expressing neurons. The Kiss1-SAP injection significantly reduced Kiss1 immunoreactivity and c-fos mRNA in the habenula and the raphe compared with control. Furthermore, 3 d after Kiss1-SAP injection, the fish had a significantly reduced AS-evoked fear response. These findings provide an insight into the role of the habenular kisspeptin system in inhibiting fear. PMID:24567386

  15. Axonal regeneration in zebrafish spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Subhra Prakash

    2018-01-01

    Abstract In the present review we discuss two interrelated events—axonal damage and repair—known to occur after spinal cord injury (SCI) in the zebrafish. Adult zebrafish are capable of regenerating axonal tracts and can restore full functionality after SCI. Unlike fish, axon regeneration in the adult mammalian central nervous system is extremely limited. As a consequence of an injury there is very little repair of disengaged axons and therefore functional deficit persists after SCI in adult mammals. In contrast, peripheral nervous system axons readily regenerate following injury and hence allow functional recovery both in mammals and fish. A better mechanistic understanding of these three scenarios could provide a more comprehensive insight into the success or failure of axonal regeneration after SCI. This review summarizes the present understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of axonal regeneration, in both the peripheral nervous system and the central nervous system, and large scale gene expression analysis is used to focus on different events during regeneration. The discovery and identification of genes involved in zebrafish spinal cord regeneration and subsequent functional experimentation will provide more insight into the endogenous mechanism of myelination and remyelination. Furthermore, precise knowledge of the mechanism underlying the extraordinary axonal regeneration process in zebrafish will also allow us to unravel the potential therapeutic strategies to be implemented for enhancing regrowth and remyelination of axons in mammals. PMID:29721326

  16. Zebrafish in Toxicology and Environmental Health

    PubMed Central

    Bambino, Kathryn; Chu, Jaime

    2018-01-01

    As manufacturing processes and development of new synthetic compounds increase to keep pace with the expanding global demand, environmental health, and the effects of toxicant exposure are emerging as critical public health concerns. Additionally, chemicals that naturally occur in the environment, such as metals, have profound effects on human and animal health. Many of these compounds are in the news: lead, arsenic, and endocrine disruptors such as bisphenol A have all been widely publicized as causing disease or damage to humans and wildlife in recent years. Despite the widespread appreciation that environmental toxins can be harmful, there is limited understanding of how many toxins cause disease. Zebrafish are at the forefront of toxicology research; this system has been widely used as a tool to detect toxins in water samples and to investigate the mechanisms of action of environmental toxins and their related diseases. The benefits of zebrafish for studying vertebrate development are equally useful for studying teratogens. Here, we review how zebrafish are being used both to detect the presence of some toxins as well as to identify how environmental exposures affect human health and disease. We focus on areas where zebrafish have been most effectively used in ecotoxicology and in environmental health, including investigation of exposures to endocrine disruptors, industrial waste byproducts, and arsenic. PMID:28335863

  17. Nanomaterial Toxicity Screening in Developing Zebrafish Embryos

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assess nanomaterial vertebrate toxicity, a high-content screening assay was created using developing zebrafish, Danio rerio. This included a diverse group of nanomaterials (n=42 total) ranging from metallic (Ag, Au) and metal oxide (CeO2, CuO, TiO2, ZnO) nanoparticles, to non...

  18. Axonal regeneration in zebrafish spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sukla; Hui, Subhra Prakash

    2018-03-01

    In the present review we discuss two interrelated events-axonal damage and repair-known to occur after spinal cord injury (SCI) in the zebrafish. Adult zebrafish are capable of regenerating axonal tracts and can restore full functionality after SCI. Unlike fish, axon regeneration in the adult mammalian central nervous system is extremely limited. As a consequence of an injury there is very little repair of disengaged axons and therefore functional deficit persists after SCI in adult mammals. In contrast, peripheral nervous system axons readily regenerate following injury and hence allow functional recovery both in mammals and fish. A better mechanistic understanding of these three scenarios could provide a more comprehensive insight into the success or failure of axonal regeneration after SCI. This review summarizes the present understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of axonal regeneration, in both the peripheral nervous system and the central nervous system, and large scale gene expression analysis is used to focus on different events during regeneration. The discovery and identification of genes involved in zebrafish spinal cord regeneration and subsequent functional experimentation will provide more insight into the endogenous mechanism of myelination and remyelination. Furthermore, precise knowledge of the mechanism underlying the extraordinary axonal regeneration process in zebrafish will also allow us to unravel the potential therapeutic strategies to be implemented for enhancing regrowth and remyelination of axons in mammals.

  19. Zebrafish Locomotor Responses Predict Irritant Potential of ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Over the past few decades, the drying and warming trends of global climate change have increased wildland fire (WF) season length, as well as geographic area impacted. Consequently, exposures to WF fine particulate matter (PM2.5; aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm) are likely to increase in frequency and duration, contributing to a growing public health burden. Given the influence of fuel type and combustion conditions on WFPM2.5 composition, there is pressing need to identify the biomass fuel sources and emission constituents that drive toxicity. Previously, we reported the utility of 6-day post-fertilization (dpf) zebrafish larvae in evaluating diesel exhaust PM-induced irritation, demonstrating responses analogous to those in mammals. In the present study, combustions, separated by smoldering or flaming conditions, of pine needles, red oak, pine, eucalyptus, and peat were achieved using an automated tube furnace paired with a cryo-trapping apparatus to collect condensates of emissions. The condensates were extracted and prepared for use in zebrafish assays. We hypothesized that 1) the extractable organic fractions of biomass smoke PM will elicit dose-dependent irritant responses in 6-dpf zebrafish larvae, and 2) the relative potencies will vary across biomass emissions, potentially driven by varying chemical composition of fuel sources. Six-dpf zebrafish (n= 28-32/group) were exposed acutely to PM extracts (5 concentrations; 0.3-30 µg/ml; half-log intervals) and

  20. Live imaging of apoptotic cells in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    van Ham, Tjakko J.; Mapes, James; Kokel, David; Peterson, Randall T.

    2010-01-01

    Many debilitating diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases, involve apoptosis. Several methods have been developed for visualizing apoptotic cells in vitro or in fixed tissues, but few tools are available for visualizing apoptotic cells in live animals. Here we describe a genetically encoded fluorescent reporter protein that labels apoptotic cells in live zebrafish embryos. During apoptosis, the phospholipid phosphatidylserine (PS) is exposed on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. The calcium-dependent protein Annexin V (A5) binds PS with high affinity, and biochemically purified, fluorescently labeled A5 probes have been widely used to detect apoptosis in vitro. Here we show that secreted A5 fused to yellow fluorescent protein specifically labels apoptotic cells in living zebrafish. We use this fluorescent probe to characterize patterns of apoptosis in living zebrafish larvae and to visualize neuronal cell death at single-cell resolution in vivo.—Van Ham, T. J., Mapes, J., Kokel, D., Peterson, R. T. Live imaging of apoptotic cells in zebrafish. PMID:20601526

  1. Illuminating Phagocyte Biology: The View from Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cong; Niethammer, Philipp

    2016-07-25

    Many phagocyte behaviors, including vascular rolling and adhesion, migration, and oxidative bursting, are better measured in seconds or minutes than hours or days. Zebrafish is ideally suited for imaging such rapid biology within the intact animal. We discuss how this model has revealed unique insights into various aspects of phagocyte physiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Gene repertoire of amoeba-associated giant viruses.

    PubMed

    Colson, Philippe; Raoult, Didier

    2010-01-01

    Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus, Marseillevirus, and Sputnik, a virophage, are intra-amoebal viruses that have been isolated from water collected in cooling towers. They have provided fascinating data and have raised exciting questions about viruses definition and evolution. Mimivirus and Marseillevirus have been classified in the nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) class. Their genomes are the largest and fifth largest viral genomes sequenced so far. The gene repertoire of these amoeba-associated viruses can be divided into four groups: the core genome, genes acquired by lateral gene transfer, duplicated genes, and ORFans. Open reading frames (ORFs) that have homologs in the NCLDVs core gene set represent 2.9 and 6.1% of the Mimivirus and Marseillevirus gene contents, respectively. A substantial proportion of the Mimivirus, Marseillevirus and Sputnik ORFs exhibit sequence similarities to homologs found in bacteria, archaea, eukaryotes or viruses. The large amount of chimeric genes in these viral genomes might have resulted from acquisitions by lateral gene transfers, implicating sympatric bacteria and viruses with an intra-amoebal lifestyle. In addition, lineage-specific gene expansion may have played a major role in the genome shaping. Altogether, the data so far accumulated on amoeba-associated giant viruses are a powerful incentive to isolate and study additional strains to gain better understanding of their pangenome. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Plasticity of the Chemoreceptor Repertoire in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shanshan; Stone, Eric A.; Mackay, Trudy F. C.; Anholt, Robert R. H.

    2009-01-01

    For most organisms, chemosensation is critical for survival and is mediated by large families of chemoreceptor proteins, whose expression must be tuned appropriately to changes in the chemical environment. We asked whether expression of chemoreceptor genes that are clustered in the genome would be regulated independently; whether expression of certain chemoreceptor genes would be especially sensitive to environmental changes; whether groups of chemoreceptor genes undergo coordinated rexpression; and how plastic the expression of chemoreceptor genes is with regard to sex, development, reproductive state, and social context. To answer these questions we used Drosophila melanogaster, because its chemosensory systems are well characterized and both the genotype and environment can be controlled precisely. Using customized cDNA microarrays, we showed that chemoreceptor genes that are clustered in the genome undergo independent transcriptional regulation at different developmental stages and between sexes. Expression of distinct subgroups of chemoreceptor genes is sensitive to reproductive state and social interactions. Furthermore, exposure of flies only to odor of the opposite sex results in altered transcript abundance of chemoreceptor genes. These genes are distinct from those that show transcriptional plasticity when flies are allowed physical contact with same or opposite sex members. We analyzed covariance in transcript abundance of chemosensory genes across all environmental conditions and found that they segregated into 20 relatively small, biologically relevant modules of highly correlated transcripts. This finely pixilated modular organization of the chemosensory subgenome enables fine tuning of the expression of the chemoreceptor repertoire in response to ecologically relevant environmental and physiological conditions. PMID:19816562

  4. Degeneracy-Driven Self-Structuring Dynamics in Selective Repertoires

    PubMed Central

    Atamas, Sergei P.; Bell, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Numerous biological interactions, such as interactions between T cell receptors or antibodies with antigens, interactions between enzymes and substrates, or interactions between predators and prey are often not strictly specific. In such less specific, or “sloppy,” systems, referred to here as degenerate systems, a given unit of a diverse resource (antigens, enzymatic substrates, prey) is at risk of being recognized and consumed by multiple consumers (lymphocytes, enzymes, predators). In this study, we model generalized degenerate consumer-resource systems of Lotka–Volterra and Verhulst types. In the degenerate systems of Lotka–Volterra, there is a continuum of types of consumer and resource based on variation of a single trait (characteristic, or preference). The consumers experience competition for a continuum of resource types. This non-local interaction system is modeled with partial differential-integral equations and shows spontaneous self-structuring of the consumer population that depends on the degree of interaction degeneracy between resource and consumer, but does not mirror the distribution of resource. We also show that the classical Verhulst (i.e. logistic) single population model can be generalized to a degenerate model, which shows qualitative behavior similar to that in the degenerate Lotka–Volterra model. These results provide better insight into the dynamics of selective systems in biology, suggesting that adaptation of degenerate repertoires is not a simple “mirroring” of the environment by the “fittest” elements of population. PMID:19337776

  5. Degeneracy-driven self-structuring dynamics in selective repertoires.

    PubMed

    Atamas, Sergei P; Bell, Jonathan

    2009-08-01

    Numerous biological interactions, such as interactions between T cell receptors or antibodies with antigens, interactions between enzymes and substrates, or interactions between predators and prey are often not strictly specific. In such less specific, or "sloppy," systems, referred to here as degenerate systems, a given unit of a diverse resource (antigens, enzymatic substrates, prey) is at risk of being recognized and consumed by multiple consumers (lymphocytes, enzymes, predators). In this study, we model generalized degenerate consumer-resource systems of Lotka-Volterra and Verhulst types. In the degenerate systems of Lotka-Volterra, there is a continuum of types of consumer and resource based on variation of a single trait (characteristic, or preference). The consumers experience competition for a continuum of resource types. This non-local interaction system is modeled with partial differential-integral equations and shows spontaneous self-structuring of the consumer population that depends on the degree of interaction degeneracy between resource and consumer, but does not mirror the distribution of resource. We also show that the classical Verhulst (i.e. logistic) single population model can be generalized to a degenerate model, which shows qualitative behavior similar to that in the degenerate Lotka-Volterra model. These results provide better insight into the dynamics of selective systems in biology, suggesting that adaptation of degenerate repertoires is not a simple "mirroring" of the environment by the "fittest" elements of population.

  6. Schizophyllum commune has an extensive and functional alternative splicing repertoire

    DOE PAGES

    Gehrmann, Thies; Pelkmans, Jordi F.; Lugones, Luis G.; ...

    2016-09-23

    Recent genome-wide studies have demonstrated that fungi possess the machinery to alternatively splice pre-mRNA. However, there has not been a systematic categorization of the functional impact of alternative splicing in a fungus. We investigate alternative splicing and its functional consequences in the model mushroom forming fungus Schizophyllum commune. Alternative splicing was demonstrated for 2,285 out of 12,988 expressed genes, resulting in 20% additional transcripts. Intron retentions were the most common alternative splicing events, accounting for 33% of all splicing events, and 43% of the events in coding regions. On the other hand, exon skipping events were rare in coding regionsmore » (1%) but enriched in UTRs where they accounted for 57% of the events. Specific functional groups, including transcription factors, contained alternatively spliced genes. Alternatively spliced transcripts were regulated differently throughout development in 19% of the 2,285 alternatively spliced genes. Notably, 69% of alternatively spliced genes have predicted alternative functionality by loss or gain of functional domains, or by acquiring alternative subcellular locations. S. commune exhibits more alternative splicing than any other studied fungus. Finally, taken together, alternative splicing increases the complexity of the S. commune proteome considerably and provides it with a rich repertoire of alternative functionality that is exploited dynamically.« less

  7. Schizophyllum commune has an extensive and functional alternative splicing repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Gehrmann, Thies; Pelkmans, Jordi F.; Lugones, Luis G.; Wösten, Han A. B.; Abeel, Thomas; Reinders, Marcel J. T.

    2016-01-01

    Recent genome-wide studies have demonstrated that fungi possess the machinery to alternatively splice pre-mRNA. However, there has not been a systematic categorization of the functional impact of alternative splicing in a fungus. We investigate alternative splicing and its functional consequences in the model mushroom forming fungus Schizophyllum commune. Alternative splicing was demonstrated for 2,285 out of 12,988 expressed genes, resulting in 20% additional transcripts. Intron retentions were the most common alternative splicing events, accounting for 33% of all splicing events, and 43% of the events in coding regions. On the other hand, exon skipping events were rare in coding regions (1%) but enriched in UTRs where they accounted for 57% of the events. Specific functional groups, including transcription factors, contained alternatively spliced genes. Alternatively spliced transcripts were regulated differently throughout development in 19% of the 2,285 alternatively spliced genes. Notably, 69% of alternatively spliced genes have predicted alternative functionality by loss or gain of functional domains, or by acquiring alternative subcellular locations. S. commune exhibits more alternative splicing than any other studied fungus. Taken together, alternative splicing increases the complexity of the S. commune proteome considerably and provides it with a rich repertoire of alternative functionality that is exploited dynamically. PMID:27659065

  8. Characterization of zebrafish dysferlin by morpholino knockdown

    SciTech Connect

    Kawahara, Genri; Serafini, Peter R.; Myers, Jennifer A.

    2011-09-23

    Highlights: {yields} cDNAs of zebrafish dysferlin were cloned (6.3 kb). {yields} The dysferlin expression was detected in skeletal muscle, heart and eye. {yields} Injection of antisense morpholinos to dysferlin caused marked muscle disorganization. {yields} Zebrafish dysferlin expression may be involved in stabilizing muscle structures. -- Abstract: Mutations in the gene encoding dysferlin cause two distinct muscular dystrophy phenotypes: limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B (LGMD-2B) and Miyoshi myopathy (MM). Dysferlin is a large transmembrane protein involved in myoblast fusion and membrane resealing. Zebrafish represent an ideal animal model to use for studying muscle disease including abnormalities of dysferlin. cDNAs of zebrafishmore » dysferlin were cloned (6.3 kb) and the predicted amino acid sequences, showed 68% similarity to predicted amino acid sequences of mammalian dysferlin. The expression of dysferlin was mainly in skeletal muscle, heart and eye, and the expression could be detected as early as 11 h post fertilization (hpf). Three different antisense oligonucleotide morpholinos were targeted to inhibit translation of this dysferlin mRNA and the morpholino-injected fish showed marked muscle disorganization which could be detected by birefringence assay. Western blot analysis using dysferlin antibodies showed that the expression of dysferlin was reduced in each of the three morphants. Dysferlin expression was shown to be reduced at the myosepta of zebrafish muscle using immunohistochemistry, although the expression of other muscle membrane components, dystrophin, laminin, {beta}-dystroglycan were detected normally. Our data suggest that zebrafish dysferlin expression is involved in stabilizing muscle structures and its downregulation causes muscle disorganization.« less

  9. Selective reduction in the expression of UGTs and SULTs, a novel mechanism by which piperine enhances the bioavailability of curcumin in rat.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiaohui; Cai, Dake; Zeng, Qiaohuang; Chen, Zhao; Zhong, Guoping; Zhuo, Juncheng; Gan, Haining; Huang, Xuejun; Zhao, Ziming; Yao, Nan; Huang, Dane; Zhang, Chengzhe; Sun, Dongmei; Chen, Yuxing

    2017-01-01

    Curcumin (CUR) is known to exert numerous health-promoting effects in pharmacological studies, but its low bioavailability hinders the development of curcumin as a feasible therapeutic agent. Piperine (PIP) has been reported to enhance the bioavailability of curcumin, but the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. In an attempt to find the mechanism by which piperine enhances the bioavailability of curcumin, the dosage ratio (CUR: PIP) and pre-treatment with piperine were hypothesized as key factors for improving the bioavailability in this combination. Therefore, combining curcumin with piperine at various dose ratios (1:1 to 100:1) and pre-dosing with piperine (0.5-8 h prior to curcumin) were designed to investigate their contributions to the pharmacokinetic parameters of curcumin in rats and their effects on the expression of UGT and SULT isoforms. It was shown that the C max and AUC 0-t of curcumin were slightly increased by 1.29 and 1.67 fold at a ratio of 20:1, while curcumin exposure was enhanced significantly in all the piperine pre-treated rats (0.5-8 h), peaking at 6 h (a 6.09-fold and 5.97-fold increase in C max and AUC 0-t , p < 0.01), regardless of the unchanged t 1/2 and T max . Also observed was a time-dependent inhibition of the hepatic expression of UGT1A6, 1A8, SULT1A1, 1A3, and the colonic expression of UGT1A6 that occurred within 6 h of piperine pre-treatment but was reversed at 8 h, which correlated with the changes in curcumin exposure. Similarly, the inhibitory effect of piperine on most of the UGTs and SULTs are time-dependent in Caco-2 and HepG2 cells. It is concluded that piperine pre-treatment time-dependently improves the bioavailability of curcumin through the reversible and selective inhibition of UGTs and SULTs. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Analysis of Lethality and Malformations During Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Development.

    PubMed

    Raghunath, Azhwar; Perumal, Ekambaram

    2018-01-01

    The versatility offered by zebrafish (Danio rerio) makes it a powerful and an attractive vertebrate model in developmental toxicity and teratogenicity assays. Apart from the newly introduced chemicals as drugs, xenobiotics also induce abnormal developmental abnormalities and congenital malformations in living organisms. Over the recent decades, zebrafish embryo/larva has emerged as a potential tool to test teratogenicity potential of these chemicals. Zebrafish responds to compounds as mammals do as they share similarities in their development, metabolism, physiology, and signaling pathways with that of mammals. The methodology used by the different scientists varies enormously in the zebrafish embryotoxicity test. In this chapter, we present methods to assess lethality and malformations during zebrafish development. We propose two major malformations scoring systems: binomial and relative morphological scoring systems to assess the malformations in zebrafish embryos/larvae. Based on the scoring of the malformations, the test compound can be classified as a teratogen or a nonteratogen and its teratogenic potential is evaluated.

  11. Biosecurity and Health Monitoring at the Zebrafish International Resource Center

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Zoltán M.; Kent, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Zebrafish International Resource Center (ZIRC) is a repository and distribution center for mutant, transgenic, and wild-type zebrafish. In recent years annual imports of new zebrafish lines to ZIRC have increased tremendously. In addition, after 15 years of research, we have identified some of the most virulent pathogens affecting zebrafish that should be avoided in large production facilities, such as ZIRC. Therefore, while importing a high volume of new lines we prioritize safeguarding the health of our in-house fish colony. Here, we describe the biosecurity and health-monitoring program implemented at ZIRC. This strategy was designed to prevent introduction of new zebrafish pathogens, minimize pathogens already present in the facility, and ensure a healthy zebrafish colony for in-house uses and shipment to customers. PMID:27031282

  12. Correlation between plasma concentration ratios of SN-38 glucuronide and SN-38 and neutropenia induction in patients with colorectal cancer and wild-type UGT1A1 gene

    PubMed Central

    HIROSE, KOICHI; KOZU, CHIHIRO; YAMASHITA, KOSHIRO; MARUO, EIJI; KITAMURA, MIZUHO; HASEGAWA, JUNICHI; OMODA, KEI; MURAKAMI, TERUO; MAEDA, YORINOBU

    2011-01-01

    In irinotecan (CPT-11)-based chemotherapy, neutropenia and diarrhea are often induced. In the present study, the clinical significance of the concentration ratios of 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38) glucuronide (SN-38G) and SN-38 in the plasma in predicting CPT-11-induced neutropenia was examined. A total of 17 patients with colorectal cancer and wild-type UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)1A1 gene were enrolled and treated with CPT-11 as part of the FOLFIRI regimen [CPT-11 and fluorouracil (5-FU)]. Blood was taken exactly 15 min following a 2-h continuous infusion of CPT-11. Plasma concentrations of SN-38, SN-38G and CPT-11 were determined by a modified high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The median, maximum and minimum values of plasma SN-38G/SN-38 ratios were 4.25, 7.09 and 1.03, respectively, indicating that UGT activities are variable among patients with the wild-type UGT1A1 gene. The plasma SN-38G/SN-38 ratios decreased with an increase in the trial numbers of chemotherapy (r=0.741, p=0.000669), suggesting that CPT-11 treatment suppresses UGT activity, and the low plasma SN-38G/SN-38 ratios resulted in the induction of greater neutropenia. However, in this analysis, 2 clearly separated regression lines were observed between plasma SN-38G/SN-38 ratios and neutropenia induction. In conclusion, UGT activity involved in SN-38 metabolism is variable among patients with the wild-type UGT1A1 gene, and each CPT-11 treatment suppresses UGT activity. One-point determination of the plasma SN-38G/SN-38 ratio may provide indications for the prediction of CPT-11-induced neutropenia and adjustment of the optimal dose, although further studies are required. PMID:22740978

  13. Natural and man-made V-gene repertoires for antibody discovery

    PubMed Central

    Finlay, William J. J.; Almagro, Juan C.

    2012-01-01

    Antibodies are the fastest-growing segment of the biologics market. The success of antibody-based drugs resides in their exquisite specificity, high potency, stability, solubility, safety, and relatively inexpensive manufacturing process in comparison with other biologics. We outline here the structural studies and fundamental principles that define how antibodies interact with diverse targets. We also describe the antibody repertoires and affinity maturation mechanisms of humans, mice, and chickens, plus the use of novel single-domain antibodies in camelids and sharks. These species all utilize diverse evolutionary solutions to generate specific and high affinity antibodies and illustrate the plasticity of natural antibody repertoires. In addition, we discuss the multiple variations of man-made antibody repertoires designed and validated in the last two decades, which have served as tools to explore how the size, diversity, and composition of a repertoire impact the antibody discovery process. PMID:23162556

  14. Positive emotions broaden the scope of attention and thought-action repertoires

    PubMed Central

    Fredrickson, Barbara L.; Branigan, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The broaden-and-build theory (Fredrickson, 1998, 2001) hypothesises that positive emotions broaden the scope of attention and thought-action repertoires. Two experiments with 104 college students tested these hypotheses. In each, participants viewed a film that elicited (a) amusement, (b) contentment, (c) neutrality, (d) anger, or (e) anxiety. Scope of attention was assessed using a global-local visual processing task (Experiment 1) and thought-action repertoires were assessed using a Twenty Statements Test (Experiment 2). Compared to a neutral state, positive emotions broadened the scope of attention in Experiment 1 and thought-action repertoires in Experiment 2. In Experiment 2, negative emotions, relative to a neutral state, narrowed thought-action repertoires. Implications for promoting emotional well-being and physical health are discussed. PMID:21852891

  15. Biologically inspired robots elicit a robust fear response in zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladu, Fabrizio; Bartolini, Tiziana; Panitz, Sarah G.; Butail, Sachit; Macrı, Simone; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the behavioral response of zebrafish to three fear-evoking stimuli. In a binary choice test, zebrafish are exposed to a live allopatric predator, a biologically-inspired robot, and a computer-animated image of the live predator. A target tracking algorithm is developed to score zebrafish behavior. Unlike computer-animated images, the robotic and live predator elicit a robust avoidance response. Importantly, the robotic stimulus elicits more consistent inter-individual responses than the live predator. Results from this effort are expected to aid in hypothesis-driven studies on zebrafish fear response, by offering a valuable approach to maximize data-throughput and minimize animal subjects.

  16. Automatic multiple zebrafish larvae tracking in unconstrained microscopic video conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoying; Cheng, Eva; Burnett, Ian S; Huang, Yushi; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2017-12-14

    The accurate tracking of zebrafish larvae movement is fundamental to research in many biomedical, pharmaceutical, and behavioral science applications. However, the locomotive characteristics of zebrafish larvae are significantly different from adult zebrafish, where existing adult zebrafish tracking systems cannot reliably track zebrafish larvae. Further, the far smaller size differentiation between larvae and the container render the detection of water impurities inevitable, which further affects the tracking of zebrafish larvae or require very strict video imaging conditions that typically result in unreliable tracking results for realistic experimental conditions. This paper investigates the adaptation of advanced computer vision segmentation techniques and multiple object tracking algorithms to develop an accurate, efficient and reliable multiple zebrafish larvae tracking system. The proposed system has been tested on a set of single and multiple adult and larvae zebrafish videos in a wide variety of (complex) video conditions, including shadowing, labels, water bubbles and background artifacts. Compared with existing state-of-the-art and commercial multiple organism tracking systems, the proposed system improves the tracking accuracy by up to 31.57% in unconstrained video imaging conditions. To facilitate the evaluation on zebrafish segmentation and tracking research, a dataset with annotated ground truth is also presented. The software is also publicly accessible.

  17. Investigating How the Microbiome Interacts With Environmental Chemicals in Zebrafish

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This internship will use an innovative experimental system comprised of colonized and microbe-free zebrafish to learn how microbial colonization status affects the toxicity of environmental chemicals.

  18. A Zebrafish Heart Failure Model for Assessing Therapeutic Agents.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao-Yu; Wu, Si-Qi; Guo, Sheng-Ya; Yang, Hua; Xia, Bo; Li, Ping; Li, Chun-Qi

    2018-03-20

    Heart failure is a leading cause of death and the development of effective and safe therapeutic agents for heart failure has been proven challenging. In this study, taking advantage of larval zebrafish, we developed a zebrafish heart failure model for drug screening and efficacy assessment. Zebrafish at 2 dpf (days postfertilization) were treated with verapamil at a concentration of 200 μM for 30 min, which were determined as optimum conditions for model development. Tested drugs were administered into zebrafish either by direct soaking or circulation microinjection. After treatment, zebrafish were randomly selected and subjected to either visual observation and image acquisition or record videos under a Zebralab Blood Flow System. The therapeutic effects of drugs on zebrafish heart failure were quantified by calculating the efficiency of heart dilatation, venous congestion, cardiac output, and blood flow dynamics. All 8 human heart failure therapeutic drugs (LCZ696, digoxin, irbesartan, metoprolol, qiliqiangxin capsule, enalapril, shenmai injection, and hydrochlorothiazide) showed significant preventive and therapeutic effects on zebrafish heart failure (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, and p < 0.001) in the zebrafish model. The larval zebrafish heart failure model developed and validated in this study could be used for in vivo heart failure studies and for rapid screening and efficacy assessment of preventive and therapeutic drugs.

  19. High prevalence of abnormal motor repertoire at 3 months corrected age in extremely preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Fjørtoft, Toril; Evensen, Kari Anne I; Øberg, Gunn Kristin; Songstad, Nils Thomas; Labori, Cathrine; Silberg, Inger Elisabeth; Loennecken, Marianne; Møinichen, Unn Inger; Vågen, Randi; Støen, Ragnhild; Adde, Lars

    2016-03-01

    To compare early motor repertoire between extremely preterm and term-born infants. An association between the motor repertoire and gestational age and birth weight was explored in extremely preterm infants without severe ultrasound abnormalities. In a multicentre study, the early motor repertoire of 82 infants born extremely preterm (ELGAN:<28 weeks) and/or with extremely low birth weight (ELBW:<1000 g) and 87 term-born infants were assessed by the "Assessment of Motor Repertoire - 2 to 5 Months" (AMR) which is part of Prechtl's "General Movement Assessment", at 12 weeks post-term age. Fidgety movements were classified as normal if present and abnormal if absent, sporadic or exaggerated. Concurrent motor repertoire was classified as normal if smooth and fluent and abnormal if monotonous, stiff, jerky and/or predominantly fast or slow. Eight-teen ELBW/ELGAN infants had abnormal fidgety movements (8 absent, 7 sporadic and 3 exaggerated fidgety movements) compared with 2 control infants (OR:12.0; 95%CI:2.7-53.4) and 46 ELBW/ELGAN infants had abnormal concurrent motor repertoire compared with 17 control infants (OR:5.3; 95%CI:2.6-10.5). Almost all detailed aspects of the AMR differed between the groups. Results were the same when three infants with severe ultrasound abnormalities were excluded. In the remaining ELBW/ELGAN infants, there was no association between motor repertoire and gestational age or birth weight. ELBW/ELGAN infants had poorer quality of early motor repertoire than term-born infants.The findings were not explained by severe abnormalities on neonatal ultrasound scans and were not correlated to the degree of prematurity. The consequences of these abnormal movement patterns remain to be seen in future follow-up studies. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. VDJServer: A Cloud-Based Analysis Portal and Data Commons for Immune Repertoire Sequences and Rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Christley, Scott; Scarborough, Walter; Salinas, Eddie; Rounds, William H; Toby, Inimary T; Fonner, John M; Levin, Mikhail K; Kim, Min; Mock, Stephen A; Jordan, Christopher; Ostmeyer, Jared; Buntzman, Adam; Rubelt, Florian; Davila, Marco L; Monson, Nancy L; Scheuermann, Richard H; Cowell, Lindsay G

    2018-01-01

    Recent technological advances in immune repertoire sequencing have created tremendous potential for advancing our understanding of adaptive immune response dynamics in various states of health and disease. Immune repertoire sequencing produces large, highly complex data sets, however, which require specialized methods and software tools for their effective analysis and interpretation. VDJServer is a cloud-based analysis portal for immune repertoire sequence data that provide access to a suite of tools for a complete analysis workflow, including modules for preprocessing and quality control of sequence reads, V(D)J gene segment assignment, repertoire characterization, and repertoire comparison. VDJServer also provides sophisticated visualizations for exploratory analysis. It is accessible through a standard web browser via a graphical user interface designed for use by immunologists, clinicians, and bioinformatics researchers. VDJServer provides a data commons for public sharing of repertoire sequencing data, as well as private sharing of data between users. We describe the main functionality and architecture of VDJServer and demonstrate its capabilities with use cases from cancer immunology and autoimmunity. VDJServer provides a complete analysis suite for human and mouse T-cell and B-cell receptor repertoire sequencing data. The combination of its user-friendly interface and high-performance computing allows large immune repertoire sequencing projects to be analyzed with no programming or software installation required. VDJServer is a web-accessible cloud platform that provides access through a graphical user interface to a data management infrastructure, a collection of analysis tools covering all steps in an analysis, and an infrastructure for sharing data along with workflows, results, and computational provenance. VDJServer is a free, publicly available, and open-source licensed resource.

  1. The expansion of the metazoan microRNA repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Hertel, Jana; Lindemeyer, Manuela; Missal, Kristin; Fried, Claudia; Tanzer, Andrea; Flamm, Christoph; Hofacker, Ivo L; Stadler, Peter F

    2006-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs have been identified as crucial regulators in both animals and plants. Here we report on a comprehensive comparative study of all known miRNA families in animals. We expand the MicroRNA Registry 6.0 by more than 1000 new homologs of miRNA precursors whose expression has been verified in at least one species. Using this uniform data basis we analyze their evolutionary history in terms of individual gene phylogenies and in terms of preservation of genomic nearness across species. This allows us to reliably identify microRNA clusters that are derived from a common transcript. Results We identify three episodes of microRNA innovation that correspond to major developmental innovations: A class of about 20 miRNAs is common to protostomes and deuterostomes and might be related to the advent of bilaterians. A second large wave of innovations maps to the branch leading to the vertebrates. The third significant outburst of miRNA innovation coincides with placental (eutherian) mammals. In addition, we observe the expected expansion of the microRNA inventory due to genome duplications in early vertebrates and in an ancestral teleost. The non-local duplications in the vertebrate ancestor are predated by local (tandem) duplications leading to the formation of about a dozen ancient microRNA clusters. Conclusion Our results suggest that microRNA innovation is an ongoing process. Major expansions of the metazoan miRNA repertoire coincide with the advent of bilaterians, vertebrates, and (placental) mammals. PMID:16480513

  2. The repertoire of bitter taste receptor genes in canids.

    PubMed

    Shang, Shuai; Wu, Xiaoyang; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Huanxin; Zhong, Huaming; Wei, Qinguo; Yan, Jiakuo; Li, Haotian; Liu, Guangshuai; Sha, Weilai; Zhang, Honghai

    2017-07-01

    Bitter taste receptors (Tas2rs) play important roles in mammalian defense mechanisms by helping animals detect and avoid toxins in food. Although Tas2r genes have been widely studied in several mammals, minimal research has been performed in canids. To analyze the genetic basis of Tas2r genes in canids, we first identified Tas2r genes in the wolf, maned wolf, red fox, corsac fox, Tibetan fox, fennec fox, dhole and African hunting dog. A total of 183 Tas2r genes, consisting of 118 intact genes, 6 partial genes and 59 pseudogenes, were detected. Differences in the pseudogenes were observed among nine canid species. For example, Tas2r4 was a pseudogene in the dog but might play a functional role in other canid species. The Tas2r42 and Tas2r10 genes were pseudogenes in the maned wolf and dhole, respectively, and the Tas2r5 and Tas2r34 genes were pseudogenes in the African hunting dog; however, these genes were intact genes in other canid species. The differences in Tas2r pseudogenes among canids might suggest that the loss of intact Tas2r genes in canid species is species-dependent. We further compared the 183 Tas2r genes identified in this study with Tas2r genes from ten additional carnivorous species to evaluate the potential influence of diet on the evolution of the Tas2r gene repertoire. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of the Tas2r genes from the 18 species intermingled across the tree, suggesting that Tas2r genes are conserved among carnivores. Within canids, we found that some Tas2r genes corresponded to the traditional taxonomic groupings, while some did not. PIC analysis showed that the number of Tas2r genes in carnivores exhibited no positive correlation with diet composition, which might be due to the limited number of carnivores included in our study.

  3. Accurate and predictive antibody repertoire profiling by molecular amplification fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Tarik A.; Friedensohn, Simon; de Vries, Arthur R. Gorter; Straszewski, Jakub; Ruscheweyh, Hans-Joachim; Reddy, Sai T.

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput antibody repertoire sequencing (Ig-seq) provides quantitative molecular information on humoral immunity. However, Ig-seq is compromised by biases and errors introduced during library preparation and sequencing. By using synthetic antibody spike-in genes, we determined that primer bias from multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) library preparation resulted in antibody frequencies with only 42 to 62% accuracy. Additionally, Ig-seq errors resulted in antibody diversity measurements being overestimated by up to 5000-fold. To rectify this, we developed molecular amplification fingerprinting (MAF), which uses unique molecular identifier (UID) tagging before and during multiplex PCR amplification, which enabled tagging of transcripts while accounting for PCR efficiency. Combined with a bioinformatic pipeline, MAF bias correction led to measurements of antibody frequencies with up to 99% accuracy. We also used MAF to correct PCR and sequencing errors, resulting in enhanced accuracy of full-length antibody diversity measurements, achieving 98 to 100% error correction. Using murine MAF-corrected data, we established a quantitative metric of recent clonal expansion—the intraclonal diversity index—which measures the number of unique transcripts associated with an antibody clone. We used this intraclonal diversity index along with antibody frequencies and somatic hypermutation to build a logistic regression model for prediction of the immunological status of clones. The model was able to predict clonal status with high confidence but only when using MAF error and bias corrected Ig-seq data. Improved accuracy by MAF provides the potential to greatly advance Ig-seq and its utility in immunology and biotechnology. PMID:26998518

  4. Novel underwater soundscape: acoustic repertoire of plainfin midshipman fish.

    PubMed

    McIver, Eileen L; Marchaterre, Margaret A; Rice, Aaron N; Bass, Andrew H

    2014-07-01

    Toadfishes are among the best-known groups of sound-producing (vocal) fishes and include species commonly known as toadfish and midshipman. Although midshipman have been the subject of extensive investigation of the neural mechanisms of vocalization, this is the first comprehensive, quantitative analysis of the spectro-temporal characters of their acoustic signals and one of the few for fishes in general. Field recordings of territorial, nest-guarding male midshipman during the breeding season identified a diverse vocal repertoire composed of three basic sound types that varied widely in duration, harmonic structure and degree of amplitude modulation (AM): 'hum', 'grunt' and 'growl'. Hum duration varied nearly 1000-fold, lasting for minutes at a time, with stable harmonic stacks and little envelope modulation throughout the sound. By contrast, grunts were brief, ~30-140 ms, broadband signals produced both in isolation and repetitively as a train of up to 200 at intervals of ~0.5-1.0 s. Growls were also produced alone or repetitively, but at variable intervals of the order of seconds with durations between those of grunts and hums, ranging 60-fold from ~200 ms to 12 s. Growls exhibited prominent harmonics with sudden shifts in pulse repetition rate and highly variable AM patterns, unlike the nearly constant AM of grunt trains and flat envelope of hums. Behavioral and neurophysiological studies support the hypothesis that each sound type's unique acoustic signature contributes to signal recognition mechanisms. Nocturnal production of these sounds against a background chorus dominated constantly for hours by a single sound type, the multi-harmonic hum, reveals a novel underwater soundscape for fish. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Accurate and predictive antibody repertoire profiling by molecular amplification fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Khan, Tarik A; Friedensohn, Simon; Gorter de Vries, Arthur R; Straszewski, Jakub; Ruscheweyh, Hans-Joachim; Reddy, Sai T

    2016-03-01

    High-throughput antibody repertoire sequencing (Ig-seq) provides quantitative molecular information on humoral immunity. However, Ig-seq is compromised by biases and errors introduced during library preparation and sequencing. By using synthetic antibody spike-in genes, we determined that primer bias from multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) library preparation resulted in antibody frequencies with only 42 to 62% accuracy. Additionally, Ig-seq errors resulted in antibody diversity measurements being overestimated by up to 5000-fold. To rectify this, we developed molecular amplification fingerprinting (MAF), which uses unique molecular identifier (UID) tagging before and during multiplex PCR amplification, which enabled tagging of transcripts while accounting for PCR efficiency. Combined with a bioinformatic pipeline, MAF bias correction led to measurements of antibody frequencies with up to 99% accuracy. We also used MAF to correct PCR and sequencing errors, resulting in enhanced accuracy of full-length antibody diversity measurements, achieving 98 to 100% error correction. Using murine MAF-corrected data, we established a quantitative metric of recent clonal expansion-the intraclonal diversity index-which measures the number of unique transcripts associated with an antibody clone. We used this intraclonal diversity index along with antibody frequencies and somatic hypermutation to build a logistic regression model for prediction of the immunological status of clones. The model was able to predict clonal status with high confidence but only when using MAF error and bias corrected Ig-seq data. Improved accuracy by MAF provides the potential to greatly advance Ig-seq and its utility in immunology and biotechnology.

  6. Analysis of the antibody repertoire of lymphoma patients.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shaoming; Preuss, Klaus-Dieter; Xie, Xiaoxun; Regitz, Evi; Pfreundschuh, Michael

    2002-12-01

    Cancer testis or cancer germline antigens (CGA) are promising vaccine candidates because they are expressed only in malignant but not in normal tissues, except for germ cells in the testis. Since non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) express the known CGA at low frequencies, we aimed at increasing the number of CGA with frequent expression in NHL by screening a cDNA expression library derived from normal testis for reactivity with high-titered IgG antibodies in the sera of lymphoma patients using SEREX, the serological identification of antigens by recombinant cDNA expression cloning. The analysis of 1.6x10(6) clones with the sera of 25 lymphoma patients revealed 42 clones which coded for 23 antigens, 12 of which had already been included in the SEREX databank. Four cDNA clones coded for unknown and 19 for known genes. Three antigens reacted only with the serum by which they had been detected, 9 antigens reacted with the sera of several NHL patients, but not with that of healthy controls, and 11 antigens reacted with both normal and NHL sera. Most of the antigens were ubiquitously expressed. Only HOM-NHL-6, HOM-NHL-8, HOM-NHL-21 and HOM-NHL-23 showed a restricted expression pattern. HOM-NHL-6 and HOM-NHL-8 were homologous to the previously described CGA NY-ESO-1 and HOM-TES-14/SCP-1, respectively. HOM-NHL-21 was expressed in rare cases of lymphomas, but not in normal tissues except for testis and brain, while HOM-NHL-23 appeared to be a testis-specific antigen. In summary, using the antibody repertoire of these 25 NHL patients, no new CGA were detected. The number of CGA detectable by the classical SEREX approach appears to be limited, and novel strategies are necessary to identify antigens that can serve as a vaccine target in a broad spectrum of NHL patients.

  7. The Transcriptome of the Zoanthid Protopalythoa variabilis (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) Predicts a Basal Repertoire of Toxin-like and Venom-Auxiliary Polypeptides

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chen; Morlighem, Jean-Étienne RL; Zhou, Hefeng; Lima, Érica P; Gomes, Paula B; Cai, Jing; Lou, Inchio; Pérez, Carlos D; Lee, Simon Ming; Rádis-Baptista, Gandhi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Protopalythoa is a zoanthid that, together with thousands of predominantly marine species, such as hydra, jellyfish, and sea anemones, composes the oldest eumetazoan phylum, i.e., the Cnidaria. Some of these species, such as sea wasps and sea anemones, are highly venomous organisms that can produce deadly toxins for preying, for defense or for territorial disputes. Despite the fact that hundreds of organic and polypeptide toxins have been characterized from sea anemones and jellyfish, practically nothing is known about the toxin repertoire in zoanthids. Here, based on a transcriptome analysis of the zoanthid Protopalythoa variabilis, numerous predicted polypeptides with canonical venom protein features are identified. These polypeptides comprise putative proteins from different toxin families: neurotoxic peptides, hemostatic and hemorrhagic toxins, membrane-active (pore-forming) proteins, protease inhibitors, mixed-function venom enzymes, and venom auxiliary proteins. The synthesis and functional analysis of two of these predicted toxin products, one related to the ShK/Aurelin family and the other to a recently discovered anthozoan toxin, displayed potent in vivo neurotoxicity that impaired swimming in larval zebrafish. Altogether, the complex array of venom-related transcripts that are identified in P. variabilis, some of which are first reported in Cnidaria, provides novel insight into the toxin distribution among species and might contribute to the understanding of composition and evolution of venom polypeptides in toxiferous animals. PMID:27566758

  8. The Transcriptome of the Zoanthid Protopalythoa variabilis (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) Predicts a Basal Repertoire of Toxin-like and Venom-Auxiliary Polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chen; Morlighem, Jean-Étienne Rl; Zhou, Hefeng; Lima, Érica P; Gomes, Paula B; Cai, Jing; Lou, Inchio; Pérez, Carlos D; Lee, Simon Ming; Rádis-Baptista, Gandhi

    2016-10-05

    Protopalythoa is a zoanthid that, together with thousands of predominantly marine species, such as hydra, jellyfish, and sea anemones, composes the oldest eumetazoan phylum, i.e., the Cnidaria. Some of these species, such as sea wasps and sea anemones, are highly venomous organisms that can produce deadly toxins for preying, for defense or for territorial disputes. Despite the fact that hundreds of organic and polypeptide toxins have been characterized from sea anemones and jellyfish, practically nothing is known about the toxin repertoire in zoanthids. Here, based on a transcriptome analysis of the zoanthid Protopalythoa variabilis, numerous predicted polypeptides with canonical venom protein features are identified. These polypeptides comprise putative proteins from different toxin families: neurotoxic peptides, hemostatic and hemorrhagic toxins, membrane-active (pore-forming) proteins, protease inhibitors, mixed-function venom enzymes, and venom auxiliary proteins. The synthesis and functional analysis of two of these predicted toxin products, one related to the ShK/Aurelin family and the other to a recently discovered anthozoan toxin, displayed potent in vivo neurotoxicity that impaired swimming in larval zebrafish. Altogether, the complex array of venom-related transcripts that are identified in P. variabilis, some of which are first reported in Cnidaria, provides novel insight into the toxin distribution among species and might contribute to the understanding of composition and evolution of venom polypeptides in toxiferous animals. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  9. Diversity and divergence of the glioma-infiltrating T-cell receptor repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Jennifer S.; Grinshpun, Boris; Feng, Yaping; Ung, Timothy H.; Neira, Justin A.; Samanamud, Jorge L.; Canoll, Peter; Shen, Yufeng; Sims, Peter A.; Bruce, Jeffrey N.

    2016-01-01

    Although immune signaling has emerged as a defining feature of the glioma microenvironment, how the underlying structure of the glioma-infiltrating T-cell population differs from that of the blood from which it originates has been difficult to measure directly in patients. High-throughput sequencing of T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoires (TCRseq) provides a population-wide statistical description of how T cells respond to disease. We have defined immunophenotypes of whole repertoires based on TCRseq of the α- and β-chains from glioma tissue, nonneoplastic brain tissue, and peripheral blood from patients. Using information theory, we partitioned the diversity of these TCR repertoires into that from the distribution of VJ cassette combinations and diversity due to VJ-independent factors, such as selection due to antigen binding. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) possessed higher VJ-independent diversity than nonneoplastic tissue, stratifying patients according to tumor grade. We found that the VJ-independent components of tumor-associated repertoires diverge more from their corresponding peripheral repertoires than T-cell populations in nonneoplastic brain tissue, particularly for low-grade gliomas. Finally, we identified a “signature” set of TCRs whose use in peripheral blood is associated with patients exhibiting low TIL divergence and is depleted in patients with highly divergent TIL repertoires. This signature is detectable in peripheral blood, and therefore accessible noninvasively. We anticipate that these immunophenotypes will be foundational to monitoring and predicting response to antiglioma vaccines and immunotherapy. PMID:27261081

  10. The gestural repertoire of the wild bonobo (Pan paniscus): a mutually understood communication system.

    PubMed

    Graham, Kirsty E; Furuichi, Takeshi; Byrne, Richard W

    2017-03-01

    In animal communication, signallers and recipients are typically different: each signal is given by one subset of individuals (members of the same age, sex, or social rank) and directed towards another. However, there is scope for signaller-recipient interchangeability in systems where most signals are potentially relevant to all age-sex groups, such as great ape gestural communication. In this study of wild bonobos (Pan paniscus), we aimed to discover whether their gestural communication is indeed a mutually understood communicative repertoire, in which all individuals can act as both signallers and recipients. While past studies have only examined the expressed repertoire, the set of gesture types that a signaller deploys, we also examined the understood repertoire, the set of gestures to which a recipient reacts in a way that satisfies the signaller. We found that most of the gestural repertoire was both expressed and understood by all age and sex groups, with few exceptions, suggesting that during their lifetimes all individuals may use and understand all gesture types. Indeed, as the number of overall gesture instances increased, so did the proportion of individuals estimated to both express and understand a gesture type. We compared the community repertoire of bonobos to that of chimpanzees, finding an 88 % overlap. Observed differences are consistent with sampling effects generated by the species' different social systems, and it is thus possible that the repertoire of gesture types available to Pan is determined biologically.

  11. High Expression of UGT1A1/1A6 in Monkey Small Intestine: Comparison of Protein Expression Levels of Cytochromes P450, UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases, and Transporters in Small Intestine of Cynomolgus Monkey and Human.

    PubMed

    Akazawa, Takanori; Uchida, Yasuo; Miyauchi, Eisuke; Tachikawa, Masanori; Ohtsuki, Sumio; Terasaki, Tetsuya

    2018-01-02

    Cynomolgus monkeys have been widely used for the prediction of drug absorption in humans. The purpose of this study was to clarify the regional protein expression levels of cytochromes P450 (CYPs), UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), and transporters in small intestine of cynomolgus monkey using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and to compare them with the corresponding levels in human. UGT1A1 in jejunum and ileum were >4.57- and >3.11-fold and UGT1A6 in jejunum and ileum were >16.1- and >8.57-fold, respectively, more highly expressed in monkey than in human. Also, jejunal expression of monkey CYP3A8 (homologue of human CYP3A4) was >3.34-fold higher than that of human CYP3A4. Among apical drug efflux transporters, BCRP showed the most abundant expression in monkey and human, and the expression levels of BCRP in monkey and human were >1.74- and >1.25-fold greater than those of P-gp and >2.76- and >4.50-fold greater than those of MRP2, respectively. These findings should be helpful to understand species differences of the functions of CYPs, UGTs, and transporters between monkey and human. The UGT1A1/1A6 data would be especially important because it is difficult to identify isoforms responsible for species differences of intestinal glucuronidation by means of functional studies due to overlapping substrate specificity.

  12. The Morphogenesis of Cranial Sutures in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Topczewska, Jolanta M.; Shoela, Ramy A.; Tomaszewski, Joanna P.; Mirmira, Rupa B.; Gosain, Arun K.

    2016-01-01

    Using morphological, histological, and TEM analyses of the cranium, we provide a detailed description of bone and suture growth in zebrafish. Based on expression patterns and localization, we identified osteoblasts at different degrees of maturation. Our data confirm that, unlike in humans, zebrafish cranial sutures maintain lifelong patency to sustain skull growth. The cranial vault develops in a coordinated manner resulting in a structure that protects the brain. The zebrafish cranial roof parallels that of higher vertebrates and contains five major bones: one pair of frontal bones, one pair of parietal bones, and the supraoccipital bone. Parietal and frontal bones are formed by intramembranous ossification within a layer of mesenchyme positioned between the dermal mesenchyme and meninges surrounding the brain. The supraoccipital bone has an endochondral origin. Cranial bones are separated by connective tissue with a distinctive architecture of osteogenic cells and collagen fibrils. Here we show RNA in situ hybridization for col1a1a, col2a1a, col10a1, bglap/osteocalcin, fgfr1a, fgfr1b, fgfr2, fgfr3, foxq1, twist2, twist3, runx2a, runx2b, sp7/osterix, and spp1/ osteopontin, indicating that the expression of genes involved in suture development in mammals is preserved in zebrafish. We also present methods for examining the cranium and its sutures, which permit the study of the mechanisms involved in suture patency as well as their pathological obliteration. The model we develop has implications for the study of human disorders, including craniosynostosis, which affects 1 in 2,500 live births. PMID:27829009

  13. Ethanol Exposure Causes Muscle Degeneration in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, Elizabeth C.; Pasquarella, Maggie E.; Goody, Michelle F.

    2018-01-01

    Alcoholic myopathies are characterized by neuromusculoskeletal symptoms such as compromised movement and weakness. Although these symptoms have been attributed to neurological damage, EtOH may also target skeletal muscle. EtOH exposure during zebrafish primary muscle development or adulthood results in smaller muscle fibers. However, the effects of EtOH exposure on skeletal muscle during the growth period that follows primary muscle development are not well understood. We determined the effects of EtOH exposure on muscle during this phase of development. Strikingly, muscle fibers at this stage are acutely sensitive to EtOH treatment: EtOH induces muscle degeneration. The severity of EtOH-induced muscle damage varies but muscle becomes more refractory to EtOH as muscle develops. NF-kB induction in muscle indicates that EtOH triggers a pro-inflammatory response. EtOH-induced muscle damage is p53-independent. Uptake of Evans blue dye shows that EtOH treatment causes sarcolemmal instability before muscle fiber detachment. Dystrophin-null sapje mutant zebrafish also exhibit sarcolemmal instability. We tested whether Trichostatin A (TSA), which reduces muscle degeneration in sapje mutants, would affect EtOH-treated zebrafish. We found that TSA and EtOH are a lethal combination. EtOH does, however, exacerbate muscle degeneration in sapje mutants. EtOH also disrupts adhesion of muscle fibers to their extracellular matrix at the myotendinous junction: some detached muscle fibers retain beta-Dystroglycan indicating failure of muscle end attachments. Overexpression of Paxillin, which reduces muscle degeneration in zebrafish deficient for beta-Dystroglycan, is not sufficient to rescue degeneration. Taken together, our results suggest that EtOH exposure has pleiotropic deleterious effects on skeletal muscle. PMID:29615556

  14. Expression of Glycosaminoglycan Epitopes During Zebrafish Skeletogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Anthony J; Mitchell, Ruth E; Bashford, Andrew; Reynolds, Scott; Caterson, Bruce; Hammond, Chrissy L

    2013-01-01

    Background: The zebrafish is an important developmental model. Surprisingly, there are few studies that describe the glycosaminoglycan composition of its extracellular matrix during skeletogenesis. Glycosaminoglycans on proteoglycans contribute to the material properties of musculo skeletal connective tissues, and are important in regulating signalling events during morphogenesis. Sulfation motifs within the chain structure of glycosaminoglycans on cell-associated and extracellular matrix proteoglycans allow them to bind and regulate the sequestration/presentation of bioactive signalling molecules important in musculo-skeletal development. Results: We describe the spatio-temporal expression of different glycosaminoglycan moieties during zebrafish skeletogenesis with antibodies recognising (1) native sulfation motifs within chondroitin and keratan sulfate chains, and (2) enzyme-generated neoepitope sequences within the chain structure of chondroitin sulfate (i.e., 0-, 4-, and 6-sulfated isoforms) and heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans. We show that all the glycosaminoglycan moieties investigated are expressed within the developing skeletal tissues of larval zebrafish. However, subtle changes in their patterns of spatio-temporal expression over the period examined suggest that their expression is tightly and dynamically controlled during development. Conclusions: The subtle differences observed in the domains of expression between different glycosaminoglycan moieties suggest differences in their functional roles during establishment of the primitive analogues of the skeleton. Developmental Dynamics 242:778–789, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Key Findings The developing zebrafish skeleton expresses many different glycosaminoglycan modifications. Multiple different glycosaminoglycan epitopes are dynamically expressed in the craniofacial skeleton. Expression of chondroitin sulfate moieties are dynamically expressed in the vertebral column and precede

  15. BDE 49 and developmental toxicity in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    McClain, Valerie; Stapleton, Heather M.; Gallagher, Evan

    2011-01-01

    The polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a group of brominated flame retardants. Human health concerns of these agents have largely centered upon their potential to elicit reproductive and developmental effects. Of the various congeners, BDE 49 (2,2’,4,5’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether) has been poorly studied, despite the fact that it is often detected in the tissues of fish and wildlife species. Furthermore, we have previously shown that BDE 49 is a metabolic debromination product of BDE 99 hepatic metabolism in salmon, carp and trout, underscoring the need for a better understanding of biological effects. In the current study, we investigated the developmental toxicity of BDE 49 using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo larval model. Embryo and larval zebrafish were exposed to BDE 49 at either 5 hours post fertilization (hpf) or 24 hpf and monitored for developmental and neurotoxicity. Exposure to BDE 49 at concentrations of 4 µM- 32 µM caused a dose-dependent loss in survivorship at 6 days post fertilization (dpf). Morphological impairments were observed prior to the onset of mortality, the most striking of which included severe dorsal curvatures of the tail. The incidence of dorsal tail curvatures was dose and time dependent. Exposure to BDE 49 caused cardiac toxicity as evidenced by a significant reduction in zebrafish heart rates at 6 dpf but not earlier, suggesting that cardiac toxicity was non-specific and associated with physiological stress. Neurobehavioral injury from BDE 49 was evidenced by an impairment of touch-escape responses observed at 5 dpf. Our results indicate that BDE 49 is a developmental toxicant in larval zebrafish that can cause morphological abnormalities and adversely affect neurobehavior. The observed toxicities from BDE 49 were similar in scope to those previously reported for the more common tetrabrominated congener, BDE 47, and also for other lower brominated PBDEs, suggest that these compounds may share similarities in risk to

  16. Social dominance modulates eavesdropping in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Abril-de-Abreu, Rodrigo; Cruz, Ana S.; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2015-01-01

    Group living animals may eavesdrop on signalling interactions between conspecifics and integrate it with their own past social experience in order to optimize the use of relevant information from others. However, little is known about this interplay between public (eavesdropped) and private social information. To investigate it, we first manipulated the dominance status of bystander zebrafish. Next, we either allowed or prevented bystanders from observing a fight. Finally, we assessed their behaviour towards the winners and losers of the interaction, using a custom-made video-tracking system and directional analysis. We found that only dominant bystanders who had seen the fight revealed a significant increase in directional focus (a measure of attention) towards the losers of the fights. Furthermore, our results indicate that information about the fighters' acquired status was collected from the signalling interaction itself and not from post-interaction status cues, which implies the existence of individual recognition in zebrafish. Thus, we show for the first time that zebrafish, a highly social model organism, eavesdrop on conspecific agonistic interactions and that this process is modulated by the eavesdroppers' dominance status. We suggest that this type of integration of public and private information may be ubiquitous in social learning processes. PMID:26361550

  17. Use of zebrafish to study Shigella infection

    PubMed Central

    Duggan, Gina M.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Shigella is a leading cause of dysentery worldwide, responsible for up to 165 million cases of shigellosis each year. Shigella is also recognised as an exceptional model pathogen to study key issues in cell biology and innate immunity. Several infection models have been useful to explore Shigella biology; however, we still lack information regarding the events taking place during the Shigella infection process in vivo. Here, we discuss a selection of mechanistic insights recently gained from studying Shigella infection of zebrafish (Danio rerio), with a focus on cytoskeleton rearrangements and cellular immunity. We also discuss how infection of zebrafish can be used to investigate new concepts underlying infection control, including emergency granulopoiesis and the use of predatory bacteria to combat antimicrobial resistance. Collectively, these insights illustrate how Shigella infection of zebrafish can provide fundamental advances in our understanding of bacterial pathogenesis and vertebrate host defence. This information should also provide vital clues for the discovery of new therapeutic strategies against infectious disease in humans. PMID:29590642

  18. Cell Migration During Heart Regeneration in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Tahara, Naoyuki; Brush, Michael; Kawakami, Yasuhiko

    2018-01-01

    Zebrafish possess the remarkable ability to regenerate injured hearts as adults, which contrasts the very limited ability in mammals. Although very limited, mammalian hearts do in fact have measurable levels of cardiomyocyte regeneration. Therefore, elucidating mechanisms of zebrafish heart regeneration would provide information of naturally occurring regeneration to potentially apply to mammalian studies, in addition to addressing this biologically interesting phenomenon in itself. Studies over the past 13 years have identified processes and mechanisms of heart regeneration in zebrafish. After heart injury, preexisting cardiomyocytes dedifferentiate, enter the cell cycle, and repair the injured myocardium. This process requires interaction with epicardial cells, endocardial cells, and vascular endothelial cells. Epicardial cells envelope the heart, while endocardial cells make up the inner lining of the heart. They provide paracrine signals to cardiomyocytes to regenerate the injured myocardium, which is vascularized during heart regeneration. In addition, accumulating results suggest that local migration of these major cardiac cell types have roles in heart regeneration. In this review, we summarize the characteristics of various heart injury methods used in the research community and regeneration of the major cardiac cell types. Then, we discuss local migration of these cardiac cell types and immune cells during heart regeneration. PMID:27085002

  19. Cell migration during heart regeneration in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Naoyuki; Brush, Michael; Kawakami, Yasuhiko

    2016-07-01

    Zebrafish possess the remarkable ability to regenerate injured hearts as adults, which contrasts the very limited ability in mammals. Although very limited, mammalian hearts do in fact have measurable levels of cardiomyocyte regeneration. Therefore, elucidating mechanisms of zebrafish heart regeneration would provide information of naturally occurring regeneration to potentially apply to mammalian studies, in addition to addressing this biologically interesting phenomenon in itself. Studies over the past 13 years have identified processes and mechanisms of heart regeneration in zebrafish. After heart injury, pre-existing cardiomyocytes dedifferentiate, enter the cell cycle, and repair the injured myocardium. This process requires interaction with epicardial cells, endocardial cells, and vascular endothelial cells. Epicardial cells envelope the heart, while endocardial cells make up the inner lining of the heart. They provide paracrine signals to cardiomyocytes to regenerate the injured myocardium, which is vascularized during heart regeneration. In addition, accumulating results suggest that local migration of these major cardiac cell types have roles in heart regeneration. In this review, we summarize the characteristics of various heart injury methods used in the research community and regeneration of the major cardiac cell types. Then, we discuss local migration of these cardiac cell types and immune cells during heart regeneration. Developmental Dynamics 245:774-787, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Zebrafish heart regeneration: 15 years of discoveries

    PubMed Central

    González‐Rosa, Juan Manuel; Burns, Caroline E.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Compared to other organs such as the liver, the adult human heart lacks the capacity to regenerate on a macroscopic scale after injury. As a result, myocardial infarctions are responsible for approximately half of all cardiovascular related deaths. In contrast, the zebrafish heart regenerates efficiently upon injury through robust myocardial proliferation. Therefore, deciphering the mechanisms that underlie the zebrafish heart's endogenous regenerative capacity represents an exciting avenue to identify novel therapeutic strategies for inducing regeneration of the human heart. This review provides a historical overview of adult zebrafish heart regeneration. We summarize 15 years of research, with a special focus on recent developments from this fascinating field. We discuss experimental findings that address fundamental questions of regeneration research. What is the origin of regenerated muscle? How is regeneration controlled from a genetic and molecular perspective? How do different cell types interact to achieve organ regeneration? Understanding natural models of heart regeneration will bring us closer to answering the ultimate question: how can we stimulate myocardial regeneration in humans? PMID:28979788

  1. Disease modeling in genetic kidney diseases: zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Heiko; Müller-Deile, Janina; Kinast, Mark; Schiffer, Mario

    2017-07-01

    Growing numbers of translational genomics studies are based on the highly efficient and versatile zebrafish (Danio rerio) vertebrate model. The increasing types of zebrafish models have improved our understanding of inherited kidney diseases, since they not only display pathophysiological changes but also give us the opportunity to develop and test novel treatment options in a high-throughput manner. New paradigms in inherited kidney diseases have been developed on the basis of the distinct genome conservation of approximately 70 % between zebrafish and humans in terms of existing gene orthologs. Several options are available to determine the functional role of a specific gene or gene sets. Permanent genome editing can be induced via complete gene knockout by using the CRISPR/Cas-system, among others, or via transient modification by using various morpholino techniques. Cross-species rescues succeeding knockdown techniques are employed to determine the functional significance of a target gene or a specific mutation. This article summarizes the current techniques and discusses their perspectives.

  2. Genomic organization and evolution of the Atlantic salmon hemoglobin repertoire

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The genomes of salmonids are considered pseudo-tetraploid undergoing reversion to a stable diploid state. Given the genome duplication and extensive biological data available for salmonids, they are excellent model organisms for studying comparative genomics, evolutionary processes, fates of duplicated genes and the genetic and physiological processes associated with complex behavioral phenotypes. The evolution of the tetrapod hemoglobin genes is well studied; however, little is known about the genomic organization and evolution of teleost hemoglobin genes, particularly those of salmonids. The Atlantic salmon serves as a representative salmonid species for genomics studies. Given the well documented role of hemoglobin in adaptation to varied environmental conditions as well as its use as a model protein for evolutionary analyses, an understanding of the genomic structure and organization of the Atlantic salmon α and β hemoglobin genes is of great interest. Results We identified four bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) comprising two hemoglobin gene clusters spanning the entire α and β hemoglobin gene repertoire of the Atlantic salmon genome. Their chromosomal locations were established using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis and linkage mapping, demonstrating that the two clusters are located on separate chromosomes. The BACs were sequenced and assembled into scaffolds, which were annotated for putatively functional and pseudogenized hemoglobin-like genes. This revealed that the tail-to-tail organization and alternating pattern of the α and β hemoglobin genes are well conserved in both clusters, as well as that the Atlantic salmon genome houses substantially more hemoglobin genes, including non-Bohr β globin genes, than the genomes of other teleosts that have been sequenced. Conclusions We suggest that the most parsimonious evolutionary path leading to the present organization of the Atlantic salmon hemoglobin genes involves

  3. A bioenergetic model for zebrafish Danio rerio (Hamilton)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chizinski, C.J.; Sharma, Bibek; Pope, K.L.; Patino, R.

    2008-01-01

    A bioenergetics model was developed from observed consumption, respiration and growth rates for zebrafish Danio rerio across a range (18-32?? C) of water temperatures, and evaluated with a 50 day laboratory trial at 28?? C. No significant bias in variable estimates was found during the validation trial; namely, predicted zebrafish mass generally agreed with observed mass. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  4. Mapping the zebrafish brain methylome using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Aniruddha; Ozaki, Yuichi; Stockwell, Peter A; Horsfield, Julia A; Morison, Ian M; Nakagawa, Shinichi

    2013-01-01

    Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) has been used to profile DNA methylation patterns in mammalian genomes such as human, mouse and rat. The methylome of the zebrafish, an important animal model, has not yet been characterized at base-pair resolution using RRBS. Therefore, we evaluated the technique of RRBS in this model organism by generating four single-nucleotide resolution DNA methylomes of adult zebrafish brain. We performed several simulations to show the distribution of fragments and enrichment of CpGs in different in silico reduced representation genomes of zebrafish. Four RRBS brain libraries generated 98 million sequenced reads and had higher frequencies of multiple mapping than equivalent human RRBS libraries. The zebrafish methylome indicates there is higher global DNA methylation in the zebrafish genome compared with its equivalent human methylome. This observation was confirmed by RRBS of zebrafish liver. High coverage CpG dinucleotides are enriched in CpG island shores more than in the CpG island core. We found that 45% of the mapped CpGs reside in gene bodies, and 7% in gene promoters. This analysis provides a roadmap for generating reproducible base-pair level methylomes for zebrafish using RRBS and our results provide the first evidence that RRBS is a suitable technique for global methylation analysis in zebrafish. PMID:23975027

  5. Characterization of behavioral and endocrine effects of LSD on zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Leah; Utterback, Eli; Stewart, Adam; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Chung, Kyung Min; Suciu, Christopher; Wong, Keith; Elegante, Marco; Elkhayat, Salem; Tan, Julia; Gilder, Thomas; Wu, Nadine; Dileo, John; Cachat, Jonathan; Kalueff, Allan V

    2010-12-25

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a potent hallucinogenic drug that strongly affects animal and human behavior. Although adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) are emerging as a promising neurobehavioral model, the effects of LSD on zebrafish have not been investigated previously. Several behavioral paradigms (the novel tank, observation cylinder, light-dark box, open field, T-maze, social preference and shoaling tests), as well as modern video-tracking tools and whole-body cortisol assay were used to characterize the effects of acute LSD in zebrafish. While lower doses (5-100 microg/L) did not affect zebrafish behavior, 250 microg/L LSD increased top dwelling and reduced freezing in the novel tank and observation cylinder tests, also affecting spatiotemporal patterns of activity (as assessed by 3D reconstruction of zebrafish traces and ethograms). LSD evoked mild thigmotaxis in the open field test, increased light behavior in the light-dark test, reduced the number of arm entries and freezing in the T-maze and social preference test, without affecting social preference. In contrast, LSD affected zebrafish shoaling (increasing the inter-fish distance in a group), and elevated whole-body cortisol levels. Overall, our findings show sensitivity of zebrafish to LSD action, and support the use of zebrafish models to study hallucinogenic drugs of abuse. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Identifying Structural Alerts Based on Zebrafish Developmental Morphological Toxicity (TDS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zebrafish constitute a powerful alternative animal model for chemical hazard evaluation. To provide an in vivo complement to high-throughput screening data from the ToxCast program, zebrafish developmental toxicity screens were conducted on the ToxCast Phase I (Padilla et al., 20...

  7. DRUG EFFECTS ON THE LOCOMOTOR ACTIVITY OF LARVAL ZEBRAFISH.

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of an effort to develop a rapid in vivo screen for EPA’s prioritization of toxic chemicals, we have begun to characterize the locomotor activity of zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae and the effects of prototype drugs. Zebrafish larvae (6-7 days post-fertilization) were indiv...

  8. Large-scale sequence and structural comparisons of human naive and antigen-experienced antibody repertoires

    PubMed Central

    DeKosky, Brandon J.; Lungu, Oana I.; Park, Daechan; Johnson, Erik L.; Charab, Wissam; Chrysostomou, Constantine; Kuroda, Daisuke; Ellington, Andrew D.; Ippolito, Gregory C.; Gray, Jeffrey J.; Georgiou, George

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating how antigen exposure and selection shape the human antibody repertoire is fundamental to our understanding of B-cell immunity. We sequenced the paired heavy- and light-chain variable regions (VH and VL, respectively) from large populations of single B cells combined with computational modeling of antibody structures to evaluate sequence and structural features of human antibody repertoires at unprecedented depth. Analysis of a dataset comprising 55,000 antibody clusters from CD19+CD20+CD27− IgM-naive B cells, >120,000 antibody clusters from CD19+CD20+CD27+ antigen–experienced B cells, and >2,000 RosettaAntibody-predicted structural models across three healthy donors led to a number of key findings: (i) VH and VL gene sequences pair in a combinatorial fashion without detectable pairing restrictions at the population level; (ii) certain VH:VL gene pairs were significantly enriched or depleted in the antigen-experienced repertoire relative to the naive repertoire; (iii) antigen selection increased antibody paratope net charge and solvent-accessible surface area; and (iv) public heavy-chain third complementarity-determining region (CDR-H3) antibodies in the antigen-experienced repertoire showed signs of convergent paired light-chain genetic signatures, including shared light-chain third complementarity-determining region (CDR-L3) amino acid sequences and/or Vκ,λ–Jκ,λ genes. The data reported here address several longstanding questions regarding antibody repertoire selection and development and provide a benchmark for future repertoire-scale analyses of antibody responses to vaccination and disease. PMID:27114511

  9. Large-scale sequence and structural comparisons of human naive and antigen-experienced antibody repertoires.

    PubMed

    DeKosky, Brandon J; Lungu, Oana I; Park, Daechan; Johnson, Erik L; Charab, Wissam; Chrysostomou, Constantine; Kuroda, Daisuke; Ellington, Andrew D; Ippolito, Gregory C; Gray, Jeffrey J; Georgiou, George

    2016-05-10

    Elucidating how antigen exposure and selection shape the human antibody repertoire is fundamental to our understanding of B-cell immunity. We sequenced the paired heavy- and light-chain variable regions (VH and VL, respectively) from large populations of single B cells combined with computational modeling of antibody structures to evaluate sequence and structural features of human antibody repertoires at unprecedented depth. Analysis of a dataset comprising 55,000 antibody clusters from CD19(+)CD20(+)CD27(-) IgM-naive B cells, >120,000 antibody clusters from CD19(+)CD20(+)CD27(+) antigen-experienced B cells, and >2,000 RosettaAntibody-predicted structural models across three healthy donors led to a number of key findings: (i) VH and VL gene sequences pair in a combinatorial fashion without detectable pairing restrictions at the population level; (ii) certain VH:VL gene pairs were significantly enriched or depleted in the antigen-experienced repertoire relative to the naive repertoire; (iii) antigen selection increased antibody paratope net charge and solvent-accessible surface area; and (iv) public heavy-chain third complementarity-determining region (CDR-H3) antibodies in the antigen-experienced repertoire showed signs of convergent paired light-chain genetic signatures, including shared light-chain third complementarity-determining region (CDR-L3) amino acid sequences and/or Vκ,λ-Jκ,λ genes. The data reported here address several longstanding questions regarding antibody repertoire selection and development and provide a benchmark for future repertoire-scale analyses of antibody responses to vaccination and disease.

  10. Methadone inhibits CYP2D6 and UGT2B7/2B4 in vivo: a study using codeine in methadone- and buprenorphine-maintained subjects

    PubMed Central

    Gelston, Eloise A; Coller, Janet K; Lopatko, Olga V; James, Heather M; Schmidt, Helmut; White, Jason M; Somogyi, Andrew A

    2012-01-01

    AIMS To compare the O-demethylation (CYP2D6-mediated), N-demethylation (CYP3A4-mediated) and 6-glucuronidation (UGT2B4/7-mediated) metabolism of codeine between methadone- and buprenorphine-maintained CYP2D6 extensive metabolizer subjects. METHODS Ten methadone- and eight buprenorphine-maintained subjects received a single 60 mg dose of codeine phosphate. Blood was collected at 3 h and urine over 6 h and assayed for codeine, norcodeine, morphine, morphine-3- and -6-glucuronides and codeine-6-glucuronide. RESULTS The urinary metabolic ratio for O-demethylation was significantly higher (P = 0.0044) in the subjects taking methadone (mean ± SD, 2.8 ± 3.1) compared with those taking buprenorphine (0.60 ± 0.43), likewise for 6-glucuronide formation (0.31 ± 0.24 vs. 0.053 ± 0.027; P < 0.0002), but there was no significant difference (P = 0.36) in N-demethylation. Similar changes in plasma metabolic ratios were also found. In plasma, compared with those maintained on buprenorphine, the methadone-maintained subjects had increased codeine and norcodeine concentrations (P < 0.004), similar morphine (P = 0.72) and lower morphine-3- and -6- and codeine-6-glucuronide concentrations (P < 0.008). CONCLUSION Methadone is associated with inhibition of CYP2D6 and UGTs 2B4 and 2B7 reactions in vivo, even though it is not a substrate for these enzymes. Plasma morphine was not altered, owing to the opposing effects of inhibition of both formation and elimination; however, morphine-6-glucuronide (analgesically active) concentrations were substantially reduced. Drug interactions with methadone are likely to include drugs metabolized by various UGTs and CYP2D6. PMID:22092298

  11. Zebrafish models for translational neuroscience research: from tank to bedside

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Adam Michael; Braubach, Oliver; Spitsbergen, Jan; Gerlai, Robert; Kalueff, Allan V.

    2014-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is emerging as a new important species for studying mechanisms of brain function and dysfunction. Focusing on selected central nervous system (CNS) disorders (brain cancer, epilepsy, and anxiety) and using them as examples, we discuss the value of zebrafish models in translational neuroscience. We further evaluate the contribution of zebrafish to neuroimaging, circuit level, and drug discovery research. Outlining the role of zebrafish in modeling a wide range of human brain disorders, we also summarize recent applications and existing challenges in this field. Finally, we emphasize the potential of zebrafish models in behavioral phenomics and high-throughput genetic/small molecule screening, which is critical for CNS drug discovery and identifying novel candidate genes. PMID:24726051

  12. Heart Repair and Regeneration: Recent Insights from Zebrafish Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Ching-Ling; Harrison, Michael R.; Tuan, Tai-Lan; Starnes, Vaughn A

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in United States and worldwide. Failure to properly repair or regenerate damaged cardiac tissues after myocardial infarction is a major cause of heart failure. In contrast to humans and other mammals, zebrafish hearts regenerate after substantial injury or tissue damage. Here, we review recent progress in studying zebrafish heart regeneration, addressing the molecular and cellular responses in the three tissue layers of the heart: myocardium, epicardium, and endocardium. We also compare different injury models utilized to study zebrafish heart regeneration, and discuss the differences in responses to injury between mammalian and zebrafish hearts. By learning how zebrafish hearts regenerate naturally, we can better design therapeutic strategies for repairing human hearts after myocardial infarction. PMID:22818295

  13. Physical exercise improves learning in zebrafish, Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Luchiari, Ana Carolina; Chacon, Diana Marques Martins

    2013-11-01

    Zebrafish is an ideal vertebrate model for neuroscience studies focusing on learning and memory. Although genetic manipulation of zebrafish is available, behavioral protocols are often lacking. In this study we tested whether physical activity can facilitate zebrafish's learning process in an associative conditioning task. Learning was inferred by the approach of the feeding area just after the conditioned stimulus (light). Unexercised zebrafish showed conditioning response from the 5th testing day while fish previously submitted to swim against the water current showed learning by the 3rd day of testing. It seems that physical activity may accelerate associative learning response in zebrafish, indicating the benefits of exercise for cognitive processes. We suggest that this preliminary work could be useful for high throughput screening. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Advancing epilepsy treatment through personalized genetic zebrafish models.

    PubMed

    Griffin, A; Krasniak, C; Baraban, S C

    2016-01-01

    With an increase in the number of disease causing genetic mutations identified from epilepsy cohorts, zebrafish are proving to be an attractive vertebrate model for functional analysis of these allele variants. Not only do zebrafish have conserved gene functions, but larvae harboring mutations in identified human epileptic genes show spontaneous seizure activity and mimic the convulsive behavioral movements observed in humans. With zebrafish being compatible with medium to high-throughput screening, they are also proving to be a unique and powerful system for early preclinical drug screening, including novel target identification, pharmacology, and toxicology. Additionally, with recent advances in genomic engineering technologies, it is now possible to study the precise pathophysiology of patient-specific gene mutations in zebrafish. The following sections highlight how the unique attributes of zebrafish, in combination with genetic modifications, are continuing to transform our understanding of epilepsy and help identify personalized therapeutics for specific patient cohorts. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of sensory systems in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorman, S. J.

    2001-01-01

    Zebrafish possess all of the classic sensory modalities: taste, tactile, smell, balance, vision, and hearing. For each sensory system, this article provides a brief overview of the system in the adult zebrafish followed by a more detailed overview of the development of the system. By far the majority of studies performed in each of the sensory systems of the zebrafish have involved some aspect of molecular biology or genetics. Although molecular biology and genetics are not major foci of the paper, brief discussions of some of the mutant strains of zebrafish that have developmental defects in each specific sensory system are included. The development of the sensory systems is only a small sampling of the work being done using zebrafish and provides a mere glimpse of the potential of this model for the study of vertebrate development, physiology, and human disease.

  16. Macrophage–Microbe Interactions: Lessons from the Zebrafish Model

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Nagisa; Frickel, Eva-Maria; Mostowy, Serge

    2017-01-01

    Macrophages provide front line defense against infections. The study of macrophage–microbe interplay is thus crucial for understanding pathogenesis and infection control. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae provide a unique platform to study macrophage–microbe interactions in vivo, from the level of the single cell to the whole organism. Studies using zebrafish allow non-invasive, real-time visualization of macrophage recruitment and phagocytosis. Furthermore, the chemical and genetic tractability of zebrafish has been central to decipher the complex role of macrophages during infection. Here, we discuss the latest developments using zebrafish models of bacterial and fungal infection. We also review novel aspects of macrophage biology revealed by zebrafish, which can potentiate development of new therapeutic strategies for humans. PMID:29250076

  17. Examination of a Palatogenic Gene Program in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Mary E.; Sheehan-Rooney, Kelly; Dixon, Michael J.; Eberhart, Johann K.

    2011-01-01

    Human palatal clefting is debilitating and difficult to rectify surgically. Animal models enhance our understanding of palatogenesis and are essential in strategies designed to ameliorate palatal malformations in humans. Recent studies have shown that the zebrafish palate, or anterior neurocranium, is under similar genetic control to the amniote palatal skeleton. We extensively analyzed palatogenesis in zebrafish to determine the similarity of gene expression and function across vertebrates. By 36 hpf palatogenic cranial neural crest cells reside in homologous regions of the developing face compared to amniote species. Transcription factors and signaling molecules regulating mouse palatogenesis are expressed in similar domains during palatogenesis in zebrafish. Functional investigation of a subset of these genes, fgf10a, tgfb2, pax9 and smad5 revealed their necessity in zebrafish palatogenesis. Collectively, these results suggest that the gene regulatory networks regulating palatogenesis may be conserved across vertebrate species, demonstrating the utility of zebrafish as a model for palatogenesis. PMID:22016187

  18. UNUSUAL FINDINGS IN ZEBRAFISH, DANIO RERIO, FROM TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES AND THE ZEBRAFISH INTERNATIONAL RESOURCE CENTER DIAGNOSTIC SERVICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of interesting and unusual lesions have been diagnosed in zebrafish that have been evaluated from toxicological studies or submitted as cases to the Diagnostic Service at Oregon State University. Lesions were observed in various wild-type and mutant lines of zebrafish an...

  19. Antibodies: From novel repertoires to defining and refining the structure of biologically important targets.

    PubMed

    Conroy, Paul J; Law, Ruby H P; Caradoc-Davies, Tom T; Whisstock, James C

    2017-03-01

    Antibodies represent a highly successful class of molecules that bind a wide-range of targets in therapeutic-, diagnostic- and research-based applications. The antibody repertoire is composed of the building blocks required to develop an effective adaptive immune response against foreign insults. A number of species have developed novel genetic and structural mechanisms from which they derive these antibody repertoires, however, traditionally antibodies are isolated from human, and rodent sources. Due to their high-value therapeutic, diagnostic, biotechnological and research applications, much innovation has resulted in techniques and approaches to isolate novel antibodies. These approaches are bolstered by advances in our understanding of species immune repertoires, next generation sequencing capacity, combinatorial antibody discovery and high-throughput screening. Structural determination of antibodies and antibody-antigen complexes has proven to be pivotal to our current understanding of the immune repertoire for a range of species leading to advances in man-made libraries and fine tuning approaches to develop antibodies from immune-repertoires. Furthermore, the isolation of antibodies directed against antigens of importance in health, disease and developmental processes, has yielded a plethora of structural and functional insights. This review highlights the significant contribution of antibody-based crystallography to our understanding of adaptive immunity and its application to providing critical information on a range of human-health related indications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. CD8+ TCR repertoire formation is guided primarily by the peptide component of the antigenic complex.

    PubMed

    Koning, Dan; Costa, Ana I; Hoof, Ilka; Miles, John J; Nanlohy, Nening M; Ladell, Kristin; Matthews, Katherine K; Venturi, Vanessa; Schellens, Ingrid M M; Borghans, Jose A M; Kesmir, Can; Price, David A; van Baarle, Debbie

    2013-02-01

    CD8(+) T cells recognize infected or dysregulated cells via the clonotypically expressed αβ TCR, which engages Ag in the form of peptide bound to MHC class I (MHC I) on the target cell surface. Previous studies have indicated that a diverse Ag-specific TCR repertoire can be beneficial to the host, yet the determinants of clonotypic diversity are poorly defined. To better understand the factors that govern TCR repertoire formation, we conducted a comprehensive clonotypic analysis of CD8(+) T cell populations directed against epitopes derived from EBV and CMV. Neither pathogen source nor the restricting MHC I molecule were linked with TCR diversity; indeed, both HLA-A and HLA-B molecules were observed to interact with an overlapping repertoire of expressed TRBV genes. Peptide specificity, however, markedly impacted TCR diversity. In addition, distinct peptides sharing HLA restriction and viral origin mobilized TCR repertoires with distinct patterns of TRBV gene usage. Notably, no relationship was observed between immunodominance and TCR diversity. These findings provide new insights into the forces that shape the Ag-specific TCR repertoire in vivo and highlight a determinative role for the peptide component of the peptide-MHC I complex on the molecular frontline of CD8(+) T cell-mediated immune surveillance.

  1. Temporal stability and change in the social call repertoire of migrating humpback whales.

    PubMed

    Rekdahl, Melinda L; Dunlop, Rebecca A; Noad, Michael J; Goldizen, Anne W

    2013-03-01

    Quantifying the stability of a species vocal repertoire is fundamental for further investigations into repertoire function and geographic variation. Changes to the repertoire of sounds used in the song displays of male humpback whales have been well studied. In contrast, little is known about the stability of this species' non-song vocal calls. The stability of the social call repertoire of east Australian humpback whales was investigated from 1997, 2003-2004, and 2008. Out of 46 qualitatively defined call types, 19 were classified as "song-unit calls" that tended to change with the song, and 15 were "inconsistent" and only found in one or two years. Twelve call types were "stable" and present in all years and were commonly produced (64.2% of calls). Stable calls tended to vary in some of the measured call parameters but there was no clear trend between years. This result could indicate that minor changes to calls are not permanent, but reflect individual differences in call production or the graded nature of calls within different social environments. This research has clearly identified stable calls in the call repertoire of humpback whales and while their function is not well understood, their stability suggests an important role in social interactions.

  2. Contrasting Patterns of Evolutionary Diversification in the Olfactory Repertoires of Reptile and Bird Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Vandewege, Michael W.; Mangum, Sarah F.; Gabaldón, Toni; Castoe, Todd A.; Ray, David A.; Hoffmann, Federico G.

    2016-01-01

    Olfactory receptors (ORs) are membrane proteins that mediate the detection of odorants in the environment, and are the largest vertebrate gene family. Comparative studies of mammalian genomes indicate that OR repertoires vary widely, even between closely related lineages, as a consequence of frequent OR gains and losses. Several studies also suggest that mammalian OR repertoires are influenced by life history traits. Sauropsida is a diverse group of vertebrates group that is the sister group to mammals, and includes birds, testudines, squamates, and crocodilians, and represents a natural system to explore predictions derived from mammalian studies. In this study, we analyzed olfactory receptor (OR) repertoire variation among several representative species and found that the number of intact OR genes in sauropsid genomes analyzed ranged over an order of magnitude, from 108 in the green anole to over 1,000 in turtles. Our results suggest that different sauropsid lineages have highly divergent OR repertoire composition that derive from lineage-specific combinations of gene expansions, losses, and retentions of ancestral OR genes. These differences also suggest that varying degrees of adaption related to life history have shaped the unique OR repertoires observed across sauropsid lineages. PMID:26865070

  3. Describing the diversity of Ag specific receptors in vertebrates: Contribution of repertoire deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Castro, Rosario; Navelsaker, Sofie; Krasnov, Aleksei; Du Pasquier, Louis; Boudinot, Pierre

    2017-10-01

    During the last decades, gene and cDNA cloning identified TCR and Ig genes across vertebrates; genome sequencing of TCR and Ig loci in many species revealed the different organizations selected during evolution under the pressure of generating diverse repertoires of Ag receptors. By detecting clonotypes over a wide range of frequency, deep sequencing of Ig and TCR transcripts provides a new way to compare the structure of expressed repertoires in species of various sizes, at different stages of development, with different physiologies, and displaying multiple adaptations to the environment. In this review, we provide a short overview of the technologies currently used to produce global description of immune repertoires, describe how they have already been used in comparative immunology, and we discuss the future potential of such approaches. The development of these methodologies in new species holds promise for new discoveries concerning particular adaptations. As an example, understanding the development of adaptive immunity across metamorphosis in frogs has been made possible by such approaches. Repertoire sequencing is now widely used, not only in basic research but also in the context of immunotherapy and vaccination. Analysis of fish responses to pathogens and vaccines has already benefited from these methods. Finally, we also discuss potential advances based on repertoire sequencing of multigene families of immune sensors and effectors in invertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Exposure to PFDoA causes disruption of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shengnan; Guo, Xiaochun; Lu, Shaoyong; Sang, Nan; Li, Guangyu; Xie, Ping; Liu, Chunsheng; Zhang, Liguo; Xing, Yi

    2018-04-01

    Perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA), a kind of perfluorinated carboxylic acid (PFCA) with 12 carbon atoms, has an extensive industrial utilization and is widespread in both wildlife and the water environment, and was reported to have the potential to cause a disruption in the thyroid hormone system homeostasis. In this study, zebrafish embryos/larvae were exposed to different concentrations of PFDoA (0, 0.24, 1.2, 6 mg/L) for 96 h post-fertilization (hpf). PFDoA exposure caused obvious growth restriction connected with the reduced thyroid hormones (THs) contents in zebrafish larvae, strengthening the interference effect on the growth of fish larvae. The transcriptional level of genes within the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis was analyzed. The gene expression levels of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (trh) and corticotrophin-releasing hormone (crh) were upregulated upon exposure to 6 mg/L of PFDoA, and iodothyronine deiodinases (dio2) was upregulated in the 1.2 mg/L PFDoA group. The transcription of thyroglobulin (tg) and thyroid receptor (trβ) were significantly downregulated upon exposure to 1.2 mg/L and 6 mg/L of PFDoA. PFDoA could also decrease the levels of sodium/iodide symporter (nis) and transthyretin (ttr) gene expression in a concentration-dependent manner after exposure. A significant decrease in thyroid-stimulating hormoneβ (tshβ), uridinediphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (ugt1ab) and thyroid receptor (trα) gene expression were observed at 6 mg/L PFDoA exposure. Upregulation and downregulation of iodothyronine deiodinases (dio1) gene expression were observed upon the treatment of 1.2 mg/L and 6 mg/L PFDoA, respectively. All the data demonstrated that gene expression in the HPT axis altered after different PFDoA treatment and the potential mechanisms of the disruption of thyroid status could occur at several steps in the process of synthesis, regulation, and action of thyroid hormones. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All

  5. Zebrafish: an animal model for research in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Nowik, N; Podlasz, P; Jakimiuk, A; Kasica, N; Sienkiewicz, W; Kaleczyc, J

    2015-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become known as an excellent model organism for studies of vertebrate biology, vertebrate genetics, embryonal development, diseases and drug screening. Nevertheless, there is still lack of detailed reports about usage of the zebrafish as a model in veterinary medicine. Comparing to other vertebrates, they can lay hundreds of eggs at weekly intervals, externally fertilized zebrafish embryos are accessible to observation and manipulation at all stages of their development, which makes possible to simplify the research techniques such as fate mapping, fluorescent tracer time-lapse lineage analysis and single cell transplantation. Although zebrafish are only 2.5 cm long, they are easy to maintain. Intraperitoneal and intracerebroventricular injections, blood sampling and measurement of food intake are possible to be carry out in adult zebrafish. Danio rerio is a useful animal model for neurobiology, developmental biology, drug research, virology, microbiology and genetics. A lot of diseases, for which the zebrafish is a perfect model organism, affect aquatic animals. For a part of them, like those caused by Mycobacterium marinum or Pseudoloma neutrophila, Danio rerio is a natural host, but the zebrafish is also susceptible to the most of fish diseases including Itch, Spring viraemia of carp and Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis. The zebrafish is commonly used in research of bacterial virulence. The zebrafish embryo allows for rapid, non-invasive and real time analysis of bacterial infections in a vertebrate host. Plenty of common pathogens can be examined using zebrafish model: Streptococcus iniae, Vibrio anguillarum or Listeria monocytogenes. The steps are taken to use the zebrafish also in fungal research, especially that dealing with Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Although, the zebrafish is used commonly as an animal model to study diseases caused by external agents, it is also useful in studies of metabolic

  6. Rules of song development and their use in vocal interactions by birds with large repertoires.

    PubMed

    Geberzahn, Nicole; Hultsch, Henrike

    2004-06-01

    Songbirds are well known for settling their disputes by vocal signals, and their singing plays a dominant role. Most studies on this issue have concentrated on bird species that develop and use small vocal repertoires. In this article we will go farther and focus on examples of how species with large song repertoires make use of their vocal competence. In particular, we will outline the study of interaction rules which have been elucidated by examining time- and pattern-specific relationships between signals exchanged by territorial neighbors. First we present an inquiry into the rules of song learning and development. In birds with large song repertoires, the ontogeny of such rules proceeds along a number of trajectories which help in understanding the often remarkable accomplishments of adult birds. In both approaches, our model species will be the Common Nightingale Luscinia megarhynchos that has been investigated intensively in the field and in the laboratory.

  7. Deep Sequencing in Infectious Diseases: Immune and Pathogen Repertoires for the Improvement of Patient Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Burkholder, William F; Newell, Evan W; Poidinger, Michael; Chen, Swaine; Fink, Katja

    2017-01-01

    The inaugural workshop "Deep Sequencing in Infectious Diseases: Immune and Pathogen Repertoires for the Improvement of Patient Outcomes" was held in Singapore on 13-14 October 2016. The aim of the workshop was to discuss the latest trends in using high-throughput sequencing, bioinformatics, and allied technologies to analyze immune and pathogen repertoires and their interplay within the host, bringing together key international players in the field and Singapore-based researchers and clinician-scientists. The focus was in particular on the application of these technologies for the improvement of patient diagnosis, prognosis and treatment, and for other broad public health outcomes. The presentations by scientists and clinicians showed the potential of deep sequencing technology to capture the coevolution of adaptive immunity and pathogens. For clinical applications, some key challenges remain, such as the long turnaround time and relatively high cost of deep sequencing for pathogen identification and characterization and the lack of international standardization in immune repertoire analysis.

  8. Prostate cancer and polymorphism D85Y in gene for dihydrotestosterone degrading enzyme UGT2B15: Frequency of DD homozygotes increases with Gleason Score.

    PubMed

    Hajdinjak, Tine; Zagradisnik, Boris

    2004-06-01

    Although, a functional rationale for influence of polymorphism D85Y in gene UGT2B15 on prostate cancer (PCa) exists (different V(max) of enzyme), conflicting results have been reported. DNA from 178 controls and 206 PCa patients with known Gleason score were genotyped using a newly developed RFLP assay, which allowed the detection of both alleles in an individual after single PCR amplification. 16% DD, 52% DY; PCa patients: 23% DD, 49% DY. Subgroups of PCa: well differentiated: 11% DD, 37% DY; moderately differentiated: 22% DD, 50% DY; poorly differentiated: 34% DD, 50% DY. Correlation was confirmed between Gleason score and number of D alleles (P = 0.018) and persisted after age adjustment. When comparing controls to patients with a Gleason score of 7 or more, difference for the frequency of homozygosity DD was significant between the groups (P = 0.032, OR = 2.04). Polymorphism D85Y in gene UGT2B15 correlates with differentiation of PCa. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Evolution of the antigen-specific CD8+ TCR repertoire across the life span: evidence for clonal homogenization of the old TCR repertoire.

    PubMed

    Rudd, Brian D; Venturi, Vanessa; Davenport, Miles P; Nikolich-Zugich, Janko

    2011-02-15

    Defects in T cell responses against pathogens and reduced diversity of TCRs have been described at both extremes of the life span. Yet, we still lack information on how Ag-specific T cell populations are maintained and/or altered from birth to old age. In this study, for the first time to our knowledge, we provide insight into Ag-specific TCR repertoire changes over the life span at the single-cell level. We have examined the TCR diversity of the primary CD8(+) T cell response to the immunodominant HSV-1 epitope HSV glycoprotein B 495-502 (HSV gB(498-505); SSIEFARL) (gB-8p) in neonatal, adult, and old C57BL/6 mice. The global distinctive features of the gB-8p-specific TCR repertoire were preserved in mice of different ages. However, both old and especially neonatal mice exhibited significant decreases in TCR diversity compared with that of adult mice. Still, although the neonatal Ag-specific repertoire comprised expectedly shorter germline-biased CDR3β lengths, the repertoire was surprisingly complex, and only a minority of responding cells lacked random nucleotide additions. Changes with aging included increased use of the already dominant TCRVβ10 family, a trend for lower content of the TCR containing the germline WG motif in the CDR3, and a remarkable sharing of one dominant clonotype between individual old mice, implying operation of selective mechanisms. Implications for the rational design of vaccines for neonates and the elderly are discussed.

  10. Immunostaining of dissected zebrafish embryonic heart.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingchun; Xu, Xiaolei

    2012-01-10

    Zebrafish embryo becomes a popular in vivo vertebrate model for studying cardiac development and human heart diseases due to its advantageous embryology and genetics. About 100-200 embryos are readily available every week from a single pair of adult fish. The transparent embryos that develop ex utero make them ideal for assessing cardiac defects. The expression of any gene can be manipulated via morpholino technology or RNA injection. Moreover, forward genetic screens have already generated a list of mutants that affect different perspectives of cardiogenesis. Whole mount immunostaining is an important technique in this animal model to reveal the expression pattern of the targeted protein to a particular tissue. However, high resolution images that can reveal cellular or subcellular structures have been difficult, mainly due to the physical location of the heart and the poor penetration of the antibodies. Here, we present a method to address these bottlenecks by dissecting heart first and then conducting the staining process on the surface of a microscope slide. To prevent the loss of small heart samples and to facilitate solution handling, we restricted the heart samples within a circle on the surface of the microscope slides drawn by an immEdge pen. After the staining, the fluorescence signals can be directly observed by a compound microscope. Our new method significantly improves the penetration for antibodies, since a heart from an embryonic fish only consists of few cell layers. High quality images from intact hearts can be obtained within a much reduced procession time for zebrafish embryos aged from day 2 to day 6. Our method can be potentially extended to stain other organs dissected from either zebrafish or other small animals. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Visualized Experiments

  11. GROWTH AND BEHAVIOR OF LARVAL ZEBRAFISH Danio ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Because Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have become a popular and important model for scientific research, the capability to rear larval zebrafish to adulthood is of great importance. Recently research examining the effects of diet (live versus processed) have been published. In the current study we examined whether the larvae can be reared on a processed diet alone, live food alone, or the combination while maintaining normal locomotor behavior, and acceptable survival, length and weight at 14 dpf in a static system. A 14 day feeding trial was conducted in glass crystallizing dishes containing 500 ml of 4 ppt Instant Ocean. On day 0 pdf 450 embryos were selected as potential study subjects and placed in a 26○C incubator on a 14:10 (light:dark) light cycle. At 4 dpf 120 normally developing embryos were selected per treatment and divided into 3 bowls of 40 embryos (for an n=3 per treatment; 9 bowls total). Treatment groups were: G (Gemma Micro 75 only), R (L-type marine rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) only) or B (Gemma and rotifers). Growth (length), survival, water quality and rotifer density were monitored on days 5-14. On day 14, weight of larva in each bowl was measured and 8 larva per bowl were selected for use in locomotor testing. This behavior paradigm tests individual larval zebrafish under both light and dark conditions in a 24-well plate.After 14 dpf, survival among the groups was not different (92-98%). By days 7 -14 R and B larvae were ~2X longer

  12. Cholinergic innervation of the zebrafish olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jeffrey G; Greig, Ann; Sakata, Yoko; Elkin, Dimitry; Michel, William C

    2007-10-20

    A number of fish species receive forebrain cholinergic input but two recent reports failed to find evidence of cholinergic cell bodies or fibers in the olfactory bulbs (OBs) of zebrafish. In the current study we sought to confirm these findings by examining the OBs of adult zebrafish for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunoreactivity. We observed a diffuse network of varicose ChAT-positive fibers associated with the nervus terminalis ganglion innervating the mitral cell/glomerular layer (MC/GL). The highest density of these fibers occurred in the anterior region of the bulb. The cellular targets of this cholinergic input were identified by exposing isolated OBs to acetylcholine receptor (AChR) agonists in the presence of agmatine (AGB), a cationic probe that permeates some active ion channels. Nicotine (50 microM) significantly increased the activity-dependent labeling of mitral cells and juxtaglomerular cells but not of tyrosine hydroxlase-positive dopaminergic neurons (TH(+) cells) compared to control preparations. The nAChR antagonist mecamylamine, an alpha7-nAChR subunit-specific antagonist, calcium-free artificial cerebrospinal fluid, or a cocktail of ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR) antagonists each blocked nicotine-stimulated labeling, suggesting that AGB does not enter the labeled neurons through activated nAChRs but rather through activated iGluRs following ACh-stimulated glutamate release. Deafferentation of OBs did not eliminate nicotine-stimulated labeling, suggesting that cholinergic input is primarily acting on bulbar neurons. These findings confirm the presence of a functioning cholinergic system in the zebrafish OB.

  13. Novel biomarkers of perchlorate exposure in zebrafish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mukhi, S.; Carr, J.A.; Anderson, T.A.; Patino, R.

    2005-01-01

    Perchlorate inhibits iodide uptake by thyroid follicles and lowers thyroid hormone production. Although several effects of perchlorate on the thyroid system have been reported, the utility of these pathologies as markers of environmental perchlorate exposures has not been adequately assessed. The present study examined time-course and concentration-dependent effects of perchlorate on thyroid follicle hypertrophy, colloid depletion, and angiogenesis; alterations in whole-body thyroxine (T4) levels; and somatic growth and condition factor of subadult and adult zebrafish. Changes in the intensity of the colloidal T4 ring previously observed in zebrafish also were examined immunohistochemically. Three-month-old zebrafish were exposed to ammonium perchlorate at measured perchlorate concentrations of 0, 11, 90, 1,131, and 11,480 ppb for 12 weeks and allowed to recover in clean water for 12 weeks. At two weeks of exposure, the lowest-observed-effective concentrations (LOECs) of perchlorate that induced angiogenesis and depressed the intensity of colloidal T4 ring were 90 and 1,131 ppb, respectively; other parameters were not affected (whole-body T4 was not determined at this time). At 12 weeks of exposure, LOECs for colloid depletion, hypertrophy, angiogenesis, and colloidal T4 ring were 11,480, 1,131, 90, and 11 ppb, respectively. All changes were reversible, but residual effects on angiogenesis and colloidal T4 ring intensity were still present after 12 weeks of recovery (LOEC, 11,480 ppb). Whole-body T 4 concentration, body growth (length and weight), and condition factor were not affected by perchlorate. The sensitivity and longevity of changes in colloidal T4 ring intensity and angiogenesis suggest their usefulness as novel markers of perchlorate exposure. The 12-week LOEC for colloidal T4 ring is the lowest reported for any perchlorate biomarker in aquatic vertebrates. ?? 2005 SETAC.

  14. Learning and memory in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Gerlai, R

    2016-01-01

    Learning and memory are defining features of our own species inherently important to our daily lives and to who we are. Without our memories we cease to exist as a person. Without our ability to learn individuals and collectively our society would cease to function. Diseases of the mind still remain incurable. The interest in understanding of the mechanisms of learning and memory is thus well founded. Given the complexity of such mechanisms, concerted efforts have been made to study them under controlled laboratory conditions, ie, with laboratory model organisms. The zebrafish, although new in this field, is one such model organism. The rapidly developing forward- and reverse genetic methods designed for the zebrafish and the increasing use of pharmacological tools along with numerous neurobiology techniques make this species perhaps the best model for the analysis of the mechanisms of complex central nervous system characteristics. The fact that it is an evolutionarily ancient and simpler vertebrate, but at the same time it possesses numerous conserved features across multiple levels of biological organization makes this species an excellent tool for the analysis of the mechanisms of learning and memory. The bottleneck lies in our understanding of its cognitive and mnemonic features, the topic of this chapter. The current paper builds on a chapter published in the previous edition and continues to focus on associative learning, but now it extends the discussion to other forms of learning and to recent discoveries on memory-related features and findings obtained both in adults and larval zebrafish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Adaptive Locomotor Behavior in Larval Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Portugues, Ruben; Engert, Florian

    2011-01-01

    In this study we report that larval zebrafish display adaptive locomotor output that can be driven by unexpected visual feedback. We develop a new assay that addresses visuomotor integration in restrained larval zebrafish. The assay involves a closed-loop environment in which the visual feedback a larva receives depends on its own motor output in a way that resembles freely swimming conditions. The experimenter can control the gain of this closed feedback loop, so that following a given motor output the larva experiences more or less visual feedback depending on whether the gain is high or low. We show that increases and decreases in this gain setting result in adaptive changes in behavior that lead to a generalized decrease or increase of motor output, respectively. Our behavioral analysis shows that both the duration and tail beat frequency of individual swim bouts can be modified, as well as the frequency with which bouts are elicited. These changes can be implemented rapidly, following an exposure to a new gain of just 175 ms. In addition, modifications in some behavioral parameters accumulate over tens of seconds and effects last for at least 30 s from trial to trial. These results suggest that larvae establish an internal representation of the visual feedback expected from a given motor output and that the behavioral modifications are driven by an error signal that arises from the discrepancy between this expectation and the actual visual feedback. The assay we develop presents a unique possibility for studying visuomotor integration using imaging techniques available in the larval zebrafish. PMID:21909325

  16. Adaptive locomotor behavior in larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Portugues, Ruben; Engert, Florian

    2011-01-01

    In this study we report that larval zebrafish display adaptive locomotor output that can be driven by unexpected visual feedback. We develop a new assay that addresses visuomotor integration in restrained larval zebrafish. The assay involves a closed-loop environment in which the visual feedback a larva receives depends on its own motor output in a way that resembles freely swimming conditions. The experimenter can control the gain of this closed feedback loop, so that following a given motor output the larva experiences more or less visual feedback depending on whether the gain is high or low. We show that increases and decreases in this gain setting result in adaptive changes in behavior that lead to a generalized decrease or increase of motor output, respectively. Our behavioral analysis shows that both the duration and tail beat frequency of individual swim bouts can be modified, as well as the frequency with which bouts are elicited. These changes can be implemented rapidly, following an exposure to a new gain of just 175 ms. In addition, modifications in some behavioral parameters accumulate over tens of seconds and effects last for at least 30 s from trial to trial. These results suggest that larvae establish an internal representation of the visual feedback expected from a given motor output and that the behavioral modifications are driven by an error signal that arises from the discrepancy between this expectation and the actual visual feedback. The assay we develop presents a unique possibility for studying visuomotor integration using imaging techniques available in the larval zebrafish.

  17. Toxicity of chlorine to zebrafish embryos

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Michael L.; Buchner, Cari; Barton, Carrie; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Surface disinfection of fertilized fish eggs is widely used in aquaculture to reduce extraovum pathogens that may be released from brood fish during spawning, and this is routinely used in zebrafish (Danio rerio) research laboratories. Most laboratories use approximately 25 – 50 ppm unbuffered chlorine solution for 5 – 10 min. Treatment of embryos with chlorine has significant germicidal effects for many Gram-negative bacteria, viruses, and trophozoite stages of protozoa, it has reduced efficacy against cyst or spore stages of protozoa and certain Mycobacterium spp. Therefore, we evaluated the toxicity of unbufferred and buffered chlorine solution to embryos exposed at 6 or 24 hours post-fertilization (hpf) to determine if higher concentrations can be used for treating zebrafish embryos. Most of our experiments entailed using an outbred line (5D), with both mortality and malformations as endpoints. We found that 6 hpf embryos consistently were more resistant than 24 hpf embryos to the toxic effects of chlorine. Chlorine is more toxic and germicidal at lower pHs, and chlorine causes elevated pH. Consistent with this, we found that unbufferred chlorine solutions (pH ca 8–9) were less toxic at corresponding concentrations than solutions buffered to pH 7. Based on our findings here, we recommend treating 6 hpf embryos for 10 min and 24 hpf for 5 min with unbuffered chlorine solution at 100 ppm. One trial indicated that AB fish, a popular outbred line, are more susceptible to toxicity than 5Ds. This suggests that variability between zebrafish lines occurs, and researchers should evaluate each line or strain under their particular laboratory conditions for selection of the optimum chlorine treatment procedure. PMID:24429474

  18. Zebrafish: A Versatile Animal Model for Fertility Research.

    PubMed

    Hoo, Jing Ying; Kumari, Yatinesh; Shaikh, Mohd Farooq; Hue, Seow Mun; Goh, Bey Hing

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of zebrafish in biomedical research is very common in the research world nowadays. Today, it has emerged as a favored vertebrate organism for the research in science of reproduction. There is a significant growth in amount numbers of scientific literature pertaining to research discoveries in reproductive sciences in zebrafish. It has implied the importance of zebrafish in this particular field of research. In essence, the current available literature has covered from the very specific brain region or neurons of zebrafish, which are responsible for reproductive regulation, until the gonadal level of the animal. The discoveries and findings have proven that this small animal is sharing a very close/similar reproductive system with mammals. More interestingly, the behavioral characteristics and along with the establishment of animal courtship behavior categorization in zebrafish have laid an even stronger foundation and firmer reason on the suitability of zebrafish utilization in research of reproductive sciences. In view of the immense importance of this small animal for the development of reproductive sciences, this review aimed at compiling and describing the proximate close similarity of reproductive regulation on zebrafish and human along with factors contributing to the infertility, showing its versatility and its potential usage for fertility research.

  19. Effectiveness of recommended euthanasia methods in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Strykowski, Jennifer L; Schech, Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    The popularity of zebrafish and its use as a model organism in biomedical research including genetics, development, and toxicology, has increased over the past 20 y and continues to grow. However, guidelines for euthanasia remain vague, and the responsibility of creating appropriate euthanasia protocols essentially falls on individual facilities. To reduce variation in experimental results among labs, a standard method of euthanasia for zebrafish would be useful. Although various euthanasia methods have been compared, few studies focus on the effectiveness of euthanasia methods for larval zebrafish. In this study, we exposed larval zebrafish to each of 3 euthanasia agents (MS222, eugenol, and hypothermic shock) and assessed the recovery rate. Hypothermic shock appeared to be the most effective method for euthanizing zebrafish at 14 d after fertilization; however, this method may not be considered an efficient method for large numbers of larval zebrafish. Exposure to chemicals, such as MS222 and eugenol, were ineffective methods for euthanasia at this stage of development. When these agents are used, secondary measures should be taken to ensure death. Choosing a euthanasia method that is effective, efficient, and humane can be challenging. Determining a method of euthanasia that is suitable for fish of all stages will bring the zebrafish community closer to meeting this challenge.

  20. Effectiveness of Recommended Euthanasia Methods in Larval Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Strykowski, Jennifer L; Schech, Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    The popularity of zebrafish and its use as a model organism in biomedical research including genetics, development, and toxicology, has increased over the past 20 y and continues to grow. However, guidelines for euthanasia remain vague, and the responsibility of creating appropriate euthanasia protocols essentially falls on individual facilities. To reduce variation in experimental results among labs, a standard method of euthanasia for zebrafish would be useful. Although various euthanasia methods have been compared, few studies focus on the effectiveness of euthanasia methods for larval zebrafish. In this study, we exposed larval zebrafish to each of 3 euthanasia agents (MS222, eugenol, and hypothermic shock) and assessed the recovery rate. Hypothermic shock appeared to be the most effective method for euthanizing zebrafish at 14 d after fertilization; however, this method may not be considered an efficient method for large numbers of larval zebrafish. Exposure to chemicals, such as MS222 and eugenol, were ineffective methods for euthanasia at this stage of development. When these agents are used, secondary measures should be taken to ensure death. Choosing a euthanasia method that is effective, efficient, and humane can be challenging. Determining a method of euthanasia that is suitable for fish of all stages will bring the zebrafish community closer to meeting this challenge. PMID:25651096

  1. The zebrafish world of colors and shapes: preference and discrimination.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Jessica; Silveira, Mayara; Chacon, Diana; Luchiari, Ana

    2015-04-01

    Natural environment imposes many challenges to animals, which have to use cognitive abilities to cope with and exploit it to enhance their fitness. Since zebrafish is a well-established model for cognitive studies and high-throughput screening for drugs and diseases that affect cognition, we tested their ability for ambient color preference and 3D objects discrimination to establish a protocol for memory evaluation. For the color preference test, zebrafish were observed in a multiple-chamber tank with different environmental color options. Zebrafish showed preference for blue and green, and avoided yellow and red. For the 3D objects discrimination, zebrafish were allowed to explore two equal objects and then observed in a one-trial test in which a new color, size, or shape of the object was presented. Zebrafish showed discrimination for color, shape, and color+shape combined, but not size. These results imply that zebrafish seem to use some categorical system to discriminate items, and distracters affect their ability for discrimination. The type of variables available (color and shape) may favor zebrafish objects perception and facilitate discrimination processing. We suggest that this easy and simple memory test could serve as a useful screening tool for cognitive dysfunction and neurotoxicological studies.

  2. Designing and Testing of Self-Cleaning Recirculating Zebrafish Tanks.

    PubMed

    Nema, Shubham; Bhargava, Yogesh

    2016-08-01

    Maintenance of large number of zebrafish in captive conditions is a daunting task. This can be eased by the use of recirculating racks with self-cleaning zebrafish tanks. Commercially available systems are costly, and compatibility of intercompany products has never been investigated. Although various cost-effective designs and methods of construction of custom-made recirculating zebrafish racks are available in literature, the design of self-cleaning zebrafish tanks is still not available. In this study, we report the design and method of construction of the self-cleaning unit, which can be fitted in any zebrafish tank. We validated the design by investigating sediment cleaning process in rectangular and cylindrical tank geometries using time lapse imaging. Our results suggest that for both tank geometries, the tanks fitted with self-cleaning unit provided superior sediment cleaning than the tanks fitted with overflow-drain unit. Although the self-cleaning unit could clean the sediment completely from both geometries over prolonged period, the cleaning of sediments was faster in the cylindrical tank than the rectangular tank. In conclusion, cost and efforts of zebrafish maintenance could be significantly reduced through the installation of our self-cleaning unit in any custom-made zebrafish tank.

  3. An assay for lateral line regeneration in adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Pisano, Gina C; Mason, Samantha M; Dhliwayo, Nyembezi; Intine, Robert V; Sarras, Michael P

    2014-04-08

    Due to the clinical importance of hearing and balance disorders in man, model organisms such as the zebrafish have been used to study lateral line development and regeneration. The zebrafish is particularly attractive for such studies because of its rapid development time and its high regenerative capacity. To date, zebrafish studies of lateral line regeneration have mainly utilized fish of the embryonic and larval stages because of the lower number of neuromasts at these stages. This has made quantitative analysis of lateral line regeneration/and or development easier in the earlier developmental stages. Because many zebrafish models of neurological and non-neurological diseases are studied in the adult fish and not in the embryo/larvae, we focused on developing a quantitative lateral line regenerative assay in adult zebrafish so that an assay was available that could be applied to current adult zebrafish disease models. Building on previous studies by Van Trump et al. that described procedures for ablation of hair cells in adult Mexican blind cave fish and zebrafish (Danio rerio), our assay was designed to allow quantitative comparison between control and experimental groups. This was accomplished by developing a regenerative neuromast standard curve based on the percent of neuromast reappearance over a 24 hr time period following gentamicin-induced necrosis of hair cells in a defined region of the lateral line. The assay was also designed to allow extension of the analysis to the individual hair cell level when a higher level of resolution is required.

  4. Computerized image analysis for quantitative neuronal phenotyping in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianming; Lu, Jianfeng; Wang, Ye; Campbell, William A; Huang, Ling; Zhu, Jinmin; Xia, Weiming; Wong, Stephen T C

    2006-06-15

    An integrated microscope image analysis pipeline is developed for automatic analysis and quantification of phenotypes in zebrafish with altered expression of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-linked genes. We hypothesize that a slight impairment of neuronal integrity in a large number of zebrafish carrying the mutant genotype can be detected through the computerized image analysis method. Key functionalities of our zebrafish image processing pipeline include quantification of neuron loss in zebrafish embryos due to knockdown of AD-linked genes, automatic detection of defective somites, and quantitative measurement of gene expression levels in zebrafish with altered expression of AD-linked genes or treatment with a chemical compound. These quantitative measurements enable the archival of analyzed results and relevant meta-data. The structured database is organized for statistical analysis and data modeling to better understand neuronal integrity and phenotypic changes of zebrafish under different perturbations. Our results show that the computerized analysis is comparable to manual counting with equivalent accuracy and improved efficacy and consistency. Development of such an automated data analysis pipeline represents a significant step forward to achieve accurate and reproducible quantification of neuronal phenotypes in large scale or high-throughput zebrafish imaging studies.

  5. Making Waves: New Developments in Toxicology With the Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Horzmann, Katharine A; Freeman, Jennifer L

    2018-05-01

    The laboratory zebrafish (Danio rerio) is now an accepted model in toxicologic research. The zebrafish model fills a niche between in vitro models and mammalian biomedical models. The developmental characteristics of the small fish are strategically being used by scientists to study topics ranging from high-throughput toxicity screens to toxicity in multi- and transgenerational studies. High-throughput technology has increased the utility of zebrafish embryonic toxicity assays in screening of chemicals and drugs for toxicity or effect. Additionally, advances in behavioral characterization and experimental methodology allow for observation of recognizable phenotypic changes after xenobiotic exposure. Future directions in zebrafish research are predicted to take advantage of CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing methods in creating models of disease and interrogating mechanisms of action with fluorescent reporters or tagged proteins. Zebrafish can also model developmental origins of health and disease and multi- and transgenerational toxicity. The zebrafish has many advantages as a toxicologic model and new methodologies and areas of study continue to expand the usefulness and application of the zebrafish.

  6. Rapid quantification of neutral lipids and triglycerides during zebrafish embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yoganantharjah, Prusothman; Byreddy, Avinesh R; Fraher, Daniel; Puri, Munish; Gibert, Yann

    2017-01-01

    The zebrafish is a useful vertebrate model to study lipid metabolism. Oil Red-O (ORO) staining of zebrafish embryos, though sufficient for visualizing the localization of triglycerides, was previously inadequate to quantify neutral lipid abundance. For metabolic studies, it is crucial to be able to quantify lipids during embryogenesis. Currently no cost effective, rapid and reliable method exists to quantify the deposition of neutral lipids and triglycerides. Thin layer chromatography (TLC), gas chromatography and mass spectrometry can be used to accurately measure lipid levels, but are time consuming and costly in their use. Hence, we developed a rapid and reliable method to quantify neutral lipids and triglycerides. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to Rimonabant (Rimo) or WIN 55,212-2 mesylate (WIN), compounds previously shown to modify lipid content during zebrafish embryogenesis. Following this, ORO stain was extracted out of both the zebrafish body and yolk sac and optical density was measured to give an indication of neutral lipid and triglyceride accumulation. Embryos treated with 0.3 microM WIN resulted in increased lipid accumulation, whereas 3 microM Rimo caused a decrease in lipid accumulation during embryogenesis. TLC was performed on zebrafish bodies to validate the developed method. In addition, BODIPY free fatty acids were injected into zebrafish embryos to confirm quantification of changes in lipid content in the embryo. Previously, ORO was limited to qualitative assessment; now ORO can be used as a quantitative tool to directly determine changes in the levels of neutral lipids and triglycerides.

  7. Zebrafish xenograft models of cancer and metastasis for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Brown, Hannah K; Schiavone, Kristina; Tazzyman, Simon; Heymann, Dominique; Chico, Timothy Ja

    2017-04-01

    Patients with metastatic cancer suffer the highest rate of cancer-related death, but existing animal models of metastasis have disadvantages that limit our ability to understand this process. The zebrafish is increasingly used for cancer modelling, particularly xenografting of human cancer cell lines, and drug discovery, and may provide novel scientific and therapeutic insights. However, this model system remains underexploited. Areas covered: The authors discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the zebrafish xenograft model for the study of cancer, metastasis and drug discovery. They summarise previous work investigating the metastatic cascade, such as tumour-induced angiogenesis, intravasation, extravasation, dissemination and homing, invasion at secondary sites, assessing metastatic potential and evaluation of cancer stem cells in zebrafish. Expert opinion: The practical advantages of zebrafish for basic biological study and drug discovery are indisputable. However, their ability to sufficiently reproduce and predict the behaviour of human cancer and metastasis remains unproven. For this to be resolved, novel mechanisms must to be discovered in zebrafish that are subsequently validated in humans, and for therapeutic interventions that modulate cancer favourably in zebrafish to successfully translate to human clinical studies. In the meantime, more work is required to establish the most informative methods in zebrafish.

  8. Zebrafish: A Versatile Animal Model for Fertility Research

    PubMed Central

    Hoo, Jing Ying; Kumari, Yatinesh; Shaikh, Mohd Farooq; Hue, Seow Mun

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of zebrafish in biomedical research is very common in the research world nowadays. Today, it has emerged as a favored vertebrate organism for the research in science of reproduction. There is a significant growth in amount numbers of scientific literature pertaining to research discoveries in reproductive sciences in zebrafish. It has implied the importance of zebrafish in this particular field of research. In essence, the current available literature has covered from the very specific brain region or neurons of zebrafish, which are responsible for reproductive regulation, until the gonadal level of the animal. The discoveries and findings have proven that this small animal is sharing a very close/similar reproductive system with mammals. More interestingly, the behavioral characteristics and along with the establishment of animal courtship behavior categorization in zebrafish have laid an even stronger foundation and firmer reason on the suitability of zebrafish utilization in research of reproductive sciences. In view of the immense importance of this small animal for the development of reproductive sciences, this review aimed at compiling and describing the proximate close similarity of reproductive regulation on zebrafish and human along with factors contributing to the infertility, showing its versatility and its potential usage for fertility research. PMID:27556045

  9. Diversification of the Primary Antibody Repertoire by AID-Mediated Gene Conversion.

    PubMed

    Lanning, Dennis K; Knight, Katherine L

    2015-01-01

    Gene conversion, mediated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), has been found to contribute to generation of the primary antibody repertoire in several vertebrate species. Generation of the primary antibody repertoire by gene conversion of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes occurs primarily in gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) and is best described in chicken and rabbit. Here, we discuss current knowledge of the mechanism of gene conversion as well as the contribution of the microbiota in promoting gene conversion of Ig genes. Finally, we propose that the antibody diversification strategy used in GALT species, such as chicken and rabbit, is conserved in a subset of human and mouse B cells.

  10. Transgene manipulation in zebrafish by using recombinases.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jie; Stuart, Gary W

    2004-01-01

    Although much remains to be done, our results to date suggest that efficient and precise genome engineering in zebrafish will be possible in the future by using Cre recombinase and SB transposase in combination with their respective target sites. In this study, we provide the first evidence that Cre recombinase can mediate effective site-specific deletion of transgenes in zebrafish. We found that the efficiency of target site utilization could approach 100%, independent of whether the target site was provided transiently by injection or stably within an integrated transgene. Microinjection of Cre mRNA appeared to be slightly more effective for this purpose than microinjection of Cre-expressing plasmid DNA. Our work has not yet progressed to the point where SB-mediated mobilization of our transgene constructs would be observed. However, a recent report has demonstrated that SB can enhance transgenesis rates sixfold over conventional methods by efficiently mediating multiple single-copy insertion of transgenes into the zebrafish genome (Davidson et al., 2003). Therefore, it seems likely that a combined system should eventually allow both SB-mediated transgene mobilization and Cre-mediated transgene modification. Our goal is to validate methods for the precise reengineering of the zebrafish genome by using a combination of Cre-loxP and SB transposon systems. These methods can be used to delete, replace, or mobilize large pieces of DNA or to modify the genome only when and where required by the investigator. For example, it should be possible to deliver particular RNAi genes to well-expressed chromosomal loci and then exchange them easily with alternative RNAi genes for the specific suppression of alternative targets. As a nonviral vector for gene therapy, the transposon component allows for the possibility of highly efficient integration, whereas the Cre-loxP component can target the integration and/or exchange of foreign DNA into specific sites within the genome. The

  11. Larval rearing of zebrafish at suboptimal temperatures.

    PubMed

    Delomas, Thomas A; Dabrowski, Konrad

    2018-05-01

    Temperature-sensitive mutants have been widely utilized in single-cell and invertebrate model systems, particularly to study the function of essential genes. Few temperature-sensitive mutants have been identified in zebrafish, likely due to the difficulty of raising zebrafish at low temperatures. We describe a novel rearing protocol that allows rapid growth of larval and juvenile zebrafish at 23 °C compared to previous data in the literature. Embryos collected from four breeding pairs were maintained at 28.5 ± 0.5 °C until 5 days post-fertilization (dpf) - the onset of exogenous feeding. Larvae were then divided to six tanks and three tanks were cooled to 23 ± 0.2 °C. Fish were fed a live diet (marine rotifers Brachionus plicatilis and Artemia nauplii) and maintained under a set of environmental parameters shown to increase growth rate: continuous light, low salinity (3ppt), and algal turbidity. Mean total length and weight of fish at 21dpf were 12.7 ± 0.3 mm and 20.5 ± 1.5 mg for the 23 °C treatment and 18.5 ± 0.4 mm and 67.3 ± 3.4 mg for the 28.5 °C control. By 35 dpf, the fish raised at 23 °C had reached a mean length and weight of 18.9 ± 0.7 mm and 76.4 ± 6.7 mg, approximately the size control fish reached at 21 dpf. At 35 dpf, water temperature was raised to 28 °C and fish were reared to maturity (75 dpf) under standard conditions (freshwater, 13 L:11D photoperiod, dry diet, no added algal turbidity). Sex ratio and fertility were assessed and compared between temperature groups. There were no significant differences in sex ratio, fertilization rate, embryo viability at 1 dpf, clutch size, or relative fecundity. This rearing protocol will allow for efficient utilization of temperature-sensitive mutations in the zebrafish model system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of oocyte progenitor cells in the zebrafish ovary.

    PubMed

    Draper, Bruce W

    2012-01-01

    Zebrafish breed year round and females are capable of producing thousands of eggs during their lifetime. This amazing fecundity is due to the fact that the adult ovary, contains premeiotic oocyte progenitor cells, called oogonia, which produce a continuous supply of new oocytes throughout adult life. Oocyte progenitor cells can be easily identified based on their expression of Vasa, and their characteristic nuclear morphology. Thus, the zebrafish ovary provides a unique and powerful system to study the genetic regulation of oocyte production in a vertebrate animal. A method is presented here for identifying oocyte progenitor cells in the zebrafish ovary using whole-mount confocal immunofluorescence that is simple and accurate.

  13. Method for somatic cell nuclear transfer in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Siripattarapravat, Kannika; Cibelli, Jose B

    2011-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been a well-known technique for decades and widely applied to generate identical animals, including ones with genetic alterations. The system has been demonstrated successfully in zebrafish. The elaborated requirements of SCNT, however, limit reproducibility of the established model to a few groups in zebrafish research community. In this chapter, we meticulously outline each step of the published protocol as well as preparations of equipments and reagents used in zebrafish SCNT. All describable detailed-tips are elaborated in texts and figures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Interpretive Repertoires as Mirrors on Society and as Tools for Action: Reflections on Zeyer and Roth's "A Mirror of Society"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    I respond to Zeyer and Roth's ("Cultural Studies of Science Education," 2009) paper on their use of interpretive repertoire analysis to explicate Swiss middle school students' dialogic responses to environmental issues. I focus on the strategy of interpretive repertoire analysis, making sense of the stance Zeyer and Roth take with this analysis by…

  15. Chevron formation of the zebrafish muscle segments

    PubMed Central

    Rost, Fabian; Eugster, Christina; Schröter, Christian; Oates, Andrew C.; Brusch, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    The muscle segments of fish have a folded shape, termed a chevron, which is thought to be optimal for the undulating body movements of swimming. However, the mechanism shaping the chevron during embryogenesis is not understood. Here, we used time-lapse microscopy of developing zebrafish embryos spanning the entire somitogenesis period to quantify the dynamics of chevron shape development. By comparing such time courses with the start of movements in wildtype zebrafish and analysing immobile mutants, we show that the previously implicated body movements do not play a role in chevron formation. Further, the monotonic increase of chevron angle along the anteroposterior axis revealed by our data constrains or rules out possible contributions by previously proposed mechanisms. In particular, we found that muscle pioneers are not required for chevron formation. We put forward a tension-and-resistance mechanism involving interactions between intra-segmental tension and segment boundaries. To evaluate this mechanism, we derived and analysed a mechanical model of a chain of contractile and resisting elements. The predictions of this model were verified by comparison with experimental data. Altogether, our results support the notion that a simple physical mechanism suffices to self-organize the observed spatiotemporal pattern in chevron formation. PMID:25267843

  16. Chevron formation of the zebrafish muscle segments.

    PubMed

    Rost, Fabian; Eugster, Christina; Schröter, Christian; Oates, Andrew C; Brusch, Lutz

    2014-11-01

    The muscle segments of fish have a folded shape, termed a chevron, which is thought to be optimal for the undulating body movements of swimming. However, the mechanism shaping the chevron during embryogenesis is not understood. Here, we used time-lapse microscopy of developing zebrafish embryos spanning the entire somitogenesis period to quantify the dynamics of chevron shape development. By comparing such time courses with the start of movements in wildtype zebrafish and analysing immobile mutants, we show that the previously implicated body movements do not play a role in chevron formation. Further, the monotonic increase of chevron angle along the anteroposterior axis revealed by our data constrains or rules out possible contributions by previously proposed mechanisms. In particular, we found that muscle pioneers are not required for chevron formation. We put forward a tension-and-resistance mechanism involving interactions between intra-segmental tension and segment boundaries. To evaluate this mechanism, we derived and analysed a mechanical model of a chain of contractile and resisting elements. The predictions of this model were verified by comparison with experimental data. Altogether, our results support the notion that a simple physical mechanism suffices to self-organize the observed spatiotemporal pattern in chevron formation. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Development and origins of zebrafish ocular vasculature.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Rivka; Weiss, Omri; Sebbagh, Meyrav; Ravid, Revital; Gibbs-Bar, Liron; Yaniv, Karina; Inbal, Adi

    2015-03-27

    The developing eye receives blood supply from two vascular systems, the intraocular hyaloid system and the superficial choroidal vessels. In zebrafish, a highly stereotypic and simple set of vessels develops on the surface of the eye prior to development of choroidal vessels. The origins and formation of this so-called superficial system have not been described. We have analyzed the development of superficial vessels by time-lapse imaging and identified their origins by photoconversion experiments in kdrl:Kaede transgenic embryos. We show that the entire superficial system is derived from a venous origin, and surprisingly, we find that the hyaloid system has, in addition to its previously described arterial origin, a venous origin for specific vessels. Despite arising solely from a vein, one of the vessels in the superficial system, the nasal radial vessel (NRV), appears to acquire an arterial identity while growing over the nasal aspect of the eye and this happens in a blood flow-independent manner. Our results provide a thorough analysis of the early development and origins of zebrafish ocular vessels and establish the superficial vasculature as a model for studying vascular patterning in the context of the developing eye.

  18. Multidimensional In Vivo Hazard Assessment Using Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Tanguay, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    There are tens of thousands of man-made chemicals in the environment; the inherent safety of most of these chemicals is not known. Relevant biological platforms and new computational tools are needed to prioritize testing of chemicals with limited human health hazard information. We describe an experimental design for high-throughput characterization of multidimensional in vivo effects with the power to evaluate trends relating to commonly cited chemical predictors. We evaluated all 1060 unique U.S. EPA ToxCast phase 1 and 2 compounds using the embryonic zebrafish and found that 487 induced significant adverse biological responses. The utilization of 18 simultaneously measured endpoints means that the entire system serves as a robust biological sensor for chemical hazard. The experimental design enabled us to describe global patterns of variation across tested compounds, evaluate the concordance of the available in vitro and in vivo phase 1 data with this study, highlight specific mechanisms/value-added/novel biology related to notochord development, and demonstrate that the developmental zebrafish detects adverse responses that would be missed by less comprehensive testing strategies. PMID:24136191

  19. Afferent Connectivity of the Zebrafish Habenulae

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Katherine J.; Hawkins, Thomas A.; Yáñez, Julián; Anadón, Ramón; Wilson, Stephen W.; Folgueira, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    The habenulae are bilateral nuclei located in the dorsal diencephalon that are conserved across vertebrates. Here we describe the main afferents to the habenulae in larval and adult zebrafish. We observe afferents from the subpallium, nucleus rostrolateralis, posterior tuberculum, posterior hypothalamic lobe, median raphe; we also see asymmetric afferents from olfactory bulb to the right habenula, and from the parapineal to the left habenula. In addition, we find afferents from a ventrolateral telencephalic nucleus that neurochemical and hodological data identify as the ventral entopeduncular nucleus (vENT), confirming and extending observations of Amo et al. (2014). Fate map and marker studies suggest that vENT originates from the diencephalic prethalamic eminence and extends into the lateral telencephalon from 48 to 120 hour post-fertilization (hpf). No afferents to the habenula were observed from the dorsal entopeduncular nucleus (dENT). Consequently, we confirm that the vENT (and not the dENT) should be considered as the entopeduncular nucleus “proper” in zebrafish. Furthermore, comparison with data in other vertebrates suggests that the vENT is a conserved basal ganglia nucleus, being homologous to the entopeduncular nucleus of mammals (internal segment of the globus pallidus of primates) by both embryonic origin and projections, as previously suggested by Amo et al. (2014). PMID:27199671

  20. Navigational strategies underlying phototaxis in larval zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiuye; Engert, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how the brain transforms sensory input into complex behavior is a fundamental question in systems neuroscience. Using larval zebrafish, we study the temporal component of phototaxis, which is defined as orientation decisions based on comparisons of light intensity at successive moments in time. We developed a novel “Virtual Circle” assay where whole-field illumination is abruptly turned off when the fish swims out of a virtually defined circular border, and turned on again when it returns into the circle. The animal receives no direct spatial cues and experiences only whole-field temporal light changes. Remarkably, the fish spends most of its time within the invisible virtual border. Behavioral analyses of swim bouts in relation to light transitions were used to develop four discrete temporal algorithms that transform the binary visual input (uniform light/uniform darkness) into the observed spatial behavior. In these algorithms, the turning angle is dependent on the behavioral history immediately preceding individual turning events. Computer simulations show that the algorithms recapture most of the swim statistics of real fish. We discovered that turning properties in larval zebrafish are distinctly modulated by temporal step functions in light intensity in combination with the specific motor history preceding these turns. Several aspects of the behavior suggest memory usage of up to 10 swim bouts (~10 sec). Thus, we show that a complex behavior like spatial navigation can emerge from a small number of relatively simple behavioral algorithms. PMID:24723859

  1. Navigational strategies underlying phototaxis in larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiuye; Engert, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how the brain transforms sensory input into complex behavior is a fundamental question in systems neuroscience. Using larval zebrafish, we study the temporal component of phototaxis, which is defined as orientation decisions based on comparisons of light intensity at successive moments in time. We developed a novel "Virtual Circle" assay where whole-field illumination is abruptly turned off when the fish swims out of a virtually defined circular border, and turned on again when it returns into the circle. The animal receives no direct spatial cues and experiences only whole-field temporal light changes. Remarkably, the fish spends most of its time within the invisible virtual border. Behavioral analyses of swim bouts in relation to light transitions were used to develop four discrete temporal algorithms that transform the binary visual input (uniform light/uniform darkness) into the observed spatial behavior. In these algorithms, the turning angle is dependent on the behavioral history immediately preceding individual turning events. Computer simulations show that the algorithms recapture most of the swim statistics of real fish. We discovered that turning properties in larval zebrafish are distinctly modulated by temporal step functions in light intensity in combination with the specific motor history preceding these turns. Several aspects of the behavior suggest memory usage of up to 10 swim bouts (~10 sec). Thus, we show that a complex behavior like spatial navigation can emerge from a small number of relatively simple behavioral algorithms.

  2. Base substitution mutations in uridinediphosphate-dependent glycosyltransferase 76G1 gene of Stevia rebaudiana causes the low levels of rebaudioside A: mutations in UGT76G1, a key gene of steviol glycosides synthesis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong-Heng; Huang, Su-Zhen; Han, Yu-Lin; Yuan, Hai-Yan; Gu, Chun-Sun; Zhao, Yan-Hai

    2014-07-01

    Steviol glycosides, extracted from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana (Bert) Bertoni, are calorie-free sugar substitute of natural origin with intensely sweet (Boileau et al., 2012). Stevioside and rebaudioside A are the two main kinds of the diterpenic glycosides. We analyzed the concentration of stevioside and rebaudioside A in Stevia leaves of about 500 samples (hybrid progenies) and discovered a mutation plant "Z05" with very low levels of rebaudioside A. Because UGT76G1, a uridinediphosphate-dependent glycosyltransferases, is responsible for the conversion from stevioside to rebaudioside A (Richman et al., 2005), so mutation identification was done by sequencing the candidate gene, UGT76G1. In this study molecular analysis of two strains revealed a heterozygotic nonsense mutation of c.389T > G (p.L121X) in UGT76G1. Meanwhile, we found some amino acid substitutions significant change the protein structure. And the difference of enzyme activity between two strains proved the lack of functionality of UGT76G1 of the mutation "Z05". So the nonsense mutation and amino acid substitution mutation resulted in the low levels of rebaudioside A. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Emotional Intelligence and the Conflict Resolution Repertoire of Couples in Tertiary Institutions in Imo State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nnodum, B. I.; Ugwuegbulam, C. N.; Agbaenyi, I. G.

    2016-01-01

    This study is a descriptive survey that investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence and conflict resolution repertoire of couples in tertiary institutions. A sample of 250 married people were drawn from the population of couples in tertiary institutions in Imo State. Two researcher made and validated instruments were used in…

  4. Leisure repertoire among persons with a spinal cord injury: interests, performance, and well-being.

    PubMed

    Lundström, Ulrica; Lilja, Margareta; Petersson, Ingela; Lexell, Jan; Isaksson, Gunilla

    2014-03-01

    To explore and describe the leisure repertoire of persons with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) and how the repertoire is related to interest, performance, and well-being. Cross-sectional study. A total of 97 persons with traumatic SCI were recruited from the non-profit national organization, RG Active Rehabilitation in Sweden. Data were collected through a two-part postal survey. The first comprised of questions investigating socio-demographic variables and injury characteristics; the second part included an interest checklist with 20 areas of leisure activities. The participants were mostly interested in, performed, and experienced well-being from social and culture activities and TV/DVD/movies. The areas of leisure activities in which they had most likely experienced changes after the SCI were outdoor activities, exercise, and gardening. Sex, age, and to some extent, time since injury were related to interest, performance, well-being, and changed performance. The results provided an explanation and limited description of a changed leisure repertoire among persons after a traumatic SCI. The study showed that sex, age, and time since injury were more closely related to the choice of leisure activities to include in the leisure repertoire than the level of injury. This knowledge can be of importance when professionals in the field of rehabilitation are planning and implementing interventions concerning leisure activities for persons with SCI.

  5. Leisure repertoire among persons with a spinal cord injury: Interests, performance, and well-being

    PubMed Central

    Lundström, Ulrica; Lilja, Margareta; Petersson, Ingela; Lexell, Jan; Isaksson, Gunilla

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore and describe the leisure repertoire of persons with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) and how the repertoire is related to interest, performance, and well-being. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting A total of 97 persons with traumatic SCI were recruited from the non-profit national organization, RG Active Rehabilitation in Sweden. Outcome measure Data were collected through a two-part postal survey. The first comprised of questions investigating socio-demographic variables and injury characteristics; the second part included an interest checklist with 20 areas of leisure activities. Results The participants were mostly interested in, performed, and experienced well-being from social and culture activities and TV/DVD/movies. The areas of leisure activities in which they had most likely experienced changes after the SCI were outdoor activities, exercise, and gardening. Sex, age, and to some extent, time since injury were related to interest, performance, well-being, and changed performance. Conclusions The results provided an explanation and limited description of a changed leisure repertoire among persons after a traumatic SCI. The study showed that sex, age, and time since injury were more closely related to the choice of leisure activities to include in the leisure repertoire than the level of injury. This knowledge can be of importance when professionals in the field of rehabilitation are planning and implementing interventions concerning leisure activities for persons with SCI. PMID:24090284

  6. Manipulation of the Glycan-Specific Natural Antibody Repertoire for Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    New, J. Stewart; King, R. Glenn; Kearney, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Natural immunoglobulin derived from innate-like B lymphocytes plays important roles in the suppression of inflammatory responses and represents a promising therapeutic target in a growing number of allergic and autoimmune diseases. These antibodies are commonly autoreactive and incorporate evolutionarily conserved specificities, including certain glycan-specific antibodies. Despite this conservation, exposure to bacterial polysaccharides during innate-like B lymphocyte development, through either natural exposure or immunization, induces significant changes in clonal representation within the glycan-reactive B cell pool. Glycan-reactive natural antibodies have been reported to play protective and pathogenic roles in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. An understanding of the composition and functions of a healthy glycan-reactive natural antibody repertoire is therefore paramount. A more thorough understanding of natural antibody repertoire development holds promise for the design of both biological diagnostics and therapies. In this article we review the development and functions of natural antibodies and examine three glycan specificities, represented in the innate-like B cell pool, to illustrate the complex roles environmental antigens play in natural antibody repertoire development. We also discuss the implications of increased clonal plasticity of the innate-like B cell repertoire during neonatal and perinatal periods, and the prospect of targeting B cell development with interventional therapies and correct defects in this important arm of the adaptive immune system. PMID:26864103

  7. Narrowing the Gap: Preserving Repertoire Diversity Despite Clonal Selection during the CD4 T Cell Response.

    PubMed

    Merkenschlager, Julia; Kassiotis, George

    2015-01-01

    T cell immunity relies on the generation and maintenance of a diverse repertoire of T cell antigen receptors (TCRs). The strength of signaling emanating from the TCR dictates the fate of T cells during development, as well as during the immune response. Whereas development of new T cells in the thymus increases the available TCR repertoire, clonal selection during the immune response narrows TCR diversity through the outgrowth of clonotypes with the fittest TCR. To ensure maintenance of TCR diversity in the antigen-selected repertoire, specific mechanisms can be envisaged that facilitate the participation of T cell clonotypes with less than best fit TCRs. Here, we summarize the evidence for the existence of such mechanisms that can prevent the loss of diversity. A number of T cell-autonomous or extrinsic factors can reverse clonotypic hierarchies set by TCR affinity for given antigen. Although not yet complete, understanding of these factors and their mechanism of action will be critical in interventional attempts to mold the antigen-selected TCR repertoire.

  8. Repertoires of Cultural Practices for Enacting Play and Learning in a Playgroup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleer, Marilyn; Hammer, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Variations in cultural practices between families and schools have emerged as central to many studies (Rogoff, 2003) and these dynamic variations have been named as "repertoires" of cultural practice (Gutierrez & Rogoff, 2003). Emerging from this literature has been a recognition of the dynamic tension between the cultural practices…

  9. Repertoires, Characters and Scenes: Sociolinguistic Difference in Turkish-German Comedy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Androutsopoulos, Jannis

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines representations of sociolinguistic difference in a German "ethnic comedy" as a means to contribute to a framework for the sociolinguistic study of film. Three levels of analysis of sociolinguistic difference in film are distinguished: repertoire analysis reconstructs the entirety of codes used in a film and their…

  10. Comprehensive assessment of peripheral blood TCRβ repertoire in infectious mononucleosis and chronic active EBV infection patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shenglin; Zhang, Qian; Huang, Dongli; Zhang, Wenli; Zhong, Fengluan; Feng, Jia; Chen, Xueru; Meng, Qingxiang; Chen, Xiaofan; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Hongyu

    2017-04-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) primary infection is usually asymptomatic, but it sometimes progresses to infectious mononucleosis (IM). Occasionally, some people develop chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) with underlying immunodeficiency, which belongs to a continuous spectrum of EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders (EBV + LPD) with heterogeneous clinical presentations and high mortality. It has been well established that T cell-mediated immune response plays a critical role in the disease evolution of EBV infection. Recently, high-throughput sequencing of the hypervariable complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) segments of the T cell receptor (T cell receptor β (TCRβ)) has emerged as a sensitive approach to assess the T cell repertoire. In this study, we fully characterized the diversity of peripheral blood TCRβ repertoire in IM (n = 6) and CAEBV patients (n = 5) and EBV-seropositive controls (n = 5). Compared with the healthy EBV-seropositive controls, both IM and CAEBV patients demonstrate a significant decrease in peripheral blood TCRβ repertoire diversity, basically, including narrowed repertoire breadth, highly expanded clones, and skewed CDR3 length distribution. However, there is no significant difference between IM and CAEBV patients. Furthermore, we observed some disease-related preferences in TRBV/TRBJ usage and combinations, as well as lots of T cell clones shared by different groups (unique or overlapped) involved in public T cell responses, which provide more detailed insights into the divergent disease evolution.

  11. The vocal repertoire in a solitary foraging carnivore, Cynictis penicillata, may reflect facultative sociality.

    PubMed

    Le Roux, Aliza; Cherry, Michael I; Manser, Marta B

    2009-05-01

    We describe the vocal repertoire of a facultatively social carnivore, the yellow mongoose, Cynictis penicillata. Using a combination of close-range observations, recordings and experiments with simulated predators, we were able to obtain clear descriptions of call structure and function for a wide range of calls used by this herpestid. The vocal repertoire of the yellow mongooses comprised ten call types, half of which were used in appeasing or fearful contexts and half in aggressive interactions. Data from this study suggest that the yellow mongoose uses an urgency-based alarm calling system, indicating high and low urgency through two distinct call types. Compared to solitary mongooses, the yellow mongoose has a large proportion of 'friendly' vocalisations that enhance group cohesion, but its vocal repertoire is smaller and less context-specific than those of obligate social species. This study of the vocal repertoire of the yellow mongoose is, to our knowledge, the most complete to have been conducted on a facultatively social species in its natural habitat.

  12. The vocal repertoire in a solitary foraging carnivore, Cynictis penicillata, may reflect facultative sociality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Roux, Aliza; Cherry, Michael I.; Manser, Marta B.

    2009-05-01

    We describe the vocal repertoire of a facultatively social carnivore, the yellow mongoose, Cynictis penicillata. Using a combination of close-range observations, recordings and experiments with simulated predators, we were able to obtain clear descriptions of call structure and function for a wide range of calls used by this herpestid. The vocal repertoire of the yellow mongooses comprised ten call types, half of which were used in appeasing or fearful contexts and half in aggressive interactions. Data from this study suggest that the yellow mongoose uses an urgency-based alarm calling system, indicating high and low urgency through two distinct call types. Compared to solitary mongooses, the yellow mongoose has a large proportion of ‘friendly’ vocalisations that enhance group cohesion, but its vocal repertoire is smaller and less context-specific than those of obligate social species. This study of the vocal repertoire of the yellow mongoose is, to our knowledge, the most complete to have been conducted on a facultatively social species in its natural habitat.

  13. Depth versus Breadth of Lexical Repertoire: Assessing Their Roles in EFL Students' Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehsanzadeh, Seyed Jafar

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the roles of depth and breadth of lexical repertoire in L2 lexical inferencing success and incidental vocabulary acquisition through reading. Students read a graded reader containing 13 pseudo-words and attempted to infer the meanings of underlined target words. The Word Associates Test (WAT, Read, 2004) and the Vocabulary…

  14. Positive selection of the peripheral B cell repertoire in gut-associated lymphoid tissues.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Ki-Jong; Jasper, Paul J; Sethupathi, Periannan; Shanmugam, Malathy; Lanning, Dennis; Knight, Katherine L

    2005-01-03

    Gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALTs) interact with intestinal microflora to drive GALT development and diversify the primary antibody repertoire; however, the molecular mechanisms that link these events remain elusive. Alicia rabbits provide an excellent model to investigate the relationship between GALT, intestinal microflora, and modulation of the antibody repertoire. Most B cells in neonatal Alicia rabbits express V(H)n allotype immunoglobulin (Ig)M. Within weeks, the number of V(H)n B cells decreases, whereas V(H)a allotype B cells increase in number and become predominant. We hypothesized that the repertoire shift from V(H)n to V(H)a B cells results from interactions between GALT and intestinal microflora. To test this hypothesis, we surgically removed organized GALT from newborn Alicia pups and ligated the appendix to sequester it from intestinal microflora. Flow cytometry and nucleotide sequence analyses revealed that the V(H)n to V(H)a repertoire shift did not occur, demonstrating the requirement for interactions between GALT and intestinal microflora in the selective expansion of V(H)a B cells. By comparing amino acid sequences of V(H)n and V(H)a Ig, we identified a putative V(H) ligand binding site for a bacterial or endogenous B cell superantigen. We propose that interaction of such a superantigen with V(H)a B cells results in their selective expansion.

  15. Positive selection of the peripheral B cell repertoire in gut-associated lymphoid tissues

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Ki-Jong; Jasper, Paul J.; Sethupathi, Periannan; Shanmugam, Malathy; Lanning, Dennis; Knight, Katherine L.

    2005-01-01

    Gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALTs) interact with intestinal microflora to drive GALT development and diversify the primary antibody repertoire; however, the molecular mechanisms that link these events remain elusive. Alicia rabbits provide an excellent model to investigate the relationship between GALT, intestinal microflora, and modulation of the antibody repertoire. Most B cells in neonatal Alicia rabbits express VHn allotype immunoglobulin (Ig)M. Within weeks, the number of VHn B cells decreases, whereas VHa allotype B cells increase in number and become predominant. We hypothesized that the repertoire shift from VHn to VHa B cells results from interactions between GALT and intestinal microflora. To test this hypothesis, we surgically removed organized GALT from newborn Alicia pups and ligated the appendix to sequester it from intestinal microflora. Flow cytometry and nucleotide sequence analyses revealed that the VHn to VHa repertoire shift did not occur, demonstrating the requirement for interactions between GALT and intestinal microflora in the selective expansion of VHa B cells. By comparing amino acid sequences of VHn and VHa Ig, we identified a putative VH ligand binding site for a bacterial or endogenous B cell superantigen. We propose that interaction of such a superantigen with VHa B cells results in their selective expansion. PMID:15623575

  16. The vocal repertoire of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana): A quantitative classification.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Sofia K; Sheeran, Lori K; Wagner, R Steven; Li, Jin-Hua; Koda, Hiroki

    2016-09-01

    Vocal repertoires are basic and essential components for describing vocal communication in animals. Studying the entire suite of vocal signals aids investigations on the variation of acoustic structure across social contexts, comparisons on the complexity of communication systems across taxa, and in exploration of the evolutionary origins of species-specific vocalizations. Here, we describe the vocal repertoire of the largest species in the macaque genus, Macaca thibetana. We extracted thirty acoustic parameters from call recordings. Post hoc validation through quantitative analyses of the a priori repertoire classified eleven call types: coo, squawk, squeal, noisy scream, growl, bark, compound squeak, leap coo, weeping, modulated tonal scream, and pant. In comparison to the rest of the genus, Tibetan macaques uttered a wider array of vocalizations in the context of copulations. Previous reports did not include modulated tonal screams and pants during harassment of copulatory dyads. Furthermore, in comparison to the rest of the genus, Tibetan macaque females emit acoustically distinct copulation calls. The vocal repertoire of Tibetan macaques contributes to the literature on the emergence of species-specific calls in the genus Macaca with potential insights from social, reproductive, and ecological comparisons across species. Am. J. Primatol. 78:937-949, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Expressed var gene repertoire and variant surface antigen diversity in a shrinking Plasmodium falciparum population.

    PubMed

    Carlos, Bianca C; Fotoran, Wesley L; Menezes, Maria J; Cabral, Fernanda J; Bastos, Marcele F; Costa, Fabio T M; Sousa-Neto, Jayme A; Ribolla, Paulo E M; Wunderlich, Gerhard; Ferreira, Marcelo U

    2016-11-01

    The var gene-encoded erythrocyte membrane protein-1 of Plasmodium falciparum (PfEMP-1) is the main variant surface antigen (VSA) expressed on infected erythrocytes. The rate at which antibody responses to VSA expressed by circulating parasites are acquired depends on the size of the local VSA repertoire and the frequency of exposure to new VSA. Because parasites from areas with declining malaria endemicity, such as the Amazon, typically express a restricted PfEMP-1 repertoire, we hypothesized that Amazonians would rapidly acquire antibodies to most locally circulating VSA. Consistent with our expectations, the analysis of 5878 sequence tags expressed by 10 local P. falciparum samples revealed little PfEMP-1 DBL1α domain diversity. Among the most commonly expressed DBL1α types, 45% were shared by two or more independent parasite lines. Nevertheless, Amazonians displayed major gaps in their repertoire of anti-VSA antibodies, although the breadth of anti-VSA antibody responses correlated positively with their cumulative exposure to malaria. We found little antibody cross-reactivity even when testing VSA from related parasites expressing the same dominant DBL1α types. We conclude that variant-specific immunity to P. falciparum VSAs develops slowly despite the relatively restricted PfEMP-1 repertoire found in low-endemicity settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Persistence and evolution of allergen-specific IgE repertoires during subcutaneous specific immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Mattias; King, Jasmine J.; Glanville, Jacob; Jackson, Katherine J. L.; Looney, Timothy J.; Hoh, Ramona A.; Mari, Adriano; Andersson, Morgan; Greiff, Lennart; Fire, Andrew Z.; Boyd, Scott D.; Ohlin, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Background Specific immunotherapy (SIT) is the only treatment with proven long-term curative potential in allergic disease. Allergen-specific IgE is the causative agent of allergic disease, and antibodies contribute to SIT, but the effects of SIT on aeroallergen-specific B cell repertoires are not well understood. Objective To characterize the IgE sequences expressed by allergen-specific B cells, and track the fate of these B cell clones during SIT. Methods We have used high-throughput antibody gene sequencing and identification of allergen-specific IgE using combinatorial antibody fragment library technology to analyze immunoglobulin repertoires of blood and nasal mucosa of aeroallergen-sensitized individuals before and during the first year of subcutaneous SIT. Results Of 52 distinct allergen-specific IgE heavy chains from eight allergic donors, 37 were also detected by high-throughput antibody gene sequencing of blood, nasal mucosa, or both sample types. The allergen-specific clones had increased persistence, higher likelihood of belonging to clones expressing other switched isotypes, and possibly larger clone size than the rest of the IgE repertoire. Clone members in nasal tissue showed close mutational relationships. Conclusion Combining functional binding studies, deep antibody repertoire sequencing, and information on clinical outcomes in larger studies may in the future aid assessment of SIT mechanisms and efficacy. PMID:26559321

  19. Largest vertebrate vomeronasal type 1 receptor gene repertoire in the semiaquatic platypus.

    PubMed

    Grus, Wendy E; Shi, Peng; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2007-10-01

    Vertebrate vomeronasal chemoreception plays important roles in many aspects of an organism's daily life, such as mating, territoriality, and foraging. Vomeronasal type 1 receptors (V1Rs) and vomeronasal type 2 receptors (V2Rs), 2 large families of G protein-coupled receptors, serve as vomeronasal receptors to bind to various pheromones and odorants. Contrary to the previous observations of reduced olfaction in aquatic and semiaquatic mammals, we here report the surprising finding that the platypus, a semiaquatic monotreme, has the largest V1R repertoire and nearly largest combined repertoire of V1Rs and V2Rs of all vertebrates surveyed, with 270 intact genes and 579 pseudogenes in the V1R family and 15 intact genes, 55 potentially intact genes, and 57 pseudogenes in the V2R family. Phylogenetic analysis shows a remarkable expansion of the V1R repertoire and a moderate expansion of the V2R repertoire in platypus since the separation of monotremes from placentals and marsupials. Our results challenge the view that olfaction is unimportant to aquatic mammals and call for further study into the role of vomeronasal reception in platypus physiology and behavior.

  20. "That's My Favorite": A Study of Preschooler's Television Repertoires and Preferences. Technical Report No. 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vibbert, Martha M.; And Others

    Three preschool children were observed intensively for three years to document children's early television viewing repertoires and programing preferences. Relevant information was obtained from children and parents during biweekly home television viewing sessions. In addition, parents reported in diaries and questionnaires all aspects of their…

  1. Sustained multiplicity in everyday cholesterol reduction: repertoires and practices in talk about 'healthy living'.

    PubMed

    Will, Catherine M; Weiner, Kate

    2014-02-01

    This article is concerned with talk about and the practices of healthy living in relation to cholesterol reduction. It draws on qualitative interviews with 89 people who are current or former users of either cholesterol-lowering functional foods or statins for cardiovascular risk reduction. Focusing on data about everyday activities including food preparation, shopping and exercise, we illustrate four repertoires that feature in talk about cholesterol reduction (health, pleasure, sociality and pragmatism). Using Gilbert and Mulkay's notion of a 'reconciliation device', we suggest ways in which apparently contradictory repertoires are combined (for example, through talk about moderation) or kept apart. We suggest that, in contrast to the interactiveness of the repertoires of health and pleasure, a pragmatic repertoire concerning food provisioning, storage and cooking as well as the realities of exercise, appears distinct from talk about health and is relatively inert. Finally we consider the implications of these discursive patterns for daily practices. Our data suggest there is little emphasis on coherence in people's practices and illustrate the significance of temporal, spatial and social distribution in allowing people to pursue different priorities in their everyday lives. Rather than the calculated trade-offs of earlier medical sociology we draw on Mol to foreground the possibility of sustained multiplicity in daily practices. © 2014 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2014 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. A special repertoire of alpha:beta T cells in neonatal mice.

    PubMed Central

    Bogue, M; Candéias, S; Benoist, C; Mathis, D

    1991-01-01

    According to several functional criteria, the mature thymocytes of neonatal and adult mice are distinctly different. We wondered whether these differences in function might have a structural correlate: do neonates have a distinct repertoire of alpha:beta T cells? In this study, we have exploited the power of polymerase chain reaction technology to generate large numbers of T cell receptor sequences from sorted thymocyte populations from newborn and adult mice. The newborn-derived sequences show very few N nucleotide additions, usually the major source of diversity in T cell receptors. Most interestingly, the paucity of N insertions appears to be exaggerated by selection events that operate during T cell differentiation in the thymus. The significance of these results is largely: (i) that they parallel recent findings on the B cell repertoire in neonates, raising questions about the reactivities specified by such a special repertoire; and (ii) that they suggest a means to 'tag' T cells exported perinatally, allowing one to test the premise that autoreactive T cells derive preferentially from the newborn repertoire. Images PMID:1834457

  3. BRepertoire: a user-friendly web server for analysing antibody repertoire data.

    PubMed

    Margreitter, Christian; Lu, Hui-Chun; Townsend, Catherine; Stewart, Alexander; Dunn-Walters, Deborah K; Fraternali, Franca

    2018-04-14

    Antibody repertoire analysis by high throughput sequencing is now widely used, but a persisting challenge is enabling immunologists to explore their data to discover discriminating repertoire features for their own particular investigations. Computational methods are necessary for large-scale evaluation of antibody properties. We have developed BRepertoire, a suite of user-friendly web-based software tools for large-scale statistical analyses of repertoire data. The software is able to use data preprocessed by IMGT, and performs statistical and comparative analyses with versatile plotting options. BRepertoire has been designed to operate in various modes, for example analysing sequence-specific V(D)J gene usage, discerning physico-chemical properties of the CDR regions and clustering of clonotypes. Those analyses are performed on the fly by a number of R packages and are deployed by a shiny web platform. The user can download the analysed data in different table formats and save the generated plots as image files ready for publication. We believe BRepertoire to be a versatile analytical tool that complements experimental studies of immune repertoires. To illustrate the server's functionality, we show use cases including differential gene usage in a vaccination dataset and analysis of CDR3H properties in old and young individuals. The server is accessible under http://mabra.biomed.kcl.ac.uk/BRepertoire.

  4. Application of circular consensus sequencing and network analysis to characterize the bovine IgG repertoire

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Vertebrate immune systems generate diverse repertoires of antibodies capable of mediating response to a variety of antigens. Next generation sequencing methods provide unique approaches to a number of immuno-based research areas including antibody discovery and engineering, disease surve...

  5. The Preparation of a Piano Repertoire According to Elliot's Musical Knowledge Model: Three Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira dos Santos, Regina Antunes; Hentschke, Liane

    2010-01-01

    In academic education, undergraduate students develop musical knowledge through the preparation of a repertoire within the western classical music tradition during a certain period of formal music practice. During the practice, the student makes choices and deals with personal strategies that assume forms of thinking and, therefore, differentiated…

  6. The Effects of Multiple Exemplar Instruction on the Relation between Listener and Intraverbal Categorization Repertoires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lechago, Sarah A.; Carr, James E.; Kisamore, April N.; Grow, Laura L.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of multiple exemplar instruction (MEI) on the relation between listener and intraverbal categorization repertoires of six typically developing preschool-age children using a nonconcurrent multiple-probe design across participants. After failing to emit intraverbal categorization responses following listener categorization…

  7. Discrete Emotion Regulation Strategy Repertoires and Parasympathetic Physiology Characterize Psychopathology Symptoms in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quiñones-Camacho, Laura E.; Davis, Elizabeth L.

    2018-01-01

    Certain psychopathologies are often linked to dysregulation of specific emotions (e.g., anxiety is associated with dysregulation of fear), but few studies have examined how regulatory repertoires for specific emotions (e.g., the strategies a person uses to regulate fear) relate to psychopathology, and fewer still have examined this in childhood. A…

  8. Mother-Newborn Pairs in Malawi Have Similar Antibody Repertoires to Diverse Malaria Antigens.

    PubMed

    Boudová, Sarah; Walldorf, Jenny A; Bailey, Jason A; Divala, Titus; Mungwira, Randy; Mawindo, Patricia; Pablo, Jozelyn; Jasinskas, Algis; Nakajima, Rie; Ouattara, Amed; Adams, Matthew; Felgner, Philip L; Plowe, Christopher V; Travassos, Mark A; Laufer, Miriam K

    2017-10-01

    Maternal antibodies may play a role in protecting newborns against malaria disease. Plasmodium falciparum parasite surface antigens are diverse, and protection from infection requires allele-specific immunity. Although malaria-specific antibodies have been shown to cross the placenta, the extent to which antibodies that respond to the full repertoire of diverse antigens are transferred from the mother to the infant has not been explored. Understanding the breadth of maternal antibody responses and to what extent these antibodies are transferred to the child can inform vaccine design and evaluation. We probed plasma from cord blood and serum from mothers at delivery using a customized protein microarray that included variants of malaria vaccine target antigens to assess the intensity and breadth of seroreactivity to three malaria vaccine candidate antigens in mother-newborn pairs in Malawi. Among the 33 paired specimens that were assessed, mothers and newborns had similar intensity and repertoire of seroreactivity. Maternal antibody levels against vaccine candidate antigens were the strongest predictors of infant antibody levels. Placental malaria did not significantly impair transplacental antibody transfer. However, mothers with placental malaria had significantly higher antibody levels against these blood-stage antigens than mothers without placental malaria. The repertoire and levels of infant antibodies against a wide range of malaria vaccine candidate antigen variants closely mirror maternal levels in breadth and magnitude regardless of evidence of placental malaria. Vaccinating mothers with an effective malaria vaccine during pregnancy may induce high and potentially protective antibody repertoires in newborns. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Effects of spaceflight on the immunoglobulin repertoire of unimmunized C57BL/6 mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Claire; Rettig, Trisha A.; Hlavacek, Savannah; Bye, Bailey A.; Pecaut, Michael J.; Chapes, Stephen K.

    2018-02-01

    Spaceflight has been shown to suppress the adaptive immune response, altering the distribution and function of lymphocyte populations. B lymphocytes express highly specific and highly diversified receptors, known as immunoglobulins (Ig), that directly bind and neutralize pathogens. Ig diversity is achieved through the enzymatic splicing of gene segments within the genomic DNA of each B cell in a host. The collection of Ig specificities within a host, or Ig repertoire, has been increasingly characterized in both basic research and clinical settings using high-throughput sequencing technology (HTS). We utilized HTS to test the hypothesis that spaceflight affects the B-cell repertoire. To test this hypothesis, we characterized the impact of spaceflight on the unimmunized Ig repertoire of C57BL/6 mice that were flown aboard the International Space Station (ISS) during the Rodent Research One validation flight in comparison to ground controls. Individual gene segment usage was similar between ground control and flight animals, however, gene segment combinations and the junctions in which gene segments combine was varied among animals within and between treatment groups. We also found that spontaneous somatic mutations in the IgH and Igκ gene loci were not increased. These data suggest that space flight did not affect the B cell repertoire of mice flown and housed on the ISS over a short period of time.

  10. Effects of spaceflight on the immunoglobulin repertoire of unimmunized C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Ward, Claire; Rettig, Trisha A; Hlavacek, Savannah; Bye, Bailey A; Pecaut, Michael J; Chapes, Stephen K

    2018-02-01

    Spaceflight has been shown to suppress the adaptive immune response, altering the distribution and function of lymphocyte populations. B lymphocytes express highly specific and highly diversified receptors, known as immunoglobulins (Ig), that directly bind and neutralize pathogens. Ig diversity is achieved through the enzymatic splicing of gene segments within the genomic DNA of each B cell in a host. The collection of Ig specificities within a host, or Ig repertoire, has been increasingly characterized in both basic research and clinical settings using high-throughput sequencing technology (HTS). We utilized HTS to test the hypothesis that spaceflight affects the B-cell repertoire. To test this hypothesis, we characterized the impact of spaceflight on the unimmunized Ig repertoire of C57BL/6 mice that were flown aboard the International Space Station (ISS) during the Rodent Research One validation flight in comparison to ground controls. Individual gene segment usage was similar between ground control and flight animals, however, gene segment combinations and the junctions in which gene segments combine was varied among animals within and between treatment groups. We also found that spontaneous somatic mutations in the IgH and Igκ gene loci were not increased. These data suggest that space flight did not affect the B cell repertoire of mice flown and housed on the ISS over a short period of time. Copyright © 2017 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of drugs and drug metabolites as substrates of multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2) using triple-transfected MDCK-OATP1B1-UGT1A1-MRP2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Fahrmayr, C; König, J; Auge, D; Mieth, M; Fromm, MF

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The coordinate activity of hepatic uptake transporters [e.g. organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1)], drug-metabolizing enzymes [e.g. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1)] and efflux pumps (e.g. MRP2) is a crucial determinant of drug disposition. However, limited data are available on transport of drugs (e.g. ezetimibe, etoposide) and their glucuronidated metabolites by human MRP2 in intact cell systems. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Using monolayers of newly established triple-transfected MDCK-OATP1B1-UGT1A1-MRP2 cells as well as MDCK control cells, single- (OATP1B1) and double-transfected (OATP1B1-UGT1A1, OATP1B1-MRP2) MDCK cells, we therefore studied intracellular concentrations and transcellular transport after administration of ezetimibe or etoposide to the basal compartment. KEY RESULTS Intracellular accumulation of ezetimibe was significantly lower in MDCK-OATP1B1-UGT1A1-MRP2 triple-transfected cells compared with all other cell lines. Considerably higher amounts of ezetimibe glucuronide were found in the apical compartment of MDCK-OATP1B1-UGT1A1-MRP2 monolayers compared with all other cell lines. Using HEK cells, etoposide was identified as a substrate of OATP1B1. Intracellular concentrations of etoposide equivalents (i.e. parent compound plus metabolites) were affected only to a minor extent by the absence or presence of OATP1B1/UGT1A1/MRP2. In contrast, apical accumulation of etoposide equivalents was significantly higher in monolayers of both cell lines expressing MRP2 (MDCK-OATP1B1-MRP2, MDCK-OATP1B1-UGT1A1-MRP2) compared with the single-transfected (OATP1B1) and the control cell line. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Ezetimibe glucuronide is a substrate of human MRP2. Moreover, etoposide and possibly also its glucuronide are substrates of MRP2. These data demonstrate the functional interplay between transporter-mediated uptake, phase II metabolism and export by hepatic proteins involved in drug disposition. PMID:21923755

  12. Evidence for a core gut microbiota in the zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Roeselers, Guus; Mittge, Erika K; Stephens, W Zac; Parichy, David M; Cavanaugh, Colleen M; Guillemin, Karen; Rawls, John F

    2011-01-01

    Experimental analysis of gut microbial communities and their interactions with vertebrate hosts is conducted predominantly in domesticated animals that have been maintained in laboratory facilities for many generations. These animal models are useful for studying coevolved relationships between host and microbiota only if the microbial communities that occur in animals in lab facilities are representative of those that occur in nature. We performed 16S rRNA gene sequence-based comparisons of gut bacterial communities in zebrafish collected recently from their natural habitat and those reared for generations in lab facilities in different geographic locations. Patterns of gut microbiota structure in domesticated zebrafish varied across different lab facilities in correlation with historical connections between those facilities. However, gut microbiota membership in domesticated and recently caught zebrafish was strikingly similar, with a shared core gut microbiota. The zebrafish intestinal habitat therefore selects for specific bacterial taxa despite radical differences in host provenance and domestication status. PMID:21472014

  13. Teratogenic potential of antiepileptic drugs in the zebrafish model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Hak; Kang, Jung Won; Lin, Tao; Lee, Jae Eun; Jin, Dong Il

    2013-01-01

    The zebrafish model is an attractive candidate for screening of developmental toxicity during early drug development. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) arouse concern for the risk of teratogenicity, but the data are limited. In this study, we evaluated the teratogenic potential of seven AEDs (carbamazepine (CBZ), ethosuximide (ETX), valproic acid (VPN), lamotrigine (LMT), lacosamide (LCM), levetiracetam (LVT), and topiramate (TPM)) in the zebrafish model. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to AEDs from initiation of gastrula (5.25 hours post-fertilization (hpf)) to termination of hatching (72 hpf) which mimic the mammalian teratogenic experimental design. The lethality and teratogenic index (TI) of AEDs were determined and the TI values of each drug were compared with the US FDA human pregnancy categories. Zebrafish model was useful screening model for teratogenic potential of antiepilepsy drugs and was in concordance with in vivo mammalian data and human clinical data.

  14. Developmental Toxicity of Louisiana Crude Oiled Sediment to Zebrafish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Embryonic exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and petroleum products cause a characteristic suite of developmental defects in a variety of fish species. We exposed zebrafish embryos to sediment mixed with laboratory weathered South Louisiana crude oil. Oiled sedi...

  15. Methods for studying the zebrafish brain: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Cameron; Bartoszek, Ewelina M; Yaksi, Emre

    2015-07-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is one of the most promising new model organisms. The increasing popularity of this amazing small vertebrate is evident from the exponentially growing numbers of research articles, funded projects and new discoveries associated with the use of zebrafish for studying development, brain function, human diseases and screening for new drugs. Thanks to the development of novel technologies, the range of zebrafish research is constantly expanding with new tools synergistically enhancing traditional techniques. In this review we will highlight the past and present techniques which have made, and continue to make, zebrafish an attractive model organism for various fields of biology, with a specific focus on neuroscience. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Teratogenic Potential of Antiepileptic Drugs in the Zebrafish Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung Hak; Kang, Jung Won; Lin, Tao; Lee, Jae Eun; Jin, Dong Il

    2013-01-01

    The zebrafish model is an attractive candidate for screening of developmental toxicity during early drug development. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) arouse concern for the risk of teratogenicity, but the data are limited. In this study, we evaluated the teratogenic potential of seven AEDs (carbamazepine (CBZ), ethosuximide (ETX), valproic acid (VPN), lamotrigine (LMT), lacosamide (LCM), levetiracetam (LVT), and topiramate (TPM)) in the zebrafish model. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to AEDs from initiation of gastrula (5.25 hours post-fertilization (hpf)) to termination of hatching (72 hpf) which mimic the mammalian teratogenic experimental design. The lethality and teratogenic index (TI) of AEDs were determined and the TI values of each drug were compared with the US FDA human pregnancy categories. Zebrafish model was useful screening model for teratogenic potential of antiepilepsy drugs and was in concordance with in vivo mammalian data and human clinical data. PMID:24324971

  17. Evolution of complexity in the zebrafish synapse proteome

    PubMed Central

    Bayés, Àlex; Collins, Mark O.; Reig-Viader, Rita; Gou, Gemma; Goulding, David; Izquierdo, Abril; Choudhary, Jyoti S.; Emes, Richard D.; Grant, Seth G. N.

    2017-01-01

    The proteome of human brain synapses is highly complex and is mutated in over 130 diseases. This complexity arose from two whole-genome duplications early in the vertebrate lineage. Zebrafish are used in modelling human diseases; however, its synapse proteome is uncharacterized, and whether the teleost-specific genome duplication (TSGD) influenced complexity is unknown. We report the characterization of the proteomes and ultrastructure of central synapses in zebrafish and analyse the importance of the TSGD. While the TSGD increases overall synapse proteome complexity, the postsynaptic density (PSD) proteome of zebrafish has lower complexity than mammals. A highly conserved set of ∼1,000 proteins is shared across vertebrates. PSD ultrastructural features are also conserved. Lineage-specific proteome differences indicate that vertebrate species evolved distinct synapse types and functions. The data sets are a resource for a wide range of studies and have important implications for the use of zebrafish in modelling human synaptic diseases. PMID:28252024

  18. Using zebrafish in systems toxicology for developmental toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Yuhei; Inoue, Atsuto; Sasagawa, Shota; Koiwa, Junko; Kawaguchi, Koki; Kawase, Reiko; Maruyama, Toru; Kim, Soonih; Tanaka, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    With the high cost and the long-term assessment of developmental toxicity testing in mammals, the vertebrate zebrafish has become a useful alternative model organism for high-throughput developmental toxicity testing. Zebrafish is also very favorable for the 3R perspective in toxicology; however, the methodologies used by research groups vary greatly, posing considerable challenges to integrative analysis. In this review, we discuss zebrafish developmental toxicity testing, focusing on the methods of chemical exposure, the assessment of morphological abnormalities, housing conditions and their effects on the production of healthy embryos, and future directions. Zebrafish as a systems toxicology model has the potential to elucidate developmental toxicity pathways, and to provide a sound basis for human health risk assessments. © 2015 Japanese Teratology Society.

  19. Zebrafish (Danio rerio): A Potential Model for Toxinological Studies.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Rafael Antonio; Sarmiento, Karen; Vásquez, Isabel Cristina

    2015-10-01

    Zebrafish are an emerging basic biomedical research model that has multiple advantages compared with other research models. Given that biotoxins, such as toxins, poisons, and venoms, represent health hazards to animals and humans, a low-cost biological model that is highly sensitive to biotoxins is useful to understand the damage caused by such agents and to develop biological tests to prevent and reduce the risk of poisoning in potential cases of bioterrorism or food contamination. In this article, a narrative review of the general aspects of zebrafish as a model in basic biomedical research and various studies in the field of toxinology that have used zebrafish as a biological model are presented. This information will provide useful material to beginner students and researchers who are interested in developing toxinological studies with the zebrafish model.

  20. Zebrafish as a model system to study toxicology.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yu-Jie; Jia, Yong-Fang; Chen, Na; Bian, Wan-Ping; Li, Qin-Kai; Ma, Yan-Bo; Chen, Yan-Ling; Pei, De-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring and assessing the effects of contaminants in the aquatic eco-environment is critical in protecting human health and the environment. The zebrafish has been widely used as a prominent model organism in different fields because of its small size, low cost, diverse adaptability, short breeding cycle, high fecundity, and transparent embryos. Recent studies have demonstrated that zebrafish sensitivity can aid in monitoring environmental contaminants, especially with the application of transgenic technology in this area. The present review provides a brief overview of recent studies on wild-type and transgenic zebrafish as a model system to monitor toxic heavy metals, endocrine disruptors, and organic pollutants for toxicology. The authors address the new direction of developing high-throughput detection of genetically modified transparent zebrafish to open a new window for monitoring environmental pollutants. © 2013 SETAC.

  1. Functional inhibition of UQCRB suppresses angiogenesis in zebrafish

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Yoon Sun; Jung, Hye Jin; Seok, Seung Hyeok

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: ► This is the first functional characterization of UQCRB in vivo model. ► Angiogenesis is inhibited with UQCRB loss of function in zebrafish. ► UQCRB is introduced as a prognostic marker for mitochondria- and angiogenesis-related diseases. -- Abstract: As a subunit of mitochondrial complex III, UQCRB plays an important role in complex III stability, electron transport, and cellular oxygen sensing. Herein, we report UQCRB function regarding angiogenesis in vivo with the zebrafish (Danio rerio). UQCRB knockdown inhibited angiogenesis in zebrafish leading to the suppression of VEGF expression. Moreover, the UQCRB-targeting small molecule terpestacin also inhibited angiogenesis and VEGF levelsmore » in zebrafish, supporting the role of UQCRB in angiogenesis. Collectively, UQCRB loss of function by either genetic and pharmacological means inhibited angiogenesis, indicating that UQCRB plays a key role in this process and can be a prognostic marker of angiogenesis- and mitochondria-related diseases.« less

  2. Use of Gnotobiotic Zebrafish to Study Vibrio anguillarum Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Oyarbide, Usua; Iturria, Iñaki; Rainieri, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated the use of the gnotobiotic zebrafish system to study the effects of bacterial infection, and analyzed expression of genes involved in zebrafish innate immunity. Using a GFP-labeled strain of Vibrio anguillarum, we fluorescently monitored colonization of the zebrafish intestinal tract and used gene expression analysis to compare changes in genes involved in innate immunity between nongnotobiotic and gnotobiotic larvae. The experiments performed with the gnotobiotic zebrafish reveal new insights into V. anguillarum pathogenesis. Specifically, an alteration of the host immune system was detected through the suppression of a number of innate immune genes (NFKB, IL1B, TLR4, MPX, and TRF) during the first 3 h post infection. This immunomodulation can be indicative of a “stealth mechanism” of mucus invasion in which the pathogen found a sheltered niche, a typical trait of intracellular pathogens. PMID:25548877

  3. Social learning of an associative foraging task in zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zala, Sarah M.; Määttänen, Ilmari

    2013-05-01

    The zebrafish ( Danio rerio) is increasingly becoming an important model species for studies on the genetic and neural mechanisms controlling behaviour and cognition. Here, we utilized a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm to study social learning in zebrafish. We tested whether social interactions with conditioned demonstrators enhance the ability of focal naïve individuals to learn an associative foraging task. We found that the presence of conditioned demonstrators improved focal fish foraging behaviour through the process of social transmission, whereas the presence of inexperienced demonstrators interfered with the learning of the control focal fish. Our results indicate that zebrafish use social learning for finding food and that this CPP paradigm is an efficient assay to study social learning and memory in zebrafish.

  4. Tracking zebrafish larvae in group – Status and perspectives☆

    PubMed Central

    Martineau, Pierre R.; Mourrain, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Video processing is increasingly becoming a standard procedure in zebrafish behavior investigations as it enables higher research throughput and new or better measures. This trend, fostered by the ever increasing performance-to-price ratio of the required recording and processing equipment, should be expected to continue in the foreseeable future, with video-processing based methods permeating more and more experiments and, as a result, expanding the very role of behavioral studies in zebrafish research. To assess whether the routine video tracking of zebrafish larvae directly in the Petri dish is a capability that can be expected in the near future, the key processing concepts are discussed and illustrated on published zebrafish studies when available or other animals when not. PMID:23707495

  5. Zebrafish larvae require specific strains of bacteria for neurobehavioral development

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an increasing appreciation of the relationship between gut microbiota and nervous system development and function. We previously showed that axenic (microbe-free) larvae are hyperactive at 10 days post fertilization (dpf) relative to colonized zebrafish larvae. Interesti...

  6. The zebrafish as a model for complex tissue regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gemberling, Matthew; Bailey, Travis J.; Hyde, David R.; Poss, Kenneth D.

    2013-01-01

    For centuries, philosophers and scientists have been fascinated by the principles and implications of regeneration in lower vertebrate species. Two features have made zebrafish an informative model system for determining mechanisms of regenerative events. First, they are highly regenerative, able to regrow amputated fins, as well as a lesioned brain, retina, spinal cord, heart, and other tissues. Second, they are amenable to both forward and reverse genetic approaches, with a research toolset regularly updated by an expanding community of zebrafish researchers. Zebrafish studies have helped identify new mechanistic underpinnings of regeneration in multiple tissues, and in some cases have served as a guide for contemplating regenerative strategies in mammals. Here, we review the recent history of zebrafish as a genetic model system for understanding how and why tissue regeneration occurs. PMID:23927865

  7. Zebrafish models in neuropsychopharmacology and CNS drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Khan, Kanza M; Collier, Adam D; Meshalkina, Darya A; Kysil, Elana V; Khatsko, Sergey L; Kolesnikova, Tatyana; Morzherin, Yury Yu; Warnick, Jason E; Kalueff, Allan V; Echevarria, David J

    2017-07-01

    Despite the high prevalence of neuropsychiatric disorders, their aetiology and molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is increasingly utilized as a powerful animal model in neuropharmacology research and in vivo drug screening. Collectively, this makes zebrafish a useful tool for drug discovery and the identification of disordered molecular pathways. Here, we discuss zebrafish models of selected human neuropsychiatric disorders and drug-induced phenotypes. As well as covering a broad range of brain disorders (from anxiety and psychoses to neurodegeneration), we also summarize recent developments in zebrafish genetics and small molecule screening, which markedly enhance the disease modelling and the discovery of novel drug targets. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. The Vital Relationship Between Nutrition and Health in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Watts, Stephen A; Lawrence, Christian; Powell, Mickie; D'Abramo, Louis R

    2016-07-01

    In the relatively short span of four decades, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has emerged as an increasingly important model organism for biomedicine and other scientific disciplines. As the scale and sophistication of zebrafish research expands, so too does the need to develop standards that promote the production and maintenance of healthy animals for experiments. A major, but long overlooked, contributor to fish health is nutrition. Historically, feeding practices for laboratory zebrafish have been designed to promote growth and reproductive function. However, as the field matures, it is becoming increasingly clear that the nutritional goals for these animals should evolve beyond basic production to the maintenance of clinically healthy research subjects. This review outlines weaknesses and limitations of current approaches and provides a justification for the development of defined standardized diets that will strengthen and facilitate the continued growth of the zebrafish model system.

  9. IgM Repertoire Biodiversity is Reduced in HIV-1 Infection and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Yin, Li; Hou, Wei; Liu, Li; Cai, Yunpeng; Wallet, Mark Andrew; Gardner, Brent Paul; Chang, Kaifen; Lowe, Amanda Catherine; Rodriguez, Carina Adriana; Sriaroon, Panida; Farmerie, William George; Sleasman, John William; Goodenow, Maureen Michels

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 infection or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) disrupt B cell homeostasis, reduce memory B cells, and impair function of IgG and IgM antibodies. To determine how disturbances in B cell populations producing polyclonal antibodies relate to the IgM repertoire, the IgM transcriptome in health and disease was explored at the complementarity determining region 3 (CDRH3) sequence level. 454-deep pyrosequencing in combination with a novel analysis pipeline was applied to define populations of IGHM CDRH3 sequences based on absence or presence of somatic hypermutations (SHM) in peripheral blood B cells. HIV or SLE subjects have reduced biodiversity within their IGHM transcriptome compared to healthy subjects, mainly due to a significant decrease in the number of unique combinations of alleles, although recombination machinery was intact. While major differences between sequences without or with SHM occurred among all groups, IGHD and IGHJ allele use, CDRH3 length distribution, or generation of SHM were similar among study cohorts. Antiretroviral therapy failed to normalize IGHM biodiversity in HIV-infected individuals. All subjects had a low frequency of allelic combinations within the IGHM repertoire similar to known broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies. Polyclonal expansion would decrease overall IgM biodiversity independent of other mechanisms for development of the B cell repertoire. Applying deep sequencing as a strategy to follow development of the IgM repertoire in health and disease provides a novel molecular assessment of multiple points along the B cell differentiation pathway that is highly sensitive for detecting perturbations within the repertoire at the population level.

  10. The Vocal Repertoire of Adult and Neonate Giant Otters (Pteronura brasiliensis)

    PubMed Central

    Mumm, Christina A. S.; Knörnschild, Mirjam

    2014-01-01

    Animals use vocalizations to exchange information about external events, their own physical or motivational state, or about individuality and social affiliation. Infant babbling can enhance the development of the full adult vocal repertoire by providing ample opportunity for practice. Giant otters are very social and frequently vocalizing animals. They live in highly cohesive groups, generally including a reproductive pair and their offspring born in different years. This basic social structure may vary in the degree of relatedness of the group members. Individuals engage in shared group activities and different social roles and thus, the social organization of giant otters provides a basis for complex and long-term individual relationships. We recorded and analysed the vocalizations of adult and neonate giant otters from wild and captive groups. We classified the adult vocalizations according to their acoustic structure, and described their main behavioural context. Additionally, we present the first description of vocalizations uttered in babbling bouts of new born giant otters. We expected to find 1) a sophisticated vocal repertoire that would reflect the species’ complex social organisation, 2) that giant otter vocalizations have a clear relationship between signal structure and function, and 3) that the vocal repertoire of new born giant otters would comprise age-specific vocalizations as well as precursors of the adult repertoire. We found a vocal repertoire with 22 distinct vocalization types produced by adults and 11 vocalization types within the babbling bouts of the neonates. A comparison within the otter subfamily suggests a relation between vocal and social complexity, with the giant otters being the socially and vocally most complex species. PMID:25391142

  11. Song repertoire across the generations: a comparison of music therapy majors' and senior citizens' recognitions.

    PubMed

    Prickett, C A; Bridges, M S

    2000-01-01

    This study examined whether a basic song repertoire of folk-type melodies which can be accompanied with principal triads exists in the senior citizen population and compared this repertoire with that of music therapy students. An audiotape of the tunes of 25 standard songs, assumed in previous research to be known by everyone who has finished 6th grade, was played for undergraduate music therapy students (N = 78) and for healthy, active senior citizens (N = 78). None of the senior citizens had received any music therapy services, although many were involved in music activities such as the senior choir at church. Music therapy majors identified significantly more tunes than did the older listeners. Further analysis indicated that there is a good deal of overlap in the repertoires of these two groups. Sixteen tunes were recognized by 80% of therapy students; 10 songs were recognized by 80% of the seniors; the 10 songs identified by these seniors were 10 of the top 11 identified by the college students ("Kumbaya" was not known by the older listeners). Six songs could not be named by 50% of the students; 7 songs could not be named by 50% of the seniors; these two lists contained five common selections ("Oh Shenandoah," "Kookaburra," "Down in the Valley," "Shalom Chaverim," and "Tinga Layo"). Given the growth of the senior segment of the American population, the expansion of services for them, and the popularity of including music activities among these services, it would appear that music therapy students' basic knowledge of a repertoire of songs which are known to older people and which can easily be accompanied with principal triads is adequate, even though the range of songs which could be identified was broad (11-24) and the mean correctly named was merely 70.82% of a set which other investigators, teachers, and professional organizations have said represent a minimal repertoire for all citizens beyond the 6th grade.

  12. Multiple zebrafish atoh1 genes specify a diversity of neuronal types in the zebrafish cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Kidwell, Chelsea U; Su, Chen-Ying; Hibi, Masahiko; Moens, Cecilia B

    2018-06-01

    A single Atoh1 basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor specifies multiple neuron types in the mammalian cerebellum and anterior hindbrain. The zebrafish genome encodes three paralagous atoh1 genes whose functions in cerebellum and anterior hindbrain development we explore here. With use of a transgenic reporter, we report that zebrafish atoh1c-expressing cells are organized in two distinct domains that are separated both by space and developmental time. An early isthmic expression domain gives rise to an extracerebellar population in rhombomere 1 and an upper rhombic lip domain gives rise to granule cell progenitors that migrate to populate all four granule cell territories of the fish cerebellum. Using genetic mutants we find that of the three zebrafish atoh1 paralogs, atoh1c and atoh1a are required for the full complement of granule neurons. Surprisingly, the two genes are expressed in non-overlapping granule cell progenitor populations, indicating that fish use duplicate atoh1 genes to generate granule cell diversity that is not detected in mammals. Finally, live imaging of granule cell migration in wildtype and atoh1c mutant embryos reveals that while atoh1c is not required for granule cell specification per se, it is required for granule cells to delaminate and migrate away from the rhombic lip. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Electroretinogram analysis of the visual response in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Chrispell, Jared D; Rebrik, Tatiana I; Weiss, Ellen R

    2015-03-16

    The electroretinogram (ERG) is a noninvasive electrophysiological method for determining retinal function. Through the placement of an electrode on the surface of the cornea, electrical activity generated in response to light can be measured and used to assess the activity of retinal cells in vivo. This manuscript describes the use of the ERG to measure visual function in zebrafish. Zebrafish have long been utilized as a model for vertebrate development due to the ease of gene suppression by morpholino oligonucleotides and pharmacological manipulation. At 5-10 dpf, only cones are functional in the larval retina. Therefore, the zebrafish, unlike other animals, is a powerful model system for the study of cone visual function in vivo. This protocol uses standard anesthesia, micromanipulation and stereomicroscopy protocols that are common in laboratories that perform zebrafish research. The outlined methods make use of standard electrophysiology equipment and a low light camera to guide the placement of the recording microelectrode onto the larval cornea. Finally, we demonstrate how a commercially available ERG stimulator/recorder originally designed for use with mice can easily be adapted for use with zebrafish. ERG of larval zebrafish provides an excellent method of assaying cone visual function in animals that have been modified by morpholino oligonucleotide injection as well as newer genome engineering techniques such as Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFNs), Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases (TALENs), and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9, all of which have greatly increased the efficiency and efficacy of gene targeting in zebrafish. In addition, we take advantage of the ability of pharmacological agents to penetrate zebrafish larvae to evaluate the molecular components that contribute to the photoresponse. This protocol outlines a setup that can be modified and used by researchers with various experimental goals.

  14. Zebrafish for the Study of the Biological Effects of Nicotine

    PubMed Central

    Klee, Eric W.; Schneider, Henning; Hurt, Richard D.; Ekker, Stephen C.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Zebrafish are emerging as a powerful animal model for studying the molecular and physiological effects of nicotine exposure. The zebrafish have many advantageous physical characteristics, including small size, high fecundity rates, and externally developing transparent embryos. When combined with a battery of molecular–genetic tools and behavioral assays, these attributes enable studies to be conducted that are not practical using traditional animal models. Methods: We reviewed the literature on the application of the zebrafish model as a preclinical model to study the biological effects of nicotine exposure. Results: The identified studies used zebrafish to examine the effects of nicotine exposure on early development, addiction, anxiety, and learning. The methods used included green fluorescent protein–labeled proteins to track in vivo nicotine-altered neuron development, nicotine-conditioned place preference, and locomotive sensitization linked with high-throughput molecular and genetic screens and behavioral models of learning and stress response to nicotine. Data are presented on the complete homology of all known human neural nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in zebrafish and on the biological similarity of human and zebrafish dopaminergic signaling. Conclusions: Tobacco dependence remains a major health problem worldwide. Further understanding of the molecular effects of nicotine exposure and genetic contributions to dependence may lead to improvement in patient treatment strategies. While there are limitations to the use of zebrafish as a preclinical model, it should provide a valuable tool to complement existing model systems. The reviewed studies demonstrate the enormous opportunity zebrafish have to advance the science of nicotine and tobacco research. PMID:21385906

  15. Combinatorial Wnt control of zebrafish midbrain-hindbrain boundary formation.

    PubMed

    Buckles, Gerri R; Thorpe, Christopher J; Ramel, Marie-Christine; Lekven, Arne C

    2004-05-01

    Wnt signaling is known to be required for the normal development of the vertebrate midbrain and hindbrain, but genetic loss of function analyses in the mouse and zebrafish yield differing results regarding the relative importance of specific Wnt loci. In the zebrafish, Wnt1 and Wnt10b functionally overlap in their control of gene expression in the ventral midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB), but they are not required for the formation of the MHB constriction. Whether other wnt loci are involved in zebrafish MHB development is unclear, although the expression of at least two wnts, wnt3a and wnt8b, is maintained in wnt1/wnt10b mutants. In order to address the role of wnt3a in zebrafish, we have isolated a full length cDNA and examined its expression and function via knockdown by morpholino antisense oligonucleotide (MO)-mediated knockdown. The expression pattern of wnt3a appears to be evolutionarily conserved between zebrafish and mouse, and MO knockdown shows that Wnt3a, while not uniquely required for MHB development, is required in the absence of Wnt1 and Wnt10b for the formation of the MHB constriction. In zebrafish embryos lacking Wnt3a, Wnt1 and Wnt10b, the expression of engrailed orthologs, pax2a and fgf8 is not maintained after mid-somitogenesis. In contrast to acerebellar and no isthmus mutants, in which midbrain and hindbrain cells acquire new fates but cell number is not significantly affected until late in embryogenesis, zebrafish embryos lacking Wnt3a, Wnt1 and Wnt10b undergo extensive apoptosis in the midbrain and cerebellum anlagen beginning in mid-somitogenesis, which results in the absence of a significant portion of the midbrain and cerebellum. Thus, the requirement for Wnt signaling in forming the MHB constriction is evolutionarily conserved in vertebrates and it is possible in zebrafish to dissect the relative impact of multiple Wnt loci in midbrain and hindbrain development.

  16. Zebrafish models for the functional genomics of neurogenetic disorders.

    PubMed

    Kabashi, Edor; Brustein, Edna; Champagne, Nathalie; Drapeau, Pierre

    2011-03-01

    In this review, we consider recent work using zebrafish to validate and study the functional consequences of mutations of human genes implicated in a broad range of degenerative and developmental disorders of the brain and spinal cord. Also we present technical considerations for those wishing to study their own genes of interest by taking advantage of this easily manipulated and clinically relevant model organism. Zebrafish permit mutational analyses of genetic function (gain or loss of function) and the rapid validation of human variants as pathological mutations. In particular, neural degeneration can be characterized at genetic, cellular, functional, and behavioral levels. Zebrafish have been used to knock down or express mutations in zebrafish homologs of human genes and to directly express human genes bearing mutations related to neurodegenerative disorders such as spinal muscular atrophy, ataxia, hereditary spastic paraplegia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), epilepsy, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, fronto-temporal dementia, and Alzheimer's disease. More recently, we have been using zebrafish to validate mutations of synaptic genes discovered by large-scale genomic approaches in developmental disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, and non-syndromic mental retardation. Advances in zebrafish genetics such as multigenic analyses and chemical genetics now offer a unique potential for disease research. Thus, zebrafish hold much promise for advancing the functional genomics of human diseases, the understanding of the genetics and cell biology of degenerative and developmental disorders, and the discovery of therapeutics. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Zebrafish Models of Neurological Diseases. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Study on acute toxicity of amoxicillin wastewater to Zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Weifang; Shen, Hongyan

    2017-12-01

    The main research in this paper is to obtain the effect of pharmaceutical wastewater on the acute toxicity of Zebrafish. The experimental method of exposure is used in this research. Experiments were carried out with different groups of pharmaceutical wastewater. Zebrafish was cultivated in a five liter fish tank. In the experiment, according to mortality, initially a 96h preliminary test was carried out at exposure concentrations to determine if the amoxicillin wastewater was toxic and to define the concentration range (24h LC100, 96h LC0) to be employed in the definitive tests. Based on the half lethal concentration of Zebrafish, the acute toxicity of amoxicillin wastewater to Zebrafish was calculated and the toxicity grade of wastewater was determined. In the experiment, the Zebrafish was exposed with amoxicillin wastewater during 96h. The 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h LC50 of amoxicillin wastewater on the Zebrafish were 63.10%, 53.70%, 41.69% and 40.74%, respectively. At 96h, the test time is the longest, and the value of LC50 is the smallest. In the observation period of 96 hours, the LC50 of amoxicillin wastewater were in the range of 40% ~ 60% and the value of Tua is 1 ~ 2. It indicates amoxicillin wastewater is low toxic wastewater when the experimental time is shorter than 48h, amoxicillin wastewater is moderate toxicity wastewater when the experimental time is higher than 48h. According to the experimental data, with the exposure time and the volume percentage of amoxicillin wastewater increases, the mortality rate of Zebrafish is gradually increased and the toxicity of amoxicillin wastewater increases. It indicates that the toxicity of amoxicillin wastewater is the biggest and the effect of wastewater on Zebrafish is greatest. In some ways, the toxicity of amoxicillin wastewater can be affected by the test time.

  18. Ionic channels underlying the ventricular action potential in zebrafish embryo.

    PubMed

    Alday, Aintzane; Alonso, Hiart; Gallego, Monica; Urrutia, Janire; Letamendia, Ainhoa; Callol, Carles; Casis, Oscar

    2014-06-01

    Over the last years zebrafish has become a popular model in the study of cardiac physiology, pathology and pharmacology. Recently, the application of the 3Rs regulation and the characteristics of the embryo have reduced the use of adult zebrafish use in many studies. However, the zebrafish embryo cardiac physiology is poorly characterized since most works have used indirect techniques and direct recordings of cardiac action potential and ionic currents are scarce. In order to optimize the zebrafish embryo model, we used electrophysiological, pharmacological and immunofluorescence tools to identify the characteristics and the ionic channels involved in the ventricular action potentials of zebrafish embryos. The application of Na(+) or T-type Ca(+2) channel blockers eliminated the cardiac electrical activity, indicating that the action potential upstroke depends on Na(+) and T-type Ca(+2) currents. The plateau phase depends on L-type Ca(+2) channels since it is abolished by specific blockade. The direct channel blockade indicates that the action potential repolarization and diastolic potential depends on ERG K(+) channels. The presence in the embryonic heart of the Nav1.5, Cav1.2, Cav3.2 and ERG channels was also confirmed by immunofluorescence, while the absence of effect of specific blockers and immunostaining indicate that two K(+) repolarizing currents present in human heart, Ito and IKs, are absent in the embryonic zebrafish heart. Our results describe the ionic channels present and its role in the zebrafish embryo heart and support the use of zebrafish embryos to study human diseases and their use for drug testing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Using Transgenic Zebrafish to Study Muscle Stem/Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phong D; Currie, Peter D

    2017-01-01

    Understanding muscle stem cell behaviors can potentially provide insights into how these cells act and respond during normal growth and diseased contexts. The zebrafish is an ideal model organism to examine these behaviors in vivo where it would normally be technically challenging in other mammalian models. This chapter will describe the procedures required to successfully conduct live imaging of zebrafish transgenics that has specifically been adapted for skeletal muscle.

  20. Zebrafish Models of Human Leukemia: Technological Advances and Mechanistic Insights.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Nicholas R; Laroche, Fabrice J F; Gutierrez, Alejandro; Feng, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Insights concerning leukemic pathophysiology have been acquired in various animal models and further efforts to understand the mechanisms underlying leukemic treatment resistance and disease relapse promise to improve therapeutic strategies. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a vertebrate organism with a conserved hematopoietic program and unique experimental strengths suiting it for the investigation of human leukemia. Recent technological advances in zebrafish research including efficient transgenesis, precise genome editing, and straightforward transplantation techniques have led to the generation of a number of leukemia models. The transparency of the zebrafish when coupled with improved lineage-tracing and imaging techniques has revealed exquisite details of leukemic initiation, progression, and regression. With these advantages, the zebrafish represents a unique experimental system for leukemic research and additionally, advances in zebrafish-based high-throughput drug screening promise to hasten the discovery of novel leukemia therapeutics. To date, investigators have accumulated knowledge of the genetic underpinnings critical to leukemic transformation and treatment resistance and without doubt, zebrafish are rapidly expanding our understanding of disease mechanisms and helping to shape therapeutic strategies for improved outcomes in leukemic patients.

  1. Zebrafish Models of Human Leukemia: Technological Advances and Mechanistic Insights

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Nicholas R.; Laroche, Fabrice J.F.; Gutierrez, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Insights concerning leukemic pathophysiology have been acquired in various animal models and further efforts to understand the mechanisms underlying leukemic treatment resistance and disease relapse promise to improve therapeutic strategies. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a vertebrate organism with a conserved hematopoietic program and unique experimental strengths suiting it for the investigation of human leukemia. Recent technological advances in zebrafish research including efficient transgenesis, precise genome editing, and straightforward transplantation techniques have led to the generation of a number of leukemia models. The transparency of the zebrafish when coupled with improved lineage-tracing and imaging techniques has revealed exquisite details of leukemic initiation, progression, and regression. With these advantages, the zebrafish represents a unique experimental system for leukemic research and additionally, advances in zebrafish-based high-throughput drug screening promise to hasten the discovery of novel leukemia therapeutics. To date, investigators have accumulated knowledge of the genetic underpinnings critical to leukemic transformation and treatment resistance and without doubt, zebrafish are rapidly expanding our understanding of disease mechanisms and helping to shape therapeutic strategies for improved outcomes in leukemic patients. PMID:27165361

  2. Normal anatomy and histology of the adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Menke, Aswin L; Spitsbergen, Jan M; Wolterbeek, Andre P M; Woutersen, Ruud A

    2011-08-01

    The zebrafish has been shown to be an excellent vertebrate model for studying the roles of specific genes and signaling pathways. The sequencing of its genome and the relative ease with which gene modifications can be performed have led to the creation of numerous human disease models that can be used for testing the potential and the toxicity of new pharmaceutical compounds. Many pharmaceutical companies already use the zebrafish for prescreening purposes. So far, the focus has been on ecotoxicity and the effects on embryonic development, but there is a trend to expand the use of the zebrafish with acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicity studies that are currently still carried out with the more conventional test animals such as rodents. However, before we can fully realize the potential of the zebrafish as an animal model for understanding human development, disease, and toxicology, we must first greatly advance our knowledge of normal zebrafish physiology, anatomy, and histology. To further this knowledge, we describe, in the present article, location and histology of the major zebrafish organ systems with a brief description of their function.

  3. Heart-specific expression of laminopathic mutations in transgenic zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ajay D; Parnaik, Veena K

    2017-07-01

    Lamins are key determinants of nuclear organization and function in the metazoan nucleus. Mutations in human lamin A cause a spectrum of genetic diseases that affect cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle as well as other tissues. A few laminopathies have been modeled using the mouse. As zebrafish is a well established model for the study of cardiac development and disease, we have investigated the effects of heart-specific lamin A mutations in transgenic zebrafish. We have developed transgenic lines of zebrafish expressing conserved lamin A mutations that cause cardiac dysfunction in humans. Expression of zlamin A mutations Q291P and M368K in the heart was driven by the zebrafish cardiac troponin T2 promoter. Homozygous mutant embryos displayed nuclear abnormalities in cardiomyocyte nuclei. Expression analysis showed the upregulation of genes involved in heart regeneration in transgenic mutant embryos and a cell proliferation marker was increased in adult heart tissue. At the physiological level, there was deviation of up to 20% from normal heart rate in transgenic embryos expressing mutant lamins. Adult homozygous zebrafish were fertile and did not show signs of early mortality. Our results suggest that transgenic zebrafish models of heart-specific laminopathies show cardiac regeneration and moderate deviations in heart rate during embryonic development. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  4. Conserved gene regulation during acute inflammation between zebrafish and mammals

    PubMed Central

    Forn-Cuní, G.; Varela, M.; Pereiro, P.; Novoa, B.; Figueras, A.

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio), largely used as a model for studying developmental processes, has also emerged as a valuable system for modelling human inflammatory diseases. However, in a context where even mice have been questioned as a valid model for these analysis, a systematic study evaluating the reproducibility of human and mammalian inflammatory diseases in zebrafish is still lacking. In this report, we characterize the transcriptomic regulation to lipopolysaccharide in adult zebrafish kidney, liver, and muscle tissues using microarrays and demonstrate how the zebrafish genomic responses can effectively reproduce the mammalian inflammatory process induced by acute endotoxin stress. We provide evidence that immune signaling pathways and single gene expression is well conserved throughout evolution and that the zebrafish and mammal acute genomic responses after lipopolysaccharide stimulation are highly correlated despite the differential susceptibility between species to that compound. Therefore, we formally confirm that zebrafish inflammatory models are suited to study the basic mechanisms of inflammation in human inflammatory diseases, with great translational impact potential. PMID:28157230

  5. Whole-body and multispectral photoacoustic imaging of adult zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Na; Xi, Lei

    2016-10-01

    Zebrafish is a top vertebrate model to study developmental biology and genetics, and it is becoming increasingly popular for studying human diseases due to its high genome similarity to that of humans and the optical transparency in embryonic stages. However, it becomes difficult for pure optical imaging techniques to volumetric visualize the internal organs and structures of wild-type zebrafish in juvenile and adult stages with excellent resolution and penetration depth. Even with the establishment of mutant lines which remain transparent over the life cycle, it is still a challenge for pure optical imaging modalities to image the whole body of adult zebrafish with micro-scale resolution. However, the method called photoacoustic imaging that combines all the advantages of the optical imaging and ultrasonic imaging provides a new way to image the whole body of the zebrafish. In this work, we developed a non-invasive photoacoustic imaging system with optimized near-infrared illumination and cylindrical scanning to image the zebrafish. The lateral and axial resolution yield to 80 μm and 600 μm, respectively. Multispectral strategy with wavelengths from 690 nm to 930 nm was employed to image various organs inside the zebrafish. From the reconstructed images, most major organs and structures inside the body can be precisely imaged. Quantitative and statistical analysis of absorption for organs under illumination with different wavelengths were carried out.

  6. Anxiogenic-like effects of chronic nicotine exposure in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Adam Michael; Grossman, Leah; Collier, Adam D; Echevarria, David J; Kalueff, Allan V

    2015-12-01

    Nicotine is one of the most widely used and abused legal drugs. Although its pharmacological profile has been extensively investigated in humans and rodents, nicotine CNS action remains poorly understood. The importance of finding evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways, and the need to apply high-throughput in vivo screens for CNS drug discovery, necessitate novel efficient experimental models for nicotine research. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are rapidly emerging as an excellent organism for studying drug abuse, neuropharmacology and toxicology and have recently been applied to testing nicotine. Anxiolytic, rewarding and memory-modulating effects of acute nicotine treatment in zebrafish are consistently reported in the literature. However, while nicotine abuse is more relevant to long-term exposure models, little is known about chronic effects of nicotine on zebrafish behavior. In the present study, chronic 4-day exposure to 1-2mg/L nicotine mildly increased adult zebrafish shoaling but did not alter baseline cortisol levels. We also found that chronic exposure to nicotine evokes robust anxiogenic behavioral responses in zebrafish tested in the novel tank test paradigm. Generally paralleling clinical and rodent data on anxiogenic effects of chronic nicotine, our study supports the developing utility of zebrafish for nicotine research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Incorporating zebrafish omics into chemical biology and toxicology.

    PubMed

    Sukardi, Hendrian; Ung, Choong Yong; Gong, Zhiyuan; Lam, Siew Hong

    2010-03-01

    In this communication, we describe the general aspects of omics approaches for analyses of transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome, and how they can be strategically incorporated into chemical screening and perturbation studies using the zebrafish system. Pharmacological efficacy and selectivity of chemicals can be evaluated based on chemical-induced phenotypic effects; however, phenotypic observation has limitations in identifying mechanistic action of chemicals. We suggest adapting gene-expression-based high-throughput screening as a complementary strategy to zebrafish-phenotype-based screening for mechanistic insights about the mode of action and toxicity of a chemical, large-scale predictive applications and comparative analysis of chemical-induced omics signatures, which are useful to identify conserved biological responses, signaling pathways, and biomarkers. The potential mechanistic, predictive, and comparative applications of omics approaches can be implemented in the zebrafish system. Examples of these using the omics approaches in zebrafish, including data of ours and others, are presented and discussed. Omics also facilitates the translatability of zebrafish studies across species through comparison of conserved chemical-induced responses. This review is intended to update interested readers with the current omics approaches that have been applied in chemical studies on zebrafish and their potential in enhancing discovery in chemical biology.

  8. The Effect of Chronic Arsenic Exposure in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Hallauer, Janell; Geng, Xiangrong; Yang, Hung-Chi; Shen, Jian; Tsai, Kan-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Arsenic is a prevalent environmental toxin and a Group one human carcinogenic agent. Chronic arsenic exposure has been associated with many human diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate zebrafish as an animal model to assess arsenic toxicity in elevated long-term arsenic exposure. With prolonged exposure (6 months) to various concentrations of arsenic from 50 ppb to 300 ppb, effects of arsenic accumulation in zebrafish tissues, and phenotypes were investigated. Results showed that there are no significant changes of arsenic retention in zebrafish tissues, and zebrafish did not exhibit any visible tumor formation under arsenic exposure conditions. However, the zebrafish demonstrate a dysfunction in their neurological system, which is reflected by a reduction of locomotive activity. Moreover, elevated levels of the superoxide dismutase (SOD2) protein were detected in the eye and liver, suggesting increased oxidative stress. In addition, the progenies of arsenic-treated parents displayed a smaller biomass (four-fold reduction in body weight) compared with those from their parental controls. This result indicates that arsenic may induce genetic or epigenetic changes that are then passed on to the next generation. Overall, this study demonstrates that zebrafish is a convenient vertebrate model with advantages in the evaluation of arsenic-associated neurological disorders as well as its influences on the offspring. PMID:27140519

  9. Dihydroartemisinin promotes angiogenesis during the early embryonic development of zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Ba, Qian; Duan, Juan; Tian, Jia-qiang; Wang, Zi-liang; Chen, Tao; Li, Xiao-guang; Chen, Pei-zhan; Wu, Song-jie; Xiang, Li; Li, Jing-quan; Chu, Rui-ai; Wang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the embryotoxicity of dihydroartemisinin (DHA), the main active metabolite of artemisinin, in zebrafish, and explore the corresponding mechanisms. Methods: The embryos of wild type and TG (flk1:GFP) transgenic zebrafish were exposed to DHA. Developmental phenotypes of the embryos were observed. Development of blood vessels was directly observed in living embryos of TG (flk1:GFP) transgenic zebrafish under fluorescence microscope. The expression of angiogenesis marker genes vegfa, flk1, and flt1 in the embryos was detected using real-time PCR and RNA in situ hybridization assays. Results: Exposure to DHA (1–10 mg/L) dose-dependently caused abnormal zebrafish embryonic phenotypes in the early developmental stage. Furthermore, exposure to DHA (10 mg/L) resulted in more pronounced embryonic angiogenesis in TG (flk1:GFP) zebrafish line. Exposure to DHA (10 mg/L) significantly increased the mRNA expression of vegfa, flk1, and flt1 in the embryos. Knockdown of the flk1 protein partially blocked the effects of DHA on embryogenesis. Conclusion: DHA causes abnormal embryonic phenotypes and promotes angiogenesis in zebrafish early embryonic development, demonstrating the potential embryotoxicity of DHA. PMID:23708556

  10. Zebrafish Development: High-throughput Test Systems to Assess Developmental Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Because of its developmental concordance, ease of handling and rapid development, the small teleost, zebrafish (Danio rerio), is frequently promoted as a vertebrate model for medium-throughput developmental screens. This present chapter discusses zebrafish as an altern...

  11. Impairment of enzymatic antioxidant defenses is associated with bilirubin-induced neuronal cell death in the cerebellum of Ugt1 KO mice

    PubMed Central

    Bortolussi, G; Codarin, E; Antoniali, G; Vascotto, C; Vodret, S; Arena, S; Cesaratto, L; Scaloni, A; Tell, G; Muro, A F

    2015-01-01

    Severe hyperbilirubinemia is toxic during central nervous system development. Prolonged and uncontrolled high levels of unconjugated bilirubin lead to bilirubin-induced encephalopathy and eventually death by kernicterus. Despite extensive studies, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of bilirubin toxicity are still poorly defined. To fill this gap, we investigated the molecular processes underlying neuronal injury in a mouse model of severe neonatal jaundice, which develops hyperbilirubinemia as a consequence of a null mutation in the Ugt1 gene. These mutant mice show cerebellar abnormalities and hypoplasia, neuronal cell death and die shortly after birth because of bilirubin neurotoxicity. To identify protein changes associated with bilirubin-induced cell death, we performed proteomic analysis of cerebella from Ugt1 mutant and wild-type mice. Proteomic data pointed-out to oxidoreductase activities or antioxidant processes as important intracellular mechanisms altered during bilirubin-induced neurotoxicity. In particular, they revealed that down-representation of DJ-1, superoxide dismutase, peroxiredoxins 2 and 6 was associated with hyperbilirubinemia in the cerebellum of mutant mice. Interestingly, the reduction in protein levels seems to result from post-translational mechanisms because we did not detect significant quantitative differences in the corresponding mRNAs. We also observed an increase in neuro-specific enolase 2 both in the cerebellum and in the serum of mutant mice, supporting its potential use as a biomarker of bilirubin-induced neurological damage. In conclusion, our data show that different protective mechanisms fail to contrast oxidative burst in bilirubin-affected brain regions, ultimately leading to neurodegeneration. PMID:25950469

  12. Impairment of enzymatic antioxidant defenses is associated with bilirubin-induced neuronal cell death in the cerebellum of Ugt1 KO mice.

    PubMed

    Bortolussi, G; Codarin, E; Antoniali, G; Vascotto, C; Vodret, S; Arena, S; Cesaratto, L; Scaloni, A; Tell, G; Muro, A F

    2015-05-07

    Severe hyperbilirubinemia is toxic during central nervous system development. Prolonged and uncontrolled high levels of unconjugated bilirubin lead to bilirubin-induced encephalopathy and eventually death by kernicterus. Despite extensive studies, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of bilirubin toxicity are still poorly defined. To fill this gap, we investigated the molecular processes underlying neuronal injury in a mouse model of severe neonatal jaundice, which develops hyperbilirubinemia as a consequence of a null mutation in the Ugt1 gene. These mutant mice show cerebellar abnormalities and hypoplasia, neuronal cell death and die shortly after birth because of bilirubin neurotoxicity. To identify protein changes associated with bilirubin-induced cell death, we performed proteomic analysis of cerebella from Ugt1 mutant and wild-type mice. Proteomic data pointed-out to oxidoreductase activities or antioxidant processes as important intracellular mechanisms altered during bilirubin-induced neurotoxicity. In particular, they revealed that down-representation of DJ-1, superoxide dismutase, peroxiredoxins 2 and 6 was associated with hyperbilirubinemia in the cerebellum of mutant mice. Interestingly, the reduction in protein levels seems to result from post-translational mechanisms because we did not detect significant quantitative differences in the corresponding mRNAs. We also observed an increase in neuro-specific enolase 2 both in the cerebellum and in the serum of mutant mice, supporting its potential use as a biomarker of bilirubin-induced neurological damage. In conclusion, our data show that different protective mechanisms fail to contrast oxidative burst in bilirubin-affected brain regions, ultimately leading to neurodegeneration.

  13. In vitro characterization of potential CYP- and UGT-derived metabolites of the psychoactive drug 25B-NBOMe using LC-high resolution MS.

    PubMed

    Boumrah, Yacine; Humbert, Luc; Phanithavong, Melodie; Khimeche, Kamel; Dahmani, Abdallah; Allorge, Delphine

    2016-02-01

    One of the main challenges posed by the emergence of new psychoactive substances is their identification in human biological samples. Trying to detect the parent drug could lead to false-negative results when the delay between consumption and sampling has been too long. The identification of their metabolites could then improve their detection window in biological matrices. Oxidative metabolism by cytochromes P450 and glucuronidation are two major detoxification pathways in humans. In order to characterize possible CYP- and UGT-dependent metabolites of the 2-(4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxy-phenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine (25B-NBOMe), a synthetic psychoactive drug, analyses of human liver microsome (HLM) incubates were performed using an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography system coupled with a quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry detector (UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS). On-line analyses were performed using a Waters OASIS HLB column (30 x 2.1 mm, 20 µm) for the automatic sample loading and a Waters ACQUITY HSS C18 column (150 x 2 mm, 1.8 µm) for the chromatographic separation. Twenty-one metabolites, consisting of 12 CYP-derived and 9 UGT-derived metabolites, were identified. O-Desmethyl metabolites were the most abundant compounds after the phase I process, which appears to be in accordance with data from previously published NBOMe-intoxication case reports. Although other important metabolic transformations, such as sulfation, acetylation, methylation or glutathione conjugation, were not studied and artefactual metabolites might have been produced during the HLM incubation process, the record of all the metabolite MS spectra in our library should enable us to characterize relevant metabolites of 25B-NBOMe and allow us to detect 25B-MBOMe users. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Association of breast-fed neonatal hyperbilirubinemia with UGT1A1 polymorphisms: 211G>A (G71R) mutation becomes a risk factor under inadequate feeding.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiroko; Uchida, Toshihiko; Toyota, Kentaro; Kanno, Miyako; Hashimoto, Taeko; Watanabe, Masashi; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Tamiya, Gen; Aoki, Kuraaki; Hayasaka, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Breastfeeding jaundice is a well-known phenomenon, but its pathogenesis is still unclear. Increased production of bilirubin, impaired hepatic uptake and metabolism of bilirubin, and increased enterohepatic circulation of bilirubin account for most cases of pathological neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. We previously reported that 211G>A (G71R) mutation of the UGT1A1 gene is prevalent in East Asians and is associated with the development of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Recently, significant association of G71R mutation with hyperbilirubinemia in breast-fed neonates was reported. We enrolled 401 full-term Japanese infants, who were exclusively breast-fed without supplementation of formula before developing hyperbilirubinemia, and classified them into two groups based on the degree of maximal body weight loss during the neonatal period. We analyzed the sex, gestational age, delivery mode, body weight at birth, maximal body weight loss and genotypes of G71R and (TA)(7) polymorphic mutations of UGT1A1. Statistical analysis revealed that maximal body weight loss during the neonatal period is the only independent risk factor for the development of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. The effect of G71R mutation on neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is significant in neonates with 5% or greater maximal body weight loss and its influence increases in parallel with the degree of maximal body weight loss. Our study indicates that G71R mutation is a risk factor for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia only in infants with inadequate breastfeeding and suggests that adequate breastfeeding may overcome the genetic predisposing factor, G71R mutation, for the development of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.

  15. Negotiation over self-control and activity: an analysis of balancing in the repertoires of Finnish healthy lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Pajari, Pia M; Jallinoja, Piia; Absetz, Pilvikki

    2006-05-01

    This study analyses arguments for and against the notion of healthy lifestyles, and the construction of responsibility for health, in group discussions in Finland. With data from four focus groups, we identified five interpretative repertoires: a strong activity repertoire reflects the dominant cultural value of health and emphasizes self-control. Three other repertoires--illness, external barriers, and weak character--share the underlying values of the activity repertoire, but exemplify situations where the individual lacks control, seeking to justify deviations from the norm of activity. One counter-repertoire, the pleasure repertoire, questions the hegemonic value of health, and discusses other competing values. The discussion of health is an ongoing dialectical process drawing from the different repertoires. In order to avoid stigmatization and to save face in the social situation of a focus group, the subjects strive to balance their accounts of behaviours considered unhealthy by also claiming healthy behaviours. They also strike a balance between extreme rigidity and carelessness, emphasizing the ideal of moderation and harmony. The findings point to a need to consider variations in and underpinnings of a "good life" at the individual level. Encouraging people to specify the meaning and content of moderation in their personal lives could provide a new perspective for health education and health promotion.

  16. An algorithm to track laboratory zebrafish shoals.

    PubMed

    Feijó, Gregory de Oliveira; Sangalli, Vicenzo Abichequer; da Silva, Isaac Newton Lima; Pinho, Márcio Sarroglia

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a semi-automatic multi-object tracking method to track a group of unmarked zebrafish is proposed. This method can handle partial occlusion cases, maintaining the correct identity of each individual. For every object, we extracted a set of geometric features to be used in the two main stages of the algorithm. The first stage selected the best candidate, based both on the blobs identified in the image and the estimate generated by a Kalman Filter instance. In the second stage, if the same candidate-blob is selected by two or more instances, a blob-partitioning algorithm takes place in order to split this blob and reestablish the instances' identities. If the algorithm cannot determine the identity of a blob, a manual intervention is required. This procedure was compared against a manual labeled ground truth on four video sequences with different numbers of fish and spatial resolution. The performance of the proposed method is then compared against two well-known zebrafish tracking methods found in the literature: one that treats occlusion scenarios and one that only track fish that are not in occlusion. Based on the data set used, the proposed method outperforms the first method in correctly separating fish in occlusion, increasing its efficiency by at least 8.15% of the cases. As for the second, the proposed method's overall performance outperformed the second in some of the tested videos, especially those with lower image quality, because the second method requires high-spatial resolution images, which is not a requirement for the proposed method. Yet, the proposed method was able to separate fish involved in occlusion and correctly assign its identity in up to 87.85% of the cases, without accounting for user intervention. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Gene Trapping Using Gal4 in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Balciuniene, Jorune; Balciunas, Darius

    2013-01-01

    Large clutch size and external development of optically transparent embryos make zebrafish an exceptional vertebrate model system for in vivo insertional mutagenesis using fluorescent reporters to tag expression of mutated genes. Several laboratories have constructed and tested enhancer- and gene-trap vectors in zebrafish, using fluorescent proteins, Gal4- and lexA- based transcriptional activators as reporters 1-7. These vectors had two potential drawbacks: suboptimal stringency (e.g. lack of ability to differentiate between enhancer- and gene-trap events) and low mutagenicity (e.g. integrations into genes rarely produced null alleles). Gene Breaking Transposon (GBTs) were developed to address these drawbacks 8-10. We have modified one of the first GBT vectors, GBT-R15, for use with Gal4-VP16 as the primary gene trap reporter and added UAS:eGFP as the secondary reporter for direct detection of gene trap events. Application of Gal4-VP16 as the primary gene trap reporter provides two main advantages. First, it increases sensitivity for genes expressed at low expression levels. Second, it enables researchers to use gene trap lines as Gal4 drivers to direct expression of other transgenes in very specific tissues. This is especially pertinent for genes with non-essential or redundant functions, where gene trap integration may not result in overt phenotypes. The disadvantage of using Gal4-VP16 as the primary gene trap reporter is that genes coding for proteins with N-terminal signal sequences are not amenable to trapping, as the resulting Gal4-VP16 fusion proteins are unlikely to be able to enter the nucleus and activate transcription. Importantly, the use of Gal4-VP16 does not pre-select for nuclear proteins: we recovered gene trap mutations in genes encoding proteins which function in the nucleus, the cytoplasm and the plasma membrane. PMID:24121167

  18. Evaluation of color preference in zebrafish for learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Avdesh, Avdesh; Martin-Iverson, Mathew T; Mondal, Alinda; Chen, Mengqi; Askraba, Sreten; Morgan, Newman; Lardelli, Michael; Groth, David M; Verdile, Giuseppe; Martins, Ralph N

    2012-01-01

    There is growing interest in using zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. A zebrafish model of tauopathies has recently been developed and characterized in terms of presence of the pathological hallmarks (i.e., neurofibrillary tangles and cell death). However, it is also necessary to validate these models for function by assessing learning and memory. The majority of tools to assess memory and learning in animal models involve visual stimuli, including color preference. The color preference of zebrafish has received little attention. To validate zebrafish as a model for color-associated-learning and memory, it is necessary to evaluate its natural preferences or any pre-existing biases towards specific colors. In the present study, we have used four different colors (red, yellow, green, and blue) to test natural color preferences of the zebrafish using two procedures: Place preference and T-maze. Results from both experiments indicate a strong aversion toward blue color relative to all other colors (red, yellow, and green) when tested in combinations. No preferences or biases were found among reds, yellows, and greens in the place preference procedure. However, red and green were equally preferred and both were preferred over yellow by zebrafish in the T-maze procedure. The results from the present study show a strong aversion towards blue color compared to red, green, and yellow, with yellow being less preferred relative to red and green. The findings from this study may underpin any further designing of color-based learning and memory paradigms or experiments involving aversion, anxiety, or fear in the zebrafish.

  19. Genetic Disruption of 21-Hydroxylase in Zebrafish Causes Interrenal Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Eachus, Helen; Zaucker, Andreas; Oakes, James A; Griffin, Aliesha; Weger, Meltem; Güran, Tülay; Taylor, Angela; Harris, Abigail; Greenfield, Andy; Quanson, Jonathan L; Storbeck, Karl-Heinz; Cunliffe, Vincent T; Müller, Ferenc; Krone, Nils

    2017-12-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a group of common inherited disorders leading to glucocorticoid deficiency. Most cases are caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD). The systemic consequences of imbalanced steroid hormone biosynthesis due to severe 21OHD remains poorly understood. Therefore, we developed a zebrafish model for 21OHD, which focuses on the impairment of glucocorticoid biosynthesis. A single 21-hydroxylase gene (cyp21a2) is annotated in the zebrafish genome based on sequence homology. Our in silico analysis of the 21-hydroxylase (Cyp21a2) protein sequence suggests a sufficient degree of similarity for the usage of zebrafish cyp21a2 to model aspects of human 21OHD in vivo. We determined the spatiotemporal expression patterns of cyp21a2 by whole-mount in situ hybridization and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction throughout early development. Early cyp21a2 expression is restricted to the interrenal gland (zebrafish adrenal counterpart) and the brain. To further explore the in vivo consequences of 21OHD we created several cyp21a2 null-allele zebrafish lines by using a transcription activator-like effector nuclease genomic engineering strategy. Homozygous mutant zebrafish larvae showed an upregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis and interrenal hyperplasia. Furthermore, Cyp21a2-deficient larvae had a typical steroid profile, with reduced concentrations of cortisol and increased concentrations of 17-hydroxyprogesterone and 21-deoxycortisol. Affected larvae showed an upregulation of the HPI axis and interrenal hyperplasia. Downregulation of the glucocorticoid-responsive genes pck1 and fkbp5 indicated systemic glucocorticoid deficiency. Our work demonstrates the crucial role of Cyp21a2 in glucocorticoid biosynthesis in zebrafish larvae and establishes an in vivo model allowing studies of systemic consequences of altered steroid hormone synthesis.

  20. Serology in the 21st Century: The Molecular-Level Analysis of the Serum Antibody Repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Wine, Yariv; Horton, Andrew P.; Ippolito, Gregory C.; Georgiou, George

    2015-01-01

    The ensemble of antibodies found in serum and secretions represents the key adaptive component of B-cell mediated humoral immunity. The antibody repertoire is shaped by the historical record of exposure to exogenous factors such as pathogens and vaccines, as well as by endogenous host-intrinsic factors such as genetics, self-antigens, and age. Thanks to very recent technology advancements it is now becoming possible to identify and quantify the individual antibodies comprising the serological repertoire. In parallel, the advent of high throughput methods for antigen and immunosignature discovery opens up unprecedented opportunities to transform our understanding of numerous key questions in adaptive humoral immunity, including the nature and dynamics of serological memory, the role of polyspecific antibodies in health and disease and how protective responses to infections or vaccine challenge arise. Additionally, these technologies also hold great promise for therapeutic antibody and biomarker discovery in a variety of settings PMID:26172290

  1. Repertoire and classification of non-song calls in Southeast Alaskan humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae).

    PubMed

    Fournet, Michelle E; Szabo, Andy; Mellinger, David K

    2015-01-01

    On low-latitude breeding grounds, humpback whales produce complex and highly stereotyped songs as well as a range of non-song sounds associated with breeding behaviors. While on their Southeast Alaskan foraging grounds, humpback whales produce a range of previously unclassified non-song vocalizations. This study investigates the vocal repertoire of Southeast Alaskan humpback whales from a sample of 299 non-song vocalizations collected over a 3-month period on foraging grounds in Frederick Sound, Southeast Alaska. Three classification systems were used, including aural spectrogram analysis, statistical cluster analysis, and discriminant function analysis, to describe and classify vocalizations. A hierarchical acoustic structure was identified; vocalizations were classified into 16 individual call types nested within four vocal classes. The combined classification method shows promise for identifying variability in call stereotypy between vocal groupings and is recommended for future classification of broad vocal repertoires.

  2. Uncovering the Legionella genus effector repertoire - strength in diversity and numbers

    PubMed Central

    Burstein, David; Amaro, Francisco; Zusman, Tal; Lifshitz, Ziv; Cohen, Ofir; Gilbert, Jack A; Pupko, Tal; Shuman, Howard A; Segal, Gil

    2016-01-01

    Infection by the human pathogen Legionella pneumophila relies on the translocation of ~300 virulence proteins, termed effectors, which manipulate host-cell processes. However, almost no information exists regarding effectors in other Legionella pathogens. Here we sequenced, assembled and characterized the genomes of 38 Legionella species, and predicted their effector repertoire using a previously validated machine-learning approach. This analysis revealed a treasure trove of 5,885 predicted effectors. The effector repertoire of different Legionella species was found to be largely non-overlapping, and only seven core-effectors were shared among all species studied. Species-specific effectors had atypically low GC content, suggesting exogenous acquisition, possibly from their natural protozoan hosts. Furthermore, we detected numerous novel conserved effector domains, and discovered new domain combinations, which allowed inferring yet undescribed effector functions. The effector collection and network of domain architectures described here can serve as a roadmap for future studies of effector function and evolution. PMID:26752266

  3. Immune remodeling: lessons from repertoire alterations during chronological aging and in immune-mediated disease.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Abbe N

    2007-03-01

    Immunological studies of aging and of patients with chronic immune-mediated diseases document overlap of immune phenotypes. Here, the term "immune remodeling" refers to these phenotypes that are indicative of biological processes of deterioration and repair. This concept is explored through lessons from studies about the changes in the T-cell repertoire and the functional diversity of otherwise oligoclonal, senescent T cells. Immune remodeling suggests a gradual process that occurs throughout life. However, similar but more drastic remodeling occurs disproportionately among young patients with chronic disease. In this article, I propose that immune remodeling is a beneficial adaptation of aging to promote healthy survival beyond reproductive performance, but acute remodeling poses risk of premature exhaustion of the immune repertoire and, thus, is detrimental in young individuals.

  4. Connectome-harmonic decomposition of human brain activity reveals dynamical repertoire re-organization under LSD.

    PubMed

    Atasoy, Selen; Roseman, Leor; Kaelen, Mendel; Kringelbach, Morten L; Deco, Gustavo; Carhart-Harris, Robin L

    2017-12-15

    Recent studies have started to elucidate the effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on the human brain but the underlying dynamics are not yet fully understood. Here we used 'connectome-harmonic decomposition', a novel method to investigate the dynamical changes in brain states. We found that LSD alters the energy and the power of individual harmonic brain states in a frequency-selective manner. Remarkably, this leads to an expansion of the repertoire of active brain states, suggestive of a general re-organization of brain dynamics given the non-random increase in co-activation across frequencies. Interestingly, the frequency distribution of the active repertoire of brain states under LSD closely follows power-laws indicating a re-organization of the dynamics at the edge of criticality. Beyond the present findings, these methods open up for a better understanding of the complex brain dynamics in health and disease.

  5. Finding meaning in first episode psychosis: experience, agency, and the cultural repertoire.

    PubMed

    Larsen, John Aggergaard

    2004-12-01

    The article examines individuals' attempts to generate meaning following their experiences with psychosis. The inquiry is based on a person-centered ethnographic study of a Danish mental health community program for early intervention in schizophrenia and involves longitudinal interviews with 15 of its participants. The article takes an existential anthropological perspective emphasizing agency and cultural phenomenology to investigate how individuals draw on resources from the cultural repertoire to make sense of personally disturbing experiences during their psychosis. It is suggested that the concept of "system of explanation" has advantages over, for example, "illness narrative" and "explanatory model" when demonstrating how some individuals engage in the creative analytic and theory-building work of bricolage, selecting, adding, and combining various systems of explanation. Delusions are equally derived from the cultural repertoire but are constructed as dogmatic explanations that are idiosyncratic to the individual who holds them.

  6. Impact of genomic polymorphisms on the repertoire of human MHC class I-associated peptides

    PubMed Central

    Granados, Diana Paola; Sriranganadane, Dev; Daouda, Tariq; Zieger, Antoine; Laumont, Céline M.; Caron-Lizotte, Olivier; Boucher, Geneviève; Hardy, Marie-Pierre; Gendron, Patrick; Côté, Caroline; Lemieux, Sébastien; Thibault, Pierre; Perreault, Claude

    2014-01-01

    For decades, the global impact of genomic polymorphisms on the repertoire of peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has remained a matter of speculation. Here we present a novel approach that enables high-throughput discovery of polymorphic MHC class I-associated peptides (MIPs), which play a major role in allorecognition. On the basis of comprehensive analyses of the genomic landscape of MIPs eluted from B lymphoblasts of two MHC-identical siblings, we show that 0.5% of non-synonymous single nucleotide variations are represented in the MIP repertoire. The 34 polymorphic MIPs found in our subjects are encoded by bi-allelic loci with dominant and recessive alleles. Our analyses show that, at the population level, 12% of the MIP-coding exome is polymorphic. Our method provides fundamental insights into the relationship between the genomic self and the immune self and accelerates the discovery of polymorphic MIPs (also known as minor histocompatibility antigens). PMID:24714562

  7. Immune Antibody Libraries: Manipulating The Diverse Immune Repertoire for Antibody Discovery.

    PubMed

    Lim, Theam Soon; Chan, Soo Khim

    2016-01-01

    Antibody phage display is highly dependent on the availability of antibody libraries. There are several forms of libraries depending mainly on the origin of the source materials. There are three major classes of libraries, mainly the naïve, immune and synthetic libraries. Immune antibody libraries are designed to isolate specific and high affinity antibodies against disease antigens. The pre-exposure of the host to an infection results in the production of a skewed population of antibodies against the particular infection. This characteristic takes advantage of the in vivo editing machinery to generate bias and specific immune repertoire. The skewed but diverse repertoire of immune libraries has been adapted successfully in the generation of antibodies against a wide range of diseases. We envisage immune antibody libraries to play a greater role in the discovery of antibodies for diseases in the near future. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. T Cell Phenotype and T Cell Receptor Repertoire in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Patas, Kostas; Willing, Anne; Demiralay, Cüneyt; Engler, Jan Broder; Lupu, Andreea; Ramien, Caren; Schäfer, Tobias; Gach, Christian; Stumm, Laura; Chan, Kenneth; Vignali, Marissa; Arck, Petra C.; Friese, Manuel A.; Pless, Ole; Wiedemann, Klaus; Agorastos, Agorastos; Gold, Stefan M.

    2018-01-01

    While a link between inflammation and the development of neuropsychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD) is supported by a growing body of evidence, little is known about the contribution of aberrant adaptive immunity in this context. Here, we conducted in-depth characterization of T cell phenotype and T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire in MDD. For this cross-sectional case–control study, we recruited antidepressant-free patients with MDD without any somatic or psychiatric comorbidities (n = 20), who were individually matched for sex, age, body mass index, and smoking status to a non-depressed control subject (n = 20). T cell phenotype and repertoire were interrogated using a combination of flow cytometry, gene expression analysis, and next generation sequencing. T cells from MDD patients showed significantly lower surface expression of the chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CCR6, which are known to be central to T cell differentiation and trafficking. In addition, we observed a shift within the CD4+ T cell compartment characterized by a higher frequency of CD4+CD25highCD127low/− cells and higher FOXP3 mRNA expression in purified CD4+ T cells obtained from patients with MDD. Finally, flow cytometry-based TCR Vβ repertoire analysis indicated a less diverse CD4+ T cell repertoire in MDD, which was corroborated by next generation sequencing of the TCR β chain CDR3 region. Overall, these results suggest that T cell phenotype and TCR utilization are skewed on several levels in patients with MDD. Our study identifies putative cellular and molecular signatures of dysregulated adaptive immunity and reinforces the notion that T cells are a pathophysiologically relevant cell population in this disorder. PMID:29515587

  9. PD-1 identifies the patient-specific CD8+ tumor-reactive repertoire infiltrating human tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gros, Alena; Robbins, Paul F.; Yao, Xin; Li, Yong F.; Turcotte, Simon; Tran, Eric; Wunderlich, John R.; Mixon, Arnold; Farid, Shawn; Dudley, Mark E.; Hanada, Ken-ichi; Almeida, Jorge R.; Darko, Sam; Douek, Daniel C.; Yang, James C.; Rosenberg, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) can mediate regression of metastatic melanoma; however, TILs are a heterogeneous population, and there are no effective markers to specifically identify and select the repertoire of tumor-reactive and mutation-specific CD8+ lymphocytes. The lack of biomarkers limits the ability to study these cells and develop strategies to enhance clinical efficacy and extend this therapy to other malignancies. Here, we evaluated unique phenotypic traits of CD8+ TILs and TCR β chain (TCRβ) clonotypic frequency in melanoma tumors to identify patient-specific repertoires of tumor-reactive CD8+ lymphocytes. In all 6 tumors studied, expression of the inhibitory receptors programmed cell death 1 (PD-1; also known as CD279), lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG-3; also known as CD223), and T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (TIM-3) on CD8+ TILs identified the autologous tumor-reactive repertoire, including mutated neoantigen-specific CD8+ lymphocytes, whereas only a fraction of the tumor-reactive population expressed the costimulatory receptor 4-1BB (also known as CD137). TCRβ deep sequencing revealed oligoclonal expansion of specific TCRβ clonotypes in CD8+PD-1+ compared with CD8+PD-1– TIL populations. Furthermore, the most highly expanded TCRβ clonotypes in the CD8+ and the CD8+PD-1+ populations recognized the autologous tumor and included clonotypes targeting mutated antigens. Thus, in addition to the well-documented negative regulatory role of PD-1 in T cells, our findings demonstrate that PD-1 expression on CD8+ TILs also accurately identifies the repertoire of clonally expanded tumor-reactive cells and reveal a dual importance of PD-1 expression in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:24667641

  10. Dynamic Repertoire of Intrinsic Brain States Is Reduced in Propofol-Induced Unconsciousness

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiping; Pillay, Siveshigan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The richness of conscious experience is thought to scale with the size of the repertoire of causal brain states, and it may be diminished in anesthesia. We estimated the state repertoire from dynamic analysis of intrinsic functional brain networks in conscious sedated and unconscious anesthetized rats. Functional resonance images were obtained from 30-min whole-brain resting-state blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals at propofol infusion rates of 20 and 40 mg/kg/h, intravenously. Dynamic brain networks were defined at the voxel level by sliding window analysis of regional homogeneity (ReHo) or coincident threshold crossings (CTC) of the BOLD signal acquired in nine sagittal slices. The state repertoire was characterized by the temporal variance of the number of voxels with significant ReHo or positive CTC. From low to high propofol dose, the temporal variances of ReHo and CTC were reduced by 78%±20% and 76%±20%, respectively. Both baseline and propofol-induced reduction of CTC temporal variance increased from lateral to medial position. Group analysis showed a 20% reduction in the number of unique states at the higher propofol dose. Analysis of temporal variance in 12 anatomically defined regions of interest predicted that the largest changes occurred in visual cortex, parietal cortex, and caudate-putamen. The results suggest that the repertoire of large-scale brain states derived from the spatiotemporal dynamics of intrinsic networks is substantially reduced at an anesthetic dose associated with loss of consciousness. PMID:24702200

  11. The self-nonself discrimination and the nature and acquisition of the antibody repertoire.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, A

    1980-01-01

    Network ideas are confronted with current hypotheses for the origin of antibody diversity and self-nonself discrimination. The difficulties of reconciling the promethean evolution of the antibody system with "germ line" theories are discussed, as well as the problems of "somatic" hypotheses to explain the completeness of the antibody repertoire. The formal incompatibility of the network theory with ideas basing self-nonself discrimination on the elimination of self-reactive cells is demonstrated, as well as the difficulties of these and other environment-dependent hypotheses for lymphocyte activation, to encompass the internal activity in the immune system. It is argued, on the other hand, that the limitations of the network theory in providing a functional basis for the idiotypic network and in accounting for self-nonself discrimination, can be solved by finding in a complete repertoire of antibody-combining sites the complementary structures to growth receptors on B lymphocytes, and by using these as internal mitogens in the expansion of the precursor cell pools and in the maintenance of the mature steady states. Letting self-nonself discrimination be accounted for by such growth receptors, both the integrity of the antibody repertoire and the internal activity in the system can also be ensured. Moreover, by postulating a germ line origin for the antireceptor antibodies and by accepting idiotypic cross-reactivity between growth receptors and other germ line antibodies, the possibilities are set for a phylogenetically and ontogenically autonomous immune system embodied with the capabilities for self-expansion, diversification and selection of available repertoires. Its promethean characteristics are explained by its completeness, and this is achieved by idiotypic interactions between growth receptors and a limited number of complementary or cross-reactive germ line antibodies, naturally selected on the basis of their structural relationships with growth receptors.

  12. Practical compassions: repertoires of practice and compassion talk in acute mental healthcare.

    PubMed

    Brown, Brian; Crawford, Paul; Gilbert, Paul; Gilbert, Jean; Gale, Corinne

    2014-03-01

    This article reports an exploratory study of the concept of compassion in the work of 20 mental health practitioners in a UK Midlands facility. Using notions of practice derived from phenomenology and Bourdieusian sociology and notions of emotional labour we identify two contrasting interpretive repertoires in discussions of compassion. The first, the practical compassion repertoire, evokes the practical, physical and bodily aspects of compassion. It involves organising being with patients, playing games, anticipating disruption and taking them outside for cigarettes. Practitioners described being aware that these practical, bodily activities could lead to patients 'opening up', disclosing their interior concerns and enabling practical, compassionate mental health work to take place. In contrast, the second, organisational repertoire, concerns organisational constraints on compassionate practice. The shortage of staff, the record-keeping and internal processes of quality control were seen as time-greedy and apt to detract from contact with patients. The findings are discussed in relation to Bourdieu and Merleau-Ponty's phenomenological accounts of practice and habit and set in context in the growing interest in placing compassion centrally in healthcare. We also explore how the exercise of compassion in the way our participants describe it can afford the more effective exercise of medical power. © 2013 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Ibrutinib Therapy Increases T Cell Repertoire Diversity in Patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Yin, Qingsong; Sivina, Mariela; Robins, Harlan; Yusko, Erik; Vignali, Marissa; O'Brien, Susan; Keating, Michael J; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Estrov, Zeev; Jain, Nitin; Wierda, William G; Burger, Jan A

    2017-02-15

    The Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib is a highly effective, new targeted therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) that thwarts leukemia cell survival, growth, and tissue homing. The effects of ibrutinib treatment on the T cell compartment, which is clonally expanded and thought to support the growth of malignant B cells in CLL, are not fully characterized. Using next-generation sequencing technology, we characterized the diversity of TCRβ-chains in peripheral blood T cells from 15 CLL patients before and after 1 y of ibrutinib therapy. We noted elevated CD4 + and CD8 + T cell numbers and a restricted TCRβ repertoire in all pretreatment samples. After 1 y of ibrutinib therapy, elevated peripheral blood T cell numbers and T cell-related cytokine levels had normalized, and T cell repertoire diversity increased significantly. Dominant TCRβ clones in pretreatment samples declined or became undetectable, and the number of productive unique clones increased significantly during ibrutinib therapy, with the emergence of large numbers of low-frequency TCRβ clones. Importantly, broader TCR repertoire diversity was associated with clinical efficacy and lower rates of infections during ibrutinib therapy. These data demonstrate that ibrutinib therapy increases diversification of the T cell compartment in CLL patients, which contributes to cellular immune reconstitution. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  14. First insights into the vocal repertoire of infant and juvenile Southern white rhinoceros.

    PubMed

    Linn, Sabrina N; Boeer, Michael; Scheumann, Marina

    2018-01-01

    Describing vocal repertoires represents an essential step towards gaining an overview about the complexity of acoustic communication in a given species. The analysis of infant vocalisations is essential for understanding the development and usage of species-specific vocalisations, but is often underrepresented, especially in species with long inter-birth intervals such as the white rhinoceros. Thus, this study aimed for the first time to characterise the infant and juvenile vocal repertoire of the Southern white rhinoceros and to relate these findings to the adult vocal repertoire. The behaviour of seven mother-reared white rhinoceros calves (two males, five females) and one hand-reared calf (male), ranging from one month to four years, was simultaneously audio and video-taped at three zoos. Normally reared infants and juveniles uttered four discriminable call types (Whine, Snort, Threat, and Pant) that were produced in different behavioural contexts. All call types were also uttered by the hand-reared calf. Call rates of Whines, but not of the other call types, decreased with age. These findings provide the first evidence that infant and juvenile rhinoceros utter specific call types in distinct contexts, even if they grow up with limited social interaction with conspecifics. By comparing our findings with the current literature on vocalisations of adult white rhinoceros and other solitary rhinoceros species, we discuss to which extent differences in the social lifestyle across species affect acoustic communication in mammals.

  15. Specificity, Privacy, and Degeneracy in the CD4 T Cell Receptor Repertoire Following Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yuxin; Best, Katharine; Cinelli, Mattia; Heather, James M.; Reich-Zeliger, Shlomit; Shifrut, Eric; Friedman, Nir; Shawe-Taylor, John; Chain, Benny

    2017-01-01

    T cells recognize antigen using a large and diverse set of antigen-specific receptors created by a complex process of imprecise somatic cell gene rearrangements. In response to antigen-/receptor-binding-specific T cells then divide to form memory and effector populations. We apply high-throughput sequencing to investigate the global changes in T cell receptor sequences following immunization with ovalbumin (OVA) and adjuvant, to understand how adaptive immunity achieves specificity. Each immunized mouse contained a predominantly private but related set of expanded CDR3β sequences. We used machine learning to identify common patterns which distinguished repertoires from mice immunized with adjuvant with and without OVA. The CDR3β sequences were deconstructed into sets of overlapping contiguous amino acid triplets. The frequencies of these motifs were used to train the linear programming boosting (LPBoost) algorithm LPBoost to classify between TCR repertoires. LPBoost could distinguish between the two classes of repertoire with accuracies above 80%, using a small subset of triplet sequences present at defined positions along the CDR3. The results suggest a model in which such motifs confer degenerate antigen specificity in the context of a highly diverse and largely private set of T cell receptors. PMID:28450864

  16. Dance choreography is coordinated with song repertoire in a complex avian display.

    PubMed

    Dalziell, Anastasia H; Peters, Richard A; Cockburn, Andrew; Dorland, Alexandra D; Maisey, Alex C; Magrath, Robert D

    2013-06-17

    All human cultures have music and dance, and the two activities are so closely integrated that many languages use just one word to describe both. Recent research points to a deep cognitive connection between music and dance-like movements in humans, fueling speculation that music and dance have coevolved and prompting the need for studies of audiovisual displays in other animals. However, little is known about how nonhuman animals integrate acoustic and movement display components. One striking property of human displays is that performers coordinate dance with music by matching types of dance movements with types of music, as when dancers waltz to waltz music. Here, we show that a bird also temporally coordinates a repertoire of song types with a repertoire of dance-like movements. During displays, male superb lyrebirds (Menura novaehollandiae) sing four different song types, matching each with a unique set of movements and delivering song and dance types in a predictable sequence. Crucially, display movements are both unnecessary for the production of sound and voluntary, because males sometimes sing without dancing. Thus, the coordination of independently produced repertoires of acoustic and movement signals is not a uniquely human trait. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Climate Change and Everyday Life: Repertoires children use to negotiate a socio-scientific issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Jenny; Ideland, Malin; Malmberg, Claes; Grace, Marcus

    2014-06-01

    There are only a few studies about how primary school students engage in socio-scientific discussions. This study aims to add to this field of research by focusing on how 9-10-year-olds in Sweden and England handle climate change as a complex environmental socio-scientific issue (SSI), within the context of their own lives and in relation to society at large. It focuses on how different interpretative repertoires were used by the students in discussions to legitimise or question their everyday lifestyles. They discussed four possible options that a government might consider to help reduce carbon dioxide production. Six main repertoires were identified: Everyday life, Self-Interest, Environment, Science and Technology, Society and Justice. The Everyday life repertoire was used when students related their discussion to their everyday lifestyles. Science and technology-related solutions were offered to maintain or improve things, but these were sometimes rather unrealistic. Arguments related to environment and health frequently appeared to have a superior status compared to the others. Findings also highlighted how conflicts between the students were actually productive by bringing in several perspectives to negotiate the solutions. These primary school students were, therefore, able to discuss and negotiate a complex real-world SSI. Students positioned themselves as active contributors to society, using their life experiences and limited knowledge to understand the problems that affected their everyday lives. Honing these skills within a school science community of practice could facilitate primary students' engagement with SSIs and empower them as citizens.

  18. Deep Sequencing in Infectious Diseases: Immune and Pathogen Repertoires for the Improvement of Patient Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Burkholder, William F.; Newell, Evan W.; Poidinger, Michael; Chen, Swaine; Fink, Katja

    2017-01-01

    The inaugural workshop “Deep Sequencing in Infectious Diseases: Immune and Pathogen Repertoires for the Improvement of Patient Outcomes” was held in Singapore on 13–14 October 2016. The aim of the workshop was to discuss the latest trends in using high-throughput sequencing, bioinformatics, and allied technologies to analyze immune and pathogen repertoires and their interplay within the host, bringing together key international players in the field and Singapore-based researchers and clinician-scientists. The focus was in particular on the application of these technologies for the improvement of patient diagnosis, prognosis and treatment, and for other broad public health outcomes. The presentations by scientists and clinicians showed the potential of deep sequencing technology to capture the coevolution of adaptive immunity and pathogens. For clinical applications, some key challenges remain, such as the long turnaround time and relatively high cost of deep sequencing for pathogen identification and characterization and the lack of international standardization in immune repertoire analysis. PMID:28620372

  19. Convergence and divergence in gesture repertoires as an adaptive mechanism for social bonding in primates.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Anna Ilona; Roberts, Sam George Bradley

    2017-11-01

    A key challenge for primates living in large, stable social groups is managing social relationships. Chimpanzee gestures may act as a time-efficient social bonding mechanism, and the presence (homogeneity) and absence (heterogeneity) of overlap in repertoires in particular may play an important role in social bonding. However, how homogeneity and heterogeneity in the gestural repertoire of primates relate to social interaction is poorly understood. We used social network analysis and generalized linear mixed modelling to examine this question in wild chimpanzees. The repertoire size of both homogeneous and heterogeneous visual, tactile and auditory gestures was associated with the duration of time spent in social bonding behaviour, centrality in the social bonding network and demography. The audience size of partners who displayed similar or different characteristics to the signaller (e.g. same or opposite age or sex category) also influenced the use of homogeneous and heterogeneous gestures. Homogeneous and heterogeneous gestures were differentially associated with the presence of emotional reactions in response to the gesture and the presence of a change in the recipient's behaviour. Homogeneity and heterogeneity of gestural communication play a key role in maintaining a differentiated set of strong and weak social relationships in complex, multilevel societies.

  20. First insights into the vocal repertoire of infant and juvenile Southern white rhinoceros

    PubMed Central

    Boeer, Michael; Scheumann, Marina

    2018-01-01

    Describing vocal repertoires represents an essential step towards gaining an overview about the complexity of acoustic communication in a given species. The analysis of infant vocalisations is essential for understanding the development and usage of species-specific vocalisations, but is often underrepresented, especially in species with long inter-birth intervals such as the white rhinoceros. Thus, this study aimed for the first time to characterise the infant and juvenile vocal repertoire of the Southern white rhinoceros and to relate these findings to the adult vocal repertoire. The behaviour of seven mother-reared white rhinoceros calves (two males, five females) and one hand-reared calf (male), ranging from one month to four years, was simultaneously audio and video-taped at three zoos. Normally reared infants and juveniles uttered four discriminable call types (Whine, Snort, Threat, and Pant) that were produced in different behavioural contexts. All call types were also uttered by the hand-reared calf. Call rates of Whines, but not of the other call types, decreased with age. These findings provide the first evidence that infant and juvenile rhinoceros utter specific call types in distinct contexts, even if they grow up with limited social interaction with conspecifics. By comparing our findings with the current literature on vocalisations of adult white rhinoceros and other solitary rhinoceros species, we discuss to which extent differences in the social lifestyle across species affect acoustic communication in mammals. PMID:29513670

  1. Intrahepatic T cell receptor β immune repertoire is essential for liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qing; Liu, Zeyuan; Zhu, Chao; Wang, Bin; Liu, Xiaoke; Yang, Yanan; Lv, Xue; Mu, Haiyu; Wang, Kejia

    2018-04-27

    T lymphocytes synergize with the cellular immune system to promote hepatocyte regeneration. The T cell receptor (TCR) immune repertoire is closely associated with the host immune response and regenerative proliferation. High-throughput sequencing of TCR provides deep insight into monitoring the immune microenvironment. Here, we aimed to determine the role of the TCRβ immune repertoire in liver regeneration. We investigated the hepatic regeneration in TCRβ chain-deficient (Tcrb -/- ) mice by two-thirds partial hepatectomy (PHx) method. Our results demonstrated that Tcrb -/- mice revealed a reduced capacity for liver regeneration, which was characterized by impaired hepatocyte proliferation and enhanced hepatocyte apoptosis. Dysregulation of inflammatory signalling activation and inflammatory factors was observed in regenerated Tcrb -/- livers. Simultaneously, significantly altered immunocyte levels and aberrant cytokine levels were observed during hepatic regeneration. In addition, we first determined the profile of the TCRβ immune repertoire during liver regeneration, indicating that PHx resulted in remarkably lower TCRβ diversity in intrahepatic T lymphocytes. Taken together, our data suggest that TCRβ deficiency gives a rise to aberrant intrahepatic immune microenvironment that impairs liver regeneration, and the TCRβ reconstitution is required for hepatic immunocyte recruitment and activation during liver regeneration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  2. Reductive evolution of architectural repertoires in proteomes and the birth of the tripartite world

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Minglei; Yafremava, Liudmila S.; Caetano-Anollés, Derek; Mittenthal, Jay E.; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

    2007-01-01

    The repertoire of protein architectures in proteomes is evolutionarily conserved and capable of preserving an accurate record of genomic history. Here we use a census of protein architecture in 185 genomes that have been fully sequenced to generate genome-based phylogenies that describe the evolution of the protein world at fold (F) and fold superfamily (FSF) levels. The patterns of representation of F and FSF architectures over evolutionary history suggest three epochs in the evolution of the protein world: (1) architectural diversification, where members of an architecturally rich ancestral community diversified their protein repertoire; (2) superkingdom specification, where superkingdoms Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya were specified; and (3) organismal diversification, where F and FSF specific to relatively small sets of organisms appeared as the result of diversification of organismal lineages. Functional annotation of FSF along these architectural chronologies revealed patterns of discovery of biological function. Most importantly, the analysis identified an early and extensive differential loss of architectures occurring primarily in Archaea that segregates the archaeal lineage from the ancient community of organisms and establishes the first organismal divide. Reconstruction of phylogenomic trees of proteomes reflects the timeline of architectural diversification in the emerging lineages. Thus, Archaea undertook a minimalist strategy using only a small subset of the full architectural repertoire and then crystallized into a diversified superkingdom late in evolution. Our analysis also suggests a communal ancestor to all life that was molecularly complex and adopted genomic strategies currently present in Eukarya. PMID:17908824

  3. Ibrutinib therapy increases T cell repertoire diversity in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Qingsong; Sivina, Mariela; Robins, Harlan; Yusko, Erik; Vignali, Marissa; O’Brien, Susan; Keating, Michael J.; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Estrov, Zeev; Jain, Nitin; Wierda, William G.; Burger, Jan A.

    2017-01-01

    The BTK inhibitor ibrutinib is a highly effective, new targeted therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) that thwarts leukemia cell survival, growth, and tissue homing. The effects of ibrutinib treatment on the T cell compartment, which is clonally expanded and thought to support the growth of the malignant B cells in CLL, are not fully characterized. Using next-generation sequencing technology we characterized the diversity of TCRβ chains in peripheral blood T cells from 15 CLL patients before and after one year of ibrutinib therapy. We noted elevated CD4+ and CD8+ T cell numbers and a restricted TCRβ repertoire in all pretreatment samples. After one year of ibrutinib therapy, elevated PB T cell numbers and T-cell related cytokine levels had normalized and T cell repertoire diversity significantly increased. Dominant TCRβ clones in pretreatment samples declined or became undetectable, and the number of productive unique clones significantly increased during ibrutinib therapy, with the emergence of large numbers of low-frequency TCRβ clones. Importantly, broader TCR repertoire diversity was associated with clinical efficacy and lower rates of infections during ibrutinib therapy. These data demonstrate that ibrutinib therapy increases diversification of the T cell compartment in CLL patients, which contributes to cellular immune reconstitution. PMID:28077600

  4. Rule-governed behavior: teaching a preliminary repertoire of rule-following to children with autism.

    PubMed

    Tarbox, Jonathan; Zuckerman, Carrie K; Bishop, Michele R; Olive, Melissa L; O'Hora, Denis P

    2011-01-01

    Rule-governed behavior is generally considered an integral component of complex verbal repertoires but has rarely been the subject of empirical research. In particular, little or no previous research has attempted to establish rule-governed behavior in individuals who do not already display the repertoire. This study consists of two experiments that evaluated multiple exemplar training procedures for teaching a simple component skill, which may be necessary for developing a repertoire of rule-governed behavior. In both experiments, children with autism were taught to respond to simple rules that specified antecedents and the behaviors that should occur in their presence. In the first study, participants were taught to respond to rules containing "if/then" statements, where the antecedent was specified before the behavior. The second experiment was a replication and extension of the first. It involved a variation on the manner in which rules were presented. Both experiments eventually demonstrated generalization to novel rules for all participants; however variations to the standard procedure were required for several participants. Results suggest that rule-following can be analyzed and taught as generalized operant behavior and implications for future research are discussed.

  5. Silver nanoparticles induce endoplasmatic reticulum stress response in zebrafish

    SciTech Connect

    Christen, Verena; Capelle, Martinus; Fent, Karl, E-mail: karl.fent@fhnw.ch

    2013-10-15

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) find increasing applications, and therefore humans and the environment are increasingly exposed to them. However, potential toxicological implications are not sufficiently known. Here we investigate effects of AgNPs (average size 120 nm) on zebrafish in vitro and in vivo, and compare them to human hepatoma cells (Huh7). AgNPs are incorporated in zebrafish liver cells (ZFL) and Huh7, and in zebrafish embryos. In ZFL cells AgNPs lead to induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) stress response, and TNF-α. Transcriptional alterations also occur in pro-apoptotic genes p53 and Bax. The transcriptional profile differed in ZFL andmore » Huh7 cells. In ZFL cells, the ER stress marker BiP is induced, concomitant with the ER stress marker ATF-6 and spliced XBP-1 after 6 h and 24 h exposure to 0.5 g/L and 0.05 g/L AgNPs, respectively. This indicates the induction of different pathways of the ER stress response. Moreover, AgNPs induce TNF-α. In zebrafish embryos exposed to 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 5 mg/L AgNPs hatching was affected and morphological defects occurred at high concentrations. ER stress related gene transcripts BiP and Synv are significantly up-regulated after 24 h at 0.1 and 5 mg/L AgNPs. Furthermore, transcriptional alterations occurred in the pro-apoptotic genes Noxa and p21. The ER stress response was strong in ZFL cells and occurred in zebrafish embryos as well. Our data demonstrate for the first time that AgNPs lead to induction of ER stress in zebrafish. The induction of ER stress can have several consequences including the activation of apoptotic and inflammatory pathways. - Highlights: • Effects of silver nanoparticles (120 nm AgNPs) are investigated in zebrafish. • AgNPs induce all ER stress reponses in vitro in zebrafish liver cells. • AgNPs induce weak ER stress in zebrafish embryos. • AgNPs induce oxidative stress and transcripts of pro-apoptosis genes.« less

  6. Direct Visualization of DNA Replication Dynamics in Zebrafish Cells.

    PubMed

    Kuriya, Kenji; Higashiyama, Eriko; Avşar-Ban, Eriko; Tamaru, Yutaka; Ogata, Shin; Takebayashi, Shin-ichiro; Ogata, Masato; Okumura, Katsuzumi

    2015-12-01

    Spatiotemporal regulation of DNA replication in the S-phase nucleus has been extensively studied in mammalian cells because it is tightly coupled with the regulation of other nuclear processes such as transcription. However, little is known about the replication dynamics in nonmammalian cells. Here, we analyzed the DNA replication processes of zebrafish (Danio rerio) cells through the direct visualization of replicating DNA in the nucleus and on DNA fiber molecules isolated from the nucleus. We found that zebrafish chromosomal DNA at the nuclear interior was replicated first, followed by replication of DNA at the nuclear periphery, which is reminiscent of the spatiotemporal regulation of mammalian DNA replication. However, the relative duration of interior DNA replication in zebrafish cells was longer compared to mammalian cells, possibly reflecting zebrafish-specific genomic organization. The rate of replication fork progression and ori-to-ori distance measured by the DNA combing technique were ∼ 1.4 kb/min and 100 kb, respectively, which are comparable to those in mammalian cells. To our knowledge, this is a first report that measures replication dynamics in zebrafish cells.

  7. Zebrafish Craniofacial Development: A Window into Early Patterning

    PubMed Central

    Mork, Lindsey; Crump, Gage

    2016-01-01

    The formation of the face and skull involves a complex series of developmental events mediated by cells derived from the neural crest, endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. Although vertebrates boast an enormous diversity of adult facial morphologies