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Sample records for zebre danio rerio

  1. Production of Androgenetic Zebrafish (Danio Rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Corley-Smith, G. E.; Lim, C. J.; Brandhorst, B. P.

    1996-01-01

    To help investigate the evolutionary origin of the imprinting (parent-of-origin mono-allelic expression) of paternal genes observed in mammals, we constructed haploid and diploid androgenetic zebrafish (Danio rerio). Haploid androgenotes were produced by fertilizing eggs that had been X-ray irradiated to eliminate the maternal genome. Subsequent inhibition of the first mitotic division of haploid androgenotes by heat shock produced diploid androgenotes. The lack of inheritance of maternal-specific DNA markers (RAPD and SSR) by putative diploid and haploid androgenotes confirmed the androgenetic origin of their genomes. Marker analysis was performed on 18 putative androgenotes (five diploids and 13 haploids) from six families. None of 157 maternal-specific RAPD markers analyzed, some of which were apparently homozygous, were passed on to any of these putative androgenotes. A mean of 7.7 maternal-specific markers were assessed per family. The survival of androgenetic zebrafish suggests that if paternal imprinting occurs in zebrafish, it does not result in essential genes being inactivated when their expression is required for development. Production of haploid androgenotes can be used to determine the meiotic recombination rate in male zebrafish. Androgenesis may also provide useful information about the mechanism of sex determination in zebrafish. PMID:8846903

  2. A bioenergetic model for zebrafish Danio rerio (Hamilton)

    Chizinski, C.J.; Sharma, Bibek; Pope, K.L.; Patino, R.

    2008-01-01

    A bioenergetics model was developed from observed consumption, respiration and growth rates for zebrafish Danio rerio across a range (18-32?? C) of water temperatures, and evaluated with a 50 day laboratory trial at 28?? C. No significant bias in variable estimates was found during the validation trial; namely, predicted zebrafish mass generally agreed with observed mass. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  3. EFFECT OF METHYLENE BLUE ON DEVELOPING ZEBRAFISH EMBRYOS Danio rerio

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECT OF METHYLENE BLUE ON DEVELOPING ZEBRAFISH EMBRYOS Danio rerioJoan M. Hedge*, Erik Sanders, Kimberly A. Jarema, Deborah Hunter, and Stephanie PadillaIntegrated Systems Toxicology Division, NHEERL, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709hedge.joan@epa.govOur laboratory rout...

  4. Danio rerio: Small Fish Making a Big Splash in Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Squiban, Barbara; Frazer, J Kimble

    2014-06-01

    Zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) are widely used for developmental biology studies. In the past decade, D. rerio have become an important oncology model as well. Leukemia is one type of cancer where zebrafish are particularly valuable. As vertebrates, fish have great anatomic and biologic similarity to humans, including their hematopoietic and immune systems. As an experimental platform, D. rerio offer many advantages that mammalian models lack. These include their ease of genetic manipulation, capacity for imaging, and suitability for large-scale phenotypic and drug screens. In this review, we present examples of these strategies and others to illustrate how zebrafish have been and can be used to study leukemia. Besides appraising the techniques researchers apply and introducing the leukemia models they have created, we also highlight recent and exciting discoveries made using D. rerio with an eye to where the field is likely headed.

  5. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Models To Assess Acute, Developmental, And Neurodevelopmental Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) acute, developmental, and neurodevelopmental model systems have been developed to assess both known and unknown environmental contaminants. Developmental toxicity is assessed using death and dysmorphology as endpoints, whereas neurodevelopmental toxicity ...

  6. Analysis of Lethality and Malformations During Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Development.

    PubMed

    Raghunath, Azhwar; Perumal, Ekambaram

    2018-01-01

    The versatility offered by zebrafish (Danio rerio) makes it a powerful and an attractive vertebrate model in developmental toxicity and teratogenicity assays. Apart from the newly introduced chemicals as drugs, xenobiotics also induce abnormal developmental abnormalities and congenital malformations in living organisms. Over the recent decades, zebrafish embryo/larva has emerged as a potential tool to test teratogenicity potential of these chemicals. Zebrafish responds to compounds as mammals do as they share similarities in their development, metabolism, physiology, and signaling pathways with that of mammals. The methodology used by the different scientists varies enormously in the zebrafish embryotoxicity test. In this chapter, we present methods to assess lethality and malformations during zebrafish development. We propose two major malformations scoring systems: binomial and relative morphological scoring systems to assess the malformations in zebrafish embryos/larvae. Based on the scoring of the malformations, the test compound can be classified as a teratogen or a nonteratogen and its teratogenic potential is evaluated.

  7. Escherichia coli's water load affects zebrafish (Danio rerio) behavior.

    PubMed

    Amorim, João; Fernandes, Miguel; Abreu, Isabel; Tavares, Fernando; Oliva-Teles, Luis

    2018-05-01

    Traditional physico-chemical sensors are becoming an obsolete tool for environmental quality assessment. Biomonitoring techniques, such as biological early warning systems present the advantage of being sensitivity, fast, non-invasive and ecologically relevant. In this work, we applied a video tracking system, developed with zebrafish (Danio rerio), to detect microbiological contamination in water. Using the fishs' behavior response, the system was able to detect the presence of a non-pathogenic environmental strain of Escherichia coli, at three different levels of contamination: 600, 1800 and 5000 CFU/100 mL (colony forming units/100 mL). Data was collected during 50 min of exposure and analyzed with the artificial neural networks Self-organizing Map and Multi-layer Perceptron. The behavior of exposed fish was more erratic, with pronounced and rapid changes on movement direction and with significant less exploratory activity. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity values regarding the detection capability (distinction between presence or absence of contamination) ranged from 89 to 100%. Regarding the classification capability (distinction between experimental conditions), the values ranged from 67 to 89%. This research may be a valuable contribution to improve water monitoring and management strategies, by taking as reference the effects on biosensors, without a biased anthropocentric perspective. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Brain Transcriptomic Response to Social Eavesdropping in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Rui F.

    2015-01-01

    Public information is widely available at low cost to animals living in social groups. For instance, bystanders may eavesdrop on signaling interactions between conspecifics and use it to adapt their subsequent behavior towards the observed individuals. This social eavesdropping ability is expected to require specialized mechanisms such as social attention, which selects social information available for learning. To begin exploring the genetic basis of social eavesdropping, we used a previously established attention paradigm in the lab to study the brain gene expression profile of male zebrafish (Danio rerio) in relation to the attention they paid towards conspecifics involved or not involved in agonistic interactions. Microarray gene chips were used to characterize their brain transcriptomes based on differential expression of single genes and gene sets. These analyses were complemented by promoter region-based techniques. Using data from both approaches, we further drafted protein interaction networks. Our results suggest that attentiveness towards conspecifics, whether interacting or not, activates pathways linked to neuronal plasticity and memory formation. The network analyses suggested that fos and jun are key players on this response, and that npas4a, nr4a1 and egr4 may also play an important role. Furthermore, specifically observing fighting interactions further triggered pathways associated to a change in the alertness status (dnajb5) and to other genes related to memory formation (btg2, npas4b), which suggests that the acquisition of eavesdropped information about social relationships activates specific processes on top of those already activated just by observing conspecifics. PMID:26713440

  9. Pharmacological analyses of learning and memory in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Bailey, Jordan M; Oliveri, Anthony N; Levin, Edward D

    2015-12-01

    Over the last decade, zebrafish (Danio rerio) have become valuable as a complementary model in behavioral pharmacology, opening a new avenue for understanding the relationships between drug action and behavior. This species offers a useful intermediate approach bridging the gap between in vitro studies and traditional mammalian models. Zebrafish offer great advantages of economy compared to their rodent counterparts, their complex brains and behavioral repertoire offer great translational potential relative to in vitro models. The development and validation of a variety of tests to measure behavior, including cognition, in zebrafish have set the stage for the use of this animal for behavioral pharmacology studies. This has led to research into the basic mechanisms of cognitive function as well as screening for potential cognition-improving drug therapies, among other lines of research. As with all models, zebrafish have limitations, which span pharmacokinetic challenges to difficulties quantifying behavior. The use, efficacy and limitations associated with a zebrafish model of cognitive function are discussed in this review, within the context of behavioral pharmacology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Digestive enzymatic activity during ontogenetic development in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Guerrera, Maria Cristina; De Pasquale, Francesca; Muglia, Ugo; Caruso, Gabriella

    2015-12-01

    Despite the growing importance of zebrafish (Danio rerio) as an experimental model in biomedical research, some aspect of physiological and related morphological age dependent changes in digestive system during larval development are still unknown. In this paper, a biochemical and morphological study of the digestive tract of zebrafish was undertaken to record the functional changes occurring in this species during its ontogenetic development, particularly from 24 hr to 47 days post fertilization (dpf). Endo- and exo-proteases, as well as α-amylase enzymes, were quantified in zebrafish larvae before first feeding (7 dpf). The most morphologically significant events during the ontogenesis of the gut occurred between 3 dpf (mouth opening) and 7 dpf (end of exocrine pancreas differentiation). The presence of a wide range of digestive enzymes, already active at earlier zebrafish larval stages, closely related with the omnivorous diet of this species. Increasing enzyme activities were found with increasing age, probably in relation with intestinal mucosa folding and consequent absorption surface increase. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 324B: 699-706, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Fluoride caused thyroid endocrine disruption in male zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Jianjie, Chen; Wenjuan, Xue; Jinling, Cao; Jie, Song; Ruhui, Jia; Meiyan, Li

    2016-02-01

    Excessive fluoride in natural water ecosystem has the potential to detrimentally affect thyroid endocrine system, but little is known of such effects or underlying mechanisms in fish. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of fluoride on growth performance, thyroid histopathology, thyroid hormone levels, and gene expressions in the HPT axis in male zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to different determined concentrations of 0.1, 0.9, 2.0 and 4.1 M of fluoride to investigate the effects of fluoride on thyroid endocrine system and the potential toxic mechanisms caused by fluoride. The results indicated that the growth of the male zebrafish used in the experiments was significantly inhibited, the thyroid microtrastructure was changed, and the levels of T3 and T4 were disturbed in fluoride-exposed male fish. In addition, the expressional profiles of genes in HPT axis displayed alteration. The expressions of all studied genes were significantly increased in all fluoride-exposed male fish after exposure for 45 days. The transcriptional levels of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroglobulin (TG), sodium iodide symporter (NIS), iodothyronine I (DIO1), and thyroid hormone receptor alpha (TRα) were also elevated in all fluoride-exposed male fish after 90 days of exposure, while the inconsistent expressions were found in the mRNA of iodothyronineⅡ (DIO2), UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1 family a, b (UGT1ab), transthyretin (TTR), and thyroid hormone receptor beta (TRβ). These results demonstrated that fluoride could notably inhibit the growth of zebrafish, and significantly affect thyroid endocrine system by changing the microtrastructure of thyroid, altering thyroid hormone levels and endocrine-related gene expressions in male zebrafish. All above indicated that fluoride could pose a great threat to thyroid endocrine system, thus detrimentally affected the normal function of thyroid of male zebrafish. Copyright © 2015

  12. Increase of fecundity by probiotic administration in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Gioacchini, Giorgia; Maradonna, Francesca; Lombardo, Francesco; Bizzaro, Davide; Olivotto, Ike; Carnevali, Oliana

    2010-12-01

    It is well known established that reproduction is sensitive to the state of energy reserves, and that there is a balance between energy homeostasis and fertility. In this view, this study examined the effects of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus, as a feed additive, on zebrafish (Danio rerio) fecundity. Ten days of probiotic treatment modulate the gene expression of neuropeptide hormones and metabolic signals, such as kiss1, kiss2 and leptin both at the CNS level and at the peripheral level. The increase in fecundity brought about by the probiotic was demonstrated by the higher number of ovulated eggs in vivo and by the higher germinal vesicle breakdown rate obtained with the in vitro maturation assay. The increase in oocyte maturation was associated with increased transcription of genes coding for signals which induce the maturation phase, such as lhcgr, cbr1l, and paqr8 genes, concomitant with a decreased transcription of genes coding for local factors which prevent oocyte maturation, such as tgfb1, gdf9, and bmp15. In conclusion, all these findings highlight the action of L. rhamnosus both on the endocrine system and at the local level by inducing oocyte maturation. The significance of the results herein obtained underlined the importance of diet in the reproductive process, supporting the hypothesis that feed additives can improve fecundity. Considering that the zebrafish has been clearly established as a vertebrate model for biomedical research, these results support the potentiality of feed additives such as probiotics, frequently used in the human diet, as a new technology to improve reproduction in all vertebrates, including humans.

  13. Neural circuit activity in freely behaving zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Issa, Fadi A; O'Brien, Georgeann; Kettunen, Petronella; Sagasti, Alvaro; Glanzman, David L; Papazian, Diane M

    2011-03-15

    Examining neuronal network activity in freely behaving animals is advantageous for probing the function of the vertebrate central nervous system. Here, we describe a simple, robust technique for monitoring the activity of neural circuits in unfettered, freely behaving zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish respond to unexpected tactile stimuli with short- or long-latency escape behaviors, which are mediated by distinct neural circuits. Using dipole electrodes immersed in the aquarium, we measured electric field potentials generated in muscle during short- and long-latency escapes. We found that activation of the underlying neural circuits produced unique field potential signatures that are easily recognized and can be repeatedly monitored. In conjunction with behavioral analysis, we used this technique to track changes in the pattern of circuit activation during the first week of development in animals whose trigeminal sensory neurons were unilaterally ablated. One day post-ablation, the frequency of short- and long-latency responses was significantly lower on the ablated side than on the intact side. Three days post-ablation, a significant fraction of escapes evoked by stimuli on the ablated side was improperly executed, with the animal turning towards rather than away from the stimulus. However, the overall response rate remained low. Seven days post-ablation, the frequency of escapes increased dramatically and the percentage of improperly executed escapes declined. Our results demonstrate that trigeminal ablation results in rapid reconfiguration of the escape circuitry, with reinnervation by new sensory neurons and adaptive changes in behavior. This technique is valuable for probing the activity, development, plasticity and regeneration of neural circuits under natural conditions.

  14. Neural circuit activity in freely behaving zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Fadi A.; O'Brien, Georgeann; Kettunen, Petronella; Sagasti, Alvaro; Glanzman, David L.; Papazian, Diane M.

    2011-01-01

    Examining neuronal network activity in freely behaving animals is advantageous for probing the function of the vertebrate central nervous system. Here, we describe a simple, robust technique for monitoring the activity of neural circuits in unfettered, freely behaving zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish respond to unexpected tactile stimuli with short- or long-latency escape behaviors, which are mediated by distinct neural circuits. Using dipole electrodes immersed in the aquarium, we measured electric field potentials generated in muscle during short- and long-latency escapes. We found that activation of the underlying neural circuits produced unique field potential signatures that are easily recognized and can be repeatedly monitored. In conjunction with behavioral analysis, we used this technique to track changes in the pattern of circuit activation during the first week of development in animals whose trigeminal sensory neurons were unilaterally ablated. One day post-ablation, the frequency of short- and long-latency responses was significantly lower on the ablated side than on the intact side. Three days post-ablation, a significant fraction of escapes evoked by stimuli on the ablated side was improperly executed, with the animal turning towards rather than away from the stimulus. However, the overall response rate remained low. Seven days post-ablation, the frequency of escapes increased dramatically and the percentage of improperly executed escapes declined. Our results demonstrate that trigeminal ablation results in rapid reconfiguration of the escape circuitry, with reinnervation by new sensory neurons and adaptive changes in behavior. This technique is valuable for probing the activity, development, plasticity and regeneration of neural circuits under natural conditions. PMID:21346131

  15. Evaluation of anaesthetic protocols for laboratory adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Martins, Tânia; Diniz, Enoque; Félix, Luís M; Antunes, Luís

    2018-01-01

    In the last decades, the use of zebrafish (Danio rerio) in biomedical research has increased. Anaesthesia is daily used in fish during experimental procedures to avoid discomfort, stress or pain. Also, fish welfare and the reliability of results can be compromised if an unsuitable anaesthetic protocol is used. Therefore, we aimed to refine anaesthetic protocols to be used in adult zebrafish by evaluating the efficacy of different anaesthetics, used alone or in combination. For that, zebrafish were randomly assigned to 8 different groups: 100 μg/mLMS-222 (MS); 0.2 μg/mL etomidate (E); 0.2 μg/mL etomidate + 100 μg/mL lidocaine (E+L); 1.25 μg/mL propofol (P); 1.25 μg/mL propofol + 100 μg/mL lidocaine (P+L); 100 μg/mL ketamine (K); 100 μg/mL ketamine + 1.25 μg/mL medetomidine (K+M); and 100 μg/mL ketamine + 1.25 μg/mL medetomidine/3.125 μg/mL atipamezole (K+M/A). The animals were placed in an anaesthetic water bath, then, the following parameters were registered: time for equilibrium loss and anaesthesia induction, loss of sensitivity to soft and painful stimuli, respiratory rate, recovery time, and activity after recovery. The combined forms of E+L, P+L and K+M were the fastest to induce a surgical anaesthetic stage. Nevertheless, E+L induced respiratory depression, while K+M was shown to have the longer recovery time compared to MS-222, even when atipamezole was added. In conclusion, the P+L combination was shown to provide good anaesthesia with analgesia, without causing a major respiratory depression, providing as well a quick recovery, similar to MS-222.

  16. Cytoskeletal and cellular adhesion proteins in zebrafish (Danio rerio) myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Costa, M L; Escaleira, R; Manasfi, M; de Souza, L F; Mermelstein, C S

    2003-08-01

    The current myogenesis and myofibrillogenesis model has been based mostly on in vitro cell culture studies, and, to a lesser extent, on in situ studies in avian and mammalian embryos. While the more isolated artificial conditions of cells in culture permitted careful structural analysis, the actual in situ cellular structures have not been described in detail because the embryos are more difficult to section and manipulate. To overcome these difficulties, we used the optically clear and easy to handle embryos of the zebrafish Danio rerio. We monitored the expression of cytoskeletal and cell-adhesion proteins (actin, myosin, desmin, alpha-actinin, troponin, titin, vimentin and vinculin) using immunofluorescence microscopy and video-enhanced, background-subtracted, differential interference contrast of 24- to 48-h zebrafish embryos. In the mature myotome, the mononucleated myoblasts displayed periodic striations for all sarcomeric proteins tested. The changes in desmin distribution from aggregates to perinuclear and striated forms, although following the same sequence, occurred much faster than in other models. All desmin-positive cells were also positive for myofibrillar proteins and striated, in contrast to that which occurs in cell cultures. Vimentin appeared to be striated in mature cells, while it is developmentally down-regulated in vitro. The whole connective tissue septum between the somites was positive for adhesion proteins such as vinculin, instead of the isolated adhesion plaques observed in cell cultures. The differences in the myogenesis of zebrafish in situ and in cell culture in vitro suggest that some of the previously observed structures and protein distributions in cultures could be methodological artifacts.

  17. An Inexpensive Method to Simulate a Monohybrid Cross Using Wild-Type Zebrafish ("Danio rerio")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassiter, Christopher S.

    2010-01-01

    Monohybrid crosses are taught in biology labs across the country using peas and corn. Students studying monohybrid crosses using zebrafish ("Danio rerio") would encounter a new model organism, and those interested in human or veterinary medicine would have increased interest. To this end, our college has implemented a laboratory exercise at the…

  18. Female reproductive impacts of dietary methylmercury in yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of environmentally relevant dietary MeHg exposures on adult female yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and zebrafish (Danio rerio)reproduction. Yellow perch were used in the study for their socioeconomic and ecological importance within the Great Lak...

  19. Phototoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles to zebrafish (Danio rerio) is dependent on life stage

    EPA Science Inventory

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo has been increasingly used as a model to evaluate toxicity of manufactured nanomaterials. Many studies indicate that the embryo chorion may protect animals from toxic effects of nanomaterials, suggesting that post-hatch life stages may be more s...

  20. Gene Expression Profiling of Androgen Receptor Antagonists Flutamide and Vinclozolin in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Gonads

    EPA Science Inventory

    The studies presented in this manuscript focus on characterization of genomic responses to anti-androgens in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Research of the effects of anti-androgens in fish has been characterized by a heavy reliance on apical endpoints, and molecular mechanisms of acti...

  1. Characterization of glutathione-S-transferases in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Glisic, Branka; Mihaljevic, Ivan; Popovic, Marta; Zaja, Roko; Loncar, Jovica; Fent, Karl; Kovacevic, Radmila; Smital, Tvrtko

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) are one of the key enzymes that mediate phase II of cellular detoxification. The aim of our study was a comprehensive characterization of GSTs in zebrafish (Danio rerio) as an important vertebrate model species frequently used in environmental research. A detailed phylogenetic analysis of GST superfamily revealed 27 zebrafish gst genes. Further insights into the orthology relationships between human and zebrafish GSTs/Gsts were obtained by the conserved synteny analysis. Expression of gst genes in six tissues (liver, kidney, gills, intestine, brain and gonads) of adult male and female zebrafish was determined using qRT-PCR. Functional characterization was performed on 9 cytosolic Gst enzymes after overexpression in E. coli and subsequent protein purification. Enzyme kinetics was measured for GSH and a series of model substrates. Our data revealed ubiquitously high expression of gstp, gstm (except in liver), gstr1, mgst3a and mgst3b, high expression of gsto2 in gills and ovaries, gsta in intestine and testes, gstt1a in liver, and gstz1 in liver, kidney and brain. All zebrafish Gsts catalyzed the conjugation of GSH to model GST substrates 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and monochlorobimane (MCB), apart from Gsto2 and Gstz1 that catalyzed GSH conjugation to dehydroascorbate (DHA) and dichloroacetic acid (DCA), respectively. Affinity toward CDNB varied from 0.28 mM (Gstp2) to 3.69 mM (Gstm3), while affinity toward MCB was in the range of 5 μM (Gstt1a) to 250 μM (Gstp1). Affinity toward GSH varied from 0.27 mM (Gstz1) to 4.45 mM (Gstt1a). Turnover number for CDNB varied from 5.25s(-1) (Gstt1a) to 112s(-1) (Gstp2). Only Gst Pi enzymes utilized ethacrynic acid (ETA). We suggest that Gstp1, Gstp2, Gstt1a, Gstz1, Gstr1, Mgst3a and Mgst3b have important role in the biotransformation of xenobiotics, while Gst Alpha, Mu, Pi, Zeta and Rho classes are involved in the crucial physiological processes. In summary, this study provides the

  2. Differential Lectin Binding Patterns Identify Distinct Heart Regions in Giant Danio (Devario aequipinnatus) and Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Manalo, Trina; May, Adam; Quinn, Joshua; Lafontant, Dominique S.; Shifatu, Olubusola; He, Wei; Gonzalez-Rosa, Juan M.; Burns, Geoffrey C.; Burns, Caroline E.; Burns, Alan R.; Lafontant, Pascal J.

    2016-01-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins commonly used as biochemical and histochemical tools to study glycoconjugate (glycoproteins, glycolipids) expression patterns in cells, tissues, including mammalian hearts. However, lectins have received little attention in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and giant danio (Devario aequipinnatus) heart studies. Here, we sought to determine the binding patterns of six commonly used lectins—wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin, Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin (BS lectin), concanavalin A (Con A), Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA I), and Lycopersicon esculentum agglutinin (tomato lectin)—in these hearts. Con A showed broad staining in the myocardium. WGA stained cardiac myocyte borders, with binding markedly stronger in the compact heart and bulbus. BS lectin, which stained giant danio coronaries, was used to measure vascular reconstruction during regeneration. However, BS lectin reacted poorly in zebrafish. RCA I stained the compact heart of both fish. Tomato lectin stained the giant danio, and while low reactivity was seen in the zebrafish ventricle, staining was observed in their transitional cardiac myocytes. In addition, we observed unique staining patterns in the developing zebrafish heart. Lectins’ ability to reveal differential glycoconjugate expression in giant danio and zebrafish hearts suggests they can serve as simple but important tools in studies of developing, adult, and regenerating fish hearts. PMID:27680670

  3. Assessment of diclofenac LC50 reference values in juvenile and embryonic stages of the zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Praskova, E; Voslarova, E; Siroka, Z; Plhalova, L; Macova, S; Marsalek, P; Pistekova, V; Svobodova, Z

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the acute toxicity of diclofenac to juvenile and embryonic stages of the zebrafish (Danio rerio). Acute toxicity tests were performed on the aquarium fish Danio rerio, which is one of the model organisms most commonly used in toxicity testing. The tests were performed using a semi-static method according to OECD guideline No. 203 (Fish, acute toxicity test). Embryo toxicity tests were performed in zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio) in compliance with OECD No. 212 methodology (Fish, short-term toxicity test on embryo and sac-fry stages). The results were subjected to a probit analysis using the EKO-TOX 5.2 programme to determine 96hLC50 and 144hLC50 (median lethal concentration, 50% mortality after a 96 h or 144 h interval, respectively) values of diclofenac. The statistical significance of the difference between LC50 values in juvenile and embryonic stages of Danio rerio was tested using the Mann-Whitney non-parametric test implemented in the Unistat 5.1 programme. The LC50 mean value of diclofenac was 166.6 +/- 9.8 mg/L in juvenile Danio rerio, and 6.11 +/- 2.48 mg/L in embryonic stages of Danio rerio. The study demonstrated a statistically higher sensitivity to diclofenac (P < 0.05) in embryonic stages compared to the juvenile fish.

  4. Rapid whole brain imaging of neural activity in freely behaving larval zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Chunfeng; Yang, Wenbin; Bai, Lu; Du, Jiulin

    2017-01-01

    The internal brain dynamics that link sensation and action are arguably better studied during natural animal behaviors. Here, we report on a novel volume imaging and 3D tracking technique that monitors whole brain neural activity in freely swimming larval zebrafish (Danio rerio). We demonstrated the capability of our system through functional imaging of neural activity during visually evoked and prey capture behaviors in larval zebrafish. PMID:28930070

  5. Can simple tank changes benefit the welfare of laboratory zebrafish Danio rerio?

    PubMed

    Lee, C J; Tyler, C R; Paull, G C

    2018-03-01

    This study examined the effects of simple changes in the tank environment on the wellbeing of laboratory-maintained zebrafish Danio rerio. Groups of D. rerio were either housed in stable environments (where they were maintained in the same tanks throughout the study) or in environments subject to change (where they were periodically moved to novel but identical tanks) and the effects of these treatments on morphometry, reproductive success and aggressive behaviour assessed. No effect of simple tank changes was found on body condition, reproductive output or aggression, for the periods of time studied, indicating that more complex scenarios in housing tank conditions are required for significant welfare benefits for captive D. rerio. © 2018 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  6. GROWTH AND BEHAVIOR OF LARVAL ZEBRAFISH Danio rerio FED A PROCESSED DIET, LIVE FOOD, OR THE COMBINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have become a popular and important model for scientific research, the capability to rear larval zebrafish to adulthood is of great importance. Recently research examining the effects of diet (live versus processed) have been published. In the cu...

  7. Transcriptional regulatory dynamics of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and its peripheral pathways as impacted by the 3-beta HSD inhibitor Trilostane in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    EPA Science Inventory

    To identify transcription factors (TFs), members of hypothalamic-pituitary- gonadal axis (HPG-axis), TF networks and signaling pathways underlying generalized effects of 3-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B) inhibition, reproductively mature zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exp...

  8. Inter and intra-population variation in shoaling and boldness in the zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Wright, Dominic; Rimmer, Lucy B; Pritchard, Victoria L; Krause, Jens; Butlin, Roger K

    2003-08-01

    Population differences in anti-predator behaviour have been demonstrated in several species, although less is known about the genetic basis of these traits. To determine the extent of genetic differences in boldness (defined as exploration of a novel object) and shoaling within and between zebrafish (Danio rerio) populations, and to examine the genetic basis of shoaling behaviour in general, we carried out a study that involved laboratory-raised fish derived from four wild-caught populations. Controlling for differences in rearing environment, significant inter-population differences were found in boldness but not shoaling. A larger shoaling experiment was also performed using one of the populations as the basis of a North Carolina type II breeding design (174 fish in total) to estimate heritability of shoaling tendency. A narrow-sense heritability estimate of 0.40 was obtained, with no apparent dominance effects.

  9. Toxic effects of magnesium oxide nanoparticles on early developmental and larval stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Ghobadian, Mehdi; Nabiuni, Mohammad; Parivar, Kazem; Fathi, Mojtaba; Pazooki, Jamileh

    2015-12-01

    Magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgONPs) are used in medicine, manufacturing and food industries. Because of their extensive application in our daily lives, environmental exposure to these nanoparticles is inevitable. The present study examined the effects of MgONPs on zebrafish (Danio rerio) early developmental stages. The results showed that, at different concentrations, MgONPs induced cellular apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species. The hatching rate and survival of embryos decreased in a dose dependent manner. The 96-h LC50 value of MgONPs on zebrafish survival was 428 mg/l and the 48-h EC50 value of MgONPs on zebrafish embryo hatching rate was 175 mg/l. Moreover different types of malformation were observed in exposed embryos. The results demonstrate the toxic effects of MgONPs on zebrafish embryos and emphasize the need for further studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Long-term (30 days) toxicity of NiO nanoparticles for adult zebrafish Danio rerio

    PubMed Central

    Kovrižnych, Jevgenij A.; Zeljenková, Dagmar; Rollerová, Eva; Szabová, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Nickel oxide in the form of nanoparticles (NiO NPs) is extensively used in different industrial branches. In a test on adult zebrafish, the acute toxicity of NiO NPs was shown to be low, however longlasting contact with this compound can lead to its accumulation in the tissues and to increased toxicity. In this work we determined the 30-day toxicity of NiO NPs using a static test for zebrafish Danio rerio. We found the 30-day LC50 value to be 45.0 mg/L, LC100 (minimum concentration causing 100% mortality) was 100.0 mg/L, and LC0 (maximum concentration causing no mortality) was 6.25 mg/L for adult individuals of zebrafish. Considering a broad use of Ni in the industry, NiO NPs chronic toxicity may have a negative impact on the population of aquatic organisms and on food web dynamics in aquatic systems. PMID:26038672

  11. Long-term (30 days) toxicity of NiO nanoparticles for adult zebrafish Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Kovrižnych, Jevgenij A; Sotníková, Ružena; Zeljenková, Dagmar; Rollerová, Eva; Szabová, Elena

    2014-03-01

    Nickel oxide in the form of nanoparticles (NiO NPs) is extensively used in different industrial branches. In a test on adult zebrafish, the acute toxicity of NiO NPs was shown to be low, however longlasting contact with this compound can lead to its accumulation in the tissues and to increased toxicity. In this work we determined the 30-day toxicity of NiO NPs using a static test for zebrafish Danio rerio. We found the 30-day LC50 value to be 45.0 mg/L, LC100 (minimum concentration causing 100% mortality) was 100.0 mg/L, and LC0 (maximum concentration causing no mortality) was 6.25 mg/L for adult individuals of zebrafish. Considering a broad use of Ni in the industry, NiO NPs chronic toxicity may have a negative impact on the population of aquatic organisms and on food web dynamics in aquatic systems.

  12. Genotoxic effects of boric acid and borax in zebrafish, Danio rerio using alkaline comet assay.

    PubMed

    Gülsoy, Nagihan; Yavas, Cüneyd; Mutlu, Özal

    2015-01-01

    The present study is conducted to determine the potential mechanisms of Boron compounds, boric acid (BA) and borax (BX), on genotoxicity of zebrafish Danio rerio for 24, 48, 72 and 96-hours acute exposure (level:1, 4, 16, 64 mg/l BA and BX) in semi-static bioassay experiment. For that purpose, peripheral erythrocytes were drawn from caudal vein and Comet assay was applied to assess genotoxicity. Acute (96 hours) exposure and high concentrations of boric acid and borax increases % tail DNA and Olive tail moment. Genotoxicity was found for BA as concentration-dependent and BX as concentration and time dependent manner. In general, significant effects (P < 0,05) on both concentrations and exposure times were observed in experimental groups. DNA damage was highest at 96 h and 24 h for all BX and BA concentrations, respectively in peripheral blood of D. rerio. For the first time, our study demonstrates the effect of waterborne BA and BX exposure on genotoxicity at the molecular level, which may contribute to understanding the mechanism of boric acid and borax-induced genotoxicity in fish.

  13. Biomarker responses in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae exposed to pristine low-density polyethylene fragments.

    PubMed

    Karami, Ali; Groman, David B; Wilson, Scott P; Ismail, Patimah; Neela, Vasantha K

    2017-04-01

    There are serious concerns over the adverse impacts of microplastics (MPs) on living organisms. The main objective of this study was to test the effects of MPs on the total length, weight, condition factor (CF), transcriptional level of antioxidant, anti and pro-apoptotic, and neurotransmitter genes, and the histopathology of the gill, liver, brain, kidney, and intestine in the larvae of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Fish were exposed to one of three levels of pristine low-density polyethylene (LDPE) fragments (5, 50, or 500 μg/L) for 10 or 20 days. No significant changes were observed in any of the selected biomarkers across MP concentrations at days 10 or 20. The expression of casp9 (caspase 9, apoptosis-related cysteine protease), casp3a (caspase 3, apoptosis-related cysteine protease a) and cat (catalase), however, were significantly lower in the larvae sampled at day 20 than day 10. We provide evidence that virgin short-term exposure to LDPE fragments has minimal impact on biomarker responses in D. rerio larvae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Genotoxic effects of boric acid and borax in zebrafish, Danio rerio using alkaline comet assay

    PubMed Central

    Gülsoy, Nagihan; Yavas, Cüneyd; Mutlu, Özal

    2015-01-01

    The present study is conducted to determine the potential mechanisms of Boron compounds, boric acid (BA) and borax (BX), on genotoxicity of zebrafish Danio rerio for 24, 48, 72 and 96-hours acute exposure (level:1, 4, 16, 64 mg/l BA and BX) in semi-static bioassay experiment. For that purpose, peripheral erythrocytes were drawn from caudal vein and Comet assay was applied to assess genotoxicity. Acute (96 hours) exposure and high concentrations of boric acid and borax increases % tail DNA and Olive tail moment. Genotoxicity was found for BA as concentration-dependent and BX as concentration and time dependent manner. In general, significant effects (P < 0,05) on both concentrations and exposure times were observed in experimental groups. DNA damage was highest at 96 h and 24 h for all BX and BA concentrations, respectively in peripheral blood of D. rerio. For the first time, our study demonstrates the effect of waterborne BA and BX exposure on genotoxicity at the molecular level, which may contribute to understanding the mechanism of boric acid and borax-induced genotoxicity in fish. PMID:26862320

  15. Acute toxicity and histopathological effects of naproxen in zebrafish (Danio rerio) early life stages.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Wang, Peipei; Chen, Ling; Gao, Hongwen; Wu, Lingling

    2016-09-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos and larvae were selected to investigate the potential risk and aquatic toxicity of a widely used pharmaceutical, naproxen. The acute toxicity of naproxen to embryos and larvae was measured, respectively. The histopathology was investigated in the liver of zebrafish larvae after 8-day embryo-larvae exposure to naproxen. The values of 96-h LC50 were 115.2 mg/L for embryos and 147.6 mg/L for larvae, indicating that zebrafish embryos were more sensitive than larvae to naproxen exposure. Large suites of symptoms were induced in zebrafish (D. rerio) early life stages by different dosages of naproxen, including hatching inhibition, lower heart rate, and morphological abnormalities. The most sensitive sub-lethal effect caused by naproxen was pericardial edema, the 72-h EC50 values of which for embryos and larvae were 98.3 and 149.0 mg/L, respectively. In addition, naproxen-treated zebrafish larvae exhibited histopathological liver damage, including swollen hepatocytes, vacuolar degeneration, and nuclei pycnosis. The results indicated that naproxen is a potential threat to aquatic organisms.

  16. International survey on the use and welfare of zebrafish Danio rerio in research.

    PubMed

    Lidster, K; Readman, G D; Prescott, M J; Owen, S F

    2017-05-01

    A survey was conducted regarding zebrafish Danio rerio use for scientific research with a focus on: anaesthesia and euthanasia; housing and husbandry; breeding and production; refinement opportunities. A total of 98 survey responses were received from laboratories in 22 countries in Europe, North America, South America, Asia and Australia. There appears a clear and urgent need to identify the most humane methods of anaesthesia and euthanasia. Aversive responses to MS-222 were widely observed raising concerns about the use of this anaesthetic for D. rerio. The use of anaesthesia in fin clipping for genetic identification is widely practised and there appears to be an opportunity to further develop less invasive methods and refine this process. Optimization (and potentially standardization) of feeding is an area for further investigation. Given that diet and body condition can have such profound effects on results of experiments, differences in practice could have significant scientific implications. Further research into transition between dark and light phases in the laboratory appears to represent an opportunity to establish best practice. Plants and gravel were not considered practical by many laboratories. The true value and benefits need to be established and communicated. Overproduction is a concern both from ethical and financial viewpoints. There is an opportunity to further reduce wastage of D. rerio. There are clear concerns and opportunities for the scientific community to work together to further improve the welfare of these important laboratory models. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  17. Effect of hunger level and time of day on boldness and aggression in the zebrafish Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Ariyomo, T O; Watt, P J

    2015-06-01

    The effect of two environmental variables, hunger level (fed or not fed before behavioural assays) and time of day (morning or afternoon), on the boldness and aggressiveness of male and female zebrafish Danio rerio, was tested. The results showed that neither hunger level nor time of testing influenced boldness in males and females, but hunger level significantly affected aggression in females when compared with males. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  18. The Caudal Skeleton of the Zebrafish, Danio rerio, from a Phylogenetic Perspective: A Polyural Interpretation of Homologous Structures

    PubMed Central

    Wiley, Edward O.; Fuiten, Allison M.; Doosey, Michael H.; Lohman, Brian K.; Merkes, Christopher; Azuma, Mizuki

    2016-01-01

    The structure of the caudal skeleton of extant teleost fishes has been interpreted in two different ways. In a diural interpretation, a caudal skeleton is composed of two centra articulated with one to six hypurals. Most subsequent authors have followed this interpretation. In contrast, a polyural interpretation considers the teleost fin to be derived from a fully metameristic ancestral bauplan originally composed of a one-to-one relationship between neural arches, centra (when present), and hypurals. Three different interpretations of the identity and homology of skeletal components of the caudal skeleton of the teleost fish Danio rerio have been proposed, two from a diural perspective and one from a polyural perspective. We examine each caudal skeletal component of Danio rerio from both a developmental and phylogenetic perspective. We propose that a polyural interpretation of structures is consistent with the current interpretation of the basal neopterygian caudal fin for this model organism rather than the older diural interpretation that does not take into account the metamerism observed in caudal structures during development. The polyural interpretation suggests several shared evolutionary innovations of major clades that would remain undiscovered under the older diural naming paradigm and makes the terminology of the parts of the caudal fin of Danio rerio strictly comparable to more basal fishes. PMID:28250540

  19. Individual and mixture effects of five agricultural pesticides on zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhua; Yang, Guiling; Dai, Dejiang; Xu, Zhenlan; Cai, Leiming; Wang, Qiang; Yu, Yijun

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the individual and mixture toxicities of imidacloprid and other four pesticides (atrazine, chlorpyrifos, butachlor, and λ-cyhalothrin) to the zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae in order to clarify the interactive effects of pesticides on aquatic organisms. Results from the 96-h semi-static toxicity test indicated that chlorpyrifos, λ-cyhalothrin, and butachlor had the highest toxicities to D. rerio with an LC 50 value ranging from 0.28 (0.13∼0.38) to 0.45 (0.31∼0.59) mg AI L -1 , followed by atrazine with an LC 50 value of 15.63 (10.71∼25.76) mg AI L -1 , while imidacloprid exhibited the least toxicity to the organisms with an LC 50 value of 143.7 (99.98∼221.6) mg AI L -1 . Seven pesticide mixtures (two binary mixtures of imidacloprid + atrazine and imidacloprid + λ-cyhalothrin, two ternary mixtures of imidacloprid + atrazine + λ-cyhalothrin and imidacloprid + butachlor + λ-cyhalothrin, two quaternary mixtures of imidacloprid + atrazine + chlorpyrifos + λ-cyhalothrin and imidacloprid + chlorpyrifos + butachlor + λ-cyhalothrin, and one quinquenary mixture of imidacloprid + atrazine + chlorpyrifos + butachlor + λ-cyhalothrin) exhibited synergistic effects with equitoxic ratio and equivalent concentration on the zebrafish. Our results highlighted that the simultaneous presence of several pesticides in the aquatic environment might lead to increased toxicity, causing serious damage to the aquatic ecosystems compared with their individual toxicities. Therefore, the toxic effects of both individual pesticides and their mixtures should be incorporated into the environmental risk evaluation of pesticides.

  20. Glyphosate Adversely Affects Danio rerio Males: Acetylcholinesterase Modulation and Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Fernanda Moreira; Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Primel, Ednei Gilberto; da Rosa, Carlos Eduardo

    2017-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that glyphosate-based herbicides are toxic to animals. In the present study, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP), and lipid peroxidation (LPO), as well as the activity and expression of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme, were evaluated in Danio rerio males exposed to 5 or 10 mg/L of glyphosate for 24 and 96 h. An increase in ACAP in gills after 24 h was observed in the animals exposed to 5 mg/L of glyphosate. A decrease in LPO was observed in brain tissue of animals exposed to 10 mg/L after 24 h, while an increase was observed in muscle after 96 h. No significant alterations were observed in ROS generation. AChE activity was not altered in muscles or brains of animals exposed to either glyphosate concentration for 24 or 96 h. However, gene expression of this enzyme in the brain was reduced after 24 h and was enhanced in both brain and muscle tissues after 96 h. Thus, contrary to previous findings that had attributed the imbalance in the oxidative state of animals exposed to glyphosate-based herbicides to surfactants and other inert compounds, the present study demonstrated that glyphosate per se promotes this same effect in zebrafish males. Although glyphosate concentrations did not alter AChE activity, this study demonstrated for the first time that this molecule affects ache expression in male zebrafish D. rerio.

  1. Joint toxic effects of triazophos and imidacloprid on zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Wu, Shenggan; Li, Xinfang; Liu, Xinju; Yang, Guiling; An, Xuehua; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Yanhua

    2018-04-01

    Pesticide contamination is more often found as a mixture of different pesticides in water bodies rather than individual compounds. However, regulatory risk evaluation is mostly based on the effects of individual pesticides. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the individual and joint toxicities of triazophos (TRI) and imidacloprid (IMI) to the zebrafish (Danio rerio) using acute indices and various sublethal endpoints. Results from 96-h semi-static test indicated that the LC 50 values of TRI to D. rerio at multiple life stages (embryonic, larval, juvenile and adult stages) ranged from 0.49 (0.36-0.71) to 4.99 (2.06-6.81) mg a.i. L -1 , which were higher than those of IMI ranging from 26.39 (19.04-38.01) to 128.9 (68.47-173.6) mg a.i. L -1 . Pesticide mixtures of TRI and IMI displayed synergistic response to zebrafish embryos. Activities of carboxylesterase (CarE) and catalase (CAT) were significantly changed in most of the individual and joint exposures of pesticides compared with the control group. The expressions of 26 genes related to oxidative stress, cellular apoptosis, immune system, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis at the mRNA level revealed that zebrafish embryos were affected by the individual or joint pesticides, and greater changes in the expressions of six genes (Mn-sod, CXCL-CIC, Dio1, Dio2, tsh and vtg1) were observed when exposed to joint pesticides compared with their individual pesticides. Taken together, the synergistic effects indicated that it was highly important to incorporate joint toxicity studies, especially at low concentrations, when assessing the risk of pesticides. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Environmental estrogen(s) induced swimming behavioural alterations in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Goundadkar, Basavaraj B; Katti, Pancharatna

    2017-09-01

    The present study is an attempt to investigate the effects of long-term (75days) exposure to environmental estrogens (EE) on the swimming behaviour of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Adult zebrafish were exposed semi-statically to media containing commonly detected estrogenic water contaminants (EE2, DES and BPA) at a concentration (5ng/L) much lower than environmentally recorded levels. Time spent in swimming, surface preference, patterns and path of swimming were recorded (6mins) for each fish using two video cameras on day 15, 30 60 and 75. Video clips were analysed using a software program. Results indicate that chronic exposure to EE leads to increased body weight and size of females, reduced (P<0.05) swimming time, delay in latency, increased (P<0.05) immobility, erratic movements and freezing episodes. We conclude that estrogenic contamination of natural aquatic systems induces alterations in locomotor behaviour and associated physiological disturbances in inhabitant fish fauna. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Gene expression profiling of the androgen receptor antagonists flutamide and vinclozolin in zebrafish (Danio rerio) gonads.

    PubMed

    Martinović-Weigelt, Dalma; Wang, Rong-Lin; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Bencic, David C; Lazorchak, Jim; Ankley, Gerald T

    2011-01-25

    The studies presented in this manuscript focus on characterization of transcriptomic responses to anti-androgens in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Research on the effects of anti-androgens in fish has been characterized by a heavy reliance on apical endpoints, and molecular mechanisms of action (MOA) of anti-androgens remain poorly elucidated. In the present study, we examined effects of a short term exposure (24-96h) to the androgen receptor antagonists flutamide (FLU) and vinclozolin (VZ) on gene expression in gonads of sexually mature zebrafish, using commercially available zebrafish oligonucleotide microarrays (4×44K platform). We found that VZ and FLU potentially impact reproductive processes via multiple pathways related to steroidogenesis, spermatogenesis, and fertilization. Observed changes in gene expression often were shared by VZ and FLU, as demonstrated by overlap in differentially-expressed genes and enrichment of several common key pathways including: (1) integrin and actin signaling, (2) nuclear receptor 5A1 signaling, (3) fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling, (4) polyamine synthesis, and (5) androgen synthesis. This information should prove useful to elucidating specific mechanisms of reproductive effects of anti-androgens in fish, as well as developing biomarkers for this important class of endocrine-active chemicals. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Susceptibility of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to a model pathogen, spring viremia of carp virus

    Sanders, George E.; Batts, William N.; Winton, James R.

    2003-01-01

    To improve our understanding of the genetic basis of fish disease, we developed a pathogen model, using zebrafish (Danio rerio) and spring virema of carp virus (SVCV). Replicate groups of 10 fish were acclimated to 20 or 24°C, then were exposed to SVCV concentrations of 103 to 105 plaque-forming units per milliliter (PFU/ml) of water and observed daily. In a second trial, fish were acclimated to 15°C, and replicate groups of 10 fish were exposed to SVCV at a concentration of 105 PFU/ml; however, the temperature was raised 1°C/wk. Moribund fish were collected for histologic examination, and dead fish were assayed for virus by use of cell culture and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. Mortality exceeded 50% in fish exposed to 105 PFU of SVCV/ml at the lower temperatures. Clinical signs of disease became evident seven days after viral exposure and were observed most consistently in fish of the 105 PFU/ml groups. Affected zebrafish were anorectic and listless, with epidermal petechial hemorrhages followed by death. Use of plaque assays and RT-PCR analysis confirmed presence of SVCV at titers ≥ 104 PFU/g of tissue. Histologic lesions included multifocal brachial necrosis and melanomacrophage proliferation in gills, liver, and kidneys. These results indicate that zebrafish are susceptible to infection by SVCV under conditions that mimic a natural route of exposure.

  5. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) exacerbates cisplatin-induced sensory hair cell death in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Uribe, Phillip M; Mueller, Melissa A; Gleichman, Julia S; Kramer, Matthew D; Wang, Qi; Sibrian-Vazquez, Martha; Strongin, Robert M; Steyger, Peter S; Cotanche, Douglas A; Matsui, Jonathan I

    2013-01-01

    Inner ear sensory hair cells die following exposure to aminoglycoside antibiotics or chemotherapeutics like cisplatin, leading to permanent auditory and/or balance deficits in humans. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are used to study drug-induced sensory hair cell death since their hair cells are similar in structure and function to those found in humans. We developed a cisplatin dose-response curve using a transgenic line of zebrafish that expresses membrane-targeted green fluorescent protein under the control of the Brn3c promoter/enhancer. Recently, several small molecule screens have been conducted using zebrafish to identify potential pharmacological agents that could be used to protect sensory hair cells in the presence of ototoxic drugs. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is typically used as a solvent for many pharmacological agents in sensory hair cell cytotoxicity assays. Serendipitously, we found that DMSO potentiated the effects of cisplatin and killed more sensory hair cells than treatment with cisplatin alone. Yet, DMSO alone did not kill hair cells. We did not observe the synergistic effects of DMSO with the ototoxic aminoglycoside antibiotic neomycin. Cisplatin treatment with other commonly used organic solvents (i.e. ethanol, methanol, and polyethylene glycol 400) also did not result in increased cell death compared to cisplatin treatment alone. Thus, caution should be exercised when interpreting data generated from small molecule screens since many compounds are dissolved in DMSO.

  6. Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) Exacerbates Cisplatin-induced Sensory Hair Cell Death in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Gleichman, Julia S.; Kramer, Matthew D.; Wang, Qi; Sibrian-Vazquez, Martha; Strongin, Robert M.; Steyger, Peter S.; Cotanche, Douglas A.; Matsui, Jonathan I.

    2013-01-01

    Inner ear sensory hair cells die following exposure to aminoglycoside antibiotics or chemotherapeutics like cisplatin, leading to permanent auditory and/or balance deficits in humans. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are used to study drug-induced sensory hair cell death since their hair cells are similar in structure and function to those found in humans. We developed a cisplatin dose-response curve using a transgenic line of zebrafish that expresses membrane-targeted green fluorescent protein under the control of the Brn3c promoter/enhancer. Recently, several small molecule screens have been conducted using zebrafish to identify potential pharmacological agents that could be used to protect sensory hair cells in the presence of ototoxic drugs. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is typically used as a solvent for many pharmacological agents in sensory hair cell cytotoxicity assays. Serendipitously, we found that DMSO potentiated the effects of cisplatin and killed more sensory hair cells than treatment with cisplatin alone. Yet, DMSO alone did not kill hair cells. We did not observe the synergistic effects of DMSO with the ototoxic aminoglycoside antibiotic neomycin. Cisplatin treatment with other commonly used organic solvents (i.e. ethanol, methanol, and polyethylene glycol 400) also did not result in increased cell death compared to cisplatin treatment alone. Thus, caution should be exercised when interpreting data generated from small molecule screens since many compounds are dissolved in DMSO. PMID:23383324

  7. Embryotoxicity and genotoxicity evaluation of sediments from Yangtze River estuary using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Chen, Ling; Liu, Li; Wu, Lingling

    2016-03-01

    Sediments function both as a sink and a source of pollutants in aquatic ecosystems and may impose serious effects on benthic organisms and human health. As one of the largest estuaries in the world, the Yangtze River estuary suffers from abundant wastewater from the coastal cities. In this study, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were employed in the fish embryo test and a comet assay to evaluate the embryotoxicity and genotoxicity of the sediments from the Yangtze River estuary, respectively. Results showed that the sediments from the Yangtze River estuary significantly increased mortality, induced development abnormalities, and reduced hatching rate and heart rate of zebrafish embryos after 96 h of exposure. Significant genotoxicity was observed in the samples relative to the controls. Relatively low-level embryotoxicity and genotoxicity of sediments were found in the Yangtze River compared with other river systems. Toxic responses were also discussed in relation to the analyzed organic contaminants in sediments. More attention should be paid to non-priority pollutant monitoring in the Yangtze River estuary.

  8. Effect of rearing temperatures during embryonic development on the phenotypic sex in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Abozaid, H; Wessels, S; Hörstgen-Schwark, G

    2011-01-01

    In zebrafish, Danio rerio, a polygenic pattern of sex determination or a female heterogamety with possible influences of environmental factors is assumed. The present study focuses on the effects of an elevated water temperature (35° C) during the embryonic development on sex determination in zebrafish. Eggs derived from 3 golden females were fertilized by the same mitotic gynogenetic male and exposed to a water temperature of 35° C, applied from 5 to 10 h post fertilization (hpf), from 5 to 24 hpf, and from 5 to 48 hpf, which correspond to the following developmental stages: gastrula, gastrula to segmentation, and gastrula to pharyngula stage, respectively. Hatching and survival rates decreased with increasing exposure to high water temperatures. Reductions in the hatching and survival rates were not responsible for differences in sex ratios. Accordingly, exposition of the fertilized eggs to a high temperature (35° C) leads to an increase of the male proportion from 22.0% in the controls to a balanced sex ratio (48.3, 47.5, and 52.6%) in the gastrula, segmentation, and pharyngula groups, respectively. These results prove the possibility to change the pathway of sexual determination during early embryonic stages in zebrafish by exposure to a high water temperature. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Cadmium accumulation in zebrafish (Danio rerio) eggs is modulated by dissolved organic matter (DOM).

    PubMed

    Burnison, B Kent; Meinelt, Thomas; Playle, Richard; Pietrock, Michael; Wienke, Andreas; Steinberg, Christian E W

    2006-08-23

    Experiments were conducted to investigate factors influencing the accumulation of cadmium (Cd(2+)) into zebrafish (Danio rerio) eggs. The accumulation of (109)Cd was affected by: (1) concentration, (2) time, (3) presence of dissolved organic material (DOM), (4) different origin of DOM and (5) different parts of fish eggs. Over a 5-h exposure, zebrafish eggs showed a steady increase in Cd-accumulation. DOM-concentrations over 15ppm carbon (C) decreased Cd-uptake significantly. Both samples of DOM, brown water marsh (LM) and a eutrophic pond (SP), at 16.9ppmC, reduced the Cd-accumulation in the chorion, perivitelline liquid and the embryo. Cd was mainly accumulated in the egg's outer shell chorion (61%) and only small amounts passed through the chorion into the perivitelline liquid (38%) and embryo (1%). In the presence of LM-DOM, the accumulation of Cd into the egg components was decreased by 43% (chorion), 52% (perivitelline liquid) and 52% (embryo), respectively, compared with the control group. Similarly, the presence of SP-DOM reduced the Cd-accumulation by 29% (chorion), 61% (perivitelline liquid) and 60% (embryo), respectively, compared with the controls. DOM-concentration should be taken into consideration when determining ecotoxicological effects of Cd on fish populations.

  10. Combined toxicity of silica nanoparticles and methylmercury on cardiovascular system in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos.

    PubMed

    Duan, Junchao; Hu, Hejing; Li, Qiuling; Jiang, Lizhen; Zou, Yang; Wang, Yapei; Sun, Zhiwei

    2016-06-01

    This study was to investigate the combined toxicity of silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) and methylmercury (MeHg) on cardiovascular system in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. Ultraviolet absorption analysis showed that the co-exposure system had high absorption and stability. The dosages used in this study were based on the NOAEL level. Zebrafish embryos exposed to the co-exposure of SiNPs and MeHg did not show any cardiovascular malformation or atrioventricular block, but had an inhibition effect on bradycardia. Using o-Dianisidine for erythrocyte staining, the cardiac output of zebrafish embryos was decreased gradually in SiNPs, MeHg, co-exposure groups, respectively. Co-exposure of SiNPs and MeHg enhanced the vascular endothelial damage in Tg(fli-1:EGFP) transgenic zebrafish line. Moreover, the co-exposure significantly activated the oxidative stress and inflammatory response in neutrophils-specific Tg(mpo:GFP) transgenic zebrafish line. This study suggested that the combined toxic effects of SiNPs and MeHg on cardiovascular system had more severe toxicity than the single exposure alone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of gamma radiation on the early developmental stages of Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Praveen Kumar, M K; Shyama, S K; Kashif, Shamim; Dubey, S K; Avelyno, D'costa; Sonaye, B H; Kadam Samit, B; Chaubey, R C

    2017-08-01

    The zebrafish is gaining importance as a popular vertebrate model organism and is widely employed in ecotoxicological studies, especially for the biomonitoring of pollution in water bodies. There is limited data on the genetic mechanisms governing the adverse health effects in regards to an early developmental exposure to gamma radiation. In the present study zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to 1, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10Gy of gamma radiation at 3h post fertilization (hpf). Different developmental toxicity endpoints were investigated. Further, expression of genes associated with the development and DNA damage i.e. (sox2 sox19a and p53) were evaluated using Quantitative PCR (qPCR). The significant changes in the expression of sox2 sox19a and p53 genes were observed. This data was supported the developmental defects observed in the zebrafish embryo exposed to gamma radiation such as i.e. increased DNA damage, decreased hatching rate, increase in median hatching time, decreased body length, increased mortality rate, increased morphological deformities. Further, study shows that the potential ecotoxicological threat of gamma radiation on the early developmental stages of zebrafish. Further, it revealed that the above parameters can be used as predictive biomarkers of gamma radiation exposure. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Ultracytochemical visualization of calcium distribution in heart cells and erythrocytes of zebrafish Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Niksirat, Hamid; Steinbach, Christoph

    2018-05-24

    Detection of patterns of subcellular calcium distribution in the cardiovascular system can contribute to understanding its role in cardiac and blood function. The present study localized calcium in heart atrium, ventricle, and bulbus arteriosus as well as in erythrocytes of zebrafish Danio rerio using an oxalate-pyroantimonate technique combined with transmission electron microscopy. Intracellular calcium stores were detected in caveolae, mitochondria, and the nuclei of several zebrafish cardiac cell types. Melanin pigmentation containing calcium stores was detected in the pericardial cavity. Melanin might be an extracellular source of calcium for heart beating and/or a lubricant to prevent friction during beating process. Calcium deposits were also detected in the plasma membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus of erythrocytes as well as in blood plasma. Possible exchange of calcium between erythrocytes and blood plasma was observed. Interactions of such calcium stores and possible contribution of extracellular calcium stores such as melanin pigmentation to supply calcium for vital functions of heart cells should be addressed in future studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Food and conspecific chemical cues modify visual behavior of zebrafish, Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Jessica F; Partridge, Julian C; Whitlock, Kathleen E

    2012-06-01

    Animals use the different qualities of olfactory and visual sensory information to make decisions. Ethological and electrophysiological evidence suggests that there is cross-modal priming between these sensory systems in fish. We present the first experimental study showing that ecologically relevant chemical mixtures alter visual behavior, using adult male and female zebrafish, Danio rerio. Neutral-density filters were used to attenuate the light reaching the tank to an initial light intensity of 2.3×10(16) photons/s/m2. Fish were exposed to food cue and to alarm cue. The light intensity was then increased by the removal of one layer of filter (nominal absorbance 0.3) every minute until, after 10 minutes, the light level was 15.5×10(16) photons/s/m2. Adult male and female zebrafish responded to a moving visual stimulus at lower light levels if they had been first exposed to food cue, or to conspecific alarm cue. These results suggest the need for more integrative studies of sensory biology.

  14. Exposure of juvenile Danio rerio to aged TiO₂ nanomaterial from sunscreen.

    PubMed

    Fouqueray, Manuela; Noury, Patrice; Dherret, Lysiane; Chaurand, Perrine; Abbaci, Khedidja; Labille, Jerome; Rose, Jerome; Garric, Jeanne

    2013-05-01

    The toxicity of dietary exposure to artificially aged TiO₂ nanomaterial (T-Lite) used in sunscreen cream was studied on Danio rerio. Embryolarval assays were conducted to assess the effects of TiO₂ residues of nanomaterial (RNM) on fish early life stages. Juvenile fishes were exposed by the trophic route in two experiments. During the first experiment, juvenile fishes were exposed to TiO₂ RNM for 14 days by adding RNM to commercial fish food. The second one consisted in producing a trophic food chain. Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata algae, previously contaminated with TiO₂ RNM in growth medium, was used to feed Daphnia magna neonates over a 48-h period. Daphnia were used next to feed juvenile fishes for 7 days. Accumulation of Ti, life traits (survival and growth) and biochemical parameters such as energy reserves, digestive (trypsin, esterase, cellulose and amylase) and antioxidant (superoxide dismutase and catalase) enzyme activity were measured at the end of exposures. As expected in the receiving aquatic system, TiO2 RNM at low concentrations caused a low impact on juvenile zebrafish. A slight impact on the early life stage of zebrafish with premature hatching was observed, and this effect appeared mainly indirect, due to possible embryo hypoxia. When juvenile fish are exposed to contaminated food, digestive enzyme activity indicated a negative effect of TiO₂ RNM. Digestive physiology was altered after 14 days of exposure and seemed to be an indirect target of TiO₂ RNM when provided by food.

  15. Husbandry stress exacerbates mycobacterial infections in adult zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton)

    Ramsay, J.M.; Watral, Virginia G.; Schreck, C.B.; Kent, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacteria are significant pathogens of laboratory zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton). Stress is often implicated in clinical disease and morbidity associated with mycobacterial infections but has yet to be examined with zebrafish. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of husbandry stressors on zebrafish infected with mycobacteria. Adult zebrafish were exposed to Mycobacterium marinum or Mycobacterium chelonae, two species that have been associated with disease in zebrafish. Infected fish and controls were then subjected to chronic crowding and handling stressors and examined over an 8-week period. Whole-body cortisol was significantly elevated in stressed fish compared to non-stressed fish. Fish infected with M. marinum ATCC 927 and subjected to husbandry stressors had 14% cumulative mortality while no mortality occurred among infected fish not subjected to husbandry stressors. Stressed fish, infected with M. chelonae H1E2 from zebrafish, were 15-fold more likely to be infected than non-stressed fish at week 8 post-injection. Sub-acute, diffuse infections were more common among stressed fish infected with M. marinum or M. chelonae than non-stressed fish. This is the first study to demonstrate an effect of stress and elevated cortisol on the morbidity, prevalence, clinical disease and histological presentation associated with mycobacterial infections in zebrafish. Minimizing husbandry stress may be effective at reducing the severity of outbreaks of clinical mycobacteriosis in zebrafish facilities. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Efficacy of Cleaning and Disinfection Procedures in a Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Facility

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Rachel L; Sanders, George E

    2011-01-01

    Appropriate cleaning and disinfection procedures in zebrafish (Danio rerio) laboratories are crucial in preventing the spread of aquatic animal pathogens and minimizing the build-up of waste products and biologic matter. The procedures selected should accomplish these goals and incorporate the individual needs of various laboratories. In this study of a single zebrafish facility, we assessed the efficacy of 2 different cleaning and disinfection procedures for nets, tanks, and lids. ATP levels were used as a surrogate biomarker for microbial burden. We measured the number of relative light units (RLU), as an expression of the amount of ATP present, on items before and after disinfection and calculated the percentage reduction. We compared daily replacement of a commercial net disinfection product in J lab with weekly replacement in H lab and found a 96.6% reduction in RLU in H lab and a 91.2% reduction in J lab. These results indicate that either replacement schedule is effective. Evaluation of tanks and lids soaked in a bleach disinfection bath for 30 or 60 min revealed a 99.7% reduction in RLU at 30 min compared with 97.1% at 60 min. Therefore a 30-min soak in a bleach bath achieved a similar level of disinfection as did a 60-min soak. The current results demonstrate that these cleaning and disinfection methods are efficacious. PMID:22330783

  17. Efficacy of cleaning and disinfection procedures in a zebrafish (Danio rerio) facility.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Rachel L; Sanders, George E

    2011-11-01

    Appropriate cleaning and disinfection procedures in zebrafish (Danio rerio) laboratories are crucial in preventing the spread of aquatic animal pathogens and minimizing the build-up of waste products and biologic matter. The procedures selected should accomplish these goals and incorporate the individual needs of various laboratories. In this study of a single zebrafish facility, we assessed the efficacy of 2 different cleaning and disinfection procedures for nets, tanks, and lids. ATP levels were used as a surrogate biomarker for microbial burden. We measured the number of relative light units (RLU), as an expression of the amount of ATP present, on items before and after disinfection and calculated the percentage reduction. We compared daily replacement of a commercial net disinfection product in J lab with weekly replacement in H lab and found a 96.6% reduction in RLU in H lab and a 91.2% reduction in J lab. These results indicate that either replacement schedule is effective. Evaluation of tanks and lids soaked in a bleach disinfection bath for 30 or 60 min revealed a 99.7% reduction in RLU at 30 min compared with 97.1% at 60 min. Therefore a 30-min soak in a bleach bath achieved a similar level of disinfection as did a 60-min soak. The current results demonstrate that these cleaning and disinfection methods are efficacious.

  18. Genotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by the fungicide azoxystrobin in zebrafish (Danio rerio) livers.

    PubMed

    Han, Yingnan; Liu, Tong; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Cheng; Zhu, Lusheng

    2016-10-01

    Azoxystrobin is a frequently used fungicide in agriculture. Its toxicological effects on non-target organisms have aroused attention. In the present work, the toxic effects of azoxystrobin on zebrafish (Danio rerio) were investigated. Male and female zebrafish were separately exposed to a control solution and three azoxystrobin treatments (1, 10, and 100μg/L) and were sampled on days 7, 14, 21, and 28. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were accumulated in excess in the zebrafish livers. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was significantly inhibited in the male zebrafish. Moreover, a notable decrease was also observed after day 21 in the female zebrafish. Catalase (CAT) activity was induced by the azoxystrobin treatments with the exception of the 1μg/L treatment. A significant increase in glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity was observed after day 21. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) was generated, and DNA damage was enhanced in a concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, azoxystrobin induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity in zebrafish livers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Modulation of antioxidant defense and immune response in zebra fish (Danio rerio) using dietary sodium propionate.

    PubMed

    Safari, Roghieh; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Kavandi, Morteza

    2016-12-01

    The present study explores the effect of dietary sodium propionate on mucosal immune response and expression of antioxidant enzyme genes in zebra fish (Danio rerio). Six hundred healthy zebra fish (0.42 ± 0.06 g) supplied, randomly stocked in 12 aquariums and fed on basal diets supplemented with different levels of sodium propionate [0 (control), 5, 10 and 20 g kg -1 ] for 8 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, mucosal immune parameters (TNF-α, IL-1β, Lyz), antioxidant enzyme (SOD, CAT) as well as heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) gene expression were measured. The results revealed feeding on sodium propionate significantly up-regulated inflammatory response genes (TNF-α, IL-1β, Lyz) in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). However, antioxidant enzyme genes significantly down-regulated in the treated group compared with control (P < 0.05). Also, HSP70 gene expression was higher in the liver of fish fed the basal diet and deceased with elevation of sodium propionate levels in the diet. These results showed beneficial effects of dietary sodium propionate on mucosal immune response as well as the antioxidant defense of zebra fish.

  20. Effect of tributyltin on antioxidant ability and immune responses of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun-Nuan; Zhang, Ji-Liang; Ren, Hong-Tao; Zhou, Bian-Hua; Wu, Qiu-Jue; Sun, Ping

    2017-04-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is a toxic compound released into aquatic ecosystems through antifouling paints. This study was designed to examine the effects of TBT on antioxidant ability and immune responses of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Three hundred sixty healthy zebrafish were randomly grouped into four groups and exposed to different doses of TBT (0, 1, 10 and 100ngL -1 ). At the end of 8 weeks, the fish were sampled, and antioxidant capability, immune parameters and immune-related genes were assessed. The results showed that with an increase in TBT dose, the concentration of malonaldehyde in the liver was significantly increased (p<0.05), whereas the activities of total superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were significantly decreased (p<0.05) compared to the control. The activity and expression of lysozyme and the content of immunoglobulin M were significantly decreased compared to those of the fish exposed to 0ngL -1 TBT (p<0.05). However, the expression of the HSP70, HSP90, tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukins (IL-1β, IL-6), and nuclear factor-kappa B p65 (NF-κ B p65) genes were all enhanced with an increase in TBT dose. The results indicated that TBT induced oxidative stress and had immunotoxic effects on zebrafish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Tributyltin promoted hepatic steatosis in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and the molecular pathogenesis involved.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiliang; Sun, Ping; Kong, Tao; Yang, Fan; Guan, Wenchao

    2016-01-01

    Endocrine disruptor effects of tributyltin (TBT) are well established in fish. However, the adverse effects on lipid metabolism are less well understood. Since the liver is the predominant site of de novo synthesis of lipids, the present study uses zebrafish (Danio rerio) to examine lipid accumulation in the livers and hepatic gene expression associated with lipid metabolism pathways. After exposure for 90 days, we found that the livers in fish exposed to TBT were yellowish in appearance and with accumulation of lipid droplet, which is consistent with the specific pathological features of steatosis. Molecular analysis revealed that TBT induced hepatic steatosis by increasing the gene expression associated with lipid transport, lipid storage, lipiogenic enzymes and lipiogenic factors in the livers. Moreover, TBT enhanced hepatic caspase-3 activity and up-regulated genes related to apoptosis and cell-death, which indicated steatotic livers of fish exposed to TBT and the subsequent liver damage were likely due to accelerated hepatocyte apoptosis or cell stress. In short, TBT can produce multiple and complex alterations in transcriptional activity of lipid metabolism and cell damage, which provides potential molecular evidence of TBT on hepatic steatosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cloning and expression of a cDNA coding for catalase from zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Ken, C F; Lin, C T; Wu, J L; Shaw, J F

    2000-06-01

    A full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) clone encoding a catalase was amplified by the rapid amplication of cDNA ends-polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR) technique from zebrafish (Danio rerio) mRNA. Nucleotide sequence analysis of this cDNA clone revealed that it comprised a complete open reading frame coding for 526 amino acid residues and that it had a molecular mass of 59 654 Da. The deduced amino acid sequence showed high similarity with the sequences of catalase from swine (86.9%), mouse (85.8%), rat (85%), human (83.7%), fruit fly (75.6%), nematode (71.1%), and yeast (58.6%). The amino acid residues for secondary structures are apparently conserved as they are present in other mammal species. Furthermore, the coding region of zebrafish catalase was introduced into an expression vector, pET-20b(+), and transformed into Escherichia coli expression host BL21(DE3)pLysS. A 60-kDa active catalase protein was expressed and detected by Coomassie blue staining as well as activity staining on polyacrylamide gel followed electrophoresis.

  3. The Effect of Water Hardness on Mortality of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) During Exposure to Oxytetracycline.

    PubMed

    Hundt, Matthias; Schreiber, Benjamin; Eckmann, Reiner; Lunestad, Bjørn Tore; Wünneman, Hannah; Schulz, Ralf

    2016-02-01

    Marking of fish otoliths with oxytetracycline and tetracycline is a widely used method to evaluate the effectiveness of stocking operations. Available protocols for the labeling of fish specify a number of factors influencing mark quality and potential risk for fish during marking. This study investigates the influence of water hardness on mortality of freshwater fish during marking with OTC. In order to pursue this question complexation of OTC with Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) cations was measured spectrophotometrically. Furthermore, zebrafish (Danio rerio) were immersed in OTC solutions (1200 mg/L; 48 h immersion) combined with varying levels of water hardness (5.5, 15.5, 25.5, 32.5°dH). The amount of OTC-Mg-Ca-complexes was positively correlated to water hardness. Moreover, it could be demonstrated that mortality of zebrafish during marking varied as a factor of water hardness. Highest mortalities occurred at the lowest (5.5°dH) and the highest (32.5°dH) tested levels during marking with OTC.

  4. Distinct structure and activity of monoamine oxidase in the brain of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Anichtchik, Oleg; Sallinen, Ville; Peitsaro, Nina; Panula, Pertti

    2006-10-10

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) is a mitochondrial flavoprotein involved in the metabolism of, e.g., aminergic neurotransmitters and the parkinsonism-inducing neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). We have reported earlier MPTP-related alterations of brain catecholaminergic system in zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain. Here we describe the structural and functional properties of zebrafish MAO and the distribution of MAO mRNA and activity in zebrafish brain. The gene is located in chromosome 9 and consists of 15 exons. The amino acid composition of the active center resembles both human MAO-A and MAO-B. The enzyme displayed the highest substrate specificity for tyramine, followed by serotonin, phenylethylamine, MPTP, and dopamine; isoform-specific antagonists blocked the activity of the enzyme with equal potency. Zebrafish MAO mRNA, which was present in several tissues, and enzyme displayed differential distribution in the brain; dopaminergic cell clusters had low to moderate levels of MAO activity, whereas the highest levels of MAO activity were detected in noradrenergic and serotonergic cell groups and the habenulointerpeduncular pathway, including its caudal projection to the medial ventral rhombencephalon. The results of this study confirm the presence of functionally active MAO in zebrafish brain and other tissues and characterize the neural systems that express MAO and areas of intense activity in the brain. They also suggest that MPTP toxicity not related to MAO may affect the zebrafish brain.

  5. Estrogenic effect of the phytoestrogen biochanin A in zebrafish, Danio rerio, and brown trout, Salmo trutta.

    PubMed

    Holbech, Henrik; Schröder, Kristoffer D; Nielsen, Marie L; Brande-Lavridsen, Nanna; Holbech, Bente Frost; Bjerregaard, Poul

    2013-11-15

    Isoflavones with estrogenic activity produced in Fabaceae plants are known to leach from agricultural areas to freshwater systems, but the effect of waterborne isoflavones in fish has not been thoroughly characterized. Therefore, the estrogenic effect of waterborne biochanin A was investigated in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta). Exposure of juvenile brown trout to 10 μg biochanin AL(-1) or higher caused marked vitellogenin induction after 9-10 days of exposure and so did exposure to 186 μg biochanin AL(-1) for 6h. Following 8d of exposure, a NOEC for induction of vitellogenin production in male zebrafish was 70 and LOEC 114 μg biochanin AL(-1). Exposure to 209 μg biochanin AL(-1) from hatch to 60 days post hatch (dph) caused a skewing of the sex ratio toward more phenotypic female zebrafish, but did not cause induction of vitellogenin in male and undifferentiated fish. (1) biochanin A elicits estrogenic effects in trout at environmentally realistic concentrations, (2) brown trout plasma vitellogenin concentrations respond to lower biochanin A exposure concentrations than vitellogenin concentrations in zebrafish homogenates and (3) concerning vitellogenin induction, the hypothesis should be tested if short term tests with zebrafish may show a higher sensitivity than partial life cycle tests. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Functional behavior and reproduction in androgenic sex reversed zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Larsen, Mia G; Baatrup, Erik

    2010-08-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals released into natural watercourses may cause biased sex ratios by sex reversal in fish populations. The present study investigated the androgenic sex reversal of zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to the androgenic compound 17beta-trenbolone (TB) and whether sex-changed females would revert to the female phenotype after cessation of TB exposure. 17beta-Trenbolone is a metabolite of trenbolone acetate, an anabolic steroid used as a growth promoter in beef cattle. 17beta-Trenbolone in runoff from cattle feedlots may reach concentrations that affect fish sexual development. Zebrafish were exposed to a concentration of 20 ng/L TB in a flow-through system for five months from egg until sexual maturity. This resulted in an all-male population. It was further found that all these phenotypic males displayed normal male courtship behavior and were able to reproduce successfully, implying that the sex reversal was complete and functional. None of the phenotypic males developed into females after six months in clean water, demonstrating that androgenic sex reversal of zebrafish is irreversible. Copyright 2010 SETAC

  7. In Vivo Determination of Body Composition in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) by Quantitative Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, L. Adele; Dennis, Lacey N.; Barry, R. Jeff; Powell, Mickie L.; Watts, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model research organism continues to expand its relevance and role in multiple research disciplines, with recent work directed toward models of metabolism, nutrition, and energetics. Multiple technologies exist to assess body composition in animal research models at various levels of detail (tissues/organs, body regions, and whole organism). The development and/or validation of body composition assessment tools can open new areas of research questions for a given organism. Using fish from a comparative nutrition study, quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) assessment of whole body fat and fat-free mass (FFM) in live fish was performed. QMR measures from two cohorts (n = 26 and n = 27) were compared with chemical carcass analysis (CCA) of FM and FFM. QMR was significantly correlated with chemical carcass values (fat, p < 0.001; lean, p = 0.002), although QMR significantly overestimated fat mass (FM) (0.011 g; p < 0.0001) and underestimated FFM (−0.024 g; p < 0.0001) relative to CCA. In a separate cross-validation group of fish, prediction equations corrected carcass values for FM (p = 0.121) and FFM (p = 0.753). These results support the utilization of QMR—a nonlethal nondestructive method—for cross-sectional or longitudinal body composition assessment outcomes in zebrafish. PMID:26974510

  8. Proteomic Signatures of the Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryo: Sensitivity and Specificity in Toxicity Assessment of Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Hanisch, Karen; Küster, Eberhard; Altenburger, Rolf; Gündel, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Studies using embryos of the zebrafish Danio rerio (DarT) instead of adult fish for characterising the (eco-) toxic potential of chemicals have been proposed as animal replacing methods. Effect analysis at the molecular level might enhance sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of the embryonal studies. The present paper aimed to test the potential of toxicoproteomics with zebrafish eleutheroembryos for sensitive and specific toxicity assessment. 2-DE-based toxicoproteomics was performed applying low-dose (EC(10)) exposure for 48 h with three-model substances Rotenone, 4,6-dinitro-o-cresol (DNOC) and Diclofenac. By multivariate "pattern-only" PCA and univariate statistical analyses, alterations in the embryonal proteome were detectable in nonetheless visibly intact organisms and treatment with the three substances was distinguishable at the molecular level. Toxicoproteomics enabled the enhancement of sensitivity and specificity of the embryonal toxicity assay and bear the potency to identify protein markers serving as general stress markers and early diagnosis of toxic stress.

  9. A Retrospective Study of the Prevalence and Classification of Intestinal Neoplasia in Zebrafish (Danio Rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Paquette, Colleen E.; Buchner, Cari; Tanguay, Robert L.; Guillemin, Karen; Mason, Timothy J.; Peterson, Tracy S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract For over a decade, spontaneous intestinal neoplasia has been observed in zebrafish (Danio rerio) submitted to the ZIRC (Zebrafish International Resource Center) diagnostic service. In addition, zebrafish displayed preneoplastic intestinal changes including hyperplasia, dysplasia, and enteritis. A total of 195 zebrafish, representing 2% of the total fish submitted to the service, were diagnosed with these lesions. Neoplastic changes were classified either as adenocarcinoma or small cell carcinoma, with a few exceptions (carcinoma not otherwise specified, tubular adenoma, and tubulovillous adenoma). Tumor prevalence appeared similarly distributed between sexes and generally occurred in zebrafish greater than 1 year of age, although neoplastic changes were observed in fish 6 months of age. Eleven lines displayed these preneoplastic and neoplastic changes, including wild-types and mutants. Affected zebrafish originated from 18 facilities, but the majority of fish were from a single zebrafish research facility (hereafter referred to as the primary facility) that has submitted numerous samples to the ZIRC diagnostic service. Zebrafish from the primary facility submitted as normal sentinel fish demonstrate that these lesions are most often subclinical. Fish fed the diet from the primary facility and held at another location did not develop intestinal lesions, indicating that diet is not the etiologic agent. PMID:23544991

  10. Behavioral and biochemical adjustments of the zebrafish Danio rerio exposed to the β-blocker propranolol.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Kimberly M; Moon, Thomas W

    2016-09-01

    Propranolol (PROP) is a β-blocker prescribed mainly to treat human cardiovascular diseases and as a result of its wide usage and persistence, it is reported in aquatic environments. This study examined whether PROP alters developmental patterns and catecholamine (CA)-regulated processes in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) and if exposure during early life alters the stress response and behaviors of adults. The calculated 48h larva LC50 was 21.6mg/L, well above reported environmental levels (0.01-0.59μg/L). Stressed and PROP-exposed adult zebrafish had reduced testosterone and estradiol levels and exhibited behaviors indicating less anxiety than control fish. Furthermore, adults previously PROP-exposed as embryos/larvae had decreased growth in terms of body length and mass. Finally, these adults showed increased cholesterol and a dose-dependent decrease in testosterone levels compared with unexposed zebrafish. Thus PROP-exposure of zebrafish embryos/larvae alters developmental patterns and CA-regulated processes that may affect normal behaviors and responses to stressors, and at least some of these changes persist in the adult zebrafish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The effects of carbaryl on the development of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos.

    PubMed

    Schock, Elizabeth N; Ford, Windsor C; Midgley, Kirsten J; Fader, Joseph G; Giavasis, Michael N; McWhorter, Michelle L

    2012-12-01

    In the United States, Sevin(™) brand insecticide is one of the most commonly used insecticides. The active ingredient in Sevin(™), carbaryl (1-napthyl-N-methylcarbamate), is a known acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor that prevents the breakdown of acetylcholine to acetate and choline at the synapse. While carbaryl successfully causes the death of insects by paralysis, it has also been shown to have negative effects on the development of several nontarget species. To study the effects of carbaryl on nontarget species, zebrafish (Danio rerio) were used, as they are a good model for both toxicology and development studies. Our study suggests that carbaryl induces changes in morphology, specifically in embryo size and shape. Additionally, carbaryl causes defects in heart formation that is characterized by a decrease in heart rate and a developmental delay/defect in cardiac looping. A significant decrease in the number of spinal cord neurons present was also observed. Further investigation showed that there was an increase in cell death in carbaryl-treated embryos. The results indicate that carbaryl may have a greater environmental impact than initially intended. Our study, which was conducted solely by undergraduates at a liberal arts college, indicates that carbaryl may be detrimental to the development of nontarget species.

  12. Tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate affects motor behavior and axonal growth in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fan; Liu, Jue; Zeng, Xinyue; Yu, Liqin; Liu, Chunsheng; Wang, Jianghua

    2018-05-01

    Tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) is an environmental contaminant that poses serious risks to aquatic organisms and their associated ecosystem. Recently, the reproductive and developmental toxicology of TBOEP has been reported. However, fewer studies have assessed the neurotoxic effects in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. In this study, zebrafish embryos were subjected to waterborne exposure of TBOEP at 0, 50, 500, 1500 and 2500 μg/L from 2 to 144-h post-fertilization (hpf). Behavioral measurements showed that TBOEP exposure reduced embryonic spontaneous movement and decreased swimming speed of larvae in response to dark stimulation. In accordance with these motor effects, TBOEP treatment reduced neuron-specific GFP expression in transgenic Tg (HuC-GFP) zebrafish larvae and inhibited the growth of secondary motoneurons, as well as decreased expression of marker genes related to central nervous system development in TBOEP treated group. Furthermore, increased concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as reduction of SOD activity were detected in TBOEP exposure group. The present results showed that the alteration in motor neuron and oxidative stress could together lead to the motor behavior alterations induced by TBOEP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of glyphosate and its formulation, roundup, on reproduction in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Uren Webster, Tamsyn M; Laing, Lauren V; Florance, Hannah; Santos, Eduarda M

    2014-01-21

    Roundup and its active ingredient glyphosate are among the most widely used herbicides worldwide and may contaminate surface waters. Research suggests both Roundup and glyphosate induce oxidative stress in fish and may also cause reproductive toxicity in mammalian systems. We aimed to investigate the reproductive effects of Roundup and glyphosate in fish and the potential associated mechanisms of toxicity. To do this, we conducted a 21-day exposure of breeding zebrafish (Danio rerio) to 0.01, 0.5, and 10 mg/L (glyphosate acid equivalent) Roundup and 10 mg/L glyphosate. 10 mg/L glyphosate reduced egg production but not fertilization rate in breeding colonies. Both 10 mg/L Roundup and glyphosate increased early stage embryo mortalities and premature hatching. However, exposure during embryogenesis alone did not increase embryo mortality, suggesting that this effect was caused primarily by exposure during gametogenesis. Transcript profiling of the gonads revealed 10 mg/L Roundup and glyphosate induced changes in the expression of cyp19a1 and esr1 in the ovary and hsd3b2, cat, and sod1 in the testis. Our results demonstrate that these chemicals cause reproductive toxicity in zebrafish, although only at high concentrations unlikely to occur in the environment, and likely mechanisms of toxicity include disruption of the steroidogenic biosynthesis pathway and oxidative stress.

  14. Embryotoxicity of nitrophenols to the early life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Ceylan, Zeynep; Şişman, Turgay; Yazıcı, Zehra; Altıkat, Aysun Özen

    2016-08-01

    The nitrophenols (NPs) are water-soluble compounds. These compounds pose a significant health threat since they are priority environmental pollutants. In this study, 2-Nitrophenol (2NP) and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) were examined for embryo and early life stage toxicity in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Acute toxicity and teratogenicity of 2NP and DNP were tested for 4 days using zebrafish embryos. The typical lesions observed were no somite formation, incomplete eye and head development, tail curvature, weak pigmentation (≤48 hours postfertilization (hpf)), kyphosis, scoliosis, yolk sac deformity, and nonpigmentation (72 hpf). Also, embryo and larval mortality increased and hatching success decreased. The severity of abnormalities and mortalities were concentration- and compound-dependent. Of the compounds tested, 2,4-DNP was found to be highly toxic to the fish embryos following exposure. The median lethal concentrations and median effective concentrations for 2NP are 18.7 mg/L and 7.9 mg/L, respectively; the corresponding values for DNP are 9.65 mg/L and 3.05 mg/L for 48 h. The chorda deformity was the most sensitive endpoint measured. It is suggested that the embryotoxicity may be mediated by an oxidative phosphorylation uncoupling mechanism. This article is the first to describe the teratogenicity and embryotoxicity of two NPs to the early life stages of zebrafish. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Ameliorative efficacy of bioencapsulated Chironomous larvae with Shilajit on Zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to Ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Musthafa, M Saiyad; Athaullah, A; Anbumani, S; Ali, A Jawahar; War, Mehrajuddin; Paray, Bilal Ahmad; Al-Sadoon, Mohammad K; Muthiah, S S; Kembeeram, Palani; Harikrishnan, R

    2017-10-01

    Using Zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model organism, we evaluated the radioprotective and antioxidant effects of the Indian traditional medicine Shilajit exposed to X-Ray. The Zebrafish were divided into three experimental groups and control group, each group containing ten fish. The three experimental fish groups, group I, group II and group III were fed with 3, 5 and 7ppm shilajit encapsulated Chironomous larvae and group IV served as a control fed with non- encapsulated larvae. After 60 days of feeding trial, fish were irradiated with X-Ray at a single acute dose of 1Gy. 72h of post-irradiation, each experimental fish were observed for its morphological, behavioral, clinical symptoms, antioxidant levels and DNA damage were evaluated. Among the experimental groups 5ppm shilajit encapsulated Chironomous larvae fed fish group shows the most significant radioprotective effects compared with control and other experimental fish groups. The present study indicates that shilajit have significant radioprotective and antioxidant enhancing capability. The humus substance of shilajit may be the factor responsible to react with radiation-derived or radiation related reactive species on zebrafish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Proteomic Signatures of the Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryo: Sensitivity and Specificity in Toxicity Assessment of Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Hanisch, Karen; Küster, Eberhard; Altenburger, Rolf; Gündel, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Studies using embryos of the zebrafish Danio rerio (DarT) instead of adult fish for characterising the (eco-) toxic potential of chemicals have been proposed as animal replacing methods. Effect analysis at the molecular level might enhance sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of the embryonal studies. The present paper aimed to test the potential of toxicoproteomics with zebrafish eleutheroembryos for sensitive and specific toxicity assessment. 2-DE-based toxicoproteomics was performed applying low-dose (EC10) exposure for 48 h with three-model substances Rotenone, 4,6-dinitro-o-cresol (DNOC) and Diclofenac. By multivariate “pattern-only” PCA and univariate statistical analyses, alterations in the embryonal proteome were detectable in nonetheless visibly intact organisms and treatment with the three substances was distinguishable at the molecular level. Toxicoproteomics enabled the enhancement of sensitivity and specificity of the embryonal toxicity assay and bear the potency to identify protein markers serving as general stress markers and early diagnosis of toxic stress. PMID:22084678

  17. Developmental and Persistent Toxicities of Maternally Deposited Selenomethionine in Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jith K; Janz, David M

    2015-08-18

    The objectives of this study were (1) to establish egg selenium (Se) toxicity thresholds for mortality and deformities in early life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio) after exposure to excess selenomethionine (SeMet, the dominant chemical species of Se in diets) via in ovo maternal transfer and (2) to investigate the persistent effects of developmental exposure to excess SeMet on swim performance and metabolic capacities in F1-generation adult zebrafish. Adult zebrafish were fed either control food (1.3 μg Se/g, dry mass or d.m.) or food spiked with increasing measured concentrations of Se (3.4, 9.8, or 27.5 μg Se/g, d.m.) in the form of SeMet for 90 d. In ovo exposure to SeMet increased mortality and deformities in larval zebrafish in a concentration-dependent fashion with threshold egg Se concentrations (EC10s) of 7.5 and 7.0 μg Se/g d.m., respectively. Impaired swim performance and greater respiration and metabolic rates were observed in F1-generation zebrafish exposed in ovo to 6.8 and 12.7 μg Se/g d.m and raised to adulthood in clean water. A species sensitivity distribution (SSD) based on egg Se developmental toxicity thresholds suggests that zebrafish are the most sensitive fish species studied to date.

  18. Differences in shoaling behavior in two species of freshwater fish (Danio rerio and Hyphessobrycon herbertaxelrodi).

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Elisabet; Quera, Vicenç; Beltran, Francesc S; Dolado, Ruth

    2016-11-01

    Fish can gain significant adaptive advantages when living in a group and they exhibit a wide variety of types of collective motion. The scientific literature recognizes 2 main patterns: shoals (aggregations of individuals that remain close to each other), and schools (aggregations of aligned, or polarized, individuals). We analyzed the collective motion of 2 social fish species, zebrafish (Danio rerio) and black neon tetra (Hyphessobrycon herbertaxelrodi), and compared their patterns of movement and the effect of group size and environmental constraints such as water column height and tank geometry on the collective motion of both species. We recorded the movement of groups of fish (n = 10 and n = 20) using 2 tank geometries: a rectangular shape and a rectangular shape with rounded corners; and we also manipulated the water column height (15 and 25 cm). We extracted the individual fish trajectories and calculated indices of cohesion, coordination, group density and group shape. The results showed that the 2 species had different types of collective motion: the zebrafish's global motion matched that of a shoal, while the black neon tetra's motion matched that of a school. Indirect evidence indicated that the 2 species tended to occupy the vertical space differently while swimming in a group. Finally, we found that tank geometry did not affect group polarization, whereas group size had an effect on black neon tetra density, which was higher in small group sizes than in large ones. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Purinergic and adenosine receptors contribute to hypoxic hyperventilation in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Coe, Alisha J; Picard, Alexina J; Jonz, Michael G

    2017-12-01

    The chemoreceptors involved in oxygen sensing in teleost fish are neuroepithelial cells (NECs) in the gills, and are analogous to glomus cells in the mammalian carotid body. Purinergic signalling mechanisms involving the neurotransmitters, ATP and adenosine, have been identified in mediating hypoxic signalling in the carotid body, but these pathways are not well understood in the fish gill. The present study used a behavioural assay to screen for the effects of drugs, that target purinergic and adenosine receptors, on the hyperventilatory response to hypoxia in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) in order to determine if the receptors on which these drugs act may be involved in hypoxic signalling. The purinergic receptor antagonist, PPADS, targets purinergic P2X2/3 receptors and inhibited the hyperventilatory response to hypoxia (IC 50 =18.9μM). The broad-spectrum purinergic agonist, ATPγS, elicited a hyperventilatory response (EC 50 =168μM). The non-specific adenosine receptor antagonist, caffeine, inhibited the hyperventilatory response to hypoxia, as did the specific A2a receptor antagonist, SCH58261 (IC 50 =220nM). These results suggest that P2X2/3 and A2a receptors are candidates for mediating hypoxic hyperventilation in zebrafish. This study highlights the potential of applying chemical screening to ventilatory behaviour in zebrafish to further our understanding of the pathways involved in signalling by gill NECs and oxygen sensing in vertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sleep deprivation effects on object discrimination task in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Pinheiro-da-Silva, Jaquelinne; Silva, Priscila Fernandes; Nogueira, Marcelo Borges; Luchiari, Ana Carolina

    2017-03-01

    The zebrafish is an ideal vertebrate model for neurobehavioral studies with translational relevance to humans. Many aspects of sleep have been studied, but we still do not understand how and why sleep deprivation alters behavioral and physiological processes. A number of hypotheses suggest its role in memory consolidation. In this respect, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of sleep deprivation on memory in zebrafish (Danio rerio), using an object discrimination paradigm. Four treatments were tested: control, partial sleep deprivation, total sleep deprivation by light pulses, and total sleep deprivation by extended light. The control group explored the new object more than the known object, indicating clear discrimination. The partially sleep-deprived group explored the new object more than the other object in the discrimination phase, suggesting a certain degree of discriminative performance. By contrast, both total sleep deprivation groups equally explored all objects, regardless of their novelty. It seems that only one night of sleep deprivation is enough to affect discriminative response in zebrafish, indicating its negative impact on cognitive processes. We suggest that this study could be a useful screening tool for cognitive dysfunction and a better understanding of the effect of sleep-wake cycles on cognition.

  1. Stereoselective effects of ibuprofen in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) using UPLC-TOF/MS-based metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Song, Yue; Chai, Tingting; Yin, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Xining; Zhang, Wei; Qian, Yongzhong; Qiu, Jing

    2018-06-09

    Ibuprofen (IBU), as a commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and pharmaceutical and personal care product (PPCP), is frequently prescribed by doctors to relieve pain. It is widely released into environmental water and soil in the form of chiral enantiomers by the urination and defecation of humans or animals and by sewage discharge from wastewater treatment plants. This study focused on the alteration of metabolism in the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain after exposure to R-(-)-/S-(+)-/rac-IBU at 5 μg L -1 for 28 days. A total of 45 potential biomarkers and related pathways, including amino acids and their derivatives, purine and its derivatives, nucleotides and other metabolites, were observed with untargeted metabolomics. To validate the metabolic disorders induced by IBU, 22 amino acids and 3 antioxidant enzymes were selected to be quantitated and determined using targeted metabolomics and enzyme assay. Stereoselective changes were observed in the 45 identified biomarkers from the untargeted metabolomics analysis. The 22 amino acids quantitated in targeted metabolomics and 3 antioxidant enzymes determined in enzyme assay also showed stereoselective changes after R-(-)-/S-(+)-/rac-IBU exposure. Results showed that even at a low concentration of R-(-)-/S-(+)-/rac-IBU, disorders in metabolism and antioxidant defense systems were still induced with stereoselectivity. Our study may enable a better understanding of the risks of chiral PPCPs in aquatic organisms in the environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Morphofunctional Alterations in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Gills after Exposure to Mercury Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Macirella, Rachele; Brunelli, Elvira

    2017-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that may exert its toxic effects on living organisms and is found in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in three chemical forms; elemental, organic, and inorganic. The inorganic form (iHg) tends to predominantly accumulate in aquatic environments. The gill apparatus is a very dynamic organ that plays a fundamental role in gas exchange, osmoregulation, acid-base regulation, detoxification, and excretion, and the gills are the primary route of waterborne iHg entrance in fish. In the present work we investigated the morphofunctional and ultrastructural effects in Danio rerio gills after 96 h exposure to two low HgCl2 concentrations (7.7 and 38.5 µg/L). Our results clearly demonstrated that a short-term exposure to low concentrations of mercury chloride resulted in gill morphology alterations and in the modifications of both Na+/K+-ATPase and metallothioneins (MTs) expression pattern. The main morphological effects recorded in this work were represented by hyperplasia and ectopia of chloride cells (CCs), lamellar fusion, increased mucous secretion, alteration of pavement cells (PVCs), detachment of the secondary epithelium, pillar cell degeneration, degeneration, and apoptosis. Trough immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR analysis also showed a dose-related modulation of Na+/K+-ATPase and MTs. PMID:28406445

  3. In vivo effects of 17-β-estradiol on plasma immunoglobulin levels and leukocyte density in zebrafish Danio rerio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lei; Zhang, Shicui; Tong, Zhou; Liu, Jia

    2010-05-01

    Estradiol, or 17-β-estradiol (E2), the most potent naturally occurring estrogen, is involved in the hormone-immune system interaction in both mammals and fish. However, in vivo studies are largely limited, and little is known about whether E2 exerts similar effects on both female and male zebrafish ( Danio rerio). Here, we show exposure of both sexes of D. rerio to 20 nmol/L E2 resulted in a significant increase in Vg1 expression, but caused little damage to the hepatocytes, suggesting that this is the optimum E2 concentration. Also, exposure to 20 nmol/L E2 for 20 days caused a marked increase in plasma IgM levels, but had little influence on the peripheral leukocyte density, providing the first evidence of a hormone-immune system interaction in this species.

  4. Selenium status affects selenoprotein expression, reproduction, and F₁ generation locomotor activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Penglase, Sam; Hamre, Kristin; Rasinger, Josef D; Ellingsen, Staale

    2014-06-14

    Se is an essential trace element, and is incorporated into selenoproteins which play important roles in human health. Mammalian selenoprotein-coding genes are often present as paralogues in teleost fish, and it is unclear whether the expression patterns or functions of these fish paralogues reflect their mammalian orthologues. Using the model species zebrafish (Danio rerio; ZF), we aimed to assess how dietary Se affects key parameters in Se metabolism and utilisation including glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity, the mRNA expression of key Se-dependent proteins (gpx1a, gpx1b, sepp1a and sepp1b), oxidative status, reproductive success and F1 generation locomotor activity. From 27 d until 254 d post-fertilisation, ZF were fed diets with graded levels of Se ranging from deficient ( < 0·10 mg/kg) to toxic (30 mg/kg). The mRNA expression of gpx1a and gpx1b and GPX activity responded in a similar manner to changes in Se status. GPX activity and mRNA levels were lowest when dietary Se levels (0·3 mg/kg) resulted in the maximum growth of ZF, and a proposed bimodal mechanism in response to Se status below and above this dietary Se level was identified. The expression of the sepp1 paralogues differed, with only sepp1a responding to Se status. High dietary Se supplementation (30 mg/kg) decreased reproductive success, while the offspring of ZF fed above 0·3 mg Se/kg diet had lower locomotor activity than the other groups. Overall, the novel finding of low selenoprotein expression and activity coinciding with maximum body growth suggests that even small Se-induced variations in redox status may influence cellular growth rates.

  5. The contribution of the swimbladder to buoyancy in the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio): a morphometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Robertson, George N; Lindsey, Benjamin W; Dumbarton, Tristan C; Croll, Roger P; Smith, Frank M

    2008-06-01

    Many teleost fishes use a swimbladder, a gas-filled organ in the coelomic cavity, to reduce body density toward neutral buoyancy, thus minimizing the locomotory cost of maintaining a constant depth in the water column. However, for most swimbladder-bearing teleosts, the contribution of this organ to the attainment of neutral buoyancy has not been quantified. Here, we examined the quantitative contribution of the swimbladder to buoyancy and three-dimensional stability in a small cyprinid, the zebrafish (Danio rerio). In aquaria during daylight hours, adult animals were observed at mean depths from 10.1 +/- 6.0 to 14.2 +/- 5.6 cm below the surface. Fish mass and whole-body volume were linearly correlated (r(2) = 0.96) over a wide range of body size (0.16-0.73 g); mean whole-body density was 1.01 +/- 0.09 g cm(-3). Stereological estimations of swimbladder volume from linear dimensions of lateral X-ray images and direct measurements of gas volumes recovered by puncture from the same swimbladders showed that results from these two methods were highly correlated (r(2) = 0.85). The geometric regularity of the swimbladder thus permitted its volume to be accurately estimated from a single lateral image. Mean body density in the absence of the swimbladder was 1.05 +/- 0.04 g cm(-3). The swimbladder occupied 5.1 +/- 1.4% of total body volume, thus reducing whole-body density significantly. The location of the centers of mass and buoyancy along rostro-caudal and dorso-ventral axes overlapped near the ductus communicans, a constriction between the anterior and posterior swimbladder chambers. Our work demonstrates that the swimbladder of the adult zebrafish contributes significantly to buoyancy and attitude stability. Furthermore, we describe and verify a stereological method for estimating swimbladder volume that will aid future studies of the functions of this organ. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  6. Edwardsiellosis Caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri in Laboratory Populations of Zebrafish Danio rerio

    PubMed Central

    Hawke, John P.; Kent, Michael; Rogge, Matt; Baumgartner, Wes; Wiles, Judy; Shelley, Johnny; Savolainen, L. Christine; Wagner, Robert; Murray, Katy; Peterson, Tracy S.

    2014-01-01

    We report the first cases of Edwardsiella ictaluri causing epizootics in laboratory populations of Zebrafish Danio rerio. Edwardsiella ictaluri is primarily recognized as a disease of catfish species and is known to cause an economically important bacterial disease of farm-raised catfish in the USA and abroad; however, it has been isolated on occasion from 10 other genera of nonictalurid fishes. We isolated E. ictaluri from moribund Zebrafish held in quarantine at two different universities in two states and from a research facility in a third state between February 23 and December 6, 2011. Edwardsiellosis in Zebrafish can be described as a severe systemic disease characterized by tissue necrosis and the presence of large numbers of extracellular and intracellular bacteria, often within macrophages. The kidneys (pronephros and mesonephros), spleen, nares, and forebrain were the most commonly and severely affected tissues. In outbreaks, mortality was acute and numerous fish died over a 1–2 week period. Mortality continued until the majority of the population was lost, at which time the remaining fish were euthanized. In addition to these cases, four cultures of bacteria isolated from Zebrafish by another diagnostic laboratory were submitted to the Louisiana Aquatic Diagnostic Laboratory for identification and were confirmed as E. ictaluri. In total, eight cultures of E. ictaluri from Zebrafish from Louisiana, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Florida were identified. The isolates were confirmed as E. ictaluri by biochemical phenotype, API 20E (bioMérieux), and amplification and sequencing of a portion of the 16S rRNA gene. Edwardsiella ictaluri isolates from Zebrafish are believed to comprise a unique group and were differentiated from catfish isolates by exhibiting weaker motility, autoaggregation in broth, a different plasmid profile (two plasmids of 4.0 and 3.5 kb), a different API 20E code (4204000), and lack of lipopolysaccharide recognition with Mab Ed9

  7. Histological and genotoxic evaluation of gold nanoparticles in ovarian cells of zebrafish ( Danio rerio)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayal, Navami; Thakur, Mansee; Patil, Poonam; Singh, Dipty; Vanage, Geeta; Joshi, D. S.

    2016-10-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have attracted a lot of attention due to their usage in consumer- and therapy-based biomedical applications. These particles are frequently the medium-sized particles within the range of 10-50 nm. A number of scientific reports have addressed the cytotoxic potential of these NPs. However, their genotoxic potential with respect to reproductive aspects remains unclear. For assessment of safety and risks associated with AuNPs to female reproductive system, adult female zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed in vivo to 20 μg/g/day of AuNPs of two different sizes. AuNPs of 15 nm (type I) and 47 nm (type II) in diameters were administered orally to female zebrafish for a period of 28 days (chronic). The ability of these AuNPs to gain access to female reproductive organs was confirmed by their accumulation pattern through inductive coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Gonads were assessed for changes in ovarian morphology at histopathological level followed by the confirmation of bioaccumulation of AuNPs using transmission electron microscopy. Using comet assay, strand breaks in DNA of ovarian cells were investigated. Chronic exposure to type I and II AuNPs showed distinctive patterns of bioaccumulation in ovaries. Interestingly, accumulated NPs resulted in gross cellular alterations in different cell types of ovarian tissue. Comet assay analysis revealed extensive number of strand breaks in ovarian cells from the NP exposed fishes. In conclusion, AuNPs ranging between 10 and 50 nm are capable of gaining access to ovaries of zebrafish and potential enough to cause strand breaks in ovarian cells. The findings of the present study highlight the adverse effects of these NPs to female reproductive system. It opens up further avenues for research on effects of these NPs on F1 generation descending from the exposed fishes.

  8. Resveratrol ameliorates diet-induced dysregulation of lipid metabolism in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Yan, Qiaoqiao; Yi, Weijie; Ying, Chenjiang; Wu, Hongmei

    2017-01-01

    Defective lipid metabolism is associated with increased risk of various chronic diseases, such as obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. Resveratrol (RSV), a natural polyphenol, has been shown the potential of ameliorating disregulations of lipid metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of feed intake and RSV on lipid metabolism in zebrafish (Danio rerio). The adult males were randomly allocated to 6 groups: control (Con, 8 mg cysts/fish/day), control with 20 μmol/L RSV (Con+RSV), calorie restriction (CR, 5 mg cysts/fish/day), calorie restriction with RSV (CR+RSV), overfeed (OF, 60 mg cysts/fish/day), and overfeed with RSV (OF+RSV) groups. The treatment period was 8 weeks. Results showed that CR reduced body length, body weight, and condition factor of zebrafish. CR reduced levels of plasma triglyceride (TG) and induced protein expression of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase-α (pAMPKα), silent information regulator 2 homolog 1 (Sirt1), and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC1α). RSV attenuated CR-induced pAMPKα/AMPKαincreases. RSV increased levels of Sirt1 protein in the OF zebrafish, and decreased OF-induced increase in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) protein level. Additionally, RSV down-regulated caveolin-1 and up-regulated microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 -II (LC3-II) protein levels in OF zebrafish. In conclusion, these results suggest that 1) CR reduces plasma TG level through activation of the AMPKα-Sirt1- PGC1α pathway; 2) under different dietary stress conditions RSV might regulate AMPK phosphorylation bi-directionally; 3) RSV might regulate lipid metabolism through the AMPKα-Sirt1-PPARγ pathway in OF zebrafish. PMID:28686680

  9. PAH toxicity at aqueous solubility in the fish embryo test with Danio rerio using passive dosing.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Best, Nina; Fernqvist, Margit Møller; Hercht, Hendrik; Smith, Kilian E C; Braunbeck, Thomas; Mayer, Philipp; Hollert, Henner

    2014-10-01

    As part of the risk assessment process within REACh, prior to manufacturing and distribution of chemical substances their (eco)toxicological impacts have to be investigated. The fish embryo toxicity test (FET) with the zebrafish Danio rerio has gained a high significance as an in vitro alternative to animal testing in (eco)toxicology. However, for hydrophobic organic chemicals it remains a technical challenge to ensure constant freely dissolved concentration at the maximum exposure level during such biotests. Passive dosing with PDMS silicone was thus applied to control the freely dissolved concentration of ten PAHs at their saturation level in the FET. The experiments gave repeatable results, with the toxicity of the PAHs generally increasing with the maximum chemical activities of the PAHs. HPLC analysis confirmed constant exposure at the saturation level. In additional experiments, fish embryos without direct contact to the silicone surface showed similar mortalities as those exposed with direct contact to the silicone. Silicone oil overlaying the water phase as a novel passive dosing phase had no observable effects on the development of the fish embryos until hatching. This study provides further data to support the close relationship between the chemical activity and the toxicity of hydrophobic organic compounds. Passive dosing from PDMS silicone enabled reliable toxicity testing of (highly) hydrophobic substances at aqueous solubility, providing a practical way to control toxicity exactly at the maximum exposure level. This approach is therefore expected to be useful as a cost-effective initial screening of hydrophobic chemicals for potential adverse effects to freshwater vertebrates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of the UV filter benzophenone-3 (oxybenzone) at low concentrations in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Blüthgen, Nancy; Zucchi, Sara; Fent, Karl

    2012-09-01

    Organic UV filters including benzophenone-3 (BP-3) are widely used to protect humans and materials from damage by UV irradiation. Despite the environmental occurrence of BP-3 in the aquatic environment, little is known about its effects and modes of action. In the present study we assess molecular and physiological effects of BP-3 in adult male zebrafish (Danio rerio) and in eleuthero-embryos by a targeted gene expression approach focusing on the sex hormone system. Fish and embryos are exposed for 14 days and 120 hours post fertilization, respectively, to 2.4-312 μg/L and 8.2-438 μg/L BP-3. Chemical analysis of water and fish demonstrates that BP-3 is partly transformed to benzophenone-1 (BP-1) and both compounds are accumulated in adult fish. Biotransformation to BP-1 is absent in eleuthero-embryos. BP-3 exposure leads to similar alterations of gene expression in both adult fish and eleuthero-embryos. In the brain of adult males esr1, ar and cyp19b are down-regulated at 84 μg/L BP-3. There is no induction of vitellogenin expression by BP-3, both at the transcriptional and protein level. An overall down-regulation of the hsd3b, hsd17b3, hsd11b2 and cyp11b2 transcripts is observed in the testes, suggesting an antiandrogenic activity. No histological changes were observed in the testes after BP-3 treatment. The study leads to the conclusion that low concentrations of BP-3 exhibit similar multiple hormonal activities at the transcription level in two different life stages of zebrafish. Forthcoming studies should show whether this translates to additional physiological effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of ozonated sewage effluent on reproduction and behavioral endpoints in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Pohl, Johannes; Björlenius, Berndt; Brodin, Tomas; Carlsson, Gunnar; Fick, Jerker; Larsson, D G Joakim; Norrgren, Leif; Örn, Stefan

    2018-04-25

    Pharmaceutical residues and other micro-contaminants may enter aquatic environments through effluent from sewage treatment plants (STPs) and could cause adverse effects in wild fish. One strategy to alleviate this situation is to improve wastewater treatment by ozonation. To test the effectiveness of full-scale wastewater effluent ozonation at a Swedish municipal STP, the added removal efficiency was measured for 105 pharmaceuticals. In addition, gene expression, reproductive and behavioral endpoints were analyzed in zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed on-site over 21 days to ozonated or non-ozonated effluents as well as to tap water. Ozone treatment (7 g O 3 /m 3 ) removed pharmaceuticals by an average efficiency of 77% in addition to the conventional treatment, leaving 11 screened pharmaceuticals above detection limits. Differences in biological responses of the exposure treatments were recorded in gene expression, reproduction and behavior. Hepatic vitellogenin gene expression was higher in male zebrafish exposed to the ozonated effluent compared to the non-ozonated effluent and tap water treatments. The reproductive success was higher in fish exposed to ozonated effluent compared to non-ozonated effluent and to tap water. The behavioral measurements showed that fish exposed to the ozonated STP effluent were less active in swimming the first minute after placed in a novel vessel. Ozonation is a capable method for removing pharmaceuticals in effluents. However, its implementation should be thoroughly evaluated for any potential biological impact. Future research is needed for uncovering the factors which produced the in vivo responses in fish. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Auditory sensitivity of larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) measured using a behavioral prepulse inhibition assay

    PubMed Central

    Bhandiwad, Ashwin A.; Zeddies, David G.; Raible, David W.; Rubel, Edwin W.; Sisneros, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have become a valuable model for investigating the molecular genetics and development of the inner ear in vertebrates. In this study, we employed a prepulse inhibition (PPI) paradigm to assess hearing in larval wild-type (AB) zebrafish during early development at 5–6 days post-fertilization (d.p.f.). We measured the PPI of the acoustic startle response in zebrafish using a 1-dimensional shaker that simulated the particle motion component of sound along the fish's dorsoventral axis. The thresholds to startle-inducing stimuli were determined in 5–6 d.p.f. zebrafish, and their hearing sensitivity was then characterized using the thresholds of prepulse tone stimuli (90–1200 Hz) that inhibited the acoustic startle response to a reliable startle stimulus (820 Hz at 20 dB re. 1 m s−2). Hearing thresholds were defined as the minimum prepulse tone level required to significantly reduce the startle response probability compared with the baseline (no-prepulse) condition. Larval zebrafish showed greatest auditory sensitivity from 90 to 310 Hz with corresponding mean thresholds of −19 to −10 dB re. 1 m s−2, respectively. Hearing thresholds of prepulse tones were considerably lower than previously predicted by startle response assays. The PPI assay was also used to investigate the relative contribution of the lateral line to the detection of acoustic stimuli. After aminoglycoside-induced neuromast hair-cell ablation, we found no difference in PPI thresholds between treated and control fish. We propose that this PPI assay can be used to screen for novel zebrafish hearing mutants and to investigate the ontogeny of hearing in zebrafish and other fishes. PMID:23966590

  13. Dopamine inhibits reproduction in female zebrafish (Danio rerio) via three pituitary D2 receptor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Romain; Affaticati, Pierre; Yamamoto, Kei; Jolly, Cécile; Bureau, Charlotte; Baloche, Sylvie; Gonnet, Françoise; Vernier, Philippe; Dufour, Sylvie; Pasqualini, Catherine

    2013-02-01

    In many teleosts, the stimulatory control of gonadotrope axis by GnRH is opposed by an inhibitory control by dopamine (DA). The functional importance of this inhibitory pathway differs widely from one teleostean species to another. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a teleost fish that has become increasingly popular as an experimental vertebrate model. However, the role of DA in the neuroendocrine control of its reproduction has never been studied. Here the authors evaluated in sexually regressed female zebrafish the effects of in vivo treatments with a DA D2 receptor (D2-R) antagonist domperidone, or a GnRH agonist, alone and in combination, on the pituitary level of FSHβ and LHβ transcripts, the gonadosomatic index, and the ovarian histology. Only the double treatment with GnRH agonist and domperidone could induce an increase in the expression of LHβ, in the gonadosomatic index, and a stimulation of ovarian vitellogenesis, indicating that removal of dopaminergic inhibition is required for the stimulatory action of GnRH and reactivation of ovarian function to occur. Using double immunofluorescent staining on pituitary, the authors showed in this species the innervation of LH cells by tyrosine-hydroxylase immunoreactive fibers. Finally, using in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence, the authors showed that the three subtypes of zebrafish DA D2-R (D2a, D2b, and D2c) were expressed in LH-producing cells, suggesting that they all may be involved in mediating this inhibition. These results show for the first time that, in zebrafish, DA has a direct and potent inhibitory action capable of opposing the stimulatory effect of GnRH in the neuroendocrine control of reproduction.

  14. Thyroid hormone actions are temperature-specific and regulate thermal acclimation in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Little, Alexander G; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Seebacher, Frank

    2013-03-26

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is best known for its role in development in animals, and for its control of metabolic heat production (thermogenesis) during cold acclimation in mammals. It is unknown whether the regulatory role of TH in thermogenesis is derived in mammals, or whether TH also mediates thermal responses in earlier vertebrates. Ectothermic vertebrates show complex responses to temperature variation, but the mechanisms mediating these are poorly understood. The molecular mechanisms underpinning TH action are very similar across vertebrates, suggesting that TH may also regulate thermal responses in ectotherms. We therefore aimed to determine whether TH regulates thermal acclimation in the zebrafish (Danio rerio). We induced hypothyroidism, followed by supplementation with 3,5-diiodothyronine (T2) or 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) in zebrafish exposed to different chronic temperatures. We measured whole-animal responses (swimming performance and metabolic rates), tissue-specific regulatory enzyme activities, gene expression, and free levels of T2 and T3. We found that both T3 and the lesser-known T2, regulate thermal acclimation in an ectotherm. To our knowledge, this is the first such study to show this. Hypothyroid treatment impaired performance measures in cold-acclimated but not warm-acclimated individuals, whereas supplementation with both TH metabolites restored performance. TH could either induce or repress responses, depending on the actual temperature and thermal history of the animal. The low sensitivity to TH at warm temperatures could mean that increasing temperatures (that is, global warming) will reduce the capacity of animals to regulate their physiologies to match demands. We suggest that the properties that underlie the role of TH in thermal acclimation (temperature sensitivity and metabolic control) may have predisposed this hormone for a regulatory role in the evolution of endothermy.

  15. The influence of exercise on anxiety-like behavior in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    DePasquale, C; Leri, J

    2018-04-12

    In non-human mammals, exercise has been shown to decrease anxiety-like behavior. Conversely, a number of studies have reported no effect or even an increase in anxiety-like behavior after exercise, however, inconsistent training regimes and behavioral paradigms across studies may be confounding the results. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are a well-established animal model in neurobehavioral research, and have the potential to shed new insight into the effects of exercise on anxiety-like behavior where previous research has been limited, due to the ability to precisely control intensity and duration of exercise, and the validation of tests for measuring different aspects of anxiety-like behaviors. In the current study, fish were split between two treatment groups; Exercised and Control. Fish in the exercised condition were aerobically challenged (max water velocity: 0.5 m/s) using a swim tunnel one hour a day, five days a week, for six weeks. Control fish spent an equal amount of time in the swim tunnel but were not aerobically challenged (max water velocity: 0.05 m/s). After six weeks, all fish were tested individually in two standard complimentary anxiety tests for zebrafish: the novel tank test and the light-dark test. Exercised fish exhibited reduced anxiety-like behaviors in the novel tank test; they spent more time in the top and were quicker to enter the top of a novel tank compared to Control fish. In addition, Exercised fish spent more time in the light compartment of the light-dark test compared to Control fish. Our results demonstrate the beneficial effect of exercise on anxiety-like behavior in zebrafish. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effectiveness of Rapid Cooling as a Method of Euthanasia for Young Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Wallace, Chelsea K; Bright, Lauren A; Marx, James O; Andersen, Robert P; Mullins, Mary C; Carty, Anthony J

    2018-01-01

    Despite increased use of zebrafish (Danio rerio) in biomedical research, consistent information regarding appropriate euthanasia methods, particularly for embryos, is sparse. Current literature indicates that rapid cooling is an effective method of euthanasia for adult zebrafish, yet consistent guidelines regarding zebrafish younger than 6 mo are unavailable. This study was performed to distinguish the age at which rapid cooling is an effective method of euthanasia for zebrafish and the exposure times necessary to reliably euthanize zebrafish using this method. Zebrafish at 3, 4, 7, 14, 16, 19, 21, 28, 60, and 90 d postfertilization (dpf) were placed into an ice water bath for 5, 10, 30, 45, or 60 min (n = 12 to 40 per group). In addition, zebrafish were placed in ice water for 12 h (age ≤14 dpf) or 30 s (age ≥14 dpf). After rapid cooling, fish were transferred to a recovery tank and the number of fish alive at 1, 4, and 12-24 h after removal from ice water was documented. Euthanasia was defined as a failure when evidence of recovery was observed at any point after removal from ice water. Results showed that younger fish required prolonged exposure to rapid cooling for effective euthanasia, with the required exposure time decreasing as fish age. Although younger fish required long exposure times, animals became immobilized immediately upon exposure to the cold water, and behavioral indicators of pain or distress rarely occurred. We conclude that zebrafish 14 dpf and younger require as long as 12 h, those 16 to 28 dpf of age require 5 min, and those older than 28 dpf require 30 s minimal exposure to rapid cooling for reliable euthanasia.

  17. Thyroid hormone actions are temperature-specific and regulate thermal acclimation in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Thyroid hormone (TH) is best known for its role in development in animals, and for its control of metabolic heat production (thermogenesis) during cold acclimation in mammals. It is unknown whether the regulatory role of TH in thermogenesis is derived in mammals, or whether TH also mediates thermal responses in earlier vertebrates. Ectothermic vertebrates show complex responses to temperature variation, but the mechanisms mediating these are poorly understood. The molecular mechanisms underpinning TH action are very similar across vertebrates, suggesting that TH may also regulate thermal responses in ectotherms. We therefore aimed to determine whether TH regulates thermal acclimation in the zebrafish (Danio rerio). We induced hypothyroidism, followed by supplementation with 3,5-diiodothyronine (T2) or 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (T3) in zebrafish exposed to different chronic temperatures. We measured whole-animal responses (swimming performance and metabolic rates), tissue-specific regulatory enzyme activities, gene expression, and free levels of T2 and T3. Results We found that both T3 and the lesser-known T2, regulate thermal acclimation in an ectotherm. To our knowledge, this is the first such study to show this. Hypothyroid treatment impaired performance measures in cold-acclimated but not warm-acclimated individuals, whereas supplementation with both TH metabolites restored performance. TH could either induce or repress responses, depending on the actual temperature and thermal history of the animal. Conclusions The low sensitivity to TH at warm temperatures could mean that increasing temperatures (that is, global warming) will reduce the capacity of animals to regulate their physiologies to match demands. We suggest that the properties that underlie the role of TH in thermal acclimation (temperature sensitivity and metabolic control) may have predisposed this hormone for a regulatory role in the evolution of endothermy. PMID:23531055

  18. Bisphenol S induces obesogenic effects through deregulating lipid metabolism in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiwei; Zhang, Xiaona; Wang, Zihao; Qin, Jingyu; Wang, Wei; Tian, Hua; Ru, Shaoguo

    2018-05-01

    It has been suggested that dramatic increase in obesity may be caused by growing exposure to environmental chemicals. In vitro data has suggested bisphenol S (BPS), a compound widely used in polycarbonate plastic production, can induce lipid accumulation in preadipocytes. However, the mechanisms responsible for BPS-induced obesity in vivo remain unclear. In this study, we used translucent zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae as a model to investigate the effect of environmentally relevant BPS exposure (1, 10, and 100 μg/L from 2 h to 15 d post fertilization) on lipid accumulation, triacylglycerol (TAG) and lipoproteins content, and mRNA expression of genes involved in the regulation of lipid synthesis, transport, degradation, and storage. We also analyzed activities of two enzymes critical to TAG metabolism: lipoprotein lipase and diglyceride acyltransferase. Overfed, obese larvae were used as positive control. The results indicated that BPS-treated and overfed larvae had much higher TAG levels and visceral fat accumulation compared with control. BPS exhibited obesogenic effects by interfering with lipid metabolism as evidenced by (a) upregulation of the mRNA expression of fasn, acc1, and agpat4 genes encoding enzymes involved in the de novo synthesis of TAG in the liver, (b) downregulation of apolipoprotein expression, which should reduce TAG transport from the liver, and (c) increase in rxrα expression, which should promote visceral fat accumulation. Our study is the first to demonstrate that the obesogenic effects of BPS in zebrafish are related to the disruption of TAG metabolism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Toxicity of single-wall carbon nanotubes functionalized with polyethylene glycol in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos.

    PubMed

    Girardi, Felipe A; Bruch, Gisele E; Peixoto, Carolina S; Dal Bosco, Lidiane; Sahoo, Sangram K; Gonçalves, Carla O F; Santos, Adelina P; Furtado, Clascídia A; Fantini, Cristiano; Barros, Daniela M

    2017-02-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes functionalized with polyethylene glycol (SWCNT-PEG) are promising materials for biomedical applications such as diagnostic devices and controlled drug-release systems. However, several questions about their toxicological profile remain unanswered. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the action of SWCNT-PEG in Danio rerio zebrafish embryos at the molecular, physiological and morphological levels. The SWCNT used in this study were synthesized by the high-pressure carbon monoxide process, purified and then functionalized with distearoyl phosphatidylethanolamine block copolymer-PEG (molecular weight 2 kDa). The characterization process was carried out with low-resolution transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and Raman spectroscopy. Individual zebrafish embryos were exposed to the SWCNT-PEG. Toxic effects occurred only at the highest concentration tested (1 ppm) and included high mortality rates, delayed hatching and decreased total larval length. For all the concentrations tested, the alkaline comet assay revealed no genotoxicity, and Raman spectroscopy measurements on the histological slices revealed no intracellular nanotubes. The results shown here demonstrate that SWCNT-PEG has low toxicity in zebrafish embryos, but more studies are needed to understand what mechanisms are involved. However, the presence of residual metals is possibly among the primary mechanisms responsible for the toxic effects observed, because the purification process was not able to remove all metal contamination, as demonstrated by the thermogravimetric analysis. More attention must be given to the toxicity of these nanomaterials before they are used in biomedical applications. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Paraquat affects mitochondrial bioenergetics, dopamine system expression, and locomotor activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao H; Souders, Christopher L; Zhao, Yuan H; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2018-01-01

    The dipyridyl herbicide paraquat induces oxidative stress in cells and is implicated in adult neurodegenerative diseases. However, less is known about paraquat toxicity in early stages of vertebrate development. To address this gap, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to 1, 10 and 100 μM paraquat for 96 h. Paraquat did not induce significant mortality nor deformity in embryos and larvae, but it did accelerate time to hatch. To evaluate whether mitochondrial respiration was related to earlier hatch times, oxygen consumption rate was measured in whole embryos. Maximal respiration of embryos exposed to 100 μM paraquat for 24 h was reduced by more than 70%, suggesting that paraquat negatively impacts mitochondrial bioenergetics in early development. Based upon this evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction, transcriptional responses of oxidative stress- and apoptosis-related genes were measured. Fish exposed to 1 μM paraquat showed higher expression levels of superoxide dismutase 2, heat shock protein 70, Bcl-2-associated X protein, and B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2a compared to control fish. No differences among groups were detected in larvae exposed to 10 and 100 μM paraquat, suggesting a non-monotonic response. We also measured endpoints related to larval behavior and dopaminergic signaling as paraquat is associated with degeneration of dopamine neurons. Locomotor activity was stimulated with 100 μM paraquat and dopamine transporter and dopamine receptor 3 mRNA levels were increased in larvae exposed to 1 μM paraquat, interpreted to be a compensatory response at lower concentrations. This study improves mechanistic understanding into the toxic actions of paraquat on early developmental stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Combined effects of alpha particles and depleted uranium on Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Candy Y.P.; Pereira, Sandrine; Cheng, Shuk Han; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline; Yu, Kwan Ngok

    2016-01-01

    The combined effects of low-dose or high-dose alpha particles and depleted uranium (DU) in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were studied. Three schemes were examined—(i) [ILUL]: 0.44 mGy alpha-particle dose + 10 µg/l DU exposure, (ii) [IHUH]: 4.4 mGy alpha-particle dose + 100 µg/l DU exposure and (iii) [IHUL]: 4.4 mGy alpha-particle dose + 10 µg/l DU exposure—in which Zebrafish embryos were irradiated with alpha particles at 5 h post fertilization (hpf) and/or exposed to uranium at 5–6 hpf. The results were also compared with our previous work, which studied the effects of [ILUH]: 0.44 mGy alpha-particle dose + 100 µg/l DU exposure. When the Zebrafish embryos developed to 24 hpf, the apoptotic signals in the entire embryos, used as the biological endpoint for this study, were quantified. Our results showed that [ILUL] and [IHUL] led to antagonistic effects, whereas [IHUH] led to an additive effect. The effect found for the previously studied case of [ILUH] was difficult to define because it was synergistic with reference to the 100 µg/l DU exposure, but it was antagonistic with reference to the 0.44 mGy alpha-particle dose. All the findings regarding the four different schemes showed that the combined effects critically depended on the dose response to each individual stressor. We also qualitatively explained these findings in terms of promotion of early death of cells predisposed to spontaneous transformation by alpha particles, interacting with the delay in cell death resulting from various concentrations of DU exposure. PMID:26937024

  2. Wnt signaling during tooth replacement in zebrafish (Danio rerio): pitfalls and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Huysseune, Ann; Soenens, Mieke; Elderweirdt, Fien

    2014-01-01

    The canonical (β-catenin dependent) Wnt signaling pathway has emerged as a likely candidate for regulating tooth replacement in continuously renewing dentitions. So far, the involvement of canonical Wnt signaling has been experimentally demonstrated predominantly in amniotes. These studies tend to show stimulation of tooth formation by activation of the Wnt pathway, and inhibition of tooth formation when blocking the pathway. Here, we report a strong and dynamic expression of the soluble Wnt inhibitor dickkopf1 (dkk1) in developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) tooth germs, suggesting an active repression of Wnt signaling during morphogenesis and cytodifferentiation of a tooth, and derepression of Wnt signaling during start of replacement tooth formation. To further analyse the role of Wnt signaling, we used different gain-of-function approaches. These yielded disjunct results, yet none of them indicating enhanced tooth replacement. Thus, masterblind (mbl) mutants, defective in axin1, mimic overexpression of Wnt, but display a normally patterned dentition in which teeth are replaced at the appropriate times and positions. Activating the pathway with LiCl had variable outcomes, either resulting in the absence, or the delayed formation, of first-generation teeth, or yielding a regular dentition with normal replacement, but no supernumerary teeth or accelerated tooth replacement. The failure so far to influence tooth replacement in the zebrafish by perturbing Wnt signaling is discussed in the light of (i) potential technical pitfalls related to dose- or time-dependency, (ii) the complexity of the canonical Wnt pathway, and (iii) species-specific differences in the nature and activity of pathway components. Finally, we emphasize the importance of in-depth knowledge of the wild-type pattern for reliable interpretations. It is hoped that our analysis can be inspiring to critically assess and elucidate the role of Wnt signaling in tooth development in polyphyodonts. PMID

  3. Effects of Environmental Enrichment on the Fertility and Fecundity of Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Wafer, Lemnique N; Jensen, V Behrana; Whitney, Jesse C; Gomez, Thomas H; Flores, Rene; Goodwin, Bradford S

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are a popular vertebrate model in biomedical research, but information describing the effects of environmental enrichment on fertility and fecundity of zebrafish is sparse. In the current study, 18 breeding pairs were placed in divided 1.5-L breeding tanks containing 1 of 3 enrichment conditions: plastic grass (n = 6), plastic leaves (n = 6), or no enrichment (n = 6, control). The pairs were allowed to spawn for 3 h the next day, after which eggs were counted and breeding pairs were returned to holding tanks for use in subsequent sessions. Spawning sessions were repeated at 7-d intervals until the completion of 9 trials, with pairs rotating to a different condition at each interval. Total egg count (mean ± SEM) after 3 h was greater for zebrafish spawning in the grass environment (48.0 ± 7.7 eggs) than in the leaf or control environments (29.4 ± 5.3 and 20.4 ± 3.7 eggs, respectively). An interaction emerged between enrichment type and the age of the spawning pair on the number of fry at 6 d postfertilization (dpf). Initially, more fry were obtained from 110- and 160-dpf pairs with the grass enrichment, but from 173- and 180-dpf pairs there were more obtained with leaf enrichment than grass. A separate experiment showed that enrichment type did not have an effect on fry survivability. Overall, our data indicates that, under certain conditions, zebrafish fertility and fecundity are greater in a breeding tank containing environmental enrichment than in a bare tank.

  4. Characterization and toxicology evaluation of chitosan nanoparticles on the embryonic development of zebrafish, Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanbo; Zhou, Jinru; Liu, Lin; Huang, Changjiang; Zhou, Deqing; Fu, Linglin

    2016-05-05

    In the present study, chitosan nanoparticles were prepared, characterized and used to evaluate the embryonic toxicology on zebrafish (Danio rerio). The average particle size of chitosan nanoparticles was 84.86nm. The increased mortality and decreased hatching rate was found in the zebrafish embryo exposure to normal chitosan particles and chitosan nanoparticles with the increased addition concentration. At 120h post-fertilization (hpf), the rate of mortality were 25.0 and 44.4% in the groups treated with chitosan nanoparticles and normal chitosan particles at 250mg/L, respectively. At 72hpf, the hatching rate in the groups treated with normal chitosan particles were lower (P<0.01) at 300 and 400mg/L than those of the corresponding control groups, respectively. However, there were no significant differences between the groups treated with chitosan nanoparticles and the control groups across all the addition concentrations. More abundant typical malformation of embryos was observed in the groups treated with normal chitosan particles compared with those treated with chitosan nanoparticles. The LC50 (medium lethal concentration) of chitosan nanoparticles was 280mg/L at 96hpf and 270mg/L at 120hpf. As for normal chitosan particles, the LC50 was 257mg/L at both 96hpf and 120hpf. The TC50 (medium teratogenic concentration) of the zebrafish treated with chitosan nanoparticles and normal chitosan particles were 257mg/L and 137mg/L, respectively. It indicated that the chitosan nanoparticles were relatively more secure compared with normal chitosan particles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Female reproductive impacts of dietary methylmercury in yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    DeBofsky, Abigail R; Klingler, Rebekah H; Mora-Zamorano, Francisco X; Walz, Marcus; Shepherd, Brian; Larson, Jeremy K; Anderson, David; Yang, Luobin; Goetz, Frederick; Basu, Niladri; Head, Jessica; Tonellato, Peter; Armstrong, Brandon M; Murphy, Cheryl; Carvan, Michael J

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of environmentally relevant dietary MeHg exposures on adult female yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and female zebrafish (Danio rerio) ovarian development and reproduction. Yellow perch were used in the study for their socioeconomic and ecological importance within the Great Lakes basin, and the use of zebrafish allowed for a detailed analysis of the molecular effects of MeHg following a whole life-cycle exposure. Chronic whole life dietary exposure of F 1 zebrafish to MeHg mimics realistic wildlife exposure scenarios, and the twenty-week adult yellow perch exposure (where whole life-cycle exposures are difficult) captures early seasonal ovarian development. For both species, target dietary accumulation values were achieved prior to analyses. In zebrafish, several genes involved in reproductive processes were shown to be dysregulated by RNA-sequencing and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QPCR), but no significant phenotypic changes were observed regarding ovarian staging, fecundity, or embryo mortality. Yellow perch were exposed to dietary MeHg for 12, 16, or 20 weeks. In this species, a set of eight genes were assessed by QPCR in the pituitary, liver, and ovary, and no exposure-related changes were observed. The lack of genomic resources in yellow perch hinders the characterization of subtle molecular impacts. The ovarian somatic index, circulating estradiol and testosterone, and ovarian staging were not significantly altered by MeHg exposure in yellow perch. These results suggest that environmentally relevant MeHg exposures do not drastically reduce the reproductively important endpoints in these fish, but to capture realistic exposure scenarios, whole life-cycle yellow perch exposures are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. In silico predicted reproductive endocrine transcriptional regulatory networks during zebrafish (Danio rerio) development.

    PubMed

    Hala, D

    2017-03-21

    The interconnected topology of transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs) readily lends to mathematical (or in silico) representation and analysis as a stoichiometric matrix. Such a matrix can be 'solved' using the mathematical method of extreme pathway (ExPa) analysis, which identifies uniquely activated genes subject to transcription factor (TF) availability. In this manuscript, in silico multi-tissue TRN models of brain, liver and gonad were used to study reproductive endocrine developmental programming in zebrafish (Danio rerio) from 0.25h post fertilization (hpf; zygote) to 90 days post fertilization (dpf; adult life stage). First, properties of TRN models were studied by sequentially activating all genes in multi-tissue models. This analysis showed the brain to exhibit lowest proportion of co-regulated genes (19%) relative to liver (23%) and gonad (32%). This was surprising given that the brain comprised 75% and 25% more TFs than liver and gonad respectively. Such 'hierarchy' of co-regulatory capability (brain

  7. Novel function of vitamin E in regulation of zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain lysophospholipids discovered using lipidomics

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jaewoo; Leonard, Scott W.; Kasper, Katherine; McDougall, Melissa; Stevens, Jan F.; Tanguay, Robert L.; Traber, Maret G.

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that brains from vitamin E-deficient (E−) zebrafish (Danio rerio) would undergo increased lipid peroxidation because they contain highly polyunsaturated fatty acids, thus susceptible lipids could be identified. Brains from zebrafish fed for 9 months defined diets without (E−) or with (E+) added vitamin E (500 mg RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate per kilogram diet) were studied. Using an untargeted approach, 1-hexadecanoyl-2-docosahexaenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine [DHA-PC 38:6, PC 16:0/22:6]was the lipid that showed the most significant and greatest fold-differences between groups. DHA-PC concentrations were approximately 1/3 lower in E− (4.3 ± 0.6 mg/g) compared with E+ brains (6.5 ± 0.9 mg/g, mean ± SEM, n = 10 per group, P = 0.04). Using lipidomics, 155 lipids in brain extracts were identified. Only four phospholipids (PLs) were different (P < 0.05) between groups; they were lower in E− brains and contained DHA with DHA-PC 38:6 at the highest abundances. Moreover, hydroxy-DHA-PC 38:6 was increased in E− brains (P = 0.0341) supporting the hypothesis of DHA peroxidation. More striking was the depletion in E− brains of nearly 60% of 19 different lysophospholipids (lysoPLs) (combined P = 0.0003), which are critical for membrane PL remodeling. Thus, E− brains contained fewer DHA-PLs, more hydroxy-DHA-PCs, and fewer lysoPLs, suggesting that lipid peroxidation depletes membrane DHA-PC and homeostatic mechanisms to repair the damage resulting in lysoPL depletion. PMID:25855633

  8. Zinc oxide nanoparticles alter hatching and larval locomotor activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Chen, Te-Hao; Lin, Chia-Chi; Meng, Pei-Jie

    2014-07-30

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NP) are extensively used in various consumer products such as sunscreens and cosmetics, with high potential of being released into aquatic environments. In this study, fertilized zebrafish (Danio rerio) eggs were exposed to various concentrations of ZnO NP suspensions (control, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10mg/L) or their respective centrifuged supernatants (0.03, 0.01, 0.08, 0.17, 0.75, and 1.21mg/L dissolved Zn ions measured) until reaching free swimming stage. Exposure to ZnO NP suspensions and their respective centrifuged supernatants caused similar hatching delay, but did not cause larval mortality or malformation. Larval activity level, mean velocity, and maximum velocity were altered in the groups exposed to high concentrations of ZnO NP (5-10mg/L) but not in the larvae exposed to the supernatants. To evaluate possible mechanism of observed effects caused by ZnO NP, we also manipulated the antioxidant environment by co-exposure to an antioxidant compound (N-acetylcysteine, NAC) or an antioxidant molecule suppressor (buthionine sulfoximine, BSO) with 5mg/L ZnO NP. Co-exposure to NAC did not alter the effects of ZnO NP on hatchability, but co-exposure to BSO caused further hatching delay. For larval locomotor activity, co-exposure to NAC rescued the behavioral effect caused by ZnO NP, but co-exposure to BSO did not exacerbate the effect. Our data indicated that toxicity of ZnO NP cannot be solely explained by dissolved Zn ions, and oxidative stress may involve in ZnO NP toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Probiotics Can Induce Follicle Maturational Competence: The Danio rerio Case1

    PubMed Central

    Gioacchini, Giorgia; Giorgini, Elisabetta; Merrifield, Daniel L.; Hardiman, Gary; Borini, Andrea; Vaccari, Lisa; Carnevali, Oliana

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the present study, the effects of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501 on the acquisition of oocyte maturational competence was examined in zebrafish (Danio rerio). L. rhamnosus administration induced the responsiveness of incompetent follicles (stage IIIa) to 17,20-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one and their in vitro maturation. Acquisition of competence by the stage IIIa follicles was further validated by changes of lhr, mprb, inhbaa (activin betaA1), tgfb1, and gdf9 gene expression, which have recently emerged as key regulators of oocyte acquisition of maturational competence, and pou5f1 gene expression, which in other models has been shown to govern the establishment of developmental competence of oocytes. In addition, a DNA microarray experiment was conducted using the same follicles, and with relative gene ontology (GO) data analysis, the molecular effects of probiotic administration emerged. Molecular analysis using PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) approach, providing information about only the most abundant bacterial members of the microbial community, revealed that the probiotic was able to populate the gastrointestinal tract and modulate the microbial communities, causing a clear shift in them and specifically enhancing the presence of the lactic acid bacteria Streptococcus thermophilus. At the same time, PCR-DGGE analysis revealed that the probiotic was not directly associated with the ovaries. Finally, the effects of probiotic treatment on zebrafish follicle development were also analyzed by FPA (focal plane array) Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) imaging, a technique that provides the overall biochemical composition of samples. Changes were found above all in stage IIIa follicles from probiotic-exposed females; the modifications, observed in protein secondary structures as well as in hydration and in bands related to phosphate moieties, allowed us to hypothesize that probiotics act at this follicle stage, affecting the

  10. Role of endogenous carbon monoxide in the control of breathing in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Tzaneva, Velislava; Perry, Steve F

    2016-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gaseous signaling molecule and is produced in vivo from the intracellular breakdown of heme via the heme oxygenase (HO) family of enzymes. In this study we investigated the role of the HO-1/CO system in the control of ventilation in zebrafish, Danio rerio Immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of HO-1 in the chemoreceptive neuroepithelial cells (NECs) of larvae (4 days postfertilization) and adults, indicating the potential for endogenous CO production in the NECs. Hypoxia (20 min, water Po 2 of 30 mmHg) caused a significant increase in HO-1 activity in whole larvae and in the gills of adult fish. Zebrafish with reduced HO-1 activity (via HO-1 knockdown in larvae or zinc protoporphyrin IX treatment in adults) exhibited increased ventilation frequency (V f ) under normoxic but not hypoxic conditions. The addition of exogenous CO restored resting V f in fish with diminished CO production, and in some cases (e.g., hypoxic sham larvae) CO modestly reduced V f below resting levels. Larval fish were treated with phenylhydrazine (PHZ) to eliminate the potential confounding effects of CO-hemoglobin interactions that might influence ventilation. PHZ treatment did not cause changes in V f of normoxic larvae, and the addition of CO to PHZ-exposed larvae resulted in a significant decrease in sham and HO-1-deficient fish under normoxic conditions. This study demonstrates for the first time that CO plays an inhibitory role in the control of breathing in larval and adult zebrafish. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Pseudoloma neurophilia infections in zebrafish Danio rerio: effects of stress on survival, growth, and reproduction.

    Ramsay, J.M.; Watral, Virginia G.; Schreck, C.B.; Kent, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Pseudoloma neurophilia (Microsporidia) is a common disease of zebrafish Danio rerio, including those used as research models. We conducted a study comprised of 4 separate experiments to determine the effects of husbandry stress on preexisting and experimental P. neurophilia infections and the subsequent effects on survival, infection onset and intensity, fish growth, and reproduction. In fish (AB strain) with preexisting infections, stress or feeding cortisol significantly increased mortality over 7 wk compared to no stress or cortisol treatment. In contrast, no mortality was observed in fish (TL strain) experimentally exposed to P. neurophilia over 10 wk. A third experiment involved experimental exposure of AB fish to P. neurophilia and exposure to crowding and handling stressors. No mortality was associated with P. neurophilia regardless of stress treatment over a period of 20 wk. However, the onset of infection occurred sooner in stress-treated fish. Stress significantly increased the mean intensity of infection (described as xenoma area/spinal cord area in histological sections) at Week 20 post-exposure (PE). In fish with preexisting infections, myositis was significantly greater in stressed and cortisol-treated fish than those not stressed. With experimental exposure of AB fish, stressed and infected groups weighed significantly less than the control group at Week 20 PE. Regarding fecundity, the number of larvae hatched at 5 d post fertilization was negatively associated with mean infection intensity among P. neurophilia-infected and stressed AB fish. These experiments are the first to show empirically that P. neurophilia can be associated with reduced weight and fecundity, and that stress can exacerbate the severity of the infection.

  12. Effects of atrazine on cytochrome P450 enzymes of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiaoli; Zhu, Lusheng; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Jun; Xie, Hui; Hou, Xinxin; Jia, Wentao

    2009-10-01

    In this study, the effects of atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine) in males and females of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were studied. The liver microsomal cytochrome P450 content, NADPH-P450 reductase, aminopyrine N-demethylase (APND), and erythromycin N-demethylase (ERND) activity were measured. Zebrafish were exposed to control and 3 treatments (0.01, 0.1, and 1 mg L(-1)) of atrazine for 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 days. The results indicated that, within the range of test atrazine concentrations, either P450 content or P450 isozyme activities could be induced by atrazine. Compared to controls, P450 content was significantly increased at all atrazine concentrations at days 10, 15, and 20; thereafter, at day 25, all concentrations decreased to approximately the control levels, both in males and females. In addition, the strongest induction of P450 content was observed on day 15 in males and day 10 in females at treatment concentrations of 1 mg L(-1). NADPH-P450 reductase activities showed mild increase in males; however, the females exhibited significant induction on days 15, 20, and 25; especially, at concentrations of 0.01 mg L(-1), the induction level was consistently increased during the experiment. The inducements of APND and ERND in males were mainly observed on the days 5, 10, and 15, which showed less distinct induction, while significant induction was observed in cases of treatments during all days in females. In conclusion, atrazine induces P450 enzymes in zebrafish, and the effects may function as significant toxicity mechanisms in zebrafish. Additionally, it also confirms the importance of using a combined multi-time and multi-index diagnostic method to enhance the sensitivity and effectiveness of the indices adopted.

  13. Molecular aspect of silver nanoparticles regulated embryonic development in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) by Oct-4 expression.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Biplab; Verma, Suresh K; Akhtar, Javed; Netam, Surya Prakash; Gupta, Sanjay Kr; Panda, Pritam Kumar; Mukherjee, Koel

    2018-09-01

    With the enhancement of commercial manifestation of silver nanoparticles, concerned has risen on their accumulation in aquatic system and consequent effects on fish development and metabolism. In this study, experiments were conducted to assess the impacts of silver nanoparticles on early life cycles of fish considering Zebrafish (Danio rerio) as experimental model. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized through chemical reduction method and characterized through UV-visible spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and HR-TEM. Different sub lethal doses of nanosilver were applied (13.6, 21.6, 42.4, 64, and 128 μgL -1 ) to post-fertilization phases of Zebrafish embryos and their interaction effects were monitored up to six days period. No significant morphological variations were observed at 13.6, 21.6, 42.4 μgL -1 dose of silver nanoparticles, whereas 64 and 128 μgL -1 exposure dose exhibited bending in myotome, deformity in tail region, somites, notochord and swelling in anterior and posterior region of embryos and larva. Hatching performances analysis elicited highest hatching success in 13.6 and 21.6 μgL -1 doses of silver nanoparticles followed by positive and negative control, whereas exposure dose of 64 and 128 μgL -1 exhibited comparatively lower success. Western blot analysis were conducted on developing hatchlings with Oct4 antibody and at 13.6 and 21.6 μgL -1 dose,it showed over expression elucidating stimulatory role of nanosilver in these mentioned doses. In silico analysis depicted a firm interaction of nanosilver with Oct4 revealing their key role in growth stimulation of developing embryos. The study demonstrates the function of nanosilver as a growth promoter rather only as a toxicant in fish metabolic system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bisphenol S exposure impairs glucose homeostasis in male zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fei; Jiang, Guobin; Wei, Penghao; Wang, Hongfang; Ru, Shaoguo

    2018-01-01

    Bisphenol S (BPS) is a substitute of the plastic additive bisphenol A (BPA). Its concentrations detected in surface waters and urine samples are on the same order of magnitude as BPA. Human exposure to BPA has been implicated in the development of diabetes mellitus; however, whether BPS can disrupt glucose homeostasis and increase blood glucose concentration remains unclear. We extensively investigated the effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of BPS on glucose metabolism in male zebrafish (Danio rerio) and the underlying mechanisms of these effects. Male zebrafish were exposed to 1, 10, or 100μg/L of BPS for 28 d. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels, glycogen levels in the liver and muscle, and mRNA levels of key glucose metabolic enzymes and the activities of the encoded proteins in tissues were evaluated to assess the effect of BPS on glucose metabolism. Plasma insulin levels and expression of preproinsulin and glucagon genes in the visceral tissue were also evaluated. Compared with the control group, exposure to 1 and 10μg/L of BPS significantly increased FBG levels but decreased insulin levels. Gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis in the liver were promoted, and glycogen synthesis in the liver and muscle and glycolysis in the muscle were inhibited. Exposure to 100μg/L of BPS did not significantly alter plasma insulin and blood glucose levels, but nonetheless pronouncedly interfered with gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis, glycolysis, and glycogen synthesis. Our data indicates that BPS at environmentally relevant concentrations impairs glucose homeostasis of male zebrafish possibly by hampering the physiological effect of insulin; higher BPS doses also pronouncedly interfered with glucose metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Combinatorial effects of zinc deficiency and arsenic exposure on zebrafish (Danio rerio) development

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Lisa; Barton, Carrie L.; Chase, Tyler T.; Gonnerman, Greg D.; Wong, Carmen P.; Tanguay, Robert L.; Ho, Emily

    2017-01-01

    Zinc deficiency and chronic low level exposures to inorganic arsenic in drinking water are both significant public health concerns that affect millions of people including pregnant women. These two conditions can co-exist in the human population but little is known about their interaction, and in particular, whether zinc deficiency sensitizes individuals to arsenic exposure and toxicity, especially during critical windows of development. To address this, we utilized the Danio rerio (zebrafish) model to test the hypothesis that parental zinc deficiency sensitizes the developing embryo to low-concentration arsenic toxicity, leading to altered developmental outcomes. Adult zebrafish were fed defined zinc deficient and zinc adequate diets and were spawned resulting in zinc adequate and zinc deficient embryos. The embryos were treated with environmentally relevant concentrations of 0, 50, and 500 ppb arsenic. Arsenic exposure significantly reduced the amount of zinc in the developing embryo by ~7%. The combination of zinc deficiency and low-level arsenic exposures did not sensitize the developing embryo to increased developmental malformations or mortality. The combination did cause a 40% decline in physical activity of the embryos, and this decline was significantly greater than what was observed with zinc deficiency or arsenic exposure alone. Significant changes in RNA expression of genes that regulate zinc homeostasis, response to oxidative stress and insulin production (including zip1, znt7, nrf2, ogg1, pax4, and insa) were found in zinc deficient, or zinc deficiency and arsenic exposed embryos. Overall, the data suggests that the combination of zinc deficiency and arsenic exposure has harmful effects on the developing embryo and may increase the risk for developing chronic diseases like diabetes. PMID:28837703

  16. Single and joint toxicity assessment of four currently used pesticides to zebrafish (Danio rerio) using traditional and molecular endpoints.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhua; Wu, Shenggan; Chen, Jine; Zhang, Changpeng; Xu, Zhenlan; Li, Gang; Cai, Leiming; Shen, Weifeng; Wang, Qiang

    2018-02-01

    Pesticides usually present in mixtures in surface waters, although they are traditionally regulated on an individual basis in aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we aimed to investigate the lethal and transcriptional responses of individual and combined pesticides (iprodione, pyrimethanil, pyraclostrobin and acetamiprid) on zebrafish (Danio rerio). Semi-static toxicity test indicated that the greatest toxicity to the four life stages (embryonic, larval, juvenile and adult stages) of D. rerio was detected from pyraclostrobin, followed by iprodione and pyrimethanil. In contrast, the lowest toxicity to the organisms was found from acetamiprid. Most of the selected pesticides exerted greater toxicities to D. rerio of embryonic stage compared with other life stages. Synergistic responses were observed from all binary mixtures of iprodione in combination with pyrimethanil or acetamiprid and ternary mixtures of iprodione+pyraclostrobin in combination with pyrimethanil or acetamiprid. The expressions of 16 genes related to cell apoptosis pathway, oxidative stress response, innate immunity and endocrine disruption at the mRNA level showed that zebrafish embryos were affected by the individual or combined pesticides. The expressions of P53, Tnf, TRβ, Tsh and Cyp19a exhibited greater changes upon exposure to combined pesticides compared with individual pesticides. Taken together, increased toxicity might be triggered by the simultaneous presence of several pesticides in the aquatic environment, which seriously damaged the non-target organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Quercetin, a natural product supplement, impairs mitochondrial bioenergetics and locomotor behavior in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji-Liang; Laurence Souders, Christopher; Denslow, Nancy D; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2017-07-15

    Quercetin is a natural product that is sold as a supplement in health food stores. While there are reported benefits for this flavonoid as a dietary supplement due to antioxidant properties, the full scope of its biological interactions has not been fully addressed. To learn more about the mechanisms of action related to quercetin, we exposed zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos to 1 and 10μg/L quercetin for 96h starting at 3h post fertilization. Quercetin up to 10μg/L did not induce significant mortality in developing fish, but did increase prevalence of an upward-curved dorsal plane in hatched larvae. To determine whether this developmental defect was potentially related to mitochondrial bioenergetics during development, we measured oxygen consumption rate in whole embryos following a 24-hour exposure to quercetin. Basal mitochondrial and ATP-linked respiration were decreased at 1 and 10μg/L quercetin, and maximal respiration was decreased at 10μg/L quercetin, suggesting that quercetin impairs mitochondrial bioenergetics. This is proposed to be related to the deformities observed during development. Due to the fact that ATP production was affected by quercetin, larval behaviors related to locomotion were investigated, as well as transcriptional responses of six myogenesis transcripts. Quercetin at 10μg/L significantly reduced the swimming velocity of zebrafish larvae. The expression levels of both myostatin A (mstna) and myogenic differentiation (myoD) were also altered by quercetin. Mstna, an inhibitory factor for myogenesis, was significantly increased at 1μg/L quercetin exposure, while myoD, a stimulatory factor for myogenesis, was significantly increased at 10μg/L quercetin exposure. There were no changes in transcripts related to apoptosis (bcl2, bax, casp3, casp7), but we did observe a decrease in mRNA levels for catalase (cat) in fish exposed to each dose, supporting an oxidative stress response. Our data support the hypothesis that quercetin may affect

  18. Thyroid hormone regulates muscle function during cold acclimation in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Little, Alexander G; Seebacher, Frank

    2013-09-15

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is a universal regulator of growth, development and metabolism during cold exposure in mammals. In zebrafish (Danio rerio), TH regulates locomotor performance and metabolism during cold acclimation. The influence of TH on locomotor performance may be via its effect on metabolism or, as has been shown in mammals, by modulating muscle phenotypes. Our aim was to determine whether TH influences muscle phenotypes in zebrafish, and whether this could explain changes in swimming capacity in response to thermal acclimation. We used propylthiouracil and iopanoic acid to induce hypothyroidism in zebrafish over a 3-week acclimation period to either 18 or 28°C. To verify that physiological changes following hypothyroid treatment were in fact due to the action of TH, we supplemented hypothyroid fish with 3,5-diiodothryronine (T2) or 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3). Cold-acclimated fish had significantly greater sustained swimming performance (Ucrit) but not burst speed. Greater Ucrit was accompanied by increased tail beat frequency, but there was no change in tail beat amplitude. Hypothyroidism significantly decreased Ucrit and burst performance, as well as tail beat frequency and SERCA activity in cold-acclimated fish. However, myofibrillar ATPase activity increased in cold-acclimated hypothyroid fish. Hypothyroid treatment also decreased mRNA concentrations of myosin heavy chain fast isoforms and SERCA 1 isoform in cold-acclimated fish. SERCA 1 mRNA increased in warm-acclimated hypothyroid fish, and SERCA 3 mRNA decreased in both cold- and warm-acclimated hypothyroid fish. Supplementation with either T2 or T3 restored Ucrit, burst speed, tail beat frequency, SERCA activity and myosin heavy chain and SERCA 1 and 3 mRNA levels of hypothyroid fish back to control levels. We show that in addition to regulating development and metabolism in vertebrates, TH also regulates muscle physiology in ways that affect locomotor performance in fish. We suggest that the

  19. Response mechanisms to joint exposure of triclosan and its chlorinated derivatives on zebrafish (Danio rerio) behavior.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinfeng; Sun, Limei; Zhang, Hongqin; Shi, Mengru; Dahlgren, Randy A; Wang, Xuedong; Wang, Huili

    2018-02-01

    Triclosan (TCS), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) frequently co-exist in real-world aquatic environments; the latter two contaminants contributing to TCS photolytic products or chlorinated derivatives. There is a paucity of information regarding their joint toxicity to aquatic organisms leading us to study their effects on the swimming behavior of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Herein, we reported that 0.28 mg/L TDT exposure (mixtures of TCS, 2,4,6-TCP and 2,4-DCP) enhanced 24-hpf embryonic spontaneous movement frequency, 96-hpf larval activity; however, the 0.56 and 1.12 mg/L TDT treatments decreased all of these behavioral endpoints. All adult behavioral tests demonstrated that chronic TDT exposure (0.14 mg/L) led to hyperactivity and restlessness in adult zebrafish. A 0.14 mg/L TD DATE /@ "M/d/yyyy" 11/21/2017T treatment led to anxiety-like behavior in a bottom dwelling test and excessive panic and low hedging capacity in a conditioned place preference test. Social interaction test demonstrated that zebrafish preferred quiet and isolated space in response to TDT stress. Zebrafish memory was significantly decreased in a T-maze experiment. Whole mount in situ hybridization of pax2a and bcl2l11 genes revealed that their differential expression in the brain and skeleton were related to the corresponding phenotypic behavioral abnormality. A series of biomarker and estrogen receptor assays demonstrated that TDT acute exposure caused abnormal energy metabolism and neurological diseases. AO staining revealed that TDT exposure produced vascular ablation in the head, as well as the occurrence of massive apoptosis in the brain. TEM observation showed pyknosis of nucleus following TDT exposure. These results allow assessment of mechanisms for zebrafish abnormal behavior in response to TDT exposure, and are useful for early intervention and gene therapy of contaminant-induced diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cardiac and Metabolic Physiology of Early Larval Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Reflects Parental Swimming Stamina

    PubMed Central

    Gore, Matthew; Burggren, Warren W.

    2012-01-01

    Swimming stamina in adult fish is heritable, it is unknown if inherited traits that support enhanced swimming stamina in offspring appear only in juveniles and/or adults, or if these traits actually appear earlier in the morphologically quite different larvae. To answer this question, mature adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were subjected to a swimming performance test that allowed separation into low swimming stamina or high swimming stamina groups. Adults were then bred within their own performance groups. Larval offspring from each of the two groups, designated high (LHSD) and low stamina-derived larvae (LLSD), were then reared at 27°C in aerated water (21% O2). Routine (fH,r) and active (fH,a) heart rate, and routine (Ṁo2,r) and active (Ṁo2,a) mass-specific oxygen consumption were recorded from 5 days post fertilization (dpf) through 21 dpf, and gross cost of transport and factorial aerobic metabolic scope were derived from Ṁo2 measurements. Heart rate generally ranged between 150 and 225 bpm in both LHSD and LLSD populations. However, significant (P < 0.05) differences existed between the LLSD and LHSD populations at 5 and 14 dpf in fH,r and at days 10 and 15 dpf in fH,a. Ṁo2,r was 0.04–0.32 μmol mg−1 h−1, while Ṁo2,a was 0.2–1.2 μmol mg−1 h−1. Significant (P < 0.05) differences between the LLSD and LHSD populations in Ṁo2,r occurred at 7, 10, and 21 dpf and in Ṁo2,a at 7 dpf. Gross cost of transport was ∼6–10 μmol O2·μg−1 m−1 at 5 dpf, peaking at 14–19 μmol O2 μg−1 m−1 at 7–10 dpf, before falling again to 5–6 μmol O2 μg−1 m−1 at 21 dpf, with gross cost of transport significantly higher in the LLSD population at 7 dpf. Collectively, these data indicate that inherited physiological differences known to contribute to enhanced stamina in adult parents also appear in their larval offspring well before attainment of juvenile or adult features. PMID

  1. Cardiac and Metabolic Physiology of Early Larval Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Reflects Parental Swimming Stamina.

    PubMed

    Gore, Matthew; Burggren, Warren W

    2012-01-01

    Swimming stamina in adult fish is heritable, it is unknown if inherited traits that support enhanced swimming stamina in offspring appear only in juveniles and/or adults, or if these traits actually appear earlier in the morphologically quite different larvae. To answer this question, mature adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were subjected to a swimming performance test that allowed separation into low swimming stamina or high swimming stamina groups. Adults were then bred within their own performance groups. Larval offspring from each of the two groups, designated high (L(HSD)) and low stamina-derived larvae (L(LSD)), were then reared at 27°C in aerated water (21% O(2)). Routine (f(H),r) and active (f(H),a) heart rate, and routine [Formula: see text] and active [Formula: see text] mass-specific oxygen consumption were recorded from 5 days post fertilization (dpf) through 21 dpf, and gross cost of transport and factorial aerobic metabolic scope were derived from [Formula: see text] measurements. Heart rate generally ranged between 150 and 225 bpm in both L(HSD) and L(LSD) populations. However, significant (P < 0.05) differences existed between the L(LSD) and L(HSD) populations at 5 and 14 dpf in f(H),r and at days 10 and 15 dpf in f(H),a. [Formula: see text] was 0.04-0.32 μmol mg(-1) h(-1), while [Formula: see text] was 0.2-1.2 μmol mg(-1) h(-1). Significant (P < 0.05) differences between the L(LSD) and L(HSD) populations in [Formula: see text] occurred at 7, 10, and 21 dpf and in [Formula: see text] at 7 dpf. Gross cost of transport was ∼6-10 μmol O(2)·μg(-1) m(-1) at 5 dpf, peaking at 14-19 μmol O(2) μg(-1) m(-1) at 7-10 dpf, before falling again to 5-6 μmol O(2) μg(-1) m(-1) at 21 dpf, with gross cost of transport significantly higher in the L(LSD) population at 7 dpf. Collectively, these data indicate that inherited physiological differences known to contribute to enhanced stamina in adult

  2. Danio rerio embryos on Prozac - Effects on the detoxification mechanism and embryo development.

    PubMed

    Cunha, V; Rodrigues, P; Santos, M M; Moradas-Ferreira, P; Ferreira, M

    2016-09-01

    In the past decade the presence of psychopharmaceuticals, including fluoxetine (FLU), in the aquatic environment has been associated with the increasing trend in human consumption of these substances. Aquatic organisms are usually exposed to chronic low doses and, therefore, risk assessments should evaluate the effects of these compounds in non-target organisms. Teleost fish possess an array of active defence mechanisms to cope with the deleterious effects of xenobiotics. These include ABC transporters, phase I and II of cellular detoxification and oxidative stress enzymes. Hence, the present study aimed at characterising the effect of FLU on embryo development of the model teleost zebrafish (Danio rerio) concomitantly with changes in the detoxification mechanisms during early developmental phases. Embryos were exposed to different concentrations of FLU (0.0015, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 0.8μM) for 80hours post fertilization. Development was screened and the impact in the transcription of key genes, i.e., abcb4, abcc1, abcc2, abcg2, cyp1a, cyp3a65, gst, sod, cat, ahr, pxr, pparα, pparβ, pparγ, rxraa, rxrab, rxrbb, rxrga, rxrgb, raraa, rarab, rarga evaluated. In addition, accumulation assays were performed to measure the activity of ABC proteins and antioxidant enzymes (CAT and Cu/ZnSOD) after exposure to FLU. Embryo development was disrupted at the lowest FLU concentration tested (0.0015μM), which is in the range of concentrations found in WWTP effluents. Embryos exposed to higher concentrations of FLU decreased Cu/Zn SOD, and increased CAT (0.0015 and 0.5μM) enzymatic activity. Exposure to higher concentrations of FLU decreased the expression of most genes belonging to the detoxification system and upregulated cat at 0.0015μM of FLU. Most of the tested concentrations downregulated pparα, pparβ, pparγ, and raraa, rxraa, rxrab, rxrbb rxrgb and ahr gene expression while pxr was significantly up regulated at all tested concentrations. In conclusion, this study

  3. Relative developmental toxicity of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lihua; Li, Yifan; Coelhan, Mehmet; Chan, Hing Man; Ma, Wanli; Liu, Liyan

    2016-12-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are ubiquitous in the environment and might cause adverse environmental and human health effects. Little is known about the relative toxicity of different SCCP compounds especially during development. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare effects of seven SCCP groups at environmentally relevant levels, using a zebrafish (Danio rerio) model. Observations on malformation, survival rates at 96 h post fertilization (hpf), and hatching rates at 72 hpf indicated that the C 10- groups (C 10 H 18 Cl 4 , 1,2,5,6,9,10-C 10 H 16 Cl 6 and C 10 H 15 Cl 7 ) were more toxic than the C 12- groups (C 12 H 22 Cl 4 , C 12 H 19 Cl 7 and 1,1,1,3,10,12,12,12-C 12 H 18 Cl 8 ) and Cereclor 63L. The C 10- groups were also more potent than C 12- groups and Cereclor 63L in decreasing thyroid hormone levels. Among the three compounds within the C 10- group, the compounds with less chlorine content had stronger effects on sub-lethal malformations but less effects on triiodothyronine (T3) and tetraiodothyronine (T4). Only C 10 H 18 Cl 4 significantly decreased the mRNA expression of tyr, ttr, dio2 and dio3 at a dose-dependent manner suggesting that the specific mode of actions differ with different congeners. The mechanisms of disruption of thyroid status by different SCCPs could be different. C 10 H 18 Cl 4 might inhibit T3 production through the inhibition effect on dio2. These results indicate that SCCP exposure could alter gene expression in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis and thyroid hormone levels. The mechanisms of disruption of thyroid status by different SCCPs could be different. Our results on the relative developmental toxicities of SCCPs will be useful to reach a better understanding of SCCP toxicity supporting environmental risk evaluation and regulation and used as a guidance for environmental monitoring of SCCPs in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of the UV filter benzophenone-3 (oxybenzone) at low concentrations in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    SciT

    Blüthgen, Nancy; University of Basel, Division of Molecular and Systems Toxicology, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Klingelbergstrasse 50, CH-4056 Basel; Zucchi, Sara

    Organic UV filters including benzophenone-3 (BP-3) are widely used to protect humans and materials from damage by UV irradiation. Despite the environmental occurrence of BP-3 in the aquatic environment, little is known about its effects and modes of action. In the present study we assess molecular and physiological effects of BP-3 in adult male zebrafish (Danio rerio) and in eleuthero-embryos by a targeted gene expression approach focusing on the sex hormone system. Fish and embryos are exposed for 14 days and 120 hours post fertilization, respectively, to 2.4–312 μg/L and 8.2–438 μg/L BP-3. Chemical analysis of water and fish demonstratesmore » that BP-3 is partly transformed to benzophenone-1 (BP-1) and both compounds are accumulated in adult fish. Biotransformation to BP-1 is absent in eleuthero-embryos. BP-3 exposure leads to similar alterations of gene expression in both adult fish and eleuthero-embryos. In the brain of adult males esr1, ar and cyp19b are down-regulated at 84 μg/L BP-3. There is no induction of vitellogenin expression by BP-3, both at the transcriptional and protein level. An overall down-regulation of the hsd3b, hsd17b3, hsd11b2 and cyp11b2 transcripts is observed in the testes, suggesting an antiandrogenic activity. No histological changes were observed in the testes after BP-3 treatment. The study leads to the conclusion that low concentrations of BP-3 exhibit similar multiple hormonal activities at the transcription level in two different life stages of zebrafish. Forthcoming studies should show whether this translates to additional physiological effects. Highlights: ► Activity of UV filter benzophenone-3 (BP-3) is assessed in zebrafish. ► BP-3 is partly metabolized to benzophenone-1 by adult fish but not embryos. ► Alterations of gene expression are similar in adult males and embryos. ► Gene expression alterations point to multiple hormonal activity of BP-3.« less

  5. Chronic effects of clofibric acid in zebrafish (Danio rerio): a multigenerational study.

    PubMed

    Coimbra, Ana M; Peixoto, Maria João; Coelho, Inês; Lacerda, Ricardo; Carvalho, António Paulo; Gesto, Manuel; Lyssimachou, Angeliki; Lima, Daniela; Soares, Joana; André, Ana; Capitão, Ana; Castro, Luís Filipe C; Santos, Miguel M

    2015-03-01

    Clofibric acid (CA) is an active metabolite of the blood lipid lowering agent clofibrate, a pharmaceutical designed to work as agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa). It is the most commonly reported fibrate in aquatic environments with low degradation rate and potential environmental persistence. Previous fish exposures showed that CA may impact spermatogenesis, growth and the expression of fat binding protein genes. However, there are limited data on the effects of chronic multigenerational CA exposures. Here, we assessed chronic multigenerational effects of CA exposure using zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a teleost model. Zebrafish were exposed through the diet to CA (1 and 10mg/g) during their whole lifetime. Growth, reproduction-related parameters and embryonic development were assessed in the exposed fish (F1 generation) and their offspring (F2 generation), together with muscle triglyceride content and gonad histology. In order to study the potential underlying mechanisms, the transcription levels of genes coding for enzymes involved in lipid metabolism pathways were determined. The results show that chronic life-cycle exposure to CA induced a significant reduction in growth of F1 generation and lowered triglyceride muscle content (10mg/g group). Also, an impact in male gonad development was observed together with a decrease in the fecundity (10mg/g group) and higher frequency of embryo abnormalities in the offspring of fish exposed to the lowest CA dose. The profile of the target genes was sex- and tissue-dependent. In F1 an up-regulation of male hepatic pparaa, pparb and acox transcript levels was observed, suggesting an activation of the fatty acid metabolism (provided that transcript level change indicates also a protein level change). Interestingly, the F2 generation, raised with control diet, displayed a response pattern different from that observed in F1, showing an increase in weight in the descendants of CA exposed fish, in

  6. Identification and characterization of a novel zebrafish (Danio rerio) pentraxin-carbonic anhydrase.

    PubMed

    Patrikainen, Maarit S; Tolvanen, Martti E E; Aspatwar, Ashok; Barker, Harlan R; Ortutay, Csaba; Jänis, Janne; Laitaoja, Mikko; Hytönen, Vesa P; Azizi, Latifeh; Manandhar, Prajwol; Jáger, Edit; Vullo, Daniela; Kukkurainen, Sampo; Hilvo, Mika; Supuran, Claudiu T; Parkkila, Seppo

    2017-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are ubiquitous, essential enzymes which catalyze the conversion of carbon dioxide and water to bicarbonate and H + ions. Vertebrate genomes generally contain gene loci for 15-21 different CA isoforms, three of which are enzymatically inactive. CA VI is the only secretory protein of the enzymatically active isoforms. We discovered that non-mammalian CA VI contains a C-terminal pentraxin (PTX) domain, a novel combination for both CAs and PTXs. We isolated and sequenced zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) CA VI cDNA, complete with the sequence coding for the PTX domain, and produced the recombinant CA VI-PTX protein. Enzymatic activity and kinetic parameters were measured with a stopped-flow instrument. Mass spectrometry, analytical gel filtration and dynamic light scattering were used for biophysical characterization. Sequence analyses and Bayesian phylogenetics were used in generating hypotheses of protein structure and CA VI gene evolution. A CA VI-PTX antiserum was produced, and the expression of CA VI protein was studied by immunohistochemistry. A knock-down zebrafish model was constructed, and larvae were observed up to five days post-fertilization (dpf). The expression of ca6 mRNA was quantitated by qRT-PCR in different developmental times in morphant and wild-type larvae and in different adult fish tissues. Finally, the swimming behavior of the morphant fish was compared to that of wild-type fish. The recombinant enzyme has a very high carbonate dehydratase activity. Sequencing confirms a 530-residue protein identical to one of the predicted proteins in the Ensembl database (ensembl.org). The protein is pentameric in solution, as studied by gel filtration and light scattering, presumably joined by the PTX domains. Mass spectrometry confirms the predicted signal peptide cleavage and disulfides, and N-glycosylation in two of the four observed glycosylation motifs. Molecular modeling of the pentamer is consistent with the modifications observed in

  7. Gene knockdown by morpholino-modified oligonucleotides in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) model: applications for developmental toxicology.

    PubMed

    Timme-Laragy, Alicia R; Karchner, Sibel I; Hahn, Mark E

    2012-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has long been used as a model for developmental biology, making it an excellent model to use also in developmental toxicology. The many advantages of zebrafish include their small size, prolific spawning, rapid development, and transparent embryos. They can be easily manipulated genetically through the use of transgenic technology and gene knockdown via morpholino-modified antisense oligonucleotides (MOs). Knocking down specific genes to assess their role in the response to toxicant exposure provides a way to further our knowledge of how developmental toxicants work on a molecular and mechanistic level while establishing a relationship between these molecular events and morphological, behavioral, and/or physiological effects (i.e., phenotypic anchoring). In this chapter, we address important considerations for using MOs to study developmental toxicology in zebrafish embryos and provide a protocol for their use.

  8. Carbon nanopowder acts as a Trojan-horse for benzo(α)pyrene in Danio rerio embryos.

    PubMed

    Binelli, A; Del Giacco, L; Santo, N; Bini, L; Magni, S; Parolini, M; Madaschi, L; Ghilardi, A; Maggioni, D; Ascagni, M; Armini, A; Prosperi, L; Landi, C; La Porta, C; Della Torre, C

    2017-04-01

    Carbon-based nanoparticles (CBNs) are largely distributed worldwide due to fossil fuel combustion and their presence in many consumer products. In addition to their proven toxicological effects in several biological models, attention in recent years has focussed on the role played by CBNs as Trojan-horse carriers for adsorbed environmental pollutants. This role has not been conclusively determined to date because CBNs can decrease the bioavailability of contaminants or represent an additional source of intake. Herein, we evaluated the intake, transport and distribution of one of the carbon-based powders, the so-called carbon nanopowder (CNPW), and benzo(α)pyrene, when administered alone and in co-exposure to Danio rerio embryos. Data obtained by means of advanced microscopic techniques illustrated that the "particle-specific" effect induced a modification in the accumulation of benzo(α)pyrene, which is forced to follow the distribution of the physical pollutant instead of its natural bioaccumulation. The combined results from functional proteomics and gene transcription analysis highlighted the different biochemical pathways involved in the action of the two different contaminants administered alone and when bound together. In particular, we observed a clear change in several proteins involved in the homeostatic response to hypoxia only after exposure to the CNPW or co-exposure to the mixture, whereas exposure to benzo(α)pyrene alone mainly modified structural proteins. The entire dataset suggested a Trojan-horse mechanism involved in the biological impacts on Danio rerio embryos especially due to different bioaccumulation pathways and cellular targets.

  9. Investigation of a Brazilian tannery effluent by means of zebra fish (Danio rerio) embryo acute toxicity (FET) test.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Otávio Pelegrino; De Oliveira, Danielle Palma

    2017-01-01

    Tannery effluents consist of a complex chemical composition not only limited to primary pollutants, which also require biological detection as these compounds may produce adverse effects. The fish embryo toxicity (FET) test with Danio rerio is an alternative method in hazard and risk assessment for determination of chemical-mediated effects. The aim of this investigation was to use the FET test to detect compounds and consequent effects in Brazilian tannery effluents. Samples were collected from the inlet and outlet of the effluent treatment plant at a tannery located in Restinga, São Paulo, Brazil. The toxicological effects were assessed using FET assay for a period of 144 hr using indices such as (1) coagulation of fertilized eggs, (2) lack of detachment of tail-bud from yolk sac, (3) absence of spontaneous movement, (4) yolk sack edema, (5) malformation of the tail, (6) scoliosis, and (7) deformation of swim bladder in the embryos. Data showed that effluent treatment plant exposure produced acute toxicity in D. rerio embryos as evidenced by coagulation of fertilized eggs in up to 5% of all diluted samples 24 hr post fertilization for inlet effluent samples compared to 100% coagulation for outlet samples. Results demonstrated that these effects may not be attributed to metals, but to other non-detected components, such as dyes, pigments, biocides, carriers, surfactants, or other organic compounds that might be present in these complex mixtures. The use of D. rerio embryos was found to be useful as an additional tool for ecotoxicity testing to assess the potential environmental acute toxicity influence of tannery effluents.

  10. Metagenomics approach to the study of the gut microbiome structure and function in zebrafish Danio rerio fed with gluten formulated diet.

    PubMed

    Koo, Hyunmin; Hakim, Joseph A; Powell, Mickie L; Kumar, Ranjit; Eipers, Peter G; Morrow, Casey D; Crowley, Michael; Lefkowitz, Elliot J; Watts, Stephen A; Bej, Asim K

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we report the gut microbial composition and predictive functional profiles of zebrafish, Danio rerio, fed with a control formulated diet (CFD), and a gluten formulated diet (GFD) using a metagenomics approach and bioinformatics tools. The microbial communities of the GFD-fed D. rerio displayed heightened abundances of Legionellales, Rhizobiaceae, and Rhodobacter, as compared to the CFD-fed counterparts. Predicted metagenomics of microbial communities (PICRUSt) in GFD-fed D. rerio showed KEGG functional categories corresponding to bile secretion, secondary bile acid biosynthesis, and the metabolism of glycine, serine, and threonine. The CFD-fed D. rerio exhibited KEGG functional categories of bacteria-mediated cobalamin biosynthesis, which was supported by the presence of cobalamin synthesizers such as Bacteroides and Lactobacillus. Though these bacteria were absent in GFD-fed D. rerio, a comparable level of the cobalamin biosynthesis KEGG functional category was observed, which could be contributed by the compensatory enrichment of Cetobacterium. Based on these results, we conclude D. rerio to be a suitable alternative animal model for the use of a targeted metagenomics approach along with bioinformatics tools to further investigate the relationship between the gluten diet and microbiome profile in the gut ecosystem leading to gastrointestinal diseases and other undesired adverse health effects. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Chronic exposure of μg/L range Bisphenol A to adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) leading to adipogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, Mai Thi; Doan, Thao Thi-Phuong; Nguyen, Cong Thanh; Vo, Diem Thi-Ngoc; Do, Chi Hong-Lan; Le, Nga Phi

    2017-09-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is known as an endocrine disruptor compound and commonly found in food-packaging plastics and in aquatic environment. It is scientifically concerned that BPA may causes significant health risks to human and aquatic animals. In fact, most of scientific studies have been conducted with BPA-acute toxicity in early stages of animal development, while far lesser researches have been focused on BPA-chronic toxicity in adults. This study was to investigate the chronic effects of environmental 1, 10 and 100 µg/L BPA to four-week-old zebrafishes (Danio rerio) after 60 days of exposure in terms of changing of body morphology, hepatocyte morphology and the transcriptional expression of biomarker gene for lipid metabolism. As a result, significant effects were found in: 1/ the increase of body weight, but not body length; 2/ the increase in the number of vacuolated hepatocytes corresponding to relatively higher glycogen and lipid content; 3/ shifting hepatocyte morphology to basophilic cytoplasm and cytoplasmic and/or nuclear enlargement, but not inflammation signs (macrophages, granuloma, fibrosis/cirrhosis); 4/ the decrease of mRNA level of PPARγ and C/EBPα genes in liver. Our study here indicates that the exposure to μg/L range concentration of BPA leads to adipogensis in adult zebrafishes.

  12. Bisphenol A causes reproductive toxicity, decreases dnmt1 transcription, and reduces global DNA methylation in breeding zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Laing, L. V.; Viana, J.; Dempster, E. L.; Trznadel, M.; Trunkfield, L. A.; Uren Webster, T. M.; van Aerle, R.; Paull, G. C.; Wilson, R. J.; Mill, J.; Santos, E. M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bisphenol A (BPA) is a commercially important high production chemical widely used in epoxy resins and polycarbonate plastics, and is ubiquitous in the environment. Previous studies demonstrated that BPA activates estrogenic signaling pathways associated with adverse effects on reproduction in vertebrates and that exposure can induce epigenetic changes. We aimed to investigate the reproductive effects of BPA in a fish model and to document its mechanisms of toxicity. We exposed breeding groups of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to 0.01, 0.1, and 1 mg/L BPA for 15 d. We observed a significant increase in egg production, together with a reduced rate of fertilization in fish exposed to 1 mg/L BPA, associated with significant alterations in the transcription of genes involved in reproductive function and epigenetic processes in both liver and gonad tissue at concentrations representing hotspots of environmental contamination (0.1 mg/L) and above. Of note, we observed reduced expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 (dnmt1) at environmentally relevant concentrations of BPA, along with a significant reduction in global DNA methylation, in testes and ovaries following exposure to 1 mg/L BPA. Our findings demonstrate that BPA disrupts reproductive processes in zebrafish, likely via estrogenic mechanisms, and that environmentally relevant concentrations of BPA are associated with altered transcription of key enzymes involved in DNA methylation maintenance. These findings provide evidence of the mechanisms of action of BPA in a model vertebrate and advocate for its reduction in the environment. PMID:27120497

  13. Screening of Toxic Effects of Bisphenol A and Products of Its Degradation: Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryo Test and Molecular Docking.

    PubMed

    Makarova, Katerina; Siudem, Pawel; Zawada, Katarzyna; Kurkowiak, Justyna

    2016-10-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) acts as an endocrine-disrupting compound even at a low concentration. Degradation of BPA could lead to the formation of toxic products. In this study, we compare the toxicity of BPA and seven intermediate products of its degradation. The accuracy of three molecular docking programs (Surflex, Autodock, and Autodock Vina) in predicting the binding affinities of selected compounds to human (ERα, ERβ, and ERRγ) and zebrafish (ERα, ERRγA, and ERRγB) estrogen and estrogen-related receptors was evaluated. The docking experiments showed that 4-isopropylphenol could have similar toxicity to that of BPA due to its high affinity to ERRγ and ERRγB and high octanol-water partitioning coefficient. The least toxic compounds were hydroquinone and phenol. Those compounds as well as BPA were screened in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo test. 4-isopropylphenol had the strongest toxic effect on zebrafish embryos and caused 100% lethality shortly after exposure. BPA caused the delay in development, multiple deformations, and low heartbeats (30 bps), whereas hydroquinone had no impact on the development of the zebrafish embryo. Thus, the results of zebrafish screening are in good agreement with our docking experiment. The molecular docking could be used to screen the toxicity of other xenoestrogens and their products of degradation.

  14. Development of a flow-through system for the fish embryo toxicity test (FET) with the zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Lammer, E; Kamp, H G; Hisgen, V; Koch, M; Reinhard, D; Salinas, E R; Wendler, K; Zok, S; Braunbeck, Th

    2009-10-01

    The acute fish test is still a mandatory component in chemical hazard and risk assessment. However, one of the objectives of the new European chemicals policy (REACH - Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals) is to promote non-animal testing. For whole effluent testing in Germany, the fish embryo toxicity test (FET) with the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been an accepted and mandatory replacement of the fish test since January 2005. For chemical testing, however, further optimization of the FET is required to improve the correlation between the acute fish test and the alternative FET. Since adsorption of the test chemical to surfaces may reduce available exposure concentrations, a flow-through system for the FET using modified commercially available polystyrene 24-well microtiter plates was developed, thus combining the advantages of the standard FET with those of continuous delivery of test substances. The advantages of the design presented include: small test footprint, availability of adequate volumes of test solution for subsequent chemical analysis, and sufficient flow to compensate for effects of non-specific adsorption within 24h. The flow-through test system can also be utilized to conduct longer-term embryo larval fish tests, thus offering the possibility for teratogenicity testing.

  15. Enantio-alteration of gene transcription associated with bioconcentration in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to chiral PCB149

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Tingting; Cui, Feng; Mu, Pengqian; Yang, Yang; Xu, Nana; Yin, Zhiqiang; Jia, Qi; Yang, Shuming; Qiu, Jing; Wang, Chengju

    2016-01-01

    Enantioselective enrichment of chiral PCB149 (2,2’,3,4’,5’,6-hexachlorobiphenyl) was analysed in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to the racemate, (-)-PCB149, and (+)-PCB149. Greater enrichment of (-)-PCB149 compared to (+) PCB149 was observed following 0.5 ng/L exposure; however, as the exposure time and concentration increased, racemic enrichment was observed in adult fish exposed to the racemate. No biotransformation between the two isomers was observed in fish exposed to single enantiomers. When zebrafish were exposed to different forms of chiral PCB149, enantioselective expression of genes associated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was observed in brain and liver tissues and enantioselective correlations between bioconcentration and target gene expression levels were observed in brain and liver tissues. The strong positive correlations between expression levels of target genes (alox5a and alox12) and PCB149 bioconcentration suggest that prolonged exposure to the racemate of chiral PCB149 may result in inflammation-associated diseases. Prolonged exposure to (-)-PCB149 may also affect metabolic pathways such as dehydrogenation and methylation in the brain tissues of adult zebrafish. Hepatic expression levels of genes related to the antioxidant system were significantly negatively correlated with bioconcentration following exposure to (+)-PCB149.

  16. Bioconcentration of (15)N-tamoxifen at environmental concentration in liver, gonad and muscle of Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Orias, Frédéric; Simon, Laurent; Mialdea, Gladys; Clair, Angéline; Brosselin, Vanessa; Perrodin, Yves

    2015-10-01

    Pharmaceutical compounds (PCs) are ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems. In addition to the direct ecotoxicological risk presented by certain PCs, others can accumulate inside organisms and along trophic webs, subsequently contaminating whole ecosystems. We studied the bioconcentration of a bioaccumulative PC already found several times in the environment: tamoxifen. To this end, we exposed Danio rerio for 21d to (15)N-tamoxifen concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10µg/L and used an analytic method based on stable isotopes to evaluate the tamoxifen content in these organisms. The evolution of the (15)N/(14)N ratio was thus measured in liver, muscle and gonads of exposed fish compared to control fish. We succeeded in quantifying (15)N-tamoxifen bioconcentrations at all the exposure concentrations tested. The highest bioconcentration factors of tamoxifen measured were 14,920 in muscle, 73,800 in liver and 85,600 in gonads of fish after 21d exposure at a nominal concentration of 10µg/L. However, these bioconcentration factors have to be considered as maximal values (BCFMAX). Indeed, despite its proven stability, tamoxifen can be potentially partially degraded during experiments. We now need to refine these results by using a direct analytic method (i.e. LC-MS/MS). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Toxic effects of indoxacarb enantiomers on the embryonic development and induction of apoptosis in zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Fan, Yongmei; Feng, Qing; Lai, Kehua; Huang, Weikang; Zhang, Chenghui; Li, Qing X

    2017-01-01

    Indoxacarb is a highly potent insecticide widely used to control Lepidoptera insects in vegetable, tea, cotton, and rice fields. It can run off into aquatic environments. It is consisted of two enantiomers. Environmental risks and aquatic toxicity of indoxacarb enantiomers have not been fully investigated. In this study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to varying concentrations of (-)-R-indoxacarb and (+)-S-indoxacarb until 96-h post-fertilization (hpf) to assess the embryonic toxicity. (-)-R-indoxacarb was 1.3-fold more toxic than (+)-S-isomer to zebrafish embryos at 96 hpf. (-)-R-indoxacarb exhibited reduction in body length and pericardial edema compared with (+)-S-indoxacarb. (-)-R-indoxacarb decreased the hatching rate sixfold greater than (+)-S-indoxacarb. The rate of pericardial edema induced by (-)-R-indoxacarb was 2.5 times greater than that by (+)-S-indoxacarb. The heart rate of the larvae exposed to (-)-R-indoxacarb was 30% lower than that to (+)-S-indoxacarb. In addition, exposure to the chiral isomers resulted in significant increases in apoptosis; interestingly (-)-R-indoxacarb induced apoptosis in the heart area, whereas (+)-S-indoxacarb induced apoptosis in the head area. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 7-16, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Developmental toxicity and neurotoxicity of synthetic organic insecticides in zebrafish (Danio rerio): A comparative study of deltamethrin, acephate, and thiamethoxam.

    PubMed

    Liu, XingYu; Zhang, QiuPing; Li, ShiBao; Mi, Ping; Chen, DongYan; Zhao, Xin; Feng, XiZeng

    2018-05-01

    Synthetic organic insecticides, including pyrethroids, organophosphates, neonicotinoids and other types, have the potential to alter the ecosystems and many are harmful to humans. This study examines the developmental toxicity and neurotoxicity of three synthetic organic insecticides, including deltamethrin (DM), acephate (AP), and thiamethoxam (TM), using embryo-larval stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Results showed that DM exposure led to embryo development delay and a significant increase in embryo mortality at 24 and 48 h post-fertilization (hpf). DM and AP decreased embryo chorion surface tension at 24 hpf, along with the increase in hatching rate at 72 hpf. Moreover, DM caused ntl, shh, and krox20 misexpression in a dose-dependent manner with morphological deformities of shorter body length, smaller eyes, and larger head-body angles at 10 μg/L. TM did not show significant developmental toxicity. Furthermore, results of larval rest/wake assay indicated that DM (>0.1 μg/L) and AP (0.1 mg/L) increased activity behavior with different patterns. Interestingly, as an insect-specific pesticide, TM still could alter locomotor activity in zebrafish larvae at concentrations as low as 0.1 mg/L. Our results indicate that different types of synthetic organic insecticides could create different toxicity outcomes in zebrafish embryos and larvae. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of the Dietary ω3:ω6 Fatty Acid Ratio on Body Fat and Inflammation in Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Powell, Mickie L; Pegues, Melissa A; Szalai, Alexander J; Ghanta, Vithal K; D'Abramo, Louis R; Watts, Stephen A

    2015-08-01

    The diets of populations in industrialized nations have shifted to dramatically increased consumption of ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), with a corresponding decrease in the consumption of ω3 PUFA. This dietary shift may be related to observed increases in obesity, chronic inflammation, and comorbidities in the human population. We examined the effects of ω3:ω6 fatty acid ratios in the context of constant total dietary lipid on the growth, total body fat, and responses of key inflammatory markers in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish were fed diets in which the ω3:ω6 PUFA ratios were representative of those in a purported ancestral diet (1:2) and more contemporary Western diets (1:5 and 1:8). After 5 mo, weight gain (fat free mass) of zebrafish was highest for those that received the 1:8 ratio treatment, but total body fat was lowest at this ratio. Measured by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, mRNA levels from liver samples of 3 chronic inflammatory response genes (C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, and vitellogenin) were lowest at the 1:8 ratio. These data provide evidence of the ability to alter zebrafish growth and body composition through the quality of dietary lipid and support the application of this model to investigations of human health and disease related to fat metabolism.

  20. Assessing the toxicity of Pb- and Sn-based perovskite solar cells in model organism Danio rerio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babayigit, Aslihan; Duy Thanh, Dinh; Ethirajan, Anitha; Manca, Jean; Muller, Marc; Boyen, Hans-Gerd; Conings, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Intensive development of organometal halide perovskite solar cells has lead to a dramatic surge in power conversion efficiency up to 20%. Unfortunately, the most efficient perovskite solar cells all contain lead (Pb), which is an unsettling flaw that leads to severe environmental concerns and is therefore a stumbling block envisioning their large-scale application. Aiming for the retention of favorable electro-optical properties, tin (Sn) has been considered the most likely substitute. Preliminary studies have however shown that Sn-based perovskites are highly unstable and, moreover, Sn is also enlisted as a harmful chemical, with similar concerns regarding environment and health. To bring more clarity into the appropriateness of both metals in perovskite solar cells, we provide a case study with systematic comparison regarding the environmental impact of Pb- and Sn-based perovskites, using zebrafish (Danio Rerio) as model organism. Uncovering an unexpected route of intoxication in the form of acidification, it is shown that Sn based perovskite may not be the ideal Pb surrogate.

  1. Teratogenicity of Ochratoxin A and the Degradation Product, Ochratoxin α, in the Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryo Model of Vertebrate Development

    PubMed Central

    Haq, Mehreen; Gonzalez, Nelson; Mintz, Keenan; Jaja-Chimedza, Asha; De Jesus, Christopher Lawrence; Lydon, Christina; Welch, Aaron Z.; Berry, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Ochratoxins, and particularly ochratoxin A (OTA), are toxic fungal-derived contaminants of food and other agricultural products. Growing evidence supports the degradation of OTA by chemical, enzymatic and/or microbial means as a potential approach to remove this mycotoxin from food products. In particular, hydrolysis of OTA to ochratoxin α (OTα) and phenylalanine is the presumptive product of degradation in most cases. In the current study, we employed the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo, as a model of vertebrate development to evaluate, the teratogenicity of OTA and OTα. These studies show that OTA is potently active in the zebrafish embryo toxicity assay (ZETA), and that toxicity is both concentration- and time-dependent with discernible and quantifiable developmental toxicity observed at nanomolar concentrations. On the other hand, OTα had no significant effect on embryo development at all concentrations tested supporting a decreased toxicity of this degradation product. Taken together, these results suggest that ZETA is a useful, and highly sensitive, tool for evaluating OTA toxicity, as well as its degradation products, toward development of effective detoxification strategies. Specifically, the results obtained with ZETA, in the present study, further demonstrate the toxicity of OTA, and support its degradation via hydrolysis to OTα as an effective means of detoxification. PMID:26861395

  2. Study of effects of radio-wave frequency radiation emitted from cellular telephones on embryonic development of danio rerio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vagula, Mary; Harkless, Ryan

    2013-05-01

    Radio wave frequency (RF) radiation emitted from cellular telephones has become increasingly ubiquitous as a result of the popularity of these phones. With the increasing and unavoidable exposure to RF radiation a reality, it is imperative that the effects of such radiation on living tissue be well understood. In particular, it is critical to understand any effects that RF radiation may have as a carcinogen and on embryonic development, as pregnant women are not exempt from such exposure. As a model organism, zebrafish (Danio rerio) have been studied extensively, and their value in studies of gene expression cannot be overstated. This study observed the effects of RF radiation on the embryonic development of zebrafish. The expression of two genes, shha and hoxb9a, that are key to the early development of the fish was examined. Both genes have homologs in humans as well as in other model organisms. Preliminary results suggest that exposure to cell phone radiation might have an effect on the expression of shha in zebrafish embryos, causing under expression. More trials are necessary to validate these results.

  3. Evaluation of rapid cooling and tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222) as methods of euthanasia in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jolaine M; Bunte, Ralph M; Carty, Anthony J

    2009-11-01

    Despite the progressively increasing use of zebrafish (Danio rerio) in research, the most humane method of euthanasia for these fish has not been determined. Contemporary guidance documents state that hypothermia is an unacceptable method of euthanasia. The goal of this study was to compare rapid cooling and tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222) for zebrafish euthanasia. Zebrafish (n = 46) were euthanized by immersion in either an ice-water (4 degrees C or less) bath or unbuffered MS222 solution (250 mg/L; 25 to 30 degrees C). Another cohort (n = 10) was exposed to buffered MS222 to determine whether the acidity of the water alone caused distress. The times from exposure until the animals became unable to swim, right themselves, and death were measured, and signs of distress were recorded. Fish then were placed in a 'recovery tank' of system water to verify that recovery did not occur. Tissues were examined histologically. The mean time for euthanasia was longer and the number of fish exhibiting signs of distress was greater for fish exposed to MS222 than those exposed to chilled water. In addition, 4 of the 23 fish exposed to MS222 regained consciousness in the recovery tank, whereas none of 23 fish exposed to chilled water recovered. No histopathologic changes or evidence of ice crystal formation were seen in either group. In light of the faster time to death and fewer signs of distress in zebrafish euthanized by rapid cooling, we advocate this method as a humane veterinary practice.

  4. Teratogenicity of Ochratoxin A and the Degradation Product, Ochratoxin α, in the Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryo Model of Vertebrate Development.

    PubMed

    Haq, Mehreen; Gonzalez, Nelson; Mintz, Keenan; Jaja-Chimedza, Asha; De Jesus, Christopher Lawrence; Lydon, Christina; Welch, Aaron; Berry, John P

    2016-02-05

    Ochratoxins, and particularly ochratoxin A (OTA), are toxic fungal-derived contaminants of food and other agricultural products. Growing evidence supports the degradation of OTA by chemical, enzymatic and/or microbial means as a potential approach to remove this mycotoxin from food products. In particular, hydrolysis of OTA to ochratoxin α (OTα) and phenylalanine is the presumptive product of degradation in most cases. In the current study, we employed the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo, as a model of vertebrate development to evaluate, the teratogenicity of OTA and OTα. These studies show that OTA is potently active in the zebrafish embryo toxicity assay (ZETA), and that toxicity is both concentration- and time-dependent with discernible and quantifiable developmental toxicity observed at nanomolar concentrations. On the other hand, OTα had no significant effect on embryo development at all concentrations tested supporting a decreased toxicity of this degradation product. Taken together, these results suggest that ZETA is a useful, and highly sensitive, tool for evaluating OTA toxicity, as well as its degradation products, toward development of effective detoxification strategies. Specifically, the results obtained with ZETA, in the present study, further demonstrate the toxicity of OTA, and support its degradation via hydrolysis to OTα as an effective means of detoxification.

  5. Effects of Tributyltin and Other Retinoid Receptor Agonists in Reproductive-Related Endpoints in the Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Lima, Daniela; Castro, L Filipe C; Coelho, Inês; Lacerda, Ricardo; Gesto, Manuel; Soares, Joana; André, Ana; Capela, Ricardo; Torres, Tiago; Carvalho, António Paulo; Santos, Miguel M

    2015-01-01

    Both field and experimental data examined the influence of exposure to environmental contaminant tributyltin (TBT) on marine organisms. Although most attention focused on the imposex phenomenon in gastropods, adverse effects were also observed in other taxonomic groups. It has been shown that imposex induction involves modulation of retinoid signaling in gastropods. Whether TBT influences similar pathways in fish is yet to be addressed. In this study, larvae of the model teleost Danio rerio were exposed to natural retinoids, all-trans-retinoic acid, 9-cis-retinoic acid, and all-trans-retinol, as well as to the RXR synthetic pan-agonist methoprene acid (MA) and to TBT. Larvae were exposed to TBT from 5 days post fertilization (dpf) to adulthood, and reproductive capacity was assessed and correlated with mode of action. TBT significantly decreased fecundity at environmentally relevant levels at 1 μg TBT Sn/g in diet. Interestingly, in contrast to previous reports, TBT altered zebrafish sex ratio toward females, whereas MA exposure biased sex toward males. Since fecundity was significantly altered in the TBT-exposed group with up to 62% decrease, the potentially affected pathways were investigated. Significant downregulation was observed in brain mRNA levels of aromatase b (CYP19a1b) in females and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARg) in both males and females, suggesting an involvement of these pathways in reproductive impairment associated with TBT.

  6. DarT: The embryo test with the Zebrafish Danio rerio--a general model in ecotoxicology and toxicology.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Roland

    2002-01-01

    The acute fish test is an animal test whose ecotoxicological relevance is worthy of discussion. The primary aim of protection in ecotoxicology is the population and not the individual. Furthermore the concentration of pollutants in the environment is normally not in the lethal range. Therefore the acute fish test covers solely the situation after chemical spills. Nevertheless, acute fish toxicity data still belong to the base set used for the assessment of chemicals. The embryo test with the zebrafish Danio rerio (DarT) is recommended as a substitute for the acute fish test. For validation an international laboratory comparison test was carried out. A summary of the results is presented in this paper. Based on the promising results of testing chemicals and waste water the test design was validated by the DIN-working group "7.6 Fischei-Test". A normed test guideline for testing waste water with fish is available. The test duration is short (48 h) and within the test different toxicological endpoints can be examined. Endpoints from the embryo test are suitable for QSAR-studies. Besides the use in ecotoxicology the introduction as a toxicological model was investigated. Disturbance of pigmentation and effects on the frequency of heart-beat were examined. A further important application is testing of teratogenic chemicals. Based on the results DarT could be a screening test within preclinical studies.

  7. Effects of chronic perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) at low concentration on morphometrics, gene expression, and fecundity in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Jantzen, Carrie E; Toor, Fatima; Annunziato, Kate A; Cooper, Keith R

    2017-04-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a persistent, toxic, anthropogenic chemical recalcitrant to biodegradation. Based on previous studies in lower and higher vertebrates, it was hypothesized that chronic, sub-lethal, embryonic exposure to PFOA in zebrafish (Danio rerio) would adversely impact fish development, survival, and fecundity. Zebrafish embryo/sac-fry were water exposed to 2.0 or 0nM PFOA from 3 to 120hpf, and juvenile to adult cohorts were fed spiked food (8 pM) until 6 months. After chronic exposure, PFOA exposed fish were significantly smaller in total weight and length. Gene expression analysis found a significant decrease of transporters slco2b1, slco4a1, slco3a1 and tgfb1a, and a significant increase of slco1d1 expression. PFOA exposed fish produced significantly fewer eggs with reduced viability and developmental stage delay in F 1 . Chronic, low-dose exposure of zebrafish to PFOA significantly altered normal development, survival and fecundity and would likely impact wild fish population fitness in watersheds chronically exposed to PFOA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Changes in ultrastructure and expression of steroidogenic factor-1 in ovaries of zebrafish Danio rerio exposed to glyphosate.

    PubMed

    Armiliato, Neide; Ammar, Dib; Nezzi, Luciane; Straliotto, Marcos; Muller, Yara M R; Nazari, Evelise M

    2014-01-01

    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum organophosphate (OP) herbicide, highly soluble in water, and when applied in terrestrial systems it penetrates into soil, eventually reaching the aquatic community and affecting nontarget organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of glyphosate on ovaries of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Ovaries (n = 18 per triplicate) were exposed to 65 μg/L of glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine] for 15 d. This concentration was determined according to Resolution 357/2005/CONAMA/Brazil, which establishes the permissible concentration of glyphosate in Brazilian inland waters. Nonexposed ovaries (n = 18 per triplicate) were used as control. Subsequently, morphology and expression of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) of exposed and nonexposed ovaries was determined. No apparent changes were noted in general morphology of exposed and nonexposed ovaries. However, a significant increase in diameter of oocytes was observed after exposure to glyphosate. When ovarian ultrastructure was examined the presence of concentric membranes, appearing as myelin-like structures, associated with the external membranes of mitochondria and with yolk granules was found. After glyphosate exposure, immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting revealed greater expression of SF-1 in the oocytes, which suggests a relationship between oocyte growth and SF-1 expression. These subtle adverse effects of glyphosate on oocytes raised a potential concern for fish reproduction. These results contribute to understanding glyphosate-induced toxicity to nontarget organisms, showing subcellular and molecular impairments that may affect reproduction in +female fish.

  9. Dietary Strontium Increases Bone Mineral Density in Intact Zebrafish (Danio rerio): A Potential Model System for Bone Research

    PubMed Central

    Padgett-Vasquez, Steve; Garris, Heath W.; Nagy, Tim R.; D'Abramo, Louis R.; Watts, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Zebrafish (Danio rerio) skeletal bone possesses properties similar to human bone, which suggests that they may be used as a model to study mineralization characteristics of the human Haversian system, as well as human bone diseases. One prerequisite for the use of zebrafish as an alternative osteoporotic bone model is to determine whether their bone displays functional plasticity similar to that observed in other bone models. Strontium citrate was supplemented into a laboratory-prepared diet (45% crude protein) to produce dietary strontium levels of 0%, 0.63%, 1.26%, 1.89%, and 2.43% and fed ad libitum twice daily for 12 weeks to 28-day-old intact zebrafish. Length was determined at 4-week intervals, and both weight and length were recorded at 12 weeks. At 12 weeks, seven zebrafish from each dietary level were analyzed for total bone mineral density by microcomputed tomography. Dietary strontium citrate supplementation significantly (p < 0.05) increased zebrafish whole-body and spinal column bone mineral density. In addition, trace amounts of strontium were incorporated into the scale matrix in those zebrafish that consumed strontium-supplemented diets. These findings suggest that zebrafish bone displays plasticity similar to that reported for other bone models (i.e., rat, mouse, and monkey) that received supplements of strontium compounds and zebrafish should be viewed as an increasingly valuable bone model. PMID:20874492

  10. Exosome delivered anticancer drugs across the blood-brain barrier for brain cancer therapy in Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tianzhi; Martin, Paige; Fogarty, Brittany; Brown, Alison; Schurman, Kayla; Phipps, Roger; Yin, Viravuth P; Lockman, Paul; Bai, Shuhua

    2015-06-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) essentially restricts therapeutic drugs from entering into the brain. This study tests the hypothesis that brain endothelial cell derived exosomes can deliver anticancer drug across the BBB for the treatment of brain cancer in a zebrafish (Danio rerio) model. Four types of exosomes were isolated from brain cell culture media and characterized by particle size, morphology, total protein, and transmembrane protein markers. Transport mechanism, cell uptake, and cytotoxicity of optimized exosome delivery system were tested. Brain distribution of exosome delivered anticancer drugs was evaluated using transgenic zebrafish TG (fli1: GFP) embryos and efficacies of optimized formations were examined in a xenotransplanted zebrafish model of brain cancer model. Four exosomes in 30-100 diameters showed different morphologies and exosomes derived from brain endothelial cells expressed more CD63 tetraspanins transmembrane proteins. Optimized exosomes increased the uptake of fluorescent marker via receptor mediated endocytosis and cytotoxicity of anticancer drugs in cancer cells. Images of the zebrafish showed exosome delivered anticancer drugs crossed the BBB and entered into the brain. In the brain cancer model, exosome delivered anticancer drugs significantly decreased fluorescent intensity of xenotransplanted cancer cells and tumor growth marker. Brain endothelial cell derived exosomes could be potentially used as a carrier for brain delivery of anticancer drug for the treatment of brain cancer.

  11. Preliminary Evaluation on the Effects of Feeds on the Growth and Early Reproductive Performance of Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of several commercially available feeds and different feeding regimes on the growth and early reproductive performance of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Juvenile zebrafish (n= 20; 5.06 ± 0.69 mg) were stocked into each of 24 tanks (volume, 2 L); 3 tanks were assigned to each of 8 feeding combinations for a period of 60 d. At the end of 60 d, 2 male and 2 female fish from each tank were pooled by dietary treatment (n = 6) and used to evaluate the effects of feeding combinations on early reproductive performance. Zebrafish fed dietary treatments 3 and 7 had significantly greater weight gain than zebrafish fed diet 5. Mean spawning success was significantly greater in zebrafish fed the control diet (Artemiaonly) than in those fed diet 1. Mean hatch rates were greater in zebrafish fed the control feed and diets 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6 than zebrafish fed diet 4. Additional results suggest that female zebrafish are sexually mature after 90 d post fertilization and that fertilization rates are the limiting factor in early reproduction. PMID:23043806

  12. Chlorella diet alters mitochondrial cardiolipin contents differentially in organs of Danio rerio analyzed by a lipidomics approach

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Yu-Jen; Wu, Wen-Hsin; Balazova, Maria; Wu, Ting-Yuan; Lin, Jamie; Liu, Yi-Wen

    2018-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an important and widely used vertebrate model organism for the study of human diseases which include disorders caused by dysfunctional mitochondria. Mitochondria play an essential role in both energy metabolism and apoptosis, which are mediated through a mitochondrial phospholipid cardiolipin (CL). In order to examine the cardiolipin profile in the zebrafish model, we developed a CL analysis platform by using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Meanwhile, we tested whether chlorella diet would alter the CL profile in the larval fish, and in various organs of the adult fish. The results showed that chlorella diet increased the chain length of CL in larval fish. In the adult zebrafish, the distribution patterns of CL species were similar between the adult brain and eye tissues, and between the heart and muscles. Interestingly, monolyso-cardiolipin (MLCL) was not detected in brain and eyes but found in other examined tissues, indicating a different remodeling mechanism to maintain the CL integrity. While the adult zebrafish were fed with chlorella for four weeks, the CL distribution showed an increase of the species of saturated acyl chains in the brain and eyes, but a decrease in the other organs. Moreover, chlorella diet led to a decrease of MLCL percentage in organs except the non-MLCL-containing brain and eyes. The CL analysis in the zebrafish provides an important tool for studying the mechanism of mitochondria diseases, and may also be useful for testing medical regimens targeting against the Barth Syndrome. PMID:29494608

  13. CYP3C1, the first member of a new cytochrome P450 subfamily found in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Corley-Smith, Graham E; Su, Hsiao-Ting; Wang-Buhler, Jun-Lan; Tseng, Hua-Pin; Hu, Chin-Hwa; Hoang, Thuy; Chung, Woon-Gye; Buhler, Donald R

    2006-02-24

    We report a new cytochrome P450 (CYP) subfamily CYP3C and the cloning through PCR from zebrafish (Danio rerio) of the first member, CYP3C1. The CYP3C1 gene is on Chromosome 3 with 13 ORF exons encoding a 505 amino acid protein which has 44-54% identities with mammalian and teleost CYP3A and CYP3B forms. As evidenced by spectral analysis, the CYP3C1 protein heterologously expressed in yeast is functional. In silico analysis identified, on the same region of the chromosome, three more genes encoding CYP3C1-like proteins that formed a clade with CYP3C1 in a phylogenetic tree. Using RT-PCR, the CYP3C1 mRNA was detected in 1-6dpf embryo/larvae and in adult fish liver and seven extrahepatic tissues. Whole-mount in situ hybridization using a riboprobe demonstrated expression in the brain during 12-120 hpf. At the 120 hpf larval stage, CYP3C1 mRNA was also detected in the pharynx and gastrointestinal tract. TCDD, dexamethasone, and rifampicin, which up-regulated CYP3A65 mRNA in zebrafish larvae, did not alter the CYP3C1 transcript levels suggesting regulatory differences between CYP3A and CYP3C enzymes in this species.

  14. Assessing the toxicity of Pb- and Sn-based perovskite solar cells in model organism Danio rerio

    PubMed Central

    Babayigit, Aslihan; Duy Thanh, Dinh; Ethirajan, Anitha; Manca, Jean; Muller, Marc; Boyen, Hans-Gerd; Conings, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Intensive development of organometal halide perovskite solar cells has lead to a dramatic surge in power conversion efficiency up to 20%. Unfortunately, the most efficient perovskite solar cells all contain lead (Pb), which is an unsettling flaw that leads to severe environmental concerns and is therefore a stumbling block envisioning their large-scale application. Aiming for the retention of favorable electro-optical properties, tin (Sn) has been considered the most likely substitute. Preliminary studies have however shown that Sn-based perovskites are highly unstable and, moreover, Sn is also enlisted as a harmful chemical, with similar concerns regarding environment and health. To bring more clarity into the appropriateness of both metals in perovskite solar cells, we provide a case study with systematic comparison regarding the environmental impact of Pb- and Sn-based perovskites, using zebrafish (Danio Rerio) as model organism. Uncovering an unexpected route of intoxication in the form of acidification, it is shown that Sn based perovskite may not be the ideal Pb surrogate. PMID:26759068

  15. Behavioral, endocrine, and neuronal alterations in zebrafish (Danio rerio) following sub-chronic coadministration of fluoxetine and ketamine.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Julian; Hylton, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    Most existing pharmacological treatments have focused on the "monoamine hypothesis" for targeted drug design for major depressive disorder (MDD). Many of these medications have a delayed onset-of-action and limited efficacy. Antidepressants with principal targets outside the monoamine system may offer the potential for more rapid activity with improved therapeutic benefit. Growing evidence suggests that the glutamatergic system is uniquely central to the neurobiology and treatment of MDD. Ketamine (Ketalar®) is a non-competitive glutamatergic antagonist classically used to induce sedation. However, preliminary clinical evidence has been promising with regard to its rapidly acting antidepressant profile. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have emerged as a promising new animal model to screen the effects of numerous psychotropic compounds. This study aimed to determine if a sub-chronic low (sub-anesthetic) dose of ketamine could be used to augment the antidepressant effects of the widely used antidepressant fluoxetine (Prozac®) in adult zebrafish, employing an ethanol withdrawal model. Sub-chronic exposure to dosages of 100μg/L fluoxetine and 20mg/L of ketamine reduced anxiety/depression-like behaviors, leads to upregulation of serotonin synthesis and elevated whole-body cortisol levels. These results demonstrate the utility of zebrafish as a model for neuropharmacological research, and the possible efficacy of fluoxetine and ketamine coadministration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of aqueous stable fullerene nanocrystals (nC60) on the food conversion from Daphnia magna to Danio rerio in a simplified freshwater food chain.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xianji; Li, Cuilan; Zhang, Bo; He, Yiliang

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the nanomaterial potential to the food conversion of two food chain levels is important in the ecosystem assessment as manufactured nanomaterials are being released into the environment. In this investigation, the food conversion from Daphnia magna (D. magna) (prey) to Danio rerio (D. rerio) (predator) was used as the study object of aqueous stable fullerene nanocrystals (nC60). Accumulated nC60 of D. magna was determined as the nominal initial exposure concentration for D. rerio. The results of 21-d dietary exposure experiment demonstrate that nC60 in D. magna decreased the body weight growths and condition factors of D. rerio, and reduced the food conversion ratio by 20% (from D. magna to D. rerio). Further, the experiments present that nC60 decrease three digestive enzymes activities of trypsinase, lipase, and amylase by 30, 29, and 55% in vivo, and by 60, 90, and 42% in vitro, respectively. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments indicated that nC60 was involved with the decrements of digestive enzymes activities. These decrements in digestive enzymes activities may be due to the deactivation caused by the adsorption of nC60 particles onto the surface or active center of digestive enzymes. Sum up, these results not only describe the nC60 deleterious effects on the food conversion from D. magna to D. rerio, but also provide some information regarding a probable food conversion inhibition mechanism of nC60. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Biodistribution and toxicological study of PEGylated single-wall carbon nanotubes in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) nervous system

    SciT

    Weber, Gisele E.B.; Dal Bosco, Lidiane; Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas–Fisiologia Animal Comparada, FURG, Rio Grande, RS, 96210-900

    Nanotechnology has been proven to be increasingly compatible with pharmacological and biomedical applications. Therefore, we evaluated the biological interactions of single-wall carbon nanotubes functionalized with polyethylene glycol (SWNT-PEG). For this purpose, we analyzed biochemical, histological, behavioral and biodistribution parameters to understand how this material behaves in vitro and in vivo using the fish Danio rerio (zebrafish) as a biological model. The in vitro results for fish brain homogenates indicated that SWNT-PEG had an effect on lipid peroxidation and GSH (reduced glutathione) content. However, after intraperitoneal exposure, SWNT-PEG proved to be less biocompatible and formed aggregates, suggesting that the PEG usedmore » for the nanoparticle functionalization was of an inappropriate size for maintaining product stability in a biological environment. This problem with functionalization may have contributed to the low or practically absent biodistribution of SWNT-PEG in zebrafish tissues, as verified by Raman spectroscopy. There was an accumulation of material in the abdominal cavity that led to inflammation and behavioral disturbances, as evaluated by a histological analysis and an open field test, respectively. These results provide evidence of a lack of biocompatibility of SWNTs modified with short chain PEGs, which leads to the accumulation of the material, tissue damage and behavioral alterations in the tested subjects. - Highlights: • In vitro brain exposure diminished lipid peroxidation. • In vitro brain exposure depletes the GSH content. • SWNT-PEG was not biocompatible and formed aggregates after the exposure. • Practically absent biodistribution of SWNT-PEG was observed by Raman spectroscopy. • SWNT-PEG exposure lead to tissue damage and inflammatory responses.« less

  18. Zinc and cadmium accumulation in single zebrafish ( Danio rerio) embryos — A total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mages, Margarete; Bandow, Nicole; Küster, Eberhard; Brack, Werner; von Tümpling, Wolf

    2008-12-01

    Trace metals such as Cadmium (Cd) and Zinc (Zn) are known to exhibit adverse effects on many aquatic organisms including early life stages of fish. In contact with contaminated sediment, fish eggs and embryos may be exposed to metals via the water phase as well as via direct contact with contaminated particles. This may result in body burdens that are difficult to predict and may vary according to individual micro scale exposure conditions. The highly sensitive total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) may provide a tool to analyse individual embryos for internal contaminant concentrations and thus helps to develop a better understanding of dose-response relationships. To test this hypothesis, embryos of Danio rerio were exposed to Cd and Zn spiked sediment in different treatments applying an ion exchange resin for modification of bioavailable concentrations. The TXRF analysis indicated individual embryos with dramatically enhanced exposure compared to other individuals despite uniform exposure conditions on a macro scale. Ion exchanger reduced embryo Zn concentrations to values close to control value with a comparably low standard deviation. Cadmium concentrations in embryos were in the range of 4000 to 7000 µg/g with a median of 5740 µg/g. A commercial ion exchanger reduced individual body burdens by a factor 50 to 100. Individual peak body burdens of up to 3160 µg/g were accompanied by reduced weight of the fish eggs due to early death i.e. coagulation. The investigation of exposure and effects on an individual-based scale may significantly help to reduce uncertainty and inconsistencies occurring in conventional analysis of pooled fish embryo samples.

  19. Development of a simplified and standardized protocol with potential for high-throughput for sperm cryopreservation in zebrafish Danio rerio

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huiping; Jones, Carrie; Varga, Zoltan M.; Tiersch, Terrence R.

    2009-01-01

    Sperm cryopreservation offers potential for long-term storage of genetic resources. However, the current protocols for zebrafish Danio rerio are cumbersome and poorly reproducible. Our objective was to facilitate adoption of cryopreservation by streamlining methods from sperm collection through thawing and use. First, sperm activation was evaluated, and motility was completely inhibited when osmolality of the extender was ≥ 295 to 300 mOsmol/kg. To evaluate cryoprotectant toxicity, sperm were incubated with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), N, N-dimethyl acetamide (DMA), methanol, or glycerol at 5, 10, and 15% concentrations. Based on motility, DMSO, DMA, and methanol (≤ 10%) were less toxic; therefore, sperm were cryopreserved using these cryoprotectants at cooling rates of 10 and 20 °C/min. The highest motility (mean ± SD) (35 ± 23%; P ≤ 0.0001) and fertility (13 ± 8%; P ≤ 0.001) in thawed sperm were obtained with the combination of 8% methanol and a cooling rate of 10 °C/min. Further evaluations of 8% methanol and 10 °C/min were performed with males from populations with high (2.05 ± 0.24) and low (1.18 ± 0.12) body condition (P = 0.0001). Motility of thawed sperm from the two populations was 38 ± 16% and 78 ± 10% (P = 0.0001), and fertilization was 6 ± 6% and 33 ± 20% (P = 0.0001). These values were positively related with body condition factor. Overall, this study simplified and standardized sperm cryopreservation, and established a protocol using French straws as a freezing container and an extender without powdered milk. This protocol can be readily adapted for high-throughput application using automated equipment, and motility and fertility comparable to previous reports were obtained. Male variability and sperm quality remain important considerations for future work, especially in mutant and inbred lines. PMID:17544099

  20. Effects of simulated microgravity on the development of the swimbladder and buoyancy control in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Benjamin W; Dumbarton, Tristan C; Moorman, Stephen J; Smith, Frank M; Croll, Roger P

    2011-06-01

    The gas-filled swimbladder of teleost fishes provides hydrodynamic lift which counteracts the high density of other body tissues, and thereby allows the fish to achieve neutral buoyancy with minimal energy expenditure. In this study, we examined whether the absence of a constant direction gravitational vector affects the ontogeny of the swimbladder and buoyancy control in zebrafish (Danio rerio). We exposed fertilized eggs to simulated microgravity (SMG) in a closed rotating wall vessel with control eggs placed in a similar but nonrotating container. All eggs hatched in both groups. At 96 hr of postfertilization (hpf), all larvae were removed from the experimental and control vessels. At this point, 62% of the control larvae, but only 14% of SMG-exposed larvae, were observed to have inflated their swimbladder. In addition, the mean volume of the inflated swimbladders was significantly greater in the control larvae compared with larvae raised in SMG. After transfer to open stationary observation tanks, larvae with uninflated swimbladders in both groups swam to the surface to complete inflation, but this process was significantly delayed in larvae exposed to SMG. Initial differences in swimbladder inflation and volume between groups disappeared by 144 hpf. Furthermore, there were no apparent changes in patterns of development and maturation of swimbladder musculature, vasculature, or innervation resulting from SMG exposure at later stages of ontogeny. These data indicate that, despite a transient delay in swimbladder inflation in zebrafish larvae exposed to SMG, subsequent swimbladder development in these animals proceeded similarly to that in normal larvae. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  1. Embryonic exposure to carbendazim induces the transcription of genes related to apoptosis, immunotoxicity and endocrine disruption in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jinhua; Wu, Shenggan; Wu, Changxing; An, Xuehua; Cai, Leiming; Zhao, Xueping

    2014-12-01

    Carbendazim is one of the most widespread environmental contaminant that can cause major concern to human and animal reproductive system. To date, very few studies have been conducted on the toxic effect of carbendazim in the non-target organism zebrafish (Danio rerio). The study presented here aimed to assess how carbendazim triggers apoptosis, immunotoxicity and endocrine disruption pathways in zebrafish during its embryo development. Our results demonstrated that the expression patterns of many key genes involved in cell apoptosis pathway (e.g. P53, Mdm2, Bbc3 and Cas8) were significantly up-regulated upon the exposure to carbendazim at the concentration of 500 μg/L, while the Bcl2 and Cas3 were down-regulated at the same concentration, interestingly, the expression level of Ogg1 decreased at all the exposure concentrations. It was also observed that the mRNA levels of CXCL-C1C, CCL1, IL-1b and TNFα which were closely related to the innate immune system, were affected in newly hatched zebrafish after exposed to different concentrations of carbendazim. Moreover, the expression of genes that are involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal/thyroid (HPG/HPT) axis including VTG, ERα, ERβ2, Dio1, Dio2, Thraa and Thrb were all down-regulated significantly after the exposure to carbendazim. The expression levels of two cytochrome P450 aromatases CYP19a and CYP19b were increased significantly after 20 and 100 μg/L carbendazim exposure, respectively. Taken together, our results indicated that carbendazim had the potential to induce cell apoptosis and cause immune toxicity as well as endocrine disruption in zebrafish during the embryo developmental stage. The information presented here also help to elucidate the environmental risks caused by the carbendazim-induced toxicity in aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of molecular markers for zebrafish (Danio rerio) ovarian follicle growth assessment following in-vitro culture in cryopreservation studies.

    PubMed

    Anil, Siji; Rawson, David; Zhang, Tiantian

    2018-05-29

    Development of in vitro culture protocol for early stage ovarian follicles of zebrafish is important since cryopreserved early stage ovarian follicles would need to be matured in vitro following cryopreservation before they can be fertilised. Development of molecular markers for zebrafish (Danio rerio) ovarian follicle growth assessment following in vitro culture of early stage zebrafish ovarian follicles in ovarian tissue fragments is reported here for the first time although some work has been reported for in vitro culture of isolated early stage zebrafish ovarian follicles. The main aim of the present study was to develop molecular markers in an optimised in vitro culture protocol for stage I and stage II zebrafish ovarian follicles in ovarian tissue fragments. The effect of concentration of the hormones human chorionic gonadotropin and follicle stimulating hormones, and additives such as Foetal Bovine Serum and Bovine Serum Albumin were studied. The results showed that early stage zebrafish ovarian fragments containing stage I and stage II follicles which are cultured in vitro for 24 h in 20% FBS and 100mIU/ml FSH in 90% L-15 medium at 28 °C can grow to the size of stage II and stage III ovarian follicles respectively. More importantly the follicle growth from stage I to stage II and from stage II to stage III were confirmed using molecular markers such as cyp19a1a (also known as P450aromA) and vtg1 genes respectively. However, no follicle growth was observed following cryopreservation and in vitro culture. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of Jatropha curcas L. biodiesel seed cake toxicity using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo toxicity (ZFET) test.

    PubMed

    Hallare, Arnold V; Ruiz, Paulo Lorenzo S; Cariño, J C Earl D

    2014-05-01

    Consequent to the growing demand for alternative sources of energy, the seeds from Jatropha curcas remain to be the favorite for biodiesel production. However, a significant volume of the residual organic mass (seed cake) is produced during the extraction process, which raises concerns on safe waste disposal. In the present study, we assessed the toxicity of J. curcas seed cake using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryotoxicity test. Within 1-h post-fertilization (hpf), the fertilized eggs were exposed to five mass concentrations of J. curcas seed cake and were followed through 24, 48, and 72 hpf. Toxicity was evaluated based on lethal endpoints induced on zebrafish embryos namely egg coagulation, non-formation of somites, and non-detachment of tail. The lowest concentration tested, 1 g/L, was not able to elicit toxicity on embryos whereas 100 % mortality (based also on lethal endpoints) was recorded at the highest concentration at 2.15 g/L. The computed LC50 for the J. curcas seed cake was 1.61 g/L. No further increase in mortality was observed in the succeeding time points (48 and 72 hpf) indicating that J. curcas seed cake exerted acute toxicity on zebrafish embryos. Sublethal endpoints (yolk sac and pericardial edema) were noted at 72 hpf in zebrafish embryos exposed to higher concentrations. The observed lethal endpoints induced on zebrafish embryos were discussed in relation to the active principles, notably, phorbol esters that have remained in the seed cake even after extraction.

  4. Molecular cloning, ontogeny and tissue distribution of zebrafish (Danio rerio) prohormone convertases: pcsk1 and pcsk2.

    PubMed

    Morash, Michael G; MacDonald, Angela B; Croll, Roger P; Anini, Younes

    2009-06-01

    Prohormone convertase subtilisin/kexin (PCSK) enzymes are a family of nine related serine proteases, found in a multitude of tissues, and responsible for the maturation of a variety of protein and peptide precursors. Pcsk1 and Pcsk2 are found within dense core secretory granules in endocrine and neuroendocrine cells and are responsible for cleaving several hormones and neuropeptide precursors. In this work, we cloned and sequenced the cDNA of pcsk1 and pcsk2 from zebrafish (Danio rerio). pcsk1 is a 2268bp ORF, whose 755 amino acid protein product is identical to that predicted from the genome sequence. pcsk2 is a 1941bp ORF, encoding a 646 amino acid peptide. Both Pcsk1 and Pcsk2 display high degrees of similarity to their counterparts in other species, including the conservation of the catalytic triad and other essential residues. The brain contained the highest expression levels of both pcsk1 (1.49+/-0.21) (displayed as ratio to EF-1a), and pcsk2 (0.23+/-0.04). Both transcripts were also detectable in the fore, mid and distal gut. pcsk1 and 2 were detectable at 4.5h post-fertilization, and while pcsk1 expression increased throughout development (0.12+/-0.01 maximum at 3 days post-fertilization), pcsk2 expression was highest at day 5 post-fertilization (0.03+/-0.01), and decreased prior. For the first time, we have identified and characterized a pcsk1 transcript in fish. We have also identified and characterized the pcsk2 transcript in zebrafish, and have assessed the tissue distribution and ontogeny of both.

  5. The paracrine effect of exogenous growth hormone alleviates dysmorphogenesis caused by tbx5 deficiency in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dysmorphogenesis and multiple organ defects are well known in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos with T-box transcription factor 5 (tbx5) deficiencies, mimicking human Holt-Oram syndrome. Methods Using an oligonucleotide-based microarray analysis to study the expression of special genes in tbx5 morphants, we demonstrated that GH and some GH-related genes were markedly downregulated. Zebrafish embryos microinjected with tbx5-morpholino (MO) antisense RNA and mismatched antisense RNA in the 1-cell stage served as controls, while zebrafish embryos co-injected with exogenous growth hormone (GH) concomitant with tbx5-MO comprised the treatment group. Results The attenuating effects of GH in tbx5-MO knockdown embryos were quantified and observed at 24, 30, 48, 72, and 96 h post-fertilization. Though the understanding of mechanisms involving GH in the tbx5 functioning complex is limited, exogenous GH supplied to tbx5 knockdown zebrafish embryos is able to enhance the expression of downstream mediators in the GH and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 pathway, including igf1, ghra, and ghrb, and signal transductors (erk1, akt2), and eventually to correct dysmorphogenesis in various organs including the heart and pectoral fins. Supplementary GH also reduced apoptosis as determined by a TUNEL assay and decreased the expression of apoptosis-related genes and proteins (bcl2 and bad) according to semiquantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analysis, respectively, as well as improving cell cycle-related genes (p27 and cdk2) and cardiomyogenetic genes (amhc, vmhc, and cmlc2). Conclusions Based on our results, tbx5 knockdown causes a pseudo GH deficiency in zebrafish during early embryonic stages, and supplementation of exogenous GH can partially restore dysmorphogenesis, apoptosis, cell growth inhibition, and abnormal cardiomyogenesis in tbx5 knockdown zebrafish in a paracrine manner. PMID:22776023

  6. Toxicity evaluation of β-diketone antibiotics on the development of embryo-larval zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Wang, Huili; Che, Baoguang; Duan, Ailian; Mao, Jingwen; Dahlgren, Randy A; Zhang, Minghua; Zhang, Hongqin; Zeng, Aibing; Wang, Xuedong

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the effects of β-diketone antibiotics (DKAs) on the development of embryo-larval zebrafish (Danio rerio). When exposure to DKAs, developmental malformations, such as hatching delay, curved body axis, pericardial edema, uninflated swim bladder and yolk sac edema, were observed at 120 h postfertilization (hpf). The estimated 120 hpf nominal concentrations of no observed effect concentration and lowest observed effect concentration for DKAs were 18.75 and 37.50 mg/L, respectively, suggesting that DKAs have much lower toxicity than other persistent pollutants. Following DKA exposure, embryonic heart rates were significantly reduced as compared to the controls at 48 and 60 hpf. The peak bending motion frequency appeared 1 h earlier than in control embryos. The 2.34 and 9.38-mg/L treatment groups had a higher basal swim rate than control groups at 120 hpf in both light and light-to-dark photoperiod experiments. The occurrence of high speed swim rates was enhanced approximately threefold to sevenfold in the 2.34 and 9.38 mg/L treatments compared to the control. Glutathione (GSH) concentrations in the 2.34 and 9.38-mg/L treatments were significantly higher than the control at 72 hpf, suggesting that GSH production was induced at the end of the hatching period. When exposed to DKAs, zebrafish superoxide dismutase enzyme (SOD) activities were significantly inhibited in the early embryonic period, demonstrating that the clearing ability in zebrafish was lower than the generation rate of free radicals. In summary, the combined DKAs were developmentally toxic to zebrafish in their early life stages and had the ability to impair individual behaviors that are of great importance in the assessment of their ecological fitness. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  7. Chondroitin sulfate and keratan sulfate are the major glycosaminoglycans present in the adult zebrafish Danio rerio (Chordata-Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Souza, Aline R C; Kozlowski, Eliene O; Cerqueira, Vinicius R; Castelo-Branco, Morgana T L; Costa, Manoel L; Pavão, Mauro S G

    2007-12-01

    The zebrafish Danio rerio (Chordata-Cyprinidae) is a model organism frequently used to study the functions of proteoglycans and their glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains. Although several studies clearly demonstrate the participation of these polymers in different biological and cellular events that take place during embryonic development, little is known about the GAGs in adult zebrafish. In the present study, the total GAGs were extracted from the whole fish by proteolytic digestion, purified by anion-exchange chromatography and characterized by electrophoresis after degradation with specific enzymes and/or by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the disaccharides. Two GAGs were identified: a low-molecular-weight chondroitin sulfate (CS) and keratan sulfate (KS), corresponding to approximately 80% and 20% of the total GAGs, respectively. In the fish eye, KS represents approximately 80% of total GAGs. Surprisingly, no heparinoid was detected, but may be present in the fish at concentrations lower than the limit of the method used. HPLC of the disaccharides formed after chondroitin AC or ABC lyase degradation revealed that the zebrafish CS is composed by DeltaUA-1-->3-GalNAc(4SO4) (59.4%), DeltaUA-1-->3-GalNAc(6SO4) (23.1%), and DeltaUA-1-->3-GalNAc (17.5%) disaccharide units. No disulfated disaccharides were detected. Immunolocalization on sections from zebrafish retina using monoclonal antibodies against CS4- or 6-sulfate showed that in the retina these GAGs are restricted to the outer and inner plexiform layers. This is the first report showing the presence of KS in zebrafish eye, and the structural characterization of CS and its localization in the zebrafish retina. Detailed information about the structure and tissue localization of GAGs is important to understand the functions of these polymers in this model organism.

  8. Tributyltin induces premature hatching and reduces locomotor activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos/larvae at environmentally relevant levels.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xuefang; Souders, Christopher L; Zhang, Jiliang; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2017-12-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is an organotin compound that is the active ingredient of many biocides and antifouling agents. In addition to its well established role as an endocrine disruptor, TBT is also associated with adverse effects on the nervous system and behavior. In this study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of TBT (0.01, 0.1, 1 nM) to determine how low levels affected development and behavior. Fish exposed to 1 nM TBT hatched earlier when compared to controls. Following a 96-h exposure, total swimming distance, velocity, and activity of zebrafish larvae were reduced compared to controls. To identify putative mechanisms for these altered endpoints, we assessed embryo bioenergetics and gene expression. We reasoned that the accelerated hatch time could be related to ATP production and energy, thus embryos were exposed to TBT for 24 and 48-h exposure prior to hatch. There were no differences among groups for endpoints related to bioenergetics (i.e. basal, ATP-dependent, and maximal respiration). To address mechanisms related to changes in behavioral activity, we measured transcripts associated with muscle function (myf6, myoD, and myoG) and dopamine signaling (th, dat, dopamine receptors) as dopamine regulates behavior. No transcript was altered in expression by TBT in larvae, suggesting that other mechanisms exist that may explain changes in higher level endpoints. These results suggest that endpoints related to the whole animal (i.e. timing of hatch and locomotor behavior) are more sensitive to environmentally-relevant concentrations of TBT compared to the molecular and metabolic endpoints examined here. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cadmium stress assessment based on the electrocardiogram characteristics of zebra fish (Danio rerio): QRS complex could play an important role.

    PubMed

    Xing, Na; Ji, Lizhen; Song, Jie; Ma, Jingchun; Li, Shangge; Ren, Zongming; Xu, Fei; Zhu, Jianping

    2017-10-01

    The electrocardiogram (ECG) of zebra fish (Danio rerio) expresses cardiac features that are similar to humans. Here we use sharp microelectrode measurements to obtain ECG characteristics in adult zebra fish and analyze the effects of cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) on the heart. We observe the overall changes of ECG parameters in different treatments (0.1 TU, 0.5 TU and 1.0 TU CdCl 2 ), including P wave, Q wave, R wave, S wave, T wave, PR interval (atrial contraction), QRS complex (ventricular depolarization), ST segment, and QT interval (ventricular repolarization). The trends of the ECG parameters showed some responses to the concentration and exposure time of CdCl 2 , but it was difficult to obtain more information about the useful indicators in water quality assessment depending on tendency analysis alone. A self-organizing map (SOM) showed that P values, R values, and T values were similar; R wave and T wave amplitude were similar; and most important, QRS value was similar to the CdCl 2 stress according to the classified data patterns including CdCl 2 stress (E) and ECG components based on the Ward linkage. It suggested that the duration of QRS complex was related to environmental stress E directly. The specification and evaluation of ECG parameters in Cd 2+ pollution suggested that there is a markedly significant correlation between QRS complex and CdCl 2 stress with the highest r (0.729) and the smallest p (0.002) among all ECG characteristics. In this case, it is concluded that QRS complex can be used as an indicator in the CdCl 2 stress assessment due to the lowest AIC data abased on the linear regression model between the CdCl 2 stress and ECG parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Reversibility of endocrine disruption in zebrafish (Danio rerio) after discontinued exposure to the estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol

    SciT

    Baumann, Lisa, E-mail: lisa.baumann@vetsuisse.unibe.ch; Aquatic Ecology and Toxicology Section, Centre for Organismal Studies, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 230, D-69120 Heidelberg; Knörr, Susanne, E-mail: susanne.knoerr@gmx.de

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the persistence of the feminizing effects of discontinued 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) exposure on zebrafish (Danio rerio). An exposure scenario covering the sensitive phase of sexual differentiation, as well as final gonad maturation was chosen to examine the estrogenic effects on sexual development of zebrafish. Two exposure scenarios were compared: continuous exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations (0.1–10 ng/L EE2) up to 100 days post-hatch (dph) and developmental exposure up to 60 dph, followed by 40 days of depuration in clean water. The persistence of effects was investigated at different biological organization levels frommore » mRNA to population-relevant endpoints to cover a broad range of important parameters. EE2 had a strong feminizing and inhibiting effect on the sexual development of zebrafish. Brain aromatase (cyp19b) mRNA expression showed no clear response, but vitellogenin levels were significantly elevated, gonad maturation and body growth were inhibited in both genders, and sex ratios were skewed towards females and undifferentiated individuals. To a large extent, all of these effects were reversed after 40 days of recovery, leading to the conclusion that exposure to the estrogen EE2 results in very strong, but reversible underdevelopment and feminization of zebrafish. The present study is the first to show this reversibility at different levels of organization, which gives better insight into the mechanistic basis of estrogenic effects in zebrafish. - Highlights: • Zebrafish were exposed to 17α-ethinylestradiol during their sexual differentiation. • Reversibility of effects was investigated after depuration of 40 days. • Morphological and physiological parameters were compared. • Zebrafish were able to recover at all different levels from mRNA to population.« less

  11. Nrf2 and Nrf2-related proteins in development and developmental toxicity: Insights from studies in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Hahn, Mark E; Timme-Laragy, Alicia R; Karchner, Sibel I; Stegeman, John J

    2015-11-01

    Oxidative stress is an important mechanism of chemical toxicity, contributing to developmental toxicity and teratogenesis as well as to cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases and diabetic embryopathy. Developing animals are especially sensitive to effects of chemicals that disrupt the balance of processes generating reactive species and oxidative stress, and those anti-oxidant defenses that protect against oxidative stress. The expression and inducibility of anti-oxidant defenses through activation of NFE2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and related proteins is an essential process affecting the susceptibility to oxidants, but the complex interactions of Nrf2 in determining embryonic response to oxidants and oxidative stress are only beginning to be understood. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an established model in developmental biology and now also in developmental toxicology and redox signaling. Here we review the regulation of genes involved in protection against oxidative stress in developing vertebrates, with a focus on Nrf2 and related cap'n'collar (CNC)-basic-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors. Vertebrate animals including zebrafish share Nfe2, Nrf1, Nrf2, and Nrf3 as well as a core set of genes that respond to oxidative stress, contributing to the value of zebrafish as a model system with which to investigate the mechanisms involved in regulation of redox signaling and the response to oxidative stress during embryolarval development. Moreover, studies in zebrafish have revealed nrf and keap1 gene duplications that provide an opportunity to dissect multiple functions of vertebrate NRF genes, including multiple sensing mechanisms involved in chemical-specific effects. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Nrf2 and Nrf2-Related Proteins in Development and Developmental Toxicity: Insights from studies in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Mark E.; Timme-Laragy, Alicia R.; Karchner, Sibel I.; Stegeman, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is an important mechanism of chemical toxicity, contributing to developmental toxicity and teratogenesis as well as to cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases and diabetic embryopathy. Developing animals are especially sensitive to effects of chemicals that disrupt the balance of processes generating reactive species and oxidative stress, and those anti-oxidant defenses that protect against oxidative stress. The expression and inducibility of anti-oxidant defenses through activation of NFE2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and related proteins is an essential process affecting the susceptibility to oxidants, but the complex interactions of Nrf2 in determining embryonic response to oxidants and oxidative stress are only beginning to be understood. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an established model in developmental biology and now also in developmental toxicology and redox signaling. Here we review the regulation of genes involved in protection against oxidative stress in developing vertebrates, with a focus on Nrf2 and related cap’n’collar (CNC)-basic-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors. Vertebrate animals including zebrafish share Nfe2, Nrf1, Nrf2, and Nrf3 as well as a core set of genes that respond to oxidative stress, contributing to the value of zebrafish as a model system with which to investigate the mechanisms involved in regulation of redox signaling and the response to oxidative stress during embryolarval development. Moreover, studies in zebrafish have revealed nrf and keap1 gene duplications that provide an opportunity to dissect multiple functions of vertebrate NRF genes, including multiple sensing mechanisms involved in chemical-specific effects. PMID:26130508

  13. Monitoring Toxic Ionic Liquids in Zebrafish ( Danio rerio) with Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging (DESI-MSI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Consuelo J.; Tata, Alessandra; de Campos, Michel L.; Peng, Chun; Ifa, Demian R.

    2017-06-01

    Ambient mass spectrometry imaging has become an increasingly powerful technique for the direct analysis of biological tissues in the open environment with minimal sample preparation and fast analysis times. In this study, we introduce desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) as a novel, rapid, and sensitive approach to localize the accumulation of a mildly toxic ionic liquid (IL), AMMOENG 130 in zebrafish ( Danio rerio). The work demonstrates that DESI-MSI has the potential to rapidly monitor the accumulation of IL pollutants in aquatic organisms. AMMOENG 130 is a quaternary ammonium-based IL reported to be broadly used as a surfactant in commercialized detergents. It is known to exhibit acute toxicity to zebrafish causing extensive damage to gill secondary lamellae and increasing membrane permeability. Zebrafish were exposed to the IL in a static 96-h exposure study in concentrations near the LC50 of 1.25, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/L. DESI-MS analysis of zebrafish gills demonstrated the appearance of a dealkylated AMMOENG 130 metabolite in the lowest concentration of exposure identified by a high resolution hybrid LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer as the trimethylstearylammonium ion, [C21H46N]+. With DESI-MSI, the accumulation of AMMOENG 130 and its dealkylated metabolite in zebrafish tissue was found in the nervous and respiratory systems. AMMOENG 130 and the metabolite were capable of penetrating the blood brain barrier of the fish with significant accumulation in the brain. Hence, we report for the first time the simultaneous characterization, distribution, and metabolism of a toxic IL in whole body zebrafish analyzed by DESI-MSI. This ambient mass spectrometry imaging technique shows great promise for the direct analysis of biological tissues to qualitatively monitor foreign, toxic, and persistent compounds in aquatic organisms from the environment. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. Copper at low levels impairs memory of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) and affects swimming performance of larvae.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Daiane da Silva; Danielle, Naissa Maria; Altenhofen, Stefani; Luzardo, Milene Dornelles; Costa, Patrícia Gomes; Bianchini, Adalto; Bonan, Carla Denise; da Silva, Rosane Souza; Dafre, Alcir Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Metal contamination at low levels is an important issue because it usually produces health and environmental effects, either positive or deleterious. Contamination of surface waters with copper (Cu) is a worldwide event, usually originated by mining, agricultural, industrial, commercial, and residential activities. Water quality criteria for Cu are variable among countries but allowed limits are generally in the μg/L range, which can disrupt several functions in the early life-stages of fish species. Behavioral and biochemical alterations after Cu exposure have also been described at concentrations close to the allowed limits. Aiming to search for the effects of Cu in the range of the allowed limits, larvae and adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to different concentrations of dissolved Cu (nominally: 0, 5, 9, 20 and 60μg/L; measured: 0.4, 5.7, 7.2 16.6 and 42.3μg/L, respectively) for 96h. Larvae swimming and body length, and adult behavior and biochemical biomarkers (activity of glutathione-related enzymes in gills, muscle, and brain) were assessed after Cu exposure. Several effects were observed in fish exposed to 9μg/L nominal Cu, including increased larvae swimming distance and velocity, abolishment of adult inhibitory avoidance memory, and decreased glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in gills of adult fish. At the highest Cu concentration tested (nominally: 60μg/L), body length of larvae, spatial memory of adults, and gill GST activity were decreased. Social behavior (aggressiveness and conspecific interaction), and glutathione reductase (GR) activity were not affected in adult zebrafish. Exposure to Cu, at concentrations close to the water quality criteria for this metal in fresh water, was able to alter larvae swimming performance and to induce detrimental effects on the behavior of adult zebrafish, thus indicating the need for further studies to reevaluate the currently allowed limits for Cu in fresh water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc

  15. Enantioselectivity in Developmental Toxicity of rac-metalaxyl and R-metalaxyl in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yinjun; Zhang, Yi; Chen, An; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Hao; Zhang, Quan

    2016-06-01

    Enantioselectivity of chiral pesticides in environmental safety has attracted more and more attention. In this study, we evaluated the enantioselective toxicity of rac-metalaxyl and R-metalaxyl to zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos through various malformations including pericardial edema, yolk sac edema, crooked body, and short tails. The results showed that there were significant differences in toxicity to zebrafish embryos caused by rac-metalaxyl and R-metalaxyl, and the LC50 s at 96 h are 416.41 (353.91, 499.29) mg · L(-1) and 320.650 (279.80, 363.46) mg · L(-1) , respectively. In order to explore the possible mechanism of the development defects, the genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (vtg1, vtg2, cyp17, cyp19a, cyp19b) and hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis (dio1, dio2, nis, tg, tpo) were quantified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The results revealed that there were no significant differences in the expression of vtg1, vtg2, cyp17, cyp19a, and cyp19b after exposure to rac-metalaxyl. However, the expression of vtg1, cyp19a, and cyp19b decreased significantly after exposure to R-metalaxyl. And likewise, rac-metalaxyl only caused the upregulation of dio2, while R-metalaxyl suppressed the expression of dio1 and tpo and induced the expression of dio2 and nis. The change of gene expression may cause the enantioselectivity in developmental toxicity in zebrafish embryo. The data provided here will be helpful for us to comprehensively understand the potential ecological risks of the currently used chiral fungicides. Chirality 28:489-494, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Cardio-respirometry disruption in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos exposed to hydraulic fracturing flowback and produced water.

    PubMed

    Folkerts, Erik J; Blewett, Tamzin A; He, Yuhe; Goss, Greg G

    2017-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing to extract oil and natural gas reserves is an increasing practice in many international energy sectors. Hydraulic fracturing flowback and produced water (FPW) is a hyper saline wastewater returned to the surface from a fractured well containing chemical species present in the initial fracturing fluid, geogenic contaminants, and potentially newly synthesized chemicals formed in the fracturing well environment. However, information on FPW toxicological mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. Both cardiotoxic and respirometric responses were explored in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos after either an acute sediment-free (FPW-SF) or raw/sediment containing (FPW-S) fraction exposure of 24 and 48 h at 2.5% and 5% dilutions. A 48 h exposure to either FPW fraction in 24-72 h post fertilization zebrafish embryos significantly increased occurrences of pericardial edema, yolk-sac edema, and tail/spine curvature. In contrast, larval heart rates significantly decreased after FPW fraction exposures. FPW-S, but not FPW-SF, at 2.5% doses significantly reduced embryonic respiration/metabolic rates (MO 2 ), while for 5% FPW, both fractions reduced MO 2 . Expression of select cardiac genes were also significantly altered in each FPW exposure group, implicating a cardiovascular system compromise as the potential cause for reduced embryonic MO 2 . Collectively, these results support our hypothesis that organics are major contributors to cardiac and respiratory responses to FPW exposure in zebrafish embryos. Our study is the first to investigate cardiac and respiratory sub-lethal effects of FPW exposure, demonstrating that FPW effects extend beyond initial osmotic stressors and verifies the use of respirometry as a potential marker for FPW exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Tooth development in vitro in two teleost fish, the cichlid Hemichromis bimaculatus and the cyprinid Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Van der Heyden, C; Allizard, F; Sire, J-Y; Huysseune, A

    2005-09-01

    A technique for organotypic in vitro culture with serum-free medium was tested for its appropriateness to mimic normal odontogenesis in the cichlid fish Hemichromis bimaculatus and the zebrafish Danio rerio. Serial semithin sections were observed by light microscopy to collect data on tooth patterning and transmission electron microscopy was used to compare cellular and extracellular features of tooth germs developing in vitro with the situation in vivo. Head explants of H. bimaculatus from 120 h post-fertilization (hPF) to 8.5 days post-fertilization (dPF) and of zebrafish from 45 hPF to 79 hPF and adults kept in culture for 3, 4 or 7 days revealed that tooth germs developed in vitro from explants in which the buccal or pharyngeal epithelium was apparently undifferentiated and, when present at the time of explantation, they continued their development up to a stage of attachment. In addition, the medium allowed the morphogenesis and cytodifferentiation of the tooth germs similar to that observed in vivo and the establishment of a dental pattern (place and order of tooth appearance and of attachment) that mimicked that in vivo. Organotypic culture in serum-free conditions thus provides us with the means of studying epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during tooth development in teleost fish and of analysing the genetic control of either mandibular or pharyngeal tooth development and replacement in these polyphyodont species. Importantly, it allows heads from embryonically lethal (zebrafish) mutants or from early lethal knockdown experiments to develop beyond the point at which the embryos normally die. Such organotypic culture in serum-free conditions could therefore become a powerful tool in developmental studies and open new perspectives for craniofacial research.

  18. Toxicity of effluents from gasoline stations oil-water separators to early life stages of zebrafish Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Alves, Romulo Nepomuceno; Mariz, Célio Freire; Paulo, Driele Ventura de; Carvalho, Paulo S M

    2017-07-01

    Used petroleum hydrocarbons and gasoline stations runoff are significant sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to aquatic ecosystems. Samples of the final effluent of oil-water-separators were collected at gasoline stations in the metropolitan region of Recife, Brazil, before release to sewage or rainwater systems. Effluent soluble fractions (ESF) were prepared and bioassays were performed according to the Fish Embryo Toxicity Test. The test involved exposing zebrafish Danio rerio embryos to dilutions of the ESFs for 96 h, with daily examination of lethality and sublethal morphological effects integrated through the General Morphology Score (GMS), based on the achievement of developmental hallmarks. Frequencies of abnormalities were recorded after exposures. ESF LC50-96h (lethal concentration to 50% of exposed embryos) in the most toxic effluent achieved 8.9% (v/v), equivalent to 11 μg phenanthrene equivalents L -1 . GMS scores indicated significantly delayed embryo-larval development at ESF dilutions of 10% and 20% from effluents of all gas stations. Major abnormalities detected after the 96 h exposure included the presence of a yolk sac not fully absorbed coupled with the lack of an inflated swim bladder, lack of both pectoral fins, and the failure to develop a protruding mouth. Effective equivalent PAH concentrations that induce a 50% frequency of larvae without an inflated swim bladder (EC50) were 4.9 μg phenanthrene L -1 , 21.8 μg naphthalene L -1 , and 34.1 μg chrysene L -1 . This study shows that PAHs in ESFs from gas stations oil water separators are toxic to zebrafish, contributing to the toxicity of urban storm waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of dietary uranium on reproductive endpoints--fecundity, survival, reproductive success--of the fish Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Simon, Olivier; Mottin, Elmina; Geffroy, Benjamin; Hinton, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to metal-contaminated water has been shown to result in a number of reproductive abnormalities in adult and larvae fish, such as failure of oocyte maturation and teratogenic effects. Recently, dietary uptake of metals by fish has been recognized as a critical route of exposure, however, the mechanisms of metal uptake and toxicity are poorly understood and in need of further investigation. The objectives of the present study are to quantify uranium (U dietary transfers from spiked artificial diets) in Danio rerio tissues and embryos, as well as establish its effect on reproduction and embryonic development. Uranium's environmental prominence is currently increasing because of new mining and milling activities. Uranium concentrations range from 0.02 µg/L in natural waters to 2 mg/L. The focus of this study was to examine the trophic transfer and effects of U following exposure modalities (dose, exposure duration 1 to 20 d). Two different isotopes were used to distinguish between chemical and radioactivity toxicity of U. Results showed that U trophic transfer was low (0.52%). Uranium tissue distributions showed that accumulation occurred in digestive organs (liver, digestive tract) following dietary exposure. High levels of U were measured in the gonads (female in particular, >20% of relative burden). High U accumulation levels in eggs indicated maternal transfer of the contaminant. Moreover, U trophic exposure led to a reduction in reproduction success as a function of U accumulated levels. High U exposure conditions strongly reduced the total number of eggs (50%) and their viability at 10 d (reduction of the clutch number, low quality of eggs). © 2010 SETAC.

  20. O2 consumption and heart rate in developing zebrafish (Danio rerio): influence of temperature and ambient O2.

    PubMed

    Barrionuevo, W R; Burggren, W W

    1999-02-01

    Body mass, length, oxygen consumption (MO2) and heart rate (fH) were measured in "embryos" (prior to hatching), "larvae" (days 10-20), "juveniles" (days 30-70 in 10-day intervals), and "adults" (day 100) of the zebrafish Danio rerio. Fish were chronically reared at either 25, 28, or 31 degreesC and then acutely exposed to hypoxia at different developmental stages. We hypothesized that at any given rearing and measurement temperature, D. rerio would maintain MO2 at lower ambient PO2 [i.e., have a lower critical partial pressure (Pcrit)] as development progressed and that at any given developmental stage individuals reared and measured at higher temperatures would show a more pronounced hypoxic bradycardia. MO2 in normoxic fish at 28 degreesC peaked at approximately 40 micromol. g-1. h-1 at day 10, thereafter falling to 4-5 micromol. g-1. h-1 at day 100. The Q10 for MO2 was 4-5 in embryos, falling to 2-3 from day 10 to day 60 and rising again to 4-5 at day 100. Pcrit at 28 degreesC was approximately 80 mmHg in embryos but decreased sharply to 20 mmHg at 100 days, supporting the hypothesis that more mature fish would be better able to oxygen regulate to lower ambient PO2 levels. Pcrit increased sharply with measurement temperature. Heart rate (fH) at 28 degreesC increased from about 125 beats/min in embryos to a peak of approximately 175 beats/min at days 10-30 and then fell to approximately 130 beats/min by day 100. Unlike for MO2, the Q10 for fH was more constant at 1.2-2.5 throughout development. Hypoxic exposure at any temperature had no effect on fH until approximately day 30, after which time a hypoxic bradycardia was evident. As evident for MO2, the bradycardia in older larvae was more profound at higher temperatures. On the assumption that bradycardia is indicative of hypoxic stress, the increasing prevalence of a hypoxic bradycardia in older, warmer individuals supports the hypothesis that increasing hypoxic susceptibility with development would be

  1. How the expression of green fluorescent protein and human cardiac actin in the heart influences cardiac function and aerobic performance in zebrafish Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Avey, S R; Ojehomon, M; Dawson, J F; Gillis, T E

    2018-01-01

    The present study examined how the expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and human cardiac actin (ACTC) in zebrafish Danio rerio influences embryonic heart rate (R H ) and the swim performance and metabolic rate of adult fish. Experiments with the adults involved determining the critical swimming speed (U crit , the highest speed sustainable and measure of aerobic capacity) while measuring oxygen consumption. Two different transgenic D. rerio lines were examined: one expressed eGFP in the heart (tg(cmlc:egfp)), while the second expressed ACTC in the heart and eGFP throughout the body (tg(cmlc:actc,ba:egfp)). It was found that R H was significantly lower in the tg(cmlc:actc,ba:egfp) embryos 4 days post-fertilization compared to wild-type (WT) and tg(cmlc:egfp). The swim experiments demonstrated that there was no significant difference in U crit between the transgenic lines and the wild-type fish, but metabolic rate and cost of transport (oxygen used to travel a set distance) was nearly two-fold higher in the tg(cmlc:actc,ba:egfp) fish compared to WT at their respective U crit . These results suggest that the expression of ACTC in the D. rerio heart and the expression of eGFP throughout the animal, alters cardiac function in the embryo and reduces the aerobic efficiency of the animal at high levels of activity. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  2. Valerenic acid and Valeriana officinalis extracts delay onset of Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-Induced seizures in adult Danio rerio (Zebrafish).

    PubMed

    Torres-Hernández, Bianca A; Del Valle-Mojica, Lisa M; Ortíz, José G

    2015-07-14

    Anticonvulsant properties have been attributed to extracts of the herbal medicine Valeriana officinalis. Our aims were to examine the anticonvulsant properties of valerenic acid and valerian extracts and to determine whether valerian preparations interact with the activity of other anti-epileptic drugs (phenytoin or clonazepam). To achieve these goals, we validated the adult zebrafish, Danio rerio, as an animal model for studying anticonvulsant drugs. All drug treatments were administered by immersion in water containing the drug. For assays of anticonvulsant activity, zebrafish were pretreated with: anti-epileptic drugs, valerenic acid, aqueous or ethanolic valerian extracts, or mixtures (phenytoin or clonazepam with valerenic acid or valerian extracts). Seizures were then induced with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). A behavioral scale was developed for scoring PTZ-induced seizures in adult zebrafish. The seizure latency was evaluated for all pretreatments and control, untreated fish. Valerenic acid and both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of valerian root were also evaluated for their ability to improve survival after pentylenetetrazole-challenge. The assay was validated by comparison with well-studied anticonvulsant drugs (phenytoin, clonazepam, gabapentin and valproate). One-way ANOVA followed by Tukey post-hoc test was performed, using a p < 0.05 level of significance. All treatments were compared with the untreated animals and with the other pretreatments. After exposure to pentylenetetrazole, zebrafish exhibited a series of stereotypical behaviors prior to the appearance of clonic-like movements--convulsions. Both valerenic acid and valerian extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) significantly extended the latency period to the onset of seizure (convulsion) in adult zebrafish. The ethanolic valerian extract was a more potent anticonvulsant than the aqueous extract. Valerenic acid and both valerian extracts interacted synergistically with clonazepam to extended the

  3. Assessment of toxicity and genotoxicity of low doses of 5-fluorouracil in zebrafish (Danio rerio) two-generation study.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Róbert; Csenki, Zsolt; Bakos, Katalin; Urbányi, Béla; Horváth, Ákos; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera; Gajski, Goran; Gerić, Marko; Negreira, Noelia; López de Alda, Miren; Barceló, Damià; Heath, Ester; Kosjek, Tina; Žegura, Bojana; Novak, Matjaž; Zajc, Irena; Baebler, Špela; Rotter, Ana; Ramšak, Živa; Filipič, Metka

    2015-06-15

    Residues of anti-neoplastic drugs represent new and emerging pollutants in aquatic environments. Many of these drugs are genotoxic, and it has been postulated that they can cause adverse effects in aquatic ecosystems. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is one of the most extensively used anti-neoplastic drugs in cancer therapy, and this article describes the results of the first investigation using a two-generation toxicity study design with zebrafish (Danio rerio). Exposure of zebrafish to 5-FU (0.01, 1.0 and 100 μg/L) was initiated with adult zebrafish (F0 generation) and continued through the hatchings and adults of the F1 generation, and the hatchings of the F2 generation, to day 33 post-fertilisation. The exposure did not affect survival, growth and reproduction of the zebrafish; however, histopathological changes were observed in the liver and kidney, along with genotoxic effects, at all 5-FU concentrations. Increases in DNA damage determined using the comet assay were significant in the liver and blood cells, but not in the gills and gonads. In erythrocytes, a significant, dose-dependent increase in frequency of micronuclei was observed at all 5-FU concentrations. Whole genome transcriptomic analysis of liver samples of F1 generation zebrafish exposed to 0.01 μg/L and 1 μg/L 5-FU revealed dose-dependent increases in the number of differentially expressed genes, including up-regulation of several DNA-damage-responsive genes and oncogenes (i.e., jun, myca). Although this chronic exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of 5-FU did not affect the reproduction of the exposed zebrafish, it cannot be excluded that 5-FU can lead to degenerative changes, including cancers, which over long-term exposure of several generations might affect fish populations. The data from this study contribute to a better understanding of the potential consequences of chronic exposure of fish to low concentrations of anti-neoplastic drugs, and they demonstrate that further studies

  4. Anti-quorum sensing activity, toxicity in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos and phytochemical characterization of Trapa natans leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Aleksic, Ivana; Ristivojevic, Petar; Pavic, Aleksandar; Radojević, Ivana; Čomić, Ljiljana R; Vasiljevic, Branka; Opsenica, Dejan; Milojković-Opsenica, Dušanka; Senerovic, Lidija

    2018-08-10

    Trapa natans L. (water chestnut or water caltrop) is a widespread aquatic plant, which has been cultivated for food and traditional medicine since ancient times. Pharmacological studies showed that water chestnut exhibits the wide range of biological activities, such as antimicrobial, antioxidative, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, as well as antiulcer. Evaluation of anti-virulence potential and toxicity of T. natans methanol (TnM), acetone (TnA) and ethyl acetate (TnEA) leaf extracts. The anti-quorum sensing activity of Tn extracts was addressed by measuring their effects on biofilm formation, swarming motility and pyocyanin and elastase production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Specific P. aeruginosa biosensors were used to identify which of the signaling pathways were affected. The lethal and developmental toxicity of extracts were addressed in vivo using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) model system. The phenolic composition of T. natans leafs extracts was analyzed by a linear ion trap-OrbiTrap hybrid mass spectrometer (LTQ OrbiTrapMS) and UHPLC system configured with a diode array detector (DAD) hyphenated with the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Subinhibitory concentrations of Tn leaf extracts (0.2 MIC) inhibited pyocyanin and elastase production up to 50% and 60%, respectively, and reduced swarming zones, comparing to non-treated P. aeruginosa. TnA inhibited biofilm formation by 15%, TnM showed a stimulatory effect on biofilm formation up to 20%, while TnEA showed no effect. The bioactive concentrations of TnM and TnA were not toxic in the zebrafish model system. Twenty-two phenolic compounds were tentatively identified in TnM, where thirteen of them were identified in T. natans for the first time. Tn extracts, as well as their major components, ellagic and ferulic acids, demonstrated the ability to interfere with P. aeruginosa Las and PQS signaling pathways. This study demonstrates anti-virulence potential of Tn leaf extracts against medically important pathogen P

  5. Inward rectifier potassium current (I K1) and Kir2 composition of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) heart.

    PubMed

    Hassinen, Minna; Haverinen, Jaakko; Hardy, Matt E; Shiels, Holly A; Vornanen, Matti

    2015-12-01

    Electrophysiological properties and molecular background of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) cardiac inward rectifier current (IK1) were examined. Ventricular myocytes of zebrafish have a robust (-6.7 ± 1.2 pA pF(-1) at -120 mV) strongly rectifying and Ba(2+)-sensitive (IC50 = 3.8 μM) IK1. Transcripts of six Kir2 channels (drKir2.1a, drKir2.1b, drKir2.2a, drKir2.2b, drKir2.3, and drKir2.4) were expressed in the zebrafish heart. drKir2.4 and drKir2.2a were the dominant isoforms in both the ventricle (92.9 ± 1.5 and 6.3 ± 1.5%) and the atrium (28.9 ± 2.9 and 64.7 ± 3.0%). The remaining four channels comprised together less than 1 and 7 % of the total transcripts in ventricle and atrium, respectively. The four main gene products (drKir2.1a, drKir2.2a, drKir2.2b, drKir2.4) were cloned, sequenced, and expressed in HEK cells for electrophysiological characterization. drKir2.1a was the most weakly rectifying (passed more outward current) and drKir2.2b the most strongly rectifying (passed less outward current) channel, whilst drKir2.2a and drKir2.4 were intermediate between the two. In regard to sensitivity to Ba(2+) block, drKir2.4 was the most sensitive (IC50 = 1.8 μM) and drKir2.1a the least sensitive channel (IC50 = 132 μM). These findings indicate that the Kir2 isoform composition of the zebrafish heart markedly differs from that of mammalian hearts. Furthermore orthologous Kir2 channels (Kir2.1 and Kir2.4) of zebrafish and mammals show striking differences in Ba(2+)-sensitivity. Structural and functional differences needs to be taken into account when zebrafish is used as a model for human cardiac electrophysiology, cardiac diseases, and in screening cardioactive substances.

  6. Benzo(a)pyrene-induced cytochrome p4501A expression of four freshwater fishes (Oryzias latipes, Danio rerio, Cyprinus carpio, and Zacco platypus).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Wuk; Yoon, Hong-Gil; Lee, Sung Kyu

    2015-05-01

    Oryzias latipes, Danio rerio, Cyprinus carpio, and Zacco platypus are useful indicator species for CYP1A biomarker studies; however, comparative studies have not been performed. To compare susceptibility, dose- and time-dependent CYP1A induction at the mRNA and protein levels in response to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) exposure was analyzed. At the mRNA level, a statistically significant difference was found among the four species; however, such was not observed at the protein level. C. carpio showed the highest CYP1A induction level and the steepest slope in the dose-response curve. To assess susceptibility, the difference in CYP1A mRNA induction among species must be considered, and C. carpio was the most sensitive species of the four evaluated in terms of CYP1A expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Cell phone-generated radio frequency electromagnetic field effects on the locomotor behaviors of the fishes Poecilia reticulata and Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Lee, David; Lee, Joshua; Lee, Imshik

    2015-01-01

    The locomotor behavior of small fish was characterized under a cell phone-generated radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF). The trajectory of movement of 10 pairs of guppy (Poecilia reticulate) and 15 pairs of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) in a fish tank was recorded and tracked under the presence of a cell phone-generated RF EMF. The measures were based on spatial and temporal distributions. A time-series trajectory was utilized to emphasize the dynamic nature of locomotor behavior. Fish movement was recorded in real-time. Their spatial, velocity, turning angle and sinuosity distribution were analyzed in terms of F(v,x), P[n(x,t)], P(v), F (θ) and F(s), respectively. In addition, potential temperature elevation caused by a cellular phone was also examined. We demonstrated that a cellular phone-induced temperature elevation was not relevant, and that our measurements reflected RF EMF-induced effects on the locomotor behavior of Poecilia reticulata and Danio rerio. Fish locomotion was observed under normal conditions, in the visual presence of a cell phone, after feeding, and under starvation. Fish locomotor behavior was random both in normal conditions and in the presence of an off-signaled cell phone. However, there were significant changes in the locomotion of the fish after feeding under the RF EMF. The locomotion of the fed fish was affected in terms of changes in population and velocity distributions under the presence of the RF EMF emitted by the cell phone. There was, however, no significant difference in angular distribution.

  8. Development of a new screening assay to identify proteratogenic substances using zebrafish danio rerio embryo combined with an exogenous mammalian metabolic activation system (mDarT).

    PubMed

    Busquet, François; Nagel, Roland; von Landenberg, Friedrich; Mueller, Stefan O; Huebler, Nicole; Broschard, Thomas H

    2008-07-01

    The assessment of teratogenic effects of chemicals is generally performed using in vivo teratogenicity assays, for example, in rats or rabbits. We have developed an in vitro teratogenicity assay using the zebrafish Danio rerio embryo combined with an exogenous mammalian metabolic activation system (MAS), able to biotransform proteratogenic compounds. Cyclophosphamide (CPA) and ethanol were used as proteratogens to test the efficiency of this assay. Briefly, the zebrafish embryos were cocultured at 2 hpf (hours postfertilization) with the test material at varying concentrations, induced male rat liver microsomes and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced) for 60 min at 32 degrees C under moderate agitation in Tris-buffer. The negative control (test material alone) and the MAS control (MAS alone) were incubated in parallel. For each test group, 20 eggs were used for statistical robustness. Afterward fish embryos were transferred individually into 24-well plates filled with fish medium for 48 h at 26 degrees C with a 12-h light cycle. Teratogenicity was scored after 24 and 48 hpf using morphological endpoints. No teratogenic effects were observed in fish embryos exposed to the proteratogens alone, that is, without metabolic activation. In contrast, CPA and ethanol induced abnormalities in fish embryos when coincubated with microsomes. The severity of malformations increased with increasing concentrations of the proteratogens. We conclude that the application of microsomes will improve and refine the D. rerio teratogenicity assay as a predictive and valuable alternative method to screen teratogenic substances.

  9. Histopathological alterations and induction of hsp70 in ramshorn snail (Marisa cornuarietis) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos after exposure to PtCl(2).

    PubMed

    Osterauer, Raphaela; Köhler, Heinz-R; Triebskorn, Rita

    2010-08-01

    The platinum group metals (PGMs) platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd), and rhodium (Rh) are used in automobile catalytic converters, from which they have been emitted into the environment to an increasing degree during the last 20 years. Despite the bioavailability of these metals to plants and animals, studies determining the effects of PGMs on organisms are extremely rare. In the present study, effects of various concentrations of PtCl(2) (0.1, 1, 10, 50 and 100 microg/L) were investigated with respect to the induction of hsp70 and histopathological alterations in the zebrafish, Danio rerio and the ramshorn snail, Marisa cornuarietis. Histopathological investigations revealed effects of Pt on both species, which varied between slight and strong cellular reactions, depending on the PtCl(2) concentration. The hsp70 level in M. cornuarietis did not show an increase following Pt exposure whereas it was significantly elevated at 100 micorg/L PtCl(2) in D. rerio. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Genome-wide identification of suitable zebrafish Danio rerio reference genes for normalization of gene expression data by RT-qPCR.

    PubMed

    Xu, H; Li, C; Zeng, Q; Agrawal, I; Zhu, X; Gong, Z

    2016-06-01

    In this study, to systematically identify the most stably expressed genes for internal reference in zebrafish Danio rerio investigations, 37 D. rerio transcriptomic datasets (both RNA sequencing and microarray data) were collected from gene expression omnibus (GEO) database and unpublished data, and gene expression variations were analysed under three experimental conditions: tissue types, developmental stages and chemical treatments. Forty-four putative candidate genes were identified with the c.v. <0·2 from all datasets. Following clustering into different functional groups, 21 genes, in addition to four conventional housekeeping genes (eef1a1l1, b2m, hrpt1l and actb1), were selected from different functional groups for further quantitative real-time (qrt-)PCR validation using 25 RNA samples from different adult tissues, developmental stages and chemical treatments. The qrt-PCR data were then analysed using the statistical algorithm refFinder for gene expression stability. Several new candidate genes showed better expression stability than the conventional housekeeping genes in all three categories. It was found that sep15 and metap1 were the top two stable genes for tissue types, ube2a and tmem50a the top two for different developmental stages, and rpl13a and rp1p0 the top two for chemical treatments. Thus, based on the extensive transcriptomic analyses and qrt-PCR validation, these new reference genes are recommended for normalization of D. rerio qrt-PCR data respectively for the three different experimental conditions. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  11. The use of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo for the acute toxicity testing of surfactants, as a possible alternative to the acute fish test.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Martin; van Egmond, Roger

    2010-06-01

    At present, the acute toxicity of chemicals to fish is most commonly estimated by means of a short-term test on juvenile or adult animals (OECD TG 203). Although, over the last few years, the numbers used have been reduced due to the implementation of the Three Rs (Reduction, Refinement and Replacement), significant numbers of fish are still used in acute toxicity tests. With the introduction of the new European Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) system, this number is likely to increase dramatically. The aim of this work was to test the acute toxicity of a number of anionic, cationic and non-ionic surfactants to embryos of the zebrafish (Danio rerio), over 48 hours, as a possible alternative to the standard 96-hour fish acute test. We measured the toxicities of 15 surfactants, and compared the results to previously generated adult D. rerio LC50 data (or other fish species, if these data were not available). Comparison of the LC50 data showed that embryos appear to be as sensitive to cationic and non-ionic surfactants as the adult fish, but possibly are more sensitive to anionic surfactants. Toxicity testing with the embryo test can be carried out more quickly than with the adult test, uses much less space and media, requires less effort, and therefore can be performed at a reduced cost. The embryo test may also uncover additional sub-lethal effects, although these were not observed for surfactants. The data presented here show that the 48-hour embryo test can be considered as a suitable alternative to the adult acute fish test for surfactants.

  12. Genotoxic effects and gene expression in Danio rerio (Hamilton 1822) (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) exposed to mining-impacted tributaries in Manizales, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ossa-López, Paula A; Castaño-Villa, Gabriel J; Rivera-Páez, Fredy A

    2017-09-25

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is one of the most studied aquatic organisms for water biomonitoring, due to its sensitivity to environmental degradation and resistance to toxic substances. This study determined the presence of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in peripheral blood erythrocytes, and assessed the gene expression of caspase-3 (CASP-3) and metallothionein 1 (MT-1) in the gills and liver of D. rerio. The study fish (n = 45) were exposed to water collected from two stations with mining impact (E2 and E3) and a reference station without evident mining contamination (E1), all located in La Elvira stream (Manizales-Colombia). In addition, a positive control (PC) with HgCl 2 (50 μg/L) and negative control (NC) with tap water were included. The fish from the PC and E2 and E3 treatments displayed genotoxic effects and changes in gene expression, with significant differences in micronuclei formation and the presence of blebbed nuclei. The cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene was used as reference and proved to be stable compared to the β-actin and 28S ribosomal RNA (28S) genes. In gills, CASP-3 expression was higher in the PC, and MT-1 expression was higher in the PC and E3 treatment. In liver, CASP-3 was expressed in the E2 treatment, and MT-1 expression was low. These results show that the genotoxic effects and differential gene expression observed in fish exposed to water from La Elvira stream could also be affecting the organisms present in this habitat.

  13. On the relevance of genotoxicity for fish populations I: effects of a model genotoxicant on zebrafish (Danio rerio) in a complete life-cycle test.

    PubMed

    Diekmann, Markus; Hultsch, Veit; Nagel, Roland

    2004-05-28

    Genotoxicity may be detected in surface waters by means of various genotoxicity assays. In order to enable an ecotoxicological assessment of the consequences of such genotoxic potential for fish populations, a complete life-cycle test with zebrafish (Danio rerio) and the model genotoxicant 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (NQO) was conducted. Zebrafish (f1) were continuously exposed to NQO (i.e. 0.1, 0.3, 1.1, 2.9, and 14.6 microg/l, respectively) from fertilised eggs until sexual maturity. In addition to reproduction studies in the f1-generation, f2-fish were exposed to NQO during the first 6 weeks of development. Up to 2.9 microg/l NQO, fish did not display differences in survival and growth (P < 0.05). A NQO concentration of 14.6 microg/l, however, was lethal. Female fish exposed to all NQO concentrations up to 2.9 microg/l displayed a significant reduction in egg production (P < 0.05). A mathematical simulation revealed that exposure to weak concentrations of NQO is leading to an elevated extinction risk. Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Cloning, characterization, and heat stress-induced redistribution of a protein homologous to human hsp27 in the zebrafish Danio rerio

    SciT

    Mao Li; Bryantsev, Anton L.; Chechenova, Maria B.

    Hsp27 is a small heat shock protein (shsp) regulating stress tolerance and increasingly thought to play roles in tissue homeostasis and differentiation. The zebrafish Danio rerio is an important model for the study of developmental processes, but little is known regarding shsps in this animal. Here, we report the sequence, expression, regulation, and function of a zebrafish protein (zfHsp27) homologous to human Hsp27. zfHsp27 contains three conserved phosphorylatable serines and a cysteine important for regulation of apoptosis, but it lacks much of a C-terminal tail domain and shows low homology in two putative actin interacting domains that are features ofmore » mammalian Hsp27. zfHsp27 mRNA is most abundant in adult skeletal muscle and heart and is upregulated during early embryogenesis. zfHsp27 expressed in mammalian fibroblasts was phosphorylated in response to heat stress and anisomycin, and this phosphorylation was prevented by treatment with SB202190, an inhibitor of p38 MAPK. Expression of zfHsp27 and human Hsp27 in mammalian fibroblasts promoted a similar degree of tolerance to heat stress. zfHsp27 fusion proteins entered the nucleus and associated with the cytoskeleton of heat stressed cells in vitro and in zebrafish embryos. These results reveal conservation in regulation and function of mammalian and teleost Hsp27 proteins and define zebrafish as a new model for the study of Hsp27 function.« less

  15. Sediment-contact fish embryo toxicity assay with Danio rerio to assess particle-bound pollutants in the Tietê River Basin (São Paulo, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Rocha, Paula Suares; Bernecker, Conny; Strecker, Ruben; Mariani, Carolina Fiorillo; Pompêo, Marcelo Luiz Martins; Storch, Volker; Hollert, Henner; Braunbeck, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    The Tietê River and its tributary Pinheiros River receive a highly complex organic and inorganic pollutants load from sanitary sewage and industrial sources, as well as agricultural and agroindustrial activities. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of sediments from selected locations in the Tietê River Basin by means of the sediment contact embryo toxicity assay with Danio rerio, in order to provide a comprehensive and realistic insight into the bioavailable hazard potential of these sediment samples. Lethal and sub-lethal effects were recorded, and high embryo toxicity could be found in the samples not only in the vicinity of the megacity São Paulo (Billings reservoir and Pinheiros River samples), but also downstream (in the reservoirs Barra Bonita, Promissão and Três Irmãos). Results confirm that most toxicity is due to the discharges of the metropolitan area of São Paulo. However, they also indicate additional sources of pollutants along the river course, probably from industrial, agricultural and agroindustrial residues, which contribute to the degradation of each area. The sediment contact fish embryo test showed to be powerful tool to detect embryo toxicity in sediments, not only by being a sensitive method, but also for taking into account bioavailability. This test provides an ecological highly realistic and relevant exposure scenario, and should therefore be added in ecotoxicological sediment quality assessments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fish embryo tests with Danio rerio as a tool to evaluate surface water and sediment quality in rivers influenced by wastewater treatment plants using different treatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Thellmann, Paul; Köhler, Heinz-R; Rößler, Annette; Scheurer, Marco; Schwarz, Simon; Vogel, Hans-Joachim; Triebskorn, Rita

    2015-11-01

    In order to evaluate surface water and the sediment quality of rivers connected to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with different treatment technologies, fish embryo tests (FET) with Danio rerio were conducted using native water and sediment samples collected upstream and downstream of four WWTPs in Southern Germany. Two of these WWTPs are connected to the Schussen River, a tributary of Lake Constance, and use a sand filter with final water purification by flocculation. The two others are located on the rivers Schmiecha and Eyach in the area of the Swabian Alb and were equipped with a powdered activated carbon stage 20 years ago, which was originally aimed at reducing the release of stains from the textile industry. Several endpoints of embryo toxicity including mortality, malformations, reduced hatching rate, and heart rate were investigated at defined time points of embryonic development. Higher embryotoxic potentials were found in water and sediments collected downstream of the WWTPs equipped with sand filtration than in the sample obtained downstream of both WWTPs upgraded with a powdered activated carbon stage.

  17. From inflation to flotation: contribution of the swimbladder to whole-body density and swimming depth during development of the zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Benjamin W; Smith, Frank M; Croll, Roger P

    2010-03-01

    Teleost fishes have body tissues that are denser than water, causing them to sink. Many teleosts therefore possess a gas-filled swimbladder that provides lift, allowing fish to attain neutral buoyancy. The importance of the swimbladder as a buoyancy aid during changing body sizes over ontogeny and its role in determining the swimming depth of fish remain unclear. In this study, we have used the zebrafish (Danio rerio) to investigate changes in the size and shape of the swimbladder during development and examine whether these changes affect the hydrostatic contribution of the swimbladder during swimming. Our results showed that swim-up behavior is critical for larvae to first inflate their swimbladder, decrease body density, and attain neutral buoyancy. Following inflation, we found a strong linear correlation between fish volume and swimbladder volume over ontogeny. This trend was supported by measures of the density of zebrafish, which was conserved within a narrow range between 1.00 +/- 0.001 and 0.996 +/- 0.001 g/cm(3) despite an increase in the swimming depth of zebrafish, which occurred upon transition to a double-chambered organ. Finally, we demonstrated that the contribution of the swimbladder keeps the fish within 1.7% of neutral buoyancy throughout larval development.

  18. Assessment of cardiotoxicity and effects of malathion on the early development of zebrafish (Danio rerio) using computer vision for heart rate quantification.

    PubMed

    Simoneschi, Daniele; Simoneschi, Francesco; Todd, Nancy E

    2014-06-01

    Malathion, a common organophosphate insecticide, is a proven acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and is the most applied organophosphate insecticide in the United States. The use of zebrafish as a model to study the effects of pesticides on development is an innovative approach yielding relevant implications for determining the potential toxic effects of these pesticides on humans. In this study, a simple noninvasive technique was developed to investigate the cardiotoxicity of malathion on Danio rerio embryos, and to detect and quantify its effect on heart rate. Videos were recorded under a stereomicroscope and examined with our custom-made software (FishBeat) to determine the heart rate of the embryos. The pixel average intensity frequency (PI) of the videos was computed at its maximum probability to indicate the average number of heartbeats per second. Experimental observations successfully demonstrated that this method was able to detect the heart rate of zebrafish embryos as compared with manual stopwatch counting, with no significant difference. Embryos were treated acutely with increasing malathion concentrations (33.3 and 50 μg/mL malathion) at 52, 76, and 96 hpf. Embryos treated with 33.3 μg/mL malathion had significant bradycardia at 52 and 76 hpf, whereas embryos treated with 50 μg/mL malathion presented bradycardia at all hpf. These novel observations confirmed that malathion, acting as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, induced heartbeat irregularity in zebrafish embryos.

  19. Long-term effects of antibiotics, norfloxacin, and sulfamethoxazole, in a partial life-cycle study with zebrafish (Danio rerio): effects on growth, development, and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhenhua; Lu, Guanghua; Ye, Qiuxia; Liu, Jianchao

    2016-09-01

    A partial life-cycle study with zebrafish (Danio rerio) was conducted to evaluate the long-term effects of antibiotics, norfloxacin (NOR) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX). A series of bio-endpoints correlated to the growth, development, and reproduction was assessed. The results showed that the body weight and the condition factor were depressed by SMX at 200 μg/L during the growth period. Meanwhile, the activities of metabolic enzyme (ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, EROD) and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD and catalase, CAT) were stimulated in all cases. The consequences of parental exposure to antibiotics for the next generation were also examined. The egg production of parents were depressed by the 200 μg/L NOR and SMX alone or in combination. Similarly, decreased hatching, survival, and enhanced development abnormality of the next generation also occurred after parental exposure to SMX at the highest concentration. The heartbeat however was not altered in all cases. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the bio-endpoints between the combined and individual treatment in most cases, with the exception of lower EROD activity and egg production in the co-treatment. The results suggest that long-term exposure to NOR and SMX at environmentally relevant concentrations, individually and in a mixture, may not significantly pose a threat to the growth, development, and reproduction of zebrafish, and an adverse effect may be expected at high concentration.

  20. Synthetic progestins medroxyprogesterone acetate and dydrogesterone and their binary mixtures adversely affect reproduction and lead to histological and transcriptional alterations in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanbin; Castiglioni, Sara; Fent, Karl

    2015-04-07

    Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and dydrogesterone (DDG) are synthetic progestins widely used in human and veterinary medicine. Although aquatic organisms are exposed to them through wastewater and animal farm runoff, very little is known about their effects in the environment. Here we provide a comprehensive analysis of the responses of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to MPA, DDG, and their binary mixtures at measured concentrations between 4.5 and 1663 ng/L. DDG and both mixtures impaired reproductive capacities (egg production) of breeding pairs and led to histological alterations of ovaries and testes and increased gonadosomatic index. Transcriptional analysis of up to 28 genes belonging to different pathways demonstrated alterations in steroid hormone receptors, steroidogenesis enzymes, and specifically, the circadian rhythm genes, in different organs of adult zebrafish and eleuthero-embryos. Alterations occurred even at environmentally relevant concentrations of 4.5-4.8 ng/L MPA, DDG and the mixture in eleuthero-embryos and at 43-89 ng/L in adult zebrafish. Additionally, the mixtures displayed additive effects in most but not all parameters in adults and eleuthero-embryos, suggesting concentration addition. Our data suggest that MPA and DDG and their mixtures induce multiple transcriptional responses at environmentally relevant concentrations and adverse effects on reproduction and gonad histology at higher levels.

  1. The effects of dietary Myrtle (Myrtus communis) on skin mucus immune parameters and mRNA levels of growth, antioxidant and immune related genes in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Safari, Roghieh; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Van Doan, Hien; Dadar, Maryam

    2017-07-01

    Myrtle (Myrtus communis L., Myrtaceae) is a significant plant which naturally distributed around the globe. Although numerous studies have demonstrated the benefits of myrtle in different species, studies using the oral route are rare in the literature. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of myrtle intake on the antioxidant, immune, appetite and growth related genes as well as mucosal immune responses in zebrafish (Danio rerio) model. Zebrafish were fed control or myrtle (5, 10 and 20 g kg -1 myrtle) supplemented diets for sixty days. The results showed that, oral administration of Myrtle significantly improved mucosal immune responses (the activity of lysozyme, total Ig and protease). Furthermore, fish fed 20 g kg -1 showed remarkably higher antioxidant (sod and cat) enzymes gene expression compared other treatment. There were significant difference between myrtle fed fish and control group regarding tnf-alpha and lyz expression. Also, evaluation of growth (gh and igf1) related genes revealed remarkable upregulation in 20 g kg -1 myrtle treatment compared other myrtle treatments and control group. Similar results was observed regarding the mRNA levels of appetite related genes (ghrl) in zebrafish fed 20 g kg -1 myrtle. The present results indicated that dietary administration of myrtle improved mucosal immune parameters and altered mRNA levels of selected genes. These results on zebrafish model also highlights the potential use of Myrtle supplements as additive in human diets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Laser surgery of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos using femtosecond laser pulses: Optimal parameters for exogenous material delivery, and the laser's effect on short- and long-term development

    PubMed Central

    Kohli, Vikram; Elezzabi, Abdulhakem Y

    2008-01-01

    Background Femtosecond (fs) laser pulses have recently received wide interest as an alternative tool for manipulating living biological systems. In various model organisms the excision of cellular components and the intracellular delivery of foreign exogenous materials have been reported. However, the effect of the applied fs laser pulses on cell viability and development has yet to be determined. Using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) as our animal model system, we address both the short- and long-term developmental changes following laser surgery on zebrafish embryonic cells. Results An exogenous fluorescent probe, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), was successfully introduced into blastomere cells and found to diffuse throughout all developing cells. Using the reported manipulation tool, we addressed whether the applied fs laser pulses induced any short- or long-term developmental effects in embryos reared to 2 and 7 days post-fertilization (dpf). Using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy we compared key developmental features of laser-manipulated and control samples, including the olfactory pit, dorsal, ventral and pectoral fins, notochord, pectoral fin buds, otic capsule, otic vesicle, neuromast patterning, and kinocilia of the olfactory pit rim and cristae of the lateral wall of the ear. Conclusion In our study, no significant differences in hatching rates and developmental morphologies were observed in laser-manipulated samples relative to controls. This tool represents an effective non-destructive technique for potential medical and biological applications. PMID:18230185

  3. Protective effect of Uncaria tomentosa extract against oxidative stress and genotoxicity induced by glyphosate-Roundup® using zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model.

    PubMed

    Santo, Glaucia Dal; Grotto, Alan; Boligon, Aline A; Da Costa, Bárbara; Rambo, Cassiano L; Fantini, Emily A; Sauer, Elisa; Lazzarotto, Luan M V; Bertoncello, Kanandra T; Júnior, Osmar Tomazelli; Garcia, Solange C; Siebel, Anna M; Rosemberg, Denis B; Magro, Jacir Dal; Conterato, Greicy M M; Zanatta, Leila

    2018-04-01

    Oxidative stress and DNA damage are involved in the glyphosate-based herbicide toxicity. Uncaria tomentosa (UT; Rubiaceae) is a plant species from South America containing bioactive compounds with known beneficial properties. The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant and antigenotoxic potential of UT extract in a model of acute exposure to glyphosate-Roundup® (GR) in zebrafish (Danio rerio). We showed that UT (1.0 mg/mL) prevented the decrease of brain total thiols, the increase of lipid peroxidation in both brain and liver, and the decrease of liver GPx activity caused after 96 h of GR (5.0 mg/L) exposure. In addition, UT partially protected against the increase of micronucleus frequency induced by GR exposure in fish brain. Overall, our results indicate that UT protects against damage induced by a glyphosate-based herbicide by providing antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects, which may be related to the phenolic compounds identified in the extract.

  4. Comparative ecotoxicity of potential biofuels to water flea (Daphnia magna), zebrafish (Danio rerio) and Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus) V79 cells.

    PubMed

    Heger, Sebastian; Du, Miaomiao; Bauer, Kevin; Schäffer, Andreas; Hollert, Henner

    2018-08-01

    The ecotoxicity of two biofuel candidates (1‑octanol and 2‑butanone) was investigated by an integrative test strategy using three bioassays: the acute immobilisation test with water flea (D. magna), the fish embryo acute toxicity test with zebrafish (Danio rerio) and the in vitro micronucleus assay with Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus) V79 cells. The median effective concentration (EC 50 ) values were 14.9±0.66mgL -1 for 1‑octanol, and 2152.1±44.6mgL -1 for 2‑butanone in the D. magna test. Both 1‑octanol and 2‑butanone caused teratogenic and lethal effects on zebrafish embryos, while exposure to 1‑octanol significantly induced these effects at concentrations ≥2.0mgL -1 . These results indicate that 1‑octanol exert much higher ecotoxicity than 2‑butanone to D. magna and zebrafish embryos. Moreover, both 1‑octanol and 2‑butanone did not cause significant genotoxic effects, while their metabolites significantly induced micronuclei in V79 cells. The present study proposed an integrative test approach to evaluate the potential ecotoxicity of biofuels using simple, quick and inexpensive bioassays. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Early life exposure to environmental levels of the aromatase inhibitor tributyltin causes masculinisation and irreversible sperm damage in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    McAllister, Brian G; Kime, David E

    2003-11-19

    To determine whether early life exposure to tributyltin (TBT), an aromatase inhibitor, impaired reproductive function in fish, Danio rerio were exposed to environmentally realistic levels (0.01-100 ng l(-1)) of TBT from 0 to 30, 30 to 60, and 0 to 70 days post-hatch, and the sex ratio and sperm motility of the adults examined 3-5 months after cessation of exposure. Fish exposed for 70 days to 0.1 ng l(-1) of TBT, a concentration presently below the detection limit in water, showed a male biased population which produced a high incidence of sperm lacking flagella. At 1 ng l(-1), the motility of sperm was significantly lower than that of control fish, while at 10 ng l(-1), all sperm lacked flagella and, at 100 ng l(-1), milt volume had increased. The effect of exposure on sex ratio was similar after exposure from 0 to 70 and 0 to 30 days, but even 100 ng l(-1) gave only 65% males after exposure from 30 to 60 days. Effects on sperm motility and morphology and on milt volume were less pronounced after 30 day than 70 day exposure. Our data suggest that screening for aromatase inhibiting activity and assessment of its risks in early life to human and wildlife fertility needs to be urgently addressed, and that the reproductive toxicity of TBT may presently be underestimated.

  6. A method for collecting eggs of Pseudocapillaria tomentosa (Nematoda: Capillariidae) from zebrafish Danio rerio and efficacy of heat and chlorine for killing the nematode’s eggs

    PubMed Central

    Martins, ML; Watral, V; Rodrigues-Soares, JP; Kent, ML

    2016-01-01

    Pseudocapillaria tomentosa is a common pathogen of zebrafish (Danio rerio) in research facilities. We developed a method to collect and concentrate the nematode eggs using a modified sugar centrifugation method, and documented their normal development. Embryonating stages with blastomere formation followed by elongation of the embryo prior to larva formation cumulated in developed larvae inside the eggs and hatching after 5–10 d. We then evaluated the efficacy of heat and chlorine to kill them based on a larva development assay. Eggs were exposed to 40, 50, 60°C for 30 min and 1 h. Chlorine treatment was performed at 100, 250, 500, 1000, 3000 and 6000 ppm for 10 min. Samples exposed to 40°C for 30 min or 1 h showed incidences of larvated eggs similar to controls. In contrast, no larvation occurred with eggs exposed to either 50 or 60°C for 30 min or 1 h. Remarkably, in repeated assays, samples exposed to low doses of chlorine (100, 250, 500 and 1000 ppm for 10 min) showed significantly higher incidence of larvation than controls. Eggs treated with 3,000 ppm for 10 min did not develop larvae and no eggs were found after 6,000 ppm treatment. PMID:27334246

  7. Acute toxicity of 31 different nanoparticles to zebrafish (Danio rerio) tested in adulthood and in early life stages – comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Kovrižnych, Jevgenij A.; Zeljenková, Dagmar; Rollerová, Eva; Szabová, Elena; Wimmerová, Soňa

    2013-01-01

    At present, nanoparticles are beginning to influence our lives in many ways and understanding the environmental health and safety aspect of nanomaterials has become a crucial issue. The aim of the work was to assess and compare the acute toxicity of 31 different nanomaterials to fish mature individuals Danio rerio with that to fish early life stages on using evaluation of the 48- and 96- hour LC50 values. A further aim was to evaluate teratogenicity of the nanoparticles tested to fish eggs. The nanoparticles tested were: 8 pure metals, 10 metal oxides, 5 other metal compounds and their mixtures, 2 silicon compounds, 3 calcium compounds, and 3 carbon compounds. Using 48-h and 96-h tests of acute toxicity (according to OECD 203), we evaluated mortality data, LC50 values, occurrence of malformations, as well as hatching time. In our study, 6 kinds of nanoparticles – calcium oxide, copper, copper in the form of oxide and CuZnFe4O4, magnesium oxide, and nickel – caused cumulative mortality. Two kinds of nanoparticles – copper and silver – were toxic for fish with LC50 values of approximately 3 mg/L. We did not observe marked differences between the 48-hour and 96-hour acute toxicity LC50 values, yet the possibility to evaluate hatching time in the 96-h acute fish toxicity test seems to be an advantage against that of the 48-hour toxicity. PMID:24179431

  8. A characterization of the ZFL cell line and primary hepatocytes as in vitro liver cell models for the zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Eide, Marta; Rusten, Marte; Male, Rune; Jensen, Knut Helge Midtbø; Goksøyr, Anders

    2014-02-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a widely used model species in biomedical research. The ZFL cell line, established from zebrafish liver, and freshly isolated primary hepatocytes from zebrafish have been used in several toxicological studies. However, no previous report has compared and characterized these two systems at the level of gene expression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ZFL cell line in comparison to primary hepatocytes as in vitro models for studying effects of environmental contaminants in zebrafish liver. Using quantitative real-time PCR, the basal level and transcriptional induction potential of key genes involved in toxic responses in the ZFL cell line, primary hepatocytes and whole liver from zebrafish were compared. The study showed that the ZFL cells have lower levels of mRNA of most selected genes compared to zebrafish liver. The induced gene transcription following exposure to ligand was much lower in ZFL cells compared to zebrafish primary hepatocytes at the doses tested. Importantly, oestrogen receptor and vitellogenin genes showed low basal transcription and no induction response in the ZFL cell line. In conclusion, it appears that primary hepatocytes are well suited for studying environmental contaminants including xenoestrogens, but may show large sex-dependent differences in gene transcription. The ZFL cell line shows potential in toxicological studies involving the aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway. However, low potential for transcriptional induction of genes in general should be expected, especially notable when studying estrogenic responses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. cDNA nucleotide sequence coding for stearoyl-CoA desaturase and its expression in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, S L; Liu, R W; Wu, C H; Cheng, W T; Kuo, Ching-Ming

    2003-12-01

    A cDNA sequence of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) was determined from zebrafish (Danio rerio) and compared to the corresponding genes in several teleosts. Zebrafish SCD cDNA has a size of 1,061 bp, encodes a polypeptide of 325 amino acids, and shares 88, 85, 84, and 83% similarities with tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and milkfish (Chanos chanos), respectively. This 1,061 bp sequence specifies a protein that, in common with other fatty acid desaturases, contains three histidine boxes, believed to be involved in catalysis. These observations suggested that SCD genes are highly conserved. In addition, an oligonucleotide probe complementary to zebrafish SCD mRNA was hybridized to mRNA of approximately 396 bases with Northern blot analysis. The Northern blot and RT-PCR analyses showed that the SCD mRNA was expressed predominantly in the liver, intestine, gill, and muscle, while a lower level was found in the brain. Furthermore, we utilized whole-mount in situ hybridization and real-time quantitative RT-PCR to identify expression of the zebrafish SCD gene at five different stages of development. This revealed that very high levels of transcripts were found in zebrafish at all stages during embryogenesis and early development. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Establishment and Characterization of a New Muscle Cell Line of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) as an In Vitro Model for Gene Expression Studies.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Singh, Neha; Goswami, Mukunda; Srivastava, J K; Mishra, Akhilesh K; Lakra, W S

    2016-01-01

    A new continuous fibroblast cell line was established from the muscle tissue of healthy juvenile Danio rerio (Zebrafish) through explant method. Fish cell lines serve as useful tool for investigating basic fish biology, as a model for bioassay of environmental toxicant, toxicity ranking, and for developing molecular biomarkers. The cell line was continuously subcultured for a period of 12 months (61 passages) and maintained at 28 °C in L-15 medium supplemented with 10% FBS and 10 ng/mL of basic fibroblastic growth factor (bFGF) without use of antibiotics. Its growth rate was proportional to the FBS concentration, with optimum growth at 15% FBS. DNA barcoding (16SrRNA and COX1) was used to authenticate the cell line. Cells were incubated with propidium iodide and sorted via flow cytometry to calculate the DNA content to confirm the genetic stability. Significant green fluorescent protein (GFP) signals confirmed the utility of cell line in transgenic and genetic manipulation studies. In vitro assay was performed with MTT to examine the growth potential of the cell line. The muscle cell line would provide a novel invaluable in vitro model to identify important genes to understand regulatory mechanisms that govern the molecular regulation of myogenesis and should be useful in biomedical research.

  11. Liver alterations in two freshwater fish species (Carassius auratus and Danio rerio) following exposure to different TiO₂ nanoparticle concentrations.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Mário S; de Matos, António P Alves; Lourenço, Joana; Castro, Luísa; Peres, Isabel; Mendonça, Elsa; Picado, Ana

    2013-10-01

    The toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TIO₂ NPs) and oxidative stress effects were studied in two freshwater fish species (Carassius auratus and Danio rerio) exposed for 21 days to different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100/mgL) of TiO₂ NPs and to a control (tap water). Additional fish were transferred to clean water for 14 days to assess the ability to recover from exposure to TiO₂ NPs. Activities of the enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) (malondialdheyde) were measured as indicators of oxidative stress. Histological and ultra-structural changes in livers from both species of fish were evaluated by light and electron microscopy. Results show a general GST activity increase according to TiO₂ NPs concentrations, which is in agreement with data from LPO. After 21 days, GST activities decreased possibly caused by suppression of GST synthesis as a result of severe stress. Histological and ultra-structural analysis of livers from exposed fish show degeneration of the hepatic tissue and alterations in hepatocytes such as glycogen depletion and an increase in lipofucsin lysosome-like granules. After a depuration period a partial recovery for biochemical markers and cells was observed. The results suggest that TiO₂ promotes alterations in hepatic tissues compatible with oxidative stress.

  12. (Eco)toxicological effects of 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyne-4,7-diol (TMDD) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and permanent fish cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Vincze, Krisztina; Gehring, Martin; Braunbeck, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyne-4,7-diol (TMDD) is a high-production volume chemical used in paper, ink, pesticide, and adhesive industries as a wetting and anti-foaming agent. The physicochemical properties and slow biodegradation rate of TMDD indicate a low bioaccumulation potential but a high prevalence in the environment. As a consequence, TMDD has been detected in several European rivers in the nanogram per liter and lower microgram per liter range; however, its environmental risk to aquatic organisms is considered low. Recent studies almost exclusively focused on acute effects by TMDD, little is known about cytotoxic and genotoxic effects, reproduction and developmental toxicity, endocrine disruption, and any kind of long-term toxicity and carcinogenicity so far. The present study aims to provide more specific baseline information on the ecotoxicological effects of TMDD in fish. For this end, cyto- and genotoxicity assays were carried out in vitro with the permanent fish cell line RTL-W1; in addition, in vivo studies were conducted with the early life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio) in order to fill the data gaps in developmental toxicity and endocrine disruption. TMDD showed a cytotoxic and slight genotoxic potential in fish cell lines; moreover, various sublethal and lethal effects could be detected in developing zebrafish embryos. There was no evidence of endocrine-disrupting effects by TMDD; however, mortality following prolonged exposure to TMDD during fish sexual development test was clearly higher than mortality in the fish embryo test after 96-h exposure. Our results thus confirmed previous findings of laboratory screening tests, suggesting short-term toxic effects of TMDD in the intermediate, and long-term effects in the lower milligram per liter range.

  13. Fluoride exposure abates pro-inflammatory response and induces in vivo apoptosis rendering zebrafish (Danio rerio) susceptible to bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rashmi; Khatri, Preeti; Srivastava, Nidhi; Jain, Shruti; Brahmachari, Vani; Mukhopadhyay, Asish; Mazumder, Shibnath

    2017-04-01

    The present study describes the immunotoxic effect of chronic fluoride exposure on adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish were exposed to fluoride (71.12 mg/L; 1/10 LC 50 ) for 30 d and the expression of selected genes studied. We observed significant elevation in the detoxification pathway gene cyp1a suggesting chronic exposure to non-lethal concentration of fluoride is indeed toxic to fish. Fluoride mediated pro-oxidative stress is implicated with the downregulation in superoxide dismutase 1 and 2 (sod1/2) genes. Fluoride affected DNA repair machinery by abrogating the expression of the DNA repair gene rad51 and growth arrest and DNA damage inducible beta a gene gadd45ba. The upregulated expression of casp3a coupled with altered Bcl-2 associated X protein/B-cell lymphoma 2 ratio (baxa/bcl2a) clearly suggested chronic fluoride exposure induced the apoptotic cascade in zebrafish. Fluoride-exposed zebrafish when challenged with non-lethal dose of fish pathogen A. hydrophila revealed gross histopathology in spleen, bacterial persistence and significant mortality. We report that fluoride interferes with system-level output of pro-inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and interferon-γ, as a consequence, bacteria replicate efficiently causing significant fish mortality. We conclude, chronic fluoride exposure impairs the redox balance, affects DNA repair machinery with pro-apoptotic implications and suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokines expression abrogating host immunity to bacterial infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Oxidative stress markers in fish (Astyanax sp. and Danio rerio) exposed to urban and agricultural effluents in the Brazilian Pampa biome.

    PubMed

    Costa-Silva, D G; Nunes, M E M; Wallau, G L; Martins, I K; Zemolin, A P P; Cruz, L C; Rodrigues, N R; Lopes, A R; Posser, T; Franco, J L

    2015-10-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are under constant risk due to industrial, agricultural, and urban activities, compromising water quality and preservation of aquatic biota. The assessment of toxicological impacts caused by pollutants to aquatic environment using biomarker measurements in fish can provide reliable data to estimate sublethal effects posed by chemicals in contaminated areas. In this study, fish (Astyanax sp. and Danio rerio) exposed to agricultural and urban effluents at the Vacacaí River, Brazil, were tested for potential signs of aquatic contamination. This river comprehends one of the main watercourses of the Brazilian Pampa, a biome with a large biodiversity that has been neglected in terms of environmental and social-economic development. Sites S1 and S2 were chosen by their proximity to crops and wastewater discharge points, while reference site was located upstream of S1 and S2, in an apparently non-degraded area. Fish muscle and brain tissues were processed for determination of acetylcholinesterase as well as oxidative stress-related biomarkers. The results showed signs of environmental contamination, hallmarked by significant changes in cholinesterase activity, expression of metallothionein, antioxidant enzymes, glutathione levels, and activation of antioxidant/cell stress response signaling pathways in fish exposed to contaminated sites when compared to reference. Based on these results, it is evidenced that urban and agricultural activities are posing risk to the environmental quality of water resources at the studied area. It is also demonstrated that cell stress biomarkers may serve as important tools for biomonitoring and development of risk assessment protocols in the Pampa biome.

  15. Altered gene expression in the brain and ovaries of zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole: microarray analysis and hypothesis generation.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, L; Wang, Rong-Lin; Bencic, David C; Biales, Adam D; Martinović, Dalma; Lazorchak, James M; Toth, Gregory; Ankley, Gerald T

    2009-08-01

    As part of a research effort examining system-wide responses of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in fish to endocrine-active chemicals (EACs) with different modes of action, zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to 25 or 100 microg/L of the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole for 24, 48, or 96 h. Global transcriptional response in brain and ovarian tissue of fish exposed to 25 microg/L of fadrozole was compared to that in control fish using a commercially available, 22,000-gene oligonucleotide microarray. Transcripts altered in brain were functionally linked to differentiation, development, DNA replication, and cell cycle. Additionally, multiple genes associated with the one-carbon pool by folate pathway (KEGG 00670) were significantly up-regulated. Transcripts altered in ovary were functionally linked to cell-cell adhesion, extracellular matrix, vasculogenesis, and development. Promoter motif analysis identified GATA-binding factor 2, Ikaros 2, alcohol dehydrogenase gene regulator 1, myoblast-determining factor, and several heat shock factors as being associated with coexpressed gene clusters that were differentially expressed following exposure to fadrozole. Based on the transcriptional changes observed, it was hypothesized that fadrozole elicits neurodegenerative stress in brain tissue and that fish cope with this stress through proliferation of radial glial cells. Additionally, it was hypothesized that changes of gene expression in the ovary of fadrozole-exposed zebrafish reflect disruption of oocyte maturation and ovulation because of impaired vitellogenesis. These hypotheses and others derived from the microarray results provide a foundation for future studies aimed at understanding responses of the HPG axis to EACs and other chemical stressors.

  16. Biochemical, molecular, and virulence characteristics of select Mycobacterium marinum isolates in hybrid striped bass Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis and zebrafish Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Ostland, V E; Watral, V; Whipps, C M; Austin, F W; St-Hilaire, S; Westerman, M E; Kent, M L

    2008-04-01

    A panel of 15 Mycobacterium marinum isolates was characterized by biochemical tests, sequencing the ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer (ITS) region and the heat shock protein 65 gene (hsp65) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The biochemical characteristics of all isolates were similar, except for Tween 80 hydrolysis. DNA sequence of hsp65 for a subset of isolates were identical; however, at position 5 of the ITS rDNA, a single nucleotide polymorphism was identified. Isolates possessing a guanine residue at this position (G strains) were unable to hydrolyze Tween 80, while isolates that contained an adenine residue at this position (A strains) were positive for Tween 80 hydrolysis. PFGE successfully discriminated between the G and A strains; all G strains had identical AseI restriction enzyme-cutting patterns while the A strains exhibited a variety of cutting patterns. Eight isolates (4 G and 4 A strains) were further characterized for virulence by experimental infection of hybrid striped bass (HSB) Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis and zebrafish Danio rerio. Seven of the 8 strains produced cumulative mortality ranging from 13.3 to 83.3% in the HSB virulence trial. The M. marinum reference strain ATCC 927T did not produce mortality in HSB. HSB exposed to the G strains had significantly higher cumulative mortality than those exposed to the A strains. When these same isolates were tested in zebrafish, 6 of the 8 strains caused 100% cumulative mortality, with 2 of the A strains being the most pathogenic. In zebrafish, however, ATCC 927T was virulent and produced 28.5% mortality. Collectively, we conclude that the M. marinum G strains are unique and may represent a distinct virulence phenotype in HSB, but this trend was not consistent in zebrafish.

  17. Teratogenic, bioenergetic, and behavioral effects of exposure to total particulate matter on early development of zebrafish (Danio rerio) are not mimicked by nicotine

    PubMed Central

    Massarsky, Andrey; Jayasundara, Nishad; Bailey, Jordan M.; Oliveri, Anthony N.; Levin, Edward D.; Prasad, G.L.; Di Giulio, Richard T.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoke has been associated with a number of pathologies; however, the mechanisms leading to developmental effects are yet to be fully understood. The zebrafish embryo is regarded as a ‘bridge model’; however, not many studies examined its applicability to cigarette smoke toxicity. This study examined the effects of total particulate matter (TPM) from 3R4F reference cigarettes on the early development of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish embryos were exposed to two concentrations of TPM (0.4 and 1.4 μg/mL equi-nicotine units) or nicotine at equivalent doses. The exposures began at 2 h post-fertilization (hpf) and lasted until 96 hpf. Several physiological parameters were assessed during or after the exposure. We show that TPM increased mortality, delayed hatching, and increased the incidence of deformities in zebrafish. TPM exposure also increased the incidence of hemorrhage and disrupted the angiogenesis of the major vessels in the brain. Moreover, TPM exposure reduced the larval body length, decreased the heart rate, and reduced the metabolic rate. Biomarkers of xenobiotic metabolism and oxidative stress were also affected. TPM-exposed zebrafish also differed behaviorally: at 24 hpf the embryos had a higher frequency of spontaneous contractions and at 144 hpf the larvae displayed swimming hyperactivity. This study demonstrates that TPM disrupts several aspects of early development in zebrafish. The effects reported for TPM were not attributable to nicotine, since embryos treated with nicotine alone did not differ significantly from the control group. Collectively, our work illustrates the utility of zebrafish as an alternative model to evaluate the toxic effects of cigarette smoke constituents. PMID:26391568

  18. Effects of postprandial starvation on mRNA expression of endocrine-, amino acid and peptide transporter-, and metabolic enzyme-related genes in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Tian, Juan; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Liu, Chengdong

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this study was to systematically evaluate the molecular activities of endocrine-, amino acid and peptide transporters-, and metabolic enzyme-related genes in 35-day-old mixed-sex zebrafish (Danio rerio) after feeding . Zebrafish with initial body weights ranging from 9 to 11 mg were fasted for 384 h in a controlled indoor environment. Fish were sampled at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 96, 192, and 384 h after fed. Overall, the present study results show that the regulatory mechanism that insulin-like growth factor I negative feedback regulated growth hormone is conserved in zebrafish, as it is in mammals, but that regulation of growth hormone receptors is highly intricate. Leptin and cholecystokinin are time-dependent negative feedback signals, and neuropeptide Y may be an important positive neuropeptide for food intake in zebrafish. The amino acid/carnitine transporters B(0,+) (ATB(0,+)) and broad neutral (0) amino acid transporter 1(B(0)AT1) mRNA levels measured in our study suggest that protein may be utilized during 24-96 h of fasting in zebrafish. Glutamine synthetase mRNA levels were downregulated, and glutamate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate transaminase, and trypsin mRNA levels were upregulated after longtime fasting in this study. The mRNA expression levels of fatty acid synthetase decreased significantly (P < 0.05), whereas those of lipoprotein lipase rapidly increased after 96 h of fasting. Fasting activated the expression of glucose synthesis genes when fasting for short periods of time; when fasting is prolonged, the mRNA levels of glucose breakdown enzymes and pentose phosphate shunt genes decreased.

  19. Effects of two strobilurins (azoxystrobin and picoxystrobin) on embryonic development and enzyme activities in juveniles and adult fish livers of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Jia, Wei; Mao, Liangang; Zhang, Lan; Zhang, Yanning; Jiang, Hongyun

    2018-09-01

    Azoxystrobin and picoxystrobin are two primary strobilurin fungicides used worldwide. This study was conducted to test their effects on embryonic development and the activity of several enzyme in the zebrafish (Danio rerio). After fish eggs were separately exposed to azoxystrobin and picoxystrobin from 24 to 144 h post fertilization (hpf), the mortality, hatching, and teratogenetic rates were measured. Additionally, effects of azoxystrobin and picoxystrobin on activities of three important antioxidant enzymes [catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD)] and two primary detoxification enzymes [carboxylesterase (CarE) and glutathione S-transferase (GST)] and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in zebrafish larvae (96 h) and livers of adult zebrafish of both sexes were also assessed for potential toxicity mechanisms. Based on the embryonic development test results, the mortality, hatching, and teratogenetic rates of eggs treated with azoxystrobin and picoxystrobin all showed significant dose- and time-dependent effects, and the 144-h LC 50 values of azoxystrobin and picoxystrobin were 1174.9 and 213.8 μg L -1 , respectively. In the larval zebrafish (96 h) test, activities of CAT, POD, CarE, and GST and MDA content in azoxystrobin and picoxystrobin-treated zebrafish larvae increased significantly with concentrations of the pesticides compared with those in the control. We further revealed that azoxystrobin and picoxystrobin exposure both caused significant oxidative stress in adult fish livers and the changes differed between the sexes. Our results indicated that picoxystrobin led to higher embryonic development toxicity and oxidative stress than azoxystrobin in zebrafish and the male zebrafish liver had stronger ability to detoxify than that of the females. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Involvement of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling in Estrogen Inhibition of Oocyte Maturation Mediated Through the G Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor (Gper) in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)1

    PubMed Central

    Peyton, Candace; Thomas, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Oocyte maturation (OM) in teleosts is under precise hormonal control by progestins and estrogens. We show here that estrogens activate an epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr) signaling pathway in fully grown, denuded zebrafish (Danio rerio) oocytes through the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (Gper; also known as GPR30) to maintain oocyte meiotic arrest in a germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) bioassay. A GPER-specific antagonist, G-15, increased spontaneous OM, indicating that the inhibitory estrogen actions on OM are mediated through Gper. Estradiol-17beta-bovine serum albumin, which cannot enter oocytes, decreased GVBD, whereas treatment with actinomycin D did not block estrogen's inhibitory effects, suggesting that estrogens act at the cell surface via a nongenomic mechanism to prevent OM. The intracellular tyrosine kinase (Src) inhibitor, PP2, blocked estrogen inhibition of OM. Expression of egfr mRNA and Egfr protein were detected in denuded zebrafish oocytes. The matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor, ilomastat, which prevents the release of heparin-bound epidermal growth factor, increased spontaneous OM, whereas the MMP activator, interleukin-1alpha, decreased spontaneous OM. Moreover, inhibitors of EGFR (ErbB1) and extracellular-related kinase 1 and 2 (Erk1/2; official symbol Mapk3/1) increased spontaneous OM. In addition, estradiol-17beta and the GPER agonist, G-1, increased phosphorylation of Erk, and this was abrogated by simultaneous treatment with the EGFR inhibitor. Taken together, these results suggest that estrogens act through Gper to maintain meiotic arrest via an Src kinase-dependent G-protein betagamma subunit signaling pathway involving transactivation of egfr and phosphorylation of Mapk3/1. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence that EGFR signaling in vertebrate oocytes can prevent meiotic progression. PMID:21349822

  1. Zebrafish ( Danio rerio) as a model for investigating the safety of GM feed ingredients (soya and maize); performance, stress response and uptake of dietary DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Sissener, Nini H; Johannessen, Lene E; Hevrøy, Ernst M; Wiik-Nielsen, Christer R; Berdal, Knut G; Nordgreen, Andreas; Hemre, Gro-Ingunn

    2010-01-01

    A 20-d zebrafish (Danio rerio) feeding trial, in which a near doubling of fish weight was achieved, was conducted with GM feed ingredients to evaluate feed intake, growth, stress response and uptake of dietary DNA. A partial aim of the study was to assess zebrafish as a model organism in GM safety assessments. Roundup Ready soya (RRS), YieldGard Bt maize (MON810) and their non-modified, maternal, near-isogenic lines were used in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Soya variety and maize variety were the main factors, both with two levels; non-GM and GM. Compared with fish fed non-GM maize, those fed GM maize exhibited significantly better growth, had lower mRNA transcription levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1 and a tendency (non-significant) towards lower transcription of heat shock protein 70 in liver. Sex of the fish and soya variety had significant interaction effects on total RNA yield from the whole liver and transcription of SOD-1, suggesting that some diet component affecting males and females differently was present in different levels in the GM and the non-GM soya used in the present study. Dietary DNA sequences were detected in all of the organs analysed, but not all of the samples. Soya and maize rubisco (non-transgenic, multicopy genes) were most frequently detected, while MON810 transgenic DNA fragments were detected in some samples and RRS fragments were not detected. In conclusion, zebrafish shows promise as a model for this application.

  2. Teratogenic, bioenergetic, and behavioral effects of exposure to total particulate matter on early development of zebrafish (Danio rerio) are not mimicked by nicotine.

    PubMed

    Massarsky, Andrey; Jayasundara, Nishad; Bailey, Jordan M; Oliveri, Anthony N; Levin, Edward D; Prasad, G L; Di Giulio, Richard T

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoke has been associated with a number of pathologies; however, the mechanisms leading to developmental effects are yet to be fully understood. The zebrafish embryo is regarded as a 'bridge model'; however, not many studies examined its applicability to cigarette smoke toxicity. This study examined the effects of total particulate matter (TPM) from 3R4F reference cigarettes on the early development of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish embryos were exposed to two concentrations of TPM (0.4 and 1.4 μg/mL equi-nicotine units) or nicotine at equivalent doses. The exposures began at 2h post-fertilization (hpf) and lasted until 96 hpf. Several physiological parameters were assessed during or after the exposure. We show that TPM increased mortality, delayed hatching, and increased the incidence of deformities in zebrafish. TPM exposure also increased the incidence of hemorrhage and disrupted the angiogenesis of the major vessels in the brain. Moreover, TPM exposure reduced the larval body length, decreased the heart rate, and reduced the metabolic rate. Biomarkers of xenobiotic metabolism and oxidative stress were also affected. TPM-exposed zebrafish also differed behaviorally: at 24 hpf the embryos had a higher frequency of spontaneous contractions and at 144 hpf the larvae displayed swimming hyperactivity. This study demonstrates that TPM disrupts several aspects of early development in zebrafish. The effects reported for TPM were not attributable to nicotine, since embryos treated with nicotine alone did not differ significantly from the control group. Collectively, our work illustrates the utility of zebrafish as an alternative model to evaluate the toxic effects of cigarette smoke constituents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Lithium promotes the production of reactive oxygen species via GSK-3β/TSC2/TOR signaling in the gill of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongwu; Gao, Lili; Zhang, Zhuangzhuang; Tao, Shiyi; Pang, Qiuxiang; Li, Ao; Deng, Hongkuan; Yu, Hairui

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the mechanism that lithium (Li) promotes the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β)/tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2)/target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling was investigated in the gill of zebrafish (Danio rerio). After the zebrafish were treated by 25 and 50 mg/L Li + , the mRNA expression of GSK-3β and TSC2 was inhibited, but the expression of TOR was induced in the gill of zebrafish. The levels of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), superoxide anion (O 2 ·- ), and hydroxy radical (·OH) as well as the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were increased, while the activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), and peroxidase (POD) were decreased by 25 and 50 mg/L Li + treatments. In the ZF4 cells, the mRNA expression of GSK-3β and TSC2 was inhibited, but TOR expression was induced by 1, 5, and 10 mmol/L Li + treatments. To further confirm that lithium promoted ROS production via GSK-3β inhibition, GSK-3β RNA was interfered. It was found that the interference of GSK-3β RNA induced the TSC2/TOR signaling. The levels of H 2 O 2 , O 2 ·- , and ·OH were increased, but the activities of CAT, GSH-PX, and POD were decreased by GSK-3β RNA interference. In addition, lithium decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) with Rhodamine-123 assay, but increased the levels of ROS by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay. The present results indicated that lithium promoted the ROS production through the GSK-3β/TSC2/TOR signaling in the gill of zebrafish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of acute changes in salinity and temperature on routine metabolism and nitrogen excretion in gambusia (Gambusia affinis) and zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Uliano, E; Cataldi, M; Carella, F; Migliaccio, O; Iaccarino, D; Agnisola, C

    2010-11-01

    Acute stress may affect metabolism and nitrogen excretion as part of the adaptive response that allows animals to face adverse environmental changes. In the present paper the acute effects of different salinities and temperatures on routine metabolism, spontaneous activity and excretion of ammonia and urea were studied in two freshwater fish: gambusia, Gambusia affinis and zebrafish, Danio rerio, acclimated to 27 degrees C. The effects on gill morphology were also evaluated. Five salinities (0 per thousand, 10 per thousand, 20 per thousand, 30 per thousand and 35 per thousand) were tested in gambusia, while four salinities were used in zebrafish (0 per thousand, 10 per thousand, 20 per thousand and 25 per thousand). Each salinity acute stress was tested alone or in combination with an acute temperature reduction to 20 degrees C. In gambusia, both salinity and temperature acute stress strongly stimulated urea excretion. Routine oxygen consumption was barely affected by acute salinity or temperature stress, and was reduced by the combined effects of temperature and high salinity. Gills maintained their structural integrity in all stressing conditions; hyperplasia and hypertrophy of mitochondria-rich cells were observed. In zebrafish, temperature and salinity acute changes, both alone and in combination, scarcely affected any parameter tested. The major effect observed was a reduction of nitrogen excretion at 20 degrees C-25 per thousand; under these extreme conditions a significant structural disruption of gills was observed. These results confirm the high tolerance to acute salinity and temperature stress in gambusia, and demonstrate the involvement of urea excretion modulation in the stress response in this species. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Toxicity of analytically cleaned pentabromodiphenylether after prolonged exposure in estuarine European flounder (Platichthys flesus), and partial life-cycle exposure in fresh water zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Kuiper, Raoul V; Vethaak, A D; Cantón, Roćio F; Anselmo, Henrique; Dubbeldam, Marco; van den Brandhof, Evert-Jan; Leonards, Pim E G; Wester, Piet W; van den Berg, Martin

    2008-09-01

    Residues of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), extensively applied as flame retardants, are widely spread in the aquatic environment and biota. The present study investigates effects of the environmentally relevant lower brominated diphenylethers in two fish species in vivo under controlled laboratory conditions. Euryhaline flounder (Platichthys flesus) and freshwater zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to a range of concentrations of a commercial pentabromodiphenylether mixture, DE-71. Chemical analysis of exposed fish showed a pattern of PBDE congeners that was very similar to that in wild fish. The resulting range included environmentally relevant, as well as higher levels. Animals were investigated histopathologically with emphasis on endocrine and reproductive organs. In zebrafish, hatching of embryos and larval development were assessed. Biochemical parameters were investigated in flounder as markers for suggested dioxin-like activity (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase=EROD), and activation of endogenous estrogen synthesis (gonad aromatase activity). Thyroid hormones were analyzed in plasma in both species. Benchmark analysis using internal PBDE concentrations showed a mild dose-dependent decrease of hepatic EROD and ovarian aromatase activities, and plasma thyroxin levels in flounder, and an increase of plasma thyroid hormone levels in zebrafish. These trends did not result in statistically significant differences from control fish, and major histopathological changes were not observed. Reproduction in zebrafish appeared to be the most sensitive parameter with statistically significantly reduced larval survival and non-significant indications for decreased egg production at internal levels that were more than 55 times the highest environmental recordings. The present results indicate limited risk for endocrine or reproductive effects of current environmental PBDE contamination in fish.

  6. Environmentally relevant levels of λ-cyhalothrin, fenvalerate, and permethrin cause developmental toxicity and disrupt endocrine system in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quan; Zhang, Yi; Du, Jie; Zhao, Meirong

    2017-10-01

    Synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) are one of the most widely used pesticides and frequently detected in the aquatic environment. Previous studies have shown that SPs posed high aquatic toxicity, but information on the developmental toxicity and endocrine disruption on zebrafish (Danio rerio) at environmentally relevant concentrations is limited. In this study, zebrafish embryos were employed to examine the adverse effects of λ-cyhalothrin (LCT), fenvalerate (FEN), and permethrin (PM) at 2.5, 10, 25, 125, 500 nM for 96 h. The results showed these 3 SPs caused dose-dependent mortality, malformation rate, and hatching rate. Thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T 3 ) levels were significantly decreased after exposure to LCT and FEN. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis was then performed on a series of nuclear receptors (NRs) genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG), hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT), hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axes, and oxidative-stress-related system. Our results showed that LCT, FEN, and PM downregulated AR expression while upregulated ER1 expression, and caused alteration to ER2a and ER2b expression. As for the expression of TRα and TRβ, they were both decreased following exposure to the 3 SPs. LCT and PM downregulated the MR expression and FEN induced MR expression. In addition, the expression of GR was increased after treating with LCT, while it was suppressed after exposure to FEN and PM. The 3 SPs also caused various alterations to the expression of genes including AhRs, PPARα, and PXR. These findings suggest that these 3 SPs may cause developmental toxicity to zebrafish larvae by disrupting endocrine signaling at environmentally relevant concentrations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Low-concentration exposure to glyphosate-based herbicide modulates the complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and induces mitochondrial hyperpolarization in the Danio rerio brain.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Aline G; Jaramillo, Michael L; Remor, Aline P; Latini, Alexandra; Davico, Carla E; da Silva, Mariana L; Müller, Yara M R; Ammar, Dib; Nazari, Evelise M

    2018-06-11

    Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethyl-glycine) (GLY) is the active ingredient of the most used herbicides in the world. GLY is applied in formulated products known as glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH), which could induce effects that are not predicted by toxicity assays with pure GLY. This herbicide is classified as organophosphorus compound, which is known to induce neurotoxic effects. Although this compound is classified as non-neurotoxic by regulatory agencies, acute exposure to GBH causes neurological symptoms in humans. However, there is no consensus in relation to neurotoxic effects of GBH. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the neurotoxic effects of the GBH in the zebrafish Danio rerio, focusing on acute toxicity, the activity and transcript levels of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, mitochondrial membrane potential, reactive species (RS) formation, and behavioral repertoire. Adult zebrafish were exposed in vivo to three concentrations of GBH Scout ® , which contained GLY in formulation (fGLY) (0.065, 1.0 and 10.0 mg L -1 fGLY) for 7 d, and an in vitro assay was performed using also pure GLY. Our results show that GBH induced in zebrafish brain a decrease in cell viability, inhibited mitochondrial complex enzymatic activity, modulated gene expression related to mitochondrial complexes, induced an increase in RS production, promoted hyperpolarization of mitochondrial membrane, and induced behavioral impairments. Together, our data contributes to the knowledge of the neurotoxic effects of GBH. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been recognized as a relevant cellular response that should not be disregarded. Moreover, this study pointed to the mitochondria as an important target of GBH. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Involvement of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in estrogen inhibition of oocyte maturation mediated through the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (Gper) in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Peyton, Candace; Thomas, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Oocyte maturation (OM) in teleosts is under precise hormonal control by progestins and estrogens. We show here that estrogens activate an epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr) signaling pathway in fully grown, denuded zebrafish (Danio rerio) oocytes through the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (Gper; also known as GPR30) to maintain oocyte meiotic arrest in a germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) bioassay. A GPER-specific antagonist, G-15, increased spontaneous OM, indicating that the inhibitory estrogen actions on OM are mediated through Gper. Estradiol-17beta-bovine serum albumin, which cannot enter oocytes, decreased GVBD, whereas treatment with actinomycin D did not block estrogen's inhibitory effects, suggesting that estrogens act at the cell surface via a nongenomic mechanism to prevent OM. The intracellular tyrosine kinase (Src) inhibitor, PP2, blocked estrogen inhibition of OM. Expression of egfr mRNA and Egfr protein were detected in denuded zebrafish oocytes. The matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor, ilomastat, which prevents the release of heparin-bound epidermal growth factor, increased spontaneous OM, whereas the MMP activator, interleukin-1alpha, decreased spontaneous OM. Moreover, inhibitors of EGFR (ErbB1) and extracellular-related kinase 1 and 2 (Erk1/2; official symbol Mapk3/1) increased spontaneous OM. In addition, estradiol-17beta and the GPER agonist, G-1, increased phosphorylation of Erk, and this was abrogated by simultaneous treatment with the EGFR inhibitor. Taken together, these results suggest that estrogens act through Gper to maintain meiotic arrest via an Src kinase-dependent G-protein betagamma subunit signaling pathway involving transactivation of egfr and phosphorylation of Mapk3/1. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence that EGFR signaling in vertebrate oocytes can prevent meiotic progression.

  9. The gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (Lpxrfa) system's regulation of reproduction in the brain-pituitary axis of the zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Spicer, Olivia Smith; Zmora, Nilli; Wong, Ten-Tsao; Golan, Matan; Levavi-Sivan, Berta; Gothilf, Yoav; Zohar, Yonathan

    2017-05-01

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GNIH) was discovered in quail with the ability to reduce gonadotropin expression/secretion in the pituitary. There have been few studies on GNIH orthologs in teleosts (LPXRFamide (Lpxrfa) peptides), which have provided inconsistent results. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the roles and modes of action by which Lpxrfa exerts its functions in the brain-pituitary axis of zebrafish (Danio rerio). We localized Lpxrfa soma to the ventral hypothalamus, with fibers extending throughout the brain and to the pituitary. In the preoptic area, Lpxrfa fibers interact with gonadotropin-releasing hormone 3 (Gnrh3) soma. In pituitary explants, zebrafish peptide Lpxrfa-3 downregulated luteinizing hormone beta subunit and common alpha subunit expression. In addition, Lpxrfa-3 reduced gnrh3 expression in brain slices, offering another pathway for Lpxrfa to exert its effects on reproduction. Receptor activation studies, in a heterologous cell-based system, revealed that all three zebrafish Lpxrfa peptides activate Lpxrf-R2 and Lpxrf-R3 via the PKA/cAMP pathway. Receptor activation studies demonstrated that, in addition to activating Lpxrf receptors, zebrafish Lpxrfa-2 and Lpxrfa-3 antagonize Kisspeptin-2 (Kiss2) activation of Kisspeptin receptor-1a (Kiss1ra). The fact that kiss1ra-expressing neurons in the preoptic area are innervated by Lpxrfa-ir fibers suggests an additional pathway for Lpxrfa action. Therefore, our results suggest that Lpxrfa may act as a reproductive inhibitory neuropeptide in the zebrafish that interacts with Gnrh3 neurons in the brain and with gonadotropes in the pituitary, while also potentially utilizing the Kiss2/Kiss1ra pathway. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of Reproduction. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. [Main regulatory element (MRE) of the Danio rerio α/β-globin gene domain exerts enhancer activity toward the promoters of the embryonic-larval and adult globin genes].

    PubMed

    Kovina, A P; Petrova, N V; Razin, S V; Yarovaia, O V

    2016-01-01

    In warm-blooded vertebrates, the α- and β-globin genes are organized in domains of different types and are regulated in different fashion. In cold-blooded vertebrates and, in particular, the tropical fish Danio rerio, the α- and β-globin genes form two gene clusters. A major D. rerio globin gene cluster is in chromosome 3 and includes the α- and β-globin genes of embryonic-larval and adult types. The region upstream of the cluster contains c16orf35, harbors the main regulatory element (MRE) of the α-globin gene domain in warm-blooded vertebrates. In this study, transient transfection of erythroid cells with genetic constructs containing a reporter gene under the control of potential regulatory elements of the domain was performed to characterize the promoters of the embryonic-larval and adult α- and β-globin genes of the major cluster. Also, in the 5th intron of c16orf35 in Danio reriowas detected a functional analog of the warm-blooded vertebrate MRE. This enhancer stimulated activity of the promoters of both adult and embryonic-larval α- and β-globin genes.

  11. An orthologue of the kit-related gene fms is required for development of neural crest-derived xanthophores and a subpopulation of adult melanocytes in the zebrafish, Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Parichy, D M; Ransom, D G; Paw, B; Zon, L I; Johnson, S L

    2000-07-01

    Developmental mechanisms underlying traits expressed in larval and adult vertebrates remain largely unknown. Pigment patterns of fishes provide an opportunity to identify genes and cell behaviors required for postembryonic morphogenesis and differentiation. In the zebrafish, Danio rerio, pigment patterns reflect the spatial arrangements of three classes of neural crest-derived pigment cells: black melanocytes, yellow xanthophores and silver iridophores. We show that the D. rerio pigment pattern mutant panther ablates xanthophores in embryos and adults and has defects in the development of the adult pattern of melanocyte stripes. We find that panther corresponds to an orthologue of the c-fms gene, which encodes a type III receptor tyrosine kinase and is the closest known homologue of the previously identified pigment pattern gene, kit. In mouse, fms is essential for the development of macrophage and osteoclast lineages and has not been implicated in neural crest or pigment cell development. In contrast, our analyses demonstrate that fms is expressed and required by D. rerio xanthophore precursors and that fms promotes the normal patterning of melanocyte death and migration during adult stripe formation. Finally, we show that fms is required for the appearance of a late developing, kit-independent subpopulation of adult melanocytes. These findings reveal an unexpected role for fms in pigment pattern development and demonstrate that parallel neural crest-derived pigment cell populations depend on the activities of two essentially paralogous genes, kit and fms.

  12. Molecular networks related to the immune system and mitochondria are targets for the pesticide dieldrin in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Cowie, Andrew M; Sarty, Kathleena I; Mercer, Angella; Koh, Jin; Kidd, Karen A; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2017-03-22

    The objectives of this study were to determine the behavioral and molecular responses in the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) central nervous system (CNS) following a dietary exposure to the pesticide dieldrin. Zebrafish were fed pellets spiked with 0.03, 0.15, or 1.8μg/g dieldrin for 21days. Behavioral analysis revealed no difference in exploratory behaviors or those related to anxiety. Transcriptional networks for T-cell aggregation and selection were decreased in expression suggesting an immunosuppressive effect of dieldrin, consistent with other studies investigating organochlorine pesticides. Processes related to oxidative phosphorylation were also differentially affected by dieldrin. Quantitative proteomics (iTRAQ) using a hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap identified 226 proteins that were different following one or more doses. These proteins included ATP synthase subunits (mitochondrial) and hypoxia up-regulated protein 1 which were decreased and NADH dehydrogenases (mitochondrial) and signal recognition particle 9 which were up-regulated. Thus, proteins affected were functionally associated with the mitochondria and a protein network analysis implicated Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease as diseases associated with altered proteins. Molecular networks related to mitochondrial dysfunction and T-cell regulation are hypothesized to underlie the association between dieldrin and PD. These data contribute to a comprehensive transcriptomic and proteomic biomarker framework for pesticide exposures and neurodegenerative diseases. Dieldrin is a persistent organochlorine pesticide that has been associated with human neurodegenerative disease such as Parkinson's disease. Dieldrin is ranked 18th on the 2015 U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and continues to be a pesticide of concern for human health. Transcriptomics and quantitative proteomics (ITRAQ) were employed to characterize the molecular networks in the central nervous system that are

  13. Application of Caenorhabditis elegans (nematode) and Danio rerio embryo (zebrafish) as model systems to screen for developmental and reproductive toxicity of Piperazine compounds.

    PubMed

    Racz, Peter I; Wildwater, Marjolein; Rooseboom, Martijn; Kerkhof, Engelien; Pieters, Raymond; Yebra-Pimentel, Elena Santidrian; Dirks, Ron P; Spaink, Herman P; Smulders, Chantal; Whale, Graham F

    2017-10-01

    To enable selection of novel chemicals for new processes, there is a recognized need for alternative toxicity screening assays to assess potential risks to man and the environment. For human health hazard assessment these screening assays need to be translational to humans, have high throughput capability, and from an animal welfare perspective be harmonized with the principles of the 3Rs (Reduction, Refinement, Replacement). In the area of toxicology a number of cell culture systems are available but while these have some predictive value, they are not ideally suited for the prediction of developmental and reproductive toxicology (DART). This is because they often lack biotransformation capacity, multicellular or multi- organ complexity, for example, the hypothalamus pituitary gonad (HPG) axis and the complete life cycle of whole organisms. To try to overcome some of these limitations in this study, we have used Caenorhabditis elegans (nematode) and Danio rerio embryos (zebrafish) as alternative assays for DART hazard assessment of some candidate chemicals being considered for a new commercial application. Nematodes exposed to Piperazine and one of the analogs tested showed a slight delay in development compared to untreated animals but only at high concentrations and with Piperazine as the most sensitive compound. Total brood size of the nematodes was also reduced primarily by Piperazine and one of the analogs. In zebrafish Piperazine and analogs showed developmental delays. Malformations and mortality in individual fish were also scored. Significant malformations were most sensitively identified with Piperazine, significant mortality was only observed in Piperazine and only at the higest dose. Thus, Piperazine seemed the most toxic compound for both nematodes and zebrafish. The results of the nematode and zebrafish studies were in alignment with data obtained from conventional mammalian toxicity studies indicating that these have potential as developmental

  14. Co-exposure of the organic nanomaterial fullerene C₆₀ with benzo[a]pyrene in Danio rerio (zebrafish) hepatocytes: evidence of toxicological interactions.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Josencler L Ribas; Lonné, María Noelia; França, Thiago A; Maximilla, Naiana R; Lugokenski, Thiago H; Costa, Patrícia G; Fillmann, Gilberto; Antunes Soares, Félix A; de la Torre, Fernando R; Monserrat, José María

    2014-02-01

    Compounds from the nanotechnology industry, such as carbon-based nanomaterials, are strong candidates to contaminate aquatic environments because their production and disposal have exponentially grown in a few years. Previous evidence shows that fullerene C60, a carbon nanomaterial, can facilitate the intake of metals or PAHs both in vivo and in vitro, potentially amplifying the deleterious effects of these toxicants in organisms. The present work aimed to investigate the effects of fullerene C60 in a Danio rerio (zebrafish) hepatocyte cell lineage exposed to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in terms of cell viability, oxidative stress parameters and BaP intracellular accumulation. Additionally, a computational docking was performed to investigate the interaction of the fullerene C60 molecule with the detoxificatory and antioxidant enzyme πGST. Fullerene C60 provoked a significant (p<0.05) loss in cellular viability when co-exposed with BaP at 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 μg/L, and induced an increase (p<0.05) in BaP accumulation in the cells after 3 and 4h of exposure. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cells exposed to BaP were diminished (p<0.05) by the fullerene addition, and the increase of the GST activity observed in the BaP-only treated cells was reduced to the basal levels by co-exposure to fullerene. However, despite the potential of the fullerene molecule to inhibit π GST activity, demonstrated by the computational docking, the nanomaterial did not significantly (p>0.05) alter the enzyme activity when added to GST purified extracts from the zebrafish hepatocyte cells. These results show that fullerene C60 can increase the intake of BaP into the cells, decreasing cell viability and impairing the detoxificatory response by phase II enzymes, such as GST, and this latter effect should be occurring at the transcriptional level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Acute selenium selenite exposure effects on oxidative stress biomarkers and essential metals and trace-elements in the model organism zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Hauser-Davis, R A; Silva, J A N; Rocha, Rafael C C; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana; Ziolli, R L; Arruda, M A Z

    2016-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace-element that becomes toxic when present at high concentrations. Little is known regarding Se effects on parameters such as oxidative stress biomarkers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute selenium exposure on oxidative stress biomarkers in a model organism, zebrafish (Danio rerio). Fish were exposed to selenium selenite at 1mgL(-1). Reduced glutathione (GSH), and metallothionein (MT) concentrations were determined in liver, kidney and brain, with MT also being determined in bile. Essential metals and trace-elements were also determined by inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in order to verify possible metal homeostasis alterations. GSH concentrations in liver, kidney and brain increased significantly (1.05±0.03μmolg(-1) ww, 1.42±0.03μmolg(-1) ww and 1.64±0.03μmolg(-1) ww, respectively) in the Se-exposed group when compared to the controls (0.88±0.05μmolg(-1) ww, 0.80±0.04μmolg(-1) ww and 0.89±0.03μmolg(-1) ww for liver, kidney and brain, respectively). MT levels in Se-exposed liver (0.52±0.03μmolg(-1) ww) decreased significantly in comparison to the control group (0.64±0.02μmolg(-1) ww), while levels in bile increased, albeit non-significantly. This is in accordance with previous studies that indicate efficient biliary MT action, leading to a rapid metabolism and elimination of contaminants from the body. Levels in the brain increased significantly after Se-exposure (0.57±0.01μmolg(-1) ww) when compared to the control group (0.35±0.03μmolg(-1) ww) since this organ does not present a detoxification route as quick as the liver-gallbladder route. Several metal and trace-elements were altered with Se-exposure, indicating that excess of selenium results in metal dyshomeostasis. This is the first report on metal dyshomeostasis due to Se-exposure, which may be the first step in the mechanism of action of selenium toxicity, as is postulated to occur in certain major human

  16. Effects of TDCPP or TPP on gene transcriptions and hormones of HPG axis, and their consequences on reproduction in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoshan; Ji, Kyunghee; Jo, Areum; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Choi, Kyungho

    2013-06-15

    Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) belong to the group of triester organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs), which have been used in a wide range of consumer products. These chemicals have been frequently detected in effluents, surface water, and fish, and hence their potential adverse effects on aquatic ecosystem are of concern. The present study was conducted to investigate the reproduction-related effects and possible molecular mechanisms of TDCPP and TPP using a 21 day reproduction test employing adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). After 21 d of exposure to TDCPP or TPP, significant decrease in fecundity along with significant increases of plasma 17β-estradiol (E2) concentrations, vitellogenin (VTG) levels, and E2/testosterone (T) and E2/11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) ratios were observed. The transcriptional profiles of several genes of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis changed as well after the exposure, but the trend was sex-dependent. In male fish, gonadotropin-releasing hormone2 (GnRH2), GnRHR3, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 19B, estrogen receptor α (ERα), ER2 β1, and follicle stimulating hormone β (FSHβ) were upregulated in the brain, while luteinizing hormone β (LHβ) and androgen receptor (AR) were downregulated. Corresponding to the upregulation of FSHβ and downregulation of LHβ in the brain, FSHR was upregulated and LHR was downregulated in the testis. Among the genes that regulate the steroidogenesis pathway, transcription of hydroxyl methyl glutaryl CoA reductase (HMGRA), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17βHSD) decreased, while transcription of CYP11A, CYP17, and CYP19A increased. In female fish, transcription ofGnRH2 and GnRHR3 decreased, but FSHβ, LHβ, CYP19B, ERα, ER2β1, and AR transcription increased in the brain. In the ovary, FSHR and LHR were significantly upregulated, and most steroidogenic genes were significantly upregulated. The observed

  17. Effects of Fluoxetine and Potential Antidepressant 8-Trifluoromethyl 1,2,3,4,5-Benzopentathiepin-6-Amine Hydrochloride (TC-2153) on Behavior of Danio rerio Fish in the Novel Tank Test and Brain Content of Biogenic Amines and Their Metabolites.

    PubMed

    Sinyakova, N A; Kulikova, E A; Englevskii, N A; Kulikov, A V

    2018-03-01

    We compared the effect of a new potential antidepressant 8-trifluoromethyl 1,2,3,4,5-benzopentathiepine-6-amine hydrochloride (TC-2153) and classical antidepressant fluoxetine in a dose of 0.25 mg/liter on the behavior of Danio rerio in the "novel tank" test and content of biogenic amines and their metabolites in the brain. Fluoxetine alone and TC-2153 alone significantly increased the time spent in the upper part of the tank and insignificantly reduced motor activity. Combined exposure of fishes in the solution containing potential and classical antidepressants potentiated their effects on both parameters. The compounds did not affect brain contents of serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine. At the same time, fluoxetine, but not TC-2153, reduced brain content of the main serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid.

  18. Impacts of 17beta-estradiol, including environmentally relevant concentrations, on reproduction after exposure during embryo-larval-, juvenile- and adult-life stages in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Brion, F; Tyler, C R; Palazzi, X; Laillet, B; Porcher, J M; Garric, J; Flammarion, P

    2004-06-24

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed for 3 weeks to low concentrations of estradiol including environmentally relevant concentrations (5, 25 and 100 ng/l), encompassing either their embryo-larvae (from fertilization to 21 day post-fertilization (dpf)), juvenile (from 21 to 42 dpf) or adult life stages (>200 dpf) with a view to investigating the most sensitive life stage of the zebrafish to 17beta-estradiol (E2). At all sampling points, whole-body vitellogenin concentrations and gonadal development were analyzed in order to investigate the effects of estrogen exposure on these endpoint in the zebrafish. In the adult stage, additional endpoints were measured including secondary sexual characteristics (manifestation of the uro-genital papillae (UGP) in males), gonadal growth (the gonado-somatic index (GSI)) and sex ratio. For all the different life stage exposures, reproductive performance of the F0 generation was assessed (egg production) and survival and development of the F1 embryo-larvae. Exposure to low concentrations of E2 resulted in vitellogenin induction whatever the life stage exposed but these effects were reversible after depuration. The effective concentration for vitellogenin induction in zebrafish early life stages was 100 ng E2/l, and in adult male zebrafish the effective concentration for vitellogenin induction (between 5 and 25 ng/l) was lower than for the early life stage fish. Exposure to E2 prior to (from fertilization to 21 dpf) and during the time of sex differentiation (from 21 to 42 dpf) also caused disruptions in the process of sexual differentiation (resulting in formation of a retrogonadal cavity in presumptive male, germ cell development and leading to a significant change of the sex ratio towards the female sex at the dose of 100 ng E2/l for the fish exposure as embryo-larvae) and altered patterns of egg production in the subsequent adults. Exposure of adult fish to E2 resulted in a modification of the secondary sexual characteristic in

  19. Lipidomics and H218O labeling techniques reveal increased remodeling of DHA-containing membrane phospholipids associated with abnormal locomotor responses in α-tocopherol deficient zebrafish (danio rerio) embryos

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Melissa Q.; Choi, Jaewoo; Stevens, Jan F.; Truong, Lisa; Tanguay, Robert L.; Traber, Maret G.

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that vitamin E (α-tocopherol) is required by the developing embryonic brain to prevent depletion of highly polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6), the loss of which we predicted would underlie abnormal morphological and behavioral outcomes. Therefore, we fed adult 5D zebrafish (Danio rerio) defined diets without (E−) or with added α-tocopherol (E+, 500 mg RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate/kg diet) for a minimum of 80 days, and then spawned them to obtain E− and E+ embryos. The E− compared with E+ embryos were 82% less responsive (p<0.01) to a light/dark stimulus at 96 h post-fertilization (hpf), demonstrating impaired locomotor behavior, even in the absence of gross morphological defects. Evaluation of phospholipid (PL) and lysophospholipid (lyso-PL) composition using untargeted lipidomics in E− compared with E+ embryos at 24, 48, 72, and 120 hpf showed that four PLs and three lyso-PLs containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), including lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC 22:6, required for transport of DHA into the brain, p<0.001), were at lower concentrations in E− at all time-points. Additionally, H218O labeling experiments revealed enhanced turnover of LPC 22:6 (p<0.001) and three other DHA-containing PLs in the E− compared with the E+ embryos, suggesting that increased membrane remodeling is a result of PL depletion. Together, these data indicate that α-tocopherol deficiency in the zebrafish embryo causes the specific depletion and increased turnover of DHA-containing PL and lyso-PLs, which may compromise DHA delivery to the brain and thereby contribute to the functional impairments observed in E− embryos. PMID:26774753

  20. Reed beds receiving industrial sludge containing nitroaromatic compounds. Effects of outgoing water and bed material extracts in the umu-c genotoxicity assay, DR-CALUX assay and on early life stage development in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, Lillemor; Hollert, Henner; Jonsson, Sofie; van Bavel, Bert; Engwall, Magnus

    2007-05-01

    Sweden has prohibited the deposition of organic waste since January, 2005. Since 1 million tons of sludge is produced every year in Sweden and the capacity for incineration does not fill the demands, other methods of sludge management have to be introduced to a larger degree. One common method in the USA and parts of Europe is the use of wetlands to treat wastewater and sewage sludge. The capacity of reed beds to affect the toxicity of a complex mixture of nitroaromatics in sludge, however, is not fully elucidated. In this study, an industrial sludge containing explosives and pharmaceutical residues was therefore treated in artificial reed beds and the change in toxicity was studied. Nitroaromatic compounds, which are the main ingredients of many pharmaceuticals and explosives, are well known to cause cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Recently performed studies have also showed that embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) are sensitive to nitroaromatic compounds. Therefore, we tested the sludge passing through constructed wetlands in order to detect any changes in levels of embryotoxicity, genotoxicity and dioxin-like activity (AhR-agonists). We also compared unplanted and planted systems in order to examine the impact of the root system on the fate of the toxicants. An industrial sludge containing a complex mixture of nitroaromatics was added daily to small-scale constructed wetlands (vertical flow), both unplanted and planted with Phragmites australis. Sludge with an average dry weight of 1.25%, was added with an average hydraulic loading rate of 1.2 L/day. Outgoing water was collected daily and stored at -20 degrees C. The artificial wetland sediment was Soxhlet extracted, followed by clean-up with multi-layer silica, or extracted by ultrasonic treatment, yielding one organic extract and one water extract of the same sample. Genotoxicity of the extracts was measured according to the ISO protocol for the umu-C genotoxicity assay (ISO/TC 147/SC 5/ WG9 N8), using

  1. Elucidating Cannabinoid Biology in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Krug, Randall G.; Clark, Karl J.

    2015-01-01

    The number of annual cannabinoid users exceeds 100,000,000 globally and an estimated 9 % of these individuals will suffer from dependency. Although exogenous cannabinoids, like those contained in marijuana, are known to exert their effects by disrupting the endocannabinoid system, a dearth of knowledge exists about the potential toxicological consequences on public health. Conversely, the endocannabinoid system represents a promising therapeutic target for a plethora of disorders because it functions to endogenously regulate a vast repertoire of physiological functions. Accordingly, the rapidly expanding field of cannabinoid biology has sought to leverage model organisms in order to provide both toxicological and therapeutic insights about altered endocannabinoid signaling. The primary goal of this manuscript is to review the existing field of cannabinoid research in the genetically tractable zebrafish model—focusing on the cannabinoid receptor genes, cnr1 and cnr2, and the genes that produce enzymes for synthesis and degradation of the cognate ligands anandamide and 2-arachidonylglycerol. Consideration is also given to research that has studied the effects of exposure to exogenous phytocannabinoids and synthetic cannabinoids that are known to interact with cannabinoid receptors. These results are considered in the context of either endocannabinoid gene expression or endocannabinoid gene function, and are integrated with findings from rodent studies. This provides the framework for a discussion of how zebrafish may be leveraged in the future to provide novel toxicological and therapeutic insights in the field of cannabinoid biology, which has become increasingly significant given recent trends in cannabis legislation. PMID:26192460

  2. Teaching Stress Physiology Using Zebrafish ("Danio Rerio")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Michael; Dhawale, Shree; Mustafa, Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    A straightforward and inexpensive laboratory experiment is presented that investigates the physiological stress response of zebrafish after a 5 degree C increase in water temperature. This experiment is designed for an undergraduate physiology lab and allows students to learn the scientific method and relevant laboratory techniques without causing…

  3. Glyphosate induces cardiovascular toxicity in Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Roy, Nicole M; Ochs, Jeremy; Zambrzycka, Ewelina; Anderson, Ariann

    2016-09-01

    Glyphosate is a broad spectrum herbicide used aggressively in agricultural practices as well as home garden care. Although labeled "safe" by the chemical industry, doses tested by industry do not mimic chronic exposures to sublethal doses that organisms in the environment are exposed to over long periods of time. Given the widespread uses of and exposure to glyphosate, studies on developmental toxicity are needed. Here we utilize the zebrafish vertebrate model system to study early effects of glyphosate on the developing heart. Treatment by embryo soaking with 50μg/ml glyphosate starting at gastrulation results in structural abnormalities in the atrium and ventricle, irregular heart looping, situs inversus as well as decreased heartbeats by 48h as determined by live imaging and immunohistochemistry. Vasculature in the body was also affected as determined using fli-1 transgenic embryos. To determine if the effects noted at 48h post fertilization are due to early stage alterations in myocardial precursors, we also investigate cardiomyocyte development with a Mef2 antibody and by mef2ca in situ hybridization and find alterations in the Mef2/mef2ca staining patterns during early cardiac patterning stages. We conclude that glyphosate is developmentally toxic to the zebrafish heart. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Learning and memory in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Gerlai, R

    2016-01-01

    Learning and memory are defining features of our own species inherently important to our daily lives and to who we are. Without our memories we cease to exist as a person. Without our ability to learn individuals and collectively our society would cease to function. Diseases of the mind still remain incurable. The interest in understanding of the mechanisms of learning and memory is thus well founded. Given the complexity of such mechanisms, concerted efforts have been made to study them under controlled laboratory conditions, ie, with laboratory model organisms. The zebrafish, although new in this field, is one such model organism. The rapidly developing forward- and reverse genetic methods designed for the zebrafish and the increasing use of pharmacological tools along with numerous neurobiology techniques make this species perhaps the best model for the analysis of the mechanisms of complex central nervous system characteristics. The fact that it is an evolutionarily ancient and simpler vertebrate, but at the same time it possesses numerous conserved features across multiple levels of biological organization makes this species an excellent tool for the analysis of the mechanisms of learning and memory. The bottleneck lies in our understanding of its cognitive and mnemonic features, the topic of this chapter. The current paper builds on a chapter published in the previous edition and continues to focus on associative learning, but now it extends the discussion to other forms of learning and to recent discoveries on memory-related features and findings obtained both in adults and larval zebrafish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Behavioral and Metabolic Phenotype Indicate Personality in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Mingzhe; Chen, Yan; Huang, Yingying; Lu, Weiqun

    2018-01-01

    Consistency of individual differences of animal behavior and personality in reactions to various environmental stresses among their life stages could reflect basic divergences in coping style which may affect survival, social rank, and reproductive success in the wild. However, the physiological mechanisms determining personality remain poorly understood. In order to study whether behavior, metabolism and physiological stress responses relate to the personality, we employed post-stress recovery assays to separate zebrafish into two behavioral types (proactive and reactive). The results demonstrated consistent difference among personality, behavior and metabolism in which proactive individuals were more aggressive, had higher standard metabolic rates and showed lower shuttled frequencies between dark and light compartments than the reactive ones. The behavioral variations were also linked to divergent acute salinity stress responses: proactive individuals adopted a swift locomotion behavior in response to acute salinity challenge while reactive individuals remain unchanged. Our results provide useful insight into how personality acts on correlated traits and the importance of a holistic approach to understanding the mechanisms driving persistent inter-individual differences. PMID:29899710

  6. Boldness predicts social status in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Dahlbom, S Josefin; Lagman, David; Lundstedt-Enkel, Katrin; Sundström, L Fredrik; Winberg, Svante

    2011-01-01

    This study explored if boldness could be used to predict social status. First, boldness was assessed by monitoring individual zebrafish behaviour in (1) an unfamiliar barren environment with no shelter (open field), (2) the same environment when a roof was introduced as a shelter, and (3) when the roof was removed and an unfamiliar object (Lego® brick) was introduced. Next, after a resting period of minimum one week, social status of the fish was determined in a dyadic contest and dominant/subordinate individuals were determined as the winner/loser of two consecutive contests. Multivariate data analyses showed that males were bolder than females and that the behaviours expressed by the fish during the boldness tests could be used to predict which fish would later become dominant and subordinate in the ensuing dyadic contest. We conclude that bold behaviour is positively correlated to dominance in zebrafish and that boldness is not solely a consequence of social dominance.

  7. Boldness Predicts Social Status in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Dahlbom, S. Josefin; Lagman, David; Lundstedt-Enkel, Katrin; Sundström, L. Fredrik; Winberg, Svante

    2011-01-01

    This study explored if boldness could be used to predict social status. First, boldness was assessed by monitoring individual zebrafish behaviour in (1) an unfamiliar barren environment with no shelter (open field), (2) the same environment when a roof was introduced as a shelter, and (3) when the roof was removed and an unfamiliar object (Lego® brick) was introduced. Next, after a resting period of minimum one week, social status of the fish was determined in a dyadic contest and dominant/subordinate individuals were determined as the winner/loser of two consecutive contests. Multivariate data analyses showed that males were bolder than females and that the behaviours expressed by the fish during the boldness tests could be used to predict which fish would later become dominant and subordinate in the ensuing dyadic contest. We conclude that bold behaviour is positively correlated to dominance in zebrafish and that boldness is not solely a consequence of social dominance. PMID:21858168

  8. Developmental effects of simulated microgravity on zebrafish, (Danio rerio)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoyek, Matthew; Edsall, Sara; Franz-Odendaal, Tamara; Smith, Frank; Croll, Roger

    Zebrafish are widely used model vertebrates in research and recently this species has been used to study the effects of microgravity on fundamental biological processes. In this study we used a NASA-designed rotating wall vessel (RWV) to investigate the effects of simulated microgravity (SMG) on zebrafish development up to 14 days post fertilization (dpf). At developmental stages beyond the 3-4 somite stage we found SMG-exposed embryos reached key developmental stag-ing points more rapidly than fish raised within a non-rotating vessel. By the 21 somite stage, both groups were again synchronized in their developmental staging. However, SMG-exposed embryos eventually exhibited a delay in hatching time compared to controls. Otolith and to-tal body size were observed to be greater in larvae raised in SMG. In addition, pigmentation patterns in SMG exposed fish differed, with larger and differentially aggregated melanocytes . Heart development was slowed in SMG exposed fish, but no change in nervous system de-velopment was detected. Ongoing research will focus on differences in heart and respiration rates. Finally, by developing a method to extend the duration of SMG exposure, we found the swimming behaviour of SMG-exposed animals was altered with time in the RWV. Initially SMG-exposed animals swam in the direction of RWV rotation (5-9dpf) but older (9+dpf) fish swam against rotation and demonstrated righting behaviour with each rotation. These results suggest that vestibular reflexes may develop normally and be maintained in animals exposed to SMG. Together, our data provide insights into how zebrafish may develop when flown in space, permitting better formulation of experiments to test mechanisms by which microgravity may affect ontogeny of this model organism. Keywords: microgravity, zebrafish, growth, development

  9. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos as a model for testing proteratogens.

    PubMed

    Weigt, Stefan; Huebler, Nicole; Strecker, Ruben; Braunbeck, Thomas; Broschard, Thomas H

    2011-03-15

    Zebrafish embryos have been shown to be a useful model for the detection of direct acting teratogens. This communication presents a protocol for a 3-day in vitro zebrafish embryo teratogenicity assay and describes results obtained for 10 proteratogens: 2-acetylaminofluorene, benzo[a]pyrene, aflatoxin B(1), carbamazepine, phenytoin, trimethadione, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, tegafur and thio-TEPA. The selection of the test substances accounts for differences in structure, origin, metabolism and water solubility. Apart from 2-acetylaminofluorene, which mainly produces lethal effects, all proteratogens tested were teratogenic in zebrafish embryos exposed for 3 days. The test substances and/or the substance class produced characteristic patterns of fingerprint endpoints. Several substances produced effects that could be identified already at 1 dpf (days post fertilization), whereas the effects of others could only be identified unambiguously after hatching at ≥ 3 dpf. The LC₅₀ and EC₅₀ values were used to calculate the teratogenicity index (TI) for the different substances, and the EC₂₀ values were related to human plasma concentrations. Results lead to the conclusion that zebrafish embryos are able to activate proteratogenic substances without addition of an exogenous metabolic activation system. Moreover, the teratogenic effects were observed at concentrations relevant to human exposure data. Along with other findings, our results indicate that zebrafish embryos are a useful alternative method for traditional teratogenicity testing with mammalian species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Analyzing Cold Tolerance Mechanism in Transgenic Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian; Tan, Xungang; Jiao, Shuang; You, Feng; Zhang, Pei-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Low temperatures may cause severe growth inhibition and mortality in fish. In order to understand the mechanism of cold tolerance, a transgenic zebrafish Tg (smyd1:m3ck) model was established to study the effect of energy homeostasis during cold stress. The muscle-specific promoter Smyd1 was used to express the carp muscle form III of creatine kinase (M3-CK), which maintained enzymatic activity at a relatively low temperature, in zebrafish skeletal muscle. In situ hybridization showed that M3-CK was expressed strongly in the skeletal muscle. When exposed to 13°C, Tg (smyd1:m3ck) fish maintained their swimming behavior, while the wild-type could not. Energy measurements showed that the concentration of ATP increased in Tg (smyd1:m3ck) versus wild-type fish at 28°C. After 2 h at 13°C, ATP concentrations were 2.16-fold higher in Tg (smyd1:m3ck) than in wild-type (P<0.05). At 13°C, the ATP concentration in Tg (smyd1:m3ck) fish and wild-type fish was 63.3% and 20.0%, respectively, of that in wild-type fish at 28°C. Microarray analysis revealed differential expression of 1249 transcripts in Tg (smyd1:m3ck) versus wild-type fish under cold stress. Biological processes that were significantly overrepresented in this group included circadian rhythm, energy metabolism, lipid transport, and metabolism. These results are clues to understanding the mechanisms underlying temperature acclimation in fish. PMID:25058652

  11. Short-term memory in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Jia, Jason; Fernandes, Yohaan; Gerlai, Robert

    2014-08-15

    Learning and memory represent perhaps the most complex behavioral phenomena. Although their underlying mechanisms have been extensively analyzed, only a fraction of the potential molecular components have been identified. The zebrafish has been proposed as a screening tool with which mechanisms of complex brain functions may be systematically uncovered. However, as a relative newcomer in behavioral neuroscience, the zebrafish has not been well characterized for its cognitive and mnemonic features, thus learning and/or memory screens with adults have not been feasible. Here we study short-term memory of adult zebrafish. We show animated images of conspecifics (the stimulus) to the experimental subject during 1 min intervals on ten occasions separated by different (2, 4, 8 or 16 min long) inter-stimulus intervals (ISI), a between subject experimental design. We quantify the distance of the subject from the image presentation screen during each stimulus presentation interval, during each of the 1-min post-stimulus intervals immediately following the stimulus presentations and during each of the 1-min intervals furthest away from the last stimulus presentation interval and just before the next interval (pre-stimulus interval), respectively. Our results demonstrate significant retention of short-term memory even in the longest ISI group but suggest no acquisition of reference memory. Because in the employed paradigm both stimulus presentation and behavioral response quantification is computer automated, we argue that high-throughput screening for drugs or mutations that alter short-term memory performance of adult zebrafish is now becoming feasible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Shoaling develops with age in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Buske, Christine; Gerlai, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The biological mechanisms of human social behavior are complex. Animal models may facilitate the understanding of these mechanisms and may help one to develop treatment strategies for abnormal human social behavior, a core symptom in numerous clinical conditions. The zebrafish is perhaps the most social vertebrate among commonly used laboratory species. Given its practical features and the numerous genetic tools developed for it, it should be a promising tool. Zebrafish shoal, i.e. form tight multimember groups, but the ontogenesis of this behavior has not been described. Analyzing the development of shoaling is a step towards discovering the mechanisms of this behavior. Here we study age-dependent changes of shoaling in zebrafish from day 7 post fertilization to over 5 months of age by measuring the distance between all pairs of fish in freely swimming groups of ten subjects. Our longitudinal (repeated measure within subject) and cross sectional (non-repeated measure between subject) analyses both demonstrated a significant increase of shoaling with age (decreased distance between shoal members). Given the sophisticated genetic and developmental biology methods already available for zebrafish, we argue that our behavioral results open a new avenue towards the understanding of the development of vertebrate social behavior and of its mechanisms and abnormalities. PMID:20837077

  13. Behavioral and Metabolic Phenotype Indicate Personality in Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Mingzhe; Chen, Yan; Huang, Yingying; Lu, Weiqun

    2018-01-01

    Consistency of individual differences of animal behavior and personality in reactions to various environmental stresses among their life stages could reflect basic divergences in coping style which may affect survival, social rank, and reproductive success in the wild. However, the physiological mechanisms determining personality remain poorly understood. In order to study whether behavior, metabolism and physiological stress responses relate to the personality, we employed post-stress recovery assays to separate zebrafish into two behavioral types (proactive and reactive). The results demonstrated consistent difference among personality, behavior and metabolism in which proactive individuals were more aggressive, had higher standard metabolic rates and showed lower shuttled frequencies between dark and light compartments than the reactive ones. The behavioral variations were also linked to divergent acute salinity stress responses: proactive individuals adopted a swift locomotion behavior in response to acute salinity challenge while reactive individuals remain unchanged. Our results provide useful insight into how personality acts on correlated traits and the importance of a holistic approach to understanding the mechanisms driving persistent inter-individual differences.

  14. Effectiveness of recommended euthanasia methods in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Strykowski, Jennifer L; Schech, Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    The popularity of zebrafish and its use as a model organism in biomedical research including genetics, development, and toxicology, has increased over the past 20 y and continues to grow. However, guidelines for euthanasia remain vague, and the responsibility of creating appropriate euthanasia protocols essentially falls on individual facilities. To reduce variation in experimental results among labs, a standard method of euthanasia for zebrafish would be useful. Although various euthanasia methods have been compared, few studies focus on the effectiveness of euthanasia methods for larval zebrafish. In this study, we exposed larval zebrafish to each of 3 euthanasia agents (MS222, eugenol, and hypothermic shock) and assessed the recovery rate. Hypothermic shock appeared to be the most effective method for euthanizing zebrafish at 14 d after fertilization; however, this method may not be considered an efficient method for large numbers of larval zebrafish. Exposure to chemicals, such as MS222 and eugenol, were ineffective methods for euthanasia at this stage of development. When these agents are used, secondary measures should be taken to ensure death. Choosing a euthanasia method that is effective, efficient, and humane can be challenging. Determining a method of euthanasia that is suitable for fish of all stages will bring the zebrafish community closer to meeting this challenge.

  15. Effectiveness of Recommended Euthanasia Methods in Larval Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Strykowski, Jennifer L; Schech, Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    The popularity of zebrafish and its use as a model organism in biomedical research including genetics, development, and toxicology, has increased over the past 20 y and continues to grow. However, guidelines for euthanasia remain vague, and the responsibility of creating appropriate euthanasia protocols essentially falls on individual facilities. To reduce variation in experimental results among labs, a standard method of euthanasia for zebrafish would be useful. Although various euthanasia methods have been compared, few studies focus on the effectiveness of euthanasia methods for larval zebrafish. In this study, we exposed larval zebrafish to each of 3 euthanasia agents (MS222, eugenol, and hypothermic shock) and assessed the recovery rate. Hypothermic shock appeared to be the most effective method for euthanizing zebrafish at 14 d after fertilization; however, this method may not be considered an efficient method for large numbers of larval zebrafish. Exposure to chemicals, such as MS222 and eugenol, were ineffective methods for euthanasia at this stage of development. When these agents are used, secondary measures should be taken to ensure death. Choosing a euthanasia method that is effective, efficient, and humane can be challenging. Determining a method of euthanasia that is suitable for fish of all stages will bring the zebrafish community closer to meeting this challenge. PMID:25651096

  16. Discrimination reversal and attentional sets in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Matthew O.; Gaviria, Jessica; Haigh, Alastair; Millington, Mollie E.; Brown, Verity J.; Combe, Fraser J.; Brennan, Caroline H.

    2014-01-01

    The potential of zebrafish as a comparative model in behavioural neuroscience is currently hampered only by the lack of reliable and validated behavioural assays available to researchers. In the present experiment, we describe the performance of zebrafish in a test of attentional set formation. The fish were initially trained on a two-choice colour discrimination. Upon reaching acquisition criterion, the reinforced alternative was switched to the previously unreinforced alternative. Again, upon reaching criterion, the cues were replaced with a novel pair of colours (intra-dimensional shift) and reversed again on reaching criteria. We found that zebrafish show a steady decrease in trials-to-criteria over the four phases of the experiment, suggesting that they are forming and maintaining an attentional set, as has previously been demonstrated with mammals. Reversal learning deficits have been implicated in a variety of human psychological disorders (e.g., disorders of impulse control) and as such, we propose that performance of zebrafish in this procedure may represent a useful comparative model to complement existing rodent models. PMID:22561034

  17. Reproductive toxicity of azoxystrobin to adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Cao, Fangjie; Zhu, Lizhen; Li, Hui; Yu, Song; Wang, Chengju; Qiu, Lihong

    2016-12-01

    In the past few decades, extensive application of azoxystrobin has led to great concern regarding its adverse effects on aquatic organisms. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the reproductive toxicity of azoxystrobin to zebrafish. After adult zebrafish of both sexes were exposed to 2, 20 and 200 μg/L azoxystrobin for 21 days, egg production, the fertilization rate, the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and hepatosomatic index (HSI), 17β-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T) and vitellogenin (Vtg) concentrations, and histological alterations in the gonads and livers were measured. Meanwhile, expression alterations of genes encoding gonadotropins and gonadotropin receptors (fshb, lhb, fshr and lhr), steroid hormone receptors (era, er2b and ar), steroidogenic enzymes (cyp11a, cyp11b, cyp17, cyp19a, cyp19b, hsd3b and hsd17b) in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis and vitellogenin (vtg1 and vtg2) in the livers were also investigated. The results showed that reduced egg production and fertilization rates were observed at 200 μg/L azoxystrobin. In female zebrafish, reduced E2 and Vtg concentrations, decreased GSI, increased T concentrations, and histological alterations in the ovaries and livers were observed at 200 μg/L azoxystrobin, along with significant down-regulation of lhb, cyp19b, lhr, cyp19a, vtg1 and vtg2, and up-regulation of cyp17, hsd3b and hsd17b. In male zebrafish, increased E2 and Vtg concentrations, reduced T concentration and GSI, and histological alterations in the testes and livers were observed after exposure to 20 and 200 μg/L azoxystrobin, along with significant up-regulations of cyp19b, cyp11a, cyp17, cyp19a, hsd3b and hsd17b, vtg1 and vtg2. Moreover, cyp11a, hsd3b, cyp19a, vtg1 and vtg2 in male zebrafish were significantly up-regulated after treatment with 2 μg/L azoxystrobin. The results of the present study indicate that azoxystrobin led to reproductive toxicity in zebrafish and male zebrafish were more sensitive to azoxystrobin than female zebrafish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Transformation of tributyltin in zebrafish eleutheroembryos (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Borges, Aline Rocha; López-Serrano Oliver, Ana; Gallego-Gallegos, Mercedes; Muñoz-Olivas, Riansares; Rodrigues Vale, Maria Goreti; Cámara, Carmen

    2014-12-01

    Organotin compounds are highly versatile group of organometallic chemicals used in industrial and agricultural applications. Their endocrine-disrupting effects are well known and their extensive uses as biocide materials, e.g., in antifouling paints, for many years have led to serious environmental problems. So far, attention has mainly been given to tributyltin pollution in water, sediments, and marine organisms because of its highly toxic effects and high accumulation levels at very low concentrations. In this study, we will focus on the conversion of tributyltin after it is absorbed by zebrafish eleutheroembryos, presented here as an alternative model to adult fish for describing bioconcentration. A simplified analytical extraction procedure based on the use of an assisted ultrasonic probe and derivatization by ethylation, followed by gas chromatography with a flame photometric detector (GC-FPD) is proposed. This classical methodology for organotin determination has been validated by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (ZGF-AAS) in terms of total tin content. The speciation analysis results show that zebrafish eleutheroembryos absorb high amounts of tributyltin and convert it into monobutyltin and likely in inorganic tin.

  19. Physical exercise improves learning in zebrafish, Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Luchiari, Ana Carolina; Chacon, Diana Marques Martins

    2013-11-01

    Zebrafish is an ideal vertebrate model for neuroscience studies focusing on learning and memory. Although genetic manipulation of zebrafish is available, behavioral protocols are often lacking. In this study we tested whether physical activity can facilitate zebrafish's learning process in an associative conditioning task. Learning was inferred by the approach of the feeding area just after the conditioned stimulus (light). Unexercised zebrafish showed conditioning response from the 5th testing day while fish previously submitted to swim against the water current showed learning by the 3rd day of testing. It seems that physical activity may accelerate associative learning response in zebrafish, indicating the benefits of exercise for cognitive processes. We suggest that this preliminary work could be useful for high throughput screening. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Zebrafish (Danio rerio): A Potential Model for Toxinological Studies.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Rafael Antonio; Sarmiento, Karen; Vásquez, Isabel Cristina

    2015-10-01

    Zebrafish are an emerging basic biomedical research model that has multiple advantages compared with other research models. Given that biotoxins, such as toxins, poisons, and venoms, represent health hazards to animals and humans, a low-cost biological model that is highly sensitive to biotoxins is useful to understand the damage caused by such agents and to develop biological tests to prevent and reduce the risk of poisoning in potential cases of bioterrorism or food contamination. In this article, a narrative review of the general aspects of zebrafish as a model in basic biomedical research and various studies in the field of toxinology that have used zebrafish as a biological model are presented. This information will provide useful material to beginner students and researchers who are interested in developing toxinological studies with the zebrafish model.

  1. An automated device for appetitive conditioning in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Manabe, Kazuchika; Dooling, R J; Takaku, Shinichi

    2013-12-01

    An automated device and a procedure for the operant conditioning individual zebrafish were developed. The key feature of this procedure was the construction of a simple, inexpensive feeder that can deliver extremely small amounts of food, thus preventing rapid satiation. This allows the experimenter to run multiple trails in a single test session and multiple sessions in one day. In addition, small response keys made from acryl rods and fiber sensors were developed that were sufficiently sensitive to detect fish contact. To illustrate the efficiency and utility of the device for traditional learning paradigms, we trained zebrafish in a fixed ratio schedule where subjects were reinforced with food after 10 responses. Zebrafish reliably responded on the response key for sessions that lasted as long 80-reinforcements. They also showed the traditional "break and run" response pattern that has been found in many species. These results show that this system will be valuable for behavioral studies with zebrafish, especially for experiments that need many repeated trials using food reinforcer in a session. The present system can be used for sensory and learning investigations, as well applications in behavioral pharmacology, behavioral genetics, and toxicology where the zebrafish is becoming the vertebrate model of choice.

  2. Development of sensory systems in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorman, S. J.

    2001-01-01

    Zebrafish possess all of the classic sensory modalities: taste, tactile, smell, balance, vision, and hearing. For each sensory system, this article provides a brief overview of the system in the adult zebrafish followed by a more detailed overview of the development of the system. By far the majority of studies performed in each of the sensory systems of the zebrafish have involved some aspect of molecular biology or genetics. Although molecular biology and genetics are not major foci of the paper, brief discussions of some of the mutant strains of zebrafish that have developmental defects in each specific sensory system are included. The development of the sensory systems is only a small sampling of the work being done using zebrafish and provides a mere glimpse of the potential of this model for the study of vertebrate development, physiology, and human disease.

  3. Silver nanoparticles enhance wound healing in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Seo, Seung Beom; Dananjaya, S H S; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Park, Bae Keun; Gooneratne, Ravi; Kim, Tae-Yoon; Lee, Jehee; Kim, Cheol-Hee; De Zoysa, Mahanama

    2017-09-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were successfully synthesized by a chemical reduction method, physico-chemically characterized and their effect on wound-healing activity in zebrafish was investigated. The prepared AgNPs were circular-shaped, water soluble with average diameter and zeta potential of 72.66 nm and -0.45 mv, respectively. Following the creation of a laser skin wound on zebrafish, the effect of AgNPs on wound-healing activity was tested by two methods, direct skin application (2 μg/wound) and immersion in a solution of AgNPs and water (50 μg/L). The zebrafish were followed for 20 days post-wounding (dpw) by visual observation of wound size, calculating wound healing percentage (WHP), and histological examination. Visually, both direct skin application and immersion AgNPs treatments displayed clear and faster wound closure at 5, 10 and 20 dpw compared to the controls, which was confirmed by 5 dpw histology data. At 5 dpw, WHP was highest in the AgNPs immersion group (36.6%) > AgNPs direct application group (23.7%) > controls (18.2%), showing that WHP was most effective in fish immersed in AgNPs solution. In general, exposure to AgNPs induced gene expression of selected wound-healing-related genes, namely, transforming growth factor (TGF-β), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -9 and -13, pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase), which observed differentiation at 12 and 24 h against the control; but the results were not consistently significant, and many either reached basal levels or were down regulated at 5 dpw in the wounded muscle. These results suggest that AgNPs are effective in acceleration of wound healing and altered the expression of some wound-healing-related genes. However, the detailed mechanism of enhanced wound healing remains to be investigated in fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Phylogeny of zebrafish, a "model species," within Danio, a "model genus".

    PubMed

    McCluskey, Braedan M; Postlethwait, John H

    2015-03-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an important model for vertebrate development, genomics, physiology, behavior, toxicology, and disease. Additionally, work on numerous Danio species is elucidating evolutionary mechanisms for morphological development. Yet, the relationships of zebrafish and its closest relatives remain unclear possibly due to incomplete lineage sorting, speciation with gene flow, and interspecies hybridization. To clarify these relationships, we first constructed phylogenomic data sets from 30,801 restriction-associated DNA (RAD)-tag loci (483,026 variable positions) with clear orthology to a single location in the sequenced zebrafish genome. We then inferred a well-supported species tree for Danio and tested for gene flow during the diversification of the genus. An approach independent of the sequenced zebrafish genome verified all inferred relationships. Although identification of the sister taxon to zebrafish has been contentious, multiple RAD-tag data sets and several analytical methods provided strong evidence for Danio aesculapii as the most closely related extant zebrafish relative studied to date. Data also displayed patterns consistent with gene flow during speciation and postspeciation introgression in the lineage leading to zebrafish. The incorporation of biogeographic data with phylogenomic analyses put these relationships in a phylogeographic context and supplied additional support for D. aesculapii as the sister species to D. rerio. The clear resolution of this study establishes a framework for investigating the evolutionary biology of Danio and the heterogeneity of genome evolution in the recent history of a model organism within an emerging model genus for genetics, development, and evolution. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Pigment cell interactions and differential xanthophore recruitment underlying zebrafish stripe reiteration and Danio pattern evolution

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Larissa B.; Bain, Emily J.; Parichy, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Fishes have diverse pigment patterns, yet mechanisms of pattern evolution remain poorly understood. In zebrafish, Danio rerio, pigment-cell autonomous interactions generate dark stripes of melanophores that alternate with light interstripes of xanthophores and iridophores. Here, we identify mechanisms underlying the evolution of a uniform pattern in D. albolineatus in which all three pigment cell classes are intermingled. We show that in this species xanthophores differentiate precociously over a wider area, and that cis regulatory evolution has increased expression of xanthogenic Colony Stimulating Factor-1 (Csf1). Expressing Csf1 similarly in D. rerio has cascading effects, driving the intermingling of all three pigment cell classes and resulting in the loss of stripes, as in D. albolineatus. Our results identify novel mechanisms of pattern development and illustrate how pattern diversity can be generated when a core network of pigment-cell autonomous interactions is coupled with changes in pigment cell differentiation. PMID:25374113

  6. GROWTH AND BEHAVIOR OF LARVAL ZEBRAFISH Danio ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Because Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have become a popular and important model for scientific research, the capability to rear larval zebrafish to adulthood is of great importance. Recently research examining the effects of diet (live versus processed) have been published. In the current study we examined whether the larvae can be reared on a processed diet alone, live food alone, or the combination while maintaining normal locomotor behavior, and acceptable survival, length and weight at 14 dpf in a static system. A 14 day feeding trial was conducted in glass crystallizing dishes containing 500 ml of 4 ppt Instant Ocean. On day 0 pdf 450 embryos were selected as potential study subjects and placed in a 26○C incubator on a 14:10 (light:dark) light cycle. At 4 dpf 120 normally developing embryos were selected per treatment and divided into 3 bowls of 40 embryos (for an n=3 per treatment; 9 bowls total). Treatment groups were: G (Gemma Micro 75 only), R (L-type marine rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) only) or B (Gemma and rotifers). Growth (length), survival, water quality and rotifer density were monitored on days 5-14. On day 14, weight of larva in each bowl was measured and 8 larva per bowl were selected for use in locomotor testing. This behavior paradigm tests individual larval zebrafish under both light and dark conditions in a 24-well plate.After 14 dpf, survival among the groups was not different (92-98%). By days 7 -14 R and B larvae were ~2X longer

  7. Genetically encoded fluorescent voltage sensors using the voltage-sensing domain of Nematostella and Danio phosphatases exhibit fast kinetics.

    PubMed

    Baker, Bradley J; Jin, Lei; Han, Zhou; Cohen, Lawrence B; Popovic, Marko; Platisa, Jelena; Pieribone, Vincent

    2012-07-15

    A substantial increase in the speed of the optical response of genetically encoded fluorescent protein voltage sensors (FP voltage sensors) was achieved by using the voltage-sensing phosphatase genes of Nematostella vectensis and Danio rerio. A potential N. vectensis voltage-sensing phosphatase was identified in silico. The voltage-sensing domain (S1-S4) of the N. vectensis homolog was used to create an FP voltage sensor called Nema. By replacing the phosphatase with a cerulean/citrine FRET pair, a new FP voltage sensor was synthesized with fast off kinetics (Tau(off)<5ms). However, the signal was small (ΔF/F=0.4%/200mV). FP voltage sensors using the D. rerio voltage-sensing phosphatase homolog, designated Zahra and Zahra 2, exhibited fast on and off kinetics within 2ms of the time constants observed with the organic voltage-sensitive dye, di4-ANEPPS. Mutagenesis of the S4 region of the Danio FP voltage sensor shifted the voltage dependence to more negative potentials but did not noticeably affect the kinetics of the optical signal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetically-encoded fluorescent voltage sensors using the voltage-sensing domain of Nematostella and Danio phosphatases exhibit fast kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Bradley J.; Jin, Lei; Han, Zhou; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Popovic, Marko; Platisa, Jelena; Pieribone, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    A substantial increase in the speed of the optical response of genetically-encoded Fluorescent Protein voltage sensors (FP voltage sensors) was achieved by using the voltage-sensing phosphatase genes of Nematostella vectensis and Danio rerio. A potential N. vectensis voltage-sensing phosphatase was identified in silico. The voltage-sensing domain (S1–S4) of the N. vectensis homolog was used to create an FP voltage sensor called Nema. By replacing the phosphatase with a cerulean/citrine FRET pair, a new FP voltage sensor was synthesized with fast off kinetics (Tauoff <5 msec). However, the signal was small (ΔF/F= 0.6%/200 mV). FP voltage sensors using the D. rerio voltage-sensing phosphatase homolog, designated Zahra and Zahra 2, exhibited fast on and off kinetics within 2 msec of the time constants observed with the organic voltage-sensitive dye, di4-ANEPPS. Mutagenesis of the S4 region of the Danio FP voltage sensor shifted the voltage dependence to more negative potentials but did not noticeably affect the kinetics of the optical signal. PMID:22634212

  9. Physiological roles of glucocorticoids during early embryonic development of the zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, K S; Matrone, G; Livingstone, D E W; Al-Dujaili, E A S; Mullins, J J; Tucker, C S; Hadoke, P W F; Kenyon, C J; Denvir, M A

    2013-01-01

    While glucocorticoids (GCs) are known to be present in the zebrafish embryo, little is known about their physiological roles at this stage. We hypothesised that GCs play key roles in stress response, hatching and swim activity during early development. To test this, whole embryo cortisol (WEC) and corticosteroid-related genes were measured in embryos from 6 to 120 h post fertilisation (hpf) by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Stress response was assessed by change in WEC following stirring, hypoxia or brief electrical impulses applied to the bathing water. The impact of pharmacological and molecular GC manipulation on the stress response, spontaneous hatching and swim activity at different stages of development was also assessed. WEC levels demonstrated a biphasic pattern during development with a decrease from 0 to 36 hpf followed by a progressive increase towards 120 hpf. This was accompanied by a significant and sustained increase in the expression of genes encoding cyp11b1 (GC biosynthesis), hsd11b2 (GC metabolism) and gr (GC receptor) from 48 to 120 hpf. Metyrapone (Met), an inhibitor of 11β-hydroxylase (encoded by cyp11b1), and cyp11b1 morpholino (Mo) knockdown significantly reduced basal and stress-induced WEC levels at 72 and 120 hpf but not at 24 hpf. Spontaneous hatching and swim activity were significantly affected by manipulation of GC action from approximately 48 hpf onwards. We have identified a number of key roles of GCs in zebrafish embryos contributing to adaptive physiological responses under adverse conditions. The ability to alter GC action in the zebrafish embryo also highlights its potential value for GC research. PMID:24167225

  10. Developmental Exposure to Organophosphate Flame Retardants Elicits Overt Toxicity and Alters Behavior in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) are common replacements for the phased-out polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and have been detected at high concentrations in environmental samples. OPFRs are structurally similar to organophosphate pesticides and may adversely affect...

  11. Preparing for a Semiannual IACUC Inspection of a Satellite Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Facility

    PubMed Central

    Koerber, Amy S; Kalishman, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Institutions worldwide have experienced a rapid growth in the use of zebrafish as a research model for a variety of molecular and genetic studies of vertebrate development. This expansion in zebrafish research essentially has outpaced the establishment of specific recommendations for the care and use of fish in research. In some cases, this situation has created a dilemma where an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee, which is responsible for oversight of vertebrate animal research, is not fully prepared to undertake this role for a decentralized zebrafish facility. IACUC inspectors will be more equipped to ask pertinent questions by understanding the basic principles of zebrafish health and facility management. Concurrently, zebrafish facility managers can contribute to the progress of a semiannual facility inspection by maintaining fully accessible operating records. In the context of presenting a well-established and useful model of zebrafish management and recordkeeping to the zebrafish facility operator, the information we present here also prepares a potential IACUC inspector to conduct a constructive and positive inspection. PMID:19245754

  12. Neurobehavioral impairments produced by developmental lead exposure persisted for generations in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaojuan; Weber, Daniel; Burge, Rebekah; VanAmberg, Kelsey

    2016-01-01

    The zebrafish has become a useful animal model for studying the effects of environmental contaminants on neurobehavioral development due to its ease of breeding, high number of eggs per female, short generation times, and a well-established avoidance conditioning paradigm. Using avoidance conditioning as the behavioral paradigm, the present study investigated the effects of embryonic exposure to lead (Pb) on learning in adult zebrafish and the third (F3) generation of those fish. In Experiment 1, adult zebrafish that were developmentally exposed to 0.0, 0.1, 1.0 or 10.0μM Pb (2-24h post fertilization) as embryos were trained and tested for avoidance responses. The results showed that adult zebrafish hatched from embryos exposed to 0.0 or 0.1μM Pb learned avoidance responses during training and displayed significantly increased avoidance responses during testing, while those hatched from embryos exposed to 1.0 or 10.0μM Pb displayed no significant increases in avoidance responses from training to testing. In Experiment 2, the F3 generation of zebrafish that were developmentally exposed to an identical exposure regimen as in Experiment 1 were trained and tested for avoidance responses. The results showed that the F3 generation of zebrafish developmentally exposed as embryos to 0.0 or 0.1μM Pb learned avoidance responses during training and displayed significantly increased avoidance responses during testing, while the F3 generation of zebrafish developmentally exposed as embryos to 1.0 or 10.0μM Pb displayed no significant changes in avoidance responses from training to testing. Thus, developmental Pb exposure produced learning impairments that persisted for at least three generations, demonstrating trans-generational effects of embryonic exposure to Pb. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Oxidative stress and DNA damage induced by imidacloprid in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Ge, Weili; Yan, Saihong; Wang, Jinhua; Zhu, Lusheng; Chen, Aimei; Wang, Jun

    2015-02-18

    Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid insecticide that can have negative effects on nontarget animals. The present study was conducted to assess the toxicity of various imidacloprid doses (0.3, 1.25, and 5 mg/mL) on zebrafish sampled after 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of exposure. The levels of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and malondialdehyde (MDA) and the extent of DNA damage were measured to evaluate the toxicity of imidacloprid on zebrafish. SOD and GST activities were noticeably increased during early exposure but were inhibited toward the end of the exposure period. In addition, the CAT levels decreased to the control level following their elevation during early exposure. High concentrations of imidacloprid (1.25 and 5 mg/L) induced excessive ROS production and markedly increased MDA content on the 21st day of exposure. DNA damage was dose- and time-dependent. In conclusion, the present study showed that imidacloprid can induce oxidative stress and DNA damage in zebrafish.

  14. Discovery and validation of gene classifiers for endocrine-disrupting chemicals in zebrafish (danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Development and application of transcriptomics-based gene classifiers for ecotoxicological applications lag far behind those of biomedical sciences. Many such classifiers discovered thus far lack vigorous statistical and experimental validations. A combination of genetic algorithm/support vector machines and genetic algorithm/K nearest neighbors was used in this study to search for classifiers of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in zebrafish. Searches were conducted on both tissue-specific and tissue-combined datasets, either across the entire transcriptome or within individual transcription factor (TF) networks previously linked to EDC effects. Candidate classifiers were evaluated by gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) on both the original training data and a dedicated validation dataset. Results Multi-tissue dataset yielded no classifiers. Among the 19 chemical-tissue conditions evaluated, the transcriptome-wide searches yielded classifiers for six of them, each having approximately 20 to 30 gene features unique to a condition. Searches within individual TF networks produced classifiers for 15 chemical-tissue conditions, each containing 100 or fewer top-ranked gene features pooled from those of multiple TF networks and also unique to each condition. For the training dataset, 10 out of 11 classifiers successfully identified the gene expression profiles (GEPs) of their targeted chemical-tissue conditions by GSEA. For the validation dataset, classifiers for prochloraz-ovary and flutamide-ovary also correctly identified the GEPs of corresponding conditions while no classifier could predict the GEP from prochloraz-brain. Conclusions The discrepancies in the performance of these classifiers were attributed in part to varying data complexity among the conditions, as measured to some degree by Fisher’s discriminant ratio statistic. This variation in data complexity could likely be compensated by adjusting sample size for individual chemical-tissue conditions, thus suggesting a need for a preliminary survey of transcriptomic responses before launching a full scale classifier discovery effort. Classifier discovery based on individual TF networks could yield more mechanistically-oriented biomarkers. GSEA proved to be a flexible and effective tool for application of gene classifiers but a similar and more refined algorithm, connectivity mapping, should also be explored. The distribution characteristics of classifiers across tissues, chemicals, and TF networks suggested a differential biological impact among the EDCs on zebrafish transcriptome involving some basic cellular functions. PMID:22849515

  15. The psychoactive drug Escitalopram affects swimming behaviour and increases boldness in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Sebastian V; Kellner, Martin; Henriksen, Per G; Olsén, Håkan; Hansen, Steen H; Baatrup, Erik

    2018-05-01

    Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors are pharmaceuticals used to treat a range of psychological disorders. They are frequently found in surface waters in populated areas. In recent years, they have been shown to affect the behaviour of various aquatic organisms in a way that can have ecological effects. In this study, we exposed zebrafish of both sexes to nominally 0.00, 0.15 and 1.50 µg L -1 Escitalopram in flow-through tanks for three weeks. Subsequently, ten swimming behaviour parameters were quantified using high-resolution video tracking. There were noticeable gender differences in the behaviour responses to Escitalopram. Female fish exposed to 1.50 µg L -1 Escitalopram had a lower maximum swimming velocity, stopped less often and exhibited increased boldness (reduced thigmotaxis) compared to controls. Male fish exposed to 1.50 µg L -1 had a lower maximum swimming velocity compared to control fish. At the end of exposures, both length and weight of the females exposed to 1.50 µg L -1 Escitalopram were significantly less than the group of control fish. In addition, males exposed to 1.50 µg L -1 Escitalopram were significantly shorter than control fish. The behaviour, weight and body length of the fish exposed to nominally 0.15 µg L -1 was not significantly different from control fish in either sex. The results of this study demonstrate that Escitalopram can affect subtle but ecologically important aspects of fish behaviour and lends further credibility to the assumption that Escitalopram is an environmentally active pharmaceutical.

  16. Swim-Training Changes the Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Skeletogenesis in Zebrafish Larvae (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Fiaz, Ansa W.; Léon-Kloosterziel, Karen M.; Gort, Gerrit; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; van Leeuwen, Johan L.; Kranenbarg, Sander

    2012-01-01

    Fish larvae experience many environmental challenges during development such as variation in water velocity, food availability and predation. The rapid development of structures involved in feeding, respiration and swimming increases the chance of survival. It has been hypothesized that mechanical loading induced by muscle forces plays a role in prioritizing the development of these structures. Mechanical loading by muscle forces has been shown to affect larval and embryonic bone development in vertebrates, but these investigations were limited to the appendicular skeleton. To explore the role of mechanical load during chondrogenesis and osteogenesis of the cranial, axial and appendicular skeleton, we subjected zebrafish larvae to swim-training, which increases physical exercise levels and presumably also mechanical loads, from 5 until 14 days post fertilization. Here we show that an increased swimming activity accelerated growth, chondrogenesis and osteogenesis during larval development in zebrafish. Interestingly, swim-training accelerated both perichondral and intramembranous ossification. Furthermore, swim-training prioritized the formation of cartilage and bone structures in the head and tail region as well as the formation of elements in the anal and dorsal fins. This suggests that an increased swimming activity prioritized the development of structures which play an important role in swimming and thereby increasing the chance of survival in an environment where water velocity increases. Our study is the first to show that already during early zebrafish larval development, skeletal tissue in the cranial, axial and appendicular skeleton is competent to respond to swim-training due to increased water velocities. It demonstrates that changes in water flow conditions can result into significant spatio-temporal changes in skeletogenesis. PMID:22529905

  17. Mixture toxicity of water contaminants-effect analysis using the zebrafish embryo assay (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Susanne; Busch, Wibke; Altenburger, Rolf; Küster, Eberhard

    2016-06-01

    Three water contaminants were selected to be tested in the zebrafish embryo toxicity test (DarT) in order to investigate the sensitivity of the zebrafish embryo toxicity test with respect to mixture effect detection. The concentration-response curves for the observed effects lethality and hypo-pigmentation were calculated after an exposure of the embryos for 96 h with a fungicide (carbendazim), a plasticizer or propellent precursor (2,4-DNT: 2,4- dinitrotoluene) and an aromatic compound (AαC: 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indol), respectively. Follow-up mixture tests were based on the calculated LC50 or EC50 of the single compounds and combined effects were predicted according to the mixture concepts of concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA). The order of toxicity for the single substances was carbendazim (LC50 = 1.25 μM) < AαC (LC50 = 8.16 μM) < 2,4-DNT (LC50 = 177.05 μM). For AαC and 2,4 DNT hypo-pigmentation was observed in addition (AαC EC50 = 1.81 μM; 2,4-DNT EC50 = 8.81 μM). Two binary and one ternary mixture were studied on lethality and one on hypo-pigmentation: 2,4-DNT/AαC (LC50 = 119.21 μM, EC50 = 5.37 μM), carbendazim/AαC (LC50 = 4.49 μM) and AαC/Carbendazim/2,4 DNT (LC50 = 108.62 μM). Results showed that the effects were in agreement with the CA model when substances were tested in mixtures. Therefore, in a reasonable worst case scenario substance combination effects in fish embryos were at maximum only prone to overestimation when using CA as the mixture concept. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Binary mixture of DDT and Arochlor1254: effects on sperm release by Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Njiwa, Jules Richard Kemadjou; Müller, Paul; Klein, Roland

    2004-06-01

    A long-term toxicity test with zebrafish was carried out with different concentrations of DDT, Arochlor1254 (A54), and their 1:1 mixture under flow-through conditions. By collecting and counting the number of sperm released during separate mating events we observed that gametes are released asynchronously. Sperms are released in the form of sperm trails laid on the nest surface; subsequently active spermatozoa leave the trails and move in the water for several minutes. Sperm trails consist of bands of viscous material in which sperm are embedded. The water samples for the estimation of sperm presence were collected gradually within 180 min after 24 h, 2 weeks, 1 month, and 2 months of exposure. It was established that the reductions in count, activity of sperm, and average life span of sperm trails were significant (P<0.05) at the tested concentrations, 5 and 50 microg/L after 1 month and 2 weeks of exposure to each chemical tested and to their mixture, respectively. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that DDT and A54 could react synergically and increase the alteration in sperm release and activity as well as the life span of their trails.

  19. Mate competition and evolutionary outcomes in genetically modified zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Howard, Richard D; Rohrer, Karl; Liu, Yiyang; Muir, William M

    2015-05-01

    Demonstrating relationships between sexual selection mechanisms and trait evolution is central to testing evolutionary theory. Using zebrafish, we found that wild-type males possessed a significant advantage in mate competition over transgenic RFP Glofish® males. In mating trials, wild-type males were aggressively superior to transgenic males in male-male chases and male-female chases; as a result, wild-type males sired 2.5× as many young as did transgenic males. In contrast, an earlier study demonstrated that female zebrafish preferred transgenic males as mates when mate competition was excluded experimentally. We tested the evolutionary consequence of this conflict between sexual selection mechanisms in a long-term study. The predicted loss of the transgenic phenotype was confirmed. More than 18,500 adults collected from 18 populations across 15 generations revealed that the frequency of the transgenic phenotype declined rapidly and was eliminated entirely in all but one population. Fitness component data for both sexes indicated that only male mating success differed between wild-type and transgenic individuals. Our predictive demographic model based on fitness components closely matched the rate of transgenic phenotype loss observed in the long-term study, thereby supporting its utility for studies assessing evolutionary outcomes of escaped or released genetically modified animals. © 2015 The Author(s).

  20. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) androgen receptor: sequence homology and up-regulation by the fungicide vinclozolin.

    PubMed

    Smolinsky, Amanda N; Doughman, Jennifer M; Kratzke, Liên-Thành C; Lassiter, Christopher S

    2010-03-01

    Steroid hormones regulate gene expression in organisms by binding to receptor proteins. These hormones include the androgens, which signal through androgen receptors (ARs). Endocrine disrupters (EDCs) are chemicals in the environment that adversely affect organisms by binding to nuclear receptors, including ARs. Vinclozolin, a fungicide used on fruit and vegetable crops, is a known anti-androgen, a type of EDC that blocks signals from testosterone and its derivatives. In order to better understand the effects of EDCs, further research on androgen receptors and other hormone signaling pathways is necessary. In this study, we demonstrate the evolutionary conservation between the genomic structure of the human and zebrafish ar genes and find that ar mRNA expression increases in zebrafish embryos exposed to vinclozolin, which may be evolutionarily conserved as well. At 48 and 72 h post-fertilization, vinclozolin-treated embryos express ar mRNA 8-fold higher than the control level. These findings suggest that zebrafish embryos attempt to compensate for the presence of an anti-androgen by increasing the number of androgen receptors available.

  1. Dynamics of uptake and elimination of pyrethroid insecticides in zebrafish (Danio rerio) eleutheroembryos.

    PubMed

    Tu, Wenqing; Lu, Bin; Niu, Lili; Xu, Chao; Lin, Chunmian; Liu, Weiping

    2014-09-01

    Synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) are among the most heavily used insecticides for residential and agricultural applications. Their residues have frequently been detected in aquatic ecosystems. Despite their high aquatic toxicity, their toxicokinetics are still unclear. In this study, the kinetics of uptake and depuration of three SPs, permethrin (PM), bifenthrin (BF) and λ-cyhalothrin (λ-CH), were determined for the first time using zebrafish eleutheroembryo assays. The diastereoisomer selectivity of PM in eleutheroembryos was further examined. The results indicated that three SPs were quickly taken up by eleutheroembryos. The bioaccumulation factors of the SPs ranged from 125.4 to 708.4. The depuration of SPs in zebrafish eleutheroembryos followed the first-order process. The elimination rate constants (k2) of SPs in eleutheroembryos ranged from 0.018 h(-1) to 0.0533 h(-1). The half-lives (t1/2) were in the range 13.0-38.5h. The diastereoisomer fraction (DF) values for PM in the eleutheroembryos estimated at different uptake and depuration times were all significantly greater than the original value (DF=0.43), indicating selective enrichment and elimination of cis-PM relative to trans-PM. These results reveal a high capacity for SP bioconcentration by zebrafish eleutheroembryos, suggesting that SPs possess a highly cumulative risk to fish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ketamine induction of p53-dependent apoptosis and oxidative stress in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos.

    PubMed

    Félix, Luís M; Vidal, Ana M; Serafim, Cindy; Valentim, Ana M; Antunes, Luís M; Monteiro, Sandra M; Matos, Manuela; Coimbra, Ana M

    2018-06-01

    Ketamine is a widely used pharmaceutical that has been detected in water sources worldwide. Zebrafish embryos were used in this study to investigate the oxidative stress and apoptotic signals following a 24h exposure to different ketamine concentrations (0, 50, 70 and 90 mg L -1 ). Early blastula embryos (∼2 h post fertilisation-hpf) were exposed for 24 h and analysed at 8 and 26 hpf. Reactive oxygen species and apoptotic cells were identified in vivo, at 26 hpf. Enzymatic activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE)), glutathione levels (oxidised (GSSG) and reduced (GSH)), oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein carbonyls (CO)) as well as oxidative stress (gclc, gstp1, sod1 and cat), apoptosis (casp3a, casp6, casp8, casp9, aifm1 and tp53) and cell proliferation (pcna) related-genes were evaluated at 8 and 26 hpf. Caspase (3 and 9) activity was also determined at both time-points by colorimetric methods. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione levels (GSSG), caspase-9 and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were shown to be affected by ketamine exposure while in vivo analysis showed no difference in ROS. A significant up-regulation of superoxide dismutase (sod1) and catalase (cat) genes expression was also perceived. Ketamine-induced apoptosis was observed in vivo and confirmed by the apoptotic-related genes up-regulation. The overall results suggest that ketamine induced oxidative stress and apoptosis through the involvement of p53-dependent pathways in zebrafish embryos which could be important for the evaluation of the overall risk of ketamine in aquatic environments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Toxicity of porcelain-fused-to-metal substrate to zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos and larvae.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Libo; Si, Jing; Wei, Yuan; Li, Sirui; Jiang, Yanjiao; Zhou, Rong; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Hong

    2018-06-15

    Porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM) crowns are a standard restoration technique in dentistry, but toxicity of PFM in vivo has not been systematically evaluated. The present study evaluated the effects of various metal alloy shells of PFM crowns on the development of zebrafish embryos and larvae in order to determine the safety of these materials. Gold palladium (Au-Pd), silver palladium (Ag-Pd), Nickel chromium (Ni-Cr), cobalt chromium (Co-Cr), titanium (Ti) alloy porcelain crowns were immersed in artificial saliva for 1, 4, and 7 weeks, and the leach solution was collected and used to treat zebrafish embryos at 4-144 h PFM. Toxicity was assessed based on mortality, spontaneous movement, heart rate, hatchability, malformation, and swimming behavior. The 1-week leachates of the five PFMs were not toxic to zebrafish. The rates of mortality and malformation of zebrafish in the Ni-Cr alloy group were increased whereas spontaneous movement, heart rate, and swimming behavior were decreased for 4- and 7-week leachates. Among metal substrates commonly used in dental work, Ni-Cr alloy was most toxic, followed by Co-Cr and Ag-Pd alloys. Ti and Au-Pd alloys showed good biocompatibility and are therefore the most suitable materials for clinical applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of 6-hydroxydopamine exposure on motor activity and biochemical expression in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chien-Wei; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Huang, Shi-Ying; Hung, Han-Chun; Chen, Chun-Hong; Yang, San-Nan; Chen, Nan-Fu; Wang, Hui-Min; Hsiao, Chung-Der; Chen, Wu-Fu

    2014-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra. However, current treatments for PD are mainly palliative. Recently, researchers discovered that neurotoxins can induce Parkinsonian-like symptoms in zebrafish. No study to date has investigated the characteristics of PD, such as neuroinflammation factors, oxidative stress, or ubiquitin dysfunction, in this model. Therefore, the current study was aimed at utilizing commonly used clinical drugs, minocycline, vitamin E, and Sinemet, to test the usefulness of this model. Previous studies had indicated that DA cell loss was greater with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) than with other neurotoxins. Thus, we first challenged zebrafish with 6-OHDA immersion and found a significant reduction in zebrafish locomotor activity; we then reversed the locomotor disruptions by treatment with vitamin E, Sinemet, or minocycline. The present study also analyzed the mRNA expression of parkin, pink1, and cd-11b, because the expression of these molecular targets has been shown to result in attenuation in mammalian models of PD. Vitamin E, Sinemet, and minocycline significantly reversed 6-OHDA-induced changes of parkin, pink1, and cd-11b mRNA expression in zebrafish. Moreover, we assessed tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression to confirm the therapeutic effects of vitamin E tested on this PD model and established that vitamin E reversed the 6-OHDA-induced damage on TH expression. Our results provide some support for the validity of this in vivo Parkinson's model, and we hope that this model will be more widely used in the future.

  5. Expression of nitric oxide synthase in the developing eye of Zebrafish Danio rerio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongjun; Zhang, Shicui; Sawant, M. S.

    2004-12-01

    Expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the developing eye of zebrafish was studied by NADPH-diaphorase staining technique. NOS activity was first observed in the optic primordium and the lens placode at 5-somite stage, and remained basically unchanged up to the prim-5 stage. Upon hatching, NOS activity was nearly equally detected in the gangalion cell layer and the photoreceptor layer in the developing retina. However, it began declining in the inner plexiform layer and the inner nuclear layer at this stage. NOS activity disappeared in the lens although the anterior lens epithelium was strongly stained. Two days after hatching, NOS activity was still strong in the photoreceptor layer, but decreased markedly in the gangalion cell layer, the inner plexiform layer and the inner nuclear layer with the retinal patterning. These suggested that nitric oxide (NO), the product of NOS, is not only involved in the modulation of patterning and differentiation of the retinal cells but also in the regulation of proliferation, and differentiation of the lens fibrocytes.

  6. Biological impacts of glyphosate on morphology, embryo biomechanics and larval behavior in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuhui; Xu, Jia; Kuang, Xiangyu; Li, Shibao; Li, Xiang; Chen, Dongyan; Zhao, Xin; Feng, Xizeng

    2017-08-01

    All of these days, residues of herbicides such as glyphosate are widely distributed in the environment. The ubiquitous use of glyphosate has drawn extensive attention to its toxicity as an organic pollutant. In this study, we employed larval zebrafish as an animal model to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of glyphosate on early development via morphological, biomechanics, behavioral and physiological analyses. Morphological results showed that an obvious delay occurred in the epiboly process and body length, eye and head area were reduced at concentrations higher than 10 mg/L. The expression of ntl (no tail) shortened and krox20 (also known as Egr2b, early growth response 2b) changed as the glyphosate concentration increased, but there was no change in the expression of shh (sonic hedgehog). In addition, biomechanical analysis of the elasticity of chorion indicated that treated embryos' surface tension was declined. Furthermore, a 48-h locomotion test revealed that embryonic exposure to glyphosate significantly elevated locomotor activities, which is probably attributed to motoneuronal damage. The decreased surface tension of chorion and the increased locomotive activities may contribute to the hatching rates after glyphosate treatment. Our study enriches the researches of evaluating glyphosate toxicity and probablely plays a warning role in herbicides used in farming. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) bioassay for visceral toxicosis of catfish and botulinum neurotoxin serotype E

    Visceral toxicosis of catfish (VTC), a sporadic disease of cultured channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) often with high mortality, is caused by botulinum neurotoxin serotype E (BoNT/E). Presumptive diagnosis of VTC is based on characteristic clinical signs and lesions, and the production of these ...

  8. Effects of ivermectin on Danio rerio: a multiple endpoint approach: behaviour, weight and subcellular markers.

    PubMed

    Domingues, I; Oliveira, R; Soares, A M V M; Amorim, M J B

    2016-04-01

    Ivermectin (IVM) is a broad acting antihelmintic used in various veterinary pharmaceuticals. It has been shown that IVM enters the aquatic compartment and adversely affects organisms including fish. This study is based on the hypothesis that long term exposure to IVM affects fish and thus, the main objective was to assess the chronic effects of 0.25 and 25 µg IVM/L to zebrafish using multiple endpoints representative of several levels of biological organization: weight, behaviour (swimming and feeding) and subcellular markers including biomarkers for oestrogenicity (vitellogenin-VTG), oxidative stress (catalase-CAT and glutathione-S-transferase-GST) and neurotransmission (cholinesterase-ChE). Concentrations as low as 0.25 µg IVM/L disrupted the swimming behaviour, causing fish to spend more time at the bottom of aquaria. Such reduction of the swimming performance affected the feeding ability which is likely responsible for the weight loss. The effects on weight were gender differentiated, being more pronounced in males (0.25 µg IVM/L) than in females (25 µg IVM/L). Fish exposed to 25 µg/L exhibited darker coloration and mild curvature of the spine. No effects on VTG and AChE were observed, but a reduction on CAT and GST levels was observed in fish exposed to 25 µg IVM/L, although these alterations probably only reflect the general condition of the fish which was significantly compromised at this concentration. Despite that predicted environmental concentrations of IVM are below 0.25 µg/L, the behavioural effects may be translated into important ecological impacts, e.g. at predator-prey interactions where fish competitive advantage can be decreased. Future work should address the link between behaviour disruption and population fitness. The current study was based on a one experiment and multiple endpoint (anchored) approach, allowing the results to be integrated and linked towards a mechanistic understanding.

  9. Effect of gametes aging on their activation and fertilizability in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Cardona-Costa, Jose; Pérez-Camps, Mireia; García-Ximénez, Fernando; Espinós, Francisco J

    2009-03-01

    The zebrafish represents an important model organism for biological research. In this context, in vitro collection and fertilization of zebrafish gametes are basic and widely used techniques for many topical research works. In this work, the fertilization ability and normal embryo development of gold-type zebrafish sperm and eggs were re-evaluated after being stored for different times at 8 degrees C in a modified medium (Hanks' saline supplemented with 1.5 g BSA and 0.1 g ClNa; 320 mOsm, pH 7.4). Results obtained indicated that the temporal limits usually recommended for zebrafish sperm to fertilize fresh eggs (2 h) could be extended for up to 24 h without significant differences compared with fresh sperm. In contrast, the rapid egg aging observed (even less than 1 h) recommends minimizing as far as possible the egg storage time before fertilization. These results suggest a possible strain difference in the fertilization response.

  10. The synthetic substance hypoxanthine 3-N-oxide elicits alarm reactions in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Parra, Kevin V.; Adrian, James C.; Gerlai, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Zebrafish, one of the preferred study species of geneticists, is gaining increasing popularity in behavioral neuroscience. This small and prolific species may be an excellent tool with which the biological mechanisms of vertebrate brain function and behavior are investigated. Zebrafish has been proposed as a model organism in the analysis of fear responses and human anxiety disorders. Species-specific cues signaling the presence of predators have been successfully utilized in such research. Zebrafish has been shown to respond to its natural alarm substance with species-typical fear reactions. However, the extraction of this alarm substance and ascertaining its consistent dosing has been problematic. A synthetic substance with a known chemical identity and molecular weight would allow precise dosing and experimental control. Previously, the chemical component, hypoxanthine 3-N-oxide, common to several fish alarm substances has been identified and has been shown to elicit alarm reactions in fish species belonging to the Osteriophysan superorder. In the current study we investigate the effect of hypoxanthine 3-N-oxide by exposing zebrafish to three different concentrations of this synthetic substance. Our results show that the substance efficaciously induces species-typical fear reactions increasing the number of erratic movement episodes and jumps in zebrafish. We discuss the translational relevance of our findings and conclude that hypoxanthine 3-N-oxide will have utility to elicit fear responses in the laboratory in a precisely controlled manner in zebrafish. PMID:19583985

  11. Effects of ibuprofen, diclofenac and paracetamol on hatch and motor behavior in developing zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Xia, Liang; Zheng, Liang; Zhou, Jun Liang

    2017-09-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) which are widely used as pain relief medicines are causing increasing environmental concern due to their incomplete removal in wastewater treatment plant and potential toxicity on endocrine, kidney and reproduction in teleost fish. This study focused on the effects of widely used ibuprofen, diclofenac and paracetamol on the hatch and motor ability of early-stage zebrafish, by exposing embryos to the target chemicals at 5, 50 and 500 μg/L starting from 6 h postfertilization (hpf). A significant reduction in hatch rate at 55 hpf was caused by both ibuprofen (-63%) and diclofenac (-58%) at 500 μg/L. Exposure to high concentration of ibuprofen significantly decreased the spontaneous movement by 25%, and reduced the free swimming distance, duration and speed under dark condition by 41%, 29% and 30%, respectively. High concentration of diclofenac also caused 23% decrease in spontaneous movement, and reduced the swimming distance as well as active duration by 17% and 13% under light stimulation. In comparison, the exposure to paracetamol did not cause any notable effect. Among neuron related genes tested, the expression of neurog1 was down-regulated from ibuprofen and diclofenac exposure by 19% and 26%, while the expression of neurod1 was up-regulated only by ibuprofen (31%). These findings indicated that ibuprofen and diclofenac significantly affected embryo locomotivity and were potentially neurotoxic, thus posing threats to zebrafish development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An integrative analysis of ethanol tolerance and withdrawal in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Steven; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Gerlai, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The zebrafish is emerging as a popular animal model for alcohol (ethanol or EtOH) addiction due to its simplicity and practical advantages. Two phenomena associated with ethanol addiction are the development of tolerance and withdrawal. Using a multi-level approach in the current study, we characterize ethanol tolerance and withdrawal in zebrafish. We first investigate the temporal trajectory of ethanol concentration in the zebrafish brain in response to an acute exposure and during withdrawal. We report that ethanol concentrations approach a steady state within 60 minutes of exposure to 0.50% and 1.00% v/v ethanol and rapidly decline and return to zero within 60 minutes following withdrawal from chronic ethanol exposure (0.50% v/v). We characterize the changes associated with ethanol tolerance and withdrawal in zebrafish by focusing on 3 domains relevant to ethanol addiction: motor patterns, physiological responses (i.e. cortisol levels), and neurochemical alterations. The use of multiple domains of investigation allowed an in-depth analysis of ethanol induced changes in zebrafish. PMID:24598276

  13. Metagenomics analysis of gut microbiota and immune modulation in zebrafish (Danio rerio) fed chitosan silver nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Udayangani, R M C; Dananjaya, S H S; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Heo, Gang-Joon; Lee, Jehee; De Zoysa, Mahanama

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of chitosan silver nanocomposites (CAgNCs) supplemented diet on gut microbial community, goblet cell density, gut morphometry and mRNA expression of immune related and mucin encoding genes in zebrafish. Zebrafish gut microbiota analysis results clearly showed the reduction of phylum Proteobacteria. However, they remained as the major bacterial group in gut with CAgNCs supplemented diet, while the abundance of phylum Fusobacteria and phylum Bacteroidetes were increased notably compared to the control diet fed fish. Total goblet cell density was significantly increased at 30 and 60 days in CAgNCs supplemented group (1.6-fold and 2.0-fold, respectively) compared to the control group indicating enhanced immune function in the gut. CAgNCs supplementation has also increased villi height significantly in the zebrafish mid gut at the end of 30 (95.5 ± 3.7 μm) and 60 days (144.40 ± 4.8 μm) compared to control diet fed fish at 30 (86.90 ± 3.7 μm) and 60 days (96.2 ± 4.8 μm). Furthermore, mRNA expression of immune related genes such as TNF-α (6.2-fold), IL-10 (5.0-fold), IL-12 (9.2-fold), IRF-1 (5.2-fold), Defbl1 (3-fold), Lyz (5.1-fold) and mucin encoding genes were significantly upregulated (above 2-fold) compared to that of control group. The current study revealed that CAgNCs supplemented diet engenders promising effects on fish gut immunity by enhancing beneficial microbial populations, goblet cell density, villi length, and transcriptional regulation of immune related and mucin encoding genes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular cloning and developmental expression of Tlx (Hox11) genes in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Langenau, D M; Palomero, T; Kanki, J P; Ferrando, A A; Zhou, Y; Zon, L I; Look, A T

    2002-09-01

    Tlx (Hox11) genes are orphan homeobox genes that play critical roles in the regulation of early developmental processes in vertebrates. Here, we report the identification and expression patterns of three members of the zebrafish Tlx family. These genes share similar, but not identical, expression patterns with other vertebrate Tlx-1 and Tlx-3 genes. Tlx-1 is expressed early in the developing hindbrain and pharyngeal arches, and later in the putative splenic primordium. However, unlike its orthologues, zebrafish Tlx-1 is not expressed in the cranial sensory ganglia or spinal cord. Two homologues of Tlx-3 were identified: Tlx-3a and Tlx-3b, which are both expressed in discrete regions of the developing nervous system, including the cranial sensory ganglia and Rohon-Beard neurons. However, only Tlx-3a is expressed in the statoacoustic cranial ganglia, enteric neurons and non-neural tissues such as the fin bud and pharyngeal arches and Tlx-3b is only expressed in the dorsal root ganglia. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

  15. Strain differences in the collective behaviour of zebrafish (Danio rerio) in heterogeneous environment

    PubMed Central

    Collignon, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show differences in individual motion and shoaling tendency between strains of the same species. Here, we analyse collective motion and response to visual stimuli in two morphologically different strains (TL and AB) of zebrafish. For both strains, we observed 10 groups of 5 and 10 zebrafish swimming freely in a large experimental tank with two identical landmarks (cylinders or discs) for 1 h. We tracked the positions of the fish by an automated tracking method and compute several metrics at the group level. First, the probability of the presence shows that both strains avoid free space and are more likely to swim in the vicinity of the walls of the tank and the landmarks. Second, the analysis of landmarks occupancy shows that AB zebrafish are more present in their vicinity than TL ones and that both strains regularly transit from one to the other one with no preference on the long duration. Finally, TL zebrafish show a higher cohesion than AB zebrafish. Thus, environmental heterogeneity and duration of the trials allow to reveal individual and collective behavioural variabilities among different strains of zebrafish. These results provide a new insight into the need to take into account individual variability of zebrafish strains for studying collective behaviour. PMID:27853558

  16. Scrambled eggs: Proteomic portraits and novel biomarkers of egg quality in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Ozlem; Patinote, Amélie; Nguyen, Thao Vi; Com, Emmanuelle; Lavigne, Regis; Pineau, Charles; Sullivan, Craig V.; Bobe, Julien

    2017-01-01

    Egg quality is a complex biological trait and a major determinant of reproductive fitness in all animals. This study delivered the first proteomic portraits of egg quality in zebrafish, a leading biomedical model for early development. Egg batches of good and poor quality, evidenced by embryo survival for 24 h, were sampled immediately after spawning and used to create pooled or replicated sample sets whose protein extracts were subjected to different levels of fractionation before liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Obtained spectra were searched against a zebrafish proteome database and detected proteins were annotated, categorized and quantified based on normalized spectral counts. Manually curated and automated enrichment analyses revealed poor quality eggs to be deficient of proteins involved in protein synthesis and energy and lipid metabolism, and of some vitellogenin products and lectins, and to have a surfeit of proteins involved in endo-lysosomal activities, autophagy, and apoptosis, and of some oncogene products, lectins and egg envelope proteins. Results of pathway and network analyses suggest that this aberrant proteomic profile results from failure of oocytes giving rise to poor quality eggs to properly transit through final maturation, and implicated Wnt signaling in the etiology of this defect. Quantitative comparisons of abundant proteins in good versus poor quality eggs revealed 17 candidate egg quality markers. Thus, the zebrafish egg proteome is clearly linked to embryo developmental potential, a phenomenon that begs further investigation to elucidate the root causes of poor egg quality, presently a serious and intractable problem in livestock and human reproductive medicine. PMID:29145436

  17. Scrambled eggs: Proteomic portraits and novel biomarkers of egg quality in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ozlem; Patinote, Amélie; Nguyen, Thao Vi; Com, Emmanuelle; Lavigne, Regis; Pineau, Charles; Sullivan, Craig V; Bobe, Julien

    2017-01-01

    Egg quality is a complex biological trait and a major determinant of reproductive fitness in all animals. This study delivered the first proteomic portraits of egg quality in zebrafish, a leading biomedical model for early development. Egg batches of good and poor quality, evidenced by embryo survival for 24 h, were sampled immediately after spawning and used to create pooled or replicated sample sets whose protein extracts were subjected to different levels of fractionation before liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Obtained spectra were searched against a zebrafish proteome database and detected proteins were annotated, categorized and quantified based on normalized spectral counts. Manually curated and automated enrichment analyses revealed poor quality eggs to be deficient of proteins involved in protein synthesis and energy and lipid metabolism, and of some vitellogenin products and lectins, and to have a surfeit of proteins involved in endo-lysosomal activities, autophagy, and apoptosis, and of some oncogene products, lectins and egg envelope proteins. Results of pathway and network analyses suggest that this aberrant proteomic profile results from failure of oocytes giving rise to poor quality eggs to properly transit through final maturation, and implicated Wnt signaling in the etiology of this defect. Quantitative comparisons of abundant proteins in good versus poor quality eggs revealed 17 candidate egg quality markers. Thus, the zebrafish egg proteome is clearly linked to embryo developmental potential, a phenomenon that begs further investigation to elucidate the root causes of poor egg quality, presently a serious and intractable problem in livestock and human reproductive medicine.

  18. Cognition Enhancing Activity of Sulforaphane Against Scopolamine Induced Cognitive Impairment in Zebra Fish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Rajesh, Venugopalan; Ilanthalir, Sakthivel

    2016-10-01

    Several epidemiological studies have shown that consumption of large quantities of vegetables especially cruciferous vegetables (Broccoli and Brussels sprouts) can protect against chronic diseases. Sulforaphane, an isothiocynate found in cruciferous vegetables has been demonstrated to have neuroprotective effects in several experimental paradigms. This study was undertaken to examine the effect of sulforaphane on cognitive impairment in zebra fish model using a novel method of fear conditioning. Initially, the normal behaviour of zebra fishes was studied in light-dark tank for 10 min daily for 10 days. Fishes were then divided into seven groups of twelve in each. Group I served as normal, group II served as fear conditioned control, group III and group IV were sulforaphane (25 µM/L) and piracetam (200 mg/L) treated respectively. Group V served as scopolamine (400 µM/L) induced memory impairment fishes. Group VI and VII were sulforaphane (25 µM/L) and piracetam (200 mg/L) treated scopolamine induced memory impairment groups respectively. In normal behavioural analysis, fishes preferred to stay in dark compartment. The average number of entries into the dark and time spent in dark were significantly more. Fishes in group II to VII were individually subjected to fear conditioning passive avoidance task and evaluated for learned task memory. It was observed that the average number of entries into dark and time spent in dark were significantly decreased. After exposure to respective treatment fishes in group III to VII were subjected to cognitive evaluation. There was no significant difference in cognition of group III and IV fishes exposed to sulforaphane and piracetam alone respectively. Fishes exposed to scopolamine showed a significant cognitive impairment. Sulforaphane exposure prior to scopolamine significantly retained the memory of learned task. These findings suggest that sulforaphane might be a promising therapeutic agent for cognitive enhancement in Alzheimer's disease.

  19. Reversal learning and resurgence of operant behavior in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Toshikazu; Mizutani, Yuto; Cançado, Carlos R X; Podlesnik, Christopher A

    2017-09-01

    Zebrafish are used extensively as vertebrate animal models in biomedical research for having such features as a fully sequenced genome and transparent embryo. Yet, operant-conditioning studies with this species are scarce. The present study investigated reversal learning and resurgence of operant behavior in zebrafish. A target response (approaching a sensor) was reinforced in Phase 1. In Phase 2, the target response was extinguished while reinforcing an alternative response (approaching a different sensor). In Phase 3, extinction was in effect for the target and alternative responses. Reversal learning was demonstrated when responding tracked contingency changes between Phases 1 and 2. Moreover, resurgence occurred in 10 of 13 fish in Phase 3: Target response rates increased transiently and exceeded rates of an unreinforced control response. The present study provides the first evidence with zebrafish supporting reversal learning between discrete operant responses and a laboratory model of relapse. These findings open the possibility to assessing genetic influences of operant behavior generally and in models of relapse (e.g., resurgence, renewal, reinstatement). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. TBBPA induces developmental toxicity, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in embryos and zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Wu, Shengmin; Ji, Guixiang; Liu, Jining; Zhang, Shenghu; Gong, Yang; Shi, Lili

    2016-10-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is currently one of the most frequently used brominated flame retardants and can be considered as a high production volume chemical. In this study, zebrafish embryos and larvae served as a biological model to evaluate TBBPA-induced developmental toxicity, oxidative stress, oxidant-associated gene expression, and cell apoptosis. Abnormalities, including hyperemia and pericardial edema, were induced in zebrafish larvae. The results showed that toxicity endpoints such as hatching rate, survival rate, malformation rate, and growth rate had a significant dose-response relationship with TBBPA. Further studies revealed that TBBPA did not alter the enzyme activities of Copper/Zinc Superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathioneperoxidase (GPx) at 0.10 mg/L, but decreased activities following exposure to 0.40, 0.70, and 1.00 mg/L. Despite the significantly decreased gene expression of Cu/Zn-SOD, CAT, and GPx1a in the 1.00 mg/L treatment group, other treatments (0.10, 0.40, 0.70 mg/L) did not alter gene expression. Moreover, Acridine orange staining results showed that apoptotic cells mainly accumulated in the brain, heart, and tail, indicating possible TBBPA-induced brain, cardiac, and blood circulation system impairment in zebrafish embryos and larvae. Histological analysis also showed evidence of obvious heart impairment in TBBPA-treated groups. This study provides new evidence on the developmental toxicity, oxidative stress, and apoptosis of embryos and zebrafish larvae, which is important for the evaluation of environmental toxicity and chemical risk. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1241-1249, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Computer-aided meiotic maturation assay (CAMMA) of zebrafish (danio rerio) oocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lessman, Charles A; Nathani, Ravikanth; Uddin, Rafique; Walker, Jamie; Liu, Jianxiong

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a new technique called Computer-Aided Meiotic Maturation Assay (CAMMA) for imaging large arrays of zebrafish oocytes and automatically collecting image files at regular intervals during meiotic maturation. This novel method uses a transparency scanner interfaced to a computer with macro programming that automatically scans and archives the image files. Images are stacked and analyzed with ImageJ to quantify changes in optical density characteristic of zebrafish oocyte maturation. Major advantages of CAMMA include (1) ability to image very large arrays of oocytes and follow individual cells over time, (2) simultaneously image many treatment groups, (3) digitized images may be stacked, animated, and analyzed in programs such as ImageJ, NIH-Image, or ScionImage, and (4) CAMMA system is inexpensive, costing less than most microscopes used in traditional assays. We have used CAMMA to determine the dose response and time course of oocyte maturation induced by 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (HP). Maximal decrease in optical density occurs around 5 hr after 0.1 micro g/ml HP (28.5 degrees C), approximately 3 hr after germinal vesicle migration (GVM) and dissolution (GVD). In addition to changes in optical density, GVD is accompanied by streaming of ooplasm to the animal pole to form a blastodisc. These dynamic changes are readily visualized by animating image stacks from CAMMA; thus, CAMMA provides a valuable source of time-lapse movies for those studying zebrafish oocyte maturation. The oocyte clearing documented by CAMMA is correlated to changes in size distribution of major yolk proteins upon SDS-PAGE, and, this in turn, is related to increased cyclin B(1) protein.

  2. Lidocaine Hydrochloride Compared with MS222 for the Euthanasia of Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Collymore, Chereen; Banks, E Kate; Turner, Patricia V

    2016-01-01

    Despite several shortcomings, MS222 is the most commonly used chemical agent for euthanasia of zebrafish. Although lidocaine hydrochloride has some advantages over MS222, its effectiveness as a euthanasia agent for zebrafish is unknown. Larvae at 9 to 16 d postfertilization were exposed to 250 mg/L MS222 or 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, or 1000 mg/L lidocaine and observed for cessation of heartbeat. Adult zebrafish were exposed to 250 mg/L MS222 or 400, 500, or 600 mg/L lidocaine; times to loss of righting reflex, cessation of opercular movement, and complete recovery; body length; aversive behavior; and gross and microscopic evidence of acute toxicity were evaluated. The heartbeat was not lost from any larvae in any group, regardless of drug or dosage. For adults, time to loss of righting reflex was greatest in the 500-mg/L lidocaine group. Opercular movement ceased earlier in all lidocaine groups compared with the MS222 group. Fish in the 500-mg/L lidocaine group were smaller than those in other groups. Fewer fish in the lidocaine groups displayed aversive behavior (erratic swimming and piping) compared with the MS222 group. No fish in the lidocaine hydrochloride groups (n = 30) recovered from euthanasia, whereas one fish in the MS222 group did (n = 10). Neither the MS222 nor lidocaine groups showed any gross or histologic changes suggestive of acute toxicity. Our results suggest that lidocaine hydrochloride may be an effective alternative chemical euthanasia agent for adult zebrafish but should not be used in larval fish. PMID:27931323

  3. A zebrafish (Danio rerio) model of infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) infection

    SciT

    Xu Xiaopeng; Zhang Lichun; Weng Shaoping

    2008-06-20

    Zebrafish is a model animal for studies of genetics, development, toxicology, oncology, and immunology. In this study, infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) was used to establish an infection in zebrafish, and the experimental conditions were established and characterized. Mortality of adult zebrafish infected with ISKNV by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection exceeded 60%. ISKNV can be passed stably in zebrafish for over ten passages. The ailing zebrafish displayed petechial hemorrhaging and scale protrusion. Histological analysis of moribund fish revealed necrosis of tissue and enlarged cells in kidney and spleen. The real-time RT-PCR analysis of mRNA level confirmed that ISKNV wasmore » replicated in zebrafish. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence analyses further confirmed the presence of ISKNV-infected cells in almost all organs of the infected fish. Electron microscope analyses showed that the ISKNV particle was present in the infected tissues. The establishment of zebrafish infection model of ISKNV can offer a valuable tool for studying the interactions between ISKNV and its host.« less

  4. Evaluation of 5 cleaning and disinfection methods for nets used to collect zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Collymore, Chereen; Porelli, Gina; Lieggi, Christine; Lipman, Neil S

    2014-11-01

    Few standardized methods of cleaning and disinfecting equipment in zebrafish facilities have been published, even though the effectiveness of these procedures is vital to preventing the transmission of pathogenic organisms. Four chemical disinfectants and rinsing with municipal tap water were evaluated for their ability to disinfect nets used to capture zebrafish. The disinfectants included benzalkonium chloride+methylene blue, sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, and potassium peroxymonosulfate+sodium chloride for a soak time of 5 or 30 min. Disinfection effectiveness was evaluated by using an ATP-based system that measured the reduction in absolute number and percentage of relative light units. In addition, nets were cultured aerobically on blood and MacConkey agar plates to determine the number of bacteria remaining after disinfection procedures. Soaking nets in sodium hypochlorite for 30 min and in potassium peroxymonosulfate+sodium chloride for 5 or 30 min were effective means of disinfection, according to at least 90% reduction in the number of relative light units and no bacterial growth after cleaning. These results will aid facility managers, veterinarians and investigators in selecting net cleaning and disinfection protocols.

  5. Evaluation of 5 Cleaning and Disinfection Methods for Nets Used to Collect Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Collymore, Chereen; Porelli, Gina; Lieggi, Christine; Lipman, Neil S

    2014-01-01

    Few standardized methods of cleaning and disinfecting equipment in zebrafish facilities have been published, even though the effectiveness of these procedures is vital to preventing the transmission of pathogenic organisms. Four chemical disinfectants and rinsing with municipal tap water were evaluated for their ability to disinfect nets used to capture zebrafish. The disinfectants included benzalkonium chloride+methylene blue, sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, and potassium peroxymonosulfate+sodium chloride for a soak time of 5 or 30 min. Disinfection effectiveness was evaluated by using an ATP-based system that measured the reduction in absolute number and percentage of relative light units. In addition, nets were cultured aerobically on blood and MacConkey agar plates to determine the number of bacteria remaining after disinfection procedures. Soaking nets in sodium hypochlorite for 30 min and in potassium peroxymonosulfate+sodium chloride for 5 or 30 min were effective means of disinfection, according to at least 90% reduction in the number of relative light units and no bacterial growth after cleaning. These results will aid facility managers, veterinarians and investigators in selecting net cleaning and disinfection protocols. PMID:25650972

  6. The enzyme toxicity and genotoxicity of chlorpyrifos and its toxic metabolite TCP to zebrafish Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Jinhua; Zhu, Lusheng; Xie, Hui; Shao, Bo; Hou, Xinxin

    2014-12-01

    Chlorpyrifos is a broad-spectrum organophosphorus insecticide (O,O-diethyl -O-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl phosphorothioate) that is used in numerous agricultural and urban pest controls. The primary metabolite of chlorpyrifos is 3,5,6-trichloro pyridine-2-phenol (TCP). Because of its strong water solubility and mobility, this harmful metabolite exists in the environment in a large amount. Although TCP has potentially harmful effects on organisms in the environment, few studies have addressed TCP pollution. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate the effect of chlorpyrifos and TCP on the microsomal cytochrome P450 content in the liver, on the activity of NADPH-P450 reductase and antioxidative enzymes [catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)], and on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and DNA damage in zebrafish. Male and female zebrafish were separated and exposed to a control solution and three concentrations of chlorpyrifos (0.01, 0.1, 1 mg L(-1)) and TCP (0.01, 0.1, 0.5 mg L(-1)), respectively, sampled after 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days. The results indicated that the P450 content and the NADPH-P450 reductase and antioxidative enzyme (CAT and SOD) activities could be induced by chlorpyrifos and TCP. DNA damage of zebrafish was enhanced with increasing chlorpyrifos and TCP concentrations. Meanwhile, chlorpyrifos and TCP induced a significant increase of ROS generation in the zebrafish hepatopancreas. In conclusion, this study proved that chlorpyrifos (0.01-1 mg L(-1)) and TCP (0.01-0.5 mg L(-1)) are both highly toxic to zebrafish.

  7. Toxicity and cardiac effects of carbaryl in early developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos

    SciT

    Lin, C.C.; Hui, Michelle N.Y.; Cheng, S.H. E-mail: bhcheng@cityu.edu.hk

    2007-07-15

    Carbaryl, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, is known to be moderately toxic to adult zebrafish and has been reported to cause heart malformations and irregular heartbeat in medaka. We performed experiments to study the toxicity of carbaryl, specifically its effects on the heart, in early developing zebrafish embryos. LC50 and EC50 values for carbaryl at 28 h post-fertilization were 44.66 {mu}g/ml and 7.52 {mu}g/ml, respectively, and 10 {mu}g/ml carbaryl was used in subsequent experiments. After confirming acetylcholinesterase inhibition by carbaryl using an enzymatic method, we observed red blood cell accumulation, delayed hatching and pericardial edema, but not heart malformation as described inmore » some previous reports. Our chronic exposure data also demonstrated carbaryl-induced bradycardia, which is a common effect of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors due to the accumulation of acetylcholine, in embryos from 1 day post-fertilization (dpf) to 5 dpf. The distance between the sinus venosus, the point where blood enters the atrium, and the bulbus arteriosus, the point where blood leaves the ventricle, indicated normal looping of the heart tube. Immunostaining of myosin heavy chains with the ventricle-specific antibody MF20 and the atrium-specific antibody S46 showed normal development of heart chambers. At the same time, acute exposure resulted in carbaryl-induced bradycardia. Heart rate dropped significantly after a 10-min exposure to 100 {mu}g/ml carbaryl but recovered when carbaryl was removed. The novel observation of carbaryl-induced bradycardia in 1- and 2-dpf embryos suggested that carbaryl affected cardiac function possibly through an alternative mechanism other than acetylcholinesterase inhibition such as inhibition of calcium ion channels, since acetylcholine receptors in zebrafish are not functional until 3 dpf. However, the exact nature of this mechanism is currently unknown, and thus further studies are required.« less

  8. The chromatin remodeler chd5 is necessary for proper head development during embryogenesis of Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Brett; Ho, Kwok Ki; Tyler, Kim; Smith, Amanda; Bonilla, Sylvia; Leung, Yuk Fai; Ogas, Joe

    2015-08-01

    The chromatin remodeler CHD5 plays a critical role in tumor suppression and neurogenesis in mammals. CHD5 contributes to gene expression during neurogenesis, but there is still much to learn regarding how this class of remodelers contributes to differentiation and development. CHD5 remodelers are vertebrate-specific, raising the prospect that CHD5 plays one or more conserved roles in this phylum. Expression of chd5 in adult fish closely mirrors expression of CHD5 in adult mammals. Knockdown of Chd5 during embryogenesis suggests new roles for CHD5 remodelers based on resulting defects in craniofacial development including reduced head and eye size as well as reduced cartilage formation in the head. In addition, knockdown of Chd5 results in altered expression of neural markers in the developing brain and eye as well as a profound defect in differentiation of dopaminergic amacrine cells. Recombinant zebrafish Chd5 protein exhibits nucleosome remodeling activity in vitro, suggesting that it is the loss of this activity that contributes to the observed phenotypes. Our studies indicate that zebrafish is an appropriate model for functional characterization of CHD5 remodelers in vertebrates and highlight the potential of this model for generating novel insights into the role of this vital class of remodelers. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Combined effects of microplastics and chemical contaminants on the organ toxicity of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Rainieri, Sandra; Conlledo, Nadia; Larsen, Bodil K; Granby, Kit; Barranco, Alejandro

    2018-04-01

    Microplastics contamination of the aquatic environment is considered a growing problem. The ingestion of microplastics has been documented for a variety of aquatic animals. Studies have shown the potential of microplastics to affect the bioavailability and uptake route of sorbed co-contaminants of different nature in living organisms. Persistent organic pollutants and metals have been the co-contaminants majorly investigated in this field. The combined effect of microplastics and sorbed co-contaminants in aquatic organisms still needs to be properly understood. To address this, we have subjected zebrafish to four different feeds: A) untreated feed; B) feed supplemented with microplastics (LD-PE 125-250µm of diameter); C) feed supplemented with 2% microplastics to which a mixture of PCBs, BFRs, PFCs and methylmercury were sorbed; and D) feed supplemented with the mixture of contaminants only. After 3 weeks of exposure fish were dissected and liver, intestine, muscular tissue and brain were extracted. After visual observation, evaluation of differential gene expression of some selected biomarker genes in liver, intestine and brain were carried out. Additionally, quantification of perfluorinated compounds in liver, brain, muscular tissue and intestine of some selected samples were performed. The feed supplemented with microplastics with sorbed contaminants produced the most evident effects especially on the liver. The results indicate that microplastics alone does not produce relevant effects on zebrafish in the experimental conditions tested; on the contrary, the combined effect of microplastics and sorbed contaminants altered significantly their organs homeostasis in a greater manner than the contaminants alone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Conditioned place avoidance of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to three chemicals used for euthanasia and anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Wong, Devina; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G; Richards, Jeffrey G; Weary, Daniel M

    2014-01-01

    Zebrafish are becoming one of the most used vertebrates in developmental and biomedical research. Fish are commonly killed at the end of an experiment with an overdose of tricaine methanesulfonate (TMS, also known as MS-222), but to date little research has assessed if exposure to this or other agents qualifies as euthanasia (i.e. a "good death"). Alternative agents include metomidate hydrochloride and clove oil. We use a conditioned place avoidance paradigm to compare aversion to TMS, clove oil, and metomidate hydrochloride. Zebrafish (n = 51) were exposed to the different anaesthetics in the initially preferred side of a light/dark box. After exposure to TMS zebrafish spent less time in their previously preferred side; aversion was less pronounced following exposure to metomidate hydrochloride and clove oil. Nine of 17 fish exposed to TMS chose not to re-enter the previously preferred side, versus 2 of 18 and 3 of 16 refusals for metomidate hydrochloride and clove oil, respectively. We conclude that metomidate hydrochloride and clove oil are less aversive than TMS and that these agents be used as humane alternatives to TMS for killing zebrafish.

  11. Lidocaine Hydrochloride Compared with MS222 for the Euthanasia of Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Collymore, Chereen; Banks, E Kate; Turner, Patricia V

    2016-11-01

    Despite several shortcomings, MS222 is the most commonly used chemical agent for euthanasia of zebrafish. Although lidocaine hydrochloride has some advantages over MS222, its effectiveness as a euthanasia agent for zebrafish is unknown. Larvae at 9 to 16 d postfertilization were exposed to 250 mg/L MS222 or 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900, or 1000 mg/L lidocaine and observed for cessation of heartbeat. Adult zebrafish were exposed to 250 mg/L MS222 or 400, 500, or 600 mg/L lidocaine; times to loss of righting reflex, cessation of opercular movement, and complete recovery; body length; aversive behavior; and gross and microscopic evidence of acute toxicity were evaluated. The heartbeat was not lost from any larvae in any group, regardless of drug or dosage. For adults, time to loss of righting reflex was greatest in the 500-mg/L lidocaine group. Opercular movement ceased earlier in all lidocaine groups compared with the MS222 group. Fish in the 500-mg/L lidocaine group were smaller than those in other groups. Fewer fish in the lidocaine groups displayed aversive behavior (erratic swimming and piping) compared with the MS222 group. No fish in the lidocaine hydrochloride groups (n = 30) recovered from euthanasia, whereas one fish in the MS222 group did (n = 10). Neither the MS222 nor lidocaine groups showed any gross or histologic changes suggestive of acute toxicity. Our results suggest that lidocaine hydrochloride may be an effective alternative chemical euthanasia agent for adult zebrafish but should not be used in larval fish.

  12. Real-time visualization of early metastasis events in Danio rerio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Kandice

    Metastasis, the process by which cancer cells travel from a primary tumor to establish lesions in distant organs, is the cause of most cancer-related deaths. One critical process during metastasis is the transit of cells from a primary tumor and through the vasculature or lymphatic systems to a distant site prior to metastatic colonization. However, visualization of cellular behavior in the vasculature is difficult in most model systems, where final cell destination is not known beforehand. Here, we used bone- and brain-tropic subclones of MDA-MB-231 breast adenocarcinoma cells (231BO and 231BR, respectively) injected into the circulation of embryonic zebrafish as a model xenograft system of metastasis. The zebrafish vasculature contains vessels on the scale of human capillaries. Real-time intravital imaging revealed metastatic spread to be an inefficient process, with less than 20% of cells passing through a given organ remaining there following 14 h of imaging. Additionally, there was no significant difference in the organ-specific residence time or migration speed of single 231BO and 231BR cells in the organ vasculature. Instead, cell capture was dependent on vessel topography and the function of integrin β1. Interestingly, a fraction of cells extravasated from the vasculature and survived in a perivascular position in the head and caudal venous plexus for up to two weeks. In conclusion, use of the zebrafish vasculature as a model capillary bed has revealed critical steps in early metastasis that are difficult to capture in other systems.

  13. Developmental Toxicity of Diclofenac and Elucidation of Gene Regulation in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jia-Bin; Gao, Hong-Wen; Zhang, Ya-Lei; Zhang, Yong; Zhou, Xue-Fei; Li, Chun-Qi; Gao, Hai-Ping

    2014-05-01

    Environmental pollution by emerging contaminants, e.g. pharmaceuticals, has become a matter of widespread concern in recent years. We investigated the membrane transport of diclofenac and its toxic effects on gene expression and the development of zebrafish embryos. The association of diclofenac with the embryos conformed to the general partition model at low concentration, the partition coefficient being 0.0033 ml per embryo. At high concentration, the interaction fitted the Freundlich model. Most of the diclofenac remained in the extracellular aqueous solution with less than 5% interacting with the embryo, about half of which was adsorbed on the membranes while the rest entered the cytoplasm. Concentrations of diclofenac over 10.13 μM were lethal to all the embryos, while 3.78 μM diclofenac was teratogenic. The development abnormalities at 4 day post treatment (dpt) include shorter body length, smaller eye, pericardial and body edema, lack of liver, intestine and circulation, muscle degeneration, and abnormal pigmentation. The portion of the diclofenac transferred into the embryo altered the expression of certain genes, e.g. down-regulation of Wnt3a and Gata4 and up-regulation of Wnt8a. The alteration of expression of such genes or the regulation of downstream genes could cause defects in the cardiovascular and nervous systems.

  14. Fluorescent light exposure incites acute and prolonged immune responses in zebrafish (Danio rerio) skin.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Trevor J; Lu, Yuan; Boswell, Mikki; Boswell, William; Medrano, Geraldo; Walter, Sean; Ellis, Samuel; Savage, Markita; Varga, Zoltan M; Lawrence, Christian; Sanders, George; Walter, Ronald B

    2018-06-01

    Artificial light produces an emission spectrum that is considerably different than the solar spectrum. Artificial light has been shown to affect various behavior and physiological processes in vertebrates. However, there exists a paucity of data regarding the molecular genetic effects of artificial light exposure. Previous studies showed that one of the commonly used fluorescent light source (FL; 4100K or "cool white") can affect signaling pathways related to maintenance of circadian rhythm, cell cycle progression, chromosome segregation, and DNA repair/recombination in the skin of male Xiphophorus maculatus. These observations raise questions concerning the kinetics of the FL induced gene expression response, and which biological functions become modulated at various times after light exposure. To address these questions, we exposed zebrafish to 4100K FL and utilized RNA-Seq to assess gene expression changes in skin at various times (1 to 12h) after FL exposure. We found 4100K FL incites a robust early (1-2h) transcriptional response, followed by a more protracted late response (i.e., 4-12h). The early transcriptional response involves genes associated with cell migration/infiltration and cell proliferation as part of an overall increase in immune function and inflammation. The protracted late transcriptional response occurs within gene sets predicted to maintain and perpetuate the inflammatory response, as well as suppression of lipid, xenobiotic, and melatonin metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Manganese(II) Chloride Alters Nucleotide and Nucleoside Catabolism in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Adult Brain.

    PubMed

    Altenhofen, Stefani; Nabinger, Débora Dreher; Pereira, Talita Carneiro Brandão; Leite, Carlos Eduardo; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Bonan, Carla Denise

    2018-05-01

    ATP and adenosine, the main signaling molecules of purinergic system, are involved in toxicological effects induced by metals. The manganese (Mn) exposure induces several cellular changes, which could interfere with signaling pathways, such as the purinergic system. In this study, we evaluated the effects of exposure to manganese(II) chloride (MnCl 2 ) during 96 h on nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase), ecto-5'-nucleotidase, and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities, followed by analyzing the gene expression patterns of NTPDases (entpd1, entpd2a.1, entpd2a.2, entpd2-like, entpd3) and ADA (ADA 1 , ADA 2.1 , ADA 2.2 , ADAasi, ADAL) families in zebrafish brain. In addition, the brain metabolism of nucleotides and nucleosides was evaluated after MnCl 2 exposure. The results showed that MnCl 2 exposure during 96 h inhibited the NTPDase (1.0 and 1.5 mM) and ecto-ADA (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mM) activities, further decreasing ADA2.1 expression at all MnCl 2 concentrations analyzed. Purine metabolism was also altered by the action of MnCl 2 . An increased amount of ADP appeared at all MnCl 2 concentrations analyzed; however, AMP and adenosine levels are decreased at the concentrations of 1.0 and 1.5 mM MnCl 2 , whereas decreased inosine (INO) levels were observed at all concentrations tested. The findings of this study demonstrated that MnCl 2 may inhibit NTPDase and ecto-ADA activities, consequently modulating nucleotide and nucleoside levels, which may contribute for the toxicological effects induced by this metal.

  16. Evaluation of the developmental toxicity of lead in the Danio rerio body.

    PubMed

    Roy, Nicole M; DeWolf, Sarah; Carneiro, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Lead has been utilized throughout history and is widely distributed and mobilized globally. Although lead in the environment has been somewhat mitigated, the nature of lead and its extensive uses in the past prohibit it from being completely absent from our environment and exposure to lead is still a public health concern. Most studies regarding lead toxicity have focused on the brain. However, little is found in the literature on the effects of lead in other tissues. Here, we utilize the zebrafish model system to investigate effects of lead exposure during early developmental time windows at 24, 48 and 72 h post fertilization in the body. We analyze whole body, notochord and somatic muscle changes, vascular changes of the body, as well as motor neuron alterations. We find lead exposure induces a curved body phenotype with concomitant changes in somite length, decreased notochord staining and abnormal muscle staining using live and in situ approaches. Furthermore, altered vasculature within the somatic regions, loss and/or alternations of motor neuron extension both dorsally and ventrally from the spinal cord, loss of Rohon-Beard sensory neurons, and increased areas of apoptosis were found. We conclude that lead is developmentally toxic to other areas of the developing embryo, not just the brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Acute toxicity and sublethal effects of gallic and pelargonic acids on the zebrafish Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Techer, Didier; Milla, Sylvain; Fontaine, Pascal; Viot, Sandrine; Thomas, Marielle

    2015-04-01

    Gallic and pelargonic acids are naturally found in a variety of plants and food products. Despite their extensive use in man-made applications, little is known regarding their potential risks to aquatic vertebrates. The aim of this work was to assess the acute toxicity of these polyphenolic and fatty acid compounds to the zebrafish. In order to get insights into sublethal effects, the enzyme activity of usual biomarkers related to oxidative stress and biotransformation were also assessed in fish. These latter included total superoxide dismutase, catalase as well as total glutathione peroxidase for antioxidant defence mechanisms and glutathione S-transferase for biotransformation related enzyme. Gallic acid was practically non-toxic (96-h lethal concentration (LC50) > 100 mg/L) whereas pelargonic acid was slightly toxic (96-h LC50 of 81.2 mg/L). Moreover, biomarker analyses indicated enhanced superoxide dismutase activity in fish exposed to 20, 40 and 100 mg/L of gallic acid compared to control. A dose-dependent induction of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase was reported following gallic acid exposure at the tested concentrations of 10, 20 and 40 mg/L, with the exception of 100 mg/L of substance where basal activity levels were reported. In the case of pelargonic acid, there was no change in antioxidant enzyme activity while an inhibition of glutathione S-transferase was observed from organisms exposed to 45, 58 and 76 mg/L of test solution. The results concerning sublethal effects on biological parameters of zebrafish highlighted thereby the need for further investigations following chronic exposure to both organic acids.

  18. Impacts of 17α-ethynylestradiol exposure on metabolite profiles of zebrafish (Danio rerio) liver cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that are frequently detected in bodies of water downstream from sewage treatment facilities can have adverse impacts on fish and other aquatic organisms. To properly assess risk(s) from EDCs, tools are needed that can establish linkages from ...

  19. Gross and fine dissection of inner ear sensory epithelia in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Liang, Jin; Burgess, Shawn M

    2009-05-08

    Neurosensory epithelia in the inner ear are the crucial structures for hearing and balance functions. Therefore, it is important to understand the cellular and molecular features of the epithelia, which are mainly composed of two types of cells: hair cells (HCs) and supporting cells (SCs). Here we choose to study the inner ear sensory epithelia in adult zebrafish not only because the epithelial structures are highly conserved in all vertebrates studied, but also because the adult zebrafish is able to regenerate HCs, an ability that mammals lose shortly after birth. We use the inner ear of adult zebrafish as a model system to study the mechanisms of inner ear HC regeneration in adult vertebrates that could be helpful for clinical therapy of hearing/balance deficits in human as a result of HC loss. Here we demonstrate how to do gross and fine dissections of inner ear sensory epithelia in adult zebrafish. The gross dissection removes the tissues surrounding the inner ear and is helpful for preparing tissue sections, which allows us to examine the detailed structure of the sensory epithelia. The fine dissection cleans up the non-sensory-epithelial tissues of each individual epithelium and enables us to examine the heterogeneity of the whole epithelium easily in whole-mount epithelial samples.

  20. Montmorillonite clay alters toxicity of silver nanoparticles in zebrafish (Danio rerio) eleutheroembryo.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Govind Sharan; Dhawan, Alok; Shanker, Rishi

    2016-11-01

    An exponential development in the use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in consumer products has accelerated their release in aquatic environment. As the AgNPs enters into the aquatic systems, their fate may change due to interactions with abiotic (e.g. clay particles) or biotic factors. The abundantly present clay particles are expected to more prone for interaction with nanoparticles in aquatic systems. In the present study, it is demonstrated that AgNPs interacts with clay particles and forms heteroagglomerates. Furthermore, an impact on toxicity potential of AgNPs after interactions with clay particles was assessed by using zebrafish eleutheroembryos (72 h post hatching) as an in vivo model. The mortality rate of zebrafish eleutheroembryos was higher in case of exposure to AgNPs-clay complexes (pH 4.0 and 7.0) as compared to bare AgNPs. In addition, at earlier time points, the eleutheroembryos expressed higher levels of morphological changes in tail, yolk and pericardia, but the edema in yolk sac was followed by cell death. It can be concluded from the observations made in the present study that the inorganic colloids in the aquatic matrices can alter the fate and toxicity potential of nanoparticles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative toxicity of several metal oxide nanoparticle aqueous suspensions to Zebrafish (Danio rerio) early developmental stage.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoshan; Zhu, Lin; Duan, Zhenghua; Qi, Ruiqi; Li, Yan; Lang, Yupeng

    2008-02-15

    With the emergence of manufactured nanomaterials, it is urgent to carry out researches on their potential environmental impacts and biological effects. To better understand the potential ecotoxicological impacts of metal oxide nanoparticles released to aquatic environments, the zebrafish 96-h embryo-larval bioassay was used to assess and compare the developmental toxicities of nanoscale zinc oxide (nZnO), titanium dioxide (nTiO(2)) and alumina (nAl(2)O(3)) aqueous suspensions. Toxicological endpoints such as zebrafish embryos or larvae survival, hatching rate and malformation were noted and described within 96 h of exposure. Meanwhile, a comparative experiment with their bulk counterparts (i.e., ZnO/bulk, TiO(2)/bulk and Al(2)O(3)/bulk) was conducted to understand the effect of particle size on their toxicities. The results showed that: (i) both nZnO and ZnO/bulk aqueous suspensions delayed zebrafish embryo and larva development, decreased their survival and hatching rates, and caused tissue damage. The 96-h LC(50) of nZnO and ZnO/bulk aqueous suspensions on the zebrafish survival are 1.793 mg/L and 1.550 mg/L respectively; and the 84-h EC(50) on the zebrafish embryo hatching rate are 2.065 mg/L and 2.066 mg/L respectively. Serious tissue ulceration was found on zebrafish larvae exposed to nZnO and ZnO/bulk aqueous suspensions. (ii) In contrast, neither nTiO(2) and TiO(2)/bulk nor nAl(2)O(3) and Al(2)O(3)/bulk showed any toxicity to zebrafish embryos and larvae under the same experimental condition. It revealed that the metal oxide nanoparticles with different chemical composition have different zebrafish developmental toxicities. (iii) Exposures of nTiO(2), nZnO and nAl(2)O(3) produced toxic effects on zebrafish embryos and larvae, which was not different from the effects caused by exposing to their bulk counterparts. This is the first study about the developmental toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles, and the results demonstrate that nZnO is very toxic to zebrafish embryos and larvae, which highlights the need to evaluate the potential eco-toxicity of these manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs).

  2. Effects of oxytetracycline and amoxicillin on development and biomarkers activities of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Rhaul; McDonough, Sakchai; Ladewig, Jessica C L; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Nogueira, António J A; Domingues, Inês

    2013-11-01

    Antibiotics have been widely used in human and veterinary medicine to treat or prevent diseases. Residues of antibiotics have been found in aquatic environments, but their effects on fish have been not properly investigated. This work aimed to assess the sub-lethal effects of oxytetracycline and amoxicillin on zebrafish development and biomarkers. Embryos and adults were exposed during 96 h to amoxicillin and oxytetracycline following OECD guidelines. Tissues of adults and pools of embryos were used for catalase, glutathione-S-transferases and lactate dehydrogenase determinations. Amoxicillin caused premature hatching (48 h-EC50=132.4 mg/l) whereas oxytetracycline cause delayed hatching of embryos (72 h-EC50=127.6 mg/l). Moreover, both antibiotics inhibited catalase and induced glutathione-S-transferases in zebrafish adults. However, only oxytetracycline induced lactate dehydrogenase. Short-term effects of antibiotics were observed at high doses (mg/l) indicating that physiological impairment in fish populations is unlike to occur. However, effects of chronic exposures to low doses of ABs must be investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Learning to Fish with Genetics: A Primer on the Vertebrate Model Danio rerio

    PubMed Central

    Holtzman, Nathalia G.; Iovine, M. Kathryn; Liang, Jennifer O.; Morris, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    In the last 30 years, the zebrafish has become a widely used model organism for research on vertebrate development and disease. Through a powerful combination of genetics and experimental embryology, significant inroads have been made into the regulation of embryonic axis formation, organogenesis, and the development of neural networks. Research with this model has also expanded into other areas, including the genetic regulation of aging, regeneration, and animal behavior. Zebrafish are a popular model because of the ease with which they can be maintained, their small size and low cost, the ability to obtain hundreds of embryos on a daily basis, and the accessibility, translucency, and rapidity of early developmental stages. This primer describes the swift progress of genetic approaches in zebrafish and highlights recent advances that have led to new insights into vertebrate biology. PMID:27384027

  4. Influence of polyethylene microplastic beads on the uptake and localization of silver in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Khan, Farhan R; Syberg, Kristian; Shashoua, Yvonne; Bury, Nicolas R

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to determine whether the uptake and localization of Ag in zebrafish was affected by the presence of polyethylene microplastic beads (PE MPBs). Zebrafish were exposed to 1 μg Ag L(-1) (radiolabelled with (110m)Ag) for 4 and 24 h in the presence or absence of PE MPBs (10, 100 or 1000 MPBs mL(-1)), and one treatment in which MPBs (1000 MPBs mL(-1)) were incubated with Ag to promote adsorption. The presence of MPBs, at any of the tested doses, had no effect on the uptake or localization of Ag. However, exposure to the Ag-incubated MPBs (∽75% of the Ag bound to MPBs) significantly reduced Ag uptake at both time points and also significantly increased the proportion of intestinal Ag. This study demonstrates that microplastics can alter the bioavailability and uptake route of a metal contaminant in a model fish species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Neurotoxicity of neem commercial formulation (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Bernardi, M M; Dias, S G; Barbosa, V E

    2013-11-01

    The neurotoxic effects of a commercial formulation of Azadirachta indica A. Juss, also called neem or nim, in adult zebrafish were determined using behavioral models. General activity, anxiety-like effects, and learning and memory in a passive avoidance task were assessed after exposure to 20 or 40 μl/L neem. The results showed that 20 μl/L neem reduced the number of runs. Both neem concentrations increased the number of climbs to the water surface, and 40 μl/L increased the number of tremors. In the anxiety test, the 20 μl/L dose increased the number of entries in the light side compared with controls, but the latency to enter the dark side and the freezing behavior in this side did not changed. In relation to controls, the 40 μl/L neem reduced the latency to enter in the light side, did not change the number of entries in this side and increased freezing behavior in the light side. In the passive avoidance test, pre-training and pre-test neem exposure to 40 μl/L decreased the response to the learning task. Thus, no impairment was observed in this behavioral test. We conclude that neem reduced general activity and increased anxiety-like behavior but did not affect learning and memory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantum dot interactions and flow effects in angiogenic zebrafish (Danio rerio) vessels and human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiao-Yu; Sarsons, Christopher D; Gomez-Garcia, M Juliana; Cramb, David T; Rinker, Kristina D; Childs, Sarah J

    2017-04-01

    Nanoparticle (NP) interactions with biological tissues are affected by the size, shape and surface chemistry of the NPs. Here we use in vivo (zebrafish) and in vitro (HUVEC) models to investigate association of quantum dots (QDs) with endothelial cells and the effect of fluid flow. After injection into the developing zebrafish, circulating QDs associate with endothelium and penetrate surrounding tissue parenchyma over time. Amino-functionalized QDs cluster, interact with cells, and clear more rapidly than carboxy-functionalized QDs in vivo, highlighting charge influences. QDs show stronger accumulation in slow-flowing, small caliber venous vessels than in fast-flowing high caliber arterial vessels. Parallel-plate flow experiments with HUVEC support these findings, showing reduced QD-EC association with increasing flow. In vivo, flow arrest after nanoparticle injection still results in venous accumulation at 18 h. Overall our results suggest that both QD charge and blood flow modulate particle-endothelial cell interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Environmental Progestins Progesterone and Drospirenone Alter the Circadian Rhythm Network in Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanbin; Castiglioni, Sara; Fent, Karl

    2015-08-18

    Progestins alter hormone homeostasis and may result in reproductive effects in humans and animals. Thus far, studies in fish have focused on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG)-axis and reproduction, but other effects have little been investigated. Here we report that progesterone (P4) and drospirenone (DRS) interfere with regulation of the circadian rhythm in fish. Breeding pairs of adult zebrafish were exposed to P4 and DRS at concentrations between 7 and 13 650 ng/L for 21 days. Transcriptional analysis revealed significant and dose-dependent alterations of the circadian rhythm network in the brain with little effects in the gonads. Significant alterations of many target transcripts occurred even at environmental relevant concentrations of 7 ng/L P4 and at 99 ng/L DRS. They were fully consistent with the well-described circadian rhythm negative/positive feedback loops. Transcriptional alterations of the circadian rhythm network were correlated with those in the HPG-Liver-axis. Fecundity was decreased at 742 (P4) and 2763 (DRS) ng/L. Dose-dependent alterations in the circadian rhythm network were also observed in F1 eleuthero-embryos. Our results suggest a potential target of environmental progestins, the circadian rhythm network, in addition to the adverse reproductive effects. Forthcoming studies should show whether the transcriptional alterations in circadian rhythm translate into physiological effects.

  8. Development of an in vitro toxicological test system based on zebrafish (Danio rerio) sperm analysis.

    PubMed

    Kollár, Tímea; Kása, Eszter; Ferincz, Árpád; Urbányi, Béla; Csenki-Bakos, Zsolt; Horváth, Ákos

    2018-05-01

    The effect of seven heavy metals on the motility parameter of zebrafish sperm was tested in order to develop an in vitro toxicological test system as an alternative to live animal testing. In vitro test systems are currently preferred in ecotoxicology due to their practical and ethical advantages and fish sperm can be a suitable model. A number of studies had been carried out previously on this topic, but the described methods had not been standardized in numerous aspects (donor species, measured endpoint, etc.). In this study, heavy metals (mercury, arsenic, chromium, zinc, nickel, copper, cadmium) were used as reference toxicants with known toxicity to develop a standardized fish sperm in vitro assay. The tested concentrations were determined based on preliminary range finding tests. The endpoints were progressive motility (PMOT, %), curvilinear velocity (VCL, μm/s), and linearity (LIN, %) measured by a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system. According to our results, PMOT was the most sensitive of the three investigated parameters: dose-response curves were observed for each metal at relatively low concentrations. VCL values were less sensitive: higher concentrations were needed to observe changes. Of the three parameters, LIN was the least affected: dose-response relationship was observed only in the case of mercury (e.g., lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) of Hg at 120 min: 1 mg/L for PMOT, 2.5 mg/L for VCL, 5 mg/L for LIN; LOEC of Cu at 120 min: 1 mg/L for PMOT, 5 mg/L for VCL, any for LIN). The order of toxicity as determined by PMOT was as follows: Hg 2+  > As 3+  > Cd 2+  > Cu 2+  > Zn 2+  > Cr 3+  > Ni 2+ . In conclusion, we found that PMOT of zebrafish sperm was an accurate and fast bioindicator of heavy metal load. Sperm analysis can be adopted to estimate the possible toxic effects of various chemicals in vitro. Future investigations should concentrate on the applicability of this assay to other contaminants (e.g., organic pollutants).

  9. Gonad development and vitellogenin production in zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to ethinylestradiol and methyltestosterone.

    PubMed

    Orn, Stefan; Holbech, Henrik; Madsen, Trine H; Norrgren, Leif; Petersen, Gitte I

    2003-12-10

    In a partial life-cycle test, the impact of 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2) and 17alpha-methyltestosterone (MT) on juvenile zebrafish was evaluated by use of vitellogenin measurements and gonadal development. Exposure to EE2 (1-25 ng/l) resulted in a dose-dependent increase in vitellogenin production starting at 2 ng/l. Significant changes in sex ratios in female direction were detected at 1 ng/l, with complete sex reversal taking place after exposure to 2 ng/l. No intersex fish were observed after exposure to EE2. Exposure to MT resulted in decreased vitellogenin concentrations. Complete sex reversal was detected in all MT concentrations used (26-1000 ng/l). A large proportion of intersex fish was observed after exposure to 1000 ng MT/l. The period of gonadal sex reversal in non-exposed zebrafish was also studied. The main morphological features of the transformation of ovaries into testis were observed 4-5 weeks after hatching.

  10. Effects of acoustic levitation on the development of zebrafish, Danio rerio, embryos

    PubMed Central

    Sundvik, Maria; Nieminen, Heikki J.; Salmi, Ari; Panula, Pertti; Hæggström, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic levitation provides potential to characterize and manipulate material such as solid particles and fluid in a wall-less environment. While attempts to levitate small animals have been made, the biological effects of such levitation have been scarcely documented. Here, our goal was to explore if zebrafish embryos can be levitated (peak pressures at the pressure node and anti-node: 135 dB and 144 dB, respectively) with no effects on early development. We levitated the embryos (n = 94) at 2–14 hours post fertilization (hpf) for 1000 (n = 47) or 2000 seconds (n = 47). We compared the size and number of trunk neuromasts and otoliths in sonicated samples to controls (n = 94), and found no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05). While mortality rate was lower in the control group (22.3%) compared to that in the 1000 s (34.0%) and 2000 s (42.6%) levitation groups, the differences were statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). The results suggest that acoustic levitation for less than 2000 sec does not interfere with the development of zebrafish embryos, but may affect mortality rate. Acoustic levitation could potentially be used as a non-contacting wall-less platform for characterizing and manipulating vertebrae embryos without causing major adverse effects to their development. PMID:26337364

  11. Effects of acoustic levitation on the development of zebrafish, Danio rerio, embryos.

    PubMed

    Sundvik, Maria; Nieminen, Heikki J; Salmi, Ari; Panula, Pertti; Hæggström, Edward

    2015-09-04

    Acoustic levitation provides potential to characterize and manipulate material such as solid particles and fluid in a wall-less environment. While attempts to levitate small animals have been made, the biological effects of such levitation have been scarcely documented. Here, our goal was to explore if zebrafish embryos can be levitated (peak pressures at the pressure node and anti-node: 135 dB and 144 dB, respectively) with no effects on early development. We levitated the embryos (n = 94) at 2-14 hours post fertilization (hpf) for 1000 (n = 47) or 2000 seconds (n = 47). We compared the size and number of trunk neuromasts and otoliths in sonicated samples to controls (n = 94), and found no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05). While mortality rate was lower in the control group (22.3%) compared to that in the 1000 s (34.0%) and 2000 s (42.6%) levitation groups, the differences were statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). The results suggest that acoustic levitation for less than 2000 sec does not interfere with the development of zebrafish embryos, but may affect mortality rate. Acoustic levitation could potentially be used as a non-contacting wall-less platform for characterizing and manipulating vertebrae embryos without causing major adverse effects to their development.

  12. Discovery and validation of gene classifiers for endocrine-disrupting chemicals in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development and application of transcriptomics-based gene classifiers for ecotoxicological applications lag far behind those of human biomedical science. Many such classifiers discovered thus far lack vigorous statistical and experimental validations, with their stability and rel...

  13. A shifted repertoire of endocannabinoid genes in the zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    McPartland, J M; Glass, Michelle; Matias, Isabel; Norris, Ryan W; Kilpatrick, C William

    2007-05-01

    The zebrafish has served as a model organism for developmental biology. Sequencing its genome has expanded zebrafish research into physiology and drug-development testing. Several cannabinoid pharmaceuticals are in development, but expression of endocannabinoid receptors and enzymes remains unknown in this species. We conducted a bioinformatics analysis of the zebrafish genome using 17 human endocannabinoid genes as a reference set. Putative zebrafish orthologs were identified in filtered BLAST searches as reciprocal best hits. Orthology was confirmed by three in silico methods: phylogenetic testing, synteny analysis, and functional mapping. Zebrafish expressed orthologs of cannabinoid receptor 1, transient receptor potential channel vanilloid receptor 4, GPR55 receptor, fatty acid amide hydrolase 1, monoacylglycerol lipase, NAPE-selective phospholipase D, abhydrolase domain-containing protein 4, and diacylglycerol lipase alpha and beta; and paired paralogs of cannabinoid receptor 2, fatty acid amide hydrolase 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2, and transient receptor potential cation channel subtype A1. Functional mapping suggested the orthologs of transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma lack specific amino acids critical for cannabinoid ligand binding. No orthologs of N-acylethanolamine acid amidase or protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 22 were identified. In conclusion, the zebrafish genome expresses a shifted repertoire of endocannabinoid genes. In vitro analyses are warranted before using zebrafish for cannabinoid development testing.

  14. Development of transcriptomics-based biomarkers for selected endocrine disrupting chemicals in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genome-wide transcriptional profiling by microarrays provides a powerful platform for gene expression-based biomarker discovery. After their wide acceptance in human disease diagnosis, prognosis, and drug discovery, these gene signatures are increasingly being adopted for environ...

  15. Development of Transcriptomics-based Biomarkers for Selected Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genome-wide transcriptional profiling by microarrays provides a powerful platform for gene expression-based biomarker discovery. After their wide acceptance in human disease diagnosis, prognosis, and drug discovery, these gene signatures are increasingly being adopted for environ...

  16. The French press: a repeatable and high-throughput approach to exercising zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Usui, Takuji; Noble, Daniel W.A.; O’Dea, Rose E.; Fangmeier, Melissa L.; Lagisz, Malgorzata; Hesselson, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Zebrafish are increasingly used as a vertebrate model organism for various traits including swimming performance, obesity and metabolism, necessitating high-throughput protocols to generate standardized phenotypic information. Here, we propose a novel and cost-effective method for exercising zebrafish, using a coffee plunger and magnetic stirrer. To demonstrate the use of this method, we conducted a pilot experiment to show that this simple system provides repeatable estimates of maximal swim performance (intra-class correlation [ICC] = 0.34–0.41) and observe that exercise training of zebrafish on this system significantly increases their maximum swimming speed. We propose this high-throughput and reproducible system as an alternative to traditional linear chamber systems for exercising zebrafish and similarly sized fishes. PMID:29372124

  17. Identification of an S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) dependent arsenic methyltransferase in Danio rerio

    SciT

    Hamdi, Mohamad; Yoshinaga, Masafumi; Packianathan, Charles

    2012-07-15

    Arsenic methylation is an important cellular metabolic process that modulates arsenic toxicity and carcinogenicity. Biomethylation of arsenic produces a series of mono-, di- and tri-methylated arsenic metabolites that can be detected in tissues and excretions. Here we report that zebrafish exposed to arsenite (As{sup III}) produces organic arsenicals, including MMA{sup III}, MMA{sup V} and DMA{sup V} with characteristic tissue ratios, demonstrating that an arsenic methylation pathway exists in zebrafish. In mammals, cellular inorganic arsenic is methylated by a SAM-dependent arsenic methyltransferase, AS3MT. A zebrafish arsenic methyltransferase homolog, As3mt, was identified by sequence alignment. Western blotting analysis showed that As3mt wasmore » universally expressed in zebrafish tissues. Prominent expression in liver and intestine correlated with methylated arsenic metabolites detected in those tissues. As3mt was expressed in and purified from Escherichia coli for in vitro functional studies. Our results demonstrated that As3mt methylated As{sup III} to DMA{sup V} as an end product and produced MMA{sup III} and MMA{sup V} as intermediates. The activity of As3mt was inhibited by elevated concentrations of the substrate As{sup III} as well as the metalloid selenite, which is a well-known antagonistic micronutrient of arsenic toxicity. The activity As3mt was abolished by substitution of either Cys160 or Cys210, which corresponds to conserved cysteine residues in AS3MT homologs, suggesting that they are involved in catalysis. Expression in zebrafish of an enzyme that has a similar function to human and rodent orthologs in catalyzing intracellular arsenic biomethylation validates the applicability of zebrafish as a valuable vertebrate model for understanding arsenic-associated diseases in humans. -- Highlights: ► Zebrafish methylated As{sup III} to MMA{sup III}, MMA{sup V} and DMA{sup V}. ► A zebrafish arsenic methyltransferase (As3mt) was purified in E. coli. ► As3mt catalyzed biomethylation of As{sup III} to DMA{sup V} and produced toxic intermediates. ► As3mt activity is inhibited by elevated substrate concentrations and selenite. ► C160 and C165 are predicted as As{sup III} binding sites.« less

  18. The French press: a repeatable and high-throughput approach to exercising zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Usui, Takuji; Noble, Daniel W A; O'Dea, Rose E; Fangmeier, Melissa L; Lagisz, Malgorzata; Hesselson, Daniel; Nakagawa, Shinichi

    2018-01-01

    Zebrafish are increasingly used as a vertebrate model organism for various traits including swimming performance, obesity and metabolism, necessitating high-throughput protocols to generate standardized phenotypic information. Here, we propose a novel and cost-effective method for exercising zebrafish, using a coffee plunger and magnetic stirrer. To demonstrate the use of this method, we conducted a pilot experiment to show that this simple system provides repeatable estimates of maximal swim performance (intra-class correlation [ICC] = 0.34-0.41) and observe that exercise training of zebrafish on this system significantly increases their maximum swimming speed. We propose this high-throughput and reproducible system as an alternative to traditional linear chamber systems for exercising zebrafish and similarly sized fishes.

  19. Halogenated Bisphenol-A Analogs Act as Obesogens in Zebrafish Larvae (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Caroline L.; Grimaldi, Marina; Hillenweck, Anne; Perdu, Elisabeth; Zalko, Daniel; Bernard, Laure; Laudet, Vincent; Balaguer, Patrick; Bondesson, Maria; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has increased dramatically over the past decades, reaching epidemic proportions. The reasons are likely multifactorial. One of the suggested causes is the accelerated exposure to obesity-inducing chemicals (obesogens). However, out of the tens of thousands of industrial chemicals humans are exposed to, very few have been tested for their obesogenic potential, mostly due to the limited availability of appropriate in vivo screening models. In this study, we investigated whether two commonly used flame retardants, the halogenated bisphenol-A (BPA) analogs tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) and tetrachlorobisphenol-A (TCBPA), could act as obesogens using zebrafish larvae as an in vivo animal model. The effect of embryonic exposure to these chemicals on lipid accumulation was analyzed by Oil Red-O staining, and correlated to their capacity to activate human and zebrafish peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in zebrafish and in reporter cell lines. Then, the metabolic fate of TBBPA and TCBPA in zebrafish larvae was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) . TBBPA and TCBPA were readily taken up by the fish embryo and both compounds were biotransformed to sulfate-conjugated metabolites. Both halogenated-BPAs, as well as TBBPA-sulfate induced lipid accumulation in zebrafish larvae. TBBPA and TCBPA also induced late-onset weight gain in juvenile zebrafish. These effects correlated to their capacity to act as zebrafish PPARγ agonists. Screening of chemicals for inherent obesogenic capacities through the zebrafish lipid accumulation model could facilitate prioritizing chemicals for further investigations in rodents, and ultimately, help protect humans from exposure to environmental obesogens. PMID:24591153

  20. Acute toxicity, bioconcentration, elimination and antioxidant effects of fluralaner in zebrafish, Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhong-Qiang; Liu, Di; Sheng, Cheng-Wang; Casida, John E; Wang, Chen; Song, Ping-Ping; Chen, Yu-Ming; Han, Zhao-Jun; Zhao, Chun-Qing

    2018-01-01

    Fluralaner is a novel isoxazoline insecticide which shows high insecticidal activity against parasitic, sanitary and agricultural pests, but there is little information about the effect of fluralaner on non-target organisms. This study reports the acute toxicity, bioconcentration, elimination and antioxidant response of fluralaner in zebrafish. All LC 50 values of fluralaner to zebrafish were higher than 10 mg L -1 at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. To study the bioconcentration and elimination, the zebrafish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of fluralaner (2.00 and 0.20 mg L -1 ) for 15 d and then held 6 d in clean water. The results showed medium BCF of fluralaner with values of 12.06 (48 h) and 21.34 (144 h) after exposure to 2.00 and 0.20 mg L -1 fluralaner, respectively. In the elimination process, a concentration of only 0.113 mg kg -1 was found in zebrafish on the 6th day after removal to clean water. After exposure in 2.00 mg L -1 fluralaner, the enzyme activities of SOD, CAT, and GST, GSH-PX, CarE and content of MDA were measured. Only CAT and CarE activities were significantly regulated and the others stayed at a stable level compared to the control group. Meanwhile, transcriptional expression of CYP1C2, CYP1D1, CYP11A were significantly down-regulated at 12 h exposed to 2.00 mg L -1 of fluralaner. Except CYP1D1, others CYPs were up-regulated at different time during exposure periods. Fluralaner and its formulated product (BRAVECTO ® ) are of low toxicity to zebrafish and are rapidly concentrated in zebrafish and eliminated after exposure in clean water. Antioxidant defense and metabolic systems were involved in the fluralaner-induced toxicity. Among them, the activities of CAT and CarE, and most mRNA expression level of CYPs showed fast response to the sub-lethal concentration of fluralaner, which could be used as a biomarker relevant to the toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Glutathione S-Transferase Protein Expression in Different Life Stages of Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Tierbach, Alena; Groh, Ksenia J; Schönenberger, René; Schirmer, Kristin

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Zebrafish is a widely used animal model in biomedical sciences and toxicology. Although evidence for the presence of phases I and II xenobiotic defense mechanisms in zebrafish exists on the transcriptional and enzyme activity level, little is known about the protein expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. Given the important role of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) in phase II biotransformation, we analyzed cytosolic GST proteins in zebrafish early life stages and different organs of adult male and female fish, using a targeted proteomics approach. The established multiple reaction monitoring-based assays enable the measurement of the relative abundance of specific GST isoenzymes and GST classes in zebrafish through a combination of proteotypic peptides and peptides shared within the same class. GSTs of the classes alpha, mu, pi and rho are expressed in zebrafish embryo as early as 4 h postfertilization (hpf). The majority of GST enzymes are present at 72 hpf followed by a continuous increase in expression thereafter. In adult zebrafish, GST expression is organ dependent, with most of the GST classes showing the highest expression in the liver. The expression of a wide range of cytosolic GST isoenzymes and classes in zebrafish early life stages and adulthood supports the use of zebrafish as a model organism in chemical-related investigations. PMID:29361160

  2. The photoreceptive cells of the pineal gland in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Laurà, Rosaria; Magnoli, Domenico; Zichichi, Rosalia; Guerrera, Maria Cristina; De Carlos, Felix; Suárez, Alberto Álvarez; Abbate, Francesco; Ciriaco, Emilia; Vega, Jose Antonio; Germanà, Antonino

    2012-03-01

    The zebrafish pineal gland plays a fundamental role in the regulation of the circadian rhythm through the melatonin secretion. The pinealocytes, also called photoreceptive cells, are considered the morphofunctional unit of pineal gland. In literature, the anatomical features, the cellular characteristics, and the pinealocytes morphology of zebrafish pineal gland have not been previously described in detail. Therefore, this study was undertaken to analyze the structure and ultrastructure, as well as the immunohistochemical profile of the zebrafish pineal gland with particular reference to the pinealocytes. Here, we demonstrated, using RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy, the expression of the mRNA for rhodopsin in the pineal gland of zebrafish, as well as its cellular localization exclusively in the pinealocytes of adult zebrafish. Moreover, the ultrastructural observations demonstrated that the pinealocytes were constituted by an outer segment with numerous lamellar membranes, an inner segment with many mitochondria, and a basal pole with the synapses. Our results taken together demonstrated a central role of zebrafish pinealocytes in the control of pineal gland functions. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Inheritance patterns of morphological laterality in mouth opening of zebrafish, Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Hata, Hiroki; Hori, Michio

    2012-01-01

    The inheritance patterns of asymmetry in mouth opening in zebrafish were investigated using crossing experiments. Zebrafish exhibit asymmetric laterality in mouth opening, with each individual having either a leftward (righty) or rightward (lefty) bias. All righty incrosses produced only righty F(1), whereas all lefty incrosses resulted in an F(1) L:R ratio of 2:1. All test crosses between lefty and righty individuals resulted in an F(1) L:R=1:1. These results were consistent with the hereditary pattern for Japanese medaka, three Tanganyikan cichlids, and a Japanese riverine goby. The pattern suggests a one-locus two-allele Mendelian model of inheritance, with the lefty allele being dominant over righty and the dominant homozygote being lethal. To determine the reason for the absence of lefty homozygotes, the survival rates of the offspring were examined according to developmental stage. Survival did not differ among combinations of parent laterality. Thus the mechanism underlying the lethality of the dominant homozygote remains unclear. This study showed that the mouth-opening laterality of zebrafish is genetically determined and that the direction follows a Mendelian inheritance pattern that is shared among cypriniform zebrafish, beloniform medaka, perciform cichlids, and a goby, suggesting a common genetic background in mouth-opening laterality among these species.

  4. Exercise quantity-dependent muscle hypertrophy in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Hasumura, Takahiro; Meguro, Shinichi

    2016-07-01

    Exercise is very important for maintaining and increasing skeletal muscle mass, and is particularly important to prevent and care for sarcopenia and muscle disuse atrophy. However, the dose-response relationship between exercise quantity, duration/day, and overall duration and muscle mass is poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated the effect of exercise duration on skeletal muscle to reveal the relationship between exercise quantity and muscle hypertrophy in zebrafish forced to exercise. Adult male zebrafish were exercised 6 h/day for 4 weeks, 6 h/day for 2 weeks, or 3 h/day for 2 weeks. Flow velocity was adjusted to maximum velocity during continual swimming (initial 43 cm/s). High-speed consecutive photographs revealed that zebrafish mainly drove the caudal part. Additionally, X-ray micro computed tomography measurements indicated muscle hypertrophy of the mid-caudal half compared with the mid-cranial half part. The cross-sectional analysis of the mid-caudal half muscle revealed that skeletal muscle (red, white, or total) mass increased with increasing exercise quantity, whereas that of white muscle and total muscle increased only under the maximum exercise load condition of 6 h/day for 4 weeks. Additionally, the muscle fiver size distributions of exercised fish were larger than those from non-exercised fish. We revealed that exercise quantity, duration/day, and overall duration were correlated with skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The forced exercise model enabled us to investigate the relationship between exercise quantity and skeletal muscle mass. These results open up the possibility for further investigations on the effects of exercise on skeletal muscle in adult zebrafish.

  5. Efficacy and Safety of 5 Anesthetics in Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Collymore, Chereen; Tolwani, Angela; Lieggi, Christine; Rasmussen, Skye

    2014-01-01

    Although the safety and efficacy of tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222) for anesthesia of fish are well established, other anesthetics used less commonly in fish have been less extensively evaluated. Therefore, we compared gradual cooling, lidocaine hydrochloride (300, 325, and 350 mg/L), metomidate hydrochloride (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mg/L), and isoflurane (0.5 mL/L) with MS222 (150 mg/L) for anesthesia of adult zebrafish. The efficacy and safety of each agent was evaluated by observing loss of equilibrium, slowing of opercular movement, response to tail-fin pinch, recovery time, and anesthesia-associated mortality rates. At 15 min after anesthetic recovery, we used a novel-tank test to evaluate whether anesthetic exposure influenced short-term anxiety-like behavior. Behavioral parameters measured included latency to enter and number of transitions to the upper half of the tank, number of erratic movements, and number of freezing bouts. Behavior after anesthesia was unaltered regardless of the anesthetic used. Efficacy and safety differed among the anesthetics evaluated. Gradual cooling was useful for short procedures requiring immobilization only, but all instrumentation and surfaces that come in contact with fish must be maintained at approximately 10 °C. MS222 and lidocaine hydrochloride at 325 mg/L were effective as anesthetic agents for surgical procedures in adult zebrafish, but isoflurane and high-dose lidocaine hydrochloride were unsuitable as sole anesthetic agents due to high (30%) mortality rates. Although MS222 remains the best choice for generating a surgical plane of anesthesia, metomidate hydrochloride and gradual cooling were useful for sedation and immobilization for nonpainful procedures. PMID:24602548

  6. Effects of simulated microgravity on otoliths growth and microstructure of Larval Zebrafish, Danio rerio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Wang, Gaohong; Liu, Yongding

    2012-07-01

    Otolith is the vestibular endorgan that takes part in gravitational signal initiation. Environmental change can leave mark on otolith microstructure. In this study, we use zebrafish from embryo stage of 10hpf to middle larval stage of 12dpf to investigate the effect of microgravity on otolith development. It was found that otoliths size of microgravity group was larger than the control before 6dpf, but after that both groups kept nearly the same size. Surface scanning of otolith morphology with SEM showed that otolith of microgravity group were much smoother than the control. After etching with HCl, we found both groups formed daily increments, but microgravity group lack clear check marks in some special developmental stage. Widths between increments were wider, and granule shape was much sharper in microgravity group. Analysis of crystal orientation disclosed the increments of microgravity group formed irregularly. The surface etched with PKb also exhibited different granule size and orientation: the granules in the control had nearly the same size and direction, while the particles in microgravity were smaller and orientated differently along the translucent ring. The organic leftover were also found between layers in microgravity group. These results suggest that microgravity can affect otolith development, the component and structural mode of inorganic and organic parts change with different gravitation environment, which may be involved in orientation adjustment of SMS (Space Movement Sickness).

  7. Phototoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles to zebrafish (Danio rerio) is dependent on life stage.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongbo; Diamond, Stephen A

    2013-09-01

    Zebrafish embryos have been used increasingly to evaluate nanomaterial toxicity. The present study compared phototoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles with zebrafish at 4 life stages (embryos, yolk-sac larvae, free-swimming larvae, and juvenile) under simulated sunlight using the 96-h standard toxicity assay. Yolk-sac larvae were found to be the most sensitive to TiO2 phototoxicity, suggesting that the widely used zebrafish embryo test may not fully or accurately predict hazard and risk of these nanoparticles to small fish. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  8. Age matters: Developmental stage of Danio rerio larvae influences photomotor response thresholds to diazinion or diphenhydramine

    PubMed Central

    Kristofco, Lauren A.; Cruz, Luis Colon; Haddad, Samuel P.; Behra, Martine L; Chambliss, C. Kevin; Brooks, Bryan W.

    2016-01-01

    Because basic toxicological data is unavailable for the majority of industrial compounds, High Throughput Screening (HTS) assays using the embryonic and larval zebrafish provide promising approaches to define bioactivity profiles and identify potential adverse outcome pathways for previously understudied chemicals. Unfortunately, standardized approaches, including HTS experimental designs, for examining fish behavioral responses to contaminants are rarely available. In the present study, we examined movement behavior of larval zebrafish over 7 days (4–10 days post fertilization or dpf) during typical daylight workday hours to determine whether intrinsic activity differed with age and time of day. We then employed an early life stage approach using the Fish Embryo Test (FET) at multiple developmental ages to evaluate whether photomotor response (PMR) behavior differed with zebrafish age following exposure to diazinon (DZN), a well-studied orthophosphate insecticide, and diphenhydramine (DPH), an antihistamine that also targets serotonin reuptake transporters and the acetylcholine receptor. 72 h studies were conducted at 1–4, 4–7 and 7–10 dpf, followed by behavioral observations using a ViewPoint system at 4, 7 and 10 dpf. Distance traveled and swimming speeds were quantified; nominal treatment levels were analytically verified by isotope-dilution LC-MSMS. Larval zebrafish locomotion displayed significantly different (p < 0.05) activity profiles over the course of typical daylight and workday hours, and these time of day PMR activity profiles were similar across ages examined (4–10 dpf). 10 dpf zebrafish larvae were consistently more sensitive to DPH than either the 4 or 7 dpf larvae with an environmentally realistic lowest observed effect concentration of 200 ng/L. Though ELS and FET studies with zebrafish typically focus on mortality or teratogenicity in 0–4 dpf organisms, behavioral responses of slightly older fish were several orders of magnitude more sensitive to DPH. Our observations highlight the importance of understanding the influence of time of day on intrinsic locomotor activity, and the age-specific hazards of aquatic contaminants to fish behavior. PMID:26431593

  9. Effect of JNK inhibitor SP600125 on hair cell regeneration in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shaoyang; Wang, Xu; Li, Wenyan; Li, Huawei

    2016-01-01

    The c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) proteins are a subgroup of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family. They play a complex role in cell proliferation, survival, and apoptosis. Here, we report a novel role of JNK signalling in hair cell regeneration. We eliminated hair cells of 5-day post-fertilization zebrafish larvae using neomycin followed by JNK inhibition with SP600125. JNK inhibition strongly decreased the number of regenerated hair cells in response to neomycin damage. These changes were associated with reduced proliferation. JNK inhibition also increased cleaved caspase-3 activity and induced apoptosis in regenerating neuromasts. Finally, JNK inhibition with SP600125 decreased the expression of genes related to Wnt. Over-activation of the Wnt signalling pathway partly rescued the hair cell regeneration defects induced by JNK inhibition. Together, our findings provide novel insights into the function of JNK and show that JNK inhibition blocks hair cell regeneration by controlling the Wnt signalling pathway. PMID:27438150

  10. Development and implementation of a three-choice serial reaction time task for zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Parker, Matthew O; Millington, Mollie E; Combe, Fraser J; Brennan, Caroline H

    2012-02-01

    Zebrafish are an established and widely utilized developmental genetic model system, but limitations in developed behavioral assays have meant that their potential as a model in behavioral neuroscience has yet to be fully realized. Here, we describe the development of a novel operant behavioral assay to examine a variety of aspects of stimulus control in zebrafish using a 3 choice serial reaction time task (3 CSRTT). Fish were briefly exposed to three spatially distinct, but perceptually identical stimuli, presented in a random order after a fixed-time inter-trial interval (ITI). Entries to the correct response aperture either during the stimulus presentation, or within a brief limited hold period following presentation, were reinforced with illumination of the magazine light and delivery of a small food reward. Following training, premature responding was probed with a long-ITI session three times; once at baseline, once following a saline injection and once following an injection of a low dose of amphetamine (AMPH; 0.025 mg/kg). We predicted that if premature responding was related to impulsivity (as in rodents) it would be reduced following the AMPH injection. Results confirmed that zebrafish could learn to perform a complex operant task similar to tasks developed for rodents which are used to probe sustained attention and impulsivity, but the results from the AMPH trials were inconclusive. This study provides the foundations for development and further validation of this species as a model for some aspects of human attentional and impulse control disorders, such as substance abuse disorder. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Developmental Toxicity of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles to Zebrafish (Danio rerio): A Transcriptomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin Soo; Kim, Ryeo-Ok; Yoon, Seokjoo

    2016-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are being utilized in an increasing number of fields and commercial applications. While their general toxicity and associated oxidative stress have been extensively studied, the toxicological pathways that they induce in developmental stages are still largely unknown. In this study, the developmental toxicity of ZnO NPs to embryonic/larval zebrafish was investigated. The transcriptional expression profiles induced by ZnO NPs were also investigated to ascertain novel genomic responses related to their specific toxicity pathway. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/L ZnO NPs for 96 h post-fertilization. The toxicity of ZnO NPs, based on their Zn concentration, was quite similar to that in embryonic/larval zebrafish exposed to corresponding ZnSO4 concentrations. Pericardial edema and yolk-sac edema were the principal malformations induced by ZnO NPs. Gene-expression profiling using microarrays demonstrated 689 genes that were differentially regulated (fold change >1.5) following exposure to ZnO NPs (498 upregulated, 191 downregulated). Several genes that were differentially regulated following ZnO NP exposure shared similar biological pathways with those observed with ZnSO4 exposure, but six genes (aicda, cyb5d1, edar, intl2, ogfrl2 and tnfsf13b) associated with inflammation and the immune system responded specifically to ZnO NPs (either in the opposite direction or were unchanged in ZnSO4 exposure). Real-time reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction confirmed that the responses of these genes to ZnO NPs were significantly different from their response to ZnSO4 exposure. ZnO NPs may affect genes related to inflammation and the immune system, resulting in yolk-sac edema and pericardia edema in embryonic/larval developmental stages. These results will assist in elucidating the mechanisms of toxicity of ZnO NPs during development of zebrafish. PMID:27504894

  12. Behavioral performance altering effects of MK-801 in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Sison, Margarette; Gerlai, Robert

    2011-01-01

    MK-801, a non-competitive NMDA-R antagonist, has been utilized in the analysis of mammalian learning and memory. The zebrafish is a novel vertebrate study species that has been proposed for the analysis of the mechanisms of learning and memory. Although learning paradigms have been developed for this species, psychopharmacological characterization of its behavioral responses is rudimentary. Before one attempts the analysis of the effects of MK-801 on learning and memory in zebrafish, one needs to know whether this drug affects motor function, perception and/or motivation, factors that may influence performance in learning tasks. Here we conduct dose response analyses investigating the effects of 0, 2, 20 and 100 µM MK-801 administered 24 hours or 30 minutes before the behavioral test, or during the test. We analyze responses in the open tank to measure motor and posture patterns, in the light dark paradigm to evaluate visual perception, and in a group preference task to attempt to quantify motivation. Our results show a significant performance alteration only in the highest (100 µM) dose groups. These fish spent more time on the bottom of their tank, showed elevated erratic movement, increased their clockwise and counterclockwise turning frequency, and reduced the time spent near a shoal stimulus, behavioral alterations that also depended upon the timing of drug administration. Thus, using the current delivery procedures and outbred zebrafish population, the highest dose that may not lead to significant performance deficits is 20 µM, a concentration we propose to use in a future learning study in zebrafish. PMID:21333690

  13. Antipsychotic drugs prevent the motor hyperactivity induced by psychotomimetic MK-801 in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Seibt, Kelly Juliana; Oliveira, Renata da Luz; Zimmermann, Fernanda Francine; Capiotti, Katiúcia Marques; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Ghisleni, Gabriele; Bonan, Carla Denise

    2010-12-25

    Glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists, such as dizocilpine (MK-801), elicit schizophrenia-like symptoms in humans and a behavioral syndrome in rodents, characterized by hyperlocomotion and stereotyped actions, which is antagonized by antipsychotic drugs. Animal models of schizophrenia have been established and used for the development of new antipsychotic drugs. In this work we characterized the behavioral effects of MK-801 and investigated the effect of typical and atypical antipsychotic treatments on locomotor activity as well on the hyperlocomotion induced by MK-801 in zebrafish. MK-801 (20 microM) increased the locomotor behavior as measured by the number of line crossings, distance traveled, and the mean speed in the tank test after 15, 30, and 60 min of exposure. All tested antipsychotics counteracted MK-801-induced hyperactivity on all parameters analyzed and at doses that, given alone, had no effect on spontaneous locomotor activity. The results suggest a similar profile between typical and atypical antipsychotics in the reversal of locomotor disorders induced by MK-801. Moreover, an anxiolytic effect was verified at 30 and 60 min of MK-801 exposure, which was not reversed by antipsychotics tested in this work. In addition, olanzapine, which alone caused an anxiolytic response, when given with MK-801 potentiated the latter's effect on anxiety. In this work we demonstrated the value of the zebrafish, a simple to use animal model, in developing some behavioral features observed in schizophrenia, which may indicate a new approach for drug screening. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Progestins alter photo-transduction cascade and circadian rhythm network in eyes of zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yanbin; Fent, Karl

    2016-02-01

    Environmental progestins are implicated in endocrine disruption in vertebrates. Additional targets that may be affected in organisms are poorly known. Here we report that progesterone (P4) and drospirenone (DRS) interfere with the photo-transduction cascade and circadian rhythm network in the eyes of zebrafish. Breeding pairs of adult zebrafish were exposed to P4 and DRS for 21 days with different measured concentrations of 7-742 ng/L and 99-13´650 ng/L, respectively. Of totally 10 key photo-transduction cascade genes analyzed, transcriptional levels of most were significantly up-regulated, or normal down-regulation was attenuated. Similarly, for some circadian rhythm genes, dose-dependent transcriptional alterations were also observed in the totally 33 genes analyzed. Significant alterations occurred even at environmental relevant levels of 7 ng/L P4. Different patterns were observed for these transcriptional alterations, of which, the nfil3 family displayed most significant changes. Furthermore, we demonstrate the importance of sampling time for the determination and interpretation of gene expression data, and put forward recommendations for sampling strategies to avoid false interpretations. Our results suggest that photo-transduction signals and circadian rhythm are potential targets for progestins. Further studies are required to assess alterations on the protein level, on physiology and behavior, as well as on implications in mammals.

  15. Gene expression changes in female zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain in response to acute exposure to methylmercury

    Richter, Catherine A.; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Martyniuk, Chris; Knoebl, Iris; Pope, Marie; Wright-Osment, Maureen K.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2011-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxicant and endocrine disruptor that accumulates in aquatic systems. Previous studies have shown suppression of hormone levels in both male and female fish, suggesting effects on gonadotropin regulation in the brain. The gene expression profile in adult female zebrafish whole brain induced by acute (96 h) MeHg exposure was investigated. Fish were exposed by injection to 0 or 0.5(mu or u)g MeHg/g. Gene expression changes in the brain were examined using a 22,000-feature zebrafish microarray. At a significance level of p

  16. Gemfibrozil and carbamazepine decrease steroid production in zebrafish testes (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Fraz, Shamaila; Lee, Abigail H; Wilson, Joanna Y

    2018-05-01

    Gemfibrozil (GEM) and carbamazepine (CBZ) are two environmentally relevant pharmaceuticals and chronic exposure of fish to these compounds has decreased androgen levels and fish reproduction in laboratory studies. The main focus of this study was to examine the effects of GEM and CBZ on testicular steroid production, using zebrafish as a model species. Chronic water borne exposures of adult zebrafish to 10 μg/L of GEM and CBZ were conducted and the dosing was confirmed by chemical analysis of water as 17.5 ± 1.78 and 11.2 ± 1.08 μg/L respectively. A 67 day exposure led to reduced reproductive output and lowered whole body, plasma, and testicular 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). Testicular production of 11-KT was examined post exposure (42 days) using ex vivo cultures to determine basal and stimulated steroid production. The goal was to ascertain the step impaired in the steroidogenic pathway by each compound. Ex vivo 11-KT production in testes from males chronically exposed to GEM and CBZ was lower than that from unexposed males. Although hCG, 25-OH cholesterol, and pregnenolone stimulation increased 11-KT production in all treatment groups over basal levels, hCG stimulated 11-KT production remained significantly less in testes from exposed males compared to controls. 25-OH cholesterol and pregnenolone stimulated 11-KT production was similar between GEM and control groups but the CBZ group had lower 11-KT production than controls with both stimulants. We therefore propose that chronic GEM and CBZ exposure can reduce production of 11-KT in testes through direct effects independent of mediation through HPG axis. The biochemical processes for steroid production appear un-impacted by GEM exposure; while CBZ exposure may influence steroidogenic enzyme expression or function. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Exposure to gemfibrozil and atorvastatin affects cholesterol metabolism and steroid production in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Al-Habsi, Aziz A; Massarsky, Andrey; Moon, Thomas W

    2016-09-01

    The commonly used lipid-lowering pharmaceuticals gemfibrozil (GEM) and atorvastatin (ATV) are detected in the aquatic environment; however, their potential effects on non-target fish species are yet to be fully understood. This study examined the effects of GEM and/or ATV on female and male adult zebrafish after a 30d dietary exposure. The exposure led to changes in several biochemical parameters, including reduction in cholesterol, triglycerides, cortisol, testosterone, and estradiol. Changes in cholesterol and triglycerides were also associated with changes in transcript levels of key genes involved with cholesterol and lipid regulation, including SREBP2, HMGCR1, PPARα, and SREBP1. We also noted higher CYP3A65 and atrogin1 mRNA levels in drug-treated male fish. Sex differences were apparent in some of the examined parameters at both biochemical and molecular levels. This study supports these drugs affecting cholesterol metabolism and steroid production in adult zebrafish. We conclude that the reduction in cortisol may impair the ability of these fish to mount a suitable stress response, whereas the reduction of sex steroids may negatively affect reproduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of fluoranthene and pyrene associated with suspended particles in their bioaccumulation by zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yawei; Xia, Xinghui; Xiong, Xinyue; Xia, Lingzi; Guo, Xuejun; Gan, Jay

    2018-08-15

    Hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) tend to be associated with suspended particles in surface aquatic systems, however, the bioavailability of HOCs on suspended particles to fish is not well understood. In this study, a passive dosing device was used to control the freely dissolved concentrations (C free ) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including fluoranthene and pyrene, and the influence of particle-associated PAHs on their bioaccumulation by zebrafish was investigated. The results showed that, when the C free of PAHs were kept constant, the presence of suspended particles did not significantly affect the steady state of PAH bioaccumulation in zebrafish tissues excluding head and digestive tracts, suggesting that the bioaccumulation steady state was controlled by the freely dissolved concentrations of PAHs. However, suspended particles promoted the uptake and elimination rate constants of PAHs in zebrafish body excluding head and digestive tracts. The uptake rate constants with 0.5 g/L suspended particles were approximately twice of those without suspended particles, and the body burden in zebrafish increased by 16.4% - 109.3% for pyrene and 21.8% - 490.4% for fluoranthene during the first 8-d exposure. This was due to the reasons that suspended particles could be ingested, and part of PAHs associated with them could be desorbed in digestive tract and absorbed by the zebfrafish, leading to the enhancement of uptake rates of PAHs in zebfrafish. The findings obtained from this study indicate that PAHs on suspended particles are partly bioavailable to zebrafish and particle ingestion is an important route in PAH bioaccumulation. Therefore, it is important to consider the bioavailability of HOCs on suspended particles to improve ecological risk assessment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ethanol affects the development of sensory hair cells in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Uribe, Phillip M; Asuncion, James D; Matsui, Jonathan I

    2013-01-01

    Children born to mothers with substantial alcohol consumption during pregnancy can present a number of morphological, cognitive, and sensory abnormalities, including hearing deficits, collectively known as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The goal of this study was to determine if the zebrafish lateral line could be used to study sensory hair cell abnormalities caused by exposure to ethanol during embryogenesis. Some lateral line sensory hair cells are present at 2 days post-fertilization (dpf) and are functional by 5 dpf. Zebrafish embryos were raised in fish water supplemented with varying concentrations of ethanol (0.75%-1.75% by volume) from 2 dpf through 5 dpf. Ethanol treatment during development resulted in many physical abnormalities characteristic of FAS in humans. Also, the number of sensory hair cells decreased as the concentration of ethanol increased in a dose-dependent manner. The dye FM 1-43FX was used to detect the presence of functional mechanotransduction channels. The percentage of FM 1-43-labeled hair cells decreased as the concentration of ethanol increased. Methanol treatment did not affect the development of hair cells. The cell cycle markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) demonstrated that ethanol reduced the number of sensory hair cells, as a consequence of decreased cellular proliferation. There was also a significant increase in the rate of apoptosis, as determined by TUNEL-labeling, in neuromasts following ethanol treatment during larval development. Therefore, zebrafish are a useful animal model to study the effects of hair cell developmental disorders associated with FAS.

  20. Bipolar Cell-Photoreceptor Connectivity in the Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Retina

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong N.; Tsujimura, Taro; Kawamura, Shoji; Dowling, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar cells convey luminance, spatial and color information from photoreceptors to amacrine and ganglion cells. We studied the photoreceptor connectivity of 321 bipolar cells in the adult zebrafish retina. 1,1'-Dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI) was inserted into whole-mounted transgenic zebrafish retinas to label bipolar cells. The photoreceptors that connect to these DiI-labeled cells were identified by transgenic fluorescence or their positions relative to the fluorescent cones, as cones are arranged in a highly-ordered mosaic: rows of alternating blue- (B) and ultraviolet-sensitive (UV) single cones alternate with rows of red- (R) and green-sensitive (G) double cones. Rod terminals intersperse among cone terminals. As many as 18 connectivity subtypes were observed, 9 of which – G, GBUV, RG, RGB, RGBUV, RGRod, RGBRod, RGBUVRod and RRod bipolar cells – accounted for 96% of the population. Based on their axon terminal stratification, these bipolar cells could be further sub-divided into ON, OFF, and ON-OFF cells. The dendritic spread size, soma depth and size, and photoreceptor connections of the 308 bipolar cells within the 9 common connectivity subtypes were determined, and their dendritic tree morphologies and axonal stratification patterns compared. We found that bipolar cells with the same axonal stratification patterns could have heterogeneous photoreceptor connectivity whereas bipolar cells with the same dendritic tree morphology usually had the same photoreceptor connectivity, although their axons might stratify on different levels. PMID:22907678

  1. Exposure to a PBDE/OH-BDE mixture alters juvenile zebrafish (Danio rerio) development

    PubMed Central

    Macaulay, Laura J.; Chernick, Melissa; Chen, Albert; Hinton, David E.; Bailey, Jordan M.; Kullman, Seth W.; Levin, Edward D.; Stapleton, Heather M.

    2017-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and halogenated phenolic compounds (e.g., hydroxylated BDEs (OH-BDEs)) arecontaminants detected together frequently in human tissues, and are structurally similar to thyroid hormones (TH). THs partially mediate metamorphic transitions between life stages in zebrafish, making this a critical developmental window which may be uniquely vulnerable to chemicals disrupting thyroid signaling. In this study, zebrafish were exposed to 6-OH-BDE-47 (30 nM) alone or to a low (30 μg/L) or high dose (600 μg/L) mixture of PentaBDEs, 6-OH-BDE-47 (0.5–6 μg/L), & 2,4,6 tribromophenol (TBP) (5–100 μg/L) during juvenile development (9–23 days post fertilization; dpf) and evaluated for developmental endpoints mediated by TH signaling. Fish were sampled at three time points and examined for developmental and skeletal morphology, apical thyroid and skeletal gene markers, and modifications in swimming behavior (as adults). Exposure to the high mixture resulted in > 85% mortality within one week of exposure, despite being below reported acute toxicity thresholds for individual congeners. The low mixture and 6-OH-BDE-47 groups exhibited reductions in body length and delayed maturation, specifically relating to swim bladder,?, fin, and pigmentation development. Reduced skeletal ossification was also observed in 6-OH-BDE-47 treated fish. Assessment of thyroid and osteochondral gene regulatory networks demonstrated significantly increased expression of genes that regulate skeletal development and THs. Overall, these results indicate that exposures to PBDEs/OH-BDEs mixtures adversely impact zebrafish maturation during metamorphosis. PMID:27329031

  2. Operant models of relapse in zebrafish (Danio rerio): Resurgence, renewal, and reinstatement.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Toshikazu; Mizutani, Yuto; Cançado, Carlos R X; Podlesnik, Christopher A

    2017-09-29

    Zebrafish are a widely used animal model in biomedical research, as an alternative to mammals, for having features such as a fully sequenced genome, high fecundity, and low-cost maintenance, but behavioral research with these fish remains scarce. The present study investigated whether zebrafish could be a new animal model for studies on the relapse of behavior (e.g., addiction and overeating) after the behavior has been extinguished. Specifically, we examined whether zebrafish would show three different types of relapse commonly studied with other species: resurgence, renewal, and reinstatement. For resurgence, a target response (i.e., approaching a sensor) was established by presenting a reinforcer (i.e., shrimp eggs) contingent upon the response in Phase 1; the target response was extinguished while introducing reinforcement for an alternative response in Phase 2; neither response produced the reinforcer in Phase 3. For renewal, a target response was established under Context A in Phase 1 and was extinguished under Context B in Phase 2; the fish were placed back in Context A in Phase 3, where extinction remained in effect. For reinstatement, a target response was established in Phase 1 and was extinguished in Phase 2; the reinforcer was presented independently of responding in Phase 3. Each type of relapse occurred in Phase 3. These results replicate and extend previous findings on relapse to a new species and suggest that zebrafish can be a useful animal model for studying the interactions of biological and environmental factors that lead to relapse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of the Exomes of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Henkel, Christiaan V.; Dirks, Ron P.; Jansen, Hans J.; Forlenza, Maria; Wiegertjes, Geert F.; Howe, Kerstin; van den Thillart, Guido E.E.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Research on common carp, Cyprinus carpio, is beneficial for zebrafish research because of resources available owing to its large body size, such as the availability of sufficient organ material for transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. Here we describe the shot gun sequencing of a clonal double-haploid common carp line. The assembly consists of 511891 scaffolds with an N50 of 17 kb, predicting a total genome size of 1.4–1.5 Gb. A detailed analysis of the ten largest scaffolds indicates that the carp genome has a considerably lower repeat coverage than zebrafish, whilst the average intron size is significantly smaller, making it comparable to the fugu genome. The quality of the scaffolding was confirmed by comparisons with RNA deep sequencing data sets and a manual analysis for synteny with the zebrafish, especially the Hox gene clusters. In the ten largest scaffolds analyzed, the synteny of genes is almost complete. Comparisons of predicted exons of common carp with those of the zebrafish revealed only few genes specific for either zebrafish or carp, most of these being of unknown function. This supports the hypothesis of an additional genome duplication event in the carp evolutionary history, which—due to a higher degree of compactness—did not result in a genome larger than that of zebrafish. PMID:22715948

  4. Reproduction impairment and endocrine disruption in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) after waterborne exposure to TBOEP.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qinglong; Wu, Ding; Dang, Yao; Yu, Liqin; Liu, Chunsheng; Wang, Jianghua

    2017-01-01

    Tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) is widely used as a substitute of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). It has been frequently measured at concentrations of micrograms per liter (μg/L) in surface waters and waste water. However, limited information is available about the reproduction toxicology of TBOEP. In this study, adult zebrafish pairs were exposed to TBOEP at concentrations of 0, 5, 50, and 500μg/L for 21days. The effects on reproduction, hormone concentration, transcription of genes along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, and gonadal development were investigated. After exposure to TBOEP, plasma concentrations of 17β-estradiol were significantly increased in both sexes of fish, while increase of testosterone was observed only in male fish. Transcription of genes along the HPG axis was significantly influenced by exposure to TBOEP in both male and female fish. Moreover, TBOEP decreases the average number of eggs production, as well as hatching success and survival rates in offspring. Histological examination shows inhibition of oocyte maturation in females and retardation spermiation in males, respectively. The results demonstrate that TBOEP could disturb the sex hormone balance by altering regulatory circuits of the HPG axis, affect gonadal development, eventually leading to disruption of reproductive performance and the development of progeny. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis perturbation in the basis of bisphenol A (BPA) reproductive toxicity in female zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Molina, Ana; Abril, Nieves; Morales-Prieto, Noelia; Monterde, José; Ayala, Nahúm; Lora, Antonio; Moyano, Rosario

    2018-07-30

    Thousands of safety-related studies have been published on bisphenol A (BPA), an ubiquitous environmental pollutant with estrogenic activity and many other potential biological effects. In recent years, BPA exposure has been shown to cause anovulation and infertility through irreversible alteration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in several organisms, including fish and mammals. Recently, the European Chemical Agency classified BPA as a "substance of very high concern" because of its endocrine-disrupting properties, which have serious effects on human health. Given the risk of exposure to BPA as a pollutant in the environment, food, and drinking water, the objective of our study was to assess the effects of this compound on the adeno-hypophysis by means of a histopathological and morphometric study of the gonadotroph cells. In addition, using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assays, we analyzed the changes in the expression of Cyp19b (an aromatase gene). Zebrafish were randomly distributed into five groups: a control group and 4 treated groups which were exposed to different BPA concentrations (1, 10, 100 and 1000 µg/L). The effects of the different doses on Cyp19b mRNA molecules followed a non-monotonic curve, with the 1 and 1000 µg/L doses causing dramatic decreases in the number of Cyp19b transcripts while the doses of 10 and 100 µg/L caused important increases. The consequences might be deregulation of gonadotropic hormones causing degeneration of gonadotropic cells, as observed in BPA treated animals. This is the first study in which the gonadotroph cells have been evaluated using histomorphological endpoints after BPA exposure in zebrafish. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Population, sex and body size: determinants of behavioural variations and behavioural correlations among wild zebrafish Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Roy, Tamal; Bhat, Anuradha

    2018-01-01

    This study (1) investigated variation among populations and the effects of sex and body size on boldness, activity and shoal-association tendency among wild zebrafish, and (2) tested for existence of correlations between behaviours, controlling for sex and body size. Individuals across four natural populations were tested for general activity in a novel situation, number of predator inspections undertaken and tendency to associate with a conspecific shoal in the presence of predators. Results showed a significant effect of population on boldness with a population from high-predation habitat being bolder than populations from low-predation habitats. Males showed significantly higher tendencies than females to associate with a conspecific shoal in the presence of predators. Further, a negative relationship was found between activity and boldness only within two low-predation populations. Individual body size had a strong effect on the activity-boldness relationship within the low-predation population from flowing water habitat. Smaller fish were bolder and less active while larger fish were more cautious and active. Overall, the results indicated that while population-level behavioural responses might be shaped by predation pressure, state-dependent factors could determine behavioural correlations among individuals within populations.

  7. Population, sex and body size: determinants of behavioural variations and behavioural correlations among wild zebrafish Danio rerio

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Tamal

    2018-01-01

    This study (1) investigated variation among populations and the effects of sex and body size on boldness, activity and shoal-association tendency among wild zebrafish, and (2) tested for existence of correlations between behaviours, controlling for sex and body size. Individuals across four natural populations were tested for general activity in a novel situation, number of predator inspections undertaken and tendency to associate with a conspecific shoal in the presence of predators. Results showed a significant effect of population on boldness with a population from high-predation habitat being bolder than populations from low-predation habitats. Males showed significantly higher tendencies than females to associate with a conspecific shoal in the presence of predators. Further, a negative relationship was found between activity and boldness only within two low-predation populations. Individual body size had a strong effect on the activity–boldness relationship within the low-predation population from flowing water habitat. Smaller fish were bolder and less active while larger fish were more cautious and active. Overall, the results indicated that while population-level behavioural responses might be shaped by predation pressure, state-dependent factors could determine behavioural correlations among individuals within populations. PMID:29410809

  8. Dechorionation as a tool to improve the fish embryo toxicity test (FET) with the zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Henn, Kirsten; Braunbeck, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Prior to hatching, the zebrafish embryo is surrounded by an acellular envelope, the chorion. Despite repeated speculations, it could not be clarified unequivocally whether the chorion represents an effective barrier and, thus, protects the embryo from exposure to distinct chemicals. Potentially, there is a risk of generating false negative results in developmental toxicity studies due to limited permeability of the chorion for some compounds. The simplest way to exclude this is to remove the chorion and expose the "naked" embryo. In the context of ecotoxicity testing, standardized protocols do not exist for fish embryo dechorionation, and survival rates of dechorionated embryos have usually not been subjected to statistical analysis. Since reproducibly high survival rates are of fundamental importance for chemical toxicity assessment, the present study was designed to develop and optimize a dechorionation procedure. With appropriate modifications of the fish embryo test protocol, embryos can be dechorionated at 24h post-fertilization (hpf) with survival rates of ≥90%. However, for fish embryo tests with dechorionated embryos, the standard positive control test substance, 3,4-dichloroaniline, should be replaced by another compound, e.g., acetone, since 3,4-dichloroaniline exerts its effects during the first 24h of development. Dechorionation of younger stages (<24 hpf) is generally possible, however with lower survival rates. The effect of dechorionation was demonstrated with the cationic polymer Luviquat HM 552, which is blocked by the chorion non-dechorionated embryos due to its molecular weight of ~400,000 Dalton, but becomes strongly toxic after dechorionation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. DMSO modifies the permeability of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) chorion-implications for the fish embryo test (FET).

    PubMed

    Kais, B; Schneider, K E; Keiter, S; Henn, K; Ackermann, C; Braunbeck, T

    2013-09-15

    Since 2007, when REACH came into force, the fish embryo test has received increasing attention as a potential alternative for the acute fish test. Due to its low toxicity and the ability to permeate biological membranes without significant damage to their structural integrity, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a commonly used solvent in the fish embryo test. Little is known, however, about the membrane penetration properties of DMSO, the impact of different concentrations of DMSO on the potential barrier function of the zebrafish chorion and on changes in the uptake of chemicals into the embryo. Therefore, in the present study, the fluorescent dyes fluorescein (mol wt 332; Pow 3.4) and 2,7-dichlorofluorescein (mol wt 401; Pow 4.7), both substances with limited water solubility, were used to visualize the uptake into the egg as well as the accumulation in the embryo of the zebrafish depending on different concentrations of DMSO. The distribution of fluorescein within the egg compartments varied with DMSO concentration: When dissolved in 0.01% DMSO, fluorescein did not pass the chorion. In contrast, concentrations ≥ 0.1% DMSO increasingly facilitated the uptake into the perivitelline space. In contrast, the uptake of 2,7-dichlorofluorescein was not substantially increased with rising DMSO concentrations, indicating the importance of factors other than the solvent (e.g. mol wt). With respect to the fish embryo test, results indicate that DMSO may be used without complications as a solvent, however, only at a maximum concentration of 0.01% (0.1 mL/L) as already indicated in the OECD difficult substances paper (OECD, 2000). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cartilage and bone malformations in the head of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos following exposure to disulfiram and acetic acid hydrazide

    SciT

    Strecker, Ruben, E-mail: Ruben.Strecker@cos.uni-heidelberg.de; Weigt, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.weigt@merckgroup.com; Braunbeck, Thomas, E-mail: braunbeck@uni-hd.de

    In order to investigate teratogenic effects, especially on cartilage and bone formation, zebrafish embryos were exposed for 144 h to the dithiocarbamate pesticide disulfiram (20–320 μg/L) and acetic acid hydrazide (0.375–12 g/L), a degradation product of isoniazid. After fixation and full-mount staining, disulfiram could be shown to induce strong cartilage malformations after exposure to ≥ 80 μg/L, whereas acetic acid hydrazide caused cartilage alterations only from 1.5 g/L. Undulating notochords occurred after exposure to disulfiram even at the lowest test concentration of 20 μg/L, whereas at the two lowest concentrations of acetic acid hydrazide (0.375 and 0.75 g/L) mainly fracturesmore » of the notochord were observed. Concentrations of acetic acid hydrazide ≥ 1.5 g/L resulted in undulated notochords similar to disulfiram. Cartilages and ossifications of the cranium, including the cleithrum, were individually analyzed assessing the severity of malformation and the degree of ossification in a semi-quantitative approach. Cartilages of the neurocranium such as the ethmoid plate proved to be more stable than cartilages of the pharyngeal skeleton such as Meckel's cartilage. Hence, ossification proved significantly more susceptible than cartilage. The alterations induced in the notochord as well as in the cranium might well be of ecological relevance, since notochord malformation is likely to result in impaired swimming and cranial malformation might compromise regular food uptake. - Highlights: ► Disulfiram and acetic acid hydrazide as notochord, cartilage and bone teratogens ► Zebrafish embryos to model effects on single cartilages and bones in the head ► LC50 calculation and head length measurements after six days post-fertilization ► Lethality, head length and teratogenic effects are dose-dependent. ► Cartilages of the neurocranium are the most stable elements in the head.« less

  11. Acute exposure to waterborne cadmium induced oxidative stress and immunotoxicity in the brain, ovary and liver of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jia-Lang; Yuan, Shuang-Shuang; Wu, Chang-Wen; Lv, Zhen-Ming

    2016-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental contaminant that poses serious risks to aquatic organisms and their associated ecosystem. The mechanisms underlying Cd-induced oxidative stress and immunotoxicity in fish remain largely unknown. In this study, adult female zebrafish were exposed to 0 (control), 1mgL -1 Cd for 24h and 96h, and the oxidative stress and inflammatory responses induced by Cd were evaluated in the brain, liver and ovary. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and malondialdehyde (MDA) increased in a time-dependent manner after treatment with Cd in the brain and liver. The increase may result from the disturbance of genes including copper and zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and ciclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) at mRNA, protein and activity levels. Although ROS, NO and MDA were not significantly affected by Cd in the ovary, the up-regulation of Cu/Zn-SOD, CAT, iNOS, and COX-2 was observed. Exposure to Cd induced a sharp increase in the protein levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the brain, liver and ovary, possibly contributing to activate inflammatory responses. Furthermore, we also found a dramatic increase in mRNA levels of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) at 24h in the liver and ovary. The corresponding changes in the mRNA levels of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1a and Keap1b) and the inhibitor of κBα (IκBαa and IκBαb) may contribute to regulate the transcriptional activity of Nrf2 and NF-κB, respectively. Contrarily, mRNA levels of Nrf2, NF-κB, Keap1, Keap1b, IκBαa and IκBαb remained stable at 24 and 96h in the brain. Taken together, we demonstrated Cd-induced oxidative stress and immunotoxicity in fish, possibly through transcriptional regulation of Nrf2 and NF-κB and gene modifications at transcriptional, translational, post-translational levels, which would greatly extend our understanding on the Cd toxicity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Neurobehavioural Changes and Brain Oxidative Stress Induced by Acute Exposure to GSM900 Mobile Phone Radiations in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Nirwane, Abhijit; Sridhar, Vinay; Majumdar, Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    The impact of mobile phone (MP) radiation on the brain is of specific interest to the scientific community and warrants investigations, as MP is held close to the head. Studies on humans and rodents revealed hazards MP radiation associated such as brain tumors, impairment in cognition, hearing etc. Melatonin (MT) is an important modulator of CNS functioning and is a neural antioxidant hormone. Zebrafish has emerged as a popular model organism for CNS studies. Herein, we evaluated the impact of GSM900MP (GSM900MP) radiation exposure daily for 1 hr for 14 days with the SAR of 1.34W/Kg on neurobehavioral and oxidative stress parameters in zebrafish. Our study revealed that, GSM900MP radiation exposure, significantly decreased time spent near social stimulus zone and increased total distance travelled, in social interaction test. In the novel tank dive test, the GSM900MP radiation exposure elicited anxiety as revealed by significantly increased time spent in bottom half; freezing bouts and duration and decreased distance travelled, average velocity, and number of entries to upper half of the tank. Exposed zebrafish spent less time in the novel arm of the Y-Maze, corroborating significant impairment in learning as compared to the control group. Exposure decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) activities whereas, increased levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) was encountered showing compromised antioxidant defense. Treatment with MT significantly reversed the above neurobehavioral and oxidative derangements induced by GSM900MP radiation exposure. This study traced GSM900MP radiation exposure induced neurobehavioral aberrations and alterations in brain oxidative status. Furthermore, MT proved to be a promising therapeutic candidate in ameliorating such outcomes in zebrafish. PMID:27123163

  13. Impact of a novel protein meal on the gastrointestinal microbiota and the host transcriptome of larval zebrafish Danio rerio

    PubMed Central

    Rurangwa, Eugene; Sipkema, Detmer; Kals, Jeroen; ter Veld, Menno; Forlenza, Maria; Bacanu, Gianina M.; Smidt, Hauke; Palstra, Arjan P.

    2015-01-01

    Larval zebrafish was subjected to a methodological exploration of the gastrointestinal microbiota and transcriptome. Assessed was the impact of two dietary inclusion levels of a novel protein meal (NPM) of animal origin (ragworm Nereis virens) on the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Microbial development was assessed over the first 21 days post egg fertilization (dpf) through 16S rRNA gene-based microbial composition profiling by pyrosequencing. Differentially expressed genes in the GIT were demonstrated at 21 dpf by whole transcriptome sequencing (mRNAseq). Larval zebrafish showed rapid temporal changes in microbial colonization but domination occurred by one to three bacterial species generally belonging to Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. The high iron content of NPM may have led to an increased relative abundance of bacteria that were related to potential pathogens and bacteria with an increased iron metabolism. Functional classification of the 328 differentially expressed genes indicated that the GIT of larvae fed at higher NPM level was more active in transmembrane ion transport and protein synthesis. mRNAseq analysis did not reveal a major activation of genes involved in the immune response or indicating differences in iron uptake and homeostasis in zebrafish fed at the high inclusion level of NPM. PMID:25983694

  14. UNUSUAL FINDINGS IN ZEBRAFISH, DANIO RERIO, FROM TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES AND THE ZEBRAFISH INTERNATIONAL RESOURCE CENTER DIAGNOSTIC SERVICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of interesting and unusual lesions have been diagnosed in zebrafish that have been evaluated from toxicological studies or submitted as cases to the Diagnostic Service at Oregon State University. Lesions were observed in various wild-type and mutant lines of zebrafish an...

  15. The influence of environmental P(O(2)) on hemoglobin oxygen saturation in developing zebrafish Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Grillitsch, Sandra; Medgyesy, Nikolaus; Schwerte, Thorsten; Pelster, Bernd

    2005-01-01

    Several studies suggest that during early larval development of lower vertebrates convective blood flow is not essential to supply oxygen to the tissues, but information about the oxygenation status of larvae during the time of cutaneous respiration is still missing. If convective oxygen transport contributes to the oxygen supply to tissues, venous blood in the central circulatory system should be partly deoxygenated, and hyperoxia should increase the oxygen saturation of the hemoglobin. To analyze the changes in hemoglobin oxygen saturation induced by hyperoxic incubation, zebrafish larvae were incubated in a tiny chamber between polytetrafluoroethylene membranes (Teflon), so that the oxygen supply could be rapidly modified. Hemoglobin oxygen saturation was measured in vivo by combining video imaging techniques with a spectrophotometrical analysis of hemoglobin light absorption at specific wavelengths for maximal absorption of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood (413 nm and 431 nm, respectively) under normoxic conditions and after a 10 min period of hyperoxia (P(O(2))=100 kPa), assuming that at a P(O(2)) of 100 kPa the hemoglobin is fully saturated. The results demonstrated that red blood cell oxygenation of zebrafish larvae at 4 days post fertilization (d.p.f.), 5 d.p.f. and 12 d.p.f. could be increased by hyperoxia. The data suggest that at the time of yolk sac degradation (i.e. 4 d.p.f. and 5 d.p.f.), when the total surface area of the animal is reduced, bulk diffusion of oxygen may not be sufficient to prevent a partial deoxygenation of the hemoglobin. The decrease in hemoglobin oxygenation observed at 12 d.p.f. confirms earlier studies indicating that at 12-14 d.p.f., convective oxygen transport becomes necessary to ensure oxygen supply to the growing tissues.

  16. G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 is involved in brain development during zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryogenesis

    SciT

    Shi, Yanan; Liu, Xiaochun; Zhu, Pei

    Highlights: •The Gper expression was detected in the developing brain of zebrafish. •Gper morpholino knockdown induced apoptosis of brain cells. •Gper morpholino knockdown reduced expression in neuron markers. •Zebrafish Gper may be involved in neuronal development. -- Abstract: G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (Gper, formerly known as GPR30) is found to be a trophic and protective factor in mediating action of estrogen in adult brain, while its role in developing brain remains to be elucidated. Here we present the expression pattern of Gper and its functions during embryogenesis in zebrafish. Both the mRNA and protein of Gper were detected throughout embryogenesis.more » Whole mount in situ hybridization (WISH) revealed a wide distribution of gper mRNAs in various regions of the developing brain. Gper knockdown by specific morpholinos resulted in growth retardation in embryos and morphological defects in the developing brain. In addition, induced apoptosis, decreased proliferation of the brain cells and maldevelopment of sensory and motor neurons were also found in the morphants. Our results provide novel insights into Gper functions in the developing brain, revealing that Gper can maintain the survival of the brain cells, and formation and/or differentiation of the sensory and motor neurons.« less

  17. Life-stage dependent response in zebrafish (Danio rerio) to phototoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Zebrafish, and especially its embryo stage, has been increasingly used as a model to evaluate toxicity of manufactured nanomaterials. However, many studies have indicated that the chorion may protect developing embroys from the toxic effects of nanomaterials, suggesting that ...

  18. Natural Variation in Fish Transcriptomes: Comparative Analysis of the Fathead Minnow (Pimephales promelas) and Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fathead minnow and zebrafish are among the most intensively studied fish species in environmental toxicogenomics. To aid the assessment and interpretation of subtle transcriptomic effects from treatment conditions of interest, there needs to be a better characterization and unde...

  19. Differential gene expression associated with dietary methylmercury (MeHg) exposure in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing; Basu, Niladri; Goetz, Giles; Jiang, Nan; Hutz, Reinhold J.; Tonellato, Peter J.; Carvan, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify and evaluate conserved biomarkers that could be used in most species of teleost fish at most life-stages. We investigated the effects of sublethal methylmercury (MeHg) exposure on developing rainbow trout and zebrafish. Juvenile rainbow trout and young adult zebrafish were fed food with MeHg added at 0, 0.5, 5 and 50 ppm. Atomic absorption spectrometry was applied to measure whole body total Hg levels, and pathologic analysis was performed to identify MeHg-induced toxicity. Fish at six weeks were sampled from each group for microarray analysis using RNA from whole fish. MeHg-exposed trout and zebrafish did not show overt signs of toxicity or pathology, nor were significant differences seen in mortality, length, mass, or condition factor. The accumulation of MeHg in trout and zebrafish exhibited dose- and time-dependent patterns during six weeks, and zebrafish exhibited greater assimilation of total Hg than rainbow trout. The dysregulated genes in MeHg-treated fish have multiple functional annotations, such as iron ion homeostasis, glutathione transferase activity, regulation of muscle contraction, troponin I binding and calcium-dependent protein binding. Genes were selected as biomarker candidates based on their microarray data and their expression was evaluated by QPCR. Unfortunately, these genes are not good consistent biomarkers for both rainbow trout and zebrafish from QPCR evaluation using individual fish. Our conclusion is that biomarker analysis for aquatic toxicant assessment using fish needs to be based on tissue-, sex- and species-specific consideration. PMID:23529582

  20. Effect of chilling and cryopreservation on expression of Pax genes in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos and blastomeres.

    PubMed

    Lin, C; Spikings, E; Zhang, T; Rawson, D M

    2009-08-01

    Cryopreservation is now common practice in the fields of aquaculture, conservation and biomedicine. However, there is a lack of information on the effect of chilling and cryopreservation at the molecular level. In the present study, we used real-time RT-PCR analysis to determine the effect of chilling and cryopreservation on expression of Pax2a, Pax2b, Pax5 and Pax8 which constitute one subgroup of the Pax gene family. As intact embryos of zebrafish have not yet been successfully cryopreserved, we have used two alternatives: chilling of intact embryos and cryopreservation of isolated blastomeres. Cryopreservation was found to affect the normal pattern of gene expression in zebrafish embryonic blastomeres. The trends, profile changes, in expression of Pax2a and Pax5 occurred to a lesser extent in frozen-thawed blastomeres than in fresh blastomeres whilst the opposite was true for Pax8. The trends in expression of Pax2b were delayed in frozen-thawed blastomeres compared to fresh blastomeres. Cryopreservation can therefore disrupt normal gene expression patterns in zebrafish embryonic blastomeres which could have a detrimental effect on embryo development.

  1. Measures of anxiety in zebrafish (Danio rerio): dissociation of black/white preference and novel tank test.

    PubMed

    Blaser, Rachel E; Rosemberg, Denis B

    2012-01-01

    The effects of wall color stimuli on diving, and the effects of depth stimuli on scototaxis, were assessed in zebrafish. Three groups of fish were confined to a black, a white, or a transparent tank, and tested for depth preference. Two groups of fish were confined to a deep or a shallow tank, and tested for black-white preference. As predicted, fish preferred the deep half of a split-tank over the shallow half, and preferred the black half of a black/white tank over the white half. Results indicated that the tank wall color significantly affected depth preference, with the transparent tank producing the strongest depth preference and the black tank producing the weakest preference. Tank depth, however, did not significantly affect color preference. Additionally, wall color significantly affected shuttling and immobility, while depth significantly affected shuttling and thigmotaxis. These results are consistent with previous indications that the diving response and scototaxis may reflect dissociable mechanisms of behavior. We conclude that the two tests are complementary rather than interchangeable, and that further research on the motivational systems underlying behavior in each of the two tests is needed.

  2. The Presence or Absence of Intestinal Microbiota Affects Lipid Deposition and Related Genes Expression in Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yi; Ren, Hui; Limbu, Samwel M; Sun, Yuhong; Qiao, Fang; Zhai, Wanying; Du, Zhen-Yu; Zhang, Meiling

    2018-01-01

    Understanding how intestinal microbiota alters energy homeostasis and lipid metabolism is a critical process in energy balance and health. However, the exact role of intestinal microbiota in the regulation of lipid metabolism in fish remains unclear. Here, we used two zebrafish models (germ-free and antibiotics-treated zebrafish) to identify the role of intestinal microbiota in lipid metabolism. Conventional and germ-free zebrafish larvae were fed with egg yolk. Transmission electron microscopy was used to detect the presence of lipid droplets in the intestinal epithelium. The results showed that, microbiota increased lipid accumulation in the intestinal epithelium. The mRNA sequencing technology was used to assess genes expression level. We found majority of the differentially expressed genes were related to lipid metabolism. Due to the limitation of germ-free zebrafish larvae, antibiotics-treated zebrafish were also used to identify the relationship between the gut microbiota and the host lipid metabolism. Oil-red staining showed antibiotics-treated zebrafish had less intestinal lipid accumulation than control group. The mRNA expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in liver and intestine was also quantified by using real-time PCR. The results indicated that apoa4 , hsl , cox15 , slc2a1a , and lss were more related to intestinal bacteria in fish, while the influence of intestinal microbiota on the activity of fabp6 , acsl5 , cd36 , and gpat2 was different between the liver and intestine. This study identified several genes regulated by intestinal microbiota. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of each model have been discussed. This study provides valuable information for exploring host-microbiota interactions in zebrafish in future.

  3. Tolerance and efficacy of emamectin benzoate and ivermectin for the treatment of Pseudocapillaria tomentosa in laboratory zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Collymore, Chereen; Watral, Virginia; White, Julie R; Colvin, Michael E; Rasmussen, Skye; Tolwani, Ravi J; Kent, Michael L

    2014-10-01

    Tolerance of adult zebrafish and efficacy of emamectin benzoate and ivermectin in eliminating Pseudocapillaria tomentosa infection were evaluated. In the tolerance study, behavioral changes, fecundity, histopathology, and mortality were evaluated for in-feed administration of emamectin (0.05, 0.10, and 0.25 mg/kg) and ivermectin (0.05 and 0.10 mg/kg). All doses of emamectin were well tolerated. Ivermectin 0.05 mg/kg administration resulted in mild behavioral changes and a transient decrease in fecundity. Ivermectin 0.10 mg/kg administration resulted in severe behavioral changes and some mortality. In the efficacy study, emamectin (0.05 and 0.25 mg/kg) and ivermectin (0.05 mg/kg) were evaluated for their efficacy in eliminating P. tomentosa infection. Emamectin reduced parasite burden in infected zebrafish, and ivermectin eliminated intestinal nematode infections. Despite a small margin of safety, ivermectin 0.05 mg/kg was effective at eliminating P. tomentosa infection in adult zebrafish. Higher doses or a longer course of treatment may be needed for complete elimination of P. tomentosa infection using emamectin. In this study, we propose two possible treatments for intestinal nematode infections in zebrafish.

  4. Tolerance and Efficacy of Emamectin Benzoate and Ivermectin for the Treatment of Pseudocapillaria tomentosa in Laboratory Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Collymore, Chereen; Watral, Virginia; White, Julie R.; Colvin, Michael E.; Rasmussen, Skye; Tolwani, Ravi J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tolerance of adult zebrafish and efficacy of emamectin benzoate and ivermectin in eliminating Pseudocapillaria tomentosa infection were evaluated. In the tolerance study, behavioral changes, fecundity, histopathology, and mortality were evaluated for in-feed administration of emamectin (0.05, 0.10, and 0.25 mg/kg) and ivermectin (0.05 and 0.10 mg/kg). All doses of emamectin were well tolerated. Ivermectin 0.05 mg/kg administration resulted in mild behavioral changes and a transient decrease in fecundity. Ivermectin 0.10 mg/kg administration resulted in severe behavioral changes and some mortality. In the efficacy study, emamectin (0.05 and 0.25 mg/kg) and ivermectin (0.05 mg/kg) were evaluated for their efficacy in eliminating P. tomentosa infection. Emamectin reduced parasite burden in infected zebrafish, and ivermectin eliminated intestinal nematode infections. Despite a small margin of safety, ivermectin 0.05 mg/kg was effective at eliminating P. tomentosa infection in adult zebrafish. Higher doses or a longer course of treatment may be needed for complete elimination of P. tomentosa infection using emamectin. In this study, we propose two possible treatments for intestinal nematode infections in zebrafish. PMID:25237985

  5. Successful Replacement of Artemia salina nauplii with Marine Rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) in the Diet of Preadult Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Christian; James, Althea; Mobley, Scottie

    2015-10-01

    Previously established rearing protocols for zebrafish begin feeding with marine rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis), followed by Artemia nauplii until the fish reach subadult stage, the developmental time point at which they can be most easily transitioned onto a processed diet. However, the inclusion of Artemia is less than ideal, given its fluctuating availability and high costs. We tested whether or not we could replace Artemia with rotifers during our normal rearing sequence and still meet published performance standards for (i) weaning fish onto a processed diet by 25 days postfertilization (dpf) and (ii) successful breeding by 60 dpf. Here, we present the results of trials where wild-type and casper zebrafish were fed exclusively with rotifers (R) or rotifers followed by Artemia (RA) for the first 25 dpf after which point all fish were transitioned to a processed diet (Gemma Micro 300). We measured growth and survival at days 25 and 60, and tested for reproductive capability at 60 dpf. While growth performance was significantly better in the RA groups, we were still able to meet goals for both weaning and generation time in the R groups without compromising survival or sex ratios.

  6. Regulation of gonadal sex ratios and pubertal development by the thyroid endocrine system in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Sharma, Prakash; Patino, Reynaldo

    2013-01-01

    We examined associations between thyroid condition, gonadal sex and pubertal development in zebrafish. Seventy-two-hour postfertilization larvae were reared in untreated medium or in the presence of goitrogens (sodium perchlorate, 0.82 mM; methimazole, 0.15 and 0.3 mM) or thyroxine (1 and 10 nM) for 30 days. Thyrocyte height, gonadal sex and gonadal development were histologically determined at 45 and 60 days postfertilization (dpf). Thyrocyte hypertrophy, an index of hypothyroidism, was observed at 45 and 60 dpf in perchlorate-treated but only at 45 dpf in methimazole-treated fish. Similarly, gonadal sex ratios were biased toward ovaries relative to control animals at 45 and 60 dpf in perchlorate-treated fish but only at 45 dpf in methimazole-treated fish. Gonadal sex ratios were biased toward testes at 45 and 60 dpf in thyroxine-treated fish. Spermatogenesis was delayed in testes from goitrogen-treated fish at 60 dpf relative to control values, but was unaffected in testes from thyroxine-treated individuals. Oogenesis seemed to be nonspecifically delayed in all treatments relative to control at 60 dpf. This study confirmed the previously reported association between hypothyroid condition and ovarian-skewed ratios, and hyperthyroid condition and testicular-skewed ratios, and also showed that male pubertal development is specifically delayed by experimental hypothyroidism. The simultaneous recovery from the hypothyroid and ovary-inducing effects of methimazole by 60 dpf (27 days post-treatment) suggests that the ovary-skewing effect of goitrogens is reversible when thyroid conditions return to basal levels before developmental commitment of gonadal sex. Conversely, the masculinizing effect of hyperthyroidism seems to be stable and perhaps permanent.

  7. Effects of exposure to BPF on development and sexual differentiation during early life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Yang, Qian; Yang, Xianhai; Liu, Jining; Chen, Yingwen; Shen, Shubao

    2018-05-16

    Bisphenol F (BPF) has become a predominant bisphenol contaminant in recent years. It has significant estrogenic properties in both in vivo and in vitro studies. We have previously studied the disrupting mechanisms of BPF on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of adult zebrafish. However, the effects of BPF exposure on development and sexual differentiation of zebrafish embryos/larvae remain unclear. To determine the effects of BPF on the critical stage of sex differentiation in zebrafish, zebrafish embryos/larvae were exposed to 1, 10, 100, and 1000 μg/L BPF from fertilization to 60 days post-fertilization (dpf). Developmental malformations were induced by exposure to BPF from 2 h post-fertilization (hpf), with a LC 50 of 10,030 μg/L at 96 hpf and 9391 μg/L at 120 hpf. Long-term exposure during sex differentiation tended to result in a female sex ratio bias. Histological analyses at 60 dpf indicated that the development of ovo-testes and immature ovaries was induced by 100 and 1000 μg/L BPF. Homogenate testosterone levels decreased and 17β-estradiol levels increased in zebrafish in a concentration-dependent manner. BPF exposure suppressed gene expression of double sex, Mab3-related transcription factor 1(dmrt1), fushi tarazu factor 1d (ff1d), sry-box containing gene 9a (sox9a) and anti-Mullerian hormone (amh); induced expression of the forkhead box L2 transcription factor (foxl2), leading to increased expression of aromatase (cyp19a1a), which promoted production of estrogens, and further caused phenotypic feminization of zebrafish. These results suggest that developmental exposure to BPF has adverse effects on sexual differentiation, and the results were useful for a BPF risk assessment. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Effects of Double Transgenesis of Somatotrophic Axis (GH/GHR) on Skeletal Muscle Growth of Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Silva, Ana Cecilia Gomes; Almeida, Daniela Volcan; Nornberg, Bruna Felix; Figueiredo, Marcio Azevedo; Romano, Luis Alberto; Marins, Luis Fernando

    2015-12-01

    Transgenic fish for growth hormone (GH) has been considered as a potential technological improvement in aquaculture. In this study, a double-transgenic zebrafish was used to evaluate the effect of GH and its receptor (GHR) on muscle growth. Double transgenics reached the same length of GH transgenic, but with significantly less weight, featuring an unbalanced growth. The condition factor of GH/GHR-transgenic fish was lower than the other genotypes. Histological analysis showed a decrease in the percentage of thick muscle fibers in GH/GHR genotype of ∼ 80% in comparison to GH-transgenic line. The analysis of gene expression showed a significant decrease in genes related to muscle growth in GH/GHR genotype. It seems that concomitant overexpression of GH and GHR resulted in a strong decrease of the somatotrophic axis intracellular signaling by diminishing its principal transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 5.1 (STAT5.1).

  9. Effects of Clove Oil as a Euthanasia Agent on Blood Collection Efficiency and Serum Cortisol Levels in Danio rerio

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Daniel J; Klug, Jenna; Hankins, Miriam; Doerr, Holly M; Monticelli, Stephanie R; Song, Ava; Gillespie, Catherine H; Bryda, Elizabeth C

    2015-01-01

    Zebrafish are an important laboratory animal model for biomedical research and are increasingly being used for behavioral neuroscience. Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222) is the standard agent used for euthanasia of zebrafish. However, recent studies of zebrafish behavior suggest that MS222 may be aversive, and clove oil might be a possible alternative. In this study, we compared the effects of MS222 or clove oil as a euthanasia agent in zebrafish on the volume of blood collected and on serum levels of cortisol. Greater amounts of serum could be collected and lower serum levels of cortisol were present in fish euthanized with clove oil compared with equipotent dose of MS222. Euthanasia with clove oil did not blunt the expected elevation of serum cortisol levels elicited by an acute premortem stress. According to our findings, clove oil is a fast-acting agent that minimizes the cortisol response to euthanasia in zebrafish and allows the collection of large volumes of blood postmortem. These results represent a significant refinement in euthanasia methods for zebrafish. PMID:26424256

  10. Effects of Clove Oil as a Euthanasia Agent on Blood Collection Efficiency and Serum Cortisol Levels in Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Davis, Daniel J; Klug, Jenna; Hankins, Miriam; Doerr, Holly M; Monticelli, Stephanie R; Song, Ava; Gillespie, Catherine H; Bryda, Elizabeth C

    2015-09-01

    Zebrafish are an important laboratory animal model for biomedical research and are increasingly being used for behavioral neuroscience. Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222) is the standard agent used for euthanasia of zebrafish. However, recent studies of zebrafish behavior suggest that MS222 may be aversive, and clove oil might be a possible alternative. In this study, we compared the effects of MS222 or clove oil as a euthanasia agent in zebrafish on the volume of blood collected and on serum levels of cortisol. Greater amounts of serum could be collected and lower serum levels of cortisol were present in fish euthanized with clove oil compared with equipotent dose of MS222. Euthanasia with clove oil did not blunt the expected elevation of serum cortisol levels elicited by an acute premortem stress. According to our findings, clove oil is a fast-acting agent that minimizes the cortisol response to euthanasia in zebrafish and allows the collection of large volumes of blood postmortem. These results represent a significant refinement in euthanasia methods for zebrafish.

  11. Developmental and metabolic responses of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos and larvae to short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) exposure.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaoqian; Zhang, Haijun; Geng, Ningbo; Xing, Liguo; Zhao, Yu; Wang, Feidi; Chen, Jiping

    2018-05-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are highly toxic to aquatic organisms, but their toxicity is yet not well characterized. In this study, the developmental toxicity of SCCPs to zebrafish embryos/larvae was evaluated, and a metabolomics approach was adopted to explore the impact of SCCPs exposure on the metabolism in zebrafish embryos. Exposure to SCCPs at concentrations of 1-200μg/L did not produce an observable effect on the hatching rate and morphological deformities of zebrafish embryos/larvae. However, the survival rate of zebrafish larvae in SCCPs exposure groups decreased in a concentration-dependent manner. The 13-day 50% lethal concentration (LC 50 ) value of SCCPs was calculated to be 34.4μg/L. Exposure to SCCPs induced a significant change of overall metabolism, even at environmentally relevant concentrations (1-5μg/L). The most relevant pathways affected by SCCPs exposure were glycerophospholipid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism and purine metabolism. Exposure to SCCPs at concentrations of 1-5μg/L had begun to accelerate the β-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids and very long chain fatty acids, and affect the transformation of guanine to xanthine in the pathway of purine metabolism. Furthermore, when the exposure concentrations of SCCPs were increased to 50-200μg/L, the levels of phospholipids and amino acids were significantly raised; whereas the levels of fatty acids, carnitines and inosine were significantly decreased. In view of the significant effect on metabolism, the sub-chronic and chronic toxicity of SCCPs to fish should be concerned. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Impacts of oxidative stress on acetylcholinesterase transcription, and activity in embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) following Chlorpyrifos exposure.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Fuentes, Gabriela; Rubio-Escalante, Fernando J; Noreña-Barroso, Elsa; Escalante-Herrera, Karla S; Schlenk, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Organophosphate pesticides cause irreversible inhibition of AChE which leads to neuronal overstimulation and death. Thus, dogma indicates that the target of OP pesticides is AChE, but many authors postulate that these compounds also disturb cellular redox processes, and change the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Interestingly, it has also been reported that oxidative stress plays also a role in the regulation and activity of AChE. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of the antioxidant, vitamin C (VC), the oxidant, t-butyl hydroperoxide (tBOOH) and the organophosphate Chlorpyrifos (CPF), on AChE gene transcription and activity in zebrafish embryos after 72h exposure. In addition, oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring antioxidant enzymes activities and transcription, and quantification of total glutathione. Apical effects on the development of zebrafish embryos were also measured. With the exception of AChE inhibition and enhanced gene expression, limited effects of CPF on oxidative stress and apical endpoints were found at this developmental stage. Addition of VC had little effect on oxidative stress or AChE, but increased pericardial area and heartbeat rate through an unknown mechanism. TBOOH diminished AChE gene expression and activity, and caused oxidative stress when administered alone. However, in combination with CPF, only reductions in AChE activity were observed with no significant changes in oxidative stress suggesting the adverse apical endpoints in the embryos may have been due to AChE inhibition by CPF rather than oxidative stress. These results give additional evidence to support the role of prooxidants in AChE activity and expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of particle size and coating on nanoscale Ag and TiO₂ exposure in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Olivia J; Johnston, Blair D; Moger, Julian; Balousha, Mohammed; Lead, Jamie R; Kudoh, Tetsuhiro; Tyler, Charles R

    2013-12-01

    Manufactured metal (oxide) nanoparticles are entering the aquatic environment with little understanding on their potential health impacts for exposed organisms. Adopting an integrative approach, we investigated effects of particle size and coating on biological responses for two of the most commonly used metal (oxide) nanoscale particles, silver (Ag) and titanium dioxide (TiO₂) in zebrafish embryos. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nominally, 4 nm, 10 nm, 30 nm and 134 nm) had little or no toxicity on the endpoints measured. Ag both in nano form (10 nm and 35 nm) and its larger counterpart (600-1600 nm) induced dose-dependent lethality and morphological defects, occurring predominantly during gastrula stage. Of the silver material tested 10 nm nanoparticles appeared to be the most toxic. Coating Ag nanoparticles with citrate or fulvic acid decreased toxicity significantly. In situ hybridisation analysis identified the yolk syncytial layer (YSL) as a target tissue for Ag-nano toxicity where there was a significant induction of the heavy metal stress response gene, metallothionein 2 (Mt2) at sub-lethal exposures. Coherent Anti-stroke Raman Scattering (CARS) microscopy provided no evidence for silver particles crossing the chorionic membrane in exposed embryos. Collectively, our data suggest that silver ions play a major role in the toxicity of Ag nanoparticles.

  14. Influence of waterborne gallic and pelargonic acid exposures on biochemical and reproductive parameters in the zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Techer, Didier; Milla, Sylvain; Fontaine, Pascal; Viot, Sandrine; Thomas, Marielle

    2017-01-01

    Gallic and pelargonic acids are biologically derived substances receiving a growing interest as eco-friendly biocides with potential applications in freshwater system management. However, some data gaps remain to address their chronic ecotoxicity issue, particularly for fish. This work aimed at investigating the sublethal effects of a long-term waterborne exposure of zebrafish to these compounds. Mature fish were exposed to gallic or pelargonic acid at the concentrations of 0, 0.05, 0.5 and 5 mg/L during one month under semi-static conditions. Fecundity, hatching rate and median hatching time were regularly evaluated. Circulating sex hormone levels (11 ketotestosterone -11 KT, 17 βestradiol -E2-), plasma vitellogenin (Vtg), and gonad histology were monitored in males and females after exposure. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total glutathione peroxydase (GPx) and glutathione-S transferase (GST) activities were assessed as enzymatic biomarkers of exposure in fish liver. Significant increases of GPx activity were reported in females exposed to both type of chemicals regardless the contamination level. Moreover, 5 mg/L gallic acid induced a decrease in 11-KT levels for males. For fish exposed to pelargonic acid, decreases in circulating hormone levels were reported respectively at 0.05 and 5 mg/L for 11-KT in males, and at 0.5 mg/L for E2 in females. However, no histological alteration in gonads neither significant variation in reproductive performances were detected following zebrafish exposure to gallic or pelargonic acid. Additional investigations concerning the mode of application and the environmental fate of these substances may warrant their further use in freshwater systems at concentrations compatible with biocidal/allelochemical effects. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 227-240, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Short-term developmental effects and potential mechanisms of azoxystrobin in larval and adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Cao, Fangjie; Wu, Peizhuo; Huang, Lan; Li, Hui; Qian, Le; Pang, Sen; Qiu, Lihong

    2018-05-01

    Previous study indicated that azoxystrobin had high acute toxicity to zebrafish, and larval zebrafish were more sensitive to azoxystrobin than adult zebrafish. The objective of the present study was to investigate short-term developmental effects and potential mechanisms of azoxystrobin in larval and adult zebrafish. After zebrafish embryos and adults were exposed to 0.01, 0.05 and 0.20 mg/L azoxystrobin (equal to 25, 124 and 496 nM azoxystrobin, respectively) for 8 days, the lethal effect, physiological responses, liver histology, mitochondrial ultrastructure, and expression alteration of genes related to mitochondrial respiration, oxidative stress, cell apoptosis and innate immune response were determined. The results showed that there was no significant effect on larval and adult zebrafish after exposure to 0.01 mg/L azoxystrobin. However, increased ROS, MDA concentration and il1b in larval zebrafish, as well as increased il1b, il8 and cxcl-c1c in adult zebrafish were induced after exposure to 0.05 mg/L azoxystrobin. Reduced mitochondrial complex III activity and ATP concentration, increased SOD activity, ROS and MDA concentration, decreased cytb, as well as increased sod1, sod2, cat, il1b, il8 and cxcl-c1c were observed both in larval and adult zebrafish after exposure to 0.20 mg/L azoxystrobin; meanwhile, increased p53, bax, apaf1 and casp9, alteration of liver histology and mitochondrial ultrastructure in larval zebrafish, and alteration of mitochondrial ultrastructure in adult zebrafish were also induced. The results demonstrated that azoxytrobin induced short-term developmental effects on larval zebrafish and adult zebrafish, including mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, cell apoptosis and innate immune response. Statistical analysis indicated that azoxystrobin induced more negative effects on larval zebrafish, which might be the reason for the differences of developmental toxicity between larval and adult zebrafish caused by azoxystrobin. These results provided a new insight into potential mechanisms of azoxystrobin in larval zebrafish and adult zebrafish. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a screen for attenuation of Lancefield group C streptococci and a model for streptococcal pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Borst, L B; Patterson, S K; Lanka, S; Suyemoto, M M; Maddox, C W

    2013-05-01

    Group C streptococci are highly contagious pyogenic bacteria responsible for respiratory tract, lymph node, urogenital tract, and wound infections. Wild-type strains of Streptococcus equi ssp equi (S. equi) and Streptococcus equi ssp zooepidemicus (S. zoo) as well as a commercially available modified live vaccine strain of S. equi were evaluated for virulence in zebrafish. Survival times, histologic lesions, and relative gene expression were compared among groups. Based on the intramuscular route of infection, significantly shorter survival times were observed in fish infected with wild-type strain when compared to modified live vaccine and S. zoo strains. Histologically, S. zoo-infected fish demonstrated a marked increase in inflammatory infiltrates (predominantly macrophages) at the site of infection, as well as increased cellularity in the spleen and renal interstitium. In contrast, minimal cellular immune response was observed in S. equi-injected fish with local tissue necrosis and edema predominating. Based on whole comparative genomic hybridization, increased transcription of positive acute-phase proteins, coagulation factors, and antimicrobial peptides were observed in S. equi-injected fish relative to S. zoo-injected fish, while mediators of cellular inflammation, including CXC chemokines and granulin, were upregulated in S. zoo-injected fish relative to S. equi-injected fish. In a screen of 11 clinical isolates, S. equi strains with a single nucleotide deletion in the upstream region of szp, a known virulence factor of streptococci, were found to be significantly attenuated in zebrafish. These collective findings underscore the value of the zebrafish as a model of streptococcal pathogenesis.

  17. Metabolism of clofibric acid in zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio) as determined by liquid chromatography-high resolution-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Brox, Stephan; Seiwert, Bettina; Haase, Nora; Küster, Eberhard; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    The zebrafish embryo (ZFE) is increasingly used in ecotoxicology research but detailed knowledge of its metabolic potential is still limited. This study focuses on the xenobiotic metabolism of ZFE at different life-stages using the pharmaceutical compound clofibric acid as study compound. Liquid chromatography with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QToF-MS) is used to detect and to identify the transformation products (TPs). In screening experiments, a total of 18 TPs was detected and structure proposals were elaborated for 17 TPs, formed by phase I and phase II metabolism. Biotransformation of clofibric acid by the ZFE involves conjugation with sulfate or glucuronic acid, and, reported here for the first time, with carnitine, taurine, and aminomethanesulfonic acid. Further yet unknown cyclization products were identified using non-target screening that may represent a new detoxification pathway. Sulfate containing TPs occurred already after 3h of exposure (7hpf), and from 48h of exposure (52hpf) onwards, all TPs were detected. The detection of these TPs indicates the activity of phase I and phase II enzymes already at early life-stages. Additionally, the excretion of one TP into the exposure medium was observed. The results of this study outline the high metabolic potential of the ZFE with respect to the transformation of xenobiotics. Similarities but also differences to other test systems were observed. Biotransformation of test chemicals in toxicity testing with ZFE may therefore need further consideration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Toxicity of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine to larval zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Mukhi, S.; Pan, X.; Cobb, G.P.; Patino, R.

    2005-01-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, a cyclonitramine commonly known as RDX, is used in the production of military munitions. Contamination of soil, sediment, and ground and surface waters with RDX has been reported in different places around the world. Acute and subacute toxicities of RDX have been relatively well documented in terrestrial vertebrates, but among aquatic vertebrates the information available is limited. The objective of this study was to characterize the acute toxicity of RDX to larval zebrafish. Mortality (LC50) and incidence of vertebral column deformities (EC50) were two of the end points measured in this study. The 96-h LC50 was estimated at 22.98 and 25.64 mg l-1 in two different tests. The estimated no-observed-effective- concentration (NOEC) values of RDX on lethality were 13.27 ?? 0.05 and 15.32 ?? 0.30 mg l-1; and the lowest-observed-effective- concentration (LOEC) values were 16.52 ?? 0.05 and 19.09 ?? 0.23 mg l-1 in these two tests, respectively. The 96-h EC50 for vertebral deformities on survivors from one of the acute lethality tests was estimated at 20.84 mg l-1, with NOEC and LOEC of 9.75 ?? 0.34 and 12.84 ?? 0.34 mg l-1, respectively. Behavioral aberrations were also noted in this acute toxicity study, including the occurrence of whirling movement and lethargic behavior. The acute effects of RDX on survival, incidence of deformities, and behavior of larval zebrafish occurred at the high end of the most frequently reported concentrations of RDX in aquatic environments. The chronic effects of RDX in aquatic vertebrates need to be determined for an adequate assessment of the ecological risk of environmental RDX. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative immunocytochemical study of FMRFamide neuronal system in the brain of Danio rerio and Acipenser ruthenus during development.

    PubMed

    Pinelli, C; D'Aniello, B; Sordino, P; Meyer, D L; Fiorentino, M; Rastogi, R K

    2000-02-07

    The distribution of FMRFamide-like immunoreactive (ir) neurons and fibers was investigated in the central nervous system of developing zebrafish and juvenile sturgeon (sterlet). Adult zebrafish was also studied. In zebrafish embryos FMRFamide-ir elements first appeared 30 h post-fertilization (PF). Ir somata were located in the olfactory placode and in the ventral diencephalon. FMRFamide-ir fibers originating from diencephalic neurons were found in the ventral telencephalon and in ventral portions of the brainstem. At 48 h PF, the ir perikarya in the olfactory placode displayed increased immunoreactivity and stained fibers emerged from the somata. At 60 h PF, bilaterally, clusters of FMRFamide-ir neurons were found along the rostro-caudal axis of the brain, from the olfactory placode to rostral regions of the ventro-lateral telencephalon. At 60 h PF, numerous ir fibers appeared in the dorsal telencephalon, optic lobes, optic nerves, and retina. Except for ir fibers in the hypophysis at the age of 72 h PF, and a few ir cells in the nucleus olfacto-retinalis (NOR) at the age of 2 months PF, no major re-organization was noted in subsequent ontogenetic stages. The number of stained NOR neurons increased markedly in sexually mature zebrafish. In adult zebrafish, other ir neurons were located in the dorsal zones of the periventricular hypothalamus and in components of the nervus terminalis. We are inclined to believe that neurons expressing FMRFamide originate in the olfactory placode and in the ventricular ependyma in the hypothalamus. On the same grounds, a dual origin of FMRFamide-ir neurons is inferred in the sturgeon, an ancestral bony fish: prior to the observation of ir cells in the nasal area and in the telencephalon stained neurons were noted in circumventricular hypothalamic regions.

  20. Joint acute and endocrine disruptive toxicities of malathion, cypermethrin and prochloraz to embryo-larval zebrafish, Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dongmei; Wang, Yanhua; Qian, Yongzhong; Chen, Chen; Jiao, Bining; Cai, Leiming; Wang, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    It remains a daunting challenge to determine ecotoxicological risks of exposure to mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in environmental toxicology. In the present study, we investigated acute and endocrine disruptive toxicities of cypermethrin (CPM), malathion (MAL), prochloraz (PRO) and their binary mixtures of MAL + CPM and MAL + PRO to the early life stages of zebrafish. In the acute lethal toxicity test, three pesticides exhibited different levels of toxicity to zebrafish larvae, and the order of toxicity was as follows: CPM > PRO > MAL. The binary mixture of MAL + CPM displayed a synergistic effect on zebrafish larvae after exposure for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. However, binary mixture of MAL + PRO showed an antagonistic effect. To evaluate the estrogenic effect, the expression of genes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis was assessed after zebrafish embryos were exposed to CPM, MAL, PRO and their binary mixtures from blastula stage (1 h post-fertilization, 1 hpf) to 14 dpf (14 d post-fertilization). Our data indicated that the transcription patterns of many key genes (vtg1, vtg2, era, erβ1, erβ2, cyp19a1a and cyp19a1b) were affected in hatched zebrafish after exposure to CPM, MAL and PRO. Moreover, following exposure to binary mixtures of 1000 μg/L MAL +4 μg/L CPM and 1000 μg/L MAL +900 μg/L PRO, the gene expressions were significantly changed compared with the individual pesticides. Our data provided a better understanding of bidirectional interactions of toxic response induced by these pesticides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Abcb4 acts as multixenobiotic transporter and active barrier against chemical uptake in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In mammals, ABCB1 constitutes a cellular “first line of defense” against a wide array of chemicals and drugs conferring cellular multidrug or multixenobiotic resistance (MDR/MXR). We tested the hypothesis that an ABCB1 ortholog serves as protection for the sensitive developmental processes in zebrafish embryos against adverse compounds dissolved in the water. Results Indication for ABCB1-type efflux counteracting the accumulation of chemicals in zebrafish embryos comes from experiments with fluorescent and toxic transporter substrates and inhibitors. With inhibitors present, levels of fluorescent dyes in embryo tissue and sensitivity of embryos to toxic substrates were generally elevated. We verified two predicted sequences from zebrafish, previously annotated as abcb1, by cloning; our synteny analyses, however, identified them as abcb4 and abcb5, respectively. The abcb1 gene is absent in the zebrafish genome and we explored whether instead Abcb4 and/or Abcb5 show toxicant defense properties. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analyses showed the presence of transcripts of both genes throughout the first 48 hours of zebrafish development. Similar to transporter inhibitors, morpholino knock-down of Abcb4 increased accumulation of fluorescent substrates in embryo tissue and sensitivity of embryos toward toxic compounds. In contrast, morpholino knock-down of Abcb5 did not exert this effect. ATPase assays with recombinant protein obtained with the baculovirus expression system confirmed that dye and toxic compounds act as substrates of zebrafish Abcb4 and inhibitors block its function. The compounds tested comprised model substrates of human ABCB1, namely the fluorescent dyes rhodamine B and calcein-am and the toxic compounds vinblastine, vincristine and doxorubicin; cyclosporin A, PSC833, MK571 and verapamil were applied as inhibitors. Additionally, tests were performed with ecotoxicologically relevant compounds: phenanthrene (a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) and galaxolide and tonalide (two polycyclic musks). Conclusions We show that zebrafish Abcb4 is a cellular toxicant transporter and provides protection of embryos against toxic chemicals dissolved in the water. Zebrafish Abcb4 thus is functionally similar to mammalian ABCB1, but differs from mammalian ABCB4, which is not involved in cellular resistance to chemicals but specifically transports phospholipids in the liver. Our data have important implications: Abcb4 could affect bioavailability - and thus toxicologic and pharmacologic potency - of chemicals to zebrafish embryos and inhibition of Abcb4 therefore causes chemosensitization, that is, enhanced sensitivity of embryos to toxicants. These aspects should be considered in (eco)toxicologic and pharmacologic chemical screens with the zebrafish embryo, a major vertebrate model. PMID:23773777

  2. CHANGES IN GENE AND PROTEIN EXPRESSION IN ZEBRAFISH (DANIO RERIO) FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTALLY-RELEVANT ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING COMPOUNDS (EDCS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are increasingly being reported in waterways worldwide and have been shown to affect fish species by disrupting numerous aspects of development, behavior, reproduction, and survival. Furthermore, new data have suggested that the reduced repr...

  3. Compensatory regulation of Na+ absorption by Na+/H+ exchanger and Na+-Cl- cotransporter in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In mammals, internal Na+ homeostasis is maintained through Na+ reabsorption via a variety of Na+ transport proteins with mutually compensating functions, which are expressed in different segments of the nephrons. In zebrafish, Na+ homeostasis is achieved mainly through the skin/gill ionocytes, namely Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE3b)-expressing H+-ATPase rich (HR) cells and Na+-Cl- cotransporter (NCC)-expressing NCC cells, which are functionally homologous to mammalian proximal and distal convoluted tubular cells, respectively. The present study aimed to investigate whether or not the functions of HR and NCC ionocytes are differentially regulated to compensate for disruptions of internal Na+ homeostasis and if the cell differentiation of the ionocytes is involved in this regulation pathway. Results Translational knockdown of ncc caused an increase in HR cell number and a resulting augmentation of Na+ uptake in zebrafish larvae, while NHE3b loss-of-function caused an increase in NCC cell number with a concomitant recovery of Na+ absorption. Environmental acid stress suppressed nhe3b expression in HR cells and decreased Na+ content, which was followed by up-regulation of NCC cells accompanied by recovery of Na+ content. Moreover, knockdown of ncc resulted in a significant decrease of Na+ content in acid-acclimated zebrafish. Conclusions These results provide evidence that HR and NCC cells exhibit functional redundancy in Na+ absorption, similar to the regulatory mechanisms in mammalian kidney, and suggest this functional redundancy is a critical strategy used by zebrafish to survive in a harsh environment that disturbs body fluid Na+ homeostasis. PMID:23924428

  4. Cortisol regulates sodium homeostasis by stimulating the transcription of sodium-chloride transporter (NCC) in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Hao; Hu, Huei-Jyun; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2016-02-15

    In mammals, sodium/hydrogen exchanger (NHE) and sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) are expressed in renal tubules, and exhibit functional redundancy and mutual compensation in Na(+) uptake. In teleosts, the gills of the adult and skin of the embryonic stage function as external kidneys, and ionocytes are responsible for ionoregulation in these tissues. NHE- and NCC-expressing ionocytes mutually cooperate to adjust Na(+) uptake, which is analogous to the activity of the mammalian kidney. Cortisol is a hormone that controls Na(+) uptake through regulating NCC expression and activity in mammals; however, cortisol-mediated control of NCC expression is little understood in non-mammalian vertebrates, such as teleosts. It is essential for our understanding of the evolution of such regulation to determine whether cortisol has a conserved effect on NCC in vertebrates. In the present study, we treated zebrafish embryos with low Na(+) medium (LNa, 0.04 mM Na(+)) for 3 d to stimulate the mRNA expression of nhe3b, ncc, and cyp11b1 (a cortisol-synthesis enzyme) and whole body cortisol level. Exogenous cortisol treatment (20 mg/l, 3 d) resulted in an elevation of whole-body Na(+) content, ncc expression, and the density of ncc-expressing cells in zebrafish larvae. In loss-of-function experiments, microinjection of glucocorticoid receptor (gr) morpholino (MO) suppressed sodium content, ncc expression, and the density of ncc-expressing cells, but injection of mr MO had no such effects. In addition, exogenous cortisol treatment and gr MO injection also altered ncc expression and the density of ncc-expressing cells in gcm2 morphant larvae. Taken together, cortisol and GR appear to regulate Na(+) absorption through stimulating ncc expression and the differentiation of ncc-expressing ionocytes, providing new insights into the actions of cortisol on Na(+) uptake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cobalt-induced genotoxicity in male zebrafish (Danio rerio), with implications for reproduction and expression of DNA repair genes.

    PubMed

    Reinardy, Helena C; Syrett, James R; Jeffree, Ross A; Henry, Theodore B; Jha, Awadhesh N

    2013-01-15

    Although cobalt (Co) is an environmental contaminant of surface waters in both radioactive (e.g. (60)Co) and non-radioactive forms, there is relatively little information about Co toxicity in fishes. The objective of this study was to investigate acute and chronic toxicity of Co in zebrafish, with emphasis on male genotoxicity and implications for reproductive success. The lethal concentration for 50% mortality (LC(50)) in larval zebrafish exposed (96 h) to 0-50 mg l(-1) Co was 35.3 ± 1.1 (95%C.I.) mg l(-1) Co. Adult zebrafish were exposed (13 d) to sub-lethal (0-25 mg l(-1)) Co and allowed to spawn every 4 d and embryos were collected. After 12-d exposure, fertilisation rate was reduced (6% total eggs fertilised, 25 mg l(-1)) and embryo survival to hatching decreased (60% fertilised eggs survived, 25 mg l(-1)). A concentration-dependent increase in DNA strand breaks was detected in sperm from males exposed (13 d) to Co, and DNA damage in sperm returned to control levels after males recovered for 6 d in clean water. Induction of DNA repair genes (rad51, xrcc5, and xrcc6) in testes was complex and not directly related to Co concentration, although there was significant induction in fish exposed to 15 and 25 mg l(-1) Co relative to controls. Induction of 4.0 ± 0.9, 2.5 ± 0.7, and 3.1 ± 0.7-fold change (mean ± S.E.M. for rad51, xrcc5, and xrcc6, respectively) was observed in testes at the highest Co concentration (25 mg l(-1)). Expression of these genes was not altered in offspring (larvae) spawned after 12-d exposure. Chronic exposure to Co resulted in DNA damage in sperm, induction of DNA repair genes in testes, and indications of reduced reproductive success. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cadmium sulfate and CdTe-quantum dots alter DNA repair in zebrafish (Danio rerio) liver cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Song; Cai, Qingsong; Chibli, Hicham; Allagadda, Vinay; Nadeau, Jay L; Mayer, Gregory D

    2013-10-15

    Increasing use of quantum dots (QDs) makes it necessary to evaluate their toxicological impacts on aquatic organisms, since their contamination of surface water is inevitable. This study compares the genotoxic effects of ionic Cd versus CdTe nanocrystals in zebrafish hepatocytes. After 24h of CdSO4 or CdTe QD exposure, zebrafish liver (ZFL) cells showed a decreased number of viable cells, an accumulation of Cd, an increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and an induction of DNA strand breaks. Measured levels of stress defense and DNA repair genes were elevated in both cases. However, removal of bulky DNA adducts by nucleotide excision repair (NER) was inhibited with CdSO4 but not with CdTe QDs. The adverse effects caused by acute exposure of CdTe QDs might be mediated through differing mechanisms than those resulting from ionic cadmium toxicity, and studying the effects of metallic components may be not enough to explain QD toxicities in aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. ALTERATIONS IN THE TRANSCRIPTOME AND PROTEOME OF ZEBRAFISH (DANIO RERIO) EXPOSED TO FADROZOLE, A MODEL AROMATASE INHIBITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fadrozole is a reversible, competitive inhibitor of aromatase activity and therefore an endocrine-disrupting compound (EDC) that disrupts steroidogenesis by inhibiting the conversion of testosterone to 172-estradiol. While fadrozole is a therapeutic drug with generally no enviro...

  8. Dichlorvos Exposure Results in Large Scale Disruption of Energy Metabolism in the Liver of the Zebra Fish, Danio Rerio

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-24

    zebrafish reference genome sequence and its relationship to the human genome . Nature. 2013;496(7446):498–503. 21. Linney E, Upchurch L, Donerly S. Zebrafish...To obtain a broader understanding of the effects of dichlorvos on liver metabolism, we per- formed a genome -wide analysis of gene expression in the ...condition) for whole genome transcript ana- lysis, and fixed another set of fish for histological evaluation (n = 5/condition). We determined the target

  9. Embryological exposure to valproic acid induces social interaction deficits in zebrafish (Danio rerio): A developmental behavior analysis.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Fernanda Francine; Gaspary, Karina Vidarte; Leite, Carlos Eduardo; De Paula Cognato, Giana; Bonan, Carla Denise

    2015-01-01

    Changes in social behavior are associated with brain disorders, including mood disorders, stress, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social interaction, impaired communication, anxiety, hyperactivity, and the presence of restricted interests. Zebrafish is one of the most social vertebrates used as a model in biomedical research, contributing to an understanding of the mechanisms that underlie social behavior. Valproic acid (VPA) is used as an anti-epileptic drug and mood stabilizer; however, prenatal VPA exposure in humans has been associated with an increased incidence of autism and it can also affect fetal brain development. Therefore, we conducted a behavioral screening at different periods of zebrafish development at 6, 30, 70, and 120dpf (days postfertilization) after VPA exposure in the early development stage to investigate social behavior, locomotion, aggression, and anxiety. VPA (48μM) exposure during the first 48hpf (hours postfertilization) did not promote changes on survival, morphology, and hatching rate at 24hpf, 48hpf, and 72hpf. The behavioral patterns suggest that VPA exposure induces changes in locomotor activity and anxiety at different developmental periods in zebrafish. Furthermore, a social interaction deficit is present at 70dpf and 120dpf. VPA exposure did not affect aggression in the adult stage at 70dpf and 120dpf. This is the first study that demonstrated zebrafish exposed to VPA during the first 48h of development exhibit deficits in social interaction, anxiety, and hyperactivity at different developmental periods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A comparison of fate and toxicity of selenite, biogenically, and chemically synthesized selenium nanoparticles to zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mal, Joyabrata; Veneman, Wouter J; Nancharaiah, Y V; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Vijver, Martina G; Lens, Piet N L

    2017-02-01

    Microbial reduction of selenium (Se) oxyanions to elemental Se is a promising technology for bioremediation and treatment of Se wastewaters. But a fraction of biogenic nano-Selenium (nano-Se b ) formed in bioreactors remains suspended in the treated waters, thus entering the aquatic environment. The present study investigated the toxicity of nano-Se b formed by anaerobic granular sludge biofilms on zebrafish embryos in comparison with selenite and chemogenic nano-Se (nano-Se c ). The nano-Se b formed by granular sludge biofilms showed a LC 50 value of 1.77 mg/L, which was 3.2-fold less toxic to zebrafish embryos than selenite (LC 50  =   0.55 mg/L) and 10-fold less toxic than bovine serum albumin stabilized nano-Se c (LC 50  =   0.16 mg/L). Smaller (nano-Se cs ; particle diameter range: 25-80 nm) and larger (nano-Se cl ; particle diameter range: 50-250 nm) sized chemically synthesized nano-Se c particles showed comparable toxicity on zebrafish embryos. The lower toxicity of nano-Se b in comparison with nano-Se c was analyzed in terms of the stabilizing organic layer. The results confirmed that the organic layer extracted from the nano-Se b consisted of components of the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) matrix, which govern the physiochemical stability and surface properties like ζ-potential of nano-Se b . Based on the data, it is contented that the presence of humic acid like substances of EPS on the surface of nano-Se b plays a major role in lowering the bioavailability (uptake) and toxicity of nano-Se b by decreasing the interactions between nanoparticles and embryos.

  11. Formation of a successional dental lamina in the zebrafish (Danio rerio): support for a local control of replacement tooth initiation.

    PubMed

    Huysseune, Ann

    2006-01-01

    In order to test whether the formation of a replacement tooth bud in a continuously replacing dentition is linked to the functional state of the tooth predecessor, I examined the timing of development of replacement teeth with respect to their functional predecessors in the pharyngeal dentition of the zebrafish. Observations based on serial semithin sections of ten specimens, ranging in age from four week old juveniles to adults, indicate that (i) a replacement tooth germ develops at the distal end of an epithelial structure, called the successional dental lamina, budding off from the crypt epithelium surrounding the erupted part of a functional tooth; (ii) there appears to be a developmental link between the eruption of a tooth and the formation of a successional dental lamina and (iii) there can be a time difference between successional lamina formation and initiation of the new tooth germ, i.e., the successional dental lamina can remain quiescent for some time. The data suggest that the formation of a successional lamina and the differentiation of a replacement tooth germ from this lamina, are two distinct phases of a process and possibly under a different control. The strong spatio-temporal coincidence of eruption of a tooth and development of a successional dental lamina is seen as evidence for a local control over tooth replacement.

  12. Associative learning performance is impaired in zebrafish (Danio rerio) by the NMDA-R antagonist MK-801

    PubMed Central

    Sison, Margarette; Gerlai, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The zebrafish is gaining popularity in behavioral neuroscience perhaps because of a promise of efficient large scale mutagenesis and drug screens that could identify a substantial number of yet undiscovered molecular players involved in complex traits. Learning and memory are complex functions of the brain and the analysis of their mechanisms may benefit from such large scale zebrafish screens. One bottleneck in this research is the paucity of appropriate behavioral screening paradigms, which may be due to the relatively uncharacterized nature of the behavior of this species. Here we show that zebrafish exhibit good learning performance in a task adapted from the mammalian literature, a plus maze in which zebrafish are required to associate a neutral visual stimulus with the presence of conspecifics, the rewarding unconditioned stimulus. Furthermore, we show that MK-801, a non-competitive NMDA-R antagonist, impairs memory performance in this maze when administered right after training or just before recall but not when given before training at a dose that does not impair motor function, perception or motivation. These results suggest that the plus maze associative learning paradigm has face and construct validity and that zebrafish may become an appropriate and translationally relevant study species for the analysis of the mechanisms of vertebrate, including mammalian, learning and memory. PMID:21596149

  13. Regulation of gonadal sex ratios and pubertal development by the thyroid endocrine system in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Prakash; Patiño, Reynaldo

    2013-04-01

    We examined associations between thyroid condition, gonadal sex and pubertal development in zebrafish. Seventy-two-hour postfertilization larvae were reared in untreated medium or in the presence of goitrogens (sodium perchlorate, 0.82 mM; methimazole, 0.15 and 0.3 mM) or thyroxine (1 and 10 nM) for 30 days. Thyrocyte height, gonadal sex and gonadal development were histologically determined at 45 and 60 days postfertilization (dpf). Thyrocyte hypertrophy, an index of hypothyroidism, was observed at 45 and 60 dpf in perchlorate-treated but only at 45 dpf in methimazole-treated fish. Similarly, gonadal sex ratios were biased toward ovaries relative to control animals at 45 and 60 dpf in perchlorate-treated fish but only at 45 dpf in methimazole-treated fish. Gonadal sex ratios were biased toward testes at 45 and 60 dpf in thyroxine-treated fish. Spermatogenesis was delayed in testes from goitrogen-treated fish at 60 dpf relative to control values, but was unaffected in testes from thyroxine-treated individuals. Oogenesis seemed to be nonspecifically delayed in all treatments relative to control at 60 dpf. This study confirmed the previously reported association between hypothyroid condition and ovarian-skewed ratios, and hyperthyroid condition and testicular-skewed ratios, and also showed that male pubertal development is specifically delayed by experimental hypothyroidism. The simultaneous recovery from the hypothyroid and ovary-inducing effects of methimazole by 60 dpf (27 days post-treatment) suggests that the ovary-skewing effect of goitrogens is reversible when thyroid conditions return to basal levels before developmental commitment of gonadal sex. Conversely, the masculinizing effect of hyperthyroidism seems to be stable and perhaps permanent. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. The effects of endosulfan on cytochrome P450 enzymes and glutathione S-transferases in zebrafish (Danio rerio) livers.

    PubMed

    Dong, Miao; Zhu, Lusheng; Shao, Bo; Zhu, Shaoyuan; Wang, Jun; Xie, Hui; Wang, Jinhua; Wang, Fenghua

    2013-06-01

    Endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide, has been used worldwide in the past decades. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of endosulfan on liver microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and glutathione S-transferases (GST) in zebrafish. Male and female zebrafish were separated and exposed to a control and four concentrations of endosulfan (0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10μgL(-1)) and were sampled on days 7, 14, 21, and 28. After exposure to endosulfan, the content of CYP increased and later gradually fell back to control level in most sampling time intervals. A similar tendency was also found in the activities of NADPH-P450 reductase (NCR), aminopyrine N-demethylase (APND) and erythromycin N-demethylase (ERND). GST activities were generally higher in treatment groups than control groups. Regarding sex-based differences, the induction degree of the activity of NCR was generally higher in males than females. Similar differences were also found on the 28th day in the activities of APND and ERND, as well as GST activity on the 7th day. Overall, the present results demonstrate the toxicity at low doses of endosulfan and indicated marked induction of CYP and GST enzymes in zebrafish liver. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Zebrafish ("Danio rerio") endomembrane antiporter similar to a yeast cation/H(+) transporter is required for neural crest development

    CAtion/H (+) eXchangers (CAXs) are integral membrane proteins that transport Ca (2+) or other cations by exchange with protons. While several yeast and plant CAX proteins have been characterized, no functional analysis of a vertebrate CAX homologue has yet been reported. In this study, we further ch...

  16. Phototoxicity of TiO2 Nanoparticles to Two Aquatic Species: Daphnia magna and Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryo

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecotoxicological studies on TiO2 nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) are expanding rapidly due to their widespread use in both industrial and consumer products. However, few studies have focused on their potential phototoxicity related to the photocatalytic property of the material. In thi...

  17. Determining synthesis rates of individual proteins in zebrafish (Danio rerio) with low levels of a stable isotope labelled amino acid.

    PubMed

    Geary, Bethany; Magee, Kieran; Cash, Phillip; Young, Iain S; Whitfield, Phillip D; Doherty, Mary K

    2016-05-01

    The zebrafish is a powerful model organism for the analysis of human cardiovascular development and disease. Understanding these processes at the protein level not only requires changes in protein concentration to be determined but also the rate at which these changes occur on a protein-by-protein basis. The ability to measure protein synthesis and degradation rates on a proteome-wide scale, using stable isotope labelling in conjunction with mass spectrometry is now a well-established experimental approach. With the advent of more selective and sensitive mass spectrometers, it is possible to accurately measure lower levels of stable isotope incorporation, even when sample is limited. In order to challenge the sensitivity of this approach, we successfully determined the synthesis rates of over 600 proteins from the cardiac muscle of the zebrafish using a diet where either 30% or 50% of the L-leucine was replaced with a stable isotope labelled analogue ([(2) H7 ]L-leucine]. It was possible to extract sufficient protein from individual zebrafish hearts to determine the incorporation rate of the label into hundreds of proteins simultaneously, with the two labelling regimens showing a good correlation of synthesis rates. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Acute toxicity of dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN), a typical nitrogenous disinfection by-product (N-DBP), on zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Lin, Tao; Zhou, Dongju; Dong, Jian; Jiang, Fuchun; Chen, Wei

    2016-11-01

    Dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN) is a typical nitrogenous disinfection by-product (N-DBP) and its toxicity on aquatic animals is investigated for the first time. The present study was designed to investigate the potential adverse effects of DCAN on zebrafish. DCAN could induce developmental toxicity to zebrafish embryos. A significant decrease in hatchability and an increase in malformation and mortality occurred when DCAN concentration was above 100µg/L. Heart function alteration and neuronal function disturbance occurred at concentration higher than 500 and 100µg/L, respectively. Further, DCAN was easily accumulated in adult zebrafish. The rank order of declining bioconcentration factor (BCF) was liver (1240-1670)> gill (1210-1430)> muscle (644-877). DCAN caused acute metabolism damage to adult zebrafish especially at 8 days exposure, at which time the "Integrated Biomarker Response" (IBR) index value reached 798 at 1mg/L DCAN dose. Acute DNA damage was induced to adult zebrafish by DCAN even at 10µg/L dose. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Behavioral, morphometric, and gene expression effects in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryonically exposed to PFOA, PFOS, and PFNA.

    PubMed

    Jantzen, Carrie E; Annunziato, Kate M; Cooper, Keith R

    2016-11-01

    Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) are a class of persistent anthropogenic chemicals that have been detected worldwide. PFASs consist of fluorinated carbon chains of varying length, terminal groups, and have a number of industrial uses. A previous zebrafish study from our laboratory showed that acute (3-120h post fertilization, 0.02-2.0μM), waterborne embryonic exposure to these chemicals resulted in chemical specific alterations at 5days post fertilization (dpf), and some effects persisted up to 14 dpf. Using a gene battery consisting of 100 transcripts identified several genes that were up or down regulated. This current study looks at the long-term impacts of PFASs in adult zebrafish using the same exposure regimen. It was hypothesized that sub-lethal exposure of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), or perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOA) in embryonic zebrafish (3-120 hpf) would result in permanent morphometric, gene expression, and behavioral changes in adult fish similar to those observed at 5 and 14 dpf. Zebrafish were exposed to PFOS, PFOA, and PFNA (Control 0μM, 2.0μM) for the first five days post fertilization. At six months post fertilization, no PFAS treatment resulted in a significant change in total body length or weight. In terms of behavior, PFNA males showed a reduction in total distance traveled and time of immobility, and an increase in thigmotaxis behavior, aggressive attacks, and preference for the bright section of the tank. PFOS treated males had a reduced aggression behavior, and PFOA females preferred the dark section of the tank. Gene expression of slco2b1, slco1d1, and tgfb1a were analyzed because these transcripts were previously found to be affected by PFAS exposure in 5dpf and 14 dpf zebrafish and resulted in: significant decrease in expression of slco2b1 for both sexes in PFNA and PFOS treated groups, significant decrease of slco1d1 in all treatment groups for females and PFOS and PFOA exposed males, significant increase of tgfb1a in males treated with PFOS and PFNA, and a significant increase of bdnf in all PFAS male groups. This study demonstrates that acute, embryonic exposure (5days) to individual PFASs result in significant biochemical and behavioral changes in young adult zebrafish 6 months after exposure. These three PFASs have long term and persistent impacts following short term embryonic exposure that persists into adulthood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The transcriptional response of skin to fluorescent light exposure in viviparous (Xiphophorus) and oviparous (Danio, Oryzias) fishes.

    PubMed

    Boswell, Mikki; Boswell, William; Lu, Yuan; Savage, Markita; Mazurek, Zachary; Chang, Jordan; Muster, Jeanot; Walter, Ronald

    2018-06-01

    Differences in light sources are common in animal facilities and potentially can impact experimental results. Here, the potential impact of lighting differences on skin transcriptomes has been tested in three aquatic animal models commonly utilized in biomedical research, (Xiphophorus maculatus (platyfish), Oryzias latipes (medaka) and Danio rerio (zebrafish). Analysis of replicate comparative RNA-Seq data showed the transcriptional response to commonly utilized 4100K or "cool white" fluorescent light (FL) is much greater in platyfish and medaka than in zebrafish. FL induces genes associated with inflammatory and immune responses in both medaka and zebrafish; however, the platyfish exhibit suppression of genes involved with immune/inflammation, as well as genes associated with cell cycle progression. Furthermore, comparative analyses of gene expression data from platyfish UVB exposures, with medaka and zebrafish after exposure to 4100K FL, show comparable effects on the same stress pathways. We suggest the response to light is conserved, but that long-term adaptation to species specific environmental niches has resulted in a shifting of the wavelengths required to incite similar "genetic" responses in skin. We forward the hypothesis that the "genetic perception" of light may have evolved differently than ocular perception and suggest that light type (i.e., wavelengths emitted) is an important parameter to consider in experimental design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Description of Danio absconditus, new species, and redescription of Danio feegradei (Teleostei: Cyprinidae), from the Rakhine Yoma hotspot in south-western Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Kullander, Sven O; Britz, Ralf

    2015-04-21

    Danio feegradei Hora is redescribed based on recently collected specimens from small coastal streams on the western slope of the Rakhine Yoma, ranging from the Thade River drainage southward to slightly north of Kyeintali. Danio absconditus, new species, is described from the Kyeintali Chaung and small coastal streams near Gwa, south of the range of D. feegradei. Both species are distinguished from other Danio by the presence of a dark, elongate or round spot at the base of the caudal fin and a cleithral marking composed of a small black spot margined by a much smaller orange spot. Danio feegradei is characterized by the colour pattern, with series of white spots along the otherwise dark side; D. absconditus by about 7--11 dark vertical bars on the abdominal side. Within Danio, the presence of a complete lateral line, cleithral spot, and 14 circumpeduncular scales is shared with D. dangila and similar species, but these character states may be plesiomorphic as suggested by the shared presence of cleithral spot and complete lateral line in Devario and Betadevario. In other Danio the cleithral spot is absent, the lateral line is short or absent, and the circumpeduncular scale count is lower (10-12). Twenty teleost species are reported from streams on the western slope of the Rakhine Yoma, all probably endemic. The parapatric distribution of D. absconditus and D. feegradei is unique within the genus, and may be partly explained by changes in eustatic sea levels.

  2. Genes encoding giant danio and golden shiner ependymin.

    PubMed

    Adams, D S; Kiyokawa, M; Getman, M E; Shashoua, V E

    1996-03-01

    Ependymin (EPN) is a brain glycoprotein that functions as a neurotrophic factor in optic nerve regeneration and long-term memory consolidation in goldfish. To date, true epn genes have been characterized in one order of teleost fish, Cypriniformes. In the study presented here, polymerase chain reactions were used to analyze the complete epn genes, gd (1480 bp), and sh (2071 bp), from Cypriniformes giant danio and shiner, respectively. Southern hybridizations demonstrated the existence of one copy of each gene per corresponding haploid genome. Each gene was found to contain six exons and five introns. Gene gd encodes a predicted 218-amino acid (aa) protein GD 93 percent conserved to goldfish EPN, while sh encodes a predicted 214-aa protein SH 91 percent homologous to goldfish. Evidence is presented classifying proteins previously termed "EPNs" into two major categories: true EPNs and non-EPN cerebrospinal fluid glycoproteins. Proteins GD and SH contain all the hallmark, features of true EPNs.

  3. APPLICATION OF ORGANIC IODINE SPECIES ANALYTICS: DETERMINING THYROID HORMONE STATUS IN ADULT DANIO RERIO AND DEVELOPING XENOPUS LAEVIS USING LC/ICP-MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disruption of normal thyroid function by xenobiotic chemicals is an important ecological issue. Theoretically, normal thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis and action can be disrupted at several sites in the synthetic and elimination pathways. Indeed, xenobiotic chemicals, which are k...

  4. Is the fish embryo toxicity test (FET) with the zebrafish (Danio rerio) a potential alternative for the fish acute toxicity test?

    PubMed

    Lammer, E; Carr, G J; Wendler, K; Rawlings, J M; Belanger, S E; Braunbeck, Th

    2009-03-01

    The fish acute toxicity test is a mandatory component in the base set of data requirements for ecotoxicity testing. The fish acute toxicity test is not compatible with most current animal welfare legislation because mortality is the primary endpoint and it is often hypothesized that fish suffer distress and perhaps pain. Animal alternative considerations have also been incorporated into new European REACH regulations through strong advocacy for the reduction of testing with live animals. One of the most promising alternative approaches to classical acute fish toxicity testing with live fish is the fish embryo toxicity (FET) test. The FET has been a mandatory component in routine whole effluent testing in Germany since 2005 and has already been standardized at the international level. In order to analyze the applicability of the FET also in chemical testing, a comparative re-evaluation of both fish and fish embryo toxicity data was carried out for a total of 143 substances, and statistical approaches were developed to evaluate the correlation between fish and fish embryo toxicity data. Results confirm that fish embryo tests are neither better nor worse than acute fish toxicity tests and provide strong scientific support for the FET as a surrogate for the acute fish toxicity test.

  5. Waterborne fluoride exposure changed the structure and the expressions of steroidogenic-related genes in gonads of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Li, MeiYan; Cao, Jinling; Chen, Jianjie; Song, Jie; Zhou, Bingrui; Feng, Cuiping; Wang, Jundong

    2016-02-01

    Excessive fluoride in natural water ecosystem has been demonstrated to have adverse effects on reproductive system in humans and mammals, while the most vulnerable aquatic organisms were ignored. In this study, the effects of waterborne fluoride on growth performance, sex steroid hormone, histological structure, and the transcriptional profiles of sex steroid related genes were examined in both female and male zebrafish exposed to different concentrations of 0.79, 18.60, 36.83 mg L(-1) of fluoride for 30 and 60 d to investigate the effects of fluoride on reproductive system and the underlying toxic mechanisms caused by fluoride. The results showed that the body weight was remarkably decreased, the structure of ovary and testis were serious injured, and the T and E2 levels were significantly reduced in male zebrafish. The transcriptional profiles of steroidogenic related genes displayed phenomenal alterations, the expressions of pgr and cyp19a1a were significantly up-regulated, while the transcriptional levels of er, ar and hsd3β were decreased both in the ovary and testis, and hsd17β8 were down-regulated just in males. Taken together, these results demonstrated that fluoride could significantly inhibit the growth of zebrafish, and notably affect the reproductive system in both sex zebrafish by impairing the structure of ovary and testis, altering steroid hormone levels and steroidogenic genes expression related to the synthesis of sex hormones in zebrafish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) acts as a neurotrophin in the developing inner ear of the zebrafish, Danio rerio

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yu-chi; Thompson, Deborah L.; Kuah, Meng-Kiat; Wong, Kah-Loon; Wu, Karen L.; Linn, Stephanie A.; Jewett, Ethan M.; Shu-Chien, Alexander Chong; Barald, Kate F.

    2012-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) plays versatile roles in the immune system. MIF is also widely expressed during embryonic development, particularly in the nervous system, although its roles in neural development are only beginning to be understood. Evidence from frogs, mice and zebrafish suggests that MIF has a major role as a neurotrophin in the early development of sensory systems, including the auditory system. Here we show that the zebrafish mif pathway is required for both sensory hair cell (HC) and sensory neuronal cell survival in the ear, for HC differentiation, semicircular canal formation, statoacoustic ganglion (SAG) development, and lateral line HC differentiation. This is consistent with our findings that MIF is expressed in the developing mammalian and avian auditory systems and promotes mouse and chick SAG neurite outgrowth and neuronal survival, demonstrating key instructional roles for MIF in vertebrate otic development. PMID:22210003

  7. Effects of combined exposure to 17α-ethynylestradiol and dibutyl phthalate on the growth and reproduction of adult male zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Xu, Nan; Chen, Pengyu; Liu, Lei; Zeng, Yaqiong; Zhou, Haixia; Li, Song

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the combined effects of 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) on the growth and reproduction of male zebrafish, three-month-old fish were exposed to 0.005 or 0.020µg/L EE2, 100 or 500µg/L DBP or their binary mixtures under semi-static conditions. Investigated parameters include the length, weight, condition factor, vitellogenin (VTG) induction, acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) protein level, histopathological alteration of testis, liver and gill, and reproductive capacity. After 21d exposure, no statistical difference was found among the weights, lengths and condition factors of different treatment groups. In all binary mixture groups, decreased VTG levels were detected compared to EE2-only groups; and the AOX levels were significantly lower than DBP-only treatments while both chemicals can individually induce AOX synthesis. Therefore, EE2 and DBP may act additively on VTG and antagonistically on AOX induction in males. After 45d exposure, delayed gametogenesis was observed for the DBP-only groups, indicated by fewer spermatozoa and more spermatocytes, which was further aggravated with the addition of EE2. The developmental delay of testis partially recovered after a 30d depuration in clean water. Combined exposure also caused liver and gill lesions, which were not alleviated during the 30d depuration, suggesting a nonreversible harmful effect the same as single exposure. Mixed EE2 and DBP were observed to impair the reproductive capability (the fecundity and fertilization rate) of males, while single exposure did not. Co-exposed to 0.020µg/L EE2 and 100µg/L DBP promoted the early hatching of offspring (F1 generation) at 48h post-fertilization (hpf), but the survival rates of the F1 generation were similar in all treatments. Our findings indicate that the effects of mixed EE2 and DBP at environmentally relevant levels can be either antagonistic or additive relying on the specific toxicological endpoints and the respective doses of each chemical. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparative effects of cadmium, zinc, arsenic and chromium on olfactory-mediated neurobehavior and gene expression in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Heffern, Kevin; Tierney, Keith; Gallagher, Evan P

    2018-05-28

    Studies have shown that olfactory-mediated behaviors that are critical to survival can be disrupted by exposure to certain metals. Polluted waterways often contain elevated levels of metals, yet only a subset have been characterized for their potential to cause olfactory toxicity. A larval zebrafish behavioral assay was developed to characterize concentration-response curves for zinc (Zn), hexavalent chromium (Cr), and arsenate (As) olfaction inhibition. Cadmium (Cd), an established olfactory toxicant, was used as a positive control. As expected, following a 24-hour exposure to Cd, we observed a reduced response to taurocholic acid (TCA), a substrate for ciliated olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), thus validating the behavioral assay. Zn exposure similarly decreased the olfactory response toward TCA, (IC 50 : 36 μg/L and 76 μg/L, for Cd and Zn, respectively). The response towards a secondary odorant L-cysteine (Cys), a substrate for ciliated and microvillous OSNs, was significantly altered by both Cd and Zn exposure, although the response to Cys was not completely removed in Zn treated larvae, suggesting preferential toxicity towards ciliated OSNs. No significant changes in olfactory responses were observed following Cr and As exposures. Exposures to binary mixtures of Cd and Zn indicated that Zn had a protective effect against Cd toxicity at low Zn concentrations. QuantiGene (QDP) RNA analysis revealed Cd to be a potent inducer of metallothionein 2 (mt2) mRNA in zebrafish larvae, and Zn to be a weak mt2 inducer, suggesting a protective role of mt2 in Cd and Zn olfactory injury. By contrast, QDP analysis of eight other genes important in mitigating the effects of oxidative stress suggested an antioxidant response to Cd, but not Zn, As, and Cr suggesting that oxidative stress was not a primary mechanism of Zn-induced olfactory dysfunction. In summary, our study indicates that Zn inhibits zebrafish olfaction at environmental concentrations and may potentially mitigate Cd induced olfactory dysfunction when present in mixtures. The zebrafish behavioral trough assay incorporating the odorants L-cysteine and TCA is an effective assay to assess the effects of metals on olfactory function. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of Nanosilver Exposure on Cholinesterase Activities, CD41, and CDF/LIF-Like Expression in ZebraFish (Danio rerio) Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Myrzakhanova, Marzhan; Gambardella, Chiara; Falugi, Carla; Gatti, Antonietta M.; Tagliafierro, Grazia; Diaspro, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Metal nanosolicoparticles are suspected to cause diseases in a number of organisms, including man. In this paper, we report the effects of nanosilver (Ag, 1–20 nm particles) on the early development of the zebrafish, a well-established vertebrate model. Embryos at the midgastrula stage were exposed to concentrations ranging from 100 to 0.001 mg/L to verify the effects on different endpoints: lethality, morphology, expression of cholinergic molecules, and development of the immune system. (1) Relative risk of mortality was exponential in the range between 0.001 and 10 mg/L. Exposure to 100 mg/L caused 100% death of embryos before reaching the tail-bud stage. (2) Developmental anomalies were present in the 72 h larvae obtained from embryos exposed to nanosilver: whole body length, decreased eye dimension, and slow response to solicitation by gentle touch with a needle tip, with a significant threshold at 0.1 mg/L. (3) Dose-dependent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity was significant among the exposures, except between 1 mg/L and 10 mg/L. (4) The distribution of CD41+ cells and of CDF/LIF-like immunoreactivity was altered according to the Ag concentration. The possible effect of nanosilver in impairing immune system differentiation through the inhibition of molecules related to the cholinergic system is discussed. PMID:23991412

  10. Intraperitoneal Exposure to Nano/Microparticles of Fullerene (C60) Increases Acetylcholinesterase Activity and Lipid Peroxidation in Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Brain

    PubMed Central

    Dal Forno, Gonzalo Ogliari; Kist, Luiza Wilges; de Azevedo, Mariana Barbieri; Fritsch, Rachel Seemann; Pereira, Talita Carneiro Brandão; Britto, Roberta Socoowski; Guterres, Sílvia Stanisçuaski; Külkamp-Guerreiro, Irene Clemes; Bonan, Carla Denise; Monserrat, José María; Bogo, Maurício Reis

    2013-01-01

    Even though technologies involving nano/microparticles have great potential, it is crucial to determine possible toxicity of these technological products before extensive use. Fullerenes C60 are nanomaterials with unique physicochemical and biological properties that are important for the development of many technological applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the consequences of nonphotoexcited fullerene C60 exposure in brain acetylcholinesterase expression and activity, antioxidant responses, and oxidative damage using adult zebrafish as an animal model. None of the doses tested (7.5, 15, and 30 mg/kg) altered AChE activity, antioxidant responses, and oxidative damage when zebrafish were exposed to nonphotoexcited C60 nano/microparticles during 6 and 12 hours. However, adult zebrafish exposed to the 30 mg/kg dose for 24 hours have shown enhanced AChE activity and augmented lipid peroxidation (TBARS assays) in brain. In addition, the up-regulation of brain AChE activity was neither related to the transcriptional control (RT-qPCR analysis) nor to the direct action of nonphotoexcited C60 nano/microparticles on the protein (in vitro results) but probably involved a posttranscriptional or posttranslational modulation of this enzymatic activity. Taken together these findings provided further evidence of toxic effects on brain after C60 exposure. PMID:23865059

  11. Developmental exposure of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to 17α-ethinylestradiol affects non-reproductive behavior and fertility as adults, and increases anxiety in unexposed progeny.

    PubMed

    Volkova, Kristina; Reyhanian Caspillo, Nasim; Porseryd, Tove; Hallgren, Stefan; Dinnétz, Patrik; Porsch-Hällström, Inger

    2015-07-01

    Exposure to estrogenic endocrine disruptors (EDCs) during development affects fertility, reproductive and non-reproductive behavior in mammals and fish. These effects can also be transferred to coming generations. In fish, the effects of developmental EDC exposure on non-reproductive behavior are less well studied. Here, we analyze the effects of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) on anxiety, shoaling behavior and fertility in zebrafish after developmental treatment and remediation in clean water until adulthood. Zebrafish embryos were exposed from day 1 to day 80 post fertilization to actual concentrations of 1.2 and 1.6ng/L EE2. After remediation for 82days non-reproductive behavior and fertilization success were analyzed in both sexes. Males and females from the 1.2ng/L group, as well as control males and females, were bred, and behavior of the untreated F1 offspring was tested as adults. Developmental treatment with 1.2 and 1.6ng/L EE2 significantly increased anxiety in the novel tank test and increased shoaling intensity in both sexes. Fertilization success was significantly reduced by EE2 in both sexes when mated with untreated fish of opposite sex. Progeny of fish treated with 1.2ng/L EE2 showed increased anxiety in the novel tank test and increased light avoidance in the scototaxis test compared to control offspring. In conclusion, developmental exposure of zebrafish to low doses of EE2 resulted in persistent changes in behavior and fertility. The behavior of unexposed progeny was affected by their parents' exposure, which might suggest transgenerational effects. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Developmental Toxicity of the Organic Fraction from Hydraulic Fracturing Flowback and Produced Waters to Early Life Stages of Zebrafish ( Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    He, Yuhe; Sun, Chenxing; Zhang, Yifeng; Folkerts, Erik J; Martin, Jonathan W; Goss, Greg G

    2018-03-20

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF) has emerged as a major recovery method of unconventional oil and gas reservoirs and concerns have been raised regarding the environmental impact of releases of Flowback and Produced Water (FPW) to aquatic ecosystems. To investigate potential effects of HF-FPW on fish embryo development, HF-FPW samples were collected from two different wells and the organic fractions were isolated from both aqueous and particle phases to eliminate the confounding effects of high salinity. Each organic extract was characterized by non-target analysis with HPLC-Orbitrap-MS, with targeted analysis for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons provided as markers of petroleum-affected water. The organic profiles differed between samples, including PAHs and alkyl PAHs, and major substances identified by non-target analysis included polyethylene glycols, alkyl ethoxylates, octylphenol ethoxylates, and other high molecular weight (C 49-79 ) ethylene oxide polymeric material. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to various concentrations of FPW organic extracts to investigate acute (7-day) and developmental toxicity in early life stages. The acute toxicity (LD 50 ) of the extracted FPW fractions ranged from 2.8× to 26× the original organic content. Each extracted FPW fraction significantly increased spinal malformation, pericardial edema, and delayed hatch in exposed embryos and altered the expression of a suite of target genes related to biotransformation, oxidative stress, and endocrine-mediation in developing zebrafish embryos. These results provide novel information on the variation of organic profiles and developmental toxicity among different sources and fractions of HF-FPWs.

  13. Early exposure to caffeine affects gene expression of adenosine receptors, DARPP-32 and BDNF without affecting sensibility and morphology of developing zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Capiotti, Katiucia Marques; Menezes, Fabiano Peres; Nazario, Luiza Reali; Pohlmann, Julhana Bianchini; de Oliveira, Giovanna M T; Fazenda, Lidiane; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Bonan, Carla Denise; Da Silva, Rosane Souza

    2011-01-01

    Adenosine receptors are the most important biochemical targets of caffeine, a common trimethylxanthine found in food and beverages. Adenosine plays modulatory action during the development through adenosine receptors and their intracellular pathways activation. In this study, we aimed to evaluate if caffeine gave to zebrafish in the very first steps of development is able to affect its direct targets, through the adenosine receptors mRNA expression evaluation, and latter indirect targets, through evaluation of the pattern of dopamine and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression. Here, we demonstrate that zebrafish express adenosine receptor subtypes (A1, A2A1, A2A2 and A2B) since 24h post-fertilization (hpf) and that caffeine exposure is able to affect the expression of these receptors. Caffeine exposure from 1 hpf is able to increase A1 expression at 72-96 hpf and A2A1 expression at 72 hpf. No alterations occurred in A2A2 and A2B expression after caffeine treatment. DARPP-32, a phosphoprotein involved in adenosine intracellular pathway is also expressed since 24 hpf and early exposure to caffeine increased DARPP-32 expression at 168 hpf. We also evaluate the expression of BDNF as one of the targets of adenosine intracellular pathway activation. BDNF was also expressed since 24 hpf and caffeine treatment increased its expression at 48 and 72 hpf. No morphological alterations induced by caffeine treatment were registered by the check of general body features and total body length. Assessment of tactile sensibility also demonstrated no alterations by caffeine treatment. Altogether, these results suggest that caffeine is able to affect expression of its cellular targets since early phases of development in zebrafish without affect visible features. The up-regulation of direct and indirect targets of caffeine presents as a compensatory mechanism of maintenance of adenosinergic modulation during the developmental phase. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The UV-absorber benzophenone-4 alters transcripts of genes involved in hormonal pathways in zebrafish (Danio rerio) eleuthero-embryos and adult males

    SciT

    Zucchi, Sara; Bluethgen, Nancy; University of Basel, Division of Molecular and Systems Toxicology, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Klingelbergstrasse 50, CH-4056 Basel

    Benzophenone-4 (BP-4) is frequently used as UV-absorber in cosmetics and materials protection. Despite its frequent detection in the aquatic environment potential effects on aquatic life are unknown. In this study, we evaluate the effects of BP-4 in eleuthero-embryos and in the liver, testis and brain of adult male fish on the transcriptional level by focusing on target genes involved in hormonal pathways to provide a more complete toxicological profile of this important UV-absorber. Eleuthero-embryos and males of zebrafish were exposed up to 3 days after hatching and for 14 days, respectively, to BP-4 concentrations between 30 and 3000 {mu}g/L. Inmore » eleuthero-embryos transcripts of vtg1, vtg3, esr1, esr2b, hsd17ss3, cyp19b cyp19a, hhex and pax8 were induced at 3000 {mu}g/L BP-4, which points to a low estrogenic activity and interference with early thyroid development, respectively. In adult males BP-4 displayed multiple effects on gene expression in different tissues. In the liver vtg1, vtg3, esr1 and esr2b were down-regulated, while in the brain, vtg1, vtg3 and cyp19b transcripts were up-regulated. In conclusion, the transcription profile revealed that BP-4 interferes with the expression of genes involved in hormonal pathways and steroidogenesis. The effects of BP-4 differ in life stages and adult tissues and point to an estrogenic activity in eleuthero-embryos and adult brain, and an antiestrogenic activity in the liver. The results indicate that BP-4 interferes with the sex hormone system of fish, which is important for the risk assessment of this UV-absorber.« less

  15. Effects of fasting and refeeding on the digestive tract of zebrafish (Danio rerio) fed with Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis), a high protein feed source.

    PubMed

    Lo Cascio, Patrizia; Calabrò, Concetta; Bertuccio, Clara; Paterniti, Irene; Palombieri, Deborah; Calò, Margherita; Albergamo, Ambrogina; Salvo, Andrea; Gabriella Denaro, Maria

    2017-07-01

    In the present work, morphological and molecular effects of short-term feed deprivation and refeeding with Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) on zebrafish digestive tract were determined. Once elucidated the proximate composition of Spirulina feed, immunohistochemical and western blot analyses of peptide transporter (PepT1) and cholecystokinin (CCK8) were carried out in the gastrointestinal tract of zebrafish, previously morphologically investigated. Two and five fasting days caused not only morphostructural alterations, but also the downregulation of PepT1 and CCK8 proteins. Conversely, the recovery of normal morphological conditions, along with an increased PepT1 and CCK8 expression, were observed after refeeding with Spirulina. The increase of PepT1 expression in zebrafish may be responsible for the enhanced CCK8 secretion, so that both proteins may contribute to an improved digestion process during refeeding. These observations could be supported not only by compensatory mechanisms induced by fasting and refeeding but also by an higher protein quality of Spirulina-based diet.

  16. Chiral PCB 91 and 149 Toxicity Testing in Embryo and Larvae (Danio rerio): Application of Targeted Metabolomics via UPLC-MS/MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Tingting; Cui, Feng; Yin, Zhiqiang; Yang, Yang; Qiu, Jing; Wang, Chengju

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the dysfunction of zebrafish embryos and larvae induced by rac-/(+)-/(-)- PCB91 and rac-/(-)-/(+)- PCB149. UPLC-MS/MS (Ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry) was employed to perform targeted metabolomics analysis, including the quantification of 22 amino acids and the semi-quantitation of 22 other metabolites. Stereoselective changes in target metabolites were observed in embryos and larvae after exposure to chiral PCB91 and PCB149, respectively. In addition, statistical analyses, including PCA and PLS-DA, combined with targeted metabolomics were conducted to identify the characteristic metabolites and the affected pathways. Most of the unique metabolites in embryos and larvae after PCB91/149 exposure were amino acids, and the affected pathways for zebrafish in the developmental stage were metabolic pathways. The stereoselective effects of PCB91/149 on the metabolic pathways of zebrafish embryos and larvae suggest that chiral PCB91/149 exposure has stereoselective toxicity on the developmental stages of zebrafish.

  17. The immediate and the delayed effects of buspirone on zebrafish (Danio rerio) in an open field test: a 3-D approach.

    PubMed

    Maaswinkel, Hans; Zhu, Liqun; Weng, Wei

    2012-10-01

    Behavioral changes in zebrafish induced by acute administration of buspirone have been interpreted to be the result of reduced anxiety. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether the effects of short-term and mid-term habituation to an open field corroborated the anxiolytic hypothesis. We exposed single zebrafish for 60 min to 5 mgL buspirone and tested them twice, immediately after exposure and again 3.5 h later. Each session lasted 20 min. Distance from bottom of tank, velocity, duration freezing, distance from center and horizontal distribution, and preferred spatial location were analyzed with a 3-D tracking system. In the early session (starting at 10:30), 20 min habituation of control zebrafish only marginally increased distance from bottom, which was still 90% higher in zebrafish treated with buspirone. When extending the habituation to 3.5 h, the picture became more complex. Distance from bottom did not further increase in control zebrafish. More importantly, some signs of increased anxiety were present in the buspirone group, such as increased freezing, reduced velocity, and increased bottom-dwelling. However, analyzing data of individual fish excluded rebound anxiety as unlikely. The delayed effects might be drug side effects, such as motor impairment and/or dizziness. The immediate and the delayed effects of buspirone have the appearance to be unrelated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of the wood extractive betulinol and 17beta-oestradiol on reproduction in zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton)--complications due to a bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Christianson-Heiska, I; Wahteristo, P; Kastilan, E-L; Bergelin, E; Bylund, G; Isomaa, B

    2004-05-01

    Zebrafish were exposed to the wood extractive betulinol (5 microg L(-1)) and to 17beta-oestradiol (E2, 0.27 microg L(-1)) for 8 weeks in an attempt to study the possible endocrine-disrupting activity of betulinol. Females exposed to betulinol showed increased spawning intensity, while males exposed to betulinol and E2 had increased incidences of structural alterations in the testes. However, histological examination of the fish revealed that they were infected by acid-fast bacteria suspected to be Mycobacterium sp. despite a careful examination of their health state prior to the onset of the experiment. Fish exposed to betulinol and E2 showed more serious consequences of the bacterial infection than control fish indicating that the test chemicals had weakened the immune defence of the fish. When the exposure was repeated with healthy fish, an increase in the proportion of spermatogonia was seen in the testes of betulinol-treated males. A similar alteration, although not statistically significant, was also seen in the first experiment. However, no increase in the incidences of structural alterations in the testes was seen in betulinol- and E2-treated fish in the second experiment. Our study indicates that betulinol might have an endocrine-disrupting effect in zebrafish, but the increase in incidences of structural alterations in the testes might have been caused by a synergistic action between the test compounds and the bacterial infection. Our study stresses the importance of carefully checking the health of experimental fish, not only prior to the onset of an experiment but also upon termination of the experiment, in order to avoid misinterpretation of the results.

  19. Long-Chain Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) Affect the Bioconcentration and Tissue Distribution of Short-Chain PFAAs in Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Wen, Wu; Xia, Xinghui; Hu, Diexuan; Zhou, Dong; Wang, Haotian; Zhai, Yawei; Lin, Hui

    2017-11-07

    Short- and long-chain perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), ubiquitously coexisting in the environment, can be accumulated in organisms by binding with proteins and their binding affinities generally increase with their chain length. Therefore, we hypothesized that long-chain PFAAs will affect the bioconcentration of short-chain PFAAs in organisms. To testify this hypothesis, the bioconcentration and tissue distribution of five short-chain PFAAs (linear C-F = 3-6) were investigated in zebrafish in the absence and presence of six long-chain PFAAs (linear C-F = 7-11). The results showed that the concentrations of the short-chain PFAAs in zebrafish tissues increased with exposure time until steady states reached in the absence of long-chain PFAAs. However, in the presence of long-chain PFAAs, these short-chain PFAAs in tissues increased until peak values reached and then decreased until steady states, and the uptake and elimination rate constants of short-chain PFAAs declined in all tissues and their BCF ss decreased by 24-89%. The inhibitive effect of long-chain PFAAs may be attributed to their competition for transporters and binding sites of proteins in zebrafish with short-chain PFAAs. These results suggest that the effect of long-chain PFAAs on the bioconcentration of short-chain PFAAs should be taken into account in assessing the ecological and environmental effects of short-chain PFAAs.

  20. Removal of the precursors of N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), an emerging disinfection byproduct, in drinking water treatment process and its toxicity to adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jian; Lin, Tao; Chen, Wei

    2018-01-01

    N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) is one of the emerging nitrogenous disinfection byproducts with probable cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenesis. Its potential toxicological effects have received extensive attention but remain to be poorly understood. In this study, changes in NDEA precursors in drinking water treatment process were studied using the trial of its formation potential (FP), and the toxicity induced by NDEA to adult zebrafish was investigated. NDEA FP in the raw water of Taihu Lake ranged from 46.9 to 68.3 ng/L. The NDEA precursors were removed effectively by O 3 /BAC process. Hydrophilic fraction and low-molecular-weight fraction (<1 kDa) had the highest NDEA FP. The toxicity results demonstrated that the acute lethal concentration of NDEA causing 50% mortality in 96 h (96-h LC50) was 210.4 mg/L, and NDEA was more likely to be accumulated in kidney, followed by liver and gill. NDEA induced oxidative stress and antioxidant defense to zebrafish metabolism system at concentrations over 5 μg/L. After a 42-day exposure, a significant DNA damage was observed in zebrafish liver cells at NDEA concentrations beyond 500 μg/L. This study investigated NDEA properties in both engineering prospective and toxicity evaluation, thus providing comprehensive information on its control in drinking water treatment process and its toxicity effect on zebrafish as a model animal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. USING 1H-NMR METABOLOMICS TO CHARACTERIZE ALTERED METABOLIC PROFILES IN ZEBRAFISH (DANIO RERIO) EXPOSED TO THE MODEL EDCS 17 ALPHA-ETHINYLESTRADIOL (EE2) AND FADROZOLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elevated levels of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have been reported in waterways worldwide and have been shown to affect numerous aspects of development, behavior, reproduction, and survival in various fish species. We have examined the effects of the synthetic steroid 17...

  2. Evaluation of the estrogenic and oxidative stress effects of the UV filter 3-benzophenone in zebrafish (Danio rerio) eleuthero-embryos.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Fuentes, Gabriela; Sandoval-Gío, Juan J; Arroyo-Silva, Anita; Noreña-Barroso, Elsa; Escalante-Herrera, Karla S; Olvera-Espinosa, Francisco

    2015-05-01

    Personal care products have been detected in superficial waters, representing an environmental risk to the biota. Some studies indicated that 3-benzophenone (3BP) alters hormones, inducing vitellogenesis and having adverse effects on fish reproduction. Other studies have reported generation of free radicals and changes in antioxidant enzymes. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to test acute exposure to 3BP at concentrations within and beyond that found environmentally to provide important toxicological information regarding this chemical. We evaluated the effect of 3BP on vitellogenin 1 (VTG1) gene expression and the transcription of the enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) or glutathione peroxidase (GPx), which are involved in cellular redox balance. Zebrafish eluthero-embryos (168hpf) were exposed to 1,10, 100, 1000µg/L 3BP, in addition to a negative control and a 0.1% ethanol control for 48h. The results of our study indicated a positive significant correlation between exposure concentrations and VTG1 expression (r=0.986, p=0.0028) but only 1000µg/L 3BP produced a significant increase from control. Acute exposure showed no significant differences in transcription levels of CAT, SOD or GPx at the tested conditions. Nevertheless, a trend toward increase in GPx expression was observed as a positive significant correlation (r=0.928, p=0.017) was noted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Novel liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method shows that vitamin E deficiency depletes arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos.

    PubMed

    Lebold, Katie M; Kirkwood, Jay S; Taylor, Alan W; Choi, Jaewoo; Barton, Carrie L; Miller, Galen W; La Du, Jane; Jump, Donald B; Stevens, Jan Frederik; Tanguay, Robert L; Traber, Maret G

    2013-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that embryogenesis depends upon α-tocopherol (E) to protect embryo polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) from lipid peroxidation, new methodologies were applied to measure α-tocopherol and fatty acids in extracts from saponified zebrafish embryos. A solid phase extraction method was developed to separate the analyte classes, using a mixed mode cartridge (reverse phase, π-π bonding, strong anion exchange), then α-tocopherol and cholesterol were measured using standard techniques, while the fatty acids were quantitated using a novel, reverse phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) approach. We also determined if α-tocopherol status alters embryonic lipid peroxidation products by analyzing 24 different oxidized products of arachidonic or docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids in embryos using LC with hybrid quadrupole-time of flight MS. Adult zebrafish were fed E- or E+ diets for 4 months, and then were spawned to obtain E- and E+ embryos. Between 24 and 72 hours post-fertilization (hpf), arachidonic acid decreased 3-times faster in E- (21 pg/h) compared with E+ embryos (7 pg/h, P<0.0001), while both α-tocopherol and DHA concentrations decreased only in E- embryos. At 36 hpf, E- embryos contained double the 5-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acids and 7-hydroxy-DHA concentrations, while other hydroxy-lipids remained unchanged. Vitamin E deficiency during embryogenesis depleted DHA and arachidonic acid, and increased hydroxy-fatty acids derived from these PUFA, suggesting that α-tocopherol is necessary to protect these critical fatty acids.

  4. Early-life perturbations in glucocorticoid activity impacts on the structure, function and molecular composition of the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) heart.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K S; Baily, J; Tucker, C S; Matrone, G; Vass, S; Moran, C; Chapman, K E; Mullins, J J; Kenyon, C; Hadoke, P W F; Denvir, M A

    2015-10-15

    Transient early-life perturbations in glucocorticoids (GC) are linked with cardiovascular disease risk in later life. Here the impact of early life manipulations of GC on adult heart structure, function and gene expression were assessed. Zebrafish embryos were incubated in dexamethasone (Dex) or injected with targeted glucocorticoid receptor (GR) morpholino knockdown (GR Mo) over the first 120 h post fertilisation (hpf); surviving embryos (>90%) were maintained until adulthood under normal conditions. Cardiac function, heart histology and cardiac genes were assessed in embryonic (120 hpf) and adult (120 days post fertilisation (dpf)) hearts. GR Mo embryos (120 hpf) had smaller hearts with fewer cardiomyocytes, less mature striation pattern, reduced cardiac function and reduced levels of vmhc and igf mRNA compared with controls. GR Mo adult hearts were smaller with diminished trabecular network pattern, reduced expression of vmhc and altered echocardiographic Doppler flow compared to controls. Dex embryos had larger hearts at 120 hpf (Dex 107.2 ± 3.1 vs. controls 90.2 ± 1.1 μm, p < 0.001) with a more mature trabecular network and larger cardiomyocytes (1.62 ± 0.13 cells/μm vs control 2.18 ± 0.13 cells/μm, p < 0.05) and enhanced cardiac performance compared to controls. Adult hearts were larger (1.02 ± 0.07 μg/mg vs controls 0.63 ± 0.06 μg/mg, p = 0.0007), had increased vmhc and gr mRNA levels. Perturbations in GR activity during embryonic development results in short and long-term alterations in the heart. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Mortality Caused by Bath Exposure of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Larvae to Nervous Necrosis Virus Is Limited to the Fourth Day Postfertilization