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Sample records for zeeman energy difference

  1. Spin bottleneck in resonant tunneling through double quantum dots with different Zeeman splittings.

    PubMed

    Huang, S M; Tokura, Y; Akimoto, H; Kono, K; Lin, J J; Tarucha, S; Ono, K

    2010-04-02

    We investigated the electron transport property of the InGaAs/GaAs double quantum dots, the electron g factors of which are different from each other. We found that in a magnetic field, the resonant tunneling is suppressed even if one of the Zeeman sublevels is aligned. This is because the other misaligned Zeeman sublevels limit the total current. A finite broadening of the misaligned sublevel partially relieves this bottleneck effect, and the maximum current is reached when interdot detuning is half the Zeeman energy difference.

  2. Ordinary matter, dark matter, and dark energy on normal Zeeman space-times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imre Szabó, Zoltán

    2017-01-01

    Zeeman space-times are new, relativistic, and operator based Hamiltonian models representing multi-particle systems. They are established on Lorentzian pseudo Riemannian manifolds whose Laplacian immediately appears in the form of original quantum physical wave operators. In classical quantum theory they emerge, differently, from the Hamilton formalism and the correspondence principle. Nonetheless, this new model does not just reiterate the well known conceptions but holds the key to solving open problems of quantum theory. Most remarkably, it represents the dark matter, dark energy, and ordinary matter by the same ratios how they show up in experiments. Another remarkable agreement with reality is that the ordinary matter appears to be non-expanding and is described in consent with observations. The theory also explains gravitation, moreover, the Hamilton operators of all energy and matter formations, together with their physical properties, are solely derived from the Laplacian of the Zeeman space-time. By this reason, it is called Monistic Wave Laplacian which symbolizes an all-comprehensive unification of all matter and energy formations. This paper only outlines the normal case where the particles do not have proper spin but just angular momentum. The complete anomalous theory is detailed in [Sz2, Sz3, Sz4, Sz5, Sz6, Sz7].

  3. Origin of excess low-energy states in a disordered superconductor in a Zeeman field.

    PubMed

    Loh, Y L; Trivedi, N; Xiong, Y M; Adams, P W; Catelani, G

    2011-08-05

    Tunneling density of states measurements of disordered superconducting Al films in high Zeeman fields reveal a significant population of subgap states which cannot be explained by standard BCS theory. We provide a natural explanation of these excess states in terms of a novel disordered Larkin-Ovchinnikov phase that occurs near the spin-paramagnetic transition at the Chandrasekhar-Clogston critical field. The disordered Larkin-Ovchinnikov superconductor is characterized by a pairing amplitude that changes sign at domain walls. These domain walls carry magnetization and support Andreev bound states that lead to distinct spectral signatures at low energy.

  4. Magneto-optical spectrum and the effective excitonic Zeeman splitting energies of Mn and Co-doped CdSe nanowires

    SciT

    Xiong, Wen, E-mail: wenxiong@cqu.edu.cn; Chen, Wensuo

    2013-12-21

    The electronic structure of Mn and Co-doped CdSe nanowires are calculated based on the six-band k·p effective-mass theory. Through the calculation, it is found that the splitting energies of the degenerate hole states in Mn-doped CdSe nanowires are larger than that in Co-doped CdSe nanowires when the concentration of these two kinds of magnetic ions is the same. In order to analysis the magneto-optical spectrum of Mn and Co-doped CdSe nanowires, the four lowest electron states and the four highest hole states are sorted when the magnetic field is applied, and the 10 lowest optical transitions between the conduction subbandsmore » and the valence subbands at the Γ point in Mn and Co-doped CdSe nanowires are shown in the paper, it is found that the order of the optical transitions at the Γ point almost do not change although two different kinds of magnetic ions are doped in CdSe nanowires. Finally, the effective excitonic Zeeman splitting energies at the Γ point are found to increase almost linearly with the increase of the concentration of the magnetic ions and the magnetic field; meanwhile, the giant positive effective excitonic g factors in Mn and Co-doped CdSe nanowires are predicted based on our theoretical calculation.« less

  5. Rashba-Zeeman-effect-induced spin filtering energy windows in a quantum wire

    SciT

    Xiao, Xianbo, E-mail: xxb-11@hotmail.com; Nie, Wenjie; Chen, Zhaoxia

    2014-06-14

    We perform a numerical study on the spin-resolved transport in a quantum wire (QW) under the modulation of both Rashba spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and a perpendicular magnetic field by using the developed Usuki transfer-matrix method in combination with the Landauer-Büttiker formalism. Wide spin filtering energy windows can be achieved in this system for unpolarized spin injection. In addition, both the width of energy window and the magnitude of spin conductance within these energy windows can be tuned by varying Rashba SOC strength, which can be apprehended by analyzing the energy dispersions and spin-polarized density distributions inside the QW, respectively. Furthermore » study also demonstrates that these Rashba-SOC-controlled spin filtering energy windows show a strong robustness against disorders. These findings may not only benefit to further understand the spin-dependent transport properties of a QW in the presence of external fields but also provide a theoretical instruction to design a spin filter device.« less

  6. Suppression of Zeeman gradients by nuclear polarization in double quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Frolov, S M; Danon, J; Nadj-Perge, S; Zuo, K; van Tilburg, J W W; Pribiag, V S; van den Berg, J W G; Bakkers, E P A M; Kouwenhoven, L P

    2012-12-07

    We use electric dipole spin resonance to measure dynamic nuclear polarization in InAs nanowire quantum dots. The resonance shifts in frequency when the system transitions between metastable high and low current states, indicating the presence of nuclear polarization. We propose that the low and the high current states correspond to different total Zeeman energy gradients between the two quantum dots. In the low current state, dynamic nuclear polarization efficiently compensates the Zeeman gradient due to the g-factor mismatch, resulting in a suppressed total Zeeman gradient. We present a theoretical model of electron-nuclear feedback that demonstrates a fixed point in nuclear polarization for nearly equal Zeeman splittings in the two dots and predicts a narrowed hyperfine gradient distribution.

  7. Investigating and addressing student difficulties with the corrections to the energies of the hydrogen atom for the strong and weak field Zeeman effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keebaugh, Christof; Marshman, Emily; Singh, Chandralekha

    2018-07-01

    Understanding when and how to make limiting case approximations and why they are valid in a particular situation is a hallmark of expertise in physics. Using limiting cases can simplify the problem-solving process significantly and they often provide a means to check that the results obtained are reasonable. We discuss an investigation of student difficulties with the corrections to the energy spectrum of the hydrogen atom for the limiting cases of the strong and weak field Zeeman effects using degenerate perturbation theory. This investigation was carried out in advanced quantum mechanics courses by administering written free-response and multiple-choice questions and conducting individual interviews with students. Here we first discuss the common student difficulties related to these concepts. We then describe how the research on student difficulties was used as a guide to develop and evaluate a quantum interactive learning tutorial (QuILT) which strives to help students develop a functional understanding of the concepts necessary for finding the corrections to the energy spectrum of the hydrogen atom for the strong field and weak field Zeeman effects. The development of the QuILT and its evaluation in the undergraduate and PhD level courses are presented.

  8. Quadratic Zeeman effect in hydrogen Rydberg states: Rigorous error estimates for energy eigenvalues, energy eigenfunctions, and oscillator strengths

    SciT

    Falsaperla, P.; Fonte, G.

    1994-10-01

    A variational method, based on some results due to T. Kato [Proc. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 4, 334 (1949)], and previously discussed is here applied to the hydrogen atom in uniform magnetic fields of tesla in order to calculate, with a rigorous error estimate, energy eigenvalues, energy eigenfunctions, and oscillator strengths relative to Rydberg states up to just below the field-free ionization threshold. Making use of a basis (parabolic Sturmian basis) with a size varying from 990 up to 5050, we obtain, over the energy range of [minus]190 to [minus]24 cm[sup [minus]1], all of the eigenvalues and a good part ofmore » the oscillator strengths with a remarkable accuracy. This, however, decreases with increasing excitation energy and, thus, above [similar to][minus]24 cm[sup [minus]1], we obtain results of good accuracy only for eigenvalues ranging up to [similar to][minus]12 cm[sup [minus]1].« less

  9. Magnetic Field Measurements In Magnetized Plasmas Using Zeeman Broadening Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, Showera; Wallace, Matthew; Presura, Radu; Neill, Paul

    2017-10-01

    The Zeeman effect has been used to measure the magnetic field in high energy density plasmas. This method is limited when plasma conditions are such that the line broadening due to the high plasma density and temperature surpasses the Zeeman splitting. We have measured magnetic fields in magnetized laser plasmas under conditions where the Zeeman splitting was not spectrally resolved. The magnetic field strength was determined from the difference in widths of two doublet components, using an idea proposed by Tessarin et al. (2011). Time-gated spectra with one-dimensional space-resolution were obtained at the Nevada Terawatt Facility for laser plasmas created by 20 J, 1 ns Leopard laser pulses, and expanding in the azimuthal magnetic field produced by the 0.6 MA Zebra pulsed power generator. We explore the response of the Al III 4s 2S1/2 - 4p 2P1 / 2 , 3 / 2 doublet components to the external magnetic field spatially along the plasma. Radial magnetic field and electron density profiles were measured within the plasma plume. This work was supported by the DOE/OFES Grant DE-SC0008829 and DOE/NNSA contract DE-FC52-06NA27616.

  10. Valley Zeeman splitting of monolayer MoS2 probed by low-field magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y. J.; Shen, C.; Tan, Q. H.; Shi, J.; Liu, X. F.; Wu, Z. H.; Zhang, J.; Tan, P. H.; Zheng, H. Z.

    2018-04-01

    The valley Zeeman splitting of monolayer two-dimensional (2D) materials in the magnetic field plays an important role in the valley and spin manipulations. In general, a high magnetic field (6-65 T) and low temperature (2-30 K) were two key measurement conditions to observe the resolvable valley Zeeman splitting of monolayer 2D materials in current reported experiments. In this study, we experimentally demonstrate an effective measurement scheme by employing magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy, which enables us to distinguish the valley Zeeman splitting under a relatively low magnetic field of 1 T at room temperature. MCD peaks related to both A and B excitonic transitions in monolayer MoS2 can be clearly observed. Based on the MCD spectra under different magnetic fields (-3 to 3 T), we obtained the valley Zeeman splitting energy and the g-factors of A and B excitons, respectively. Our results show that MCD spectroscopy is a high-sensitive magneto-optical technique to explore the valley and spin manipulation in 2D materials.

  11. A quantum mechanical approach to establishing the magnetic field orientation from a maser Zeeman profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, J. A.; Gray, M. D.; Robishaw, T.; Caswell, J. L.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.

    2014-06-01

    Recent comparisons of magnetic field directions derived from maser Zeeman splitting with those derived from continuum source rotation measures have prompted new analysis of the propagation of the Zeeman split components, and the inferred field orientation. In order to do this, we first review differing electric field polarization conventions used in past studies. With these clearly and consistently defined, we then show that for a given Zeeman splitting spectrum, the magnetic field direction is fully determined and predictable on theoretical grounds: when a magnetic field is oriented away from the observer, the left-hand circular polarization is observed at higher frequency and the right-hand polarization at lower frequency. This is consistent with classical Lorentzian derivations. The consequent interpretation of recent measurements then raises the possibility of a reversal between the large-scale field (traced by rotation measures) and the small-scale field (traced by maser Zeeman splitting).

  12. The recondite intricacies of Zeeman Doppler mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stift, M. J.; Leone, F.; Cowley, C. R.

    2012-02-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the reliability of abundance and magnetic maps of Ap stars obtained by Zeeman Doppler mapping (ZDM). It is shown how they can be adversely affected by the assumption of a mean stellar atmosphere instead of appropriate 'local' atmospheres corresponding to the actual abundances in a given region. The essence of the difficulties was already shown by Chandrasekhar's picket-fence model. The results obtained with a suite of Stokes codes written in the ADA programming language and based on modern line-blanketed atmospheres are described in detail. We demonstrate that the high metallicity values claimed to have been found in chemically inhomogeneous (horizontally and vertically) Ap star atmospheres would lead to local temperature structures, continuum and line intensities, and line shapes that differ significantly from those predicted by a mean stellar atmosphere. Unfortunately, past applications of ZDM have consistently overlooked the intricate aspects of metallicity with their all-pervading effects. The erroneous assumption of a mean atmosphere for a spotted star can lead to phase-dependent errors of uncomfortably large proportions at varying wavelengths both in the Stokes I and V profiles, making precise mapping of abundances and magnetic field vectors largely impossible. The relation between core and wings of the Hβ line changes, too, with possible repercussions on the determination of gravity and effective temperature. Finally, a ZDM analysis of the synthetic Stokes spectra of a spotted star reveals the disturbing differences between the respective abundance maps based on a mean atmosphere on the one hand, and on appropriate 'local' atmospheres on the other. We then discuss what this all means for published ZDM results. Our discussion makes it clear that realistic local atmospheres must be used, especially if credible small-scale structures are to be obtained. Recondite: dealing with very profound, difficult or abstruse subject

  13. ZEEMAN DOPPLER MAPS: ALWAYS UNIQUE, NEVER SPURIOUS?

    SciT

    Stift, Martin J.; Leone, Francesco

    Numerical models of atomic diffusion in magnetic atmospheres of ApBp stars predict abundance structures that differ from the empirical maps derived with (Zeeman) Doppler mapping (ZDM). An in-depth analysis of this apparent disagreement investigates the detectability by means of ZDM of a variety of abundance structures, including (warped) rings predicted by theory, but also complex spot-like structures. Even when spectra of high signal-to-noise ratio are available, it can prove difficult or altogether impossible to correctly recover shapes, positions, and abundances of a mere handful of spots, notwithstanding the use of all four Stokes parameters and an exactly known field geometry;more » the recovery of (warped) rings can be equally challenging. Inversions of complex abundance maps that are based on just one or two spectral lines usually permit multiple solutions. It turns out that it can by no means be guaranteed that any of the regularization functions in general use for ZDM (maximum entropy or Tikhonov) will lead to a true abundance map instead of some spurious one. Attention is drawn to the need for a study that would elucidate the relation between the stratified, field-dependent abundance structures predicted by diffusion theory on the one hand, and empirical maps obtained by means of “canonical” ZDM, i.e., with mean atmospheres and unstratified abundances, on the other hand. Finally, we point out difficulties arising from the three-dimensional nature of the atomic diffusion process in magnetic ApBp star atmospheres.« less

  14. Multistage Zeeman decelerator for molecular-scattering studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremers, Theo; Chefdeville, Simon; Janssen, Niek; Sweers, Edwin; Koot, Sven; Claus, Peter; van de Meerakker, Sebastiaan Y. T.

    2017-04-01

    We present a concept for a multistage Zeeman decelerator that is optimized particularly for applications in molecular beam scattering experiments. The decelerator consists of a series of alternating hexapoles and solenoids, that effectively decouple the transverse focusing and longitudinal deceleration properties of the decelerator. It can be operated in a deceleration and acceleration mode, as well as in a hybrid mode that makes it possible to guide a particle beam through the decelerator at constant speed. The deceleration features phase stability, with a relatively large six-dimensional phase-space acceptance. The separated focusing and deceleration elements result in an unequal partitioning of this acceptance between the longitudinal and transverse directions. This is ideal in scattering experiments, which typically benefit from a large longitudinal acceptance combined with narrow transverse distributions. We demonstrate the successful experimental implementation of this concept using a Zeeman decelerator consisting of an array of 25 hexapoles and 24 solenoids. The performance of the decelerator in acceleration, deceleration, and guiding modes is characterized using beams of metastable helium (3S ) atoms. Up to 60% of the kinetic energy was removed for He atoms that have an initial velocity of 520 m/s. The hexapoles consist of permanent magnets, whereas the solenoids are produced from a single hollow copper capillary through which cooling liquid is passed. The solenoid design allows for excellent thermal properties and enables the use of readily available and cheap electronics components to pulse high currents through the solenoids. The Zeeman decelerator demonstrated here is mechanically easy to build, can be operated with cost-effective electronics, and can run at repetition rates up to 10 Hz.

  15. Microwave ac Zeeman force for ultracold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fancher, C. T.; Pyle, A. J.; Rotunno, A. P.; Aubin, S.

    2018-04-01

    We measure the ac Zeeman force on an ultracold gas of 87Rb due to a microwave magnetic field targeted to the 6.8 GHz hyperfine splitting of these atoms. An atom chip produces a microwave near field with a strong amplitude gradient, and we observe a force over three times the strength of gravity. Our measurements are consistent with a simple two-level theory for the ac Zeeman effect and demonstrate its resonant, bipolar, and spin-dependent nature. We observe that the dressed-atom eigenstates gradually mix over time and have mapped out this behavior as a function of magnetic field and detuning. We demonstrate the practical spin selectivity of the force by pushing or pulling a specific spin state while leaving other spin states unmoved.

  16. Sub-Doppler rotationally resolved spectroscopy of lower vibronic bands of benzene with Zeeman effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doi, Atsushi; Kasahara, Shunji; Katô, Hajime; Baba, Masaaki

    2004-04-01

    Sub-Doppler high-resolution excitation spectra and the Zeeman effects of the 601, 101601, and 102601 bands of the S1 1B2u←S0 1A1g transition of benzene were measured by crossing laser beam perpendicular to a collimated molecular beam. 1593 rotational lines of the 101601 band and 928 lines of the 102601 band were assigned, and the molecular constants of the excited states were determined. Energy shifts were observed for the S1 1B2u(v1=1,v6=1,J,Kl=-11) levels, and those were identified as originating from a perpendicular Coriolis interaction. Many energy shifts were observed for the S1 1B2u(v1=2,v6=1,J,Kl) levels. The Zeeman splitting of a given J level was observed to increase with K and reach the maximum at K=J, which demonstrates that the magnetic moment lies perpendicular to the molecular plane. The Zeeman splittings of the K=J levels were observed to increase linearly with J. From the analysis, the magnetic moment is shown to be originating mostly from mixing of the S1 1B2u and S2 1B1u states by the J-L coupling (electronic Coriolis interaction). The number of perturbations was observed to increase as the excess energy increases, and all the perturbing levels were found to be a singlet state from the Zeeman spectra.

  17. ZEEMAN INVESTIGATIONS OF CURIUM-242

    SciT

    Hubbs, J.C.; Marrus, R.; Winocur, J.O.

    The atomic-beam magnetic-resonance method has been used to investigate 163-day Cm/sup 242/. The spin of this even-even nuclide is found to be zero. Four low-lying electronlc energy levels are found and the Lande gfactors are measured to be g/sub J2/ = 2.561 plus or minus 0.003, g/sub J3/ 2.000 plus or minus 0.003, g/sub J4/ = 1.776 plus or minus 0.002, and g/sub J5/ = 1.671 plus or minus 0.003. No direct measurement can be made of the angular momenta of these levels, but other considerations contained in the text make highly probable the J values indicated in subscripts andmore » arising from the electronic configuration (5f)/sup 7/ (6d)/sup 1 (7s)/sup 2/. (auth)« less

  18. Applying Zeeman Doppler imaging to solar spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, G. A. J.; Saar, S. H.; Collier Cameron, A.

    2004-03-01

    A new generation of spectro-polarimeters with high throughput (e.g. CFHT/ESPADONS and LBT/PEPSI) is becoming available. This opportunity can be exploited using Zeeman Doppler imaging (ZDI), a technique that inverts time-series of Stokes V spectra to map stellar surface magnetic fields (Semel 1989). ZDI is assisted by ``Least squares deconvolution'' (LSD), which sums up the signal from 1000's of photospheric lines to produce a mean deconvolved profile with higher S:N (Donati & Collier Cameron 1997).

  19. Influence of the nuclear Zeeman effect on mode locking in pulsed semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beugeling, Wouter; Uhrig, Götz S.; Anders, Frithjof B.

    2017-09-01

    The coherence of the electron spin in a semiconductor quantum dot is strongly enhanced by mode locking through nuclear focusing, where the synchronization of the electron spin to periodic pulsing is slowly transferred to the nuclear spins of the semiconductor material, mediated by the hyperfine interaction between these. The external magnetic field that drives the Larmor oscillations of the electron spin also subjects the nuclear spins to a Zeeman-like coupling, albeit a much weaker one. For typical magnetic fields used in experiments, the energy scale of the nuclear Zeeman effect is comparable to that of the hyperfine interaction, so that it is not negligible. In this work, we analyze the influence of the nuclear Zeeman effect on mode locking quantitatively. Within a perturbative framework, we calculate the Overhauser-field distribution after a prolonged period of pulsing. We find that the nuclear Zeeman effect can exchange resonant and nonresonant frequencies. We distinguish between models with a single type and with multiple types of nuclei. For the latter case, the positions of the resonances depend on the individual g factors, rather than on the average value.

  20. A Zeeman slower for diatomic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzold, M.; Kaebert, P.; Gersema, P.; Siercke, M.; Ospelkaus, S.

    2018-04-01

    We present a novel slowing scheme for beams of laser-coolable diatomic molecules reminiscent of Zeeman slowing of atomic beams. The scheme results in efficient compression of the one-dimensional velocity distribution to velocities trappable by magnetic or magneto-optical traps. We experimentally demonstrate our method in an atomic testbed and show an enhancement of flux below v = 35 m s‑1 by a factor of ≈20 compared to white light slowing. 3D Monte Carlo simulations performed to model the experiment show excellent agreement. We apply the same simulations to the prototype molecule 88Sr19F and expect 15% of the initial flux to be continuously compressed in a narrow velocity window at around 10 m s‑1. This is the first experimentally shown continuous and dissipative slowing technique in molecule-like level structures, promising to provide the missing link for the preparation of large ultracold molecular ensembles.

  1. Analysis of the Zeeman effect on D α spectra on the EAST tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wei; Huang, Juan; Wu, Chengrui; Xu, Zong; Hou, Yumei; Jin, Zhao; Chen, Yingjie; Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Ling; Wu, Zhenwei; EAST Team

    2017-04-01

    Based on the passive spectroscopy, the {{{D}}}α atomic emission spectra in the boundary region of the plasma have been measured by a high resolution optical spectroscopic multichannel analysis (OSMA) system in EAST tokamak. The Zeeman splitting of the {{{D}}}α spectral lines has been observed. A fitting procedure by using a nonlinear least squares method was applied to fit and analyze all polarization π and +/- σ components of the {{{D}}}α atomic spectra to acquire the information of the local plasma. The spectral line shape was investigated according to emission spectra from different regions (e.g., low-field side and high-field side) along the viewing chords. Each polarization component was fitted and classified into three energy categories (the cold, warm, and hot components) based on different atomic production processes, in consistent with the transition energy distribution by calculating the gradient of the {{{D}}}α spectral profile. The emission position, magnetic field intensity, and flow velocity of a deuterium atom were also discussed in the context. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11275231 and 11575249) and the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Energy Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015GB110005).

  2. Zeeman relaxation of MnH (X7Σ+) in collisions with He3: Mechanism and comparison with experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turpin, F.; Stoecklin, T.; Halvick, Ph.

    2011-03-01

    We present a theoretical study of the Zeeman relaxation of the magnetically trappable lowest field seeking state of MnH (7Σ) in collisions with He3. We analyze the collisional Zeeman transition mechanism as a function of the final diatomic state and its variation as a function of an applied magnetic field. We show that as a result of this mechanism the levels with ΔMj>2 give negligible contributions to the Zeemam relaxation cross section. We also compare our results to the experimental cross sections obtained from the buffer-gas cooling and magnetic trapping of this molecule and investigate the dependence of the Zeeman relaxation cross section on the accuracy of the three-body interaction at ultralow energies.

  3. Zeeman Splitting of Ferromagnetic GaMnAs on InP Observed by Magnetic Circular Dichroism in Reflection Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, H.; Bsatee, M.; Jadwisienczak, W. M.

    2016-08-01

    Systematic investigations of Ga1- x Mn x As grown on InP with different Mn concentrations have been conducted using magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) in reflection mode. The MCD spectrum of Ga0.97Mn0.03As/InP was decomposed into two dispersion curves originating from E 1 and E 1 + Δ1 optical transitions using the energy derivative of a Gaussian function. The Zeeman splitting energy E 1 at the L critical point (0.6 meV) of ferromagnetic Ga0.97Mn0.03As/InP was estimated using a rigid band shift model. Based on the relationship between E 1 and E 0 (Γ critical point) observed in Cd1- x Mn x Te dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMS), the Zeeman splitting energy E 1 (9.6 meV) of ferromagnetic Ga1- x Mn x As/InP was calculated. In addition, it was established that the peaks in the MCD spectra at L critical points shift toward the lower energy side as the Mn concentration is increased, and the observed shift saturates for Mn content of x = 0.001. Furthermore, the measured absorption spectra for Ga1- x Mn x As/InP did not show noticeable peak shifts with increasing Mn content. This suggests that the s, p- d exchange interaction induced in Ga1- x Mn x As/InP has localized nature due to the presence of a Mn rigid sphere of influence.

  4. VLA HI Zeeman Observations of the Cygnus X Region: DR 22 And ON 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, Elizabeth A.; Troland, T. H.

    2010-01-01

    The Very Large Array in Socorro, New Mexico has been used to study the Zeeman Effect in the 21cm HI line seen in absorption against radio sources in the Cygnus X region. Cygnus X is geometrically favorable for Zeeman effect observations as the region lies along the mean field direction of the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) of the galaxy. We present observations of two compact HII regions within Cygnus X, DR 22 and ON 2. The data show magnetic field strengths of the order -80 μG toward DR 22 alone with no significant detections toward ON 2. This information is used to estimate the magnetic energy of the DR 22 star-forming cloud, and allows for a complete analysis of the energetics of the region revealing the role of the magnetic field. Support for this work was provided by the NSF PAARE program to South Carolina State University under award AST-0750814.

  5. Zeeman Effect in Ruby at High Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, Ioana

    2012-02-01

    We have developed a versatile fiber-coupled system for magneto-optical spectroscopy measurements at high pressure. The system is based on a miniature Cu-alloy Diamond Anvil Cell (from D'Anvils, Ltd) fitted with a custom-designed He gas-actuated membrane for in-situ pressure control, and coupled with a He transfer cryostat incorporating a superconducting magnet (from Quantum Designs). This system allows optical measurements (Raman, photoluminescence, reflectivity) within wide ranges of pressures (up to 100GPa), temperatures (4.2-300K) and magnetic fields (0-9T). We employ this system to examine the effect of pressure and non-hydrostatic stress on the Zeeman split d-d transitions of Cr^3+ in ruby (Al2O3: Cr^3+). We determine the effect of pressure and non-hydrostaticity on the trigonal crystal field in this material, and discuss the use of the Zeman-split ruby fluorescence as a possible probe for deviatoric stresses in diamond anvil cell experiments.

  6. Zeeman relaxation of cold atomic iron and nickel in collisions with He3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Cort; Newman, Bonna; Brahms, Nathan; Doyle, John M.; Kleppner, Daniel; Greytak, Thomas J.

    2010-06-01

    We have measured the ratio γ of the diffusion cross section to the angular momentum reorientation cross section in the colliding Fe-He3 and Ni-He3 systems. Nickel (Ni) and iron (Fe) atoms are introduced via laser ablation into a cryogenically cooled experimental cell containing cold (<1 K) He3 buffer gas. Elastic collisions rapidly cool the translational temperature of the ablated atoms to the He3 temperature. γ is extracted by measuring the decays of the atomic Zeeman sublevels. For our experimental conditions, thermal energy is comparable to the Zeeman splitting. As a result, thermal excitations between Zeeman sublevels significantly impact the observed decay. To determine γ accurately, we introduce a model of Zeeman-state dynamics that includes thermal excitations. We find γNi-3He=5×103 and γFe-3He⩽3×103 at 0.75 K in a 0.8-T magnetic field. These measurements are interpreted in the context of submerged shell suppression of spin relaxation, as studied previously in transition metals and rare-earth-metal atoms [C. I. Hancox, S. C. Doret, M. T. Hummon, R. V. Krems, and J. M. Doyle, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.94.013201 94, 013201 (2005); C. I. Hancox, S. C. Doret, M. T. Hummon, L. Luo, and J. M. Doyle, Nature (London)NATUAS0028-083610.1038/nature02938 431, 281 (2004); A. Buchachenko, G. Chaasiski, and M. Szczniak, Eur. Phys. J. DEPJDF61434-606010.1140/epjd/e2006-00263-3 45, 147 (2007)].

  7. Zeeman Tuning Rate for Q Branch Transitions in the v3 Band of NO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahon, C. R.; Chackerian, C., Jr.; Gore, Warren J. Y. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Zeeman tuning rates have bee a measured for Q branch transitions in the v3 band of NO2(approx.1610/cm) for magnetic fields of up to 564 Gauss. The average measured tuning rate is 0.1815(53) x 10(exp -3)/cm/Gauss with no dependence on Ka within the approx. equal to 3% standard deviation. Despite significant ,pin-rotation interaction between several of the observed levels the result agrees with the simple linear model for Honda case (be molecules (tuning rate = 2muogs = 0.18696 x 10(exp -3)/cm/Gauss) which neglects the spin-rotation interaction between different J states. The Zeeman effect is analyzed in a full treatment of the Hamiltonian, including spin-rotation interaction, in order to account for the agreement with 2muogs and to explore the onset of spin-rotation effects in the spectra as the magnetic field is increased.

  8. Zeeman-Field-Tuned Topological Phase Transitions in a Two-Dimensional Class-DIII Superconductor

    PubMed Central

    Deng, W. Y.; Geng, H.; Luo, W.; Sheng, L.; Xing, D. Y.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the topological phase transitions in a two-dimensional time-reversal invariant topological superconductor in the presence of a Zeeman field. Based on the spin Chern number theory, we find that the system exhibits a number of topologically distinct phases with changing the out-of-plane component of the Zeeman field, including a quantum spin Hall-like phase, quantum anomalous Hall-like phases with total Chern number C = −2, −1, 1 and 2, and a topologically trivial superconductor phase. The BdG band gap closes at each boundary of the phase transitions. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the zero bias conductance provides clear transport signatures of the different topological phases, which are robust against symmetry-breaking perturbations. PMID:27148675

  9. Anisotropic semivortices in dipolar spinor condensates controlled by Zeeman splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Bingjin; Li, Shoubo; Huang, Chunqing; Luo, Zhihuan; Pang, Wei; Tan, Haishu; Malomed, Boris A.; Li, Yongyao

    2017-10-01

    Spatially anisotropic solitary vortices, i.e., bright anisotropic vortex solitons (AVSs), supported by anisotropic dipole-dipole interactions, were recently predicted in spin-orbit-coupled binary Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs), in the form of two-dimensional semivortices (complexes built of zero-vorticity and vortical components). We demonstrate that the shape of the AVSs—horizontal or vertical, with respect to the in-plane polarization of the atomic dipole moments in the underlying BEC—may be effectively controlled by the strength Ω of the Zeeman splitting (ZS). A transition from the horizontal to vertical shape with the increase of Ω is found numerically and explained analytically. At the transition point, the AVS assumes the shape of an elliptical ring. The mobility of horizontal AVSs is studied, too, with the conclusion that, with the increase of Ω , their negative effective mass changes the sign to positive via a point at which the effective mass diverges. Lastly, we report a new species of inverted AVSs, with the zero-vorticity and vortex component placed in lower- and higher-energy components, as defined by the ZS. They are excited states, with respect to the ground states provided by the usual AVSs. Quite surprisingly, inverted AVSs are stable in a large parameter region.

  10. An adaptable dual species effusive source and Zeeman slower design demonstrated with Rb and Li

    SciT

    Bowden, William, E-mail: william.bowden@physics.ox.ac.uk; Gunton, Will; Semczuk, Mariusz

    2016-04-15

    We present a dual-species effusive source and Zeeman slower designed to produce slow atomic beams of two elements with a large mass difference and with very different oven temperature requirements. We demonstrate this design for the case of {sup 6}Li and {sup 85}Rb and achieve magneto-optical trap (MOT) loading rates equivalent to that reported in prior work on dual species (Rb+Li) Zeeman slowers operating at the same oven temperatures. Key design choices, including thermally separating the effusive sources and using a segmented coil design to enable computer control of the magnetic field profile, ensure that the apparatus can be easilymore » modified to slow other atomic species. By performing the final slowing using the quadrupole magnetic field of the MOT, we are able to shorten our Zeeman slower length making for a more compact system without compromising performance. We outline the construction and analyze the emission properties of our effusive sources. We also verify the performance of the source and slower, and we observe sequential loading rates of 12 × 10{sup 8} atoms/s for a Rb oven temperature of 140 °C and 1.1 × 10{sup 8} atoms/s for a Li reservoir at 460 °C, corresponding to reservoir lifetimes for continuous operation of 10 and 4 years, respectively.« less

  11. Magneto-optical rotation in cavity QED with Zeeman coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hui; Jia, Xiaohua; Fan, Shuangli; Zhang, Hongjun; Guo, Hong

    2018-06-01

    We investigate theoretically the magneto-optical rotation in cavity QED system with atomic Zeeman coherence, which is established via coherent population trapping. Owing to Zeeman coherence, the ultranarrow transmission spectrum less than 1 MHz with gain can be achieved with a flat-top Faraday rotation angle. By controlling the parameters appropriately, the input probe components within the flat-top regime rotate with almost the same angle, and transmit through the cavity perpendicularly to the other components outside the flat-top regime. The concepts discussed here provide an important tool for perfect ultranarrow Faraday optical filter and quantum information processing.

  12. Doppler-Zeeman Mapping of the Rapidly Rotating Magnetic CP Star HD37776

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khokhlova, V. L.; Vasilchenko, D. V.; Stepanov, V. V.; Romanyuk, I. I.

    2000-03-01

    We present the results of our analysis of magnetic-field configuration and abundance anomalies on the surface of the rapidly rotating, chemically peculiar helium-strong variable B2 V star HD37776 with unresolved Zeeman components of spectral lines. Simultaneous inversion of the observed Stokes I and V profiles, which realizes the method of Doppler-Zeeman mapping (Vasilchenko et al. 1996), has been applied for the first time. Spectroscopic observations were carried out with the Main stellar spectrograph of the 6-m Special Astrophysical Observatory telescope equipped with a Zeeman analyzer and a CCD array, which allowed spectra in right- and left-hand circularly polarized light to be taken simultaneously at a signal-to-noise ratio S/N > 200 (Romanyuk et al. 1999). The profile width of winged spectral lines (reaching 5 A) is determined by Zeeman line splitting; however, the observed Zeeman components are blurred and unresolved because of the rapid stellar rotation. When solving the inverse problem, we sought for the magnetic-field configuration in the form of a combination of arbitrarily oriented dipole, quadrupole, and octupole placed at the stellar center. The observed Stokes I and V profiles for eight spectral lines of He, OII, AlIII, SiIII, and FeIII averaged over the visible stellar surface were used as input data. We constructed a model of the magnetic field from the condition of coincidence of magnetic maps obtained from different lines of different chemical elements and from the condition of a minimum profile residual. This model is a combination of centered coaxial dipole and quadrupole with the dominant quadrupole component at 30 deg < i < 50 deg, beta = 40 deg, and a maximum surface field strength H_s = 60 kG. A comparison of our abundance maps with the field configuration shows that the He concentration is at a maximum in the regions of maximum radial field, while the maximum concentrations of O, Al, Si, and Fe coincide with the regions of maximum

  13. Influence of non-local thermodynamic equilibrium and Zeeman effects on magnetic equilibrium reconstruction using spectral motional Stark effect diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, R.; Marchuk, O.; Geiger, B.; Mc Carthy, P. J.; Dunne, M.; Hobirk, J.; Wolf, R.; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2017-08-01

    The Motional Stark Effect (MSE) diagnostic is a well established technique to infer the local internal magnetic field in fusion plasmas. In this paper, the existing forward model which describes the MSE data is extended by the Zeeman effect, fine-structure, and relativistic corrections in the interpretation of the MSE spectra for different experimental conditions at the tokamak ASDEX Upgrade. The contribution of the non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (non-LTE) populations among the magnetic sub-levels and the Zeeman effect on the derived plasma parameters is different. The obtained pitch angle is changed by 3 ° … 4 ° and by 0 . 5 ° … 1 ° including the non-LTE and the Zeeman effects into the standard statistical MSE model. The total correction is about 4°. Moreover, the variation of the magnetic field strength is significantly changed by 2.2% due to the Zeeman effect only. While the data on the derived pitch angle still could not be tested against the other diagnostics, the results from an equilibrium reconstruction solver confirm the obtained values for magnetic field strength.

  14. Very Large Array H I Zeeman Observations of the Cygnus X Region: DR 22 and ON 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, E. A.; Troland, T. H.

    2012-02-01

    We have used the Very Large Array to study the Zeeman effect in 21 cm H I absorption lines from two star-forming regions in the Cygnus X complex, DR 22 and ON 2. We measure the line-of-sight magnetic field toward these regions, finding B los = -84 ± 11 μG toward the DR 22 H II region and B los < 50 μG toward each of the two H II regions in ON 2. We interpret these results in terms of two different models. In one model, we assume that the H I Zeeman effect is a measure of magnetic fields in the associated molecular clouds. If so, then the DR 22 molecular cloud is magnetically subcritical, that is, magnetically dominated. The ON 2 molecular clouds are magnetically supercritical. In a second model, we assume that the H I Zeeman effect is a measure of magnetic fields in photon-dominated regions where the gas has been compressed (and the field amplified) by absorption of stellar radiation. We find that this second model, where the measured field strength has been affected by star formation, accounts well for the DR 22 H I Zeeman effect. This same model, however, overpredicts the magnetic field in ON 2. ON 2 may be a region where the magnetic field is energetically insignificant or where the field happens to lie nearly in the plane of the sky.

  15. Chaotic behaviour of Zeeman machines at introductory course of mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Péter; Tasnádi, Péter

    2016-05-01

    Investigation of chaotic motions and cooperative systems offers a magnificent opportunity to involve modern physics into the basic course of mechanics taught to engineering students. In the present paper it will be demonstrated that Zeeman Machine can be a versatile and motivating tool for students to get introductory knowledge about chaotic motion via interactive simulations. It works in a relatively simple way and its properties can be understood very easily. Since the machine can be built easily and the simulation of its movement is also simple the experimental investigation and the theoretical description can be connected intuitively. Although Zeeman Machine is known mainly for its quasi-static and catastrophic behaviour, its dynamic properties are also of interest with its typical chaotic features. By means of a periodically driven Zeeman Machine a wide range of chaotic properties of the simple systems can be demonstrated such as bifurcation diagrams, chaotic attractors, transient chaos and so on. The main goal of this paper is the presentation of an interactive learning material for teaching the basic features of the chaotic systems through the investigation of the Zeeman Machine.

  16. Zeeman splitting of 6.7 GHz methanol masers. On the uncertainty of magnetic field strength determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Torres, R. M.; Dodson, R.

    2011-05-01

    Context. To properly determine the role of magnetic fields during massive star formation, a statistically significant sample of field measurements probing different densities and regions around massive protostars needs to be established. However, relating Zeeman splitting measurements to magnetic field strengths needs a carefully determined splitting coefficient. Aims: Polarization observations of, in particular, the very abundant 6.7 GHz methanol maser, indicate that these masers appear to be good probes of the large scale magnetic field around massive protostars at number densities up to nH2 ≈ 109 cm-3. We thus investigate the Zeeman splitting of the 6.7 GHz methanol maser transition. Methods: We have observed of a sample of 46 bright northern hemisphere maser sources with the Effelsberg 100-m telescope and an additional 34 bright southern masers with the Parkes 64-m telescope in an attempt to measure their Zeeman splitting. We also revisit the previous calculation of the methanol Zeeman splitting coefficients and show that these were severely overestimated making the determination of magnetic field strengths highly uncertain. Results: In total 44 of the northern masers were detected and significant splitting between the right- and left-circular polarization spectra is determined in >75% of the sources with a flux density >20 Jy beam-1. Assuming the splitting is due to a magnetic field according to the regular Zeeman effect, the average detected Zeeman splitting corrected for field geometry is ~0.6 m s-1. Using an estimate of the 6.7 GHz A-type methanol maser Zeeman splitting coefficient based on old laboratory measurements of 25 GHz E-type methanol transitions this corresponds to a magnetic field of ~120 mG in the methanol maser region. This is significantly higher than expected using the typically assumed relation between magnetic field and density (B∝ n_H_20.47) and potentially indicates the extrapolation of the available laboratory measurements is invalid

  17. Large effective mass and interaction-enhanced Zeeman splitting of K -valley electrons in MoSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larentis, Stefano; Movva, Hema C. P.; Fallahazad, Babak; Kim, Kyounghwan; Behroozi, Armand; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Banerjee, Sanjay K.; Tutuc, Emanuel

    2018-05-01

    We study the magnetotransport of high-mobility electrons in monolayer and bilayer MoSe2, which show Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations and quantum Hall states in high magnetic fields. An electron effective mass of 0.8 me is extracted from the SdH oscillations' temperature dependence; me is the bare electron mass. At a fixed electron density the longitudinal resistance shows minima at filling factors (FFs) that are either predominantly odd, or predominantly even, with a parity that changes as the density is tuned. The SdH oscillations are insensitive to an in-plane magnetic field, consistent with an out-of-plane spin orientation of electrons at the K point. We attribute the FF parity transitions to an interaction enhancement of the Zeeman energy as the density is reduced, resulting in an increased Zeeman-to-cyclotron energy ratio.

  18. The Zeeman effect or linear birefringence? VLA polarimetric spectral line observations of H2O masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jun-Hui; Goss, W. M.; Diamond, P.

    We present line profiles of the four Stokes parameters of H2O masers at 22 GHz observed with the VLA in full polarimetric spectral line mode. With careful calibration, the instrumental effects such as linear leakage and the difference of antenna gain between RCP and LCP, can be minimized. Our measurements show a few percent linear polarization. Weak circular polarization was detected at a level of 0.1 percent of the peak intensity. A large uncertainty in the measurements of weak circular polarization is caused by telescope pointing errors. The observed polarization of H2O masers can be interpreted as either the Zeeman effect or linear birefringence.

  19. Long-range effect of a Zeeman field on the electric current through the helical metal-superconductor interface in an Andreev interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mal'shukov, A. G.

    2018-02-01

    It is shown that the spin-orbit and Zeeman interactions result in phase shifts of Andreev-reflected holes propagating at the surface of a topological insulator, or in Rashba spin-orbit-coupled two-dimensional normal metals, which are in contact with an s -wave superconductor. Due to interference of holes reflected through different paths of the Andreev interferometer the electric current through external contacts varies depending on the strength and direction of the Zeeman field. It also depends on mutual orientations of Zeeman fields in different shoulders of the interferometer. Such a nonlocal effect is a result of the long-range coherency caused by the superconducting proximity effect. This current has been calculated within the semiclassical theory for Green's functions in the diffusive regime, by assuming a strong disorder due to elastic scattering of electrons.

  20. Electromagnetically induced transparency in a Zeeman-sublevels Λ-system of cold 87Rb atoms in free space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaojun, Jiang; Haichao, Zhang; Yuzhu, Wang

    2016-03-01

    We report the experimental investigation of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a Zeeman-sublevels Λ-type system of cold 87Rb atoms in free space. We use the Zeeman substates of the hyperfine energy states 52S1/2, F = 2 and 52P3/2, F‧ = 2 of 87Rb D2 line to form a Λ-type EIT scheme. The EIT signal is obtained by scanning the probe light over 1 MHz in 4 ms with an 80 MHz arbitrary waveform generator. More than 97% transparency and 100 kHz EIT window are observed. This EIT scheme is suited for an application of pulsed coherent storage atom clock (Yan B, et al. 2009 Phys. Rev. A 79 063820). Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB921504) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 91536107).

  1. Design of a Permanent-Magnet Zeeman Slower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, Charles; Narducci, Frank; Sukenik, Charles; Mulholland, Jonathan; Goodale, Sarah

    2006-05-01

    During the past decade, low cost, flexible, and highly-polarized magnetic field sheet material has become available with field strengths useful for applications in modern atomic physics experiments. One advantage of using such material is that it can easily be cut to almost any desired shape without appreciable loss of field strength making it more versatile than ceramic magnets. We present the design of a Zeeman slower, made from such material, for cooling an atomic beam of neutral rubidium atoms and discuss results from an atomic beam trajectory simulation which indicates that the slower should perform well. We will also report on progress of a prototype permanent magnet Zeeman slower presently under construction in the laboratory.

  2. Performance of the Zeeman analyzer system of the McDonald Observatory 2.7 meter telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, S. S.; Tull, R. G.; Kelton, P. W.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes a multichannel photoelectric Zeeman analyzer at the coude spectrograph of the McDonald 2.7 m reflector. A comparison of Lick and McDonald observations of HD 153882 reveals no significant difference in slopes or zero points of the two magnetic fields indicating that the systematic scale difference of 30-40% is probably instrumental in origin. Observations of the magnetic variable beta Cor Bor revealed a more nearly sinusoidal magnetic curve with less internal scatter than the photographically determined field measures of the Lick and Mauna Kea Zeeman systems. Investigation of periodicity in the secularly varying magnetic minima of beta Cor Bor did not yield evidence of previously noted periodicities other than that expected from the time structure of the data sampling.

  3. Phase control of a Zeeman-split He-Ne gas laser by variation of the gaseous discharge voltage.

    PubMed

    Shelton, W N; Hunt, R H

    1992-07-20

    Zeeman-split lasers are useful for precise positioning or motion control. In applications that employ such a laser to control closely the position of a moving system, phase noise in the Zeeman frequency is a serious problem. Control of low-frequency phase noise can be obtained through variation of the external magnetic field by way of a solenoid wound around the laser tube. It is the finding in this work that control of the residual higher-frequency noise of a He-Ne laser can be obtained through small variations of the high voltage that is used to effect the gaseous discharge in the laser tube. The application of the present system is to the control of the path difference in a Fourier-transform interferometric spectrometer.

  4. [Probing Planck-scale Physics with a Ne-21/He-3 Zeeman Maser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Ne-21/He-3 Zeeman maser is a recently developed device which employs co-located ensembles of Ne-21 and He-3 atoms to provide sensitive differential measurements of the noble gas nuclear Zeeman splittings as a function of time, thereby greatly attenuating common-mode systematic effects such as uniform magnetic field variations. The Ne-21 maser will serve as a precision magnetometer to stabilize the system's static magnetic field, while the He-3 maser is used as a sensitive probe for violations of CPT and Lorentz symmetry by searching for small variations in the 3He maser frequency as the spatial orientation of the apparatus changes due to the rotation of the Earth (or placement on a rotating table). In the context of a general extension of the Standard Model of particle physics, the Ne-21/He-3 maser will provide the most sensitive search to date for CPT and Lorentz violation of the neutron: better than 10(exp -32) GeV, an improvement of more than an order of magnitude over past experiments. This exceptional precision will offer a rare opportunity to probe physics at the Planck scale. A future space-based Ne-21/He-3 maser or related device could provide even greater sensitivity to violations of CPT and Lorentz symmetry, and hence to Planck-scale physics, because of isolation from dominant systematic effects associated with ground-based operation, and because of access to different positions in space-time.

  5. Zeeman perturbed nuclear quadrupole spin echo envelope modulations for spin 3/2 nuclei in polycrystalline specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, R.; Narasimhan, P. T.

    The results of theoretical and experimental studies of Zeeman-perturbed nuclear quadrupole spin echo envelope modulations (ZSEEM) for spin 3/2 nuclei in polycrystalline specimens are presented. The response of the Zeeman-perturbed spin ensemble to resonant two pulse excitations has been calculated using the density matrix formalism. The theoretical calculation assumes a parallel orientation of the external r.f. and static Zeeman fields and an arbitrary orientation of these fields to the principal axes system of the electric field gradient. A numerical powder averaging procedure has been adopted to simulate the response of the polycrystalline specimens. Using a coherent pulsed nuclear quadrupole resonance spectrometer the ZSEEM patterns of the 35Cl nuclei have been recorded in polycrystalline specimens of potassium chlorate, barium chlorate, mercuric chloride (two sites) and antimony trichloride (two sites) using the π/2-τ-π/2 sequence. The theoretical and experimental ZSEEM patterns have been compared. In the case of mercuric chloride, the experimental 35Cl ZSEEM patterns are found to be nearly identical for the two sites and correspond to a near-zero value of the asymmetry parameter, η, of the electric field gradient tensor. The difference in the η values for the two 35Cl sites (η ˜0·06 and η˜0·16) in antimony trichloride is clearly reflected in the experimental and theoretical ZSEEM patterns. The present study indicates the feasibility of evaluating η for spin 3/2 nuclei in polycrystalline specimens from ZSEEM investigations.

  6. Third-order Zeeman effect in highly charged ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varentsova, A. S.; Agababaev, V. A.; Volchkova, A. M.; Glazov, D. A.; Volotka, A. V.; Shabaev, V. M.; Plunien, G.

    2017-10-01

    The contribution of the third order in magnetic field to the Zeeman splitting of the ground state of hydrogenlike, lithiumlike, and boronlike ions in the range Z = 6 - 82 is investigated within the relativistic approach. Both perturbative and non-perturbative methods of calculation are employed and found to be in agreement. For lithiumlike and boronlike ions the interelectronic-interaction effects are taken into account within the approximation of the local screening potential. The contribution of the third-order effect in low- and medium-Z boronlike ions is found to be important for anticipated high-precision measurements.

  7. Interdependence of different symmetry energy elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, C.; Agrawal, B. K.; De, J. N.; Samaddar, S. K.; Centelles, M.; Viñas, X.

    2017-08-01

    Relations between the nuclear symmetry energy coefficient and its density derivatives are derived. The relations hold for a class of interactions with quadratic momentum dependence and a power-law density dependence. The structural connection between the different symmetry energy elements as obtained seems to be followed by almost all reasonable nuclear energy density functionals, both relativistic and nonrelativistic, suggesting a universality in the correlation structure. This, coupled with known values of some well-accepted constants related to nuclear matter, helps in constraining values of different density derivatives of the nuclear symmetry energy, shedding light on the isovector part of the nuclear interaction.

  8. Zeeman effect of weak La I lines investigated by the use of optogalvanic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolewski, Ł. M.; Windholz, L.; Kwela, J.

    2017-03-01

    New Landé- gJ factors of 35 energy levels of La I, found from investigations of 40 spectral lines in the wavelength range 562.959÷609.537 nm, were determined. As a source of free La atoms a hollow cathode discharge lamp was used. We monitored the signal of the optogalvanic effect appearing when a laser beam is passing through the hollow cathode. Spectra were recorded in the presence of a magnetic field of about 800 G produced by a permanent magnet, for two linear polarizations of the exciting laser light. Optogalvanic spectroscopy is a very sensitive method, so we were able to observe the Zeeman effect of very weak atomic lines. In this way we have determined for the first time the Landé-gJ factors for 35 recently found levels of neutral La. The Landé gJ- factors for several other levels were reinvestigated.

  9. An Essay on Interactive Investigations of the Zeeman Effect in the Interstellar Medium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolsey, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents an interactive module created through the Wolfram Demonstrations Project that visualizes the Zeeman effect for the small magnetic field strengths present in the interstellar medium. The paper provides an overview of spectral lines and a few examples of strong and weak Zeeman splitting before discussing the module in depth.…

  10. Rydberg Spectroscopy of Zeeman-Decelerated Beams of Metastable Helium Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Paul; Motsch, Michael; Sprecher, Daniel; Merkt, Frederic

    2014-06-01

    Having three and four electrons, respectively, He_2^+ and He_2 represent systems for which highly accurate ab-initio calculations might become feasible in the near future. With the goal of performing accurate measurements of the rovibrational energy-level structure of He_2^+ by Rydberg spectroscopy of He_2 and multichannel quantum-defect theory extrapolation techniques, we have produced samples of helium molecules in the a ^3Σu^+ state in supersonic beams with velocities tunable down to 100 m/s by combining a cryogenic supersonic-beam source with a multistage Zeeman decelerator. The molecules are formed at an initial velocity of 500 m/s by striking a discharge in the pulsed expansion of helium gas from a reservoir kept at a cryogenic temperature of 10 K. Using rotationally-resolved PFI-ZEKE (pulsed-field-ionization zero-kinetic-energy) photoelectron spectroscopy, we have probed the rotational-state distribution of the molecules produced in the discharge and found vibrational levels up to ν" = 2 and rotational levels up to N"=21 to be populated. The molecular beam is coupled to a multistage Zeeman decelerator that employs pulsed inhomogeneous magnetic fields to further reduce the beam velocity. By measuring the quantum-state distribution of the decelerated sample using photoelectron and photoionization spectroscopy we observed no rotational or vibrational state-selectivity of the deceleration process, but found that one of the three spin-rotation components of the He_2 a ^3Σu^+ rotational levels is eliminated. W.-C. Tung, M. Pavanello, L. Adamowicz, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 104309 (2012). D. Sprecher, J. Liu, T. Krähenmann, M. Schäfer, and F. Merkt, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 064304 (2014). M. Motsch, P. Jansen, J. A. Agner, H. Schmutz, and F. Merkt, arXiv:1401.7774. N. Vanhaecke, U. Meier, M. Andrist, B. H. Meier, and F. Merkt, Phys. Rev. A 75, 031402(R) (2007).

  11. Dynamic Jahn-Teller effect: Calculation of fine structure spectrum, isotope shift and Zeeman behavior at deep center Ni2+ in CdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoepp, Juergen

    The internal transition of the deep center Ni2+ in II to IV semiconductor cadmium sulfide is examined with reference to crystal field theory. An algorithm was developed for calculation, in a basis fitted to trigonal symmetry, of fine structure operator matrix which is made of the sum of operators from spin trajectory coupling, trigonal field and electron phonon coupling. The dependence of energy level on the mass was calculated in order to examine the isotropy effect at Ni2+ transition. The mass dependence of phonon energy was estimated in an atomic cluster by using a valence force model from Keating for elastic energy. The Zeeman behavior of Ni2+ transition was examined for magnetic fields; the Zeeman operator was added to the fine structure operator and the resulting matrix was diagonalized. It is noticed that calculations are quantitatively and qualitatively in agreement with experiments.

  12. Dynamic localization in optical and Zeeman lattices in the presence of spin-orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V.; Konotop, Vladimir V.; Zezyulin, Dmitry A.; Torner, Lluis

    2016-12-01

    The dynamic localization of a two-level atom in a periodic potential under the action of spin-orbit coupling and a weak harmonically varying linear force is studied. We consider optical and Zeeman potentials that are either in phase or out of phase in two spinor components, respectively. The expectation value for the position of the atom after one oscillation period of the linear force is recovered in authentic resonances or in pseudoresonances. The frequencies of the linear force corresponding to authentic resonances are determined by the band structure of the periodic potential and are affected by the spin-orbit coupling. The width or dispersion of the wave packet in authentic resonances is usually minimal. The frequencies corresponding to pseudoresonances do not depend on the type of potential and on the strength of the spin-orbit coupling, while the evolution of excitations at the corresponding frequencies is usually accompanied by significant dispersion. Pseudoresonances are determined by the initial phase of the linear force and by the quasimomentum of the wave packet. Due to the spinor nature of the system, the motion of the atom is accompanied by periodic, but not harmonic, spin oscillations. Under the action of spin-orbit coupling the oscillations of the wave packet can be nearly completely suppressed in optical lattices. Dynamic localization in Zeeman lattices is characterized by doubling of the resonant oscillation periods due to band crossing at the boundary of the Brillouin zone. We also show that higher harmonics in the Fourier expansion of the energy band lead to effective dispersion, which can be strong enough to prevent dynamic localization of the Bloch wave packet.

  13. Spatiotemporal Evolution of Hanle and Zeeman Synthetic Polarization in a Chromospheric Spectral Line

    SciT

    Carlin, E. S.; Bianda, M., E-mail: escarlin@irsol.es

    Due to the quick evolution of the solar chromosphere, its magnetic field cannot be inferred reliably without accounting for the temporal variations of its polarized light. This has been broadly overlooked in the modeling and interpretation of the polarization, due to technical problems (e.g., lack of temporal resolution or of time-dependent MHD solar models) and/or because many polarization measurements can apparently be explained without dynamics. Here, we show that the temporal evolution is critical for explaining the spectral-line scattering polarization because of its sensitivity to rapidly varying physical quantities and the possibility of signal cancellations and attenuation during extended timemore » integration. For studying the combined effect of time-varying magnetic fields and kinematics, we solved the 1.5D non-LTE problem of the second kind in time-dependent 3D R-MHD solar models and synthesized the Hanle and Zeeman polarization in forward scattering for the chromospheric λ 4227 line. We find that the quiet-Sun polarization amplitudes depend on the periodicity and spectral coherence of the signal enhancements produced by kinematics, but that substantially larger linear polarization signals should exist all over the solar disk for short integration times. The spectral morphology of the polarization is discussed as a combination of Hanle, Zeeman, partial redistribution and dynamic effects. We give physical references for observations by degrading and characterizing our slit time series in different spatiotemporal resolutions. The implications of our results for the interpretation of the second solar spectrum and for the investigation of the solar atmospheric heatings are discussed.« less

  14. Exciton diamagnetic shifts and valley Zeeman effects in monolayer WS 2 and MoS 2 to 65 Tesla

    DOE PAGES

    Stier, Andreas V.; McCreary, Kathleen M.; Jonker, Berend T.; ...

    2016-02-09

    In bulk and quantum-confined semiconductors, magneto-optical studies have historically played an essential role in determining the fundamental parameters of excitons (size, binding energy, spin, dimensionality and so on). Here we report low-temperature polarized reflection spectroscopy of atomically thin WS 2 and MoS 2 in high magnetic fields to 65 T. Both the A and B excitons exhibit similar Zeeman splittings of approximately –230 μeV T–1 (g-factor ≃–4), thereby quantifying the valley Zeeman effect in monolayer transition-metal disulphides. Crucially, these large fields also allow observation of the small quadratic diamagnetic shifts of both A and B excitons in monolayer WS 2,more » from which radii of ~1.53 and ~1.16 nm are calculated. Further, when analysed within a model of non-local dielectric screening, these diamagnetic shifts also constrain estimates of the A and B exciton binding energies (410 and 470 meV, respectively, using a reduced A exciton mass of 0.16 times the free electron mass). Lastly, these results highlight the utility of high magnetic fields for understanding new two-dimensional materials.« less

  15. Exciton diamagnetic shifts and valley Zeeman effects in monolayer WS2 and MoS2 to 65 Tesla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stier, Andreas V.; McCreary, Kathleen M.; Jonker, Berend T.; Kono, Junichiro; Crooker, Scott A.

    2016-02-01

    In bulk and quantum-confined semiconductors, magneto-optical studies have historically played an essential role in determining the fundamental parameters of excitons (size, binding energy, spin, dimensionality and so on). Here we report low-temperature polarized reflection spectroscopy of atomically thin WS2 and MoS2 in high magnetic fields to 65 T. Both the A and B excitons exhibit similar Zeeman splittings of approximately -230 μeV T-1 (g-factor ~=-4), thereby quantifying the valley Zeeman effect in monolayer transition-metal disulphides. Crucially, these large fields also allow observation of the small quadratic diamagnetic shifts of both A and B excitons in monolayer WS2, from which radii of ~1.53 and ~1.16 nm are calculated. Further, when analysed within a model of non-local dielectric screening, these diamagnetic shifts also constrain estimates of the A and B exciton binding energies (410 and 470 meV, respectively, using a reduced A exciton mass of 0.16 times the free electron mass). These results highlight the utility of high magnetic fields for understanding new two-dimensional materials.

  16. Coulomb energy differences in isobaric multiplets

    SciT

    Lenzi, S. M.; Farnea, E.; Bazzacco, D.

    2007-02-12

    By comparing the excitation energies of analogue states in isobaric multiplets, several nuclear structure properties can be studied as a function of the angular momentum up to high spin states. In particular, the mirror nuclei 35Ar and 35Cl show large differences between the excitation energies of analogue negative-parity states at high spin, confirming the important contribution of the relativistic electromagnetic spin-orbit interaction to the Coulomb energy. The single-particle character of the configuration of these states is reproduced with very good accuracy by shell model calculations in the sd and pf shells valence space. In addition, evidence of isospin mixing ismore » deduced from the El transitions linking positive and negative parity states.« less

  17. Interface-Induced Zeeman-Protected Superconductivity in Ultrathin Crystalline Lead Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Ziqiao; Zhang, Xuefeng; Liu, Chaofei; Liu, Yongjie; Zhou, Zhimou; Wang, Junfeng; Wang, Qingyan; Liu, Yanzhao; Xi, Chuanying; Tian, Mingliang; Liu, Haiwen; Feng, Ji; Xie, X. C.; Wang, Jian

    2018-04-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) superconducting systems are of great importance for exploring exotic quantum physics. The recent development of fabrication techniques has stimulated studies of high-quality single-crystalline 2D superconductors, where intrinsic properties give rise to unprecedented physical phenomena. Here, we report the observation of Zeeman-type spin-orbit interaction protected superconductivity (Zeeman-protected superconductivity) in 4-monolayer (ML) to 6-ML crystalline Pb films grown on striped incommensurate Pb layers on Si(111) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. An anomalously large in-plane critical field far beyond the Pauli limit is detected, which can be attributed to the Zeeman-protected superconductivity due to the in-plane inversion symmetry breaking at the interface. Our work demonstrates that, in superconducting heterostructures, the interface can induce Zeeman-type spin-orbit interactions and modulate the superconductivity.

  18. Bogoliubov theory and Lee-Huang-Yang corrections in spin-1 and spin-2 Bose-Einstein condensates in the presence of the quadratic Zeeman effect

    SciT

    Uchino, Shun; Kobayashi, Michikazu; Ueda, Masahito

    2010-06-15

    We develop Bogoliubov theory of spin-1 and spin-2 Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) in the presence of a quadratic Zeeman effect, and derive the Lee-Huang-Yang (LHY) corrections to the ground-state energy, pressure, sound velocity, and quantum depletion. We investigate all the phases of spin-1 and spin-2 BECs that can be realized experimentally. We also examine the stability of each phase against quantum fluctuations and the quadratic Zeeman effect. Furthermore, we discuss a relationship between the number of symmetry generators that are spontaneously broken and that of Nambu-Goldstone (NG) modes. It is found that in the spin-2 nematic phase there are special Bogoliubovmore » modes that have gapless linear dispersion relations but do not belong to the NG modes.« less

  19. Understanding Zeeman EIT Noise Correlation Spectra in Buffered Rb Vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Leary, Shannon; Zheng, Aojie; Crescimanno, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Noise correlation spectroscopy on systems manifesting Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT) holds promise as a simple, robust method for performing high-resolution spectroscopy used in applications such as EIT-based atomic magnetometry and clocks. During laser light's propagation through a resonant medium, interaction with the medium converts laser phase noise into intensity noise. While this noise conversion can diminish the precision of EIT applications, noise correlation techniques transform the noise into a useful spectroscopic tool that can improve the application's precision. Using a single diode laser with large phase noise, we examine laser intensity noise and noise correlations from Zeeman EIT in a buffered Rb vapor. Of particular interest is a narrow noise correlation feature, resonant with EIT, that has been shown in earlier work to be power-broadening resistant at low powers. We report here on our recent experimental work and complementary theoretical modeling on EIT noise spectra, including a study of power broadening of the narrow noise correlation feature. Understanding the nature of the noise correlation spectrum is essential for optimizing EIT-noise applications.

  20. Inversion of Zeeman polarization for solar magnetic field diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derouich, M.

    2017-05-01

    The topic of magnetic field diagnostics with the Zeeman effect is currently vividly discussed. There are some testable inversion codes available to the spectropolarimetry community and their application allowed for a better understanding of the magnetism of the solar atmosphere. In this context, we propose an inversion technique associated with a new numerical code. The inversion procedure is promising and particularly successful for interpreting the Stokes profiles in quick and sufficiently precise way. In our inversion, we fit a part of each Stokes profile around a target wavelength, and then determine the magnetic field as a function of the wavelength which is equivalent to get the magnetic field as a function of the height of line formation. To test the performance of the new numerical code, we employed "hare and hound" approach by comparing an exact solution (called input) with the solution obtained by the code (called output). The precision of the code is also checked by comparing our results to the ones obtained with the HAO MERLIN code. The inversion code has been applied to synthetic Stokes profiles of the Na D1 line available in the literature. We investigated the limitations in recovering the input field in case of noisy data. As an application, we applied our inversion code to the polarization profiles of the Fe Iλ 6302.5 Å observed at IRSOL in Locarno.

  1. Molecular Beam Optical Zeeman Spectroscopy of Vanadium Monoxide, VO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Trung; Zhang, Ruohan; Steimle, Timothy

    2016-06-01

    Like almost all astronomical studies, exoplanet investigations are observational endeavors that rely primarily on remote spectroscopic sensing to infer the physical properties of planets. Most exoplanet related information is inferred from to temporal variation of luminosity of the parent star. An effective method of monitoring this variation is via Magnetic Doppler Imaging (MDI), which uses optical polarimetry of paramagnetic molecules or atoms. One promising paramagnetic stellar absorption is the near infrared spectrum of VO. With this in mind, we have begun a project to record and analyze the field-free and Zeeman spectrum of the band. A cold (approx. 20 K) beam of VO was probed with a single frequency laser and detected using laser induced fluorescence. The determined spectral parameters will be discussed and compared to those extracted from the analysis of a hot spectrum. Supported by the National Science Foundation under the Grant No. CHE-1265885. O. Kochukhov, N. Rusomarov, J. A. Valenti, H. C. Stempels, F. Snik, M. Rodenhuis, N. Piskunov, V. Makaganiuk, C. U. Keller and C. M. Johns-Krull, Astron. Astrophys. 574 (Pt. 2), A79/71-A79/12 (2015). S. V. Berdyugina, Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser. 437 (Solar Polarization 6), 219-235 (2011). S. V. Berdyugina, P. A. Braun, D. M. Fluri and S. K. Solanki, Astron. Astrophys. 444 (3), 947-960 (2005). A. S. C. Cheung, P. G. Hajigeorgiou, G. Huang, S. Z. Huang and A. J. Merer, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 163 (2), 443-458 (1994)

  2. 21cm Absorption Line Zeeman Observations And Modeling Of Physical Conditions In M16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiuchi, Furea; Brogan, C.; Troland, T.

    2011-01-01

    We present detailed 21 cm HI absorption line observations of M16 using the Very Large Array. The M16 "pillars of creation" are classic examples of the interaction of ISM with radiation from young, hot stars. Magnetic fields can affect these interactions, the 21 cm Zeeman effect reveals magnetic field strengths in the Photodissociation regions associated with the pillars. The present results yield a 3-sigma upper limit upon the line-of-sight magnetic field of about 300 microgauss. This limit is consistent with a total field strength of 500 microgauss, required in the molecular gas if magnetic energies and turbulent energies in the pillars are in equipartition. Most likely, magnetic fields do not play a dominant role in the dynamics of the M16 pillars. Another goal of this study is to determine the distribution of cold HI in the M16 region and to model the physical conditions in the neutral gas in the pillars. We used the spectral synthesis code Cloudy 08.00 for this purpose. We adopted the results of a published Cloudy HII region model and extended this model into the neutral gas to derive physical conditions therein.

  3. Quadratic Zeeman effect for hydrogen: A method for rigorous bound-state error estimates

    SciT

    Fonte, G.; Falsaperla, P.; Schiffrer, G.

    1990-06-01

    We present a variational method, based on direct minimization of energy, for the calculation of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of a hydrogen atom in a strong uniform magnetic field in the framework of the nonrelativistic theory (quadratic Zeeman effect). Using semiparabolic coordinates and a harmonic-oscillator basis, we show that it is possible to give rigorous error estimates for both eigenvalues and eigenfunctions by applying some results of Kato (Proc. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 4, 334 (1949)). The method can be applied in this simple form only to the lowest level of given angular momentum and parity, but it is also possible tomore » apply it to any excited state by using the standard Rayleigh-Ritz diagonalization method. However, due to the particular basis, the method is expected to be more effective, the weaker the field and the smaller the excitation energy, while the results of Kato we have employed lead to good estimates only when the level spacing is not too small. We present a numerical application to the {ital m}{sup {ital p}}=0{sup +} ground state and the lowest {ital m}{sup {ital p}}=1{sup {minus}} excited state, giving results that are among the most accurate in the literature for magnetic fields up to about 10{sup 10} G.« less

  4. Zeeman effect in sulfur monoxide: A tool to probe magnetic fields in star forming regions.

    PubMed

    Cazzoli, Gabriele; Lattanzi, Valerio; Coriani, Sonia; Gauss, Jürgen; Codella, Claudio; Ramos, Andrés Asensio; Cernicharo, José; Puzzarini, Cristina

    2017-09-01

    Magnetic fields play a fundamental role in star formation processes and the best method to evaluate their intensity is to measure the Zeeman effect of atomic and molecular lines. However, a direct measurement of the Zeeman spectral pattern from interstellar molecular species is challenging due to the high sensitivity and high spectral resolution required. So far, the Zeeman effect has been detected unambiguously in star forming regions for very few non-masing species, such as OH and CN. We decided to investigate the suitability of sulfur monoxide (SO), which is one of the most abundant species in star forming regions, for probing the intensity of magnetic fields via the Zeeman effect. We investigated the Zeeman effect for several rotational transitions of SO in the (sub-)mm spectral regions by using a frequency-modulated, computer-controlled spectrometer, and by applying a magnetic field parallel to the radiation propagation (i.e., perpendicular to the oscillating magnetic field of the radiation). To support the experimental determination of the g factors of SO, a systematic quantum-chemical investigation of these parameters for both SO and O 2 has been carried out. An effective experimental-computational strategy for providing accurate g factors as well as for identifying the rotational transitions showing the strongest Zeeman effect has been presented. Revised g factors have been obtained from a large number of SO rotational transitions between 86 and 389 GHz. In particular, the rotational transitions showing the largest Zeeman shifts are: N , J = 2, 2 ← 1, 1 (86.1 GHz), N , J = 4, 3 ← 3, 2 (159.0 GHz), N , J = 1, 1 ← 0, 1 (286.3 GHz), N , J = 2, 2 ← 1, 2 (309.5 GHz), and N , J = 2, 1 ← 1, 0 (329.4 GHz). Our investigation supports SO as a good candidate for probing magnetic fields in high-density star forming regions.

  5. Zeeman effect in sulfur monoxide: A tool to probe magnetic fields in star forming regions⋆

    PubMed Central

    Cazzoli, Gabriele; Lattanzi, Valerio; Coriani, Sonia; Gauss, Jürgen; Codella, Claudio; Ramos, Andrés Asensio; Cernicharo, José; Puzzarini, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Context Magnetic fields play a fundamental role in star formation processes and the best method to evaluate their intensity is to measure the Zeeman effect of atomic and molecular lines. However, a direct measurement of the Zeeman spectral pattern from interstellar molecular species is challenging due to the high sensitivity and high spectral resolution required. So far, the Zeeman effect has been detected unambiguously in star forming regions for very few non-masing species, such as OH and CN. Aims We decided to investigate the suitability of sulfur monoxide (SO), which is one of the most abundant species in star forming regions, for probing the intensity of magnetic fields via the Zeeman effect. Methods We investigated the Zeeman effect for several rotational transitions of SO in the (sub-)mm spectral regions by using a frequency-modulated, computer-controlled spectrometer, and by applying a magnetic field parallel to the radiation propagation (i.e., perpendicular to the oscillating magnetic field of the radiation). To support the experimental determination of the g factors of SO, a systematic quantum-chemical investigation of these parameters for both SO and O2 has been carried out. Results An effective experimental-computational strategy for providing accurate g factors as well as for identifying the rotational transitions showing the strongest Zeeman effect has been presented. Revised g factors have been obtained from a large number of SO rotational transitions between 86 and 389 GHz. In particular, the rotational transitions showing the largest Zeeman shifts are: N, J = 2, 2 ← 1, 1 (86.1 GHz), N, J = 4, 3 ← 3, 2 (159.0 GHz), N, J = 1, 1 ← 0, 1 (286.3 GHz), N, J = 2, 2 ← 1, 2 (309.5 GHz), and N, J = 2, 1 ← 1, 0 (329.4 GHz). Our investigation supports SO as a good candidate for probing magnetic fields in high-density star forming regions. PMID:29151607

  6. The Zeeman splitting of bulk 2H-MoTe2 single crystal in high magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yan; Zhang, Junpei; Ma, Zongwei; Chen, Cheng; Han, Junbo; Chen, Fangchu; Luo, Xuan; Sun, Yuping; Sheng, Zhigao

    2017-03-01

    A high magnetic field magneto-optical spectrum is utilized to study the A exciton of bulk 2H-MoTe2 single crystal. A clear Zeeman splitting of the A exciton is observed under high magnetic fields up to 41.68 T, and the g-factor (-2.09 ± 0.08) is deduced. Moreover, a high magnetic field enables us to obtain the quadratic diamagnetic shifts of the A exciton (0.486 μeV T-2). Accordingly, the binding energy, reduced mass, and radius of the A exciton were obtained by using both two and three dimensional models. Compared with other transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), the A exciton of bulk 2H-MoTe2 has a relatively small binding energy and larger exciton radius, which provide fundamental parameters for comprehensive understanding of excitons in TMDs as well as their future applications.

  7. Zeeman splitting and dynamical mass generation in Dirac semimetal ZrTe5

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanwen; Yuan, Xiang; Zhang, Cheng; Jin, Zhao; Narayan, Awadhesh; Luo, Chen; Chen, Zhigang; Yang, Lei; Zou, Jin; Wu, Xing; Sanvito, Stefano; Xia, Zhengcai; Li, Liang; Wang, Zhong; Xiu, Faxian

    2016-01-01

    Dirac semimetals have attracted extensive attentions in recent years. It has been theoretically suggested that many-body interactions may drive exotic phase transitions, spontaneously generating a Dirac mass for the nominally massless Dirac electrons. So far, signature of interaction-driven transition has been lacking. In this work, we report high-magnetic-field transport measurements of the Dirac semimetal candidate ZrTe5. Owing to the large g factor in ZrTe5, the Zeeman splitting can be observed at magnetic field as low as 3 T. Most prominently, high pulsed magnetic field up to 60 T drives the system into the ultra-quantum limit, where we observe abrupt changes in the magnetoresistance, indicating field-induced phase transitions. This is interpreted as an interaction-induced spontaneous mass generation of the Dirac fermions, which bears resemblance to the dynamical mass generation of nucleons in high-energy physics. Our work establishes Dirac semimetals as ideal platforms for investigating emerging correlation effects in topological matters. PMID:27515493

  8. Zeeman-hyperfine structures and isotope effect in the spectrum of Tl I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouazza, Safa; Sobolewski, Łukasz Marek; Kwela, Jerzy

    2018-01-01

    The Zeeman structures of seventeen lines of 205Tl I (Z = 81) covering the UV-NIR spectral range (351.92-1151.28) nm were investigated. Landé gJ-factors for eighteen levels were determined for the first time. Furthermore, we have performed fine structure studies for both even- and odd-configuration levels and determined the relevant parameters. For the 6 s 6p2 configuration we have refined the suggested level energies and predicted positions for missing levels. With regard to hyperfine structure (hfs), we have justified the surprisingly huge value of the magnetic hfs constant A(6s2 10 s) . Moreover, we have extracted the single-electron hfs constant parameter values for the lowest even-parity configurations of 205Tl I; for instance a10s10 (6s2 10 s) = 1015(9) MHz and a6s10 (6 s 6p2) = 217306(205) MHz. Regarding isotope shift analysis we have observed that Dirac-Fock calculations, preferably chosen to take into account the contribution of the p1/2 contact-electron, are in good agreement with experimental data for low-lying levels of each configuration under study.

  9. Transient development of Zeeman electromagnetically induced transparency during propagation of Raman-Ramsey pulses through Rb buffer gas cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolić, S. N.; Radonjić, M.; Lučić, N. M.; Krmpot, A. J.; Jelenković, B. M.

    2015-02-01

    We investigate, experimentally and theoretically, time development of Zeeman electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) during propagation of two time separated polarization laser pulses, preparatory and probe, through Rb vapour. The pulses were produced by modifying laser intensity and degree of elliptical polarization. The frequency of the single laser beam is locked to the hyperfine {{F}g}=2\\to {{F}e}=1 transition of the D1 line in 87Rb. Transients in the intensity of {{σ }-} component of the transmitted light are measured or calculated at different values of the external magnetic field, during both preparatory and probe pulse. Zeeman EIT resonances at particular time instants of the pulse propagation are reconstructed by appropriate sampling of the transients. We observe how laser intensity, Ramsey sequence and the Rb cell temperature affect the time dependence of EIT line shapes, amplitudes and linewidths. We show that at early times of the probe pulse propagation, several Ramsey fringes are present in EIT resonances, while at later moments a single narrow peak prevails. Time development of EIT amplitudes are determined by the transmitted intensity of the {{σ }-} component during the pulse propagation.

  10. The Transfer of Resonance Line Polarization with Partial Frequency Redistribution in the General Hanle–Zeeman Regime

    SciT

    Ballester, E. Alsina; Bueno, J. Trujillo; Belluzzi, L., E-mail: ealsina@iac.es

    2017-02-10

    The spectral line polarization encodes a wealth of information about the thermal and magnetic properties of the solar atmosphere. Modeling the Stokes profiles of strong resonance lines is, however, a complex problem both from a theoretical and computational point of view, especially when partial frequency redistribution (PRD) effects need to be taken into account. In this work, we consider a two-level atom in the presence of magnetic fields of arbitrary intensity (Hanle–Zeeman regime) and orientation, both deterministic and micro-structured. Working within the framework of a rigorous PRD theoretical approach, we have developed a numerical code that solves the full non-LTEmore » radiative transfer problem for polarized radiation, in one-dimensional models of the solar atmosphere, accounting for the combined action of the Hanle and Zeeman effects, as well as for PRD phenomena. After briefly discussing the relevant equations, we describe the iterative method of solution of the problem and the numerical tools that we have developed and implemented. We finally present some illustrative applications to two resonance lines that form at different heights in the solar atmosphere, and provide a detailed physical interpretation of the calculated Stokes profiles. We find that magneto-optical effects have a strong impact on the linear polarization signals that PRD effects produce in the wings of strong resonance lines. We also show that the weak-field approximation has to be used with caution when PRD effects are considered.« less

  11. Quantum incommensurate skyrmion crystals and commensurate to in-commensurate transitions in cold atoms and materials with spin-orbit couplings in a Zeeman field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Fadi; Ye, Jinwu; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we study strongly interacting spinor atoms in a lattice subject to a two dimensional (2d) anisotropic Rashba type of spin orbital coupling (SOC) and an Zeeman field. We find the interplay between the Zeeman field and the SOC provides a new platform to host rich and novel classes of quantum commensurate and in-commensurate phases, excitations and phase transitions. These commensurate phases include two collinear states at low and high Zeeman field, two co-planar canted states at mirror reflected SOC parameters respectively. Most importantly, there are non-coplanar incommensurate Skyrmion (IC-SkX) crystal phases surrounded by the four commensurate phases. New excitation spectra above all the five phases, especially on the IC-SKX phase are computed. Three different classes of quantum commensurate to in-commensurate transitions from the IC-SKX to its four neighboring commensurate phases are identified. Finite temperature behaviors and transitions are discussed. The critical temperatures of all the phases can be raised above that reachable by current cold atom cooling techniques simply by tuning the number of atoms N per site. In view of recent impressive experimental advances in generating 2d SOC for cold atoms in optical lattices, these new many-body phenomena can be explored in the current and near future cold atom experiments. Applications to various materials such as MnSi, {Fe}}0.5 {Co}}0.5Si, especially the complex incommensurate magnetic ordering in Li2IrO3 are given.

  12. Intraband magneto-optical absorption in InAs/GaAs quantum dots: Orbital Zeeman splitting and the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.-Z.; Galbraith, I.

    2008-05-01

    Using perturbation theory, intraband magneto-optical absorption is calculated for InAs/GaAs truncated pyramidal quantum dots in a magnetic field applied parallel to the growth direction z . The effects of the magnetic field on the electronic states as well as the intraband transitions are systematically studied. Selection rules governing the intraband transitions are discussed based on the symmetry properties of the electronic states. While the broadband z -polarized absorption is almost insensitive to the magnetic field, the orbital Zeeman splitting is the dominant feature in the in-plane polarized spectrum. Strong in-plane polarized magneto-absorption features are located in the far-infrared region, while z -polarized absorption occurs at higher frequencies. This is due to the dot geometry (the base length is much larger than the height) yielding different quantum confinement in the vertical and lateral directions. The Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule, including the magnetic field effect, is applied together with the selection rules to the absorption spectra. The orbital Zeeman splitting depends on both the dot size and the confining potential—the splitting decreases as the dot size or the confining potential decreases. Our calculated Zeeman splittings are in agreement with experimental data.

  13. Angular momentum and Zeeman effect in the presence of a minimal length based on the Kempf-Mann-Mangano algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosropour, B.

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we consider a D-dimensional ( β, β^' -two-parameters deformed Heisenberg algebra, which was introduced by Kempf et al. The angular-momentum operator in the presence of a minimal length scale based on the Kempf-Mann-Mangano algebra is obtained in the special case of β^' = 2β up to the first order over the deformation parameter β . It is shown that each of the components of the modified angular-momentum operator, commutes with the modified operator {L}2 . We find the magnetostatic field in the presence of a minimal length. The Zeeman effect in the deformed space is studied and also Lande's formula for the energy shift in the presence of a minimal length is obtained. We estimate an upper bound on the isotropic minimal length.

  14. Zeeman effect in sulfur monoxide. A tool to probe magnetic fields in star forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazzoli, Gabriele; Lattanzi, Valerio; Coriani, Sonia; Gauss, Jürgen; Codella, Claudio; Ramos, Andrés Asensio; Cernicharo, José; Puzzarini, Cristina

    2017-09-01

    Context. Magnetic fields play a fundamental role in star formation processes and the best method to evaluate their intensity is to measure the Zeeman effect of atomic and molecular lines. However, a direct measurement of the Zeeman spectral pattern from interstellar molecular species is challenging due to the high sensitivity and high spectral resolution required. So far, the Zeeman effect has been detected unambiguously in star forming regions for very few non-masing species, such as OH and CN. Aims: We decided to investigate the suitability of sulfur monoxide (SO), which is one of the most abundant species in star forming regions, for probing the intensity of magnetic fields via the Zeeman effect. Methods: We investigated the Zeeman effect for several rotational transitions of SO in the (sub-)mm spectral regions by using a frequency-modulated, computer-controlled spectrometer, and by applying a magnetic field parallel to the radiation propagation (I.e., perpendicular to the oscillating magnetic field of the radiation). To support the experimental determination of the g factors of SO, a systematic quantum-chemical investigation of these parameters for both SO and O2 has been carried out. Results: An effective experimental-computational strategy for providing accurate g factors as well as for identifying the rotational transitions showing the strongest Zeeman effect has been presented. Revised g factors have been obtained from a large number of SO rotational transitions between 86 and 389 GHz. In particular, the rotational transitions showing the largest Zeeman shifts are: N,J = 2, 2 ← 1, 1 (86.1 GHz), N,J = 4, 3 ← 3, 2 (159.0 GHz), N,J = 1, 1 ← 0, 1 (286.3 GHz), N,J = 2, 2 ← 1, 2 (309.5 GHz), and N,J = 2, 1 ← 1, 0 (329.4 GHz). Our investigation supports SO as a good candidate for probing magnetic fields in high-density star forming regions. The complete list of measured Zeeman components is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http

  15. Fast optical cooling of nanomechanical cantilever with the dynamical Zeeman effect.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Qi; Zhang, Shuo; Zou, Jin-Hua; Chen, Liang; Yang, Wen; Li, Yong; Feng, Mang

    2013-12-02

    We propose an efficient optical electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) cooling scheme for a cantilever with a nitrogen-vacancy center attached in a non-uniform magnetic field using dynamical Zeeman effect. In our scheme, the Zeeman effect combined with the quantum interference effect enhances the desired cooling transition and suppresses the undesired heating transitions. As a result, the cantilever can be cooled down to nearly the vibrational ground state under realistic experimental conditions within a short time. This efficient optical EIT cooling scheme can be reduced to the typical EIT cooling scheme under special conditions.

  16. Very Large Array OH Zeeman Observations of the Star-forming Region S88B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, A. P.; Brogan, C. L.; Bourke, T. L.; Eftimova, M.; Troland, T. H.

    2013-04-01

    We present observations of the Zeeman effect in OH thermal absorption main lines at 1665 and 1667 MHz taken with the Very Large Array toward the star-forming region S88B. The OH absorption profiles toward this source are complicated, and contain several blended components toward a number of positions. Almost all of the OH absorbing gas is located in the eastern parts of S88B, toward the compact continuum source S88B-2 and the eastern parts of the extended continuum source S88B-1. The ratio of 1665/1667 MHz OH line intensities indicates the gas is likely highly clumped, in agreement with other molecular emission line observations in the literature. S88-B appears to present a similar geometry to the well-known star-forming region M17, in that there is an edge-on eastward progression from ionized to molecular gas. The detected magnetic fields appear to mirror this eastward transition; we detected line-of-sight magnetic fields ranging from 90 to 400 μG, with the lowest values of the field to the southwest of the S88B-1 continuum peak, and the highest values to its northeast. We used the detected fields to assess the importance of the magnetic field in S88B by a number of methods; we calculated the ratio of thermal to magnetic pressures, we calculated the critical field necessary to completely support the cloud against self-gravity and compared it to the observed field, and we calculated the ratio of mass to magnetic flux in terms of the critical value of this parameter. All these methods indicated that the magnetic field in S88B is dynamically significant, and should provide an important source of support against gravity. Moreover, the magnetic energy density is in approximate equipartition with the turbulent energy density, again pointing to the importance of the magnetic field in this region.

  17. FIRST ZEEMAN DOPPLER IMAGING OF A COOL STAR USING ALL FOUR STOKES PARAMETERS

    SciT

    Rosén, L.; Kochukhov, O.; Wade, G. A.

    Magnetic fields are ubiquitous in active cool stars, but they are in general complex and weak. Current Zeeman Doppler imaging (ZDI) studies of cool star magnetic fields chiefly employ circular polarization observations because linear polarization is difficult to detect and requires a more sophisticated radiative transfer modeling to interpret. But it has been shown in previous theoretical studies, and in the observational analyses of magnetic Ap stars, that including linear polarization in the magnetic inversion process makes it possible to correctly recover many otherwise lost or misinterpreted magnetic features. We have obtained phase-resolved observations in all four Stokes parameters ofmore » the RS CVn star II Peg at two separate epochs. Here we present temperature and magnetic field maps reconstructed for this star using all four Stokes parameters. This is the very first such ZDI study of a cool active star. Our magnetic inversions reveal a highly structured magnetic field topology for both epochs. The strength of some surface features is doubled or even quadrupled when linear polarization is taken into account. The total magnetic energy of the reconstructed field map also becomes about 2.1–3.5 times higher. The overall complexity is also increased as the field energy is shifted toward higher harmonic modes when four Stokes parameters are used. As a consequence, the potential field extrapolation of the four Stokes parameter ZDI results indicates that magnetic field becomes weaker at a distance of several stellar radii due to a decrease of the large-scale field component.« less

  18. Determination of serum aluminum by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry: A comparison between Zeeman and continuum background correction systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruger, Pamela C.; Parsons, Patrick J.

    2007-03-01

    Excessive exposure to aluminum (Al) can produce serious health consequences in people with impaired renal function, especially those undergoing hemodialysis. Al can accumulate in the brain and in bone, causing dialysis-related encephalopathy and renal osteodystrophy. Thus, dialysis patients are routinely monitored for Al overload, through measurement of their serum Al. Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) is widely used for serum Al determination. Here, we assess the analytical performances of three ETAAS instruments, equipped with different background correction systems and heating arrangements, for the determination of serum Al. Specifically, we compare (1) a Perkin Elmer (PE) Model 3110 AAS, equipped with a longitudinally (end) heated graphite atomizer (HGA) and continuum-source (deuterium) background correction, with (2) a PE Model 4100ZL AAS equipped with a transversely heated graphite atomizer (THGA) and longitudinal Zeeman background correction, and (3) a PE Model Z5100 AAS equipped with a HGA and transverse Zeeman background correction. We were able to transfer the method for serum Al previously established for the Z5100 and 4100ZL instruments to the 3110, with only minor modifications. As with the Zeeman instruments, matrix-matched calibration was not required for the 3110 and, thus, aqueous calibration standards were used. However, the 309.3-nm line was chosen for analysis on the 3110 due to failure of the continuum background correction system at the 396.2-nm line. A small, seemingly insignificant overcorrection error was observed in the background channel on the 3110 instrument at the 309.3-nm line. On the 4100ZL, signal oscillation was observed in the atomization profile. The sensitivity, or characteristic mass ( m0), for Al at the 309.3-nm line on the 3110 AAS was found to be 12.1 ± 0.6 pg, compared to 16.1 ± 0.7 pg for the Z5100, and 23.3 ± 1.3 pg for the 4100ZL at the 396.2-nm line. However, the instrumental detection limits (3

  19. Neutron Zeeman beam-splitting for the investigation of magnetic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozhevnikov, S. V.; Ott, F.; Semenova, E.

    2017-03-01

    Zeeman spatial splitting of a neutron beam takes place during a neutron spin-flip in magnetically non-collinear systems at grazing incidence geometry. We apply the neutron beam-splitting method for the investigation of magnetically non-collinear clusters of submicron size in a thin film. The experimental results are compared with ones obtained by other methods.

  20. Interaction between Rashba and Zeeman effects in a quantum well channel.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won Young; Kwon, Jae Hyun; Chang, Joonyeon; Han, Suk Hee; Koo, Hyun Cheol

    2014-05-01

    The applied field induced Zeeman effect interferes with Rashba effect in a quantum well system. The angle dependence of Shubnikov-de Haas oscillation shows that the in-plane term of the applied field changes the intrinsic Rashba induced spin splitting. The total effective spin-orbit interaction parameter is determined by the vector sum of the Rashba field and the applied field.

  1. Designing and building a permanent magnet Zeeman slower for calcium atoms using a 3D printer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsagian, Alexandria; Kleinert, Michaela

    2015-10-01

    We present the design of a Zeeman slower for calcium atoms using permanent magnets instead of more traditional electromagnets and the novel technique of 3D printing to create a very robust and flexible structure for these magnets. Zeeman slowers are ideal tools to slow atoms from several hundreds of meters per second to just a few tens of meters per second. These slower atoms can then easily be trapped in a magneto-optical trap, making Zeeman slowers a very valuable tool in many cold atom labs. The use of permanent magnets and 3D printing results in a highly stable and robust slower that is suitable for undergraduate laboratories. In our design, we arranged 28 magnet pairs, 2.0 cm apart along the axis of the slower and at varying radial distances from the axis. We determined the radial position of the magnets by simulating the combined field of all magnet pairs using Mathematica and comparing it to the ideal theoretical field for a Zeeman slower. Finally, we designed a stable, robust, compact, and easy-to-align mounting structure for the magnets in Google Sketchup, which we then printed using a commercially available 3D printer by Solidoodle. The resulting magnetic field is well suited to slow calcium atoms from the 770 m/s rms velocity at a temperature of 950 K, down to the capture velocity of the magneto-optical trap.

  2. Frequency modulation indicator, Arnold’s web and diffusion in the Stark Quadratic-Zeeman problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordani, Bruno

    2008-11-01

    We notice that the fundamental frequencies of a slightly perturbed integrable Hamiltonian system are not time-constant inside a resonance but frequency modulated, as is evident from pendulum models and wavelet analysis. Exploiting an intrinsic imprecision inherent to the numerical frequency analysis algorithm itself, hence transforming a drawback into an opportunity, we define the Frequency Modulation Indicator, a very sensitive tool in detecting where fundamental frequencies are modulated, localizing so the resonances without having to resort, as in other methods, to the integration of variational equations. For the Kepler problem, the space of the orbits with a fixed energy has the topology of the product of two 2-spheres. The perturbation Hamiltonian, averaged over the mean anomaly, has surely a maximum and a minimum, to which correspond two periodic orbits in physical space. Studying the neighbourhood of these two elliptic stable points, we are able to define adapted action-angle variables, for example, the usual but “SO(4)-rotated” Delaunay variables. The procedure, implemented in the program KEPLER, is performed transparently for the user, providing a general scheme suited for generic perturbation. The method is then applied to the Stark-Quadratic-Zeeman problem, displaying very clearly the Arnold web of the resonances. Sectioning transversely one of the resonance strips so highlighted and performing a numerical frequency analysis, one is able to locate with great precision the thin stochastic layer surrounding a separatrix. Another very long (10 8 revolutions) frequency analysis on an orbit starting here reveals, as expected, a well defined pattern, which ensures that the integration errors do not eject the point out of the layer, and moreover a very slow drift in the frequency values, clearly due to Arnold diffusion.

  3. Temperature Dependence of Molecular Line Strengths and Fei 1565 nm Zeeman Splitting in a Sunspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penn, M. J.; Walton, S.; Chapman, G.; Ceja, J.; Plick, W.

    2003-03-01

    Spectroscopic observations at 1565 nm were made in the eastern half of the main umbra of NOAA 9885 on 1 April 2002 using the National Solar Observatory McMath-Pierce Telescope at Kitt Peak with a tip-tilt image stabilization system and the California State University Northridge-National Solar Observatory infrared camera. The line depth of the OH blend at 1565.1 nm varies with the observed continuum temperature; the variation fits previous observations except that the continuum temperature is lower by 600 K. The equivalent width of the OH absorption line at 1565.2 nm shows a temperature dependence similar to previously published umbral molecular observations at 640 nm. A simple model of expected OH abundance based upon an ionization analogy to molecular dissociation is produced and agrees well with the temperature variation of the line equivalent width. A CN absorption line at 1564.6 nm shows a very different temperature dependence, likely due to complicated formation and destruction processes. Nonetheless a numerical fit of the temperature variation of the CN equivalent width is presented. Finally a comparison of the Zeeman splitting of the Fei 1564.8 nm line with the sunspot temperature derived from the continuum intensity shows an umbra somewhat cooler for a given magnetic field strength than previous comparisons using this infrared 1564.8 nm line, but consistent with these previous infrared measurements the umbra is hotter for a given magnetic field strength than magnetic and temperature measurements at 630.2 nm would suggest. Differences between the 630.2 nm and 1564.8 nm umbral temperature and magnetic field relations are explained with the different heights of formation of the lines and continua at these wavelengths.

  4. Exciton diamagnetic shifts and valley Zeeman effects in monolayer WS2 and MoS2 to 65 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    Stier, Andreas V.; McCreary, Kathleen M.; Jonker, Berend T.; Kono, Junichiro; Crooker, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    In bulk and quantum-confined semiconductors, magneto-optical studies have historically played an essential role in determining the fundamental parameters of excitons (size, binding energy, spin, dimensionality and so on). Here we report low-temperature polarized reflection spectroscopy of atomically thin WS2 and MoS2 in high magnetic fields to 65 T. Both the A and B excitons exhibit similar Zeeman splittings of approximately −230 μeV T−1 (g-factor ≃−4), thereby quantifying the valley Zeeman effect in monolayer transition-metal disulphides. Crucially, these large fields also allow observation of the small quadratic diamagnetic shifts of both A and B excitons in monolayer WS2, from which radii of ∼1.53 and ∼1.16 nm are calculated. Further, when analysed within a model of non-local dielectric screening, these diamagnetic shifts also constrain estimates of the A and B exciton binding energies (410 and 470 meV, respectively, using a reduced A exciton mass of 0.16 times the free electron mass). These results highlight the utility of high magnetic fields for understanding new two-dimensional materials. PMID:26856412

  5. Exciton diamagnetic shifts and valley Zeeman effects in monolayer WS2 and MoS2 to 65 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Stier, Andreas V; McCreary, Kathleen M; Jonker, Berend T; Kono, Junichiro; Crooker, Scott A

    2016-02-09

    In bulk and quantum-confined semiconductors, magneto-optical studies have historically played an essential role in determining the fundamental parameters of excitons (size, binding energy, spin, dimensionality and so on). Here we report low-temperature polarized reflection spectroscopy of atomically thin WS2 and MoS2 in high magnetic fields to 65 T. Both the A and B excitons exhibit similar Zeeman splittings of approximately -230 μeV T(-1) (g-factor ≃-4), thereby quantifying the valley Zeeman effect in monolayer transition-metal disulphides. Crucially, these large fields also allow observation of the small quadratic diamagnetic shifts of both A and B excitons in monolayer WS2, from which radii of ∼1.53 and ∼1.16 nm are calculated. Further, when analysed within a model of non-local dielectric screening, these diamagnetic shifts also constrain estimates of the A and B exciton binding energies (410 and 470 meV, respectively, using a reduced A exciton mass of 0.16 times the free electron mass). These results highlight the utility of high magnetic fields for understanding new two-dimensional materials.

  6. Assessing Understanding of the Energy Concept in Different Science Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Mihwa; Liu, Xiufeng

    2016-01-01

    Energy is one of the most central and richly connected ideas across all science disciplines. The purpose of this study was to develop a measurement instrument for assessing students' understanding of the energy concept within and across different science disciplines. To achieve this goal, the Inter-Disciplinary Energy concept Assessment (IDEA) was…

  7. Zeeman Effect observations toward 36 GHz methanol masers in the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potvin, Justin A.; Momjian, Emmanuel; Pratim Sarma, Anuj

    2017-01-01

    We present observations of 36 GHz Class I methanol masers taken with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) in the B configuration with the aim of detecting the Zeeman Effect. We targeted several 36 GHz Class I methanol masers associated with supernova remnants (SNRs) toward the Galactic Center. Each source was observed in dual circular polarizations for three hours. The observed spectral profiles of the masers are complex, with several components blended in velocity. In only one case was the Stokes V maser profile prominent enough to reveal a 2-sigma hint of a magnetic field of zBlos = 14.56 +/- 5.60 Hz; we have chosen to express our results in terms of zBlos since the Zeeman splitting factor (z) for 36 GHz methanol masers has not been measured. There are several hints that these spectra would reveal significant magnetic fields if they could be spatially and spectrally resolved.

  8. Mercury Pollution Exploration in Latvia with High-Sensitivity Zeeman Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogans, Egils; Gavare, Zanda; Svagere, Anda; Poikane, Rita; Skudra, Jānis

    2011-01-01

    This research presents Hg pollution measurements performed in Latvia with sensitive method using Zeeman AAS analyzer RA-915+ and necessary attachments. Air in Riga city and water samples from a number of rivers and lakes of Latvia were analyzed for presence of low-level Hg concentrations. Ombrotrophic bog peat was analyzed to get insight into long-term trends. Environment in the sites sampled is relatively clean according to the results obtained, but there are local spots of pollution.

  9. THE HANLE AND ZEEMAN POLARIZATION SIGNALS OF THE SOLAR Ca II 8542 Å LINE

    SciT

    Štěpán, Jiri; Bueno, Javier Trujillo

    We highlight the main results of a three-dimensional (3D) multilevel radiative transfer investigation about the solar disk-center polarization of the Ca ii 8542 Å line. First, through the use of a 3D model of the solar atmosphere, we investigate the linear polarization that occurs due to the atomic level polarization produced by the absorption and scattering of anisotropic radiation, taking into account the symmetry-breaking effects caused by its thermal, dynamic, and magnetic structure. Second, we study the contribution of the Zeeman effect to the linear and circular polarization. Finally, we show examples of the Stokes profiles produced by the jointmore » action of the atomic level polarization and the Hanle and Zeeman effects. We find that the Zeeman effect tends to dominate the linear polarization signals only in the localized patches of opposite magnetic polarity, where the magnetic field is relatively strong and slightly inclined; outside such very localized patches, the linear polarization is often dominated by the contribution of atomic level polarization. We demonstrate that a correct modeling of this last contribution requires taking into account the symmetry-breaking effects caused by the thermal, dynamic, and magnetic structure of the solar atmosphere, and that in the 3D model used the Hanle effect in forward-scattering geometry (disk-center observation) mainly reduces the polarization corresponding to the zero-field case. We emphasize that, in general, a reliable modeling of the linear polarization in the Ca ii 8542 Å line requires taking into account the joint action of atomic level polarization and the Hanle and Zeeman effects.« less

  10. The Zeeman Effect in the 44 GHz Class I Methanol Maser Line toward DR21(OH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momjian, E.; Sarma, A. P.

    2017-01-01

    We report detection of the Zeeman effect in the 44 GHz Class I methanol maser line, toward the star-forming region DR21(OH). In a 219 Jy beam-1 maser centered at an LSR velocity of 0.83 km s-1, we find a 20-σ detection of zBlos = 53.5 ± 2.7 Hz. If 44 GHz methanol masers are excited at n ˜ 107-8 cm-3, then the B versus n1/2 relation would imply, from comparison with Zeeman effect detections in the CN(1 - 0) line toward DR21(OH), that magnetic fields traced by 44 GHz methanol masers in DR21(OH) should be ˜10 mG. Combined with our detected zBlos = 53.5 Hz, this would imply that the value of the 44 GHz methanol Zeeman splitting factor z is ˜5 Hz mG-1. Such small values of z would not be a surprise, as the methanol molecule is non-paramagnetic, like H2O. Empirical attempts to determine z, as demonstrated, are important because there currently are no laboratory measurements or theoretically calculated values of z for the 44 GHz CH3OH transition. Data from observations of a larger number of sources are needed to make such empirical determinations robust.

  11. Getting a grip on the transverse motion in a Zeeman decelerator

    SciT

    Dulitz, Katrin; Softley, Timothy P., E-mail: tim.softley@chem.ox.ac.uk; Motsch, Michael

    2014-03-14

    Zeeman deceleration is an experimental technique in which inhomogeneous, time-dependent magnetic fields generated inside an array of solenoid coils are used to manipulate the velocity of a supersonic beam. A 12-stage Zeeman decelerator has been built and characterized using hydrogen atoms as a test system. The instrument has several original features including the possibility to replace each deceleration coil individually. In this article, we give a detailed description of the experimental setup, and illustrate its performance. We demonstrate that the overall acceptance in a Zeeman decelerator can be significantly increased with only minor changes to the setup itself. This ismore » achieved by applying a rather low, anti-parallel magnetic field in one of the solenoid coils that forms a temporally varying quadrupole field, and improves particle confinement in the transverse direction. The results are reproduced by three-dimensional numerical particle trajectory simulations thus allowing for a rigorous analysis of the experimental data. The findings suggest the use of a modified coil configuration to improve transverse focusing during the deceleration process.« less

  12. Measuring 20-100 T B-fields using Zeeman splitting of sodium emission lines on a 500 kA pulsed power machine

    SciT

    Banasek, J. T., E-mail: jtb254@cornell.edu; Engelbrecht, J. T.; Pikuz, S. A.

    2016-11-15

    We have shown that Zeeman splitting of the sodium (Na) D-lines at 5890 and 5896 Å can be used to measure the magnetic field (B-field) produced in high current pulsed power experiments. We have measured the B-field next to a return current conductor in a hybrid X-pinch experiment near a peak current of about 500 kA. Na is deposited on the conductor and then is desorbed and excited by radiation from the hybrid X-pinch. The D-line emission spectrum implies B-fields of about 20 T with a return current post of 4 mm diameter or up to 120 T with amore » return current wire of 0.455 mm diameter. These measurements were consistent or lower than the expected B-field, thereby showing that basic Zeeman splitting can be used to measure the B-field in a pulsed-power-driven high-energy-density (HED) plasma experiment. We hope to extend these measurement techniques using suitable ionized species to measurements within HED plasmas.« less

  13. Diabat Interpolation for Polymorph Free-Energy Differences.

    PubMed

    Kamat, Kartik; Peters, Baron

    2017-02-02

    Existing methods to compute free-energy differences between polymorphs use harmonic approximations, advanced non-Boltzmann bias sampling techniques, and/or multistage free-energy perturbations. This work demonstrates how Bennett's diabat interpolation method ( J. Comput. Phys. 1976, 22, 245 ) can be combined with energy gaps from lattice-switch Monte Carlo techniques ( Phys. Rev. E 2000, 61, 906 ) to swiftly estimate polymorph free-energy differences. The new method requires only two unbiased molecular dynamics simulations, one for each polymorph. To illustrate the new method, we compute the free-energy difference between face-centered cubic and body-centered cubic polymorphs for a Gaussian core solid. We discuss the justification for parabolic models of the free-energy diabats and similarities to methods that have been used in studies of electron transfer.

  14. Batteries for efficient energy extraction from a water salinity difference.

    PubMed

    La Mantia, Fabio; Pasta, Mauro; Deshazer, Heather D; Logan, Bruce E; Cui, Yi

    2011-04-13

    The salinity difference between seawater and river water is a renewable source of enormous entropic energy, but extracting it efficiently as a form of useful energy remains a challenge. Here we demonstrate a device called "mixing entropy battery", which can extract and store it as useful electrochemical energy. The battery, containing a Na(2-x)Mn(5)O(10) nanorod electrode, was shown to extract energy from real seawater and river water and can be applied to a variety of salt waters. We demonstrated energy extraction efficiencies of up to 74%. Considering the flow rate of river water into oceans as the limiting factor, the renewable energy production could potentially reach 2 TW, or ∼13% of the current world energy consumption. The mixing entropy battery is simple to fabricate and could contribute significantly to renewable energy in the future.

  15. p -wave superconductivity in weakly repulsive 2D Hubbard model with Zeeman splitting and weak Rashba spin-orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugdal, Henning G.; Sudbø, Asle

    2018-01-01

    We study the superconducting order in a two-dimensional square lattice Hubbard model with weak repulsive interactions, subject to a Zeeman field and weak Rashba spin-orbit interactions. Diagonalizing the noninteracting Hamiltonian leads to two separate bands, and by deriving an effective low-energy interaction we find the mean field gap equations for the superconducting order parameter on the bands. Solving the gap equations just below the critical temperature, we find that superconductivity is caused by Kohn-Luttinger-type interaction, while the pairing symmetry of the bands is indirectly affected by the spin-orbit coupling. The dominating attractive momentum channel of the Kohn-Luttinger term depends on the filling fraction n of the system, and it is therefore possible to change the momentum dependence of the order parameter by tuning n . Moreover, n also determines which band has the highest critical temperature. Rotating the magnetic field changes the momentum dependence from states that for small momenta reduce to a chiral px±i py type state for out-of-plane fields, to a nodal p -wave-type state for purely in-plane fields.

  16. THE ZEEMAN EFFECT IN THE 44 GHZ CLASS I METHANOL MASER LINE TOWARD DR21(OH)

    SciT

    Momjian, E.; Sarma, A. P., E-mail: emomjian@nrao.edu, E-mail: asarma@depaul.edu

    2017-01-10

    We report detection of the Zeeman effect in the 44 GHz Class I methanol maser line, toward the star-forming region DR21(OH). In a 219 Jy beam{sup −1} maser centered at an LSR velocity of 0.83 km s{sup −1}, we find a 20- σ detection of zB {sub los} = 53.5 ± 2.7 Hz. If 44 GHz methanol masers are excited at n ∼ 10{sup 7–8} cm{sup −3}, then the B versus n {sup 1/2} relation would imply, from comparison with Zeeman effect detections in the CN(1 − 0) line toward DR21(OH), that magnetic fields traced by 44 GHz methanol masersmore » in DR21(OH) should be ∼10 mG. Combined with our detected zB {sub los} = 53.5 Hz, this would imply that the value of the 44 GHz methanol Zeeman splitting factor z is ∼5 Hz mG{sup −1}. Such small values of z would not be a surprise, as the methanol molecule is non-paramagnetic, like H{sub 2}O. Empirical attempts to determine z , as demonstrated, are important because there currently are no laboratory measurements or theoretically calculated values of z for the 44 GHz CH{sub 3}OH transition. Data from observations of a larger number of sources are needed to make such empirical determinations robust.« less

  17. Energy Efficiency of Biogas Produced from Different Biomass Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begum, Shahida; Nazri, A. H.

    2013-06-01

    Malaysia has different sources of biomass like palm oil waste, agricultural waste, cow dung, sewage waste and landfill sites, which can be used to produce biogas and as a source of energy. Depending on the type of biomass, the biogas produced can have different calorific value. At the same time the energy, being used to produce biogas is dependent on transportation distance, means of transportation, conversion techniques and for handling of raw materials and digested residues. An energy systems analysis approach based on literature is applied to calculate the energy efficiency of biogas produced from biomass. Basically, the methodology is comprised of collecting data, proposing locations and estimating the energy input needed to produce biogas and output obtained from the generated biogas. The study showed that palm oil and municipal solid waste is two potential sources of biomass. The energy efficiency of biogas produced from palm oil residues and municipal solid wastes is 1.70 and 3.33 respectively. Municipal solid wastes have the higher energy efficiency due to less transportation distance and electricity consumption. Despite the inherent uncertainties in the calculations, it can be concluded that the energy potential to use biomass for biogas production is a promising alternative.

  18. Nonadiabatic effects in ultracold molecules via anomalous linear and quadratic Zeeman shifts.

    PubMed

    McGuyer, B H; Osborn, C B; McDonald, M; Reinaudi, G; Skomorowski, W; Moszynski, R; Zelevinsky, T

    2013-12-13

    Anomalously large linear and quadratic Zeeman shifts are measured for weakly bound ultracold 88Sr2 molecules near the intercombination-line asymptote. Nonadiabatic Coriolis coupling and the nature of long-range molecular potentials explain how this effect arises and scales roughly cubically with the size of the molecule. The linear shifts yield nonadiabatic mixing angles of the molecular states. The quadratic shifts are sensitive to nearby opposite f-parity states and exhibit fourth-order corrections, providing a stringent test of a state-of-the-art ab initio model.

  19. Exploring the robustness of a noise correlation resonance in a Zeeman EIT system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Leary, Shannon; Crescimanno, Michael; Strehlow, Henry; Snider, Chad

    2011-05-01

    Using a single diode laser with large phase noise (linewidth ~100 MHz) resonant with Zeeman EIT in rubidium vapor, we examine intensity noise correlations of orthogonally-polarized laser components. A sharp correlation feature (~100 Hz) is shown to be power-broadening resistant at low powers. However, the limitations of this resistance are revealed, with the onset of a power-broadening regime once a threshold power is crossed. Possible mechanisms for this broadening, due to decoherence of the ground state superposition, are experimentally explored and results are compared to a model. Understanding the limits of this noise correlation feature is essential to practical applications such as magnetometry.

  20. Long lifetime and high-fidelity quantum memory of photonic polarization qubit by lifting zeeman degeneracy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhongxiao; Wu, Yuelong; Tian, Long; Chen, Lirong; Zhang, Zhiying; Yan, Zhihui; Li, Shujing; Wang, Hai; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi

    2013-12-13

    Long-lived and high-fidelity memory for a photonic polarization qubit (PPQ) is crucial for constructing quantum networks. We present a millisecond storage system based on electromagnetically induced transparency, in which a moderate magnetic field is applied on a cold-atom cloud to lift Zeeman degeneracy and, thus, the PPQ states are stored as two magnetic-field-insensitive spin waves. Especially, the influence of magnetic-field-sensitive spin waves on the storage performances is almost totally avoided. The measured average fidelities of the polarization states are 98.6% at 200  μs and 78.4% at 4.5 ms, respectively.

  1. Modeling the Zeeman effect in high altitude SSMIS channels for numerical weather prediction profiles: comparing a fast model and a line-by-line model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, R.; Milz, M.; Rayer, P.; Saunders, R.; Bell, W.; Booton, A.; Buehler, S. A.; Eriksson, P.; John, V.

    2015-10-01

    We present a comparison of a reference and a fast radiative transfer model using numerical weather prediction profiles for the Zeeman-affected high altitude Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder channels 19-22. We find that the models agree well for channels 21 and 22 compared to the channels' system noise temperatures (1.9 and 1.3 K, respectively) and the expected profile errors at the affected altitudes (estimated to be around 5 K). For channel 22 there is a 0.5 K average difference between the models, with a standard deviation of 0.24 K for the full set of atmospheric profiles. Same channel, there is 1.2 K in average between the fast model and the sensor measurement, with 1.4 K standard deviation. For channel 21 there is a 0.9 K average difference between the models, with a standard deviation of 0.56 K. Same channel, there is 1.3 K in average between the fast model and the sensor measurement, with 2.4 K standard deviation. We consider the relatively small model differences as a validation of the fast Zeeman effect scheme for these channels. Both channels 19 and 20 have smaller average differences between the models (at below 0.2 K) and smaller standard deviations (at below 0.4 K) when both models use a two-dimensional magnetic field profile. However, when the reference model is switched to using a full three-dimensional magnetic field profile, the standard deviation to the fast model is increased to almost 2 K due to viewing geometry dependencies causing up to ± 7 K differences near the equator. The average differences between the two models remain small despite changing magnetic field configurations. We are unable to compare channels 19 and 20 to sensor measurements due to limited altitude range of the numerical weather prediction profiles. We recommended that numerical weather prediction software using the fast model takes the available fast Zeeman scheme into account for data assimilation of the affected sensor channels to better constrain the upper

  2. Modeling the Zeeman effect in high-altitude SSMIS channels for numerical weather prediction profiles: comparing a fast model and a line-by-line model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Richard; Milz, Mathias; Rayer, Peter; Saunders, Roger; Bell, William; Booton, Anna; Buehler, Stefan A.; Eriksson, Patrick; John, Viju O.

    2016-03-01

    We present a comparison of a reference and a fast radiative transfer model using numerical weather prediction profiles for the Zeeman-affected high-altitude Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder channels 19-22. We find that the models agree well for channels 21 and 22 compared to the channels' system noise temperatures (1.9 and 1.3 K, respectively) and the expected profile errors at the affected altitudes (estimated to be around 5 K). For channel 22 there is a 0.5 K average difference between the models, with a standard deviation of 0.24 K for the full set of atmospheric profiles. Concerning the same channel, there is 1.2 K on average between the fast model and the sensor measurement, with 1.4 K standard deviation. For channel 21 there is a 0.9 K average difference between the models, with a standard deviation of 0.56 K. Regarding the same channel, there is 1.3 K on average between the fast model and the sensor measurement, with 2.4 K standard deviation. We consider the relatively small model differences as a validation of the fast Zeeman effect scheme for these channels. Both channels 19 and 20 have smaller average differences between the models (at below 0.2 K) and smaller standard deviations (at below 0.4 K) when both models use a two-dimensional magnetic field profile. However, when the reference model is switched to using a full three-dimensional magnetic field profile, the standard deviation to the fast model is increased to almost 2 K due to viewing geometry dependencies, causing up to ±7 K differences near the equator. The average differences between the two models remain small despite changing magnetic field configurations. We are unable to compare channels 19 and 20 to sensor measurements due to limited altitude range of the numerical weather prediction profiles. We recommended that numerical weather prediction software using the fast model takes the available fast Zeeman scheme into account for data assimilation of the affected sensor channels to

  3. Infrared Stark and Zeeman spectroscopy of OH–CO: The entrance channel complex along the OH + CO → trans-HOCO reaction pathway

    DOE PAGES

    Brice, Joseph T.; Liang, Tao; Raston, Paul L.; ...

    2016-09-27

    Here, sequential capture of OH and CO by superfluid helium droplets leads exclusively to the formation of the linear, entrance-channel complex, OH-CO. This species is characterized by infrared laser Stark and Zeeman spectroscopy via measurements of the fundamental OH stretching vibration. Experimental dipole moments are in disagreement with ab initio calculations at the equilibrium geometry, indicating large-amplitude motion on the ground state potential energy surface. Vibrational averaging along the hydroxyl bending coordinate recovers 80% of the observed deviation from the equilibrium dipole moment. Inhomogeneous line broadening in the zero-field spectrum is modeled with an effective Hamiltonian approach that aims tomore » account for the anisotropic molecule-helium interaction potential that arises as the OH-CO complex is displaced from the center of the droplet.« less

  4. Extracting renewable energy from a salinity difference using a capacitor.

    PubMed

    Brogioli, Doriano

    2009-07-31

    Completely renewable energy can be produced by using water solutions of different salinity, like river water and sea water. Many different methods are already known, but development is still at prototype stage. Here I report a novel method, based on electric double-layer capacitor technology. Two porous electrodes, immersed in the salt solution, constitute a capacitor. It is first charged, then the salt solution is brought into contact with fresh water. The electrostatic energy increases as the salt concentration of the solution is reduced due to diffusion. This device can be used to turn sources of salinity difference into completely renewable sources of energy. An experimental demonstration is given, and performances and possible improvements are discussed.

  5. Exact solutions for a type of electron pairing model with spin-orbit interactions and Zeeman coupling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Han, Qiang; Shao, L B; Wang, Z D

    2011-07-08

    A type of electron pairing model with spin-orbit interactions or Zeeman coupling is solved exactly in the framework of the Richardson ansatz. Based on the exact solutions for the case with spin-orbit interactions, it is shown rigorously that the pairing symmetry is of the p + ip wave and the ground state possesses time-reversal symmetry, regardless of the strength of the pairing interaction. Intriguingly, how Majorana fermions can emerge in the system is also elaborated. Exact results are illustrated for two systems, respectively, with spin-orbit interactions and Zeeman coupling.

  6. Doppler-Zeeman mapping of the magnetic CP star HD 215441

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khokhlova, V. L.; Vasilchenko, D. V.; Stepanov, V. V.; Tsymbal, V. V.

    1997-07-01

    The method of Vasilchenko et al. (1996) is used to obtain a Doppler-Zeeman map of the magnetic CP star HD 215441. The magnetic field is approximated by a magnetic dipole that is arbitrarily shifted from the star center. The solution of the inverse problem yields the dipole parameters and the maps of Si, Ti, Cr, and Fe abundance anomalies; the coordinates of local magnetic vectors on the star surface are computed. A comparison of the distribution of abundance anomalies and the magnetic-field configuration reveals that in the region where the magnetic-field lines are vertical (near the magnetic pole), Si, Ti and Cr are highly deficient, while the Fe enhancement is strongest. In the regions where the magnetic-field lines are horizontal (near the magnetic equator), Si, Ti and Cr show the greatest overabundance. In these regions, the Fe abundance is also slightly enhanced and exhibits, as it were, a secondary maximum. The factors that limit the accuracy of Doppler-Zeeman mapping are reviewed.

  7. A versatile dual-species Zeeman slower for caesium and ytterbium

    SciT

    Hopkins, S. A., E-mail: s.a.hopkins@durham.ac.uk; Butler, K.; Guttridge, A.

    2016-04-15

    We describe the design, construction, and operation of a versatile dual-species Zeeman slower for both Cs and Yb, which is easily adaptable for use with other alkali metals and alkaline earths. With the aid of analytic models and numerical simulation of decelerator action, we highlight several real-world problems affecting the performance of a slower and discuss effective solutions. To capture Yb into a magneto-optical trap (MOT), we use the broad {sup 1}S{sub 0} to {sup 1}P{sub 1} transition at 399 nm for the slower and the narrow {sup 1}S{sub 0} to {sup 3}P{sub 1} intercombination line at 556 nm formore » the MOT. The Cs MOT and slower both use the D2 line (6{sup 2}S{sub 1/2} to 6{sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) at 852 nm. The slower can be switched between loading Yb or Cs in under 0.1 s. We demonstrate that within a few seconds the Zeeman slower loads more than 10{sup 9} Yb atoms and 10{sup 8} Cs atoms into their respective MOTs. These are ideal starting numbers for further experiments on ultracold mixtures and molecules.« less

  8. Comparison of five different defibrillators using recommended energy protocols.

    PubMed

    Zelinka, M; Buić, D; Zelinka, I

    2007-09-01

    Biphasic defibrillators represent a great step ahead in defibrillation. The manufacturers claim that biphasic defibrillators are able to compensate for differences in transthoracic impedance. That should mean that all patients should be defibrillated with approximately the same amount of current, regardless of their transthoracic impedance. We assessed one monophasic and four biphasic defibrillators. The defibrillators were discharged into resistive loads of 50, 90 and 130 Omega, simulating transthoracic impedance. For each waveform we used energy protocols recommended by the manufacturers and guidelines 2005. Waveforms were observed with on a digitising oscilloscope on a current sensing resistor. We compared the electrical properties of different waveforms and two defibrillators with the same type of waveform. The influence of different impedance on shape, duration and amplitude of current flow were also observed for each waveform. Measurements showed a significant difference in current flow at different impedance loads. At low impedance the mean current is well above expectations for all the defibrillators studied and at high impedance load we observed a big reduction of current amplitude. We can conclude that the compensating mechanisms of biphasic defibrillators are, from electrical point of view, negligible. From the laws of physics it is practically impossible to keep same level of current at given time with same energy at higher impedance. That is why we should reconsider the use of different energy equivalents between patients with different transthoracic impedance and not between different defibrillation impulses.

  9. Computation of Hemagglutinin Free Energy Difference by the Confinement Method

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Hemagglutinin (HA) mediates membrane fusion, a crucial step during influenza virus cell entry. How many HAs are needed for this process is still subject to debate. To aid in this discussion, the confinement free energy method was used to calculate the conformational free energy difference between the extended intermediate and postfusion state of HA. Special care was taken to comply with the general guidelines for free energy calculations, thereby obtaining convergence and demonstrating reliability of the results. The energy that one HA trimer contributes to fusion was found to be 34.2 ± 3.4kBT, similar to the known contributions from other fusion proteins. Although computationally expensive, the technique used is a promising tool for the further energetic characterization of fusion protein mechanisms. Knowledge of the energetic contributions per protein, and of conserved residues that are crucial for fusion, aids in the development of fusion inhibitors for antiviral drugs. PMID:29151344

  10. [Energy power in mountains: difference in metabolism pattern results in different adaption traits in Tibetans].

    PubMed

    Bai, Zhen-Zhong; Jin, Guo-En; Wu-Ren, Tana; Ga, Qin; Ge, Ri-Li

    2012-11-01

    Energy metabolism plays an important role in life survival for species living in high altitude hypoxia condition. Air-breathing organisms require oxygen to create energy. Tibetans are the well-adapted highlanders in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. It was thought that different metabolic approaches could lead to different adaptation traits to high altitude hypoxia. Recently identified hypoxia inducible factors pathway regulators, endothelial PAS domain protein1 (EPAS1)/HIF-2a and PPARA, were involved in decreasing hemoglobin concentrations in Tibetans. Because EPAS1 and PPARA also modulated the energy metabolism during hypoxia, we hypothesized that positive selected EPAS1 and PPARA genes were also involved in unique energy metabolisms in Tibetans. In this brief review, we take a look into genetic determinations to energy metabolisms for hypoxia adaptations traits in Tibetans and mal-adaptive conditions such as high altitude diseases.

  11. Direct computation of general chemical energy differences: Application to ionization potentials, excitation, and bond energies.

    PubMed

    Beste, A; Harrison, R J; Yanai, T

    2006-08-21

    Chemists are mainly interested in energy differences. In contrast, most quantum chemical methods yield the total energy which is a large number compared to the difference and has therefore to be computed to a higher relative precision than would be necessary for the difference alone. Hence, it is desirable to compute energy differences directly, thereby avoiding the precision problem. Whenever it is possible to find a parameter which transforms smoothly from an initial to a final state, the energy difference can be obtained by integrating the energy derivative with respect to that parameter (cf. thermodynamic integration or adiabatic connection methods). If the dependence on the parameter is predominantly linear, accurate results can be obtained by single-point integration. In density functional theory and Hartree-Fock, we applied the formalism to ionization potentials, excitation energies, and chemical bond breaking. Example calculations for ionization potentials and excitation energies showed that accurate results could be obtained with a linear estimate. For breaking bonds, we introduce a nongeometrical parameter which gradually turns the interaction between two fragments of a molecule on. The interaction changes the potentials used to determine the orbitals as well as the constraint on the orbitals to be orthogonal.

  12. Comparing the Chromospheric Response to Different Flare Energy Transport Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, G. S.; Reep, J. W.; Allred, J. C.; Russell, A. J. B.; Leake, J. E.; Tarr, L.

    2017-12-01

    The chromosphere is the origin of the bulk of the enhanced radiative output during solar flares, and so the mechanism(s) by which energy is transported from the release site to the chromosphere is a crucial ingredient in our understanding of flare physics. In the standard model of solar flares, non-thermal particle beams (typically electrons) transport energy from the corona to the chromosphere. While this model has been supported by flare observations, and while flare simulations employing this model have been successful in reproducing the observational characteristics of flares, there have been suggestions that electron beams are not the sole energy transport mechanism at play. Originally proposed by Emslie and Sturrock (1982), and revisited by Fletcher and Hudson (2008) the dissipation of downward propagating Alfvénic waves have been posited as an additional, or alternative, energy transport mechanism. Reep & Russell (2016) and Kerr et al (2016) used the WKB approximation to simulate flares in which energy was transported via Alfven waves. This model has been further developed to more realistically model wave energy transport by including the wave travel time (Reep et al, in prep). We present the radiative response of the solar chromosphere to energy input using both the standard electron beam mechanism, and using the updated Alfven wave mechanism, simulated using the radiation hydrodynamics code RADYN. We will show the formation properties of the Mg II and C II resonance lines, and the Mg II subordinate lines, all of which can be observed by the IRIS spacecraft, and the Ca II 8542 line which can be routinely observed from ground based observatories, commenting on any key differences in the formation of these lines in the different simulations that may be present. Finally we discuss other, less observed, chromospheric spectral lines such as Ly-alpha and He II 304 and their potential as tools to discriminate between the models, in order to determine what future

  13. The difference between energy consumption and energy cost: Modelling energy tariff structures for water resource recovery facilities.

    PubMed

    Aymerich, I; Rieger, L; Sobhani, R; Rosso, D; Corominas, Ll

    2015-09-15

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of incorporating more realistic energy cost models (based on current energy tariff structures) into existing water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) process models when evaluating technologies and cost-saving control strategies. In this paper, we first introduce a systematic framework to model energy usage at WRRFs and a generalized structure to describe energy tariffs including the most common billing terms. Secondly, this paper introduces a detailed energy cost model based on a Spanish energy tariff structure coupled with a WRRF process model to evaluate several control strategies and provide insights into the selection of the contracted power structure. The results for a 1-year evaluation on a 115,000 population-equivalent WRRF showed monthly cost differences ranging from 7 to 30% when comparing the detailed energy cost model to an average energy price. The evaluation of different aeration control strategies also showed that using average energy prices and neglecting energy tariff structures may lead to biased conclusions when selecting operating strategies or comparing technologies or equipment. The proposed framework demonstrated that for cost minimization, control strategies should be paired with a specific optimal contracted power. Hence, the design of operational and control strategies must take into account the local energy tariff. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mapping the absolute magnetic field and evaluating the quadratic Zeeman-effect-induced systematic error in an atom interferometer gravimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qing-Qing; Freier, Christian; Leykauf, Bastian; Schkolnik, Vladimir; Yang, Jun; Krutzik, Markus; Peters, Achim

    2017-09-01

    Precisely evaluating the systematic error induced by the quadratic Zeeman effect is important for developing atom interferometer gravimeters aiming at an accuracy in the μ Gal regime (1 μ Gal =10-8m /s2 ≈10-9g ). This paper reports on the experimental investigation of Raman spectroscopy-based magnetic field measurements and the evaluation of the systematic error in the gravimetric atom interferometer (GAIN) due to quadratic Zeeman effect. We discuss Raman duration and frequency step-size-dependent magnetic field measurement uncertainty, present vector light shift and tensor light shift induced magnetic field measurement offset, and map the absolute magnetic field inside the interferometer chamber of GAIN with an uncertainty of 0.72 nT and a spatial resolution of 12.8 mm. We evaluate the quadratic Zeeman-effect-induced gravity measurement error in GAIN as 2.04 μ Gal . The methods shown in this paper are important for precisely mapping the absolute magnetic field in vacuum and reducing the quadratic Zeeman-effect-induced systematic error in Raman transition-based precision measurements, such as atomic interferometer gravimeters.

  15. Determining photon energy absorption parameters for different soil samples

    PubMed Central

    Kucuk, Nil; Tumsavas, Zeynal; Cakir, Merve

    2013-01-01

    The mass attenuation coefficients (μs) for five different soil samples were measured at 661.6, 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV photon energies. The soil samples were separately irradiated with 137Cs and 60Co (370 kBq) radioactive point gamma sources. The measurements were made by performing transmission experiments with a 2″ × 2″ NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, which had an energy resolution of 7% at 0.662 MeV for the gamma-rays from the decay of 137Cs. The effective atomic numbers (Zeff) and the effective electron densities (Neff) were determined experimentally and theoretically using the obtained μs values for the soil samples. Furthermore, the Zeff and Neff values of the soil samples were computed for the total photon interaction cross-sections using theoretical data over a wide energy region ranging from 1 keV to 15 MeV. The experimental values of the soils were found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values. Sandy loam and sandy clay loam soils demonstrated poor photon energy absorption characteristics. However, clay loam and clay soils had good photon energy absorption characteristics. PMID:23179375

  16. Trends in measurement of solar vector magnetic fields using the Zeeman effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Trends in spectropolarimetry as applied to the problem of Zeeman effect measurement are discussed. The use of detector arrays to improve observing efficiency is obtained. Which required new polarization modulation schemes that match the time required to read detector arrays. Another significant trend is narrowband filters, to improve angular and temporal coverage, and to Fourier transform spectrometers, to improve spectral coverage and precision. Low-polarization designs and improved methods for compensating instrumental polarization were developed. A requirement for high angular resolution suggests using adaptive optical devices to subdue the effects of bad seeing. The ultimate strategy to beat the seeing is to loft the telescope above the atmosphere such as is planned with a 30-cm telescope in 1985 and a 1250-cm telescope in 1990.

  17. Spin-polarized current in Zeeman-split d-wave superconductor/quantum wire junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emamipour, Hamidreza

    2016-06-01

    We study a thin-film quantum wire/unconventional superconductor junction in the presence of an intrinsic exchange field for a d-wave symmetry of the superconducting order parameter. A strongly spin-polarized current is generated due to an interplay between Zeeman splitting of bands and the nodal structure of the superconducting order parameter. We show that strongly spin-polarized current is achievable for both metallic and tunnel junctions. This is because of the presence of a quantum wire (one-dimensional metal) in our junction. While in two-dimensional junctions with both conventional [F. Giazotto, F. Taddei, Phys. Rev. B 77 (2008) 132501] and unconventional [J. Linder, T. Yokoyama, Y. Tanaka, A. Sudbo, Phys. Rev. B 78 (2008) 014516] pairing states, highly spin polarized current takes place just for a tunnel junction. Also, the obtained spin-polarized current is tunable in sign and magnitude in terms of exchange field and applied bias voltage.

  18. Experimental studies of a zeeman-tuned xenon laser differential absorption apparatus.

    PubMed

    Linford, G J

    1973-06-01

    A Zeeman-tuned cw xenon laser differential absorption device is described. The xenon laser was tuned by axial magnetic fields up to 5500 G generated by an unusually large water-cooled dc solenoid. Xenon laser lines at 3.37 micro, 3.51 micro, and 3.99 micro were tuned over ranges of 6 A, 6 A, and 11 A, respectively. To date, this apparatus has been used principally to study the details of formaldehyde absorption lines lying near the 3 .508-micro xenon laser transition. These experiments revealed that the observed absorption spectrum of formaldehyde exhibits a sufficiently unique spectral structure that the present technique may readily be used to measure relative concentrations of formaldehyde in samples of polluted air.

  19. First Application of the Zeeman Technique to Remotely Measure Auroral Electrojet Intensity From Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, J. H.; Gjerloev, J.; Wu, D.; Schwartz, M. J.

    2017-01-01

    Using the O2 118 GHz spectral radiance measurements obtained by the Microwave Limb Sounder instrument on board the Aura spacecraft, we demonstrate that the Zeeman effect can be used to remotely measure the magnetic field perturbations produced by the auroral electrojet near the Hall current closure altitudes. Our derived current-induced magnetic field perturbations are found to be highly correlated with those coincidently obtained by ground magnetometers. These perturbations are also found to be linearly correlated with auroral electrojet strength. The statistically derived polar maps of our measured magnetic field perturbation reveal a spatial-temporal morphology consistent with that produced by the Hall current during substorms and storms. With today's technology, a constellation of compact, low-power, high spectral-resolution cubesats would have the capability to provide high precision and spatiotemporal magnetic field samplings needed for auroral electrojet measurements to gain insights into the spatiotemporal behavior of the auroral electrojet system.

  20. Ultra-narrow EIA spectra of 85Rb atom in a degenerate Zeeman multiplet system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Hafeez Ur; Qureshi, Muhammad Mohsin; Noh, Heung-Ryoul; Kim, Jin-Tae

    2015-05-01

    Ultra-narrow EIA spectral features of thermal 85Rb atom with respect to coupling Rabi frequencies in a degenerate Zeeman multiplet system have been unraveled in the cases of same (σ+ -σ+ , π ∥ π) and orthogonal (σ+ -σ- , π ⊥ π)polarization configurations. The EIA signals with subnatural linewidth of ~ 100 kHz even in the cases of same circular and linear polarizations of coupling and probe laser have been obtained for the first time theoretically and experimentally. In weak coupling power limit of orthogonal polarization configurations, time-dependent transfer of coherence plays major role in the splitting of the EIA spectra while in strong coupling power, Mollow triplet-like mechanism due to strong power bring into broad split feature. The experimental ultra-narrow EIA features using one laser combined with an AOM match well with simulated spectra obtained by using generalized time-dependent optical Bloch equations.

  1. Zeeman effect of the topological surface states revealed by quantum oscillations up to 91 Tesla

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Zuocheng; Wei, Wei; Yang, Fangyuan; ...

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we report quantum oscillation studies on the Bi 2Te 3-xS x topological insulator single crystals in pulsed magnetic fields up to 91 T. For the x = 0.4 sample with the lowest bulk carrier density, the surface and bulk quantum oscillations can be disentangled by combined Shubnikov–de Haas and de Hass–van Alphen oscillations, as well as quantum oscillations in nanometer-thick peeled crystals. At high magnetic fields beyond the bulk quantum limit, our results suggest that the zeroth Landau level of topological surface states is shifted due to the Zeeman effect. The g factor of the topological surfacemore » states is estimated to be between 1.8 and 4.5. Lastly, these observations shed new light on the quantum transport phenomena of topological insulators in ultrahigh magnetic fields.« less

  2. Atmospheric methane measurement instrument using a Zeeman-split He-Ne laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmanus, J. Barry; Kebabian, Paul L.; Kolb, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    The construction of an atmospheric methane measurement instrument based on a Zeeman-split IR He-Ne laser is reported. The laser has a tranverse magnetic field over about 2/3 of its gain length and can oscillate at an (unsplit) frequency (2947.91/cm) centered on a methane absorption line, or on either of two frequencies split by + or - 0.055/cm from the center, with low CH4 absorption. The laser is tuned to dwell sequentially at each frequency, giving two differential absorption measurements in each 46-ms tuning cycle. Atmospheric measurements are made using two multiple pass absorption cells, one with fast (0.75-s) and one with slow (5-s) flow response times. Fluctuations in ambient CH4 of about 20-ppb (rms, 1-s averaging) are detected, with interference fringe effects the dominant noise source. The instrument has operated in a field experiment (NASA GTE/ABLE-3A) in Alaska.

  3. Zeeman structure of red lines of lanthanum observed by laser spectroscopy methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolewski, Ł. M.; Windholz, L.; Kwela, J.

    2017-11-01

    Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) Spectroscopy and Optogalvanic (OG) Spectroscopy were used for the investigation of the Zeeman hyperfine (hf) structures of 27 spectral lines of La I in the wavelength range between 633.86 and 667.54 nm. As a source of free La atoms a hollow cathode discharge lamp was used. Spectra were recorded in the presence of a relatively weak magnetic field (about 800G) produced by a permanent magnet, for two linear polarization directions of the exciting laser beam. As a result of the measurements, we determined for the first time the Landé gJ- factors of 18 levels of La I. The Landé gJ- factors of 12 other levels were re-investigated and determined with higher accuracy.

  4. Energy expenditure and sex differences of golf playing.

    PubMed

    Zunzer, Stefan C; von Duvillard, Serge P; Tschakert, Gerhard; Mangus, Brent; Hofmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the average physical intensity and energy expenditure during a single round of golf on hilly and flat courses in a heterogeneous group of healthy men and women of varying age and golf handicap. Forty-two males and 24 females completed an incremental cycle-ergometer exercise test to determine exercise performance markers. The heart rate (HR), duration, distance, walking speed, ascent and descent were measured via a global positioning system (GPS)/HR monitor during the game and energy expenditure was calculated. Playing 9 or 18-holes of golf, independent of the golf course design, the average HR was not significantly different between sexes or the subgroups. The intensities were light with respect to the percentage of maximal HR and metabolic equivalents of task (METs). Total energy expenditure of all participants was not significantly different for hilly (834 ± 344 kcal) vs. flat courses (833 ± 295 kcal) whereas male players expended significantly greater energy than female players (926 ± 292 vs. 556 ± 180 kcal), but did not have significantly greater relative energy expenditure (2.8 ± 0.8 vs. 2.2 ± 0.7 METs). As a high volume physical activity, playing golf is suggested to yield health benefits. Since the intensity was well below recommended limits, golf may have health related benefits unrelated to the intensity level of the activity.

  5. Differences in energy capacities between tennis players and runners.

    PubMed

    Novak, Dario; Vucetić, Vlatko; Zugaj, Sanja

    2013-05-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine differences between elite athletes and tennis players in order to provide a clearer picture regarding the energy demands in modern tennis. Forty-eight (48) athletes and 24 tennis players from Croatian national leagues were compared in morphological and physiological parameters of an all-out incremental treadmill test with gas exchange measurements. Tennis players' HRmax (192.96+/-7.75 bpm) shows values that are most different to 400-meters sprinters (200.13+/-6.95 bpm). Maximum running speed of tennis players on the treadmill (vmax) is no different with the speed achieved by sprinters, while there are significant differences among other athletes. Values in running speed at anaerobic threshold (vAnT) show no statistically significant difference with the values for athlete sprinters and 400-m sprinters. Values of RvO2max for tennis players indicate significant similarities with athlete sprinters and 400-m sprinters while the values of RvO2AnT are nearly identical with the values for sprinters and show no statistically significant differences (p<0.05). The results indicate that values achieved by tennis players approximate most different those of the middle and long distance runners. This singles out the possible importance of the anaerobic capacity and the high level of sprint endurance in tennis players. Knowing these characteristics is the basis for planning and implementing training systems that will enable the increase and optimal usage of energy capacities of tennis players in possibly improving sports results.

  6. SPECIES DETERMINATION OF ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS USING ZEEMAN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY WITH LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    SciT

    Koizumi, H.; Hadeishi, T.; McLaughlin, R.

    1978-01-01

    Over the past several years we have devised and expanded the capabilities of Zeeman atomic absorption spectroscopy (ZAA). Using this technique, trace elements in a complex matrix can be directly analyzed with high accuracy even when there is only one atom of interest contained in several million atoms of the host material. Quantities in the nanogram, or in some cases picogram, range can be determined within IS seconds for more than 30 elements. Because of its high selectivity and high sensitivity, ZAA can be used as a new technique for organometallic species determination by interfacing with a high pressure liquidmore » chromatograph (HPLC). The HPLC separates various molecular species. Different kinds of mobil solvents can be directly introduced in the ZAA detection system; even organic solvents or high concentration salt solutions. Then, organometallic species in the ppb range are separately detected according to their retention times. This technique has a much larger field of application than HPLC coupled with conventional AA. The advantages of the ZAA technique are described in a recent publication. In this case, a steady magnetic field at 11 kgauss is applied to the sample vapor perpendicular to the incident light beam. The difference in absorption of the polarized constituents P{perpendicular} and P{parallel} is proportional to the atomic density, but is not affected by the various kind of spectral interferences caused by thermal decomposition of the eluants. The recently developed HPLC technique has many advantages over gas chromatography. Nonvolatile, polar, thermally unstable molecules or high molecular weight compounds can be separated. In the present system, the main requirement is that the solute be soluble in the mobile solvent. A demonstration of the operation of this system is provided by the analysis of a mixture of vitamin B12 and Co(No{sub 3}){sub 2}. As shown in Figure 1, vitamin B12 has a Co in its functional center. Sample 1 contained Co of 0

  7. Testing and evaluation of different energy storage devices for piezoelectric energy harvesting under road conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, Pratheek

    The increasing needs in green technology have propelled the rapid development in energy conversion and the advancement of electric energy storage systems. A viable storage technology is needed to store intermittent electrical energy in different electronic applications. In this thesis, recent progress on the chemistry and design of batteries is summarized with their challenges and improvements. Along with that, electrolytic capacitors are also reviewed with their types, advantages and disadvantages of each in short. Super capacitors having higher surface area and thinner dielectrics than conventional capacitors along with hybrid capacitors, are discussed in detail. The potential of a hybrid capacitor, Ni(OH)2/ Active Carbon, compared with Ni-Cd batteries and electrolytic capacitors in the application of energy storage for high way energy harvesting has been explored in this work. Both the battery and the hybrid capacitor has been tested under various experimental conditions and their properties in relation to their chemical compositions are compared. The results obtained from the experiments have been analyzed and the most suitable energy storage devices have been selected with their application potential evaluated before drawing conclusion reported in this thesis.

  8. New 30-50 Ghz Wideband Receiver for Nobeyama 45-M Telescope with Capability to Observe Three Zeeman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yau De

    2018-01-01

    Zeeman measurement is the only tool to probe the magnetic field strengths directly. A new receiver covering 30-50 GHz frequency range is proposed for Nobeyama 45-m telescope based on the design of the ALMA Band 1 receiver. With dual linear polarization feed, wide IF bandwidth and state-of-the-art noise performance, it is capable to observe three Zeeman transitions (SO at 30.0 GHz and CCS at 33.7 and 45.4 GHz) toward the pre-protostellar cores simultaneously. This feature will not only increase the survey efficiency but also provide a reliable tool to calibrate the unwanted instrumental cross-polarization. Slim receiver layout also allows easy expansion to form focal plane array. We will present the receiver design and the current status of the pro

  9. Comparing Zeeman qubits to hyperfine qubits in the context of the surface code: +174Yb and +171Yb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Natalie C.; Brown, Kenneth R.

    2018-05-01

    Many systems used for quantum computing possess additional states beyond those defining the qubit. Leakage out of the qubit subspace must be considered when designing quantum error correction codes. Here we consider trapped ion qubits manipulated by Raman transitions. Zeeman qubits do not suffer from leakage errors but are sensitive to magnetic fields to first order. Hyperfine qubits can be encoded in clock states that are insensitive to magnetic fields to first order, but spontaneous scattering during the Raman transition can lead to leakage. Here we compare a Zeeman qubit (+174Yb) to a hyperfine qubit (+171Yb) in the context of the surface code. We find that the number of physical qubits required to reach a specific logical qubit error can be reduced by using +174Yb if the magnetic field can be stabilized with fluctuations smaller than 10 μ G .

  10. Double binding energy differences: Mean-field or pairing effect?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Chong

    2012-10-01

    In this Letter we present a systematic analysis on the average interaction between the last protons and neutrons in atomic nuclei, which can be extracted from the double differences of nuclear binding energies. The empirical average proton-neutron interaction Vpn thus derived from experimental data can be described in a very simple form as the interplay of the nuclear mean field and the pairing interaction. It is found that the smooth behavior as well as the local fluctuations of the Vpn in even-even nuclei with N ≠ Z are dominated by the contribution from the proton-neutron monopole interactions. A strong additional contribution from the isoscalar monopole interaction and isovector proton-neutron pairing interaction is seen in the Vpn for even-even N = Z nuclei and for the adjacent odd-A nuclei with one neutron or proton being subtracted.

  11. Resting energy expenditure changes with weight loss: racial differences.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuewen; You, Tongjian; Lenchik, Leon; Nicklas, Barbara J

    2010-01-01

    It is controversial whether weight loss reduces resting energy expenditure (REE) to a different magnitude in black and white women. This aim of this study was to determine whether changes in REE with weight loss were different between black and white postmenopausal women, and whether changes in body composition (including regional lean and fat mass) were associated with REE changes within each race. Black (n = 26) and white (n = 65) women (age = 58.2 +/- 5.4 years, 25 < BMI < 40 kg/m(2)) completed a 20-week weight-loss intervention. Body weight, lean and fat mass (total body, limb, and trunk) via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and REE via indirect calorimetry were measured before and after the intervention. We found that baseline REE positively correlated with body weight, lean and fat mass (total, limb, and trunk) in white women only (P < 0.05 for all). The intervention decreased absolute REE in both races similarly (1,279 +/- 162 to 1,204 +/- 169 kcal/day in blacks; 1,315 +/- 200 to 1,209 +/- 185 kcal/day in whites). REE remained decreased after adjusting for changes in total or limb lean mass in black (1,302-1,182 kcal/day, P = 0.043; 1,298-1,144 kcal/day, P = 0.006, respectively), but not in white, women. Changes in REE correlated with changes in body weight (partial r = 0.277) and fat mass (partial r = 0.295, 0.275, and 0.254 for total, limb, and trunk, respectively; P < 0.05) independent of baseline REE in white women. Therefore, with weight loss, REE decreased in proportion to the amount of fat and lean mass lost in white, but not black, women.

  12. Isotope dependence of the Zeeman effect in lithium-like calcium

    PubMed Central

    Köhler, Florian; Blaum, Klaus; Block, Michael; Chenmarev, Stanislav; Eliseev, Sergey; Glazov, Dmitry A.; Goncharov, Mikhail; Hou, Jiamin; Kracke, Anke; Nesterenko, Dmitri A.; Novikov, Yuri N.; Quint, Wolfgang; Minaya Ramirez, Enrique; Shabaev, Vladimir M.; Sturm, Sven; Volotka, Andrey V.; Werth, Günter

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic moment μ of a bound electron, generally expressed by the g-factor μ=−g μB s ħ−1 with μB the Bohr magneton and s the electron's spin, can be calculated by bound-state quantum electrodynamics (BS-QED) to very high precision. The recent ultra-precise experiment on hydrogen-like silicon determined this value to eleven significant digits, and thus allowed to rigorously probe the validity of BS-QED. Yet, the investigation of one of the most interesting contribution to the g-factor, the relativistic interaction between electron and nucleus, is limited by our knowledge of BS-QED effects. By comparing the g-factors of two isotopes, it is possible to cancel most of these contributions and sensitively probe nuclear effects. Here, we present calculations and experiments on the isotope dependence of the Zeeman effect in lithium-like calcium ions. The good agreement between the theoretical predicted recoil contribution and the high-precision g-factor measurements paves the way for a new generation of BS-QED tests. PMID:26776466

  13. π Berry phase and Zeeman splitting of Weyl semimetal TaP

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, J.; Liu, J. Y.; Graf, D.; ...

    2016-01-04

    Here, the recent breakthrough in the discovery of Weyl fermions in monopnictide semimetals provides opportunities to explore the exotic properties of relativistic fermions in condensed matter. The chiral anomaly-induced negative magnetoresistance and π Berry phase are two fundamental transport properties associated with the topological characteristics of Weyl semimetals. Since monopnictide semimetals are multiple-band systems, resolving clear Berry phase for each Fermi pocket remains a challenge. Here we report the determination of Berry phases of multiple Fermi pockets of Weyl semimetal TaP through high field quantum transport measurements. We show our TaP single crystal has the signatures of a Weyl state,more » including light effective quasiparticle masses, ultrahigh carrier mobility, as well as negative longitudinal magnetoresistance. Furthermore, we have generalized the Lifshitz-Kosevich formula for multiple-band Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations and extracted the Berry phases of π for multiple Fermi pockets in TaP through the direct fits of the modified LK formula to the SdH oscillations. In high fields, we also probed signatures of Zeeman splitting, from which the Landé g-factor is extracted.« less

  14. Effects of Rashba spin-orbit coupling, Zeeman splitting and gyrotropy in two-dimensional cavity polaritons under the influence of the Landau quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskalenko, Sveatoslav A.; Podlesny, Igor V.; Dumanov, Evgheni V.; Liberman, Michael A.

    2015-09-01

    We consider the energy spectrum of the two-dimensional cavity polaritons under the influence of a strong magnetic and electric fields perpendicular to the surface of the GaAs-type quantum wells (QWs) with p-type valence band embedded into the resonators. As the first step in this direction the Landau quantization (LQ) of the electrons and heavy-holes (hh) was investigated taking into account the Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC) with third-order chirality terms for hh and with nonparabolicity terms in their dispersion low including as well the Zeeman splitting (ZS) effects. The nonparabolicity term is proportional to the strength of the electric field and was introduced to avoid the collapse of the semiconductor energy gap under the influence of the third order chirality terms. The exact solutions for the eigenfunctions and eigenenergies were obtained using the Rashba method [E.I. Rashba, Fiz. Tverd. Tela 2, 1224 (1960) [Sov. Phys. Solid State 2, 1109 (1960)

  15. Practical recursive solution of degenerate Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation theory and application to high-order calculations of the Zeeman effect in hydrogen

    SciT

    Silverstone, H.J.; Moats, R.K.

    1981-04-01

    With the aim of high-order calculations, a new recursive solution for the degenerate Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation-theory wave function and energy has been derived. The final formulas, chi/sup (N/)/sub sigma/ = R/sup () -sigma/summation/sup N/-1/sub k/ = 0 H/sup (sigma+1+k/)/sub sigma+1/chi/sup (N/-1-k), E/sup (N/+sigma) = <0Vertical BarH/sup (N/+sigma)/sub sigma+1/Vertical Bar0> + < 0Vertical Barsummation/sup N/-2/sub k/ = 0H/sup (sigma+1+k/)/sub sigma+1/ Vertical Barchi/sup (N/-1-k)>,which involve new Hamiltonian-related operators H/sup (sigma+k/)/sub sigma/ and H/sup( sigma+k/)/sub sigma/, strongly resemble the standard nondegenerate recursive formulas. As an illustration, the perturbed energy coefficients for the 3s-3d/sub 0/ states of hydrogen in the Zeeman effect have been calculatedmore » recursively through 87th order in the square of the magnetic field. Our treatment is compared with that of Hirschfelder and Certain (J. Chem. Phys. 60, 1118 (1974)), and some relative advantages of each are pointed out.« less

  16. Interstellar Isomers: The Importance of Bonding Energy Differences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remijan, Anthony J.; Hollis, J. M.; Lovas, F. J.; Plusquellic, D. F.; Jewell, P. R.

    2005-01-01

    We present strong detections of methyl cyanide (CH3CN), vinyl cyanide (CH2CHCN), ethyl cyanide (CH3CH2CN) and cyanodiacetylene (HC4CN) molecules with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) toward the Sgr B2(N) molecular cloud. Attempts to detect the corresponding isocyanide isomers were only successful in the case of methyl isocyanide (CH3NC) for its J(sub K) = 1(sub 0) - 0(sub 0) transition, which is the first interstellar report of this line. To determine the spatial distribution of CH3NC, we used archival Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland Association (BIMA) array data for the J(sub K) = 1(sub 0) - 0(sub 0) transitions but no emission was detected. From ab initio calculations, the bonding energy difference between the cyanide and isocyanide molecules is greater than 8500 per centimeter (greater than 12,000 K). Thus, cyanides are the more stable isomers and would likely be formed more preferentially over their isocyanide counterparts. That we detect CH3NC emission with a single antenna (Gaussian beamsize(omega(sub B))=1723 arcsec(sup 2)) but not with an interferometer (omega(sub b)=192 arcsec(sup 2)), strongly suggests that CH3NC has a widespread spatial distribution toward the Sgr B2(N) region. Other investigators have shown that CH3CN is present both in the LMH hot core of Sgr B2(N) and in the surrounding medium, while we have shown that CH3NC appears to be deficient in the LMH hot core. Thus, largescale, non-thermal processes in the surrounding medium may account for the conversion of CH3CN to CH3NC while the LMH hot core, which is dominated by thermal processes, does not produce a significant amount of CH3NC. Ice analog experiments by other investigators have shown that radiation bombardment of CH3CN can produce CH3NC, thus supporting our observations. We conclude that isomers separated by such large bonding energy differences are distributed in different interstellar environments, making the evaluation of column density ratios between such isomers irrelevant unless it can

  17. Activation energy of extracellular enzymes in soils from different biomes.

    PubMed

    Steinweg, J Megan; Jagadamma, Sindhu; Frerichs, Joshua; Mayes, Melanie A

    2013-01-01

    Enzyme dynamics are being incorporated into soil carbon cycling models and accurate representation of enzyme kinetics is an important step in predicting belowground nutrient dynamics. A scarce number of studies have measured activation energy (Ea) in soils and fewer studies have measured Ea in arctic and tropical soils, or in subsurface soils. We determined the Ea for four typical lignocellulose degrading enzymes in the A and B horizons of seven soils covering six different soil orders. We also elucidated which soil properties predicted any measurable differences in Ea. β-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, phenol oxidase and peroxidase activities were measured at five temperatures, 4, 21, 30, 40, and 60°C. Ea was calculated using the Arrhenius equation. β-glucosidase and cellobiohydrolase Ea values for both A and B horizons in this study were similar to previously reported values, however we could not make a direct comparison for B horizon soils because of the lack of data. There was no consistent relationship between hydrolase enzyme Ea and the environmental variables we measured. Phenol oxidase was the only enzyme that had a consistent positive relationship between Ea and pH in both horizons. The Ea in the arctic and subarctic zones for peroxidase was lower than the hydrolases and phenol oxidase values, indicating peroxidase may be a rate limited enzyme in environments under warming conditions. By including these six soil types we have increased the number of soil oxidative enzyme Ea values reported in the literature by 50%. This study is a step towards better quantifying enzyme kinetics in different climate zones.

  18. A Comparison between Different Methods of Estimating Anaerobic Energy Production

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Erik P.; McGawley, Kerry

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The present study aimed to compare four methods of estimating anaerobic energy production during supramaximal exercise. Methods: Twenty-one junior cross-country skiers competing at a national and/or international level were tested on a treadmill during uphill (7°) diagonal-stride (DS) roller-skiing. After a 4-minute warm-up, a 4 × 4-min continuous submaximal protocol was performed followed by a 600-m time trial (TT). For the maximal accumulated O2 deficit (MAOD) method the V.O2-speed regression relationship was used to estimate the V.O2 demand during the TT, either including (4+Y, method 1) or excluding (4-Y, method 2) a fixed Y-intercept for baseline V.O2. The gross efficiency (GE) method (method 3) involved calculating metabolic rate during the TT by dividing power output by submaximal GE, which was then converted to a V.O2 demand. An alternative method based on submaximal energy cost (EC, method 4) was also used to estimate V.O2 demand during the TT. Results: The GE/EC remained constant across the submaximal stages and the supramaximal TT was performed in 185 ± 24 s. The GE and EC methods produced identical V.O2 demands and O2 deficits. The V.O2 demand was ~3% lower for the 4+Y method compared with the 4-Y and GE/EC methods, with corresponding O2 deficits of 56 ± 10, 62 ± 10, and 63 ± 10 mL·kg−1, respectively (P < 0.05 for 4+Y vs. 4-Y and GE/EC). The mean differences between the estimated O2 deficits were −6 ± 5 mL·kg−1 (4+Y vs. 4-Y, P < 0.05), −7 ± 1 mL·kg−1 (4+Y vs. GE/EC, P < 0.05) and −1 ± 5 mL·kg−1 (4-Y vs. GE/EC), with respective typical errors of 5.3, 1.9, and 6.0%. The mean difference between the O2 deficit estimated with GE/EC based on the average of four submaximal stages compared with the last stage was 1 ± 2 mL·kg−1, with a typical error of 3.2%. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate a disagreement in the O2 deficits estimated using current methods. In addition, the findings suggest that a valid estimate of

  19. Excitation energy shift and size difference of low-energy levels in p -shell Λ hypernuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanada-En'yo, Yoshiko

    2018-02-01

    Structures of low-lying 0 s -orbit Λ states in p -shell Λ hypernuclei (ZAΛ) are investigated by applying microscopic cluster models for nuclear structure and a single-channel folding potential model for a Λ particle. For A >10 systems, the size reduction of core nuclei is small, and the core polarization effect is regarded as a higher-order perturbation in the Λ binding. The present calculation qualitatively describes the systematic trend of experimental data for excitation energy change from Z-1A to ZAΛ, in A >10 systems. The energy change shows a clear correlation with the nuclear size difference between the ground and excited states. In Li7Λ and Be9Λ, the significant shrinkage of cluster structures occurs consistently with the prediction of other calculations.

  20. Comparative study of different waste biomass for energy application.

    PubMed

    Motghare, Kalyani A; Rathod, Ajit P; Wasewar, Kailas L; Labhsetwar, Nitin K

    2016-01-01

    Biomass is available in many varieties, consisting of crops as well as its residues from agriculture, forestry, and the agro-industry. These different biomass find their way as freely available fuel in rural areas but are also responsible for air pollution. Emissions from such solid fuel combustion to indoor, regional and global air pollution largely depend on fuel types, combustion device, fuel properties, fuel moisture, amount of air supply for combustion and also on climatic conditions. In both economic and environment point of view, gasification constitutes an attractive alternative for the use of biomass as a fuel, than the combustion process. A large number of studies have been reported on a variety of biomass and agriculture residues for their possible use as renewable fuels. Considering the area specific agriculture residues and biomass availability and related transportation cost, it is important to explore various local biomass for their suitability as a fuel. Maharashtra (India) is the mainstay for the agriculture and therefore, produces a significant amount of waste biomass. The aim of the present research work is to analyze different local biomass wastes for their proximate analysis and calorific value to assess their potential as fuel. The biomass explored include cotton waste, leaf, soybean waste, wheat straw, rice straw, coconut coir, forest residues, etc. mainly due to their abundance. The calorific value and the proximate analysis of the different components of the biomass helped in assessing its potential for utilization in different industries. It is observed that ash content of these biomass species is quite low, while the volatile matter content is high as compared to Indian Coal. This may be appropriate for briquetting and thus can be used as a domestic fuel in biomass based gasifier cook stoves. Utilizing these biomass species as fuel in improved cook-stove and domestic gasifier cook-stoves would be a perspective step in the rural energy and

  1. Energy Use and Quality of Foods Cooked by Different Appliances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odland, Dianne; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The authors compared energy consumption, cooking time, and quality of five foods cooked using electric range surface units and oven, induction cooktop, electric frypan, microwave oven, and toaster oven. The induction cooktop was among the most energy conserving. For most products, cooking treatment had little impact on quality. (Author/CH)

  2. On the validity of Zeeman's classification for three dimensional competitive differential equations with linearly determined nullclines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jifa; Niu, Lei

    2017-12-01

    We study three dimensional competitive differential equations with linearly determined nullclines and prove that they always have 33 stable nullcline classes in total. Each class is given in terms of inequalities on the intrinsic growth rates and competitive coefficients and is independent of generating functions. The common characteristics are that every trajectory converges to an equilibrium in classes 1-25, that Hopf bifurcations do not occur within class 32, and that there is always a heteroclinic cycle in class 27. Nontrivial dynamical behaviors, such as the existence and multiplicity of limit cycles, only may occur in classes 26-33, but these nontrivial dynamical behaviors depend on generating functions. We show that Hopf bifurcation can occur within each of classes 26-31 for continuous-time Leslie/Gower system and Ricker system, the same as Lotka-Volterra system; but it only occurs in classes 26 and 27 for continuous-time Atkinson/Allen system and Gompertz system. There is an apparent distinction between Lotka-Volterra system and Leslie/Gower system, Ricker system, Atkinson/Allen system, and Gompertz system with the identical growth rate. Lotka-Volterra system with the identical growth rate has no limit cycle, but admits a center on the carrying simplex in classes 26 and 27. But Leslie/Gower system, Ricker system, Atkinson/Allen system, and Gompertz system with the identical growth rate do possess limit cycles. At last, we provide examples to show that Leslie/Gower system and Ricker system can also admit two limit cycles. This general classification greatly widens applications of Zeeman's method and makes it possible to investigate the existence and multiplicity of limit cycles, centers and stability of heteroclinic cycles for three dimensional competitive systems with linearly determined nullclines, as done in planar systems.

  3. Energy Expenditure of Trotting Gait Under Different Gait Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xian-Bao; Gao, Feng

    2017-07-01

    Robots driven by batteries are clean, quiet, and can work indoors or in space. However, the battery endurance is a great problem. A new gait parameter design energy saving strategy to extend the working hours of the quadruped robot is proposed. A dynamic model of the robot is established to estimate and analyze the energy expenditures during trotting. Given a trotting speed, optimal stride frequency and stride length can minimize the energy expenditure. However, the relationship between the speed and the optimal gait parameters is nonlinear, which is difficult for practical application. Therefore, a simplified gait parameter design method for energy saving is proposed. A critical trotting speed of the quadruped robot is found and can be used to decide the gait parameters. When the robot is travelling lower than this speed, it is better to keep a constant stride length and change the cycle period. When the robot is travelling higher than this speed, it is better to keep a constant cycle period and change the stride length. Simulations and experiments on the quadruped robot show that by using the proposed gait parameter design approach, the energy expenditure can be reduced by about 54% compared with the 100 mm stride length under 500 mm/s speed. In general, an energy expenditure model based on the gait parameter of the quadruped robot is built and the trotting gait parameters design approach for energy saving is proposed.

  4. Energy Inputs Uncertainty: Total Amount, Distribution and Correlation Between Different Forms of Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deng, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Describes solar energy inputs contributing to ionospheric and thermospheric weather processes, including total energy amounts, distributions and the correlation between particle precipitation and Poynting flux.

  5. The importance of the different kinds of energy sources for energy future of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Yusuf Alper; Aladağ, Canan

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays, the need of energy has been increasing day by day with the population growth and the advancements of technology. In this study, the current state of nuclear, wind and solar energy on the worldwide has been generally investigated. The general assessments have been made based on Turkey's energy potential and the evaluation situation of this potential. The current political structures of countries are generally assessed and under this policy, the last situation and the latest implemented innovations are given. Turkey's energy demand is constantly increasing and Turkey is a country that needs to energy imports. This is a need for new energy sources to meet the growing need for energy. Nuclear, wind and solar energy are the new sources of energy to the fore in our country recently. In this study is given general information on the usage of energy sources of making and some deficiencies were been emphasized by political considerations in this regard.

  6. Orientation observed by Zeeman spectra of dissociated atoms and the interference in photoexcitations

    SciT

    Kimura, Yasuyuki; Kasahara, Shunji; Kato, Hajime

    2003-06-01

    In a magnetic field, the wave number of a pump laser light polarized along the field was fixed to the isolated Cs{sub 2}D {sup 1}{sigma}{sub u}{sup +}(v=46, J=54)(leftarrow)X {sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +}(v=0, J=55) line, and the excitation spectrum of the dissociated Cs(6p {sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) atoms was measured by scanning the wave number of a probe laser light polarized perpendicular to the field. The population of each sublevel 6p {sup 2}P{sub 3/2,m{sub j}} of the dissociated atoms was determined from the line intensities in the m{sub j}-resolved excitation spectrum. The unequal population between the 6p {sup 2}P{sub 3/2,+verticalbarm{sub j}}{sub verticalbar}more » and 6p {sup 2}P{sub 3/2,-verticalbarm{sub j}}{sub verticalbar} levels (atomic orientation) was observed and it was enhanced as the magnetic-field strength was increased. The atomic orientation is shown to be induced by the interference between the indirect predissociation, which occurs by a combination of the spin-orbit coupling of the D {sup 1}{sigma}{sub u}{sup +} state with the (2){sup 3}{pi}{sub 0u} state and the L-uncoupling and Zeeman interactions between the (2){sup 3}{pi}{sub 0u} and dissociative (2){sup 3}{sigma}{sub u}{sup +} states, and the dissociation following a direct excitation to the (2){sup 3}{sigma}{sub u}{sup +} state, which is allowed by spin-orbit coupling of the (2){sup 3}{sigma}{sub u}{sup +} state with the B {sup 1}{pi}{sub u} state. It is demonstrated that the atomic orientation is produced by the photodissociation in the presence of an external magnetic field even when all degenerated molecular M=J,...,0,...,-J sublevels are excited by a light polarized linearly along the field.« less

  7. Simulation of energy- efficient building prototype using different insulating materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouhaibi, Salma; Belouaggadia, Naoual; Lbibb, Rachid; Ezzine, Mohammed

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this work is to analyze the energetic efficiency of an individual building including an area of 130 m2 multi-zone, located in the region of FEZ which is characterized by a very hot and dry climate in summer and a quite cold one in winter, by incorporating insulating materials. This study was performed using TRNSYS V16 simulation software during a typical year of the FEZ region. Our simulation consists in developing a comparative study of two types of polystyrene and silica-aerogel insulation materials, in order to determine the best thermal performance. The results show that the thermal insulation of the building envelope is among the most effective solutions that give a significant reduction in energy requirements. Similarly, the use of silica-aerogels gives a good thermal performance, and therefore a good energy gain.

  8. Consumer Attitudes About Renewable Energy. Trends and Regional Differences

    SciT

    Bird, Lori; Sumner, Jenny

    2011-04-01

    The data in this report are taken from Natural Marketing Institute's (NMI's) Lifestyles of Health and Sustainability Consumer Trends Database. Created in 2002, the syndicated consumer database contains responses from 2,000 to 4,000 nationally representative U.S. adults (meaning the demographics of the sample are consistent with U.S. Census findings) each year. NMI used the database to analyze consumer attitudes and behavior related to renewable energy and to update previously conducted related research. Specifically, this report will explore consumer awareness, concerns, perceived benefits, knowledge of purchase options, and usage of renewable energy as well as provide regional comparisons and trends overmore » time.« less

  9. Consumer Attitudes About Renewable Energy: Trends and Regional Differences

    SciT

    Natural Marketing Institute, Harleysville, Pennsylvania

    The data in this report are taken from Natural Marketing Institute's (NMI's) Lifestyles of Health and Sustainability Consumer Trends Database. Created in 2002, the syndicated consumer database contains responses from 2,000 to 4,000 nationally representative U.S. adults (meaning the demographics of the sample are consistent with U.S. Census findings) each year. NMI used the database to analyze consumer attitudes and behavior related to renewable energy and to update previously conducted related research. Specifically, this report will explore consumer awareness, concerns, perceived benefits, knowledge of purchase options, and usage of renewable energy as well as provide regional comparisons and trends overmore » time.« less

  10. Cow's milk quality and energy value during different lactation stages.

    PubMed

    Salamończyk, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    The quality of dairy products, raw milk in particular, depends on many factors. Low bacterial and somatic cell counts are basic determinants of the appropriate raw milk quality. The objective of the work was to assess the effect of selected factors, that is, the age of cows and their daily milk performance, on cytological quality (somatic cell count) and energy value of milk produced at individual stages of lactation. Somatic cell count and energy value of cow's milk were assessed. A total of 229 792 milk samples were examined. Data for analysis were taken from milk records of 350 dairy herds. It was demonstrated that, of all the lactations studied, the fi rst lactation (from calving to the 100th day of lactation) was characterised by the highest daily milk performance (25.1 kg) and the lowest somatic cell count (356 thous./1 ml), fat, protein and dry matter contents (4.06, 2.96 and 12.41%, respectively) and milk calorific value (732 kcal/kg). The highest energy value was recorded in cow's milk produced towards the end of lactation, that is from day 300 till the end of lactation (842 kcal/kg). High milk calorific value in late lactation and high fat and protein contents were accompanied by low raw milk quality.

  11. Demonstration of the frequency offset errors introduced by an incorrect setting of the Zeeman/magnetic field adjustment on the cesium beam frequency standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufmann, D. C.

    1976-01-01

    The fine frequency setting of a cesium beam frequency standard is accomplished by adjusting the C field control with the appropriate Zeeman frequency applied to the harmonic generator. A novice operator in the field, even when using the correct Zeeman frequency input, may mistakenly set the C field to any one of seven major Beam I peaks (fingers) represented by the Ramsey curve. This can result in frequency offset errors of as much as 2.5 parts in ten to the tenth. The effects of maladjustment are demonstrated and suggestions are discussed on how to avoid the subtle traps associated with C field adjustments.

  12. Suppression of the Nonlinear Zeeman Effect and Heading Error in Earth-Field-Range Alkali-Vapor Magnetometers.

    PubMed

    Bao, Guzhi; Wickenbrock, Arne; Rochester, Simon; Zhang, Weiping; Budker, Dmitry

    2018-01-19

    The nonlinear Zeeman effect can induce splitting and asymmetries of magnetic-resonance lines in the geophysical magnetic-field range. This is a major source of "heading error" for scalar atomic magnetometers. We demonstrate a method to suppress the nonlinear Zeeman effect and heading error based on spin locking. In an all-optical synchronously pumped magnetometer with separate pump and probe beams, we apply a radio-frequency field which is in phase with the precessing magnetization. This results in the collapse of the multicomponent asymmetric magnetic-resonance line with ∼100  Hz width in the Earth-field range into a single peak with a width of 22 Hz, whose position is largely independent of the orientation of the sensor within a range of orientation angles. The technique is expected to be broadly applicable in practical magnetometry, potentially boosting the sensitivity and accuracy of Earth-surveying magnetometers by increasing the magnetic-resonance amplitude, decreasing its width, and removing the important and limiting heading-error systematic.

  13. Electron Flux Models for Different Energies at Geostationary Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boynton, R. J.; Balikhin, M. A.; Sibeck, D. G.; Walker, S. N.; Billings, S. A.; Ganushkina, N.

    2016-01-01

    Forecast models were derived for energetic electrons at all energy ranges sampled by the third-generation Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). These models were based on Multi-Input Single-Output Nonlinear Autoregressive Moving Average with Exogenous inputs methodologies. The model inputs include the solar wind velocity, density and pressure, the fraction of time that the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) was southward, the IMF contribution of a solar wind-magnetosphere coupling function proposed by Boynton et al. (2011b), and the Dst index. As such, this study has deduced five new 1 h resolution models for the low-energy electrons measured by GOES (30-50 keV, 50-100 keV, 100-200 keV, 200-350 keV, and 350-600 keV) and extended the existing >800 keV and >2 MeV Geostationary Earth Orbit electron fluxes models to forecast at a 1 h resolution. All of these models were shown to provide accurate forecasts, with prediction efficiencies ranging between 66.9% and 82.3%.

  14. Effects of Consuming Preloads with Different Energy Density and Taste Quality on Energy Intake and Postprandial Blood Glucose.

    PubMed

    Tey, Siew Ling; Salleh, Nurhazwani; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar; Forde, Ciaran G

    2018-01-31

    Consumption of reduced energy dense foods and drink has the potential to reduce energy intake and postprandial blood glucose concentrations. In addition, the taste quality of a meal (e.g., sweet or savoury) may play a role in satiation and food intake. The objective of this randomised crossover study was to examine whether energy density and taste quality has an impact on energy intake and postprandial blood glucose response. Using a preload design, participants were asked to consume a sweet ("Cheng Teng") or a savoury (broth) preload soup in high energy density (HED; around 0.50 kcal/g; 250 kcal) or low energy density (LED; around 0.12 kcal/g; 50 kcal) in mid-morning and an ad libitum lunch was provided an hour after the preload. Participants recorded their food intake for the rest of the day after they left the study site. Energy compensation and postprandial blood glucose response were measured in 32 healthy lean males (mean age = 28.9 years, mean BMI = 22.1 kg/m²). There was a significant difference in ad libitum lunch intake between treatments ( p = 0.012), with higher intake in sweet LED and savoury LED compared to sweet HED and savoury HED. Energy intake at subsequent meals and total daily energy intake did not differ between the four treatments (both p ≥ 0.214). Consumption of HED preloads resulted in a larger spike in postprandial blood glucose response compared with LED preloads, irrespective of taste quality ( p < 0.001). Energy density rather than taste quality plays an important role in energy compensation and postprandial blood glucose response. This suggests that regular consumption of low energy-dense foods has the potential to reduce overall energy intake and to improve glycemic control.

  15. Effects of Consuming Preloads with Different Energy Density and Taste Quality on Energy Intake and Postprandial Blood Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Tey, Siew Ling; Salleh, Nurhazwani; Forde, Ciaran G.

    2018-01-01

    Consumption of reduced energy dense foods and drink has the potential to reduce energy intake and postprandial blood glucose concentrations. In addition, the taste quality of a meal (e.g., sweet or savoury) may play a role in satiation and food intake. The objective of this randomised crossover study was to examine whether energy density and taste quality has an impact on energy intake and postprandial blood glucose response. Using a preload design, participants were asked to consume a sweet (“Cheng Teng”) or a savoury (broth) preload soup in high energy density (HED; around 0.50 kcal/g; 250 kcal) or low energy density (LED; around 0.12 kcal/g; 50 kcal) in mid-morning and an ad libitum lunch was provided an hour after the preload. Participants recorded their food intake for the rest of the day after they left the study site. Energy compensation and postprandial blood glucose response were measured in 32 healthy lean males (mean age = 28.9 years, mean BMI = 22.1 kg/m2). There was a significant difference in ad libitum lunch intake between treatments (p = 0.012), with higher intake in sweet LED and savoury LED compared to sweet HED and savoury HED. Energy intake at subsequent meals and total daily energy intake did not differ between the four treatments (both p ≥ 0.214). Consumption of HED preloads resulted in a larger spike in postprandial blood glucose response compared with LED preloads, irrespective of taste quality (p < 0.001). Energy density rather than taste quality plays an important role in energy compensation and postprandial blood glucose response. This suggests that regular consumption of low energy-dense foods has the potential to reduce overall energy intake and to improve glycemic control. PMID:29385055

  16. Socio-Demographic Differences in Energy Drink Consumption and Reasons for Consumption among US College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulos, Natalie S.; Pasch, Keryn E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Energy drink consumption has become increasingly prevalent among US college students, yet little is known about current rates of consumption and reasons for consumption among current energy drink users, particularly differences related to gender and race/ethnicity. Objectives: To better understand energy drink consumption alone and…

  17. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for Zeeman Spectra of Ti I in Plasma Using a Facing Target Sputtering System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Shinji; Nishimiya, Nobuo; Suzuki, Masao

    2017-10-01

    The saturated absorption lines of neutral titanium were measured in the region of 9950-14380 cm-1 using a Ti:sapphire ring laser. A facing target sputtering system was used to obtain the gaseous state of a Ti I atom. The Zeeman splitting of 38 transitions was observed under the condition that the electric field component of a linearly polarized laser beam was parallel to the magnetic field. The gJ factors of the odd parity states were determined for 28 states belonging to 3d24s4p and 3d34p using those of the even parity states reported by Stachowska in 1997. The gJ factors of z5P1,2,3 levels were newly determined. gJ of y3F2, y3D2, z3P2, and z5S2 levels were refined.

  18. [Can the local energy minimization refine the PDB structures of different resolution universally?].

    PubMed

    Godzi, M G; Gromova, A P; Oferkin, I V; Mironov, P V

    2009-01-01

    The local energy minimization was statistically validated as the refinement strategy for PDB structure pairs of different resolution. Thirteen pairs of structures with the only difference in resolution were extracted from PDB, and the structures of 11 identical proteins obtained by different X-ray diffraction techniques were represented. The distribution of RMSD value was calculated for these pairs before and after the local energy minimization of each structure. The MMFF94 field was used for energy calculations, and the quasi-Newton method was used for local energy minimization. By comparison of these two RMSD distributions, the local energy minimization was proved to statistically increase the structural differences in pairs so that it cannot be used for refinement purposes. To explore the prospects of complex refinement strategies based on energy minimization, randomized structures were obtained by moving the initial PDB structures as far as the minimized structures had been moved in a multidimensional space of atomic coordinates. For these randomized structures, the RMSD distribution was calculated and compared with that for minimized structures. The significant differences in their mean values proved the energy surface of the protein to have only few minima near the conformations of different resolution obtained by X-ray diffraction for PDB. Some other results obtained by exploring the energy surface near these conformations are also presented. These results are expected to be very useful for the development of new protein refinement strategies based on energy minimization.

  19. Accurate calculation of conformational free energy differences in explicit water: the confinement-solvation free energy approach.

    PubMed

    Esque, Jeremy; Cecchini, Marco

    2015-04-23

    The calculation of the free energy of conformation is key to understanding the function of biomolecules and has attracted significant interest in recent years. Here, we present an improvement of the confinement method that was designed for use in the context of explicit solvent MD simulations. The development involves an additional step in which the solvation free energy of the harmonically restrained conformers is accurately determined by multistage free energy perturbation simulations. As a test-case application, the newly introduced confinement/solvation free energy (CSF) approach was used to compute differences in free energy between conformers of the alanine dipeptide in explicit water. The results are in excellent agreement with reference calculations based on both converged molecular dynamics and umbrella sampling. To illustrate the general applicability of the method, conformational equilibria of met-enkephalin (5 aa) and deca-alanine (10 aa) in solution were also analyzed. In both cases, smoothly converged free-energy results were obtained in agreement with equilibrium sampling or literature calculations. These results demonstrate that the CSF method may provide conformational free-energy differences of biomolecules with small statistical errors (below 0.5 kcal/mol) and at a moderate computational cost even with a full representation of the solvent.

  20. Surface tension, surface energy, and chemical potential due to their difference.

    PubMed

    Hui, C-Y; Jagota, A

    2013-09-10

    It is well-known that surface tension and surface energy are distinct quantities for solids. Each can be regarded as a thermodynamic property related first by Shuttleworth. Mullins and others have suggested that the difference between surface tension and surface energy cannot be sustained and that the two will approach each other over time. In this work we show that in a single-component system where changes in elastic energy can be neglected, the chemical potential difference between the surface and bulk is proportional to the difference between surface tension and surface energy. By further assuming that mass transfer is driven by this chemical potential difference, we establish a model for the kinetics by which mass transfer removes the difference between surface tension and surface energy.

  1. The effect of equalizing landing task demands on sex differences in lower extremity energy absorption.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Melissa M; Shultz, Sandra J; Schmitz, Randy J

    2014-08-01

    Less lean mass and strength may result in greater relative task demands on females compared to males when landing from a standardized height and could explain sex differences in energy absorption strategies. We compared the magnitude of sex differences in energy absorption when task demands were equalized relative to the amount of lower extremity lean mass available to dissipate kinetic energy upon landing. Male-female pairs (n=35) were assessed for lower extremity lean mass with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Relative task demands were calculated when landing from a standardized height. Based on the difference in lower extremity lean mass within each pair, task demands were equalized by increasing the drop height for males. Joint energetics were measured while landing from the two heights. Multivariate repeated measures ANOVAs compared the magnitude of sex differences in joint energetics between conditions. The multivariate test for absolute energy absorption was significant (P<0.01). The magnitude of sex difference in energy absorption was greater at the hip and knee (both P<0.01), but not the ankle (P=0.43) during the equalized condition compared to the standardized and exaggerated conditions (all P<0.01). There was no difference in the magnitude of sex differences between equalized, standardized and exaggerated conditions for relative energy absorption (P=0.18). Equalizing task demands increased the difference in absolute hip and knee energy absorption between sexes, but had no effect on relative joint contributions to total energy absorption. Sex differences in energy absorption are likely influenced by factors other than differences in relative task demands. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Modelling energy costs for different operational strategies of a large water resource recovery facility.

    PubMed

    Póvoa, P; Oehmen, A; Inocêncio, P; Matos, J S; Frazão, A

    2017-05-01

    The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of applying dynamic modelling and real energy prices on a full scale water resource recovery facility (WRRF) for the evaluation of control strategies in terms of energy costs with aeration. The Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1) was coupled with real energy pricing and a power consumption model and applied as a dynamic simulation case study. The model calibration is based on the STOWA protocol. The case study investigates the importance of providing real energy pricing comparing (i) real energy pricing, (ii) weighted arithmetic mean energy pricing and (iii) arithmetic mean energy pricing. The operational strategies evaluated were (i) old versus new air diffusers, (ii) different DO set-points and (iii) implementation of a carbon removal controller based on nitrate sensor readings. The application in a full scale WRRF of the ASM1 model coupled with real energy costs was successful. Dynamic modelling with real energy pricing instead of constant energy pricing enables the wastewater utility to optimize energy consumption according to the real energy price structure. Specific energy cost allows the identification of time periods with potential for linking WRRF with the electric grid to optimize the treatment costs, satisfying operational goals.

  3. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of He{_2}^+ Using Rydberg-Series Extrapolation and Zeeman-Decelerated Supersonic Beams of Metastable He_2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Paul; Semeria, Luca; Merkt, Frederic

    2016-06-01

    Having only three electrons, He{_2}^+ represents a system for which highly accurate ab initio calculations are possible. The latest calculations of rovibrational energies in He{_2}^+ do not include relativistic or QED corrections but claim an accuracy of 120 MHz We have performed high-resolution Rydberg spectroscopy of metastable He_2 molecules and employed multichannel-quantum-defect-theory extrapolation techniques to determine the rotational energy-level structure in the He{_2}^+ ion. To this end, we have produced samples of metastable helium molecules in supersonic beams with velocities tunable down to 100 m/s by combining a cryogenic supersonic-beam source with a multistage Zeeman decelerator. The metastable He_2 molecules are excited to np Rydberg states using the frequency-doubled output of a pulse-amplified ring dye laser. Although the bandwidth of the laser system is too large to observe the reduction of the Doppler width resulting from deceleration, the deceleration greatly simplifies the spectral assignments because of its spin-rotational state selectivity. Our approach enabled us to determine the rotational structure of He_2 with an unprecedented accuracy of 18 MHz, to quantify the size of the relativistic and QED corrections by comparison with the results of Tung et al. and to precisely measure the rotational structure of the metastable state for comparison with the results of Focsa et al. Here, we present an extension of these measurements in which we have measured higher rotational intervals of He{_2}^+. In addition, we have replaced the pulsed UV laser by a cw UV laser and improved the resolution of the spectra by a factor of more than five. W.-C. Tung, M. Pavanello and L. Adamowicz, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 104309 (2012). P. Jansen, L. Semeria, L. Esteban Hofer, S. Scheidegger, J.A. Agner, H. Schmutz, and F. Merkt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 133202 (2015). D. Sprecher, J. Liu, T. Krähenmann, M. Schäfer, and F. Merkt, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 064304 (2014). M

  4. Climate Impacts on Extreme Energy Consumption of Different Types of Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mingcai; Shi, Jun; Guo, Jun; Cao, Jingfu; Niu, Jide; Xiong, Mingming

    2015-01-01

    Exploring changes of building energy consumption and its relationships with climate can provide basis for energy-saving and carbon emission reduction. Heating and cooling energy consumption of different types of buildings during 1981-2010 in Tianjin city, was simulated by using TRNSYS software. Daily or hourly extreme energy consumption was determined by percentile methods, and the climate impact on extreme energy consumption was analyzed. The results showed that days of extreme heating consumption showed apparent decrease during the recent 30 years for residential and large venue buildings, whereas days of extreme cooling consumption increased in large venue building. No significant variations were found for the days of extreme energy consumption for commercial building, although a decreasing trend in extreme heating energy consumption. Daily extreme energy consumption for large venue building had no relationship with climate parameters, whereas extreme energy consumption for commercial and residential buildings was related to various climate parameters. Further multiple regression analysis suggested heating energy consumption for commercial building was affected by maximum temperature, dry bulb temperature, solar radiation and minimum temperature, which together can explain 71.5 % of the variation of the daily extreme heating energy consumption. The daily extreme cooling energy consumption for commercial building was only related to the wet bulb temperature (R2= 0.382). The daily extreme heating energy consumption for residential building was affected by 4 climate parameters, but the dry bulb temperature had the main impact. The impacts of climate on hourly extreme heating energy consumption has a 1-3 hour delay in all three types of buildings, but no delay was found in the impacts of climate on hourly extreme cooling energy consumption for the selected buildings. PMID:25923205

  5. Climate impacts on extreme energy consumption of different types of buildings.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingcai; Shi, Jun; Guo, Jun; Cao, Jingfu; Niu, Jide; Xiong, Mingming

    2015-01-01

    Exploring changes of building energy consumption and its relationships with climate can provide basis for energy-saving and carbon emission reduction. Heating and cooling energy consumption of different types of buildings during 1981-2010 in Tianjin city, was simulated by using TRNSYS software. Daily or hourly extreme energy consumption was determined by percentile methods, and the climate impact on extreme energy consumption was analyzed. The results showed that days of extreme heating consumption showed apparent decrease during the recent 30 years for residential and large venue buildings, whereas days of extreme cooling consumption increased in large venue building. No significant variations were found for the days of extreme energy consumption for commercial building, although a decreasing trend in extreme heating energy consumption. Daily extreme energy consumption for large venue building had no relationship with climate parameters, whereas extreme energy consumption for commercial and residential buildings was related to various climate parameters. Further multiple regression analysis suggested heating energy consumption for commercial building was affected by maximum temperature, dry bulb temperature, solar radiation and minimum temperature, which together can explain 71.5 % of the variation of the daily extreme heating energy consumption. The daily extreme cooling energy consumption for commercial building was only related to the wet bulb temperature (R2= 0.382). The daily extreme heating energy consumption for residential building was affected by 4 climate parameters, but the dry bulb temperature had the main impact. The impacts of climate on hourly extreme heating energy consumption has a 1-3 hour delay in all three types of buildings, but no delay was found in the impacts of climate on hourly extreme cooling energy consumption for the selected buildings.

  6. The Zeeman effect in the (0,0) band of the A 7Pi-X 7Sigma(+) transition of manganese monohydride, MnH.

    PubMed

    Steimle, Timothy C; Wang, Hailing; Gengler, Jamie J; Stoll, Michael; Meijer, Gerard

    2008-10-28

    The Zeeman tuning of the P(1)(0) line (nu=17 568.35 cm(-1)) of the A (7)Pi-X (7)Sigma(+) (0,0) band of manganese monohydride, MnH, has been investigated. The laser induced fluorescence spectrum of a supersonic molecular beam sample was recorded at a resolution of approximately 40 MHz and with field strengths of up to 362.0 mT. The observed spectrum was successfully fitted using a traditional effective Zeeman Hamiltonian to determine an effective magnetic g-factor for the J=2 level of the F(1)-spin component of the A (7)Pi(v=0) state. Spectral predictions of the P(1)(0) line at field strengths used in magnetic trapping experiments are presented.

  7. The Zeeman effect in the (0,0) band of the A 7Π-X 7Σ+ transition of manganese monohydride, MnH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steimle, Timothy C.; Wang, Hailing; Gengler, Jamie J.; Stoll, Michael; Meijer, Gerard

    2008-10-01

    The Zeeman tuning of the P1(0) line (ν =17 568.35 cm-1) of the A Π7-X Σ7+ (0,0) band of manganese monohydride, MnH, has been investigated. The laser induced fluorescence spectrum of a supersonic molecular beam sample was recorded at a resolution of approximately 40 MHz and with field strengths of up to 362.0 mT. The observed spectrum was successfully fitted using a traditional effective Zeeman Hamiltonian to determine an effective magnetic g-factor for the J =2 level of the F1-spin component of the A Π7(v =0) state. Spectral predictions of the P1(0) line at field strengths used in magnetic trapping experiments are presented.

  8. Path Integral Computation of Quantum Free Energy Differences Due to Alchemical Transformations Involving Mass and Potential.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Alejandro; von Lilienfeld, O Anatole

    2011-08-09

    Thermodynamic integration, perturbation theory, and λ-dynamics methods were applied to path integral molecular dynamics calculations to investigate free energy differences due to "alchemical" transformations. Several estimators were formulated to compute free energy differences in solvable model systems undergoing changes in mass and/or potential. Linear and nonlinear alchemical interpolations were used for the thermodynamic integration. We find improved convergence for the virial estimators, as well as for the thermodynamic integration over nonlinear interpolation paths. Numerical results for the perturbative treatment of changes in mass and electric field strength in model systems are presented. We used thermodynamic integration in ab initio path integral molecular dynamics to compute the quantum free energy difference of the isotope transformation in the Zundel cation. The performance of different free energy methods is discussed.

  9. Energy consumption analysis for various memristive networks under different learning strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Lei; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Ziyang; Tang, Pei; Li, Guoqi; Pei, Jing

    2016-02-01

    Recently, various memristive systems emerge to emulate the efficient computing paradigm of the brain cortex; whereas, how to make them energy efficient still remains unclear, especially from an overall perspective. Here, a systematical and bottom-up energy consumption analysis is demonstrated, including the memristor device level and the network learning level. We propose an energy estimating methodology when modulating the memristive synapses, which is simulated in three typical neural networks with different synaptic structures and learning strategies for both offline and online learning. These results provide an in-depth insight to create energy efficient brain-inspired neuromorphic devices in the future.

  10. Differences of energy expenditure while sitting versus standing: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Saeidifard, Farzane; Medina-Inojosa, Jose R; Supervia, Marta; Olson, Thomas P; Somers, Virend K; Erwin, Patricia J; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2018-03-01

    Background Replacing sitting with standing is one of several recommendations to decrease sedentary time and increase the daily energy expenditure, but the difference in energy expenditure between standing versus sitting has been controversial. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine this difference. Designs and methods We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar for observational and experimental studies that compared the energy expenditure of standing versus sitting. We calculated mean differences and 95% confidence intervals using a random effects model. We conducted different predefined subgroup analyses based on characteristics of participants and study design. Results We identified 658 studies and included 46 studies with 1184 participants for the final analysis. The mean difference in energy expenditure between sitting and standing was 0.15 kcal/min (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12-0.17). The difference among women was 0.1 kcal/min (95% CI 0.0-0.21), and was 0.19 kcal/min (95% CI 0.05-0.33) in men. Observational studies had a lower difference in energy expenditure (0.11 kcal/min, 95% CI 0.08-0.14) compared to randomised trials (0.2 kcal/min, 95% CI 0.12-0.28). By substituting sitting with standing for 6 hours/day, a 65 kg person will expend an additional 54 kcal/day. Assuming no increase in energy intake, this difference in energy expenditure would be translated into the energy content of about 2.5 kg of body fat mass in 1 year. Conclusions The substitution of sitting with standing could be a potential solution for a sedentary lifestyle to prevent weight gain in the long term. Future studies should aim to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of this strategy.

  11. Impact behaviour of Napier/polyester composites under different energy levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahmi, I.; Majid, M. S. Abdul; Afendi, M.; Haslan, M.; Helmi E., A.; M. Haameem J., A.

    2016-07-01

    The effects of different energy levels on the impact behaviour of Napier fibre/polyester reinforced composites were investigated. Napier fibre was extracted using traditional water retting process to be utilized as reinforcing materials in polyester composite laminates. 25% fibre loading composite laminates were prepared and impacted at three different energy levels; 2.5,5 and 7.5 J using an instrumented drop weight impact testing machine (IMATEK IM10). The outcomes show that peak force and contact time increase with increased impact load. The energy absorption was then calculated from the force displacement curve. The results indicated that the energy absorption decreases with increasing energy levels of the impact. Impacted specimens were observed visually for fragmentation fracture using an optical camera to identify the failure mechanisms. Fracture fragmentation pattern from permanent dent to perforation with radial and circumferential was observed.

  12. Robust superconductivity with nodes in the superconducting topological insulator CuxBi2Se3 : Zeeman orbital field and nonmagnetic impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Yuki

    2015-02-01

    We study the robustness against nonmagnetic impurities in the topological superconductor with point nodes, focusing on an effective model of CuxBi2Se3 . We find that the topological superconductivity with point nodes is not fragile against nonmagnetic impurities, although the superconductivity with nodes in past studies is usually fragile. Exchanging the role of spin with the one of orbital, and vice versa, we find that in the "dual" space the topological superconductor with point nodes is regarded as the intraorbital spin-singlet s -wave one. From the viewpoint of the dual space, we deduce that the point-node state is not fragile against nonmagnetic impurity, when the orbital imbalance in the normal states is small. Since the spin imbalance is induced by the Zeeman magnetic field, we shall name this key quantity for the impurity effects the Zeeman "orbital" field. The numerical calculations support that the deduction is correct. If the Zeeman orbital field is small, the topological superconductivity is not fragile in dirty materials, even with nodes. Thus, the topological superconductors cannot be simply regarded as one of the conventional unconventional superconductors.

  13. Energy, macronutrient, and food intakes in relation to energy compensation in consumers who drink different types of milk.

    PubMed

    Lee, H H; Gerrior, S A; Smith, J A

    1998-04-01

    To examine whether total fat intake is actually lower in reduced-fat (low-fat and skim) milk drinkers and whether reduced-fat-milk drinkers compensate for energy intake we compared the intakes of foods, energy, and energy-yielding nutrients in reduced-fat-milk drinkers and whole milk drinkers by using the US Department of Agriculture's 1989-1991 nationwide food intake database, the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals. This database represents a national stratified sample population of 15 128 individuals. Of the survey population, approximately one-third consumed whole milk, one-third consumed low-fat milk, one-tenth consumed skim milk, and one-tenth consumed mixed types of milk. The data provided the following information: 1) total fat intake of reduced-fat-milk drinkers is significantly (P < or = 0.05) lower than that of whole milk drinkers; 2) in general, males but not females compensate for energy by increasing their carbohydrate intake; 3) reduced-fat-milk drinkers consume more fruit and vegetables (P < or = 0.05) and less red meat and sweets (P < or = 0.05) than whole milk drinkers; 4) through their reduction in total fat intake, several age groups of skim milk drinkers have achieved the US dietary goal for fat intake, ie, < or = 30% of energy intake from fat; 5) teenagers compensate for energy intake the least of all age groups; and 6) with advancing age, fewer people drink milk and fewer drink whole milk. The data indicate significant sex differences in energy compensation, that reduced-fat-milk drinkers consume significantly (P < or = 0.05) less fat than whole milk drinkers, and that the US dietary goal for fat intake may be practically achieved by consuming reduced-fat foods such as skim milk and limiting intakes of high-fat foods such as red meat.

  14. [Optimal energy supply in different age groups of critically ill children on mechanical ventilation].

    PubMed

    Li, X H; Ji, J; Qian, S Y

    2018-01-02

    Objective: To analyze the resting energy expenditure and optimal energy supply in different age groups of critically ill children on mechanical ventilation in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Methods: Patients on mechanical ventilation hospitalized in PICU of Beijing Children's Hospital from March 2015 to March 2016 were enrolled prospectively. Resting energy expenditure of patients was calculated by US Med Graphic company critical care management (CCM) energy metabolism test system after mechanical ventilation. Patients were divided into three groups:<3 years, 3-10 years, and >10 years. The relationship between the measured and predictive resting energy expenditure was analyzed with correlation analysis; while the metabolism status and the optimal energy supply in different age groups were analyzed with chi square test and variance analysis. Results: A total of 102 patients were enrolled, the measured resting energy expenditure all correlated with predictive resting energy expenditure in different age groups (<3 years ( r= 0.3, P= 0.0) ; 3~10 years ( r= 0.6, P= 0.0) ;>10 years ( r= 0.5, P= 0.0) ) . A total of 40 cases in < 3 years group, including: 14 cases of low metabolism (35%), 14 cases of normal metabolism (35%), and 12 cases of high metabolism (30%); 45 cases in 3-10 years group, including: 22 cases of low metabolism (49%), 19 cases of normal metabolism (42%), 4 cases of high metabolism (9%); 17 cases in > 10 years group, including: 12 cases of low metabolism (71%), 4 cases of normal metabolism (23%), 1 case of high metabolism (6%). Metabolism status showed significant differences between different age groups ( χ (2)=11.30, P <0.01, r= -0.01). Infants had higher metabolic status, which lessened with aging. The total average actual energy requirement was (210±84) kJ/ (kg⋅d) . There were significant differences in actual energy requirement between age groups ( F= 46.57, P< 0.001), with (277±77) kJ/ (kg⋅d) in < 3 years group, (184±53) kJ/ (kg

  15. Magnetoinfrared spectroscopy of Landau levels and Zeeman splitting of three-dimensional massless Dirac Fermions in ZrTe 5

    DOE PAGES

    R. Y. Chen; Gu, G. D.; Chen, Z. G.; ...

    2015-10-22

    We present a magnetoinfrared spectroscopy study on a newly identified three-dimensional (3D) Dirac semimetal ZrTe 5. We observe clear transitions between Landau levels and their further splitting under a magnetic field. Both the sequence of transitions and their field dependence follow quantitatively the relation expected for 3D massless Dirac fermions. The measurement also reveals an exceptionally low magnetic field needed to drive the compound into its quantum limit, demonstrating that ZrTe 5 is an extremely clean system and ideal platform for studying 3D Dirac fermions. The splitting of the Landau levels provides direct, bulk spectroscopic evidence that a relatively weakmore » magnetic field can produce a sizable Zeeman effect on the 3D Dirac fermions, which lifts the spin degeneracy of Landau levels. As a result, our analysis indicates that the compound evolves from a Dirac semimetal into a topological line-node semimetal under the current magnetic field configuration.« less

  16. Effects of Zeeman splitting on spin transportation in a three-terminal Rashba ring under a weak magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Li-Xue; Wang, Yan; An, Zhong

    2018-05-01

    Spin-dependent transport in one-dimensional (1D) three-terminal Rashba rings is investigated under a weak magnetic field, and we focus on the Zeeman splitting (ZS) effect. For this purpose, the interaction between the electron spin and the weak magnetic field has been treated by perturbation theory. ZS removes the spin degeneracy, and breaks both the time reversal symmetry and the spin reversal symmetry of the ring system. Consequently, all conductance zeros are lifted and turned into conductance dips. Aharonov-Bohm (AB) oscillations can be found in both branch conductances and the total conductance as a function of the magnetic field. In a relatively high magnetic field, the decoherence caused by ZS decreases the amplitude of the branch conductance and increases that of the total conductance. The results have been compared with those reported in the published literature, and a reasonable agreement is obtained. The conductance as a function of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC) strength has also been investigated. As the RSOC strength increases, the role of ZS becomes weaker and weaker; ZS can even be neglected when B ≤ 0.1 T.

  17. Realization of a gain with electromagnetically induced transparency system using non-degenerate Zeeman sublevels in 87 Rb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Minchuan; Zhou, Zifan; Shahriar, Selim M.

    2017-11-01

    Previously, we had proposed an optically-pumped five-level Gain EIT (GEIT) system, which has a transparency dip superimposed on a gain profile and exhibits a negative dispersion suitable for the white-light-cavity signal-recycling (WLC-SR) scheme of the interferometric gravitational wave detector (Zhou et al., 2015). Using this system as the negative dispersion medium (NDM) in the WLC-SR, we get an enhancement in the quantum noise (QN) limited sensitivity-bandwidth product by a factor of ∼ 18. Here, we show how to realize this GEIT system in a realistic platform, using non-degenerate Zeeman sublevels in cold Rb atoms, employing anomalous dispersion at 795 nm. Using the Caves model for a phase insensitive linear amplifier, we show that an enhancement of the sensitivity-bandwidth product by a factor of ∼ 17 is possible for potentially realizable experimental parameters. While the current LIGO apparatus uses light at 1064 nm, a future embodiment thereof may operate at a wavelength that is consistent with the wavelength considered here.

  18. The Zeeman effect in astrophysical water masers and the observation of strong magnetic fields in regions of star formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nedoluha, Gerald E.; Watson, William D.

    1992-01-01

    The present study solves the transfer equations for the polarized radiation of astrophysical 22-GHz water masers in the presence of a magnetic field which causes a Zeeman splitting that is much smaller than the spectral line breadth. The emphasis is placed on the relationship between the recently detected circular polarization in this maser radiation and the strength of the magnetic field. When the observed spectral line breadth is smaller than about 0.8 km/s (FWHM), it is calculated that the uncertainty is less than a factor of about 2. The accuracy is improved significantly when the angle between the line of sight and the direction of the magnetic field does not exceed about 45 deg. Uncertainty in the strength of the magnetic field due to lack of knowledge about which hyperfine transition is the source of the 22-GHz masers is removed. The 22-GHz maser feature is found to be the result of a merger of the three strongest hyperfine components.

  19. The effect of fruit in different forms on energy intake and satiety at a meal.

    PubMed

    Flood-Obbagy, Julie E; Rolls, Barbara J

    2009-04-01

    Consuming whole fruit reduces ratings of satiety more than fruit juice, but little is known about the effects of different forms of fruit on subsequent energy intake. This study tested how consuming preloads of apples in different forms prior to a meal (apple, applesauce, and apple juice with and without added fiber) influences satiety and energy intake at meal. Preloads were matched for weight, energy content, energy density, and ingestion rate. Once a week for 5 weeks, 58 adults consumed one of four preloads (266 g; 125 kcal [523 kJ]), or no preload (control), followed by a test meal consumed ad libitum 15 min later. Results showed that eating apple reduced lunch energy intake (preload+test meal) by 15% (187+/-36 kcal [782+/-151 kJ]) compared to control (p<0.0001) and decreased energy intake compared to applesauce and both juices. Fullness ratings differed significantly after preload consumption (apple>applesauce>both juices>control). Overall, whole apple increased satiety more than applesauce or apple juice. Adding naturally occurring levels of fiber to juice did not enhance satiety. These results suggest that solid fruit affects satiety more than pureed fruit or juice, and that eating fruit at the start of a meal can reduce energy intake.

  20. The effect of fruit in different forms on energy intake and satiety at a meal

    PubMed Central

    Flood-Obbagy, Julie E.; Rolls, Barbara J.

    2009-01-01

    Consuming whole fruit reduces ratings of satiety more than fruit juice, but little is known about the effects of different forms of fruit on subsequent energy intake. This study tested how consuming preloads of apples in different forms prior to a meal (apple, applesauce, and apple juice with and without added fiber) influences satiety and energy intake at meal. Preloads were matched for weight, energy content, energy density, and ingestion rate. Once a week for 5 weeks, 58 adults consumed one of four preloads (266 g; 125 kcal [523 kJ]), or no preload (control), followed by a test meal consumed ad libitum 15 min later. Results showed that eating apple reduced lunch energy intake (preload + test meal) by 15% (187 ± 36 kcal [782 ± 151 kJ]) compared to control (p < 0.0001) and decreased energy intake compared to applesauce and both juices. Fullness ratings differed significantly after preload consumption (apple > applesauce > both juices > control). Overall, whole apple increased satiety more than applesauce or apple juice. Adding naturally occurring levels of fiber to juice did not enhance satiety. These results suggest that solid fruit affects satiety more than pureed fruit or juice, and that eating fruit at the start of a meal can reduce energy intake. PMID:19110020

  1. Emergy-based comparative analysis of energy intensity in different industrial systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhe; Geng, Yong; Wang, Hui; Sun, Lu; Ma, Zhixiao; Tian, Xu; Yu, Xiaoman

    2015-12-01

    With the rapid economic development, energy consumption of China has been the second place in the world next to the USA. Usually, measuring energy consumption intensity or efficiency applies heat unit which is joule per gross domestic production (GDP) or coal equivalent per GDP. However, this measuring approach is only oriented by the conversion coefficient of heat combustion which does not match the real value of the materials during their formation in the ecological system. This study applied emergy analysis to evaluate the energy consumption intensity to fill this gap. Emergy analysis is considered as a bridge between ecological system and economic system, which can evaluate the contribution of ecological products and services as well as the load placed on environmental systems. In this study, emergy indicator for performing energy consumption intensity of primary energy was proposed. Industrial production is assumed as the main contributor of energy consumption compared to primary and tertiary industries. Therefore, this study validated this method by investigating the two industrial case studies which were Dalian Economic Development Area (DEDA) and Fuzhou economic and technological area (FETA), to comparatively study on their energy consumption intensity between the different kinds of industrial systems and investigate the reasons behind the differences. The results show that primary energy consumption (PEC) of DEDA was much higher than that of FETA during 2006 to 2010 and its primary energy consumption ratio (PECR) to total emergy involvement had a dramatically decline from year 2006 to 2010. In the same time, nonrenewable energy of PEC in DEDA was also much higher than that in FETA. The reason was that industrial structure of DEDA was mainly formed by heavy industries like petro-chemistry industry, manufacturing industries, and high energy-intensive industries. However, FETA was formed by electronic business, food industry, and light industries. Although

  2. Differences in energy expenditure and substrate oxidation between habitual high fat and low fat consumers (phenotypes).

    PubMed

    Cooling, J; Blundell, J

    1998-07-01

    To investigate physiological differences between habitual high-fat (HF) and low-fat (LF) consumers, which could influence the balance between energy expenditure and energy intake, and the potential for weight gain. 16 young, lean males (eight HF and eight LF consumers; % energy from fat 44.3 and 32.0, respectively). Habitual dietary variables (from FFQ), body mass index (BMI), body fat % (measured by impedance), resting metabolic rate (RMR) (indirect calorimetry), substrate oxidation and basal heart rate, postprandial thermogenesis and heart rate in response to a high-fat (low carbohydrate (CHO)) and high-CHO (low fat) challenge. HF and LF (selected for their intake of fat) did not differ significantly in BMI or % body fat. HF had a significantly higher RMR (1624 vs 1455 kcal/d) and basal heart rate (66 vs 57 bpm) than LF. Differences in oxygen utilisation and heart rate were maintained over a 180 min period, following the high-fat and high-CHO challenge meals. HF had a significantly lower resting respiratory quotient (RQ) than LF and the differences in average RQ were significant over the 180 min examination period. HF had a significantly lower RQ response to the high fat (low CHO) than to the high CHO (low fat) challenge; this effect was not observed in LF. HF had higher total energy intake than LF and a higher absolute (but not %) intake of protein. Significant differences in basal energy expenditure and fat oxidation between habitual HF and LF consumers have been observed. The contributions of energy intake and protein intake (g not %) remain to be determined. In this particular group of subjects (young adult males) a high energy intake characterised by a large fat component is associated with metabolic adaptations which could offset the weight inducing properties of a high-fat diet. These physiological differences may be important when considering the relationship between dietary-fat and obesity.

  3. Impact behaviour of Napier/polyester composites under different energy levels

    SciT

    Fahmi, I., E-mail: fahmi-unimap@yahoo.com; Majid, M. S. Abdul, E-mail: shukry@unimap.edu.my; Afendi, M., E-mail: afendirojan@unimap.edu.my

    2016-07-19

    The effects of different energy levels on the impact behaviour of Napier fibre/polyester reinforced composites were investigated. Napier fibre was extracted using traditional water retting process to be utilized as reinforcing materials in polyester composite laminates. 25% fibre loading composite laminates were prepared and impacted at three different energy levels; 2.5,5 and 7.5 J using an instrumented drop weight impact testing machine (IMATEK IM10). The outcomes show that peak force and contact time increase with increased impact load. The energy absorption was then calculated from the force displacement curve. The results indicated that the energy absorption decreases with increasing energymore » levels of the impact. Impacted specimens were observed visually for fragmentation fracture using an optical camera to identify the failure mechanisms. Fracture fragmentation pattern from permanent dent to perforation with radial and circumferential was observed.« less

  4. Effects of Differing Energy Dependences in Three Level-Density Models on Calculated Cross Sections

    SciT

    Fu, C.Y.

    2000-07-15

    Three level-density formalisms commonly used for cross-section calculations are examined. Residual nuclides in neutron interaction with {sup 58}Ni are chosen to quantify the well-known differences in the energy dependences of the three formalisms. Level-density parameters for the Gilbert and Cameron model are determined from experimental information. Parameters for the back-shifted Fermi-gas and generalized superfluid models are obtained by fitting their level densities at two selected energies for each nuclide to those of the Gilbert and Cameron model, forcing the level densities of the three models to be as close as physically allowed. The remaining differences are in their energy dependencesmore » that, it is shown, can change the calculated cross sections and particle emission spectra significantly, in some cases or energy ranges by a factor of 2.« less

  5. Evaluation of the Effects of Different Energy Drinks and Coffee on Endothelial Function.

    PubMed

    Molnar, Janos; Somberg, John C

    2015-11-01

    Endothelial function plays an important role in circulatory physiology. There has been differing reports on the effect of energy drink on endothelial function. We set out to evaluate the effect of 3 energy drinks and coffee on endothelial function. Endothelial function was evaluated in healthy volunteers using a device that uses digital peripheral arterial tonometry measuring endothelial function as the reactive hyperemia index (RHI). Six volunteers (25 ± 7 years) received energy drink in a random order at least 2 days apart. Drinks studied were 250 ml "Red Bull" containing 80 mg caffeine, 57 ml "5-hour Energy" containing 230 mg caffeine, and a can of 355 ml "NOS" energy drink containing 120 mg caffeine. Sixteen volunteers (25 ± 5 years) received a cup of 473 ml coffee containing 240 mg caffeine. Studies were performed before drink (baseline) at 1.5 and 4 hours after drink. Two of the energy drinks (Red Bull and 5-hour Energy) significantly improved endothelial function at 4 hours after drink, whereas 1 energy drink (NOS) and coffee did not change endothelial function significantly. RHI increased by 82 ± 129% (p = 0.028) and 63 ± 37% (p = 0.027) after 5-hour Energy and Red Bull, respectively. The RHI changed after NOS by 2 ± 30% (p = 1.000) and by 7 ± 30% (p = 1.000) after coffee. In conclusion, some energy drinks appear to significantly improve endothelial function. Caffeine does not appear to be the component responsible for these differences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Gender differences in lower extremity kinematics, kinetics and energy absorption during landing.

    PubMed

    Decker, Michael J; Torry, Michael R; Wyland, Douglas J; Sterett, William I; Richard Steadman, J

    2003-08-01

    To determine whether gender differences exist in lower extremity joint motions and energy absorption landing strategies between age and skill matched recreational athletes. Mixed factor, repeated measures design. Compared to males, females execute high demand activities in a more erect posture potentially predisposing the anterior cruciate ligament to greater loads and injury. The preferred energy absorption strategy may provide insight for this performance difference. Inverse dynamic solutions estimated lower extremity joint kinematics, kinetics and energetic profiles for twelve males and nine females performing a 60 cm drop landing. Females demonstrated a more erect landing posture and utilized greater hip and ankle joint range of motions and maximum joint angular velocities compared to males. Females also exhibited greater energy absorption and peak powers from the knee extensors and ankle plantar-flexors compared to the males. Examinations of the energy absorption contributions revealed that the knee was the primary shock absorber for both genders, whereas the ankle plantar-flexors muscles was the second largest contributor to energy absorption for the females and the hip extensors muscles for the males. Females may choose to land in a more erect posture to maximize the energy absorption from the joints most proximal to ground contact. Females may be at a greater risk to anterior cruciate ligament injury during landing due to their energy absorption strategy.

  7. Effects of nuclear cross sections at different energies on the radiation hazard from galactic cosmic rays.

    PubMed

    Lin, Z W; Adams, J H

    2007-03-01

    The radiation hazard for astronauts from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) is a major obstacle to long-duration human space exploration. Space radiation transport codes have been developed to calculate the radiation environment on missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. We have studied how uncertainties in fragmentation cross sections at different energies affect the accuracy of predictions from such radiation transport calculations. We find that, in deep space, cross sections at energies between 0.3 and 0.85 GeV/nucleon have the largest effect in solar maximum GCR environments. At the International Space Station, cross sections at higher energies have the largest effect due to the geomagnetic cutoff.

  8. Analysis of temperature difference on the total of energy expenditure during static bicycle exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiono

    2016-04-01

    How to manage energy expenditure for cyclist is very crucial part to achieve a good performance. As the tropical situation, the differences of temperature level might be contributed in energy expenditure and durability. The aim of the paper is to estimate and to analysis the configuration of energy expenditure for static cycling activity based on heart rate value in room with air conditioning (AC)/no AC treatment. The research is started with study literatures of climate factors, temperature impact on human body, and definition of energy expenditure. The next step is design the experiment for 5 participants in 2 difference models for 26.80C - 74% relative humidity (room no AC) and 23,80C - 54.8% relative humidity (room with AC). The participants’ heart rate and blood pressure are measured in rest condition and in cycling condition to know the impact of difference temperature in energy expenditure profile. According to the experiment results, the reducing of the temperature has significantly impact on the decreasing of energy expenditure at average 0.3 Kcal/minute for all 5 performers. Finally, the research shows that climate condition (temperature and relative humidity) are very important factors to manage and to reach a higher performance of cycling sport.

  9. Pendular energy transduction within the step during human walking on slopes at different speeds

    PubMed Central

    Dewolf, Arthur H.; Ivanenko, Yuri P.; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    When ascending (descending) a slope, positive (negative) work must be performed to overcome changes in gravitational potential energy at the center of body mass (COM). This modifies the pendulum-like behavior of walking. The aim of this study is to analyze how energy exchange and mechanical work done vary within a step across slopes and speeds. Ten subjects walked on an instrumented treadmill at different slopes (from -9° to 9°), and speeds (between 0.56 and 2.22 m s-1). From the ground reaction forces, we evaluated energy of the COM, recovery (i.e. the potential-kinetic energy transduction) and pendular energy savings (i.e. the theoretical reduction in work due to this recovered energy) throughout the step. When walking uphill as compared to level, pendular energy savings increase during the first part of stance (when the COM is lifted) and decreases during the second part. Conversely in downhill walking, pendular energy savings decrease during the first part of stance and increase during the second part (when the COM is lowered). In uphill and downhill walking, the main phase of external work occurs around double support. Uphill, the positive work phase is extended during the beginning of single support to raise the body. Downhill, the negative work phase starts before double support, slowing the downward velocity of the body. Changes of the pendulum-like behavior as a function of slope can be illustrated by tilting the 'classical compass model' backwards (uphill) or forwards (downhill). PMID:29073208

  10. Biomechanical pulping of aspen chips; Energy savings resulting from different fungal treatments

    SciT

    Leatham, G.F.; Myers, G.C.; Wegner, T.H.

    1990-05-01

    Besides increasing paper strength, fungal treatments can also reduce the electrical energy needed for fiberizing chips during mechanical pulping. Fungal species, chip movement, and treatment duration affected the extent of energy savings. This paper reports that four-week-long treatment with white-rot fungi, including Phlebia species or Pholiota mutabilis, in a stationary wire tray bioreactor resulted in at least 35% energy savings for pulping chips to 100 mL CSF in a 300-mm-diameter disc refiner. With Phanerochaete chrysosporium in a rotating-drum bioreactor, the optimal treatment duration was four weeks. Treatment with a brown-rot fungus also resulted in energy savings. Over the range ofmore » fungi and conditions tested, neither chip weight loss nor lignin loss correlated with energy savings. Some treatments giving the least chip weight loss ({lt}5%) saved the most energy. Wood modifications responsible for energy savings differed from those that increased strength. Treatments that saved the most energy did not necessarily give the highest strength properties.« less

  11. A parametric study of the thermal performance of green roofs in different climates through energy modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Sananda

    In recent years, there has been great interest in the potential of green roofs as an alternative roofing option to reduce the energy consumed by individual buildings as well as mitigate large scale urban environmental problems such as the heat island effect. There is a widespread recognition and a growing literature of measured data that suggest green roofs can reduce building energy consumption. This thesis investigates the potential of green roofs in reducing the building energy loads and focuses on how the different parameters of a green roof assembly affect the thermal performance of a building. A green roof assembly is modeled in Design Builder- a 3D graphical design modeling and energy use simulation program (interface) that uses the EnergyPlus simulation engine, and the simulated data set thus obtained is compared to field experiment data to validate the roof assembly model on the basis of how accurately it simulates the behavior of a green roof. Then the software is used to evaluate the thermal performance of several green roof assemblies under three different climate types, looking at the whole building energy consumption. For the purpose of this parametric simulation study, a prototypical single story small office building is considered and one parameter of the green roof is altered for each simulation run in order to understand its effect on building's energy loads. These parameters include different insulation thicknesses, leaf area indices (LAI) and growing medium or soil depth, each of which are tested under the three different climate types. The energy use intensities (EUIs), the peak and annual heating and cooling loads resulting from the use of these green roof assemblies are compared with each other and to a cool roof base case to determine the energy load reductions, if any. The heat flux through the roof is also evaluated and compared. The simulation results are then organized and finally presented as a decision support tool that would

  12. Low light adaptation: energy transfer processes in different types of light harvesting complexes from Rhodopseudomonas palustris.

    PubMed

    Moulisová, Vladimíra; Luer, Larry; Hoseinkhani, Sajjad; Brotosudarmo, Tatas H P; Collins, Aaron M; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Blankenship, Robert E; Cogdell, Richard J

    2009-12-02

    Energy transfer processes in photosynthetic light harvesting 2 (LH2) complexes isolated from purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris grown at different light intensities were studied by ground state and transient absorption spectroscopy. The decomposition of ground state absorption spectra shows contributions from B800 and B850 bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) a rings, the latter component splitting into a low energy and a high energy band in samples grown under low light (LL) conditions. A spectral analysis reveals strong inhomogeneity of the B850 excitons in the LL samples that is well reproduced by an exponential-type distribution. Transient spectra show a bleach of both the low energy and high energy bands, together with the respective blue-shifted exciton-to-biexciton transitions. The different spectral evolutions were analyzed by a global fitting procedure. Energy transfer from B800 to B850 occurs in a mono-exponential process and the rate of this process is only slightly reduced in LL compared to high light samples. In LL samples, spectral relaxation of the B850 exciton follows strongly nonexponential kinetics that can be described by a reduction of the bleach of the high energy excitonic component and a red-shift of the low energetic one. We explain these spectral changes by picosecond exciton relaxation caused by a small coupling parameter of the excitonic splitting of the BChl a molecules to the surrounding bath. The splitting of exciton energy into two excitonic bands in LL complex is most probably caused by heterogenous composition of LH2 apoproteins that gives some of the BChls in the B850 ring B820-like site energies, and causes a disorder in LH2 structure.

  13. Optimization for energy efficiency of underground building envelope thermal performance in different climate zones of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Luyang; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Huibo

    2017-11-01

    The object of this article is to investigate the influence of thermal performance of envelopes in shallow-buried buildings on energy consumption for different climate zones of China. For the purpose of this study, an effective building energy simulation tool (DeST) developed by Tsinghua University was chosen to model the heat transfer in underground buildings. Based on the simulative results, energy consumption for heating and cooling for the whole year was obtained. The results showed that the relationship between energy consumption and U-value of envelopes for underground buildings is different compared with above-ground buildings: improving thermal performance of exterior walls cannot reduce energy consumption, on the contrary, may result in more energy cost. Besides, it is can be derived that optimized U-values of underground building envelopes vary with climate zones of China in this study. For severe cold climate zone, the optimized U-value of underground building envelopes is 0.8W/(m2·K); for cold climate zone, the optimized U-value is 1.5W/(m2·K); for warm climate zone, the U-value is 2.0W/(m2·K).

  14. Comparative dosimetric characterization for different types of detectors in high-energy electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chang Yeol; Kim, Woo Chul; Kim, Hun Jeong; Huh, Hyun Do; Park, Seungwoo; Choi, Sang Hyoun; Kim, Kum Bae; Min, Chul Kee; Kim, Seong Hoon; Shin, Dong Oh

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to perform a comparison and on analysis of measured dose factor values by using various commercially available high-energy electron beam detectors to measure dose profiles and energy property data. By analyzing the high-energy electron beam data from each detector, we determined the optimal detector for measuring electron beams in clinical applications. The dose linearity, dose-rate dependence, percentage depth dose, and dose profile of each detector were measured to evaluate the dosimetry characteristics of high-energy electron beams. The dose profile and the energy characteristics of high-energy electron beams were found to be different when measured by different detectors. Through comparison with other detectors based on the analyzed data, the microdiamond detector was found to have outstanding dose linearity, a low dose-rate dependency, and a small effective volume. Thus, this detector has outstanding spatial resolution and is the optimal detector for measuring electron beams. Radiation therapy results can be improved and related medical accidents can be prevented by using the procedure developed in this research in clinical practice for all beam detectors when measuring the electron beam dose.

  15. Emotions in overweight and normal-weight women immediately after eating foods differing in energy.

    PubMed

    Macht, Michael; Gerer, Jutta; Ellgring, Heiner

    2003-11-01

    Immediate effects of low-, medium-, and high-energy foods on the emotional state of normal-weight and overweight women were studied experimentally. Nineteen normal-weight (body mass index [BMI]: 19-25 kg/m2) and 19 overweight women (BMI: 26-40 kg/m2) aged 18-40 years received samples of food that differed in energy content (low vs. medium vs. high energy) and rated their emotional state immediately after eating. Perceived characteristics of the foods and associations elicited by the foods were also obtained. Negative emotions (anger, fear, shame, and sadness) and sleepiness increased, while happiness decreased with energy of foods. Emotionally negative associations were more frequent, while positive emotions were less frequent the higher the energy content of the foods. Sadness, shame, fear, and sleepiness after eating high-energy food tended to be more intense in overweight women. Additional analyses demonstrated influences of eating habits, e.g., disinhibition. The higher the energy content of a food stimulus, the more it was viewed as "unhealthy" and "dangerous." It is suggested that immediate food-induced changes of emotions can be explained by activation of associative emotion networks.

  16. Investigation of the surface free energy of the ITO thin films deposited under different working pressure

    SciT

    Özen, Soner, E-mail: osoner@ogu.edu.tr; Pat, Suat; Korkmaz, Şadan

    This study discusses the influence of working pressure on the surface energy of the ITO thin films produced by radio frequency magnetron sputtering method. Optical tensiometer (Attension Theta Lite) is used for evaluating wetting behavior of the water droplet on the film surface and Equation of State method was selected to determine surface free energy for this study. Equation of state method does not divide the surface tension into different components such as polar, dispersive, acid-base. It is calculated the surfaces’ free energy measuring the contact angle with a single liquid. The surface free energy value was in the rangemore » of 15-31 mN/m. Also, the transmittances were determined in the wavelength range between 200 and 1000 nm using the UNICO 4802 UV-Vis double beam spectrophotometer. Transmittances of the produced ITO thin films are greater than %70 in the visible range.« less

  17. Microstructural characterization of high-manganese austenitic steels with different stacking fault energies

    SciT

    Sato, Shigeo, E-mail: s.sato@imr.tohoku.ac.jp; Kwon, Eui-Pyo; Imafuku, Muneyuki

    Microstructures of tensile-deformed high-manganese austenitic steels exhibiting twinning-induced plasticity were analyzed by electron backscatter diffraction pattern observation and X-ray diffraction measurement to examine the influence of differences in their stacking fault energies on twinning activity during deformation. The steel specimen with the low stacking fault energy of 15 mJ/m{sup 2} had a microstructure with a high population of mechanical twins than the steel specimen with the high stacking fault energy (25 mJ/m{sup 2}). The <111> and <100> fibers developed along the tensile axis, and mechanical twinning occurred preferentially in the <111> fiber. The Schmid factors for slip and twinning deformationsmore » can explain the origin of higher twinning activity in the <111> fiber. However, the high stacking fault energy suppresses the twinning activity even in the <111> fiber. A line profile analysis based on the X-ray diffraction data revealed the relationship between the characteristics of the deformed microstructures and the stacking fault energies of the steel specimens. Although the variation in dislocation density with the tensile deformation is not affected by the stacking fault energies, the effect of the stacking fault energies on the crystallite size refinement becomes significant with a decrease in the stacking fault energies. Moreover, the stacking fault probability, which was estimated from a peak-shift analysis of the 111 and 200 diffractions, was high for the specimen with low stacking fault energy. Regardless of the difference in the stacking fault energies of the steel specimens, the refined crystallite size has a certain correlation with the stacking fault probability, indicating that whether the deformation-induced crystallite-size refinement occurs depends directly on the stacking fault probability rather than on the stacking fault energies in the present steel specimens. - Highlights: {yields} We studied effects of stacking fault

  18. Difference in Energy Metabolism of Annulus Fibrosus and Nucleus Pulposus Cells of the Intervertebral Disc

    PubMed Central

    Salvatierra, Jessica Czamanski; Yuan, Tai Yi; Fernando, Hanan; Castillo, Andre; Gu, Wei Yong; Cheung, Herman S.; Huant, C.-Y. Charles

    2011-01-01

    Low back pain is associated with intervertebral disc degeneration. One of the main signs of degeneration is the inability to maintain extracellular matrix integrity. Extracellular matrix synthesis is closely related to production of adenosine triphosphate (i.e. energy) of the cells. The intervertebral disc is composed of two major anatomical regions: annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus, which are structurally and compositionally different, indicating that their cellular metabolisms may also be distinct. The objective of this study was to investigate energy metabolism of annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus cells with and without dynamic compression, and examine differences between the two cell types. Porcine annulus and nucleus tissues were harvested and enzymatically digested. Cells were isolated and embedded into agarose constructs. Dynamically loaded samples were subjected to a sinusoidal displacement at 2 Hz and 15% strain for 4 h. Energy metabolism of cells was analyzed by measuring adenosine triphosphate content and release, glucose consumption, and lactate/nitric oxide production. A comparison of those measurements between annulus and nucleus cells was conducted. Annulus and nucleus cells exhibited different metabolic pathways. Nucleus cells had higher adenosine triphosphate content with and without dynamic loading, while annulus cells had higher lactate production and glucose consumption. Compression increased adenosine triphosphate release from both cell types and increased energy production of annulus cells. Dynamic loading affected energy metabolism of intervertebral disc cells, with the effect being greater in annulus cells. PMID:21625336

  19. Can ethnic background differences in children's body composition be explained by differences in energy balance-related behaviors? A mediation analysis within the energy-project.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Alvira, Juan Miguel; Te Velde, Saskia J; Jiménez-Pavón, David; Manios, Yannis; Singh, Amika; Moreno, Luis A; Brug, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    In affluent countries, children from non-native ethnicity have in general less favourable body composition indicators and energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs) than children from native ethnicity. However, differences between countries have been reported. A school-based survey among 10-12 years old children was conducted in seven European countries with a standardized protocol. Weight, height and waist circumference were measured; engagement in EBRBs was self-reported. For those countries with significant ethnic differences in body composition (Greece and the Netherlands), multilevel mediation analyses were conducted, to test the mediating effect of the EBRBs in the association between ethnic background and body composition indicators. Analyses were adjusted for gender and age, and for parental education in a later step. Partial mediation was found for sugared drinks intake and sleep duration in the Greek sample, and breakfast in the Dutch sample. A suppression effect was found for engagement in sports activites in the Greek sample. Ethnic differences in children's body composition were partially mediated by differences in breakfast skipping in the Netherlands and sugared drinks intake, sports participation and sleep duration in Greece.

  20. Energy Efficiency and Sustainability of Different Building Structures in Latvian Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakovičs, A.; Gendelis, S.; Bandeniece, L.

    2015-11-01

    Five experimental test buildings have been built in Riga, Latvia. They are identical except external walls for which different mainly regional building materials are used. Calculated U-values of the other walls, floor and ceiling are the same for each test building. Initial moisture influences the relative humidity of indoor air, which can be higher in the initial time period; as a result, heat transmittances are also very different and cause different heating/cooling energy consumption. Overheating risk in summer exists for test buildings with the smallest thermal inertia. Both summer and heating seasons have been analysed and differences between five test houses have been discussed in details.

  1. Star sub-pixel centroid calculation based on multi-step minimum energy difference method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Duo; Han, YanLi; Sun, Tengfei

    2013-09-01

    The star's centroid plays a vital role in celestial navigation, star images which be gotten during daytime, due to the strong sky background, have a low SNR, and the star objectives are nearly submerged in the background, takes a great trouble to the centroid localization. Traditional methods, such as a moment method, weighted centroid calculation method is simple but has a big error, especially in the condition of a low SNR. Gaussian method has a high positioning accuracy, but the computational complexity. Analysis of the energy distribution in star image, a location method for star target centroids based on multi-step minimum energy difference is proposed. This method uses the linear superposition to narrow the centroid area, in the certain narrow area uses a certain number of interpolation to pixels for the pixels' segmentation, and then using the symmetry of the stellar energy distribution, tentatively to get the centroid position: assume that the current pixel is the star centroid position, and then calculates and gets the difference of the sum of the energy which in the symmetric direction(in this paper we take the two directions of transverse and longitudinal) and the equal step length(which can be decided through different conditions, the paper takes 9 as the step length) of the current pixel, and obtain the centroid position in this direction when the minimum difference appears, and so do the other directions, then the validation comparison of simulated star images, and compare with several traditional methods, experiments shows that the positioning accuracy of the method up to 0.001 pixel, has good effect to calculate the centroid of low SNR conditions; at the same time, uses this method on a star map which got at the fixed observation site during daytime in near-infrared band, compare the results of the paper's method with the position messages which were known of the star, it shows that :the multi-step minimum energy difference method achieves a better

  2. Investigation of gold nanoparticle radiosensitization mechanisms using a free radical scavenger and protons of different energies.

    PubMed

    Jeynes, J C G; Merchant, M J; Spindler, A; Wera, A-C; Kirkby, K J

    2014-11-07

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been shown to sensitize cancer cells to x-ray radiation, particularly at kV energies where photoelectric interactions dominate and the high atomic number of gold makes a large difference to x-ray absorption. Protons have a high cross-section for gold at a large range of relevant clinical energies, and so potentially could be used with GNPs for increased therapeutic effect.Here, we investigate the contribution of secondary electron emission to cancer cell radiosensitization and investigate how this parameter is affected by proton energy and a free radical scavenger. We simulate the emission from a realistic cell phantom containing GNPs after traversal by protons and x-rays with different energies. We find that with a range of proton energies (1-250 MeV) there is a small increase in secondaries compared to a much larger increase with x-rays. Secondary electrons are known to produce toxic free radicals. Using a cancer cell line in vitro we find that a free radical scavenger has no protective effect on cells containing GNPs irradiated with 3 MeV protons, while it does protect against cells irradiated with x-rays. We conclude that GNP generated free radicals are a major cause of radiosensitization and that there is likely to be much less dose enhancement effect with clinical proton beams compared to x-rays.

  3. Improved model of activation energy absorption for different electrical breakdowns in semi-crystalline insulating polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sima, Wenxia; Jiang, Xiongwei; Peng, Qingjun; Sun, Potao

    2018-05-01

    Electrical breakdown is an important physical phenomenon in electrical equipment and electronic devices. Many related models and theories of electrical breakdown have been proposed. However, a widely recognized understanding on the following phenomenon is still lacking: impulse breakdown strength which varies with waveform parameters, decrease in the breakdown strength of AC voltage with increasing frequency, and higher impulse breakdown strength than that of AC. In this work, an improved model of activation energy absorption for different electrical breakdowns in semi-crystalline insulating polymers is proposed based on the Harmonic oscillator model. Simulation and experimental results show that, the energy of trapped charges obtained from AC stress is higher than that of impulse voltage, and the absorbed activation energy increases with the increase in the electric field frequency. Meanwhile, the frequency-dependent relative dielectric constant ε r and dielectric loss tanδ also affect the absorption of activation energy. The absorbed activation energy and modified trap level synergistically determine the breakdown strength. The mechanism analysis of breakdown strength under various voltage waveforms is consistent with the experimental results. Therefore, the proposed model of activation energy absorption in the present work may provide a new possible method for analyzing and explaining the breakdown phenomenon in semi-crystalline insulating polymers.

  4. Time tracking and interaction of energy-eddies at different scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardesa, Jose I.; Vela-Martin, Alberto; Jimenez, Javier

    2016-11-01

    We study the energy cascade through coherent structures obtained in time-resolved simulations of incompressible, statistically steady isotropic turbulence. The structures are defined as geometrically connected regions of the flow with high kinetic energy. We compute the latter by band-pass filtering the velocity field around a scale r. We analyse the dynamics of structures extracted with different r, which are a proxy for eddies containing energy at those r. We find that the size of these "energy-eddies" scales with r, while their lifetime scales with the local eddy-turnover r 2 / 3ɛ - 1 / 3 , where ɛ is the energy dissipation averaged over all space and time. Furthermore, a statistical analysis over the lives of the eddies shows a slight predominance of the splitting over the merging process. When we isolate the eddies which do not interact with other eddies of the same scale, we observe a parent-child dependence by which, on average, structures are born at scale r during the decaying part of the life of a structure at scale r' > r . The energy-eddy at r' lives in the same region of space as that at r. Finally, we investigate how interactions between eddies at the same scale are echoed across other scales. Funded by the ERC project Coturb.

  5. Dietary intakes of energy and macronutrients by lactating women of different ethnic groups living in Yakutia

    PubMed Central

    Burtseva, Tatiana; Solodkova, Irina; Savvina, Maya; Dranaeva, Galina; Shadrin, Victor; Avrusin, Sergei; Sinelnikova, Elena; Chasnyk, Vyacheslav

    2013-01-01

    Background There should be a substantial increase in the intake of dietary energy, protein and other nutrients by lactating women, though these special increments can be different in different ethnic groups. Objective To evaluate the influence of maternal ethnicity and diet on the quality of breast milk and its potential effect on early childhood development. Design A total of 185 mothers (150 Native and 35 Russian) living in settlements and small towns of rural Yakutia and 54 mothers (26 Native and 28 Russian) living in Yakutsk were surveyed and average food intake was recorded during 3 successive days before the survey was analyzed. Results The amount of protein varied from 18 to 168.3 g/day, fat – from 12 to 176.1 g/day, energy – from 900 to 3680.4 kcal/day. Protein intake was at the level of current recommended dietary allowances (RDA) in Russians and was higher than in Natives living in rural settlements and small towns (p=0.02) and in Yakutsk (p=0.03). Carbohydrate intake was higher, though not significantly, in both ethnic groups compared with the current recommendations. Protein, fat, carbohydrates and, therefore, energy intake were lower (p<0.03) in Native women living in Yakutsk compared with the intake of Native women living in rural settlements and small towns. Conclusions The dietary intakes of energy and macronutrients depended on the place where a woman lived rather than on her ethnicity. Overall, energy intake was considered to be at the lower limit (basal energy expenditure 2002/2005) for lactating women, with the exception of Native women living in Yakutsk whose energy intake was below the lower limit. PMID:23971015

  6. Dietary intakes of energy and macronutrients by lactating women of different ethnic groups living in Yakutia.

    PubMed

    Burtseva, Tatiana; Solodkova, Irina; Savvina, Maya; Dranaeva, Galina; Shadrin, Victor; Avrusin, Sergei; Sinelnikova, Elena; Chasnyk, Vyacheslav

    2013-01-01

    There should be a substantial increase in the intake of dietary energy, protein and other nutrients by lactating women, though these special increments can be different in different ethnic groups. To evaluate the influence of maternal ethnicity and diet on the quality of breast milk and its potential effect on early childhood development. A total of 185 mothers (150 Native and 35 Russian) living in settlements and small towns of rural Yakutia and 54 mothers (26 Native and 28 Russian) living in Yakutsk were surveyed and average food intake was recorded during 3 successive days before the survey was analyzed. The amount of protein varied from 18 to 168.3 g/day, fat--from 12 to 176.1 g/day, energy--from 900 to 3680.4 kcal/day. Protein intake was at the level of current recommended dietary allowances (RDA) in Russians and was higher than in Natives living in rural settlements and small towns (p = 0.02) and in Yakutsk (p = 0.03). Carbohydrate intake was higher, though not significantly, in both ethnic groups compared with the current recommendations. Protein, fat, carbohydrates and, therefore, energy intake were lower (p < 0.03) in Native women living in Yakutsk compared with the intake of Native women living in rural settlements and small towns. The dietary intakes of energy and macronutrients depended on the place where a woman lived rather than on her ethnicity. Overall, energy intake was considered to be at the lower limit (basal energy expenditure 2002/2005) for lactating women, with the exception of Native women living in Yakutsk whose energy intake was below the lower limit.

  7. Transitional behavior of different energy protons based on Van Allen Probes observations

    SciT

    Yue, Chao; Bortnik, Jacob; Chen, Lunjin

    Understanding the dynamical behavior of ~1 eV to 50 keV ions and identifying the energies at which the morphologies transit are important in that they involve the relative intensities and distributions of the large-scale electric and magnetic fields, the outflow, and recombination rates. However, there have been only few direct observational investigations of the transition in drift behaviors of different energy ions before the Van Allen Probes era. In this paper, we statistically analyze ~1 eV to 50 keV hydrogen (H +) differential flux distributions near geomagnetic equator by using Van Allen Probes observations to investigate the H + dynamicsmore » under the regulation of large-scale electric and magnetic fields. Our survey clearly indicates three types of H + behaviors within different energy ranges, which is consistent with previous theory predictions. Finally, using simple electric and magnetic field models in UBK coordinates, we have further constrained the source regions of different energy ions and their drift directions.« less

  8. Examining Energy Expenditure in Youth Using XBOX Kinect: Differences by Player Mode.

    PubMed

    Barkman, Jourdin; Pfeiffer, Karin; Diltz, Allie; Peng, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Replacing sedentary time with physical activity through new generation exergames (eg, XBOX Kinect) is a potential intervention strategy. The study's purpose was to compare youth energy expenditure while playing different exergames in single- vs. multiplayer mode. Participants (26 male, 14 female) were 10 to 13 years old. They wore a portable metabolic analyzer while playing 4 XBOX Kinect games for 15 minutes each (2 single-, 2 multiplayer). Repeated-measures ANOVA (with Bonferroni correction) was used to examine player mode differences, controlling for age group, sex, weight status, and game. There was a significant difference in energy expenditure between single player (mean = 15.4 ml/kg/min, SD = 4.5) and multiplayer mode (mean = 16.8 ml/kg/min, SD = 4.7). Overweight and obese participants (mean = 13.7 ml/kg/min, SD = 4.2) expended less energy than normal weight (mean = 17.8 ml/kg/min, SD = 4.5) during multiplayer mode (d = 0.93). Player mode, along with personal factors such as weight status, may be important to consider in energy expenditure during exergames.

  9. Transitional behavior of different energy protons based on Van Allen Probes observations

    DOE PAGES

    Yue, Chao; Bortnik, Jacob; Chen, Lunjin; ...

    2016-12-09

    Understanding the dynamical behavior of ~1 eV to 50 keV ions and identifying the energies at which the morphologies transit are important in that they involve the relative intensities and distributions of the large-scale electric and magnetic fields, the outflow, and recombination rates. However, there have been only few direct observational investigations of the transition in drift behaviors of different energy ions before the Van Allen Probes era. In this paper, we statistically analyze ~1 eV to 50 keV hydrogen (H +) differential flux distributions near geomagnetic equator by using Van Allen Probes observations to investigate the H + dynamicsmore » under the regulation of large-scale electric and magnetic fields. Our survey clearly indicates three types of H + behaviors within different energy ranges, which is consistent with previous theory predictions. Finally, using simple electric and magnetic field models in UBK coordinates, we have further constrained the source regions of different energy ions and their drift directions.« less

  10. (16) {C}16C-elastic scattering examined using several models at different energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-hammamy, M. N.; Attia, A.

    2018-05-01

    In the present paper, the first results concerning the theoretical analysis of the ^{16}C + p reaction by investigating two elastic scattering angular distributions measured at high energy compared to low energy for this system are reported. Several models for the real part of the nuclear potential are tested within the optical model formalism. The imaginary potential has a Woods-Saxon shape with three free parameters. Two types of density distribution and three different cluster structures for ^{16}C are assumed in the analysis. The results are compared with each other as well as with the experimental data to give evidence of the importance of these studied items.

  11. The calculations of small molecular conformation energy differences by density functional method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topol, I. A.; Burt, S. K.

    1993-03-01

    The differences in the conformational energies for the gauche (G) and trans(T) conformers of 1,2-difluoroethane and for myo-and scyllo-conformer of inositol have been calculated by local density functional method (LDF approximation) with geometry optimization using different sets of calculation parameters. It is shown that in the contrast to Hartree—Fock methods, density functional calculations reproduce the correct sign and value of the gauche effect for 1,2-difluoroethane and energy difference for both conformers of inositol. The results of normal vibrational analysis for1,2-difluoroethane showed that harmonic frequencies calculated in LDF approximation agree with experimental data with the accuracy typical for scaled large basis set Hartree—Fock calculations.

  12. Contribution functions for Zeeman-split lines, and line formation in photospheric faculae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanballegooijen, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    The transfer of polarized light in an inhomogeneous stellar atmosphere, and the formation of magnetically sensitive spectral lines, are discussed. A new method for the solution of the transfer equations is proposed. The method gives a natural definition of the contribution functions for Stokes' parameters, i.e., functions describing the contributions from different parts along the line-of-sight (LOS). The formalism includes all magneto-optical effects, and allows for an arbitrary variation of magnetic field, velocity field, temperature, density, etc., along the LOS. The formation of FeI lambda 5250.2 in photospheric faculae is described. A potential-field model of a facular element is presented, and spectra profiles and contribution functions are computed for the Stokes parameters I, Q, and V.

  13. Variation in nutrient digestibility and energy intake are key contributors to differences in postweaning growth performance.

    PubMed

    Jones, C K; Patience, J F

    2014-05-01

    Pig weight variation represents an important source of lost production and profitability in the swine industry. To date, few experiments have classified how pigs of the same age but different weight utilize dietary energy and nutrients. The objective of this experiment was to characterize how pigs with varying weaning weights (WW) and postweaning growth performance differ in apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy or nutrient digestibility or energy utilization. Ninety-six barrows weaned at 18 to 22 d of age were selected from 960 to represent the 10% of the lightest (LWW), median (MWW), and heaviest (HWW) at weaning (n = 32 pigs per WW category). Pigs were housed in metabolism crates for a 5-d acclimation period and a 27-d study and fed ad libitum quantities of a common diet containing titanium dioxide as an indigestible marker. Fecal grab samples and total urine were collected during a 3-d collection period at the beginning and end of the experiment. After the experiment, pigs within each WW category were further classified into the 33% slowest, median, or fastest ADG categories. This resulted in a total of 9 treatments in a nested design. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. There were no differences in ATTD according to WW at the beginning or end of the experiment, or when ADG was nested within WW at the beginning of the experiment. However, the ATTD of DM, GE, N, and ash, as well as the related DE, ME, and NE content, were greatest (P < 0.01) in the median ADG categories of pigs at the end of the experiment. Energy intake increased with increasing WW (P < 0.001; NE intake = 1.40, 1.64, and 1.89 Mcal/d for pigs from the LWW, MWW, and HWW, respectively). However, the ratio of calculated to actual ME intake was lower in LWW pigs than HWW pigs (P = 0.04; 1.03 and 1.10 for LWW and HWW pigs, respectively). When ADG was nested within WW category, both increasing WW and ADG increased (P < 0.001) energy intake, utilization, and efficiency

  14. Different types of maximum power point tracking techniques for renewable energy systems: A survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Mohammad Junaid; Shukla, Praveen; Mustafa, Rashid; Chatterji, S.; Mathew, Lini

    2016-03-01

    Global demand for electricity is increasing while production of energy from fossil fuels is declining and therefore the obvious choice of the clean energy source that is abundant and could provide security for development future is energy from the sun. In this paper, the characteristic of the supply voltage of the photovoltaic generator is nonlinear and exhibits multiple peaks, including many local peaks and a global peak in non-uniform irradiance. To keep global peak, MPPT is the important component of photovoltaic systems. Although many review articles discussed conventional techniques such as P & O, incremental conductance, the correlation ripple control and very few attempts have been made with intelligent MPPT techniques. This document also discusses different algorithms based on fuzzy logic, Ant Colony Optimization, Genetic Algorithm, artificial neural networks, Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm Firefly, Extremum seeking control method and hybrid methods applied to the monitoring of maximum value of power at point in systems of photovoltaic under changing conditions of irradiance.

  15. Differences in Weight Status and Energy-Balance Related Behaviors among Schoolchildren across Europe: The ENERGY-Project

    PubMed Central

    Brug, Johannes; van Stralen, Maartje M.; te Velde, Saskia J.; Chinapaw, Mai J. M.; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lien, Nanna; Bere, Elling; Maskini, Victoria; Singh, Amika S.; Maes, Lea; Moreno, Luis; Jan, Nataša; Kovacs, Eva; Lobstein, Tim; Manios, Yannis

    2012-01-01

    Background Current data on the prevalence of overweight and energy-balance behaviors among European children is necessary to inform overweight prevention interventions. Methodology/Principal Findings A school-based survey among 10–12 year old children was conducted in seven European countries using a standardized protocol. Weight, height, and waist circumference were measured; Engagement in physical activity, sedentary and dietary behaviors, and sleep duration were self-reported. Descriptive analyses were conducted, looking at differences according to country, gender, and parental education. 7234 children (52%girls; 11.6±0.7 years) participated. 25.8% and 5.4% of boys, and 21.8% and 4.1% of girls were overweight (including obese) and obese (according to International Obesity Task Force criteria), respectively. Higher prevalence of overweight/obesity was observed in Greece, Hungary, Slovenia and Spain than in Belgium, Netherlands and Norway. Large differences between countries were found in intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages, breakfast, active transport, TV and computer time. More favorable overweight status and behavior patterns were found in girls than boys and in children of higher educated parents than in children of lower educated parents. Conclusions/Significance High levels and striking differences in overweight status and potential risk behaviors were found among schoolchildren across Europe. PMID:22558098

  16. Differences in weight status and energy-balance related behaviors among schoolchildren across Europe: the ENERGY-project.

    PubMed

    Brug, Johannes; van Stralen, Maartje M; Te Velde, Saskia J; Chinapaw, Mai J M; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Lien, Nanna; Bere, Elling; Maskini, Victoria; Singh, Amika S; Maes, Lea; Moreno, Luis; Jan, Nataša; Kovacs, Eva; Lobstein, Tim; Manios, Yannis

    2012-01-01

    Current data on the prevalence of overweight and energy-balance behaviors among European children is necessary to inform overweight prevention interventions. A school-based survey among 10-12 year old children was conducted in seven European countries using a standardized protocol. Weight, height, and waist circumference were measured; Engagement in physical activity, sedentary and dietary behaviors, and sleep duration were self-reported. Descriptive analyses were conducted, looking at differences according to country, gender, and parental education. 7234 children (52%girls; 11.6 ± 0.7 years) participated. 25.8% and 5.4% of boys, and 21.8% and 4.1% of girls were overweight (including obese) and obese (according to International Obesity Task Force criteria), respectively. Higher prevalence of overweight/obesity was observed in Greece, Hungary, Slovenia and Spain than in Belgium, Netherlands and Norway. Large differences between countries were found in intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages, breakfast, active transport, TV and computer time. More favorable overweight status and behavior patterns were found in girls than boys and in children of higher educated parents than in children of lower educated parents. High levels and striking differences in overweight status and potential risk behaviors were found among schoolchildren across Europe.

  17. Input-output relation and energy efficiency in the neuron with different spike threshold dynamics.

    PubMed

    Yi, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Jiang; Tsang, Kai-Ming; Wei, Xi-Le; Deng, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Neuron encodes and transmits information through generating sequences of output spikes, which is a high energy-consuming process. The spike is initiated when membrane depolarization reaches a threshold voltage. In many neurons, threshold is dynamic and depends on the rate of membrane depolarization (dV/dt) preceding a spike. Identifying the metabolic energy involved in neural coding and their relationship to threshold dynamic is critical to understanding neuronal function and evolution. Here, we use a modified Morris-Lecar model to investigate neuronal input-output property and energy efficiency associated with different spike threshold dynamics. We find that the neurons with dynamic threshold sensitive to dV/dt generate discontinuous frequency-current curve and type II phase response curve (PRC) through Hopf bifurcation, and weak noise could prohibit spiking when bifurcation just occurs. The threshold that is insensitive to dV/dt, instead, results in a continuous frequency-current curve, a type I PRC and a saddle-node on invariant circle bifurcation, and simultaneously weak noise cannot inhibit spiking. It is also shown that the bifurcation, frequency-current curve and PRC type associated with different threshold dynamics arise from the distinct subthreshold interactions of membrane currents. Further, we observe that the energy consumption of the neuron is related to its firing characteristics. The depolarization of spike threshold improves neuronal energy efficiency by reducing the overlap of Na(+) and K(+) currents during an action potential. The high energy efficiency is achieved at more depolarized spike threshold and high stimulus current. These results provide a fundamental biophysical connection that links spike threshold dynamics, input-output relation, energetics and spike initiation, which could contribute to uncover neural encoding mechanism.

  18. Energy expenditure and enjoyment during video game play: differences by game type.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Elizabeth J; Tate, Deborah F; Ward, Dianne S; Bowling, J Michael; Ribisl, Kurt M; Kalyararaman, Sriram

    2011-10-01

    Play of physically active video games may be a way to increase physical activity and/or decrease sedentary behavior, but games are not universally active or enjoyable. Active games may differ from traditional games on important attributes, which may affect frequency and intensity of play. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in energy expenditure and enjoyment across four game types: shooter (played with traditional controllers), band simulation (guitar or drum controller), dance simulation (dance mat controller), and fitness (balance board controller). Energy expenditure (METs) and enjoyment were measured across 10 games in 100 young adults age 18-35 yr (50 women). All games except shooter games significantly increased energy expenditure over rest (P < 0.001). Fitness and dance games increased energy expenditure by 322% (mean ± SD = 3.10 ± 0.89 METs) and 298% (2.91 ± 0.87 METs), which was greater than that produced by band simulation (73%, 1.28 ± 0.28 METs) and shooter games (23%, 0.91 ± 0.16 METs). However, enjoyment was higher in band simulation games than in other types (P < 0.001). Body mass-corrected energy expenditure was greater in normal weight than in overweight participants in the two most active game types (P < 0.001). Active video games can significantly increase energy expended during screen time, but these games are less enjoyable than other more sedentary games, suggesting that they may be less likely to be played over time. Less active but more enjoyable video games may be a promising method for decreasing sedentary behavior.

  19. Energy Expenditure and Enjoyment during Video Game Play: Differences by Game Type

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Elizabeth J.; Tate, Deborah F.; Ward, Dianne S.; Bowling, J. Michael; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Kalyararaman, Sriram

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Play of physically active video games may be a way to increase physical activity and/or decrease sedentary behavior, but games are not universally active or enjoyable. Active games may differ from traditional games on important attributes, which may affect frequency and intensity of play. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in energy expenditure and enjoyment across four game types: shooter (played with traditional controllers), band simulation (guitar or drum controller), dance simulation (dance mat controller), and fitness (balance board controller). Methods Energy expenditure (metabolic equivalents [METs]) and enjoyment were measured across ten games in 100 young adults aged 18 to 35 (50 females). Results All games except shooter games significantly increased energy expenditure over rest (P < .001). Fitness and dance games increased energy expenditure by 322 (mean [SD] 3.10 [0.89] METs) and 298 (2.91 [0.87] METs) percent, which was greater than that produced by band simulation (73%, 1.28 [0.28] METs) and shooter games (23%, 0.91 [0.16] METs). However, enjoyment was higher in band simulation games than in other types (P < .001). Body mass-corrected energy expenditure was greater in normal weight than overweight participants in the two most active game types (P < .001). Conclusions Active video games can significantly increase energy expended during screen time, but these games are less enjoyable than other more sedentary games, suggesting that they may be less likely to be played over time. Less active but more enjoyable video games may be a promising method for decreasing sedentary behavior. PMID:21364477

  20. Input-output relation and energy efficiency in the neuron with different spike threshold dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Jiang; Tsang, Kai-Ming; Wei, Xi-Le; Deng, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Neuron encodes and transmits information through generating sequences of output spikes, which is a high energy-consuming process. The spike is initiated when membrane depolarization reaches a threshold voltage. In many neurons, threshold is dynamic and depends on the rate of membrane depolarization (dV/dt) preceding a spike. Identifying the metabolic energy involved in neural coding and their relationship to threshold dynamic is critical to understanding neuronal function and evolution. Here, we use a modified Morris-Lecar model to investigate neuronal input-output property and energy efficiency associated with different spike threshold dynamics. We find that the neurons with dynamic threshold sensitive to dV/dt generate discontinuous frequency-current curve and type II phase response curve (PRC) through Hopf bifurcation, and weak noise could prohibit spiking when bifurcation just occurs. The threshold that is insensitive to dV/dt, instead, results in a continuous frequency-current curve, a type I PRC and a saddle-node on invariant circle bifurcation, and simultaneously weak noise cannot inhibit spiking. It is also shown that the bifurcation, frequency-current curve and PRC type associated with different threshold dynamics arise from the distinct subthreshold interactions of membrane currents. Further, we observe that the energy consumption of the neuron is related to its firing characteristics. The depolarization of spike threshold improves neuronal energy efficiency by reducing the overlap of Na+ and K+ currents during an action potential. The high energy efficiency is achieved at more depolarized spike threshold and high stimulus current. These results provide a fundamental biophysical connection that links spike threshold dynamics, input-output relation, energetics and spike initiation, which could contribute to uncover neural encoding mechanism. PMID:26074810

  1. Polyelectrolyte-coated carbons used in the generation of blue energy from salinity differences.

    PubMed

    Ahualli, S; Jiménez, M L; Fernández, M M; Iglesias, G; Brogioli, D; Delgado, A V

    2014-12-14

    In this work we present a method for the production of clean, renewable electrical energy from the exchange of solutions with different salinities. Activated carbon films are coated with negatively or positively charged polyelectrolytes using well-established adsorption methods. When two oppositely charged coated films are placed in contact with an ionic solution, the potential difference between them will be equal to the difference between their Donnan potentials, and hence, energy can be extracted by building an electrochemical cell with such electrodes. A model is elaborated on the operation of the cell, based on the electrokinetic theory of soft particles. All the features of the model are experimentally reproduced, although a small quantitative difference concerning the maximum open-circuit voltage is found, suggesting that the coating is the key point to improve the efficiency. In the experimental conditions used, we obtain a power of 12.1 mW m(-2). Overall, the method proves to be a fruitful and simple approach to salinity-gradient energy production.

  2. Characterization of the NEPOMUC primary and remoderated positron beams at different energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanja, J.; Hergenhahn, U.; Niemann, H.; Paschkowski, N.; Sunn Pedersen, T.; Saitoh, H.; Stenson, E. V.; Stoneking, M. R.; Hugenschmidt, C.; Piochacz, C.

    2016-08-01

    We report on the characterization of the positron beam provided at the open beam port of the NEPOMUC facility at the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ) Garching. The absolute positron flux of the primary beam at 400 eV and 1 keV kinetic energy and of the remoderated beam at 5, 12 and 22 eV were determined. Energy-dependent intensities in the range of (1 - 5) ·108e+ / s and (2 - 6) ·107e+ / s have been observed for the primary and remoderated beam, respectively. We attribute the significant losses for the primary beam, in comparison with the expected value, to the non-adiabatic positron guiding in the beam line. We also measured the longitudinal energy distribution of the remoderated beam, yielding an energy spread below 3.3 eV. The mean transverse energy of the remoderated beam, determined from measurements in different final magnetic fields, was found to be below 1.3 eV. These results are likely to apply to the NEPOMUC beam delivered to other user stations.

  3. Formation of donors in germanium–silicon alloys implanted with hydrogen ions with different energies

    SciT

    Pokotilo, Yu. M., E-mail: Pokotilo@bsu.by; Petukh, A. N.; Litvinov, V. V.

    2016-08-15

    The distributions of hydrogen-containing donors in Ge{sub 1–x}Si{sub x} (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.06) alloys implanted with hydrogen ions with an energy of 200 and 300 keV and a dose of 1 × 10{sup 15} cm{sup –2} are studied. It is established that, at the higher ion energy, the limiting donor concentration after postimplantation heat treatment (275°C) is attained within ~30 min and, at the lower energy, within ~320 min. In contrast to donors formed near the surface, a portion of hydrogen-containing donors formed upon the implantation of ions with the higher energy possess the property of bistability. The limitingmore » donor concentration is independent of the ion energy, but decreases from 1.3 × 10{sup 16} to 1.5 × 10{sup 15} cm{sup –3}, as the Si impurity content in the alloy is increased from x = 0.008 to x = 0.062. It is inferred that the observed differences arise from the participation of the surface in the donor formation process, since the surface significantly influences defect-formation processes involving radiation-induced defects, whose generation accompanies implantation.« less

  4. The association between different types of exercise and energy expenditure in young nonoverweight and overweight adults

    PubMed Central

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A.; Shook, Robin P.; Jakicic, John M.; Hebert, James R.; Burgess, Stephanie; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    With decades of trends for decreasing activity during work and travel, exercise becomes an important contributor to total physical activity (PA) and energy expenditure. The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of different types of exercise to the variability in energy expenditure and time spent at different PA intensities in young adults. Four hundred and seventeen adults (49.9% male; 46.2 overweight/obese) between 21 and 36 years of age provided valid objective PA and energy expenditure data, assessed via the SenseWear Armband (BodyMedia Inc.). Frequency and duration of participation in various exercise types was self-reported. Weight status was based on body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2) with body weight and height being measured according to standard procedures. Eighty-four percent of the participants reported regular exercise engagement with no difference in participation rate by sex or BMI category. Exercise time along with sex and ethnicity explained roughly 60% of the variability in total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) while the association between exercise and time spent in moderate to vigorous PA or being sedentary was low or nonsignificant. Engagement in endurance exercise and sports contributed predominantly to the variability in energy expenditure and PA in nonoverweight participants. In overweight/obese participants engagement in resistance exercise and swimming contributed significantly to variability in TDEE. Current exercise recommendations focus primarily on aerobic exercise, but results of the present study suggest that nonweight-bearing exercises, such as resistance exercise and swimming, contribute significantly to the variability in TDEE in overweight/obese adults, which would make these types of activities viable options for exercise interventions. PMID:25647557

  5. Energy for Wild-Type Acetylcholine Receptor Channel Gating from Different Choline Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Bruhova, Iva; Gregg, Timothy; Auerbach, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Agonists, including the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh), bind at two sites in the neuromuscular ACh receptor channel (AChR) to promote a reversible, global change in protein conformation that regulates the flow of ions across the muscle cell membrane. In the synaptic cleft, ACh is hydrolyzed to acetate and choline. Replacement of the transmitter’s ester acetyl group with a hydroxyl (ACh→choline) results in a +1.8 kcal/mol reduction in the energy for gating generated by each agonist molecule from a low- to high-affinity change of the transmitter binding site (ΔGB). To understand the distinct actions of structurally related agonist molecules, we measured ΔGB for 10 related choline derivatives. Replacing the hydroxyl group of choline with different substituents, such as hydrogen, chloride, methyl, or amine, increased the energy for gating (i.e., it made ΔGB more negative relative to choline). Extending the ethyl hydroxide tail of choline to propyl and butyl hydroxide also increased this energy. Our findings reveal the amount of energy that is available for the AChR conformational change provided by different, structurally related agonists. We speculate that a hydrogen bond between the choline hydroxyl and the backbone carbonyl of αW149 positions this agonist’s quaternary ammonium group so as to reduce the cation-π interaction between this moiety and the aromatic groups at the binding site. PMID:23442907

  6. Energy response corrections for profile measurements using a combination of different detector types.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Sonja; Sauer, Otto A

    2018-02-01

    Different detector properties will heavily affect the results of off-axis measurements outside of radiation fields, where a different energy spectrum is encountered. While a diode detector would show a high spatial resolution, it contains high atomic number elements, which lead to perturbations and energy-dependent response. An ionization chamber, on the other hand, has a much smaller energy dependence, but shows dose averaging over its larger active volume. We suggest a way to obtain spatial energy response corrections of a detector independent of its volume effect for profiles of arbitrary fields by using a combination of two detectors. Measurements were performed at an Elekta Versa HD accelerator equipped with an Agility MLC. Dose profiles of fields between 10 × 4 cm² and 0.6 × 0.6 cm² were recorded several times, first with different small-field detectors (unshielded diode 60012 and stereotactic field detector SFD, microDiamond, EDGE, and PinPoint 31006) and then with a larger volume ionization chamber Semiflex 31010 for different photon beam qualities of 6, 10, and 18 MV. Correction factors for the small-field detectors were obtained from the readings of the respective detector and the ionization chamber using a convolution method. Selected profiles were also recorded on film to enable a comparison. After applying the correction factors to the profiles measured with different detectors, agreement between the detectors and with profiles measured on EBT3 film was improved considerably. Differences in the full width half maximum obtained with the detectors and the film typically decreased by a factor of two. Off-axis correction factors outside of a 10 × 1 cm² field ranged from about 1.3 for the EDGE diode about 10 mm from the field edge to 0.7 for the PinPoint 31006 25 mm from the field edge. The microDiamond required corrections comparable in size to the Si-diodes and even exceeded the values in the tail region of the field. The SFD was found

  7. Mass content of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays within different time periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glushkov, A. V.

    2014-03-01

    Estimates obtained for the average atomic number of nuclei of primary particles with energies in the region of E 0 ⩾ 1015 eV over the past 36 years at the Yakutsk array and other arrays worldwide for studying extensive air showers are presented. It is shown that these estimates are markedly different with in different time periods. Earlier than 1996, the composition of cosmic rays in the energy range of 5 × 1015-1018 eV was markedly lighter than in later years. After 2008, there appeared a trend toward a decrease in . This is likely to be a manifestation of some explosive process in the Milky Way Galaxy after 1996.

  8. Broadband piezoelectric energy harvesting devices using multiple bimorphs with different operating frequencies.

    PubMed

    Xue, Huan; Hu, Yuantai; Wang, Qing-Ming

    2008-09-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for designing broadband piezoelectric harvesters by integrating multiple piezoelectric bimorphs (PBs) with different aspect ratios into a system. The effect of 2 connecting patterns among PBs, in series and in parallel, on improving energy harvesting performance is discussed. It is found for multifrequency spectra ambient vibrations: 1) the operating frequency band (OFB) of a harvesting structure can be widened by connecting multiple PBs with different aspect ratios in series; 2) the OFB of a harvesting structure can be shifted to the dominant frequency domain of the ambient vibrations by increasing or decreasing the number of PBs in parallel. Numerical results show that the OFB of the piezoelectric energy harvesting devices can be tailored by the connection patterns (i.e., in series and in parallel) among PBs.

  9. Measurement of magnetic field aligned potential differences using high resolution conjugate photoelectron energy spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, W. K.; Doering, J. P.; Potemra, T. A.; Bostrom, C. O.; Brace, L. H.; Heelis, R. A.; Hanson, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Simultaneous high-resolution observations of a distinctive feature in the energy spectrum of conjugate photoelectrons and spacecraft potential relative to the local ionosphere have allowed the net potential difference between magnetic conjugate points at latitudes below the region of low-energy (i.e., lower than 100 eV) auroral electron precipitation to be determined. Measurements made at 300 km from Atmosphere Explorer C show that there is normally no net potential difference between hemispheres in this region, which extended up to invariant latitudes as high as 74 deg. Two types of apparently related anomalous behavior were infrequently observed at high latitudes. During these periods the incident flux of conjugate photoelectrons was either decelerated by about 3 eV or was not detected.

  10. Lane-changing behavior and its effect on energy dissipation using full velocity difference model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Ding, Jian-Xun; Shi, Qin; Kühne, Reinhart D.

    2016-07-01

    In real urban traffic, roadways are usually multilane with lane-specific velocity limits. Most previous researches are derived from single-lane car-following theory which in the past years has been extensively investigated and applied. In this paper, we extend the continuous single-lane car-following model (full velocity difference model) to simulate the three-lane-changing behavior on an urban roadway which consists of three lanes. To meet incentive and security requirements, a comprehensive lane-changing rule set is constructed, taking safety distance and velocity difference into consideration and setting lane-specific speed restriction for each lane. We also investigate the effect of lane-changing behavior on distribution of cars, velocity, headway, fundamental diagram of traffic and energy dissipation. Simulation results have demonstrated asymmetric lane-changing “attraction” on changeable lane-specific speed-limited roadway, which leads to dramatically increasing energy dissipation.

  11. Determination of solar wind energy input during different form of geomagnetic disturbances.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahal, S.; Adhikari, B.; Narayan, C.; Shapkota, N.

    2017-12-01

    A quantitative study on solar wind energy input during different form of geomagnetic disturbances as well as during quite period was performed. To enable a quantitative analysis, we estimate Akasofu parameter which plays an important role to understand the relationships between ionosphere-magnetosphere and solar wind energy input. For comparative purpose, the total energy budget of Non storm HILDCAA event (19th to 24th April 2003), Storm preceding HILDCAA event (14th to 19th May 2005), Geomagnetic sub-storm (12nd to 16th November 2003), Geomagnetic super sub-storm (12nd to 16th November 2003) and a Quiet period (18th to 21st July 2006) were also analyzed. Among these events the highest total energy budget was found during the occurrence of storm preceding HILDCAA. This is due to significant geomagnetic field perturbation as displayed on the value of interplanetary parameters. The principal cause of geomagnetic disturbance is the magnetic reconnection, which establishes an electrodynamic coupling between the solar plasma and the magnetosphere. Although there is distinct perturbation on SYM-H index for all events but the values are different. The highest pick value of SYM-H index ( -300nT) was found for the storm preceding HILDCAA.This results suggest that the effects of HILDCAAs, displayed on the value of the SYM-H index, depends on the amount of the energy injected into the ring current. In a complementary way, fluctuation pattern of Temperature, IMF magnitude, Bx component, By component, and AE index are also studied and the possible physical interpretations for the statistical results obtained during each events were discussed. We shall report the characteristics of Bz component during each events by the implementation of discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and cross correlation analysis. We did cross-correlation between solar wind energy and Bz component of IMF and found a negative correlation between them during the main phase of geomagnetic disturbances. These

  12. Generalized energy and potential enstrophy conserving finite difference schemes for the shallow water equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abramopoulos, Frank

    1988-01-01

    The conditions under which finite difference schemes for the shallow water equations can conserve both total energy and potential enstrophy are considered. A method of deriving such schemes using operator formalism is developed. Several such schemes are derived for the A-, B- and C-grids. The derived schemes include second-order schemes and pseudo-fourth-order schemes. The simplest B-grid pseudo-fourth-order schemes are presented.

  13. Triplet energy differences and the low lying structure of 62Ga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, T. W.; Bentley, M. A.; Clark, R. M.; Davies, P. J.; Bader, V. M.; Baugher, T.; Bazin, D.; Beausang, C. W.; Berryman, J. S.; Bruce, A. M.; Campbell, C. M.; Crawford, H. L.; Cromaz, M.; Fallon, P.; Gade, A.; Henderson, J.; Iwasaki, H.; Jenkins, D. G.; Lee, I. Y.; Lemasson, A.; Lenzi, S. M.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Napoli, D. R.; Nichols, A. J.; Paschalis, S.; Petri, M.; Recchia, F.; Rissanen, J.; Simpson, E. C.; Stroberg, S. R.; Wadsworth, R.; Weisshaar, D.; Wiens, A.; Walz, C.

    2015-08-01

    Background: Triplet energy differences (TED) can be studied to yield information on isospin-non-conserving interactions in nuclei. Purpose: The systematic behavior of triplet energy differences (TED) of T =1 , Jπ=2+ states is examined. The A =62 isobar is identified as having a TED value that deviates significantly from an otherwise very consistent trend. This deviation can be attributed to the tentative assignments of the pertinent states in 62Ga and 62Ge . Methods: An in-beam γ -ray spectroscopy experiment was performed to identify excited states in 62Ga using Gamma-Ray Energy Tracking In-Beam Nuclear Array with the S800 spectrometer at NSCL using a two-nucleon knockout approach. Cross-section calculations for the knockout process and shell-model calculations have been performed to interpret the population and decay properties observed. Results: Using the systematics as a guide, a candidate for the transition from the T =1 , 2+ state is identified. However, previous work has identified similar states with different Jπ assignments. Cross-section calculations indicate that the relevant T =1 , 2+ state should be one of the states directly populated in this reaction. Conclusions: As spins and parities were not measurable, it is concluded that an unambiguous identification of the first T =1 , 2+ state is required to reconcile our understanding of TED systematics.

  14. Effect of Collagen Matrix Saturation on the Surface Free Energy of Dentin using Different Agents.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Leopoldina de Fátima Dantas; Souza, Samilly Evangelista; Sampaio, Aline Araújo; Cavalcanti, Yuri Wanderley; da Silva, Wander José; Del Bel Cur, Altair A; Hebling, Josimeri

    2015-07-01

    The surface free energy of conditioned-dentin is one of the factors that interfere with monomeric infiltration of the interfibrillar spaces. Saturation of the tooth matrix with different substances may modulate this energy and, consequently, the wettability of the dentin. To evaluate the influence of different substances used to saturate conditioned-dentin on surface free energy (SFE) of this substrate. Dentin blocks (4 × 7 × 1 mm, n = 6/ group), obtained from the roots of bovine incisors, were etched using phosphoric acid for 15 seconds, rinsed and gently dried. The surfaces were treated for 60 seconds with: ultra-purified water (H20-control); ethanol (EtOH), acetone (ACT), chlorhexidine (CHX), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA); or sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The tooth surfaces were once again dried with absorbent paper and prepared for SFE evaluation using three standards: water, formamide and bromonaphthalene. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Dunnet's tests (a = 0.05) were applied to the data. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was the only substance that caused a change to the contact angle for the standards water and formamide, while only EtOH influenced the angles formed between formamide and the dentin surface. None of the substances exerted a significant effect for bromonaphtha-lene. In comparison to the control, only EDTA and NaOCl altered both polar components of the SFE. Total SFE was increased by saturation of the collagen matrix by EDTA and reduced when NaOCl was used. Saturation of the collagen matrix by EDTA and EtOH changed the surface free energy of the dentin. In addition, the use of NaOCl negatively interfered with the properties evaluated. The increase of surface free energy and wettability of the dentin surface would allow higher penetration of the the adhesive system, which would be of importance to the clinical success of resin-dentin union.

  15. Performance comparison of two fuel cell hybrid buses with different powertrain and energy management strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Minggao; Xu, Liangfei; Li, Jianqiu; Lu, Languang; Gao, Dawei; Xie, Qicheng

    In order to assess the influences of different powertrain structures and energy management strategies on the performance of hybrid fuel cell buses (FCB), two buses (FCB A and FCB B) were constructed with a "energy hybrid structure" and "power hybrid structure", respectively. Different energy management strategies were investigated based on analysis of the two systems. And the two buses were compared with each other in a bus cycle and constant speed testing. The Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) in FCB A showed an advantage in fuel economy for it worked usually in the high efficient range of the PEMFC engine. The hydrogen consumption rate in the cycle testing was 7.9 kg/100 km and 9.8 kg/100 km for FCB A and FCB B, and in the 40 kmph constant speed testing it was 3.3 kg/100 km and 4.0 kg/100 km, respectively. The fuel economy could be improved when the hydrogen and air supply subsystems are optimized and controlled with an advanced algorithm. It could also benefit from a braking energy regeneration system. Compared with FCB A, the PEMFC in FCB B worked under unfavorable operation conditions because its working range was comparatively wide, and the power changing rate was relatively large from a statistical point of view, which resulted in performance recession of the PEMFC in FCB B. After a mileage of 7000 km, the output power of the PEMFC in FCB B was reduced by 10%, compared with 2.4% in FCB A. An advanced energy management strategy is necessary to split the power between the PEMFC and a battery suitable for long durability of a PEMFC.

  16. Energy allocation in juvenile roach and burbot under different temperature and feeding regimes.

    PubMed

    Binner, Maaike; Kloas, Werner; Hardewig, Iris

    2008-06-01

    Cold-active burbot (Lota lota (L.)) display reduced food intake during the summer. The impact of temperature on their energy budget was investigated in starved fish in a laboratory setting, simulating summer (20 degrees C) and winter (4 degrees C) conditions, to elucidate the impact of high temperature on burbot metabolism. Metabolic effects in burbot were compared to roach (Rutilus rutilus (L.)), which typically fast in winter. During warm acclimation, starvation (four weeks) resulted in a metabolic depression of oxygen consumption in both species. In roach, metabolic rate decreased by 55% after two weeks of starvation. Burbot, in contrast, displayed an immediate depression of metabolic rate by 50%. In both species, no reductions were observed in the cold. The temperature-induced differences between the metabolic rates at 20 degrees C and 4 degrees C showed a lower thermal sensitivity in burbot (Q (10) = 1.9) compared to roach (Q (10) = 2.7). Notably, for each species, energy consumption during starvation was highest under experimental conditions simulating their natural active periods, respectively. Warm acclimated roach relied mainly on muscle reserves, whereas in cold acclimated burbot, liver metabolic stores made a major contribution to the energy turnover. In cold acclimated roach and warm acclimated burbot, however, starvation apparently reduced swimming activity, resulting in considerable savings of energy reserves. These lower energy expenditures in roach and burbot corresponded to their natural inactive periods. Thus, starvation in burbot caused a lower energy turnover when exposed to high temperatures. These season-dependent adaptations of metabolism represent an advantageous strategy in burbot to manage winter temperature and withstand metabolism-activating summer temperatures, whereas roach metabolism correlates with the seasonal temperature cycle.

  17. Strong spin-orbit coupling and Zeeman spin splitting in angle dependent magnetoresistance of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}

    SciT

    Dey, Rik, E-mail: rikdey@utexas.edu; Pramanik, Tanmoy; Roy, Anupam

    We have studied angle dependent magnetoresistance of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin film with field up to 9 T over 2–20 K temperatures. The perpendicular field magnetoresistance has been explained by the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka theory alone in a system with strong spin-orbit coupling, from which we have estimated the mean free path, the phase coherence length, and the spin-orbit relaxation time. We have obtained the out-of-plane spin-orbit relaxation time to be small and the in-plane spin-orbit relaxation time to be comparable to the momentum relaxation time. The estimation of these charge and spin transport parameters are useful for spintronics applications. For parallel field magnetoresistance,more » we have confirmed the presence of Zeeman effect which is otherwise suppressed in perpendicular field magnetoresistance due to strong spin-orbit coupling. The parallel field data have been explained using both the contributions from the Maekawa-Fukuyama localization theory for non-interacting electrons and Lee-Ramakrishnan theory of electron-electron interactions. The estimated Zeeman g-factor and the strength of Coulomb screening parameter agree well with the theory. Finally, the anisotropy in magnetoresistance with respect to angle has been described by the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka theory. This anisotropy can be used in anisotropic magnetic sensor applications.« less

  18. Extremely large magnetoresistance induced by Zeeman effect-driven electron-hole compensation and topological protection in MoSi2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matin, M.; Mondal, Rajib; Barman, N.; Thamizhavel, A.; Dhar, S. K.

    2018-05-01

    Here, we report an extremely large positive magnetoresistance (XMR) in a single-crystal sample of MoSi2, approaching almost 107% at 2 K in a 14-T magnetic field without appreciable saturation. Hall resistivity data reveal an uncompensated nature of MoSi2 with an electron-hole compensation level sufficient enough to expect strong saturation of magnetoresistance in the high-field regime. Magnetotransport and the complementary de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) oscillations results, however, suggest that strong Zeeman effect causes a magnetic field-induced modulation of the Fermi pockets and drives the system towards perfect electron-hole compensation condition in the high-field regime. Thus, the nonsaturating XMR of this semimetal arises under the unconventional situation of Zeeman effect-driven electron-hole compensation, whereas its huge magnitude is decided solely by the ultralarge value of the carrier mobility. Intrinsic ultralarge carrier mobility, strong suppression of backward scattering of the charge carriers, and nontrivial Berry phase in dHvA oscillations attest to the topological character of MoSi2. Therefore, this semimetal represents another material hosting combination of topological and conventional electronic phases.

  19. THE MAGNETIC SENSITIVITY OF THE Mg ii k LINE TO THE JOINT ACTION OF HANLE, ZEEMAN, AND MAGNETO-OPTICAL EFFECTS

    SciT

    Ballester, E. Alsina; Bueno, J. Trujillo; Belluzzi, L., E-mail: ealsina@iac.es, E-mail: jtb@iac.es, E-mail: belluzzi@irsol.ch

    2016-11-10

    We highlight the main results of a radiative transfer investigation on the magnetic sensitivity of the solar Mg ii k resonance line at 2795.5 Å, accounting for the joint action of the Hanle and Zeeman effects as well as partial frequency redistribution phenomena. We confirm that at the line center, the linear polarization signals produced by scattering processes are measurable, and that they are sensitive, via the Hanle effect, to magnetic fields with strengths between 5 and 50 G, approximately. We also show that the Zeeman effect produces conspicuous circular polarization signals, especially for longitudinal fields stronger than 50 G,more » which can be used to estimate the magnetization of the solar chromosphere via the familiar magnetograph formula. The most novel result is that magneto-optical effects produce, in the wings of the line, a decrease of the Q / I scattering polarization pattern and the appearance of U / I signals (i.e., a rotation of the plane of linear polarization). This sensitivity of the Q / I and U / I wing signals to both weak (∼5 G) and stronger magnetic fields expands the scientific interest of the Mg ii k line for probing the chromosphere in quiet and active regions of the Sun.« less

  20. Band nesting, massive Dirac fermions, and valley Landé and Zeeman effects in transition metal dichalcogenides: A tight-binding model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieniek, Maciej; Korkusiński, Marek; Szulakowska, Ludmiła; Potasz, Paweł; Ozfidan, Isil; Hawrylak, Paweł

    2018-02-01

    We present here the minimal tight-binding model for a single layer of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) MX 2(M , metal; X , chalcogen) which illuminates the physics and captures band nesting, massive Dirac fermions, and valley Landé and Zeeman magnetic field effects. TMDCs share the hexagonal lattice with graphene but their electronic bands require much more complex atomic orbitals. Using symmetry arguments, a minimal basis consisting of three metal d orbitals and three chalcogen dimer p orbitals is constructed. The tunneling matrix elements between nearest-neighbor metal and chalcogen orbitals are explicitly derived at K ,-K , and Γ points of the Brillouin zone. The nearest-neighbor tunneling matrix elements connect specific metal and sulfur orbitals yielding an effective 6 ×6 Hamiltonian giving correct composition of metal and chalcogen orbitals but not the direct gap at K points. The direct gap at K , correct masses, and conduction band minima at Q points responsible for band nesting are obtained by inclusion of next-neighbor Mo-Mo tunneling. The parameters of the next-nearest-neighbor model are successfully fitted to MX 2(M =Mo ; X =S ) density functional ab initio calculations of the highest valence and lowest conduction band dispersion along K -Γ line in the Brillouin zone. The effective two-band massive Dirac Hamiltonian for MoS2, Landé g factors, and valley Zeeman splitting are obtained.

  1. The fragment spin difference scheme for triplet-triplet energy transfer coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Zhi-Qiang; Hsu, Chao-Ping

    2010-08-01

    To calculate the electronic couplings in both inter- and intramolecular triplet energy transfer (TET), we have developed the "fragment spin difference" (FSD) scheme. The FSD was a generalization from the "fragment charge difference" (FCD) method of Voityuk et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 117, 5607 (2002)] for electron transfer (ET) coupling. In FSD, the spin population difference was used in place of the charge difference in FCD. FSD is derived from the eigenstate energies and populations, and therefore the FSD couplings contain all contributions in the Hamiltonian as well as the potential overlap effect. In the present work, two series of molecules, all-trans-polyene oligomers and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, were tested for intermolecular TET study. The TET coupling results are largely similar to those from the previously developed direct coupling scheme, with FSD being easier and more flexible in use. On the other hand, the Dexter's exchange integral value, a quantity that is often used as an approximate for the TET coupling, varies in a large range as compared to the corresponding TET coupling. To test the FSD for intramolecular TET, we have calculated the TET couplings between zinc(II)-porphyrin and free-base porphyrin separated by different numbers of p-phenyleneethynylene bridge units. Our estimated rate constants are consistent with experimentally measured TET rates. The FSD method can be used for both intermolecular and intramolecular TET, regardless of their symmetry. This general applicability is an improvement over most existing methodologies.

  2. Differences in energy expenditure for conventional and femtosecond-assisted cataract surgery using 2 different phacoemulsification systems.

    PubMed

    Yesilirmak, Nilufer; Diakonis, Vasilios F; Sise, Adam; Waren, Daniel P; Yoo, Sonia H; Donaldson, Kendall E

    2017-01-01

    To compare the mean cumulative dissipated energy (CDE) in patients having femtosecond laser-assisted or conventional phacoemulsification cataract surgery using 2 different phacoemulsification platforms. Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Miami, Florida, USA. Prospective comparative nonrandomized clinical study. Consecutive patients were scheduled to have femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery with the Lensx laser or conventional phacoemulsification using an active-fluidics torsional platform (Centurion) or torsional platform (Infiniti). The mean CDE and cataract grade were recorded. The study comprised 570 eyes (570 patients). There was no statistically significant difference in mean age (P = .41, femtosecond group; P = .33, conventional group) or cataract grade (P = .78 and P = .45, respectively) between the active-fluidics and gravity-fluidics platforms. In femtosecond cases (145 eyes), the mean CDE (percent-seconds) was 5.18 ± 4.58 (SD) with active fluidics and 7.00 ± 6.85 with gravity fluidics; in conventional cases (425 eyes), the mean CDE was 7.77 ± 6.97 and 11.43 ± 9.12, respectively. In both femtosecond cases and conventional cases, the CDE was lower with the active-fluidics platform than with the gravity-fluidics platform (P = .029, femtosecond group; P < .001 conventional group). With both fluidics platforms, the mean CDE was significantly lower in the femtosecond group than in the conventional group (both P < .001). The active-fluidics phacoemulsification platform achieved lower CDE values than the gravity-fluidics platform for conventional cataract extraction. Femtosecond laser pretreatment with the active-fluidics platform further reduced CDE. Copyright © 2017 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Vibration energy harvesting based on integrated piezoelectric components operating in different modes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Junhui; Jong, Januar; Zhao, Chunsheng

    2010-01-01

    To increase the vibration energy-harvesting capability of the piezoelectric generator based on a cantilever beam, we have proposed a piezoelectric generator that not only uses the strain change of piezoelectric components bonded on a cantilever beam, but also employs the weights at the tip of the cantilever beam to hit piezoelectric components located on the 2 sides of weights. A prototype of the piezoelectric generator has been fabricated and its characteristics have been measured and analyzed. The experimental results show that the piezoelectric components operating in the hit mode can substantially enhance the energy harvesting of the piezoelectric generator on a cantilever beam. Two methods are used and compared in the management of rectified output voltages from different groups of piezoelectric components. In one of them, the DC voltages from rectifiers are connected in series, and then the total DC voltage is applied to a capacitor. In another connection, the DC voltage from each group is applied to different capacitors. It is found that 22.3% of the harvested energy is wasted due to the series connection. The total output electric energy of our piezoelectric generator at nonresonance could be up to 43 nJ for one vibration excitation applied by spring, with initial vibration amplitude (0-p) of 18 mm and frequency of 18.5 Hz, when the rectified voltages from different groups of piezoelectric components are connected to their individual capacitors. In addition, the motion and impact of the weights at the tip of the cantilever beam are theoretically analyzed, which well explains the experimental phenomena and suggests the measures to improve the generator.

  4. Understanding the difference in cohesive energies between alpha and beta tin in DFT calculations

    SciT

    Legrain, Fleur; Manzhos, Sergei, E-mail: mpemanzh@nus.edu.sg

    2016-04-15

    The transition temperature between the low-temperature alpha phase of tin to beta tin is close to the room temperature (T{sub αβ} = 13{sup 0}C), and the difference in cohesive energy of the two phases at 0 K of about ΔE{sub coh} =0.02 eV/atom is at the limit of the accuracy of DFT (density functional theory) with available exchange-correlation functionals. It is however critically important to model the relative phase energies correctly for any reasonable description of phenomena and technologies involving these phases, for example, the performance of tin electrodes in electrochemical batteries. Here, we show that several commonly used andmore » converged DFT setups using the most practical and widely used PBE functional result in ΔE{sub coh} ≈0.04 eV/atom, with different types of basis sets and with different models of core electrons (all-electron or pseudopotentials of different types), which leads to a significant overestimation of T{sub αβ}. We show that this is due to the errors in relative positions of s and p –like bands, which, combined with different populations of these bands in α and β Sn, leads to overstabilization of alpha tin. We show that this error can be effectively corrected by applying a Hubbard +U correction to s –like states, whereby correct cohesive energies of both α and β Sn can be obtained with the same computational scheme. We quantify for the first time the effects of anharmonicity on ΔE{sub coh} and find that it is negligible.« less

  5. Evaluation of the environmental sustainability of different waste-to-energy plant configurations.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Lidia; Carnevale, Ennio A

    2018-03-01

    Residual municipal solid waste (MSW) has an average lower heating value higher than 10GJ/Mg in the EU, and can be recovered in modern Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants, producing combined heat and power (CHP) and reaching high levels of energy recovery. CHP is pinpointed as the best technique for energy recovery from waste. However, in some cases, heat recovery is not technically feasible - due to the absence of a thermal user (industrial plant or district heating) in the vicinity of the WtE plant - and power production remains the sole possibility. In these cases, there are some challenges involved in increasing the energy performance as much as possible. High energy recovery efficiency values are very important for the environmental sustainability of WtE plants. The more electricity and heat is produced, the better the saving of natural resources that can be achieved. Within this frame, the aim of this work is to carry out an environmental assessment, through Life Cycle Assessment, of an MSW WtE plant, considering different sizes and operated in different ways, from power production only to full cogeneration. The main assumption is that the electric conversion efficiency increases as the plant size increases, introducing technical improvements thanks to the economies of scale. Impact assessment results were calculated using ReCiPe 2008 methods. The climate change indicator is positive when the WtE plant is operated in power production only mode, with values decreasing for the increasing size. Values for the climate change are negative when cogeneration is applied, requiring increasing cogeneration ratios for decreasing size. Similarly, the fossil fuel depletion indicator benefits from increase of both the plant size and the cogeneration rate, but it is always negative, meaning that the residual MSW burning with energy recovery always provides a saving of fossil primary energy. Other indicator values are in general negative and are also beneficially affected by

  6. Energy reserve modification in different age groups of Daphnia schoedleri (Anomopoda: Daphniidae) exposed to hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Arzate-Cárdenas, Mario Alberto; Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando

    2012-07-01

    Caloric content is a reliable biomaker of effect since it is modified by exposure to toxicants that can alter basal metabolism. Since organisms' age modifies how energy resources are allocated and modifies the activity of antioxidant enzymes, the response to toxic agents could be altered with age. Seven age groups of Daphnia schoedleri (0, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 28-day-old) were exposed for 24h to two sublethal concentrations of Cr(VI): 1/25 and 1/5 of the 48 h EC(50) of each age group, to determine the age at which susceptibility to Cr(VI) is highest. To evaluate energy content, carbohydrate, protein and lipid reserves were quantified and antioxidant enzymes activity was assessed (SOD, CAT, GPx, and GR). Furthermore, an integrative approach was applied to evaluate both sets of responses and interpret them as a whole in a simply visual way, achieved by the integrated biomarker response approach. Results indicate that Cr(VI) induced significant differences in all age groups. Seven and 14-day-old organisms were exposed to the highest concentrations (based on their EC50) and showed greater tolerance to this metal. Susceptibility to the toxicant was highest in younger specimens in which energy requirements are greater due to high growth rates (basal metabolism), as a result of which more energy reserves are expended to satisfy demands in terms of growth and response to toxicants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of four different energy balance models for estimating evapotranspiration in the Midwestern United States

    Singh, Ramesh K.; Senay, Gabriel B.

    2016-01-01

    The development of different energy balance models has allowed users to choose a model based on its suitability in a region. We compared four commonly used models—Mapping EvapoTranspiration at high Resolution with Internalized Calibration (METRIC) model, Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) model, Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) model, and the Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) model—using Landsat images to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) in the Midwestern United States. Our models validation using three AmeriFlux cropland sites at Mead, Nebraska, showed that all four models captured the spatial and temporal variation of ET reasonably well with an R2 of more than 0.81. Both the METRIC and SSEBop models showed a low root mean square error (<0.93 mm·day−1) and a high Nash–Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency (>0.80), whereas the SEBAL and SEBS models resulted in relatively higher bias for estimating daily ET. The empirical equation of daily average net radiation used in the SEBAL and SEBS models for upscaling instantaneous ET to daily ET resulted in underestimation of daily ET, particularly when the daily average net radiation was more than 100 W·m−2. Estimated daily ET for both cropland and grassland had some degree of linearity with METRIC, SEBAL, and SEBS, but linearity was stronger for evaporative fraction. Thus, these ET models have strengths and limitations for applications in water resource management.

  8. Prevalence of energy intake misreporting in Malay children varies based on application of different cut points.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wai Yew; Burrows, Tracy; Collins, Clare E; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley; Williams, Lauren T; Chee, Winnie Siew Swee

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to identify the prevalence of energy misreporting amongst a sample of Malay children aged 9-11 years (n = 14) using a range of commonly used cut points. Participants were interviewed using repeated 24 h dietary recalls over three occasions. The Goldberg equations (1991 and 2000), Torun cut points and the Black and Cole method were applied to the data. Up to 11 of 14 children were classified as misreporters, with more under-reporters (between seven and eight children) than over-reporters (four or less children). There were significant differences in the proportion of children classified as energy misreporters when applying basal metabolic rate calculated using FAO/UNU/WHO (1985) and Malaysian-specific equations (p < 0.05). The results show that energy misreporting is common amongst Malay children, varying according to cut point chosen. Objective evaluation of total energy expenditure would help identify which cut point is appropriate for use in Malay paediatric populations. © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Effects of Nuclear Cross Sections at Different Energies on Space Radiation Exposure from Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zi-Wei; Adams, James H., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Space radiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) is a major hazard to space crews, especially in long duration human space explorations. For this reason, they will be protected by radiation shielding that fragments the GCR heavy ions. Here we investigate how sensitive the crew's radiation exposure is to nuclear fragmentation cross sections at different energies. We find that in deep space cross sections between about 0.2 and 1.2 GeV/u have the strongest effect on dose equivalent behind shielding in solar minimum GCR environments, and cross sections between about 0.6 and 1.7 GeV/u are the most important at solar maximum'. On the other hand, at the location of the International Space Station, cross sections at_higher -energies, between about 0.6 and 1.7 GeV /u at solar minimum and between about 1.7 and 3.4 GeV/u'at,solar maximum, are the most important This is. due-to the average geomagnetic cutoff for the ISS orbit. We also show the effect of uncertainties in the fragmentation cross sections on the elemental energy spectra behind shielding. These results help to focus the studies of fragmentation cross sections on the proper energy range in order to improve our predictions of crew exposures.

  10. Mechanical energy and power flow analysis of wheelchair use with different camber settings.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yueh-Chu; Guo, Lan-Yuen; Tsai, Chung-Ying; Su, Fong-Chin

    2013-04-01

    It has been suggested that minimisation of energy cost is one of the primary determinants of wheelchair designs. Wheel camber is one important parameter related to wheelchair design and its angle may affect usability during manual propulsion. However, there is little available literature addressing the effect of wheel camber on the mechanical energy or power flow involved in manual wheelchair propulsion. Twelve normal subjects (mean age, 22.3 years; SD, 1.6 years) participated in this study. A video-tracking system and an instrumented wheel were used to collect 3D kinematic and kinetic data. Wheel camber of 0° and 15° was chosen to examine the difference between mechanical power and power flow of the upper extremity during manual wheelchair propulsion. The work calculated from power flow and the discrepancy between the mechanical work and power flow work of upper extremity had significantly greater values with increased camber. The upper arm had a larger active muscle power compared with that in the forearm and hand segments. While propelling the increased camber, the magnitude of both the proximal and distal joint power and proximal muscle power was increased in all three segments. While the propelling wheel with camber not only needs a greater energy cost but also there is greater energy loss.

  11. Energy conversion through mass loading of escaping ionospheric ions for different Kp values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Slapak, Rikard

    2018-01-01

    By conserving momentum during the mixing of fast solar wind flow and slow planetary ion flow in an inelastic way, mass loading converts kinetic energy to other forms - e.g. first to electrical energy through charge separation and then to thermal energy (randomness) through gyromotion of the newly born cold ions for the comet and Mars cases. Here, we consider the Earth's exterior cusp and plasma mantle, where the ionospheric origin escaping ions with finite temperatures are loaded into the decelerated solar wind flow. Due to direct connectivity to the ionosphere through the geomagnetic field, a large part of this electrical energy is consumed to maintain field-aligned currents (FACs) toward the ionosphere, in a similar manner as the solar wind-driven ionospheric convection in the open geomagnetic field region. We show that the energy extraction rate by the mass loading of escaping ions (ΔK) is sufficient to explain the cusp FACs, and that ΔK depends only on the solar wind velocity accessing the mass-loading region (usw) and the total mass flux of the escaping ions into this region (mloadFload), as ΔK ˜ -mloadFloadu2sw/4. The expected distribution of the separated charges by this process also predicts the observed flowing directions of the cusp FACs for different interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientations if we include the deflection of the solar wind flow directions in the exterior cusp. Using empirical relations of u0 ∝ Kp + 1.2 and Fload ∝ exp(0.45Kp) for Kp = 1-7, where u0 is the solar wind velocity upstream of the bow shock, ΔK becomes a simple function of Kp as log10(ΔK) = 0.2 ṡ Kp + 2 ṡ log10(Kp + 1.2) + constant. The major contribution of this nearly linear increase is the Fload term, i.e. positive feedback between the increase of ion escaping rate Fload through the increased energy consumption in the ionosphere for high Kp, and subsequent extraction of more kinetic energy ΔK from the solar wind to the current system by the increased

  12. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of the anterior lens capsule following femtosecond laser capsulotomy at different pulse energy settings.

    PubMed

    Sándor, Gábor L; Kiss, Zoltán; Bocskai, Zoltán I; Kolev, Krasimir; Takács, Ágnes I; Juhász, Éva; Kránitz, Kinga; Tóth, Gábor; Gyenes, Andrea; Bojtár, Imre; Juhász, Tibor; Nagy, Zoltán Z

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate and compare the mechanical properties of anterior capsule opening performed with femtosecond laser capsulotomy at different energy settings in ex vivo porcine anterior lens capsule specimens. Twenty-five fresh porcine eyes per group were included in the study. Femtosecond laser capsulotomy was performed with three different pulse energy levels: 2 µJ (low energy group), 5 µJ (intermediate energy group), and 10 µJ (high energy group). The capsule openings were stretched with universal testing equipment until they ruptured. The morphologic profile of the cut capsule edges was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. The high energy group had significantly lower rupture force (108 ± 14 mN) compared to the intermediate energy group (118 ± 10 mN) (P < .05) and low energy group (119 ± 11 mN) (P < .05), but the difference between the intermediate energy and low energy groups was not significant (P = .9479). The high energy group had significantly lower circumference stretching ratio (144% ± 3%) compared to the intermediate energy group (148% ± 3%) (P < .05) and low energy group (148% ± 3%) (P < .05), but the difference between the intermediate energy group and low energy group was not significant (P = .9985). Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the edge was only serrated with low and intermediate energy, but additional signs of collagen melting and denaturation were observed at high energy. Anterior capsule openings created at a high energy level were slightly weaker and less extensible than those created at low or intermediate levels, possibly due to the increased thermal effect of photo-disruption. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Quantifying Water and Energy Fluxes Over Different Urban Land Covers in Phoenix, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templeton, Nicole P.; Vivoni, Enrique R.; Wang, Zhi-Hua; Schreiner-McGraw, Adam P.

    2018-02-01

    The impact of urbanization on water and energy fluxes varies according to the characteristics of the urban patch type. Nevertheless, urban flux observations are limited, particularly in arid climates, given the wide variety of land cover present in cities. To help address this need, a mobile eddy covariance tower was deployed at three locations in Phoenix, Arizona, to sample the surface energy balance at a parking lot, a xeric landscaping (irrigated trees with gravel) and a mesic landscaping (irrigated turf grass). These deployments were compared to a stationary eddy covariance tower in a suburban neighborhood. A comparison of the observations revealed key differences between the mobile and reference sites tied to the urban land cover within the measurement footprints. For instance, the net radiation varied substantially among the sites in manners consistent with albedo and shallow soil temperature differences. The partitioning of available energy between sensible and latent heat fluxes was modulated strongly by the presence of outdoor water use, with the irrigated turf grass exhibiting the highest evaporative fraction. At this site, we identified a lack of sensitivity of turbulent flux partitioning to precipitation events, which suggests that frequent outdoor water use removes water limitations in an arid climate, thus leading to mesic conditions. Other urban land covers with less irrigation, however, exhibited sensitivity to the occurrence of precipitation, as expected for an arid climate. As a result, quantifying the frequency and magnitude of outdoor water use is critical for understanding evapotranspiration losses in arid urban areas.

  14. The behaviour of cross-helicity and residual energy at different heliolatitudes - Ulysses data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Emil; Popescu, Nedelia Antonia

    In this paper we analyze the variations of the normalized cross-helicity (?C ) and normalized residual energy (σR), that characterize the Alfvenic fluctuations in the solar wind. For this purpose we consider data from SWOOPS and VHM instruments on board of Ulysses mission, for solar wind plasma parameters and magnetic field data, for the year 2001. In order to analyze the behaviour of the normalized cross-helicity, σC, and normalized residual energy, σR, at different heliolatitudes, as well as the relation between σR and σC, we determine their distributions for three periods of time: DOY 240 - DOY 348 (for a data sample at high heliolatitudes, between 69°N - 82.2°N), DOY 154 - DOY 181.5 (for a data sample at middle heliolatitudes, between 15°N - 35°N), and DOY 88 - DOY 118 (for a data sample at middle heliolatitudes, between 15°S - 35°S). The results on the residual energy σR versus cross-helicity σC distribution reveal a middle heliolatitude data sample that presents a more dispersed distribution than the high heliolatitude data sample. A different behaviour of the σC distributions was observed for the periods covering the middle heliolatitudes for the southern and northern hemispheres. This is because during the third period of time, transient events as ICMEs with strong magnetic field strength and high velocity are encountered.

  15. Analysis of electric energy consumption of automatic milking systems in different configurations and operative conditions.

    PubMed

    Calcante, Aldo; Tangorra, Francesco M; Oberti, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) have been a revolutionary innovation in dairy cow farming. Currently, more than 10,000 dairy cow farms worldwide use AMS to milk their cows. Electric consumption is one of the most relevant and uncontrollable operational cost of AMS, ranging between 35 and 40% of their total annual operational costs. The aim of the present study was to measure and analyze the electric energy consumption of 4 AMS with different configurations: single box, central unit featuring a central vacuum system for 1 cow unit and for 2 cow units. The electrical consumption (daily consumption, daily consumption per cow milked, consumption per milking, and consumption per 100L of milk) of each AMS (milking unit + air compressor) was measured using 2 energy analyzers. The measurement period lasted 24h with a sampling frequency of 0.2Hz. The daily total energy consumption (milking unit + air compressor) ranged between 45.4 and 81.3 kWh; the consumption per cow milked ranged between 0.59 and 0.99 kWh; the consumption per milking ranged between 0.21 and 0.33 kWh; and the consumption per 100L of milk ranged between 1.80 to 2.44 kWh according to the different configurations and operational contexts considered. Results showed that AMS electric consumption was mainly conditioned by farm management rather than machine characteristics/architectures. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Limited daily feeding and intermittent feeding have different effects on regional brain energy homeostasis during aging.

    PubMed

    Smiljanic, Kosara; Todorovic, Smilja; Mladenovic Djordjevic, Aleksandra; Vanmierlo, Tim; Lütjohann, Dieter; Ivkovic, Sanja; Kanazir, Selma

    2018-04-01

    Albeit aging is an inevitable process, the rate of aging is susceptible to modifications. Dietary restriction (DR) is a vigorous nongenetic and nonpharmacological intervention that is known to delay aging and increase healthspan in diverse species. This study aimed to compare the impact of different restricting feeding regimes such as limited daily feeding (LDF, 60% AL) and intermittent feeding (IF) on brain energy homeostasis during aging. The analysis was focused on the key molecules in glucose and cholesterol metabolism in the cortex and hippocampus of middle-aged (12-month-old) and aged (24-month-old) male Wistar rats. We measured the impact of different DRs on the expression levels of AMPK, glucose transporters (GLUT1, GLUT3, GLUT4), and the rate-limiting enzyme in the cholesterol synthesis pathway (HMGCR). Additionally, we assessed the changes in the amounts of cholesterol, its metabolite, and precursors following LDF and IF. IF decreased the levels of AMPK and pAMPK in the cortex while the increased levels were detected in the hippocampus. Glucose metabolism was more affected in the cortex, while cholesterol metabolism was more influenced in the hippocampus. Overall, the hippocampus was more resilient to the DRs, with fewer changes compared to the cortex. We showed that LDF and IF differently affected the brain energy homeostasis during aging and that specific brain regions exhibited distinct vulnerabilities towards DRs. Consequently, special attention should be paid to the DR application among elderly as different phases of aging do not respond equally to altered nutritional regimes.

  17. [Energy Consumption Comparison and Energy Saving Approaches for Different Wastewater Treatment Processes in a Large-scale Reclaimed Water Plant].

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Li, Ya-ming; Wei, Yuan-song; Lü, Jian; Yu, Da-wei; Liu, Ji-bao; Fan, Yao-bo

    2015-06-01

    Energy consumption is the main performance indicator of reclaimed water plant (RWP) operation. Methods of specific energy consumption analysis, unit energy consumption analysis and redundancy analysis were applied to investigate the composition and spatio-temporal distribution of energy consumption in Qinghe RWP with inverted A2/O, A2/O and A2/O-MBR processes. And the A2/ O-MBR process was mainly analyzed to identify the main nodes and causes for high energy consumption, approaches for energy saving were explored, and the energy consumption before and after upgrading for energy saving was compared. The results showed that aeration was the key factor affecting energy consumption in both conventional and A2/O-MBR processes, accounting for 42.97% and 50.65% of total energy consumption, respectively. A pulsating aeration allowed an increasing membrane flux and remarkably reduced the energy consumption of the A2/O-MBR process while still meeting the effluent standard, e.g., the membrane flux was increased by 20%, and the energy consumptions per kiloton wastewater and kilogram COD(removed) were decreased by 42.39% to 0.53 kW-h-kg-3 and by 54.74% to 1.29 kW x h x kg(-1), respectively. The decrease of backflow ratio in the A2/O-MBR process within a certain range would not deteriorate the effluent quality due to its insignificant correlation with the effluent quality, and therefore may be considered as one of the ways for further energy saving.

  18. Stochastic thermodynamics of fluctuating density fields: Non-equilibrium free energy differences under coarse-graining

    SciT

    Leonard, T.; Lander, B.; Seifert, U.

    2013-11-28

    We discuss the stochastic thermodynamics of systems that are described by a time-dependent density field, for example, simple liquids and colloidal suspensions. For a time-dependent change of external parameters, we show that the Jarzynski relation connecting work with the change of free energy holds if the time evolution of the density follows the Kawasaki-Dean equation. Specifically, we study the work distributions for the compression and expansion of a two-dimensional colloidal model suspension implementing a practical coarse-graining scheme of the microscopic particle positions. We demonstrate that even if coarse-grained dynamics and density functional do not match, the fluctuation relations for themore » work still hold albeit for a different, apparent, change of free energy.« less

  19. Kinetic and geometric isotope effects originating from different adsorption potential energy surfaces: cyclohexane on Rh(111).

    PubMed

    Koitaya, Takanori; Shimizu, Sumera; Mukai, Kozo; Yoshimoto, Shinya; Yoshinobu, Jun

    2012-06-07

    Novel isotope effects were observed in desorption kinetics and adsorption geometry of cyclohexane on Rh(111) by the use of infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption, photoelectron spectroscopy, and spot-profile-analysis low energy electron diffraction. The desorption energy of deuterated cyclohexane (C(6)D(12)) is lower than that of C(6)H(12). In addition, the work function change by adsorbed C(6)D(12) is smaller than that by adsorbed C(6)H(12). These results indicate that C(6)D(12) has a shallower adsorption potential than C(6)H(12) (vertical geometric isotope effect). The lateral geometric isotope effect was also observed in the two-dimensional cyclohexane superstructures as a result of the different repulsive interaction between interfacial dipoles. The observed isotope effects should be ascribed to the quantum nature of hydrogen involved in the C-H···metal interaction.

  20. Effects of Nuclear Cross Sections at Different Energies on the Radiation Hazard from Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Z. W.; Adams, J. H., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    The radiation hazard for astronauts from galactic cosmic rays is a major obstacle in long duration human space explorations. Space radiation transport codes have been developed to calculate radiation environment on missions to the Moon, Mars or beyond. We have studied how uncertainties in fragmentation cross sections at different energies affect the accuracy of predictions from such radiation transport. We find that, in deep space, cross sections between 0.3 and 0.85 GeV/u usually have the largest effect on dose-equivalent behind shielding in solar minimum GCR environments, and cross sections between 0.85 and 1.2 GeV/u have the largest effect in solar maximum GCR environments. At the International Space Station, cross sections at higher energies have the largest effect due to the geomagnetic cutoff.

  1. Expectations for high energy diffuse galactic neutrinos for different cosmic ray distributions

    SciT

    Pagliaroli, Giulia; Evoli, Carmelo; Villante, Francesco Lorenzo, E-mail: giulia.pagliaroli@gssi.infn.it, E-mail: carmelo.evoli@gssi.infn.it, E-mail: francesco.villante@lngs.infn.it

    2016-11-01

    The interaction of cosmic rays with the gas contained in our Galaxy is a guaranteed source of diffuse high energy neutrinos. We provide expectations for this component by considering different assumptions for the cosmic ray distribution in the Galaxy which are intended to cover the large uncertainty in cosmic ray propagation models. We calculate the angular dependence of the diffuse galactic neutrino flux and the corresponding rate of High Energy Starting Events in IceCube by including the effect of detector angular resolution. Moreover we discuss the possibility to discriminate the galactic component from an isotropic astrophysical flux. We show thatmore » a statistically significant excess of events from the galactic plane in present IceCube data would disfavour models in which the cosmic ray density is uniform , thus bringing relevant information on the cosmic ray radial distribution.« less

  2. Boundary Closures for Fourth-order Energy Stable Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory Finite Difference Schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Travis C.; Carpenter, Mark H.; Yamaleev, Nail K.; Frankel, Steven H.

    2009-01-01

    A general strategy exists for constructing Energy Stable Weighted Essentially Non Oscillatory (ESWENO) finite difference schemes up to eighth-order on periodic domains. These ESWENO schemes satisfy an energy norm stability proof for both continuous and discontinuous solutions of systems of linear hyperbolic equations. Herein, boundary closures are developed for the fourth-order ESWENO scheme that maintain wherever possible the WENO stencil biasing properties, while satisfying the summation-by-parts (SBP) operator convention, thereby ensuring stability in an L2 norm. Second-order, and third-order boundary closures are developed that achieve stability in diagonal and block norms, respectively. The global accuracy for the second-order closures is three, and for the third-order closures is four. A novel set of non-uniform flux interpolation points is necessary near the boundaries to simultaneously achieve 1) accuracy, 2) the SBP convention, and 3) WENO stencil biasing mechanics.

  3. A Different View of Solar Spectral Irradiance Variations: Modeling Total Energy over Six-Month Intervals.

    PubMed

    Woods, Thomas N; Snow, Martin; Harder, Jerald; Chapman, Gary; Cookson, Angela

    A different approach to studying solar spectral irradiance (SSI) variations, without the need for long-term (multi-year) instrument degradation corrections, is examining the total energy of the irradiance variation during 6-month periods. This duration is selected because a solar active region typically appears suddenly and then takes 5 to 7 months to decay and disperse back into the quiet-Sun network. The solar outburst energy, which is defined as the irradiance integrated over the 6-month period and thus includes the energy from all phases of active region evolution, could be considered the primary cause for the irradiance variations. Because solar cycle variation is the consequence of multiple active region outbursts, understanding the energy spectral variation may provide a reasonable estimate of the variations for the 11-year solar activity cycle. The moderate-term (6-month) variations from the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) instruments can be decomposed into positive (in-phase with solar cycle) and negative (out-of-phase) contributions by modeling the variations using the San Fernando Observatory (SFO) facular excess and sunspot deficit proxies, respectively. These excess and deficit variations are fit over 6-month intervals every 2 months over the mission, and these fitted variations are then integrated over time for the 6-month energy. The dominant component indicates which wavelengths are in-phase and which are out-of-phase with solar activity. The results from this study indicate out-of-phase variations for the 1400 - 1600 nm range, with all other wavelengths having in-phase variations.

  4. Energy stable and high-order-accurate finite difference methods on staggered grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Reilly, Ossian; Lundquist, Tomas; Dunham, Eric M.; Nordström, Jan

    2017-10-01

    For wave propagation over distances of many wavelengths, high-order finite difference methods on staggered grids are widely used due to their excellent dispersion properties. However, the enforcement of boundary conditions in a stable manner and treatment of interface problems with discontinuous coefficients usually pose many challenges. In this work, we construct a provably stable and high-order-accurate finite difference method on staggered grids that can be applied to a broad class of boundary and interface problems. The staggered grid difference operators are in summation-by-parts form and when combined with a weak enforcement of the boundary conditions, lead to an energy stable method on multiblock grids. The general applicability of the method is demonstrated by simulating an explosive acoustic source, generating waves reflecting against a free surface and material discontinuity.

  5. 25 CFR 224.64 - How may a tribe assume management of development of different types of energy resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT AND SELF DETERMINATION ACT Procedures for Obtaining Tribal Energy Resource Agreements Tera Requirements § 224.64 How may a tribe assume management of development of different types of energy resources... for development of another energy resource that is not included in the TERA, a tribe must apply for a...

  6. Computing conformational free energy differences in explicit solvent: An efficient thermodynamic cycle using an auxiliary potential and a free energy functional constructed from the end points.

    PubMed

    Harris, Robert C; Deng, Nanjie; Levy, Ronald M; Ishizuka, Ryosuke; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki

    2017-06-05

    Many biomolecules undergo conformational changes associated with allostery or ligand binding. Observing these changes in computer simulations is difficult if their timescales are long. These calculations can be accelerated by observing the transition on an auxiliary free energy surface with a simpler Hamiltonian and connecting this free energy surface to the target free energy surface with free energy calculations. Here, we show that the free energy legs of the cycle can be replaced with energy representation (ER) density functional approximations. We compute: (1) The conformational free energy changes for alanine dipeptide transitioning from the right-handed free energy basin to the left-handed basin and (2) the free energy difference between the open and closed conformations of β-cyclodextrin, a "host" molecule that serves as a model for molecular recognition in host-guest binding. β-cyclodextrin contains 147 atoms compared to 22 atoms for alanine dipeptide, making β-cyclodextrin a large molecule for which to compute solvation free energies by free energy perturbation or integration methods and the largest system for which the ER method has been compared to exact free energy methods. The ER method replaced the 28 simulations to compute each coupling free energy with two endpoint simulations, reducing the computational time for the alanine dipeptide calculation by about 70% and for the β-cyclodextrin by > 95%. The method works even when the distribution of conformations on the auxiliary free energy surface differs substantially from that on the target free energy surface, although some degree of overlap between the two surfaces is required. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Ultrastructural analysis of root canal dentine irradiated with 980-nm diode laser energy at different parameters.

    PubMed

    Marchesan, Melissa Andréia; Brugnera-Junior, Aldo; Souza-Gabriel, Aline Evangelista; Correa-Silva, Silvio Rocha; Sousa-Neto, Manoel D

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) the ultrastructural morphological changes of the radicular dentine surface after irradiation with 980-nm diode laser energy at different parameters and angles of incidence. There have been limited reports on the effects of diode laser irradiation at 980 nm on radicular dentin morphology. Seventy-two maxillary canines were sectioned and roots were biomechanically prepared using K3 rotary instruments. The teeth were irrigated with 2 mL of distilled water between files and final irrigation was performed with 10 mL of distilled water. The teeth were then randomly divided into five groups (n = 8 each) according to their diode laser parameters: Group 1: no irradiation (control); group 2: 1.5 W/continuous wave (CW) emission (the manufacturer's parameters); group 3: 1.5 W/100 Hz; group 4: 3 W/CW; and group 5: 3 W/100 Hz. Laser energy was applied with helicoid movements (parallel to the canal walls) for 20 sec. Eight additional teeth for each group were endodontically prepared and split longitudinally and irradiation was applied perpendicularly to the root surface. Statistical analysis showed no difference between the root canal thirds irradiated with the 980-nm diode laser, and similar results between the parameters 1.5 W/CW and 3 W/100 Hz (p > 0.05). When considering different output powers and delivery modes our results showed that changes varied from smear layer removal to dentine fusion.

  8. Comparison of energy-budget evaporation losses from two morphometrically different Florida seepage lakes

    Sacks, L.A.; Lee, T.M.; Radell, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    Evaporation was computed by the energy-budget method for two north Florida lakes with similar surface areas but different depths, for the period May 1989 to December 1990. Lake Barco, in north-central Florida, is shallow, with an average depth of 3 m; Lake Five-O, in the Florida panhandle, is considerably deeper, with an average depth of 9.5 m. As a result, the thermal regime and seasonal evaporation rates of the lakes are different. Evaporation from the shallower lake was higher than that from the deeper lake in the winter and spring. In the late summer and autumn, however, the situation is reversed. Evaporation from the shallow lake is directly related to the amount of incoming shortwave radiation because of its limited ability to store energy. The lag in evaporation at the deeper lake is a function of the greater amount of heat that it seasonally stores and releases. The difference in annual evaporation between Lake Barco (151 cm year-1) and Lake Five-O (128 cm year-1) is related to differences in regional climatic conditions between the two sites. Additionally, higher than normal evaporation rates at the two lakes are probably related to drought conditions experienced in north Florida during 1990, which resulted in higher temperatures and more incoming radiation. Monthly evaporation at Lake Barco could usually be estimated within 10% of the energy-budget evaporation using a constant pan coefficient. This lake may be representative of other shallow lakes that do not store considerable heat. Monthly evaporation at Lake Five-O, however, could not be estimated accurately by using an annual pan coefficient because of the large seasonal influence of change in stored heat. Monthly mass-transfer evaporation compared well with energy-budget evaporation at Lake Barco, but did not compare well at Lake Five-O. These errors may also be associated with changes in heat storage. Thus, the thermal regime of the lake must be considered to estimate accurately the seasonal

  9. Cost, Time, and Risk Assessment of Different Wave Energy Converter Technology Development Trajectories: Preprint

    SciT

    Weber, Jochem W; Laird, Daniel; Costello, Ronan

    This paper presents a comparative assessment of three fundamentally different wave energy converter technology development trajectories. The three technology development trajectories are expressed and visualised as a function of technology readiness levels and technology performance levels. The assessment shows that development trajectories that initially prioritize technology readiness over technology performance are likely to require twice the development time, consume a threefold of the development cost, and are prone to a risk of technical or commercial failure of one order of magnitude higher than those development trajectories that initially prioritize technology performance over technology readiness.

  10. New way for determining electron energy levels in quantum dots arrays using finite difference method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dujardin, F.; Assaid, E.; Feddi, E.

    2018-06-01

    Electronic states are investigated in quantum dots arrays, depending on the type of cubic Bravais lattice (primitive, body centered or face centered) according to which the dots are arranged, the size of the dots and the interdot distance. It is shown that the ground state energy level can undergo significant variations when these parameters are modified. The results were obtained by means of finite difference method which has proved to be easily adaptable, efficient and precise. The symmetry properties of the lattice have been used to reduce the size of the Hamiltonian matrix.

  11. Experimental energy resolution of a paracentric hemispherical deflector analyzer for different entry positions and bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, M.; Ulu, M.; Gennarakis, G. G.; Zouros, T. J. M.

    2013-04-01

    A specially designed hemispherical deflector analyzer (HDA) with 5-element input lens having a movable entry position R0 suitable for electron energy analysis in atomic collisions was constructed and tested. The energy resolution of the HDA was experimentally determined for three different entry positions R0 = 84, 100, 112 mm as a function of the nominal entry potential V(R0) under pre-retardation conditions. The resolution for the (conventional) entry at the mean radius R0 = 100 mm was found to be a factor of 1.6-2 times worse than the resolution for the two (paracentric) positions R0 = 84 and 112 mm at particular values of V(R0). These results provide the first experimental verification and a proof of principle of the utility of such a paracentric HDA, while demonstrating its advantages over the conventional HDA: greater dispersion with reduced angular aberrations resulting in better energy resolution without the use of any additional fringing field correction electrodes. Supporting simulations of the entire lens plus HDA spectrometer are also provided and mostly found to be within 20%-30% of experimental values. The paracentric HDA is expected to provide a lower cost and/or more compact alternative to the conventional HDA particularly useful in modern applications utilizing a position sensitive detector.

  12. Experimental energy resolution of a paracentric hemispherical deflector analyzer for different entry positions and bias.

    PubMed

    Dogan, M; Ulu, M; Gennarakis, G G; Zouros, T J M

    2013-04-01

    A specially designed hemispherical deflector analyzer (HDA) with 5-element input lens having a movable entry position R0 suitable for electron energy analysis in atomic collisions was constructed and tested. The energy resolution of the HDA was experimentally determined for three different entry positions R0 = 84, 100, 112 mm as a function of the nominal entry potential V(R0) under pre-retardation conditions. The resolution for the (conventional) entry at the mean radius R0 = 100 mm was found to be a factor of 1.6-2 times worse than the resolution for the two (paracentric) positions R0 = 84 and 112 mm at particular values of V(R0). These results provide the first experimental verification and a proof of principle of the utility of such a paracentric HDA, while demonstrating its advantages over the conventional HDA: greater dispersion with reduced angular aberrations resulting in better energy resolution without the use of any additional fringing field correction electrodes. Supporting simulations of the entire lens plus HDA spectrometer are also provided and mostly found to be within 20%-30% of experimental values. The paracentric HDA is expected to provide a lower cost and∕or more compact alternative to the conventional HDA particularly useful in modern applications utilizing a position sensitive detector.

  13. Spectroscopic and magnetic properties of Fe2+ (3d6; S = 2) ions in Fe(NH4)2(SO4)2·6H2O - Modeling zero-field splitting and Zeeman electronic parameters by microscopic spin Hamiltonian approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zając, Magdalena; Rudowicz, Czesław; Ohta, Hitoshi; Sakurai, Takahiro

    2018-03-01

    Utilizing the package MSH/VBA, based on the microscopic spin Hamiltonian (MSH) approach, spectroscopic and magnetic properties of Fe2+ (3d6; S = 2) ions at (nearly) orthorhombic sites in Fe(NH4)2(SO4)2·6H2O (FASH) are modeled. The zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameters and the Zeeman electronic (Ze) factors are predicted for wide ranges of values of the microscopic parameters, i.e. the spin-orbit (λ), spin-spin (ρ) coupling constants, and the crystal-field (ligand-field) energy levels (Δi) within the 5D multiplet. This enables to consider the dependence of the ZFS parameters bkq (in the Stevens notation), or the conventional ones (e.g., D and E), and the Zeeman factors gi on λ, ρ, and Δi. By matching the theoretical SH parameters and the experimental ones measured by electron magnetic resonance (EMR), the values of λ, ρ, and Δi best describing Fe2+ ions in FASH are determined. The novel aspect is prediction of the fourth-rank ZFS parameters and the ρ(spin-spin)-related contributions, not considered in previous studies. The higher-order contributions to the second- and fourth-rank ZFSPs are found significant. The MSH predictions provide guidance for high-magnetic field and high-frequency EMR (HMF-EMR) measurements and enable assessment of suitability of FASH for application as high-pressure probes for HMF-EMR studies. The method employed here and the present results may be also useful for other structurally related Fe2+ (S = 2) systems.

  14. Urban-rural difference in the determinants of dietary and energy intake patterns: A case study in West Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Satoko; Suda, Kazuhiro; Gunawan, Budhi; Raksanagara, Ardini; Watanabe, Chiho; Umezaki, Masahiro

    2018-01-01

    Few studies have explored differences in the determinants of individual dietary/energy intake patterns between urban and rural areas. To examine whether the associations between individual characteristics and dietary/energy intake patterns differ between urban and rural areas in West Java, Indonesia. A 3-day weighed food record, interviews, and anthropometric measurements were conducted in Bandung (urban area; n = 85) and Sumedang (rural area; n = 201). Total energy intake and intake from protein, fat, and carbohydrates were calculated. Food items were grouped into dietary categories based on the main ingredients to calculate their share of total energy intake. The associations between individual characteristics and dietary/energy intake were examined by fitting regression models. Models that also included education and body mass index (BMI) were fitted to adult samples only. In Sumedang, the total energy intake and energy intake from carbohydrates, fat, and grain/tubers were significantly associated with age and occupation. In Bandung, energy intake from grain/tubers and vegetables/legumes was related to sex and occupation, while other indicators showed no associations. Among adults, BMI was associated with the total energy intake and educational level was associated with energy intake from vegetables/legumes (both only in Sumedang). The relationship between demographic and socioeconomic factors and dietary/energy intake patterns differs in rural versus urban areas in West Java. These results suggest that different strategies are needed in rural and urban areas to identify and aid populations at risk of diet-related diseases.

  15. Net energy and protein requirements for pregnancy differ between goats and sheep.

    PubMed

    Härter, C J; Ellis, J L; France, J; Resende, K T; Teixeira, I A M A

    2016-06-01

    Current feeding systems for goats estimate the energy and protein requirements for pregnancy using data from sheep. The objective of this study was to predict the NE and net protein requirements for pregnancy in goats carrying single and twin fetuses and to compare these requirements with those of sheep. Data were compiled from 2 studies with dairy goats and 3 studies with sheep. These studies measured the energy content (EC) and protein content (PC) of the gravid uterus and of the mammary gland using the comparative slaughter technique. The current study was performed as a meta-analysis using an exponential model, comparing species (sheep versus goats) and litter size (single versus twin) from 50 to 140 d of pregnancy. Total EC and total PC in the gravid uterus were similar in goats and sheep carrying a single fetus. Energy and protein contents of the gravid uterus of sheep carrying twins were, on average, 29% greater than that of goats with twins from 80 to 140 d of pregnancy. During pregnancy, EC and PC of the mammary gland in goats carrying singles and twins were, on average, greater than those of sheep by 9 and 24%, respectively, for EC and by 25% for PC for both litter sizes. In conclusion, the gravid uterus and the mammary gland of goats and sheep require different amounts of energy and protein. Sheep carrying twins have the greatest daily NE and net protein requirements for pregnancy followed by goats carrying twins and both species carrying a single fetus. Therefore, it is inappropriate to adopt data from sheep to predict the net pregnancy requirements of goats, and the results found in this study could be relevant to the nutritional management of dairy goats.

  16. Consequences of different dietary energy sources during follicular development on subsequent fertility of cyclic gilts.

    PubMed

    Almeida, F R C L; Machado, G S; Borges, A L C C; Rosa, B O; Fontes, D O

    2014-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary-induced insulin enhancement during the late luteal phase on subsequent fertility of gilts. Fifty-two littermate cyclic gilts were subjected to dietary treatments where two energy sources were tested: corn starch (T1) and soybean oil (T2). The experimental diets were supposed to provide similar amounts of dietary energy, but from different sources. Gilts were fed ad libitum, starting day 8 of the estrous cycle, until the next standing heat. Blood sampling was performed in a subgroup of 20 gilts on days 14 and 21 of the cycle for analyses of glucose and insulin, and after ovulation detection until 18 h after ovulation for progesterone. All gilts were slaughtered on day 28 of pregnancy and the reproductive tracts recovered for further analysis. T1 gilts showed higher postprandial insulin peak on days 14 and 21 and lower glucose levels 4 h after feeding on day 14 (P<0.05), however, there were no treatment effects on plasma progesterone concentrations. Dietary energy sources did not affect average daily feed intake, body weight and backfat on day 28 of pregnancy. Estrous cycle length, estrus duration and time of ovulation were not affected by previous nutritional treatments either. T1 gilts showed higher ovulation rates, number of embryos, embryo weight and placental weight (P<0.05). There were no treatment effects on pregnancy rate, embryo survival rate and volume of amniotic fluid. A positive correlation between progesterone concentration 18 h after ovulation and ovulation rate was observed (r=0.75; P<0.01). These results suggest that it is possible to manipulate dietary insulin response in cyclic gilts and, thus, improve reproductive efficiency when feeding starch as the main energy source during the late luteal and follicular phases of the cycle.

  17. Synthetic oligomer analysis using atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometry at different photon energies.

    PubMed

    Desmazières, Bernard; Legros, Véronique; Giuliani, Alexandre; Buchmann, William

    2014-01-15

    Atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) followed by mass spectrometric detection was used to ionize a variety of polymers: polyethylene glycol, polymethyl methacrylate, polystyrene, and polysiloxane. In most cases, whatever the polymer or the solvent used (dichloromethane, tetrahydrofuran, hexane, acetone or toluene), only negative ion mode produced intact ions such as chlorinated adducts, with no or few fragmentations, in contrast to the positive ion mode that frequently led to important in-source fragmentations. In addition, it was shown that optimal detection of polymer distributions require a fine tuning of other source parameters such as temperature and ion transfer voltage. Series of mass spectra were recorded in the negative mode, in various solvents (dichloromethane, tetrahydrofuran, hexane, toluene, and acetone), by varying the photon energy from 8eV up to 10.6eV using synchrotron radiation. To these solvents, addition of a classical APPI dopant (toluene or acetone) was not necessary. Courtesy of the synchrotron radiation, it was demonstrated that the photon energy required for an efficient ionization of the polymer was correlated to the ionization energy of the solvent. As commercial APPI sources typically use krypton lamps with energy fixed at 10eV and 10.6eV, the study of the ionization of polymers over a wavelength range allowed to confirm and refine the previously proposed ionization mechanisms. Moreover, the APPI source can efficiently be used as an interface between size exclusion chromatography or reverse phase liquid chromatography and MS for the study of synthetic oligomers. However, the photoionization at fixed wavelength of polymer standards with different molecular weights showed that it was difficult to obtain intact ionized oligomers with molecular weights above a few thousands. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Identification of biological traits associated with differences in residual energy intake among lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Fischer, A; Delagarde, R; Faverdin, P

    2018-05-01

    Residual feed intake, which is usually used to estimate individual variation of feed efficiency, requires frequent and accurate measurements of individual feed intake to be carried out. Developing a breeding scheme based on residual feed intake in dairy cows is therefore complicated, especially because feed intake is not measurable for a large population. Another solution could be to focus on biological determinants of feed efficiency, which could potentially be directly and broadband measurable on farm. Several phenotypes have been identified in literature as being associated with differences in feed efficiency. The present study therefore aims to identify which biological mechanisms are associated with residual energy intake (REI) differences among dairy cows. Several candidate phenotypes were recorded frequently and simultaneously throughout the first 238 d in milk for 60 Holstein cows fed on a constant diet based on maize silage. A multiple linear regression of the 238 d in milk average of net energy intake was fitted on the 238 d in milk averages for milk energy output, metabolic body weight, the sum over the 238 d in milk of both, body condition score loss and gain, and the residuals were defined as REI. A partial least square regression was fitted over all biological traits to explain REI variability. Linear multiple regression explained 93.6% of net energy intake phenotypic variation, with 65.5% associated with lactation requirement, 23.2% with maintenance, and 4.9% with body reserves change; the 6.4% residuals represented REI. Overall, measured biological traits contributed to 58.9% of REI phenotypic variability, which were mainly explained by activity (26.5%) and feeding behavior (21.3%). However, apparent confounding was observed between behavior, activity, digestibility, and rumen-temperature variables. Drawing a conclusion on biological traits that explain feed efficiency differences among dairy cows was not possible due to this apparent confounding

  19. Comparison of direct DNA strand breaks induced by low energy electrons with different inelastic cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun-Li; Li, Chun-Yan; Qiu, Rui; Yan, Cong-Chong; Xie, Wen-Zhang; Zeng, Zhi; Tung, Chuan-Jong

    2013-09-01

    In order to study the influence of inelastic cross sections on the simulation of direct DNA strand breaks induced by low energy electrons, six different sets of inelastic cross section data were calculated and loaded into the Geant4-DNA code to calculate the DNA strand break yields under the same conditions. The six sets of the inelastic cross sections were calculated by applying the dielectric function method of Emfietzoglou's optical-data treatments, with two different optical datasets and three different dispersion models, using the same Born corrections. Results show that the inelastic cross sections have a notable influence on the direct DNA strand break yields. The yields simulated with the inelastic cross sections based on Hayashi's optical data are greater than those based on Heller's optical data. The discrepancies are about 30-45% for the single strand break yields and 45-80% for the double strand break yields. Among the yields simulated with cross sections of the three different dispersion models, generally the greatest are those of the extended-Drude dispersion model, the second are those of the extended-oscillator-Drude dispersion model, and the last are those of the Ashley's δ-oscillator dispersion model. For the single strand break yields, the differences between the first two are very little and the differences between the last two are about 6-57%. For the double strand break yields, the biggest difference between the first two can be about 90% and the differences between the last two are about 17-70%.

  20. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR OPERATION, CALIBRATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE PERKIN-ELMER ZEEMAN/5000 SYSTEM ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETER (BCO-L-6.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to outline the start-up, calibration, operation, and maintenance procedures for the Perkin-Elmer 5000 atomic absorption spectrophotometer (PE 5000 AA), and the Perkin Elmer 5000 Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer (PE 5000Z GFAA)...

  1. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR OPERATION, CALIBRATION, AND MAINTENANCE OF THE PERKIN-ELMER ZEEMAN/5000 SYSTEM ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROPHOTOMETER (BCO-L-6.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to outline the start-up, calibration, operation, and maintenance procedures for the Perkin-Elmer 5000 atomic absorption spectrophotometer (PE 5000 AA), and the Perkin Elmer 5000 Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer (PE 5000Z GFAA)...

  2. Explaining sex differences in lifespan in terms of optimal energy allocation in the baboon.

    PubMed

    King, Annette M; Kirkwood, Thomas B L; Shanley, Daryl P

    2017-10-01

    We provide a quantitative test of the hypothesis that sex role specialization may account for sex differences in lifespan in baboons if such specialization causes the dependency of fitness upon longevity, and consequently the optimal resolution to an energetic trade-off between somatic maintenance and other physiological functions, to differ between males and females. We present a model in which females provide all offspring care and males compete for access to reproductive females and in which the partitioning of available energy between the competing fitness-enhancing functions of growth, maintenance, and reproduction is modeled as a dynamic behavioral game, with the optimal decision for each individual depending upon his/her state and the behavior of other members of the population. Our model replicates the sexual dimorphism in body size and sex differences in longevity and reproductive scheduling seen in natural populations of baboons. We show that this outcome is generally robust to perturbations in model parameters, an important finding given that the same behavior is seen across multiple populations and species in the wild. This supports the idea that sex differences in longevity result from differences in the value of somatic maintenance relative to other fitness-enhancing functions in keeping with the disposable soma theory. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. Evaluation of healing of infected cutaneous wounds treated with different energy densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Nicole R. S.; Cangussú, Maria C. T.; N. dos Santos, Jean; Pinheiro, Antonio L. B.

    2011-03-01

    We aimed assess the effects of different energy densities of the association of red/IR laser light on the healing of cutaneous wounds infected Staphylococcus aureus. Background: Wound infection is the most common complication on healing wounds and cause both vascular and cellular responses on the tissue. Several therapeutics is used for improving wound healing including the use of different light sources, such as the Laser. Some energy densities present positive photobiological effects on the healing process. Material and Methods: 24 young adult male Wistar rats, under general anesthesia, had their dorsum shaven, cleaned and a 1 x 1cm cutaneous wound created with a scalpel and left without no suturing or dressings. The wounds were infected with Staphylococcus aureus and were randomly divided in 8 subgroups of 3 animals in each: Control, Group 10J/cm2, Group 20J/cm2, and Group 30J/cm2, 7 and 14 days each group. Laser phototherapy was carried out with a diode (λ680nm/790nm, P= 30mW/40mW, CW, Laser, Ø = 3mm, PD=424mW/cm2 and 566mW/cm2, t=11.8/ 8.8 sec, E=0.35J) and started immediately after surgery and repeated at every other day during 7 days. Laser light was applied on 4 points around wounded area. The animals were killed at either 8th or 15th day after contamination. Specimens were taken, routinely cut and processed to wax, stained and underwent histological analysis. The results were statistically analyzed. Results: Both 20 and 30J/cm2 caused intense collagen deposition at the end of the experimental time. But, when 20 J/cm2 was used the fibers were also well organized. Conclusion: Our results indicate that irradiated subjects showed improved wound healing being the 20 J/cm2 the energy the caused better histological response.

  4. Self-energy-modified Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations: WKB approximation and finite-difference approaches.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhenli; Ma, Manman; Liu, Pei

    2014-07-01

    We propose a modified Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) model to investigate charge transport in electrolytes of inhomogeneous dielectric environment. The model includes the ionic polarization due to the dielectric inhomogeneity and the ion-ion correlation. This is achieved by the self energy of test ions through solving a generalized Debye-Hückel (DH) equation. We develop numerical methods for the system composed of the PNP and DH equations. Particularly, toward the numerical challenge of solving the high-dimensional DH equation, we developed an analytical WKB approximation and a numerical approach based on the selective inversion of sparse matrices. The model and numerical methods are validated by simulating the charge diffusion in electrolytes between two electrodes, for which effects of dielectrics and correlation are investigated by comparing the results with the prediction by the classical PNP theory. We find that, at the length scale of the interface separation comparable to the Bjerrum length, the results of the modified equations are significantly different from the classical PNP predictions mostly due to the dielectric effect. It is also shown that when the ion self energy is in weak or mediate strength, the WKB approximation presents a high accuracy, compared to precise finite-difference results.

  5. Impact of Different Time Series Streamflow Data on Energy Generation of a Run-of-River Hydropower Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kentel, E.; Cetinkaya, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Global issues such as population increase, power supply crises, oil prices, social and environmental concerns have been forcing countries to search for alternative energy sources such as renewable energy to satisfy the sustainable development goals. Hydropower is the most common form of renewable energy in the world. Hydropower does not require any fuel, produces relatively less pollution and waste and it is a reliable energy source with relatively low operating cost. In order to estimate the average annual energy production of a hydropower plant, sufficient and dependable streamflow data is required. The goal of this study is to investigate impact of streamflow data on annual energy generation of Balkusan HEPP which is a small run-of-river hydropower plant at Karaman, Turkey. Two different stream gaging stations are located in the vicinity of Balkusan HEPP and these two stations have different observation periods: one from 1986 to 2004 and the other from 2000 to 2009. These two observation periods show different climatic characteristics. Thus, annual energy estimations based on data from these two different stations differ considerably. Additionally, neither of these stations is located at the power plant axis, thus streamflow observations from these two stream gaging stations need to be transferred to the plant axis. This requirement introduces further errors into energy estimations. Impact of different streamflow data and transfer of streamflow observations to plant axis on annual energy generation of a small hydropower plant is investigated in this study.

  6. Energy efficiency of growing ram lambs fed concentrate-based diets with different roughage sources.

    PubMed

    Galvani, D B; Pires, A V; Susin, I; Gouvêa, V N; Berndt, A; Chagas, L J; Dórea, J R R; Abdalla, A L; Tedeschi, L O

    2014-01-01

    Poor-quality roughages are widely used as fiber sources in concentrate-based diets for ruminants. Because roughage quality is associated with the efficiency of energy use in forage-based diets, the objective of this study was to determine whether differing the roughage source in concentrate-based diets could change the energy requirements of growing lambs. Eighty-four 1/2 Dorper × 1/2 Santa Inês ram lambs (18.0 ± 3.3 kg BW) were individually penned and divided into 2 groups according to primary source of dietary roughage: low-quality roughage (LQR; sugarcane bagasse) or medium-quality roughage (MQR; coastcross hay). Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (2.6% N) and to meet 20% of physically effective NDF. After a 10-d ad libitum adaptation period, 7 lambs from each group were randomly selected and slaughtered (baseline). Twenty-one lambs in each diet group were fed ad libitum and slaughtered at 25, 35, or 45 kg BW. The remaining 28 lambs (14 from each diet group) were submitted to 1 of 2 levels of feed restriction: 70% or 50% of the ad libitum intake. Retentions of body fat, N, and energy were determined. Additionally, 6 ram lambs (44.3 ± 5.6 kg BW) were kept in metabolic cages and used in a 6 × 6 Latin square experiment designed to establish the ME content of the 2 diets at the 3 levels of DM intake. There was no effect of intake level on diet ME content, but it was greater in the diet with LQR than in the diet with MQR (3.18 vs. 2.94 Mcal/kg, respectively; P < 0.01). Lambs fed the diet with LQR had greater body fat (g/kg of empty BW) and energy concentrations (kcal/kg of empty BW) because of a larger visceral fat deposition (P < 0.05). Using a low-quality roughage as a primary source of forage in a concentrate-based diet for growing lambs did not change NEm and the efficiency of ME use for maintenance, which averaged 71.6 kcal/kg(0.75) of shrunk BW and 0.63, respectively. On the other hand, the greater nonfibrous carbohydrate content of the diet with

  7. Non-invasive pressure difference estimation from PC-MRI using the work-energy equation

    PubMed Central

    Donati, Fabrizio; Figueroa, C. Alberto; Smith, Nicolas P.; Lamata, Pablo; Nordsletten, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Pressure difference is an accepted clinical biomarker for cardiovascular disease conditions such as aortic coarctation. Currently, measurements of pressure differences in the clinic rely on invasive techniques (catheterization), prompting development of non-invasive estimates based on blood flow. In this work, we propose a non-invasive estimation procedure deriving pressure difference from the work-energy equation for a Newtonian fluid. Spatial and temporal convergence is demonstrated on in silico Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Image (PC-MRI) phantoms with steady and transient flow fields. The method is also tested on an image dataset generated in silico from a 3D patient-specific Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation and finally evaluated on a cohort of 9 subjects. The performance is compared to existing approaches based on steady and unsteady Bernoulli formulations as well as the pressure Poisson equation. The new technique shows good accuracy, robustness to noise, and robustness to the image segmentation process, illustrating the potential of this approach for non-invasive pressure difference estimation. PMID:26409245

  8. Investments in Fossil Energy Technology: How the Government's Fossil Energy R&D Program Has Made a Difference

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    1997-03-01

    America has the technological capacity to change its energy future. There is no reason, for example, why our nation must continue following a path of rising oil imports when billions of barrels of crude oil remain in domestic oil fields. There is no reason why we cannot continue to use our abundant supplies of high-value, low-cost coal when we have the scientific know-how to remove virtually all of its pollutants and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. There is no reason why we cannot turn increasingly to clean-burning natural gas and tap the huge supplies we know exist within our borders. We remain a nation rich in the fuels that have powered economic growth. Today 85 percent of the energy we use to heat our homes and businesses, generate our electricity, and fuel our vehicles comes from coal, petroleum and natural gas. As we move toward a new century, the contributions of these fuels will grow. By 2015, the United States is likely to require nearly 20 percent more energy than it uses today, and fossil fuels are projected to supply almost 88 percent of the energy Americans will consume. We have the scientific know-how to continue using our fossil fuel wealth without fear of environmental damage or skyrocketing costs. The key is technology - developing cutting edge concepts that are beyond the private sector's current capabilities. Some of the most important innovations in America's energy industry are the results of investments in the Federal government's fossil energy research and development programs. Today, our air and water are cleaner, our economy is stronger, and our industries are more competitive in the global market because these programs have produced results. This booklet summarizes many of these achievements. It is not a comprehensive list by any means. Still, it provides solid evidence that the taxpayers' investment in government fossil energy research has paid real and measurable dividends.

  9. Differences in energy expenditures and growth dilution explain higher PCB concentrations in male summer flounder

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Vastano, Anthony R.; Pothoven, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes.

  10. Energy cost and pole forces during Nordic walking under different surface conditions.

    PubMed

    Schiffer, Thorsten; Knicker, Axel; Dannöhl, Regine; Strüder, Heiko K

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the effect of three different surfaces on energy consumption and the forces acting on the walking poles during ground contact in Nordic walking (NW). Thirteen female NW instructors (age = 26 +/- 4 yr, weight = 58.5 +/- 4.2 kg, height = 168.1 +/- 4.6 cm) volunteered in the study. The subjects walked a distance of 1200 m at a controlled, constant speed of 2.2 m x s(-1) on each of a concrete surface (C), an artificial athletics track (A), and a naturally grown soccer lawn (G). They used NW poles with inbuilt strain gauge force transducers to measure ground reaction forces acting along the long axes of the poles. Oxygen uptake, capillary blood lactate (La), HR, and RPE were measured before and after the tests. Impact forces, maximum forces, force rates during ground contact identified from the registered force time histories, displayed significant differences related to the surface conditions. However, force time integrals did not show surface-related differences. Relative oxygen consumption showed significant differences between NW on C and on G whereas no surface-related differences could be identified between the surface conditions for the parameters La, HR, and RPE. Our data indicate that the impulse that is generated by the poles on the subjects is identical between the varying surfaces. Because there are differences for the oxygen uptake between C and G, the main regulator for the propulsion must be the musculature of the lower extremities. The work of the upper extremities seems to be a luxury effort for Nordic walkers with a proper technique.

  11. Differences in energy absorption between heads of adults and children in the near field of sources.

    PubMed

    Schönborn, F; Burkhardt, M; Kuster, N

    1998-02-01

    This paper was motivated by a recent article in which the levels of electromagnetic energy absorbed in the heads of mobile phone users were compared for children and adults at the frequencies of 835 MHz and 1,900 MHz. Significant differences were found, in particular substantially greater absorption in children's heads at 835 MHz. These findings contradict other studies in which no significant changes had been postulated. The clarification of this issue is crucial to the mobile communications industry since current SAR evaluations as required by the FCC are only performed with phantoms based on the heads of adults. In order to investigate the differences in absorption between adults and children due to their differing anatomies, simulations have been performed using head phantoms based on MRI scans of an adult (voxel size 2 x 2 x 1 mm3) and two children (voxel size 2 x 2 x 1.1 mm3) of the ages of 3 and 7 y. Ten different tissue types were distinguished. The differences in absorption were investigated for the frequencies of 900 MHz and 1,800 MHz using 0.45 lambda dipoles instead of actual mobile phones. These well-defined sources simplified the investigation and facilitated the comparison to previously published data obtained from several numerical and experimental studies on phantoms based on adults. All simulations were performed using a commercial code based on the finite integration technique. The results revealed no significant differences in the absorption of electromagnetic radiation in the near field of sources between adults and children. The same conclusion holds when children are approximated as scaled adults.

  12. Differences in Energy Expenditures and Growth Dilution Explain Higher PCB Concentrations in Male Summer Flounder

    PubMed Central

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Rediske, Richard R.; O’Keefe, James P.; Vastano, Anthony R.; Pothoven, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. PMID:26794728

  13. Differences in Energy Expenditures and Growth Dilution Explain Higher PCB Concentrations in Male Summer Flounder.

    PubMed

    Madenjian, Charles P; Jensen, Olaf P; Rediske, Richard R; O'Keefe, James P; Vastano, Anthony R; Pothoven, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes.

  14. Potential effects of fat mass and fat-free mass on energy intake in different states of energy balance.

    PubMed

    Stubbs, R James; Hopkins, M; Finlayson, G S; Duarte, C; Gibbons, C; Blundell, J E

    2018-05-01

    Recently models have attempted to integrate the functional relationships of fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) with the control of human energy intake (EI). Cross-sectional evidence suggests that at or close to EB, FFM is positively related to hunger and EI, whereas FM either shows a weak negative or no association with ad libitum EI. Further analysis suggests that the effects of FFM and FM on EI may be mediated by resting metabolic rate (RMR). These studies suggest that energy turnover is associated with EI and the largest determinant of energy requirements in most humans is FFM. During chronic positive EBs both FM and FFM expand (but disproportionately so), increasing energy demands. There is little evidence that an expanding FM exerts strong negative feedback on longer term EI. However, during chronic negative EBs FM, FFM and RMR all decrease but appetite increases. Some studies suggest that proportionate loss of FFM during weight loss predicts subsequent weight regain. Taken together these lines of evidence suggest that changes in the size and functional integrity of FFM may influence appetite and EI. Increases in FFM associated with either weight gain or high levels of exercise may 'pull' EI upwards but energy deficits that decrease FFM may exert a distinct drive on appetite. The current paper discusses how FM and FFM relationships influence appetite regulation, and how size, structure and functional integrity of FFM may drive EI in humans (i) at EB (ii) during positive EB and (iii) during negative EB.

  15. Modeling surface energy fluxes from a patchwork of fields with different soils and crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Christian; Thieme, Christoph; Heinlein, Florian; Priesack, Eckart

    2017-04-01

    Agroecosystems are a dominant terrestrial land-use on planet earth and cover about 36% of the ice-free surface (12% pasture, 26% agriculture) [Foley2011]. Within this land use type, management practices vary strongly due to climate, cultural preferences, degree of industrialization, soil properties, crop rotations, field sizes, degree of land use sustainability, water availability, sowing and harvest dates, tillage, etc. These management practices influence abiotic environmental factors like water flow and heat transport within the ecosystem leading to changes of land surface fluxes. The relevance of vegetation (e.g. crops), ground cover, and soil properties to the moisture and energy exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere is well known [McPherson 2007], but the impact of vegetation growth dynamics on energy fluxes is only partly understood [Gayler et al. 2014]. Thus, the structure of turbulence and the albedo evolve during the cropping period and large variations of heat can be measured on the field scale [Aubinet2012]. One issue of local distributed mixture of different land use is the measurement process which makes it challenging to evaluate simulations. Unfortunately, for meteorological flux-measurements like the Flux-Gradient or the Eddy Covariance (EC) method, comparability with simulations only exists in the ideal case, where fields have to be completely uniform in land use and flat within the reach of the footprint. Then a model with one specific land use would have the same underlying source area as the measurement. An elegant method to avoid the shortcoming of grid cell resolution is the so called mixed approach, which was recently implemented into the ecosystem model framework Expert-N [Biernath et al. 2013]. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the characteristics of five managed field plots, planted with winter wheat, potato and maize on the near surface soil moistures and on the near surface energy flux exchanges of the

  16. Activation energy determinations suggest that thiols reverse autooxidation of tetrahydrobiopterin by a different mechanism than ascorbate.

    PubMed

    Valent, Sándor; Tóth, Miklós

    2006-01-01

    In neutral aqueous solutions tetrahydrobiopterin is oxidized by dioxygen in a reaction that is succinctly described as autooxidation. Ascorbate and thiols moderate this reaction by reversing the oxidative process. In the present study the effect of various thiols on the apparent Arrhenius activation energy of tetrahydrobiopterin autooxidation was characterized and compared to that of ascorbate determined previously. We observed that - in sharp contrast to ascorbate - the efficiency of thiols to protect tetrahydrobiopterin decreased with the elevation of temperature from 22 to 37 degrees C. Accordingly, the apparent Arrhenius activation energies (in kJ/mol) measured in the presence of thiols were consistently greater than the value determined with tetrahydrobiopterin alone (59.6 +/- 1.4) or in the presence of ascorbate (59.9 +/- 2.8). Thus, the energy values were 88.8+/-1.1 with glutathione, 87.6 +/- 2.1 with N-acetylcysteine, 79.2 +/- 1.6 with cysteine, 75.1 +/- 2.4 with dithiotreitol and 70.3 +/- 0.9 with homocysteine. Since thiols are as potent reducing agents as ascorbate, these findings suggest that thiols and ascorbate protect tetrahydrobiopterin from oxidation acting at different steps of the oxidation process. It is likely that thiols reduce quinoidal dihydrobiopterin, whereas ascorbate scavenges the trihydrobiopterin radical to tetrahydrobiopterin. Furthermore, the results indicate that thiols are excellent tools to protect tetrahydrobiopterin from autooxidative decomposition in laboratory experiments conducted at relatively low temperatures, whereas the protective effect diminishes at 37 degrees C, i.e. under physiological conditions.

  17. Alterations in energy substrate metabolism in mice with different degrees of sepsis.

    PubMed

    Irahara, Takayuki; Sato, Norio; Otake, Kosuke; Matsumura, Shigenobu; Inoue, Kazuo; Ishihara, Kengo; Fushiki, Tohru; Yokota, Hiroyuki

    2018-07-01

    Nutritional management is crucial during the acute phase of severe illnesses. However, the appropriate nutritional requirements for patients with sepsis are poorly understood. We investigated alterations in carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism in mice with different degrees of sepsis. C57BL/6 mice were divided into three groups: control mice group, administered with saline, and low- and high-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) groups, intraperitoneally administered with 1 and 5 mg of LPS/kg, respectively. Rectal temperature, food intake, body weight, and spontaneous motor activity were measured. Indirect calorimetry was performed using a respiratory gas analysis for 120 h, after which carbohydrate oxidation and fatty acid oxidation were calculated. Urinary nitrogen excretion was measured to evaluate protein metabolism. The substrate utilization ratio was recalculated. Plasma and liver carbohydrate and lipid levels were evaluated at 24, 72, and 120 h after LPS administration. Biological reactions decreased significantly in the low- and high-LPS groups. Fatty acid oxidation and protein oxidation increased significantly 24 h after LPS administration, whereas carbohydrate oxidation decreased significantly. Energy substrate metabolism changed from glucose to predominantly lipid metabolism depending on the degree of sepsis, and protein metabolism was low. Plasma lipid levels decreased, whereas liver lipid levels increased at 24 h, suggesting that lipids were transported to the liver as the energy source. Our findings revealed that energy substrate metabolism changed depending on the degree of sepsis. Therefore, in nutritional management, such metabolic alterations must be considered, and further studies on the optimum nutritional intervention during severe sepsis are necessary. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Low energy collisions of spin-polarized metastable argon atoms with ground state argon atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taillandier-Loize, T.; Perales, F.; Baudon, J.; Hamamda, M.; Bocvarski, V.; Ducloy, M.; Correia, F.; Fabre, N.; Dutier, G.

    2018-04-01

    The collision between a spin-polarized metastable argon atom in Ar* (3p54s, 3P2, M = +2) state slightly decelerated by the Zeeman slower-laser technique and a co-propagating thermal ground state argon atom Ar (3p6, 1S0), both merged from the same supersonic beam, but coming through adjacent slots of a rotating disk, is investigated at the center of mass energies ranging from 1 to 10 meV. The duration of the laser pulse synchronised with the disk allows the tuning of the relative velocity and thus the collision energy. At these sub-thermal energies, the ‘resonant metastability transfer’ signal is too small to be evidenced. The explored energy range requires using indiscernibility amplitudes for identical isotopes to have a correct interpretation of the experimental results. Nevertheless, excitation transfers are expected to increase significantly at much lower energies as suggested by previous theoretical predictions of potentials 2g(3P2) and 2u(3P2). Limits at ultra-low collisional energies of the order of 1 mK (0.086 μeV) or less, where gigantic elastic cross sections are expected, will also be discussed. The experimental method is versatile and could be applied using different isotopes of Argon like 36Ar combined with 40Ar, as well as other rare gases among which Krypton should be of great interest thanks to the available numerous isotopes present in a natural gas mixture.

  19. Life comparative analysis of energy consumption and CO₂ emissions of different building structural frame types.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangyong; Moon, Joon-Ho; Shin, Yoonseok; Kim, Gwang-Hee; Seo, Deok-Seok

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research is to quantitatively measure and compare the environmental load and construction cost of different structural frame types. Construction cost also accounts for the costs of CO₂ emissions of input materials. The choice of structural frame type is a major consideration in construction, as this element represents about 33% of total building construction costs. In this research, four constructed buildings were analyzed, with these having either reinforced concrete (RC) or steel (S) structures. An input-output framework analysis was used to measure energy consumption and CO₂ emissions of input materials for each structural frame type. In addition, the CO₂ emissions cost was measured using the trading price of CO₂ emissions on the International Commodity Exchange. This research revealed that both energy consumption and CO₂ emissions were, on average, 26% lower with the RC structure than with the S structure, and the construction costs (including the CO₂ emissions cost) of the RC structure were about 9.8% lower, compared to the S structure. This research provides insights through which the construction industry will be able to respond to the carbon market, which is expected to continue to grow in the future.

  20. Evaluation of two different alternatives of energy recovery from municipal solid waste in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Medina Jimenez, Ana Carolina; Nordi, Guilherme Henrique; Palacios Bereche, Milagros Cecilia; Bereche, Reynaldo Palacios; Gallego, Antonio Garrido; Nebra, Silvia Azucena

    2017-11-01

    Brazil has a large population with a high waste generation. The municipal solid waste (MSW) generated is deposited mainly in landfills. However, a considerable fraction of the waste is still improperly disposed of in dumpsters. In order to overcome this inadequate deposition, it is necessary to seek alternative routes. Between these alternatives, it is possible to quote gasification and incineration. The objective of this study is to compare, from an energetic and economic point of view, these technologies, aiming at their possible implementation in Brazilian cities. A total of two configurations were evaluated: (i) waste incineration with energy recovery and electricity production in a steam cycle; and (ii) waste gasification, where the syngas produced is used as fuel in a boiler of a steam cycle for electricity production. Simulations were performed assuming the same amount of available waste for both configurations, with a composition corresponding to the MSW from Santo André, Brazil. The thermal efficiencies of the gasification and incineration configurations were 19.3% and 25.1%, respectively. The difference in the efficiencies was caused by the irreversibilities associated with the gasification process, and the additional electricity consumption in the waste treatment step. The economic analysis presented a cost of electrical energy produced of 0.113 (US$ kWh -1 ) and 0.139 (US$ kWh -1 ) for the incineration and gasification plants respectively.

  1. Feed efficiency of diets with different energy and protein concentrations supplemented with methionine in laying quails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratriyanto, A.; Indreswari, R.; Nuhriawangsa, A. M. P.; Purwanti, E.

    2018-03-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the feed efficiency of quail diets containing different concentrations of metabolizable energy (ME) and crude protein (CP) with constant ratio and supplemented with methionine. Four hundred laying quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were randomly assigned to four experimental diets in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. Each dietary treatment used 5 replicates of 20 quails. Two basal diets were formulated to contain 2,800 kcal kg-1 ME and 18.7% CP (High ME-CP) and 2,600 kcal kg-1 ME and 17.3% CP (Low ME-CP). Each basal diet was supplemented with 0 and 0.12% methionine. The High ME-CP diets generated lower feed consumption but higher egg mass and feed efficiency (P<0.01) compared with the Low ME-CP. Furthermore, supplementation of methionine increased egg mass, feed efficiency, energy efficiency ratio and protein efficiency ratio (P<0.01). The High ME-CP supplemented with methionine resulted the highest feed efficiency followed by the Low ME-CP supplemented with methionine, while both High ME-CP and Low ME-CP without methionine supplementation resulted the lowest feed efficiency (P<0.05). In addition, ME and CP consumption of the birds were not influenced by the treatments. Thus, feeding High ME-CP supplemented with 0.12% methionine provided benefit to improve the feed efficiency in laying quails.

  2. Capacitive mixing with electrodes of the same kind for energy production from salinity differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, M.; Kozynchenko, O.; Tennison, S.; Brogioli, D.

    2016-03-01

    The capacitive mixing technique is aimed at producing renewable energy from salinity differences, for example between sea and river water. The technique makes use of two electrodes that modify their potential in opposite directions when the concentration of the solution in which they are immersed is changed, as a consequence of the dynamics of the electric double layer which forms in the ionic solution. Unfortunately, it is difficult to find two electrodes presenting both optimal performances and opposite potential variations. In order to overcome this problem, we present here a cell scheme with electrodes of the same kind (and thus identical dependence of potential on concentration) which can be operated with a CapMix cycle; it is based on a concentration cell with identical electrodes dipped into two compartments separated by a non-perm-selective porous diaphragm. Thanks to the cyclic operation, the actual cell voltage rise and the power production are close to the values obtained with the traditional scheme, or even higher, depending on the features of the ion transport in the liquid junction region. We present an experimental demonstration of the working principles and we study the power production and energy efficiency in the light of the theory of ion transport in fluids. We show that our technique is competitive with respect to the other CapMix techniques, with the relevant advantage that we make use of only one kind of electrode.

  3. Capacitive mixing with electrodes of the same kind for energy production from salinity differences.

    PubMed

    Marino, M; Kozynchenko, O; Tennison, S; Brogioli, D

    2016-03-23

    The capacitive mixing technique is aimed at producing renewable energy from salinity differences, for example between sea and river water. The technique makes use of two electrodes that modify their potential in opposite directions when the concentration of the solution in which they are immersed is changed, as a consequence of the dynamics of the electric double layer which forms in the ionic solution. Unfortunately, it is difficult to find two electrodes presenting both optimal performances and opposite potential variations. In order to overcome this problem, we present here a cell scheme with electrodes of the same kind (and thus identical dependence of potential on concentration) which can be operated with a CapMix cycle; it is based on a concentration cell with identical electrodes dipped into two compartments separated by a non-perm-selective porous diaphragm. Thanks to the cyclic operation, the actual cell voltage rise and the power production are close to the values obtained with the traditional scheme, or even higher, depending on the features of the ion transport in the liquid junction region. We present an experimental demonstration of the working principles and we study the power production and energy efficiency in the light of the theory of ion transport in fluids. We show that our technique is competitive with respect to the other CapMix techniques, with the relevant advantage that we make use of only one kind of electrode.

  4. Binding energies of benzene on coinage metal surfaces: Equal stability on different metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maaß, Friedrich; Jiang, Yingda; Liu, Wei; Tkatchenko, Alexandre; Tegeder, Petra

    2018-06-01

    Interfaces between organic molecules and inorganic solids adapt a prominent role in fundamental science, catalysis, molecular sensors, and molecular electronics. The molecular adsorption geometry, which is dictated by the strength of lateral and vertical interactions, determines the electronic structure of the molecule/substrate system. In this study, we investigate the binding properties of benzene on the noble metal surfaces Au(111), Ag(111), and Cu(111), respectively, using temperature-programmed desorption and first-principles calculations that account for non-locality of both electronic exchange and correlation effects. In the monolayer regime, we observed for all three systems a decrease of the binding energy with increasing coverage due to repulsive adsorbate/adsorbate interactions. Although the electronic properties of the noble metal surfaces are rather different, the binding strength of benzene on these surfaces is equal within the experimental error (accuracy of 0.05 eV), in excellent agreement with our calculations. This points toward the existence of a universal trend for the binding energy of aromatic molecules resulting from a subtle balance between Pauli repulsion and many-body van der Waals attraction.

  5. The greenhouse gas and energy balance of different treatment concepts for bio-waste.

    PubMed

    Ortner, Maria E; Müller, Wolfgang; Bockreis, Anke

    2013-10-01

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) and energy performance of bio-waste treatment plants been investigated for three characteristic bio-waste treatment concepts: composting; biological drying for the production of biomass fuel fractions; and anaerobic digestion. Compared with other studies about the environmental impacts of bio-waste management, this study focused on the direct comparison of the latest process concepts and state-of-the-art emission control measures. To enable a comparison, the mass balance and products were modelled for all process concepts assuming the same bio-waste amounts and properties. In addition, the value of compost as a soil improver was included in the evaluation, using straw as a reference system. This aspect has rarely been accounted for in other studies. The study is based on data from operational facilities combined with literature data. The results show that all three concepts contribute to a reduction of GHG emissions and show a positive balance for cumulated energy demand. However, in contrast to other studies, the advantage of anaerobic digestion compared with composting is smaller as a result of accounting for the soil improving properties of compost. Still, anaerobic digestion is the environmentally superior solution. The results are intended to inform decision makers about the relevant aspects of bio-waste treatment regarding the environmental impacts of different bio-waste management strategies.

  6. Differences in RF energy absorption in the heads of adults and children.

    PubMed

    Christ, Andreas; Kuster, Niels

    2005-01-01

    There has been a long and controversial debate on possible differences in electromagnetic (EM) energy absorption between adults and children during cell phone usage. Some published studies report higher specific absorption rate (SAR) in children and explain this based on smaller head size. More recently, age dependent changes of the dielectric tissue parameters have again ignited the discussion. This study intends to give a comprehensive review of the current state of knowledge about the parameters and mechanisms affecting the exposure of the mobile phone user with special focus on the exposure of children. Discussed are the absorption mechanism, tissue parameters, the effect of the pinna, and the uncertainties associated with head models based on spheroids, scaled adult heads, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of children. The conclusions of the review do not support the assumption that the energy exposure increases due to smaller heads, but identifies open issues regarding the dielectric tissue parameters and the thickness of the pinna. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  7. Life Comparative Analysis of Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions of Different Building Structural Frame Types

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangyong; Moon, Joon-Ho; Shin, Yoonseok; Kim, Gwang-Hee; Seo, Deok-Seok

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research is to quantitatively measure and compare the environmental load and construction cost of different structural frame types. Construction cost also accounts for the costs of CO2 emissions of input materials. The choice of structural frame type is a major consideration in construction, as this element represents about 33% of total building construction costs. In this research, four constructed buildings were analyzed, with these having either reinforced concrete (RC) or steel (S) structures. An input-output framework analysis was used to measure energy consumption and CO2 emissions of input materials for each structural frame type. In addition, the CO2 emissions cost was measured using the trading price of CO2 emissions on the International Commodity Exchange. This research revealed that both energy consumption and CO2 emissions were, on average, 26% lower with the RC structure than with the S structure, and the construction costs (including the CO2 emissions cost) of the RC structure were about 9.8% lower, compared to the S structure. This research provides insights through which the construction industry will be able to respond to the carbon market, which is expected to continue to grow in the future. PMID:24227998

  8. Surface hardness of different restorative materials after long-term immersion in sports and energy drinks.

    PubMed

    Erdemir, Ugur; Yildiz, Esra; Eren, Meltem Mert; Ozel, Sevda

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of sports and energy drinks on the surface hardness of different restorative materials over a 6-month period. Forty-two disk-shaped specimens were prepared for each of the four restorative materials tested: Compoglass F, Filtek Z250, Filtek Supreme, and Premise. Specimens were immersed for 2 min daily, up to 6 months, in six storage solutions (n=7 per material for each solution): distilled water, Powerade, Gatorade, X-IR, Burn, and Red Bull. Surface hardness was measured at baseline, after 1 week, 1 month, and 6 months. Data were analyzed statistically using repeated measures ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni test for multiple comparisons (α=0.05). Surface hardness of the restorative materials was significantly affected by both immersion solution and immersion period (p<0.001). All tested solutions induced significant reduction in surface hardness of the restorative materials over a 6-month immersion period.

  9. Diffusion of environmentally-friendly energy technologies: buy versus lease differences in residential PV markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Varun; Sigrin, Benjamin

    2013-03-01

    Diffusion of microgeneration technologies, particularly rooftop photovoltaic (PV), represents a key option in reducing emissions in the residential sector. We use a uniquely rich dataset from the burgeoning residential PV market in Texas to study the nature of the consumer’s decision-making process in the adoption of these technologies. In particular, focusing on the financial metrics and the information decision-makers use to base their decisions upon, we study how the leasing and buying models affect individual choices and, thereby, the adoption of capital-intensive energy technologies. Overall, our findings suggest that the leasing model more effectively addresses consumers’ informational requirements and that, contrary to some other studies, buyers and lessees of PV do not necessarily differ significantly along socio-demographic variables. Instead, we find that the leasing model has opened up the residential PV market to a new, and potentially very large, consumer segment—those with a tight cash-flow situation.

  10. Differences in kinematics and energy cost between front crawl and backstroke below the anaerobic threshold.

    PubMed

    Gonjo, Tomohiro; McCabe, Carla; Sousa, Ana; Ribeiro, João; Fernandes, Ricardo J; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo; Sanders, Ross

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine kinematic and energetic differences between front crawl and backstroke performed at the same aerobic speeds. Ten male competitive swimmers performed front crawl and backstroke at a pre-determined sub-anaerobic threshold speed to assess energy cost (through oxygen uptake measurement) and kinematics (using three-dimensional videography to determine stroke frequency and length, intra-cycle velocity fluctuation, three-dimensional wrist and ankle speeds, and vertical and lateral ankle range of motion). For detailed kinematic analysis, resultant displacement, the duration, and three-dimensional speed of the wrist during the entry, pull, push, and release phases were also investigated. There were no differences in stroke frequency/length and intra-cycle velocity fluctuation between the swimming techniques, however, swimmers had lower energy cost in front crawl than in backstroke (0.77 ± 0.08 vs 0.91 ± 0.12 kJ m -1 , p < 0.01). Slower three-dimensional wrist and ankle speeds under the water (1.29 ± 0.10 vs 1.55 ± 0.10 and 0.80 ± 0.16 vs 0.97 ± 0.13 m s -1 , both p < 0.01) and smaller ankle vertical range of motion (0.36 ± 0.06 vs 0.47 ± 0.07 m, p < 0.01) in front crawl than in backstroke were also observed, which indirectly suggested higher propulsive efficiency in front crawl. Front crawl is less costly than backstroke, and limbs motion in front crawl is more effective than in backstroke.

  11. Modelling and analysis of piezoelectric cantilever energy harvester for different proof mass and material proportion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shashank, R.; Harisha, S. K., Dr; Abhishek, M. C.

    2018-02-01

    Energy harvesting using ambient energy sources is one of the fast growing trends in the world, research and development in the area of energy harvesting is moving progressively to get maximum power output from the existing resources. The ambient sources of energy available in the nature are solar energy, wind energy, thermal energy, vibrational energy etc. out of these methods energy harvesting by vibrational energy sources gain more importance due to its nature of not getting influenced by any environmental parameters and its free availability at anytime and anywhere. The project mainly deals with validating the values of voltage and electrical power output of experimentally conducted energy harvester, varying the parameters of the energy harvester and analyse the effect of the parameters on the performance of the energy harvester and compare the results. The cantilever beam was designed, analysed and simulated using COMSOL multi-physics software. The energy harvester gives an electrical output voltage of the 2.75 volts at a natural frequency of 37.2 Hz and an electrical power of 29μW. Decreasing the percentage of the piezoelectric material and simultaneously increasing the percentage of polymer material (so that total percentage of proportion remains same) increases the electrical voltage and decreases the natural frequency of the beam linearly upto 3.9V and 28.847 Hz till the percentage proportion of the beam was 24% piezoelectric beam and 76% polymer beam when the percentage proportion increased to 26% and 74% natural frequency goes on decreases further but voltage suddenly drops to 2.8V. The voltage generated by energy harvester increases proportionally and reaches 3.7V until weight of the proof mass reaches 4 grams and further increase in the weight of the proof mass decreases the voltage generated by energy harvester. Thus the investigation conveys that the weight of the proof mass and the length of the cantilever beam should be optimised to obtain maximum

  12. Increasing low-energy-dense foods and decreasing high-energy-dense foods differently influence weight loss trial outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Vadiveloo, M; Parker, H; Raynor, H

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE Although reducing energy density (ED) enhances weight loss, it is unclear whether all dietary strategies that reduce ED are comparable, hindering effective ED guidelines for obesity treatment. This study examined how changes in number of low-energy-dense (LED) (<4.186 kJ/1.0 kcal g−1) and high-energy-dense (HED) (>12.56 kJ/3.0 kcal g−1) foods consumed affected dietary ED and weight loss within an 18-month weight loss trial. METHODS This secondary analysis examined data from participants randomized to an energy-restricted lifestyle intervention or lifestyle intervention plus limited non-nutrient dense, energy-dense food variety (n = 183). Number of daily LED and HED foods consumed was calculated from three, 24-h dietary recalls and anthropometrics were measured at 0, 6 and 18 months. Multivariable-adjusted generalized linear models and repeated-measures mixed linear models examined associations between 6-month changes in number of LED and HED foods and changes in ED, body mass index (BMI), and percent weight loss at 6 and 18 months. RESULTS Among mostly female (58%), White (92%) participants aged 51.9 years following an energy-restricted diet, increasing number of LED foods or decreasing number of HED foods consumed was associated with 6- and 18-month reductions in ED (β = − 0.25 to − 0.38 kJ g−1 (−0.06 to − 0.09 kcal g−1), P<0.001). Only increasing number of LED foods consumed was associated with 6- and 18-month reductions in BMI (β = − 0.16 to − 0.2 kg m−2, P<0.05) and 6-month reductions in percent weight loss (β = − 0.5%, P<0.05). Participants consuming ≤2 HED foods per day and ≥6.6 LED foods per day experienced better weight loss outcomes at 6- and 18-month than participants only consuming ≤2 HED foods per day. CONCLUSION Despite similar reductions in ED from reducing number of HED foods or increasing number of LED foods consumed, only increasing number of LED foods related to weight loss. This provides

  13. Use of radiation sources with mercury isotopes for real-time highly sensitive and selective benzene determination in air and natural gas by differential absorption spectrometry with the direct Zeeman effect.

    PubMed

    Revalde, Gita; Sholupov, Sergey; Ganeev, Alexander; Pogarev, Sergey; Ryzhov, Vladimir; Skudra, Atis

    2015-08-05

    A new analytical portable system is proposed for the direct determination of benzene vapor in the ambient air and natural gas, using differential absorption spectrometry with the direct Zeeman effect and innovative radiation sources: capillary mercury lamps with different isotopic compositions ((196)Hg, (198)Hg, (202)Hg, (204)Hg, and natural isotopic mixture). Resonance emission of mercury at a wavelength of 254 nm is used as probing radiation. The differential cross section of benzene absorption in dependence on wavelength is determined by scanning of magnetic field. It is found that the sensitivity of benzene detection is enhanced three times using lamp with the mercury isotope (204)Hg in comparison with lamp, filled with the natural isotopic mixture. It is experimentally demonstrated that, when benzene content is measured at the Occupational Exposure Limit (3.2 mg/m(3) for benzene) level, the interference from SO2, NO2, O3, H2S and toluene can be neglected if concentration of these gases does not exceed corresponding Occupational Exposure Limits. To exclude the mercury effect, filters that absorb mercury and let benzene pass in the gas duct are proposed. Basing on the results of our study, a portable spectrometer is designed with a multipath cell of 960 cm total path length and detection limit 0.5 mg/m(3) at 1 s averaging and 0.1 mg/m(3) at 30 s averaging. The applications of the designed spectrometer to measuring the benzene concentration in the atmospheric air from a moving vehicle and in natural gas are exemplified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessing the impact of different satellite retrieval methods on forecast available potential energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittaker, Linda M.; Horn, Lyle H.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of the inclusion of satellite temperature retrieval data, and of different satellite retrieval methods, on forecasts made with the NASA Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres (GLA) fourth-order model were investigated using, as the parameter, the available potential energy (APE) in its isentropic form. Calculation of the APE were used to study the differences in the forecast sets both globally and in the Northern Hemisphere during 72-h forecast period. The analysis data sets used for the forecasts included one containing the NESDIS TIROS-N retrievals, the GLA retrievals using the physical inversion method, and a third, which did not contain satellite data, used as a control; two data sets, with and without satellite data, were used for verification. For all three data sets, the Northern Hemisphere values for the total APE showed an increase throughout the forecast period, mostly due to an increase in the zonal component, in contrast to the verification sets, which showed a steady level of total APE.

  15. Fluid, energy and nutrient recovery via ad libitum intake of different fluids and food.

    PubMed

    Campagnolo, Nadia; Iudakhina, Elizaveta; Irwin, Christopher; Schubert, Matthew; Cox, Gregory R; Leveritt, Michael; Desbrow, Ben

    2017-03-15

    This study compared the effects of ad libitum consumption of different beverages and foods on fluid retention and nutrient intake following exercise. Ten endurance trained males (mean±SD; Age=25.3±4.9years, VO 2 max=63.0±7.2mL·kg·min -1 ) performed four trials employing a counterbalanced, crossover design. Following 60min of exercise (matched for energy expenditure and fluid loss) participants consumed either water (W1 and W2), a sports drink (Powerade® (P)) or a milk-based liquid meal supplement (Sustagen Sport® (SS)) over a four hour recovery period. Additionally, participants had access to snack foods on two occasions within the first 2h of recovery on all trials. All beverages and food were consumed ad libitum. Total nutrient intake, urine volume, USG, body weight as well as subjective measures of gastrointestinal tolerance and thirst were obtained hourly. Plasma osmolality was measured pre, post, 1 and 4h after exercise. Total fluid volume ingested from food and beverages in W1 (2.28±0.42L) and P (2.82±0.80L) trials were significantly greater than SS (1.94±0.54L). Total urine output was not different between trials (W1=644±202mL, W2=602±352mL, P=879±751mL, SS=466±129mL). No significant differences in net body weight change was observed between trials (W1=0.01±0.28kg, W2=0.08±0.30kg, P=-0.02±0.24kg, SS=-0.05±0.24kg). Total energy intake was higher on P (10,179±1484kJ) and SS (10,577±2210kJ) compared to both water trials (W1=7826±888kJ, W2=7578±1112kJ). With the co-ingestion of food, fluid restoration following exercise is tightly regulated and not influenced by the choice of either water, a carbohydrate-electrolyte (sports drink) or a milk-based beverage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 25 CFR 224.64 - How may a tribe assume management of development of different types of energy resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT AND SELF DETERMINATION ACT Procedures for Obtaining Tribal Energy Resource Agreements Tera Requirements § 224.64 How may a tribe assume management of development of different types of energy resources... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How may a tribe assume management of development of...

  17. Pluri-energy analysis of livestock systems--a comparison of dairy systems in different territories.

    PubMed

    Vigne, Mathieu; Vayssières, Jonathan; Lecomte, Philippe; Peyraud, Jean-Louis

    2013-09-15

    This paper introduces a generic assessment method called pluri-energy analysis. It aims to assess the types of energy used in agricultural systems and their conversion efficiencies. Four types of energy are considered: fossil energy, gross energy contained in the biomass, energy from human and animal labor and solar energy. The method was applied to compare smallholder low-input dairy-production systems, which are common in developing countries, to the high-input systems encountered in OECD countries. The pluri-energy method is useful for analyzing the functioning of agricultural systems by highlighting their modes of energy management. Since most dairy systems in South Mali (SM) are low-input systems, they are primarily based on solar and labor energy types and do not require substantial fossil-energy inputs to produce milk. Farms in Poitou-Charentes (PC) and Bretagne (BR) show intermediate values of fossil-energy use for milk production, similar to that found in the literature for typical European systems. However, fossil-energy use for milk production is higher on PC than BR farms because of a higher proportion of maize silage in the forage area; grazing pastures are more common on BR farms. Farms on Reunion Island (RI) require a relatively large amount of fossil energy to produce milk, mainly because the island context limits the amount of arable land. Consequently, milk production is based on large imports of concentrated feed with a high fossil-energy cost. The method also enables assessment of fossil-energy-use efficiency in order to increase the performance of biological processes in agricultural systems. Comparing the low-input systems represented by SM to the high-input systems represented by RI, PC and BR, an increase in solar-energy conversion, and thus land productivity, was observed due to intensification via increased fossil-energy use. Conversely, though fossil-energy use at the herd level increased milk productivity, its effect on gross-energy

  18. Use of MODIS-Derived Fire Radiative Energy to Estimate Smoke Aerosol Emissions over Different Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichoku, Charles; Kaufman, Yoram J.

    2003-01-01

    Biomass burning is the main source of smoke aerosols and certain trace gases in the atmosphere. However, estimates of the rates of biomass consumption and emission of aerosols and trace gases from fires have not attained adequate reliability thus far. Traditional methods for deriving emission rates employ the use of emission factors e(sub x), (in g of species x per kg of biomass burned), which are difficult to measure from satellites. In this era of environmental monitoring from space, fire characterization was not a major consideration in the design of the early satellite-borne remote sensing instruments, such as AVHRR. Therefore, although they are able to provide fire location information, they were not adequately sensitive to variations in fire strength or size, because their thermal bands used for fire detection saturated at the lower end of fire radiative temperature range. As such, hitherto, satellite-based emission estimates employ proxy techniques using satellite derived fire pixel counts (which do not express the fire strength or rate of biomass consumption) or burned areas (which can only be obtained after the fire is over). The MODIS sensor, recently launched into orbit aboard EOS Terra (1999) and Aqua (2002) satellites, have a much higher saturation level and can, not only detect the fire locations 4 times daily, but also measures the at-satellite fire radiative energy (which is a measure of the fire strength) based on its 4 micron channel temperature. Also, MODIS measures the optical thickness of smoke and other aerosols. Preliminary analysis shows appreciable correlation between the MODIS-derived rates of emission of fire radiative energy and smoke over different regions across the globe. These relationships hold great promise for deriving emission coefficients, which can be used for estimating smoke aerosol emissions from MODIS active fire products. This procedure has the potential to provide more accurate emission estimates in near real

  19. [Effects of waterlogging on the growth and energy-metabolic enzyme activities of different tree species].

    PubMed

    Wang, Gui-Bin; Cao, Fu-Liang; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Wang-Xiang

    2010-03-01

    Aimed to understand the waterlogging tolerance and adaptation mechanisms of different tree species, a simulated field experiment was conducted to study the growth and energy-metabolic enzyme activities of one-year-old seedlings of Taxodium distichum, Carya illinoensis, and Sapium sebiferum. Three treatments were installed, i. e., CK, waterlogging, and flooding, with the treatment duration being 60 days. Under waterlogging and flooding, the relative growth of test tree species was in the order of T. distichum > C. illinoensis > S. sebiferum, indicating that T. distichum had the strongest tolerance against waterlogging and flooding, while S. sebiferum had the weakest one. Also under waterlogging and flooding, the root/crown ratio of the three tree species increased significantly, suggesting that more photosynthates were allocated in roots, and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activities of the tree species also had a significant increase. Among the test tree species, T. distichum had the lowest increment of LDH and ADH activities under waterlogging and flooding, but the increment could maintain at a higher level in the treatment duration, while for C. illinoensis and S. sebiferum, the increment was larger during the initial and medium period, but declined rapidly during the later period of treatment. The malate dehydrogenase (MDH), phosphohexose (HPI), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) -6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH) activities of the tree species under waterlogging and flooding had a significant decrease, and the decrement was the largest for T. distichum, being 35.6% for MDH, 21.0% for HPI, and 22.7% for G6PDH - 6PGDH under flooding. It was suggested that under waterlogging and flooding, the tree species with strong waterlogging tolerance had a higher ability to maintain energy-metabolic balance, and thus, its growth could be maintained at a certain level.

  20. Differences in Energy Balance-Related Behaviours in European Preschool Children: The ToyBox-Study

    PubMed Central

    De Craemer, Marieke; Lateva, Mina; Iotova, Violeta; De Decker, Ellen; Verloigne, Maïté; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Androutsos, Odysseas; Socha, Piotr; Kulaga, Zbigniew; Moreno, Luis; Koletzko, Berthold; Manios, Yannis; Cardon, Greet

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the current study was to compare levels of energy balance-related behaviours (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and dietary behaviours (more specifically water consumption, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and unhealthy snacking)) in four- to six-year-old preschoolers from six European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland, and Spain) within the ToyBox cross-sectional study. Methods A sample of 4,045 preschoolers (4.77 ± 0.43 years; 52.2% boys) had valid physical activity data (steps per day), parents of 8,117 preschoolers (4.78 ± 0.46 years; 53.0% boys) completed a parental questionnaire with questions on sedentary behaviours (television viewing, computer use, and quiet play), and parents of 7,244 preschoolers (4.77 ± 0.44 years; 52.0% boys) completed a food frequency questionnaire with questions on water consumption, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and unhealthy snacking. Results The highest levels of physical activity were found in Spain (12,669 steps/day on weekdays), while the lowest levels were found in Bulgaria and Greece (9,777 and 9,656 steps/day on weekdays, respectively). German preschoolers spent the least amount of time in television viewing (43.3 min/day on weekdays), while Greek preschoolers spent the most time in television viewing (88.5 min/day on weekdays). A considerable amount of time was spent in quiet play in all countries, with the highest levels in Poland (104.9 min/day on weekdays), and the lowest levels in Spain (60.4 min/day on weekdays). Belgian, German, and Polish preschoolers had the lowest intakes of water and the highest intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages. The intake of snacks was the highest in Belgian preschoolers (73.1 g/day) and the lowest in Greek preschoolers (53.3 g/day). Conclusions Across six European countries, differences in preschoolers’ energy balance-related behaviours were found. Future interventions should target European preschoolers’ energy balance

  1. Simulation model of stratified thermal energy storage tank using finite difference method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waluyo, Joko

    2016-06-01

    Stratified TES tank is normally used in the cogeneration plant. The stratified TES tanks are simple, low cost, and equal or superior in thermal performance. The advantage of TES tank is that it enables shifting of energy usage from off-peak demand for on-peak demand requirement. To increase energy utilization in a stratified TES tank, it is required to build a simulation model which capable to simulate the charging phenomenon in the stratified TES tank precisely. This paper is aimed to develop a novel model in addressing the aforementioned problem. The model incorporated chiller into the charging of stratified TES tank system in a closed system. The model was developed in one-dimensional type involve with heat transfer aspect. The model covers the main factors affect to degradation of temperature distribution namely conduction through the tank wall, conduction between cool and warm water, mixing effect on the initial flow of the charging as well as heat loss to surrounding. The simulation model is developed based on finite difference method utilizing buffer concept theory and solved in explicit method. Validation of the simulation model is carried out using observed data obtained from operating stratified TES tank in cogeneration plant. The temperature distribution of the model capable of representing S-curve pattern as well as simulating decreased charging temperature after reaching full condition. The coefficient of determination values between the observed data and model obtained higher than 0.88. Meaning that the model has capability in simulating the charging phenomenon in the stratified TES tank. The model is not only capable of generating temperature distribution but also can be enhanced for representing transient condition during the charging of stratified TES tank. This successful model can be addressed for solving the limitation temperature occurs in charging of the stratified TES tank with the absorption chiller. Further, the stratified TES tank can be

  2. Light energy attenuation through orthodontic ceramic brackets at different irradiation times.

    PubMed

    Santini, Ario; Tiu, Szu Hui; McGuinness, Niall J P; Aldossary, Mohammed Saeed

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the total light energy (TLE) transmission through three types of ceramic brackets with, bracket alone and with the addition of orthodontic adhesive, at different exposure durations, and to compare the microhardness of the cured adhesive. Three different makes of ceramic brackets, Pure Sapphire(M), Clarity™ ADVANCED(P) and Dual Ceramic(P) were used. Eighteen specimens of each make were prepared and allocated to three groups (n = 6). MARC(®)-resin calibrator was used to determine the light curing unit (LCU) tip irradiance (mW/cm(2)) and TLE (J/cm(2)) transmitted through the ceramic brackets, and through ceramic bracket plus Transbond™ XT Light Cure Adhesive, for 5, 10 and 20 s. Vickers-hardness values at the bottom of the cured adhesive were determined. Statistical analysis used one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA); P = 0.05. TLE transmission rose significantly among all samples with increasing exposure durations. TLE reaching the adhesive- enamel interface was less than 10 J/cm(2), and through monocrystalline and polycrystalline ceramic brackets was significantly different (P < 0.05). Pure Sapphire(M) showed the highest amount of TLE transmission and Vickers-hardness values for 5, 10 and 20 s. Following manufacturer's recommendations, insufficient TLE may be delivered to the adhesive: increasing the exposure durations may be required when adhesive is cured through ceramic brackets. Clinicians are advised to measure the tip irradiance of their LCUs and increase curing time beyond 5 s. Orthodontic clinicians should understand the type of light curing device and the orthodontic adhesive used in their practice.

  3. Particulate concentrations during on-farm combustion of energy crops of different shapes and harvest seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournel, S.; Palacios, J. H.; Morissette, R.; Villeneuve, J.; Godbout, S.; Heitz, M.; Savoie, P.

    2015-03-01

    The increasing energy costs and environmental concerns of farms have motivated the growing interest of agricultural producers in using farm-grown biomass as a substitute to fossil fuels for heat production. However, the use of non-woody biomass is facing challenges due to variability regarding chemical composition and fuel properties that may induce problems during combustion such as particulate matter (PM). The aim of this work was to measure and compare total PM concentrations during on-farm combustion of wood and four agricultural crops: short-rotation willow, switchgrass, miscanthus and reed canary grass. In order to study the influence of physicochemical properties, different shapes (pellets, chips and chopped grasses) and harvest seasons (fall and spring) were also evaluated. In this context, a representative small-scale (29 kW), multi-fuel boiler for light commercial use was utilized. The boiler was also non-catalytic so that the burning took place in a single combustion chamber. Overall, twelve different biomass fuels were tested and each product was burned three times. Mean PM concentration of wood (416 mg Nm-3 at 7 vol% O2) was lower than that of the four dedicated energy crops (505-1417 mg Nm-3 at 7 vol% O2). However, because of the high variability between the experiments, no statistical significance was observed at P > 0.1 level except in one case. The PM amounts were high compared to literature data and Quebec's environmental regulation mainly because of the boiler system used. Except for willow, pelletized products decreased PM levels by 22-52% compared to chopped materials. Bulky biomass of low density was unable to reach steady-state conditions and produced compounds associated with incomplete combustion including PM. Spring-harvested biomass fuels showed a PM reduction up to 48% compared to fall-harvested crops. This was likely due to a 20-60% decrease of several chemical elements in the biomass, namely S, Cl, K and P which are the main

  4. Scope of wind energy in Bangladesh and simulation analysis of three different horizontal axis wind turbine blade shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Md. Arif-Ul Islam; Das, Swapnil; Dey, Saikat

    2017-12-01

    : Economic growth and energy demand are intertwined. Therefore, one of the most important concerns of the government and in the world is the need for energy security. Currently, the world relies on coal, crude oil and natural gas for energy generati on. However, the energy crisis together with climate change and depletion of oil have become major concerns to all countries. Therefore, alternative energy resources such as wind energy attracted interest from both public and private sectors to invest in energy generation from this source extensively. Both Vertical and Horizontal axis wind turbine can be used for this purpose. But, Horizontal axis is the most promising between them due to its efficiency and low expense. Bangladesh being a tropical country does have a lot of wind flow at different seasons of the year. However, there are some windy locations in which wind energy projects could be feasible. In this project a detailed review of the current st ate-of-art for wind turbine blade design is presented including theoretical maximum efficiency, Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) blade design, simulation power and COP values for different blade material. By studying previously collected data on the wind resources available in B angladesh at present and by analyzing this data, this paper will discuss the scope of wind energy in Bangladesh.

  5. All-particle energy spectrum of KASCADE-Grande based on shower size and different hadronic interaction models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, D.; Apel, W. D.; Arteaga-Velazquez, J. C.; Bekk, K.; Bertaina, M.; Blümer, J.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I. M.; Cantoni, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Cossavella, F.; Daumiller, K.; de Souza, V.; Di Pierro, F.; Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Engler, J.; Finger, M.; Fuchs, B.; Fuhrmann, D.; Gils, H. J.; Glasstetter, R.; Grupen, C.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Hörandel, J. R.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Kampert, K.-H.; Klages, H. O.; Link, K.; Łuczak, P.; Ludwig, M.; Mathes, H. J.; Mayer, H. J.; Melissas, M.; Milke, J.; Morello, C.; Oehlschläger, J.; Ostapchenko, S.; Palmieri, N.; Petcu, M.; Pierog, T.; Rebel, H.; Roth, M.; Schieler, H.; Schoo, S.; Schroder, F.; Sima, O.; Toma, G.; Trinchero, G. C.; Ulrich, H.; Weindl, A.; Wochele, J.; Wommer, M.; Zabierowski, J.

    2013-02-01

    KASCADE-Grande is a large detector array for observations of the energy spectrum as well as the chemical composition of cosmic ray air showers up to primary energies of 1 EeV. The multi-detector arrangement allows to measure the electromagnetic and muonic components for individual air showers. In this analysis, the reconstruction of the all-particle energy spectrum is based on the size spectra of the charged particle component. The energy is calibrated by using Monte Carlo simulations performed with CORSIKA and high-energy interaction models QGSJet, EPOS and SIBYLL. In all cases FLUKA has been used as low-energy interaction model. In this contribution the resulting spectra by means of different hadronic interaction models will be compared and discussed.

  6. The impacts of different expansion modes on performance of small solar energy firms: perspectives of absorptive capacity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsing Hung; Shen, Tao; Xu, Xin-Long; Ma, Chao

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of firm's expansion by differentiated products and diversified products are quite different. However, the study employing absorptive capacity to examine the impacts of different modes of expansion on performance of small solar energy firms has never been discussed before. Then, a conceptual model to analyze the tension between strategies and corporate performance is proposed to filling the vacancy. After practical investigation, the results show that stronger organizational institutions help small solar energy firms expanded by differentiated products increase consistency between strategies and corporate performance; oppositely, stronger working attitudes with weak management controls help small solar energy firms expanded by diversified products reduce variance between strategies and corporate performance.

  7. The Impacts of Different Expansion Modes on Performance of Small Solar Energy Firms: Perspectives of Absorptive Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsing Hung; Shen, Tao; Xu, Xin-long; Ma, Chao

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of firm's expansion by differentiated products and diversified products are quite different. However, the study employing absorptive capacity to examine the impacts of different modes of expansion on performance of small solar energy firms has never been discussed before. Then, a conceptual model to analyze the tension between strategies and corporate performance is proposed to filling the vacancy. After practical investigation, the results show that stronger organizational institutions help small solar energy firms expanded by differentiated products increase consistency between strategies and corporate performance; oppositely, stronger working attitudes with weak management controls help small solar energy firms expanded by diversified products reduce variance between strategies and corporate performance. PMID:24453837

  8. Differences in the energy cost between children and adults during front crawl swimming.

    PubMed

    Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Ingjer, Frank; Madsen, Ørjan; Stallman, Robert Keig; Stray-Gundersen, James

    2004-04-01

    There is little information available about the swimming economy of children. The aim of this study was to examine any possible differences in swimming economy in children and adults, swimming front crawl submaximally. Swimming economy was compared in adults [ n=13, aged 21.4 (3.7) years] and children [n=10, aged 11.8 (0.8) years] tested at four submaximal 6-min workloads. Oxygen consumption (VO2) was measured with Douglas bags in a 25-m pool and pacer lights were used to control the velocities. Swimming economy was scaled to body size using mass (BM), body surface area (BSA) and body length (BL). Children had lower VO2 (litres per minute) at a given velocity than the adults, with 1.86 (0.28) and 2.39 (0.20) l min(-1) respectively (at 1.00 m s(-1)). When scaling for size, children had higher VO2 measured in litres per square metre per minute and millilitres per kilogram per minute (divided by BSA and BM) than adults. The VO2 divided by BL was found not to differ between the two groups. The O2 cost of swimming 1 m at a velocity of 1.00 m s(-1) was lower in the children [31.0 (4.6) ml m(-1)] than in the adults [39.9 (3.3) ml m(-1) P<0.01], probably due to a lower total drag in the children. The results also showed that for children a relationship between swimming velocity cubed and VO2 exists as shown earlier for adults. It is concluded that, when scaling for BSA and BM, children are less economical than adults, when scaling for BL, children are equally economical, and when considering energy cost per metre and absolute VO2, children are more economical than the adults.

  9. Adhesion of Streptococcus sanguis CH3 to polymers with different surface free energies.

    PubMed Central

    van Pelt, A W; Weerkamp, A H; Uyen, M H; Busscher, H J; de Jong, H P; Arends, J

    1985-01-01

    The adhesion of the oral bacterium Streptococcus sanguis CH3 to various polymeric surfaces with surface free energies (gamma s) ranging from 22 to 141 erg cm-2 was investigated. Suspensions containing nine different bacterial concentrations (2.5 X 10(7) to 2.5 X 10(9) cells per ml) were used. After adhesion for 1 h at 21 degrees C and a standardized rinsing procedure, the number of attached bacteria per square centimeter (nb) was determined by scanning electron microscopy. The highest number of bacteria was consistently found on polytetrafluorethylene (gamma s = 22 erg cm-2), and the lowest number was found on glass (gamma s = 141 erg cm-2) at all bacterial concentrations tested. The overall negative correlation between nb and gamma s was weak. However, the slope of the line showing this decrease, calculated from an assumed linear relationship between nb and gamma s, appeared to depend strongly on the bacterial concentration and increased with increasing numbers of bacteria in the suspension. Analysis of the data for each separate polymer showed that the numbers of attached cells on polyvinyl chloride and polypropylene were higher but that those on polycarbonate were lower than would be expected on basis of a linear relationship between nb and gamma s. Desorption experiments were performed by first allowing the bacteria to attach to substrata for 1 h, after which the substrata and attached bacteria were removed to bacterial suspensions containing 10-fold lower bacterial concentrations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:4004241

  10. Evaluating Battery-like Reactions to Harvest Energy from Salinity Differences using Ammonium Bicarbonate Salt Solutions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taeyoung; Rahimi, Mohammad; Logan, Bruce E; Gorski, Christopher A

    2016-05-10

    Mixing entropy batteries (MEBs) are a new approach to generate electricity from salinity differences between two aqueous solutions. To date, MEBs have only been prepared from solutions containing chloride salts, owing to their relevance in natural salinity gradients created from seawater and freshwater. We hypothesized that MEBs could capture energy using ammonium bicarbonate (AmB), a thermolytic salt that can be used to convert waste heat into salinity gradients. We examined six battery electrode materials. Several of the electrodes were unstable in AmB solutions or failed to produce expected voltages. Of the electrode materials tested, a cell containing a manganese oxide electrode and a metallic lead electrode produced the highest power density (6.3 mW m(-2) ). However, this power density is still low relative to previously reported NaCl-based MEBs and heat recovery systems. This proof-of-concept study demonstrated that MEBs could indeed be used to generate electricity from AmB salinity gradients. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. On the energy integral formulation of gravitational potential differences from satellite-to-satellite tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, J. Y.; Shang, K.; Jekeli, C.; Shum, C. K.

    2015-04-01

    Two approaches have been formulated to compute the gravitational potential difference using low-low satellite-to-satellite tracking data based on energy integral: one in the geocentric inertial reference system, and the other in the terrestrial reference system. The focus of this work is on the approach in the geocentric inertial reference system, where a potential rotation term appears in addition to the potential term. In former formulations, the contribution of the time-variable components of the gravitational potential to the potential term was included, but their contribution to the potential rotation term was neglected. In this work, an improvement to the former formulations is made by reformulating the potential rotation term to include the contribution of the time-variable components of the gravitational potential. A simulation shows that our more accurate formulation of the potential rotation term is necessary to achieve the accuracy for recovering the temporal variation of the Earth's gravity field, such as for use to the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment GRACE observation data based on this approach.

  12. Effective atomic numbers of blue topaz at different gamma-rays energies obtained from Compton scattering technique

    SciT

    Tuschareon, S., E-mail: tuscharoen@hotmail.com; Limkitjaroenporn, P., E-mail: tuscharoen@hotmail.com; Kaewkhao, J., E-mail: tuscharoen@hotmail.com

    2014-03-24

    Topaz occurs in a wide range of colors, including yellow, orange, brown, pink-to-violet and blue. All of these color differences are due to color centers. In order to improve the color of natural colorless topaz, the most commonly used is irradiated with x- or gamma-rays, indicated that attenuation parameters is important to enhancements by irradiation. In this work, the mass attenuation coefficients of blue topaz were measured at the different energy of γ-rays using the Compton scattering technique. The results show that, the experimental values of mass attenuation coefficient are in good agreement with the theoretical values. The mass attenuationmore » coefficients increase with the decrease in gamma rays energies. This may be attributed to the higher photon interaction probability of blue topaz at lower energy. This result is a first report of mass attenuation coefficient of blue topaz at different gamma rays energies.« less

  13. The Difference Imaging Pipeline for the Transient Search in the Dark Energy Survey

    DOE PAGES

    Kessler, R.

    2015-09-09

    We describe the operation and performance of the difference imaging pipeline (DiffImg) used to detect transients in deep images from the Dark Energy Survey Supernova program (DES-SN) in its first observing season from 2013 August through 2014 February. DES-SN is a search for transients in which ten 3 deg 2 fields are repeatedly observed in the g, r, i, zpassbands with a cadence of about 1 week. Our observing strategy has been optimized to measure high-quality light curves and redshifts for thousands of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) with the goal of measuring dark energy parameters. The essential DiffImg functionsmore » are to align each search image to a deep reference image, do a pixel-by-pixel subtraction, and then examine the subtracted image for significant positive detections of point-source objects. The vast majority of detections are subtraction artifacts, but after selection requirements and image filtering with an automated scanning program, there are ~130 detections per deg 2 per observation in each band, of which only ~25% are artifacts. Of the ~7500 transients discovered by DES-SN in its first observing season, each requiring a detection on at least two separate nights, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations predict that 27% are expected to be SNe Ia or core-collapse SNe. Another ~30% of the transients are artifacts in which a small number of observations satisfy the selection criteria for a single-epoch detection. Spectroscopic analysis shows that most of the remaining transients are AGNs and variable stars. Fake SNe Ia are overlaid onto the images to rigorously evaluate detection efficiencies and to understand the DiffImg performance. Furthermore, the DiffImg efficiency measured with fake SNe agrees well with expectations from a MC simulation that uses analytical calculations of the fluxes and their uncertainties. In our 8 "shallow" fields with single-epoch 50% completeness depth ~23.5, the SN Ia efficiency falls to 1/2 at redshift z ≈ 0.7; in our 2 "deep

  14. THE DIFFERENCE IMAGING PIPELINE FOR THE TRANSIENT SEARCH IN THE DARK ENERGY SURVEY

    SciT

    Kessler, R.; Scolnic, D.; Marriner, J.

    2015-12-15

    We describe the operation and performance of the difference imaging pipeline (DiffImg) used to detect transients in deep images from the Dark Energy Survey Supernova program (DES-SN) in its first observing season from 2013 August through 2014 February. DES-SN is a search for transients in which ten 3 deg{sup 2} fields are repeatedly observed in the g, r, i, z passbands with a cadence of about 1 week. The observing strategy has been optimized to measure high-quality light curves and redshifts for thousands of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) with the goal of measuring dark energy parameters. The essential DiffImgmore » functions are to align each search image to a deep reference image, do a pixel-by-pixel subtraction, and then examine the subtracted image for significant positive detections of point-source objects. The vast majority of detections are subtraction artifacts, but after selection requirements and image filtering with an automated scanning program, there are ∼130 detections per deg{sup 2} per observation in each band, of which only ∼25% are artifacts. Of the ∼7500 transients discovered by DES-SN in its first observing season, each requiring a detection on at least two separate nights, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations predict that 27% are expected to be SNe Ia or core-collapse SNe. Another ∼30% of the transients are artifacts in which a small number of observations satisfy the selection criteria for a single-epoch detection. Spectroscopic analysis shows that most of the remaining transients are AGNs and variable stars. Fake SNe Ia are overlaid onto the images to rigorously evaluate detection efficiencies and to understand the DiffImg performance. The DiffImg efficiency measured with fake SNe agrees well with expectations from a MC simulation that uses analytical calculations of the fluxes and their uncertainties. In our 8 “shallow” fields with single-epoch 50% completeness depth ∼23.5, the SN Ia efficiency falls to 1/2 at redshift z ≈ 0.7; in our

  15. The Difference Imaging Pipeline for the Transient Search in the Dark Energy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, R.; Marriner, J.; Childress, M.; Covarrubias, R.; D'Andrea, C. B.; Finley, D. A.; Fischer, J.; Foley, R. J.; Goldstein, D.; Gupta, R. R.; Kuehn, K.; Marcha, M.; Nichol, R. C.; Papadopoulos, A.; Sako, M.; Scolnic, D.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Wester, W.; Yuan, F.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Castander, F. J.; Crocce, M.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Eifler, T. F.; Fausti Neto, A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuropatkin, N.; Li, T. S.; Maia, M. A. G.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sanchez, E.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, R. C.; Tucker, D.; Walker, A. R.; DES Collaboration

    2015-12-01

    We describe the operation and performance of the difference imaging pipeline (DiffImg) used to detect transients in deep images from the Dark Energy Survey Supernova program (DES-SN) in its first observing season from 2013 August through 2014 February. DES-SN is a search for transients in which ten 3 deg2 fields are repeatedly observed in the g, r, i, z passbands with a cadence of about 1 week. The observing strategy has been optimized to measure high-quality light curves and redshifts for thousands of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) with the goal of measuring dark energy parameters. The essential DiffImg functions are to align each search image to a deep reference image, do a pixel-by-pixel subtraction, and then examine the subtracted image for significant positive detections of point-source objects. The vast majority of detections are subtraction artifacts, but after selection requirements and image filtering with an automated scanning program, there are ˜130 detections per deg2 per observation in each band, of which only ˜25% are artifacts. Of the ˜7500 transients discovered by DES-SN in its first observing season, each requiring a detection on at least two separate nights, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations predict that 27% are expected to be SNe Ia or core-collapse SNe. Another ˜30% of the transients are artifacts in which a small number of observations satisfy the selection criteria for a single-epoch detection. Spectroscopic analysis shows that most of the remaining transients are AGNs and variable stars. Fake SNe Ia are overlaid onto the images to rigorously evaluate detection efficiencies and to understand the DiffImg performance. The DiffImg efficiency measured with fake SNe agrees well with expectations from a MC simulation that uses analytical calculations of the fluxes and their uncertainties. In our 8 “shallow” fields with single-epoch 50% completeness depth ˜23.5, the SN Ia efficiency falls to 1/2 at redshift z ≈ 0.7; in our 2 “deep” fields with

  16. THE DIFFERENCE IMAGING PIPELINE FOR THE TRANSIENT SEARCH IN THE DARK ENERGY SURVEY

    SciT

    Kessler, R.; Marriner, J.; Childress, M.

    2015-11-06

    We describe the operation and performance of the difference imaging pipeline (DiffImg) used to detect transients in deep images from the Dark Energy Survey Supernova program (DES-SN) in its first observing season from 2013 August through 2014 February. DES-SN is a search for transients in which ten 3 deg(2) fields are repeatedly observed in the g, r, i, z passbands with a cadence of about 1 week. The observing strategy has been optimized to measure high-quality light curves and redshifts for thousands of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) with the goal of measuring dark energy parameters. The essential DiffImg functionsmore » are to align each search image to a deep reference image, do a pixel-by-pixel subtraction, and then examine the subtracted image for significant positive detections of point-source objects. The vast majority of detections are subtraction artifacts, but after selection requirements and image filtering with an automated scanning program, there are similar to 130 detections per deg(2) per observation in each band, of which only similar to 25% are artifacts. Of the similar to 7500 transients discovered by DES-SN in its first observing season, each requiring a detection on at least two separate nights, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations predict that 27% are expected to be SNe Ia or core-collapse SNe. Another similar to 30% of the transients are artifacts in which a small number of observations satisfy the selection criteria for a single-epoch detection. Spectroscopic analysis shows that most of the remaining transients are AGNs and variable stars. Fake SNe Ia are overlaid onto the images to rigorously evaluate detection efficiencies and to understand the DiffImg performance. The DiffImg efficiency measured with fake SNe agrees well with expectations from a MC simulation that uses analytical calculations of the fluxes and their uncertainties. In our 8 "shallow" fields with single-epoch 50% completeness depth similar to 23.5, the SN Ia efficiency falls to 1

  17. Energy Expenditure during Physically Interactive Video Game Playing in Male College Students with Different Playing Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sell, Katie; Lillie, Tia; Taylor, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Researchers have yet to explore the effect of physically interactive video game playing on energy expenditure, despite its potential for meeting current minimal daily activity and energy expenditure recommendations. Participants and Methods: Nineteen male college students-12 experienced "Dance Dance Revolution" (DDR) players and 7…

  18. Electromechanical conversion efficiency for dielectric elastomer generator in different energy harvesting cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jian-Bo; E, Shi-Ju; Guo, Zhuang; Gao, Zhao; Luo, Han-Pin

    2017-11-01

    In order to improve electromechanical conversion efficiency for dielectric elastomer generators (DEG), on the base of studying DEG energy harvesting cycles of constant voltage, constant charge and constant electric field intensity, a new combined cycle mode and optimization theory in terms of the generating mechanism and electromechanical coupling process have been built. By controlling the switching point to achieve the best energy conversion cycle, the energy loss in the energy conversion process is reduced. DEG generating test bench which was used to carry out comparative experiments has been established. Experimental results show that the collected energy in constant voltage cycle, constant charge cycle and constant electric field intensity energy harvesting cycle decreases in turn. Due to the factors such as internal resistance losses, electrical losses and so on, actual energy values are less than the theoretical values. The electric energy conversion efficiency by combining constant electric field intensity cycle with constant charge cycle is larger than that of constant electric field intensity cycle. The relevant conclusions provide a basis for the further applications of DEG.

  19. Life-cycle energy implications of different residential settings : recognizing buildings, travel, and public infrastructure.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-08-01

    The built environment can be used to influence travel demand, but very few studies consider the relative energy : savings of such policies in context of a complex urban system. This analysis quantifies the day-to-day and embodied : energy consumption...

  20. Energy density at a buffet-style lunch differs for adolescents born at high and low risk of obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kral, Tanja V.E.; Stunkard, Albert J.; Berkowitz, Robert I.; Stettler, Nicolas; Stallings, Virginia A.; Kabay, April; Faith, Myles S.

    2009-01-01

    The energy density (ED; kcal/g) of foods, when manipulated in the laboratory, affects short-term energy intake. The aim of this study was to examine if, when given a choice, dietary ED (foods only) and energy intake (expressed as a percentage of subjects’ estimated daily energy requirement) at a self-selected, single meal differs for teens born with a different familial predisposition to obesity and as a function of their sex. Subjects (13 males, 17 females) were 12 years of age and born at high-risk (HR; n = 15) or low-risk (LR; n = 15) for obesity based on maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI; kg/m2). The buffet meal, served for lunch and consumed ad libitum, consisted of a variety of foods and beverages with a range in ED. HR subjects consumed a more energy-dense meal (foods only) than LR subjects (1.84 vs. 1.42 kcal/g; P = 0.02) and males consumed a more energy-dense meal than females (1.83 vs. 1.43 kcal/g; P = 0.03). Total energy intake, when expressed as a percentage of subjects’ daily EER, did not differ between HR and LR subjects (42% vs. 33%; P = 0.16). Males, compared to females, consumed ∼ 59% more energy from foods and beverages during the meal (46 vs. 29%; P = 0.008). During a single multi-item lunch meal, teens with a familial predisposition to obesity and males, independent of their obesity risk status, self-selected a more energy-dense meal. Familial risk for obesity, through either genetic or environmental pathways, may facilitate a more energy-dense diet. PMID:19778749

  1. Energy density at a buffet-style lunch differs for adolescents born at high and low risk of obesity.

    PubMed

    Kral, Tanja V E; Stunkard, Albert J; Berkowitz, Robert I; Stettler, Nicolas; Stallings, Virginia A; Kabay, April; Faith, Myles S

    2009-12-01

    The energy density (ED; kcal/g) of foods, when manipulated in the laboratory, affects short-term energy intake. The aim of this study was to examine if, when given a choice, dietary ED (foods only) and energy intake (expressed as a percentage of subjects' estimated daily energy requirement; EER) at a self-selected, single meal differ for teens born with a different familial predisposition to obesity and as a function of their sex. Subjects (13 males, 17 females) were 12years of age and born at high risk (HR; n=15) or low risk (LR; n=15) for obesity based on maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)). The buffet meal, served for lunch and consumed ad libitum, consisted of a variety of foods and beverages with a range in ED. HR subjects consumed a more energy-dense meal (foods only) than LR subjects (1.84 vs. 1.42kcal/g; P=0.02) and males consumed a more energy-dense meal than females (1.83 vs. 1.43kcal/g; P=0.03). Total energy intake, when expressed as a percentage of subjects' daily EER, did not differ between HR and LR subjects (42% vs. 33%; P=0.16). Males, compared to females, consumed ~59% more energy from foods and beverages during the meal (46 vs. 29%; P=0.008). During a single multi-item lunch meal, teens with a familial predisposition to obesity and males, independent of their obesity risk status, self-selected a more energy-dense meal. Familial risk for obesity, through either genetic or environmental pathways, may facilitate a more energy-dense diet.

  2. A retrospective randomized study to compare the energy delivered using CDE with different techniques and OZil settings by different surgeons in phacoemulsification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Sweeney, Henry W; Luke, Becky; Chen, Mindy; Brown, Mathew

    2009-01-01

    Cumulative dissipated energy (CDE) was used with Infiniti((R)) Vision System (Alcon Labs) as an energy delivery guide to compare four different phaco techniques and phaco settings. The supracapsular phaco technique and burst mode is known for efficiency and surgery is faster compared with the old phaco unit. In this study, we found that supracapsular phaco with burst mode had the least CDE in both cataract and nuclear sclerosis cataract with the new Infiniti((R)) unit. We suggest that CDE can be used as one of the references to modify technique and setting to improve outcome for surgeons, especially for new surgeons.

  3. A retrospective randomized study to compare the energy delivered using CDE with different techniques and OZil® settings by different surgeons in phacoemulsification

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ming; Sweeney, Henry W; Luke, Becky; Chen, Mindy; Brown, Mathew

    2009-01-01

    Cumulative dissipated energy (CDE) was used with Infiniti® Vision System (Alcon Labs) as an energy delivery guide to compare four different phaco techniques and phaco settings. The supracapsular phaco technique and burst mode is known for efficiency and surgery is faster compared with the old phaco unit. In this study, we found that supracapsular phaco with burst mode had the least CDE in both cataract and nuclear sclerosis cataract with the new Infiniti® unit. We suggest that CDE can be used as one of the references to modify technique and setting to improve outcome for surgeons, especially for new surgeons. PMID:19688027

  4. SU-E-T-543: Measurement of Neutron Activation From Different High Energy Varian Linear Accelerators

    SciT

    Thatcher, T; Madsen, S; Sudowe, R

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Linear accelerators producing photons above 10 MeV may induce photonuclear reactions in high Z components of the accelerator. These liberated neutrons can then activate the structural components of the accelerator and other materials in the beam path through neutron capture reactions. The induced activity within the accelerator may contribute to additional dose to both patients and personnel. This project seeks to determine the total activity and activity per activated isotope following irradiation in different Varian accelerators at energies above 10 MeV. Methods: A Varian 21IX accelerator was used to irradiate a 30 cm × 30 cm × 20 cmmore » solid water phantom with 15 MV x-rays. The phantom was placed at an SSD of 100 cm and at the center of a 20 cm × 20 cm field. Activation induced gamma spectra were acquired over a 5 minute interval after 1 and 15 minutes from completion of the irradiation. All measurements were made using a CANBERRA Falcon 5000 Portable HPGe detector. The majority of measurements were made in scattering geometry with the detector situated at 90° to the incident beam, 30 cm from the side of the phantom and approximately 10 cm from the top. A 5 minute background count was acquired and automatically subtracted from all subsequent measurements. Photon spectra were acquired for both open and MLC fields. Results: Based on spectral signatures, nuclides have been identified and their activities calculated for both open and MLC fields. Preliminary analyses suggest that activities from the activation products in the microcurie range. Conclusion: Activation isotopes have been identified and their relative activities determined. These activities are only gross estimates since efficiencies have not been determined for this source-detector geometry. Current efforts are focused on accurate determination of detector efficiencies using Monte Carlo calculations.« less

  5. Energy expenditure and affect responses to different types of active video game and exercise.

    PubMed

    Monedero, Javier; Murphy, Enda E; O'Gorman, Donal J

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare entertainment-themed active video game (AVG) and fitness-themed AVG play with traditional exercise to examine the interaction between physiological and psychological responses. Participants (N = 23) were randomly assigned to 30-min of (i) self-selected intensity exercise (SS-EX), (ii) moderate intensity exercise (MOD-EX), (iii) entertainment-themed video game (ET-VG) and (iv) fitness-themed video game (FT-VG). Physiological and psychological outcomes were recorded before, during and after each trial. All trials met the ACSM criteria for moderate or vigorous physical activity. The [Formula: see text] (68.3±13.9%) and rate of energy expenditure (10.3±3.1kcal/min) was significantly higher in the SS-EX trial with lowest values reported for ET-VG (p<0.05). No differences were found in % heart rate reserve between SS-EX and FT-VG (66.9±12.5% and 67.1±6% respectively). The AVG's were significantly more enjoyable than the exercise trials (p<0.05) and the ET-VG resulted in the highest core flow and psychological well-being (p<0.05). AVG's can elicit physiological responses that meet recommended exercise intensities but are more enjoyable than conventional exercise in young inactive adults. While further work is required, this study highlights the importance of examining the interaction between physiological outcomes and psychological states to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary time.

  6. [Vein morphology after endovenous laser coagulation at different power and similar linear density of energy].

    PubMed

    Fokin, A A; Borsuk, D A; Kazachkov, E L; Gorelik, G L; Bagaev, K V

    The purpose of the study was to assess the depth of damage to the venous wall after endovenous laser coagulation (EVLC) at different power of the unit - 5, 7 and 10 W and similar linear density of energy (LDE) - approximately 70 J/cm. Our prospective comparative morphological study with blinding included a total of 30 patients subjected to EVLC of the great saphenous vein using the unit with a wavelength of 1,470 nm and radial light guides with automatic traction. The patients were divided into three groups, each comprising 10 patients. The unit's power (W) during EVLC and velocity of light guide traction (mm/s) in group one amounted to 5 and 0.7 (LDE - 71.4 J/cm), in group two to 7 and 1.0 (LDE - 70 J/cm) and in group tree to 10 and 1.5 (LDE - 66.7 J/cm), respectively. The coagulated veins were then procured from mini approaches and subjected to three sections made at a distance of 2 mm from each other. Specimens were stained with haematoxylin-eosin and picrofuxin according to the van Gieson technique. Then, in four places of each section (at 3, 6, 9 and 12 hours) we assessed the depth of the damage to the venous wall and calculated the average percentage of alteration - the ratio of the depth of the lesion to the venous wall thickness. The average depth of damage to the venous wall (μm) amounted in the first group to 122.9 ?m, in the second group to 182.9 μm, and in the third group to 267 μmm. The index of alteration (%) averagely amounted: in group one to 25.7, in group two to 37.9 and in group three (at a power of 10 W) to 55.5 (p=0.0001 when comparing each of the groups (the Kruskal-Wallis test)). Hence, despite an inconsiderable decrease of the LDE from the first to the third group, as power increased, the depth and percentage of damage to venous walls increased statistically significantly. It follows from the above-mentioned that: 1) an increase in power (from 5 to 10 W) of the unit during EVLC at comparable LDE (approximately 70 J/cm) leads to a deeper

  7. Food portion size and energy density evoke different patterns of brain activation in children12

    PubMed Central

    Fearnbach, S Nicole; Wilson, Stephen J; Fisher, Jennifer O; Savage, Jennifer S; Rolls, Barbara J; Keller, Kathleen L

    2017-01-01

    Background: Large portions of food promote intake, but the mechanisms that drive this effect are unclear. Previous neuroimaging studies have identified the brain-reward and decision-making systems that are involved in the response to the energy density (ED) (kilocalories per gram) of foods, but few studies have examined the brain response to the food portion size (PS). Objective: We used functional MRI (fMRI) to determine the brain response to food images that differed in PSs (large and small) and ED (high and low). Design: Block-design fMRI was used to assess the blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) response to images in 36 children (7–10 y old; girls: 50%), which was tested after a 2-h fast. Pre-fMRI fullness and liking were rated on visual analog scales. A whole-brain cluster-corrected analysis was used to compare BOLD activation for main effects of the PS, ED, and their interaction. Secondary analyses were used to associate BOLD contrast values with appetitive traits and laboratory intake from meals for which the portions of all foods were increased. Results: Compared with small-PS cues, large-PS cues were associated with decreased activation in the inferior frontal gyrus (P < 0.01). Compared with low-ED cues, high-ED cues were associated with increased activation in multiple regions (e.g., in the caudate, cingulate, and precentral gyrus) and decreased activation in the insula and superior temporal gyrus (P < 0.01 for all). A PS × ED interaction was shown in the superior temporal gyrus (P < 0.01). BOLD contrast values for high-ED cues compared with low-ED cues in the insula, declive, and precentral gyrus were negatively related to appetitive traits (P < 0.05). There were no associations between the brain response to the PS and either appetitive traits or intake. Conclusions: Cues regarding food PS may be processed in the lateral prefrontal cortex, which is a region that is implicated in cognitive control, whereas ED activates multiple areas involved in

  8. Conversion of energy in cross-sectional divergences under different conditions of inflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, H

    1934-01-01

    This investigation treats the conversion of energy in conically divergent channels with constant opening ratio and half included angle of from 2.6 to 90 degrees, the velocity distribution in the entrance section being varied from rectangular distribution to fully developed turbulence by changing the length of the approach. The energy conversion is not completed in the exit section of the diffuser; complete conversion requires a discharge length which depends upon the included angle and the velocity distribution in the entrance section. Lastly, a spiral fan was mounted in the extreme length and the effect of the spiral flow on the energy conversion in the cross-sectional divergence explored.

  9. 20∶60∶20 - Differences in Energy Behaviour and Conservation between and within Households with Electricity Monitors

    PubMed Central

    Murtagh, Niamh; Gatersleben, Birgitta; Uzzell, David

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of electricity monitors (in-home displays; IHDs), which show accurate and up-to-the-minute energy usage, is expected to lead to reduction in consumption. Studies of feedback on domestic electricity use have generally supported this view. However, such studies also demonstrate wide variation between households. Examining the heterogeneity of responses is essential for understanding the actual and potential effectiveness of IHDs and in order to target interventions effectively. To explore differences between households' responses to IHDs, we conducted a qualitative study with 21 households who had an IHD for more than six months. Of the 21, only four households continued to refer to the IHD and the findings suggest that attempts to reduce energy consumption were situated in wider social and physical contexts. Further, the participants demonstrated energy saving behaviour before and outside of IHD usage. The patterns of energy behaviours and attempts at electricity conservation could best be understood by categorising the households into three types: the Monitor Enthusiasts (20%), the Aspiring Energy Savers (60%) and the Energy Non-Engaged (20%). The factors of importance in energy behaviour differed between the categories. Financial savings contributed to efforts to reduce energy use but only up to boundaries which varied considerably between households. Social practices and social relationships appeared to constrain what actions households were prepared to undertake, illuminating aspects of inter-household variation. Within the household, all energy users were not equal and we found that women were particularly influential on energy use through their primary responsibility for domestic labour on behalf of the household. The implications of the findings for environmental campaigning are discussed. PMID:24642946

  10. 20:60:20--differences in energy behaviour and conservation between and within households with electricity monitors.

    PubMed

    Murtagh, Niamh; Gatersleben, Birgitta; Uzzell, David

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of electricity monitors (in-home displays; IHDs), which show accurate and up-to-the-minute energy usage, is expected to lead to reduction in consumption. Studies of feedback on domestic electricity use have generally supported this view. However, such studies also demonstrate wide variation between households. Examining the heterogeneity of responses is essential for understanding the actual and potential effectiveness of IHDs and in order to target interventions effectively. To explore differences between households' responses to IHDs, we conducted a qualitative study with 21 households who had an IHD for more than six months. Of the 21, only four households continued to refer to the IHD and the findings suggest that attempts to reduce energy consumption were situated in wider social and physical contexts. Further, the participants demonstrated energy saving behaviour before and outside of IHD usage. The patterns of energy behaviours and attempts at electricity conservation could best be understood by categorising the households into three types: the Monitor Enthusiasts (20%), the Aspiring Energy Savers (60%) and the Energy Non-Engaged (20%). The factors of importance in energy behaviour differed between the categories. Financial savings contributed to efforts to reduce energy use but only up to boundaries which varied considerably between households. Social practices and social relationships appeared to constrain what actions households were prepared to undertake, illuminating aspects of inter-household variation. Within the household, all energy users were not equal and we found that women were particularly influential on energy use through their primary responsibility for domestic labour on behalf of the household. The implications of the findings for environmental campaigning are discussed.

  11. Evaluation of the effects of one cold wave on heating energy consumption in different regions of northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, D.; Xiao, W.; Wang, J.; Wang, H.; Zhao, Y.; Wang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The heating energy consumption per floor area (HECPA) and heating degree days (HDD) are effective indicators in quantifying the energy demand for heating with climate change. Using the heating energy consumption and meteorological data, an attempt has been made to analyse the relationship between the HECPA and HDD in different regions of northern China by the linear regression model. Based on the constructed model, the effects of one cold wave on heating energy consumption in different regions are evaluated. The results show that the HECPA and HDD in Beijing have a positive correlation with a correlation coefficient of 0.68. During the cold wave in 2016, the heating energy consumption in Beijing approximately increases 2.37 per cent compared with 2014. However, no correlation has been found between the HECPA and HDD in the relatively undeveloped regions. It seems that the cold wave has a greater effect on the developed regions than relatively undeveloped ones. It is considered that the reasons for the little effect of one cold wave on heating energy consumption in the undeveloped regions are outdated heating systems, insufficient energy supply for heating and low living standards.

  12. Free-energy landscape of the GB1 hairpin in all-atom explicit solvent simulations with different force fields: Similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Best, Robert B; Mittal, Jeetain

    2011-04-01

    Although it is now possible to fold peptides and miniproteins in molecular dynamics simulations, it is well appreciated that force fields are not all transferable to different proteins. Here, we investigate the influence of the protein force field and the solvent model on the folding energy landscape of a prototypical two-state folder, the GB1 hairpin. We use extensive replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulations to characterize the free-energy surface as a function of temperature. Most of these force fields appear similar at a global level, giving a fraction folded at 300 K between 0.2 and 0.8 in all cases, which is a difference in stability of 2.8 kT, and are generally consistent with experimental data at this temperature. The most significant differences appear in the unfolded state, where there are different residual secondary structures which are populated, and the overall dimensions of the unfolded states, which in most of the force fields are too collapsed relative to experimental Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) data.

  13. Point Mutations in Membrane Proteins Reshape Energy Landscape and Populate Different Unfolding Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Sapra, K. Tanuj; Balasubramanian, G. Prakash; Labudde, Dirk; Bowie, James U.; Muller, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    Using single-molecule force spectroscopy, we investigated the effect of single point mutations on the energy landscape and unfolding pathways of the transmembrane protein bacteriorhodopsin. We show that the unfolding energy barriers in the energy landscape of the membrane protein followed a simple two-state behavior and represent a manifestation of many converging unfolding pathways. Although the unfolding pathways of wild-type and mutant bacteriorhodopsin did not change, indicating the presence of same ensemble of structural unfolding intermediates, the free energies of the rate-limiting transition states of the bacteriorhodopsin mutants decreased as the distance of those transition states to the folded intermediate states decreased. Thus, all mutants exhibited Hammond behavior and a change in the free energies of the intermediates along the unfolding reaction coordinate and, consequently, their relative occupancies. This is the first experimental proof showing that point mutations can reshape the free energy landscape of a membrane protein and force single proteins to populate certain unfolding pathways over others. PMID:18191146

  14. Measurement of the adsorption energy difference between ortho- and para-D2 on an amorphous ice surface.

    PubMed

    Amiaud, L; Momeni, A; Dulieu, F; Fillion, J H; Matar, E; Lemaire, J-L

    2008-02-08

    Molecular hydrogen interaction on water ice surfaces is a major process taking place in interstellar dense clouds. By coupling laser detection and classical thermal desorption spectroscopy, it is possible to study the effect of rotation of D(2) on adsorption on amorphous solid water ice surfaces. The desorption profiles of ortho- and para-D(2) are different. This difference is due to a shift in the adsorption energy distribution of the two lowest rotational states. Molecules in J''=1 rotational state are on average more strongly bound to the ice surface than those in J''=0 rotational state. This energy difference is estimated to be 1.4+/-0.3 meV. This value is in agreement with previous calculation and interpretation. The nonspherical wave function J'' =1 has an interaction with the asymmetric part of the adsorption potential and contributes positively in the binding energy.

  15. Study of genetic effects of high energy radiations with different ionizing capacities on extracellular phages.

    PubMed

    Bresler, S E; Kalinin, V L; Kopylova, Y U; Krivisky, A S; Rybchin, V N; Shelegedin, V N

    1975-07-01

    The inactivating and mutagenic action of high-energy radiations with different ionizing capacities (gamma-rays, protons, alpha-particles and accelerated ions of 12C and 20Ne) was studied by using coliphages lambda11 and SD as subjects. In particular the role of irradiation conditions (broth suspension, pure buffer, dry samples) and of the host functions recA, exrA and polA was investigated. The dose-response curve of induced mutagenesis was studied by measuring the yield of vir mutants in lambda11 and plaque mutants in SD. The following results were obtained. (1) The inactivation kinetics of phages under the action of gamma-rays and protons was first order to a survival of 10(-7). Heavy ions also showed exponential inactivation kinetics to a survival of 10(-4). At higher doses of 20Ne ion bombardment some deviation from one-hit kinetics was observed. For dry samples of phages the dimensions of targets for all types of radiation were approximately proportional to the molecular weights of phage DNA's. For densely ionizing radiation (heavy ions) the inactivating action was 3-5 times weaker than for gamma-rays and protons. (2) Mutagenesis was observed for all types of radiation, but heavy ions were 1-5-2 times less efficient than gamma-rays. For both phages studied the dose-response curve of mutagenesis was non-linear. The dependence on the dose was near to parabolic for lambda11. For SD a plateau or maximum of mutagenesis was observed for the relative number of mutants at a survival of about 10(-4). (3) Host-cell functions recA and exrA were practically indifferent for survival of gamma-irradiated phage lambda11, but indispensable for mutagenesis. Mutation recAI3 abolished induced vir mutations totally and exrA- reduced them significantly. The absence of the function polA had a considerable influence on phage survival, but no effect on vir mutation yield (if compared at the same survival level). (4) In conditions of indirect action of gamma-rays no vir mutations were

  16. Frequency bandwidth extension by use of multiple Zeeman field offsets for electron spin-echo EPR oxygen imaging of large objects

    PubMed Central

    Seifi, Payam; Epel, Boris; Sundramoorthy, Subramanian V.; Mailer, Colin; Halpern, Howard J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Electron spin-echo (ESE) oxygen imaging is a new and evolving electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) imaging (EPRI) modality that is useful for physiological in vivo applications, such as EPR oxygen imaging (EPROI), with potential application to imaging of multicentimeter objects as large as human tumors. A present limitation on the size of the object to be imaged at a given resolution is the frequency bandwidth of the system, since the location is encoded as a frequency offset in ESE imaging. The authors’ aim in this study was to demonstrate the object size advantage of the multioffset bandwidth extension technique.Methods: The multiple-stepped Zeeman field offset (or simply multi-B) technique was used for imaging of an 8.5-cm-long phantom containing a narrow single line triaryl methyl compound (trityl) solution at the 250 MHz imaging frequency. The image is compared to a standard single-field ESE image of the same phantom.Results: For the phantom used in this study, transverse relaxation (T2e) electron spin-echo (ESE) images from multi-B acquisition are more uniform, contain less prominent artifacts, and have a better signal to noise ratio (SNR) compared to single-field T2e images.Conclusions: The multi-B method is suitable for imaging of samples whose physical size restricts the applicability of the conventional single-field ESE imaging technique. PMID:21815379

  17. Velocity-tunable slow beams of cold O2 in a single spin-rovibronic state with full angular-momentum orientation by multistage Zeeman deceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiederkehr, A. W.; Schmutz, H.; Motsch, M.; Merkt, F.

    2012-08-01

    Cold samples of oxygen molecules in supersonic beams have been decelerated from initial velocities of 390 and 450 m s-1 to final velocities in the range between 150 and 280 m s-1 using a 90-stage Zeeman decelerator. (2 + 1) resonance-enhanced-multiphoton-ionization (REMPI) spectra of the 3sσ g 3Π g (C) ? two-photon transition of O2 have been recorded to characterize the state selectivity of the deceleration process. The decelerated molecular sample was found to consist exclusively of molecules in the J ‧‧ = 2 spin-rotational component of the X ? ground state of O2. Measurements of the REMPI spectra using linearly polarized laser radiation with polarization vector parallel to the decelerator axis, and thus to the magnetic-field vector of the deceleration solenoids, further showed that only the ? magnetic sublevel of the N‧‧ = 1, J ‧‧ = 2 spin-rotational level is populated in the decelerated sample, which therefore is characterized by a fully oriented total-angular-momentum vector. By maintaining a weak quantization magnetic field beyond the decelerator, the polarization of the sample could be maintained over the 5 cm distance separating the last deceleration solenoid and the detection region.

  18. Which are the factors that may explain the differences in water and energy consumptions in urban and rural environments?

    PubMed

    Matos, C; Bentes, I; Pereira, S; Gonçalves, A M; Faria, D; Briga-Sá, A

    2018-06-12

    Rural and urban environments present significant differences between water and energy consumptions. It is important to know, in detail, which factors related to the consumption of these two resources are different in both environments, once that will be those important to manage and discuss in order to improve its use efficiency and sustainability. This research work involves a survey whose aim is to find the factors that in rural and urban environments may justify the differences found in water and energy consumptions. Besides the collection of water and energy consumption data, this survey analyzed 80 variables (socio-demographic, economic, household characterization, among others), that were chosen among the bibliography as possible factors that should influence water and energy consumptions. After the survey application in rural and urban areas and the data statistical treatment, 42 variables remained as truly differentiating factors of rural and urban environments and so as possible determinants of water and energy consumptions. In order to achieve these objectives, a descriptive data analysis and statistical inference (Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test and the Chi-square test of homogeneity) were performed. All the 42 differentiating variables that result from this study may be able to justify these differences, however this will not be presented in the paper and it is reserved for future work. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Precise calculation of neutron-capture reactions contribution in energy release for different types of VVER-1000 fuel assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirov, Georgy; Bahdanovich, Rynat; Pham, Phu

    2017-09-01

    Precise calculation of energy release in a nuclear reactor is necessary to obtain the correct spatial power distribution and predict characteristics of burned nuclear fuel. In this work, previously developed method for calculation neutron-capture reactions - capture component - contribution in effective energy release in a fuel core of nuclear reactor is discussed. The method was improved and implemented to the different models of VVER-1000 reactor developed for MCU 5 and MCNP 4 computer codes. Different models of equivalent cell and fuel assembly in the beginning of fuel cycle were calculated. These models differ by the geometry, fuel enrichment and presence of burnable absorbers. It is shown, that capture component depends on fuel enrichment and presence of burnable absorbers. Its value varies for different types of hot fuel assemblies from 3.35% to 3.85% of effective energy release. Average capture component contribution in effective energy release for typical serial fresh fuel of VVER-1000 is 3.5%, which is 7 MeV/fission. The method will be used in future to estimate the dependency of capture energy on fuel density, burn-up, etc.

  20. Dietary energy density and obesity: how consumption patterns differ by body weight status.

    PubMed

    Vernarelli, Jacqueline A; Mitchell, Diane C; Rolls, Barbara J; Hartman, Terryl J

    2018-02-01

    Recent public health messages have advised consumers to lower dietary energy density (ED) for weight management, but it is not known whether the proportion of the diet from low-ED foods is related to weight status. In a nationally representative sample of US adults, we evaluated whether the proportions of dietary energy intake contributed by low- and high-ED foods are associated with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Data were from a cross-sectional sample of 9551 adults ≥18 years in the 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). ED (kcal/g) was calculated for each food item reported during a 24-h dietary recall; individual foods were divided into five ED categories: very low ED (<0.6 kcal/g), low ED (0.6-1.5 kcal/g), medium ED (1.51-2.25 kcal/g), high ED (2.26-4.0 kcal/g), and very high ED (>4.0 kcal/g). The percentages of total energy and the food weight from each category were evaluated by BMI and WC after controlling for total energy intake and other covariates. Men classified as lean (BMI < 25 kg/m 2 ) reported consuming a greater proportion of total energy from very low- and low-ED foods (7.2 % very low and 23.3 % low ), compared to men considered obese ((BMI > 30 kg/m 2 ); 5.2 % very low and 20.1 low  %; p-trends <0.001 very low , 0.002 low ). Similarly, women classified as lean reported intakes of very low-ED foods of 7.8 % (vs. 6.4 % for women with obesity) of total energy and low-ED foods of 24.7 % (vs. 21.5 % for women with obesity) of total energy (p-trends 0.007 very low , 0.004 low ). Men and women with obesity reported greater proportions of energy from high-ED foods (45.9 % men with obesity vs. 42.4 % lean men , 44.2 % women with obesity vs. 39.9 % lean women ) with significant statistical trends (men = 0.008, women = 0.0005). Similar patterns were observed for intakes of proportions of very low-, low-, and high-ED foods and WC. Higher proportions of energy intake and food

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions and energy efficiencies for soybeans and maize cultivated in different agronomic zones: A case study of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Arrieta, E M; Cuchietti, A; Cabrol, D; González, A D

    2018-06-01

    Of all human activities, agriculture has one of the highest environmental impacts, particularly related to Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, energy use and land use change. Soybean and maize are two of the most commercialized agricultural commodities worldwide. Argentina contributes significantly to this trade, being the third major producer of soybeans, the first exporter of soymeal and soybean oil, and the third exporter of maize. Despite the economic importance of these crops and the products derived, there are very few studies regarding GHG emissions, energy use and efficiencies associated to Argentinean soybean and maize production. Therefore, the aim of this work is to determine the carbon and energy footprint, as well as the carbon and energy efficiencies, of soybeans and maize produced in Argentina, by analyzing 18 agronomic zones covering an agricultural area of 1.53millionkm 2 . Our results show that, for both crops, the GHG and energy efficiencies at the Pampean region were significantly higher than those at the extra-Pampean region. The national average for production of soybeans in Argentina results in 6.06ton/ton CO 2 -eq emitted to the atmosphere, while 0.887ton of soybean were produced per GJ of energy used; and for maize 5.01ton/ton CO 2 -eq emitted to the atmosphere and 0.740ton of maize were produced per each GJ of energy used. We found that the large differences on yields, GHGs and energy efficiencies between agronomic regions for soybean and maize crop production are mainly driven by climate, particularly mean annual precipitation. This study contributes for the first time to understand the carbon and energy footprint of soybean and maize production throughout several agronomic zones in Argentina. The significant differences found in the productive efficiencies questions on the environmental viability of expanding the agricultural frontier to less suitable lands for crop production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Energy crops on landfills: functional, environmental, and costs analysis of different landfill configurations.

    PubMed

    Pivato, Alberto; Garbo, Francesco; Moretto, Marco; Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina

    2018-02-09

    The cultivation of energy crops on landfills represents an important challenge for the near future, as the possibility to use devalued sites for energy production is very attractive. In this study, four scenarios have been assessed and compared with respect to a reference case defined for northern Italy. The scenarios were defined taking into consideration current energy crops issues. In particular, the first three scenarios were based on energy maximisation, phytotreatment ability, and environmental impact, respectively. The fourth scenario was a combination of these characteristics emphasised by the previous scenarios. A multi-criteria analysis, based on economic, energetic, and environmental aspects, was performed. From the analysis, the best scenario resulted to be the fourth, with its ability to pursue several objectives simultaneously and obtain the best score relatively to both environmental and energetic criteria. On the contrary, the economic criterion emerges as weak, as all the considered scenarios showed some limits from this point of view. Important indications for future designs can be derived. The decrease of leachate production due to the presence of energy crops on the top cover, which enhances evapotranspiration, represents a favourable but critical aspect in the definition of the results.

  3. Energy.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2012-01-01

    Energy is the capacity to do the things we are capable of and desire to accomplish. Most often this is thought of in terms of PEP--personal energy potential--a reservoir of individual vivacity and zest for work. Like a battery, energy can be conceived of as a resource that is alternatively used and replenished. Transitions between activities, variety of tasks, and choices of what to spend energy on are part of energy management. Energy capacity can be thought of at four levels: (a) so little that harm is caused and extraordinary steps are needed for recovery, (b) a deficit that slightly impairs performance but will recover naturally, (c) the typical range of functioning, and (d) a surplus that may or may not be useful and requires continual investment to maintain. "Flow" is the experience of optimal energy use when challenges balance capacity as a result of imposing order on our environment. There are other energy resources in addition to personal vim. Effective work design reduces demands on energy. Money, office design, and knowledge are excellent substitutes for personal energy.

  4. Is There Excitation Energy Transfer between Different Layers of Stacked Photosystem-II-Containing Thylakoid Membranes?

    PubMed

    Farooq, Shazia; Chmeliov, Jevgenij; Trinkunas, Gediminas; Valkunas, Leonas; van Amerongen, Herbert

    2016-04-07

    We have compared picosecond fluorescence decay kinetics for stacked and unstacked photosystem II membranes in order to evaluate the efficiency of excitation energy transfer between the neighboring layers. The measured kinetics were analyzed in terms of a recently developed fluctuating antenna model that provides information about the dimensionality of the studied system. Independently of the stacking state, all preparations exhibited virtually the same value of the apparent dimensionality, d = 1.6. Thus, we conclude that membrane stacking does not affect the efficiency of the delivery of excitation energy toward the reaction centers but ensures a more compact organization of the thylakoid membranes within the chloroplast and separation of photosystems I and II.

  5. Energy efficiency in cognitive radio network: Study of cooperative sensing using different channel sensing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Chenxuan

    When cognitive radio (CR) operates, it starts by sensing spectrum and looking for idle bandwidth. There are several methods for CR to make a decision on either the channel is occupied or idle, for example, energy detection scheme, cyclostationary detection scheme and matching filtering detection scheme [1]. Among them, the most common method is energy detection scheme because of its algorithm and implementation simplicities [2]. There are two major methods for sensing, the first one is to sense single channel slot with varying bandwidth, whereas the second one is to sense multiple channels and each with same bandwidth. After sensing periods, samples are compared with a preset detection threshold and a decision is made on either the primary user (PU) is transmitting or not. Sometimes the sensing and decision results can be erroneous, for example, false alarm error and misdetection error may occur. In order to better control error probabilities and improve CR network performance (i.e. energy efficiency), we introduce cooperative sensing; in which several CR within a certain range detect and make decisions on channel availability together. The decisions are transmitted to and analyzed by a data fusion center (DFC) to make a final decision on channel availability. After the final decision is been made, DFC sends back the decision to the CRs in order to tell them to stay idle or start to transmit data to secondary receiver (SR) within a preset transmission time. After the transmission, a new cycle starts again with sensing. This thesis report is organized as followed: Chapter II review some of the papers on optimizing CR energy efficiency. In Chapter III, we study how to achieve maximal energy efficiency when CR senses single channel with changing bandwidth and with constrain on misdetection threshold in order to protect PU; furthermore, a case study is given and we calculate the energy efficiency. In Chapter IV, we study how to achieve maximal energy efficiency when CR

  6. Evaluation of energy digestibility and prediction of digestible and metabolizable energy from chemical composition of different cottonseed meal sources fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, J T; Li, D F; Zang, J J; Yang, W J; Zhang, W J; Zhang, L Y

    2012-10-01

    The present experiment was conducted to determine the digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy (ME) content, and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy in growing pigs fed diets containing one of ten cottonseed meals (CSM) collected from different provinces of China and to develop in vitro prediction equations for DE and ME content from chemical composition of the CSM samples. Twelve growing barrows with an initial body weight of 35.2±1.7 kg were allotted to two 6×6 Latin square designs, with six barrows and six periods and six diets for each. A corn-dehulled soybean meal diet was used as the basal diet, and the other ten diets were formulated with corn, dehulled soybean meal and 19.20% CSM. The DE, ME and ATTD of gross energy among different CSM sources varied largely and ranged from 1,856 to 2,730 kcal/kg dry matter (DM), 1,778 to 2,534 kcal/kg DM, and 42.08 to 60.47%, respectively. Several chemical parameters were identified to predict the DE and ME values of CSM, and the accuracy of prediction models were also tested. The best fit equations were: DE, kcal/kg DM = 670.14+31.12 CP+659.15 EE with R(2) = 0.82, RSD = 172.02, p<0.05; and ME, kcal/kg DM = 843.98+25.03 CP+673.97 EE with R(2) = 0.84, RSD = 144.79, p<0.05. These results indicate that DE, ME values and ATTD of gross energy varied substantially among different CSM sources, and that some prediction equations can be applied to predict DE and ME in CSM with an acceptable accuracy.

  7. Influence of energy density of different light sources on Knoop hardness of a dual-cured resin cement.

    PubMed

    Piva, Evandro; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Sinhoreti, Mario Alexandre Coelho; Consani, Simonides; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Powers, John Michael

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Knoop hardness of a dual-cured resin-based luting cement irradiated with different light sources as well energy density through a ceramic sample. Three light-curing unit (LCUs) were tested: tungsten halogen light (HAL), light-emitting diode (LED) and xenon plasma-arc (PAC) lamp. Disc-shaped specimens were fabricated from a resin-based cement (Enforce). Three energy doses were used by modifying the irradiance (I) of each LCU and the irradiation time (T): 24 Jcm(-2) (I/2x2T), 24 Jcm(-2) (IxT) and 48 Jcm(-2) (Ix2T). Energy doses were applied through a 2.0-mm-thick ceramic sample (Duceram Plus). Three groups underwent direct irradiation over the resin cement with the different LCUs and a chemically-activated group served as a control. Thirteen groups were tested (n=10). Knoop hardness number (KHN) means were obtained from cross-sectional areas. Two-way ANOVA and the Holm-Sidak method were used for statistical comparisons of activation mode and energy doses (alpha=5%). Application of 48 J.cm(-2) energy dose through the ceramic using LED (50.5+/-2.8) and HAL (50.9+/-3.7) produced significantly higher KHN means (p<0.05) than the control (44.7+/-3.8). LED showed statistically similar performance to HAL. Only HAL showed a relationship between the increase of LCU energy dose and hardness increase.

  8. Use of Nonequilibrium Work Methods to Compute Free Energy Differences Between Molecular Mechanical and Quantum Mechanical Representations of Molecular Systems.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Phillip S; Woodcock, H Lee; Boresch, Stefan

    2015-12-03

    Carrying out free energy simulations (FES) using quantum mechanical (QM) Hamiltonians remains an attractive, albeit elusive goal. Renewed efforts in this area have focused on using "indirect" thermodynamic cycles to connect "low level" simulation results to "high level" free energies. The main obstacle to computing converged free energy results between molecular mechanical (MM) and QM (ΔA(MM→QM)), as recently demonstrated by us and others, is differences in the so-called "stiff" degrees of freedom (e.g., bond stretching) between the respective energy surfaces. Herein, we demonstrate that this problem can be efficiently circumvented using nonequilibrium work (NEW) techniques, i.e., Jarzynski's and Crooks' equations. Initial applications of computing ΔA(NEW)(MM→QM), for blocked amino acids alanine and serine as well as to generate butane's potentials of mean force via the indirect QM/MM FES method, showed marked improvement over traditional FES approaches.

  9. Geographical and temporal differences in electric vehicle range due to cabin conditioning energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kambly, Kiran; Bradley, Thomas H.

    2015-02-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are vehicles that are propelled by electric motors powered by rechargeable battery. They are generally asserted to have GHG emissions, driveability and life cycle cost benefits over conventional vehicles. Despite this, EVs face significant challenges due to their limited on-board energy storage capacity. In addition to providing energy for traction, the energy storage device operates HVAC systems for cabin conditioning. This results in reduced driving range. The factors such as local ambient temperature, local solar radiation, local humidity, duration and thermal soak have been identified to affect the cabin conditions. In this paper, the development of a detailed system-level approach to HVAC energy consumption in EVs as a function of transient environmental parameters is described. The resulting vehicle thermal comfort model is used to address several questions such as 1) How does day to day environmental conditions affect EV range? 2) How does frequency of EV range change geographically? 3) How does trip start time affect EV range? 4) Under what conditions does cabin preconditioning assist in increasing the EV range? 5) What percentage increase in EV range can be expected due to cabin preconditioning at a given location?

  10. Processed Food Contributions to Energy and Nutrient Intake Differ among US Children by Race/Ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Eicher-Miller, Heather A; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R

    2015-12-02

    This study determined and compared the mean daily intake of energy and nutrients from processed foods by level of processing (minimally processed; processed for preservation, nutrient enhancement, and freshness; mixtures of combined ingredients; ready-to-eat processed foods; and prepared foods/meals) among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American US children. Data from participants 2-18 years old (n = 10,298) of the nationally representative cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2008 with a complete one day, 24-h dietary recall were used to determine mean intake of energy and nutrients recommended for increase and decrease, as per the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, among child race/ethnic groups by category of food processing. Regression analysis was used to estimate and compare covariate-adjusted (gender, age, and poverty-income-level) least square means (p < 0.05/3 race/ethnic groups). All children, regardless of race or ethnicity consumed processed foods. Approximately 66% to 84% of total daily energy, saturated fat, cholesterol, fiber, total sugar, added sugars, calcium, vitamin D, potassium, and sodium intake are contributed by one of the five categories of processed foods. Clinicians and policy should primarily advise consideration of the energy and nutrient composition of foods, rather than the processing level, when selecting a healthy diet for children.

  11. Processed Food Contributions to Energy and Nutrient Intake Differ among US Children by Race/Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Eicher-Miller, Heather A.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Keast, Debra R.

    2015-01-01

    This study determined and compared the mean daily intake of energy and nutrients from processed foods by level of processing (minimally processed; processed for preservation, nutrient enhancement, and freshness; mixtures of combined ingredients; ready-to-eat processed foods; and prepared foods/meals) among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American US children. Data from participants 2–18 years old (n = 10,298) of the nationally representative cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2008 with a complete one day, 24-h dietary recall were used to determine mean intake of energy and nutrients recommended for increase and decrease, as per the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, among child race/ethnic groups by category of food processing. Regression analysis was used to estimate and compare covariate-adjusted (gender, age, and poverty-income-level) least square means (p < 0.05/3 race/ethnic groups). All children, regardless of race or ethnicity consumed processed foods. Approximately 66% to 84% of total daily energy, saturated fat, cholesterol, fiber, total sugar, added sugars, calcium, vitamin D, potassium, and sodium intake are contributed by one of the five categories of processed foods. Clinicians and policy should primarily advise consideration of the energy and nutrient composition of foods, rather than the processing level, when selecting a healthy diet for children. PMID:26633491

  12. Effect of LFTSD on underwater laser induced breakdown spectroscopy with different laser energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jiaojian; Guo, Jinjia; Tian, Ye; Lu, Yuan; Zheng, Ronger

    2017-10-01

    With the hope of applying LIBS to solid target detection in deep-sea, the influences of laser focus to sample distance (LFTSD) on the plasma characteristics were investigated using spectra-image approach with the laser energies at sub- and super- threshold irradiance of solution. The experimental results show that LFTSD is a critical parameter which can directly influence the plasma shapes, by changing the laser fluence on sample surface. The plasma is divided into two parts under pre-focus condition, while the plasma only forms at the surface of Cu target under de-focus condition. Moreover, the "seed electron" generated from Cu sample can reduce the breakdown threshold of the solution. By comparing the laser energy, it seems to be inefficient by using super-threshold energy due to the plasma shielding effect of the liquid. High quality spectra can be observed by using lower laser energy and longer gate delay (25 mJ and 1000 ns, in this work).

  13. Ion distributions in RC at different energy levels retrieved from TWINS ENA images by voxel CT tech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, S. Y.; McComas, David; Xu, Liang; Goldstein, Jerry; Yan, Wei-Nan

    2012-07-01

    Distributions of energetic ions in the RC regions in different energy levels are retrieved by using 3-D voxel CT inversion method from ENA measurements onboard TWINS constellation during the main phase of a moderate geomagnetic storm. It is assumed that the ion flux distribution in the RC is anisotropic in regard to pitch angle which complies with the adiabatic invariance of the magnetic moment as ion moving in the dipole magnetic mirror field. A semi-empirical model of the RC ion distribution in the magnetic equator is quoted to form the ion flux distribution shape at off-equatorial latitudes by mapping. For the concerned time interval, the two satellites of the TWINS flying in double Molnia orbits were located in nearly the same meridian plane at vantage points widely separated in magnetic local time, and both more than 5 RE geocentric distance from the Earth. The ENA data used in this study are differential fluxes averaged over 12 sweeps (corresponding to an interval of 16 min.) at different energy levels ranging from about 1 to 100 keV. The retrieved ion distributions show that in total the main part of the RC is located in the region with L value larger than 4, tending to increase at larger L. It reveals that there are two distinct dominant energy bands at which the ion fluxes are significantly larger magnitude than at other energy levels, one is at lower level around 2 keV and the other at higher level of 30-100 keV. Furthermore, it is very interesting that the peak fluxes of the RC ions at the two energy bands occurred in different magnetic local time, low energy ions appear preferentially in after midnight, while the higher energy ions mainly distributed around midnight and pre-midnight. This new profile is worthy of further study and needs to be demonstrated by more cases.

  14. Energy and Matter: Differences in Discourse in Physical and Biological Sciences Can Be Confusing for Introductory Biology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Laurel M.; Momsen, Jennifer; Maskiewicz, April; D'Avanzo, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    Biology majors often take introductory biology, chemistry, and physics courses during their first two years of college. The various and sometimes conflicting discourse about and explanations of matter and energy in these courses may contribute to confusion and alternative conceptions (those that differ from scientific consensus) in biology…

  15. Mirror energy difference and the structure of loosely bound proton-rich nuclei around A =20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Cenxi; Qi, Chong; Xu, Furong; Suzuki, Toshio; Otsuka, Takaharu

    2014-04-01

    The properties of loosely bound proton-rich nuclei around A =20 are investigated within the framework of the nuclear shell model. In these nuclei, the strength of the effective interactions involving the loosely bound proton s1/2 orbit is significantly reduced in comparison with that of those in their mirror nuclei. We evaluate the reduction of the effective interaction by calculating the monopole-based-universal interaction (VMU) in the Woods-Saxon basis. The shell-model Hamiltonian in the sd shell, such as USD, can thus be modified to reproduce the binding energies and energy levels of the weakly bound proton-rich nuclei around A =20. The effect of the reduction of the effective interaction on the structure and decay properties of these nuclei is also discussed.

  16. Excited state free energy calculations of Cy3 in different environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawangsang, Pilailuk; Buranachai, Chittanon; Punwong, Chutintorn

    2015-05-01

    Cy3, a cyanine dye, is one of the most widely used dyes in investigating the structure and dynamics of biomolecules by means of fluorescence methods. However, Cy3 fluorescence emission is strongly competed by trans-cis isomerization, whose efficiency is dictated by the isomerization energy barrier and the environment of Cy3. The fluorescence quantum yield of Cy3 is very low when the dye is free in homogeneous solution but it is considerably enhanced in an environment that rigidifies the structure, e.g. when it is attached to a DNA strand. In this work, the barriers for isomerization on the excited state of free Cy3, and Cy3 attached to single- and double-stranded DNA in methanol, are presented. The free energy and subsequently the isomerization barrier calculations are performed using the umbrella sampling technique with the weighted histogram analysis method. The hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) approach is employed to provide the potential energy surfaces for the excited state dynamics simulations in umbrella sampling. The semiempirical floating occupation molecular orbital configuration interaction method is used for electronic excited state calculations of the QM region (Cy3). From the free energy calculations, the barrier of Cy3 attached to the single-stranded DNA is highest, in agreement with previously reported experimental results. This is likely due to the stacking interaction between Cy3 and DNA. Such a stacking interaction is likely associated with steric hindrance that prevents the rotation around the conjugated bonds of Cy3. If Cy3 experiences high steric hindrance, it has a higher isomerization barrier and thus the efficiency of fluorescence emission increases.

  17. Variable Entry Biased Paracentric Hemispherical Deflector: Experimental results on energy resolution for different entry positions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, Mevlut; Ulu, Melike; Gennerakis, Giannis; Zouros, Theo J. M.

    2014-04-01

    A new hemispherical deflector analyzer (HDA) which is designed for electron energy analysis in atomic collisions has been constructed and tested. Using the crossed beam technique at the electron spectrometer, test measurements were performed for electron beam (200 eV) - Helium atoms interactions. These first experimental results show that the paracentric entries give almost twice as good resolution as that for the conventional entry. Supporting simulations of the entire lens+HDA spectrometer are found in relatively good agreement with experiment.

  18. Electromagnetic Energy Absorption and Its Distribution for Man and Animals at Different Frequencies under Various Conditions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-01

    the Proceedings of the IEEE (January 1980) Special Issue on Biologi - cal and Ecoigical Effects and Medical Applications of Electromag- netic Energy...prolate spheroidal and ellipsoidal equivalents of biologi - cal bodies, theoretical calculations have recently been given in a dosimetry handbook3 for...surface layers, e.g., skin, fat, muscle, which normally occur in biologi - cal bodies. It is found that the layering resonance for three-dimensional bodies

  19. Comparison of metabolisable energy values of different foodstuffs determined in ostriches and poultry.

    PubMed

    Cilliers, S C; Sales, J; Hayes, J P; Chwalibog, A; Du Preez, J J

    1999-09-01

    Apparent (AMEn) and true (TMEn) metabolisable energy values, corrected for nitrogen retention, of wheat bran, saltbush (Atriplex nummularia), common reed (Phragmites australis), lupins, soyabean oil cake meal (SBOCM), sunflower oil cake meal (SFOCM) and fishmeal were compared in 7 successive trials using 12 mature South African Black ostriches and 10 adult Australorp cockerels per ingredient. TMEn values of 11.91, 7.09, 8.67, 14.61, 13.44, 10.79 and 15.13 MJ/kg for wheat bran, saltbush, common reed, lupins, SBOCM, SFOCM and fishmeal, respectively, were found for ostriches in comparison to lower (P<0.05) values of 8.55, 4.50, 2.79, 9.40, 9.04, 8.89 and 13.95 MJ/kg for cockerels. The higher (P<0.05) ME values for ostriches confirm that the ostrich is capable of digesting foodstuffs, especially those with high fibre concentrations such as drought-resistant fodders, more effectively than poultry. Plant protein sources could make a considerable energy contribution to diets for ostriches. It is concluded that it is essential to use energy values of foodstuffs determined using ostriches and not extrapolated values derived from poultry in diet formulation for ostriches.

  20. Performance evaluation and parameter sensitivity of energy-harvesting shock absorbers on different vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Sijing; Liu, Yilun; Xu, Lin; Guo, Xuexun; Zuo, Lei

    2016-07-01

    Traditional shock absorbers provide favourable ride comfort and road handling by dissipating the suspension vibration energy into heat waste. In order to harvest this dissipated energy and improve the vehicle fuel efficiency, many energy-harvesting shock absorbers (EHSAs) have been proposed in recent years. Among them, two types of EHSAs have attracted much attention. One is a traditional EHSA which converts the oscillatory vibration into bidirectional rotation using rack-pinion, ball-screw or other mechanisms. The other EHSA is equipped with a mechanical motion rectifier (MMR) that transforms the bidirectional vibration into unidirectional rotation. Hereinafter, they are referred to as NonMMR-EHSA and MMR-EHSA, respectively. This paper compares their performances with the corresponding traditional shock absorber by using closed-form analysis and numerical simulations on various types of vehicles, including passenger cars, buses and trucks. Results suggest that MMR-EHSA provides better ride performances than NonMMR-EHSA, and that MMR-EHSA is able to improve both the ride comfort and road handling simultaneously over the traditional shock absorber when installed on light-damped, heavy-duty vehicles. Additionally, the optimal parameters of MMR-EHSA are obtained for ride comfort. The optimal solutions ('Pareto-optimal solutions') are also obtained by considering the trade-off between ride comfort and road handling.

  1. High-energy and ultra-wideband tunable terahertz source with DAST crystal via difference frequency generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yixin; Wang, Yuye; Xu, Degang; Nie, Meitong; Yan, Chao; Tang, Longhuang; Shi, Jia; Feng, Jiachen; Yan, Dexian; Liu, Hongxiang; Teng, Bing; Feng, Hua; Yao, Jianquan

    2018-01-01

    We have demonstrated a high-energy and broadly tunable monochromatic terahertz (THz) source based on difference frequency generation (DFG) in DAST crystal. A high-energy dual-wavelength optical parametric oscillator with two KTP crystals was constructed as a light source for DFG, where the effect of blue light was first observed accompanying with tunable dual-wavelength pump light due to different nonlinear processes. The THz frequency was tuned randomly in the range of 0.3-19.6 THz. The highest energy of 870 nJ/pulse was obtained at 18.9 THz under the intense pump intensity of 247 MW/cm2. The THz energy dips above 3 THz have been analyzed and mainly attributed to the resonance absorption induced by lattice vibration in DAST crystal. The dependence of THz output on the input energy was studied experimentally, and THz output saturation was observed. Furthermore, tests of transmission spectroscopy of four typical samples were demonstrated with this ultra-wideband THz source.

  2. Life cycle energy efficiency and environmental impact assessment of bioethanol production from sweet potato based on different production modes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Jia, Chunrong; Wu, Yi; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Lijun; Zhai, Youlong

    2017-01-01

    The bioethanol is playing an increasingly important role in renewable energy in China. Based on the theory of circular economy, integration of different resources by polygeneration is one of the solutions to improve energy efficiency and to reduce environmental impact. In this study, three modes of bioethanol production were selected to evaluate the life cycle energy efficiency and environmental impact of sweet potato-based bioethanol. The results showed that, the net energy ratio was greater than 1 and the value of net energy gain was positive in the three production modes, in which the maximum value appeared in the circular economy mode (CEM). The environment emission mainly occurred to bioethanol conversion unit in the conventional production mode (CPM) and the cogeneration mode (CGM), and eutrophication potential (EP) and global warming potential (GWP) were the most significant environmental impact category. While compared with CPM and CGM, the environmental impact of CEM significantly declined due to increasing recycling, and plant cultivation unit mainly contributed to EP and GWP. And the comprehensive evaluation score of environmental impact decreased by 73.46% and 23.36%. This study showed that CEM was effective in improving energy efficiency, especially in reducing the environmental impact, and it provides a new method for bioethanol production. PMID:28672044

  3. Life cycle energy efficiency and environmental impact assessment of bioethanol production from sweet potato based on different production modes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Jia, Chunrong; Wu, Yi; Xia, Xunfeng; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Lijun; Zhai, Youlong

    2017-01-01

    The bioethanol is playing an increasingly important role in renewable energy in China. Based on the theory of circular economy, integration of different resources by polygeneration is one of the solutions to improve energy efficiency and to reduce environmental impact. In this study, three modes of bioethanol production were selected to evaluate the life cycle energy efficiency and environmental impact of sweet potato-based bioethanol. The results showed that, the net energy ratio was greater than 1 and the value of net energy gain was positive in the three production modes, in which the maximum value appeared in the circular economy mode (CEM). The environment emission mainly occurred to bioethanol conversion unit in the conventional production mode (CPM) and the cogeneration mode (CGM), and eutrophication potential (EP) and global warming potential (GWP) were the most significant environmental impact category. While compared with CPM and CGM, the environmental impact of CEM significantly declined due to increasing recycling, and plant cultivation unit mainly contributed to EP and GWP. And the comprehensive evaluation score of environmental impact decreased by 73.46% and 23.36%. This study showed that CEM was effective in improving energy efficiency, especially in reducing the environmental impact, and it provides a new method for bioethanol production.

  4. The effects of climate change on heating energy consumption of office buildings in different climate zones in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Fanchao; Li, Mingcai; Cao, Jingfu; Li, Ji; Xiong, Mingming; Feng, Xiaomei; Ren, Guoyu

    2017-06-01

    Climate plays an important role in heating energy consumption owing to the direct relationship between space heating and changes in meteorological conditions. To quantify the impact, the Transient System Simulation Program software was used to simulate the heating loads of office buildings in Harbin, Tianjin, and Shanghai, representing three major climate zones (i.e., severe cold, cold, and hot summer and cold winter climate zones) in China during 1961-2010. Stepwise multiple linear regression was performed to determine the key climatic parameters influencing heating energy consumption. The results showed that dry bulb temperature (DBT) is the dominant climatic parameter affecting building heating loads in all three climate zones across China during the heating period at daily, monthly, and yearly scales (R 2 ≥ 0.86). With the continuous warming climate in winter over the past 50 years, heating loads decreased by 14.2, 7.2, and 7.1 W/m2 in Harbin, Tianjin, and Shanghai, respectively, indicating that the decreasing rate is more apparent in severe cold climate zone. When the DBT increases by 1 °C, the heating loads decrease by 253.1 W/m2 in Harbin, 177.2 W/m2 in Tianjin, and 126.4 W/m2 in Shanghai. These results suggest that the heating energy consumption can be well predicted by the regression models at different temporal scales in different climate conditions owing to the high determination coefficients. In addition, a greater decrease in heating energy consumption in northern severe cold and cold climate zones may efficiently promote the energy saving in these areas with high energy consumption for heating. Particularly, the likely future increase in temperatures should be considered in improving building energy efficiency.

  5. High-Energy, Multi-Octave-Spanning Mid-IR Sources via Adiabatic Difference Frequency Generation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-17

    plan. We have evaluated a brand -new concept in nonlinear optics, adiabatic difference frequency generation (ADFG) for the efficient transfer of...achieved the main goals of our research plan. We have evaluated a brand -new concept in nonlinear optics, adiabatic difference frequency generation (ADFG...research plan. We have evaluated a brand -new concept in nonlinear optics, adiabatic difference frequency generation (ADFG) for the efficient transfer of

  6. No differences in satiety or energy intake after high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, or milk preloads.

    PubMed

    Soenen, Stijn; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2007-12-01

    It is unclear whether energy-containing drinks, especially those sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), promote positive energy balance and thereby play a role in the development of obesity. The objective was to examine the satiating effects of HFCS and sucrose in comparison with milk and a diet drink. The effects of four 800-mL drinks [corrected] containing no energy or 1.5 MJ from sucrose, HFCS, or milk on satiety were assessed, first in 15 men and 15 women with a mean (+/-SD) body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) of 22.1 +/- 1.9 according to visual analogue scales (VAS) and blood variables and second in 20 men and 20 women (BMI: 22.4 +/- 2.1) according to ingestion of a standardized ad libitum meal (granola cereal + yogurt, 10.1 kJ/g). Fifty minutes after consumption of the 1.5-MJ preload drinks containing sucrose, HFCS, or milk, 170%-mm VAS changes in satiety were observed. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) (P < 0.001) and ghrelin (P < 0.05) concentrations changed accordingly. Compensatory energy intake did not differ significantly between the 3 preloads and ranged from 30% to 45%. Energy intake compensations were related to satiety (r = 0.35, P < 0.05). No differences were observed between the effects of the sucrose- and HFCS-containing drinks on changes in VAS and on insulin, glucose, GLP-1, and ghrelin concentrations. Changes in appetite VAS ratings were a function of changes in GLP-1, ghrelin, insulin, and glucose concentrations. Energy balance consequences of HFCS-sweetened soft drinks are not different from those of other isoenergetic drinks, eg, a sucrose-drink or milk.

  7. Leptin Signaling Is Required for Adaptive Changes in Food Intake, but Not Energy Expenditure, in Response to Different Thermal Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kaiyala, Karl J.; Ogimoto, Kayoko; Nelson, Jarrell T.; Schwartz, Michael W.; Morton, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    Survival of free-living animals depends on the ability to maintain core body temperature in the face of rapid and dramatic changes in their thermal environment. If food intake is not adjusted to meet the changing energy demands associated with changes of ambient temperature, a serious challenge to body energy stores can occur. To more fully understand the coupling of thermoregulation to energy homeostasis in normal animals and to investigate the role of the adipose hormone leptin to this process, comprehensive measures of energy homeostasis and core temperature were obtained in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and their wild-type (WT) littermate controls when housed under cool (14°C), usual (22°C) or ∼ thermoneutral (30°C) conditions. Our findings extend previous evidence that WT mice robustly defend normothermia in response to either a lowering (14°C) or an increase (30°C) of ambient temperature without changes in body weight or body composition. In contrast, leptin-deficient, ob/ob mice fail to defend normothermia at ambient temperatures lower than thermoneutrality and exhibit marked losses of both body fat and lean mass when exposed to cooler environments (14°C). Our findings further demonstrate a strong inverse relationship between ambient temperature and energy expenditure in WT mice, a relationship that is preserved in ob/ob mice. However, thermal conductance analysis indicates defective heat retention in ob/ob mice, irrespective of temperature. While a negative relationship between ambient temperature and energy intake also exists in WT mice, this relationship is disrupted in ob/ob mice. Thus, to meet the thermoregulatory demands of different ambient temperatures, leptin signaling is required for adaptive changes in both energy intake and thermal conductance. A better understanding of the mechanisms coupling thermoregulation to energy homeostasis may lead to the development of new approaches for the treatment of obesity. PMID:25756181

  8. Leptin signaling is required for adaptive changes in food intake, but not energy expenditure, in response to different thermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Kaiyala, Karl J; Ogimoto, Kayoko; Nelson, Jarrell T; Schwartz, Michael W; Morton, Gregory J

    2015-01-01

    Survival of free-living animals depends on the ability to maintain core body temperature in the face of rapid and dramatic changes in their thermal environment. If food intake is not adjusted to meet the changing energy demands associated with changes of ambient temperature, a serious challenge to body energy stores can occur. To more fully understand the coupling of thermoregulation to energy homeostasis in normal animals and to investigate the role of the adipose hormone leptin to this process, comprehensive measures of energy homeostasis and core temperature were obtained in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and their wild-type (WT) littermate controls when housed under cool (14°C), usual (22°C) or ∼ thermoneutral (30°C) conditions. Our findings extend previous evidence that WT mice robustly defend normothermia in response to either a lowering (14°C) or an increase (30°C) of ambient temperature without changes in body weight or body composition. In contrast, leptin-deficient, ob/ob mice fail to defend normothermia at ambient temperatures lower than thermoneutrality and exhibit marked losses of both body fat and lean mass when exposed to cooler environments (14°C). Our findings further demonstrate a strong inverse relationship between ambient temperature and energy expenditure in WT mice, a relationship that is preserved in ob/ob mice. However, thermal conductance analysis indicates defective heat retention in ob/ob mice, irrespective of temperature. While a negative relationship between ambient temperature and energy intake also exists in WT mice, this relationship is disrupted in ob/ob mice. Thus, to meet the thermoregulatory demands of different ambient temperatures, leptin signaling is required for adaptive changes in both energy intake and thermal conductance. A better understanding of the mechanisms coupling thermoregulation to energy homeostasis may lead to the development of new approaches for the treatment of obesity.

  9. Differences in energy expenditure during high-speed versus standard-speed yoga: A randomized sequence crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Potiaumpai, Melanie; Martins, Maria Carolina Massoni; Rodriguez, Roberto; Mooney, Kiersten; Signorile, Joseph F

    2016-12-01

    To compare energy expenditure and volume of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production during a high-speed yoga and a standard-speed yoga program. Randomized repeated measures controlled trial. A laboratory of neuromuscular research and active aging. Sun-Salutation B was performed, for eight minutes, at a high speed versus and a standard-speed separately while oxygen consumption was recorded. Caloric expenditure was calculated using volume of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. Difference in energy expenditure (kcal) of HSY and SSY. Significant differences were observed in energy expenditure between yoga speeds with high-speed yoga producing significantly higher energy expenditure than standard-speed yoga (MD=18.55, SE=1.86, p<0.01). Significant differences were also seen between high-speed and standard-speed yoga for volume of oxygen consumed and carbon dioxide produced. High-speed yoga results in a significantly greater caloric expenditure than standard-speed yoga. High-speed yoga may be an effective alternative program for those targeting cardiometabolic markers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pulse-Shape Discrimination of Alpha Particles of Different Specific Energy-Loss With Parallel-Plate Avalanche Counters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakhostin, M.; Baba, M.

    2014-06-01

    Parallel-plate avalanche counters have long been recognized as timing detectors for heavily ionizing particles. However, these detectors suffer from a poor pulse-height resolution which limits their capability to discriminate between different ionizing particles. In this paper, a new approach for discriminating between charged particles of different specific energy-loss with avalanche counters is demonstrated. We show that the effect of the self-induced space-charge in parallel-plate avalanche counters leads to a strong correlation between the shape of output current pulses and the amount of primary ionization created by the incident charged particles. The correlation is then exploited for the discrimination of charged particles with different energy-losses in the detector. The experimental results obtained with α-particles from an 241Am α-source demonstrate a discrimination capability far beyond that achievable with the standard pulse-height discrimination method.

  11. Effect of residual stress on energy storage property in PbZrO3 antiferroelectric thin films with different orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jun; Remiens, Denis; Costecalde, Jean; Chen, Ying; Dong, Xianlin; Wang, Genshui

    2013-10-01

    The effect of residual stress on energy storage property was investigated for a series of PbZrO3 thin films on SrTiO3 and Si substrates. Compressive or tensile residual stress influences the critical electric field EA for the ferroelectric-to-antiferroelectric phase transition, thus for films with (110)/(101) orientation, energy density W of films on SrTiO3 is 38% larger than films on Si; in contrast, (001)-oriented PbZrO3 films on SrTiO3 show slightly smaller W compared to films on Si. We conclude that the different responses of W to stress are related to the different constrain states in films with different orientations.

  12. The ultrafast dynamics and conductivity of photoexcited graphene at different Fermi energies

    PubMed Central

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Kläui, Mathias; Hendry, Euan; Polini, Marco

    2018-01-01

    For many of the envisioned optoelectronic applications of graphene, it is crucial to understand the subpicosecond carrier dynamics immediately following photoexcitation and the effect of photoexcitation on the electrical conductivity—the photoconductivity. Whereas these topics have been studied using various ultrafast experiments and theoretical approaches, controversial and incomplete explanations concerning the sign of the photoconductivity, the occurrence and significance of the creation of additional electron-hole pairs, and, in particular, how the relevant processes depend on Fermi energy have been put forward. We present a unified and intuitive physical picture of the ultrafast carrier dynamics and the photoconductivity, combining optical pump–terahertz probe measurements on a gate-tunable graphene device, with numerical calculations using the Boltzmann equation. We distinguish two types of ultrafast photo-induced carrier heating processes: At low (equilibrium) Fermi energy (EF ≲ 0.1 eV for our experiments), broadening of the carrier distribution involves interband transitions (interband heating). At higher Fermi energy (EF ≳ 0.15 eV), broadening of the carrier distribution involves intraband transitions (intraband heating). Under certain conditions, additional electron-hole pairs can be created [carrier multiplication (CM)] for low EF, and hot carriers (hot-CM) for higher EF. The resultant photoconductivity is positive (negative) for low (high) EF, which in our physical picture, is explained using solely electronic effects: It follows from the effect of the heated carrier distributions on the screening of impurities, consistent with the DC conductivity being mostly due to impurity scattering. The importance of these insights is highlighted by a discussion of the implications for graphene photodetector applications. PMID:29756035

  13. Electrostatic energy and screened charge interaction near the surface of metals with different Fermi surface shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabovich, A. M.; Il'chenko, L. G.; Pashitskii, E. A.; Romanov, Yu. A.

    1980-04-01

    Using the Poisson equation Green function for a self-consistent field in a spatially inhomogeneous system, expressions for the electrostatic energy and screened charge interaction near the surface of a semi-infinite metal and a thin quantizing film are derived. It is shown that the decrease law and Friedel oscillation amplitude of adsorbed atom indirect interaction are determined by the electron spectrum character and the Fermi surface shape. The results obtained enable us to explain, in particular, the submonolayer adsorbed film structure on the W and Mo surfaces.

  14. Evaluation of various energy windows at different radionuclides for scatter and attenuation correction in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Asgari, Afrouz; Ashoor, Mansour; Sohrabpour, Mostafa; Shokrani, Parvaneh; Rezaei, Ali

    2015-05-01

    Improving signal to noise ratio (SNR) and qualified images by the various methods is very important for detecting the abnormalities at the body organs. Scatter and attenuation of photons by the organs lead to errors in radiopharmaceutical estimation as well as degradation of images. The choice of suitable energy window and the radionuclide have a key role in nuclear medicine which appearing the lowest scatter fraction as well as having a nearly constant linear attenuation coefficient as a function of phantom thickness. The energy windows of symmetrical window (SW), asymmetric window (ASW), high window (WH) and low window (WL) using Tc-99m and Sm-153 radionuclide with solid water slab phantom (RW3) and Teflon bone phantoms have been compared, and Matlab software and Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP4C) code were modified to simulate these methods and obtaining the amounts of FWHM and full width at tenth maximum (FWTM) using line spread functions (LSFs). The experimental data were obtained from the Orbiter Scintron gamma camera. Based on the results of the simulation as well as experimental work, the performance of WH and ASW display of the results, lowest scatter fraction as well as constant linear attenuation coefficient as a function of phantom thickness. WH and ASW were optimal windows in nuclear medicine imaging for Tc-99m in RW3 phantom and Sm-153 in Teflon bone phantom. Attenuation correction was done for WH and ASW optimal windows and for these radionuclides using filtered back projection algorithm. Results of simulation and experimental show that very good agreement between the set of experimental with simulation as well as theoretical values with simulation data were obtained which was nominally less than 7.07 % for Tc-99m and less than 8.00 % for Sm-153. Corrected counts were not affected by the thickness of scattering material. The Simulated results of Line Spread Function (LSF) for Sm-153 and Tc-99m in phantom based on four windows and TEW method were

  15. Population level differences in thermal sensitivity of energy assimilation in terrestrial salamanders.

    PubMed

    Clay, Timothy A; Gifford, Matthew E

    2017-02-01

    Thermal adaptation predicts that thermal sensitivity of physiological traits should be optimized to thermal conditions most frequently experienced. Furthermore, thermodynamic constraints predict that species with higher thermal optima should have higher performance maxima and narrower performance breadths. We tested these predictions by examining the thermal sensitivity of energy assimilation between populations within two species of terrestrial-lungless salamanders, Plethodon albagula and P. montanus. Within P. albagula, we examined populations that were latitudinally separated by >450km. Within P. montanus, we examined populations that were elevationally separated by >900m. Thermal sensitivity of energy assimilation varied substantially between populations of P. albagula separated latitudinally, but did not vary between populations of P. montanus separated elevationally. Specifically, in P. albagula, the lower latitude population had a higher thermal optimum, higher maximal performance, and narrower performance breadth compared to the higher latitude population. Furthermore, across all individuals as thermal optima increased, performance maxima also increased, providing support for the theory that "hotter is better". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The output power improvement and durability with different shape of MEMS piezoelectric energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. T.; Fu, Y. H.; Tang, W. H.; Lin, S. C.; Wu, W. J.

    2018-03-01

    MEMS piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH) has been widely designed in cantilever beam style because of ease of fabrication and effective to generate large strain and output power. There are already several studies on tapered beam shapes to improve the overall performance of energy harvested. In this paper, we investigate cantilever beam type PEH in rectangular, trapezoidal and triangle shapes, and the devices are limited to the area smaller than 1cm × 1 cm for better flexibility in applications. The power output and the life time of each shape of devices are fabricated and characterized. The output power are tested with optimal resistance loads, and the output power are 145.3 μW, 125.3 μW and 107.8 μW for triangle, trapezoidal and rectangular shapes of devices respectively under excitation of 0.5g acceleration vibration level in the resonant frequency of the transducer. The tip displacements of the 3 devices are 3.05 mm, 2.66 mm, and 2.44 mm for triangular, trapezoidal and rectangular shape devices, respectively. To study the lifetime and durability issue, triangular and rectangular devices are excited under 0.2g to 1g for 24 hours. The resonant frequency shifting, tip displacement and open circuit voltage changing are monitored will be detailed in the paper.

  17. Comparison of spatio-temporal resolution of different flow measurement techniques for marine renewable energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, Vincent; Wosnik, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Marine hydrokinetic (MHK) energy conversion devices are subject to a wide range of turbulent scales, either due to upstream bathymetry, obstacles and waves, or from wakes of upstream devices in array configurations. The commonly used, robust Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) are well suited for long term flow measurements in the marine environment, but are limited to low sampling rates due to their operational principle. The resulting temporal and spatial resolution is insufficient to measure all turbulence scales of interest to the device, e.g., ``blade-scale turbulence.'' The present study systematically characterizes the spatial and temporal resolution of ADCP, Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry (ADV), and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Measurements were conducted in a large cross section tow tank (3.7m × 2.4m) for several benchmark cases, including low and high turbulence intensity uniform flow as well as in the wake of a cylinder, to quantitatively investigate the flow scales which each of the instruments can resolve. The purpose of the study is to supply data for mathematical modeling to improve predictions from ADCP measurements, which can help lead to higher-fidelity energy resource assessment and more accurate device evaluation, including wake measurements. Supported by NSF-CBET grant 1150797.

  18. Beverages containing low energy sweeteners do not differ from water in their effects on appetite, energy intake and food choices in healthy, non-obese French adults.

    PubMed

    Fantino, Marc; Fantino, Agnès; Matray, Marie; Mistretta, Frédéric

    2018-06-01

    The usefulness of replacement of caloric sugars by low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) for weight management has been questioned on the grounds that the uncoupling of LCS sweet taste and dietary energy may confuse physiological mechanisms, leading potentially to higher energy and sugar intake. The aim of the present study was to determine whether LCS beverages compared to water, when consumed with meals, differ in their effects on energy and food intake in acute trials and after long-term habituation. Ad libitum food intake of 166 (80 women; 86 men) healthy non-obese adults (BMI between 19 and 28 kg/m2), infrequent consumers of LCS was measured in four 2-consecutive-day testing sessions (Day 1 in the laboratory, Day 2 free-living). During the first 3 sessions, held one-week apart, participants were required to drink either water or commercial non-carbonated LCS lemonade (330 ml) with their main meals (randomised cross-over design). On Day 1, motivational ratings were obtained using visual analogue scales and ad libitum food intakes (amounts and types of foods selected) were measured using the plate waste method. On Day 2, participants reported their ad libitum intakes using a food diary. After Session 3, participants were randomly assigned to the LCS habituation group or to the water control group. The habituation (660 ml LCS lemonade daily vs 660 ml water) lasted 5 weeks. The fourth and final test session measured food intakes and motivational ratings after habituation. Water and LCS beverage did not differ in their effects on total energy intake, macronutrient intakes or the selection of sweet foods and on motivational ratings. Similar results were obtained in both LCS-naïve and LCS-habituated individuals.

  19. Daytime bright light exposure, metabolism, and individual differences in wake and sleep energy expenditure during circadian entrainment and misalignment

    PubMed Central

    Melanson, Edward L.; Ritchie, Hannah K.; Dear, Tristan B.; Catenacci, Victoria; Shea, Karen; Connick, Elizabeth; Moehlman, Thomas M.; Stothard, Ellen R.; Higgins, Janine; McHill, Andrew W.; Wright, Kenneth P.

    2018-01-01

    Daytime light exposure has been reported to impact or have no influence on energy metabolism in humans. Further, whether inter-individual differences in wake, sleep, 24 h energy expenditure, and RQ during circadian entrainment and circadian misalignment are stable across repeated 24 h assessments is largely unknown. We present data from two studies: Study 1 of 15 participants (7 females) exposed to three light exposure conditions: continuous typical room ~100 lx warm white light, continuous ~750 lx warm white light, and alternating hourly ~750 lx warm white and blue-enriched white light on three separate days in a randomized order; and Study 2 of 14 participants (8 females) during circadian misalignment induced by a simulated night shift protocol. Participants were healthy, free of medical disorders, medications, and illicit drugs. Participants maintained a consistent 8 h per night sleep schedule for one week as an outpatient prior to the study verified by wrist actigraphy, sleep diaries, and call-ins to a time stamped recorder. Participants consumed an outpatient energy balance research diet for three days prior to the study. The inpatient protocol for both studies consisted of an initial sleep disorder screening night. For study 1, this was followed by three standard days with 16 h scheduled wakefulness and 8 h scheduled nighttime sleep. For Study 2, it was followed by 16 h scheduled wake and 8 h scheduled sleep at habitual bedtime followed by three night shifts with 8 h scheduled daytime sleep. Energy expenditure was measured using whole-room indirect calorimetry. Constant posture bedrest conditions were maintained to control for energy expenditure associated with activity and the baseline energy balance diet was continued with the same exact meals across days to control for thermic effects of food. No significant impact of light exposure was observed on metabolic outcomes in response to daytime light exposure. Inter-individual variability in energy expenditure

  20. Daytime bright light exposure, metabolism, and individual differences in wake and sleep energy expenditure during circadian entrainment and misalignment.

    PubMed

    Melanson, Edward L; Ritchie, Hannah K; Dear, Tristan B; Catenacci, Victoria; Shea, Karen; Connick, Elizabeth; Moehlman, Thomas M; Stothard, Ellen R; Higgins, Janine; McHill, Andrew W; Wright, Kenneth P

    2018-01-01

    Daytime light exposure has been reported to impact or have no influence on energy metabolism in humans. Further, whether inter-individual differences in wake, sleep, 24 h energy expenditure, and RQ during circadian entrainment and circadian misalignment are stable across repeated 24 h assessments is largely unknown. We present data from two studies: Study 1 of 15 participants (7 females) exposed to three light exposure conditions: continuous typical room ~100 lx warm white light, continuous ~750 lx warm white light, and alternating hourly ~750 lx warm white and blue-enriched white light on three separate days in a randomized order; and Study 2 of 14 participants (8 females) during circadian misalignment induced by a simulated night shift protocol. Participants were healthy, free of medical disorders, medications, and illicit drugs. Participants maintained a consistent 8 h per night sleep schedule for one week as an outpatient prior to the study verified by wrist actigraphy, sleep diaries, and call-ins to a time stamped recorder. Participants consumed an outpatient energy balance research diet for three days prior to the study. The inpatient protocol for both studies consisted of an initial sleep disorder screening night. For study 1, this was followed by three standard days with 16 h scheduled wakefulness and 8 h scheduled nighttime sleep. For Study 2, it was followed by 16 h scheduled wake and 8 h scheduled sleep at habitual bedtime followed by three night shifts with 8 h scheduled daytime sleep. Energy expenditure was measured using whole-room indirect calorimetry. Constant posture bedrest conditions were maintained to control for energy expenditure associated with activity and the baseline energy balance diet was continued with the same exact meals across days to control for thermic effects of food. No significant impact of light exposure was observed on metabolic outcomes in response to daytime light exposure. Inter-individual variability in energy expenditure

  1. Evaluating Different Green School Building Designs for Albania: Indoor Thermal Comfort, Energy Use Analysis with Solar Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalvi, Ambalika Rajendra

    Improving the conditions of schools in many parts of the world is gradually acquiring importance. The Green School movement is an integral part of this effort since it aims at improving indoor environmental conditions. This would in turn, enhance student- learning while minimizing adverse environmental impact through energy efficiency of comfort-related HVAC and lighting systems. This research, which is a part of a larger research project, aims at evaluating different school building designs in Albania in terms of energy use and indoor thermal comfort, and identify energy efficient options of existing schools. We start by identifying three different climate zones in Albania; Coastal (Durres), Hill/Pre-mountainous (Tirana), mountainous (Korca). Next, two prototypical school building designs are identified from the existing stock. Numerous scenarios are then identified for analysis which consists of combinations of climate zone, building type, building orientation, building upgrade levels, presence of renewable energy systems (solar photovoltaic and solar water heater). The existing building layouts, initially outlined in CAD software and then imported into a detailed building energy software program (eQuest) to perform annual simulations for all scenarios. The research also predicted indoor thermal comfort conditions of the various scenarios on the premise that windows could be opened to provide natural ventilation cooling when appropriate. This study also estimated the energy generated from solar photovoltaic systems and solar water heater systems when placed on the available roof area to determine the extent to which they are able to meet the required electric loads (plug and lights) and building heating loads respectively. The results showed that there is adequate indoor comfort without the need for mechanical cooling for the three climate zones, and that only heating is needed during the winter months.

  2. Simultaneous integrated boost to intraprostatic lesions using different energy levels of intensity-modulated radiotherapy and volumetric-arc therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sonmez, S; Erbay, G; Guler, O C; Arslan, G

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the dosimetry of volumetric-arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with a dynamic multileaf collimator using the Monte Carlo algorithm in the treatment of prostate cancer with and without simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) at different energy levels. Methods: The data of 15 biopsy-proven prostate cancer patients were evaluated. The prescribed dose was 78 Gy to the planning target volume (PTV78) including the prostate and seminal vesicles and 86 Gy (PTV86) in 39 fractions to the intraprostatic lesion, which was delineated by MRI or MR-spectroscopy. Results: PTV dose homogeneity was better for IMRT than VMAT at all energy levels for both PTV78 and PTV86. Lower rectum doses (V30–V50) were significantly higher with SIB compared with PTV78 plans in both IMRT and VMAT plans at all energy levels. The bladder doses at high dose level (V60–V80) were significantly higher in IMRT plans with SIB at all energy levels compared with PTV78 plans, but no significant difference was observed in VMAT plans. VMAT plans resulted in a significant decrease in the mean monitor units (MUs) for 6, 10, and 15 MV energy levels both in plans with and those without SIB. Conclusion: Dose escalation to intraprostatic lesions with 86 Gy is safe without causing serious increase in organs at risk (OARs) doses. VMAT is advantageous in sparing OARs and requiring less MU than IMRT. Advances in knowledge: VMAT with SIB to intraprostatic lesion is a feasible method in treating prostate cancer. Additionally, no dosimetric advantage of higher energy is observed. PMID:24319009

  3. Numerical study of influence of different dispersed components of crystal cloud on transmission of radiant energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shefer, Olga

    2017-11-01

    The calculated results of the transmission of visible and infrared radiation by an atmosphere layer involving ensembles of large preferentially oriented crystals and spherical particles are presented. To calculate extinction characteristics, the physical optics method and the Mie theory are applied. Among all atmospheric particles, both the small particles that are commensurable with the wavelength of the incident radiation and the large plates and the columns are distinguished by the most pronounced dependence of the transmission on spectra of radiant energy. The work illustrates features of influence of parameters of the particle size distribution, particle aspect ratios, orientation and particle refractive index, also polarization state of the incident radiation on the transmission. The predominant effect of the plates on the wavelength dependence of the transmission is shown. A separated and cooperative contributes of the large plates and the small volume shape particles to the common transmission by medium are considered.

  4. [Heart rate and energy expenditure during extravehicular activity in different time of day].

    PubMed

    Stepanova, S I; Katuntsev, V P; Osipov, Iu Iu; Galichiĭ, V A

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses the comparative heart rate (HR) characteristics associated with day and night extravehicular activities (EVA). HR was commonly higher in the night but not in the daytime. Presumably, the reason is psychological and physiological challenges of the night work on the background of natural performance decrement. These circumstances could lead to elevation of psychic tension and, consequently, increase of heartbeats to a greater extent as compared with daytime EVA. According to the correlation analysis data, the pattern of HR relation to physical loads evaluated by energy expenditure in the daytime was other than at night, i.e. it was positive unlike the nighttime correlation. We cannot exclude it that in the daytime increase in cardiac output (CO) in response to physical work was largely due to increase in HR, whereas it was stroke volume that dominated during night work; at least, it could support CO fully in the periods of low loading.

  5. Influences of different dietary energy level on sheep testicular development associated with AMPK/ULK1/autophagy pathway.

    PubMed

    Pang, Jing; Li, Fengzhe; Feng, Xu; Yang, Hua; Han, Le; Fan, Yixuan; Nie, Haitao; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Yanli

    2018-03-01

    Energy balance is an important feature for spermatozoa production in the testis. The 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of cell energy, has been implicated as a mediator between gonadal function and energy balance. Herein, we intended to determine the physiological effects of AMPK on testicular development in feed energy restricted and compensated pre-pubertal rams. Lambs had restricted feeding for 2 months and then provided compensatory feeding for another 3 months. Feed levels were 100%(control), 15% and 30% of energy restriction (ER) diets, respectively. The results showed that lambs fed the 30% ER diet had significantly lower testicular weight (P < .05) and spermatids number in the seminiferous tubules, but there were no differences between control and 15% ER groups. Meanwhile, 15% ER and 30% ER diets induced testis autophagy and apoptosis through activating AMPK-ULK1(ULK1, Unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase) signal pathway with characterization of increased Beclin-1 and Light chain 3-Ⅱ/Light chain 3-Ⅰ (LC3-II/LC3-I) ratio, up-regulated the ratio of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-associated X protein (BAX) and anti-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), as well as activated AMPK, phosphorylated AMPK(p-AMPK) and ULK1. Furthermore, a compensation of these parameters occurred when the lambs were re-fed with normal energy requirement after restriction. Taken together, dietary energy levels influence testicular development through autophagy and apoptosis interplay mediated by AMPK-ULK1 signal pathway, which also indicates the important role of the actions of AMPK in the testis homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Interactions and low-energy collisions between an alkali ion and an alkali atom of a different nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakshit, Arpita; Ghanmi, Chedli; Berriche, Hamid; Deb, Bimalendu

    2016-05-01

    We study theoretically interaction potentials and low-energy collisions between different alkali atoms and alkali ions. Specifically, we consider systems such as X + {{{Y}}}+, where X({{{Y}}}+) is either Li(Cs+) or Cs(Li+), Na(Cs+) or Cs(Na+) and Li(Rb+) or Rb(Li+). We calculate the molecular potentials of the ground and first two excited states of these three systems using a pseudopotential method and compare our results with those obtained by others. We derive ground-state scattering wave functions and analyze the cold collisional properties of these systems for a wide range of energies. We find that, in order to get convergent results for the total scattering cross sections for energies of the order 1 K, one needs to take into account at least 60 partial waves. The low-energy scattering properties calculated in this paper may serve as a precursor for experimental exploration of quantum collisions between an alkali atom and an alkali ion of a different nucleus.

  7. Exploring the Relationship of Organizational Culture and Implicit Leadership Theory to Performance Differences in the Nuclear and Fossil Energy Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cravey, Kristopher J.

    Notable performance differences exist between nuclear and fossil power generation plants in areas such as safety, outage duration efficiency, and capacity factor. This study explored the relationship of organizational culture and implicit leadership theory to these performance differences. A mixed methods approach consisting of quantitative instruments, namely the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument and the GLOBE Leadership Scales, and qualitative interviews were used in this study. Subjects were operations middle managers in a U.S. energy company that serves nuclear or fossil power plants. Results from the quantitative instruments revealed no differences between nuclear and fossil groups in regards to organizational culture types and implicit leadership theories. However, the qualitative results did reveal divergence between the two groups in regards to what is valued in the organization and how that drives behaviors and decision making. These organizational phenomenological differences seem to explain why performance differences exist between nuclear and fossil plants because, ultimately, they affect how the organization functions.

  8. Primary Energy Efficiency Analysis of Different Separate Sensible and Latent Cooling Techniques

    SciT

    Abdelaziz, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Separate Sensible and Latent cooling (SSLC) has been discussed in open literature as means to improve air conditioning system efficiency. The main benefit of SSLC is that it enables heat source optimization for the different forms of loads, sensible vs. latent, and as such maximizes the cycle efficiency. In this paper I use a thermodynamic analysis tool in order to analyse the performance of various SSLC technologies including: multi-evaporators two stage compression system, vapour compression system with heat activated desiccant dehumidification, and integrated vapour compression with desiccant dehumidification. A primary coefficient of performance is defined and used to judge themore » performance of the different SSLC technologies at the design conditions. Results showed the trade-off in performance for different sensible heat factor and regeneration temperatures.« less

  9. Effects of optical band gap energy, band tail energy and particle shape on photocatalytic activities of different ZnO nanostructures prepared by a hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klubnuan, Sarunya; Suwanboon, Sumetha; Amornpitoksuk, Pongsaton

    2016-03-01

    The dependence of the crystallite size and the band tail energy on the optical properties, particle shape and oxygen vacancy of different ZnO nanostructures to catalyse photocatalytic degradation was investigated. The ZnO nanoplatelets and mesh-like ZnO lamellae were synthesized from the PEO19-b-PPO3 modified zinc acetate dihydrate using aqueous KOH and CO(NH2)2 solutions, respectively via a hydrothermal method. The band tail energy of the ZnO nanostructures had more influence on the band gap energy than the crystallite size. The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue increased as a function of the irradiation time, the amount of oxygen vacancy and the intensity of the (0 0 0 2) plane. The ZnO nanoplatelets exhibited a better photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue than the mesh-like ZnO lamellae due to the migration of the photoelectrons and holes to the (0 0 0 1) and (0 0 0 -1) planes, respectively under the internal electric field, that resulted in the enhancement of the photocatalytic activities.

  10. Gender Differences in the Vocational Interests of Youth Considering High Job Growth and Green Energy Occupations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Becky S.

    2012-01-01

    For more than 100 years, vocational psychologists and educational researchers have sought to identify the significant influences shaping occupational interests. This descriptive study used a series of vocational card sort exercises with 139 rural high school youth to identify gender differences in occupational interests toward working in 60 of the…

  11. Direct dose mapping versus energy/mass transfer mapping for 4D dose accumulation: fundamental differences and dosimetric consequences.

    PubMed

    Li, Haisen S; Zhong, Hualiang; Kim, Jinkoo; Glide-Hurst, Carri; Gulam, Misbah; Nurushev, Teamour S; Chetty, Indrin J

    2014-01-06

    The direct dose mapping (DDM) and energy/mass transfer (EMT) mapping are two essential algorithms for accumulating the dose from different anatomic phases to the reference phase when there is organ motion or tumor/tissue deformation during the delivery of radiation therapy. DDM is based on interpolation of the dose values from one dose grid to another and thus lacks rigor in defining the dose when there are multiple dose values mapped to one dose voxel in the reference phase due to tissue/tumor deformation. On the other hand, EMT counts the total energy and mass transferred to each voxel in the reference phase and calculates the dose by dividing the energy by mass. Therefore it is based on fundamentally sound physics principles. In this study, we implemented the two algorithms and integrated them within the Eclipse treatment planning system. We then compared the clinical dosimetric difference between the two algorithms for ten lung cancer patients receiving stereotactic radiosurgery treatment, by accumulating the delivered dose to the end-of-exhale (EE) phase. Specifically, the respiratory period was divided into ten phases and the dose to each phase was calculated and mapped to the EE phase and then accumulated. The displacement vector field generated by Demons-based registration of the source and reference images was used to transfer the dose and energy. The DDM and EMT algorithms produced noticeably different cumulative dose in the regions with sharp mass density variations and/or high dose gradients. For the planning target volume (PTV) and internal target volume (ITV) minimum dose, the difference was up to 11% and 4% respectively. This suggests that DDM might not be adequate for obtaining an accurate dose distribution of the cumulative plan, instead, EMT should be considered.

  12. Using machine learning and surface reconstruction to accurately differentiate different trajectories of mood and energy dysregulation in youth.

    PubMed

    Versace, Amelia; Sharma, Vinod; Bertocci, Michele A; Bebko, Genna; Iyengar, Satish; Dwojak, Amanda; Bonar, Lisa; Perlman, Susan B; Schirda, Claudiu; Travis, Michael; Gill, Mary Kay; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A; Sunshine, Jeffrey L; Holland, Scott K; Kowatch, Robert A; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Frazier, Thomas W; Arnold, L Eugene; Fristad, Mary A; Youngstrom, Eric A; Horwitz, Sarah M; Findling, Robert L; Phillips, Mary L

    2017-01-01

    Difficulty regulating positive mood and energy is a feature that cuts across different pediatric psychiatric disorders. Yet, little is known regarding the neural mechanisms underlying different developmental trajectories of positive mood and energy regulation in youth. Recent studies indicate that machine learning techniques can help elucidate the role of neuroimaging measures in classifying individual subjects by specific symptom trajectory. Cortical thickness measures were extracted in sixty-eight anatomical regions covering the entire brain in 115 participants from the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (LAMS) study and 31 healthy comparison youth (12.5 y/o;-Male/Female = 15/16;-IQ = 104;-Right/Left handedness = 24/5). Using a combination of trajectories analyses, surface reconstruction, and machine learning techniques, the present study aims to identify the extent to which measures of cortical thickness can accurately distinguish youth with higher (n = 18) from those with lower (n = 34) trajectories of manic-like behaviors in a large sample of LAMS youth (n = 115; 13.6 y/o; M/F = 68/47, IQ = 100.1, R/L = 108/7). Machine learning analyses revealed that widespread cortical thickening in portions of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right inferior and middle temporal gyrus, bilateral precuneus, and bilateral paracentral gyri and cortical thinning in portions of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and right parahippocampal gyrus accurately differentiate (Area Under Curve = 0.89;p = 0.03) youth with different (higher vs lower) trajectories of positive mood and energy dysregulation over a period up to 5years, as measured by the Parent General Behavior Inventory-10 Item Mania Scale. Our findings suggest that specific patterns of cortical thickness may reflect transdiagnostic neural mechanisms associated with different temporal trajectories of positive mood and energy dysregulation in youth. This approach has

  13. Influence of preliminary ultrasonic treatment upon the steady-state creep of metals of different stacking fault energies.

    PubMed

    Rusinko, A

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of the ultrasound effects upon the creep deformation of metals with different levels of stacking fault energy. The influence of preliminary ultrasound irradiation time upon the steady state creep rate is considered. Synthetic theory of irrecoverable deformation is taken as a mathematical apparatus. The analytical results show good agreement with experimental data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Direct dose mapping versus energy/mass transfer mapping for 4D dose accumulation: fundamental differences and dosimetric consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haisen S.; Zhong, Hualiang; Kim, Jinkoo; Glide-Hurst, Carri; Gulam, Misbah; Nurushev, Teamour S.; Chetty, Indrin J.

    2014-01-01

    The direct dose mapping (DDM) and energy/mass transfer (EMT) mapping are two essential algorithms for accumulating the dose from different anatomic phases to the reference phase when there is organ motion or tumor/tissue deformation during the delivery of radiation therapy. DDM is based on interpolation of the dose values from one dose grid to another and thus lacks rigor in defining the dose when there are multiple dose values mapped to one dose voxel in the reference phase due to tissue/tumor deformation. On the other hand, EMT counts the total energy and mass transferred to each voxel in the reference phase and calculates the dose by dividing the energy by mass. Therefore it is based on fundamentally sound physics principles. In this study, we implemented the two algorithms and integrated them within the Eclipse treatment planning system. We then compared the clinical dosimetric difference between the two algorithms for ten lung cancer patients receiving stereotactic radiosurgery treatment, by accumulating the delivered dose to the end-of-exhale (EE) phase. Specifically, the respiratory period was divided into ten phases and the dose to each phase was calculated and mapped to the EE phase and then accumulated. The displacement vector field generated by Demons-based registration of the source and reference images was used to transfer the dose and energy. The DDM and EMT algorithms produced noticeably different cumulative dose in the regions with sharp mass density variations and/or high dose gradients. For the planning target volume (PTV) and internal target volume (ITV) minimum dose, the difference was up to 11% and 4% respectively. This suggests that DDM might not be adequate for obtaining an accurate dose distribution of the cumulative plan, instead, EMT should be considered.

  15. Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanebrook, J. Richard

    This document describes a course designed to acquaint students with the many societal and technological problems facing the United States and the world due to the increasing demand for energy. The course begins with a writing assignment that involves readings on the environmental philosophy of Native Americans and the Chernobyl catastrophe.…

  16. Comparison of Three Different New Bipolar Energy Modalities and Classic Bipolar in Vivo for Tissue Thermal Spread.

    PubMed

    Çaltekin, Melike Demir; Aydoğmuş, Serpil; Yalçin, Serenat Eriş; Demirel, Emine; Unay, Fulya Cakalağaoğlu; Özbay, Pelin Özün; Özdemir, Aslı; Yalçin, Yakup; Kelekçi, Sefa

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare three different new bipolar energy modalities and classic bipolar in vivo for tissue thermal spread. This prospective, randomized, single-blind study was conducted between Septemsber 2012 and July 2013. Eighteen patients aged 40-65 years undergoing hysterectomy and bilateral salpingectomy for benign etiology were included in the study. Before the hysterectomy operation began, it was marked nearly distal third cm started from uterine corn and proximal close third cm started from fimbrial bottoms by visualizing both fallopian tubes. The surgery was performed using one 5 mm applicator of PlasmaKinetics™, EnSeal®, LigaSure™ or classic bipolar energy modality. The time each device was used was standardized as the minimum time of the audible warning of the device for tissue impedance and as tissue vaporization on classic bipolar. Tissues were dyed by both H&E and Masson's Trichrome in the pathology laboratory. Thermal spread was compared. Evaluation of the damage on the uterine tubes by each device used revealed that LigaSure™ was associated with increased thermal injury compared to PlasmaKinetics™ (p=0.007). Apart from PlasmaKineticsTM (p=0.022), there was no statistically significant difference between the three devices in terms of thermal damage spread in the distal and proximal fallopian tubes. To reduce lateral thermal damage, Plasmakinetics™ may be preferable to Ligasure™ among the three different new bipolar energy modalities.

  17. Using thermally stimulated current (TSC) to investigate disorder in micronized drug substance produced at different milling energies.

    PubMed

    Forcino, Rachel; Brum, Jeffrey; Galop, Marc; Sun, Yan

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the use of thermally stimulated current (TSC) to characterize disorder resulting from micronization of a crystalline drug substance. Samples processed at different milling energies are characterized, and annealing studied. Molecular mobility in micronized drug substance was studied using TSC and compared to results from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The micronized drug substance TSC spectra are compared to crystalline and amorphous references. TSC shows distinct relaxation modes for micronized material in comparison to a single weak exotherm observed with DSC. Molecular mobility modes are unique for micronized material compared to the amorphous reference indicating physically distinct disorder compared to phase-separated amorphous material. Signals are ascribed as arising from crystal defects. TSC differentiates material processed at different milling energies showing reasonable correlation between the AUC of the α-relaxation and micronization energy. The annealing process of crystal defects in micronized drug appears to proceed differently for α and β relaxations. TSC proves sensitive to the crystal defects in the micronized drug substance studied here. The technique is able to differentiate distinct types of disorder and can be used to characterize noncrystalline regions arising from milling processes which are physically distinct from amorphous material.

  18. Are there age-related differences in learning to optimize speed, accuracy, and energy expenditure?

    PubMed

    Welsh, Timothy N; Higgins, Laura; Elliott, Digby

    2007-12-01

    Studies of age-related differences in manual aiming have indicated that older adults take longer to complete their movements than their younger counterparts because they tend to rely on time-consuming feedback-based control processes. Many authors have suggested that the reliance on feedback is the result of a "play-it-safe" strategy that has been adopted to compensate for a deterioration in accurate and consistent force generation. That is, perhaps because older adults know that their motor systems are not as reliable as the systems were at a younger age, they plan shorter movements that conserve time and space for feedback control to correct their programmed actions. The vast majority of the previous studies that have revealed these age-related differences in aiming, however, have used computer-based tasks that involve the transformation of perceptual into motor space. In the present experiment, older and younger adults completed real aiming movements over three sessions. The results suggest that, when acting in a real environment, the main difference between older and younger adults in movement execution lies in the efficient use of response-related feedback, not in the programming of movement.

  19. The Diet Quality of Competitive Adolescent Male Rugby Union Players with Energy Balance Estimated Using Different Physical Activity Coefficients

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Tracy; Harries, Simon K.; Williams, Rebecca L.; Lum, Cheryl; Callister, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of the current study were to comprehensively assess the dietary intakes and diet quality of a sample of Australian competitive adolescent rugby union players and compare these intakes with National and Sports Dietitians Association (SDA) Recommendations for adolescent athletes. A secondary aim investigated applying different physical activity level (PAL) coefficients to determine total energy expenditure (TEE) in order to more effectively evaluate the adequacy of energy intakes. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: Anthropometrics and dietary intakes were assessed in 25 competitive adolescent male rugby union players (14 to 18 years old). Diet was assessed using the validated Australian Eating Survey (AES) food frequency questionnaire and diet quality was assessed through the Australian Recommended Food Score. Results: The median dietary intakes of participants met national recommendations for percent energy (% E) from carbohydrate, protein and total fat, but not carbohydrate intake when evaluated as g/day as proposed in SDA guidelines. Median intakes of fibre and micronutrients including calcium and iron also met national recommendations. Overall diet quality was classified as ‘good’ with a median diet quality score of 34 (out of a possible 73); however, there was a lack of variety within key food groups including carbohydrates and proteins. Non-core food consumption exceeded recommended levels at 38% of the daily total energy intake, with substantial contributions from takeaway foods and sweetened beverages. A PAL coefficient of 1.2–1.4 was found to best balance the energy intakes of these players in their pre-season. Conclusions: Adolescent rugby players met the percent energy recommendations for macronutrients and attained an overall ‘good’ diet quality score. However, it was identified that when compared to specific recommendations for athletes, carbohydrate intakes were below recommendations and these players in their pre

  20. The Diet Quality of Competitive Adolescent Male Rugby Union Players with Energy Balance Estimated Using Different Physical Activity Coefficients.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Tracy; Harries, Simon K; Williams, Rebecca L; Lum, Cheryl; Callister, Robin

    2016-09-07

    The aims of the current study were to comprehensively assess the dietary intakes and diet quality of a sample of Australian competitive adolescent rugby union players and compare these intakes with National and Sports Dietitians Association (SDA) Recommendations for adolescent athletes. A secondary aim investigated applying different physical activity level (PAL) coefficients to determine total energy expenditure (TEE) in order to more effectively evaluate the adequacy of energy intakes. Cross-sectional. Anthropometrics and dietary intakes were assessed in 25 competitive adolescent male rugby union players (14 to 18 years old). Diet was assessed using the validated Australian Eating Survey (AES) food frequency questionnaire and diet quality was assessed through the Australian Recommended Food Score. The median dietary intakes of participants met national recommendations for percent energy (% E) from carbohydrate, protein and total fat, but not carbohydrate intake when evaluated as g/day as proposed in SDA guidelines. Median intakes of fibre and micronutrients including calcium and iron also met national recommendations. Overall diet quality was classified as 'good' with a median diet quality score of 34 (out of a possible 73); however, there was a lack of variety within key food groups including carbohydrates and proteins. Non-core food consumption exceeded recommended levels at 38% of the daily total energy intake, with substantial contributions from takeaway foods and sweetened beverages. A PAL coefficient of 1.2-1.4 was found to best balance the energy intakes of these players in their pre-season. Adolescent rugby players met the percent energy recommendations for macronutrients and attained an overall 'good' diet quality score. However, it was identified that when compared to specific recommendations for athletes, carbohydrate intakes were below recommendations and these players in their pre-season reported high consumption of non-core foods, particularly sugar

  1. Topographically driven differences in energy and water constrain climatic control on forest carbon sequestration

    SciT

    Swetnam, Tyson L.; Brooks, Paul D.; Barnard, Holly R.

    Mountains are vital to ecosystems and human society given their influence on global carbon and water cycles. Yet the extent to which topography regulates montane forest carbon uptake and storage remains poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, we compared forest aboveground carbon loading to topographic metrics describing energy balance and water availability across three headwater catchments of the Boulder Creek Watershed, Colorado, USA. The catchments range from 1800 to 3500 m above mean sea level with 46–102 cm/yr mean annual precipitation and -1.2° to 12.3°C mean annual temperature. In all three catchments, we found mean forest carbon loading consistentlymore » increased from ridges (27 ± 19 Mg C ha) to valley bottoms (60 ± 28 Mg C ha). Low topographic positions held up to 185 ± 76 Mg C ha, more than twice the peak value of upper positions. Toe slopes fostered disproportionately high net carbon uptake relative to other topographic positions. Carbon storage was on average 20–40 Mg C ha greater on north to northeast aspects than on south to southwest aspects, a pattern most pronounced in the highest elevation, coldest and wettest catchment. Both the peak and mean aboveground carbon storage of the three catchments, crossing an 11°C range in temperature and doubling of local precipitation, defied the expectation of an optimal elevation-gradient climatic zone for net primary production. These results have important implications for models of forest sensitivity to climate change, as well as to predicted estimates of continental carbon reservoirs.« less

  2. Topographically driven differences in energy and water constrain climatic control on forest carbon sequestration

    DOE PAGES

    Swetnam, Tyson L.; Brooks, Paul D.; Barnard, Holly R.; ...

    2017-04-21

    Mountains are vital to ecosystems and human society given their influence on global carbon and water cycles. Yet the extent to which topography regulates montane forest carbon uptake and storage remains poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, we compared forest aboveground carbon loading to topographic metrics describing energy balance and water availability across three headwater catchments of the Boulder Creek Watershed, Colorado, USA. The catchments range from 1800 to 3500 m above mean sea level with 46–102 cm/yr mean annual precipitation and -1.2° to 12.3°C mean annual temperature. In all three catchments, we found mean forest carbon loading consistentlymore » increased from ridges (27 ± 19 Mg C ha) to valley bottoms (60 ± 28 Mg C ha). Low topographic positions held up to 185 ± 76 Mg C ha, more than twice the peak value of upper positions. Toe slopes fostered disproportionately high net carbon uptake relative to other topographic positions. Carbon storage was on average 20–40 Mg C ha greater on north to northeast aspects than on south to southwest aspects, a pattern most pronounced in the highest elevation, coldest and wettest catchment. Both the peak and mean aboveground carbon storage of the three catchments, crossing an 11°C range in temperature and doubling of local precipitation, defied the expectation of an optimal elevation-gradient climatic zone for net primary production. These results have important implications for models of forest sensitivity to climate change, as well as to predicted estimates of continental carbon reservoirs.« less

  3. Kainate toxicity in energy-compromised rat hippocampal slices: differences between oxygen and glucose deprivation.

    PubMed

    Schurr, A; Rigor, B M

    1993-06-18

    The effects of kainate (KA) on the recovery of neuronal function in rat hippocampal slices after hypoxia or glucose deprivation (GD) were investigated and compared to those of (R,S)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4- isoxazoleproprionate (AMPA). KA and AMPA were found to be more toxic than either N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), quinolinate, or glutamate, both under normal conditions and under states of energy deprivation. Doses as low as 1 microM KA or AMPA were sufficient to significantly reduce the recovery rate of neuronal function in slices after a standardized period of hypoxia or GD. The enhancement of hypoxic neuronal damage by both agonists could be partially blocked by the antagonist kynurenate, by the NMDA competitive antagonist AP5, and by elevating [Mg2+] in or by omitting Ca2+ from the perfusion medium. The AMPA antagonist glutamic acid diethyl ester was ineffective in preventing the enhanced hypoxic neuronal damage by either KA or AMPA. The antagonist of the glycine modulatory site on the NMDA receptor, 7-chlorokynurenate, did not block the KA toxicity but was able to block the toxicity of AMPA. 2,3-Dihydroxyquinoxaline completely blocked the KA- and AMPA-enhanced hypoxic neuronal damage. The KA-enhanced, GD-induced neuronal damage was prevented by Ca2+ depletion and partially antagonized by kynurenate but not by AP5 or elevated [Mg2+]. The results of the present study indicate that the KA receptor is involved in the mechanism of neuronal damage induced by hypoxia and GD, probably allowing Ca2+ influx and subsequent intracellular Ca2+ overload.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Strong valley Zeeman effect of dark excitons in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides in a tilted magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der Donck, M.; Zarenia, M.; Peeters, F. M.

    2018-02-01

    The dependence of the excitonic photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) on the tilt angle of an applied magnetic field is studied. Starting from a four-band Hamiltonian we construct a theory which quantitatively reproduces the available experimental PL spectra for perpendicular and in-plane magnetic fields. In the presence of a tilted magnetic field, we demonstrate that the dark exciton PL peaks brighten due to the in-plane component of the magnetic field and split for light with different circular polarizations as a consequence of the perpendicular component of the magnetic field. This splitting is more than twice as large as the splitting of the bright exciton peaks in tungsten-based TMDs. We propose an experimental setup that will allow for accessing the predicted splitting of the dark exciton peaks in the PL spectrum.

  5. Protein retention and liver aminotransferase activities in Atlantic salmon fed diets containing different energy sources

    Fynn-Aikins, K.; Hughes, S.G.; Vandenberg, G.W.

    1995-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fingerlings (14.4 g) were fed diets containing either glucose, dextrin, raw corn starch and lipid, or a high protein U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service open-formula diet (ASD2-30) for 12 weeks. Significant differences in weight gain and feed: gain ratio were not observed among salmon fed the diets containing glucose, dextrin or ASD2-30. Diets containing dextrin and glucose supported greater protein retention and reduction in alanine aminotransferase activity than the other diets. Activity of aspartate aminotransferase was not affected by the dietary treatment. Protein retention correlated highly with alanine aminotransferase activity.

  6. Effect of three different bariatric obesity surgery procedures on nutrient and energy digestibility using a swine experimental model.

    PubMed

    Gandarillas, Mónica; Hodgkinson, Suzanne Marie; Riveros, José Luis; Bas, Fernando

    2015-09-01

    Morbid obesity is a worldwide health concern that compromises life quality and health status of obese human subjects. Bariatric surgery for treating morbid obesity remains as one of the best alternatives to promote excess weight loss and to reduce co-morbidities. We have not found studies reporting nutrients and energy balance considering digestibility trials in humans following surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine protein, lipid, fiber, energy, calcium, and phosphorous digestibility in a swine model that underwent ileal transposition (IT), sleeve gastrectomy with ileal transposition (SGIT), Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP), and with sham operated animals (SHAM). Thirty-two pigs were randomly assigned to four laparoscopic procedures: IT (n = 8), RYGBP (n = 8), SGIT (n = 8), and Sham-operated pigs (n = 8). From day 0 postsurgery to 130, pigs were weighed monthly to determine live weight and weight gain was calculated for each month postsurgery until day 130. Food intake in a metabolic weight basis was calculated by measuring ad libitum food intake at day 130. Swine were fitted into metabolic crates to determine digestibility coefficients of dry matter, protein, fat, fiber, ash, energy, calcium, and phosphorous from day 130. A one-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls were used to detect differences in weight, food intake, and digestibility coefficients. Digestibility values for dry matter, fiber, phosphorus, and energy showed no differences among groups (P > 0.05). However, significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) were encountered among groups for fat, protein, ash, and calcium digestibilities. The RYGBP procedure, when applied to the pig model, significantly reduced calcium, fat, and ash digestibility, which did not occur with SGIT or IT procedure, when compared with Sham-operated animals. © 2015 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  7. On the impact of different volcanic hot spot detection methods on eruption energy quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pergola, Nicola; Coviello, Irina; Falconieri, Alfredo; Lacava, Teodosio; Marchese, Francesco; Tramutoli, Valerio

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have shown that sensors like the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) may be effectively used to identify volcanic hotspots. These sensors offer in fact some spectral channels in the Medium Infrared (MIR) and Thermal Infrared (TIR) bands together with a good compromise between spatial and temporal resolution suited to study and monitor thermal volcanic activity. Many algorithms were developed to identify volcanic thermal anomalies from space with some of them that were extensively tested in very different geographich areas. In this work, we analyze the volcanic radiative power (VRP) representing one of parameters of major interest for volcanologists that may be estimated by satellite. In particular, we compare the radiative power estimations driven by some well-established state of the art hotspot detection methods (e.g. RSTVOLC, MODVOLC, HOTSAT). Differences in terms of radiative power estimations achieved during recent Mt. Etna (Italy) eruptions will be evaluated, assessing how much the VRP retrieved during effusive eruptions is affected by the sensitivity of hotspot detection methods.

  8. Thermal energy and economic analysis of a PCM-enhanced household envelope considering different climate zones in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharbouch, Yassine; Mimet, Abdelaziz; El Ganaoui, Mohammed; Ouhsaine, Lahoucine

    2018-07-01

    This study investigates the thermal energy potentials and economic feasibility of an air-conditioned family household-integrated phase change material (PCM) considering different climate zones in Morocco. A simulation-based optimisation was carried out in order to define the optimal design of a PCM-enhanced household envelope for thermal energy effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of predefined candidate solutions. The optimisation methodology is based on coupling Energyplus® as a dynamic simulation tool and GenOpt® as an optimisation tool. Considering the obtained optimum design strategies, a thermal energy and economic analysis are carried out to investigate PCMs' integration feasibility in the Moroccan constructions. The results show that the PCM-integrated household envelope allows minimising the cooling/heating thermal energy demand vs. a reference household without PCM. While for the cost-effectiveness optimisation, it has been deduced that the economic feasibility is stilling insufficient under the actual PCM market conditions. The optimal design parameters results are also analysed.

  9. Performance evaluation and comparison of three-terminal energy selective electron devices with different connective ways and filter configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Wanli; Zhang, Yanchao; Yang, Zhimin; Chen, Jincan

    2018-02-01

    Three-terminal energy selective electron (ESE) devices consisting of three electronic reservoirs connected by two energy filters and an electronic conductor with negligible resistance may work as ESE refrigerators and amplifiers. They have three possible connective ways for the electronic conductor and six electronic transmission forms. The configuration of energy filters may be described by the different transmission functions such as the rectangular and Lorentz transmission functions. The ESE devices with three connective ways can be, respectively, regarded as three equivalent hybrid systems composed of an ESE heat engine and an ESE refrigerator/heat pump. With the help of the theory of the ESE devices operated between two electronic reservoirs, the coefficients of performance and cooling rates (heat-pumping rates) of hybrid systems are directly derived. The general performance characteristics of hybrid systems are revealed. The optimal regions of these devices are determined. The performances of the devices with three connective ways of the electronic conductor and two configurations of energy filters are compared in detail. The advantages and disadvantages of each of three-terminal ESE devices are expounded. The results obtained here may provide some guidance for the optimal design and operation of three-terminal ESE devices.

  10. Dietary energy sources affect the partition of body lipids and the hierarchy of energy metabolic pathways in growing pigs differing in feed efficiency.

    PubMed

    Gondret, F; Louveau, I; Mourot, J; Duclos, M J; Lagarrigue, S; Gilbert, H; van Milgen, J

    2014-11-01

    The use and partition of feed energy are key elements in productive efficiency of pigs. This study aimed to determine whether dietary energy sources affect the partition of body lipids and tissue biochemical pathways of energy use between pigs differing in feed efficiency. Forty-eight barrows (pure Large White) from two divergent lines selected for residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, were compared. From 74 d to 132 ± 0.5 d of age, pigs (n = 12 by line and by diet) were offered diets with equal protein and ME contents. A low fat, low fiber diet (LF) based on cereals and a high fat, high fiber diet (HF) where vegetal oils and wheat straw were used to partially substitute cereals, were compared. Irrespective of diet, gain to feed was 10% better (P < 0.001), and carcass yield was greater (+2.3%; P < 0.001) in the low RFI compared with the high RFI line; the most-efficient line was also leaner (+3.2% for loin proportion in the carcass, P < 0.001). In both lines, ADFI and ADG were lower when pigs were fed the HF diet (-12.3% and -15%, respectively, relatively to LF diet; P < 0.001). Feeding the HF diet reduced the perirenal fat weight and backfat proportion in the carcass to the same extent in both lines (-27% on average; P < 0.05). Lipid contents in backfat and LM also declined (-5% and -19%, respectively; P < 0.05) in pigs offered the HF diet. The proportion of saturated fatty acids (FA) was lower, but the percentage of PUFA, especially the EFA C18:2 and C18:3, was greater (P < 0.001) in backfat of HF-fed pigs. In both lines, these changes were associated with a marked decrease (P < 0.001) in the activities of two lipogenic enzymes, the fatty acid synthase (FASN) and the malic enzyme, in backfat. For the high RFI line, the hepatic lipid content was greater (P < 0.05) in pigs fed the HF diet than in pigs fed the LF diet, despite a reduced FASN activity (-32%; P < 0.001). In both lines, the HF diet also led to lower glycogen content (-70%) and

  11. Transferring x-ray based automated threat detection between scanners with different energies and resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, M.; Ransley, M.; Rogers, T. W.; Griffin, L. D.

    2017-10-01

    A significant obstacle to developing high performance Deep Learning algorithms for Automated Threat Detection (ATD) in security X-ray imagery, is the difficulty of obtaining large training datasets. In our previous work, we circumvented this problem for ATD in cargo containers, using Threat Image Projection and data augmentation. In this work, we investigate whether data scarcity for other modalities, such as parcels and baggage, can be ameliorated by transforming data from one domain so that it approximates the appearance of another. We present an ontology of ATD datasets to assess where transfer learning may be applied. We define frameworks for transfer at the training and testing stages, and compare the results for both methods against ATD where a common data source is used for training and testing. Our results show very poor transfer, which we attribute to the difficulty of accurately matching the blur and contrast characteristics of different scanners.

  12. Zeeman interaction in the Δ31 state of HfF+ to search for the electron electric dipole moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, A. N.; Skripnikov, L. V.; Titov, A. V.

    2017-08-01

    A theoretical study devoted to suppression of magnetic systematic effects in HfF+ cation for an experiment to search for the electron electric dipole moment is reported. The g factors for J =1 , F =3 /2 , | MF|=3 /2 hyperfine levels of the Δ31 state are calculated as functions of the external electric field. The minimal value for the difference between the g factors of Ω -doublet levels, Δ g =3 ×10-6 , is attained at the electric field 7 V/cm. The body-fixed g factor, G∥, was obtained both within the ab initio electronic structure calculations and with our fit of the experimental data [H. Loh, K. C. Cossel, M. C. Grau, K.-K. Ni, E. R. Meyer, J. L. Bohn, J. Ye, and E. A. Cornell, Science 342, 1220 (2013), 10.1126/science.1243683]. For the electronic structure calculations we used a combined scheme to perform correlation calculations of HfF+, which includes both the direct four-component all-electron and generalized relativistic effective core potential approaches. The electron correlation effects were treated using the coupled cluster methods. The calculated value G∥=0.0115 agrees very well with the G∥=0.0118 obtained with our fitting procedure. The calculated ab initio value D∥=-1.53 a.u. for the molecule-frame dipole moment (with the origin in the center of mass) is in agreement with the experimental datum D∥=-1.54 (1 ) a.u. [H. Loh, Ph.D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2006.].

  13. Differences in nutrient and energy contents of commonly consumed dishes prepared in restaurants v. at home in Hunan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaofang; Liu, Jiawu; Chen, Bo; Jin, Donghui; Fu, Zhongxi; Liu, Huilin; Du, Shufa; Popkin, Barry M; Mendez, Michelle A

    2018-05-01

    Eating away from home is associated with poor diet quality, in part due to less healthy food choices and larger portions. However, few studies account for the potential additional contribution of differences in food composition between restaurant- and home-prepared dishes. The present study aimed to investigate differences in nutrients of dishes prepared in restaurants v. at home. Eight commonly consumed dishes were collected in twenty of each of the following types of locations: small and large restaurants, and urban and rural households. In addition, two fast-food items were collected from ten KFC, McDonald's and food stalls. Five samples per dish were randomly pooled from every location. Nutrients were analysed and energy was calculated in composite samples. Differences in nutrients of dishes by preparation location were determined. Hunan Province, China. Na, K, protein, total fat, fatty acids, carbohydrate and energy in dishes. On average, both the absolute and relative fat contents, SFA and Na:K ratio were higher in dishes prepared in restaurants than households (P < 0·05). Protein was 15 % higher in animal food-based dishes prepared in households than restaurants (P<0·05). Quantile regression models found that, at the 90th quantile, restaurant preparation was consistently negatively associated with protein and positively associated with the percentage of energy from fat in all dishes. Moreover, restaurant preparation also positively influenced the SFA content in dishes, except at the highest quantiles. These findings suggest that compared with home preparation, dishes prepared in restaurants in China may differ in concentrations of total fat, SFA, protein and Na:K ratio, which may further contribute, beyond food choices, to less healthy nutrient intakes linked to eating away from home.

  14. Gibbs free energy difference between the undercooled liquid and the beta phase of a Ti-Cr alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohsaka, K.; Trinh, E. H.; Holzer, J. C.; Johnson, W. L.

    1992-01-01

    The heat of fusion and the specific heats of the solid and liquid have been experimentally determined for a Ti60Cr40 alloy. The data are used to evaluate the Gibbs free energy difference, delta-G, between the liquid and the beta phase as a function of temperature to verify a reported spontaneous vitrification (SV) of the beta phase in Ti-Cr alloys. The results show that SV of an undistorted beta phase in the Ti60Cr40 alloy at 873 K is not feasible because delta-G is positive at the temperature. However, delta-G may become negative with additional excess free energy to the beta phase in the form of defects.

  15. Energy conversion analysis of microalgal lipid production under different culture modes.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hong-Yu; Liu, Bing-Feng; Kong, Fanying; Zhao, Lei; Xie, Guo-Jun; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2014-08-01

    Growth and lipid production performance of Scenedesmus sp. under different culture modes were investigated. Under heterotrophic aerobic mode, algal biomass concentration and total lipid content reached 3.42 g L(-1) and 43.0 wt.%, which were much higher than those in autotrophic aerobic mode (0.55 g L(-1)/20.2 wt.%). The applied light exposure of 7.0 Wm(-2) was beneficial to biomass and lipid accumulation. Mixotrophic aerobic mode produced the highest biomass concentration of 3.84 g L(-1). The biomass was rich in lipids (51.3 wt.%) and low in proteins (17.9 wt.%) and carbohydrates (10.3 wt.%). However, lower algal biomass concentration (2.93 g L(-1)) and total lipid content (36.1 wt.%) were obtained in mixotrophic anaerobic mode. Mixotrophic aerobic mode gave the maximum heat value conversion efficiency of 45.7%. These results indicate that mixotrophic aerobic cultivation was a promising culture mode for lipid production by Scenedesmus sp. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Genotoxic effects of high-energy iron particles in human lymphoblasts differing in radiation sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, H. H.; Horng, M. F.; Evans, T. E.; Jordan, R.; Schwartz, J. L.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of (56)Fe particles and (137)Cs gamma radiation were compared in TK6 and WTK1 human lymphoblasts, two related cell lines which differ in TP53 status and in the ability to rejoin DNA double-strand breaks. Both cell lines were more sensitive to the cytotoxic and clastogenic effects of (56)Fe particles than to those of gamma rays. However, the mutagenicity of (56)Fe particles and gamma rays at the TK locus was the same per unit dose and was higher for gamma rays than for (56)Fe particles at isotoxic doses. The respective RBEs for TK6 and WTK1 cells were 1.5 and 1.9 for cytotoxicity and 2.5 and 1.9 for clastogenicity, but only 1 for mutagenicity. The results indicate that complex lesions induced by (56)Fe particles are repaired less efficiently than gamma-ray-induced lesions, leading to fewer colony-forming cells, a slightly higher proportion of aberrant cells at the first division, and a lower frequency of viable mutants at isotoxic doses. WTK1 cells (mutant TP53) were more resistant to the cytotoxic effects of both gamma rays and (56)Fe particles, but showed greater cytogenetic and mutagenic damage than TK6 cells (TP53(+)). A deficiency in the number of damaged TK6 cells (a) reaching the first mitosis after exposure and (b) forming viable mutants can explain these results.

  17. Self-energy matrices for electron transport calculations within the real-space finite-difference formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukamoto, Shigeru; Ono, Tomoya; Hirose, Kikuji; Blügel, Stefan

    2017-03-01

    The self-energy term used in transport calculations, which describes the coupling between electrode and transition regions, is able to be evaluated only from a limited number of the propagating and evanescent waves of a bulk electrode. This obviously contributes toward the reduction of the computational expenses in transport calculations. In this paper, we present a mathematical formula for reducing the computational expenses further without using any approximation and without losing accuracy. So far, the self-energy term has been handled as a matrix with the same dimension as the Hamiltonian submatrix representing the interaction between an electrode and a transition region. In this work, through the singular-value decomposition of the submatrix, the self-energy matrix is handled as a smaller matrix, whose dimension is the rank number of the Hamiltonian submatrix. This procedure is practical in the case of using the pseudopotentials in a separable form, and the computational expenses for determining the self-energy matrix are reduced by 90% when employing a code based on the real-space finite-difference formalism and projector-augmented wave method. In addition, this technique is applicable to the transport calculations using atomic or localized basis sets. Adopting the self-energy matrices obtained from this procedure, we present the calculation of the electron transport properties of C20 molecular junctions. The application demonstrates that the electron transmissions are sensitive to the orientation of the molecule with respect to the electrode surface. In addition, channel decomposition of the scattering wave functions reveals that some unoccupied C20 molecular orbitals mainly contribute to the electron conduction through the molecular junction.

  18. HOW GAS-DYNAMIC FLARE MODELS POWERED BY PETSCHEK RECONNECTION DIFFER FROM THOSE WITH AD HOC ENERGY SOURCES

    SciT

    Longcope, D. W.; Klimchuk, J. A.

    Aspects of solar flare dynamics, such as chromospheric evaporation and flare light curves, have long been studied using one-dimensional models of plasma dynamics inside a static flare loop, subjected to some energy input. While extremely successful at explaining the observed characteristics of flares, all such models so far have specified energy input ad hoc, rather than deriving it self-consistently. There is broad consensus that flares are powered by magnetic energy released through reconnection. Recent work has generalized Petschek’s basic reconnection scenario, topological change followed by field line retraction and shock heating, to permit its inclusion in a one-dimensional flare loop model. Heremore » we compare the gas dynamics driven by retraction and shocking to those from more conventional static loop models energized by ad hoc source terms. We find significant differences during the first minute, when retraction leads to larger kinetic energies and produces higher densities at the loop top, while ad hoc heating tends to rarify the loop top. The loop-top density concentration is related to the slow magnetosonic shock, characteristic of Petschek’s model, but persists beyond the retraction phase occurring in the outflow jet. This offers an explanation for observed loop-top sources of X-ray and EUV emission, with advantages over that provided by ad hoc heating scenarios. The cooling phases of the two models are, however, notably similar to one another, suggesting that observations at that stage will yield little information on the nature of energy input.« less

  19. The Optical Spectrum of SrOH Re-Visited Zeeman Effect, High-Resolution Spectroscopy and Franck-Condon Factors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Trung; Kokkin, Damian L.; Steimle, Timothy; Kozyryev, Ivan; Doyle, John M.

    2015-06-01

    Motivated by a diverse range of applications in physics and chemistry, currently there is great interest in the cooling of molecules to very low temperatures (≤1 mK). Direct laser cooling has been previously demonstrated for the diatomic radicals SrF, YO, and CaF, and most recently a three-dimensional magneto-optical trap (MOT) of SrF molecules was achieved. To determine the possibility of laser cooling for polyatomic molecules containing three or more atoms, detailed information is required about their Franck-Condon factors (FCFs) for emission from the excited states of interest. Here we report on the high-resolution laser excitation spectra, recorded field-free and in the presence of a static magnetic field, and on the dispersed fluorescence (DF) spectra for the A^2Π1/2 ← X^2σ^+ and B^2σ^+ ← X ^2σ^+ electronic transitions of SrOH. The DF spectra were analyzed to precisely determine FCFs and compared with values predicted using a normal coordinate GF matrix approach. The recorded Zeeman spectra were analyzed to determine the magnetic moments. Implication for proposed laser cooling and trapping experiments for SrOH will be presented. E.S. Shuman, J.F. Barry and D. DeMille, Nature 467, 820 (2010) J.F. Barry, E.S. Shuman, E.B. Norrgard and D. DeMille, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 103002 (2012) M.T. Hummon, M. Yeo, B.K. Stuhl, A.L. Collopy, Y. Xia, and J. Ye, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 143001 (2013) M. Yeo, M.T. Hummon, A.L. Collopy, B. Yan, B. Hemmerling, E. Chae, J.M. Doyle, and J. Ye, arXiv:1501.04683 (2015) V. Zhelyazkova, A. Cournol, T.E. Wall, A. Matsushima, J.J. Hudson, E.A. Hinds, M.R. Tarbutt, and B.E. Sauer, Phys. Rev. A 89, 053416 (2014) J.F. Barry, D.J. McCarron, E.B. Norrgard, M.H. Steinecker and D. DeMille, Nature 512, 286 (2014) D.J. McCarron, E.B. Norrgard, M.H. Steinecker and D. DeMille, arXiv:1412.8220 (2014)

  20. Dietary fat sources affect feed intake, digestibility, rumen microbial populations, energy partition and methane emissions in different beef cattle genotypes.

    PubMed

    Kaewpila, C; Sommart, K; Mitsumori, M

    2018-03-20

    The mitigation of enteric methane emission in beef cattle production is important for reducing feed energy loss and increasing environmental sustainability. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different oilseeds included in fermented total mixed rations (whole soyabean seed (SBS, control), whole kapok seed (KPS) and cracked oil palm fruit (OPF)) on feed intake, digestibility, rumen microbial populations, energy partition and methane emissions in different cattle genotypes (Charolais crossbred v. Japanese Black crossbred). Three Charolais crossbred and three Japanese Black crossbred bulls were studied in a replicated 3×3 Latin square experimental design; genotypes were analysed in separate squares including three periods of 21 days each and three dietary oilseed treatments fed ad libitum. The cattle were placed in a metabolic cage equipped with a ventilated head box respiration system for evaluating digestibility and energy balance. As compared with Charolais crossbred individuals, Japanese Black crossbred bulls showed consistently lower dry matter intake (15.5%, P0.05) or diet (P>0.05) under the experimental conditions and ranged from 5.8% to 6.0% of gross energy intake. This value is lower than that reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (6.5%) for cattle fed with low-quality crop residues or by-products. Thus, our results imply that the Japanese Black crossbred cattle consume less feed and emits less enteric methane than the Charolais crossbred does, mainly owing to its lower ME requirement for maintenance. The OPF diet could be used to replace SBS for high beef production, although further studies are required to evaluate their application across a wide range of beef production systems.

  1. Extracorporeal shock-wave therapy for supraspinatus calcifying tendinitis: a randomized clinical trial comparing two different energy levels.

    PubMed

    Ioppolo, Francesco; Tattoli, Maria; Di Sante, Luca; Attanasi, Carmine; Venditto, Teresa; Servidio, Marila; Cacchio, Angelo; Santilli, Valter

    2012-11-01

    Extracorporeal shock-wave therapy (ESWT) represents a valid intervention in the treatment of people with supraspinatus calcifying tendinitis (SCT), but there is limited evidence for the useful range of ESWT doses. The aim of this study was to compare 2 different ranges of energy flux density in treatment of SCT with ESWT. This study was designed as a single-blind randomized clinical trial. This study was performed in a university hospital. Forty-six patients with SCT were randomly assigned to 2 groups that received different therapeutic energy doses of ESWT: (1) group A received ESWT at an energy level of 0.20 mJ/mm², and (2) group B received ESWT at an energy level of 0.10 mJ/mm². The treatment protocol consisted of 4 sessions performed once a week. The change in mean Constant Murley Scale (CMS) scores at 3 and 6 months was the primary endpoint. The change in the mean visual analog scale (VAS) scores from baseline to 3 and 6 months after the intervention and radiographic change in size of calcium deposits were evaluated as secondary endpoints. At 12 months, pain relief was assessed using a numeric rating scale. Significant clinical improvement based on mean CMS scores was observed after 6 months in group A (X=79.43, SD=10.33) compared with group B (X=57.91, SD=6.53). Likewise, after 6 months, a significant decrease in VAS scores was found in group A (X=2.09, SD=1.54) compared with group B (X=5.36, SD=0.78). Calcific deposits disappeared in the same percentage of patients in both groups. The small sample size and lack of a control group were limitations of the study. In ESWT for SCT, an energy level of 0.20 mJ/mm² appears to be more effective than an energy level of 0.10 mJ/mm² in pain relief and functional improvement.

  2. Water models based on a single potential energy surface and different molecular degrees of freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint-Martin, Humberto; Hernández-Cobos, Jorge; Ortega-Blake, Iván

    2005-06-01

    Up to now it has not been possible to neatly assess whether a deficient performance of a model is due to poor parametrization of the force field or the lack of inclusion of enough molecular properties. This work compares several molecular models in the framework of the same force field, which was designed to include many-body nonadditive effects: (a) a polarizable and flexible molecule with constraints that account for the quantal nature of the vibration [B. Hess, H. Saint-Martin, and H. J. C. Berendsen, J. Chem. Phys. 116, 9602 (2002), H. Saint-Martin, B. Hess, and H. J. C. Berendsen, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 11133 (2004)], (b) a polarizable and classically flexible molecule [H. Saint-Martin, J. Hernández-Cobos, M. I. Bernal-Uruchurtu, I. Ortega-Blake, and H. J. C. Berendsen, J. Chem. Phys. 113, 10899 (2000)], (c) a polarizable and rigid molecule, and finally (d) a nonpolarizable and rigid molecule. The goal is to determine how significant the different molecular properties are. The results indicate that all factors—nonadditivity, polarizability, and intramolecular flexibility—are important. Still, approximations can be made in order to diminish the computational cost of the simulations with a small decrease in the accuracy of the predictions, provided that those approximations are counterbalanced by the proper inclusion of an effective molecular property, that is, an average molecular geometry or an average dipole. Hence instead of building an effective force field by parametrizing it in order to reproduce the properties of a specific phase, a building approach is proposed that is based on adequately restricting the molecular flexibility and/or polarizability of a model potential fitted to unimolecular properties, pair interactions, and many-body nonadditive contributions. In this manner, the same parental model can be used to simulate the same substance under a wide range of thermodynamic conditions. An additional advantage of this approach is that, as the force

  3. Dietary fat and carbohydrate have different effects on body weight, energy expenditure, glucose homeostasis and behaviour in adult cats fed to energy requirement.

    PubMed

    Gooding, Margaret A; Atkinson, Jim L; Duncan, Ian J H; Niel, Lee; Shoveller, Anna K

    2015-01-01

    The effects of dietary carbohydrate and fat on feline health are not well understood. The effects of feeding diets moderately high in fat (HF; n 10; 30 % fat, 26 % carbohydrate as fed) or carbohydrate (HC; n 10; 11 % fat, 47 % carbohydrate), for 84 d, were investigated in healthy, adult cats (3·5 (sd 0·5) years). Data on indirect calorimetry, blood biomarkers, activity, play and cognition were collected at baseline, and at intervals throughout the study. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and on day 85. There were no significant main effects of diet on body weight and composition. When data were analysed over study day within diet, cats fed HF diets experienced a significant increase in body fat (P = 0·001) and body weight (P = 0·043) in contrast to cats consuming the HC diet that experienced no change in body fat or body weight (P = 0·762) throughout the study. Overall, energy expenditure was similar between diets (P = 0·356 (fasted), P = 0·086 (postprandial)) and respiratory quotient declined with exposure to the HF diet and increased with exposure to the HC diet (P < 0·001; fasted and postprandial). There was no difference in insulin sensitivity as an overall effect of diet (P = 0·266). Activity declined from baseline with exposure to both diets (HC: P = 0·002; HF: P = 0·01) but was not different between diets (P = 0·247). There was no effect of diet on play (P = 0·387) and cats consuming either the HF or HC diet did not successfully learn the cognitive test. Overall, cats adapt to dietary macronutrient content, and the implications of feeding HC and HF diets on risk for adiposity as driven by metabolic and behavioural mechanisms are discussed.

  4. Differences in weight status and energy-balance related behaviours according to ethnic background among adolescents in seven countries in Europe: the ENERGY-project.

    PubMed

    Brug, J; van Stralen, M M; Chinapaw, M J M; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Lien, N; Bere, E; Singh, A S; Maes, L; Moreno, L; Jan, N; Kovacs, E; Lobstein, T; Manios, Y; Te Velde, S J

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore differences in weight status and energy balance behaviours according to ethnic background among adolescents across Europe. A school-based survey among 10-12-year-old adolescents was conducted in seven European countries. Weight, height and waist circumference were measured; engagement in physical activity, sedentary and dietary behaviour, and sleep duration was assessed by child and parent-report. A distinction between native and non-native ethnic background was based on language spoken at home, and the parents' country of birth. Analyses were conducted with and without adjustment for parental education. With valid data on both indicators of ethnic background for 5149 adolescents, 7307 adolescents (52% girls; 11.6 ± 0.7 years) participated. Significantly higher prevalence of overweight, obesity, body mass index and waist circumference were observed among non-native compared with native adolescents. Non-native adolescents had less favourable behavioural patterns (sugary drinks, breakfast skipping, sport, TV and computer time, hours of sleep) with the exception of active transport to school. Similar patterns were observed for both indicators of ethnicity, and in most of the separate countries; however, in Greece, weight status indicators were better among non-native adolescents. After adjustment for parental education, most differences remained significant according to country of origin of the parents, but not according to language spoken at home. Adolescents of native ethnicity of the country of residence have, in general, more favourable weight status indicators and energy balance-related behaviours than adolescents of non-native ethnicity across Europe. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  5. Effects of two energy-restricted diets containing different fruit amounts on body weight loss and macronutrient oxidation.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, M Cristina; Parra, M Dolores; Marques-Lopes, Iva; De Morentin, Blanca E Martínez; González, Alvaro; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2005-12-01

    The consumption of specific foods in energy-restricted diets may affect the weight loss process. The purpose of this research was to evaluate whether obese women following two hypocaloric diets with distinct fruit content differ in weight loss and metabolic responses. Fifteen obese women were included, who were randomly assigned to follow a low or a high-fruit energy-restricted diet for 8 weeks. The main outcome variables were weight and fat losses. Metabolic measurements concerning macronutrient oxidation were also assessed by using (13)C labelled fructose and indirect calorimetry. The induced weight loss was similar for both diets (6.9 +/- 2% vs. 6.6 +/- 2%, p = 0.785). Both experimental diets similarly improved the lipid plasma profile in the participants, but the cholesterol fall was higher in obese subjects receiving the diet containing more fruit. No statistical differences in lipids carbohydrates and (13)C labelled fructose utilisation were observed, but protein oxidation was differently affected by the experimental diets. The compensatory effects of the associated fibre/fructose intake may explain the lack of a specific effect of the fruit amount on hypocaloric diets designed to weight loss, although the increased fibre content from enriched fruit diets may be involved in the favourable effects on cholesterol plasma levels.

  6. The effects of regional insolation differences upon advanced solar thermal electric power plant performance and energy costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latta, A. F.; Bowyer, J. M.; Fujita, T.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the performance and cost of four 10-MWe advanced solar thermal electric power plants sited in various regions of the continental United States. Each region has different insolation characteristics which result in varying collector field areas, plant performance, capital costs, and energy costs. The paraboloidal dish, central receiver, cylindrical parabolic trough, and compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) comprise the advanced concepts studied. This paper contains a discussion of the regional insolation data base, a description of the solar systems' performances and costs, and a presentation of a range for the forecast cost of conventional electricity by region and nationally over the next several decades.

  7. Gibbs free-energy difference between the glass and crystalline phases of a Ni-Zr alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohsaka, K.; Trinh, E. H.; Holzer, J. C.; Johnson, W. L.

    1993-01-01

    The heats of eutectic melting and devitrification, and the specific heats of the crystalline, glass, and liquid phases have been measured for a Ni24Zr76 alloy. The data are used to calculate the Gibbs free-energy difference, Delta G(AC), between the real glass and the crystal on an assumption that the liquid-glass transition is second order. The result shows that Delta G(AC) continuously increases as the temperature decreases in contrast to the ideal glass case where Delta G(AC) is assumed to be independent of temperature.

  8. Reprint of: Ionization probabilities of Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe by proton impact for different initial states and impact energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanari, C. C.; Miraglia, J. E.

    2018-01-01

    In this contribution we present ab initio results for ionization total cross sections, probabilities at zero impact parameter, and impact parameter moments of order +1 and -1 of Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe by proton impact in an extended energy range from 100 keV up to 10 MeV. The calculations were performed by using the continuum distorted wave eikonal initial state approximation (CDW-EIS) for energies up to 1 MeV, and using the first Born approximation for larger energies. The convergence of the CDW-EIS to the first Born above 1 MeV is clear in the present results. Our inner-shell ionization cross sections are compared with the available experimental data and with the ECPSSR results. We also include in this contribution the values of the ionization probabilities at the origin, and the impact parameter dependence. These values have been employed in multiple ionization calculations showing very good description of the experimental data. Tables of the ionization probabilities are presented, disaggregated for the different initial bound states, considering all the shells for Ne and Ar, the M-N shells of Kr and the N-O shells of Xe.

  9. Thermal hydrolysis integration in the anaerobic digestion process of different solid wastes: energy and economic feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Cano, R; Nielfa, A; Fdz-Polanco, M

    2014-09-01

    An economic assessment of thermal hydrolysis as a pretreatment to anaerobic digestion has been achieved to evaluate its implementation in full-scale plants. Six different solid wastes have been studied, among them municipal solid waste (MSW). Thermal hydrolysis has been tested with batch lab-scale tests, from which an energy and economic assessment of three scenarios is performed: with and without energy integration (recovering heat to produce steam in a cogeneration plant), finally including the digestate management costs. Thermal hydrolysis has lead to an increase of the methane productions (up to 50%) and kinetics parameters (even double). The study has determined that a proper energy integration design could lead to important economic savings (5 €/t) and thermal hydrolysis can enhance up to 40% the incomes of the digestion plant, even doubling them when digestate management costs are considered. In a full-scale MSW treatment plant (30,000 t/year), thermal hydrolysis would provide almost 0.5 M€/year net benefits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Patterns of relative magnitudes of soil energy channels and their relationships with environmental factors in different ecosystems in Romania.

    PubMed

    Ciobanu, Marcel; Popovici, Iuliana; Zhao, Jie; Stoica, Ilie-Adrian

    2015-12-01

    The percentage compositions of soil herbivorous, bacterivorous and fungivorous nematodes in forests, grasslands and scrubs in Romania was analysed. Percentages of nematode abundance, biomass and metabolic footprint methods were used to evaluate the patterns and relative size of herbivory, bacterial- and fungal-mediated channels in organic and mineral soil horizons. Patterns and magnitudes of herbivore, bacterivore and fungivore energy pathways differed for a given ecosystem type and soil depth according to the method used. The relevance of herbivore energy channel increased with soil depth due to higher contribution of root-feeders. Ectoparasites, sedentary parasites and epidermal cell and root hair feeders were the most important contributors to the total biomass and metabolic footprints of herbivores. Metabolic footprint method revealed the general dominance of bacterial-based energy channel in all five types of ecosystems. The influence of altitude and climatic factors on percentages of abundance, biomass and metabolic footprints of herbivores, bacterivores and fungivores decreased with soil depth, whereas the influence of humus content, cation-exchange capacity and base saturation increased. Vegetation, altitude, climate and soil physico-chemical characteristics are important factors that influenced the abundance, biomass and metabolic footprints of herbivores, bacterivores and fungivores.

  11. Patterns of relative magnitudes of soil energy channels and their relationships with environmental factors in different ecosystems in Romania

    PubMed Central

    Ciobanu, Marcel; Popovici, Iuliana; Zhao, Jie; Stoica, Ilie-Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The percentage compositions of soil herbivorous, bacterivorous and fungivorous nematodes in forests, grasslands and scrubs in Romania was analysed. Percentages of nematode abundance, biomass and metabolic footprint methods were used to evaluate the patterns and relative size of herbivory, bacterial- and fungal-mediated channels in organic and mineral soil horizons. Patterns and magnitudes of herbivore, bacterivore and fungivore energy pathways differed for a given ecosystem type and soil depth according to the method used. The relevance of herbivore energy channel increased with soil depth due to higher contribution of root-feeders. Ectoparasites, sedentary parasites and epidermal cell and root hair feeders were the most important contributors to the total biomass and metabolic footprints of herbivores. Metabolic footprint method revealed the general dominance of bacterial-based energy channel in all five types of ecosystems. The influence of altitude and climatic factors on percentages of abundance, biomass and metabolic footprints of herbivores, bacterivores and fungivores decreased with soil depth, whereas the influence of humus content, cation-exchange capacity and base saturation increased. Vegetation, altitude, climate and soil physico-chemical characteristics are important factors that influenced the abundance, biomass and metabolic footprints of herbivores, bacterivores and fungivores. PMID:26620189

  12. Patterns of relative magnitudes of soil energy channels and their relationships with environmental factors in different ecosystems in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciobanu, Marcel; Popovici, Iuliana; Zhao, Jie; Stoica, Ilie-Adrian

    2015-12-01

    The percentage compositions of soil herbivorous, bacterivorous and fungivorous nematodes in forests, grasslands and scrubs in Romania was analysed. Percentages of nematode abundance, biomass and metabolic footprint methods were used to evaluate the patterns and relative size of herbivory, bacterial- and fungal-mediated channels in organic and mineral soil horizons. Patterns and magnitudes of herbivore, bacterivore and fungivore energy pathways differed for a given ecosystem type and soil depth according to the method used. The relevance of herbivore energy channel increased with soil depth due to higher contribution of root-feeders. Ectoparasites, sedentary parasites and epidermal cell and root hair feeders were the most important contributors to the total biomass and metabolic footprints of herbivores. Metabolic footprint method revealed the general dominance of bacterial-based energy channel in all five types of ecosystems. The influence of altitude and climatic factors on percentages of abundance, biomass and metabolic footprints of herbivores, bacterivores and fungivores decreased with soil depth, whereas the influence of humus content, cation-exchange capacity and base saturation increased. Vegetation, altitude, climate and soil physico-chemical characteristics are important factors that influenced the abundance, biomass and metabolic footprints of herbivores, bacterivores and fungivores.

  13. Behavior of Holographic Ricci Dark Energy in Scalar Gauss-Bonnet Gravity for Different Choices of the Scale Factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasqua, Antonio; Chattopadhyay, Surajit; Khurshudyan, Martiros; Aly, Ayman A.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we studied the cosmological application of the interacting Ricci Dark Energy (RDE) model in the framework of the scalar Gauss-Bonnet modified gravity model. We studied the properties of the reconstructed potential , the Strong Energy Condition (SEC), the Weak Energy Condition (WEC) and the deceleration parameter q for three different models of scale factor, i.e. the emergent, the intermediate and the logamediate one. We obtained that , for the emergent scenario, has a decreasing behavior, while, for the logamediate scenario, the potential start with an increasing behavior then, for later times, it shows a slowly decreasing behavior. Finally, for the intermediate scenario, the potential has an initial increasing behavior, then for a time of t≈1.2, it starts to decrease. We also found that both SEC and WEC are violated for all the three scale factors considered. Finally, studying the plots of q, we derived that an accelerated universe can be achieved for the three models of scale factor considered.

  14. Impact of seasonal thermal stress on physiological and blood biochemical parameters in pigs under different dietary energy levels.

    PubMed

    Pathak, P K; Roychoudhury, R; Saharia, J; Borah, M C; Dutta, D J; Bhuyan, R; Kalita, D

    2018-06-01

    The present study was formulated to find out the status of important season related thermal stress biomarkers of pure-bred (Hampshire) and crossbred (50% Hampshire × 50% local) pigs under the agro-climatic condition of Assam State, India. The experiment was also aimed to study the role of different level of energy ration (110, 100, and 90% energy of NRC feeding standard for pig) in variation of physiological and biochemical parameters in two genetic groups of pigs in different seasons. The metabolizable energy value were 3260, 2936.5, and 3585.8 kcal/kg in grower ration and 3260.2, 2936.6, and 3587 kcal/kg in finisher ration for normal energy (NE), low energy (LE) and high energy (HE), respectively. Both the genetic group of animals were housed separately under intensive system of management. Each pen was measuring 10' × 12' along with an outer enclosure. Six weaned piglets (almost similar body weight of average 10.55 kg) of each group were kept in a separate pen. However, after attainment of 35 kg body weight, the animals of a group were divided in two pens of three animals each. The present experiment indicated that average ambient temperature during summer months (27.33-29.51 °C) was above the comfort zone for pigs (22 °C). The significantly (P < 0.01) higher relative humidity (RH) (%) was recorded in outdoor environment (87.26-91.10%) and in the morning time (86.60-91.10%). The temperature humidity index (THI) during the study period was found to be indicative of thermal stress to the experimental animals during summer (79.55-82.56). Physiological parameters viz., respiration rate (RR) and rectal temperature (RT) were significantly (P < 0.01) higher in summer season (43.75-72.12 breaths/min. and 102.29-103.23 °F) and non-significantly higher values were recorded in Hampshire pigs. It was also found that the significantly (P < 0.01) lower RR as well as RT was recorded in the pigs fed with high energy (HE) ration during summer season

  15. Growth and metal uptake of energy sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in different metal mine tailings with soil amendments.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Zhu, Yongguan; Zhang, Yuebin; Liu, Yunxia; Liu, Shaochun; Guo, Jiawen; Li, Rudan; Wu, Songlin; Chen, Baodong

    2014-05-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the feasibility of growing energy sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in three different metal mine tailings (Cu, Sn and Pb/Zn tailings) amended with uncontaminated soil at different mixing ratios. The results indicated that sugarcane was highly tolerant to tailing environments. Amendments of 20% soil to Sn tailings and 30% soil to Cu tailings could increase the biomass of cane-stem for use as the raw material for bioethanol production. Heavy metals were mostly retained in roots, which indicated that sugarcane was useful for the stabilization of the tailings. Bagasse and juice, as the most valuable parts to produce bioethanol, only accounted for 0.6%-3% and 0.6%-7% of the total metal content. Our study supported the potential use of sugarcane for tailing phytostabilization and bioenergy production. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Changes in Temperature Sensitivity and Activation Energy of Soil Organic Matter Decomposition in Different Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Grasslands.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; He, Nianpeng; Wei, Xuehong; Gao, Yang; Zuo, Yao

    2015-01-01

    Qinghai-Tibet Plateau grasslands are unique geographical regions and store substantial soil organic matter (SOM) in the soil surface, which make them very sensitive to global climate change. Here, we focused on three main grassland types (alpine meadow, steppe, and desert) and conducted a soil incubation experiment at five different temperatures (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25°C) to investigate SOM decomposition rates (R), temperature sensitivity (Q10), and activation energy (Ea). The results showed that grassland type and incubation temperature had significant impact on R (P < 0.001), and the values of R were exponential correlated with incubation temperature in three alpine grasslands. At the same temperature, R was in the following order: alpine meadow > alpinesteppe > alpine desert. The Q10 values differed significantly among different grasslands, and the overall trends were as follows: alpine meadow (1.56 ± 0.09) < alpine steppe (1.88 ± 0.23) < alpine desert (2.39 ± 0.32). Moreover, the Ea values differed significantly across different grassland types (P < 0.001) and increased with increasing incubation time. The exponential negative correlations between Ea and R at 20°C across all grassland types (all Ps < 0.001) indicated that the substrate-quality temperature hypothesis is applicable to the alpine grasslands. Our findings provide new insights for understanding the responses of SOM decomposition and storage to warming scenarios in this Plateau.

  17. Changes in Temperature Sensitivity and Activation Energy of Soil Organic Matter Decomposition in Different Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; He, Nianpeng; Wei, Xuehong; Gao, Yang; Zuo, Yao

    2015-01-01

    Qinghai-Tibet Plateau grasslands are unique geographical regions and store substantial soil organic matter (SOM) in the soil surface, which make them very sensitive to global climate change. Here, we focused on three main grassland types (alpine meadow, steppe, and desert) and conducted a soil incubation experiment at five different temperatures (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25°C) to investigate SOM decomposition rates (R), temperature sensitivity (Q 10), and activation energy (E a). The results showed that grassland type and incubation temperature had significant impact on R (P < 0.001), and the values of R were exponential correlated with incubation temperature in three alpine grasslands. At the same temperature, R was in the following order: alpine meadow > alpinesteppe > alpine desert. The Q 10 values differed significantly among different grasslands, and the overall trends were as follows: alpine meadow (1.56 ± 0.09) < alpine steppe (1.88 ± 0.23) < alpine desert (2.39 ± 0.32). Moreover, the E a values differed significantly across different grassland types (P < 0.001) and increased with increasing incubation time. The exponential negative correlations between E a and R at 20°C across all grassland types (all Ps < 0.001) indicated that the substrate-quality temperature hypothesis is applicable to the alpine grasslands. Our findings provide new insights for understanding the responses of SOM decomposition and storage to warming scenarios in this Plateau. PMID:26176705

  18. Investigating and comparing energy and macronutrient intake in female aerobic athletes in two different socio-economic regions

    PubMed Central

    Darvishi, Leila; Rabbani, Zahra; Goodarzy, Sima; Askari, Gholamreza; Shiranian, Afshin; Salehi, Mohammad; Borzooe, Azam; Ghiasvand, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to assess nutritional intakes of female aerobic athletes in two different socio-economic classes in city of Isfahan. Materials and Methods: The participants of this analytical study were 99 female aerobic athletes aged between 15 and 50 years old who were randomly sampled (50 females in low economic region and 49 females in high economic region). The demographic details were collected by a questionnaire, and anthropometric indexes including height, weight, and waste circumference were measured using a tape measure and a scale. They filled out the 24-hour food recall questionnaire for two consecutive days in order to obtain their nutritional information. To analyze the data, Nutritionist 4 and SPSS18 software were used. Results: The means of energy intake in high and low regions were 1479.19 ± 561.86 and 1300.68 ± 498.354 kcal, respectively. There was no significant difference in terms of energy intake between these two groups (P = 0.98). The means of protein intake in low and high socio-economic classes were 17.41 ± 5.85 and 54.48 ± 6.62, respectively, and no significant differences were observed between these two regions (P = 0/606). The means of carbohydrate intake were 61.85 ± 9.76 and 54.48 ± 6.62 in the low and high socio-economic classes with a significant difference between them (P < 0.001). The mean of carbohydrate intake in the low socio-economic class was considerably higher than that in the high socio-economic class. The means of fat intake were 23.88 ± 8.24% and 30.07 ± 6.68% in the low and high socio-economic classes, respectively, and the means of fat intake in the high socio-economic region was significantly higher than that in the low socio-economic region (P < 0/001). Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that the intakes of fat and carbohydrate were significantly different in the two different socio-economic regions in city of Isfahan. This difference could be attributed to different

  19. Effects of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone on mitochondrial energy metabolism in rats of different age-groups.

    PubMed

    Feichtinger, René G; Pétervári, Erika; Zopf, Michaela; Vidali, Silvia; Aminzadeh-Gohari, Sepideh; Mayr, Johannes A; Kofler, Barbara; Balaskó, Márta

    2017-08-01

    Hypothalamic alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is a key catabolic mediator of energy homeostasis. Its anorexigenic and hypermetabolic effects show characteristic age-related alterations that may be part of the mechanism of middle-aged obesity and geriatric anorexia/cachexia seen in humans and other mammals. We aimed to investigate the role of α-MSH in mitochondrial energy metabolism during the course of aging in a rodent model. To determine the role of α-MSH in mitochondrial energy metabolism in muscle, we administered intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusions of α-MSH for 7-days to different age-groups of male Wistar rats. The activities of oxidative phosphorylation complexes I to V and citrate synthase were determined and compared to those of age-matched controls. We also quantified mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number and measured the expression of the master regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). The peptide reduced weight gain in juvenile rats to one fifth of that of controls and increased the weight loss in older animals by about five fold. Mitochondrial DNA copy number inversely correlated with changes in body weight in controls, but not in α-MSH-treated animals. The strong increase in body weight in young rats was associated with a low mtDNA copy number and high PPARγ mRNA levels in controls. Expression of PGC-1α and PPARγ declined with age, whereas OXPHOS and citrate synthase enzyme activities were unchanged. In contrast, α-MSH treatment suppressed OXPHOS enzyme and citrate synthase activity. In conclusion, our results showed age-related differences in the metabolic effects of α-MSH. In addition, administration of α-MSH suppressed citrate synthase and OXPHOS activities independent of age. These findings suggest that α-MSH exposure may inhibit mitochondrial biogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  20. Extent and Determinants of Thermogenic Responses to 24 Hours of Fasting, Energy Balance, and Five Different Overfeeding Diets in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Pannacciulli, Nicola; Bonfiglio, Susan; Pacak, Karel; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Context: Individual variation in the ability to convert excess calories to heat and the effects of dietary macronutrient composition are unclear. Objective: Stability and determinants of the energy expenditure (EE) response to overconsumption were assessed. Design, Setting, and Participants: Twenty subjects (75% male) with normal glucose regulation were evaluated during 24 hours each of energy balance, fasting, and 5 different diets with 200% energy requirements in a clinical research unit. Interventions: Five 1-day overfeeding diets were given in random order: high carbohydrate (75%) and low protein (3%); high carbohydrate and normal protein (20%); high fat (46%) and low protein; high fat (60%) and normal protein; and balanced (50% carbohydrates, 20% protein). Main Outcome Measures: The 24-hour EE, sleeping EE, and thermic effect of food (TEF) during each diet were measured with a metabolic chamber. Appetitive hormones were measured before and after the diets. Results: The EE response to overfeeding exhibited good intraindividual reproducibility. Similar increases above eucaloric feeding in 24-hour EE (mean 10.7 ± 5.7%, P < .001; range 2.9–18.8%) and sleeping EE (14.4 ± 11.3%, P < .001; range 1.0–45.1%) occurred when overfeeding diets containing 20% protein, despite differences in fat and carbohydrate content, but the EE response during overfeeding diets containing 3% protein was attenuated. The percent body fat negatively correlated with TEF during normal protein overfeeding (r = −0.53, P < .01). Fasting peptide YY negatively correlated with TEF (r = −0.56, P < .01) and the increase in sleeping EE (r = −0.54, P < .01) during overfeeding. Conclusions: There is an intrinsic EE response to overfeeding that negatively associates with adiposity, although it represents a small percentage of consumed calories. PMID:23666976

  1. Impact of different temperatures on survival and energy metabolism in the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama.

    PubMed

    El-Shesheny, Ibrahim; Hijaz, Faraj; El-Hawary, Ibrahim; Mesbah, Ibrahim; Killiny, Nabil

    2016-02-01

    Temperature influences the life history and metabolic parameters of insects. Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri is a tropical and subtropical pest. ACP invaded new regions around the world and threatened the citrus industry as a vector for Huanglongbing (HLB) disease. ACP is widely distributed and can survive high (up to 45 °C) and low temperatures (as low as -6 °C). The precise mechanism of temperature tolerance in ACP is poorly understood. We investigated adult survival, cellular energy balance, gene expression, and nucleotide and sugar-nucleotide changes under the effect of different temperature regimes (0 °C to 45 °C with 5 °C intervals). The optimum temperatures for survival were 20 and 25 °C. Low temperatures of 0 °C and 5 °C caused 50% mortality after 2 and 4 days respectively, while one day at high temperature (40 °C and 45 °C) caused more than 95% mortality. The lowest quantity of ATP (3.69 ± 1.6 ng/insect) and the maximum ATPase enzyme activities (57.43 ± 7.6 μU/insect) were observed at 25 °C. Correlation between ATP quantities and ATPase activity was negative. Gene expression of hsp 70, V-type proton ATPase catalytic subunit A and ATP synthase α subunit matched these results. Twenty-four nucleotides and sugar-nucleotides were quantified using HPLC in ACP adults maintained at low, high, and optimum temperatures. The nucleotide profiles were different among treatments. The ratios between AMP:ATP and ADP:ATP were significantly decreased and positively correlated to adults survival, whereas the adenylate energy charge was increased in response to low and high temperatures. Exploring energy metabolic regulation in relation with adult survival might help in understanding the physiological basis of how ACP tolerates newly invaded regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. No Differences in Energy Cost of a Predetermined Exercise among Young Overweight/Obese and Undernourished Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Muralidhara, DV; Mat Nor, Mohd Nasir; Zubaidi, Ahmad L

    2018-01-01

    Background: Physical activity is an integral part of one's daily life. Obese (Ob) and undernourished (UN) persons are known to underperform physically as compared to normal weight (N) individuals. In this study, we have measured the energy spent to perform a prefixed exercise on treadmill walking and basal heart rate and blood pressure. Body mass index (BMI) and body fat of participating individuals were assessed. Fasting blood sugar and lipid profile were also evaluated. Materials and Methods: Eighty-three young individuals (male: 41; female: 42) of medical faculty, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, who volunteered for the study, were recruited. The mean age of the individuals was 19.8 ± 0 years (P < 1.08). The individuals were grouped as N, UN/underweight, and overweight (Ow)/Ob based on BMI. Results: The results of the study revealed that there were no differences in the energy spent on performing the predetermined treadmill walking of 20 min duration among the three groups (a mean of 78 and 70 calories in all male and female subgroups, respectively). The distance covered by the males was 1.6 km while the females covered 1.4 km on treadmill walking in 20 min time. Basal blood pressure and heart rate and fasting blood sugar did not reveal any significant difference among the groups. However, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were marginally higher in the Ow/Ob groups of male and female individuals as compared to other groups. Conclusion: Since the study individuals were very young and competitive by nature and possibly had no major metabolic disturbances, the differences in physical activity performances were not obvious. Possibly, such differences would become apparent only at later stages of life as age advances or when the intensity and duration of exercise are set at higher levels. PMID:29755224

  3. Small field out-put factors comparison between ion chambers and diode dedectors for different photon energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tas, B.; Durmus, I. F.

    2018-02-01

    To compare small fields out-put factors of linear accelerator by using different ion chambers and diode dedectors for different photon energies. We measured small fields (1×1 to 5×5 cm2) out-put factors by using IBA® cc003 nano chamber, cc01 Razor, cc01, cc04, cc13, fc65 ion chambers and SFD, Razor diode dedectors for 6MV, 10MV, 15MV, 6MV FFF and 10MV FFF energies. We determined the most compatible out-put factors between ion chamber and diode dedector by using cc003 nano ion chamber for 1×1cm2 field size. We determined less than %2 dose difference between cc003 nano chamber, cc01 Razor, cc01, cc04 and cc13 ion chambers from 2×2 to 5×5 cm2. We determined %12±2 and %13±1 underestimate doses by using cc01 and cc13 ion chambers, also we determined %57±2 underesimate dose by using fc65 ion chamber's than razor diode for 1×1 cm2 field size. These results show that we shouldn't measure out-put factors of 1×1 cm2 field size by using cc01, cc13 and fc65 ion chambers. The dose difference between SFD and Razor diodes were determined less than %1.5. If we would like to use ion chambers for ≤1×1cm2 field size out-put measurement, we should use correction factor while commisionning linear accelerator. Otherwise we could determine underestimate dose by using ion chambers.

  4. The Promoting Role of Different Carbon Allotropes Cocatalysts for Semiconductors in Photocatalytic E