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Sample records for zeeman spectrum

  1. Zeeman-hyperfine structures and isotope effect in the spectrum of Tl I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouazza, Safa; Sobolewski, Łukasz Marek; Kwela, Jerzy

    2018-01-01

    The Zeeman structures of seventeen lines of 205Tl I (Z = 81) covering the UV-NIR spectral range (351.92-1151.28) nm were investigated. Landé gJ-factors for eighteen levels were determined for the first time. Furthermore, we have performed fine structure studies for both even- and odd-configuration levels and determined the relevant parameters. For the 6 s 6p2 configuration we have refined the suggested level energies and predicted positions for missing levels. With regard to hyperfine structure (hfs), we have justified the surprisingly huge value of the magnetic hfs constant A(6s2 10 s) . Moreover, we have extracted the single-electron hfs constant parameter values for the lowest even-parity configurations of 205Tl I; for instance a10s10 (6s2 10 s) = 1015(9) MHz and a6s10 (6 s 6p2) = 217306(205) MHz. Regarding isotope shift analysis we have observed that Dirac-Fock calculations, preferably chosen to take into account the contribution of the p1/2 contact-electron, are in good agreement with experimental data for low-lying levels of each configuration under study.

  2. Magneto-optical spectrum and the effective excitonic Zeeman splitting energies of Mn and Co-doped CdSe nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Wen, E-mail: wenxiong@cqu.edu.cn; Chen, Wensuo

    2013-12-21

    The electronic structure of Mn and Co-doped CdSe nanowires are calculated based on the six-band k·p effective-mass theory. Through the calculation, it is found that the splitting energies of the degenerate hole states in Mn-doped CdSe nanowires are larger than that in Co-doped CdSe nanowires when the concentration of these two kinds of magnetic ions is the same. In order to analysis the magneto-optical spectrum of Mn and Co-doped CdSe nanowires, the four lowest electron states and the four highest hole states are sorted when the magnetic field is applied, and the 10 lowest optical transitions between the conduction subbandsmore » and the valence subbands at the Γ point in Mn and Co-doped CdSe nanowires are shown in the paper, it is found that the order of the optical transitions at the Γ point almost do not change although two different kinds of magnetic ions are doped in CdSe nanowires. Finally, the effective excitonic Zeeman splitting energies at the Γ point are found to increase almost linearly with the increase of the concentration of the magnetic ions and the magnetic field; meanwhile, the giant positive effective excitonic g factors in Mn and Co-doped CdSe nanowires are predicted based on our theoretical calculation.« less

  3. The rotationally modulated Zeeman spectrum at nearly 10 to the 9th Gauss of the white dwarf PG 1031 + 234

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latter, William B.; Schmidt, Gary D.; Green, Richard F.

    1987-01-01

    Detailed analyses are performed of high-quality, phase-resolved CCD spectroscopy of the absorption-line spectrum throughout its rotation period of the new white dwarf PG 1031 + 234. The spectral variations are discussed and compared with new theoretical calculations of the behavior of hydrogen in strong magnetic fields. This analysis is then extended through a modeling procedure which produces a synthetic magnetically distorted spectrum for a star of arbitrary field strength and structure. The results confirm that PG 1031 + 234 possesses the strongest field yet detected on a white dwarf, with regions on the surface spanning the range of about 200 to nearly 1000 MG. The spectroscopic data reflect a field pattern containing a slightly offset global component of polar field strength of about 500 MG together with a localized magnetic 'spot' whose central field approaches 2000 MG.

  4. Dynamic Jahn-Teller effect: Calculation of fine structure spectrum, isotope shift and Zeeman behavior at deep center Ni2+ in CdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoepp, Juergen

    The internal transition of the deep center Ni2+ in II to IV semiconductor cadmium sulfide is examined with reference to crystal field theory. An algorithm was developed for calculation, in a basis fitted to trigonal symmetry, of fine structure operator matrix which is made of the sum of operators from spin trajectory coupling, trigonal field and electron phonon coupling. The dependence of energy level on the mass was calculated in order to examine the isotropy effect at Ni2+ transition. The mass dependence of phonon energy was estimated in an atomic cluster by using a valence force model from Keating for elastic energy. The Zeeman behavior of Ni2+ transition was examined for magnetic fields; the Zeeman operator was added to the fine structure operator and the resulting matrix was diagonalized. It is noticed that calculations are quantitatively and qualitatively in agreement with experiments.

  5. The Optical Spectrum of SrOH Re-Visited Zeeman Effect, High-Resolution Spectroscopy and Franck-Condon Factors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Trung; Kokkin, Damian L.; Steimle, Timothy; Kozyryev, Ivan; Doyle, John M.

    2015-06-01

    Motivated by a diverse range of applications in physics and chemistry, currently there is great interest in the cooling of molecules to very low temperatures (≤1 mK). Direct laser cooling has been previously demonstrated for the diatomic radicals SrF, YO, and CaF, and most recently a three-dimensional magneto-optical trap (MOT) of SrF molecules was achieved. To determine the possibility of laser cooling for polyatomic molecules containing three or more atoms, detailed information is required about their Franck-Condon factors (FCFs) for emission from the excited states of interest. Here we report on the high-resolution laser excitation spectra, recorded field-free and in the presence of a static magnetic field, and on the dispersed fluorescence (DF) spectra for the A^2Π1/2 ← X^2σ^+ and B^2σ^+ ← X ^2σ^+ electronic transitions of SrOH. The DF spectra were analyzed to precisely determine FCFs and compared with values predicted using a normal coordinate GF matrix approach. The recorded Zeeman spectra were analyzed to determine the magnetic moments. Implication for proposed laser cooling and trapping experiments for SrOH will be presented. E.S. Shuman, J.F. Barry and D. DeMille, Nature 467, 820 (2010) J.F. Barry, E.S. Shuman, E.B. Norrgard and D. DeMille, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 103002 (2012) M.T. Hummon, M. Yeo, B.K. Stuhl, A.L. Collopy, Y. Xia, and J. Ye, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 143001 (2013) M. Yeo, M.T. Hummon, A.L. Collopy, B. Yan, B. Hemmerling, E. Chae, J.M. Doyle, and J. Ye, arXiv:1501.04683 (2015) V. Zhelyazkova, A. Cournol, T.E. Wall, A. Matsushima, J.J. Hudson, E.A. Hinds, M.R. Tarbutt, and B.E. Sauer, Phys. Rev. A 89, 053416 (2014) J.F. Barry, D.J. McCarron, E.B. Norrgard, M.H. Steinecker and D. DeMille, Nature 512, 286 (2014) D.J. McCarron, E.B. Norrgard, M.H. Steinecker and D. DeMille, arXiv:1412.8220 (2014)

  6. Magneto-optical rotation in cavity QED with Zeeman coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hui; Jia, Xiaohua; Fan, Shuangli; Zhang, Hongjun; Guo, Hong

    2018-06-01

    We investigate theoretically the magneto-optical rotation in cavity QED system with atomic Zeeman coherence, which is established via coherent population trapping. Owing to Zeeman coherence, the ultranarrow transmission spectrum less than 1 MHz with gain can be achieved with a flat-top Faraday rotation angle. By controlling the parameters appropriately, the input probe components within the flat-top regime rotate with almost the same angle, and transmit through the cavity perpendicularly to the other components outside the flat-top regime. The concepts discussed here provide an important tool for perfect ultranarrow Faraday optical filter and quantum information processing.

  7. A quantum mechanical approach to establishing the magnetic field orientation from a maser Zeeman profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, J. A.; Gray, M. D.; Robishaw, T.; Caswell, J. L.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.

    2014-06-01

    Recent comparisons of magnetic field directions derived from maser Zeeman splitting with those derived from continuum source rotation measures have prompted new analysis of the propagation of the Zeeman split components, and the inferred field orientation. In order to do this, we first review differing electric field polarization conventions used in past studies. With these clearly and consistently defined, we then show that for a given Zeeman splitting spectrum, the magnetic field direction is fully determined and predictable on theoretical grounds: when a magnetic field is oriented away from the observer, the left-hand circular polarization is observed at higher frequency and the right-hand polarization at lower frequency. This is consistent with classical Lorentzian derivations. The consequent interpretation of recent measurements then raises the possibility of a reversal between the large-scale field (traced by rotation measures) and the small-scale field (traced by maser Zeeman splitting).

  8. Microwave ac Zeeman force for ultracold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fancher, C. T.; Pyle, A. J.; Rotunno, A. P.; Aubin, S.

    2018-04-01

    We measure the ac Zeeman force on an ultracold gas of 87Rb due to a microwave magnetic field targeted to the 6.8 GHz hyperfine splitting of these atoms. An atom chip produces a microwave near field with a strong amplitude gradient, and we observe a force over three times the strength of gravity. Our measurements are consistent with a simple two-level theory for the ac Zeeman effect and demonstrate its resonant, bipolar, and spin-dependent nature. We observe that the dressed-atom eigenstates gradually mix over time and have mapped out this behavior as a function of magnetic field and detuning. We demonstrate the practical spin selectivity of the force by pushing or pulling a specific spin state while leaving other spin states unmoved.

  9. Molecular Beam Optical Zeeman Spectroscopy of Vanadium Monoxide, VO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Trung; Zhang, Ruohan; Steimle, Timothy

    2016-06-01

    Like almost all astronomical studies, exoplanet investigations are observational endeavors that rely primarily on remote spectroscopic sensing to infer the physical properties of planets. Most exoplanet related information is inferred from to temporal variation of luminosity of the parent star. An effective method of monitoring this variation is via Magnetic Doppler Imaging (MDI), which uses optical polarimetry of paramagnetic molecules or atoms. One promising paramagnetic stellar absorption is the near infrared spectrum of VO. With this in mind, we have begun a project to record and analyze the field-free and Zeeman spectrum of the band. A cold (approx. 20 K) beam of VO was probed with a single frequency laser and detected using laser induced fluorescence. The determined spectral parameters will be discussed and compared to those extracted from the analysis of a hot spectrum. Supported by the National Science Foundation under the Grant No. CHE-1265885. O. Kochukhov, N. Rusomarov, J. A. Valenti, H. C. Stempels, F. Snik, M. Rodenhuis, N. Piskunov, V. Makaganiuk, C. U. Keller and C. M. Johns-Krull, Astron. Astrophys. 574 (Pt. 2), A79/71-A79/12 (2015). S. V. Berdyugina, Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser. 437 (Solar Polarization 6), 219-235 (2011). S. V. Berdyugina, P. A. Braun, D. M. Fluri and S. K. Solanki, Astron. Astrophys. 444 (3), 947-960 (2005). A. S. C. Cheung, P. G. Hajigeorgiou, G. Huang, S. Z. Huang and A. J. Merer, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 163 (2), 443-458 (1994)

  10. Applying Zeeman Doppler imaging to solar spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, G. A. J.; Saar, S. H.; Collier Cameron, A.

    2004-03-01

    A new generation of spectro-polarimeters with high throughput (e.g. CFHT/ESPADONS and LBT/PEPSI) is becoming available. This opportunity can be exploited using Zeeman Doppler imaging (ZDI), a technique that inverts time-series of Stokes V spectra to map stellar surface magnetic fields (Semel 1989). ZDI is assisted by ``Least squares deconvolution'' (LSD), which sums up the signal from 1000's of photospheric lines to produce a mean deconvolved profile with higher S:N (Donati & Collier Cameron 1997).

  11. A Zeeman slower for diatomic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzold, M.; Kaebert, P.; Gersema, P.; Siercke, M.; Ospelkaus, S.

    2018-04-01

    We present a novel slowing scheme for beams of laser-coolable diatomic molecules reminiscent of Zeeman slowing of atomic beams. The scheme results in efficient compression of the one-dimensional velocity distribution to velocities trappable by magnetic or magneto-optical traps. We experimentally demonstrate our method in an atomic testbed and show an enhancement of flux below v = 35 m s‑1 by a factor of ≈20 compared to white light slowing. 3D Monte Carlo simulations performed to model the experiment show excellent agreement. We apply the same simulations to the prototype molecule 88Sr19F and expect 15% of the initial flux to be continuously compressed in a narrow velocity window at around 10 m s‑1. This is the first experimentally shown continuous and dissipative slowing technique in molecule-like level structures, promising to provide the missing link for the preparation of large ultracold molecular ensembles.

  12. Understanding Zeeman EIT Noise Correlation Spectra in Buffered Rb Vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Leary, Shannon; Zheng, Aojie; Crescimanno, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Noise correlation spectroscopy on systems manifesting Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT) holds promise as a simple, robust method for performing high-resolution spectroscopy used in applications such as EIT-based atomic magnetometry and clocks. During laser light's propagation through a resonant medium, interaction with the medium converts laser phase noise into intensity noise. While this noise conversion can diminish the precision of EIT applications, noise correlation techniques transform the noise into a useful spectroscopic tool that can improve the application's precision. Using a single diode laser with large phase noise, we examine laser intensity noise and noise correlations from Zeeman EIT in a buffered Rb vapor. Of particular interest is a narrow noise correlation feature, resonant with EIT, that has been shown in earlier work to be power-broadening resistant at low powers. We report here on our recent experimental work and complementary theoretical modeling on EIT noise spectra, including a study of power broadening of the narrow noise correlation feature. Understanding the nature of the noise correlation spectrum is essential for optimizing EIT-noise applications.

  13. Zeeman Effect in Ruby at High Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, Ioana

    2012-02-01

    We have developed a versatile fiber-coupled system for magneto-optical spectroscopy measurements at high pressure. The system is based on a miniature Cu-alloy Diamond Anvil Cell (from D'Anvils, Ltd) fitted with a custom-designed He gas-actuated membrane for in-situ pressure control, and coupled with a He transfer cryostat incorporating a superconducting magnet (from Quantum Designs). This system allows optical measurements (Raman, photoluminescence, reflectivity) within wide ranges of pressures (up to 100GPa), temperatures (4.2-300K) and magnetic fields (0-9T). We employ this system to examine the effect of pressure and non-hydrostatic stress on the Zeeman split d-d transitions of Cr^3+ in ruby (Al2O3: Cr^3+). We determine the effect of pressure and non-hydrostaticity on the trigonal crystal field in this material, and discuss the use of the Zeman-split ruby fluorescence as a possible probe for deviatoric stresses in diamond anvil cell experiments.

  14. The recondite intricacies of Zeeman Doppler mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stift, M. J.; Leone, F.; Cowley, C. R.

    2012-02-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the reliability of abundance and magnetic maps of Ap stars obtained by Zeeman Doppler mapping (ZDM). It is shown how they can be adversely affected by the assumption of a mean stellar atmosphere instead of appropriate 'local' atmospheres corresponding to the actual abundances in a given region. The essence of the difficulties was already shown by Chandrasekhar's picket-fence model. The results obtained with a suite of Stokes codes written in the ADA programming language and based on modern line-blanketed atmospheres are described in detail. We demonstrate that the high metallicity values claimed to have been found in chemically inhomogeneous (horizontally and vertically) Ap star atmospheres would lead to local temperature structures, continuum and line intensities, and line shapes that differ significantly from those predicted by a mean stellar atmosphere. Unfortunately, past applications of ZDM have consistently overlooked the intricate aspects of metallicity with their all-pervading effects. The erroneous assumption of a mean atmosphere for a spotted star can lead to phase-dependent errors of uncomfortably large proportions at varying wavelengths both in the Stokes I and V profiles, making precise mapping of abundances and magnetic field vectors largely impossible. The relation between core and wings of the Hβ line changes, too, with possible repercussions on the determination of gravity and effective temperature. Finally, a ZDM analysis of the synthetic Stokes spectra of a spotted star reveals the disturbing differences between the respective abundance maps based on a mean atmosphere on the one hand, and on appropriate 'local' atmospheres on the other. We then discuss what this all means for published ZDM results. Our discussion makes it clear that realistic local atmospheres must be used, especially if credible small-scale structures are to be obtained. Recondite: dealing with very profound, difficult or abstruse subject

  15. ZEEMAN DOPPLER MAPS: ALWAYS UNIQUE, NEVER SPURIOUS?

    SciTech Connect

    Stift, Martin J.; Leone, Francesco

    Numerical models of atomic diffusion in magnetic atmospheres of ApBp stars predict abundance structures that differ from the empirical maps derived with (Zeeman) Doppler mapping (ZDM). An in-depth analysis of this apparent disagreement investigates the detectability by means of ZDM of a variety of abundance structures, including (warped) rings predicted by theory, but also complex spot-like structures. Even when spectra of high signal-to-noise ratio are available, it can prove difficult or altogether impossible to correctly recover shapes, positions, and abundances of a mere handful of spots, notwithstanding the use of all four Stokes parameters and an exactly known field geometry;more » the recovery of (warped) rings can be equally challenging. Inversions of complex abundance maps that are based on just one or two spectral lines usually permit multiple solutions. It turns out that it can by no means be guaranteed that any of the regularization functions in general use for ZDM (maximum entropy or Tikhonov) will lead to a true abundance map instead of some spurious one. Attention is drawn to the need for a study that would elucidate the relation between the stratified, field-dependent abundance structures predicted by diffusion theory on the one hand, and empirical maps obtained by means of “canonical” ZDM, i.e., with mean atmospheres and unstratified abundances, on the other hand. Finally, we point out difficulties arising from the three-dimensional nature of the atomic diffusion process in magnetic ApBp star atmospheres.« less

  16. Chaotic behaviour of Zeeman machines at introductory course of mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Péter; Tasnádi, Péter

    2016-05-01

    Investigation of chaotic motions and cooperative systems offers a magnificent opportunity to involve modern physics into the basic course of mechanics taught to engineering students. In the present paper it will be demonstrated that Zeeman Machine can be a versatile and motivating tool for students to get introductory knowledge about chaotic motion via interactive simulations. It works in a relatively simple way and its properties can be understood very easily. Since the machine can be built easily and the simulation of its movement is also simple the experimental investigation and the theoretical description can be connected intuitively. Although Zeeman Machine is known mainly for its quasi-static and catastrophic behaviour, its dynamic properties are also of interest with its typical chaotic features. By means of a periodically driven Zeeman Machine a wide range of chaotic properties of the simple systems can be demonstrated such as bifurcation diagrams, chaotic attractors, transient chaos and so on. The main goal of this paper is the presentation of an interactive learning material for teaching the basic features of the chaotic systems through the investigation of the Zeeman Machine.

  17. Experimental studies of a zeeman-tuned xenon laser differential absorption apparatus.

    PubMed

    Linford, G J

    1973-06-01

    A Zeeman-tuned cw xenon laser differential absorption device is described. The xenon laser was tuned by axial magnetic fields up to 5500 G generated by an unusually large water-cooled dc solenoid. Xenon laser lines at 3.37 micro, 3.51 micro, and 3.99 micro were tuned over ranges of 6 A, 6 A, and 11 A, respectively. To date, this apparatus has been used principally to study the details of formaldehyde absorption lines lying near the 3 .508-micro xenon laser transition. These experiments revealed that the observed absorption spectrum of formaldehyde exhibits a sufficiently unique spectral structure that the present technique may readily be used to measure relative concentrations of formaldehyde in samples of polluted air.

  18. Design of a Permanent-Magnet Zeeman Slower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, Charles; Narducci, Frank; Sukenik, Charles; Mulholland, Jonathan; Goodale, Sarah

    2006-05-01

    During the past decade, low cost, flexible, and highly-polarized magnetic field sheet material has become available with field strengths useful for applications in modern atomic physics experiments. One advantage of using such material is that it can easily be cut to almost any desired shape without appreciable loss of field strength making it more versatile than ceramic magnets. We present the design of a Zeeman slower, made from such material, for cooling an atomic beam of neutral rubidium atoms and discuss results from an atomic beam trajectory simulation which indicates that the slower should perform well. We will also report on progress of a prototype permanent magnet Zeeman slower presently under construction in the laboratory.

  19. The Zeeman effect in the (0,0) band of the A 7Pi-X 7Sigma(+) transition of manganese monohydride, MnH.

    PubMed

    Steimle, Timothy C; Wang, Hailing; Gengler, Jamie J; Stoll, Michael; Meijer, Gerard

    2008-10-28

    The Zeeman tuning of the P(1)(0) line (nu=17 568.35 cm(-1)) of the A (7)Pi-X (7)Sigma(+) (0,0) band of manganese monohydride, MnH, has been investigated. The laser induced fluorescence spectrum of a supersonic molecular beam sample was recorded at a resolution of approximately 40 MHz and with field strengths of up to 362.0 mT. The observed spectrum was successfully fitted using a traditional effective Zeeman Hamiltonian to determine an effective magnetic g-factor for the J=2 level of the F(1)-spin component of the A (7)Pi(v=0) state. Spectral predictions of the P(1)(0) line at field strengths used in magnetic trapping experiments are presented.

  20. The Zeeman effect in the (0,0) band of the A 7Π-X 7Σ+ transition of manganese monohydride, MnH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steimle, Timothy C.; Wang, Hailing; Gengler, Jamie J.; Stoll, Michael; Meijer, Gerard

    2008-10-01

    The Zeeman tuning of the P1(0) line (ν =17 568.35 cm-1) of the A Π7-X Σ7+ (0,0) band of manganese monohydride, MnH, has been investigated. The laser induced fluorescence spectrum of a supersonic molecular beam sample was recorded at a resolution of approximately 40 MHz and with field strengths of up to 362.0 mT. The observed spectrum was successfully fitted using a traditional effective Zeeman Hamiltonian to determine an effective magnetic g-factor for the J =2 level of the F1-spin component of the A Π7(v =0) state. Spectral predictions of the P1(0) line at field strengths used in magnetic trapping experiments are presented.

  1. Magnetic Field Measurements In Magnetized Plasmas Using Zeeman Broadening Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, Showera; Wallace, Matthew; Presura, Radu; Neill, Paul

    2017-10-01

    The Zeeman effect has been used to measure the magnetic field in high energy density plasmas. This method is limited when plasma conditions are such that the line broadening due to the high plasma density and temperature surpasses the Zeeman splitting. We have measured magnetic fields in magnetized laser plasmas under conditions where the Zeeman splitting was not spectrally resolved. The magnetic field strength was determined from the difference in widths of two doublet components, using an idea proposed by Tessarin et al. (2011). Time-gated spectra with one-dimensional space-resolution were obtained at the Nevada Terawatt Facility for laser plasmas created by 20 J, 1 ns Leopard laser pulses, and expanding in the azimuthal magnetic field produced by the 0.6 MA Zebra pulsed power generator. We explore the response of the Al III 4s 2S1/2 - 4p 2P1 / 2 , 3 / 2 doublet components to the external magnetic field spatially along the plasma. Radial magnetic field and electron density profiles were measured within the plasma plume. This work was supported by the DOE/OFES Grant DE-SC0008829 and DOE/NNSA contract DE-FC52-06NA27616.

  2. Spatiotemporal Evolution of Hanle and Zeeman Synthetic Polarization in a Chromospheric Spectral Line

    SciTech Connect

    Carlin, E. S.; Bianda, M., E-mail: escarlin@irsol.es

    Due to the quick evolution of the solar chromosphere, its magnetic field cannot be inferred reliably without accounting for the temporal variations of its polarized light. This has been broadly overlooked in the modeling and interpretation of the polarization, due to technical problems (e.g., lack of temporal resolution or of time-dependent MHD solar models) and/or because many polarization measurements can apparently be explained without dynamics. Here, we show that the temporal evolution is critical for explaining the spectral-line scattering polarization because of its sensitivity to rapidly varying physical quantities and the possibility of signal cancellations and attenuation during extended timemore » integration. For studying the combined effect of time-varying magnetic fields and kinematics, we solved the 1.5D non-LTE problem of the second kind in time-dependent 3D R-MHD solar models and synthesized the Hanle and Zeeman polarization in forward scattering for the chromospheric λ 4227 line. We find that the quiet-Sun polarization amplitudes depend on the periodicity and spectral coherence of the signal enhancements produced by kinematics, but that substantially larger linear polarization signals should exist all over the solar disk for short integration times. The spectral morphology of the polarization is discussed as a combination of Hanle, Zeeman, partial redistribution and dynamic effects. We give physical references for observations by degrading and characterizing our slit time series in different spatiotemporal resolutions. The implications of our results for the interpretation of the second solar spectrum and for the investigation of the solar atmospheric heatings are discussed.« less

  3. Multistage Zeeman decelerator for molecular-scattering studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremers, Theo; Chefdeville, Simon; Janssen, Niek; Sweers, Edwin; Koot, Sven; Claus, Peter; van de Meerakker, Sebastiaan Y. T.

    2017-04-01

    We present a concept for a multistage Zeeman decelerator that is optimized particularly for applications in molecular beam scattering experiments. The decelerator consists of a series of alternating hexapoles and solenoids, that effectively decouple the transverse focusing and longitudinal deceleration properties of the decelerator. It can be operated in a deceleration and acceleration mode, as well as in a hybrid mode that makes it possible to guide a particle beam through the decelerator at constant speed. The deceleration features phase stability, with a relatively large six-dimensional phase-space acceptance. The separated focusing and deceleration elements result in an unequal partitioning of this acceptance between the longitudinal and transverse directions. This is ideal in scattering experiments, which typically benefit from a large longitudinal acceptance combined with narrow transverse distributions. We demonstrate the successful experimental implementation of this concept using a Zeeman decelerator consisting of an array of 25 hexapoles and 24 solenoids. The performance of the decelerator in acceleration, deceleration, and guiding modes is characterized using beams of metastable helium (3S ) atoms. Up to 60% of the kinetic energy was removed for He atoms that have an initial velocity of 520 m/s. The hexapoles consist of permanent magnets, whereas the solenoids are produced from a single hollow copper capillary through which cooling liquid is passed. The solenoid design allows for excellent thermal properties and enables the use of readily available and cheap electronics components to pulse high currents through the solenoids. The Zeeman decelerator demonstrated here is mechanically easy to build, can be operated with cost-effective electronics, and can run at repetition rates up to 10 Hz.

  4. Third-order Zeeman effect in highly charged ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varentsova, A. S.; Agababaev, V. A.; Volchkova, A. M.; Glazov, D. A.; Volotka, A. V.; Shabaev, V. M.; Plunien, G.

    2017-10-01

    The contribution of the third order in magnetic field to the Zeeman splitting of the ground state of hydrogenlike, lithiumlike, and boronlike ions in the range Z = 6 - 82 is investigated within the relativistic approach. Both perturbative and non-perturbative methods of calculation are employed and found to be in agreement. For lithiumlike and boronlike ions the interelectronic-interaction effects are taken into account within the approximation of the local screening potential. The contribution of the third-order effect in low- and medium-Z boronlike ions is found to be important for anticipated high-precision measurements.

  5. An Essay on Interactive Investigations of the Zeeman Effect in the Interstellar Medium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolsey, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents an interactive module created through the Wolfram Demonstrations Project that visualizes the Zeeman effect for the small magnetic field strengths present in the interstellar medium. The paper provides an overview of spectral lines and a few examples of strong and weak Zeeman splitting before discussing the module in depth.…

  6. Intraband magneto-optical absorption in InAs/GaAs quantum dots: Orbital Zeeman splitting and the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.-Z.; Galbraith, I.

    2008-05-01

    Using perturbation theory, intraband magneto-optical absorption is calculated for InAs/GaAs truncated pyramidal quantum dots in a magnetic field applied parallel to the growth direction z . The effects of the magnetic field on the electronic states as well as the intraband transitions are systematically studied. Selection rules governing the intraband transitions are discussed based on the symmetry properties of the electronic states. While the broadband z -polarized absorption is almost insensitive to the magnetic field, the orbital Zeeman splitting is the dominant feature in the in-plane polarized spectrum. Strong in-plane polarized magneto-absorption features are located in the far-infrared region, while z -polarized absorption occurs at higher frequencies. This is due to the dot geometry (the base length is much larger than the height) yielding different quantum confinement in the vertical and lateral directions. The Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule, including the magnetic field effect, is applied together with the selection rules to the absorption spectra. The orbital Zeeman splitting depends on both the dot size and the confining potential—the splitting decreases as the dot size or the confining potential decreases. Our calculated Zeeman splittings are in agreement with experimental data.

  7. Spin bottleneck in resonant tunneling through double quantum dots with different Zeeman splittings.

    PubMed

    Huang, S M; Tokura, Y; Akimoto, H; Kono, K; Lin, J J; Tarucha, S; Ono, K

    2010-04-02

    We investigated the electron transport property of the InGaAs/GaAs double quantum dots, the electron g factors of which are different from each other. We found that in a magnetic field, the resonant tunneling is suppressed even if one of the Zeeman sublevels is aligned. This is because the other misaligned Zeeman sublevels limit the total current. A finite broadening of the misaligned sublevel partially relieves this bottleneck effect, and the maximum current is reached when interdot detuning is half the Zeeman energy difference.

  8. The Zeeman splitting of bulk 2H-MoTe2 single crystal in high magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yan; Zhang, Junpei; Ma, Zongwei; Chen, Cheng; Han, Junbo; Chen, Fangchu; Luo, Xuan; Sun, Yuping; Sheng, Zhigao

    2017-03-01

    A high magnetic field magneto-optical spectrum is utilized to study the A exciton of bulk 2H-MoTe2 single crystal. A clear Zeeman splitting of the A exciton is observed under high magnetic fields up to 41.68 T, and the g-factor (-2.09 ± 0.08) is deduced. Moreover, a high magnetic field enables us to obtain the quadratic diamagnetic shifts of the A exciton (0.486 μeV T-2). Accordingly, the binding energy, reduced mass, and radius of the A exciton were obtained by using both two and three dimensional models. Compared with other transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), the A exciton of bulk 2H-MoTe2 has a relatively small binding energy and larger exciton radius, which provide fundamental parameters for comprehensive understanding of excitons in TMDs as well as their future applications.

  9. Interface-Induced Zeeman-Protected Superconductivity in Ultrathin Crystalline Lead Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Ziqiao; Zhang, Xuefeng; Liu, Chaofei; Liu, Yongjie; Zhou, Zhimou; Wang, Junfeng; Wang, Qingyan; Liu, Yanzhao; Xi, Chuanying; Tian, Mingliang; Liu, Haiwen; Feng, Ji; Xie, X. C.; Wang, Jian

    2018-04-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) superconducting systems are of great importance for exploring exotic quantum physics. The recent development of fabrication techniques has stimulated studies of high-quality single-crystalline 2D superconductors, where intrinsic properties give rise to unprecedented physical phenomena. Here, we report the observation of Zeeman-type spin-orbit interaction protected superconductivity (Zeeman-protected superconductivity) in 4-monolayer (ML) to 6-ML crystalline Pb films grown on striped incommensurate Pb layers on Si(111) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. An anomalously large in-plane critical field far beyond the Pauli limit is detected, which can be attributed to the Zeeman-protected superconductivity due to the in-plane inversion symmetry breaking at the interface. Our work demonstrates that, in superconducting heterostructures, the interface can induce Zeeman-type spin-orbit interactions and modulate the superconductivity.

  10. Suppression of Zeeman gradients by nuclear polarization in double quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Frolov, S M; Danon, J; Nadj-Perge, S; Zuo, K; van Tilburg, J W W; Pribiag, V S; van den Berg, J W G; Bakkers, E P A M; Kouwenhoven, L P

    2012-12-07

    We use electric dipole spin resonance to measure dynamic nuclear polarization in InAs nanowire quantum dots. The resonance shifts in frequency when the system transitions between metastable high and low current states, indicating the presence of nuclear polarization. We propose that the low and the high current states correspond to different total Zeeman energy gradients between the two quantum dots. In the low current state, dynamic nuclear polarization efficiently compensates the Zeeman gradient due to the g-factor mismatch, resulting in a suppressed total Zeeman gradient. We present a theoretical model of electron-nuclear feedback that demonstrates a fixed point in nuclear polarization for nearly equal Zeeman splittings in the two dots and predicts a narrowed hyperfine gradient distribution.

  11. Inversion of Zeeman polarization for solar magnetic field diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derouich, M.

    2017-05-01

    The topic of magnetic field diagnostics with the Zeeman effect is currently vividly discussed. There are some testable inversion codes available to the spectropolarimetry community and their application allowed for a better understanding of the magnetism of the solar atmosphere. In this context, we propose an inversion technique associated with a new numerical code. The inversion procedure is promising and particularly successful for interpreting the Stokes profiles in quick and sufficiently precise way. In our inversion, we fit a part of each Stokes profile around a target wavelength, and then determine the magnetic field as a function of the wavelength which is equivalent to get the magnetic field as a function of the height of line formation. To test the performance of the new numerical code, we employed "hare and hound" approach by comparing an exact solution (called input) with the solution obtained by the code (called output). The precision of the code is also checked by comparing our results to the ones obtained with the HAO MERLIN code. The inversion code has been applied to synthetic Stokes profiles of the Na D1 line available in the literature. We investigated the limitations in recovering the input field in case of noisy data. As an application, we applied our inversion code to the polarization profiles of the Fe Iλ 6302.5 Å observed at IRSOL in Locarno.

  12. Anisotropic semivortices in dipolar spinor condensates controlled by Zeeman splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Bingjin; Li, Shoubo; Huang, Chunqing; Luo, Zhihuan; Pang, Wei; Tan, Haishu; Malomed, Boris A.; Li, Yongyao

    2017-10-01

    Spatially anisotropic solitary vortices, i.e., bright anisotropic vortex solitons (AVSs), supported by anisotropic dipole-dipole interactions, were recently predicted in spin-orbit-coupled binary Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs), in the form of two-dimensional semivortices (complexes built of zero-vorticity and vortical components). We demonstrate that the shape of the AVSs—horizontal or vertical, with respect to the in-plane polarization of the atomic dipole moments in the underlying BEC—may be effectively controlled by the strength Ω of the Zeeman splitting (ZS). A transition from the horizontal to vertical shape with the increase of Ω is found numerically and explained analytically. At the transition point, the AVS assumes the shape of an elliptical ring. The mobility of horizontal AVSs is studied, too, with the conclusion that, with the increase of Ω , their negative effective mass changes the sign to positive via a point at which the effective mass diverges. Lastly, we report a new species of inverted AVSs, with the zero-vorticity and vortex component placed in lower- and higher-energy components, as defined by the ZS. They are excited states, with respect to the ground states provided by the usual AVSs. Quite surprisingly, inverted AVSs are stable in a large parameter region.

  13. Zeeman effect in sulfur monoxide: A tool to probe magnetic fields in star forming regions.

    PubMed

    Cazzoli, Gabriele; Lattanzi, Valerio; Coriani, Sonia; Gauss, Jürgen; Codella, Claudio; Ramos, Andrés Asensio; Cernicharo, José; Puzzarini, Cristina

    2017-09-01

    Magnetic fields play a fundamental role in star formation processes and the best method to evaluate their intensity is to measure the Zeeman effect of atomic and molecular lines. However, a direct measurement of the Zeeman spectral pattern from interstellar molecular species is challenging due to the high sensitivity and high spectral resolution required. So far, the Zeeman effect has been detected unambiguously in star forming regions for very few non-masing species, such as OH and CN. We decided to investigate the suitability of sulfur monoxide (SO), which is one of the most abundant species in star forming regions, for probing the intensity of magnetic fields via the Zeeman effect. We investigated the Zeeman effect for several rotational transitions of SO in the (sub-)mm spectral regions by using a frequency-modulated, computer-controlled spectrometer, and by applying a magnetic field parallel to the radiation propagation (i.e., perpendicular to the oscillating magnetic field of the radiation). To support the experimental determination of the g factors of SO, a systematic quantum-chemical investigation of these parameters for both SO and O 2 has been carried out. An effective experimental-computational strategy for providing accurate g factors as well as for identifying the rotational transitions showing the strongest Zeeman effect has been presented. Revised g factors have been obtained from a large number of SO rotational transitions between 86 and 389 GHz. In particular, the rotational transitions showing the largest Zeeman shifts are: N , J = 2, 2 ← 1, 1 (86.1 GHz), N , J = 4, 3 ← 3, 2 (159.0 GHz), N , J = 1, 1 ← 0, 1 (286.3 GHz), N , J = 2, 2 ← 1, 2 (309.5 GHz), and N , J = 2, 1 ← 1, 0 (329.4 GHz). Our investigation supports SO as a good candidate for probing magnetic fields in high-density star forming regions.

  14. Zeeman effect in sulfur monoxide: A tool to probe magnetic fields in star forming regions⋆

    PubMed Central

    Cazzoli, Gabriele; Lattanzi, Valerio; Coriani, Sonia; Gauss, Jürgen; Codella, Claudio; Ramos, Andrés Asensio; Cernicharo, José; Puzzarini, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Context Magnetic fields play a fundamental role in star formation processes and the best method to evaluate their intensity is to measure the Zeeman effect of atomic and molecular lines. However, a direct measurement of the Zeeman spectral pattern from interstellar molecular species is challenging due to the high sensitivity and high spectral resolution required. So far, the Zeeman effect has been detected unambiguously in star forming regions for very few non-masing species, such as OH and CN. Aims We decided to investigate the suitability of sulfur monoxide (SO), which is one of the most abundant species in star forming regions, for probing the intensity of magnetic fields via the Zeeman effect. Methods We investigated the Zeeman effect for several rotational transitions of SO in the (sub-)mm spectral regions by using a frequency-modulated, computer-controlled spectrometer, and by applying a magnetic field parallel to the radiation propagation (i.e., perpendicular to the oscillating magnetic field of the radiation). To support the experimental determination of the g factors of SO, a systematic quantum-chemical investigation of these parameters for both SO and O2 has been carried out. Results An effective experimental-computational strategy for providing accurate g factors as well as for identifying the rotational transitions showing the strongest Zeeman effect has been presented. Revised g factors have been obtained from a large number of SO rotational transitions between 86 and 389 GHz. In particular, the rotational transitions showing the largest Zeeman shifts are: N, J = 2, 2 ← 1, 1 (86.1 GHz), N, J = 4, 3 ← 3, 2 (159.0 GHz), N, J = 1, 1 ← 0, 1 (286.3 GHz), N, J = 2, 2 ← 1, 2 (309.5 GHz), and N, J = 2, 1 ← 1, 0 (329.4 GHz). Our investigation supports SO as a good candidate for probing magnetic fields in high-density star forming regions. PMID:29151607

  15. Zeeman Splitting of Ferromagnetic GaMnAs on InP Observed by Magnetic Circular Dichroism in Reflection Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, H.; Bsatee, M.; Jadwisienczak, W. M.

    2016-08-01

    Systematic investigations of Ga1- x Mn x As grown on InP with different Mn concentrations have been conducted using magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) in reflection mode. The MCD spectrum of Ga0.97Mn0.03As/InP was decomposed into two dispersion curves originating from E 1 and E 1 + Δ1 optical transitions using the energy derivative of a Gaussian function. The Zeeman splitting energy E 1 at the L critical point (0.6 meV) of ferromagnetic Ga0.97Mn0.03As/InP was estimated using a rigid band shift model. Based on the relationship between E 1 and E 0 (Γ critical point) observed in Cd1- x Mn x Te dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMS), the Zeeman splitting energy E 1 (9.6 meV) of ferromagnetic Ga1- x Mn x As/InP was calculated. In addition, it was established that the peaks in the MCD spectra at L critical points shift toward the lower energy side as the Mn concentration is increased, and the observed shift saturates for Mn content of x = 0.001. Furthermore, the measured absorption spectra for Ga1- x Mn x As/InP did not show noticeable peak shifts with increasing Mn content. This suggests that the s, p- d exchange interaction induced in Ga1- x Mn x As/InP has localized nature due to the presence of a Mn rigid sphere of influence.

  16. Investigating and addressing student difficulties with the corrections to the energies of the hydrogen atom for the strong and weak field Zeeman effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keebaugh, Christof; Marshman, Emily; Singh, Chandralekha

    2018-07-01

    Understanding when and how to make limiting case approximations and why they are valid in a particular situation is a hallmark of expertise in physics. Using limiting cases can simplify the problem-solving process significantly and they often provide a means to check that the results obtained are reasonable. We discuss an investigation of student difficulties with the corrections to the energy spectrum of the hydrogen atom for the limiting cases of the strong and weak field Zeeman effects using degenerate perturbation theory. This investigation was carried out in advanced quantum mechanics courses by administering written free-response and multiple-choice questions and conducting individual interviews with students. Here we first discuss the common student difficulties related to these concepts. We then describe how the research on student difficulties was used as a guide to develop and evaluate a quantum interactive learning tutorial (QuILT) which strives to help students develop a functional understanding of the concepts necessary for finding the corrections to the energy spectrum of the hydrogen atom for the strong field and weak field Zeeman effects. The development of the QuILT and its evaluation in the undergraduate and PhD level courses are presented.

  17. Zeeman effect in sulfur monoxide. A tool to probe magnetic fields in star forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazzoli, Gabriele; Lattanzi, Valerio; Coriani, Sonia; Gauss, Jürgen; Codella, Claudio; Ramos, Andrés Asensio; Cernicharo, José; Puzzarini, Cristina

    2017-09-01

    Context. Magnetic fields play a fundamental role in star formation processes and the best method to evaluate their intensity is to measure the Zeeman effect of atomic and molecular lines. However, a direct measurement of the Zeeman spectral pattern from interstellar molecular species is challenging due to the high sensitivity and high spectral resolution required. So far, the Zeeman effect has been detected unambiguously in star forming regions for very few non-masing species, such as OH and CN. Aims: We decided to investigate the suitability of sulfur monoxide (SO), which is one of the most abundant species in star forming regions, for probing the intensity of magnetic fields via the Zeeman effect. Methods: We investigated the Zeeman effect for several rotational transitions of SO in the (sub-)mm spectral regions by using a frequency-modulated, computer-controlled spectrometer, and by applying a magnetic field parallel to the radiation propagation (I.e., perpendicular to the oscillating magnetic field of the radiation). To support the experimental determination of the g factors of SO, a systematic quantum-chemical investigation of these parameters for both SO and O2 has been carried out. Results: An effective experimental-computational strategy for providing accurate g factors as well as for identifying the rotational transitions showing the strongest Zeeman effect has been presented. Revised g factors have been obtained from a large number of SO rotational transitions between 86 and 389 GHz. In particular, the rotational transitions showing the largest Zeeman shifts are: N,J = 2, 2 ← 1, 1 (86.1 GHz), N,J = 4, 3 ← 3, 2 (159.0 GHz), N,J = 1, 1 ← 0, 1 (286.3 GHz), N,J = 2, 2 ← 1, 2 (309.5 GHz), and N,J = 2, 1 ← 1, 0 (329.4 GHz). Our investigation supports SO as a good candidate for probing magnetic fields in high-density star forming regions. The complete list of measured Zeeman components is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http

  18. Fast optical cooling of nanomechanical cantilever with the dynamical Zeeman effect.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Qi; Zhang, Shuo; Zou, Jin-Hua; Chen, Liang; Yang, Wen; Li, Yong; Feng, Mang

    2013-12-02

    We propose an efficient optical electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) cooling scheme for a cantilever with a nitrogen-vacancy center attached in a non-uniform magnetic field using dynamical Zeeman effect. In our scheme, the Zeeman effect combined with the quantum interference effect enhances the desired cooling transition and suppresses the undesired heating transitions. As a result, the cantilever can be cooled down to nearly the vibrational ground state under realistic experimental conditions within a short time. This efficient optical EIT cooling scheme can be reduced to the typical EIT cooling scheme under special conditions.

  19. Orientation observed by Zeeman spectra of dissociated atoms and the interference in photoexcitations

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Yasuyuki; Kasahara, Shunji; Kato, Hajime

    2003-06-01

    In a magnetic field, the wave number of a pump laser light polarized along the field was fixed to the isolated Cs{sub 2}D {sup 1}{sigma}{sub u}{sup +}(v=46, J=54)(leftarrow)X {sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +}(v=0, J=55) line, and the excitation spectrum of the dissociated Cs(6p {sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) atoms was measured by scanning the wave number of a probe laser light polarized perpendicular to the field. The population of each sublevel 6p {sup 2}P{sub 3/2,m{sub j}} of the dissociated atoms was determined from the line intensities in the m{sub j}-resolved excitation spectrum. The unequal population between the 6p {sup 2}P{sub 3/2,+verticalbarm{sub j}}{sub verticalbar}more » and 6p {sup 2}P{sub 3/2,-verticalbarm{sub j}}{sub verticalbar} levels (atomic orientation) was observed and it was enhanced as the magnetic-field strength was increased. The atomic orientation is shown to be induced by the interference between the indirect predissociation, which occurs by a combination of the spin-orbit coupling of the D {sup 1}{sigma}{sub u}{sup +} state with the (2){sup 3}{pi}{sub 0u} state and the L-uncoupling and Zeeman interactions between the (2){sup 3}{pi}{sub 0u} and dissociative (2){sup 3}{sigma}{sub u}{sup +} states, and the dissociation following a direct excitation to the (2){sup 3}{sigma}{sub u}{sup +} state, which is allowed by spin-orbit coupling of the (2){sup 3}{sigma}{sub u}{sup +} state with the B {sup 1}{pi}{sub u} state. It is demonstrated that the atomic orientation is produced by the photodissociation in the presence of an external magnetic field even when all degenerated molecular M=J,...,0,...,-J sublevels are excited by a light polarized linearly along the field.« less

  20. Measuring 20-100 T B-fields using Zeeman splitting of sodium emission lines on a 500 kA pulsed power machine

    SciTech Connect

    Banasek, J. T., E-mail: jtb254@cornell.edu; Engelbrecht, J. T.; Pikuz, S. A.

    2016-11-15

    We have shown that Zeeman splitting of the sodium (Na) D-lines at 5890 and 5896 Å can be used to measure the magnetic field (B-field) produced in high current pulsed power experiments. We have measured the B-field next to a return current conductor in a hybrid X-pinch experiment near a peak current of about 500 kA. Na is deposited on the conductor and then is desorbed and excited by radiation from the hybrid X-pinch. The D-line emission spectrum implies B-fields of about 20 T with a return current post of 4 mm diameter or up to 120 T with amore » return current wire of 0.455 mm diameter. These measurements were consistent or lower than the expected B-field, thereby showing that basic Zeeman splitting can be used to measure the B-field in a pulsed-power-driven high-energy-density (HED) plasma experiment. We hope to extend these measurement techniques using suitable ionized species to measurements within HED plasmas.« less

  1. Neutron Zeeman beam-splitting for the investigation of magnetic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozhevnikov, S. V.; Ott, F.; Semenova, E.

    2017-03-01

    Zeeman spatial splitting of a neutron beam takes place during a neutron spin-flip in magnetically non-collinear systems at grazing incidence geometry. We apply the neutron beam-splitting method for the investigation of magnetically non-collinear clusters of submicron size in a thin film. The experimental results are compared with ones obtained by other methods.

  2. Sub-Doppler rotationally resolved spectroscopy of lower vibronic bands of benzene with Zeeman effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doi, Atsushi; Kasahara, Shunji; Katô, Hajime; Baba, Masaaki

    2004-04-01

    Sub-Doppler high-resolution excitation spectra and the Zeeman effects of the 601, 101601, and 102601 bands of the S1 1B2u←S0 1A1g transition of benzene were measured by crossing laser beam perpendicular to a collimated molecular beam. 1593 rotational lines of the 101601 band and 928 lines of the 102601 band were assigned, and the molecular constants of the excited states were determined. Energy shifts were observed for the S1 1B2u(v1=1,v6=1,J,Kl=-11) levels, and those were identified as originating from a perpendicular Coriolis interaction. Many energy shifts were observed for the S1 1B2u(v1=2,v6=1,J,Kl) levels. The Zeeman splitting of a given J level was observed to increase with K and reach the maximum at K=J, which demonstrates that the magnetic moment lies perpendicular to the molecular plane. The Zeeman splittings of the K=J levels were observed to increase linearly with J. From the analysis, the magnetic moment is shown to be originating mostly from mixing of the S1 1B2u and S2 1B1u states by the J-L coupling (electronic Coriolis interaction). The number of perturbations was observed to increase as the excess energy increases, and all the perturbing levels were found to be a singlet state from the Zeeman spectra.

  3. Interaction between Rashba and Zeeman effects in a quantum well channel.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won Young; Kwon, Jae Hyun; Chang, Joonyeon; Han, Suk Hee; Koo, Hyun Cheol

    2014-05-01

    The applied field induced Zeeman effect interferes with Rashba effect in a quantum well system. The angle dependence of Shubnikov-de Haas oscillation shows that the in-plane term of the applied field changes the intrinsic Rashba induced spin splitting. The total effective spin-orbit interaction parameter is determined by the vector sum of the Rashba field and the applied field.

  4. Designing and building a permanent magnet Zeeman slower for calcium atoms using a 3D printer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsagian, Alexandria; Kleinert, Michaela

    2015-10-01

    We present the design of a Zeeman slower for calcium atoms using permanent magnets instead of more traditional electromagnets and the novel technique of 3D printing to create a very robust and flexible structure for these magnets. Zeeman slowers are ideal tools to slow atoms from several hundreds of meters per second to just a few tens of meters per second. These slower atoms can then easily be trapped in a magneto-optical trap, making Zeeman slowers a very valuable tool in many cold atom labs. The use of permanent magnets and 3D printing results in a highly stable and robust slower that is suitable for undergraduate laboratories. In our design, we arranged 28 magnet pairs, 2.0 cm apart along the axis of the slower and at varying radial distances from the axis. We determined the radial position of the magnets by simulating the combined field of all magnet pairs using Mathematica and comparing it to the ideal theoretical field for a Zeeman slower. Finally, we designed a stable, robust, compact, and easy-to-align mounting structure for the magnets in Google Sketchup, which we then printed using a commercially available 3D printer by Solidoodle. The resulting magnetic field is well suited to slow calcium atoms from the 770 m/s rms velocity at a temperature of 950 K, down to the capture velocity of the magneto-optical trap.

  5. Influence of the nuclear Zeeman effect on mode locking in pulsed semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beugeling, Wouter; Uhrig, Götz S.; Anders, Frithjof B.

    2017-09-01

    The coherence of the electron spin in a semiconductor quantum dot is strongly enhanced by mode locking through nuclear focusing, where the synchronization of the electron spin to periodic pulsing is slowly transferred to the nuclear spins of the semiconductor material, mediated by the hyperfine interaction between these. The external magnetic field that drives the Larmor oscillations of the electron spin also subjects the nuclear spins to a Zeeman-like coupling, albeit a much weaker one. For typical magnetic fields used in experiments, the energy scale of the nuclear Zeeman effect is comparable to that of the hyperfine interaction, so that it is not negligible. In this work, we analyze the influence of the nuclear Zeeman effect on mode locking quantitatively. Within a perturbative framework, we calculate the Overhauser-field distribution after a prolonged period of pulsing. We find that the nuclear Zeeman effect can exchange resonant and nonresonant frequencies. We distinguish between models with a single type and with multiple types of nuclei. For the latter case, the positions of the resonances depend on the individual g factors, rather than on the average value.

  6. Infrared Stark and Zeeman spectroscopy of OH–CO: The entrance channel complex along the OH + CO → trans-HOCO reaction pathway

    DOE PAGES

    Brice, Joseph T.; Liang, Tao; Raston, Paul L.; ...

    2016-09-27

    Here, sequential capture of OH and CO by superfluid helium droplets leads exclusively to the formation of the linear, entrance-channel complex, OH-CO. This species is characterized by infrared laser Stark and Zeeman spectroscopy via measurements of the fundamental OH stretching vibration. Experimental dipole moments are in disagreement with ab initio calculations at the equilibrium geometry, indicating large-amplitude motion on the ground state potential energy surface. Vibrational averaging along the hydroxyl bending coordinate recovers 80% of the observed deviation from the equilibrium dipole moment. Inhomogeneous line broadening in the zero-field spectrum is modeled with an effective Hamiltonian approach that aims tomore » account for the anisotropic molecule-helium interaction potential that arises as the OH-CO complex is displaced from the center of the droplet.« less

  7. Zeeman Tuning Rate for Q Branch Transitions in the v3 Band of NO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahon, C. R.; Chackerian, C., Jr.; Gore, Warren J. Y. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Zeeman tuning rates have bee a measured for Q branch transitions in the v3 band of NO2(approx.1610/cm) for magnetic fields of up to 564 Gauss. The average measured tuning rate is 0.1815(53) x 10(exp -3)/cm/Gauss with no dependence on Ka within the approx. equal to 3% standard deviation. Despite significant ,pin-rotation interaction between several of the observed levels the result agrees with the simple linear model for Honda case (be molecules (tuning rate = 2muogs = 0.18696 x 10(exp -3)/cm/Gauss) which neglects the spin-rotation interaction between different J states. The Zeeman effect is analyzed in a full treatment of the Hamiltonian, including spin-rotation interaction, in order to account for the agreement with 2muogs and to explore the onset of spin-rotation effects in the spectra as the magnetic field is increased.

  8. Zeeman-Field-Tuned Topological Phase Transitions in a Two-Dimensional Class-DIII Superconductor

    PubMed Central

    Deng, W. Y.; Geng, H.; Luo, W.; Sheng, L.; Xing, D. Y.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the topological phase transitions in a two-dimensional time-reversal invariant topological superconductor in the presence of a Zeeman field. Based on the spin Chern number theory, we find that the system exhibits a number of topologically distinct phases with changing the out-of-plane component of the Zeeman field, including a quantum spin Hall-like phase, quantum anomalous Hall-like phases with total Chern number C = −2, −1, 1 and 2, and a topologically trivial superconductor phase. The BdG band gap closes at each boundary of the phase transitions. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the zero bias conductance provides clear transport signatures of the different topological phases, which are robust against symmetry-breaking perturbations. PMID:27148675

  9. VLA HI Zeeman Observations of the Cygnus X Region: DR 22 And ON 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, Elizabeth A.; Troland, T. H.

    2010-01-01

    The Very Large Array in Socorro, New Mexico has been used to study the Zeeman Effect in the 21cm HI line seen in absorption against radio sources in the Cygnus X region. Cygnus X is geometrically favorable for Zeeman effect observations as the region lies along the mean field direction of the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) of the galaxy. We present observations of two compact HII regions within Cygnus X, DR 22 and ON 2. The data show magnetic field strengths of the order -80 μG toward DR 22 alone with no significant detections toward ON 2. This information is used to estimate the magnetic energy of the DR 22 star-forming cloud, and allows for a complete analysis of the energetics of the region revealing the role of the magnetic field. Support for this work was provided by the NSF PAARE program to South Carolina State University under award AST-0750814.

  10. Zeeman Effect observations toward 36 GHz methanol masers in the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potvin, Justin A.; Momjian, Emmanuel; Pratim Sarma, Anuj

    2017-01-01

    We present observations of 36 GHz Class I methanol masers taken with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) in the B configuration with the aim of detecting the Zeeman Effect. We targeted several 36 GHz Class I methanol masers associated with supernova remnants (SNRs) toward the Galactic Center. Each source was observed in dual circular polarizations for three hours. The observed spectral profiles of the masers are complex, with several components blended in velocity. In only one case was the Stokes V maser profile prominent enough to reveal a 2-sigma hint of a magnetic field of zBlos = 14.56 +/- 5.60 Hz; we have chosen to express our results in terms of zBlos since the Zeeman splitting factor (z) for 36 GHz methanol masers has not been measured. There are several hints that these spectra would reveal significant magnetic fields if they could be spatially and spectrally resolved.

  11. Mercury Pollution Exploration in Latvia with High-Sensitivity Zeeman Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogans, Egils; Gavare, Zanda; Svagere, Anda; Poikane, Rita; Skudra, Jānis

    2011-01-01

    This research presents Hg pollution measurements performed in Latvia with sensitive method using Zeeman AAS analyzer RA-915+ and necessary attachments. Air in Riga city and water samples from a number of rivers and lakes of Latvia were analyzed for presence of low-level Hg concentrations. Ombrotrophic bog peat was analyzed to get insight into long-term trends. Environment in the sites sampled is relatively clean according to the results obtained, but there are local spots of pollution.

  12. Zeeman relaxation of cold atomic iron and nickel in collisions with He3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Cort; Newman, Bonna; Brahms, Nathan; Doyle, John M.; Kleppner, Daniel; Greytak, Thomas J.

    2010-06-01

    We have measured the ratio γ of the diffusion cross section to the angular momentum reorientation cross section in the colliding Fe-He3 and Ni-He3 systems. Nickel (Ni) and iron (Fe) atoms are introduced via laser ablation into a cryogenically cooled experimental cell containing cold (<1 K) He3 buffer gas. Elastic collisions rapidly cool the translational temperature of the ablated atoms to the He3 temperature. γ is extracted by measuring the decays of the atomic Zeeman sublevels. For our experimental conditions, thermal energy is comparable to the Zeeman splitting. As a result, thermal excitations between Zeeman sublevels significantly impact the observed decay. To determine γ accurately, we introduce a model of Zeeman-state dynamics that includes thermal excitations. We find γNi-3He=5×103 and γFe-3He⩽3×103 at 0.75 K in a 0.8-T magnetic field. These measurements are interpreted in the context of submerged shell suppression of spin relaxation, as studied previously in transition metals and rare-earth-metal atoms [C. I. Hancox, S. C. Doret, M. T. Hummon, R. V. Krems, and J. M. Doyle, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.94.013201 94, 013201 (2005); C. I. Hancox, S. C. Doret, M. T. Hummon, L. Luo, and J. M. Doyle, Nature (London)NATUAS0028-083610.1038/nature02938 431, 281 (2004); A. Buchachenko, G. Chaasiski, and M. Szczniak, Eur. Phys. J. DEPJDF61434-606010.1140/epjd/e2006-00263-3 45, 147 (2007)].

  13. THE HANLE AND ZEEMAN POLARIZATION SIGNALS OF THE SOLAR Ca II 8542 Å LINE

    SciTech Connect

    Štěpán, Jiri; Bueno, Javier Trujillo

    We highlight the main results of a three-dimensional (3D) multilevel radiative transfer investigation about the solar disk-center polarization of the Ca ii 8542 Å line. First, through the use of a 3D model of the solar atmosphere, we investigate the linear polarization that occurs due to the atomic level polarization produced by the absorption and scattering of anisotropic radiation, taking into account the symmetry-breaking effects caused by its thermal, dynamic, and magnetic structure. Second, we study the contribution of the Zeeman effect to the linear and circular polarization. Finally, we show examples of the Stokes profiles produced by the jointmore » action of the atomic level polarization and the Hanle and Zeeman effects. We find that the Zeeman effect tends to dominate the linear polarization signals only in the localized patches of opposite magnetic polarity, where the magnetic field is relatively strong and slightly inclined; outside such very localized patches, the linear polarization is often dominated by the contribution of atomic level polarization. We demonstrate that a correct modeling of this last contribution requires taking into account the symmetry-breaking effects caused by the thermal, dynamic, and magnetic structure of the solar atmosphere, and that in the 3D model used the Hanle effect in forward-scattering geometry (disk-center observation) mainly reduces the polarization corresponding to the zero-field case. We emphasize that, in general, a reliable modeling of the linear polarization in the Ca ii 8542 Å line requires taking into account the joint action of atomic level polarization and the Hanle and Zeeman effects.« less

  14. The Zeeman Effect in the 44 GHz Class I Methanol Maser Line toward DR21(OH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momjian, E.; Sarma, A. P.

    2017-01-01

    We report detection of the Zeeman effect in the 44 GHz Class I methanol maser line, toward the star-forming region DR21(OH). In a 219 Jy beam-1 maser centered at an LSR velocity of 0.83 km s-1, we find a 20-σ detection of zBlos = 53.5 ± 2.7 Hz. If 44 GHz methanol masers are excited at n ˜ 107-8 cm-3, then the B versus n1/2 relation would imply, from comparison with Zeeman effect detections in the CN(1 - 0) line toward DR21(OH), that magnetic fields traced by 44 GHz methanol masers in DR21(OH) should be ˜10 mG. Combined with our detected zBlos = 53.5 Hz, this would imply that the value of the 44 GHz methanol Zeeman splitting factor z is ˜5 Hz mG-1. Such small values of z would not be a surprise, as the methanol molecule is non-paramagnetic, like H2O. Empirical attempts to determine z, as demonstrated, are important because there currently are no laboratory measurements or theoretically calculated values of z for the 44 GHz CH3OH transition. Data from observations of a larger number of sources are needed to make such empirical determinations robust.

  15. Getting a grip on the transverse motion in a Zeeman decelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Dulitz, Katrin; Softley, Timothy P., E-mail: tim.softley@chem.ox.ac.uk; Motsch, Michael

    2014-03-14

    Zeeman deceleration is an experimental technique in which inhomogeneous, time-dependent magnetic fields generated inside an array of solenoid coils are used to manipulate the velocity of a supersonic beam. A 12-stage Zeeman decelerator has been built and characterized using hydrogen atoms as a test system. The instrument has several original features including the possibility to replace each deceleration coil individually. In this article, we give a detailed description of the experimental setup, and illustrate its performance. We demonstrate that the overall acceptance in a Zeeman decelerator can be significantly increased with only minor changes to the setup itself. This ismore » achieved by applying a rather low, anti-parallel magnetic field in one of the solenoid coils that forms a temporally varying quadrupole field, and improves particle confinement in the transverse direction. The results are reproduced by three-dimensional numerical particle trajectory simulations thus allowing for a rigorous analysis of the experimental data. The findings suggest the use of a modified coil configuration to improve transverse focusing during the deceleration process.« less

  16. An adaptable dual species effusive source and Zeeman slower design demonstrated with Rb and Li

    SciTech Connect

    Bowden, William, E-mail: william.bowden@physics.ox.ac.uk; Gunton, Will; Semczuk, Mariusz

    2016-04-15

    We present a dual-species effusive source and Zeeman slower designed to produce slow atomic beams of two elements with a large mass difference and with very different oven temperature requirements. We demonstrate this design for the case of {sup 6}Li and {sup 85}Rb and achieve magneto-optical trap (MOT) loading rates equivalent to that reported in prior work on dual species (Rb+Li) Zeeman slowers operating at the same oven temperatures. Key design choices, including thermally separating the effusive sources and using a segmented coil design to enable computer control of the magnetic field profile, ensure that the apparatus can be easilymore » modified to slow other atomic species. By performing the final slowing using the quadrupole magnetic field of the MOT, we are able to shorten our Zeeman slower length making for a more compact system without compromising performance. We outline the construction and analyze the emission properties of our effusive sources. We also verify the performance of the source and slower, and we observe sequential loading rates of 12 × 10{sup 8} atoms/s for a Rb oven temperature of 140 °C and 1.1 × 10{sup 8} atoms/s for a Li reservoir at 460 °C, corresponding to reservoir lifetimes for continuous operation of 10 and 4 years, respectively.« less

  17. Doppler-Zeeman Mapping of the Rapidly Rotating Magnetic CP Star HD37776

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khokhlova, V. L.; Vasilchenko, D. V.; Stepanov, V. V.; Romanyuk, I. I.

    2000-03-01

    We present the results of our analysis of magnetic-field configuration and abundance anomalies on the surface of the rapidly rotating, chemically peculiar helium-strong variable B2 V star HD37776 with unresolved Zeeman components of spectral lines. Simultaneous inversion of the observed Stokes I and V profiles, which realizes the method of Doppler-Zeeman mapping (Vasilchenko et al. 1996), has been applied for the first time. Spectroscopic observations were carried out with the Main stellar spectrograph of the 6-m Special Astrophysical Observatory telescope equipped with a Zeeman analyzer and a CCD array, which allowed spectra in right- and left-hand circularly polarized light to be taken simultaneously at a signal-to-noise ratio S/N > 200 (Romanyuk et al. 1999). The profile width of winged spectral lines (reaching 5 A) is determined by Zeeman line splitting; however, the observed Zeeman components are blurred and unresolved because of the rapid stellar rotation. When solving the inverse problem, we sought for the magnetic-field configuration in the form of a combination of arbitrarily oriented dipole, quadrupole, and octupole placed at the stellar center. The observed Stokes I and V profiles for eight spectral lines of He, OII, AlIII, SiIII, and FeIII averaged over the visible stellar surface were used as input data. We constructed a model of the magnetic field from the condition of coincidence of magnetic maps obtained from different lines of different chemical elements and from the condition of a minimum profile residual. This model is a combination of centered coaxial dipole and quadrupole with the dominant quadrupole component at 30 deg < i < 50 deg, beta = 40 deg, and a maximum surface field strength H_s = 60 kG. A comparison of our abundance maps with the field configuration shows that the He concentration is at a maximum in the regions of maximum radial field, while the maximum concentrations of O, Al, Si, and Fe coincide with the regions of maximum

  18. THE ZEEMAN EFFECT IN THE 44 GHZ CLASS I METHANOL MASER LINE TOWARD DR21(OH)

    SciTech Connect

    Momjian, E.; Sarma, A. P., E-mail: emomjian@nrao.edu, E-mail: asarma@depaul.edu

    2017-01-10

    We report detection of the Zeeman effect in the 44 GHz Class I methanol maser line, toward the star-forming region DR21(OH). In a 219 Jy beam{sup −1} maser centered at an LSR velocity of 0.83 km s{sup −1}, we find a 20- σ detection of zB {sub los} = 53.5 ± 2.7 Hz. If 44 GHz methanol masers are excited at n ∼ 10{sup 7–8} cm{sup −3}, then the B versus n {sup 1/2} relation would imply, from comparison with Zeeman effect detections in the CN(1 − 0) line toward DR21(OH), that magnetic fields traced by 44 GHz methanol masersmore » in DR21(OH) should be ∼10 mG. Combined with our detected zB {sub los} = 53.5 Hz, this would imply that the value of the 44 GHz methanol Zeeman splitting factor z is ∼5 Hz mG{sup −1}. Such small values of z would not be a surprise, as the methanol molecule is non-paramagnetic, like H{sub 2}O. Empirical attempts to determine z , as demonstrated, are important because there currently are no laboratory measurements or theoretically calculated values of z for the 44 GHz CH{sub 3}OH transition. Data from observations of a larger number of sources are needed to make such empirical determinations robust.« less

  19. Nonadiabatic effects in ultracold molecules via anomalous linear and quadratic Zeeman shifts.

    PubMed

    McGuyer, B H; Osborn, C B; McDonald, M; Reinaudi, G; Skomorowski, W; Moszynski, R; Zelevinsky, T

    2013-12-13

    Anomalously large linear and quadratic Zeeman shifts are measured for weakly bound ultracold 88Sr2 molecules near the intercombination-line asymptote. Nonadiabatic Coriolis coupling and the nature of long-range molecular potentials explain how this effect arises and scales roughly cubically with the size of the molecule. The linear shifts yield nonadiabatic mixing angles of the molecular states. The quadratic shifts are sensitive to nearby opposite f-parity states and exhibit fourth-order corrections, providing a stringent test of a state-of-the-art ab initio model.

  20. The Zeeman effect or linear birefringence? VLA polarimetric spectral line observations of H2O masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jun-Hui; Goss, W. M.; Diamond, P.

    We present line profiles of the four Stokes parameters of H2O masers at 22 GHz observed with the VLA in full polarimetric spectral line mode. With careful calibration, the instrumental effects such as linear leakage and the difference of antenna gain between RCP and LCP, can be minimized. Our measurements show a few percent linear polarization. Weak circular polarization was detected at a level of 0.1 percent of the peak intensity. A large uncertainty in the measurements of weak circular polarization is caused by telescope pointing errors. The observed polarization of H2O masers can be interpreted as either the Zeeman effect or linear birefringence.

  1. Exploring the robustness of a noise correlation resonance in a Zeeman EIT system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Leary, Shannon; Crescimanno, Michael; Strehlow, Henry; Snider, Chad

    2011-05-01

    Using a single diode laser with large phase noise (linewidth ~100 MHz) resonant with Zeeman EIT in rubidium vapor, we examine intensity noise correlations of orthogonally-polarized laser components. A sharp correlation feature (~100 Hz) is shown to be power-broadening resistant at low powers. However, the limitations of this resistance are revealed, with the onset of a power-broadening regime once a threshold power is crossed. Possible mechanisms for this broadening, due to decoherence of the ground state superposition, are experimentally explored and results are compared to a model. Understanding the limits of this noise correlation feature is essential to practical applications such as magnetometry.

  2. Origin of excess low-energy states in a disordered superconductor in a Zeeman field.

    PubMed

    Loh, Y L; Trivedi, N; Xiong, Y M; Adams, P W; Catelani, G

    2011-08-05

    Tunneling density of states measurements of disordered superconducting Al films in high Zeeman fields reveal a significant population of subgap states which cannot be explained by standard BCS theory. We provide a natural explanation of these excess states in terms of a novel disordered Larkin-Ovchinnikov phase that occurs near the spin-paramagnetic transition at the Chandrasekhar-Clogston critical field. The disordered Larkin-Ovchinnikov superconductor is characterized by a pairing amplitude that changes sign at domain walls. These domain walls carry magnetization and support Andreev bound states that lead to distinct spectral signatures at low energy.

  3. Long lifetime and high-fidelity quantum memory of photonic polarization qubit by lifting zeeman degeneracy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhongxiao; Wu, Yuelong; Tian, Long; Chen, Lirong; Zhang, Zhiying; Yan, Zhihui; Li, Shujing; Wang, Hai; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi

    2013-12-13

    Long-lived and high-fidelity memory for a photonic polarization qubit (PPQ) is crucial for constructing quantum networks. We present a millisecond storage system based on electromagnetically induced transparency, in which a moderate magnetic field is applied on a cold-atom cloud to lift Zeeman degeneracy and, thus, the PPQ states are stored as two magnetic-field-insensitive spin waves. Especially, the influence of magnetic-field-sensitive spin waves on the storage performances is almost totally avoided. The measured average fidelities of the polarization states are 98.6% at 200  μs and 78.4% at 4.5 ms, respectively.

  4. Zeeman relaxation of MnH (X7Σ+) in collisions with He3: Mechanism and comparison with experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turpin, F.; Stoecklin, T.; Halvick, Ph.

    2011-03-01

    We present a theoretical study of the Zeeman relaxation of the magnetically trappable lowest field seeking state of MnH (7Σ) in collisions with He3. We analyze the collisional Zeeman transition mechanism as a function of the final diatomic state and its variation as a function of an applied magnetic field. We show that as a result of this mechanism the levels with ΔMj>2 give negligible contributions to the Zeemam relaxation cross section. We also compare our results to the experimental cross sections obtained from the buffer-gas cooling and magnetic trapping of this molecule and investigate the dependence of the Zeeman relaxation cross section on the accuracy of the three-body interaction at ultralow energies.

  5. Exact solutions for a type of electron pairing model with spin-orbit interactions and Zeeman coupling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Han, Qiang; Shao, L B; Wang, Z D

    2011-07-08

    A type of electron pairing model with spin-orbit interactions or Zeeman coupling is solved exactly in the framework of the Richardson ansatz. Based on the exact solutions for the case with spin-orbit interactions, it is shown rigorously that the pairing symmetry is of the p + ip wave and the ground state possesses time-reversal symmetry, regardless of the strength of the pairing interaction. Intriguingly, how Majorana fermions can emerge in the system is also elaborated. Exact results are illustrated for two systems, respectively, with spin-orbit interactions and Zeeman coupling.

  6. Ordinary matter, dark matter, and dark energy on normal Zeeman space-times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imre Szabó, Zoltán

    2017-01-01

    Zeeman space-times are new, relativistic, and operator based Hamiltonian models representing multi-particle systems. They are established on Lorentzian pseudo Riemannian manifolds whose Laplacian immediately appears in the form of original quantum physical wave operators. In classical quantum theory they emerge, differently, from the Hamilton formalism and the correspondence principle. Nonetheless, this new model does not just reiterate the well known conceptions but holds the key to solving open problems of quantum theory. Most remarkably, it represents the dark matter, dark energy, and ordinary matter by the same ratios how they show up in experiments. Another remarkable agreement with reality is that the ordinary matter appears to be non-expanding and is described in consent with observations. The theory also explains gravitation, moreover, the Hamilton operators of all energy and matter formations, together with their physical properties, are solely derived from the Laplacian of the Zeeman space-time. By this reason, it is called Monistic Wave Laplacian which symbolizes an all-comprehensive unification of all matter and energy formations. This paper only outlines the normal case where the particles do not have proper spin but just angular momentum. The complete anomalous theory is detailed in [Sz2, Sz3, Sz4, Sz5, Sz6, Sz7].

  7. [Probing Planck-scale Physics with a Ne-21/He-3 Zeeman Maser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Ne-21/He-3 Zeeman maser is a recently developed device which employs co-located ensembles of Ne-21 and He-3 atoms to provide sensitive differential measurements of the noble gas nuclear Zeeman splittings as a function of time, thereby greatly attenuating common-mode systematic effects such as uniform magnetic field variations. The Ne-21 maser will serve as a precision magnetometer to stabilize the system's static magnetic field, while the He-3 maser is used as a sensitive probe for violations of CPT and Lorentz symmetry by searching for small variations in the 3He maser frequency as the spatial orientation of the apparatus changes due to the rotation of the Earth (or placement on a rotating table). In the context of a general extension of the Standard Model of particle physics, the Ne-21/He-3 maser will provide the most sensitive search to date for CPT and Lorentz violation of the neutron: better than 10(exp -32) GeV, an improvement of more than an order of magnitude over past experiments. This exceptional precision will offer a rare opportunity to probe physics at the Planck scale. A future space-based Ne-21/He-3 maser or related device could provide even greater sensitivity to violations of CPT and Lorentz symmetry, and hence to Planck-scale physics, because of isolation from dominant systematic effects associated with ground-based operation, and because of access to different positions in space-time.

  8. Doppler-Zeeman mapping of the magnetic CP star HD 215441

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khokhlova, V. L.; Vasilchenko, D. V.; Stepanov, V. V.; Tsymbal, V. V.

    1997-07-01

    The method of Vasilchenko et al. (1996) is used to obtain a Doppler-Zeeman map of the magnetic CP star HD 215441. The magnetic field is approximated by a magnetic dipole that is arbitrarily shifted from the star center. The solution of the inverse problem yields the dipole parameters and the maps of Si, Ti, Cr, and Fe abundance anomalies; the coordinates of local magnetic vectors on the star surface are computed. A comparison of the distribution of abundance anomalies and the magnetic-field configuration reveals that in the region where the magnetic-field lines are vertical (near the magnetic pole), Si, Ti and Cr are highly deficient, while the Fe enhancement is strongest. In the regions where the magnetic-field lines are horizontal (near the magnetic equator), Si, Ti and Cr show the greatest overabundance. In these regions, the Fe abundance is also slightly enhanced and exhibits, as it were, a secondary maximum. The factors that limit the accuracy of Doppler-Zeeman mapping are reviewed.

  9. A versatile dual-species Zeeman slower for caesium and ytterbium

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, S. A., E-mail: s.a.hopkins@durham.ac.uk; Butler, K.; Guttridge, A.

    2016-04-15

    We describe the design, construction, and operation of a versatile dual-species Zeeman slower for both Cs and Yb, which is easily adaptable for use with other alkali metals and alkaline earths. With the aid of analytic models and numerical simulation of decelerator action, we highlight several real-world problems affecting the performance of a slower and discuss effective solutions. To capture Yb into a magneto-optical trap (MOT), we use the broad {sup 1}S{sub 0} to {sup 1}P{sub 1} transition at 399 nm for the slower and the narrow {sup 1}S{sub 0} to {sup 3}P{sub 1} intercombination line at 556 nm formore » the MOT. The Cs MOT and slower both use the D2 line (6{sup 2}S{sub 1/2} to 6{sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) at 852 nm. The slower can be switched between loading Yb or Cs in under 0.1 s. We demonstrate that within a few seconds the Zeeman slower loads more than 10{sup 9} Yb atoms and 10{sup 8} Cs atoms into their respective MOTs. These are ideal starting numbers for further experiments on ultracold mixtures and molecules.« less

  10. Mapping the absolute magnetic field and evaluating the quadratic Zeeman-effect-induced systematic error in an atom interferometer gravimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qing-Qing; Freier, Christian; Leykauf, Bastian; Schkolnik, Vladimir; Yang, Jun; Krutzik, Markus; Peters, Achim

    2017-09-01

    Precisely evaluating the systematic error induced by the quadratic Zeeman effect is important for developing atom interferometer gravimeters aiming at an accuracy in the μ Gal regime (1 μ Gal =10-8m /s2 ≈10-9g ). This paper reports on the experimental investigation of Raman spectroscopy-based magnetic field measurements and the evaluation of the systematic error in the gravimetric atom interferometer (GAIN) due to quadratic Zeeman effect. We discuss Raman duration and frequency step-size-dependent magnetic field measurement uncertainty, present vector light shift and tensor light shift induced magnetic field measurement offset, and map the absolute magnetic field inside the interferometer chamber of GAIN with an uncertainty of 0.72 nT and a spatial resolution of 12.8 mm. We evaluate the quadratic Zeeman-effect-induced gravity measurement error in GAIN as 2.04 μ Gal . The methods shown in this paper are important for precisely mapping the absolute magnetic field in vacuum and reducing the quadratic Zeeman-effect-induced systematic error in Raman transition-based precision measurements, such as atomic interferometer gravimeters.

  11. Influence of non-local thermodynamic equilibrium and Zeeman effects on magnetic equilibrium reconstruction using spectral motional Stark effect diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, R.; Marchuk, O.; Geiger, B.; Mc Carthy, P. J.; Dunne, M.; Hobirk, J.; Wolf, R.; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2017-08-01

    The Motional Stark Effect (MSE) diagnostic is a well established technique to infer the local internal magnetic field in fusion plasmas. In this paper, the existing forward model which describes the MSE data is extended by the Zeeman effect, fine-structure, and relativistic corrections in the interpretation of the MSE spectra for different experimental conditions at the tokamak ASDEX Upgrade. The contribution of the non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (non-LTE) populations among the magnetic sub-levels and the Zeeman effect on the derived plasma parameters is different. The obtained pitch angle is changed by 3 ° … 4 ° and by 0 . 5 ° … 1 ° including the non-LTE and the Zeeman effects into the standard statistical MSE model. The total correction is about 4°. Moreover, the variation of the magnetic field strength is significantly changed by 2.2% due to the Zeeman effect only. While the data on the derived pitch angle still could not be tested against the other diagnostics, the results from an equilibrium reconstruction solver confirm the obtained values for magnetic field strength.

  12. Very Large Array H I Zeeman Observations of the Cygnus X Region: DR 22 and ON 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, E. A.; Troland, T. H.

    2012-02-01

    We have used the Very Large Array to study the Zeeman effect in 21 cm H I absorption lines from two star-forming regions in the Cygnus X complex, DR 22 and ON 2. We measure the line-of-sight magnetic field toward these regions, finding B los = -84 ± 11 μG toward the DR 22 H II region and B los < 50 μG toward each of the two H II regions in ON 2. We interpret these results in terms of two different models. In one model, we assume that the H I Zeeman effect is a measure of magnetic fields in the associated molecular clouds. If so, then the DR 22 molecular cloud is magnetically subcritical, that is, magnetically dominated. The ON 2 molecular clouds are magnetically supercritical. In a second model, we assume that the H I Zeeman effect is a measure of magnetic fields in photon-dominated regions where the gas has been compressed (and the field amplified) by absorption of stellar radiation. We find that this second model, where the measured field strength has been affected by star formation, accounts well for the DR 22 H I Zeeman effect. This same model, however, overpredicts the magnetic field in ON 2. ON 2 may be a region where the magnetic field is energetically insignificant or where the field happens to lie nearly in the plane of the sky.

  13. Zeeman splitting of 6.7 GHz methanol masers. On the uncertainty of magnetic field strength determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Torres, R. M.; Dodson, R.

    2011-05-01

    Context. To properly determine the role of magnetic fields during massive star formation, a statistically significant sample of field measurements probing different densities and regions around massive protostars needs to be established. However, relating Zeeman splitting measurements to magnetic field strengths needs a carefully determined splitting coefficient. Aims: Polarization observations of, in particular, the very abundant 6.7 GHz methanol maser, indicate that these masers appear to be good probes of the large scale magnetic field around massive protostars at number densities up to nH2 ≈ 109 cm-3. We thus investigate the Zeeman splitting of the 6.7 GHz methanol maser transition. Methods: We have observed of a sample of 46 bright northern hemisphere maser sources with the Effelsberg 100-m telescope and an additional 34 bright southern masers with the Parkes 64-m telescope in an attempt to measure their Zeeman splitting. We also revisit the previous calculation of the methanol Zeeman splitting coefficients and show that these were severely overestimated making the determination of magnetic field strengths highly uncertain. Results: In total 44 of the northern masers were detected and significant splitting between the right- and left-circular polarization spectra is determined in >75% of the sources with a flux density >20 Jy beam-1. Assuming the splitting is due to a magnetic field according to the regular Zeeman effect, the average detected Zeeman splitting corrected for field geometry is ~0.6 m s-1. Using an estimate of the 6.7 GHz A-type methanol maser Zeeman splitting coefficient based on old laboratory measurements of 25 GHz E-type methanol transitions this corresponds to a magnetic field of ~120 mG in the methanol maser region. This is significantly higher than expected using the typically assumed relation between magnetic field and density (B∝ n_H_20.47) and potentially indicates the extrapolation of the available laboratory measurements is invalid

  14. Trends in measurement of solar vector magnetic fields using the Zeeman effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Trends in spectropolarimetry as applied to the problem of Zeeman effect measurement are discussed. The use of detector arrays to improve observing efficiency is obtained. Which required new polarization modulation schemes that match the time required to read detector arrays. Another significant trend is narrowband filters, to improve angular and temporal coverage, and to Fourier transform spectrometers, to improve spectral coverage and precision. Low-polarization designs and improved methods for compensating instrumental polarization were developed. A requirement for high angular resolution suggests using adaptive optical devices to subdue the effects of bad seeing. The ultimate strategy to beat the seeing is to loft the telescope above the atmosphere such as is planned with a 30-cm telescope in 1985 and a 1250-cm telescope in 1990.

  15. Spin-polarized current in Zeeman-split d-wave superconductor/quantum wire junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emamipour, Hamidreza

    2016-06-01

    We study a thin-film quantum wire/unconventional superconductor junction in the presence of an intrinsic exchange field for a d-wave symmetry of the superconducting order parameter. A strongly spin-polarized current is generated due to an interplay between Zeeman splitting of bands and the nodal structure of the superconducting order parameter. We show that strongly spin-polarized current is achievable for both metallic and tunnel junctions. This is because of the presence of a quantum wire (one-dimensional metal) in our junction. While in two-dimensional junctions with both conventional [F. Giazotto, F. Taddei, Phys. Rev. B 77 (2008) 132501] and unconventional [J. Linder, T. Yokoyama, Y. Tanaka, A. Sudbo, Phys. Rev. B 78 (2008) 014516] pairing states, highly spin polarized current takes place just for a tunnel junction. Also, the obtained spin-polarized current is tunable in sign and magnitude in terms of exchange field and applied bias voltage.

  16. First Application of the Zeeman Technique to Remotely Measure Auroral Electrojet Intensity From Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, J. H.; Gjerloev, J.; Wu, D.; Schwartz, M. J.

    2017-01-01

    Using the O2 118 GHz spectral radiance measurements obtained by the Microwave Limb Sounder instrument on board the Aura spacecraft, we demonstrate that the Zeeman effect can be used to remotely measure the magnetic field perturbations produced by the auroral electrojet near the Hall current closure altitudes. Our derived current-induced magnetic field perturbations are found to be highly correlated with those coincidently obtained by ground magnetometers. These perturbations are also found to be linearly correlated with auroral electrojet strength. The statistically derived polar maps of our measured magnetic field perturbation reveal a spatial-temporal morphology consistent with that produced by the Hall current during substorms and storms. With today's technology, a constellation of compact, low-power, high spectral-resolution cubesats would have the capability to provide high precision and spatiotemporal magnetic field samplings needed for auroral electrojet measurements to gain insights into the spatiotemporal behavior of the auroral electrojet system.

  17. Ultra-narrow EIA spectra of 85Rb atom in a degenerate Zeeman multiplet system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Hafeez Ur; Qureshi, Muhammad Mohsin; Noh, Heung-Ryoul; Kim, Jin-Tae

    2015-05-01

    Ultra-narrow EIA spectral features of thermal 85Rb atom with respect to coupling Rabi frequencies in a degenerate Zeeman multiplet system have been unraveled in the cases of same (σ+ -σ+ , π ∥ π) and orthogonal (σ+ -σ- , π ⊥ π)polarization configurations. The EIA signals with subnatural linewidth of ~ 100 kHz even in the cases of same circular and linear polarizations of coupling and probe laser have been obtained for the first time theoretically and experimentally. In weak coupling power limit of orthogonal polarization configurations, time-dependent transfer of coherence plays major role in the splitting of the EIA spectra while in strong coupling power, Mollow triplet-like mechanism due to strong power bring into broad split feature. The experimental ultra-narrow EIA features using one laser combined with an AOM match well with simulated spectra obtained by using generalized time-dependent optical Bloch equations.

  18. Zeeman effect of the topological surface states revealed by quantum oscillations up to 91 Tesla

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Zuocheng; Wei, Wei; Yang, Fangyuan; ...

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we report quantum oscillation studies on the Bi 2Te 3-xS x topological insulator single crystals in pulsed magnetic fields up to 91 T. For the x = 0.4 sample with the lowest bulk carrier density, the surface and bulk quantum oscillations can be disentangled by combined Shubnikov–de Haas and de Hass–van Alphen oscillations, as well as quantum oscillations in nanometer-thick peeled crystals. At high magnetic fields beyond the bulk quantum limit, our results suggest that the zeroth Landau level of topological surface states is shifted due to the Zeeman effect. The g factor of the topological surfacemore » states is estimated to be between 1.8 and 4.5. Lastly, these observations shed new light on the quantum transport phenomena of topological insulators in ultrahigh magnetic fields.« less

  19. Atmospheric methane measurement instrument using a Zeeman-split He-Ne laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmanus, J. Barry; Kebabian, Paul L.; Kolb, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    The construction of an atmospheric methane measurement instrument based on a Zeeman-split IR He-Ne laser is reported. The laser has a tranverse magnetic field over about 2/3 of its gain length and can oscillate at an (unsplit) frequency (2947.91/cm) centered on a methane absorption line, or on either of two frequencies split by + or - 0.055/cm from the center, with low CH4 absorption. The laser is tuned to dwell sequentially at each frequency, giving two differential absorption measurements in each 46-ms tuning cycle. Atmospheric measurements are made using two multiple pass absorption cells, one with fast (0.75-s) and one with slow (5-s) flow response times. Fluctuations in ambient CH4 of about 20-ppb (rms, 1-s averaging) are detected, with interference fringe effects the dominant noise source. The instrument has operated in a field experiment (NASA GTE/ABLE-3A) in Alaska.

  20. Zeeman structure of red lines of lanthanum observed by laser spectroscopy methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolewski, Ł. M.; Windholz, L.; Kwela, J.

    2017-11-01

    Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) Spectroscopy and Optogalvanic (OG) Spectroscopy were used for the investigation of the Zeeman hyperfine (hf) structures of 27 spectral lines of La I in the wavelength range between 633.86 and 667.54 nm. As a source of free La atoms a hollow cathode discharge lamp was used. Spectra were recorded in the presence of a relatively weak magnetic field (about 800G) produced by a permanent magnet, for two linear polarization directions of the exciting laser beam. As a result of the measurements, we determined for the first time the Landé gJ- factors of 18 levels of La I. The Landé gJ- factors of 12 other levels were re-investigated and determined with higher accuracy.

  1. Zeeman effect of weak La I lines investigated by the use of optogalvanic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolewski, Ł. M.; Windholz, L.; Kwela, J.

    2017-03-01

    New Landé- gJ factors of 35 energy levels of La I, found from investigations of 40 spectral lines in the wavelength range 562.959÷609.537 nm, were determined. As a source of free La atoms a hollow cathode discharge lamp was used. We monitored the signal of the optogalvanic effect appearing when a laser beam is passing through the hollow cathode. Spectra were recorded in the presence of a magnetic field of about 800 G produced by a permanent magnet, for two linear polarizations of the exciting laser light. Optogalvanic spectroscopy is a very sensitive method, so we were able to observe the Zeeman effect of very weak atomic lines. In this way we have determined for the first time the Landé-gJ factors for 35 recently found levels of neutral La. The Landé gJ- factors for several other levels were reinvestigated.

  2. Rydberg Spectroscopy of Zeeman-Decelerated Beams of Metastable Helium Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Paul; Motsch, Michael; Sprecher, Daniel; Merkt, Frederic

    2014-06-01

    Having three and four electrons, respectively, He_2^+ and He_2 represent systems for which highly accurate ab-initio calculations might become feasible in the near future. With the goal of performing accurate measurements of the rovibrational energy-level structure of He_2^+ by Rydberg spectroscopy of He_2 and multichannel quantum-defect theory extrapolation techniques, we have produced samples of helium molecules in the a ^3Σu^+ state in supersonic beams with velocities tunable down to 100 m/s by combining a cryogenic supersonic-beam source with a multistage Zeeman decelerator. The molecules are formed at an initial velocity of 500 m/s by striking a discharge in the pulsed expansion of helium gas from a reservoir kept at a cryogenic temperature of 10 K. Using rotationally-resolved PFI-ZEKE (pulsed-field-ionization zero-kinetic-energy) photoelectron spectroscopy, we have probed the rotational-state distribution of the molecules produced in the discharge and found vibrational levels up to ν" = 2 and rotational levels up to N"=21 to be populated. The molecular beam is coupled to a multistage Zeeman decelerator that employs pulsed inhomogeneous magnetic fields to further reduce the beam velocity. By measuring the quantum-state distribution of the decelerated sample using photoelectron and photoionization spectroscopy we observed no rotational or vibrational state-selectivity of the deceleration process, but found that one of the three spin-rotation components of the He_2 a ^3Σu^+ rotational levels is eliminated. W.-C. Tung, M. Pavanello, L. Adamowicz, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 104309 (2012). D. Sprecher, J. Liu, T. Krähenmann, M. Schäfer, and F. Merkt, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 064304 (2014). M. Motsch, P. Jansen, J. A. Agner, H. Schmutz, and F. Merkt, arXiv:1401.7774. N. Vanhaecke, U. Meier, M. Andrist, B. H. Meier, and F. Merkt, Phys. Rev. A 75, 031402(R) (2007).

  3. Dynamic localization in optical and Zeeman lattices in the presence of spin-orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V.; Konotop, Vladimir V.; Zezyulin, Dmitry A.; Torner, Lluis

    2016-12-01

    The dynamic localization of a two-level atom in a periodic potential under the action of spin-orbit coupling and a weak harmonically varying linear force is studied. We consider optical and Zeeman potentials that are either in phase or out of phase in two spinor components, respectively. The expectation value for the position of the atom after one oscillation period of the linear force is recovered in authentic resonances or in pseudoresonances. The frequencies of the linear force corresponding to authentic resonances are determined by the band structure of the periodic potential and are affected by the spin-orbit coupling. The width or dispersion of the wave packet in authentic resonances is usually minimal. The frequencies corresponding to pseudoresonances do not depend on the type of potential and on the strength of the spin-orbit coupling, while the evolution of excitations at the corresponding frequencies is usually accompanied by significant dispersion. Pseudoresonances are determined by the initial phase of the linear force and by the quasimomentum of the wave packet. Due to the spinor nature of the system, the motion of the atom is accompanied by periodic, but not harmonic, spin oscillations. Under the action of spin-orbit coupling the oscillations of the wave packet can be nearly completely suppressed in optical lattices. Dynamic localization in Zeeman lattices is characterized by doubling of the resonant oscillation periods due to band crossing at the boundary of the Brillouin zone. We also show that higher harmonics in the Fourier expansion of the energy band lead to effective dispersion, which can be strong enough to prevent dynamic localization of the Bloch wave packet.

  4. Effects of Rashba spin-orbit coupling, Zeeman splitting and gyrotropy in two-dimensional cavity polaritons under the influence of the Landau quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskalenko, Sveatoslav A.; Podlesny, Igor V.; Dumanov, Evgheni V.; Liberman, Michael A.

    2015-09-01

    We consider the energy spectrum of the two-dimensional cavity polaritons under the influence of a strong magnetic and electric fields perpendicular to the surface of the GaAs-type quantum wells (QWs) with p-type valence band embedded into the resonators. As the first step in this direction the Landau quantization (LQ) of the electrons and heavy-holes (hh) was investigated taking into account the Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC) with third-order chirality terms for hh and with nonparabolicity terms in their dispersion low including as well the Zeeman splitting (ZS) effects. The nonparabolicity term is proportional to the strength of the electric field and was introduced to avoid the collapse of the semiconductor energy gap under the influence of the third order chirality terms. The exact solutions for the eigenfunctions and eigenenergies were obtained using the Rashba method [E.I. Rashba, Fiz. Tverd. Tela 2, 1224 (1960) [Sov. Phys. Solid State 2, 1109 (1960)

  5. Electromagnetically induced transparency in a Zeeman-sublevels Λ-system of cold 87Rb atoms in free space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaojun, Jiang; Haichao, Zhang; Yuzhu, Wang

    2016-03-01

    We report the experimental investigation of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a Zeeman-sublevels Λ-type system of cold 87Rb atoms in free space. We use the Zeeman substates of the hyperfine energy states 52S1/2, F = 2 and 52P3/2, F‧ = 2 of 87Rb D2 line to form a Λ-type EIT scheme. The EIT signal is obtained by scanning the probe light over 1 MHz in 4 ms with an 80 MHz arbitrary waveform generator. More than 97% transparency and 100 kHz EIT window are observed. This EIT scheme is suited for an application of pulsed coherent storage atom clock (Yan B, et al. 2009 Phys. Rev. A 79 063820). Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB921504) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 91536107).

  6. Large effective mass and interaction-enhanced Zeeman splitting of K -valley electrons in MoSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larentis, Stefano; Movva, Hema C. P.; Fallahazad, Babak; Kim, Kyounghwan; Behroozi, Armand; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Banerjee, Sanjay K.; Tutuc, Emanuel

    2018-05-01

    We study the magnetotransport of high-mobility electrons in monolayer and bilayer MoSe2, which show Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations and quantum Hall states in high magnetic fields. An electron effective mass of 0.8 me is extracted from the SdH oscillations' temperature dependence; me is the bare electron mass. At a fixed electron density the longitudinal resistance shows minima at filling factors (FFs) that are either predominantly odd, or predominantly even, with a parity that changes as the density is tuned. The SdH oscillations are insensitive to an in-plane magnetic field, consistent with an out-of-plane spin orientation of electrons at the K point. We attribute the FF parity transitions to an interaction enhancement of the Zeeman energy as the density is reduced, resulting in an increased Zeeman-to-cyclotron energy ratio.

  7. Phase control of a Zeeman-split He-Ne gas laser by variation of the gaseous discharge voltage.

    PubMed

    Shelton, W N; Hunt, R H

    1992-07-20

    Zeeman-split lasers are useful for precise positioning or motion control. In applications that employ such a laser to control closely the position of a moving system, phase noise in the Zeeman frequency is a serious problem. Control of low-frequency phase noise can be obtained through variation of the external magnetic field by way of a solenoid wound around the laser tube. It is the finding in this work that control of the residual higher-frequency noise of a He-Ne laser can be obtained through small variations of the high voltage that is used to effect the gaseous discharge in the laser tube. The application of the present system is to the control of the path difference in a Fourier-transform interferometric spectrometer.

  8. Performance of the Zeeman analyzer system of the McDonald Observatory 2.7 meter telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, S. S.; Tull, R. G.; Kelton, P. W.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes a multichannel photoelectric Zeeman analyzer at the coude spectrograph of the McDonald 2.7 m reflector. A comparison of Lick and McDonald observations of HD 153882 reveals no significant difference in slopes or zero points of the two magnetic fields indicating that the systematic scale difference of 30-40% is probably instrumental in origin. Observations of the magnetic variable beta Cor Bor revealed a more nearly sinusoidal magnetic curve with less internal scatter than the photographically determined field measures of the Lick and Mauna Kea Zeeman systems. Investigation of periodicity in the secularly varying magnetic minima of beta Cor Bor did not yield evidence of previously noted periodicities other than that expected from the time structure of the data sampling.

  9. New 30-50 Ghz Wideband Receiver for Nobeyama 45-M Telescope with Capability to Observe Three Zeeman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yau De

    2018-01-01

    Zeeman measurement is the only tool to probe the magnetic field strengths directly. A new receiver covering 30-50 GHz frequency range is proposed for Nobeyama 45-m telescope based on the design of the ALMA Band 1 receiver. With dual linear polarization feed, wide IF bandwidth and state-of-the-art noise performance, it is capable to observe three Zeeman transitions (SO at 30.0 GHz and CCS at 33.7 and 45.4 GHz) toward the pre-protostellar cores simultaneously. This feature will not only increase the survey efficiency but also provide a reliable tool to calibrate the unwanted instrumental cross-polarization. Slim receiver layout also allows easy expansion to form focal plane array. We will present the receiver design and the current status of the pro

  10. Comparing Zeeman qubits to hyperfine qubits in the context of the surface code: +174Yb and +171Yb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Natalie C.; Brown, Kenneth R.

    2018-05-01

    Many systems used for quantum computing possess additional states beyond those defining the qubit. Leakage out of the qubit subspace must be considered when designing quantum error correction codes. Here we consider trapped ion qubits manipulated by Raman transitions. Zeeman qubits do not suffer from leakage errors but are sensitive to magnetic fields to first order. Hyperfine qubits can be encoded in clock states that are insensitive to magnetic fields to first order, but spontaneous scattering during the Raman transition can lead to leakage. Here we compare a Zeeman qubit (+174Yb) to a hyperfine qubit (+171Yb) in the context of the surface code. We find that the number of physical qubits required to reach a specific logical qubit error can be reduced by using +174Yb if the magnetic field can be stabilized with fluctuations smaller than 10 μ G .

  11. Zeeman perturbed nuclear quadrupole spin echo envelope modulations for spin 3/2 nuclei in polycrystalline specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, R.; Narasimhan, P. T.

    The results of theoretical and experimental studies of Zeeman-perturbed nuclear quadrupole spin echo envelope modulations (ZSEEM) for spin 3/2 nuclei in polycrystalline specimens are presented. The response of the Zeeman-perturbed spin ensemble to resonant two pulse excitations has been calculated using the density matrix formalism. The theoretical calculation assumes a parallel orientation of the external r.f. and static Zeeman fields and an arbitrary orientation of these fields to the principal axes system of the electric field gradient. A numerical powder averaging procedure has been adopted to simulate the response of the polycrystalline specimens. Using a coherent pulsed nuclear quadrupole resonance spectrometer the ZSEEM patterns of the 35Cl nuclei have been recorded in polycrystalline specimens of potassium chlorate, barium chlorate, mercuric chloride (two sites) and antimony trichloride (two sites) using the π/2-τ-π/2 sequence. The theoretical and experimental ZSEEM patterns have been compared. In the case of mercuric chloride, the experimental 35Cl ZSEEM patterns are found to be nearly identical for the two sites and correspond to a near-zero value of the asymmetry parameter, η, of the electric field gradient tensor. The difference in the η values for the two 35Cl sites (η ˜0·06 and η˜0·16) in antimony trichloride is clearly reflected in the experimental and theoretical ZSEEM patterns. The present study indicates the feasibility of evaluating η for spin 3/2 nuclei in polycrystalline specimens from ZSEEM investigations.

  12. 21cm Absorption Line Zeeman Observations And Modeling Of Physical Conditions In M16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiuchi, Furea; Brogan, C.; Troland, T.

    2011-01-01

    We present detailed 21 cm HI absorption line observations of M16 using the Very Large Array. The M16 "pillars of creation" are classic examples of the interaction of ISM with radiation from young, hot stars. Magnetic fields can affect these interactions, the 21 cm Zeeman effect reveals magnetic field strengths in the Photodissociation regions associated with the pillars. The present results yield a 3-sigma upper limit upon the line-of-sight magnetic field of about 300 microgauss. This limit is consistent with a total field strength of 500 microgauss, required in the molecular gas if magnetic energies and turbulent energies in the pillars are in equipartition. Most likely, magnetic fields do not play a dominant role in the dynamics of the M16 pillars. Another goal of this study is to determine the distribution of cold HI in the M16 region and to model the physical conditions in the neutral gas in the pillars. We used the spectral synthesis code Cloudy 08.00 for this purpose. We adopted the results of a published Cloudy HII region model and extended this model into the neutral gas to derive physical conditions therein.

  13. Zeeman splitting and dynamical mass generation in Dirac semimetal ZrTe5

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanwen; Yuan, Xiang; Zhang, Cheng; Jin, Zhao; Narayan, Awadhesh; Luo, Chen; Chen, Zhigang; Yang, Lei; Zou, Jin; Wu, Xing; Sanvito, Stefano; Xia, Zhengcai; Li, Liang; Wang, Zhong; Xiu, Faxian

    2016-01-01

    Dirac semimetals have attracted extensive attentions in recent years. It has been theoretically suggested that many-body interactions may drive exotic phase transitions, spontaneously generating a Dirac mass for the nominally massless Dirac electrons. So far, signature of interaction-driven transition has been lacking. In this work, we report high-magnetic-field transport measurements of the Dirac semimetal candidate ZrTe5. Owing to the large g factor in ZrTe5, the Zeeman splitting can be observed at magnetic field as low as 3 T. Most prominently, high pulsed magnetic field up to 60 T drives the system into the ultra-quantum limit, where we observe abrupt changes in the magnetoresistance, indicating field-induced phase transitions. This is interpreted as an interaction-induced spontaneous mass generation of the Dirac fermions, which bears resemblance to the dynamical mass generation of nucleons in high-energy physics. Our work establishes Dirac semimetals as ideal platforms for investigating emerging correlation effects in topological matters. PMID:27515493

  14. Quadratic Zeeman effect for hydrogen: A method for rigorous bound-state error estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Fonte, G.; Falsaperla, P.; Schiffrer, G.

    1990-06-01

    We present a variational method, based on direct minimization of energy, for the calculation of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of a hydrogen atom in a strong uniform magnetic field in the framework of the nonrelativistic theory (quadratic Zeeman effect). Using semiparabolic coordinates and a harmonic-oscillator basis, we show that it is possible to give rigorous error estimates for both eigenvalues and eigenfunctions by applying some results of Kato (Proc. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 4, 334 (1949)). The method can be applied in this simple form only to the lowest level of given angular momentum and parity, but it is also possible tomore » apply it to any excited state by using the standard Rayleigh-Ritz diagonalization method. However, due to the particular basis, the method is expected to be more effective, the weaker the field and the smaller the excitation energy, while the results of Kato we have employed lead to good estimates only when the level spacing is not too small. We present a numerical application to the {ital m}{sup {ital p}}=0{sup +} ground state and the lowest {ital m}{sup {ital p}}=1{sup {minus}} excited state, giving results that are among the most accurate in the literature for magnetic fields up to about 10{sup 10} G.« less

  15. Isotope dependence of the Zeeman effect in lithium-like calcium

    PubMed Central

    Köhler, Florian; Blaum, Klaus; Block, Michael; Chenmarev, Stanislav; Eliseev, Sergey; Glazov, Dmitry A.; Goncharov, Mikhail; Hou, Jiamin; Kracke, Anke; Nesterenko, Dmitri A.; Novikov, Yuri N.; Quint, Wolfgang; Minaya Ramirez, Enrique; Shabaev, Vladimir M.; Sturm, Sven; Volotka, Andrey V.; Werth, Günter

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic moment μ of a bound electron, generally expressed by the g-factor μ=−g μB s ħ−1 with μB the Bohr magneton and s the electron's spin, can be calculated by bound-state quantum electrodynamics (BS-QED) to very high precision. The recent ultra-precise experiment on hydrogen-like silicon determined this value to eleven significant digits, and thus allowed to rigorously probe the validity of BS-QED. Yet, the investigation of one of the most interesting contribution to the g-factor, the relativistic interaction between electron and nucleus, is limited by our knowledge of BS-QED effects. By comparing the g-factors of two isotopes, it is possible to cancel most of these contributions and sensitively probe nuclear effects. Here, we present calculations and experiments on the isotope dependence of the Zeeman effect in lithium-like calcium ions. The good agreement between the theoretical predicted recoil contribution and the high-precision g-factor measurements paves the way for a new generation of BS-QED tests. PMID:26776466

  16. Analysis of the Zeeman effect on D α spectra on the EAST tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wei; Huang, Juan; Wu, Chengrui; Xu, Zong; Hou, Yumei; Jin, Zhao; Chen, Yingjie; Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Ling; Wu, Zhenwei; EAST Team

    2017-04-01

    Based on the passive spectroscopy, the {{{D}}}α atomic emission spectra in the boundary region of the plasma have been measured by a high resolution optical spectroscopic multichannel analysis (OSMA) system in EAST tokamak. The Zeeman splitting of the {{{D}}}α spectral lines has been observed. A fitting procedure by using a nonlinear least squares method was applied to fit and analyze all polarization π and +/- σ components of the {{{D}}}α atomic spectra to acquire the information of the local plasma. The spectral line shape was investigated according to emission spectra from different regions (e.g., low-field side and high-field side) along the viewing chords. Each polarization component was fitted and classified into three energy categories (the cold, warm, and hot components) based on different atomic production processes, in consistent with the transition energy distribution by calculating the gradient of the {{{D}}}α spectral profile. The emission position, magnetic field intensity, and flow velocity of a deuterium atom were also discussed in the context. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11275231 and 11575249) and the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Energy Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015GB110005).

  17. π Berry phase and Zeeman splitting of Weyl semimetal TaP

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, J.; Liu, J. Y.; Graf, D.; ...

    2016-01-04

    Here, the recent breakthrough in the discovery of Weyl fermions in monopnictide semimetals provides opportunities to explore the exotic properties of relativistic fermions in condensed matter. The chiral anomaly-induced negative magnetoresistance and π Berry phase are two fundamental transport properties associated with the topological characteristics of Weyl semimetals. Since monopnictide semimetals are multiple-band systems, resolving clear Berry phase for each Fermi pocket remains a challenge. Here we report the determination of Berry phases of multiple Fermi pockets of Weyl semimetal TaP through high field quantum transport measurements. We show our TaP single crystal has the signatures of a Weyl state,more » including light effective quasiparticle masses, ultrahigh carrier mobility, as well as negative longitudinal magnetoresistance. Furthermore, we have generalized the Lifshitz-Kosevich formula for multiple-band Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations and extracted the Berry phases of π for multiple Fermi pockets in TaP through the direct fits of the modified LK formula to the SdH oscillations. In high fields, we also probed signatures of Zeeman splitting, from which the Landé g-factor is extracted.« less

  18. Very Large Array OH Zeeman Observations of the Star-forming Region S88B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, A. P.; Brogan, C. L.; Bourke, T. L.; Eftimova, M.; Troland, T. H.

    2013-04-01

    We present observations of the Zeeman effect in OH thermal absorption main lines at 1665 and 1667 MHz taken with the Very Large Array toward the star-forming region S88B. The OH absorption profiles toward this source are complicated, and contain several blended components toward a number of positions. Almost all of the OH absorbing gas is located in the eastern parts of S88B, toward the compact continuum source S88B-2 and the eastern parts of the extended continuum source S88B-1. The ratio of 1665/1667 MHz OH line intensities indicates the gas is likely highly clumped, in agreement with other molecular emission line observations in the literature. S88-B appears to present a similar geometry to the well-known star-forming region M17, in that there is an edge-on eastward progression from ionized to molecular gas. The detected magnetic fields appear to mirror this eastward transition; we detected line-of-sight magnetic fields ranging from 90 to 400 μG, with the lowest values of the field to the southwest of the S88B-1 continuum peak, and the highest values to its northeast. We used the detected fields to assess the importance of the magnetic field in S88B by a number of methods; we calculated the ratio of thermal to magnetic pressures, we calculated the critical field necessary to completely support the cloud against self-gravity and compared it to the observed field, and we calculated the ratio of mass to magnetic flux in terms of the critical value of this parameter. All these methods indicated that the magnetic field in S88B is dynamically significant, and should provide an important source of support against gravity. Moreover, the magnetic energy density is in approximate equipartition with the turbulent energy density, again pointing to the importance of the magnetic field in this region.

  19. Frequency modulation indicator, Arnold’s web and diffusion in the Stark Quadratic-Zeeman problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordani, Bruno

    2008-11-01

    We notice that the fundamental frequencies of a slightly perturbed integrable Hamiltonian system are not time-constant inside a resonance but frequency modulated, as is evident from pendulum models and wavelet analysis. Exploiting an intrinsic imprecision inherent to the numerical frequency analysis algorithm itself, hence transforming a drawback into an opportunity, we define the Frequency Modulation Indicator, a very sensitive tool in detecting where fundamental frequencies are modulated, localizing so the resonances without having to resort, as in other methods, to the integration of variational equations. For the Kepler problem, the space of the orbits with a fixed energy has the topology of the product of two 2-spheres. The perturbation Hamiltonian, averaged over the mean anomaly, has surely a maximum and a minimum, to which correspond two periodic orbits in physical space. Studying the neighbourhood of these two elliptic stable points, we are able to define adapted action-angle variables, for example, the usual but “SO(4)-rotated” Delaunay variables. The procedure, implemented in the program KEPLER, is performed transparently for the user, providing a general scheme suited for generic perturbation. The method is then applied to the Stark-Quadratic-Zeeman problem, displaying very clearly the Arnold web of the resonances. Sectioning transversely one of the resonance strips so highlighted and performing a numerical frequency analysis, one is able to locate with great precision the thin stochastic layer surrounding a separatrix. Another very long (10 8 revolutions) frequency analysis on an orbit starting here reveals, as expected, a well defined pattern, which ensures that the integration errors do not eject the point out of the layer, and moreover a very slow drift in the frequency values, clearly due to Arnold diffusion.

  20. On the validity of Zeeman's classification for three dimensional competitive differential equations with linearly determined nullclines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jifa; Niu, Lei

    2017-12-01

    We study three dimensional competitive differential equations with linearly determined nullclines and prove that they always have 33 stable nullcline classes in total. Each class is given in terms of inequalities on the intrinsic growth rates and competitive coefficients and is independent of generating functions. The common characteristics are that every trajectory converges to an equilibrium in classes 1-25, that Hopf bifurcations do not occur within class 32, and that there is always a heteroclinic cycle in class 27. Nontrivial dynamical behaviors, such as the existence and multiplicity of limit cycles, only may occur in classes 26-33, but these nontrivial dynamical behaviors depend on generating functions. We show that Hopf bifurcation can occur within each of classes 26-31 for continuous-time Leslie/Gower system and Ricker system, the same as Lotka-Volterra system; but it only occurs in classes 26 and 27 for continuous-time Atkinson/Allen system and Gompertz system. There is an apparent distinction between Lotka-Volterra system and Leslie/Gower system, Ricker system, Atkinson/Allen system, and Gompertz system with the identical growth rate. Lotka-Volterra system with the identical growth rate has no limit cycle, but admits a center on the carrying simplex in classes 26 and 27. But Leslie/Gower system, Ricker system, Atkinson/Allen system, and Gompertz system with the identical growth rate do possess limit cycles. At last, we provide examples to show that Leslie/Gower system and Ricker system can also admit two limit cycles. This general classification greatly widens applications of Zeeman's method and makes it possible to investigate the existence and multiplicity of limit cycles, centers and stability of heteroclinic cycles for three dimensional competitive systems with linearly determined nullclines, as done in planar systems.

  1. FIRST ZEEMAN DOPPLER IMAGING OF A COOL STAR USING ALL FOUR STOKES PARAMETERS

    SciTech Connect

    Rosén, L.; Kochukhov, O.; Wade, G. A.

    Magnetic fields are ubiquitous in active cool stars, but they are in general complex and weak. Current Zeeman Doppler imaging (ZDI) studies of cool star magnetic fields chiefly employ circular polarization observations because linear polarization is difficult to detect and requires a more sophisticated radiative transfer modeling to interpret. But it has been shown in previous theoretical studies, and in the observational analyses of magnetic Ap stars, that including linear polarization in the magnetic inversion process makes it possible to correctly recover many otherwise lost or misinterpreted magnetic features. We have obtained phase-resolved observations in all four Stokes parameters ofmore » the RS CVn star II Peg at two separate epochs. Here we present temperature and magnetic field maps reconstructed for this star using all four Stokes parameters. This is the very first such ZDI study of a cool active star. Our magnetic inversions reveal a highly structured magnetic field topology for both epochs. The strength of some surface features is doubled or even quadrupled when linear polarization is taken into account. The total magnetic energy of the reconstructed field map also becomes about 2.1–3.5 times higher. The overall complexity is also increased as the field energy is shifted toward higher harmonic modes when four Stokes parameters are used. As a consequence, the potential field extrapolation of the four Stokes parameter ZDI results indicates that magnetic field becomes weaker at a distance of several stellar radii due to a decrease of the large-scale field component.« less

  2. Temperature Dependence of Molecular Line Strengths and Fei 1565 nm Zeeman Splitting in a Sunspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penn, M. J.; Walton, S.; Chapman, G.; Ceja, J.; Plick, W.

    2003-03-01

    Spectroscopic observations at 1565 nm were made in the eastern half of the main umbra of NOAA 9885 on 1 April 2002 using the National Solar Observatory McMath-Pierce Telescope at Kitt Peak with a tip-tilt image stabilization system and the California State University Northridge-National Solar Observatory infrared camera. The line depth of the OH blend at 1565.1 nm varies with the observed continuum temperature; the variation fits previous observations except that the continuum temperature is lower by 600 K. The equivalent width of the OH absorption line at 1565.2 nm shows a temperature dependence similar to previously published umbral molecular observations at 640 nm. A simple model of expected OH abundance based upon an ionization analogy to molecular dissociation is produced and agrees well with the temperature variation of the line equivalent width. A CN absorption line at 1564.6 nm shows a very different temperature dependence, likely due to complicated formation and destruction processes. Nonetheless a numerical fit of the temperature variation of the CN equivalent width is presented. Finally a comparison of the Zeeman splitting of the Fei 1564.8 nm line with the sunspot temperature derived from the continuum intensity shows an umbra somewhat cooler for a given magnetic field strength than previous comparisons using this infrared 1564.8 nm line, but consistent with these previous infrared measurements the umbra is hotter for a given magnetic field strength than magnetic and temperature measurements at 630.2 nm would suggest. Differences between the 630.2 nm and 1564.8 nm umbral temperature and magnetic field relations are explained with the different heights of formation of the lines and continua at these wavelengths.

  3. The Project LITE Spectrum Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, K.; Carr, P.; Garik, P.; Weeks, E.

    2002-12-01

    We are developing a powerful new software tool which can help students at all levels understand the spectral properties of light. As a recent AAS survey of astronomy faculty members found (The Physics Teacher, 39, 52, 2001), essentially all introductory astronomy courses spend a significant amount of time dealing with the nature of light. Among the most difficult concepts for students to master are Kirchhoff's laws, blackbody radiation, the Stefan-Boltzmann law, Wien's law, the nature and causes of emission and absorption lines, and the relation of spectra to the underlying astronomical and physical processes producing them. Students often seem baffled by the connection between a spectrum seen visually as a color band and the same spectrum plotted graphically as intensity versus wavelength or frequency. The "Spectrum Explorer", a JAVA applet, is being developed as part of "Project LITE: Light Inquiry Through Experiments" to address these issues. It can be used by instructors in lecture presentations and by students learning at home or working in laboratory settings. We will show some of the current capabilities of the software which include simultaneous display of multiple spectra (normalized and non-normalized as a function of either wavelength or frequency) and the ability to manipulate blackbody spectra. Our future development plans include the addition of a variety of spectral data sets (from physics and chemistry as well as from astronomy); computed inputs from basic quantum mechanics (e.g. Zeeman effect in hydrogen) and from astronomical models (e.g. time varying spectra in binary stars); and the ability to test the effect of filters and physical processes (e.g. Rayleigh scattering) on input spectra. The Spectrum Explorer (along with many other applets about both the physical and perceptual nature of light) can be found on the Project LITE web site http://lite.bu.edu. Project LITE is supported by Grant #DUE-0125992 from the National Science Foundation

  4. Long-range effect of a Zeeman field on the electric current through the helical metal-superconductor interface in an Andreev interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mal'shukov, A. G.

    2018-02-01

    It is shown that the spin-orbit and Zeeman interactions result in phase shifts of Andreev-reflected holes propagating at the surface of a topological insulator, or in Rashba spin-orbit-coupled two-dimensional normal metals, which are in contact with an s -wave superconductor. Due to interference of holes reflected through different paths of the Andreev interferometer the electric current through external contacts varies depending on the strength and direction of the Zeeman field. It also depends on mutual orientations of Zeeman fields in different shoulders of the interferometer. Such a nonlocal effect is a result of the long-range coherency caused by the superconducting proximity effect. This current has been calculated within the semiclassical theory for Green's functions in the diffusive regime, by assuming a strong disorder due to elastic scattering of electrons.

  5. Demonstration of the frequency offset errors introduced by an incorrect setting of the Zeeman/magnetic field adjustment on the cesium beam frequency standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufmann, D. C.

    1976-01-01

    The fine frequency setting of a cesium beam frequency standard is accomplished by adjusting the C field control with the appropriate Zeeman frequency applied to the harmonic generator. A novice operator in the field, even when using the correct Zeeman frequency input, may mistakenly set the C field to any one of seven major Beam I peaks (fingers) represented by the Ramsey curve. This can result in frequency offset errors of as much as 2.5 parts in ten to the tenth. The effects of maladjustment are demonstrated and suggestions are discussed on how to avoid the subtle traps associated with C field adjustments.

  6. Suppression of the Nonlinear Zeeman Effect and Heading Error in Earth-Field-Range Alkali-Vapor Magnetometers.

    PubMed

    Bao, Guzhi; Wickenbrock, Arne; Rochester, Simon; Zhang, Weiping; Budker, Dmitry

    2018-01-19

    The nonlinear Zeeman effect can induce splitting and asymmetries of magnetic-resonance lines in the geophysical magnetic-field range. This is a major source of "heading error" for scalar atomic magnetometers. We demonstrate a method to suppress the nonlinear Zeeman effect and heading error based on spin locking. In an all-optical synchronously pumped magnetometer with separate pump and probe beams, we apply a radio-frequency field which is in phase with the precessing magnetization. This results in the collapse of the multicomponent asymmetric magnetic-resonance line with ∼100  Hz width in the Earth-field range into a single peak with a width of 22 Hz, whose position is largely independent of the orientation of the sensor within a range of orientation angles. The technique is expected to be broadly applicable in practical magnetometry, potentially boosting the sensitivity and accuracy of Earth-surveying magnetometers by increasing the magnetic-resonance amplitude, decreasing its width, and removing the important and limiting heading-error systematic.

  7. Transient development of Zeeman electromagnetically induced transparency during propagation of Raman-Ramsey pulses through Rb buffer gas cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolić, S. N.; Radonjić, M.; Lučić, N. M.; Krmpot, A. J.; Jelenković, B. M.

    2015-02-01

    We investigate, experimentally and theoretically, time development of Zeeman electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) during propagation of two time separated polarization laser pulses, preparatory and probe, through Rb vapour. The pulses were produced by modifying laser intensity and degree of elliptical polarization. The frequency of the single laser beam is locked to the hyperfine {{F}g}=2\\to {{F}e}=1 transition of the D1 line in 87Rb. Transients in the intensity of {{σ }-} component of the transmitted light are measured or calculated at different values of the external magnetic field, during both preparatory and probe pulse. Zeeman EIT resonances at particular time instants of the pulse propagation are reconstructed by appropriate sampling of the transients. We observe how laser intensity, Ramsey sequence and the Rb cell temperature affect the time dependence of EIT line shapes, amplitudes and linewidths. We show that at early times of the probe pulse propagation, several Ramsey fringes are present in EIT resonances, while at later moments a single narrow peak prevails. Time development of EIT amplitudes are determined by the transmitted intensity of the {{σ }-} component during the pulse propagation.

  8. The Transfer of Resonance Line Polarization with Partial Frequency Redistribution in the General Hanle–Zeeman Regime

    SciTech Connect

    Ballester, E. Alsina; Bueno, J. Trujillo; Belluzzi, L., E-mail: ealsina@iac.es

    2017-02-10

    The spectral line polarization encodes a wealth of information about the thermal and magnetic properties of the solar atmosphere. Modeling the Stokes profiles of strong resonance lines is, however, a complex problem both from a theoretical and computational point of view, especially when partial frequency redistribution (PRD) effects need to be taken into account. In this work, we consider a two-level atom in the presence of magnetic fields of arbitrary intensity (Hanle–Zeeman regime) and orientation, both deterministic and micro-structured. Working within the framework of a rigorous PRD theoretical approach, we have developed a numerical code that solves the full non-LTEmore » radiative transfer problem for polarized radiation, in one-dimensional models of the solar atmosphere, accounting for the combined action of the Hanle and Zeeman effects, as well as for PRD phenomena. After briefly discussing the relevant equations, we describe the iterative method of solution of the problem and the numerical tools that we have developed and implemented. We finally present some illustrative applications to two resonance lines that form at different heights in the solar atmosphere, and provide a detailed physical interpretation of the calculated Stokes profiles. We find that magneto-optical effects have a strong impact on the linear polarization signals that PRD effects produce in the wings of strong resonance lines. We also show that the weak-field approximation has to be used with caution when PRD effects are considered.« less

  9. Exciton diamagnetic shifts and valley Zeeman effects in monolayer WS 2 and MoS 2 to 65 Tesla

    DOE PAGES

    Stier, Andreas V.; McCreary, Kathleen M.; Jonker, Berend T.; ...

    2016-02-09

    In bulk and quantum-confined semiconductors, magneto-optical studies have historically played an essential role in determining the fundamental parameters of excitons (size, binding energy, spin, dimensionality and so on). Here we report low-temperature polarized reflection spectroscopy of atomically thin WS 2 and MoS 2 in high magnetic fields to 65 T. Both the A and B excitons exhibit similar Zeeman splittings of approximately –230 μeV T–1 (g-factor ≃–4), thereby quantifying the valley Zeeman effect in monolayer transition-metal disulphides. Crucially, these large fields also allow observation of the small quadratic diamagnetic shifts of both A and B excitons in monolayer WS 2,more » from which radii of ~1.53 and ~1.16 nm are calculated. Further, when analysed within a model of non-local dielectric screening, these diamagnetic shifts also constrain estimates of the A and B exciton binding energies (410 and 470 meV, respectively, using a reduced A exciton mass of 0.16 times the free electron mass). Lastly, these results highlight the utility of high magnetic fields for understanding new two-dimensional materials.« less

  10. Exciton diamagnetic shifts and valley Zeeman effects in monolayer WS2 and MoS2 to 65 Tesla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stier, Andreas V.; McCreary, Kathleen M.; Jonker, Berend T.; Kono, Junichiro; Crooker, Scott A.

    2016-02-01

    In bulk and quantum-confined semiconductors, magneto-optical studies have historically played an essential role in determining the fundamental parameters of excitons (size, binding energy, spin, dimensionality and so on). Here we report low-temperature polarized reflection spectroscopy of atomically thin WS2 and MoS2 in high magnetic fields to 65 T. Both the A and B excitons exhibit similar Zeeman splittings of approximately -230 μeV T-1 (g-factor ~=-4), thereby quantifying the valley Zeeman effect in monolayer transition-metal disulphides. Crucially, these large fields also allow observation of the small quadratic diamagnetic shifts of both A and B excitons in monolayer WS2, from which radii of ~1.53 and ~1.16 nm are calculated. Further, when analysed within a model of non-local dielectric screening, these diamagnetic shifts also constrain estimates of the A and B exciton binding energies (410 and 470 meV, respectively, using a reduced A exciton mass of 0.16 times the free electron mass). These results highlight the utility of high magnetic fields for understanding new two-dimensional materials.

  11. Determination of serum aluminum by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry: A comparison between Zeeman and continuum background correction systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruger, Pamela C.; Parsons, Patrick J.

    2007-03-01

    Excessive exposure to aluminum (Al) can produce serious health consequences in people with impaired renal function, especially those undergoing hemodialysis. Al can accumulate in the brain and in bone, causing dialysis-related encephalopathy and renal osteodystrophy. Thus, dialysis patients are routinely monitored for Al overload, through measurement of their serum Al. Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) is widely used for serum Al determination. Here, we assess the analytical performances of three ETAAS instruments, equipped with different background correction systems and heating arrangements, for the determination of serum Al. Specifically, we compare (1) a Perkin Elmer (PE) Model 3110 AAS, equipped with a longitudinally (end) heated graphite atomizer (HGA) and continuum-source (deuterium) background correction, with (2) a PE Model 4100ZL AAS equipped with a transversely heated graphite atomizer (THGA) and longitudinal Zeeman background correction, and (3) a PE Model Z5100 AAS equipped with a HGA and transverse Zeeman background correction. We were able to transfer the method for serum Al previously established for the Z5100 and 4100ZL instruments to the 3110, with only minor modifications. As with the Zeeman instruments, matrix-matched calibration was not required for the 3110 and, thus, aqueous calibration standards were used. However, the 309.3-nm line was chosen for analysis on the 3110 due to failure of the continuum background correction system at the 396.2-nm line. A small, seemingly insignificant overcorrection error was observed in the background channel on the 3110 instrument at the 309.3-nm line. On the 4100ZL, signal oscillation was observed in the atomization profile. The sensitivity, or characteristic mass ( m0), for Al at the 309.3-nm line on the 3110 AAS was found to be 12.1 ± 0.6 pg, compared to 16.1 ± 0.7 pg for the Z5100, and 23.3 ± 1.3 pg for the 4100ZL at the 396.2-nm line. However, the instrumental detection limits (3

  12. Valley Zeeman splitting of monolayer MoS2 probed by low-field magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y. J.; Shen, C.; Tan, Q. H.; Shi, J.; Liu, X. F.; Wu, Z. H.; Zhang, J.; Tan, P. H.; Zheng, H. Z.

    2018-04-01

    The valley Zeeman splitting of monolayer two-dimensional (2D) materials in the magnetic field plays an important role in the valley and spin manipulations. In general, a high magnetic field (6-65 T) and low temperature (2-30 K) were two key measurement conditions to observe the resolvable valley Zeeman splitting of monolayer 2D materials in current reported experiments. In this study, we experimentally demonstrate an effective measurement scheme by employing magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy, which enables us to distinguish the valley Zeeman splitting under a relatively low magnetic field of 1 T at room temperature. MCD peaks related to both A and B excitonic transitions in monolayer MoS2 can be clearly observed. Based on the MCD spectra under different magnetic fields (-3 to 3 T), we obtained the valley Zeeman splitting energy and the g-factors of A and B excitons, respectively. Our results show that MCD spectroscopy is a high-sensitive magneto-optical technique to explore the valley and spin manipulation in 2D materials.

  13. Angular momentum and Zeeman effect in the presence of a minimal length based on the Kempf-Mann-Mangano algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosropour, B.

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we consider a D-dimensional ( β, β^' -two-parameters deformed Heisenberg algebra, which was introduced by Kempf et al. The angular-momentum operator in the presence of a minimal length scale based on the Kempf-Mann-Mangano algebra is obtained in the special case of β^' = 2β up to the first order over the deformation parameter β . It is shown that each of the components of the modified angular-momentum operator, commutes with the modified operator {L}2 . We find the magnetostatic field in the presence of a minimal length. The Zeeman effect in the deformed space is studied and also Lande's formula for the energy shift in the presence of a minimal length is obtained. We estimate an upper bound on the isotropic minimal length.

  14. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for Zeeman Spectra of Ti I in Plasma Using a Facing Target Sputtering System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Shinji; Nishimiya, Nobuo; Suzuki, Masao

    2017-10-01

    The saturated absorption lines of neutral titanium were measured in the region of 9950-14380 cm-1 using a Ti:sapphire ring laser. A facing target sputtering system was used to obtain the gaseous state of a Ti I atom. The Zeeman splitting of 38 transitions was observed under the condition that the electric field component of a linearly polarized laser beam was parallel to the magnetic field. The gJ factors of the odd parity states were determined for 28 states belonging to 3d24s4p and 3d34p using those of the even parity states reported by Stachowska in 1997. The gJ factors of z5P1,2,3 levels were newly determined. gJ of y3F2, y3D2, z3P2, and z5S2 levels were refined.

  15. SPECIES DETERMINATION OF ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS USING ZEEMAN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY WITH LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    SciTech Connect

    Koizumi, H.; Hadeishi, T.; McLaughlin, R.

    1978-01-01

    Over the past several years we have devised and expanded the capabilities of Zeeman atomic absorption spectroscopy (ZAA). Using this technique, trace elements in a complex matrix can be directly analyzed with high accuracy even when there is only one atom of interest contained in several million atoms of the host material. Quantities in the nanogram, or in some cases picogram, range can be determined within IS seconds for more than 30 elements. Because of its high selectivity and high sensitivity, ZAA can be used as a new technique for organometallic species determination by interfacing with a high pressure liquidmore » chromatograph (HPLC). The HPLC separates various molecular species. Different kinds of mobil solvents can be directly introduced in the ZAA detection system; even organic solvents or high concentration salt solutions. Then, organometallic species in the ppb range are separately detected according to their retention times. This technique has a much larger field of application than HPLC coupled with conventional AA. The advantages of the ZAA technique are described in a recent publication. In this case, a steady magnetic field at 11 kgauss is applied to the sample vapor perpendicular to the incident light beam. The difference in absorption of the polarized constituents P{perpendicular} and P{parallel} is proportional to the atomic density, but is not affected by the various kind of spectral interferences caused by thermal decomposition of the eluants. The recently developed HPLC technique has many advantages over gas chromatography. Nonvolatile, polar, thermally unstable molecules or high molecular weight compounds can be separated. In the present system, the main requirement is that the solute be soluble in the mobile solvent. A demonstration of the operation of this system is provided by the analysis of a mixture of vitamin B12 and Co(No{sub 3}){sub 2}. As shown in Figure 1, vitamin B12 has a Co in its functional center. Sample 1 contained Co of 0

  16. Spectrum Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-10-16

    Inside the Spectrum prototype unit, organisms in a Petri plate are exposed to blue excitation lighting. The device works by exposing organisms to different colors of fluorescent light while a camera records what's happening with time-lapse photography. Results from the Spectrum project will shed light on which living things are best suited for long-duration flights into deep space.

  17. Spectrum Recombination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Describes several methods of executing lecture demonstrations involving the recombination of the spectrum. Groups the techniques into two general classes: bringing selected portions of the spectrum together using lenses or mirrors and blurring the colors by rapid movement or foreshortening. (JM)

  18. Spectrum Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-10-16

    Inside the Spectrum prototype unit, organisms in a Petri plate are exposed to different colors of lighting. The device works by exposing organisms to different colors of fluorescent light while a camera records what's happening with time-lapse photography. Results from the Spectrum project will shed light on which living things are best suited for long-duration flights into deep space.

  19. Bogoliubov theory and Lee-Huang-Yang corrections in spin-1 and spin-2 Bose-Einstein condensates in the presence of the quadratic Zeeman effect

    SciTech Connect

    Uchino, Shun; Kobayashi, Michikazu; Ueda, Masahito

    2010-06-15

    We develop Bogoliubov theory of spin-1 and spin-2 Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) in the presence of a quadratic Zeeman effect, and derive the Lee-Huang-Yang (LHY) corrections to the ground-state energy, pressure, sound velocity, and quantum depletion. We investigate all the phases of spin-1 and spin-2 BECs that can be realized experimentally. We also examine the stability of each phase against quantum fluctuations and the quadratic Zeeman effect. Furthermore, we discuss a relationship between the number of symmetry generators that are spontaneously broken and that of Nambu-Goldstone (NG) modes. It is found that in the spin-2 nematic phase there are special Bogoliubovmore » modes that have gapless linear dispersion relations but do not belong to the NG modes.« less

  20. Quantum incommensurate skyrmion crystals and commensurate to in-commensurate transitions in cold atoms and materials with spin-orbit couplings in a Zeeman field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Fadi; Ye, Jinwu; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we study strongly interacting spinor atoms in a lattice subject to a two dimensional (2d) anisotropic Rashba type of spin orbital coupling (SOC) and an Zeeman field. We find the interplay between the Zeeman field and the SOC provides a new platform to host rich and novel classes of quantum commensurate and in-commensurate phases, excitations and phase transitions. These commensurate phases include two collinear states at low and high Zeeman field, two co-planar canted states at mirror reflected SOC parameters respectively. Most importantly, there are non-coplanar incommensurate Skyrmion (IC-SkX) crystal phases surrounded by the four commensurate phases. New excitation spectra above all the five phases, especially on the IC-SKX phase are computed. Three different classes of quantum commensurate to in-commensurate transitions from the IC-SKX to its four neighboring commensurate phases are identified. Finite temperature behaviors and transitions are discussed. The critical temperatures of all the phases can be raised above that reachable by current cold atom cooling techniques simply by tuning the number of atoms N per site. In view of recent impressive experimental advances in generating 2d SOC for cold atoms in optical lattices, these new many-body phenomena can be explored in the current and near future cold atom experiments. Applications to various materials such as MnSi, {Fe}}0.5 {Co}}0.5Si, especially the complex incommensurate magnetic ordering in Li2IrO3 are given.

  1. Robust superconductivity with nodes in the superconducting topological insulator CuxBi2Se3 : Zeeman orbital field and nonmagnetic impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Yuki

    2015-02-01

    We study the robustness against nonmagnetic impurities in the topological superconductor with point nodes, focusing on an effective model of CuxBi2Se3 . We find that the topological superconductivity with point nodes is not fragile against nonmagnetic impurities, although the superconductivity with nodes in past studies is usually fragile. Exchanging the role of spin with the one of orbital, and vice versa, we find that in the "dual" space the topological superconductor with point nodes is regarded as the intraorbital spin-singlet s -wave one. From the viewpoint of the dual space, we deduce that the point-node state is not fragile against nonmagnetic impurity, when the orbital imbalance in the normal states is small. Since the spin imbalance is induced by the Zeeman magnetic field, we shall name this key quantity for the impurity effects the Zeeman "orbital" field. The numerical calculations support that the deduction is correct. If the Zeeman orbital field is small, the topological superconductivity is not fragile in dirty materials, even with nodes. Thus, the topological superconductors cannot be simply regarded as one of the conventional unconventional superconductors.

  2. p -wave superconductivity in weakly repulsive 2D Hubbard model with Zeeman splitting and weak Rashba spin-orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugdal, Henning G.; Sudbø, Asle

    2018-01-01

    We study the superconducting order in a two-dimensional square lattice Hubbard model with weak repulsive interactions, subject to a Zeeman field and weak Rashba spin-orbit interactions. Diagonalizing the noninteracting Hamiltonian leads to two separate bands, and by deriving an effective low-energy interaction we find the mean field gap equations for the superconducting order parameter on the bands. Solving the gap equations just below the critical temperature, we find that superconductivity is caused by Kohn-Luttinger-type interaction, while the pairing symmetry of the bands is indirectly affected by the spin-orbit coupling. The dominating attractive momentum channel of the Kohn-Luttinger term depends on the filling fraction n of the system, and it is therefore possible to change the momentum dependence of the order parameter by tuning n . Moreover, n also determines which band has the highest critical temperature. Rotating the magnetic field changes the momentum dependence from states that for small momenta reduce to a chiral px±i py type state for out-of-plane fields, to a nodal p -wave-type state for purely in-plane fields.

  3. Magnetoinfrared spectroscopy of Landau levels and Zeeman splitting of three-dimensional massless Dirac Fermions in ZrTe 5

    DOE PAGES

    R. Y. Chen; Gu, G. D.; Chen, Z. G.; ...

    2015-10-22

    We present a magnetoinfrared spectroscopy study on a newly identified three-dimensional (3D) Dirac semimetal ZrTe 5. We observe clear transitions between Landau levels and their further splitting under a magnetic field. Both the sequence of transitions and their field dependence follow quantitatively the relation expected for 3D massless Dirac fermions. The measurement also reveals an exceptionally low magnetic field needed to drive the compound into its quantum limit, demonstrating that ZrTe 5 is an extremely clean system and ideal platform for studying 3D Dirac fermions. The splitting of the Landau levels provides direct, bulk spectroscopic evidence that a relatively weakmore » magnetic field can produce a sizable Zeeman effect on the 3D Dirac fermions, which lifts the spin degeneracy of Landau levels. As a result, our analysis indicates that the compound evolves from a Dirac semimetal into a topological line-node semimetal under the current magnetic field configuration.« less

  4. Effects of Zeeman splitting on spin transportation in a three-terminal Rashba ring under a weak magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Li-Xue; Wang, Yan; An, Zhong

    2018-05-01

    Spin-dependent transport in one-dimensional (1D) three-terminal Rashba rings is investigated under a weak magnetic field, and we focus on the Zeeman splitting (ZS) effect. For this purpose, the interaction between the electron spin and the weak magnetic field has been treated by perturbation theory. ZS removes the spin degeneracy, and breaks both the time reversal symmetry and the spin reversal symmetry of the ring system. Consequently, all conductance zeros are lifted and turned into conductance dips. Aharonov-Bohm (AB) oscillations can be found in both branch conductances and the total conductance as a function of the magnetic field. In a relatively high magnetic field, the decoherence caused by ZS decreases the amplitude of the branch conductance and increases that of the total conductance. The results have been compared with those reported in the published literature, and a reasonable agreement is obtained. The conductance as a function of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC) strength has also been investigated. As the RSOC strength increases, the role of ZS becomes weaker and weaker; ZS can even be neglected when B ≤ 0.1 T.

  5. Realization of a gain with electromagnetically induced transparency system using non-degenerate Zeeman sublevels in 87 Rb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Minchuan; Zhou, Zifan; Shahriar, Selim M.

    2017-11-01

    Previously, we had proposed an optically-pumped five-level Gain EIT (GEIT) system, which has a transparency dip superimposed on a gain profile and exhibits a negative dispersion suitable for the white-light-cavity signal-recycling (WLC-SR) scheme of the interferometric gravitational wave detector (Zhou et al., 2015). Using this system as the negative dispersion medium (NDM) in the WLC-SR, we get an enhancement in the quantum noise (QN) limited sensitivity-bandwidth product by a factor of ∼ 18. Here, we show how to realize this GEIT system in a realistic platform, using non-degenerate Zeeman sublevels in cold Rb atoms, employing anomalous dispersion at 795 nm. Using the Caves model for a phase insensitive linear amplifier, we show that an enhancement of the sensitivity-bandwidth product by a factor of ∼ 17 is possible for potentially realizable experimental parameters. While the current LIGO apparatus uses light at 1064 nm, a future embodiment thereof may operate at a wavelength that is consistent with the wavelength considered here.

  6. The Zeeman effect in astrophysical water masers and the observation of strong magnetic fields in regions of star formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nedoluha, Gerald E.; Watson, William D.

    1992-01-01

    The present study solves the transfer equations for the polarized radiation of astrophysical 22-GHz water masers in the presence of a magnetic field which causes a Zeeman splitting that is much smaller than the spectral line breadth. The emphasis is placed on the relationship between the recently detected circular polarization in this maser radiation and the strength of the magnetic field. When the observed spectral line breadth is smaller than about 0.8 km/s (FWHM), it is calculated that the uncertainty is less than a factor of about 2. The accuracy is improved significantly when the angle between the line of sight and the direction of the magnetic field does not exceed about 45 deg. Uncertainty in the strength of the magnetic field due to lack of knowledge about which hyperfine transition is the source of the 22-GHz masers is removed. The 22-GHz maser feature is found to be the result of a merger of the three strongest hyperfine components.

  7. Spectrum Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-10-16

    Dr. Scott Shipley of Ascentech Enterprises makes an adjustment to the Spectrum unit. He is the project engineer for the effort working under the Engineering Services Contract at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The device is being built for use aboard the International Space Station and is designed to expose different organisms to different color of fluorescent light while a camera records what's happening with time-laps imagery. Results from the Spectrum project will shed light on which living things are best suited for long-duration flights into deep space.

  8. Zellweger Spectrum

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe defect, resulting in essentially nonfunctional peroxisomes. This phenomenon produces the range of severity of the disorders. How is the Zellweger Spectrum Diagnosed? The distinctive shape of the head and face of a child born with one of the diseases of the ...

  9. Physics of the infrared spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deming, Drake; Jennings, Donald E.; Jefferies, John; Lindsey, Charles

    1991-01-01

    The IR bandpass is attractive for solar magnetic field studies in virtue of the proportionality to wavelength of the ratio of Zeeman splitting to line width. The large Zeeman splitting and optical thinness of the 12-micron observations render them especially useful for vector magnetic field derivations. The IR continuum, and many IR spectral lines, are formed in LTE and are useful in studies of the temperature structure of the solar atmosphere from the deepest observable photospheric layers to chromospheric altitudes. The far-IR continuum is an excellent thermometer for the upper photosphere and chromosphere.

  10. Fission Spectrum

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bloch, F.; Staub, H.

    1943-08-18

    Measurements of the spectrum of the fission neutrons of 25 are described, in which the energy of the neutrons is determined from the ionization produced by individual hydrogen recoils. The slow neutrons producing fission are obtained by slowing down the fast neutrons from the Be-D reaction of the Stanford cyclotron. In order to distinguish between fission neutrons and the remaining fast cyclotron neutrons both the cyclotron current and the pusle amplifier are modulated. A hollow neutron container, in which slow neutrons have a lifetime of about 2 milliseconds, avoids the use of large distances. This method results in much higher intensities than the usual modulation arrangement. The results show a continuous distribution of neutrons with a rather wide maximum at about 0.8 MV falling off to half of its maximum value at 2.0 MV. The total number of netrons is determined by comparison with the number of fission fragments. The result seems to indicate that only about 30% of the neutrons have energies below .8 MV. Various tests are described which were performed in order to rule out modification of the spectrum by inelastic scattering. Decl. May 4, 1951

  11. Strong spin-orbit coupling and Zeeman spin splitting in angle dependent magnetoresistance of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, Rik, E-mail: rikdey@utexas.edu; Pramanik, Tanmoy; Roy, Anupam

    We have studied angle dependent magnetoresistance of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin film with field up to 9 T over 2–20 K temperatures. The perpendicular field magnetoresistance has been explained by the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka theory alone in a system with strong spin-orbit coupling, from which we have estimated the mean free path, the phase coherence length, and the spin-orbit relaxation time. We have obtained the out-of-plane spin-orbit relaxation time to be small and the in-plane spin-orbit relaxation time to be comparable to the momentum relaxation time. The estimation of these charge and spin transport parameters are useful for spintronics applications. For parallel field magnetoresistance,more » we have confirmed the presence of Zeeman effect which is otherwise suppressed in perpendicular field magnetoresistance due to strong spin-orbit coupling. The parallel field data have been explained using both the contributions from the Maekawa-Fukuyama localization theory for non-interacting electrons and Lee-Ramakrishnan theory of electron-electron interactions. The estimated Zeeman g-factor and the strength of Coulomb screening parameter agree well with the theory. Finally, the anisotropy in magnetoresistance with respect to angle has been described by the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka theory. This anisotropy can be used in anisotropic magnetic sensor applications.« less

  12. Exciton diamagnetic shifts and valley Zeeman effects in monolayer WS2 and MoS2 to 65 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    Stier, Andreas V.; McCreary, Kathleen M.; Jonker, Berend T.; Kono, Junichiro; Crooker, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    In bulk and quantum-confined semiconductors, magneto-optical studies have historically played an essential role in determining the fundamental parameters of excitons (size, binding energy, spin, dimensionality and so on). Here we report low-temperature polarized reflection spectroscopy of atomically thin WS2 and MoS2 in high magnetic fields to 65 T. Both the A and B excitons exhibit similar Zeeman splittings of approximately −230 μeV T−1 (g-factor ≃−4), thereby quantifying the valley Zeeman effect in monolayer transition-metal disulphides. Crucially, these large fields also allow observation of the small quadratic diamagnetic shifts of both A and B excitons in monolayer WS2, from which radii of ∼1.53 and ∼1.16 nm are calculated. Further, when analysed within a model of non-local dielectric screening, these diamagnetic shifts also constrain estimates of the A and B exciton binding energies (410 and 470 meV, respectively, using a reduced A exciton mass of 0.16 times the free electron mass). These results highlight the utility of high magnetic fields for understanding new two-dimensional materials. PMID:26856412

  13. Extremely large magnetoresistance induced by Zeeman effect-driven electron-hole compensation and topological protection in MoSi2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matin, M.; Mondal, Rajib; Barman, N.; Thamizhavel, A.; Dhar, S. K.

    2018-05-01

    Here, we report an extremely large positive magnetoresistance (XMR) in a single-crystal sample of MoSi2, approaching almost 107% at 2 K in a 14-T magnetic field without appreciable saturation. Hall resistivity data reveal an uncompensated nature of MoSi2 with an electron-hole compensation level sufficient enough to expect strong saturation of magnetoresistance in the high-field regime. Magnetotransport and the complementary de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) oscillations results, however, suggest that strong Zeeman effect causes a magnetic field-induced modulation of the Fermi pockets and drives the system towards perfect electron-hole compensation condition in the high-field regime. Thus, the nonsaturating XMR of this semimetal arises under the unconventional situation of Zeeman effect-driven electron-hole compensation, whereas its huge magnitude is decided solely by the ultralarge value of the carrier mobility. Intrinsic ultralarge carrier mobility, strong suppression of backward scattering of the charge carriers, and nontrivial Berry phase in dHvA oscillations attest to the topological character of MoSi2. Therefore, this semimetal represents another material hosting combination of topological and conventional electronic phases.

  14. Exciton diamagnetic shifts and valley Zeeman effects in monolayer WS2 and MoS2 to 65 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Stier, Andreas V; McCreary, Kathleen M; Jonker, Berend T; Kono, Junichiro; Crooker, Scott A

    2016-02-09

    In bulk and quantum-confined semiconductors, magneto-optical studies have historically played an essential role in determining the fundamental parameters of excitons (size, binding energy, spin, dimensionality and so on). Here we report low-temperature polarized reflection spectroscopy of atomically thin WS2 and MoS2 in high magnetic fields to 65 T. Both the A and B excitons exhibit similar Zeeman splittings of approximately -230 μeV T(-1) (g-factor ≃-4), thereby quantifying the valley Zeeman effect in monolayer transition-metal disulphides. Crucially, these large fields also allow observation of the small quadratic diamagnetic shifts of both A and B excitons in monolayer WS2, from which radii of ∼1.53 and ∼1.16 nm are calculated. Further, when analysed within a model of non-local dielectric screening, these diamagnetic shifts also constrain estimates of the A and B exciton binding energies (410 and 470 meV, respectively, using a reduced A exciton mass of 0.16 times the free electron mass). These results highlight the utility of high magnetic fields for understanding new two-dimensional materials.

  15. THE MAGNETIC SENSITIVITY OF THE Mg ii k LINE TO THE JOINT ACTION OF HANLE, ZEEMAN, AND MAGNETO-OPTICAL EFFECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Ballester, E. Alsina; Bueno, J. Trujillo; Belluzzi, L., E-mail: ealsina@iac.es, E-mail: jtb@iac.es, E-mail: belluzzi@irsol.ch

    2016-11-10

    We highlight the main results of a radiative transfer investigation on the magnetic sensitivity of the solar Mg ii k resonance line at 2795.5 Å, accounting for the joint action of the Hanle and Zeeman effects as well as partial frequency redistribution phenomena. We confirm that at the line center, the linear polarization signals produced by scattering processes are measurable, and that they are sensitive, via the Hanle effect, to magnetic fields with strengths between 5 and 50 G, approximately. We also show that the Zeeman effect produces conspicuous circular polarization signals, especially for longitudinal fields stronger than 50 G,more » which can be used to estimate the magnetization of the solar chromosphere via the familiar magnetograph formula. The most novel result is that magneto-optical effects produce, in the wings of the line, a decrease of the Q / I scattering polarization pattern and the appearance of U / I signals (i.e., a rotation of the plane of linear polarization). This sensitivity of the Q / I and U / I wing signals to both weak (∼5 G) and stronger magnetic fields expands the scientific interest of the Mg ii k line for probing the chromosphere in quiet and active regions of the Sun.« less

  16. Band nesting, massive Dirac fermions, and valley Landé and Zeeman effects in transition metal dichalcogenides: A tight-binding model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieniek, Maciej; Korkusiński, Marek; Szulakowska, Ludmiła; Potasz, Paweł; Ozfidan, Isil; Hawrylak, Paweł

    2018-02-01

    We present here the minimal tight-binding model for a single layer of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) MX 2(M , metal; X , chalcogen) which illuminates the physics and captures band nesting, massive Dirac fermions, and valley Landé and Zeeman magnetic field effects. TMDCs share the hexagonal lattice with graphene but their electronic bands require much more complex atomic orbitals. Using symmetry arguments, a minimal basis consisting of three metal d orbitals and three chalcogen dimer p orbitals is constructed. The tunneling matrix elements between nearest-neighbor metal and chalcogen orbitals are explicitly derived at K ,-K , and Γ points of the Brillouin zone. The nearest-neighbor tunneling matrix elements connect specific metal and sulfur orbitals yielding an effective 6 ×6 Hamiltonian giving correct composition of metal and chalcogen orbitals but not the direct gap at K points. The direct gap at K , correct masses, and conduction band minima at Q points responsible for band nesting are obtained by inclusion of next-neighbor Mo-Mo tunneling. The parameters of the next-nearest-neighbor model are successfully fitted to MX 2(M =Mo ; X =S ) density functional ab initio calculations of the highest valence and lowest conduction band dispersion along K -Γ line in the Brillouin zone. The effective two-band massive Dirac Hamiltonian for MoS2, Landé g factors, and valley Zeeman splitting are obtained.

  17. Extended analysis of fifth spectrum of bromine: Br V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riyaz, A.; Tauheed, A.; Rahimullah, K.

    2014-11-01

    The fifth spectrum of bromine (Br V) has been studied in the 200-2400 Å wavelength region. The spectrum was photographed on a 3-m normal incidence vacuum spectrograph at the St. Francis Xavier University, Antigonish (Canada) and 6.65-m grazing incidence spectrograph at the Zeeman laboratory (Amsterdam). The light sources used were a triggered spark and sliding spark. The ground configuration of Br V is 4s24p. The excited configurations 4s4p2+4s2(4d+5d+5s+6s+7s+5g+6g)+4s4p(5p+4f)+4p24d in the even parity system and the 4p3+4s2(5p+6p+7p+4f)+4s4p4d+4s4p5s configurations in the odd parity system have been studied. Relativistic Hartree-Fock (HFR) and least squares fitted (LSF) parametric calculations have been used to interpret the observed spectrum. 99 levels of Br V have now been established, 43 being new. Among 394 classified spectral lines, 181 are newly classified. The level 4s27s 2S1/2 is revised. We estimate the accuracy of our measured wavelengths for sharp and unblended lines to be±0.005 Å. The ionization limit is determined as 479,657±200 cm-1 (59.470±0.025 eV).

  18. Analytical spectrum for a Hamiltonian of quantum dots with Rashba spin-orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dossa, Anselme F.; Avossevou, Gabriel Y. H.

    2014-12-01

    We determine the analytical solution for a Hamiltonian describing a confined charged particle in a quantum dot, including Rashba spin-orbit coupling and Zeeman splitting terms. The approach followed in this paper is straightforward and uses the symmetrization of the wave function's components. The eigenvalue problem for the Hamiltonian in Bargmann's Hilbert space reduces to a system of coupled first-order differential equations. Then we exploit the symmetry in the system to obtain uncoupled second-order differential equations, which are found to be the Whittaker-Ince limit of the confluent Heun equations. Analytical expressions as well as numerical results are obtained for the spectrum. One of the main features of such models, namely, the level splitting, is present through the spectrum obtained in this paper.

  19. Modeling the Zeeman effect in high altitude SSMIS channels for numerical weather prediction profiles: comparing a fast model and a line-by-line model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, R.; Milz, M.; Rayer, P.; Saunders, R.; Bell, W.; Booton, A.; Buehler, S. A.; Eriksson, P.; John, V.

    2015-10-01

    We present a comparison of a reference and a fast radiative transfer model using numerical weather prediction profiles for the Zeeman-affected high altitude Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder channels 19-22. We find that the models agree well for channels 21 and 22 compared to the channels' system noise temperatures (1.9 and 1.3 K, respectively) and the expected profile errors at the affected altitudes (estimated to be around 5 K). For channel 22 there is a 0.5 K average difference between the models, with a standard deviation of 0.24 K for the full set of atmospheric profiles. Same channel, there is 1.2 K in average between the fast model and the sensor measurement, with 1.4 K standard deviation. For channel 21 there is a 0.9 K average difference between the models, with a standard deviation of 0.56 K. Same channel, there is 1.3 K in average between the fast model and the sensor measurement, with 2.4 K standard deviation. We consider the relatively small model differences as a validation of the fast Zeeman effect scheme for these channels. Both channels 19 and 20 have smaller average differences between the models (at below 0.2 K) and smaller standard deviations (at below 0.4 K) when both models use a two-dimensional magnetic field profile. However, when the reference model is switched to using a full three-dimensional magnetic field profile, the standard deviation to the fast model is increased to almost 2 K due to viewing geometry dependencies causing up to ± 7 K differences near the equator. The average differences between the two models remain small despite changing magnetic field configurations. We are unable to compare channels 19 and 20 to sensor measurements due to limited altitude range of the numerical weather prediction profiles. We recommended that numerical weather prediction software using the fast model takes the available fast Zeeman scheme into account for data assimilation of the affected sensor channels to better constrain the upper

  20. Modeling the Zeeman effect in high-altitude SSMIS channels for numerical weather prediction profiles: comparing a fast model and a line-by-line model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Richard; Milz, Mathias; Rayer, Peter; Saunders, Roger; Bell, William; Booton, Anna; Buehler, Stefan A.; Eriksson, Patrick; John, Viju O.

    2016-03-01

    We present a comparison of a reference and a fast radiative transfer model using numerical weather prediction profiles for the Zeeman-affected high-altitude Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder channels 19-22. We find that the models agree well for channels 21 and 22 compared to the channels' system noise temperatures (1.9 and 1.3 K, respectively) and the expected profile errors at the affected altitudes (estimated to be around 5 K). For channel 22 there is a 0.5 K average difference between the models, with a standard deviation of 0.24 K for the full set of atmospheric profiles. Concerning the same channel, there is 1.2 K on average between the fast model and the sensor measurement, with 1.4 K standard deviation. For channel 21 there is a 0.9 K average difference between the models, with a standard deviation of 0.56 K. Regarding the same channel, there is 1.3 K on average between the fast model and the sensor measurement, with 2.4 K standard deviation. We consider the relatively small model differences as a validation of the fast Zeeman effect scheme for these channels. Both channels 19 and 20 have smaller average differences between the models (at below 0.2 K) and smaller standard deviations (at below 0.4 K) when both models use a two-dimensional magnetic field profile. However, when the reference model is switched to using a full three-dimensional magnetic field profile, the standard deviation to the fast model is increased to almost 2 K due to viewing geometry dependencies, causing up to ±7 K differences near the equator. The average differences between the two models remain small despite changing magnetic field configurations. We are unable to compare channels 19 and 20 to sensor measurements due to limited altitude range of the numerical weather prediction profiles. We recommended that numerical weather prediction software using the fast model takes the available fast Zeeman scheme into account for data assimilation of the affected sensor channels to

  1. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR OPERATION, CALIBRATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE PERKIN-ELMER ZEEMAN/5000 SYSTEM ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETER (BCO-L-6.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to outline the start-up, calibration, operation, and maintenance procedures for the Perkin-Elmer 5000 atomic absorption spectrophotometer (PE 5000 AA), and the Perkin Elmer 5000 Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer (PE 5000Z GFAA)...

  2. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR OPERATION, CALIBRATION, AND MAINTENANCE OF THE PERKIN-ELMER ZEEMAN/5000 SYSTEM ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROPHOTOMETER (BCO-L-6.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to outline the start-up, calibration, operation, and maintenance procedures for the Perkin-Elmer 5000 atomic absorption spectrophotometer (PE 5000 AA), and the Perkin Elmer 5000 Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer (PE 5000Z GFAA)...

  3. Biennial spectrum plan : 2009.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-01-01

    In May 2003, the President established the Spectrum Policy Initiative to promote the development : and implementation of a U.S. spectrum management policy for the 21st century. The intent of the : Spectrum Policy Initiative is to " ... foster economi...

  4. Strong valley Zeeman effect of dark excitons in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides in a tilted magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der Donck, M.; Zarenia, M.; Peeters, F. M.

    2018-02-01

    The dependence of the excitonic photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) on the tilt angle of an applied magnetic field is studied. Starting from a four-band Hamiltonian we construct a theory which quantitatively reproduces the available experimental PL spectra for perpendicular and in-plane magnetic fields. In the presence of a tilted magnetic field, we demonstrate that the dark exciton PL peaks brighten due to the in-plane component of the magnetic field and split for light with different circular polarizations as a consequence of the perpendicular component of the magnetic field. This splitting is more than twice as large as the splitting of the bright exciton peaks in tungsten-based TMDs. We propose an experimental setup that will allow for accessing the predicted splitting of the dark exciton peaks in the PL spectrum.

  5. Mg I absorption features in the solar spectrum near 9 and 12 microns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenar, David A.; Reuter, Dennis C.; Deming, Drake; Chang, Edward S.

    1988-01-01

    High-resolution FTS observations from the Kitt Peak National Solar Observatory and the Spacelab 3 ATMOS experiment have revealed additional infrared transitions due to Mg I in the spectra of both quiet sun and sunspot penumbra. In contrast to previous observations, these transitions are seen in absorption, not emission. Absorption intensities range from 1 to 7 percent of the continuum in the quiet sun. In the penumbra, the same features appear to show Zeeman splitting. Modeling of the line profiles in the photospheric spectrum shows evidence for a factor of three overabundance in the n = 5 or more levels of Mg I in the upper photosphere, but with no deviations from a Planck source function. It is concluded that whatever the process that produces the emission (including the Lemke and Holweger mechanism), it must occur well above the tau(5000) = 0.01 level.

  6. Anisotropic Weyl fermions from the quasiparticle excitation spectrum of a 3D Fulde-Ferrell superfluid.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yong; Chu, Rui-Lin; Zhang, Chuanwei

    2014-04-04

    Weyl fermions, first proposed for describing massless chiral Dirac fermions in particle physics, have not been observed yet in experiments. Recently, much effort has been devoted to explore Weyl fermions around band touching points of single-particle energy dispersions in certain solid state materials (named Weyl semimetals), similar as graphene for Dirac fermions. Here we show that such Weyl semimetals also exist in the quasiparticle excitation spectrum of a three-dimensional spin-orbit-coupled Fulde-Ferrell superfluid. By varying Zeeman fields, the properties of Weyl fermions, such as their creation and annihilation, number and position, as well as anisotropic linear dispersions around band touching points, can be tuned. We study the manifestation of anisotropic Weyl fermions in sound speeds of Fulde-Ferrell fermionic superfluids, which are detectable in experiments.

  7. Frequency bandwidth extension by use of multiple Zeeman field offsets for electron spin-echo EPR oxygen imaging of large objects

    PubMed Central

    Seifi, Payam; Epel, Boris; Sundramoorthy, Subramanian V.; Mailer, Colin; Halpern, Howard J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Electron spin-echo (ESE) oxygen imaging is a new and evolving electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) imaging (EPRI) modality that is useful for physiological in vivo applications, such as EPR oxygen imaging (EPROI), with potential application to imaging of multicentimeter objects as large as human tumors. A present limitation on the size of the object to be imaged at a given resolution is the frequency bandwidth of the system, since the location is encoded as a frequency offset in ESE imaging. The authors’ aim in this study was to demonstrate the object size advantage of the multioffset bandwidth extension technique.Methods: The multiple-stepped Zeeman field offset (or simply multi-B) technique was used for imaging of an 8.5-cm-long phantom containing a narrow single line triaryl methyl compound (trityl) solution at the 250 MHz imaging frequency. The image is compared to a standard single-field ESE image of the same phantom.Results: For the phantom used in this study, transverse relaxation (T2e) electron spin-echo (ESE) images from multi-B acquisition are more uniform, contain less prominent artifacts, and have a better signal to noise ratio (SNR) compared to single-field T2e images.Conclusions: The multi-B method is suitable for imaging of samples whose physical size restricts the applicability of the conventional single-field ESE imaging technique. PMID:21815379

  8. Velocity-tunable slow beams of cold O2 in a single spin-rovibronic state with full angular-momentum orientation by multistage Zeeman deceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiederkehr, A. W.; Schmutz, H.; Motsch, M.; Merkt, F.

    2012-08-01

    Cold samples of oxygen molecules in supersonic beams have been decelerated from initial velocities of 390 and 450 m s-1 to final velocities in the range between 150 and 280 m s-1 using a 90-stage Zeeman decelerator. (2 + 1) resonance-enhanced-multiphoton-ionization (REMPI) spectra of the 3sσ g 3Π g (C) ? two-photon transition of O2 have been recorded to characterize the state selectivity of the deceleration process. The decelerated molecular sample was found to consist exclusively of molecules in the J ‧‧ = 2 spin-rotational component of the X ? ground state of O2. Measurements of the REMPI spectra using linearly polarized laser radiation with polarization vector parallel to the decelerator axis, and thus to the magnetic-field vector of the deceleration solenoids, further showed that only the ? magnetic sublevel of the N‧‧ = 1, J ‧‧ = 2 spin-rotational level is populated in the decelerated sample, which therefore is characterized by a fully oriented total-angular-momentum vector. By maintaining a weak quantization magnetic field beyond the decelerator, the polarization of the sample could be maintained over the 5 cm distance separating the last deceleration solenoid and the detection region.

  9. Practical recursive solution of degenerate Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation theory and application to high-order calculations of the Zeeman effect in hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Silverstone, H.J.; Moats, R.K.

    1981-04-01

    With the aim of high-order calculations, a new recursive solution for the degenerate Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation-theory wave function and energy has been derived. The final formulas, chi/sup (N/)/sub sigma/ = R/sup () -sigma/summation/sup N/-1/sub k/ = 0 H/sup (sigma+1+k/)/sub sigma+1/chi/sup (N/-1-k), E/sup (N/+sigma) = <0Vertical BarH/sup (N/+sigma)/sub sigma+1/Vertical Bar0> + < 0Vertical Barsummation/sup N/-2/sub k/ = 0H/sup (sigma+1+k/)/sub sigma+1/ Vertical Barchi/sup (N/-1-k)>,which involve new Hamiltonian-related operators H/sup (sigma+k/)/sub sigma/ and H/sup( sigma+k/)/sub sigma/, strongly resemble the standard nondegenerate recursive formulas. As an illustration, the perturbed energy coefficients for the 3s-3d/sub 0/ states of hydrogen in the Zeeman effect have been calculatedmore » recursively through 87th order in the square of the magnetic field. Our treatment is compared with that of Hirschfelder and Certain (J. Chem. Phys. 60, 1118 (1974)), and some relative advantages of each are pointed out.« less

  10. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability that ... key findings. ABOUT US Overview of CDC’s work. Autism: What's New MMWR article: Prevalence of Autism Spectrum ...

  11. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Browse AZTopics Browse A-Z Adrenal Gland Disorders Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Down Syndrome Endometriosis Learning Disabilities Menstruation and ... NICHD Research Information Find a Study More Information Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) About NICHD Research Information Find a Study ...

  12. Entanglement entropy and entanglement spectrum of triplet topological superconductors.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, T P; Ribeiro, P; Sacramento, P D

    2014-10-22

    We analyze the entanglement entropy properties of a 2D p-wave superconductor with Rashba spin-orbit coupling, which displays a rich phase-space that supports non-trivial topological phases, as the chemical potential and the Zeeman term are varied. We show that the entanglement entropy and its derivatives clearly signal the topological transitions and we find numerical evidence that for this model the derivative with respect to the magnetization provides a sensible signature of each topological phase. Following the area law for the entanglement entropy, we systematically analyze the contributions that are proportional to or independent of the perimeter of the system, as a function of the Hamiltonian coupling constants and the geometry of the finite subsystem. For this model, we show that even though the topological entanglement entropy vanishes, it signals the topological phase transitions in a finite system. We also observe a relationship between a topological contribution to the entanglement entropy in a half-cylinder geometry and the number of edge states, and that the entanglement spectrum has robust modes associated with each edge state, as in other topological systems.

  13. Radiation detector spectrum simulator

    DOEpatents

    Wolf, Michael A.; Crowell, John M.

    1987-01-01

    A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source nerates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith generates several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

  14. Radiation detector spectrum simulator

    DOEpatents

    Wolf, M.A.; Crowell, J.M.

    1985-04-09

    A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source generates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith to generate several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

  15. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of He{_2}^+ Using Rydberg-Series Extrapolation and Zeeman-Decelerated Supersonic Beams of Metastable He_2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Paul; Semeria, Luca; Merkt, Frederic

    2016-06-01

    Having only three electrons, He{_2}^+ represents a system for which highly accurate ab initio calculations are possible. The latest calculations of rovibrational energies in He{_2}^+ do not include relativistic or QED corrections but claim an accuracy of 120 MHz We have performed high-resolution Rydberg spectroscopy of metastable He_2 molecules and employed multichannel-quantum-defect-theory extrapolation techniques to determine the rotational energy-level structure in the He{_2}^+ ion. To this end, we have produced samples of metastable helium molecules in supersonic beams with velocities tunable down to 100 m/s by combining a cryogenic supersonic-beam source with a multistage Zeeman decelerator. The metastable He_2 molecules are excited to np Rydberg states using the frequency-doubled output of a pulse-amplified ring dye laser. Although the bandwidth of the laser system is too large to observe the reduction of the Doppler width resulting from deceleration, the deceleration greatly simplifies the spectral assignments because of its spin-rotational state selectivity. Our approach enabled us to determine the rotational structure of He_2 with an unprecedented accuracy of 18 MHz, to quantify the size of the relativistic and QED corrections by comparison with the results of Tung et al. and to precisely measure the rotational structure of the metastable state for comparison with the results of Focsa et al. Here, we present an extension of these measurements in which we have measured higher rotational intervals of He{_2}^+. In addition, we have replaced the pulsed UV laser by a cw UV laser and improved the resolution of the spectra by a factor of more than five. W.-C. Tung, M. Pavanello and L. Adamowicz, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 104309 (2012). P. Jansen, L. Semeria, L. Esteban Hofer, S. Scheidegger, J.A. Agner, H. Schmutz, and F. Merkt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 133202 (2015). D. Sprecher, J. Liu, T. Krähenmann, M. Schäfer, and F. Merkt, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 064304 (2014). M

  16. Spectrum 101: An Introduction to Spectrum Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    are used to manage spectrum. 1.1 Signals A signal is broadly defined as a detectable quantity (e.g., current, voltage, electromagnetic field ...A pulse consists of a short burst of radiation. These pulses may be a simple increase in the electromagnetic field (referred to as baseband...changing current, in turn, induces an electromagnetic field about itself, with a field strength that corresponds to the current amplitude. This

  17. Shuttle spectrum despreader

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The results of the spread spectrum despreader project are reported and three principal products are designed and tested. The products are, (1) a spread spectrum despreader breadboard, (2) associated test equipment consisting of a spectrum spreader and bit reconstruction/error counter and (3) paper design of a Ku-band receiver which would incorporate the despreader as a principal subsystem. The despreader and test set are designed for maximum flexibility. A choice of unbalanced quadriphase or biphase shift keyed data modulation is available. Selectable integration time and threshold voltages on the despreader further lend true usefulness as laboratory test equipment to the delivered hardware.

  18. ZEEMAN INVESTIGATIONS OF CURIUM-242

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbs, J.C.; Marrus, R.; Winocur, J.O.

    The atomic-beam magnetic-resonance method has been used to investigate 163-day Cm/sup 242/. The spin of this even-even nuclide is found to be zero. Four low-lying electronlc energy levels are found and the Lande gfactors are measured to be g/sub J2/ = 2.561 plus or minus 0.003, g/sub J3/ 2.000 plus or minus 0.003, g/sub J4/ = 1.776 plus or minus 0.002, and g/sub J5/ = 1.671 plus or minus 0.003. No direct measurement can be made of the angular momenta of these levels, but other considerations contained in the text make highly probable the J values indicated in subscripts andmore » arising from the electronic configuration (5f)/sup 7/ (6d)/sup 1 (7s)/sup 2/. (auth)« less

  19. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... person’s cells, recent research has also shown that de novo , or spontaneous, gene mutations can influence the risk of developing autism spectrum disorder. De novo mutations are changes in sequences of deoxyribonucleic ...

  20. Strategic Vision for Spectrum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    wavelengths) associated with radio wave propagation. 3DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY rapid globalization of spectrum usage impacts Navy and Marine Corps...determining spec- trum policy and use. The rapid globalization of spectrum usage impacts Navy and Marine Corps operations, because the DON mission is...negotiates with other nations to garner their support for U.S. objectives. The global commercial telecommunication market and service capability expansion

  1. Autism spectrum disorder - Asperger syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... part of the larger developmental disorder category of autism spectrum disorder . ... American Psychiatric Association. Autism spectrum disorder. ... VA: American Psychiatric Publishing: 2013;50-59. Raviola GJ, ...

  2. Micro acoustic spectrum analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Schubert, W. Kent; Butler, Michael A.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Anderson, Larry F.

    2004-11-23

    A micro acoustic spectrum analyzer for determining the frequency components of a fluctuating sound signal comprises a microphone to pick up the fluctuating sound signal and produce an alternating current electrical signal; at least one microfabricated resonator, each resonator having a different resonant frequency, that vibrate in response to the alternating current electrical signal; and at least one detector to detect the vibration of the microfabricated resonators. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer can further comprise a mixer to mix a reference signal with the alternating current electrical signal from the microphone to shift the frequency spectrum to a frequency range that is a better matched to the resonant frequencies of the microfabricated resonators. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer can be designed specifically for portability, size, cost, accuracy, speed, power requirements, and use in a harsh environment. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer is particularly suited for applications where size, accessibility, and power requirements are limited, such as the monitoring of industrial equipment and processes, detection of security intrusions, or evaluation of military threats.

  3. Autism Spectrum Disorder - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Русский) Expand Section Autism Spectrum Disorder (An Introduction) - English PDF Autism Spectrum Disorder (An Introduction) - Русский (Russian) PDF Autism Spectrum Disorder (An Introduction) - English MP3 Autism Spectrum Disorder (An Introduction) - Русский (Russian) ...

  4. Broad spectrum solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw [Kensington, CA; Yu, Kin Man [Lafayette, CA; Wu, Junqiao [Richmond, CA; Schaff, William J [Ithaca, NY

    2007-05-15

    An alloy having a large band gap range is used in a multijunction solar cell to enhance utilization of the solar energy spectrum. In one embodiment, the alloy is In.sub.1-xGa.sub.xN having an energy bandgap range of approximately 0.7 eV to 3.4 eV, providing a good match to the solar energy spectrum. Multiple junctions having different bandgaps are stacked to form a solar cell. Each junction may have different bandgaps (realized by varying the alloy composition), and therefore be responsive to different parts of the spectrum. The junctions are stacked in such a manner that some bands of light pass through upper junctions to lower junctions that are responsive to such bands.

  5. NREL Spectrum of Innovation

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2011-02-25

    There are many voices calling for a future of abundant clean energy. The choices are difficult and the challenges daunting. How will we get there? The National Renewable Energy Laboratory integrates the entire spectrum of innovation including fundamental science, market relevant research, systems integration, testing and validation, commercialization and deployment. The innovation process at NREL is interdependent and iterative. Many scientific breakthroughs begin in our own laboratories, but new ideas and technologies come to NREL at any point along the innovation spectrum to be validated and refined for commercial use.

  6. NREL Spectrum of Innovation

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2018-05-11

    There are many voices calling for a future of abundant clean energy. The choices are difficult and the challenges daunting. How will we get there? The National Renewable Energy Laboratory integrates the entire spectrum of innovation including fundamental science, market relevant research, systems integration, testing and validation, commercialization and deployment. The innovation process at NREL is interdependent and iterative. Many scientific breakthroughs begin in our own laboratories, but new ideas and technologies come to NREL at any point along the innovation spectrum to be validated and refined for commercial use.

  7. The Frequency Spectrum Radio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howkins, John, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This journal issue focuses on the frequency spectrum used in radio communication and on the World Administrative Radio Conference, sponsored by the International Telecommunication Union, held in Geneva, Switzerland, in the fall of 1979. Articles describe the World Administrative Radio Conference as the most important radio communication conference…

  8. Charging for Spectrum Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Henry; Lampert, Donna

    This paper, the third in a series exploring future options for public policy in the communications and information arenas, argues that the communications spectrum--e.g., public mobile service, private radio, and domestic satellites--is a valuable but limited resource that should benefit all Americans. After a background discussion, it is…

  9. Spread spectrum image steganography.

    PubMed

    Marvel, L M; Boncelet, C R; Retter, C T

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new method of digital steganography, entitled spread spectrum image steganography (SSIS). Steganography, which means "covered writing" in Greek, is the science of communicating in a hidden manner. Following a discussion of steganographic communication theory and review of existing techniques, the new method, SSIS, is introduced. This system hides and recovers a message of substantial length within digital imagery while maintaining the original image size and dynamic range. The hidden message can be recovered using appropriate keys without any knowledge of the original image. Image restoration, error-control coding, and techniques similar to spread spectrum are described, and the performance of the system is illustrated. A message embedded by this method can be in the form of text, imagery, or any other digital signal. Applications for such a data-hiding scheme include in-band captioning, covert communication, image tamperproofing, authentication, embedded control, and revision tracking.

  10. Radio frequency spectrum management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sujdak, E. J., Jr.

    1980-03-01

    This thesis is a study of radio frequency spectrum management as practiced by agencies and departments of the Federal Government. After a brief introduction to the international agency involved in radio frequency spectrum management, the author concentrates on Federal agencies engaged in frequency management. These agencies include the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), the Interdepartment Radio Advisory Committee (IRAC), and the Department of Defense (DoD). Based on an analysis of Department of Defense frequency assignment procedures, recommendations are given concerning decentralizing military frequency assignment by delegating broader authority to unified commanders. This proposal includes a recommendation to colocate the individual Service frequency management offices at the Washington level. This would result in reduced travel costs, lower manpower requirements, and a common tri-Service frequency management data base.

  11. Acoustooptical Spectrum Analysis Modeling.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    broadband applications of acoustooptical spectrum analysis will result in nonuniform frequency responses requiring such modifications before using the AOSA...Ofl itW W Z Ztc 11 kAlI 11 (A* I -z -1 41 lz - 4-- a f~d V) LAIR 2 *ZF43 t0i Oc c U -x v~ w. >IUJU U .4J >U 114 " lU -- M 0aLI-- ftplx 4 cc C <oo - n

  12. Resonance fluorescence spectrum of a p-doped quantum dot coupled to a metallic nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carreño, F.; Antón, M. A.; Arrieta-Yáñez, Francisco

    2013-11-01

    The resonance fluorescence spectrum (RFS) of a hybrid system consisting of a p-doped semiconductor quantum dot (QD) coupled to a metallic nanoparticle (MNP) is analyzed. The quantum dot is described as a four-level atomlike system using the density matrix formalism. The lower levels are Zeeman-split hole spin states and the upper levels correspond to positively charged excitons containing a spin-up, spin-down hole pair and a spin electron. A linearly polarized laser field drives two of the optical transitions of the QD and produces localized surface plasmons in the nanoparticle, which act back upon the QD. The frequencies of these localized plasmons are very different along the two principal axes of the nanoparticle, thus producing an anisotropic modification of the spontaneous emission rates of the allowed optical transitions, which is accompanied by very minor local field corrections. This manifests into dramatic modifications in the RFS of the hybrid system in contrast to the one obtained for the isolated QD. The RFS is analyzed as a function of the nanoparticle's aspect ratio, the external magnetic field applied in the Voigt geometry, and the Rabi frequency of the driving field. It is shown that the spin of the QD is imprinted onto certain sidebands of the RFS, and that the signal at these sidebands can be optimized by engineering the shape of the MNP.

  13. Andreev spectrum with high spin-orbit interactions: Revealing spin splitting and topologically protected crossings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murani, A.; Chepelianskii, A.; Guéron, S.; Bouchiat, H.

    2017-10-01

    In order to point out experimentally accessible signatures of spin-orbit interaction, we investigate numerically the Andreev spectrum of a multichannel mesoscopic quantum wire (N) with high spin-orbit interaction coupled to superconducting electrodes (S), contrasting topological and nontopological behaviors. In the nontopological case (square lattice with Rashba interactions), we find that the Kramers degeneracy of Andreev levels is lifted by a phase difference between the S reservoirs except at multiples of π , when the normal quantum wires can host several conduction channels. The level crossings at these points invariant by time-reversal symmetry are not lifted by disorder. Whereas the dc Josephson current is insensitive to these level crossings, the high-frequency admittance (susceptibility) at finite temperature reveals these level crossings and the lifting of their degeneracy at π by a small Zeeman field. We have also investigated the hexagonal lattice with intrinsic spin-orbit interaction in the range of parameters where it is a two-dimensional topological insulator with one-dimensional helical edges protected against disorder. Nontopological superconducting contacts can induce topological superconductivity in this system characterized by zero-energy level crossing of Andreev levels. Both Josephson current and finite-frequency admittance carry then very specific signatures at low temperature of this disorder-protected Andreev level crossing at π and zero energy.

  14. Hybrid spread spectrum radio system

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Stephen F [London, TN; Dress, William B [Camas, WA

    2010-02-09

    Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method, includes receiving a hybrid spread spectrum signal including: fast frequency hopping demodulating and direct sequence demodulating a direct sequence spread spectrum signal, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time and each bit is represented by chip transmissions at multiple frequencies.

  15. Fast radio burst search: cross spectrum vs. auto spectrum method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Zheng, Weimin; Yan, Zhen; Zhang, Juan

    2018-06-01

    The search for fast radio bursts (FRBs) is a hot topic in current radio astronomy studies. In this work, we carry out a single pulse search with a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) pulsar observation data set using both auto spectrum and cross spectrum search methods. The cross spectrum method, first proposed in Liu et al., maximizes the signal power by fully utilizing the fringe phase information of the baseline cross spectrum. The auto spectrum search method is based on the popular pulsar software package PRESTO, which extracts single pulses from the auto spectrum of each station. According to our comparison, the cross spectrum method is able to enhance the signal power and therefore extract single pulses from data contaminated by high levels of radio frequency interference (RFI), which makes it possible to carry out a search for FRBs in regular VLBI observations when RFI is present.

  16. Autistic spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Singhania, Rajeshree

    2005-04-01

    Autistic spectrum disorders is a complex developmental disorder with social and communication dysfunction at its core. It has a wide clinical spectrum with a common triad of impairments -- social communication, social interaction and social imagination. Even mild or subtle difficulties can have a profound and devastating impact on the child. To be able to provide suitable treatments and interventions the distinctive way of thinking and learning of autistic children has to be understood. The core areas of social, emotional, communication and language deficits have to be addressed at all levels of functioning. The important goals of assessment include a categorical diagnosis of autism that looks at differential diagnosis, a refined precise documentation of the child's functioning in various developmental domains and ascertaining presence of co-morbid conditions. The interventions have to be adapted to the individual's chronological age, developmental phase and level of functioning. The strategies of curriculum delivery and teaching the child with autism is distinctive and includes presence of structure to increase predictability and strategies to reduce arousal of anxiety.

  17. Supernovae anisotropy power spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Ghodsi, Hoda; Baghram, Shant; Habibi, Farhang, E-mail: h.ghodsi@mehr.sharif.ir, E-mail: baghram@sharif.edu, E-mail: habibi@lal.in2p3.fr

    2017-10-01

    We contribute another anisotropy study to this field of research using Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). In this work, we utilise the power spectrum calculation method and apply it to both the current SNe Ia data and simulation. Using the Union2.1 data set at all redshifts, we compare the spectrum of the residuals of the observed distance moduli to that expected from an isotropic universe affected by the Union2.1 observational uncertainties at low multipoles. Through this comparison we find a dipolar anisotropy with tension of less that 2σ towards l = 171° ± 21° and b = −26° ± 28°more » which is mainly induced by anisotropic spatial distribution of the SNe with z > 0.2 rather than being a cosmic effect. Furthermore, we find a tension of ∼ 4σ at ℓ = 4 between the two spectra. Our simulations are constructed with the characteristics of the upcoming surveys like the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), which shall bring us the largest SNe Ia collection to date. We make predictions for the amplitude of a possible dipolar anisotropy that would be detectable by future SNe Ia surveys.« less

  18. The marine diversity spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Reuman, Daniel C; Gislason, Henrik; Barnes, Carolyn; Mélin, Frédéric; Jennings, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Distributions of species body sizes within a taxonomic group, for example, mammals, are widely studied and important because they help illuminate the evolutionary processes that produced these distributions. Distributions of the sizes of species within an assemblage delineated by geography instead of taxonomy (all the species in a region regardless of clade) are much less studied but are equally important and will illuminate a different set of ecological and evolutionary processes. We develop and test a mechanistic model of how diversity varies with body mass in marine ecosystems. The model predicts the form of the ‘diversity spectrum’, which quantifies the distribution of species' asymptotic body masses, is a species analogue of the classic size spectrum of individuals, and which we have found to be a new and widely applicable description of diversity patterns. The marine diversity spectrum is predicted to be approximately linear across an asymptotic mass range spanning seven orders of magnitude. Slope −0·5 is predicted for the global marine diversity spectrum for all combined pelagic zones of continental shelf seas, and slopes for large regions are predicted to lie between −0·5 and −0·1. Slopes of −0·5 and −0·1 represent markedly different communities: a slope of −0·5 depicts a 10-fold reduction in diversity for every 100-fold increase in asymptotic mass; a slope of −0·1 depicts a 1·6-fold reduction. Steeper slopes are predicted for larger or colder regions, meaning fewer large species per small species for such regions. Predictions were largely validated by a global empirical analysis. Results explain for the first time a new and widespread phenomenon of biodiversity. Results have implications for estimating numbers of species of small asymptotic mass, where taxonomic inventories are far from complete. Results show that the relationship between diversity and body mass can be explained from the dependence of predation behaviour

  19. Electromagnetic spectrum management system

    DOEpatents

    Seastrand, Douglas R.

    2017-01-31

    A system for transmitting a wireless countermeasure signal to disrupt third party communications is disclosed that include an antenna configured to receive wireless signals and transmit wireless counter measure signals such that the wireless countermeasure signals are responsive to the received wireless signals. A receiver processes the received wireless signals to create processed received signal data while a spectrum control module subtracts known source signal data from the processed received signal data to generate unknown source signal data. The unknown source signal data is based on unknown wireless signals, such as enemy signals. A transmitter is configured to process the unknown source signal data to create countermeasure signals and transmit a wireless countermeasure signal over the first antenna or a second antenna to thereby interfere with the unknown wireless signals.

  20. Electromagnetic spectrum management system

    SciTech Connect

    Seastrand, Douglas R.

    A system for transmitting a wireless countermeasure signal to disrupt third party communications is disclosed that include an antenna configured to receive wireless signals and transmit wireless counter measure signals such that the wireless countermeasure signals are responsive to the received wireless signals. A receiver processes the received wireless signals to create processed received signal data while a spectrum control module subtracts known source signal data from the processed received signal data to generate unknown source signal data. The unknown source signal data is based on unknown wireless signals, such as enemy signals. A transmitter is configured to process themore » unknown source signal data to create countermeasure signals and transmit a wireless countermeasure signal over the first antenna or a second antenna to thereby interfere with the unknown wireless signals.« less

  1. Broad spectrum bioactive sunscreens.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Sarruf, Fernanda Daud; Salgado-Santos, Idalina Maria Nunes; Haroutiounian-Filho, Carlos Alberto; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Baby, André Rolim

    2008-11-03

    The development of sunscreens containing reduced concentration of chemical UV filters, even though, possessing broad spectrum effectiveness with the use of natural raw materials that improve and infer UV absorption is of great interest. Due to the structural similarities between polyphenolic compounds and organic UV filters, they might exert photoprotection activity. The objective of the present research work was to develop bioactive sunscreen delivery systems containing rutin, Passiflora incarnata L. and Plantago lanceolata extracts associated or not with organic and inorganic UV filters. UV transmission of the sunscreen delivery system films was performed by using diffuse transmittance measurements coupling to an integrating sphere. In vitro photoprotection efficacy was evaluated according to the following parameters: estimated sun protection factor (SPF); Boot's Star Rating category; UVA/UVB ratio; and critical wavelength (lambda(c)). Sunscreen delivery systems obtained SPF values ranging from 0.972+/-0.004 to 28.064+/-2.429 and bioactive compounds interacted with the UV filters positive and negatively. This behavior may be attributed to: the composition of the delivery system; the presence of inorganic UV filter and quantitative composition of the organic UV filters; and the phytochemical composition of the P. incarnata L. and P. lanceolata extracts. Among all associations of bioactive compounds and UV filters, we found that the broad spectrum sunscreen was accomplished when 1.68% (w/w) P. incarnata L. dry extract was in the presence of 7.0% (w/w) ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, 2.0% (w/w) benzophenone-3 and 2.0% (w/w) TiO(2). It was demonstrated that this association generated estimated SPF of 20.072+/-0.906 and it has improved the protective defense against UVA radiation accompanying augmentation of the UVA/UVB ratio from 0.49 to 0.52 and lambda(c) from 364 to 368.6nm.

  2. Spectrum transformation for divergent iterations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Murli M.

    1991-01-01

    Certain spectrum transformation techniques are described that can be used to transform a diverging iteration into a converging one. Two techniques are considered called spectrum scaling and spectrum enveloping and how to obtain the optimum values of the transformation parameters is discussed. Numerical examples are given to show how this technique can be used to transform diverging iterations into converging ones; this technique can also be used to accelerate the convergence of otherwise convergent iterations.

  3. Regression in autistic spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Stefanatos, Gerry A

    2008-12-01

    A significant proportion of children diagnosed with Autistic Spectrum Disorder experience a developmental regression characterized by a loss of previously-acquired skills. This may involve a loss of speech or social responsitivity, but often entails both. This paper critically reviews the phenomena of regression in autistic spectrum disorders, highlighting the characteristics of regression, age of onset, temporal course, and long-term outcome. Important considerations for diagnosis are discussed and multiple etiological factors currently hypothesized to underlie the phenomenon are reviewed. It is argued that regressive autistic spectrum disorders can be conceptualized on a spectrum with other regressive disorders that may share common pathophysiological features. The implications of this viewpoint are discussed.

  4. A Cognitive Agent for Spectrum Monitoring and Informed Spectrum Access

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-01

    electromagnetic environments (EMEs) to understand what spectrum bands are accessed, when those bands are accessed, and how much energy is...recall. The cognitive agent in this report uses the second approach. The knowledge domain of the cognitive agent is the electromagnetic spectrum. The...Knowledge DTV digital television EME electromagnetic environments FM frequency modulated RF radio frequency VHF very high frequency

  5. Frequency Allocation; The Radio Spectrum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) assigns segments of the radio spectrum to categories of users, and specific frequencies within each segment to individual users. Since demand for channel space exceeds supply, the process is complex. The radio spectrum can be compared to a long ruler: the portion from 10-540 kiloHertz has been set aside…

  6. The Solar Convection Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachmann, Kurt T.

    2000-01-01

    I helped to complete a research project with NASA scientists Dr. David Hathaway (my mentor), Rick Bogart, and John Beck from the SOHO/SOI collaboration. Our published paper in 'Solar Physics' was titled 'The Solar Convection Spectrum' (April 2000). Two of my undergraduate students were named on the paper--Gavrav Khutri and Josh Petitto. Gavrav also wrote a short paper for the National Conference of Undergraduate Research Proceedings in 1998 using a preliminary result. Our main result was that we show no evidence of a scale of convection named 'mesogranulation'. Instead, we see only direct evidence for the well-known scales of convection known as graduation and supergranulation. We are also completing work on vertical versus horizontal flow fluxes at the solar surface. I continue to work on phase relationships of solar activity indicators, but I have not yet written a paper with my students on this topic. Along with my research results, I have developed and augmented undergraduate courses at Birmingham-Southern College by myself and with other faculty. We have included new labs and observations, speakers from NASA and elsewhere, new subject material related to NASA and space science. I have done a great deal of work in outreach, mostly as President and other offices in the Birmingham Astronomical Society. My work includes speaking, attracting speakers, giving workshops, and governing.

  7. Rotational Spectrum of Saccharine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, Elena R.; Mata, Santiago; Alonso, José L.

    2017-06-01

    A significant step forward in the structure-activity relationships of sweeteners was the assignment of the AH-B moiety in sweeteners by Shallenberger and Acree. They proposed that all sweeteners contain an AH-B moiety, known as glucophore, in which A and B are electronegative atoms separated by a distance between 2.5 to 4 Å. H is a hydrogen atom attached to one of the electronegative atom by a covalent bond. For saccharine, one of the oldest artificial sweeteners widely used in food and drinks, two possible B moieties exist ,the carbonyl oxygen atom and the sulfoxide oxygen atom although there is a consensus of opinion among scientists over the assignment of AH-B moieties to HN-SO. In the present work, the solid of saccharine (m.p. 220°C) has been vaporized by laser ablation (LA) and its rotational spectrum has been analyzed by broadband CP-FTMW and narrowband MB-FTMW Fourier transform microwave techniques. The detailed structural information extracted from the rotational constants and ^{14}N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants provided enough information to ascribe the glucophore's AH and B sites of saccharine. R. S. Shallenberger, T. E. Acree. Nature 216, 480-482 Nov 1967. R. S. Shallenberger. Taste Chemistry; Blackie Academic & Professional, London, (1993).

  8. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Rotational Spectrum of Sarin.

    PubMed

    Walker, A. R. Hight; Suenram, R. D.; Samuels, Alan; Jensen, James; Ellzy, Michael W.; Lochner, J. Michael; Zeroka, Daniel

    2001-05-01

    As part of an effort to examine the possibility of using molecular-beam Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy to unambiguously detect and monitor chemical warfare agents, we report the first observation and assignment of the rotational spectrum of the nerve agent Sarin (GB) (Methylphosphonofluoridic acid 1-methyl-ethyl ester, CAS #107-44-8) at frequencies between 10 and 22 GHz. Only one of the two low-energy conformers of this organophosphorus compound (C(4)H(10)FO(2)P) was observed in the rotationally cold (T(rot)<2 K) molecular beam. The experimental asymmetric-rotor ground-state rotational constants of this conformer are A=2874.0710(9) MHz, B=1168.5776(4) MHz, C=1056.3363(4) MHz (Type A standard uncertainties are given, i.e., 1sigma), as obtained from a least-squares analysis of 74 a-, b-, and c-type rotational transitions. Several of the transitions are split into doublets due to the internal rotation of the methyl group attached to the phosphorus. The three-fold-symmetry barrier to internal rotation estimated from these splittings is 677.0(4) cm(-1). Ab initio electronic structure calculations using Hartree-Fock, density functional, and Moller-Plesset perturbation theories have also been made. The structure of the lowest-energy conformer determined from a structural optimization at the MP2/6-311G(**) level of theory is consistent with our experimental findings. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  10. Rotational Spectrum of Sarin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, A. R. Hight; Suenram, R. D.; Samuels, Alan; Jensen, James; Ellzy, Michael W.; Lochner, J. Michael; Zeroka, Daniel

    2001-05-01

    As part of an effort to examine the possibility of using molecular-beam Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy to unambiguously detect and monitor chemical warfare agents, we report the first observation and assignment of the rotational spectrum of the nerve agent Sarin (GB) (Methylphosphonofluoridic acid 1-methyl-ethyl ester, CAS #107-44-8) at frequencies between 10 and 22 GHz. Only one of the two low-energy conformers of this organophosphorus compound (C4H10FO2P) was observed in the rotationally cold (Trot<2 K) molecular beam. The experimental asymmetric-rotor ground-state rotational constants of this conformer are A=2874.0710(9) MHz, B=1168.5776(4) MHz, C=1056.3363(4) MHz (Type A standard uncertainties are given, i.e., 1σ), as obtained from a least-squares analysis of 74 a-, b-, and c-type rotational transitions. Several of the transitions are split into doublets due to the internal rotation of the methyl group attached to the phosphorus. The three-fold-symmetry barrier to internal rotation estimated from these splittings is 677.0(4) cm-1. Ab initio electronic structure calculations using Hartree-Fock, density functional, and Moller-Plesset perturbation theories have also been made. The structure of the lowest-energy conformer determined from a structural optimization at the MP2/6-311G** level of theory is consistent with our experimental findings.

  11. PINS Spectrum Identification Guide

    SciTech Connect

    A.J. Caffrey

    2012-03-01

    The Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy—PINS, for short—system identifies the chemicals inside munitions and containers without opening them, a decided safety advantage if the fill chemical is a hazardous substance like a chemical warfare agent or an explosive. The PINS Spectrum Identification Guide is intended as a reference for technical professionals responsible for the interpretation of PINS gamma-ray spectra. The guide is divided into two parts. The three chapters that constitute Part I cover the science and technology of PINS. Neutron activation analysis is the focus of Chapter 1. Chapter 2 explores PINS hardware, software, and related operational issues. Gamma-ray spectralmore » analysis basics are introduced in Chapter 3. The six chapters of Part II cover the identification of PINS spectra in detail. Like the PINS decision tree logic, these chapters are organized by chemical element: phosphorus-based chemicals, chlorine-based chemicals, etc. These descriptions of hazardous, toxic, and/or explosive chemicals conclude with a chapter on the identification of the inert chemicals, e.g. sand, used to fill practice munitions.« less

  12. Comparison of RF spectrum prediction methods for dynamic spectrum access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovarskiy, Jacob A.; Martone, Anthony F.; Gallagher, Kyle A.; Sherbondy, Kelly D.; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2017-05-01

    Dynamic spectrum access (DSA) refers to the adaptive utilization of today's busy electromagnetic spectrum. Cognitive radio/radar technologies require DSA to intelligently transmit and receive information in changing environments. Predicting radio frequency (RF) activity reduces sensing time and energy consumption for identifying usable spectrum. Typical spectrum prediction methods involve modeling spectral statistics with Hidden Markov Models (HMM) or various neural network structures. HMMs describe the time-varying state probabilities of Markov processes as a dynamic Bayesian network. Neural Networks model biological brain neuron connections to perform a wide range of complex and often non-linear computations. This work compares HMM, Multilayer Perceptron (MLP), and Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) algorithms and their ability to perform RF channel state prediction. Monte Carlo simulations on both measured and simulated spectrum data evaluate the performance of these algorithms. Generalizing spectrum occupancy as an alternating renewal process allows Poisson random variables to generate simulated data while energy detection determines the occupancy state of measured RF spectrum data for testing. The results suggest that neural networks achieve better prediction accuracy and prove more adaptable to changing spectral statistics than HMMs given sufficient training data.

  13. The Recovery Spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Jalie A.; Simpson, Cathy A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent innovations in alcohol-focused interventions are aimed at closing the gap between population need and the currently uncommon use of alcohol treatment services. Guided by population data showing the heterogeneity of alcohol problems and the occurrence of natural remissions from problem drinking without treatment, alcohol services have begun to expand beyond clinical treatment to offer the untreated majority of individuals with alcohol-related problems accessible, less-intensive services that use the tools of public health practice. These services often are opportunistic, meaning they can be provided in primary-care or other unspecialized health care or community settings. They also can be delivered by nonspecialists, or can be used by people themselves to address problems with alcohol without entering the health care system. This developing spectrum of services includes screening and brief interventions, guided self-change programs, and telehealth options that often are targeted and tailored for high-risk groups (e.g., college drinkers). Other efforts aimed at reducing barriers to care and increasing motivation to seek help have utilized individual, organizational, and public health strategies. Together, these efforts have potential for helping the treatment field reach people who have realized that they have a drinking problem but have not yet experienced the severe negative consequences that may eventually drive them to seek treatment. Although the evidence supporting several innovations in alcohol services is preliminary, some approaches are well established, and collectively they form an emerging continuum of care for alcohol problems aimed at increasing service availability and improving overall impact on population health. PMID:23580021

  14. Fragile X spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lozano, Reymundo; Rosero, Carolina Alba; Hagerman, Randi J

    2014-01-01

    Summary The fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1), which codes for the fragile X mental retardation 1 protein (FMRP), is located at Xp27.3. The normal allele of the FMR1 gene typically has 5 to 40 CGG repeats in the 5′ untranslated region; abnormal alleles of dynamic mutations include the full mutation (> 200 CGG repeats), premutation (55–200 CGG repeats) and the gray zone mutation (45–54 CGG repeats). Premutation carriers are common in the general population with approximately 1 in 130–250 females and 1 in 250–810 males, whereas the full mutation and Fragile X syndrome (FXS) occur in approximately 1 in 4000 to 1 in 7000. FMR1 mutations account for a variety of phenotypes including the most common monogenetic cause of inherited intellectual disability (ID) and autism (FXS), the most common genetic form of ovarian failure, the fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI, premutation); and fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS, premutation). The premutation can also cause developmental problems including ASD and ADHD especially in boys and psychopathology including anxiety and depression in children and adults. Some premutation carriers can have a deficit of FMRP and some unmethylated full mutation individuals can have elevated FMR1 mRNA that is considered a premutation problem. Therefore the term “Fragile X Spectrum Disorder” (FXSD) should be used to include the wide range of overlapping phenotypes observed in affected individuals with FMR1 mutations. In this review we focus on the phenotypes and genotypes of children with FXSD. PMID:25606363

  15. Fragile X spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Reymundo; Rosero, Carolina Alba; Hagerman, Randi J

    2014-11-01

    The fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1), which codes for the fragile X mental retardation 1 protein (FMRP), is located at Xp27.3. The normal allele of the FMR1 gene typically has 5 to 40 CGG repeats in the 5' untranslated region; abnormal alleles of dynamic mutations include the full mutation (> 200 CGG repeats), premutation (55-200 CGG repeats) and the gray zone mutation (45-54 CGG repeats). Premutation carriers are common in the general population with approximately 1 in 130-250 females and 1 in 250-810 males, whereas the full mutation and Fragile X syndrome (FXS) occur in approximately 1 in 4000 to 1 in 7000. FMR1 mutations account for a variety of phenotypes including the most common monogenetic cause of inherited intellectual disability (ID) and autism (FXS), the most common genetic form of ovarian failure, the fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI, premutation); and fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS, premutation). The premutation can also cause developmental problems including ASD and ADHD especially in boys and psychopathology including anxiety and depression in children and adults. Some premutation carriers can have a deficit of FMRP and some unmethylated full mutation individuals can have elevated FMR1 mRNA that is considered a premutation problem. Therefore the term "Fragile X Spectrum Disorder" (FXSD) should be used to include the wide range of overlapping phenotypes observed in affected individuals with FMR1 mutations. In this review we focus on the phenotypes and genotypes of children with FXSD.

  16. Use of radiation sources with mercury isotopes for real-time highly sensitive and selective benzene determination in air and natural gas by differential absorption spectrometry with the direct Zeeman effect.

    PubMed

    Revalde, Gita; Sholupov, Sergey; Ganeev, Alexander; Pogarev, Sergey; Ryzhov, Vladimir; Skudra, Atis

    2015-08-05

    A new analytical portable system is proposed for the direct determination of benzene vapor in the ambient air and natural gas, using differential absorption spectrometry with the direct Zeeman effect and innovative radiation sources: capillary mercury lamps with different isotopic compositions ((196)Hg, (198)Hg, (202)Hg, (204)Hg, and natural isotopic mixture). Resonance emission of mercury at a wavelength of 254 nm is used as probing radiation. The differential cross section of benzene absorption in dependence on wavelength is determined by scanning of magnetic field. It is found that the sensitivity of benzene detection is enhanced three times using lamp with the mercury isotope (204)Hg in comparison with lamp, filled with the natural isotopic mixture. It is experimentally demonstrated that, when benzene content is measured at the Occupational Exposure Limit (3.2 mg/m(3) for benzene) level, the interference from SO2, NO2, O3, H2S and toluene can be neglected if concentration of these gases does not exceed corresponding Occupational Exposure Limits. To exclude the mercury effect, filters that absorb mercury and let benzene pass in the gas duct are proposed. Basing on the results of our study, a portable spectrometer is designed with a multipath cell of 960 cm total path length and detection limit 0.5 mg/m(3) at 1 s averaging and 0.1 mg/m(3) at 30 s averaging. The applications of the designed spectrometer to measuring the benzene concentration in the atmospheric air from a moving vehicle and in natural gas are exemplified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Autism spectrum disorder - childhood disintegrative disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... part of the larger developmental disorder category of autism spectrum disorder . ... American Psychiatric Association. Autism spectrum disorder. ... ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing: 2013;50-59. ...

  18. Spin Hall effect and Landau spectrum of Dirac electrons in bismuth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuseya, Yuki

    2015-03-01

    Bismuth has played an important role in solid-state physics. Many key phenomena were first discovered in bismuth, such as diamagnetism, Seebeck, Nernst, Shubnikov-de Haas, and de Haas-van Alphen effects. These phenomena result from particular electronic states of bismuth. The strong spin-orbit interaction (~ 1.5eV) causes strong spin-dependent interband couplings resulting in an anomalous spin magnetic moment. We investigate the spin Hall effect and the angular dependent Landau spectrum of bismuth paying special attention to the effect of the anomalous spin magnetic moment. It is shown that the spin Hall insulator is possible and there is a fundamental relationship between the spin Hall conductivity and orbital diamagnetism in the insulating state of the Dirac electrons. Based on this theoretical finding, the magnitude of spin Hall conductivity is estimated for bismuth by that of orbital susceptibility. The magnitude of spin Hall conductivity turns out to be as large as 104Ω-1 cm-1, which is about 100 times larger than that of Pt. It is also shown that the ratio of the Zeeman splitting to the cyclotron energy, which reflects the effect of crystalline spin-orbit interaction, for holes at the T-point can be larger than 1.0 (the maximum of previous theories) and exhibit strong angular dependence, which gives a possible solution to the long-standing mystery of holes at the T-point. In collaboration with Masao Ogata, Hidetoshi Fukuyama, Zengwei Zhu, Benoît Fauqué, Woun Kang, and Kamran Behnia. Supported by JSPS (KAKENHI 24244053, 25870231, and 13428660).

  19. Primordial power spectrum from Planck

    SciTech Connect

    Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Shafieloo, Arman; Souradeep, Tarun, E-mail: dhiraj@apctp.org, E-mail: arman@apctp.org, E-mail: tarun@iucaa.ernet.in

    2014-11-01

    Using modified Richardson-Lucy algorithm we reconstruct the primordial power spectrum (PPS) from Planck Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature anisotropy data. In our analysis we use different combinations of angular power spectra from Planck to reconstruct the shape of the primordial power spectrum and locate possible features. Performing an extensive error analysis we found the dip near ℓ ∼ 750–850 represents the most prominent feature in the data. Feature near ℓ ∼ 1800–2000 is detectable with high confidence only in 217 GHz spectrum and is apparently consequence of a small systematic as described in the revised Planck 2013 papers. Fixing the background cosmological parameters andmore » the foreground nuisance parameters to their best fit baseline values, we report that the best fit power law primordial power spectrum is consistent with the reconstructed form of the PPS at 2σ C.L. of the estimated errors (apart from the local features mentioned above). As a consistency test, we found the reconstructed primordial power spectrum from Planck temperature data can also substantially improve the fit to WMAP-9 angular power spectrum data (with respect to power-law form of the PPS) allowing an overall amplitude shift of ∼ 2.5%. In this context low-ℓ and 100 GHz spectrum from Planck which have proper overlap in the multipole range with WMAP data found to be completely consistent with WMAP-9 (allowing amplitude shift). As another important result of our analysis we do report the evidence of gravitational lensing through the reconstruction analysis. Finally we present two smooth form of the PPS containing only the important features. These smooth forms of PPS can provide significant improvements in fitting the data (with respect to the power law PPS) and can be helpful to give hints for inflationary model building.« less

  20. Adult Autism Subthreshold Spectrum (AdAS Spectrum): Validation of a questionnaire investigating subthreshold autism spectrum.

    PubMed

    Dell'Osso, L; Gesi, C; Massimetti, E; Cremone, I M; Barbuti, M; Maccariello, G; Moroni, I; Barlati, S; Castellini, G; Luciano, M; Bossini, L; Rocchetti, M; Signorelli, M; Aguglia, E; Fagiolini, A; Politi, P; Ricca, V; Vita, A; Carmassi, C; Maj, M

    2017-02-01

    Increasing literature has shown the usefulness of a dimensional approach to autism. The present study aimed to determine the psychometric properties of the Adult Autism Subthreshold Spectrum (AdAS Spectrum), a new questionnaire specifically tailored to assess subthreshold forms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in adulthood. 102 adults endorsing at least one DSM-5 symptom criterion for ASD (ASDc), 143 adults diagnosed with a feeding and eating disorder (FED), and 160 subjects with no mental disorders (CTL), were recruited from 7 Italian University Departments of Psychiatry and administered the following: SCID-5, Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ), Ritvo Autism and Asperger Diagnostic Scale 14-item version (RAADS-14), and AdAS Spectrum. The AdAS Spectrum demonstrated excellent internal consistency for the total score (Kuder-Richardson's coefficient=.964) as well as for five out of seven domains (all coefficients>.80) and sound test-retest reliability (ICC=.976). The total and domain AdAS Spectrum scores showed a moderate to strong (>.50) positive correlation with one another and with the AQ and RAADS-14 total scores. ASDc subjects reported significantly higher AdAS Spectrum total scores than both FED (p<.001) and CTL (p<.001), and significantly higher scores on the Childhood/adolescence, Verbal communication, Empathy, Inflexibility and adherence to routine, and Restricted interests and rumination domains (all p<.001) than FED, while on all domains compared to CTL. CTL displayed significantly lower total and domain scores than FED (all p<.001). A significant effect of gender emerged for the Hyper- and hyporeactivity to sensory input domain, with women showing higher scores than men (p=.003). A Diagnosis* Gender interaction was also found for the Verbal communication (p=.019) and Empathy (p=.023) domains. When splitting the ASDc in subjects with one symptom criterion (ASD 1 ) and those with a ASD, and the FED in subjects with no ASD symptom criteria (FED 0 ) and those with

  1. The Spectrum of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Ryley; Masui, Kiyoshi W.; Scott, Douglas

    2018-05-01

    The cosmic background (CB) radiation, encompassing the sum of emission from all sources outside our own Milky Way galaxy across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, is a fundamental phenomenon in observational cosmology. Many experiments have been conceived to measure it (or its constituents) since the extragalactic Universe was first discovered; in addition to estimating the bulk (cosmic monopole) spectrum, directional variations have also been detected over a wide range of wavelengths. Here we gather the most recent of these measurements and discuss the current status of our understanding of the CB from radio to $\\gamma$-ray energies. Using available data in the literature we piece together the sky-averaged intensity spectrum, and discuss the emission processes responsible for what is observed. We examine the effect of perturbations to the continuum spectrum from atomic and molecular line processes and comment on the detectability of these signals. We also discuss how one could in principle obtain a complete census of the CB by measuring the full spectrum of each spherical harmonic expansion coefficient. This set of spectra of multipole moments effectively encodes the entire statistical history of nuclear, atomic and molecular processes in the Universe.

  2. Obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Andrea; King, Audrey; Hollander, Eric

    2003-01-01

    The obsessive-compulsive spectrum is an important concept referring to a number of disorders drawn from several diagnostic categories that share core obsessive-compulsive features. These disorders can be grouped by the focus of their symptoms: bodily preoccupation, impulse control, or neurological disorders. Although the disorders are clearly distinct from one another, they have intriguing similarities in phenomenology, etiology, pathophysiology, patient characteristics, and treatment response. In combination with the knowledge gained through many years of research on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the concept of a spectrum has generated much fruitful research on the spectrum disorders. It has become apparent that these disorders can also be viewed as being on a continuum of compulsivity to impulsivity, characterized by harm avoidance at the compulsive end and risk seeking at the impulsive end. The compulsive and impulsive disorders differ in systematic ways that are just beginning to be understood. Here, we review these concepts and several representative obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders including both compulsive and impulsive disorders, as well as the three different symptom clusters: OCD, body dysmorphic disorder, pathological gambling, sexual compulsivity, and autism spectrum disorders. PMID:22033547

  3. The Spectrum of the Universe.

    PubMed

    Hill, Ryley; Masui, Kiyoshi W; Scott, Douglas

    2018-05-01

    Cosmic background (CB) radiation, encompassing the sum of emission from all sources outside our own Milky Way galaxy across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, is a fundamental phenomenon in observational cosmology. Many experiments have been conceived to measure it (or its constituents) since the extragalactic Universe was first discovered; in addition to estimating the bulk (cosmic monopole) spectrum, directional variations have also been detected over a wide range of wavelengths. Here we gather the most recent of these measurements and discuss the current status of our understanding of the CB from radio to γ-ray energies. Using available data in the literature, we piece together the sky-averaged intensity spectrum and discuss the emission processes responsible for what is observed. We examine the effect of perturbations to the continuum spectrum from atomic and molecular line processes and comment on the detectability of these signals. We also discuss how one could, in principle, obtain a complete census of the CB by measuring the full spectrum of each spherical harmonic expansion coefficient. This set of spectra of multipole moments effectively encodes the entire statistical history of nuclear, atomic, and molecular processes in the Universe.

  4. Design Spectrum Analysis in NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, T. G.

    1984-01-01

    The utility of Design Spectrum Analysis is to give a mode by mode characterization of the behavior of a design under a given loading. The theory of design spectrum is discussed after operations are explained. User instructions are taken up here in three parts: Transient Preface, Maximum Envelope Spectrum, and RMS Average Spectrum followed by a Summary Table. A single DMAP ALTER packet will provide for all parts of the design spectrum operations. The starting point for getting a modal break-down of the response to acceleration loading is the Modal Transient rigid format. After eigenvalue extraction, modal vectors need to be isolated in the full set of physical coordinates (P-sized as opposed to the D-sized vectors in RF 12). After integration for transient response the results are scanned over the solution time interval for the peak values and for the times that they occur. A module called SCAN was written to do this job, that organizes these maxima into a diagonal output matrix. The maximum amplifier in each mode is applied to the eigenvector of each mode which then reveals the maximum displacements, stresses, forces and boundary reactions that the structure will experience for a load history, mode by mode. The standard NASTRAN output processors have been modified for this task. It is required that modes be normalized to mass.

  5. Ultraviolet absorption spectrum of HOCl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkholder, James B.

    1993-01-01

    The room temperature UV absorption spectrum of HOCl was measured over the wavelength range 200 to 380 nm with a diode array spectrometer. The absorption spectrum was identified from UV absorption spectra recorded following UV photolysis of equilibrium mixtures of Cl2O/H2O/HOCl. The HOCl spectrum is continuous with a maximum at 242 nm and a secondary peak at 304 nm. The measured absorption cross section at 242 nm was (2.1 +/- 0.3) x 10 exp -19/sq cm (2 sigma error limits). These results are in excellent agreement with the work of Knauth et al. (1979) but in poor agreement with the more recent measurements of Mishalanie et al. (1986) and Permien et al. (1988). An HOCl nu2 infrared band intensity of 230 +/- 35/sq cm atm was determined based on this UV absorption cross section. The present results are compared with these previous measurements and the discrepancies are discussed.

  6. Application of Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with high-frequency modulation polarization for the direct determination of aluminum, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, mercury, manganese, nickel, lead, and thallium in human blood.

    PubMed

    Ivanenko, Natalya B; Solovyev, Nikolay D; Ivanenko, Anatoly A; Ganeev, Alexander A

    2012-10-01

    Determination of aluminum (Al), beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and thallium (Tl) concentrations in human blood using high-frequency modulation polarization Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) was performed. No sample digestion was used in the current study. Blood samples were diluted with deionized water or 0.1 % (m/v) Triton X-100 solution for Tl. Dilution factors ranged from 1/5 per volume for Be and Tl to 1/20 per volume for Cd and Pb. For Tl, Cd, and Hg, noble metals (gold, platinum, rhodium, etc.) were applied as surface modifiers. To mitigate chloride interference, 2 % (m/v) solution of NH(4)NO(3) was used as matrix modifier for Tl and Ni assessment. The use of Pd(NO(3))(2) as oxidative modifier was necessary for blood Hg and Tl measurement. Validation of the methods was performed by analyzing two-level reference material Seronorm. The precision of the designed methods as relative SD was between 4 and 12 % (middle of a dynamic range) depending on the element. For additional validation, spiked blood samples were analyzed. Limits of detection (LoDs, 3σ, n = 10) for undiluted blood samples were 2.0 μg L(-1) for Al, 0.08 μg L(-1) for Be, 0.10 μg L(-1) for Cd, 2.2 μg L(-1) for Cr, 7 μg L(-1) for Hg, 0.4 μg L(-1) for Mn, 2.3 μg L(-1) for Ni, 3.4 μg L(-1) for Pb, and 0.5 μg L(-1) for Tl. The LoDs achieved allowed determination of Al, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Pb at both toxic and background levels. Be, Hg, and Tl could be reliably measured at toxic levels only. The methods developed are used for clinical diagnostics and biological monitoring of work-related exposure.

  7. The Organizational Communication Consulting Spectrum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tubbs, Stewart L.

    Surveys of businesses and business managers indicate that developing communication skills within organizations is a priority. Communication consulting exists over a wide spectrum of activities that include guest speaking, conducting workshops, and conducting management training programs. These three processes can include a "canned program" that…

  8. Urbanicity and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauritsen, Marlene B.; Astrup, Aske; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Obel, Carsten; Schendel, Diana E.; Schieve, Laura; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Parner, Erik T.

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is for the majority of cases unknown and more studies of risk factors are needed. Geographic variation in ASD occurrence has been observed, and urban residence has been suggested to serve as a proxy for etiologic and identification factors in ASD. We examined the association between urbanicity level…

  9. Spectrum/Orbit-Utilization Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Edward F.; Sawitz, Paul; Zusman, Fred

    1988-01-01

    Interferences among geostationary satellites determine allocations. Spectrum/Orbit Utilization Program (SOUP) is analytical computer program for determining mutual interferences among geostationary-satellite communication systems operating in given scenario. Major computed outputs are carrier-to-interference ratios at receivers at specified stations on Earth. Information enables determination of acceptability of planned communication systems. Written in FORTRAN.

  10. Deafness and Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, McCay; Rhodes, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    An orientation to autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), also known as autism, is provided, and the specific syndrome of autism and deafness is addressed. The two conditions have in common a major problem: communication. Case histories are provided, the development of treatment for autism is discussed, and the separate disorders that make up ASD are…

  11. Neurofeedback in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtmann, Martin; Steiner, Sabina; Hohmann, Sarah; Poustka, Luise; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bolte, Sven

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To review current studies on the effectiveness of neurofeedback as a method of treatment of the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Method: Studies were selected based on searches in PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, and CINAHL using combinations of the following keywords: "Neurofeedback" OR "EEG Biofeedback" OR "Neurotherapy"…

  12. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Epigenetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grafodatskaya, Daria; Chung, Brian; Szatmari, Peter; Weksberg, Rosanna

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Current research suggests that the causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are multifactorial and include both genetic and environmental factors. Several lines of evidence suggest that epigenetics also plays an important role in ASD etiology and that it might, in fact, integrate genetic and environmental influences to dysregulate…

  13. Neurofeedback in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Holtmann, Martin; Steiner, Sabina; Hohmann, Sarah; Poustka, Luise; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bölte, Sven

    2011-11-01

    To review current studies on the effectiveness of neurofeedback as a method of treatment of the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Studies were selected based on searches in PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, and CINAHL using combinations of the following keywords: 'Neurofeedback' OR 'EEG Biofeedback' OR 'Neurotherapy' OR 'Mu-Rhythm' OR 'SMR' AND 'Autism' OR 'Autism Spectrum Disorder' OR 'Pervasive Developmental Disorder'. The existing evidence does not support the use of neurofeedback in the treatment of ASD. Studies with outcomes in favour of neurofeedback might be showing an improvement in comorbid attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder symptoms rather than a true improvement in core ASD symptoms. Limitations of this review are those inherent in the studies available, including small sample size, short duration, variable diagnostic criteria, and insufficient control interventions, all causing a lack of generalizability. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2011 Mac Keith Press.

  14. Energy spectrum of sputtered uranium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weller, R. A.; Tombrello, T. A.

    1977-01-01

    The fission track technique for detecting uranium 235 was used in conjunction with a mechanical time-of-flight spectrometer to measure the energy spectrum in the region 1 eV to 1 keV of material sputtered from a 93% enriched U-235 foil by 80 keV Ar-40(+) ions. The spectrum was found to exhibit a peak in the region 2-4 eV and to decrease approximately as E to the -1.77 power for E is approximately greater than 100 eV. The design, construction and resolution of the mechanical spectrometer are discussed and comparisons are made between the data and the predictions of the ramdom collision cascade model of sputtering.

  15. The infrared spectrum of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridgway, S. T.; Larson, H. P.; Fink, U.

    1976-01-01

    The principal characteristics of Jupiter's infrared spectrum are reviewed with emphasis on their significance for our understanding of the composition and temperature structure of the Jovian upper atmosphere. The spectral region from 1 to 40 microns divides naturally into three regimes: the reflecting region, thermal emission from below the cloud deck (5-micron hot spots), and thermal emission from above the clouds. Opaque parts of the Jovian atmosphere further subdivide these regions into windows, and each is discussed in the context of its past or potential contributions to our knowledge of the planet. Recent results are incorporated into a table of atmospheric composition and abundance which includes positively identified constituents as well as several which require verification. The limited available information about spatial variations of the infrared spectrum is presented

  16. Economic aspects of spectrum management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stibolt, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Problems associated with the allocation of the radio frequency spectrum are addressed. It is observed that the current method very likely does not allocate the resource to those most valuing its use. Ecomonic criteria by which the effectiveness of resource allocation schemes can be judged are set forth and some thoughts on traditional objections to implementation of market characteristics into frequency allocation are offered. The problem of dividing orbit and spectrum between two satellite services sharing the same band but having significantly different system characteristics is discussed. The problem is compounded by the likelihood that one service will commence operation much sooner than the other. Some alternative schemes are offered that, within proper international constraints, could achieve a desired flexibility in the division of orbit and frequency between the two services domestically over the next several years.

  17. Hydrodynamics of the Dirac spectrum

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Yizhuang; Warchoł, Piotr; Zahed, Ismail

    2015-12-15

    We discuss a hydrodynamical description of the eigenvalues of the Dirac spectrum in even dimensions in the vacuum and in the large N (volume) limit. The linearized hydrodynamics supports sound waves. The hydrodynamical relaxation of the eigenvalues is captured by a hydrodynamical (tunneling) minimum configuration which follows from a pertinent form of Euler equation. As a result, the relaxation from a phase of unbroken chiral symmetry to a phase of broken chiral symmetry occurs over a time set by the speed of sound.

  18. Autism spectrum disorders and menstruation.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Amy; Marshal, Michael P; Murray, Pamela J

    2011-10-01

    We assessed the experience of 10-25-year old women with autism spectrum disorders with menstruation through their caregivers by investigating hygiene concerns, dysmenorrhea, premenstrual syndrome, and treatments. Frequent and severe symptoms of dysmenorrhea and premenstrual syndrome were common but had moderate morbidity rates. Hormonal contraception and other treatments were underused. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): Related Topics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Q: Do vaccines cause autism spectrum disorder (ASD)? A: Many studies that have ... whether there is a relationship between vaccines and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To date, the studies continue ...

  20. Broadband spectrum survey at San Diego, California

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    The National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) is responsible for managing the Federal Government's use of the radio spectrum. In discharging this responsibility, NTIA uses the Radio Spectrum Measurement System to collect data ...

  1. Therapies for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... information in this guide comes from the reports, Comparative Effectiveness of Therapies for Children With Autism Spectrum ... Behavioral Interventions Update Clinician Summary September 23, 2014 Comparative Effectiveness of Therapies for Children With Autism Spectrum ...

  2. [Autism spectrum disorder and suicidality].

    PubMed

    Huguet, G; Contejean, Y; Doyen, C

    2015-09-01

    Most studies on suicide exclude subjects with autism spectrum disorders, yet there is a risk group. The purpose of this article is to present the data in the literature regarding the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of suicidality in subjects with autism spectrum disorders and to identify the factors that promote the transition to action. This review was carried out using the data set collected in Medline PubMed, items with "autism spectrum disorder", "pervasive developmental disorder", "Asperger's syndrome", "suicide", "suicide attempt", and "suicide behavior". In all subjects from our research on PubMed, 21.3% of subjects with autism spectrum disorder reported suicidal ideation, have attempted suicide or died by suicide (115 out of 539 subjects) and 7.7% of subjects supported for suicidal thoughts or attempted suicide exhibited an autism spectrum disorder (62 out of 806 subjects), all ages combined. Suicidal ideation and morbid preoccupation are particularly common in adolescents and young adults. Suicide attempts are accompanied by a willingness for death and can lead to suicide. They are more common in high-functioning autism and Asperger subjects. The methods used are often violent and potentially lethal or fatal in two cases published. Suicide risk depends on many factors that highlight the vulnerability of these subjects, following autistic and developmental symptoms. Vulnerability complicating the diagnosis of comorbid depressive and anxiety disorders are major factors associated with suicidality. Vulnerability but also directly related to suicidality, since the origin of physical and sexual abuse and victimization by peers assigning them the role of "scapegoat" are both responsible for acting out. Given the diversity of factors involved in the risk of suicide in this population, this does not validate "a" program of intervention, but the intervention of "customized programs". Their implementation should be as early as possible in order to treat

  3. Prenatal Antidepressants and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    citalopram, fluoxetine, bupropion, valproic acid, autism spectrum disorder, developmental disorders, prenatal effects, neurodevelopment , rat, behavior...1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0306 TITLE: Prenatal Antidepressants and Autism Spectrum Disorder PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1Sept 2013-31Aug2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Prenatal Antidepressants and Autism Spectrum Disorder 5a

  4. Coalition Formation and Spectrum Sharing of Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Participants.

    PubMed

    Zhensheng Jiang; Wei Yuan; Leung, Henry; Xinge You; Qi Zheng

    2017-05-01

    In cognitive radio networks, self-interested secondary users (SUs) desire to maximize their own throughput. They compete with each other for transmit time once the absence of primary users (PUs) is detected. To satisfy the requirement of PU protection, on the other hand, they have to form some coalitions and cooperate to conduct spectrum sensing. Such dilemma of SUs between competition and cooperation motivates us to study two interesting issues: 1) how to appropriately form some coalitions for cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS) and 2) how to share transmit time among SUs. We jointly consider these two issues, and propose a noncooperative game model with 2-D strategies. The first dimension determines coalition formation, and the second indicates transmit time allocation. Considering the complexity of solving this game, we decompose the game into two more tractable ones: one deals with the formation of CSS coalitions, and the other focuses on the allocation of transmit time. We characterize the Nash equilibria (NEs) of both games, and show that the combination of these two NEs corresponds to the NE of the original game. We also develop a distributed algorithm to achieve a desirable NE of the original game. When this NE is achieved, the SUs obtain a Dhp-stable coalition structure and a fair transmit time allocation. Numerical results verify our analyses, and demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm.

  5. Injection Locking Techniques for Spectrum Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gathma, Timothy D.; Buckwalter, James F.

    2011-04-01

    Wideband spectrum analysis supports future communication systems that reconfigure and adapt to the capacity of the spectral environment. While test equipment manufacturers offer wideband spectrum analyzers with excellent sensitivity and resolution, these spectrum analyzers typically cannot offer acceptable size, weight, and power (SWAP). CMOS integrated circuits offer the potential to fully integrate spectrum analysis capability with analog front-end circuitry and digital signal processing on a single chip. Unfortunately, CMOS lacks high-Q passives and wideband resonator tunability that is necessary for heterodyne implementations of spectrum analyzers. As an alternative to the heterodyne receiver architectures, two nonlinear methods for performing wideband, low-power spectrum analysis are presented. The first method involves injecting the spectrum of interest into an array of injection-locked oscillators. The second method employs the closed loop dynamics of both injection locking and phase locking to independently estimate the injected frequency and power.

  6. Hybrid spread spectrum radio system

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Stephen F.; Dress, William B.

    2010-02-02

    Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method includes modulating a signal by utilizing a subset of bits from a pseudo-random code generator to control an amplification circuit that provides a gain to the signal. Another method includes: modulating a signal by utilizing a subset of bits from a pseudo-random code generator to control a fast hopping frequency synthesizer; and fast frequency hopping the signal with the fast hopping frequency synthesizer, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time.

  7. Physically Protected Spread Spectrum Communications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-14

    Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 NUMBER(S) AFRL -RV-PS-TR-2016-0046 12. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution... AFRL /RVIL Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 2 cys Official Record Copy AFRL /RVSW/Khanh Pham 1 cy 38 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. (This page intentionally left blank) ... AFRL -RV-PS- AFRL -RV-PS- TR-2016-0046 TR-2016-0046 PHYSICALLY PROTECTED SPREAD SPECTRUM COMMUNICATIONS Hyuck M. Kwon Wichita State

  8. Calculations for interpretation of solar vector magnetograph data. [sunspots - spectrum analysis/data correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, A. R.

    1975-01-01

    Computer techniques for data analysis of sunspot observations are presented. Photographic spectra were converted to digital form and analyzed. Methods of determining magnetic field strengths, i.e., the Zeeman effect, are discussed. Errors originating with telescope equipment and the magnetograph are treated. Flow charts of test programs and procedures of the data analysis are shown.

  9. Millimeter wave spectrum of nitromethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyushin, Vadim

    2018-03-01

    A new study of the millimeter wave spectrum of nitromethane, CH3NO2, is reported. The new measurements covering the frequency range from 49 GHz to 237 GHz have been carried out using the spectrometer in IRA NASU (Ukraine). Transitions belonging to the |m| ≤ 8 torsional states have been analyzed using the Rho-axis-method and the RAM36 program, which has been modified for this study to take into account the quadrupole hyperfine structure due to presence of the nitrogen atom. A data set consisting of 5925 microwave line frequencies and including transitions with J up to 55 was fit using a model consisting of 97 parameters, and a weighted root-mean-square deviation of 0.84 was achieved. The analysis of the spectrum covers the m torsional states lying below the lowest small amplitude vibration in nitromethane molecule, which is the NO2 in plane rock at 475 cm-1. It serves as a preparatory step in further studies of intervibrational interactions in this molecule.

  10. Determination of a mutational spectrum

    DOEpatents

    Thilly, William G.; Keohavong, Phouthone

    1991-01-01

    A method of resolving (physically separating) mutant DNA from nonmutant DNA and a method of defining or establishing a mutational spectrum or profile of alterations present in nucleic acid sequences from a sample to be analyzed, such as a tissue or body fluid. The present method is based on the fact that it is possible, through the use of DGGE, to separate nucleic acid sequences which differ by only a single base change and on the ability to detect the separate mutant molecules. The present invention, in another aspect, relates to a method for determining a mutational spectrum in a DNA sequence of interest present in a population of cells. The method of the present invention is useful as a diagnostic or analytical tool in forensic science in assessing environmental and/or occupational exposures to potentially genetically toxic materials (also referred to as potential mutagens); in biotechnology, particularly in the study of the relationship between the amino acid sequence of enzymes and other biologically-active proteins or protein-containing substances and their respective functions; and in determining the effects of drugs, cosmetics and other chemicals for which toxicity data must be obtained.

  11. Bipolar spectrum disorders. New perspectives.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, Andre; Yatham, Lakshmi N.; Lam, Raymond W.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review new perspectives on diagnosis, clinical features, epidemiology, and treatment of bipolar II and related disorders. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Articles were identified by searching MEDLINE and ClinPSYCH from January 1994 to August 2001 using the key words bipolar disorder, type II or 2; hypomania; spectrum; or variants. Reference lists from articles were reviewed. Overall, the quality of evidence was not high; we found no randomized controlled trials that specifically addressed bipolar II or bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs). MAIN MESSAGE: Characterized by elevated mood cycling with depression, BSDs appear to be much more common than previously thought, affecting up to 30% of primary care patients presenting with anxiety or depressive symptoms. Hypomania, the defining feature of bipolar II disorder, is often not detected. Collateral information, semistructured interviews, and brief screening instruments could improve diagnosis. Antidepressants should be used with caution. The newer mood stabilizers or combinations of mood stabilizers might be the treatments of choice in the future. CONCLUSION: Family physicians, as primary providers of mental health care, should try to recognize and treat BSDs more frequently. These disorders are becoming increasingly common in primary care populations. PMID:12053634

  12. Ground state spectrum of methylcyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šimečková, Marie; Urban, Štěpán; Fuchs, Ulrike; Lewen, Frank; Winnewisser, Gisbert; Morino, Isamu; Yamada, Koichi M. T.

    2004-08-01

    The rotational spectrum of methylcyanide (acetonitrile) in the ground vibrational state was measured in the spectral region from 91 to 810 GHz using the Cologne and Tsukuba spectrometers operated in the Doppler-limited and sub-Doppler saturation layouts. The resolution of the saturation Lamb-dip measurements is estimated to be about 1 kHz at the best of circumstances and the measuring accuracy of 10-60 kHz depending very sensitively on the quality of the spectrum. In the cases of rotational transitions with the low quantum number J ( J<18) and with a low difference of the rotational quantum numbers J- K, the resolved or partly resolved hyperfine structures of the rotational transitions were observed. Together with the most accurate data from the literature, the newly measured experimental data were analyzed using the traditional polynomial energy formula as well as the Padè approximant for the effective rotational Hamiltonian. The resulting rotational, centrifugal distortion, and hyperfine structure spectroscopic constants were obtained with a significantly higher accuracy than the ones listed in the literature. In addition, an anomalous accidental resonance was detected between the K=14 ground state levels and the K=12, + l levels in the excited v8=1 vibrational state.

  13. Spectroscopic and magnetic properties of Fe2+ (3d6; S = 2) ions in Fe(NH4)2(SO4)2·6H2O - Modeling zero-field splitting and Zeeman electronic parameters by microscopic spin Hamiltonian approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zając, Magdalena; Rudowicz, Czesław; Ohta, Hitoshi; Sakurai, Takahiro

    2018-03-01

    Utilizing the package MSH/VBA, based on the microscopic spin Hamiltonian (MSH) approach, spectroscopic and magnetic properties of Fe2+ (3d6; S = 2) ions at (nearly) orthorhombic sites in Fe(NH4)2(SO4)2·6H2O (FASH) are modeled. The zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameters and the Zeeman electronic (Ze) factors are predicted for wide ranges of values of the microscopic parameters, i.e. the spin-orbit (λ), spin-spin (ρ) coupling constants, and the crystal-field (ligand-field) energy levels (Δi) within the 5D multiplet. This enables to consider the dependence of the ZFS parameters bkq (in the Stevens notation), or the conventional ones (e.g., D and E), and the Zeeman factors gi on λ, ρ, and Δi. By matching the theoretical SH parameters and the experimental ones measured by electron magnetic resonance (EMR), the values of λ, ρ, and Δi best describing Fe2+ ions in FASH are determined. The novel aspect is prediction of the fourth-rank ZFS parameters and the ρ(spin-spin)-related contributions, not considered in previous studies. The higher-order contributions to the second- and fourth-rank ZFSPs are found significant. The MSH predictions provide guidance for high-magnetic field and high-frequency EMR (HMF-EMR) measurements and enable assessment of suitability of FASH for application as high-pressure probes for HMF-EMR studies. The method employed here and the present results may be also useful for other structurally related Fe2+ (S = 2) systems.

  14. Deafness and autistic spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Vernon, McCay; Rhodes, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    An orientation to autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), also known as autism, is provided, and the specific syndrome of autism and deafness is addressed. The two conditions have in common a major problem: communication. Case histories are provided, the development of treatment for autism is discussed, and the separate disorders that make up ASD are defined. Important medical conditions often present in ASD are named, and their roles in treatment and diagnosis are described. Because autism is generally regarded as increasing in prevalence, some say to epidemic proportions, there is an increase in children who are both deaf and autistic. The resulting pressure on day and residential school programs for the Deaf to accept and educate these difficult, multiply disabled children is increasing. The parents of autistic children are a sophisticated, politically active group who are demanding services through legal and legislative means, among others.

  15. High efficiency laser spectrum conditioner

    DOEpatents

    Greiner, Norman R.

    1980-01-01

    A high efficiency laser spectrum conditioner for generating a collinear parallel output beam containing a predetermined set of frequencies from a multifrequency laser. A diffraction grating and spherical mirror are used in combination, to disperse the various frequencies of the input laser beam and direct these frequencies along various parallel lines spatially separated from one another to an apertured mask. Selection of the desired frequencies is accomplished by placement of apertures at locations on the mask where the desired frequencies intersect the mask. A recollimated parallel output beam with the desired set of frequencies is subsequently generated utilizing a mirror and grating matched and geometrically aligned in the same manner as the input grating and mirror.

  16. The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP) is an Explorer-class mission to map the absolute intensity and linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background and diffuse astrophysical foregrounds over the full sky from 30 GHz to 5 THz. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r much greater than 1O(raised to the power of { -3}) and Compton distortion y < 10 (raised to the power of{-6}). We describe the ASP instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the signature of an inflationary epoch in the early universe using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  17. SAW correlator spread spectrum receiver

    DOEpatents

    Brocato, Robert W

    2014-04-01

    A surface acoustic wave (SAW) correlator spread-spectrum (SS) receiver is disclosed which utilizes a first demodulation stage with a chip length n and a second demodulation stage with a chip length m to decode a transmitted SS signal having a code length l=n.times.m which can be very long (e.g. up to 2000 chips or more). The first demodulation stage utilizes a pair of SAW correlators which demodulate the SS signal to generate an appropriate code sequence at an intermediate frequency which can then be fed into the second demodulation stage which can be formed from another SAW correlator, or by a digital correlator. A compound SAW correlator comprising two input transducers and a single output transducer is also disclosed which can be used to form the SAW correlator SS receiver, or for use in processing long code length signals.

  18. Compact Microwave Fourier Spectrum Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry

    2009-01-01

    A compact photonic microwave Fourier spectrum analyzer [a Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer, (FTMWS)] with no moving parts has been proposed for use in remote sensing of weak, natural microwave emissions from the surfaces and atmospheres of planets to enable remote analysis and determination of chemical composition and abundances of critical molecular constituents in space. The instrument is based on a Bessel beam (light modes with non-zero angular momenta) fiber-optic elements. It features low power consumption, low mass, and high resolution, without a need for any cryogenics, beyond what is achievable by the current state-of-the-art in space instruments. The instrument can also be used in a wide-band scatterometer mode in active radar systems.

  19. Millimeter Wave Spectrum of Nitromethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyushin, V.

    2016-06-01

    A new study of the millimeter wave spectrum of nitromethane CH_3NO_2 is reported. The new measurements covering the frequency range from 49 GHz to 236 GHz have been carried out using spectrometer in IRA NASU (Ukraine). The transitions belonging to the m ≤ 8 torsional states have been analyzed using the RAM36 program, which has been modified for this study to take into account the quadrupole hyperfine structure due to presence of the nitrogen atom. The dataset consisting of 5838 microwave line frequencies and including transitions with J up to 50 was fit using a model consisting of 93 parameters and weighted root-mean-square deviation of 0.89 has been achieved. In the talk the details of this new study will be discussed. V. Ilyushin, Z. Kisiel, L. Pszczólkowski, H. Mäder, J. T. Hougen J. Mol. Spectrosc. 259 (2010) 26-38.

  20. On the Ice Nucleation Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barahona, D.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a novel formulation of the ice nucleation spectrum, i.e. the function relating the ice crystal concentration to cloud formation conditions and aerosol properties. The new formulation is physically-based and explicitly accounts for the dependency of the ice crystal concentration on temperature, supersaturation, cooling rate, and particle size, surface area and composition. This is achieved by introducing the concepts of ice nucleation coefficient (the number of ice germs present in a particle) and nucleation probability dispersion function (the distribution of ice nucleation coefficients within the aerosol population). The new formulation is used to generate ice nucleation parameterizations for the homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets and the heterogeneous deposition ice nucleation on dust and soot ice nuclei. For homogeneous freezing, it was found that by increasing the dispersion in the droplet volume distribution the fraction of supercooled droplets in the population increases. For heterogeneous ice nucleation the new formulation consistently describes singular and stochastic behavior within a single framework. Using a fundamentally stochastic approach, both cooling rate independence and constancy of the ice nucleation fraction over time, features typically associated with singular behavior, were reproduced. Analysis of the temporal dependency of the ice nucleation spectrum suggested that experimental methods that measure the ice nucleation fraction over few seconds would tend to underestimate the ice nuclei concentration. It is shown that inferring the aerosol heterogeneous ice nucleation properties from measurements of the onset supersaturation and temperature may carry significant error as the variability in ice nucleation properties within the aerosol population is not accounted for. This work provides a simple and rigorous ice nucleation framework where theoretical predictions, laboratory measurements and field campaign data can be

  1. Fingerprint extraction from interference destruction terahertz spectrum.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wei; Shen, Jingling

    2010-10-11

    In this paper, periodic peaks in a terahertz absorption spectrum are confirmed to be induced from interference effects. Theoretically, we explained the periodic peaks and calculated the locations of them. Accordingly, a technique was suggested, with which the interference peaks in a terahertz spectrum can be eliminated and therefore a real terahertz absorption spectrum can be obtained. Experimentally, a sample, Methamphetamine, was investigated and its terahertz fingerprint was successfully extracted from its interference destruction spectrum. This technique is useful in getting samples' terahertz fingerprint spectra, and furthermore provides a fast nondestructive testing method using a large size terahertz beam to identify materials.

  2. The frequency spectrum crisis - Issues and answers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armes, G. L.

    The frequency spectrum represents a unique resource which can be overtaxed. In the present investigation, it is attempted to evalute the demand for satellite and microwave services. Dimensions of increased demand are discussed, taking into account developments related to the introduction of the personal computer, the activities of the computer and communications industries in preparation for the office of the future, and electronic publishing. Attention is given to common carrier spectrum congestion, common carrier microwave, satellite communications, teleports, international implications, satellite frequency bands, satellite spectrum implications, alternatives regarding the utilization of microwave frequency bands, U.S. Government spectrum utilization, and the impact at C-band.

  3. A spectrum fractal feature classification algorithm for agriculture crops with hyper spectrum image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Junying

    2011-11-01

    A fractal dimension feature analysis method in spectrum domain for hyper spectrum image is proposed for agriculture crops classification. Firstly, a fractal dimension calculation algorithm in spectrum domain is presented together with the fast fractal dimension value calculation algorithm using the step measurement method. Secondly, the hyper spectrum image classification algorithm and flowchart is presented based on fractal dimension feature analysis in spectrum domain. Finally, the experiment result of the agricultural crops classification with FCL1 hyper spectrum image set with the proposed method and SAM (spectral angle mapper). The experiment results show it can obtain better classification result than the traditional SAM feature analysis which can fulfill use the spectrum information of hyper spectrum image to realize precision agricultural crops classification.

  4. 75 FR 81558 - Promoting More Efficient Use of Spectrum Through Dynamic Spectrum Use Technologies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... wireless innovation to ensure that the promise of dynamic spectrum access technologies can be fully... intensive and efficient use of the radio spectrum, and the potential that these technological innovations have for enabling more effective management of spectrum. DATES: Comments must be filed on or before...

  5. Developing Undergraduate Coursework in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterson, Tracy Loye; Dimitriou, Francine; Turko, Kristine; McPartland, James

    2014-01-01

    With rates of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) continuing to rise alongside improvements in early identification and treatment, service providers are in great demand. Providing undergraduate students with opportunities for education and applied experiences with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can help fill a valuable niche in the autism community.…

  6. 47 CFR 101.521 - Spectrum utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Spectrum utilization. 101.521 Section 101.521... SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.521 Spectrum utilization. All... contain detailed descriptions of the modulation method, the channel time sharing method, any error...

  7. Building Bridges across the Autism Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boroson, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Among the many challenges that students with autism spectrum disorder bring into the learning environment, teachers report one particular difficulty: working with students' parents. As both an autism educator and parent of a child on the spectrum, Barbara Boroson explores some common complexities in parent-teacher relationships. She also offers…

  8. On the spectrum of inhomogeneous turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, G.

    1979-01-01

    Inhomogeneous turbulence is defined as turbulence whose statistics are functions of spatial position. The turbulence spectrum, and particularly how the shape of the spectrum varies, from point to point in space, as a consequence of well defined spatial variations in the turbulence intensity and/or integral scale is investigated.

  9. Test Review: Autism Spectrum Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simek, Amber N.; Wahlberg, Andrea C.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews Autism Spectrum Rating Scales (ASRS) which are designed to measure behaviors in children between the ages of 2 and 18 that are associated with disorders on the autism spectrum as rated by parents/caregivers and/or teachers. The rating scales include items related to behaviors associated with Autism, Asperger's Disorder, and…

  10. An Analysis of Spectrum Research on Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatoupis, Constantine

    2010-01-01

    Spectrum research on teaching has been conducted since 1970s. The purpose of this study was to identify, categorize, and analyze research in this area. Fifty three Spectrum studies conducted between 1970 and 2008 were included in this study. Each paper was coded for (a) decade the study was published, (b) publication outlet/dissertation research,…

  11. Project Spectrum: An Innovative Assessment Alternative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krechevsky, Mara

    1991-01-01

    Project Spectrum attempts to reconceptualize the traditional linguistic and logical/mathematical bases of intelligence. Spectrum blurs the line between curriculum and assessment, embeds assessment in meaningful, real-world activities, uses "intelligence-fair" measures, emphasizes children's strengths, and recognizes the stylistic…

  12. 47 CFR 101.521 - Spectrum utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Spectrum utilization. 101.521 Section 101.521 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.521 Spectrum utilization. All...

  13. 47 CFR 101.521 - Spectrum utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Spectrum utilization. 101.521 Section 101.521 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.521 Spectrum utilization. All...

  14. 47 CFR 101.521 - Spectrum utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Spectrum utilization. 101.521 Section 101.521 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.521 Spectrum utilization. All...

  15. The infrared spectrum of asteroid 433 Eros

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, H. P.; Fink, U.; Treffers, R. R.; Gautier, T. N., III

    1976-01-01

    The mineralogical composition of asteroid Eros has been determined from its infrared spectrum (0.9-2.7 micrometers; 28/cm resolution). Major minerals include metallic Ni-Fe and pyroxene; no spectroscopic evidence for olivine or plagioclase feldspar was found. The IR spectrum of Eros is most consistent with a stony-iron composition.

  16. Autism spectrum disorder: seeing is not understanding.

    PubMed

    Fecteau, Shirley; Lepage, Jean-François; Théoret, Hugo

    2006-02-21

    Impairments in social and emotional skills are a defining feature of autism spectrum disorder. Recent research shows that structural and functional abnormalities within the neural system that matches observation and execution of actions--the mirror neuron system--may explain the social aspects of the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder.

  17. [Autism Spectrum Disorder and DSM-5: Spectrum or Cluster?].

    PubMed

    Kienle, Xaver; Freiberger, Verena; Greulich, Heide; Blank, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Within the new DSM-5, the currently differentiated subgroups of "Autistic Disorder" (299.0), "Asperger's Disorder" (299.80) and "Pervasive Developmental Disorder" (299.80) are replaced by the more general "Autism Spectrum Disorder". With regard to a patient-oriented and expedient advising therapy planning, however, the issue of an empirically reproducible and clinically feasible differentiation into subgroups must still be raised. Based on two Autism-rating-scales (ASDS and FSK), an exploratory two-step cluster analysis was conducted with N=103 children (age: 5-18) seen in our social-pediatric health care centre to examine potentially autistic symptoms. In the two-cluster solution of both rating scales, mainly the problems in social communication grouped the children into a cluster "with communication problems" (51 % and 41 %), and a cluster "without communication problems". Within the three-cluster solution of the ASDS, sensory hypersensitivity, cleaving to routines and social-communicative problems generated an "autistic" subgroup (22%). The children of the second cluster ("communication problems", 35%) were only described by social-communicative problems, and the third group did not show any problems (38%). In the three-cluster solution of the FSK, the "autistic cluster" of the two-cluster solution differentiated in a subgroup with mainly social-communicative problems (cluster 1) and a second subgroup described by restrictive, repetitive behavior. The different cluster solutions will be discussed with a view to the new DSM-5 diagnostic criteria, for following studies a further specification of some of the ASDS and FSK items could be helpful.

  18. Electronic emission spectrum of methylnitrene

    SciTech Connect

    Carrick, P.G.; Engelking, P.C.

    The A /sup 3/E--X /sup 3/A/sub 2/ultraviolet emission spectrum of methylnitrene (CH/sub 3/N) was obtained in two ways: (1) by reacting methylazide (CH/sub 3/N/sub 3/) with metastable N/sub 2/ in a flowing afterglow; and (2) by discharging a mixture of methylazide (CH/sub 3/N/sub 3/) and helium in a corona excited supersonic expansion (CESE). The origin appears at T/sub 0/ = 31 811 cm/sup -1/. Several vibrational progressions were observed leading to the determination of a number of vibrational frequencies: v/sup double-prime//sub 1/ = 2938 , v/sup X//sub 2/ = 1350, v/sup double-prime//sub 3/ = 1039, v/sup X//sub 4/ = 3065,more » and v/sup double-prime//sub 6/ = 902 cm/sup -1/. Deuterium substitution confirmed the assignments of the vibrational frequencies. The X /sup 3/A/sub 2/ state is a normal, bound local minimum on the triplet electronic potential surface, and the upper A /sup 3/E state is able to support at least one quantum of vibration, assigned to v/sup //sub 3/, predominantly a C--N stretch. A comparison of flowing afterglow hollow cathode discharge sources and corona excited supersonic expansion sources shows the advantage of the CESE method of radical production for spectroscopy.« less

  19. Melatonin in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Rossignol, Daniel A; Frye, Richard E

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin is an endogenous neurohormone produced predominantly in the pineal gland. Recent studies have implicated abnormalities in melatonin physiology and the circadian rhythm in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). These physiological abnormalities include lower nighttime melatonin or melatonin metabolite concentrations in ASD compared to controls. These abnormalities in melatonin concentrations may be directly attributed to variations in melatonin pathway physiology as both functional and genetic variations in this pathway have been reported in children with ASD. Four studies have observed a correlation between abnormal melatonin concentrations and the severity of autistic behaviors. Twenty clinical studies have reported improvements in sleep parameters with exogenous melatonin supplementation in ASD, including longer sleep duration, less nighttime awakenings and quicker sleep onset. A recent meta-analysis of five randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trials examining exogenous melatonin supplementation in ASD reported significant improvements with large effect sizes in total sleep duration and sleep onset latency compared to both baseline and placebo. Six studies reported that the nighttime administration of exogenous melatonin was associated with better daytime behaviors. Four studies reported improvements with exogenous melatonin supplementation when other sleep medications had previously failed. Adverse effects of melatonin were minimal to none in the twenty treatment studies. These studies indicate that the administration of exogenous melatonin for abnormal sleep parameters in ASD is evidence-based. Further studies examining optimal effective dosing and timing of dosing are warranted.

  20. Genetics of autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ravinesh A; Christian, Susan L

    2009-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a clinically complex group of childhood disorders that have firm evidence of an underlying genetic etiology. Many techniques have been used to characterize the genetic bases of ASDs. Linkage studies have identified several replicated susceptibility loci, including 2q24-2q31, 7q, and 17q11-17q21. Association studies and mutation analysis of candidate genes have implicated the synaptic genes NRXN1, NLGN3, NLGN4, SHANK3, and CNTNAP2 in ASDs. Traditional cytogenetic approaches highlight the high frequency of large chromosomal abnormalities (3%-7% of patients), including the most frequently observed maternal 15q11-13 duplications (1%-3% of patients). Newly developed techniques include high-resolution DNA microarray technologies, which have discovered formerly undetectable submicroscopic copy number variants, and genomewide association studies, which allow simultaneous detection of multiple genes associated with ASDs. Although great progress has been made in autism genetics, the molecular bases of most ASDs remains enigmatic.

  1. Microwave spectrum of arsenic triphosphide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, Adam M.; Cossairt, Brandi M.; Southwood, Gavin; Carey, Spencer J.; Cummins, Christopher C.; Kukolich, Stephen G.

    2012-08-01

    The microwave spectrum of AsP3 has been measured and assignments for three different vibrational states have been made. The symmetric top ΔJ = +1 transitions have been fit to obtain rotational constants, centrifugal distortion constants and quadrupole coupling strengths for the three vibrational states (I-III), BI = 2201.394(1) MHz, eQqaaI = 48.728(5) MHz, DJI = 0.2(3) kHz, DJKI = 0.5(1) kHz and σI = 4 kHz, BII = 2192.26(1) MHz, eQqaaII = 48.62(4) MHz, BIII = 2183.93(2) MHz, eQqaaIII = 48.53(4) MHz. The experimental vibration-rotation coupling constant, α(ν4) = 9.20(3) MHz is compared with results from MP2/6-311G** calculations. The excited states (II and III) are tentatively assigned to the ν4 and 2ν4 excited vibrational states.

  2. THE SPECTRUM OF Fe II

    SciTech Connect

    Nave, Gillian; Johansson, Sveneric, E-mail: gillian.nave@nist.gov

    2013-01-15

    The spectrum of singly ionized iron (Fe II) has been recorded using high-resolution Fourier transform (FT) and grating spectroscopy over the wavelength range 900 A to 5.5 {mu}m. The spectra were observed in high-current continuous and pulsed hollow cathode discharges using FT spectrometers at the Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, AZ and Imperial College, London and with the 10.7 m Normal Incidence Spectrograph at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Roughly 12,900 lines were classified using 1027 energy levels of Fe II that were optimized to measured wavenumbers. The wavenumber uncertainties of lines in the FT spectra range frommore » 10{sup -4} cm{sup -1} for strong lines around 4 {mu}m to 0.05 cm{sup -1} for weaker lines around 1500 A. The wavelength uncertainty of lines in the grating spectra is 0.005 A. The ionization energy of (130,655.4 {+-} 0.4) cm{sup -1} was estimated from the 3d{sup 6}({sup 5}D)5g and 3d{sup 6}({sup 5}D)6h levels.« less

  3. Olfaction in the autism spectrum.

    PubMed

    Galle, Sara A; Courchesne, Valérie; Mottron, Laurent; Frasnelli, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    The autism spectrum (AS) is characterised by enhanced perception in vision and audition, described by the enhanced perceptual functioning (EPF) model. This model predicts enhanced low-level (discrimination of psychophysical dimensions), and mid- and high-level (pattern detection and identification) perception. The EPF model is here tested for olfaction by investigating olfactory function in autistic and Asperger participants. Experiment 1 targeted higher-order olfactory processing by assessing olfactory identification in nine Asperger, ten autistic, and eleven typically developed individuals. Experiment 2 focused on low-level olfactory processing; we assessed odour detection thresholds and odour discrimination in five Asperger, five autistic, and five typically developed males. Olfactory identification was impaired in autistic participants relative to control and Asperger participants. Typical performance in low-level olfactory processing suggests that neural mechanisms involved in the perceptual phenotype of AS do not affect structures implicated in olfactory processing. Reduced olfactory identification is limited to autistic participants who displayed speech delay and may be due to a reduced facility to use verbal labels. The apparent absence of enhanced olfactory perception of AS participants distinguishes the olfactory system from the other sensory modalities and might be caused by the absence of an obligatory thalamic relay.

  4. Remote sensing with laser spectrum radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tianhe; Zhou, Tao; Jia, Xiaodong

    2016-10-01

    The unmanned airborne (UAV) laser spectrum radar has played a leading role in remote sensing because the transmitter and the receiver are together at laser spectrum radar. The advantages of the integrated transceiver laser spectrum radar is that it can be used in the oil and gas pipeline leak detection patrol line which needs the non-contact reflective detection. The UAV laser spectrum radar can patrol the line and specially detect the swept the area are now in no man's land because most of the oil and gas pipelines are in no man's land. It can save labor costs compared to the manned aircraft and ensure the safety of the pilots. The UAV laser spectrum radar can be also applied in the post disaster relief which detects the gas composition before the firefighters entering the scene of the rescue.

  5. Charmed Hadron Spectrum and Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liuming

    Studying hadrons containing heavy quarks in lattice QCD is challenging mainly due to finite lattice spacing effects. To control the discretization errors, mQa is required to be much less than 1, where mQ is the quark mass and a is the lattice spacing. For currently accessible lattice spacings, the charm quark mass doesn't satisfy this requirement. One approach to simulate heavy quarks on the lattice is non-relativestic QCD, which treats heavy quark as a static source and expand the lattice quark action in powers of 1mQa . Unfortunately, the charm quark is not heavy enough to justify this expansion. An other is Heavy Quark Effective Theory (HQET) matched on QCD. Non-relativestic QCD and HQET are mainly used for bottom quark. Relativistic heavy-quark action, which incorporates both small mass and large mass formulations, is better suited to study the charm quark sector. The discretization errors can be reduced systematically following Symanzik improvement. In this work, we use the relativistic heavy quark action to study the charmed hadron spectrum and interactions in full lattice QCD. For the light quarks we use domain-wall fermions in the valence sector and improved Kogut-Susskind sea quarks. The parameters in the heavy quark action are tuned to reduce lattice artifacts and match the charm quark mass and the action is tested by calculating the low-lying charmonium spectrum. We compute the masses of the spin-1/2 singly and doubly charmed baryons. For the singly charmed baryons, our results are in good agreement with experiment within our systematics. For the doubly charmed baryon xicc we find the isospin-averaged mass to be MXcc = 3665 +/- 17 +/- 14+0-78 MeV; the three given uncertainties are statistical, systematic and an estimate of lattice discretization errors, respectively. In addition, we predict the mass splitting of the (isospin-averaged) spin-1/2 O cc with the xicc to be MWcc-MXcc = 98 +/- 9 +/- 22 +/- 13 MeV (in this mass splitting, the leading

  6. Pediatric lymphangiectasia: an imaging spectrum.

    PubMed

    Malone, Ladonna J; Fenton, Laura Z; Weinman, Jason P; Anagnost, Miran R; Browne, Lorna P

    2015-04-01

    Lymphangiectasia is a rarely encountered lymphatic dysplasia characterized by lymphatic dilation without proliferation. Although it can occur anywhere, the most common locations are the central conducting lymphatics and the pulmonary and intestinal lymphatic networks. Recent advances in lymphatic interventions have resulted in an increased reliance on imaging to characterize patterns of disease. To describe the patient populations, underlying conditions, and imaging features of lymphangiectasia encountered at a tertiary pediatric institution over a 10-year period and correlate these with pathology and patient outcomes. We retrospectively reviewed the pathology database from 2002 to 2012 to identify patients with pathologically or surgically proven lymphangiectasia who had undergone cross-sectional imaging. Medical records were reviewed for patient demographics, underlying conditions, treatment and outcome. Thirteen children were identified, ranging in age from 1 month to 16 years. Five had pulmonary lymphangiectasia, four intestinal and four diffuse involvement. Pulmonary imaging findings include diffuse or segmental interlobular septal thickening, pleural effusions and dilated mediastinal lymphatics. Intestinal imaging findings include focal or diffuse bowel wall thickening with central lymphatic dilation. Diffuse involvement included dilation of the central lymphatics and involvement of more than one organ system. Children with infantile presentation and diffuse pulmonary, intestinal or diffuse lymphatic abnormalities had a high mortality rate. Children with later presentations and segmental involvement demonstrated clinical improvement with occasional regression of disease. Three children with dilated central lymphatics on imaging underwent successful lymphatic duct ligation procedures with improved clinical course. Lymphangiectasia is a complex disorder with a spectrum of presentations, imaging appearances, treatments and outcomes. Cross-sectional imaging

  7. Clinical spectrum of microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Tham, Alex Chengyao; Sanjay, Srinivasan

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this paper was to analyse the causes, pathogenesis, diagnostic modalities and treatment outcomes of microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis (MKC). Microsporidia are increasingly recognized as opportunistic infectious pathogens in immunocompromized patients causing keratoconjunctivitis. In the recent years, there has been a surge in reports of MKC in immunocompetent individuals presenting with stromal keratitis. A detailed literature search was done using Medline, OVID, Cochrane Library, UptoDate and Google Scholar databases with the terms microsporidia, keratitis, conjunctivitis, immunocompromized and immunocompetent. The articles were reviewed to determine the spectrum of clinical presentation, disease course, investigations, treatment modalities and outcome. Thirty-six publications were reviewed, and 151 cases of MKC were included for this review. The main presenting features included pain, redness, photophobia, epiphora and blurring of vision. Duration of the symptoms lasted between 4 days and 18 months. Light microscopy with modified trichrome stain was most commonly used to diagnose MKC. Resolution of symptoms was most commonly achieved with oral albendazole and/or topical fumidil B. Topical fluoroquinolones are also effective as a monotherapy as suggested by recent studies. Clinical outcome was good (visual acuity ≤ 6/12) for the patients who presented earlier (≤1 month) (75% of cases with documented final best-corrected visual acuity). MKC occurs more commonly in immunocompetent individuals than expected and can be diagnosed in earlier stages. From our review, we conclude that the patients, who were diagnosed early and treated, had complete resolution of symptoms with a better clinical outcome. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2011 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  8. The Energy Spectrum of Solar Energetic Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Yang, L.; Krucker, S.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Bale, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    Here we present a statistical survey of the energy spectrum of solar energetic electron events (SEEs) observed by the WIND 3DP instrument from 1995 though 2014. For SEEs with the minimum energy below 10 keV and the maximum energy above 100 keV, ~85% (~2%) have a double-power-law energy spectrum with a steepening (hardening) above the break energy, while ~13% have a single-power-law energy spectrum at all energies. The average spectral index is ~2.4 below the energy break and is ~4.0 above the energy break. For SEEs detected only at energies <10 keV (>20 keV), they generally show a single-power-law spectrum with the average index of ~3.0 (~3.3). The spectrum of SEEs detected only below 10 keV appears to get harder with increasing solar activity, but the spectrum of SEEs with higher-energy electrons shows no clear correlation with solar activity. We will also investigate whether the observed energy spectrum of SEEs at 1 AU mainly reflects the electron acceleration at the Sun or the electron transport in the interplanetary medium.

  9. A spectrum of an extrasolar planet.

    PubMed

    Richardson, L Jeremy; Deming, Drake; Horning, Karen; Seager, Sara; Harrington, Joseph

    2007-02-22

    Of the over 200 known extrasolar planets, 14 exhibit transits in front of their parent stars as seen from Earth. Spectroscopic observations of the transiting planets can probe the physical conditions of their atmospheres. One such technique can be used to derive the planetary spectrum by subtracting the stellar spectrum measured during eclipse (planet hidden behind star) from the combined-light spectrum measured outside eclipse (star + planet). Although several attempts have been made from Earth-based observatories, no spectrum has yet been measured for any of the established extrasolar planets. Here we report a measurement of the infrared spectrum (7.5-13.2 microm) of the transiting extrasolar planet HD 209458b. Our observations reveal a hot thermal continuum for the planetary spectrum, with an approximately constant ratio to the stellar flux over this wavelength range. Superposed on this continuum is a broad emission peak centred near 9.65 microm that we attribute to emission by silicate clouds. We also find a narrow, unidentified emission feature at 7.78 microm. Models of these 'hot Jupiter' planets predict a flux peak near 10 microm, where thermal emission from the deep atmosphere emerges relatively unimpeded by water absorption, but models dominated by water fit the observed spectrum poorly.

  10. Broad-spectrum antibiotics in Norwegian hospitals.

    PubMed

    Holen, Øyunn; Alberg, Torunn; Blix, Hege Salvesen; Smith, Ingrid; Neteland, Marion Iren; Eriksen, Hanne Merete

    2017-03-01

    BACKGROUND One of the objectives in the action plan to reduce antimicrobial resistance in the health services in Norway is to reduce the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in Norwegian hospitals. This study describes the use of certain broad-spectrum antibiotics mentioned in the action plan in Norwegian hospitals, and assesses prescribing practices in relation to the Norwegian guidelines for antibiotic use in hospitals.MATERIAL AND METHOD Data were analysed from a nationwide non-identifiable point prevalence survey in May 2016 where all systemic use of antibiotics was recorded.RESULTS Broad-spectrum antibiotics accounted for 33 % of all antibiotics prescribed. Altogether 84 % of all broad-spectrum antibiotics were prescribed as treatment, 8 % were for prophylactic use, and 8 % were classified as other/unknown. Lower respiratory tract infections were the most frequent indication for treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics, involving 30 % of all broad-spectrum treatment.INTERPRETATION This point prevalence survey in Norwegian hospitals in spring 2016 indicates a possibility for reducing the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections and for prophylactic use. Reduction of healthcare-associated infections may also contribute.

  11. Primordial power spectrum features and consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, G.

    2014-03-01

    The present Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropy data is consistent with not only a power law scalar primordial power spectrum (PPS) with a small running but also with the scalar PPS having very sharp features. This has motivated inflationary models with such sharp features. Recently, even the possibility of having nulls in the power spectrum (at certain scales) has been considered. The existence of these nulls has been shown in linear perturbation theory. What shall be the effect of higher order corrections on such nulls? Inspired by this question, we have attempted to calculate quantum radiative corrections to the Fourier transform of the 2-point function in a toy field theory and address the issue of how these corrections to the power spectrum behave in models in which the tree-level power spectrum has a sharp dip (but not a null). In particular, we have considered the possibility of the relative enhancement of radiative corrections in a model in which the tree-level spectrum goes through a dip in power at a certain scale. The mode functions of the field (whose power spectrum is to be evaluated) are chosen such that they undergo the kind of dynamics that leads to a sharp dip in the tree level power spectrum. Next, we have considered the situation in which this field has quartic self interactions, and found one loop correction in a suitably chosen renormalization scheme. Thus, we have attempted to answer the following key question in the context of this toy model (which is as important in the realistic case): In the chosen renormalization scheme, can quantum radiative corrections be enhanced relative to tree-level power spectrum at scales, at which sharp dips appear in the tree-level spectrum?

  12. Hadron mass spectrum from lattice QCD.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Abhijit; Müller, Berndt

    2010-12-17

    Finite temperature lattice simulations of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) are sensitive to the hadronic mass spectrum for temperatures below the "critical" temperature T(c) ≈ 160 MeV. We show that a recent precision determination of the QCD trace anomaly shows evidence for the existence of a large number of hadron states beyond those known from experiment. The lattice results are well represented by an exponentially growing mass spectrum up to a temperature T=155 MeV. Using simple parametrizations of the hadron mass spectrum we show how one may estimate the total spectral weight in these yet undermined states.

  13. Coding for spread spectrum packet radios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omura, J. K.

    1980-01-01

    Packet radios are often expected to operate in a radio communication network environment where there tends to be man made interference signals. To combat such interference, spread spectrum waveforms are being considered for some applications. The use of convolutional coding with Viterbi decoding to further improve the performance of spread spectrum packet radios is examined. At 0.00001 bit error rates, improvements in performance of 4 db to 5 db can easily be achieved with such coding without any change in data rate nor spread spectrum bandwidth. This coding gain is more dramatic in an interference environment.

  14. 78 FR 64201 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: National Telecommunications and Information... public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee (Committee). The Committee provides advice to the Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Communications and Information on spectrum management...

  15. The energy spectrum in a barotropic atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurgansky, M. V.

    2008-03-01

    In a forced-dissipative barotropic model of the atmosphere on a spherical planet, by following mathematical techniques in (Thompson, P. D.: The equilibrium energy spectrum of randomly forced two-dimensional turbulence, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 30, 1593-1598, 1973) but applying them in a novel context of the discrete spectrum on a rotating sphere, the "minus 2" energy spectrum for wavenumbers much greater than a characteristic wavenumber of the baroclinic forcing has been obtained if the forcing is taken in the simplest and most fundamental form. Some observation-based atmospheric kinetic energy spectra, with their slopes lying between "minus 2" and "minus 3" laws, are discussed from the perspective of the deduced "minus 2" energy spectrum.

  16. The Absorption Spectrum of Iodine Vapour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetlow, K. S.

    1972-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described which presents some molecular parameters of iodine molecule by studying iodine spectrum. Points out this experiment can be conducted by sixth form students in high school laboratories. (PS)

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Zellweger spectrum disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... that cause Zellweger spectrum disorder prevent peroxisomes from forming normally. Diseases that disrupt the formation of peroxisomes, ... 10.1002/humu.21388. Citation on PubMed Rosewich H, Ohlenbusch A, Gärtner J. Genetic and clinical aspects ...

  18. Spectrum of Transient ASASSN-13at

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnavich, Peter; Deal, Shanel

    2013-06-01

    We observed the transient ASASSN-13at (ATEL 5168) on June 28.3 (UT) with the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (VATT) and VATTSPEC instrument. The resulting spectrum covers the wavelength range between 365 nm and 750 nm with a resolution of 1100. The spectrum of ASASSN-13at shows a blue continuum with strong Balmer absorption lines. Helium absorption at 447 nm and 588 nm is also seen. Blue-shifted emission lines are visible within the Halpha and Hbeta absorption features.

  19. Raman Spectrum of Pressure Compacted Fused Silica.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-21

    Spectrum of Pressure Compacted Fused Silica" bj G. E. Walrafen Department of Chemistry Howard University Washington, D. C. 20059 and P. N. Krishnan...RESEA,CH Task No. NR-0)1-733 T ’echnical opset No. 2 / Raman Spectrum of Pressure Compacted Fustd Si I ica, by G. E./Walrafen P. N./Krishnan Howard ... University Department of Chemistry Washington, D. C. 20059 Reproduction in whole or in part is permitted for any purpose of the United States

  20. Adaptive multitaper time-frequency spectrum estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitton, James W.

    1999-11-01

    In earlier work, Thomson's adaptive multitaper spectrum estimation method was extended to the nonstationary case. This paper reviews the time-frequency multitaper method and the adaptive procedure, and explores some properties of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors. The variance of the adaptive estimator is used to construct an adaptive smoother, which is used to form a high resolution estimate. An F-test for detecting and removing sinusoidal components in the time-frequency spectrum is also given.

  1. Optimal Bandwidth for Multitaper Spectrum Estimation

    DOE PAGES

    Haley, Charlotte L.; Anitescu, Mihai

    2017-07-04

    A systematic method for bandwidth parameter selection is desired for Thomson multitaper spectrum estimation. We give a method for determining the optimal bandwidth based on a mean squared error (MSE) criterion. When the true spectrum has a second-order Taylor series expansion, one can express quadratic local bias as a function of the curvature of the spectrum, which can be estimated by using a simple spline approximation. This is combined with a variance estimate, obtained by jackknifing over individual spectrum estimates, to produce an estimated MSE for the log spectrum estimate for each choice of time-bandwidth product. The bandwidth that minimizesmore » the estimated MSE then gives the desired spectrum estimate. Additionally, the bandwidth obtained using our method is also optimal for cepstrum estimates. We give an example of a damped oscillatory (Lorentzian) process in which the approximate optimal bandwidth can be written as a function of the damping parameter. Furthermore, the true optimal bandwidth agrees well with that given by minimizing estimated the MSE in these examples.« less

  2. The Spectrum of Wind Power Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandi, Mahesh

    2016-11-01

    Wind is a variable energy source whose fluctuations threaten electrical grid stability and complicate dynamical load balancing. The power generated by a wind turbine fluctuates due to the variable wind speed that blows past the turbine. Indeed, the spectrum of wind power fluctuations is widely believed to reflect the Kolmogorov spectrum; both vary with frequency f as f - 5 / 3. This variability decreases when aggregate power fluctuations from geographically distributed wind farms are averaged at the grid via a mechanism known as geographic smoothing. Neither the f - 5 / 3 wind power fluctuation spectrum nor the mechanism of geographic smoothing are understood. In this work, we explain the wind power fluctuation spectrum from the turbine through grid scales. The f - 5 / 3 wind power fluctuation spectrum results from the largest length scales of atmospheric turbulence of order 200 km influencing the small scales where individual turbines operate. This long-range influence spatially couples geographically distributed wind farms and synchronizes farm outputs over a range of frequencies and decreases with increasing inter-farm distance. Consequently, aggregate grid-scale power fluctuations remain correlated, and are smoothed until they reach a limiting f - 7 / 3 spectrum. This work was funded by the Collective Interactions Unit, OIST Graduate University, Japan.

  3. Probing dark energy using convergence power spectrum and bi-spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Dinda, Bikash R., E-mail: bikash@ctp-jamia.res.in

    Weak lensing convergence statistics is a powerful tool to probe dark energy. Dark energy plays an important role to the structure formation and the effects can be detected through the convergence power spectrum, bi-spectrum etc. One of the most promising and simplest dark energy model is the ΛCDM . However, it is worth investigating different dark energy models with evolving equation of state of the dark energy. In this work, detectability of different dark energy models from ΛCDM model has been explored through convergence power spectrum and bi-spectrum.

  4. Raman spectrum of natural and synthetic stishovite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hemley, R.J.; Mao, Ho-kwang; Chao, E.C.T.

    1986-01-01

    Raman spectra of natural and synthetic samples of stishovite have been measured with a micro-optical spectrometer system. These spectra have a pattern that is characteristic of rutile-structured oxides. The spectrum of synthetic stishovite is characterized by well-resolved bands at 231, 589, 753, and 967 cm-1, which are assigned as the B1g, Eg, A1g, and B2g fundamentals, respectively, of the first-order Raman spectrum of the ideal, ordered structure. Natural stishovite obtained from Meteor Crater, Arizona has a first-order Raman spectrum that is fully consistent with that of the synthetic material. The observed spectrum of the natural sample, however, is weaker and has bands in addition to those identified as fundamentals in the spectrum of the synthetic material. A broad band at ???475 cm-1 may be indicative of glass or contaminants derived from the extraction procedure. Alternatively, this band may arise from multiphonon scattering that is enhanced by poor crystallinity or structural disorder in the natural shocked sample. ?? 1986 Springer-Verlag.

  5. Quantum game application to spectrum scarcity problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabaleta, O. G.; Barrangú, J. P.; Arizmendi, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    Recent spectrum-sharing research has produced a strategy to address spectrum scarcity problems. This novel idea, named cognitive radio, considers that secondary users can opportunistically exploit spectrum holes left temporarily unused by primary users. This presents a competitive scenario among cognitive users, making it suitable for game theory treatment. In this work, we show that the spectrum-sharing benefits of cognitive radio can be increased by designing a medium access control based on quantum game theory. In this context, we propose a model to manage spectrum fairly and effectively, based on a multiple-users multiple-choice quantum minority game. By taking advantage of quantum entanglement and quantum interference, it is possible to reduce the probability of collision problems commonly associated with classic algorithms. Collision avoidance is an essential property for classic and quantum communications systems. In our model, two different scenarios are considered, to meet the requirements of different user strategies. The first considers sensor networks where the rational use of energy is a cornerstone; the second focuses on installations where the quality of service of the entire network is a priority.

  6. On the energy spectrum of cosmogenic neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malgin, A. S.

    2017-11-01

    The processes of the generation of cosmogenic neutrons (cg-neutrons) underground are considered. The neutrons produced by cosmic-ray muons in their interactions with matter are called cosmogenic. Deep-inelastic π A-collisions of pions in muon-induced hadronic showers are mainly their source at energies above 30 MeV. The characteristics of the energy spectrum for the generation of cg-neutrons have been determined by invoking the additive quark model of deep-inelastic soft processes and the mechanism for the interactions of high-energy nucleons in a nucleus. The three-component shape of the spectrum is explained, and the energy of the "knee" in the spectrum has been found to depend on the mass number A. The peculiarities of deep-inelastic π A-scattering lead to the conclusion that the spectrum of cg-neutrons steepens sharply at energies above 1 GeV. The calculated quantitative characteristics of the spectrum are compared with those obtained in measurements.

  7. Earth's transmission spectrum from lunar eclipse observations.

    PubMed

    Pallé, Enric; Osorio, María Rosa Zapatero; Barrena, Rafael; Montañés-Rodríguez, Pilar; Martín, Eduardo L

    2009-06-11

    Of the 342 planets so far discovered orbiting other stars, 58 'transit' the stellar disk, meaning that they can be detected through a periodic decrease in the flux of starlight. The light from the star passes through the atmosphere of the planet, and in a few cases the basic atmospheric composition of the planet can be estimated. As we get closer to finding analogues of Earth, an important consideration for the characterization of extrasolar planetary atmospheres is what the transmission spectrum of our planet looks like. Here we report the optical and near-infrared transmission spectrum of the Earth, obtained during a lunar eclipse. Some biologically relevant atmospheric features that are weak in the reflection spectrum (such as ozone, molecular oxygen, water, carbon dioxide and methane) are much stronger in the transmission spectrum, and indeed stronger than predicted by modelling. We also find the 'fingerprints' of the Earth's ionosphere and of the major atmospheric constituent, molecular nitrogen (N(2)), which are missing in the reflection spectrum.

  8. Deimos: A featureless asteroid-like spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grundy, W. M.; Fink, Uwe

    1991-01-01

    High quality CCD spectra were obtained of Deimos from 0.5 to 1.0 micron at a spectral resolution of 15A at the time of the 1988 Mars opposition. The data acquisition and reduction methods allowed the quantitative prevention of scattered light from Mars contaminating the spectra. Solar analog stars BS560, BS2007, and BS8931 were observed the same night to allow removal of telluric absorptions. The ratio spectrum of Deimos has a red slope, increasing in reflectance by a factor of approx. 50 pct. over the one octave wavelength interval observed. Other than this slope, the spectrum is remarkably featureless. The absence of absorption bands in the spectrum of Deimos is in marked contrast with the spectra of Martian surface materials. No trace of the Fe(2+) charge transfer absorption band around 1 micron is observed, which rules out the presence of significant quantities of minerals such as the pyroxenes or olivine at the surface of Deimos. The featureless red spectrum of Deimos appears to be consistent with a surface composition of fine grained carbonaceous chondrite type material. An analysis is presented of the spectrum of Deimos which makes use of the Hapke scattering surface model.

  9. NREL Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-09-01

    This brochure describes the NREL Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation, which includes analysis and decision support, fundamental science, market relevant research, systems integration, testing and validation, commercialization and deployment. Through deep technical expertise and an unmatched breadth of capabilities, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) leads an integrated approach across the spectrum of renewable energy innovation. From scientific discovery to accelerating market deployment, NREL works in partnership with private industry to drive the transformation of our nation's energy systems. NREL integrates the entire spectrum of innovation, including fundamental science, market relevant research, systems integration, testing and validation, commercialization, and deployment.more » Our world-class analysis and decision support informs every point on the spectrum. The innovation process at NREL is inter-dependent and iterative. Many scientific breakthroughs begin in our own laboratories, but new ideas and technologies may come to NREL at any point along the innovation spectrum to be validated and refined for commercial use.« less

  10. THE SUN’S PHOTOSPHERIC CONVECTION SPECTRUM

    SciTech Connect

    Hathaway, David H.; Teil, Thibaud; Kitiashvili, Irina

    2015-10-01

    Spectra of the cellular photospheric flows are determined from full-disk Doppler velocity observations acquired by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory spacecraft. Three different analysis methods are used to separately determine spectral coefficients representing the poloidal flows, the toroidal flows, and the radial flows. The amplitudes of these spectral coefficients are constrained by simulated data analyzed with the same procedures as the HMI data. We find that the total velocity spectrum rises smoothly to a peak at a wavenumber of about 120 (wavelength of about 35 Mm), which is typical of supergranules. The spectrummore » levels off out to wavenumbers of about 400, and then rises again to a peak at a wavenumber of about 3500 (wavelength of about 1200 km), which is typical of granules. The velocity spectrum is dominated by the poloidal flow component (horizontal flows with divergence but no curl) at wavenumbers above 30. The toroidal flow component (horizontal flows with curl but no divergence) dominates at wavenumbers less than 30. The radial flow velocity is only about 3% of the total flow velocity at the lowest wavenumbers, but increases in strength to become about 50% at wavenumbers near 4000. The spectrum compares well with the spectrum of giant cell flows at the lowest wavenumbers and with the spectrum of granulation from a 3D radiative-hydrodynamic simulation at the highest wavenumbers.« less

  11. Dynamic Singularity Spectrum Distribution of Sea Clutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Gang; Yu, Wenxian; Zhang, Shuning

    2015-12-01

    The fractal and multifractal theory have provided new approaches for radar signal processing and target-detecting under the background of ocean. However, the related research mainly focuses on fractal dimension or multifractal spectrum (MFS) of sea clutter. In this paper, a new dynamic singularity analysis method of sea clutter using MFS distribution is developed, based on moving detrending analysis (DMA-MFSD). Theoretically, we introduce the time information by using cyclic auto-correlation of sea clutter. For transient correlation series, the instantaneous singularity spectrum based on multifractal detrending moving analysis (MF-DMA) algorithm is calculated, and the dynamic singularity spectrum distribution of sea clutter is acquired. In addition, we analyze the time-varying singularity exponent ranges and maximum position function in DMA-MFSD of sea clutter. For the real sea clutter data, we analyze the dynamic singularity spectrum distribution of real sea clutter in level III sea state, and conclude that the radar sea clutter has the non-stationary and time-varying scale characteristic and represents the time-varying singularity spectrum distribution based on the proposed DMA-MFSD method. The DMA-MFSD will also provide reference for nonlinear dynamics and multifractal signal processing.

  12. 77 FR 40647 - Toward Innovative Spectrum-Sharing Technologies: Wireless Spectrum Research and Development...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... this important step forward. Submitted by the National Science Foundation for the National Coordination... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Toward Innovative Spectrum-Sharing Technologies: Wireless Spectrum.... Suzanne H. Plimpton, Reports Clearance Officer, National Science Foundation. [FR Doc. 2012-16804 Filed 7-9...

  13. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. Part I: A Comparison of Parenting Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Shelley L.; Coons, Kelly D.; Hayes, Stephanie A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is a long history of research on parents of children with disabilities, but to the authors' knowledge, no study has compared the stress of parents of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) to parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method: Twenty-five parents of children with ASD and 25 parents of…

  14. Schizophrenia Spectrum and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the differential severity of specific symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and child psychiatry outpatient referrals (controls). Each group was further subdivided into subgroups with and without co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).…

  15. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Underlying Brain Mechanism in the Oculoauriculovertebral Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Maria; Billstedt, Eva; Danielsson, Susanna; Stromland, Kerstin; Miller, Marilyn; Granstrom, Gosta; Flodmark, Olof; Rastam, Maria; Gillberg, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    As part of a multidisciplinary study, the rate of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), learning disability (LD), and brain abnormalities was examined in 20 participants (12 males, 8 females; age range 8mo-17y, mean age 8y 1mo) diagnosed as falling within the oculoauriculovertebral spectrum (OAV). A neuropsychiatric examination was performed, including…

  16. 47 CFR 27.805 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum... partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. An entity that acquires a portion of a 1.4 GHz band licensee's geographic area or spectrum subject to a geographic partitioning or spectrum disaggregation agreement under...

  17. 47 CFR 27.904 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum... partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. An entity that acquires a portion of a 1670-1675 MHz band licensee's geographic area or spectrum subject to a geographic partitioning or spectrum disaggregation agreement under...

  18. 47 CFR 27.904 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum... partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. An entity that acquires a portion of a 1670-1675 MHz band licensee's geographic area or spectrum subject to a geographic partitioning or spectrum disaggregation agreement under...

  19. 47 CFR 27.805 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum... partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. An entity that acquires a portion of a 1.4 GHz band licensee's geographic area or spectrum subject to a geographic partitioning or spectrum disaggregation agreement under...

  20. 47 CFR 27.805 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum... partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. An entity that acquires a portion of a 1.4 GHz band licensee's geographic area or spectrum subject to a geographic partitioning or spectrum disaggregation agreement under...

  1. 47 CFR 20.6 - CMRS spectrum aggregation limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false CMRS spectrum aggregation limit. 20.6 Section... COMMERCIAL MOBILE SERVICES § 20.6 CMRS spectrum aggregation limit. (a) Spectrum limitation. No licensee in... broadband PCS, cellular, and SMR spectrum regulated as CMRS with significant overlap in any geographic area...

  2. 47 CFR 101.1323 - Spectrum aggregation, disaggregation, and partitioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Spectrum aggregation, disaggregation, and... Requirements § 101.1323 Spectrum aggregation, disaggregation, and partitioning. (a) Eligibility. (1) Parties... aggregate spectrum in any MAS bands, but may not disaggregate their licensed spectrum or partition their...

  3. 47 CFR 101.1323 - Spectrum aggregation, disaggregation, and partitioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Spectrum aggregation, disaggregation, and... Requirements § 101.1323 Spectrum aggregation, disaggregation, and partitioning. (a) Eligibility. (1) Parties... aggregate spectrum in any MAS bands, but may not disaggregate their licensed spectrum or partition their...

  4. 47 CFR 27.805 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum... partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. An entity that acquires a portion of a 1.4 GHz band licensee's geographic area or spectrum subject to a geographic partitioning or spectrum disaggregation agreement under...

  5. 47 CFR 27.904 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum... partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. An entity that acquires a portion of a 1670-1675 MHz band licensee's geographic area or spectrum subject to a geographic partitioning or spectrum disaggregation agreement under...

  6. 47 CFR 27.904 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum... partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. An entity that acquires a portion of a 1670-1675 MHz band licensee's geographic area or spectrum subject to a geographic partitioning or spectrum disaggregation agreement under...

  7. 47 CFR 27.904 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum... partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. An entity that acquires a portion of a 1670-1675 MHz band licensee's geographic area or spectrum subject to a geographic partitioning or spectrum disaggregation agreement under...

  8. 47 CFR 20.6 - CMRS spectrum aggregation limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false CMRS spectrum aggregation limit. 20.6 Section... COMMERCIAL MOBILE SERVICES § 20.6 CMRS spectrum aggregation limit. (a) Spectrum limitation. No licensee in... broadband PCS, cellular, and SMR spectrum regulated as CMRS with significant overlap in any geographic area...

  9. 47 CFR 101.1323 - Spectrum aggregation, disaggregation, and partitioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Spectrum aggregation, disaggregation, and... Requirements § 101.1323 Spectrum aggregation, disaggregation, and partitioning. (a) Eligibility. (1) Parties... aggregate spectrum in any MAS bands, but may not disaggregate their licensed spectrum or partition their...

  10. 47 CFR 101.1323 - Spectrum aggregation, disaggregation, and partitioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spectrum aggregation, disaggregation, and... Requirements § 101.1323 Spectrum aggregation, disaggregation, and partitioning. (a) Eligibility. (1) Parties... aggregate spectrum in any MAS bands, but may not disaggregate their licensed spectrum or partition their...

  11. 47 CFR 101.1323 - Spectrum aggregation, disaggregation, and partitioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Spectrum aggregation, disaggregation, and... Requirements § 101.1323 Spectrum aggregation, disaggregation, and partitioning. (a) Eligibility. (1) Parties... aggregate spectrum in any MAS bands, but may not disaggregate their licensed spectrum or partition their...

  12. 47 CFR 27.805 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum... partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. An entity that acquires a portion of a 1.4 GHz band licensee's geographic area or spectrum subject to a geographic partitioning or spectrum disaggregation agreement under...

  13. Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum with radial anomaly in child.

    PubMed

    Taksande, Amar; Vilhekar, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum (OAVS) or Goldenhar syndrome is a wide spectrum of congenital anomalies that involves structures arising from the first and second branchial arches. It is characterized by a wide spectrum of symptoms and physical features. These abnormalities mainly involve the cheekbones, jaws, mouth, ears, eyes, or vertebrae. Other conditions with ear and/or radial involvement, such as, the Nager syndrome, Holt-Oram syndrome, Radial-renal syndrome, facioauriculoradial dysplasia, Fanconi anemia, and Vertebral, Anal atresia, Cardiac, Trachea, Esophageal, Renal, and Limb (VACTERL) association should be considered for differential diagnosis. Here we report a child who had facial asymmetry, microsomia, microtia, congenital facial nerve palsy, conductive hearing loss, skin tags, iris coloboma, and preaxial polydactyly.

  14. Biological Effects Of Full-Spectrum Lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickford, Elwood D.

    1980-10-01

    Humans and other living organisms have evolved various known and unknown photoreceptors and responses under full-spectrum optical radiation of sun and sky at the earth's surface. The trend to indoor living over the past 100 years has produced a self-exile from this radiation environment resulting in the disease conditions of rickets and erythema. Concerns for these diseases have pointed attention to the delicate balance between the beneficial and detrimental effects of full-spectrum optical radiation and has confounded the concepts of illumination and radiation safety criteria. Further knowledge has to be obtained to better evaluate the known and unknown effects of full-spectrum optical radiation in a modern society.

  15. Emergent Irreversibility and Entanglement Spectrum Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamon, Claudio; Hamma, Alioscia; Mucciolo, Eduardo R.

    2014-06-01

    We study the problem of irreversibility when the dynamical evolution of a many-body system is described by a stochastic quantum circuit. Such evolution is more general than a Hamiltonian one, and since energy levels are not well defined, the well-established connection between the statistical fluctuations of the energy spectrum and irreversibility cannot be made. We show that the entanglement spectrum provides a more general connection. Irreversibility is marked by a failure of a disentangling algorithm and is preceded by the appearance of Wigner-Dyson statistical fluctuations in the entanglement spectrum. This analysis can be done at the wave-function level and offers an alternative route to study quantum chaos and quantum integrability.

  16. Emergent irreversibility and entanglement spectrum statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucciolo, Eduardo; Chamon, Claudio; Hamma, Alioscia

    2014-03-01

    We study the problem of irreversibility when the dynamical evolution of a many-body system is described by a stochastic quantum circuit. Such evolution is more general than Hamitonian, and since energy levels are not well defined, the well-established connection between the statistical fluctuations of the energy spectrum and irreversibility cannot be made. We show that the entanglement spectrum provides a more general connection. Irreversibility is marked by a failure of a disentangling algorithm and is preceded by the appearance of Wigner-Dyson statistical fluctuations in the entanglement spectrum. This analysis can be done at the wavefunction level and offers a new route to study quantum chaos and quantum integrability. We acknowledge financial support from the U.S. National Science Foundation through grants CCF 1116590 and CCF 1117241, from the National Basic Research Program of China through grants 2011CBA00300 and 2011CBA00301, and from the National Natural Science Fo.

  17. Sound spectrum of a pulsating optical discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Grachev, G N; Smirnov, A L; Tishchenko, V N

    A spectrum of sound of an optical discharge generated by a repetitively pulsed (RP) laser radiation has been investigated. The parameters of laser radiation are determined at which the spectrum of sound may contains either many lines, or the main line at the pulse repetition rate and several weaker overtones, or a single line. The spectrum of sound produced by trains of RP radiation comprises the line (and overtones) at the repetition rate of train sequences and the line at the repetition rate of pulses in trains. A CO{sub 2} laser with the pulse repetition rate of f ≈ 3more » – 180 kHz and the average power of up to 2 W was used in the experiments. (optical discharges)« less

  18. Concise expression of a classical radiation spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.

    1993-06-01

    In this paper we present a concise expression of the classical electromagnetic radiation spectrum of a moving charge. It is shown to be equivalent to the often used and much more complicated form derived from the Lienard-Wiechert potentials when the observation distance [ital R] satisfies the condition [ital R][much gt][gamma][lambda]. The expression reveals a relationship between the radiation spectrum and the motion of the radiation source. It also forms the basis of an efficient computing approach, which is of practical value in numerical calculations of the spectral output of accelerated charges. The advantages of this approach for analytical and numericalmore » applications are discussed and the bending-magnet synchrotron radiation spectrum is calculated according to the approach.« less

  19. The intestinal lesion of autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Jass, Jeremy R

    2005-08-01

    This editorial briefly reviews the significance of lymphoid nodular hyperplasia in the intestinal tract of children with autistic spectrum disorder. The distinction between physiological and pathological lymphoid hyperplasia of the intestinal tract is of importance in the context of a possible causative link with autism. A primary intestinal lesion may occur as part of the broad spectrum of immunological disorders to which autistic children are prone. This could result in increased intestinal permeability to peptides of dietary origin which may then lead to disruption of neuroregulatory mechanisms required for normal brain development. Alternatively, there could be a primary defect in the translocation and processing of factors derived from the intestinal lumen. These possibilities deserve further investigation and should not be lost in the fog of the controversy regarding the role of measles/mumps/rubella vaccination in the aetiology of autistic spectrum disorder.

  20. Smart radio: spectrum access for first responders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvius, Mark D.; Ge, Feng; Young, Alex; MacKenzie, Allen B.; Bostian, Charles W.

    2008-04-01

    This paper details the Wireless at Virginia Tech Center for Wireless Telecommunications' (CWT) design and implementation of its Smart Radio (SR) communication platform. The CWT SR can identify available spectrum within a pre-defined band, rendezvous with an intended receiver, and transmit voice and data using a selected quality of service (QoS). This system builds upon previous cognitive technologies developed by CWT for the public safety community, with the goal of providing a prototype mobile communications package for military and public safety First Responders. A master control (MC) enables spectrum awareness by characterizing the radio environment with a power spectrum sensor and an innovative signal detection and classification module. The MC also enables spectrum and signal memory by storing sensor results in a knowledge database. By utilizing a family radio service (FRS) waveform database, the CWT SR can create a new communication link on any designated FRS channel frequency using FM, BPSK, QPSK, or 8PSK modulations. With FM, it supports analog voice communications with legacy hand-held FRS radios. With digital modulations, it supports IP data services, including a CWT developed CVSD-based VoIP protocol. The CWT SR coordinates spectrum sharing between analog primary users and digital secondary users by applying a simple but effective channel-change protocol. It also demonstrates a novel rendezvous protocol to facilitate the detection and initialization of communications links with neighboring SR nodes through the transmission of frequency-hopped rendezvous beacons. By leveraging the GNU Radio toolkit, writing key modules entirely in Python, and utilizing the USRP hardware front-end, the CWT SR provides a dynamic spectrum test bed for future smart and cognitive radio research.

  1. How universal is the entanglement spectrum?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandran, Anushya; Khemani, Vedika; Sondhi, Shivaji

    2014-03-01

    It is now commonly believed that the ground state entanglement spectrum (ES) exhibits universal features characteristic of a given phase. In this letter, we show that this belief is false in general. Most significantly, we show that the entanglement Hamiltonian can undergo quantum phase transitions in which its ground state and low energy spectrum exhibit singular changes, even when the physical system remains in the same phase. For broken symmetry problems, this implies that the ES and the Renyi entropies can mislead entirely, while for quantum Hall systems the ES has much less universal content than assumed to date.

  2. How Universal Is the Entanglement Spectrum?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandran, Anushya; Khemani, Vedika; Sondhi, S. L.

    2014-08-01

    It is now commonly believed that the ground state entanglement spectrum (ES) exhibits universal features characteristic of a given phase. In this Letter, we show that this belief is false in general. Most significantly, we show that the entanglement Hamiltonian can undergo quantum phase transitions in which its ground state and low-energy spectrum exhibit singular changes, even when the physical system remains in the same phase. For broken symmetry problems, this implies that the low-energy ES and the Rényi entropies can mislead entirely, while for quantum Hall systems, the ES has much less universal content than assumed to date.

  3. Hyper-spectrum scanning laser optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lingling; Li, Guiye; Li, Yingchao; Liu, Lina; Liu, Ang; Hu, Xuejuan; Ruan, Shuangchen

    2018-02-01

    We describe a quantitative fluorescence projection tomography technique which measures the three-dimensional fluorescence spectrum in biomedical samples with size up to several millimeters. This is achieved by acquiring a series of hyperspectral images, by using laser scanning scheme, at different projection angles. We demonstrate that this technique provide a quantitative measure of the fluorescence signal by comparing the spectrum and intensity profile of a fluorescent bead phantom and also demonstrate its application to differentiating the extrinsic label and the autofluorescence in a mouse embryo.

  4. Vibronic Origin for the Diffuse Band Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duley, W. W.

    1983-09-01

    The two arguments outlined by Nuth and Donn (1983) against an interpretation of the diffuse band spectrum between 677 and 536 nm as vibronic systems associated with forbidden origins at 14321, 15153, and 15343 cm-1 (Duley, 1982) are controverted. It is concluded that the vibronic analysis presented by Duley, 1983 for the diffuse band spectrum is in keeping with current spectroscopic practice. The identification of a forbidden origin for 19 of these bands at 14321 cm-1 strongly suggests the involvement of Cr3+ ions in MgO solids in the production of these features.

  5. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Leila; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2017-01-01

    This grand rounds manuscript reviews important considerations in developing case conceptualizations for individuals with a history of prenatal alcohol exposure. This case study provides an introduction to fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, diagnostic issues, a detailed description of the individual's history, presenting symptoms, neuropsychological test results, and an integrated summary. We describe a 9-year old girl diagnosed with a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD): Neurobehavioral Disorder Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (ND-PAE). This patient is a composite of a prototypical child who participated as part of a research project at the Center for Behavioral Teratology who was subsequently seen at an outpatient child psychiatry facility. PMID:28948136

  6. The Spectrum of Single Bubble Sonoluminescence.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiller, Robert Anthony

    1995-01-01

    An acoustically levitated bubble in a liquid may be driven to produce short flashes of light synchronous with the sound field in a process called sonoluminescence. The spectrum of the emitted light is measured with a grating monochromator and calibrated for absolute spectral radiance. The spectrum has been measured for various gases dissolved in pure water and heavy water, and alcohols and other hydrocarbon liquids. At a bandpass of 10nm EWHM the spectra are broad -band, showing no sign of lines or absorptions, with a peak in the ultraviolet. The experimental apparatus, including a system for producing sonoluminescence in a sealed container, is described.

  7. Unsupervised malaria parasite detection based on phase spectrum.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yuming; Xiong, Wei; Lin, Weisi; Chen, Zhenzhong

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel method for malaria parasite detection based on phase spectrum. The method first obtains the amplitude spectrum and phase spectrum for blood smear images through Quaternion Fourier Transform (QFT). Then it gets the reconstructed image based on Inverse Quaternion Fourier transform (IQFT) on a constant amplitude spectrum and the original phase spectrum. The malaria parasite areas can be detected easily from the reconstructed blood smear images. Extensive experiments have demonstrated the effectiveness of this novel method.

  8. An initial approach towards quality of service based Spectrum Trading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastidas, Carlos E. Caicedo; Vanhoy, Garret; Volos, Haris I.; Bose, Tamal

    Spectrum scarcity has become an important issue as demands for higher data rates increase in diverse wireless applications and aerospace communication scenarios. To address this problem, it becomes necessary to manage radio spectrum assignment in a way that optimizes the distribution of spectrum resources among several users while taking into account the quality of service (QoS) characteristics desired by the users of spectrum. In this paper, a novel approach to managing spectrum assignment based on Spectrum Trading (ST) will be presented. Market based spectrum assignment mechanisms such as spectrum trading are of growing interest to many spectrum management agencies that are planning to increase the use of these mechanisms for spectrum management and reduce their emphasis on command and control methods. This paper presents some of our initial work into incorporating quality of service information into the mechanisms that determine how spectrum should be traded when using a spectrum exchange. Through simulations and a testbed implementation of a QoS aware spectrum exchange our results show the viability of using QoS based mechanisms in spectrum trading and in the enhancement of dynamic spectrum assignment systems.

  9. Genetic Testing for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Sarah C.; Msall, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have unique developmental and behavioral phenotypes, and they have specific challenges with communication, social skills, and repetitive behaviors. At this time, no single etiology for ASD has been identified. However, evidence from family studies and linkage analyses suggests that genetic factors play…

  10. Teaching Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This resource is Book 9 in the Programming for Students with Special Needs series. The information in each book in the series is interrelated and can be used to provide instruction to all students. Chapters one and two cover the prevalence, causes, diagnoses, and characteristics of autism spectrum disorders. Chapters three and four cover…

  11. Neuroimaging and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Andria L.; Crocker, Nicole; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    The detrimental effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developing brain include structural brain anomalies as well as cognitive and behavioral deficits. Initial neuroimaging studies of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed previous autopsy reports of overall reduction in brain volume and…

  12. "Everyday Memory" Impairments in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Catherine R. G.; Happe, Francesca; Pickles, Andrew; Marsden, Anita J. S.; Tregay, Jenifer; Baird, Gillian; Simonoff, Emily; Charman, Tony

    2011-01-01

    "Everyday memory" is conceptualised as memory within the context of day-to-day life and, despite its functional relevance, has been little studied in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). In the first study of its kind, 94 adolescents with an ASD and 55 without an ASD completed measures of everyday memory from the Rivermead…

  13. Unbroken Mirror Neurons in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Yang-Teng; Decety, Jean; Yang, Chia-Yen; Liu, Ji-Lin; Cheng, Yawei

    2010-01-01

    Background: The "broken mirror" theory of autism, which proposes that a dysfunction of the human mirror neuron system (MNS) is responsible for the core social and cognitive deficits in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), has received considerable attention despite weak empirical evidence. Methods: In this electroencephalographic…

  14. Insight into an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Jen

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author shares some insights on the characteristics of a person with Asperger's syndrome, a condition on the higher-functioning end of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Born in 1955, the author was raised in rural South Auckland. As a baby, she propelled herself around the floor on her stomach, using her limbs as flippers,…

  15. Spectrum-Modulating Fiber-Optic Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beheim, Glenn; Fritsch, Klaus

    1989-01-01

    Family of spectrum-modulating fiber-optic sensors undergoing development for use in aircraft-engine control systems. Fiber-optic sensors offer advantages of small size, high bandwidth, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and light weight. Furthermore, they reduce number of locations on aircraft to which electrical power has to be supplied.

  16. Autism Spectrum Disorder: Primary Care Principles.

    PubMed

    Sanchack, Kristian E; Thomas, Craig A

    2016-12-15

    Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by difficulty with social communication and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interest, or activities. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed., created an umbrella diagnosis that includes several previously separate conditions: autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening for autism spectrum disorder in children 18 to 30 months of age in whom the disorder is not suspected; however, there is a growing body of evidence that early intensive behavioral intervention based on applied behavior analysis improves cognitive ability, language, and adaptive skills. Therefore, early identification of autism spectrum disorder is important, and experts recommend the use of a validated screening tool at 18- and 24-month well-child visits. Medications can be used as adjunctive treatment for maladaptive behaviors and comorbid psychiatric conditions, but there is no single medical therapy that is effective for all symptoms of autism spectrum disorder. Prognosis is heavily affected by the severity of diagnosis and the presence of intellectual disability. Children with optimal outcomes receive earlier, more intensive behavioral interventions and less pharmacologic treatment.

  17. Supporting University Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillier, Ashleigh; Goldstein, Jody; Murphy, Deirdra; Trietsch, Rhoda; Keeves, Jacqueline; Mendes, Eva; Queenan, Alexa

    2018-01-01

    Increasing numbers of students with autism spectrum disorder are entering higher education. Their success can be jeopardized by organizational, social/emotional, and academic challenges if appropriate supports are not in place. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a support group model for university students with autism spectrum…

  18. Inclusion for Students on the Autism Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godek, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    Once thought to be rare, autism spectrum disorders now are believed to affect an estimated one in every 150 American children, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Debates about whether this is a true increase in the number of children affected, or whether changes in diagnostic criteria and the heightened recognition of the…

  19. Autism Spectrum Disorders Associated with Chromosomal Abnormalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo-Castro, Adriana; Benvenuto, Arianna; Galasso, Cinzia; Porfirio, Cristina; Curatolo, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) constitute a class of severe neurodevelopmental conditions with complex multifactorial and heterogeneous etiology. Despite high estimates of heritability, genetic causes of ASDs remain elusive, due to a high degree of genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity. So far, several "monogenic" forms of autism have been…

  20. Educating Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Erin E.; Harn, Beth

    2012-01-01

    Every 20 minutes, another child is diagnosed with autism. Are you ready to meet this growing educational challenge? This authoritative guide for practitioners--early interventionists, teachers, school counselors and psychologists--provides practical strategies for addressing the unique needs of children on the autism spectrum and their families.…

  1. Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Asian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchant, Paul; Hussain, Anwar; Hall, Kathy

    2006-01-01

    This paper compares the incidence of the diagnosis of Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) among White and Asian children with reference to data obtained from thirteen local education authorities (LEAs) in England. It begins by outlining some of the theoretical debates associated with the definition, diagnosis and prevalence of ASD. The empirical…

  2. Selective optical contacting for solar spectrum management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianfeng; Chen, Weijian; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Zhilong; Huang, Shujuan; Shrestha, Santosh; Wen, Xiaoming; Patterson, Robert; Conibeer, Gavin

    2017-02-01

    Solar spectrum management using up/down conversion is an important method to improve the photovoltaic energy conversion efficiency. It asks for a monochromatic luminescence absorption at the band edge of the photovoltaic device to reduce both the sub-band-gap and over-band-gap energy losses. Here, we demonstrate an energy selective optical contacting concept to improve the luminescence transfer efficiency for spectrum management. By increasing both the luminescence emission and re-absorption ability through photonic resonance, an efficient photon transfer channel could be established between the luminescence emitter and the photovoltaic component in a near-field region. This concept is not only able to compensate the insufficient band edge absorption ability of the photovoltaic device, but also to break the far-field limitation of luminescence radiation. The energy selection on the optical spectrum naturally imposed by the mode resonance is also helpful to improve the monochromaticity of the luminescence yield. In this paper, a photonic crystal cavity is used to realize the optical contacting concept between a thin silicon film and spectrum converter. The optical power and photon flux transferred between different components are calculated analytically using the electromagnetic Green's function. The corresponding radiative dipole moment is estimated by the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. The example shows an over 80 times enhancement in the luminescence absorbance by the silicon layer, illustrating the great potential of this concept to be applied on nano-structured photovoltaic devices.

  3. Adaptive, full-spectrum solar energy system

    DOEpatents

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.

    2003-08-05

    An adaptive full spectrum solar energy system having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one hybrid luminaire, at least one hybrid photobioreactor, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator, each hybrid luminaire, and each hybrid photobioreactor. A lighting control system operates each component.

  4. Preserved Proactive Interference in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmo, Joana C.; Duarte, Elsa; Pinho, Sandra; Filipe, Carlos N.; Marques, J. Frederico

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate further the functioning and structuring of the semantic system in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We analyzed the performance of 19 high-functioning young adults with ASD and a group of 20 age-, verbal IQ- and education-matched individuals with the Proactive Interference (PI) Paradigm to evaluate semantic…

  5. A Comprehensive Book on Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the book is to serve for clinical, practical, basic and scholarly practices. In twentyfive chapters it covers the most important topics related to Autism Spectrum Disorders in the efficient way and aims to be useful for health professionals in training or clinicians seeking an update. Different people with autism can have very different…

  6. Exploring Surfaces of Nanomaterials - MIT Spectrum

    Science.gov Websites

    Topics About Search for: Search Massachusetts Institute of Technology Yang Shao-Horn is tackling the inspired by them to work here." Learn More Yang Shao-Horn Topics battery Energy Materials Science Latest Stories Spectrum Issues Topics About Popular Latest MIT Campaign for a Better World MIT Campaign

  7. UMTS signal measurements with digital spectrum analysers.

    PubMed

    Licitra, G; Palazzuoli, D; Ricci, A S; Silvi, A M

    2004-01-01

    The launch of the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), the most recent mobile telecommunications standard has imposed the requirement of updating measurement instrumentation and methodologies. In order to define the most reliable measurement procedure, which is aimed at assessing the exposure to electromagnetic fields, modern spectrum analysers' features for correct signal characterisation has been reviewed.

  8. Facial Feedback Mechanisms in Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stel, Marielle; van den Heuvel, Claudia; Smeets, Raymond C.

    2008-01-01

    Facial feedback mechanisms of adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) were investigated utilizing three studies. Facial expressions, which became activated via automatic (Studies 1 and 2) or intentional (Study 2) mimicry, or via holding a pen between the teeth (Study 3), influenced corresponding emotions for controls, while individuals…

  9. Atypical Saccadic Scanning in Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Valerie; Piper, Jenna; Fletcher-Watson, Sue

    2009-01-01

    Saccadic scanning was examined for typically developing (TD) adults and those with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) during inspection of the "Repin" picture (Yarbus, A. (1967). "Eye movements and vision". New York: Plenum) under two different viewing instructions: (A) material instructions ("Estimate the material circumstances of the family"); and…

  10. Postoperative cerebellar mutism and autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Tasdemiroğlu, Erol; Kaya, Miktat; Yildirim, Can Hakan; Firat, Levent

    2011-06-01

    I read the article "An Inside View of Autism" written by a 44-year-old autistic woman who had a successful international career designing livestock equipment. In this article, she wrote about her life, disease, and experiences as an autistic individual. She stated that "It is interesting that my speech resembled the stressed speech in young children who have had tumors removed from the cerebellum". In this article, we intend to review and extensively document both postoperative cerebellar mutism and autistic spectrum disorder. We reviewed the clinical and neurological findings, etio-pathogenesis, neuroanatomy, mechanisms of development, and similarities between the etio-pathogenesis of both diseases. Cerebellar lesions can produce mutism and dysarthria, symptoms sometimes seen in autistic spectrum disorder. In mammals, cerebellar lesions disturb motivated behavior and reduce social interactions, functions that are disturbed in autistic spectrum disorder and cerebellar mutism. The cerebellum and two regions within the frontal lobes are active in certain language tasks. Language is abnormal in autistic spectrum disorder and cerebellar mutism.

  11. Fundamental Movement Skills and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Kerri L.; Reid, Greg

    2010-01-01

    Delays and deficits may both contribute to atypical development of movement skills by children with ASD. Fundamental movement skills of 25 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (ages 9-12 years) were compared to three typically developing groups using the "Test of Gross Motor Development" ("TGMD-2"). The group matched on chronological age…

  12. Korean Culture and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang-Yi, Christina D.; Grinker, Roy R.; Mandell, David S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on early child development among Koreans, with a focus on autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The literature review of 951 abstracts in English, 101 abstracts in Korean and 27 full articles published from 1994 to 2011 was performed to understand the presentation of and response to ASD in Korean culture. Based on…

  13. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Implications for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echaniz, Crystal; Cronin, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), possible causes of ASD, current demographic information, the effects on the individual with ASD and the family, as well as diversity and multicultural issues related to autism. Additionally, the paper provides pertinent information about students with ASD for both general…

  14. Traumatic Childhood Events and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerns, Connor Morrow; Newschaffer, Craig J.; Berkowitz, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic childhood events are associated with a wide range of negative physical, psychological and adaptive outcomes over the life course and are one of the few identifiable causes of psychiatric illness. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be at increased risk for both encountering traumatic events and developing traumatic sequelae;…

  15. School Nurses' Knowledge of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strunk, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine school nurses' working knowledge of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The current knowledge of school nurses was investigated by means of a mixed-method exploratory descriptive pilot study. Instrumentation included a scale that measured the knowledge of school nurses in regard to ASD, including medication…

  16. Autism Spectrum Disorders (Pervasive Developmental Disorders)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strock, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    This booklet focuses on classic autism, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and Asperger syndrome, with brief descriptions of Rett syndrome and childhood disintegrative disorder. The booklet describes possible indicators of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), their diagnosis, available aids, treatment options, adults…

  17. Gaze Direction Detection in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgeot d'Arc, Baudouin; Delorme, Richard; Zalla, Tiziana; Lefebvre, Aline; Amsellem, Frédérique; Moukawane, Sanaa; Letellier, Laurence; Leboyer, Marion; Mouren, Marie-Christine; Ramus, Franck

    2017-01-01

    Detecting where our partners direct their gaze is an important aspect of social interaction. An atypical gaze processing has been reported in autism. However, it remains controversial whether children and adults with autism spectrum disorder interpret indirect gaze direction with typical accuracy. This study investigated whether the detection of…

  18. Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnoses in Stockholm Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernell, Elisabeth; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate prevalence rates of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnoses in a cohort of 6-year-old children with birth year 2002, referred to the Autism Centre for Young Children, serving the whole of Stockholm county and on the basis of the available data discuss clinical aspects of assessment,…

  19. On the high energy proton spectrum measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellsworth, R. W.; Ito, A.; Macfall, J.; Siohan, F.; Streitmatter, R. E.; Tonwar, S. C.; Vishwanath, P. R.; Yodh, G. B.; Balasubrahmanyan, V. K.

    1977-01-01

    The steepening of the proton spectrum beyond 1000 GeV and the rise in inelastic cross sections between 20 and 600 GeV observed by the PROTON-1-2-3 satellite experiments were explained by systematic effects of energy dependent albedo (backscatter) from the calorimeter.

  20. Sonographic Spectrum of Tunica Albuginea Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Daniel M.; Bhatt, Shweta; Dogra, Vikram S.

    2011-01-01

    Tunica albuginea (TA) cyst is the most common extratesticular benign mass, which is usually palpable. Ultrasound examination is the imaging modality of choice to characterize palpable testicular lesions. This pictorial essay presents the spectrum of sonographic features of TA cysts in order to assist radiologists in making the correct diagnosis and avoid unnecessary surgeries. PMID:21915386

  1. [Laser Raman spectrum analysis of carbendazim pesticide].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-bin; Wu, Rui-mei; Liu, Mu-hua; Zhang, Lu-ling; Lin, Lei; Yan, Lin-yuan

    2014-06-01

    Raman signal of solid and liquid carbendazim pesticide was collected by laser Raman spectrometer. The acquired Raman spectrum signal of solid carbendazim was preprocessed by wavelet analysis method, and the optimal combination of wavelet denoising parameter was selected through mixed orthogonal test. The results showed that the best effect was got with signal to noise ratio (SNR) being 62.483 when db2 wavelet function was used, decomposition level was 2, the threshold option scheme was 'rigisure' and reset mode was 'sln'. According to the vibration mode of different functional groups, the de-noised Raman bands could be divided into 3 areas: 1 400-2 000, 700-1 400 and 200-700 cm(-1). And the de-noised Raman bands were assigned with and analyzed. The characteristic vibrational modes were gained in different ranges of wavenumbers. Strong Raman signals were observed in the Raman spectrum at 619, 725, 964, 1 022, 1 265, 1 274 and 1 478 cm(-1), respectively. These characteristic vibrational modes are characteristic Raman peaks of solid carbendazim pesticide. Find characteristic Raman peaks at 629, 727, 1 001, 1 219, 1 258 and 1 365 cm(-1) in Raman spectrum signal of liquid carbendazim. These characteristic peaks were basically tallies with the solid carbendazim. The results can provide basis for the rapid screening of pesticide residue in food and agricultural products based on Raman spectrum.

  2. Goldstone radio spectrum protection. [deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaudian, B. A.; Cushman, R. B.

    1980-01-01

    Potential electromagnetic interference to the Goldstone tracking receivers due to neighboring military installations is discussed. Coordination of the military and NASA Goldstone activities in the Mojave Desert area is seen to be an effective method to protect the Goldstone radio spectrum while maintaining compatible operations for the military and Goldstone.

  3. Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norrix, Linda W.; Velenovsky, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder, or ANSD, can be a confusing diagnosis to physicians, clinicians, those diagnosed, and parents of children diagnosed with the condition. The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with an understanding of the disorder, the limitations in current tools to determine site(s) of lesion, and…

  4. Novel Treatments for Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Susan E.; Hyman, Susan L.

    2005-01-01

    In no area of developmental pediatric practice is there more controversy regarding the choice of treatment than related to children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). Complementary and alternative medical therapies (CAM) are often elected because they are perceived as treating the cause of symptoms rather than the symptoms themselves. CAM…

  5. A synthetic method of solar spectrum based on LED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ji-qiang; Su, Shi; Zhang, Guo-yu; Zhang, Jian

    2017-10-01

    A synthetic method of solar spectrum which based on the spectral characteristics of the solar spectrum and LED, and the principle of arbitrary spectral synthesis was studied by using 14 kinds of LED with different central wavelengths.The LED and solar spectrum data were selected by Origin Software firstly, then calculated the total number of LED for each center band by the transformation relation between brightness and illumination and Least Squares Curve Fit in Matlab.Finally, the spectrum curve of AM1.5 standard solar spectrum was obtained. The results met the technical indexes of the solar spectrum matching with ±20% and the solar constant with >0.5.

  6. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Siblings of Indian Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ankur; Juneja, Monica; Mishra, Devendra

    2016-06-01

    This study determined the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in 201 siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders. Siblings were screened using Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers and Social Responsiveness Scale, parent version. Screen-positive siblings were assessed using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) criteria. The risk of autism spectrum disorder in siblings was correlated with various familial and disease characteristics of the index case. Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder in siblings was 4.97%. There was a significant effect of the presence of aggressive behavior, externalizing problems and total problems in the proband, assessed using Childhood Behavior Checklist, and the young age of the father at conception on sibling risk of autism spectrum disorder. Results of our study are in line with previous studies reporting similar prevalence but have also brought up the association with behavioral problems as a possible risk factor. Siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder should be routinely screened, and genetic counseling for this increased risk should be explained to the family. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Research on the correlation between corona current spectrum and audible noise spectrum of HVDC transmission line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yingyi; Zhou, Lijuan; Liu, Yuanqing; Yuan, Haiwen; Ji, Liang

    2017-11-01

    Audible noise is closely related to corona current on a high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission line. In this paper, we measured a large amount of audible noise and corona current waveforms simultaneously based on the largest outdoor HVDC corona cage all over the world. By analyzing the experimental data, the related statistical regularities between a corona current spectrum and an audible noise spectrum were obtained. Furthermore, the generation mechanism of audible noise was analyzed theoretically, and the related mathematical expression between the audible noise spectrum and the corona current spectrum, which is suitable for all of these measuring points in the space, has been established based on the electro-acoustic conversion theory. Finally, combined with the obtained mathematical relation, the internal reasons for these statistical regularities appearing in measured corona current and audible noise data were explained. The results of this paper not only present the statistical association regularities between the corona current spectrum and the audible noise spectrum on a HVDC transmission line, but also reveal the inherent reasons of these associated rules.

  8. Investigating equality: The Rényi spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2017-09-01

    An equality index is a score quantifying the socioeconomic egalitarianism of the distribution of wealth in human societies; the score takes values in the unit interval, with the unit upper bound characterizing purely communist societies. In this paper we explore the Rényi spectrum, a continuum of equality indices that: (i) is based on the moments of the societies' distributions of wealth; (ii) unifies various measures of socioeconomic inequality, including the Theil and Atkinson indices; (iii) displays a collection of amicable analytic properties; (iv) admits multiple Rényi-divergence representations; and (v) provides a high-resolution gauging of egalitarianism that is way beyond what can be offered by the common-practice measures of socioeconomic inequality, the Gini and Pietra indices. At large, the Rényi spectrum is applicable in the context of any distribution of non-negative sizes with a positive mean-yielding a high-resolution gauging of the distribution's inherent statistical heterogeneity.

  9. Quantifying creativity: can measures span the spectrum?

    PubMed

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    2012-03-01

    Because the cognitive neuroscientists have become increasingly interested in the phenomenon of creativity, the issue arises of how creativity is to be optimally measured. Unlike intelligence, which can be assessed across the full range of intellectual ability creativity measures tend to concentrate on different sections of the overall spectrum. After first defining creativity in terms of the three criteria of novelty, usefulness, and surprise, this article provides an overview of the available measures. Not only do these instruments vary according to whether they focus on the creative process, person, or product, but they differ regarding whether they tap into "little-c" versus "Big-C" creativity; only productivity and eminence measures reach into genius-level manifestations of the phenomenon. The article closes by discussing whether various alternative assessment techniques can be integrated into a single measure that quantifies creativity across the full spectrum.

  10. PROSPECT - A precision oscillation and spectrum experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langford, T. J.; PROSPECT Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    Segmented antineutrino detectors placed near a compact research reactor provide an excellent opportunity to probe short-baseline neutrino oscillations and precisely measure the reactor antineutrino spectrum. Close proximity to a reactor combined with minimal overburden yield a high background environment that must be managed through shielding and detector technology. PROSPECT is a new experimental effort to detect reactor antineutrinos from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy. The detector will use novel lithium-loaded liquid scintillator capable of neutron/gamma pulse shape discrimination and neutron capture tagging. These enhancements improve the ability to identify neutrino inverse-beta decays (IBD) and reject background events in analysis. Results from these efforts will be covered along with their implications for an oscillation search and a precision spectrum measurement.

  11. Quantifying creativity: can measures span the spectrum?

    PubMed Central

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    2012-01-01

    Because the cognitive neuroscientists have become increasingly interested in the phenomenon of creativity, the issue arises of how creativity is to be optimally measured. Unlike intelligence, which can be assessed across the full range of intellectual ability creativity measures tend to concentrate on different sections of the overall spectrum. After first defining creativity in terms of the three criteria of novelty, usefulness, and surprise, this article provides an overview of the available measures. Not only do these instruments vary according to whether they focus on the creative process, person, or product, but they differ regarding whether they tap into “little-c” versus “Big-C” creativity; only productivity and eminence measures reach into genius-level manifestations of the phenomenon. The article closes by discussing whether various alternative assessment techniques can be integrated into a single measure that quantifies creativity across the full spectrum. PMID:22577309

  12. Action spectrum for retinal thermal injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, David J.; Edsall, Peter R.

    1999-06-01

    The action spectrum for light-induced damage to the retina results from the wavelength dependence transmission of the preretinal ocular media, wavelength dependent absorption in retinal chromophores and chromatic aberration of the eye optics. While various light/tissue interaction mechanisms have been implicated, thermal mechanisms dominate in the red and near-infrared for all exposure durations and in the visible for exposures shorter than a few seconds. A number of investigators have measured the transmission of the eye and the spectra of retinal absorbers, and thermal models based on these data predict the broad features of the action spectrum. Dose/response studies with lasers and incoherent light sources, conducted over the past 10 years mainly validate the thermal models.

  13. Broad-spectrum antivirals against viral fusion

    PubMed Central

    Vigant, Frederic; Santos, Nuno C.; Lee, Benhur

    2015-01-01

    Effective antivirals have been developed against specific viruses, such as HIV, Hepatitis C virus and influenza virus. This ‘one bug–one drug’ approach to antiviral drug development can be successful, but it may be inadequate for responding to an increasing diversity of viruses that cause significant diseases in humans. The majority of viral pathogens that cause emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases are membrane-enveloped viruses, which require the fusion of viral and cell membranes for virus entry. Therefore, antivirals that target the membrane fusion process represent new paradigms for broad-spectrum antiviral discovery. In this Review, we discuss the mechanisms responsible for the fusion between virus and cell membranes and explore how broad-spectrum antivirals target this process to prevent virus entry. PMID:26075364

  14. Action spectrum for phototherapy of psoriasis

    SciTech Connect

    Parrish, J.A.; Jaenicke, K.F.

    1981-05-01

    Using a monochromator the action spectrum for ultraviolet phototherapy of psoriasis was determined for radiation between 254 and 313 nm and compared to the action spectrum for erythema of uninvolved adjacent skin. Daily exposures of different doses of 254, 280, 290, 296, 300, 304 and 313 nm radiation were observed. Wavelengths of 254, 280, 290 nm were erythemogenic but not therapeutic even at 10 to 50 times the minimal erythema dose. At the other wavelengths studied, the 2 action spectra were similar. In general, fixed daily doses cleared at lower cumulative dose than did incrementally increased daily doses. The smallmore » number of suberythemogenic exposure doses required suggests that monochromatic radiation may have advantages over broadband sources.« less

  15. The Rainbow Spectrum of RNA Secondary Structures.

    PubMed

    Li, Thomas J X; Reidys, Christian M

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we analyze the length spectrum of rainbows in RNA secondary structures. A rainbow in a secondary structure is a maximal arc with respect to the partial order induced by nesting. We show that there is a significant gap in this length spectrum. We shall prove that there asymptotically almost surely exists a unique longest rainbow of length at least [Formula: see text] and that with high probability any other rainbow has finite length. We show that the distribution of the length of the longest rainbow converges to a discrete limit law and that, for finite k, the distribution of rainbows of length k becomes for large n a negative binomial distribution. We then put the results of this paper into context, comparing the analytical results with those observed in RNA minimum free energy structures, biological RNA structures and relate our findings to the sparsification of folding algorithms.

  16. Lamp of adjustable spectrum for photographic usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazikowski, Adam; Feldzensztajn, Mateusz

    2017-08-01

    Photography is a unique rapidly growing interdisciplinary field encompassing aspects of science, art and technology. Expectations of photographers are steadily increasing with the development of technology. One of the areas playing a crucial role in photography is lighting. Consequently, several types of light sources for photographic use have been developed. The ongoing research in this field concentrates on lamps with tunable CCT (Correlated Color Temperature). In this paper, we present a lamp, which emission spectrum can be tailored without affecting the output luminous ux. Intended for photographic uses, the lamp is based on an integrating sphere and a selection of LEDs. As the LED drivers, DC-DC converters controlled by a Raspberry PI were applied. Design process, including the selection of LED wavelengths, is presented. Output characteristics of the lamp were measured using the setup containing the spectrometer. The results of these experiments show good agreement with the spectrum set on the microcomputer.

  17. Full-Spectrum-Analysis Isotope ID

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Dean J.; Harding, Lee; Thoreson, Gregory G.

    2017-06-28

    FSAIsotopeID analyzes gamma ray spectra to identify radioactive isotopes (radionuclides). The algorithm fits the entire spectrum with combinations of pre-computed templates for a comprehensive set of radionuclides with varying thicknesses and compositions of shielding materials. The isotope identification algorithm is suitable for the analysis of spectra collected by gamma-ray sensors ranging from medium-resolution detectors, such a NaI, to high-resolution detectors, such as HPGe. In addition to analyzing static measurements, the isotope identification algorithm is applied for the radiation search applications. The search subroutine maintains a running background spectrum that is passed to the isotope identification algorithm, and it also selectsmore » temporal integration periods that optimize the responsiveness and sensitivity. Gain stabilization is supported for both types of applications.« less

  18. Internal Wave Spectrum of Lake Baikal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsimitri, C.; Schmid, M.; Wuest, A.

    2013-05-01

    Lake Baikal is the most voluminous and deepest (over 1.6 Km) fresh water body on earth holding 80% of the world's fresh water supplies. The lake supports a remarkable biodiversity with a major deep-water fauna composed almost entirely of endemic species. Due to the lake's great depth only the top 250 m are experiencing the direct effects of the wind. The deeper part of the lake is barely stratified and has a constant temperature all year round. A distinct peak is observed in the temperature Fourier spectrum around the inertial frequency almost at all times and at all depths. Here we investigate the particularities of the internal wave spectrum using the wavelet transform. We focus on the inertial frequency band and study the propagation through time and depth. Our goal is to evaluate the importance of the internal oscillations to the mixing and to correlate them to external forcing.

  19. Monitoring Engine Vibrations And Spectrum Of Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Carol L.; Randall, Michael R.; Reinert, John W.

    1991-01-01

    Real-time computation of intensities of peaks in visible-light emission spectrum of exhaust combined with real-time spectrum analysis of vibrations into developmental monitoring technique providing up-to-the-second information on conditions of critical bearings in engine. Conceived to monitor conditions of bearings in turbopump suppling oxygen to Space Shuttle main engine, based on observations that both vibrations in bearings and intensities of visible light emitted at specific wavelengths by exhaust plume of engine indicate wear and incipient failure of bearings. Applicable to monitoring "health" of other machinery via spectra of vibrations and electromagnetic emissions from exhausts. Concept related to one described in "Monitoring Bearing Vibrations For Signs Of Damage", (MFS-29734).

  20. Tuberculin skin testing: Spectrum of adverse reactions.

    PubMed

    Praveen, Ramar; Bahuguna, Amit; Dhadwal, Bhumesh Singh

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculin skin testing (TST) is one of the primary diagnostic modalities recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) study conducted in the United Kingdom (UK) for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB). Even after acceptance as a diagnostic modality and stern standardization, TST has its own flaws that include a spectrum of adverse reactions. We report a series of cases with a spectrum of adverse reactions occurring with a higher frequency than present in the available evidence. The study has some demerits such as being a retrospective one with interobserver variation and lack of histopathological confirmation. The observation is presented to accentuate the fact that adverse reactions are not a rarity and that further studies are required to establish the cause and exact incidence of the same.

  1. Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    by directly modulating a conventional narrowband frequency-modulated (FM) carrier by a high rate digital code. The direct modulation is binary phase ...specification of the DSSS system will not be developed. The results of the evaluation phase of this research will be compared against theoretical...spread spectrum is called binary phase -shift keying 19 (BPSK). BPSK is a modulation in which a binary Ŕ" represents a 0-degree relative phase

  2. Excitation energy spectrum in helium II

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, P.; Chan, C.K.

    1979-11-01

    We obtain the roton part of the excitation energy spectrum in He II qualitatively. We point out that the distinct difference between this calculation and that of Parry and Ter Haar is that we do not use the Born approximation in the evaluation of t-matrix elements. We found that in addition to the contribution due to the hard-core part, the attractive potential helps to form the roton dip.

  3. Mercury: surface composition from the reflection spectrum.

    PubMed

    McCord, T B; Adams, J B

    1972-11-17

    The reflection spectrum for the integral disk of the planet Mercury was measured and was found to have a constant positive slope from 0.32 to 1.05 micrometers, except for absorption features in the infrared. The reflectivity curve matches closely the curve for the lunar upland and mare regions. Thus, the surface of Mercury is probably covered with a lunar-like soil rich in dark glasses of high iron and titanium content. Pyroxene is probably the dominant mafic mineral.

  4. Horizon Detection In The Visible Spectrum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    techniques can also recognize star patterns in star trackers for satellite attitude determination. Horizon detection in the visible spectrum was largely...discarded for attitude determination in favor of thermal imagery, due to the greater consistency of the earth’s thermal radiation. This thesis...in 85% of the tested image set. 14. SUBJECT TERMS attitude determination, machine learning, image classification, earth horizon sensor, computer

  5. Quantum Entanglement Molecular Absorption Spectrum Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet; Kojima, Jun

    2006-01-01

    Quantum Entanglement Molecular Absorption Spectrum Simulator (QE-MASS) is a computer program for simulating two photon molecular-absorption spectroscopy using quantum-entangled photons. More specifically, QE-MASS simulates the molecular absorption of two quantum-entangled photons generated by the spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) of a fixed-frequency photon from a laser. The two-photon absorption process is modeled via a combination of rovibrational and electronic single-photon transitions, using a wave-function formalism. A two-photon absorption cross section as a function of the entanglement delay time between the two photons is computed, then subjected to a fast Fourier transform to produce an energy spectrum. The program then detects peaks in the Fourier spectrum and displays the energy levels of very short-lived intermediate quantum states (or virtual states) of the molecule. Such virtual states were only previously accessible using ultra-fast (femtosecond) laser systems. However, with the use of a single-frequency continuous wave laser to produce SPDC photons, and QEMASS program, these short-lived molecular states can now be studied using much simpler laser systems. QE-MASS can also show the dependence of the Fourier spectrum on the tuning range of the entanglement time of any externally introduced optical-path delay time. QE-MASS can be extended to any molecule for which an appropriate spectroscopic database is available. It is a means of performing an a priori parametric analysis of entangled photon spectroscopy for development and implementation of emerging quantum-spectroscopic sensing techniques. QE-MASS is currently implemented using the Mathcad software package.

  6. [Therapeutic approaches in autism spectrum disorders].

    PubMed

    Ruggieri, Víctor L; Arberas, Claudia L

    2015-02-25

    Autistic spectrum disorders affect one out of every 68 persons, with a 4:1 dominance in males. Since they are dysfunctions rather than irreversible injuries to the central nervous system, which can be attributed to deficits in the neuronal networks and synaptogenesis and are modifiable thanks to the plasticity of the brain, starting therapy as early as possible is essential for more favourable progress. Very few treatments are backed by solid scientific evidence. We will analyse the therapeutic approaches oriented towards improving autism spectrum disorders which showed a clinical improvement that can be related to neurophysiological or functional changes in the central nervous system. We will classify the behavioural educational treatments and those in the research phase into a hierarchy, highlighting the neurogenetic entities with a high prevalence of autism, in which their pathophysiology and molecular base are known, that attempt to modify the consequences of those alterations by means of pharmacological agents. These entities include fragile X syndrome (GABAergic and metabotropic glutamate receptor inhibitors), tuberous sclerosis (mTOR inhibitors), Phelan-McDermid syndrome and Rett syndrome (insulin-like growth factor 1 inhibitors). Oxytocin, which has been shown to improve social cognition in persons with autism spectrum disorders, is analysed separately.

  7. Supporting university students with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Hillier, Ashleigh; Goldstein, Jody; Murphy, Deirdra; Trietsch, Rhoda; Keeves, Jacqueline; Mendes, Eva; Queenan, Alexa

    2018-01-01

    Increasing numbers of students with autism spectrum disorder are entering higher education. Their success can be jeopardized by organizational, social/emotional, and academic challenges if appropriate supports are not in place. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a support group model for university students with autism spectrum disorder in improving psychological and functional outcomes. A curriculum guided the weekly discussions and consisted of topics such as time and stress management, managing group work, and social communication. Efficacy was assessed through pre- and post self-report measures focused on self-esteem, loneliness, anxiety, and depression. Functional changes in academic and social skills were examined through qualitative analysis of focus groups. Findings from the self-report measures indicated significant reductions in feelings of loneliness and general anxiety, and a significant increase in self-esteem at the end of the program compared to the beginning. Five prominent themes were identified in the focus-group analysis and reflected how the program had positively impacted participants' skills and coping: executive functioning; goal setting; academics and resources; stress and anxiety; and social. Given the cost effectiveness of "in-house" interventions and the potential for improving academic outcomes and retention of students with autism spectrum disorder, further research examining similar program models is warranted.

  8. Kinetic Features in the Ion Flux Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vafin, S.; Riazantseva, M.; Yoon, P. H.

    2017-11-01

    An interesting feature of solar wind fluctuations is the occasional presence of a well-pronounced peak near the spectral knee. These peaks are well investigated in the context of magnetic field fluctuations in the magnetosheath and they are typically related to kinetic plasma instabilities. Recently, similar peaks were observed in the spectrum of ion flux fluctuations of the solar wind and magnetosheath. In this paper, we propose a simple analytical model to describe such peaks in the ion flux spectrum based on the linear theory of plasma fluctuations. We compare our predictions with a sample observation in the solar wind. For the given observation, the peak requires ˜10 minutes to grow up to the observed level that agrees with the quasi-linear relaxation time. Moreover, our model well reproduces the form of the measured peak in the ion flux spectrum. The observed lifetime of the peak is about 50 minutes, which is relatively close to the nonlinear Landau damping time of 30-40 minutes. Overall, our model proposes a plausible scenario explaining the observation.

  9. Velocity spectrum for the Iranian plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastami, Morteza; Soghrat, M. R.

    2018-01-01

    Peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral acceleration values have been proposed in most building codes/guidelines, unlike spectral velocity (SV) and peak ground velocity (PGV). Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of spectral velocity and peak ground velocity in the design of long period structures (e.g., pipelines, tunnels, tanks, and high-rise buildings) and evaluation of seismic vulnerability in underground structures. The current study was undertaken to develop a velocity spectrum and for estimation of PGV. In order to determine these parameters, 398 three-component accelerograms recorded by the Building and Housing Research Center (BHRC) were used. The moment magnitude (Mw) in the selected database was 4.1 to 7.3, and the events occurred after 1977. In the database, the average shear-wave velocity at 0 to 30 m in depth (Vs30) was available for only 217 records; thus, the site class for the remaining was estimated using empirical methods. Because of the importance of the velocity spectrum at low frequencies, the signal-to-noise ratio of 2 was chosen for determination of the low and high frequency to include a wider range of frequency content. This value can produce conservative results. After estimation of the shape of the velocity design spectrum, the PGV was also estimated for the region under study by finding the correlation between PGV and spectral acceleration at the period of 1 s.

  10. Noninvasive hemoglobin measurement using dynamic spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xiaoqing; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling

    2017-08-01

    Spectroscopy methods for noninvasive hemoglobin (Hgb) measurement are interfered by individual difference and particular weak signal. In order to address these problems, we have put forward a series of improvement methods based on dynamic spectrum (DS), including instrument design, spectrum extraction algorithm, and modeling approach. The instrument adopts light sources composed of eight laser diodes with the wavelength range from 600 nm to 1100 nm and records photoplethysmography signals at eight wavelengths synchronously. In order to simplify the optical design, we modulate the light sources with orthogonal square waves and design the corresponding demodulation algorithm, instead of adopting a beam-splitting system. A newly designed algorithm named difference accumulation has been proved to be effective in improving the accuracy of dynamic spectrum extraction. 220 subjects are involved in the clinical experiment. An extreme learning machine calibration model between the DS data and the Hgb levels is established. Correlation coefficient and root-mean-square error of prediction sets are 0.8645 and 8.48 g/l, respectively. The results indicate that the Hgb level can be derived by this approach noninvasively with acceptable precision and accuracy. It is expected to achieve a clinic application in the future.

  11. Interpretation of the COBE FIRAS CMBR spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, E. L.; Mather, J. C.; Fixsen, D. J.; Kogut, A.; Shafer, R. A.; Bennett, C. L.; Boggess, N. W.; Cheng, E. S.; Silverberg, R. F.; Smoot, G. F.

    1994-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) spectrum measured by the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) instrument on NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) is indistinguishable from a blackbody, implying stringent limits on energy release in the early universe later than the time t = 1 yr after the big bang. We compare the FIRAS data to previous precise measurements of the cosmic microwave background spectrum and find a reasonable agreement. We discuss the implications of the absolute value of y is less than 2.5 x 10(exp -5) and the absolute value of mu is less than 3.3 x 10(exp -4) 95% confidence limits found by Mather et al. (1994) on many processes occurring after t = 1 yr, such as explosive structure formation, reionization, and dissipation of small-scale density perturbations. We place limits on models with dust plus Population III stars, or evolving populations of IR galaxies, by directly comparing the Mather et al. spectrum to the model predictions.

  12. The Millimeter-Wave Spectrum of Propanal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zingsheim, Oliver; Müller, Holger S. P.; Lewen, Frank; Schlemmer, Stephan

    2017-06-01

    The microwave spectrum of propanal, also known as propionaldehyde, CH_3CH_2CHO, has been investigated in the laboratory already since 1964^1 and has also been detected in space^2. Recently, propanal was detected with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS)^3. The high sensitivity and resolution of ALMA indicated small discrepancies between observed and predicted rotational spectra of propanal. As higher accuracies are desired the spectrum of propanal was measured up to 500 GHz with the Cologne (Sub-)Millimeter spectrometer. Propanal has two stable conformers, syn and gauche, which differ mainly in the rotation of the aldehyd group with respect to the rigid C-atom framework of the molecule. We extensively studied both of them. The lower syn-conformer shows small splittings caused by the internal rotation of the methyl group, whereas the spectrum of gauche-propanal is complicated due to the tunneling rotation interaction from two stable degenerate conformers. Additionally, we analyzed vibrationally excited states. ^1 Butcher et al., J. Chem. Phys. 40 6 (1964) ^2 Hollis et al., Astrophys. J. 610 L21 (2004) ^3 Lykke et al., A&A 597 A53 (2017)

  13. PROSPECT - A Precision Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianyi; Prospect Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    PROSPECT, the PRecision Oscillation and SPECTrum Experiment, is a multi-phased short baseline reactor antineutrino experiment that aims to precisely measure the U-235 antineutrino spectrum and prob for oscillation effects involving a possible Δm2 1 eV2 scale sterile neutrino. In PROSPECT Phase-I, an optically segmented Li-6 loaded liquid scintillator detector will be deployed at at the baseline of 7-12m from the High Flux Isotope Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. PROSPECT will measure the spectrum of U-235 to aid in resolving the unexplained inconsistency between predictive spectral models and recent experimental measurements using LEU cores, while the oscillation measurement will probe the best fit region suggested by global fitting studies within 1-year data taking. This talk will introduce the design of PROSPECT Phase-I, the discovery potential of the experiment, and the progress the collaboration has made toward realizing PROSPECT Phase-I. Department of Energy

  14. 75 FR 72792 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: National Telecommunications and Information... comments may be mailed to Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee, National Telecommunications and...

  15. Multicarrier orthogonal spread-spectrum (MOSS) data communications

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Stephen F [London, TN; Dress, William B [Camas, WA

    2008-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for multicarrier orthogonal spread-spectrum (MOSS) data communication. A method includes individually spread-spectrum modulating at least two of a set of orthogonal frequency division multiplexed carriers, wherein the resulting individually spread-spectrum modulated at least two of a set of orthogonal frequency division multiplexed carriers are substantially mutually orthogonal with respect to both frequency division multiplexing and spread-spectrum modulation.

  16. Sensory Over-Responsivity in Adults with Autism Spectrum Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavassoli, Teresa; Miller, Lucy J.; Schoen, Sarah A.; Nielsen, Darci M.; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Anecdotal reports and empirical evidence suggest that sensory processing issues are a key feature of autism spectrum conditions. This study set out to investigate whether adults with autism spectrum conditions report more sensory over-responsivity than adults without autism spectrum conditions. Another goal of the study was to identify whether…

  17. Purely Singular Continuous Spectrum for CMV Operators Generated by Subshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Darren C.

    2014-03-01

    We prove uniform absence of point spectrum for CMV operators corresponding to the period doubling subshift. We also prove almost sure absence of point spectrum for CMV operators corresponding to a class of Sturmian subshifts. Lastly, we prove almost sure absence of point spectrum for CMV operators corresponding to some subshifts generated by a coding of a rotation.

  18. Picture Exchange Communication System for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Lauren E.

    2010-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological disorder that manifests itself within an individual through cognitive, social, and academic deficits. As is true for all spectrum disorders, each individual may experience a range of deficits with varying severity. Many students with autism spectrum disorder experience difficulty in some area of…

  19. 47 CFR 1.9020 - Spectrum manager leasing arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spectrum manager leasing arrangements. 1.9020... Leasing General Policies and Procedures § 1.9020 Spectrum manager leasing arrangements. (a) Overview... may enter into a spectrum manager leasing arrangement, without the need for prior Commission approval...

  20. 21 CFR 882.1420 - Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum....1420 Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer. (a) Identification. An electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer is a device used to display the frequency content or power spectral...

  1. 47 CFR 27.15 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum... Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. (a) Eligibility. (1) Parties seeking approval for... service area or disaggregate their licensed spectrum at any time following the grant of their licenses. (b...

  2. 47 CFR 80.60 - Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum... licenses and disaggregated spectrum. (a) Except as specified in § 20.15(c) of this chapter with respect to... spectrum pursuant to the procedures set forth in this section. (2) AMTS geographic area licensees, see § 80...

  3. 47 CFR 90.813 - Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum... Specialized Mobile Radio Service § 90.813 Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum. (a) Eligibility.... Spectrum may be disaggregated in any amount. (3) Combined partitioning and disaggregation. The Commission...

  4. 47 CFR 90.813 - Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum... Specialized Mobile Radio Service § 90.813 Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum. (a) Eligibility.... Spectrum may be disaggregated in any amount. (3) Combined partitioning and disaggregation. The Commission...

  5. 47 CFR 95.823 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum... Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. (a) Eligibility. Parties seeking Commission approval of geographic partitioning or spectrum disaggregation of 218-219 MHz Service system licenses shall request an...

  6. 21 CFR 882.1420 - Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum....1420 Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer. (a) Identification. An electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer is a device used to display the frequency content or power spectral...

  7. 21 CFR 882.1420 - Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum....1420 Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer. (a) Identification. An electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer is a device used to display the frequency content or power spectral...

  8. 47 CFR 95.823 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum... Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. (a) Eligibility. Parties seeking Commission approval of geographic partitioning or spectrum disaggregation of 218-219 MHz Service system licenses shall request an...

  9. 47 CFR 95.823 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum... Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. (a) Eligibility. Parties seeking Commission approval of geographic partitioning or spectrum disaggregation of 218-219 MHz Service system licenses shall request an...

  10. 47 CFR 2.1057 - Frequency spectrum to be investigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frequency spectrum to be investigated. 2.1057... Frequency spectrum to be investigated. (a) In all of the measurements set forth in §§ 2.1051 and 2.1053, the spectrum shall be investigated from the lowest radio frequency signal generated in the equipment, without...

  11. 47 CFR 90.365 - Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum... § 90.365 Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum. (a) Eligibility. (1) Party seeking approval... disaggregate their licensed spectrum at any time following the grant of their licenses. Multilateration LMS...

  12. 47 CFR 24.714 - Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum... Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum. (a) Eligibility. (1) Parties seeking approval for... § 24.839. (2) Broadband PCS licensees in spectrum blocks A, B, D, and E and broadband PCS C and F block...

  13. 47 CFR 24.714 - Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum... Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum. (a) Eligibility. (1) Parties seeking approval for... § 24.839. (2) Broadband PCS licensees in spectrum blocks A, B, D, and E and broadband PCS C and F block...

  14. 47 CFR 90.365 - Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum... § 90.365 Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum. (a) Eligibility. (1) Party seeking approval... disaggregate their licensed spectrum at any time following the grant of their licenses. Multilateration LMS...

  15. 47 CFR 2.1057 - Frequency spectrum to be investigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frequency spectrum to be investigated. 2.1057... Frequency spectrum to be investigated. (a) In all of the measurements set forth in §§ 2.1051 and 2.1053, the spectrum shall be investigated from the lowest radio frequency signal generated in the equipment, without...

  16. 47 CFR 90.813 - Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum... Specialized Mobile Radio Service § 90.813 Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum. (a) Eligibility.... Spectrum may be disaggregated in any amount. (3) Combined partitioning and disaggregation. The Commission...

  17. 47 CFR 90.365 - Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum... § 90.365 Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum. (a) Eligibility. (1) Party seeking approval... disaggregate their licensed spectrum at any time following the grant of their licenses. Multilateration LMS...

  18. 47 CFR 80.60 - Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum... licenses and disaggregated spectrum. (a) Except as specified in § 20.15(c) of this chapter with respect to... spectrum pursuant to the procedures set forth in this section. (2) AMTS geographic area licensees, see § 80...

  19. 47 CFR 95.823 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum... Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. (a) Eligibility. Parties seeking Commission approval of geographic partitioning or spectrum disaggregation of 218-219 MHz Service system licenses shall request an...

  20. 47 CFR 90.365 - Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum... § 90.365 Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum. (a) Eligibility. (1) Party seeking approval... disaggregate their licensed spectrum at any time following the grant of their licenses. Multilateration LMS...

  1. 47 CFR 24.714 - Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum... Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum. (a) Eligibility. (1) Parties seeking approval for... § 24.839. (2) Broadband PCS licensees in spectrum blocks A, B, D, and E and broadband PCS C and F block...

  2. 47 CFR 24.714 - Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum... Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum. (a) Eligibility. (1) Parties seeking approval for... § 24.839. (2) Broadband PCS licensees in spectrum blocks A, B, D, and E and broadband PCS C and F block...

  3. 47 CFR 2.1057 - Frequency spectrum to be investigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequency spectrum to be investigated. 2.1057... Frequency spectrum to be investigated. (a) In all of the measurements set forth in §§ 2.1051 and 2.1053, the spectrum shall be investigated from the lowest radio frequency signal generated in the equipment, without...

  4. 47 CFR 80.60 - Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum... licenses and disaggregated spectrum. (a) Except as specified in § 20.15(c) of this chapter with respect to... spectrum pursuant to the procedures set forth in this section. (2) AMTS geographic area licensees, see § 80...

  5. 47 CFR 80.60 - Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum... licenses and disaggregated spectrum. (a) Except as specified in § 20.15(c) of this chapter with respect to... spectrum pursuant to the procedures set forth in this section. (2) AMTS geographic area licensees, see § 80...

  6. 47 CFR 20.22 - Rules governing mobile spectrum holdings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rules governing mobile spectrum holdings. 20.22... COMMERCIAL MOBILE SERVICES § 20.22 Rules governing mobile spectrum holdings. (a) Applicants for mobile... spectrum manager leasing arrangements as identified in § 1.9020(e)(1)(ii) must demonstrate that the public...

  7. 47 CFR 80.60 - Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum... licenses and disaggregated spectrum. (a) Except as specified in § 20.15(c) of this chapter with respect to... spectrum pursuant to the procedures set forth in this section. (2) AMTS geographic area licensees, see § 80...

  8. 47 CFR 90.813 - Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum... Specialized Mobile Radio Service § 90.813 Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum. (a) Eligibility.... Spectrum may be disaggregated in any amount. (3) Combined partitioning and disaggregation. The Commission...

  9. 47 CFR 2.1057 - Frequency spectrum to be investigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frequency spectrum to be investigated. 2.1057... Frequency spectrum to be investigated. (a) In all of the measurements set forth in §§ 2.1051 and 2.1053, the spectrum shall be investigated from the lowest radio frequency signal generated in the equipment, without...

  10. 47 CFR 24.714 - Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum... Partitioned licenses and disaggregated spectrum. (a) Eligibility. (1) Parties seeking approval for... § 24.839. (2) Broadband PCS licensees in spectrum blocks A, B, D, and E and broadband PCS C and F block...

  11. 47 CFR 95.823 - Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Geographic partitioning and spectrum... Geographic partitioning and spectrum disaggregation. (a) Eligibility. Parties seeking Commission approval of geographic partitioning or spectrum disaggregation of 218-219 MHz Service system licenses shall request an...

  12. 47 CFR 2.1057 - Frequency spectrum to be investigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frequency spectrum to be investigated. 2.1057... Frequency spectrum to be investigated. (a) In all of the measurements set forth in §§ 2.1051 and 2.1053, the spectrum shall be investigated from the lowest radio frequency signal generated in the equipment, without...

  13. 47 CFR 90.1407 - Spectrum use in the network.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Spectrum use in the network. 90.1407 Section 90... network. (a) Spectrum use. The Shared Wireless Broadband Network will operate using spectrum associated... from the primary public safety operations in the 763-768 MHz and 793-798 MHz bands. The network...

  14. 47 CFR 90.1407 - Spectrum use in the network.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spectrum use in the network. 90.1407 Section 90... network. (a) Spectrum use. The Shared Wireless Broadband Network will operate using spectrum associated... from the primary public safety operations in the 763-768 MHz and 793-798 MHz bands. The network...

  15. A study of spectrum fatigue crack propagation in two aluminum alloys. 1: Spectrum simplification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telesman, J.; Antolovich, S. D.

    1985-01-01

    The fatigue crack propagation behavior of two commercial Al alloys was studied using spectrum loading conditions characteristics of those encountered at critical locations in high performance fighter aircraft. A tension dominated (TD) and tension compression (TC) spectrum were employed for each alloy. Using a mechanics-based analysis, it was suggested that negative loads could be eliminated for the TC spectrum for low to intermediate maximum stress intensities. The suggestion was verified by subsequent testing. Using fractographic evidence, it was suggested that a further similification in the spectra could be accomplished by eliminating low and intermediate peak load points resulting in near or below threshold maximum peak stress intensity values. It is concluded that load interactions become more important at higher stress intensities and more plasticity at the crack tip. These results suggest that a combined mechanics/fractographic mechanisms approach can be used to simplify other complex spectra.

  16. Spectrum formation in superluminous supernovae (Type I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzali, P. A.; Sullivan, M.; Pian, E.; Greiner, J.; Kann, D. A.

    2016-06-01

    The near-maximum spectra of most superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) that are not dominated by interaction with a H-rich circum-stellar medium (SLSN-I) are characterized by a blue spectral peak and a series of absorption lines which have been identified as O II. SN 2011kl, associated with the ultra-long gamma-ray burst GRB111209A, also had a blue peak but a featureless optical/ultraviolet (UV) spectrum. Radiation transport methods are used to show that the spectra (not including SN 2007bi, which has a redder spectrum at peak, like ordinary SNe Ic) can be explained by a rather steep density distribution of the ejecta, whose composition appears to be typical of carbon-oxygen cores of massive stars which can have low metal content. If the photospheric velocity is ˜10 000-15 000 km s-1, several lines form in the UV. O II lines, however, arise from very highly excited lower levels, which require significant departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium to be populated. These SLSNe are not thought to be powered primarily by 56Ni decay. An appealing scenario is that they are energized by X-rays from the shock driven by a magnetar wind into the SN ejecta. The apparent lack of evolution of line velocity with time that characterizes SLSNe up to about maximum is another argument in favour of the magnetar scenario. The smooth UV continuum of SN 2011kl requires higher ejecta velocities (˜20 000 km s-1): line blanketing leads to an almost featureless spectrum. Helium is observed in some SLSNe after maximum. The high-ionization near-maximum implies that both He and H may be present but not observed at early times. The spectroscopic classification of SLSNe should probably reflect that of SNe Ib/c. Extensive time coverage is required for an accurate classification.

  17. [Theory of mind in schizophrenia spectrum disorders].

    PubMed

    Bora, Emre

    2009-01-01

    To review studies that investigated theory of mind (ToM) deficits in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. After a thorough literature search, 71 studies were included in this review. Data regarding the relationship between ToM, and other cognitive skills, symptoms, and the impact of the state of illness were reviewed. ToM instruments used in schizophrenia spectrum disorders have some major psychometric limitations; however, previous research was still able to provide some important findings regarding mentalizing impairments in schizophrenia. While ToM deficits are more pronounced in the acute phase of illness, it seems to persist during periods of remission. There is also evidence of ToM deficits in the healthy relatives of schizophrenics, patients with delusional disorder and bipolar disorder (BD), and individuals with high schizotypy scores. ToM dysfunction might be secondary to other cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia that have a good prognosis, asymptomatic schizophrenia, delusional disorder, and BD. Other cognitive deficits do not seem to explain ToM dysfunction in patients with psychosis and severe negative symptoms. These findings support the contribution of impairment in both domain-general and domain-specific mechanisms to ToM deficits in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. ToM deficits may be important for understanding poor social functioning and poor insight in psychotic disorders. While ToM is influenced by state variables, it might be an endophenotype of schizophrenia; however, ToM is likely to be an indicator of other frontal lobe-related endophenotypes. Longitudinal studies conducted with high-risk individuals are particularly important.

  18. Information and image integration: project spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaine, G. James; Jost, R. Gilbert; Martin, Lori; Weiss, David A.; Lehmann, Ron; Fritz, Kevin

    1998-07-01

    The BJC Health System (BJC) and the Washington University School of Medicine (WUSM) formed a technology alliance with industry collaborators to develop and implement an integrated, advanced clinical information system. The industry collaborators include IBM, Kodak, SBC and Motorola. The activity, called Project Spectrum, provides an integrated clinical repository for the multiple hospital facilities of the BJC. The BJC System consists of 12 acute care hospitals serving over one million patients in Missouri and Illinois. An interface engine manages transactions from each of the hospital information systems, lab systems and radiology information systems. Data is normalized to provide a consistent view for the primary care physician. Access to the clinical repository is supported by web-based server/browser technology which delivers patient data to the physician's desktop. An HL7 based messaging system coordinates the acquisition and management of radiological image data and sends image keys to the clinical data repository. Access to the clinical chart browser currently provides radiology reports, laboratory data, vital signs and transcribed medical reports. A chart metaphor provides tabs for the selection of the clinical record for review. Activation of the radiology tab facilitates a standardized view of radiology reports and provides an icon used to initiate retrieval of available radiology images. The selection of the image icon spawns an image browser plug-in and utilizes the image key from the clinical repository to access the image server for the requested image data. The Spectrum system is collecting clinical data from five hospital systems and imaging data from two hospitals. Domain specific radiology imaging systems support the acquisition and primary interpretation of radiology exams. The spectrum clinical workstations are deployed to over 200 sites utilizing local area networks and ISDN connectivity.

  19. Energy spectrum control for modulated proton beams.

    PubMed

    Hsi, Wen C; Moyers, Michael F; Nichiporov, Dmitri; Anferov, Vladimir; Wolanski, Mark; Allgower, Chris E; Farr, Jonathan B; Mascia, Anthony E; Schreuder, Andries N

    2009-06-01

    In proton therapy delivered with range modulated beams, the energy spectrum of protons entering the delivery nozzle can affect the dose uniformity within the target region and the dose gradient around its periphery. For a cyclotron with a fixed extraction energy, a rangeshifter is used to change the energy but this produces increasing energy spreads for decreasing energies. This study investigated the magnitude of the effects of different energy spreads on dose uniformity and distal edge dose gradient and determined the limits for controlling the incident spectrum. A multilayer Faraday cup (MLFC) was calibrated against depth dose curves measured in water for nonmodulated beams with various incident spectra. Depth dose curves were measured in a water phantom and in a multilayer ionization chamber detector for modulated beams using different incident energy spreads. Some nozzle entrance energy spectra can produce unacceptable dose nonuniformities of up to +/-21% over the modulated region. For modulated beams and small beam ranges, the width of the distal penumbra can vary by a factor of 2.5. When the energy spread was controlled within the defined limits, the dose nonuniformity was less than +/-3%. To facilitate understanding of the results, the data were compared to the measured and Monte Carlo calculated data from a variable extraction energy synchrotron which has a narrow spectrum for all energies. Dose uniformity is only maintained within prescription limits when the energy spread is controlled. At low energies, a large spread can be beneficial for extending the energy range at which a single range modulator device can be used. An MLFC can be used as part of a feedback to provide specified energy spreads for different energies.

  20. The Spectrum of Mutations in Progranulin

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chang-En; Bird, Thomas D.; Bekris, Lynn M.; Montine, Thomas J.; Leverenz, James B.; Steinbart, Ellen; Galloway, Nichole M.; Feldman, Howard; Woltjer, Randall; Miller, Carol A.; Wood, Elisabeth McCarty; Grossman, Murray; McCluskey, Leo; Clark, Christopher M.; Neumann, Manuela; Danek, Adrian; Galasko, Douglas R.; Arnold, Steven E.; Chen-Plotkin, Alice; Karydas, Anna; Miller, Bruce L.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Mutation in the progranulin gene (GRN) can cause frontotemporal dementia (FTD). However, it is unclear whether some rare FTD-related GRN variants are pathogenic and whether neurodegenerative disorders other than FTD can also be caused by GRN mutations. Objectives To delineate the range of clinical presentations associated with GRN mutations and to define pathogenic candidacy of rare GRN variants. Design Case-control study. Setting Clinical and neuropathology dementia research studies at 8 academic centers. Participants Four hundred thirty-four patients with FTD, including primary progressive aphasia, semantic dementia, FTD/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), FTD/motor neuron disease, corticobasal syndrome/corticobasal degeneration, progressive supranuclear palsy, Pick disease, dementia lacking distinctive histopathology, and pathologically confirmed cases of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U); and 111 non-FTD cases (controls) in which TDP-43 deposits were a prominent neuropathological feature, including subjects with ALS, Guam ALS and/or parkinsonism dementia complex, Guam dementia, Alzheimer disease, multiple system atrophy, and argyrophilic grain disease. Main Outcome Measures Variants detected on sequencing of all 13 GRN exons and at least 80 base pairs of flanking introns, and their pathogenic candidacy determined by in silico and ex vivo splicing assays. Results We identified 58 genetic variants that included 26 previously unknown changes. Twenty-four variants appeared to be pathogenic, including 8 novel mutations. The frequency of GRN mutations was 6.9% (30 of 434) of all FTD-spectrum cases, 21.4% (9 of 42) of cases with a pathological diagnosis of FTLD-U, 16.0% (28 of 175) of FTD-spectrum cases with a family history of a similar neurodegenerative disease, and 56.2% (9 of 16) of cases of FTLD-U with a family history. Conclusions Pathogenic mutations were found only in FTD-spectrum cases and not in other

  1. Equivalent input spectrum and drain current spectrum for 1/ƒ noise in short channel MOS transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentil, P.; Mounib, A.

    1981-05-01

    Flicker noise in MOS transistors can be evaluated by measuring the spectrum SID of the drain current fluctuation or the spectrum Sve of an equivalent gate fluctuation. We show here that experimental variations of {S I D}/{Sve} are in good agreement with gm2 by considering a model of the transconductance gm which takes into account the variations of the channel carriers mobility with the surface electric field. The model agrees with the experimental results obtained on short channel MOS transistors which exhibit large variations of mobility with the gate voltage. The validity of physical interpretations of noise data on MOS transistors is examined.

  2. A mechanism to explain the spectrum of Hessdalen Lights phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paiva, G. S.; Taft, C. A.

    2012-07-01

    In this work, we present a model to explain the apparently contradictory spectrum observed in Hessdalen Lights (HL) phenomenon. According to our model, its nearly flat spectrum on the top with steep sides is due to the effect of optical thickness on the bremsstrahlung spectrum. At low frequencies self-absorption modifies the spectrum to follow the Rayleigh-Jeans part of the blackbody curve. This spectrum is typical of dense ionized gas. Additionally, spectrum produced in the thermal bremsstrahlung process is flat up to a cutoff frequency, ν cut, and falls off exponentially at higher frequencies. This sequence of events forms the typical spectrum of HL phenomenon when the atmosphere is clear, with no fog.

  3. Facial Feedback Mechanisms in Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    van den Heuvel, Claudia; Smeets, Raymond C.

    2008-01-01

    Facial feedback mechanisms of adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) were investigated utilizing three studies. Facial expressions, which became activated via automatic (Studies 1 and 2) or intentional (Study 2) mimicry, or via holding a pen between the teeth (Study 3), influenced corresponding emotions for controls, while individuals with ASD remained emotionally unaffected. Thus, individuals with ASD do not experience feedback from activated facial expressions as controls do. This facial feedback-impairment enhances our understanding of the social and emotional lives of individuals with ASD. PMID:18293075

  4. Frequency spectrum analyzer with phase-lock

    DOEpatents

    Boland, Thomas J.

    1984-01-01

    A frequency-spectrum analyzer with phase-lock for analyzing the frequency and amplitude of an input signal is comprised of a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) which is driven by a ramp generator, and a phase error detector circuit. The phase error detector circuit measures the difference in phase between the VCO and the input signal, and drives the VCO locking it in phase momentarily with the input signal. The input signal and the output of the VCO are fed into a correlator which transfers the input signal to a frequency domain, while providing an accurate absolute amplitude measurement of each frequency component of the input signal.

  5. Neuroimaging Endophenotypes in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Rajneesh; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that has a strong genetic basis, and is heterogeneous in its etiopathogenesis and clinical presentation. Neuroimaging studies, in concert with neuropathological and clinical research, have been instrumental in delineating trajectories of development in children with ASD. Structural neuroimaging has revealed ASD to be a disorder with general and regional brain enlargement, especially in the frontotemporal cortices, while functional neuroimaging studies have highlighted diminished connectivity, especially between frontal-posterior regions. The diverse and specific neuroimaging findings may represent potential neuroendophenotypes, and may offer opportunities to further understand the etiopathogenesis of ASD, predict treatment response and lead to the development of new therapies. PMID:26234701

  6. A wideband, high-resolution spectrum analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quirk, M. P.; Wilck, H. C.; Garyantes, M. F.; Grimm, M. J.

    1988-01-01

    A two-million-channel, 40 MHz bandwidth, digital spectrum analyzer under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is described. The analyzer system will serve as a prototype processor for the sky survey portion of NASA's Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence program and for other applications in the Deep Space Network. The analyzer digitizes an analog input, performs a 2 (sup 21) point Discrete Fourier Transform, accumulates the output power, normalizes the output to remove frequency-dependent gain, and automates simple signal detection algorithms. Due to its built-in frequency-domain processing functions and configuration flexibility, the analyzer is a very powerful tool for real-time signal analysis.

  7. Broad spectrum antibiotic compounds and use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Koglin, Alexander; Strieker, Matthias

    2016-07-05

    The discovery of a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene cluster in the genome of Clostridium thermocellum that produces a secondary metabolite that is assembled outside of the host membrane is described. Also described is the identification of homologous NRPS gene clusters from several additional microorganisms. The secondary metabolites produced by the NRPS gene clusters exhibit broad spectrum antibiotic activity. Thus, antibiotic compounds produced by the NRPS gene clusters, and analogs thereof, their use for inhibiting bacterial growth, and methods of making the antibiotic compounds are described.

  8. [Pragmatics in autism spectrum disorder: recent developments].

    PubMed

    Kissine, Mikhail; Clin, Elise; de Villiers, Jessica

    2016-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by primary pragmatic difficulties, out of step with verbal and non-verbal developmental level. This selective survey paper addresses three recent domains of research on pragmatic functions in autism. First, we provide an up-to-date discussion of how lack of sensitivity to social cues impacts early acquisition of words. Second, we review recent findings on the comprehension of non-literal language, pointing to a more refined clinical reality. Third, we describe recent developments in the study of conversation skills in autism. © 2016 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  9. Noise Power Spectrum in PROPELLER MR Imaging.

    PubMed

    Ichinoseki, Yuki; Nagasaka, Tatsuo; Miyamoto, Kota; Tamura, Hajime; Mori, Issei; Machida, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    The noise power spectrum (NPS), an index for noise evaluation, represents the frequency characteristics of image noise. We measured the NPS in PROPELLER (Periodically Rotated Overlapping ParallEL Lines with Enhanced Reconstruction) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, a nonuniform data sampling technique, as an initial study for practical MR image evaluation using the NPS. The 2-dimensional (2D) NPS reflected the k-space sampling density and showed agreement with the shape of the k-space trajectory as expected theoretically. Additionally, the 2D NPS allowed visualization of a part of the image reconstruction process, such as filtering and motion correction.

  10. Pluto's Far Ultraviolet Spectrum and Airglow Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffl, A.; Schindhelm, E.; Kammer, J.; Gladstone, R.; Greathouse, T. K.; Parker, J. W.; Strobel, D. F.; Summers, M. E.; Versteeg, M. H.; Ennico Smith, K.; Hinson, D. P.; Linscott, I.; Olkin, C.; Parker, A. H.; Retherford, K. D.; Singer, K. N.; Tsang, C.; Tyler, G. L.; Weaver, H. A., Jr.; Woods, W. W.; Young, L. A.; Stern, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Alice far ultraviolet spectrograph on the New Horizons spacecraft is the second in a family of six instruments in flight on, or under development for, NASA and ESA missions. Here, we present initial results from the Alice observations of Pluto during the historic flyby. Pluto's far ultraviolet spectrum is dominated by sunlight reflected from the surface with absorption by atmospehric constituents. We tentatively identify C2H2 and C2H4 in Pluto's atmosphere. We also present evidence for weak airglow emissions.

  11. Universal energy spectrum from point sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomozawa, Yukio

    1992-01-01

    The suggestion is made that the energy spectrum from point sources such as galactic black hole candidates (GBHC) and active galactic nuclei (AGN) is universal on the average, irrespective of the species of the emitted particles, photons, nucleons, or others. The similarity between the observed energy spectra of cosmic rays, gamma-rays, and X-rays is discussed. In other words, the existing data for gamma-rays and X-rays seem to support the prediction. The expected data from the Gamma Ray Observatory are to provide a further test.

  12. NASA Radio Frequency Spectrum Management Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Radio Frequency (RF) Spectrum Management Manual sets forth procedures and guidelines for the management requirements for controlling the use of radio frequencies by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. It is applicable to NASA Headquarters and field installations. NASA Management Instruction 1102.3 assigns the authority for management of radio frequencies for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to the Associate Administrator for Space Operations, NASA Headquarters. This manual is issued in loose-leaf form and will be revised by page changes.

  13. Nonlinear single-spin spectrum analyzer.

    PubMed

    Kotler, Shlomi; Akerman, Nitzan; Glickman, Yinnon; Ozeri, Roee

    2013-03-15

    Qubits have been used as linear spectrum analyzers of their environments. Here we solve the problem of nonlinear spectral analysis, required for discrete noise induced by a strongly coupled environment. Our nonperturbative analytical model shows a nonlinear signal dependence on noise power, resulting in a spectral resolution beyond the Fourier limit as well as frequency mixing. We develop a noise characterization scheme adapted to this nonlinearity. We then apply it using a single trapped ion as a sensitive probe of strong, non-Gaussian, discrete magnetic field noise. Finally, we experimentally compared the performance of equidistant vs Uhrig modulation schemes for spectral analysis.

  14. Spread spectrum communications. Volume 1, 2 & 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.; Levitt, B. K.; Omura, J. K.; Scholtz, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    The design and operation of spread-spectrum (SS) communication systems are examined in an introductory text intended for graduate engineering students and practicing engineers. Chapters are devoted to an overview of SS systems, the historical origins of SS, basic concepts and system models, antijam communication systems, pseudonoise generators, coherent direct-sequence systems, noncoherent frequency-hopped systems, coherent and differentially coherent modulation techniques, pseudonoise acquisition and tracking in direct-sequence receivers, time and frequency synchronization of frequency-hopped receivers, low-probability-of-intercept communication, and multiple-access communication. Graphs, diagrams, and photographs are provided.

  15. Carboplatin: the clinical spectrum to date.

    PubMed

    Canetta, R; Rozencweig, M; Carter, S K

    1985-09-01

    The existing literature data base on carboplatin updated to June, 1985 has been reviewed. The compound seems to retain the same spectrum of activity as cisplatin, and a definite set of efficacy data is available for ovarian cancer of epithelial origin, small cell carcinoma of the lung and epidermoid carcinoma of the head and neck. A yet unpublished toxicity data base on carboplatin suggests that the compound has an improved therapeutic index over the parent compound, cisplatin, and that it does not seem inferior to another platinum coordination compound currently in clinical trials, iproplatin.

  16. Sleep in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Kotagal, Suresh; Broomall, Eileen

    2012-10-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder demonstrate an increased prevalence of difficulties with sleep initiation and maintenance. The consequences may include alterations in daytime behavior, memory, and learning in patients, and significant stress in caretakers. The dysregulation of melatonin synthesis, sensitization to environmental stimuli, behavioral insomnia syndromes, delayed sleep phase syndrome, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, and comorbid anxiety, depression, and epilepsy comprise common etiologic factors. The clinical assessment of sleep problems in this population and a management algorithm are presented. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The electronic spectrum of manganese hydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balfour, Walter J.

    1988-04-01

    The electronic spectrum of MnH is discussed with particular reference to the infrared system near 847 nm, which is assigned by rotational analysis to a 5 Σ-5 Σ transition, and the 480 nm system which is assigned to a 5 Π-5 Σ transition. The two systems have the same lower state. Bond lengths in the lower 5 Σ, the upper 5 Σ and the 5 Π states are 0.1638, 0.1655, and 0.1674 nm, respectively.

  18. Spectrum Analyzers Incorporating Tunable WGM Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry; Maleki, Lute

    2009-01-01

    A photonic instrument is proposed to boost the resolution for ultraviolet/ optical/infrared spectral analysis and spectral imaging allowing the detection of narrow (0.00007-to-0.07-picometer wavelength resolution range) optical spectral signatures of chemical elements in space and planetary atmospheres. The idea underlying the proposal is to exploit the advantageous spectral characteristics of whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) resonators to obtain spectral resolutions at least three orders of magnitude greater than those of optical spectrum analyzers now in use. Such high resolutions would enable measurement of spectral features that could not be resolved by prior instruments.

  19. High energy cosmic ray iron spectrum experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arens, J. F.; Balasubrahmanyan, V. K.; Ormes, J. F.; Schmidt, W. K. H.; Simon, M.; Spiegelhauer, H.

    1978-01-01

    An instrument containing a gas Cerenkov counter and an iron ionization spectrometer was constructed in order to measure the cosmic-ray iron spectrum to 300 GeV/nucleon. Trajectories of particles were determined by entopistic or position-determining scintillator systems. The geometric factors with and without the gas Cerenkov counter were 0.3 and 0.6 sq m-ster, respectively. The instrument was successfully flown in June 1976 without the spectrometer and in October 1976 with the spectrometer from Palestine, Texas. The June flight yielded 14.5 h of data; the October flight, 25 h.

  20. Measuring the Power Spectrum with Peculiar Velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macaulay, Edward; Feldman, H. A.; Ferreira, P. G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Agarwal, S.; Hudson, M. J.; Watkins, R.

    2012-01-01

    The peculiar velocities of galaxies are an inherently valuable cosmological probe, providing an unbiased estimate of the distribution of matter on scales much larger than the depth of the survey. Much research interest has been motivated by the high dipole moment of our local peculiar velocity field, which suggests a large scale excess in the matter power spectrum, and can appear to be in some tension with the LCDM model. We use a composite catalogue of 4,537 peculiar velocity measurements with a characteristic depth of 33 h-1 Mpc to estimate the matter power spectrum. We compare the constraints with this method, directly studying the full peculiar velocity catalogue, to results from Macaulay et al. (2011), studying minimum variance moments of the velocity field, as calculated by Watkins, Feldman & Hudson (2009) and Feldman, Watkins & Hudson (2010). We find good agreement with the LCDM model on scales of k > 0.01 h Mpc-1. We find an excess of power on scales of k < 0.01 h Mpc-1, although with a 1 sigma uncertainty which includes the LCDM model. We find that the uncertainty in the excess at these scales is larger than an alternative result studying only moments of the velocity field, which is due to the minimum variance weights used to calculate the moments. At small scales, we are able to clearly discriminate between linear and nonlinear clustering in simulated peculiar velocity catalogues, and find some evidence (although less clear) for linear clustering in the real peculiar velocity data.

  1. Spectrum of Endocrine Disorders in Central Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Sarfo, Fred Stephen; Ansah, Eunice Oparebea; Kyei, Ishmael

    2017-01-01

    Background. Although an increasing burden of endocrine disorders is recorded worldwide, the greatest increase is occurring in developing countries. However, the spectrum of these disorders is not well described in most developing countries. Objective. The objective of this study was to profile the frequency of endocrine disorders and their basic demographic characteristics in an endocrine outpatient clinic in Kumasi, central Ghana. Methods. A retrospective review was conducted on endocrine disorders seen over a five-year period between January 2011 and December 2015 at the outpatient endocrine clinic of Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital. All medical records of patients seen at the endocrine clinic were reviewed by endocrinologists and all endocrinological diagnoses were classified according to ICD-10. Results. 3070 adults enrolled for care in the endocrine outpatient service between 2011 and 2015. This comprised 2056 females and 1014 males (female : male ratio of 2.0 : 1.0) with an overall median age of 54 (IQR, 41–64) years. The commonest primary endocrine disorders seen were diabetes, thyroid, and adrenal disorders at frequencies of 79.1%, 13.1%, and 2.2%, respectively. Conclusions. Type 2 diabetes and thyroid disorders represent by far the two commonest disorders seen at the endocrine clinic. The increased frequency and wide spectrum of endocrine disorders suggest the need for well-trained endocrinologists to improve the health of the population. PMID:28326101

  2. Conceptual issues in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Shaun; Varga, Somogy

    2015-03-01

    To provide an update on recent studies concerning social cognition in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), to compare different theoretical approaches used to interpret empirical data, and to highlight a number of conceptual issues. In regard to social cognition in ASDs, there is an emerging emphasis on early-onset and prolonged sensory-motor problems. Such sensory-motor problems may fit with the theories of social cognition that emphasize the importance of embodied interaction rather than deficits in mindreading, or they may reflect more general aspects of developmental disorders. Different theoretical frameworks offer alternative perspectives on the central characteristics in ASDs and motivate different ways of conceptualizing diagnosis and intervention. Theory-of-mind approaches continue to appeal to false-belief paradigms, and debate continues about the performance of individuals with autism. Likewise, there is continuing debate and renewed skepticism about the role of simulation and deficits in the mirror system in ASDs. Growing evidence concerning sensory-motor problems, specifically disrupted patterns in re-entrant (afferent and proprioceptive) sensory feedback across the autistic spectrum, may not only provide support for more embodied interactive approaches, but also suggests that a single approach is unlikely able to explain all social cognition problems in autism. A pluralist approach understands ASDs as involving a variant range of cascading disrupted processes.

  3. Prenatal neurogenesis in autism spectrum disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushik, Gaurav; Zarbalis, Konstantinos

    2016-03-01

    An ever-increasing body of literature describes compelling evidence that a subset of young children on the autism spectrum show abnormal cerebral growth trajectories. In these cases, normal cerebral size at birth is followed by a period of abnormal growth and starting in late childhood often by regression compared to unaffected controls. Recent work has demonstrated an abnormal increase in the number of neurons of the prefrontal cortex suggesting that cerebral size increase in autism is driven by excess neuronal production. In addition, some affected children display patches of abnormal laminar positioning of cortical projection neurons. As both cortical projection neuron numbers and their correct layering within the developing cortex requires the undisturbed proliferation of neural progenitors, it appears that neural progenitors lie in the center of the autism pathology associated with early brain overgrowth. Consequently, autism spectrum disorders associated with cerebral enlargement should be viewed as birth defects of an early embryonic origin with profound implications for their early diagnosis, preventive strategies, and therapeutic intervention.

  4. Discrete quantum spectrum of black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lochan, Kinjalk; Chakraborty, Sumanta

    2016-04-01

    The quantum genesis of Hawking radiation is a long-standing puzzle in black hole physics. Semi-classically one can argue that the spectrum of radiation emitted by a black hole look very much sparse unlike what is expected from a thermal object. It was demonstrated through a simple quantum model that a quantum black hole will retain a discrete profile, at least in the weak energy regime. However, it was suggested that this discreteness might be an artifact of the simplicity of eigen-spectrum of the model considered. Different quantum theories can, in principle, give rise to different complicated spectra and make the radiation from black hole dense enough in transition lines, to make them look continuous in profile. We show that such a hope from a geometry-quantized black hole is not realized as long as large enough black holes are dubbed with a classical mass area relation in any gravity theory ranging from GR, Lanczos-Lovelock to f(R) gravity. We show that the smallest frequency of emission from black hole in any quantum description, is bounded from below, to be of the order of its inverse mass. That leaves the emission with only two possibilities. It can either be non-thermal, or it can be thermal only with the temperature being much larger than 1/M.

  5. Vector Beam Polarization State Spectrum Analyzer.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Ignacio; Davis, Jeffrey A; Badham, Katherine; Sánchez-López, María M; Holland, Joseph E; Cottrell, Don M

    2017-05-22

    We present a proof of concept for a vector beam polarization state spectrum analyzer based on the combination of a polarization diffraction grating (PDG) and an encoded harmonic q-plate grating (QPG). As a result, a two-dimensional polarization diffraction grating is formed that generates six different q-plate channels with topological charges from -3 to +3 in the horizontal direction, and each is split in the vertical direction into the six polarization channels at the cardinal points of the corresponding higher-order Poincaré sphere. Consequently, 36 different channels are generated in parallel. This special polarization diffractive element is experimentally demonstrated using a single phase-only spatial light modulator in a reflective optical architecture. Finally, we show that this system can be used as a vector beam polarization state spectrum analyzer, where both the topological charge and the state of polarization of an input vector beam can be simultaneously determined in a single experiment. We expect that these results would be useful for applications in optical communications.

  6. Fetal phenotypes in otopalatodigital spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Naudion, S; Moutton, S; Coupry, I; Sole, G; Deforges, J; Guerineau, E; Hubert, C; Deves, S; Pilliod, J; Rooryck, C; Abel, C; Le Breton, F; Collardeau-Frachon, S; Cordier, M P; Delezoide, A L; Goldenberg, A; Loget, P; Melki, J; Odent, S; Patrier, S; Verloes, A; Viot, G; Blesson, S; Bessières, B; Lacombe, D; Arveiler, B; Goizet, C; Fergelot, P

    2016-03-01

    Otopalatodigital spectrum disorders (OPDSD) include OPD syndromes types 1 and type 2 (OPD1, OPD2), Melnick-Needles syndrome (MNS), and frontometaphyseal dysplasia (FMD). These conditions are clinically characterized by variable skeletal dysplasia associated in males, with extra-skeletal features including brain malformations, cleft palate, cardiac anomalies, omphalocele and obstructive uropathy. Mutations in the FLNA gene have been reported in most FMD and OPD2 cases and in all instances of typical OPD1 and MNS. Here, we report a series of 10 fetuses and a neonatally deceased newborn displaying a multiple congenital anomalies syndrome suggestive of OPDSD and in whom we performed FLNA analysis. We found a global mutation rate of 44%. This series allows expanding the clinical and FLNA mutational spectrum in OPDSD. However, we emphasize difficulties to correctly discriminate OPDSD based on clinical criteria in fetuses due to the major overlap between these conditions. Molecular analyses may help pathologists to refine clinical diagnosis according to the type and the location of FLNA mutations. Discriminating the type of OPDSD is of importance in order to improve the genetic counseling to provide to families. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Autistic spectrum disorders as functional disconnection syndrome.

    PubMed

    Melillo, Robert; Leisman, Gerry

    2009-01-01

    We outline the basis of how functional disconnection with reduced activity and coherence in the right hemisphere would explain all of the symptoms of autistic spectrum disorder as well as the observed increases in sympathetic activation. If the problem of autistic spectrum disorder is primarily one of desynchronization and ineffective interhemispheric communication, then the best way to address the symptoms is to improve coordination between areas of the brain. To do that the best approach would include multimodal therapeusis that would include a combination of somatosensory, cognitive, behavioral, and biochemical interventions all directed at improving overall health, reducing inflammation and increasing right hemisphere activity to the level that it becomes temporally coherent with the left hemisphere. We hypothesize that the unilateral increased hemispheric stimulation has the effect of increasing the temporal oscillations within the thalamocortical pathways bringing it closer to the oscillation rate of the adequately functioning hemisphere. We propose that increasing the baseline oscillation speed of one entire hemisphere will enhance the coordination and coherence between the two hemispheres allowing for enhanced motor and cognitive binding.

  8. On the Spectrum of the Plenoptic Function.

    PubMed

    Gilliam, Christopher; Dragotti, Pier-Luigi; Brookes, Mike

    2014-02-01

    The plenoptic function is a powerful tool to analyze the properties of multi-view image data sets. In particular, the understanding of the spectral properties of the plenoptic function is essential in many computer vision applications, including image-based rendering. In this paper, we derive for the first time an exact closed-form expression of the plenoptic spectrum of a slanted plane with finite width and use this expression as the elementary building block to derive the plenoptic spectrum of more sophisticated scenes. This is achieved by approximating the geometry of the scene with a set of slanted planes and evaluating the closed-form expression for each plane in the set. We then use this closed-form expression to revisit uniform plenoptic sampling. In this context, we derive a new Nyquist rate for the plenoptic sampling of a slanted plane and a new reconstruction filter. Through numerical simulations, on both real and synthetic scenes, we show that the new filter outperforms alternative existing filters.

  9. Heavy quarkonium hybrids: Spectrum, decay, and mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oncala, Ruben; Soto, Joan

    2017-07-01

    We present a largely model-independent analysis of the lighter heavy quarkonium hybrids based on the strong coupling regime of potential nonrelativistic QCD. We calculate the spectrum at leading order, including the mixing of static hybrid states. We use potentials that fulfill the required short and long distance theoretical constraints and fit well the available lattice data. We argue that the decay width to the lower lying heavy quarkonia can be reliably estimated in some cases and provide results for a selected set of decays. We also consider the mixing with heavy quarkonium states. We establish the form of the mixing potential at O (1 /mQ) , mQ being the mass of the heavy quarks, and work out its short and long distance constraints. The weak coupling regime of potential nonrelativistic QCD and the effective string theory of QCD are used for that goal. We show that the mixing effects may indeed be important and produce large spin symmetry violations. Most of the isospin zero XYZ states fit well in our spectrum, either as a hybrid or standard quarkonium candidate.

  10. Digital FMCW for ultrawideband spectrum sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheema, A. A.; Salous, S.

    2016-08-01

    An ultrawideband digital frequency-modulated continuous wave sensing engine is proposed as an alternative technique for cognitive radio applications. A dual-band demonstrator capable of sensing 750 MHz bandwidth in 204.8 µs is presented. Its performance is illustrated from both bench tests and from real-time measurements of the GSM 900 band and the 2.4 GHz wireless local area network (WLAN) band. The measured sensitivity and noise figure values are -90 dBm for a signal-to-noise ratio margin of at least 10 dB and ~13-14 dB, respectively. Data were collected over 24 h and were analyzed by using the energy detection method. The obtained results show the time variability of occupancy, and considerable sections of the spectrum are unoccupied. In addition, unlike the cyclic temporal variations of spectrum occupancy in the GSM 900 band, the detected variations in the 2.4 GHz WLAN band have an impulsive nature.

  11. The High Energy Spectrum of NGC 4151

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckmann, V.; Gehrels, N.; Shrader, C.; Soldi, S.; Lubinski, P.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Malzac, J.

    2005-01-01

    We present first INTEGRAL observations of the type 1.5 Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151. Combining several INTEGRAL observations performed during 2003, totaling approximately 400 ksec of exposure time, allow us to study the spectrum in the 3 - 300 keV range. The measurements presented here reveal an overall spectrum from X-rays up to the soft gamma-rays that can be described by an absorbed (N(sub H) approximately equal to 5 x 10(exp 22) per square centimeter) and non-variable thermal component, plus a Fe Kalpha line, and an exponential cutoff occurs at 110 keV, consistent with earlier claims. The Galactic hydrogen column density in the line of sight is N(sub H), Gal approximately equal to 2.1 x 10 (exp 20) per square centimeter. The time resolved analysis shows little variation of the spectral parameters. The comparison with CGRO/OSSE data shows that the same spectral model can be applied over a time span of 15 years, while the flux varied by a factor of 2. Applying a Compton reflection component improves the model fit to the INTEGRAL data. Nonetheless the data available to date cannot significantly confirm or exclude the existence of reflection, nor is a high iron overabundance in the absorber, as had been previously suggested, clearly detectable.

  12. A robust power spectrum split cancellation-based spectrum sensing method for cognitive radio systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Pei-Han; Li, Zan; Si, Jiang-Bo; Gao, Rui

    2014-12-01

    Spectrum sensing is an essential component to realize the cognitive radio, and the requirement for real-time spectrum sensing in the case of lacking prior information, fading channel, and noise uncertainty, indeed poses a major challenge to the classical spectrum sensing algorithms. Based on the stochastic properties of scalar transformation of power spectral density (PSD), a novel spectrum sensing algorithm, referred to as the power spectral density split cancellation method (PSC), is proposed in this paper. The PSC makes use of a scalar value as a test statistic, which is the ratio of each subband power to the full band power. Besides, by exploiting the asymptotic normality and independence of Fourier transform, the distribution of the ratio and the mathematical expressions for the probabilities of false alarm and detection in different channel models are derived. Further, the exact closed-form expression of decision threshold is calculated in accordance with Neyman—Pearson criterion. Analytical and simulation results show that the PSC is invulnerable to noise uncertainty, and can achive excellent detection performance without prior knowledge in additive white Gaussian noise and flat slow fading channels. In addition, the PSC benefits from a low computational cost, which can be completed in microseconds.

  13. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. Part II: A Qualitative Comparison of Parenting Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Shelley L.; Hayes, Stephanie A.; Coons, Kelly D.; Radford-Paz, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Background: Researchers investigating the impact of parenting children with disabilities suggest that regardless of the specific diagnosis, parents experience increased levels of stress. However, particular disabilities may be associated with distinct stressors and strains. Method: Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and…

  14. Living with Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Parental Experiences of Raising a Child with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazzard, Jonathan; Overall, Katy

    2012-01-01

    The focus of the study was to explore parental experiences of raising a child with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). A mixed-method approach consisting of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews was used in order to elicit parental perspectives of raising a child with ASD. Two semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents of…

  15. Entering the Spectrum: The Challenge of Early Intervention Law for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicker, Sheryl J. D.

    2013-01-01

    In the past decade, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have received enormous media attention because of the growing prevalence of ASD. In 2011, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevalence estimated that 1 in 88 children has ASD as compared with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 2,000 children 40 years ago. This growing prevalence has bred enormous…

  16. Is the Autism-Spectrum Quotient a Valid Measure of Traits Associated with the Autism Spectrum? A Rasch Validation in Adults with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov; Lindner, Helen

    2017-01-01

    The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) is among the most widely used scales assessing autistic traits in the general population. However, some aspects of the AQ are questionable. To test its scale properties, the AQ was translated into Swedish, and data were collected from 349 adults, 130 with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 219 without ASD, and…

  17. Sensory over-responsivity in adults with autism spectrum conditions.

    PubMed

    Tavassoli, Teresa; Miller, Lucy J; Schoen, Sarah A; Nielsen, Darci M; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2014-05-01

    Anecdotal reports and empirical evidence suggest that sensory processing issues are a key feature of autism spectrum conditions. This study set out to investigate whether adults with autism spectrum conditions report more sensory over-responsivity than adults without autism spectrum conditions. Another goal of the study was to identify whether autistic traits in adults with and without autism spectrum conditions were associated with sensory over-responsivity. Adults with (n = 221) and without (n = 181) autism spectrum conditions participated in an online survey. The Autism Spectrum Quotient, the Raven Matrices and the Sensory Processing Scale were used to characterize the sample. Adults with autism spectrum conditions reported more sensory over-responsivity than control participants across various sensory domains (visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, gustatory and proprioceptive). Sensory over-responsivity correlated positively with autistic traits (Autism Spectrum Quotient) at a significant level across groups and within groups. Adults with autism spectrum conditions experience sensory over-responsivity to daily sensory stimuli to a high degree. A positive relationship exists between sensory over-responsivity and autistic traits. Understanding sensory over-responsivity and ways of measuring it in adults with autism spectrum conditions has implications for research and clinical settings.

  18. The Ultraviolet Spectrum of the Jovian Dayglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Weihong; Dalgarno, A.

    1995-01-01

    The ultraviolet spectra of molecular hydrogen H2 and HD due to solar fluorescence and photoelectron excitation are calculated and compared with the Jovian equatorial dayglow spectrum measured at 3 A resolution at solar maximum. The dayglow emission is accounted for in both brightness and spectral shape by the solar fluorescence and photoelectron excitation and requires no additional energy source. The emission is characterized by an atmospheric temperature of 530 K and an H2 column density of 10(exp 20) cm(exp -2). The dayglow spectrum contains a cascade contribution to the Lyman band emission from high-lying E and F states. Its relative weakness at short wavelengths is due to both self-absorption by H2 and absorption by CH4. Strong wavelength coincidences of solar emission lines and absorption lines of H2 and HD produce unique line spectra which can be identified in the dayglow spectrum. The strongest fluorescence is due to absorption of the solar Lyman-beta line at 1025.72 A by the P(1) line of the (6, 0) Lyman band of H2 at 1025.93 A. The fluorescence lines due to absorption of the solar O 6 line at 1031.91 A by vibrationally excited H2 via the Q(3) line of the (1, 1) Werner band at 1031.86 A are identified. The fluorescence lines provide a sensitive measure of the atmospheric temperature. There occurs an exact coincidence of the solar O 6 line at 1031.91 A and the R(0) line of the (6, 0) Lyman band of HD at 1031-91 A, but HD on Jupiter is difficult to detect due to the dominance of the H2 emission where the HD emission is particularly strong. Higher spectral resolution and higher sensitivity may make possible such a detection. The high resolution (0.3 A) spectra of H2 and HD are presented to stimulate search for the HD on Jupiter with the Hubble Space Telescope.

  19. Music therapy for autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Gold, C; Wigram, T; Elefant, C

    2006-04-19

    The central impairments of people with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) include social interaction and communication. Music therapy uses music and its elements to enable communication and expression, thus attempting to address some of the core problems of people with ASD. To review the effects of music therapy for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. The following databases were searched: CENTRAL, 2005, (Issue 3); Medline, (1966 to July 2004); Embase, (1980 to July 2004); LILACS, (1982 to July 2004); PsycINFO, (1872 to July 2004); CINAHL, (1982 to July 2004); ERIC, (1966 to July 2004); ASSIA, (1987 to July 2004); Sociofile, (1963 to July 2004); Dissertation Abstracts International, (late 1960's to July 2004). These searches were supplemented by searching specific sources for music therapy literature and manual searches of reference lists. Personal contacts to some investigators were made. All randomised controlled trials or controlled clinical trials comparing music therapy or music therapy added to standard care to "placebo" therapy, no treatment or standard care. Studies were independently selected, quality assessed and data extracted by two authors. Continuous outcomes were synthesised using a standardised mean difference (SMD) in order to enable a meta-analysis combining different scales, and to facilitate the interpretation of effect sizes. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I(2) statistic. Three small studies were included (total n = 24). These examined the short-term effect of brief music therapy interventions (daily sessions over one week) for autistic children. Music therapy was superior to "placebo" therapy with respect to verbal and gestural communicative skills (verbal: 2 RCTs, n = 20, SMD 0.36 CI 0.15 to 0.57; gestural: 2 RCTs, n = 20, SMD 0.50 CI 0.22 to 0.79). Effects on behavioural problems were not significant. The included studies were of limited applicability to clinical practice. However, the findings indicate that music therapy may

  20. Hanle-Zeeman Scattering Matrix for Magnetic Dipole Transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Megha, A.; Sampoorna, M.; Nagendra, K. N.

    2017-06-01

    The polarization of the light that is scattered by the coronal ions is influenced by the anisotropic illumination from the photosphere and the magnetic field structuring in the solar corona. The properties of the coronal magnetic fields can be well studied by understanding the polarization properties of coronal forbidden emission lines that arise from magnetic dipole ( M 1) transitions in the highly ionized atoms that are present in the corona. We present the classical scattering theory of the forbidden lines for a more general case of arbitrary-strength magnetic fields. We derive the scattering matrix for M 1 transitions usingmore » the classical magnetic dipole model of Casini and Lin and applying the scattering matrix approach of Stenflo. We consider a two-level atom model and neglect collisional effects. The scattering matrix so derived is used to study the Stokes profiles formed in coronal conditions in those regions where the radiative excitations dominate collisional excitations. To this end, we take into account the integration over a cone of an unpolarized radiation from the solar disk incident on the scattering atoms. Furthermore, we also integrate along the line of sight to calculate the emerging polarized line profiles. We consider radial and dipole magnetic field configurations and spherically symmetric density distributions. For our studies we adopt the atomic parameters corresponding to the [Fe xiii] 10747 Å coronal forbidden line. We also discuss the nature of the scattering matrix for M 1 transitions and compare it with that for the electric dipole ( E 1) transitions.« less

  1. Breit-Rabi Zeeman states of atomic hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, R. S.; Weil, J. A.

    1991-02-01

    The magnetic field dependence of the isotropic nonrelativistic one-electron atom with nuclear spin-1/2, in its electronic ground state, is reviewed. Attention is called to the little-known fact that a level crossing exists (at field B˜17 T for 1H) between the two members of the upper spin (MS=1/2) doublet. Anisotropy of such a hydrogenic atom, due to the presence of a suitable external electric field (for instance, 1H trapped in crystalline SiO2) causes anticrossing of these levels and causes previously forbidden magnetic-dipole transitions to attain appreciable intensity in that B region.

  2. VLA Zeeman Observations of the NGC 6334 Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, E. A.; Sarma, A. P.; Troland, T. H.

    2004-05-01

    We present OH 1665 and 1667 MHz observations of the NGC 6334 complex taken with the Very Large Array in the BnA configuration. We have combined our data with the lower resolution CnB data of Sarma et al (1999), in order to perform a detailed study of Source A, a compact continuum source in the SW region of the complex. Our observations reveal magnetic fields with peak values of the order of 700μ G toward Source A. Virial estimates presented indicate the significance of the magnetic field in the support of the molecular cloud against gravitational collapse.

  3. Fluorescence branching ratios and magnetic tuning of the visible spectrum of SrOH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Duc-Trung; Steimle, Timothy C.; Kozyryev, Ivan; Huang, Meng; McCoy, Anne B.

    2018-05-01

    The magnetic tuning of the low rotational levels in the X ˜ 2Σ+ (0,0,0), A ˜ 2Πr (0,0,0), and B ˜ 2Σ+ (0,0,0) electronic states of strontium hydroxide, SrOH, have been experimentally investigated using high resolution optical field-free and Zeeman spectroscopy of a cold molecular beam sample. The observed Zeeman shifts and splittings are successfully modeled using a traditional effective Hamiltonian approach to account for the interaction between the A ˜ 2Πr and B ˜ 2Σ+ states. The determined magnetic g-factors for the X ˜ 2Σ+ , A ˜ 2Πr , and B ˜ 2Σ+ states are compared to those predicted by perturbation theory. The dispersed fluorescence resulting from laser excitation of rotationally resolved branch features of the 000 B ˜ 2Σ+ ← X ˜ 2Σ+ , 000 A ˜ 2Π3/2 ← X ˜ 2Σ+ and 000 A ˜ 2Π1/2 ← X ˜ 2Σ+ transitions have been recorded and analyzed. The measured fluorescence branching ratios are compared with Franck-Condon calculations. The required bending motion wave functions are derived using a discrete variable representation (DVR) method. Implications for laser slowing and magneto-optical trapping experiments for SrOH are described.

  4. Colored spectrum characteristics of thermal noise on the molecular scale.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhi; Sheng, Nan; Fang, Haiping; Wan, Rongzheng

    2016-11-02

    Thermal noise is of fundamental importance to many processes. Traditionally, thermal noise has been treated as white noise on the macroscopic scale. Using molecular dynamics simulations and power spectrum analysis, we show that the thermal noise of solute molecules in water is non-white on the molecular scale, which is in contrast to the conventional theory. In the frequency domain from 2 × 10 11 Hz to 10 13 Hz, the power spectrum of thermal noise for polar solute molecules resembles the spectrum of 1/f noise. The power spectrum of thermal noise for non-polar solute molecules deviates only slightly from the spectrum of white noise. The key to this phenomenon is the existence of hydrogen bonds between polar solute molecules and solvent water molecules. Furthermore, for polar solute molecules, the degree of power spectrum deviation from that of white noise is associated with the average lifetime of the hydrogen bonds between the solute and the solvent molecules.

  5. Obsessive–compulsive spectrum of disorders: a defensible construct?

    PubMed Central

    Castle, David J.; Phillips, Katharine A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective To explore critically whether there is a robust basis for the concept of an obsessive–compulsive (OC) spectrum of disorders, and if so, which disorders should be included. Method Selective literature review concentrating on three proposed members of the OC spectrum, namely body dysmorphic disorder, hypochondriasis and trichotillomania. Results Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) itself is a heterogeneous condition or group of conditions, and this needs to be appreciated in any articulation of a ‘spectrum’ of OC disorders. The basis for ‘membership’ of the spectrum is inconsistent and varied, with varying level of support for inclusion in the putative spectrum. Conclusion A more fruitful approach may be to consider behaviours and dimensions in OCD and OC spectrum disorders, and that this should be encompassed in further developments of the OC spectrum model. PMID:16476128

  6. On muon energy spectrum in muon groups underground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakatanov, V. N.; Chudakov, A. E.; Novoseltsev, Y. F.; Novoseltseva, M. V.; Stenkin, Y. V.

    1985-01-01

    A method is described which was used to measure muon energy spectrum characteristics in muon groups underground using mu-e decays recording. The Baksan Telescope's experimental data on mu-e decays intensity in muon groups of various multiplicities are analyzed. The experimental data indicating very flat spectrum does not however represent the total spectrum in muon groups. Obviously the muon energy spectrum depends strongly on a distance from the group axis. The core attraction effect makes a significant distortion, making the spectrum flatter. After taking this into account and making corrections for this effect the integral total spectrum index in groups has a very small depencence on muon multiplicity and agrees well with expected one: beta=beta (sub expected) = 1.75.

  7. NMDA receptor dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Jae; Choi, Su Yeon; Kim, Eunjoon

    2015-02-01

    Abnormalities and imbalances in neuronal excitatory and inhibitory synapses have been implicated in diverse neuropsychiatric disorders including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Increasing evidence indicates that dysfunction of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) at excitatory synapses is associated with ASDs. In support of this, human ASD-associated genetic variations are found in genes encoding NMDAR subunits. Pharmacological enhancement or suppression of NMDAR function ameliorates ASD symptoms in humans. Animal models of ASD display bidirectional NMDAR dysfunction, and correcting this deficit rescues ASD-like behaviors. These findings suggest that deviation of NMDAR function in either direction contributes to the development of ASDs, and that correcting NMDAR dysfunction has therapeutic potential for ASDs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Memory for actions in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Wojcik, D Z; Allen, R J; Brown, C; Souchay, C

    2011-08-01

    This study explored how memory for actions in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing children might benefit from self-performance and experimenter demonstration, and whether these groups possess metamemory knowledge of their performance levels in this task. Children with autism were less accurate on the action memory task when they carried out each action themselves during encoding, or when no actions were implemented during this phase, but this difference was abolished when the experimenter demonstrated each action during encoding. Despite clear difficulties in the self-performed condition relative to typical children, the group with ASD also showed a beneficial effect of performing the actions themselves during instruction. Finally, children with autism were as accurate as typical children in judging the accuracy of their own memory performance, indicating an absence of metamemory difficulties for this task.

  9. Spectrum slicer for snapshot spectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamamitsu, Miu; Kitagawa, Yutaro; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Horisaki, Ryoichi; Oishi, Yu; Morita, Shin-ya; Yamagata, Yutaka; Motohara, Kentaro; Goda, Keisuke

    2015-12-01

    We propose and demonstrate an optical component that overcomes critical limitations in our previously demonstrated high-speed multispectral videography-a method in which an array of periscopes placed in a prism-based spectral shaper is used to achieve snapshot multispectral imaging with the frame rate only limited by that of an image-recording sensor. The demonstrated optical component consists of a slicing mirror incorporated into a 4f-relaying lens system that we refer to as a spectrum slicer (SS). With its simple design, we can easily increase the number of spectral channels without adding fabrication complexity while preserving the capability of high-speed multispectral videography. We present a theoretical framework for the SS and its experimental utility to spectral imaging by showing real-time monitoring of a dynamic colorful event through five different visible windows.

  10. Sleep in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Zavodny, Stefanie; Eriksen, Whitney; Sinko, Rebecca; Connell, James; Kerns, Connor; Schaaf, Roseann; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are to provide an overview of the state of the science of sleep in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), present hypotheses for the high prevalence of insomnia in children with ASD, and present a practice pathway for promoting optimal sleep. Approximately two thirds of children with ASD have chronic insomnia, and to date, the strongest evidence on promoting sleep is for sleep education, environmental changes, behavioral interventions, and exogenous melatonin. The Sleep Committee of the Autism Treatment Network (ATN) developed a practice pathway, based on expert consensus, to capture best practices for screening, identification, and treatment for sleep problems in ASD in 2012. An exemplar case is presented to integrate key constructs of the practice pathway and address arousal and sensory dysregulation in a child with ASD and anxiety disorder. This paper concludes with next steps for dissemination of the practice pathway and future directions for research of sleep problems in ASD. PMID:28502070

  11. Sleep in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Souders, Margaret C; Zavodny, Stefanie; Eriksen, Whitney; Sinko, Rebecca; Connell, James; Kerns, Connor; Schaaf, Roseann; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer

    2017-06-01

    The purposes of this paper are to provide an overview of the state of the science of sleep in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), present hypotheses for the high prevalence of insomnia in children with ASD, and present a practice pathway for promoting optimal sleep. Approximately two thirds of children with ASD have chronic insomnia, and to date, the strongest evidence on promoting sleep is for sleep education, environmental changes, behavioral interventions, and exogenous melatonin. The Sleep Committee of the Autism Treatment Network (ATN) developed a practice pathway, based on expert consensus, to capture best practices for screening, identification, and treatment for sleep problems in ASD in 2012. An exemplar case is presented to integrate key constructs of the practice pathway and address arousal and sensory dysregulation in a child with ASD and anxiety disorder. This paper concludes with next steps for dissemination of the practice pathway and future directions for research of sleep problems in ASD.

  12. Empathic Embarrassment Accuracy in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Adler, Noga; Dvash, Jonathan; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G

    2015-06-01

    Empathic accuracy refers to the ability of perceivers to accurately share the emotions of protagonists. Using a novel task assessing embarrassment, the current study sought to compare levels of empathic embarrassment accuracy among individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with those of matched controls. To assess empathic embarrassment accuracy, we compared the level of embarrassment experienced by protagonists to the embarrassment felt by participants while watching the protagonists. The results show that while the embarrassment ratings of participants and protagonists were highly matched among controls, individuals with ASD failed to exhibit this matching effect. Furthermore, individuals with ASD rated their embarrassment higher than controls when viewing themselves and protagonists on film, but not while performing the task itself. These findings suggest that individuals with ASD tend to have higher ratings of empathic embarrassment, perhaps due to difficulties in emotion regulation that may account for their impaired empathic accuracy and aberrant social behavior. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Optical spectrum variations of IL Cep A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismailov, N. Z.; Khalilov, O. V.; Bakhaddinova, G. R.

    2016-02-01

    The results of many-year uniform spectroscopic observations of the Herbig Ae/Be star IL Cep A are presented. Its Hα line has either a single or a barely resolved two-component emission profile. The H β emission line is clearly divided into two components with a deep central absorption. Smooth variations of the observed parameters of individual spectral lines over nine years are observed. The He I λ5876 Å line has a complex absorption profile, probably with superposed emission components. The NaI D1, D2 doublet exhibits weak changes due to variations in the circumstellar envelope. The variations observed in the stellar spectrum can be explained by either binarity or variations of the magnetic field in the stellar disk. Difficulties associated with both these possibilities are discussed.

  14. Power spectrum precision for redshift space distortions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linder, Eric V.; Samsing, Johan

    2013-02-01

    Redshift space distortions in galaxy clustering offer a promising technique for probing the growth rate of structure and testing dark energy properties and gravity. We consider the issue of to what accuracy they need to be modeled in order not to unduly bias cosmological conclusions. Fitting for nonlinear and redshift space corrections to the linear theory real space density power spectrum in bins in wavemode, we analyze both the effect of marginalizing over these corrections and of the bias due to not correcting them fully. While naively subpercent accuracy is required to avoid bias in the unmarginalized case, in the fitting approach the Kwan-Lewis-Linder reconstruction function for redshift space distortions is found to be accurately selfcalibrated with little degradation in dark energy and gravity parameter estimation for a next generation galaxy redshift survey such as BigBOSS.

  15. Spectrum simulation in DTSA-II.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Nicholas W M

    2009-10-01

    Spectrum simulation is a useful practical and pedagogical tool. Particularly with complex samples or trace constituents, a simulation can help to understand the limits of the technique and the instrument parameters for the optimal measurement. DTSA-II, software for electron probe microanalysis, provides both easy to use and flexible tools for simulating common and less common sample geometries and materials. Analytical models based on (rhoz) curves provide quick simulations of simple samples. Monte Carlo models based on electron and X-ray transport provide more sophisticated models of arbitrarily complex samples. DTSA-II provides a broad range of simulation tools in a framework with many different interchangeable physical models. In addition, DTSA-II provides tools for visualizing, comparing, manipulating, and quantifying simulated and measured spectra.

  16. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: an overview.

    PubMed

    Riley, Edward P; Infante, M Alejandra; Warren, Kenneth R

    2011-06-01

    When fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) was initially described, diagnosis was based upon physical parameters including facial anomalies and growth retardation, with evidence of developmental delay or mental deficiency. Forty years of research has shown that FAS lies towards the extreme end of what are now termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). The most profound effects of prenatal alcohol exposure are on the developing brain and the cognitive and behavioral effects that ensue. Alcohol exposure affects brain development via numerous pathways at all stages from neurogenesis to myelination. For example, the same processes that give rise to the facial characteristics of FAS also cause abnormal brain development. Behaviors as diverse as executive functioning to motor control are affected. This special issue of Neuropsychology Review addresses these changes in brain and behavior highlighting the relationship between the two. A diagnostic goal is to recognize FAS as a disorder of brain rather than one of physical characteristics.

  17. The spectrum of static subtracted geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Tomás; Castro, Alejandra; Cohen-Maldonado, Diego

    2017-05-01

    Subtracted geometries are black hole solutions of the four dimensional STU model with rather interesting ties to asymptotically flat black holes. A peculiar feature is that the solutions to the Klein-Gordon equation on this subtracted background can be organized according to representations of the conformal group SO(2, 2). We test if this behavior persists for the linearized fluctuations of gravitational and matter fields on static, electrically charged backgrounds of this kind. We find that there is a subsector of the modes that do display conformal symmetry, while some modes do not. We also discuss two different effective actions that describe these subtracted geometries and how the spectrum of quasinormal modes is dramatically different depending upon the action used.

  18. Autism spectrum disorder and pet therapy.

    PubMed

    Siewertsen, Caitlin M; French, Emma D; Teramoto, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) encompasses a wide range of social and mental afflictions that are difficult to treat. Due to a lack of established treatments for ASD, alternative therapies have been the primary form of intervention. One of these alternatives is pet therapy, a field that has experienced growing interest and has recently accumulated studies that investigate its efficacy. This article reviews and summarizes that effectiveness as well as the findings and limitations associated with pet therapy for ASD. The majority of research on ASD and pet therapy has examined children and has primarily used dogs and horses for therapy. Studies have shown positive effects for the therapy, including high satisfaction rates among the participants' families. Major limitations of studies in the current literature include the lack of control groups and small sample sizes. Future research should incorporate better study designs and large samples to validate pet therapy as an appropriate treatment for ASD.

  19. Korean culture and autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Kang-Yi, Christina D; Grinker, Roy R; Mandell, David S

    2013-03-01

    This paper reviews the literature on early child development among Koreans, with a focus on autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The literature review of 951 abstracts in English, 101 abstracts in Korean and 27 full articles published from 1994 to 2011 was performed to understand the presentation of and response to ASD in Korean culture. Based on research to date on the identification, description, and treatment of ASD in Korean populations, we argue that at both conceptual and practical levels, early child development and interventions must be understood within cultural context. Culturally informed research on ASD is vital for increasing awareness of the importance of early intervention and the need for educational and psychological services in countries in which autism is stigmatized, misdiagnosed or undiagnosed.

  20. Gender Identity and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    van Schalkwyk, Gerrit I.; Klingensmith, Katherine; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we briefly summarize much of the existing literature on gender-related concerns and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), drawing attention to critical shortcomings in our current understanding and potential clinical implications. Some authors have concluded that gender identity disorder (GID), or gender dysphoria (GD), is more common in individuals with ASD, providing a range of potential explanations. However, existing literature is quantitatively limited, and our capacity to draw conclusions is further complicated by conceptual challenges regarding how gender identity is best understood. Discourses that emphasize gender as a component of identity formation are gaining prominence and seem particularly salient when applied to ASD. Individuals with ASD should enjoy equal rights with regard to treatment for gender dysphoria. Clinicians may be able to assist individuals in understanding this aspect of their identity by broadening the social frame and facilitating an exploration of gender roles. PMID:25744543