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Sample records for zein storage protein

  1. Surface Localization of Zein Storage Proteins in Starch Granules from Maize Endosperm1

    PubMed Central

    Mu-Forster, Chen; Wasserman, Bruce P.

    1998-01-01

    Starch granules from maize (Zea mays) contain a characteristic group of polypeptides that are tightly associated with the starch matrix (C. Mu-Forster, R. Huang, J.R. Powers, R.W. Harriman, M. Knight, G.W. Singletary, P.L. Keeling, B.P. Wasserman [1996] Plant Physiol 111: 821–829). Zeins comprise about 50% of the granule-associated proteins, and in this study their spatial distribution within the starch granule was determined. Proteolysis of starch granules at subgelatinization temperatures using the thermophilic protease thermolysin led to selective removal of the zeins, whereas granule-associated proteins of 32 kD or above, including the waxy protein, starch synthase I, and starch-branching enzyme IIb, remained refractory to proteolysis. Granule-associated proteins from maize are therefore composed of two distinct classes, the surface-localized zeins of 10 to 27 kD and the granule-intrinsic proteins of 32 kD or higher. The origin of surface-localized δ-zein was probed by comparing δ-zein levels of starch granules obtained from homogenized whole endosperm with granules isolated from amyloplasts. Starch granules from amyloplasts contained markedly lower levels of δ-zein relative to granules prepared from whole endosperm, thus indicating that δ-zein adheres to granule surfaces after disruption of the amyloplast envelope. Cross-linking experiments show that the zeins are deposited on the granule surface as aggregates. In contrast, the granule-intrinsic proteins are prone to covalent modification, but do not form intermolecular cross-links. We conclude that individual granule intrinsic proteins exist as monomers and are not deposited in the form of multimeric clusters within the starch matrix. PMID:9536075

  2. Genomics Analysis of Genes Expressed in Maize Endosperm Identifies Novel Seed Proteins and Clarifies Patterns of Zein Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Young-Min; Hu, David Wang-Nan; Larkins, Brian A.; Jung, Rudolf

    2001-01-01

    We analyzed cDNA libraries from developing endosperm of the B73 maize inbred line to evaluate the expression of storage protein genes. This study showed that zeins are by far the most highly expressed genes in the endosperm, but we found an inverse relationship between the number of zein genes and the relative amount of specific mRNAs. Although α-zeins are encoded by large multigene families, only a few of these genes are transcribed at high or detectable levels. In contrast, relatively small gene families encode the γ- and δ-zeins, and members of these gene families, especially the γ-zeins, are highly expressed. Knowledge of expressed storage protein genes allowed the development of DNA and antibody probes that distinguish between closely related gene family members. Using in situ hybridization, we found differences in the temporal and spatial expression of the α-, γ-, and δ-zein gene families, which provides evidence that γ-zeins are synthesized throughout the endosperm before α- and δ-zeins. This observation is consistent with earlier studies that suggested that γ-zeins play an important role in prolamin protein body assembly. Analysis of endosperm cDNAs also revealed several previously unidentified proteins, including a 50-kD γ-zein, an 18-kD α-globulin, and a legumin-related protein. Immunolocalization of the 50-kD γ-zein showed this protein to be located at the surface of prolamin-containing protein bodies, similar to other γ-zeins. The 18-kD α-globulin, however, is deposited in novel, vacuole-like organelles that were not described previously in maize endosperm. PMID:11595803

  3. Modifications of zein with isocyanates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Zein is the major storage protein in corn and a promising raw material for industrial products. However, for zein to reach its full commercial potential two main problems need to be overcome: its relatively high cost and its poor resistance to water. In this work, we modified zein with several isoc...

  4. Identification of non-zein proteins in BR473 maize protein bodies by LC-nanoESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Bicudo, Rogério Campos; Bicudo, Tatiana Campos; Forato, Lucimara A; Titato, Guilherme M; Colnago, Luiz A; Lanças, Fernando M

    2009-11-01

    The nutritional value of maize seed is limited due to its high content of storage proteins (zeins), which are deficient in essential amino acids such as lysine and tryptophan. In a previous paper, we showed that protein bodies obtained from BR473 maize variety, developed by Embrapa (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation), were mainly constituted by Z27 and a smaller quantity of Z50 gamma-zeins. Besides zein proteins, other not identified protein band in the SDS/PAGE was also observed, which could indicate the presence of non-zein proteins additionally to gamma-zeins. In the present paper, we have demonstrated the presence of non-zein proteins in BR473 maize protein bodies by LC-nanoESI-MS/MS and database searching. This fact could be related to the excellent energetic value and higher protein quality of BR473 maize grains, since high lysine concentration in some maize varieties has been related to the presence of cytoskeleton proteins that are non-zeins. We have identified the following proteins: Brittle-1 protein (chloroplast precursor), Legumin-1, glyceroldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and elongation factor 1-alpha.

  5. Improved corn protein (zein) extrusion processing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Melt processing using a single and twin screw extruder has been carried out on zein where extrusion temperatures were varied between 100ºC and 300ºC. In addition, melt reprocessing (up to seven times) of zein was undertaken using a single screw extruder. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and t...

  6. Nanocarriers from GRAS Zein Proteins to Encapsulate Hydrophobic Actives.

    PubMed

    Weissmueller, Nikolas T; Lu, Hoang D; Hurley, Amanda; Prud'homme, Robert K

    2016-11-14

    One factor limiting the expansion of nanomedicines has been the high cost of the materials and processes required for their production. We present a continuous, scalable, low cost nanoencapsulation process, Flash Nanoprecipitation (FNP) that enables the production of nanocarriers (NCs) with a narrow size distribution using zein corn proteins. Zein is a low cost, GRAS protein (having the FDA status of "Generally Regarded as Safe") currently used in food applications, which acts as an effective encapsulant for hydrophobic compounds using FNP. The four-stream FNP configuration allows the encapsulation of very hydrophobic compounds in a way that is not possible with previous precipitation processes. We present the encapsulation of several model active compounds with as high as 45 wt % drug loading with respect to zein concentration into ∼100 nm nanocarriers. Three examples are presented: (1) the pro-drug antioxidant, vitamin E-acetate, (2) an anticholera quorum-sensing modulator CAI-1 ((S)-3-hydroxytridecan-4-one; CAI-1 that reduces Vibrio cholerae virulence by modulating cellular communication), and (3) hydrophobic fluorescent dyes with a range of hydrophobicities. The specific interaction between zein and the milk protein, sodium caseinate, provides stabilization of the NCs in PBS, LB medium, and in pH 2 solutions. The stability and size changes in the three media provide information on the mechanism of assembly of the zein/active/casein NC.

  7. Assessment of a High Purity Zein Product from Commercial Zein

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Successful utilization of commercial zein products for food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and medical applications requires a decolorized/deodorized zein that is substantially undenatured protein. A zein protein product with those qualifications has already been developed by a patent pending process. ...

  8. The effects of corn zein protein coupling agent on mechanical properties of flax fiber reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitacre, Ryan John

    In the field of renewable materials, natural fiber composites demonstrate the capacity to be a viable structural material. When normalized by density, flax fiber mechanical properties are competitive with E-glass fibers. However, the hydrophilic nature of flax fibers reduces the interfacial bond strength with polymer thermosets, limiting composite mechanical properties. Corn zein protein was selected as a natural bio-based coupling agent because of its combination of hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties. Zein was deposited on the surface of flax, which was then processed into unidirectional composite. The mechanical properties of zein treated samples where measured and compared against commonly utilized synthetic treatments sodium hydroxide and silane which incorporate harsh chemicals. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, chemical analysis, and scanning electron microscopy were also used to determine analyze zein treatments. Results demonstrate the environmentally friendly zein treatment successfully increased tensile strength 8%, flexural strength 17%, and shear strength 30% compared to untreated samples.

  9. Overview on zein protein: a promising pharmaceutical excipient in drug delivery systems and tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Labib, Gihan

    2018-01-01

    Natural pharmaceutical excipients have been applied extensively in the past decades owing to their safety and biocompatibility. Zein, a natural protein of plant origin offers great benefit over other synthetic polymers used in controlled drug and biomedical delivery systems. It was used in a variety of medical fields including pharmaceutical and biomedical drug targeting, vaccine, tissue engineering, and gene delivery. Being biodegradable and biocompatible, the current review focuses on the history and the medical application of zein as an attractive still promising biopolymer. Areas covered: The current review gives a broadscope on zein as a still promising protein excipient in different fields. Zein- based drug and biomedical delivery systems are discussed with special focus on current and potential application in controlled drug delivery systems, and tissue engineering. Expert opinion: Zein as a protein of natural origin can still be considered a promising polymer in the field of drug delivery systems as well as in tissue engineering. Although different researchers spotted light on zein application in different industrial fields extensively, the feasibility of its use in the field of drug delivery replenished by investigators in recent years has not yet been fully approached.

  10. The Induction of Recombinant Protein Bodies in Different Subcellular Compartments Reveals a Cryptic Plastid-Targeting Signal in the 27-kDa γ-Zein Sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Hofbauer, Anna; Peters, Jenny; Arcalis, Elsa

    2014-12-11

    Naturally occurring storage proteins such as zeins are used as fusion partners for recombinant proteins because they induce the formation of ectopic storage organelles known as protein bodies (PBs) where the proteins are stabilized by intermolecular interactions and the formation of disulfide bonds. Endogenous PBs are derived from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here, we have used different targeting sequences to determine whether ectopic PBs composed of the N-terminal portion of mature 27 kDa γ-zein added to a fluorescent protein could be induced to form elsewhere in the cell. The addition of a transit peptide for targeting to plastids causes PBmore » formation in the stroma, whereas in the absence of any added targeting sequence PBs were typically associated with the plastid envelope, revealing the presence of a cryptic plastid-targeting signal within the γ-zein cysteine-rich domain. The subcellular localization of the PBs influences their morphology and the solubility of the stored recombinant fusion protein. Our results indicate that the biogenesis and budding of PBs does not require ER-specific factors and therefore, confirm that γ-zein is a versatile fusion partner for recombinant proteins offering unique opportunities for the accumulation and bioencapsulation of recombinant proteins in different subcellular compartments.« less

  11. Enhancing storage stability of guava with tannic acid-crosslinked zein coatings.

    PubMed

    Santos, Talita M; Souza Filho, Men de Sá M; Silva, Ebenézer de O; Silveira, Márcia R S da; Miranda, Maria Raquel A de; Lopes, Mônica M A; Azeredo, Henriette M C

    2018-08-15

    The quality of zein (Z)- and zein-tannic acid (ZTA)-coated guavas was monitored throughout 12 days of storage. Coated fruit showed lower changes in terms of visual appearance, chlorophyll contents and color. Weight loss, softening, and changes in soluble solids were also decreased by the coatings. The respiration peak as well as H 2 O 2 and superoxide dismutase activity peaks were delayed by the coatings, and the ethylene production was reduced. So, the results were consistent with a slowed down ripening of guavas by the coatings, which was probably related to lowered oxygen permeability of guava skin. ZTA coating was more effective than Z to reduce weight loss, softening, color changes, ethylene production, and oxidative stress. The higher efficiency of ZTA coating was ascribed to zein crosslinking, which probably resulted in decreased gas permeability, promoting lower respiration rates and lower ROS production, slowing down the ripening process, and extending guava stability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fabrication of zein nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luecha, Jarupat

    The concerns on the increase of polluting plastic wastes as well as the U.S. dependence on imported petrochemical products have driven an attention towards alternative biodegradable polymers from renewable resources. Zein protein, a co-product from ethanol production from corn, is a good candidate. This research project aims to increase zein value by adopting nanotechnology for fabricating advanced zein packaging films and zein microfluidic devices. Two nanotechnology approaches were focused: the polymer nanoclay nanocomposite technique where the nanocomposite structures were created in the zein matrix, and the soft lithography and the microfluidic devices where the micro and nanopatterns were created on the zein film surfaces. The polymer nanoclay nanocomposite technique was adopted in the commonly used zein film fabrication processes which were solvent casting and extrusion blowing methods. The two methods resulted in partially exfoliated nanocomposite structures. The impact of nanoclays on the physical properties of zein films strongly depended on the film preparation techniques. The impact of nanoclay concentration was more pronounced in the films made by extrusion blowing technique than by the solvent casting technique. As the processability limitation for the extrusion blowing technique of the zein sample containing hight nanoclay content, the effect of the nanoclay content on the rheological properties of zein hybrid resins at linear and nonlinear viscoelastic regions were further investigated. A pristine zein resin exhibited soft solid like behavior. On the other hand, the zein hybrid with nanoclay content greater than 5 wt.% showed more liquid like behavior, suggesting that the nanoclays interrupted the entangled zein network. There was good correspondence between the experimental data and the predictions of the Wagner model for the pristine zein resins. However, the model failed to predict the steady shear properties of the zein nanoclay nanocomposite

  13. Understanding the dissolution of α-zein in aqueous ethanol and acetic acid solutions.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunqi; Li, Ji; Xia, Qiuyang; Zhang, Boce; Wang, Qin; Huang, Qingrong

    2012-10-04

    Zein is a corn prolamin that has broad industrial applications because of its unique physical properties. Currently, the high cost of extraction and purification, which is directly related to the dispersion of zein in different solvents, is the major bottleneck of the zein industry. Solution behaviors of zein have been studied for a long time. However, the physical nature of zein in different solvents remains unclear. In this study, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), static light scattering (SLS), and rheology were combined to study the structure and protein-solvent interaction of α-zein in both acetic acid and aqueous ethanol solutions. We found that the like-dissolve-like rule, the partial unfolding, and the protonation of zein are all critical to understanding the solution behaviors. Zein holds an elongated conformation (i.e., prolate ellipsoid) in all solutions, as revealed from SAXS data. There is an "aging effect" for zein in aqueous ethanol solutions, as evidenced by the transition of Newtonian rheological profiles for fresh zein solutions to the non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior for zein solutions after storage at room temperature for 24 h. Such shear thinning behavior becomes more pronounced for zein solutions at higher concentrations. The SLS results clearly show that acetic acid is a better solvent to dissolve zein than aqueous ethanol solution, as supported by a more negative second virial coefficient. This is majorly caused by the protonation of the protein, which was further verified by the dissolution of zein in water (a nonsolvent for zein) with the addition of acids.

  14. Fingerprinting zein by IR analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Zein, the dominant protein in corn, is a coproduct of the ethanol production industry. The protein content and purity of commercially available zein can vary widely depending on the source and production method. Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis (IR) was used to differentiate between zein samples of ...

  15. Purity assessment of commercial zein products after purification

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Successful utilization of commercial zein products for certain food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and medical applications requires a decolorized/deodorized zein of high purity. A zein protein product with those qualifications can be achieved by column filtration of commercial yellow zein solutions thro...

  16. Zein as a Pharmaceutical Excipient in Oral Solid Dosage Forms: State of the Art and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Berardi, Alberto; Bisharat, Lorina; AlKhatib, Hatim S; Cespi, Marco

    2018-05-07

    Zein is the main storage protein of corn and it has several industrial applications. Mainly in the last 10-15 years, zein has emerged as a potential pharmaceutical excipient with unique features. Zein is a natural, biocompatible and biodegradable material produced from renewable sources. It is insoluble, yet due to its amphiphilic nature, it has self-assembling properties, which have been exploited for the formation of micromicroparticle and nanoparticle and films. Moreover, zein can hydrate so it has been used in swellable matrices for controlled drug release. Other pharmaceutical applications of zein in oral drug delivery include its incorporation in solid dispersions of poorly soluble drugs and in colonic drug delivery systems. This review describes the features of zein significant for its use as a pharmaceutical excipient for oral drug delivery, and it summaries the literature relevant to macroscopic zein-based oral dosage forms, i.e. tablets, capsules, beads and powders. Particular attention is paid to the most novel formulations and applications of zein. Moreover, gaps of knowledge as well as possible venues for future investigations on zein are highlighted.

  17. Delivery of Prolamins to the Protein Storage Vacuole in Maize Aleurone Cells[W

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Francisca C.; Chung, Taijoon; Holding, David; Jung, Rudolf; Vierstra, Richard; Otegui, Marisa S.

    2011-01-01

    Zeins, the prolamin storage proteins found in maize (Zea mays), accumulate in accretions called protein bodies inside the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of starchy endosperm cells. We found that genes encoding zeins, α-globulin, and legumin-1 are transcribed not only in the starchy endosperm but also in aleurone cells. Unlike the starchy endosperm, aleurone cells accumulate these storage proteins inside protein storage vacuoles (PSVs) instead of the ER. Aleurone PSVs contain zein-rich protein inclusions, a matrix, and a large system of intravacuolar membranes. After being assembled in the ER, zeins are delivered to the aleurone PSVs in atypical prevacuolar compartments that seem to arise at least partially by autophagy and consist of multilayered membranes and engulfed cytoplasmic material. The zein-containing prevacuolar compartments are neither surrounded by a double membrane nor decorated by AUTOPHAGY RELATED8 protein, suggesting that they are not typical autophagosomes. The PSV matrix contains glycoproteins that are trafficked through a Golgi-multivesicular body (MVB) pathway. MVBs likely fuse with the multilayered, autophagic compartments before merging with the PSV. The presence of similar PSVs also containing prolamins and large systems of intravacuolar membranes in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) starchy endosperm suggests that this trafficking mechanism may be common among cereals. PMID:21343414

  18. Recent advances in food-packing, pharmaceutical and biomedical applications of zein and zein-based materials.

    PubMed

    Corradini, Elisângela; Curti, Priscila S; Meniqueti, Adriano B; Martins, Alessandro F; Rubira, Adley F; Muniz, Edvani Curti

    2014-12-04

    Zein is a biodegradable and biocompatible material extracted from renewable resources; it comprises almost 80% of the whole protein content in corn. This review highlights and describes some zein and zein-based materials, focusing on biomedical applications. It was demonstrated in this review that the biodegradation and biocompatibility of zein are key parameters for its uses in the food-packing, biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. Furthermore, it was pointed out that the presence of hydrophilic-hydrophobic groups in zein chains is a very important aspect for obtaining material with different hydrophobicities by mixing with other moieties (polymeric or not), but also for obtaining derivatives with different properties. The physical and chemical characteristics and special structure (at the molecular, nano and micro scales) make zein molecules inherently superior to many other polymers from natural sources and synthetic ones. The film-forming property of zein and zein-based materials is important for several applications. The good electrospinnability of zein is important for producing zein and zein-based nanofibers for applications in tissue engineering and drug delivery. The use of zein's hydrolysate peptides for reducing blood pressure is another important issue related to the application of derivatives of zein in the biomedical field. It is pointed out that the biodegradability and biocompatibility of zein and other inherent properties associated with zein's structure allow a myriad of applications of such materials with great potential in the near future.

  19. Zein nanoparticles and the strategies to improve the colloidal stability: a mini review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascoli, Mônica; de Lima, Renata; Fraceto, Leonardo F.

    2018-01-01

    Zein, a protein extracted from maize, can be employed to easily produce nanoscale particles suitable for use as carrier systems. This review investigates the main methods for obtaining zein nanoparticles, as well as the problems and options available in the development of stable colloidal suspensions. Considerable gaps were identified in the literature concerning this topic, with studies being unclear about the factors that affect the stability of zein particles. In the vast majority of cases, no data are presented in relation to the stability of the formulations over time. It could be concluded that in order to produce a high quality system, detailed evaluation is required, considering factors including the zein concentration, pH, ionic strength, thermal treatment of the protein prior to preparation of the nanoparticles, strategies employing other materials as coatings, and the storage conditions. It is extremely important that these aspects should be considered during product development, prior to commercial-scale manufacture.

  20. Zein Nanoparticles and Strategies to Improve Colloidal Stability: A Mini-Review

    PubMed Central

    Pascoli, Mônica; de Lima, Renata; Fraceto, Leonardo F.

    2018-01-01

    Zein, a protein extracted from maize, can be employed to easily produce nanoscale particles suitable for use as carrier systems. This review investigates the main methods for obtaining zein nanoparticles, as well as the problems and options available in the development of stable colloidal suspensions. Considerable gaps were identified in the literature concerning this topic, with studies being unclear about the factors that affect the stability of zein particles. In the vast majority of cases, no data are presented in relation to the stability of the formulations over time. It could be concluded that in order to produce a high quality system, detailed evaluation is required, considering factors including the zein concentration, pH, ionic strength, thermal treatment of the protein prior to preparation of the nanoparticles, strategies employing other materials as coatings, and the storage conditions. It is extremely important that these aspects should be considered during product development, prior to commercial-scale manufacture. PMID:29473032

  1. Simple and green synthesis of protein-conjugated CdS nanoparticles and spectroscopic study on the interaction between CdS and zein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Dezhi; Zhang, Li; Du, Xian; Wang, Yabo; Zhang, Qiuxia

    2016-09-01

    The present study demonstrates the role of zein molecules in synthesizing CdS nanoassemblies through protein-directed, green synthetic approach. Zein molecules can as capping ligand and stabilizing agent to regulate the nucleation and growth of CdS nanocrystals, and the obtained products are organic-inorganic nanocomposites. The analysis of surface charge and conductivity indicates that strong electrostatic force restricts mobility of ions, which creates a local supersaturation surrounding the binding sites of zein and reduces the activated energy of nucleation. The interaction between Cd2+/CdS and zein molecules was systematically investigated through spectroscopy techniques. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra were used to envisage the binding of the functional groups of zein with the surface of CdS nanoparticles. Ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra results show that Cd2+/CdS might interact with the aromatic amino acids of protein molecules and change its chemical microenvironment. The quantum-confined effect of nanocrystals is confirmed by optical absorption spectrum due to the small size (3-5 nm) of CdS particles. The data of circular dichroism (CD) spectra indicate that the formation of CdS nanocrystals could lead to the conformational change of zein molecules. Moreover, the possible mechanism of CdS nanocrystals growth in zein solution was also discussed. The weak interactions such as Van der Waals, hydrophobic forces and hydrogen bonds in zein molecules should play a crucial factor in the self-assembly of small nanoparticles.

  2. Tangeretin-loaded protein nanoparticles fabricated from zein/β-lactoglobulin: preparation, characterization, and functional performance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingjing; Zheng, Jinkai; McClements, David Julian; Xiao, Hang

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to design a colloidal delivery system to encapsulate poor water-soluble bioactive flavonoid tangeretin so that it could be utilized in various food products as functional ingredient. Tangeretin-loaded protein nanoparticles were produced by mixing an organic phase containing zein and tangeretin with an aqueous phase containing β-lactoglobulin and then converted into powder by freeze-drying. This powder formed a colloidal suspension when dispersed in water that is relatively stable to particle aggregation and sedimentation. The influence of temperature, ionic strength, and pH on the stability of the protein nanoparticles was tested. Extensive particle aggregation occurred at high ionic strength (>100mM) and intermediate pH (4.5-5.5) due to reduced electrostatic repulsion. Extensive aggregation also occurred at temperatures exceeding 60 °C, which was presumably due to increased hydrophobic attraction. Overall, this study shows that protein-based nanoparticles can be used to encapsulate bioactive tangeretin so that it can be readily dispersed in compatible food products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of zein assemblies by ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering

    DOE PAGES

    Uzun, Suzan; Ilavsky, Jan; Padua, Graciela Wild

    2017-03-23

    Zein, a protein of corn, has an amphiphilic molecule capable of self-assembly into distinctly different structures. In this work, ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) was applied to investigate the formation of self-assembled zein structures in binary solvent systems of ethanol and water. Our study included observing structural changes due to aging. Three hierarchical structures were identified in zein-solvent systems, molecular zein 2D films, believed to be formed by zein rods assembled first into one-dimensional fibers and then into two-dimensional films, and 3D spherical aggregates. Aging did not change the size or shape of primary units, but promoted their self-assembly into intermediatemore » 2D structures and shaped 3D structures into well19 defined spheres. We found that the rheological parameters, consistency index (K) and behavior index (n), storage and loss moduli (G’ and G”) were also measured. K and n, changed markedly with aging, from nearly Newtonian low consistency fresh samples to highly viscous pseudoplastic aged samples. G’ and G” increased with aging for all samples reflecting increased interactions among zein self-assembled structures. Furthermore, viscoelastic parameters indicated that zein dispersions formed gels upon aging. It was observed that USAX reported on molecular scale self-assembly processes, while rheological measurements reported on the macroscale interaction between self-assembled particles. Raman spectra suggested that α-helix to β-sheet transformations prompted zein self-assembly, which influenced the size and morphology of molecular assemblies and ultimately the rheological properties of zein dispersions.« less

  4. Recyclable zein-coated kraft paper and linerboard

    Treesearch

    Nicholas Parris; Marguerite Sykes; Leland C. Dickey; Jack L. Wiles; Thomas J. Urbanik; Peter H. Cooke

    2002-01-01

    Recyclability of kraft paper and linerboard coated with commercial zein and paraffin wax or a zein-lipid mixture was evaluated using conventional recycling processes. Zein, an alcohol-soluble protein from corn, exhibits both grease and water vapor barrier properties. Strength properties, grease resistance, and water vapor barrier proper-ties were measured on handsheets...

  5. Zein-based polymers formed by modifications with isocyanates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Zein is a prolamine protein found in corn and a promising industrial bioplastic. However, for zein to reach its full commercial potential, research must find ways to overcome two main problems: its relatively high cost and its poor resistance to water. In this work, we have modified zein with severa...

  6. Recent Advances in Food-Packing, Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Applications of Zein and Zein-Based Materials

    PubMed Central

    Corradini, Elisângela; Curti, Priscila S.; Meniqueti, Adriano B.; Martins, Alessandro F.; Rubira, Adley F.; Muniz, Edvani Curti

    2014-01-01

    Zein is a biodegradable and biocompatible material extracted from renewable resources; it comprises almost 80% of the whole protein content in corn. This review highlights and describes some zein and zein-based materials, focusing on biomedical applications. It was demonstrated in this review that the biodegradation and biocompatibility of zein are key parameters for its uses in the food-packing, biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. Furthermore, it was pointed out that the presence of hydrophilic-hydrophobic groups in zein chains is a very important aspect for obtaining material with different hydrophobicities by mixing with other moieties (polymeric or not), but also for obtaining derivatives with different properties. The physical and chemical characteristics and special structure (at the molecular, nano and micro scales) make zein molecules inherently superior to many other polymers from natural sources and synthetic ones. The film-forming property of zein and zein-based materials is important for several applications. The good electrospinnability of zein is important for producing zein and zein-based nanofibers for applications in tissue engineering and drug delivery. The use of zein’s hydrolysate peptides for reducing blood pressure is another important issue related to the application of derivatives of zein in the biomedical field. It is pointed out that the biodegradability and biocompatibility of zein and other inherent properties associated with zein’s structure allow a myriad of applications of such materials with great potential in the near future. PMID:25486057

  7. Zein-alginate based oral drug delivery systems: Protection and release of therapeutic proteins.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sungmun; Kim, Yeu-Chun; Park, Ji-Ho

    2016-12-30

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the development of inflammatory bowel diseases. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) has a great therapeutic potential by scavenging superoxide that is one of ROS; however, in vivo application is limited especially when it is orally administered. SOD is easily degraded in vivo by the harsh conditions of gastrointestinal tract. Here, we design a zein-alginate based oral drug delivery system that protects SOD from the harsh conditions of gastrointestinal tract and releases it in the environment of the small intestine. SOD is encapsulated in zein-alginate nanoparticles (ZAN) via a phase separation method. We demonstrate that ZAN protect SOD from the harsh conditions of the stomach or small intestine condition. ZAN (200:40) at the weight ratio of 200mg zein to 40mg of alginate releases SOD in a pH dependent manner, and it releases 90.8±1.2% of encapsulated SOD at pH 7.4 in 2h, while only 11.4±0.4% of SOD was released at pH 1.3. The encapsulation efficiency of SOD in ZAN (200:40) was 62.1±2.0%. SOD in ZAN (200:40) reduced the intracellular ROS level and it saved 88.9±7.5% of Caco-2 cells from the toxic superoxide in 4 hours. Based on the results, zein-alginate based oral drug delivery systems will have numerous applications to drugs that are easily degradable in the harsh conditions of gastrointestinal tract. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A "green process" for producing highly purified zein from commercial zein

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn zein is the major protein component of ground corn, and co-products of the corn ethanol industry which includes corn gluten meal and distillers’ dried grains. Zein products generated from those co-products all possess yellow coloration and off-odor. Removal of yellow color and off-odor is essen...

  9. The Interaction between Zein and Lecithin in Ethanol-Water Solution and Characterization of Zein-Lecithin Composite Colloidal Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lei; Sun, Cuixia; Wang, Di; Gao, Yanxiang

    2016-01-01

    Lecithin, a naturally small molecular surfactant, which is widely used in the food industry, can delay aging, enhance memory, prevent and treat diabetes. The interaction between zein and soy lecithin with different mass ratios (20:1, 10:1, 5:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2) in ethanol-water solution and characterisation of zein and lecithin composite colloidal nanoparticles prepared by antisolvent co-precipitation method were investigated. The mean size of zein-lecithin composite colloidal nanoparticles was firstly increased with the rise of lecithin concentration and then siginificantly decreased. The nanoparticles at the zein to lecithin mass ratio of 5:1 had the largest particle size (263 nm), indicating that zein and lecithin formed composite colloidal nanoparticles, which might aggregate due to the enhanced interaction at a higher proportion of lecithin. Continuing to increase lecithin concentration, the zein-lecithin nanoparticles possibly formed a reverse micelle-like or a vesicle-like structure with zein in the core, which prevented the formation of nanoparticle aggregates and decreased the size of composite nanoparticles. The presence of lecithin significantly reduced the ζ-potential of zein-lecithin composite colloidal nanoparticles. The interaction between zein and lecithin enhanced the intensity of the fluorescence emission of zein in ethanol-water solution. The secondary structure of zein was also changed by the addition of lecithin. Differential scanning calorimetry thermograms revealed that the thermal stability of zein-lecithin nanoparticles was enhanced with the rise of lecithin level. The composite nanoparticles were relatively stable to elevated ionic strengths. Possible interaction mechanism between zein and lecithin was proposed. These findings would help further understand the theory of the interaction between the alcohol soluble protein and the natural small molecular surfactant. The composite colloidal nanoparticles formed in this study can

  10. Pilot process for decolorizing/deodorizing commercial corn zein products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn zein is the major protein component of ground corn, and co-products of the corn ethanol industry which includes distiller’s dried grains and corn gluten meal. Zein products generated from those materials all possess some degree of yellow color and off-odor that deters their usage in food syste...

  11. Food Protein Based Core-Shell Nanocarriers for Oral Drug Delivery: Effect of Shell Composition on in Vitro and in Vivo Functional Performance of Zein Nanocarriers.

    PubMed

    Alqahtani, Mohammed S; Islam, M Saiful; Podaralla, Satheesh; Kaushik, Radhey S; Reineke, Joshua; Woyengo, Tofuko; Perumal, Omathanu

    2017-03-06

    The study was aimed at systematically investigating the influence of shell composition on the particle size, stability, release, cell uptake, permeability, and in vivo gastrointestinal distribution of food protein based nanocarriers for oral delivery applications. Three different core-shell nanocarriers were prepared using food-grade biopolymers including zein-casein (ZC) nanoparticles, zein-lactoferrin (ZLF), nanoparticles and zein-PEG (ZPEG) micelles. Nile red was used as a model hydrophobic dye for in vitro studies. The nanocarriers had negative, positive, and neutral charge, respectively. All three nanocarriers had a particle size of less than 200 nm and a low polydispersity index. The nanoparticles were stable at gastrointestinal pH (2-9) and ionic strength (10-200 mM). The nanocarriers sustained the release of Nile red in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids. ZC nanoparticles showed the slowest release followed by ZLF nanoparticles and ZPEG micelles. The nanocarriers were taken up by endocytosis in Caco-2 cells. ZPEG micelles showed the highest cell uptake and transepithelial permeability followed by ZLF and ZC nanoparticles. ZPEG micelles also showed P-gp inhibitory activity. All three nanocarriers showed bioadhesive properties. Cy 5.5, a near IR dye, was used to study the in vivo biodistribution of the nanocarriers. The nanocarriers showed longer retention in the rat gastrointestinal tract compared to the free dye. Among the three formulations, ZC nanoparticles was retained the longest in the rat gastrointestinal tract (≥24 h). Overall, the outcomes from this study demonstrate the structure-function relationship of core-shell protein nanocarriers. The findings from this study can be used to develop food protein based oral drug delivery systems with specific functional attributes.

  12. Increasing and stabilizing β-sheet structure of maize zein causes improvement in its rheological properties.

    PubMed

    Mejia, Carla D; Gonzalez, David C; Mauer, Lisa J; Campanella, Osvaldo H; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2012-03-07

    Wheat gluten proteins are considered to have the unique ability to form viscoelastic matrices that are essential for breadmaking. This study shows that maize seed storage protein (zein), if properly treated, can be made to function similarly to gluten at the protein secondary structure level with concomitant improved viscoelasticity. Here, we propose the concept of a small amount of coprotein (high molecular weight glutenin or casein) acting to stabilize a build-up of β-sheet structure in a zein-based dough, thus creating a viscoelastic matrix that is retained over time. This discovery is relevant to the need for gluten replacement viscoelastic proteins for wheat intolerant individuals and as well opens possibilities of creating wheatlike cereal varieties that could more cheaply substitute for wheat imports in developing countries.

  13. Maize 27 kDa gamma-zein is a potential allergen for early weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Hari B; Kerley, Monty S; Allee, Gary L; Jang, Sungchan; Kim, Won-Seok; Fu, Chunjiang J

    2010-06-23

    Soybean and maize are extensively used in animal feed, primarily in poultry, swine, and cattle diets. Soybean meal can affect pig performance in the first few weeks following weaning and elicit specific antibodies in weaned piglets. Though maize is a major component of pig feed, it is not known if any of the maize proteins can elicit immunological response in young pigs. In this study, we have identified a prominent 27 kDa protein from maize as an immunodominant protein in young pigs. This protein, like some known allergens, exhibited resistance to pepsin digestion in vitro. Several lines of evidence identify the immunodominant 27 kDa protein as a gamma-zein, a maize seed storage protein. First, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of different solubility classes of maize seed proteins revealed the presence of an abundant 27 kDa protein in the prolamin (zein) fraction. Antibodies raised against the purified maize 27 kDa gamma-zein also reacted against the same protein recognized by the young pig serum. Additionally, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis of the peptides generated by trypsin digestion of the immunodominant 27 kDa protein showed significant homology to the maize 27 kDa gamma-zein. Since eliminating the allergenic protein will have a great impact on the nutritive value of the maize meal and expand its use in the livestock industry, it will be highly desirable to develop maize cultivars completely lacking the 27 kDa allergenic protein.

  14. Extraction and functional properties of non-zein proteins in corn germ from wet-milling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was conducted to develop methods of extracting corn germ protein and characterize and identify potential applications of the recovered protein. Protein was extracted from both wet germ and finished (dried) germ using 0.1M NaCl as solvent. The method involved homogenization, stirring, cent...

  15. Tuber Storage Proteins

    PubMed Central

    SHEWRY, PETER R.

    2003-01-01

    A wide range of plants are grown for their edible tubers, but five species together account for almost 90 % of the total world production. These are potato (Solanum tuberosum), cassava (Manihot esculenta), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus), yams (Dioscorea spp.) and taro (Colocasia, Cyrtosperma and Xanthosoma spp.). All of these, except cassava, contain groups of storage proteins, but these differ in the biological properties and evolutionary relationships. Thus, patatin from potato exhibits activity as an acylhydrolase and esterase, sporamin from sweet potato is an inhibitor of trypsin, and dioscorin from yam is a carbonic anhydrase. Both sporamin and dioscorin also exhibit antioxidant and radical scavenging activity. Taro differs from the other three crops in that it contains two major types of storage protein: a trypsin inhibitor related to sporamin and a mannose‐binding lectin. These characteristics indicate that tuber storage proteins have evolved independently in different species, which contrasts with the highly conserved families of storage proteins present in seeds. Furthermore, all exhibit biological activities which could contribute to resistance to pests, pathogens or abiotic stresses, indicating that they may have dual roles in the tubers. PMID:12730067

  16. Efficacy of various protein-based coating on enhancing the shelf life of fresh eggs during storage.

    PubMed

    Caner, Cengiz; Yüceer, Muhammed

    2015-07-01

    The effectiveness of various coatings (whey protein isolate [WPI], whey protein concentrate [WPC], zein, and shellac) on functional properties, interior quality, and eggshell breaking strength of fresh eggs were evaluated during storage at 24 °: C for 6 weeks. Coatings and storage time had significant effects on Haugh unit, yolk index, albumen pH, dry matter (DMA), relative whipping capacity (RWC), and albumen viscosity. Uncoated eggs had higher albumen pH (9.56) and weight loss, and lower albumen viscosity (5.73), Haugh unit (HU), and yolk index (YI) during storage. Among the coated eggs, the shellac and zein coated eggs had the highest value of albumen viscosity (27.26 to 26.90), HU (74.10 to 73.61), and YI (44.84 to 44.63) after storage. Shellac (1.44%) was more effective in preventing weight loss than WPC (4.59%), WPI (4.60%), and zein (2.13%) coatings. Uncoated eggs had the higest value (6.71%) of weight lost. All coatings increased shell strength (5.18 to 5.73 for top and 3.58 to 4.71 for bottom) significantly (P < 0.05) compared to the uncoated eggs (4.70 for top and 3.15 for bottom). The functional properties such as albumen DMA (14.50 to 16.66 and 18.97 for uncoated) and albumen RWC (841 to 891 and 475 for uncoated) of fresh eggs can be preserved during storage when they are coated. The shellac and zein coatings were more effective for maintaining the internal quality of fresh eggs during storage. Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) in the 800 to 2500 nm reflection spectra were used to quantify the contents of the fresh eggs at the end of storage. Eggs coated with shellac or zein displayed a higher absorbance at 970 and 1,197 nm respectively (OH vibration of water) compared with those coated with WPI or WPC and the uncoated group at the end of storage. The coatings improved functional properties and also shell strength and could be a viable alternative technology for maintaining the internal quality of eggs during long-term storage. This study

  17. Development of antioxidant packaging material by applying corn-zein to LLDPE film in combination with phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Yeon; Kim, Sung-Jin; Kim, Ki Myong; You, Young-Sun; Kim, So Yeon; Han, Jaejoon

    2012-10-01

    Functional active packaging materials were successfully developed by incorporating antioxidant agents into corn-zein-laminated linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) film. The minimum effective concentrations of the active compounds (for example, thymol, carvacrol, eugenol) were determined and these compounds were then laminated into LLDPE films to develop corn-zein-laminated films with antioxidant agents. The release rate of antioxidant agents in gas and liquid media were determined along with the mechanical and water barrier properties of the films containing these compounds. Tensile strength and percentage elongation at break were reduced in the corn-zein-laminated LLDPE films when compared to typical LLDPE film. Furthermore, the ability of the corn-zein-laminated films to repel moisture decreased by approximately 12.2%, but was improved by incorporating hydrophobic antioxidant compounds in the corn-zein layer. Examination of release kinetics in the gas and liquid phases verified that antioxidants were effectively released from the films and inhibited oxidation during testing. Finally, the films were used for fresh ground beef packaging, and effectively inhibited lipid oxidation and had a positive effect on the color stability of beef patties during storage. These results indicate that the developed antioxidant films are a novel active packaging material that can be effectively implemented by the food industry to improve the quality and safety of foods. Zein protein, a by-product of corn processing industry, was laminated into plastic films in combination with natural phenolic compounds to develop antioxidant packaging films. The films demonstrated their efficient release patterns of antioxidant compounds, which are suitable for packaging applications and food protection. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Pectin/zein beads for potential colon-specific drug delivery: synthesis and in vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Liu, LinShu; Fishman, Marshall L; Hicks, Kevin B; Kende, Meir; Ruthel, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    Novel complex hydrogel beads were prepared from two edible polymers: pectin, a carbohydrate from citrus fruits, and zein, a protein from corn. The pectin/zein complex hydrogels did not swell in physiological environments, but hydrolyzed in the presence of pectinases. An in vitro study showed the capacity of the hydrogels to endure protease attack and residence time variation. The physical and biological properties of the new hydrogels were attributed to molecular entanglement of the two polymers. The pectin networks were stabilized by the bound zein molecules. In turn, the pectin networks shielded the bound zein from protease digestion.

  19. Zein Recovery Using Non-Porous Membranes

    DOEpatents

    Mairal, Anurag P.; Ng, Alvin; Wijmans, Johannes G.

    2005-01-25

    A membrane process for treating zein solutions to increase the zein concentration in the solution. The process uses a non-porous membrane that preferentially permeates the solvent and rejects the zein. Optionally, the process can be operated as a diafiltration process to yield a concentrate of high zein purity.

  20. The Interaction between Zein and Lecithin in Ethanol-Water Solution and Characterization of Zein–Lecithin Composite Colloidal Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Lei; Sun, Cuixia; Wang, Di; Gao, Yanxiang

    2016-01-01

    Lecithin, a naturally small molecular surfactant, which is widely used in the food industry, can delay aging, enhance memory, prevent and treat diabetes. The interaction between zein and soy lecithin with different mass ratios (20:1, 10:1, 5:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2) in ethanol-water solution and characterisation of zein and lecithin composite colloidal nanoparticles prepared by antisolvent co-precipitation method were investigated. The mean size of zein-lecithin composite colloidal nanoparticles was firstly increased with the rise of lecithin concentration and then siginificantly decreased. The nanoparticles at the zein to lecithin mass ratio of 5:1 had the largest particle size (263 nm), indicating that zein and lecithin formed composite colloidal nanoparticles, which might aggregate due to the enhanced interaction at a higher proportion of lecithin. Continuing to increase lecithin concentration, the zein-lecithin nanoparticles possibly formed a reverse micelle-like or a vesicle-like structure with zein in the core, which prevented the formation of nanoparticle aggregates and decreased the size of composite nanoparticles. The presence of lecithin significantly reduced the ζ-potential of zein-lecithin composite colloidal nanoparticles. The interaction between zein and lecithin enhanced the intensity of the fluorescence emission of zein in ethanol-water solution. The secondary structure of zein was also changed by the addition of lecithin. Differential scanning calorimetry thermograms revealed that the thermal stability of zein-lecithin nanoparticles was enhanced with the rise of lecithin level. The composite nanoparticles were relatively stable to elevated ionic strengths. Possible interaction mechanism between zein and lecithin was proposed. These findings would help further understand the theory of the interaction between the alcohol soluble protein and the natural small molecular surfactant. The composite colloidal nanoparticles formed in this study can

  1. Effects of proteome rebalancing and sulfur nutrition on the accumulation of methionine rich δ-zein in transgenic soybeans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won-Seok; Jez, Joseph M.; Krishnan, Hari B.

    2014-01-01

    Expression of heterologous methionine-rich proteins to increase the overall sulfur amino acid content of soybean seeds has been only marginally successful, presumably due to low accumulation of transgenes in soybeans or due to gene silencing. Proteome rebalancing of seed proteins has been shown to promote the accumulation of foreign proteins. In this study, we have utilized RNAi technology to suppress the expression of the β-conglycinin, the abundant 7S seed storage proteins of soybean. Western blot and 2D-gel analysis revealed that β-conglycinin knockdown line (SAM) failed to accumulate the α′, α, and β-subunits of β-conglycinin. The proteome rebalanced SAM retained the overall protein and oil content similar to that of wild-type soybean. We also generated transgenic soybean lines expressing methionine-rich 11 kDa δ-zein under the control of either the glycinin or β-conglycinin promoter. The introgression of the 11 kDa δ-zein into β-conglycinin knockdown line did not enhance the accumulation of the 11 kDa δ-zein. However, when the same plants were grown in sulfur-rich medium, we observed 3- to 16-fold increased accumulation of the 11 kDa δ-zein. Transmission electron microscopy observation revealed that seeds grown in sulfur-rich medium contained numerous endoplasmic reticulum derived protein bodies. Our findings suggest that sulfur availability, not proteome rebalancing, is needed for high-level accumulation of heterologous methionine-rich proteins in soybean seeds. PMID:25426134

  2. Effect of supramolecular structures on thermoplastic zein-lignin bionanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Oliviero, Maria; Verdolotti, Letizia; Di Maio, Ernesto; Aurilia, Marco; Iannace, Salvatore

    2011-09-28

    The effect of alkaline lignin (AL) and sodium lignosulfonate (LSS) on the structure of thermoplastic zein (TPZ) was studied. Protein structural changes and the nature of the physical interaction between lignin and zein were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and correlated with physical properties. Most relevant protein structural changes were observed at low AL concentration, where strong H-bondings between the functional groups of AL and the amino acids in zein induced a destructuring of inter- and intramolecular interactions in α-helix, β-sheet, and β-turn secondary structures. This destructuring allowed for an extensive protein conformational modification which, in turn, resulted in a strong improvement of the physical properties of the bionanocomposite.

  3. Sodium caseinate stabilized zein colloidal particles.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ashok R; Bouwens, Elisabeth C M; Velikov, Krassimir P

    2010-12-08

    The present work deals with the preparation and stabilization of zein colloidal particles using sodium caseinate as electrosteric stabilizer. Colloidal particles with well-defined size range (120-150 nm) and negative surface potential (-29 to -47 mV) were obtained using a simple antisolvent precipitation method. Due to the presence of caseinate, the stabilized colloidal particles showed a shift of isoelectric point (IEP) from 6.0 to around pH 5.0 and thus prevent the aggregation of zein near its native IEP (pH 6.2). The particles also showed good stability to varying ionic strength (15 mM-1.5 M NaCl). Furthermore, stabilized particles retained the property of redispersibility after drying. In vitro protein hydrolysis study confirmed that the presence of caseinate did not alter the digestibility of zein. Such colloidal particles could potentially serve as all-natural delivery systems for bioactive molecules in food, pharmaceutical, and agricultural formulations.

  4. Biofortification of soybean meal: immunological properties of the 27 kDa γ-zein.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Hari B; Jang, Sungchan; Kim, Won-Seok; Kerley, Monty S; Oliver, Melvin J; Trick, Harold N

    2011-02-23

    Legumes, including soybeans ( Glycine max ), are deficient in sulfur-containing amino acids, which are required for the optimal growth of monogastric animals. This deficiency can be overcome by expressing heterologous proteins rich in sulfur-containing amino acids in soybean seeds. A maize 27 kDa γ-zein, a cysteine-rich protein, has been successfully expressed in several crops including soybean, barley, and alfalfa with the intent to biofortify these crops for animal feed. Previous work has shown that the maize 27 kDa zein can withstand digestion by pepsin and elicit an immunogenic response in young pigs. By use of sera from patients who tested positive by ImmunoCAP assay for elevated IgE to maize proteins, specific IgE binding to the 27 kDa γ-zein is demonstrated. Bioinformatic analysis using the full-length and 80 amino acid sliding window FASTA searches identified significant sequence homology of the 27 kDa γ-zein with several known allergens. Immunoblot analysis using human serum that cross-reacts with maize seed proteins also revealed specific IgE-binding to the 27 kDa γ-zein in soybean seed protein extracts containing the 27 kDa zein. This study demonstrates for the first time the allergenicity potential of the 27 kDa γ-zein and the potential that this protein has to limit livestock performance when used in soybeans that serve as a biofortified feed supplement.

  5. Sodium deoxycholate-decorated zein nanoparticles for a stable colloidal drug delivery system

    PubMed Central

    Gagliardi, Agnese; Paolino, Donatella; Iannone, Michelangelo; Palma, Ernesto

    2018-01-01

    Background The use of biopolymers is increasing in drug delivery, thanks to the peculiar properties of these compounds such as their biodegradability, availability, and the possibility of modulating their physico-chemical characteristics. In particular, protein-based systems such as albumin are able to interact with many active compounds, modulating their biopharmaceutical properties. Zein is a protein of 20–40 kDa made up of many hydrophobic amino acids, generally regarded as safe (GRAS) and used as a coating material. Methods In this investigation, zein was combined with various surfactants in order to obtain stable nanosystems by means of the nanoprecipitation technique. Specific parameters, eg, temperature, pH value, Turbiscan Stability Index, serum stability, in vitro cytotoxicity and entrapment efficiency of various model compounds were investigated, in order to identify the nanoformulation most useful for a systemic drug delivery application. Results The use of non-ionic and ionic surfactants such as Tween 80, poloxamer 188, and sodium deoxycholate allowed us to obtain nanoparticles characterized by a mean diameter of 100–200 nm when a protein concentration of 2 mg/mL was used. The surface charge was modulated by means of the protein concentration and the nature of the stabilizer. The most suitable nanoparticle formulation to be proposed as a colloidal drug delivery system was obtained using sodium deoxycholate (1.25% w/v) because it was characterized by a narrow size distribution, a good storage stability after freeze-drying and significant feature of retaining lipophilic and hydrophilic compounds. Conclusion The sodium deoxycholate-coated zein nanoparticles are stable biocompatible colloidal carriers to be used as useful drug delivery systems. PMID:29430179

  6. Bacterial copper storage proteins.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Christopher; David, Sholto; Lee, Jaeick

    2018-03-30

    Copper is essential for most organisms as a cofactor for key enzymes involved in fundamental processes such as respiration and photosynthesis. However, copper also has toxic effects in cells, which is why eukaryotes and prokaryotes have evolved mechanisms for safe copper handling. A new family of bacterial proteins uses a Cys-rich four-helix bundle to safely store large quantities of Cu(I). The work leading to the discovery of these proteins, their properties and physiological functions, and how their presence potentially impacts the current views of bacterial copper handling and use are discussed in this review. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Comparison of formation of visco-elastic masses and their properties between zeins and kafirins.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Janet; Anyango, Joseph O; Muhiwa, Peter J; Oguntoyinbo, Segun I; Taylor, John R N

    2018-04-15

    Zeins of differing sub-class composition much more readily formed visco-elastic masses in water or acetic acid solutions than equivalent kafirin preparations. Visco-elastic masses could be formed from both zein and kafirin preparations by coacervation from glacial acetic acid. Dissolving the prolamins in glacial acetic acid apparently enabled protonation and complete solvation. Stress-relaxation analysis of coacervated zein and kafirin visco-elastic masses showed they were initially soft. With storage, they became much firmer. Zein masses exhibited predominantly viscous flow properties, whereas kafirin masses were more elastic. The γ-sub-class is apparently necessary for the retention of visco-elastic mass softness with kafirin and zein, and for elastic recovery of kafirin. Generally, regardless of water or acetic acid treatment, all the zein preparations had similar FTIR spectra, with greater α-helical conformation, than the kafirin preparations which were also similar to each other. Kafirin visco-elastic masses have a much higher elastic character than zein masses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Gelation studies on cross-linking of zein with various reagents using oscillatory rheometry and sample property comparison

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Zein, the dominant protein present in the co-products of the bio-ethanol industry, is a resource that is currently under-utilized. This is mainly due to poor physical properties and solvent sensitivity. It has been found by various researchers that treatment of zein with suitable cross-linking rea...

  9. Zein-based films and their usage for controlled delivery: Origin, classes and current landscape.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Cui, Lili; Che, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Heng; Shi, Nianqiu; Li, Chunlei; Chen, Yan; Kong, Wei

    2015-05-28

    Zein is a class of alcohol-soluble prolamine proteins present in maize endosperm, which was approved as a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) excipient in 1985 by the United States Food and Drug Administration (US-FDA) for film coating of pharmaceuticals, e.g., tablets. Despite its long-term application in tablet production, effects of zein coating on tablet properties are still not fully understood. Moreover, many studies have also been conducted to illustrate its potential as an active ingredient of direct compressed tablets and film-based delivery carriers. In addition, the use of zein as a functional film coating material for new biomedical applications was also widely investigated in recent reports, which involved medical devices, nanoparticles, quantum dots and nanofibers. In this review, the present status of zein in the form of a thin film and uniform layer for use as a biomedical material is discussed. In addition, studies related to the behaviors and properties of zein films are also summarized and analyzed based on published works to gain mechanistic insights into the relationship between zein film and various improved profiles. This review will benefit future prospects of the use of zein film in drug delivery and biomedical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cellular uptake and transport of zein nanoparticles: effects of sodium caseinate.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yangchao; Teng, Zi; Wang, Thomas T Y; Wang, Qin

    2013-08-07

    Cellular evaluation of zein nanoparticles has not been studied systematically due to their poor redispersibility. Caseinate (CAS)-stabilized zein nanoparticles have been recently developed with better redispersibility in salt solutions. In this study, zein-CAS nanoparticles were prepared with different zein/CAS mass ratios. The prepared nanoparticles demonstrated good stabilities to maintain particle size (120-140 nm) in cell culture medium and HBSS buffer at 37 °C. The nanoparticles showed no cytotoxicity for Caco-2 cells for 72 h. CAS not only significantly enhanced cell uptake of zein nanoparticles in a concentration- and time-dependent manner but also remarkably improved epithelial transport through Caco-2 cell monolayer. The cell uptake of zein-CAS nanoparticles indicated an energy-dependent endocytosis process as evidenced by cell uptake under blocking conditions, that is, 4 °C, sodium azide, and colchicine. Fluorescent microscopy clearly showed the internalization of zein-CAS nanoparticles. This study may shed some light on the cellular evaluations of hydrophobic protein nanoparticles.

  11. Impact of thiocyanate salts on zein properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new class of zein plasticizer was investigated, thiocyanate salts. Ammonium (ATC), potassium (KTC), guanidine (GTC) and magnesium thiocyanate (MTC) salts were added to solutions of zein in 90% ethanol/10% water with various amounts of tri(ethylene glycol) (TEG), cast as films and then tested to de...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1984 - Zein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD....1984 Zein. (a) Zein (CAS Reg. No. 9010-66-6) is one of the components of corn gluten. It is produced commercially by extraction from corn gluten with alkaline aqueous isopropyl alcohol containing sodium hydroxide...

  13. Retention of a Bean Phaseolin/Maize γ-Zein Fusion in the Endoplasmic Reticulum Depends on Disulfide Bond Formation[W

    PubMed Central

    Pompa, Andrea; Vitale, Alessandro

    2006-01-01

    Most seed storage proteins of the prolamin class accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as large insoluble polymers termed protein bodies (PBs), through mechanisms that are still poorly understood. We previously showed that a fusion between the Phaseolus vulgaris vacuolar storage protein phaseolin and the N-terminal half of the Zea mays prolamin γ-zein forms ER-located PBs. Zeolin has 6 Cys residues and, like γ-zein with 15 residues, is insoluble unless reduced. The contribution of disulfide bonds to zeolin destiny was determined by studying in vivo the effects of 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) and by zeolin mutagenesis. We show that in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) protoplasts, 2-ME enhances interactions of newly synthesized proteins with the ER chaperone BiP and inhibits the secretory traffic of soluble proteins with or without disulfide bonds. In spite of this general inhibition, 2-ME enhances the solubility of zeolin and relieves its retention in the ER, resulting in increased zeolin traffic. Consistently, mutated zeolin unable to form disulfide bonds is soluble and efficiently enters the secretory traffic without 2-ME treatment. We conclude that disulfide bonds that lead to insolubilization are a determinant for PB-mediated protein accumulation in the ER. PMID:17041149

  14. Zein-based Nanocarriers as Potential Natural Alternatives for Drug and Gene Delivery: Focus on Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Elzoghby, Ahmed; Freag, May; Mamdouh, Hadeer; Elkhodairy, Kadria

    2017-01-01

    Protein nanocarriers possess unique merits including minimal cytotoxicity, numerous renewable sources, and high drug-binding capability. In opposition to delivery carriers utilizing hydrophilic animal proteins, hydrophobic plant proteins (e.g, zein) have great tendency in fabricating controlled-release particulate carriers without additional chemical modification to stiffen them, which in turn evades the use of toxic chemical crosslinkers. Moreover, zein is related to a class of alcohol-soluble prolamins and generally recognized as safe (GRAS) carrier for drug delivery. Various techniques have been adopted to fabricate zein-based nanoparticulate systems including phase separation coacervation, spray-drying, supercritical anti-solvent approach, electrospinning and self-assembly. This manuscript reviews the recent advances in the zein-based colloidal nano-carrier systems such as nanospheres, nanocapsules, micelles and nanofibers with a special focus on their physicochemical characteristics and drug delivery applications. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Effect of Gallic acid on mechanical and water barrier properties of zein-oleic acid composite films.

    PubMed

    Masamba, Kingsley; Li, Yue; Hategekimana, Joseph; Liu, Fei; Ma, Jianguo; Zhong, Fang

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the effect of gallic acid on mechanical and water barrier properties of zein-oleic acid 0-4 % composite films was investigated. Molecular weight distribution analysis was carried out to confirm gallic acid induced cross linking through change in molecular weight in fraction containing zein proteins. Results revealed that gallic acid treatment increased tensile strength from 17.9 MPa to 26.0 MPa, decreased water vapour permeability from 0.60 (g mm m(-2) h(-1) kPa(-1)) to 0.41 (g mm m(-2) h(-1) kPa(-1)), increased solubility from 6.3 % to 10.2 % and marginally increased elongation at break from 3.7 % to 4.2 % in zein films only. However, gallic acid treatment in zein-oleic composite films did not significantly influence mechanical and water barrier properties and in most instances irrespective of oleic acid concentration, the properties were negatively affected. Results from scanning electron microscopy showed that both gallic acid treated and untreated zein films and composite films containing 3 % oleic acid had a compact and homogeneous structure while those containing 4 % oleic acid had inhomogeneous structure. The findings have demonstrated that gallic acid treatment can significantly improve mechanical and water barrier properties especially in zein films only as opposed to when used in composite films using zein and oleic acid.

  16. Improved corn protein based articles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Developing higher value uses for zein (corn protein), a potential major co-product of the bio-ethanol industry, will improve the economics of this business. Historically, zein was predominantly used in the textile fiber industry. Unfortunately the techniques used at that time to modify the zein cann...

  17. Opaque-2 is a transcriptional activator that recognizes a specific target site in 22-kD zein genes.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, R J; Ketudat, M; Aukerman, M J; Hoschek, G

    1992-01-01

    opaque-2 (o2) is a regulatory locus in maize that plays an essential role in controlling the expression of genes encoding the 22-kD zein proteins. Through DNase I footprinting and DNA binding analyses, we have identified the binding site for the O2 protein (O2) in the promoter of 22-kD zein genes. The sequence in the 22-kD zein gene promoter that is recognized by O2 is similar to the target site recognized by other "basic/leucine zipper" (bZIP) proteins in that it contains an ACGT core that is necessary for DNA binding. The site is located in the -300 region relative to the translation start and lies about 20 bp downstream of the highly conserved zein gene sequence motif known as the "prolamin box." Employing gel mobility shift assays, we used O2 antibodies and nuclear extracts from an o2 null mutant to demonstrate that the O2 protein in maize endosperm nuclei recognizes the target site in the zein gene promoter. Mobility shift assays using nuclear proteins from an o2 null mutant indicated that other endosperm proteins in addition to O2 can bind the O2 target site and that O2 may be associated with one of these proteins. We also demonstrated that in yeast cells the O2 protein can activate expression of a lacZ gene containing a multimer of the O2 target sequence as part of its promoter, thus confirming its role as a transcriptional activator. A computer-assisted search indicated that the O2 target site is not present in the promoters of zein genes other than those of the 22-kD class. These data suggest a likely explanation at the molecular level for the differential effect of o2 mutations on expression of certain members of the zein gene family. PMID:1392590

  18. Rheological and secondary structural characterization of rice flour-zein composites for noodles slit from gluten-free sheeted dough.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sungmin; Kim, Hee Won; Lee, Suyong

    2017-04-15

    Rice flour-zein composites in a hydrated viscoelastic state were utilized to compensate for the role of wheat gluten in gluten-free sheeted dough. The use of zein above its glass transition temperature was able to form a viscoelastic protein network of non-wheat dough with rice flour. The mixing stability and development time of the rice dough were positively increased with increasing levels of zein. The protein secondary structural analysis by FTIR spectroscopy demonstrated that the rice doughs with high levels of zein showed significant increases in β-sheet structures whose intensity was almost doubled by the use of 10% zein. The use of zein at more than 5% (w/w) successfully produced gluten-free dough sheets that could be slit into thin and long noodle strands. In addition, the composites were effective in improving the rheological characteristics of gluten-free noodle strands by increasing their maximum force to extension, compared to wheat-based noodles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of salt and ethanol addition on zein-starch dough and bread quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Development of viscoelastic doughs from non-wheat proteins allows for a wider range of gluten-free products. Littlework has been completed to describemechanisms of zein functionality in food systems. To identify factors responsible for dough development in zein–starchmixtures and their influence on ...

  20. Pickering Emulsion Gels Prepared by Hydrogen-Bonded Zein/Tannic Acid Complex Colloidal Particles.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yuan; Guo, Jian; Yin, Shou-Wei; Wang, Jin-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Quan

    2015-08-26

    Food-grade colloidal particles and complexes, which are formed via modulation of the noncovalent interactions between macromolecules and natural small molecules, can be developed as novel functional ingredients in a safe and sustainable way. For this study was prepared a novel zein/tannic acid (TA) complex colloidal particle (ZTP) based on the hydrogen-bonding interaction between zein and TA in aqueous ethanol solution by using a simple antisolvent approach. Pickering emulsion gels with high oil volume fraction (φ(oil) > 50%) were successfully fabricated via one-step homogenization. Circular dichroism (CD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements, which were used to characterize the structure of zein/TA complexes in ethanol solution, clearly showed that TA binding generated a conformational change of zein without altering their supramolecular structure at pH 5.0 and intermediate TA concentrations. Consequently, the resultant ZTP had tuned near neutral wettability (θ(ow) ∼ 86°) and enhanced interfacial reactivity, but without significantly decreased surface charge. These allowed the ZTP to stabilize the oil droplets and further triggered cross-linking to form a continuous network among and around the oil droplets and protein particles, leading to the formation of stable Pickering emulsion gels. Layer-by-layer (LbL) interfacial architecture on the oil-water surface of the droplets was observed, which implied a possibility to fabricate hierarchical interface microstructure via modulation of the noncovalent interaction between hydrophobic protein and natural polyphenol.

  1. Rheological characterization of plasticized corn proteins for fused deposition modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaunier, Laurent; Dalgalarrondo, Michèle; Della Valle, Guy; Lourdin, Denis; Marion, Didier; Leroy, Eric

    2017-10-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) of tailored natural biopolymer-based objects by Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) opens new perspectives for applications such as biomedical temporary devices, or pharmaceutical tablets. This exploits the biocompatibility, resorbability and edibility properties of biopolymers. When adequately plasticized, zeins, storage proteins from endosperm of maize kernels, displayed thermomechanical properties possibly matching FDM processing requirements at a convenient temperature Tprinting=130°C. Indeed, with 20% glycerol added (Tg=42°C), plasticized zeins present a high modulus, E'>1GPa, at ambient conditions, which drops below 0.6 MPa at the processing temperature T=130°C, before flowing in the molten state. The rheological characterization shows that the processing window is limited by a progressive increase of viscosity linked to proteins aggregation and crosslinking by S-S bonding between cysteine amino acid residues, which can lead to gelation. However, for short residence time typical of FDM, the viscosity of plasticized zeins is comparable to the one of standard polymers, like ABS or PLA in their FDM processing conditions: indeed, in presence of glycerol, the molten zeins show a shear-thinning behavior with |η*|≈3kPa.s at 1s-1, decreasing to |η*|≈0.3kPa.s at 100s-1, at 130°C. Moreover, zeins presenting both hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains, amphiphilic plasticizers can be used supplementary to tune their rheological behavior. With 20% oleic acid added to the previous composition, the viscosity is divided down to a ratio about 1/2 at 100s-1 at 130°C, below the value of a standard polymer as PLA at its printing temperature. These results show the possible enhancement of the printability of zein-based materials in the molten state, by combining polar and amphiphilic plasticizers.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of novel antimicrobial films derived from thymol-loaded zein-sodium caseinate (SC) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Kang-Kang; Yin, Shou-Wei; Yang, Xiao-Quan; Tang, Chuan-He; Wei, Zi-Hao

    2012-11-21

    The objective of this research was to fabricate novel antimicrobial films based on zein colloidal nanoparticles coated with sodium caseinate (SC), an emulsifier/stabilizer. Thymol-loaded zein-SC nanoparticles were prepared using an antisolvent technique, with the average particle size and zeta potential about 200 ± 20 nm and -40 mV, respectively. Zein-SC nanoparticle-based films exhibited higher mechanical resistance and water barrier capacity than the SC films and concomitant good extensibility as compared with zein films. Thymol loadings endowed zein-SC nanoparticle-based films with antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Salmonella as well as DPPH radical scavenging activity. Water vapor permeability, microstructure, mechanical, and controlled release properties of the films were evaluated. The possible relationship between some selected physical properties and microstructure were also discussed. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis indicated that thymol loadings resulted in the emergence phenomena of the nanoparticles to form large particles or packed structure, consisting of clusters of nanoparticles, within the film matrix, in a thymol loading dependent manner. The appearance of large particles or an agglomerate of particles may weaken the compactness of protein network of films and thus impair the water barrier capacity, mechanical resistance, and extensibility of the films. The release kinetics of thymol from nanoparticle-based films can be described as a two-step biphasic process, that is, an initial burst effect followed by subsequent slower release, and zein-SC nanoparticles within the films matrices gave them the ability to sustain the release of thymol. In addition, a schematic illustration of the formation pathway of zein-SC nanoparticle-based films with or without thymol was proposed to illuminate the possible relationship between some selected physical properties and the microstructure of the films.

  3. Effect of Maillard Conjugates on the Physical Stability of Zein Nanoparticles Prepared by Liquid Antisolvent Coprecipitation.

    PubMed

    Davidov-Pardo, Gabriel; Joye, Iris J; Espinal-Ruiz, Mauricio; McClements, David Julian

    2015-09-30

    Protein nanoparticles are often not very stable in a complex food matrix because they are primarily stabilized by electrostatic repulsion. In this study, we envisaged the stabilization of zein nanoparticles through Maillard conjugation reactions with polysaccharides of different molecular mass. Zein nanoparticles (0.5% w/v) containing resveratrol (0.025% w/v grape skin extract) were produced by liquid antisolvent precipitation and coated with Maillard conjugates (MC) of sodium caseinate and different molecular mass carbohydrates during particle production. Zein nanoparticles coated with conjugated polysaccharides of 2.8, 37, and 150 kDa had diameters of 198 ± 5, 176 ± 6, and 180 ± 3 nm, respectively. The encapsulation efficiency (∼83%) was not affected by conjugation, but the conjugates significantly improved particle stability against changes in pH (2.0-9.0), CaCl2 addition (up to 100 mM), and heat treatment (30-90 °C, 30 min). Zein nanoparticles coated by MC may therefore be suitable delivery systems for hydrophobic bioactive molecules in a wide range of commercial products.

  4. Reactive Extrusion of Zein with Glyoxal

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cross-linked zein has been produced using glyoxal as the cross-linking reagent via reactive extrusion for the first time in a twin screw extruder using dilute sodium hydroxide as catalyst. Tri(ethylene glycol) was used as a plasticizer for various items. The extrudate was then ground and processed...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1984 - Zein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Zein. 184.1984 Section 184.1984 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... corn gluten. It is produced commercially by extraction from corn gluten with alkaline aqueous isopropyl...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1984 - Zein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Zein. 184.1984 Section 184.1984 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... corn gluten. It is produced commercially by extraction from corn gluten with alkaline aqueous isopropyl...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1984 - Zein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Zein. 184.1984 Section 184.1984 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... corn gluten. It is produced commercially by extraction from corn gluten with alkaline aqueous isopropyl...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1984 - Zein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zein. 184.1984 Section 184.1984 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific...

  9. Biomimetic materials for protein storage and transport

    DOEpatents

    Firestone, Millicent A [Elmhurst, IL; Laible, Philip D [Villa Park, IL

    2012-05-01

    The invention provides a method for the insertion of protein in storage vehicles and the recovery of the proteins from the vehicles, the method comprising supplying isolated protein; mixing the isolated protein with a fluid so as to form a mixture, the fluid comprising saturated phospholipids, lipopolymers, and a surfactant; cycling the mixture between a first temperature and a second temperature; maintaining the mixture as a solid for an indefinite period of time; diluting the mixture in detergent buffer so as to disrupt the composition of the mixture, and diluting to disrupt the fluid in its low viscosity state for removal of the guest molecules by, for example, dialysis, filtering or chromatography dialyzing/filtering the emulsified solid.

  10. Zein/caseinate/pectin complex nanoparticles: Formation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chao; Wang, Taoran; Hu, Qiaobin; Luo, Yangchao

    2017-11-01

    In this study, pectin was used as coating material to form zein/caseinate/pectin complex nanoparticles through pH adjustment and heating treatment for potential oral delivery applications. The preparation conditions were studied by applying heating treatment at different pHs, either the isoelectric point of zein (pH 6.2) or caseinate (pH 4.6), or consecutively at both pHs. The particulate characteristics, including particle size, polydispersity index, and zeta potential were monitored for complex nanoparticles formed under different preparation conditions. The complex nanoparticles generally exhibited particle size smaller than 200nm with narrow distribution, spherical shape, and strong negative charge. Fourier transform infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds were involved in the formation of complex nanoparticles, in addition to electrostatic interactions. Fresh colloidal dispersion and freeze-dried powders varied in their morphology, depending on their preparation conditions. Our results suggested that heating pH and sequence significantly affected the morphology of complex nanoparticles, and pectin coating exerted stabilization effect under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. The present study provides insight into the formation of protein/polysaccharide complex nanoparticles under different preparation conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. White zein colloidal particles: synthesis and characterization of their optical properties on the single particle level and in concentrated suspensions.

    PubMed

    de Boer, F Y; Kok, R N U; Imhof, A; Velikov, K P

    2018-04-18

    Growing interest in using natural, biodegradable ingredients for food products leads to an increase in research for alternative sources of functional ingredients. One alternative is zein, a water-insoluble protein from corn. Here, a method to investigate the optical properties of white zein colloidal particles is presented in both diluted and concentrated suspensions. The particles are synthesized, after purification of zein, by anti-solvent precipitation. Mean particle diameters ranged from 35 to 135 nm based on dynamic light scattering. The value of these particles as white colorant is examined by measuring their optical properties. Dilute suspensions are prepared to measure the extinction cross section of individual particles and this was combined with Mie theory to determine a refractive index (RI) of 1.49 ± 0.01 for zein particles dispersed in water. This value is used to further model the optical properties of concentrated suspensions. To obtain full opacity of the suspension, comparable to 0.1-0.2 wt% suspensions of TiO2, concentrations of 2 to 3.3 wt% of zein particles are sufficient. The optimal size for maximal scattering efficiency is explored by modeling dilute and concentrated samples with RI's matching those of zein and TiO2 particles in water. The transport mean free path of light was determined experimentally and theoretically and the agreement between the transport mean free path calculated from the model and the measured value is better than 30%. Such particles have the potential to be an all-natural edible alternative for TiO2 as white colorant in wet food products.

  12. Preparation and characterisation of zein and chitosan edible film

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aim of this work was to develop zein/chitosan blends and study the heat effect on chitosan in the film-making process. The zein and chitosan solutions were prepared separately; two different chitosan solutions were produced, one heated at 80 ºC for 1 h, and another just stirred for 1 h and unhea...

  13. Preparation of zein fibers using solution blow spinning method

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Zein fibers were successfully fabricated via solution blow spinning (SBS) using acetic acid as solvent. Surface tension, viscosity and modulus of zein solutions were respectively determined by force tensiometer and rheometer. Increases of these properties were observed with an increase of concentrat...

  14. Zein purification: the process, the product, market potential

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objectives of this article intend to give an overview of a zein purification, decolorization and deodorization process, methodologies to assess those properties and applications of the purified product. The process involves column filtration of commercial zein solutions through a combination of ...

  15. Eugenol Nanoemulsion Stabilized with Zein and Sodium Caseinate by Self-Assembly.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yue

    2017-03-31

    Eugenol-loaded nanoemulsion by zein and sodium caseinate (NaCas) was prepared without using specific equipment or organic solvents. The deprotonated eugenol in hot alkaline was added to NaCas/zein mixtures with different mass ratios at pH 11.5 and then neutralized to pH 7.0. The nanoemulsions showed a well-defined diameter (around 109-139 nm) and a negative surface potential (from -28.5 to -35.8 mV) with spherical morphology. The entrapment efficiency (EE) of 1% (v/v) eugenol reached 84.24% by 2% (m/v) NaCas/zein at a mass ratio of 1:1. This formulation also showed the narrowest size distribution and extraordinary stability during ambient storage (22 °C) up to 30 days and retained good redispersibility after spray- or freeze-drying. The current study showed a promising clean and low-cost strategy to deliver lipophilic compounds containing the hydroxyl group.

  16. Comprehensive proteomic analysis of developing protein bodies in maize (Zea mays) endosperm provides novel insights into its biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guifeng; Wang, Gang; Wang, Jiajia; Du, Yulong; Yao, Dongsheng; Shuai, Bilian; Han, Liang; Tang, Yuanping; Song, Rentao

    2016-12-01

    Prolamins, the major cereal seed storage proteins, are sequestered and accumulated in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and are directly assembled into protein bodies (PBs). The content and composition of prolamins are the key determinants for protein quality and texture-related traits of the grain. Concomitantly, the PB-inducing fusion system provides an efficient target to produce therapeutic and industrial products in plants. However, the proteome of the native PB and the detailed mechanisms underlying its formation still need to be determined. We developed a method to isolate highly purified and intact PBs from developing maize endosperm and conducted proteomic analysis of intact PBs of zein, a class of prolamine protein found in maize. We thus identified 1756 proteins, which fall into five major categories: metabolic pathways, response to stimulus, transport, development, and growth, as well as regulation. By comparing the proteomes of crude and enriched extractions of PBs, we found substantial evidence for the following conclusions: (i) ribosomes, ER membranes, and the cytoskeleton are tightly associated with zein PBs, which form the peripheral border; (ii) zein RNAs are probably transported and localized to the PB-ER subdomain; and (iii) ER chaperones are essential for zein folding, quality control, and assembly into PBs. We futher confirmed that OPAQUE1 (O1) cannot directly interact with FLOURY1 (FL1) in yeast, suggesting that the interaction between myosins XI and DUF593-containing proteins is isoform-specific. This study provides a proteomic roadmap for dissecting zein PB biogenesis and reveals an unexpected diversity and complexity of proteins in PBs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  17. The human immunodeficiency virus antigen Nef forms protein bodies in leaves of transgenic tobacco when fused to zeolin

    PubMed Central

    de Virgilio, Maddalena; Bellucci, Michele; Mainieri, Davide; Rossi, Marika; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Arcioni, Sergio; Vitale, Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    Protein bodies (PB) are stable polymers naturally formed by certain seed storage proteins within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The human immunodeficiency virus negative factor (Nef) protein, a potential antigen for the development of an anti-viral vaccine, is highly unstable when introduced into the plant secretory pathway, probably because of folding defects in the ER environment. The aim of this study was to promote the formation of Nef-containing PB in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves by fusing the Nef sequence to the N-terminal domains of the maize storage protein γ-zein or to the chimeric protein zeolin (which efficiently forms PB and is composed of the vacuolar storage protein phaseolin fused to the N-terminal domains of γ-zein). Protein blots and pulse–chase indicate that fusions between Nef and the same γ-zein domains present in zeolin are degraded by ER quality control. Consistently, a mutated zeolin, in which wild-type phaseolin was substituted with a defective version known to be degraded by ER quality control, is unstable in plant cells. Fusion of Nef to the entire zeolin sequence instead allows the formation of PB detectable by electron microscopy and subcellular fractionation, leading to zeolin–Nef accumulation higher than 1% of total soluble protein, consistently reproduced in independent transgenic plants. It is concluded that zeolin, but not its γ-zein portion, has a positive dominant effect over ER quality control degradation. These results provide insights into the requirements for PB formation and avoidance of quality-control degradation, and indicate a strategy for enhancing foreign protein accumulation in plants. PMID:18540021

  18. Doxorubicin-loaded Zein in situ gel for interstitial chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaoying; Geng, Jianning; Su, Suwen; Zhang, Linan; Xu, Qian; Zhang, Li; Xie, Yinghua; Wu, Shaomei; Sun, Yongjun; Gao, Zibin

    2012-01-01

    A novel drug delivery system of doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded Zein in situ gel for interstitial chemotherapy was investigated in this study. The possible mechanisms of drug release were described according to morphological analysis by optical microscopy and scanning electronic microscope (SEM). In vitro and in vivo anti-tumor activity studies showed that DOX-loaded Zein in situ gel was superior to DOX solution. Local pharmacokinetics in tumor tissue was studied by quantitative analysis with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) combined with microdialysis technology. A pharmacokinetics mathematical model of DOX-loaded Zein in situ gel in tumors was then built.

  19. Protein construct storage: Bayesian variable selection and prediction with mixtures.

    PubMed

    Clyde, M A; Parmigiani, G

    1998-07-01

    Determining optimal conditions for protein storage while maintaining a high level of protein activity is an important question in pharmaceutical research. A designed experiment based on a space-filling design was conducted to understand the effects of factors affecting protein storage and to establish optimal storage conditions. Different model-selection strategies to identify important factors may lead to very different answers about optimal conditions. Uncertainty about which factors are important, or model uncertainty, can be a critical issue in decision-making. We use Bayesian variable selection methods for linear models to identify important variables in the protein storage data, while accounting for model uncertainty. We also use the Bayesian framework to build predictions based on a large family of models, rather than an individual model, and to evaluate the probability that certain candidate storage conditions are optimal.

  20. Compositional and moisture content effects on the biodegradability of zein/ethylcellulose films.

    PubMed

    Romero-Bastida, Claudia A; Flores-Huicochea, Eduardo; Martin-Polo, Martha O; Velazquez, Gonzalo; Torres, J Antonio

    2004-04-21

    The effect of moisture content and film composition on biodegradability is the focus of this study. Flexible films were first characterized for the effect on water sorption isotherms of relative humidity, temperature, zein content, and the addition of the plasticizers stearic acid, poly(ethylene glycol), or etoxylated ricine oil. Zein/ethylcellulose (EC) mixture films had a behavior between that for pure zein and EC films, which had the lowest water sorption. For films with plasticizer, the lowest water sorption at 25 degrees C was observed for those with stearic acid. Biodegradability of zein/EC films, evaluated using bacterial cultures selected for their zein proteolytic activity and isolated from a local solid waste landfill and a lagoon, showed no plasticizer effect even though its effect on moisture content was significant. Large differences were observed at different film zein concentration with the highest biodegradability for 100% zein. However, biodegradability did not mimic the water sorption behavior of zein/EC mixture films.

  1. Kinetics and Antioxidant Capacity of Proanthocyanidins Encapsulated in Zein Electrospun Fibers by Cyclic Voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hualin; Hao, Lilan; Niu, Baicheng; Jiang, Suwei; Cheng, Junfeng; Jiang, Shaotong

    2016-04-20

    The proanthocyanidins encapsulated in zein (zein-PA) fibers was via electrospinning technique. The kinetics and antioxidant capacity of PA from zein fibers was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. Circular dichroism was used to investigate the secondary structure change of zein and its influence on the shape of fibers. The addition of PA caused a significant increase in viscosity and made fibers wider. These hydrogen bonds between zein and PA molecules would favor the α-helix change and decrease the β-folds of zein in electrospinning solutions, leading to a round-shaped tendency of fibers and enhancing the thermal properties slightly. Zein-PA fibers showed high encapsulation efficiency close to 100%, and the encapsulated PA retained its antioxidant capacity in fibers. Zein-PA fibers showed a good controlled release toward PA, and the predominant release of PA from fibers was Fickian diffusion, which could be well described by first-order model and Hixson-Crowell model.

  2. [Myosin storage myopathy: a rare subtype of protein aggregate myopathies].

    PubMed

    Kiphuth, I C; Neuen-Jacob, E; Struffert, T; Wehner, M; Wallefeld, W; Laing, N; Schröder, R

    2010-04-01

    Myopathies with pathological protein aggregates comprise a numerically significant group of sporadic and hereditary muscle disorders. A rare disease entity within the group of protein aggregate myopathies is the myosin storage myopathy, which is caused by heterozygous mutations in the MYH7 gene which encodes the slow/beta-myosin heavy chain. We report the clinical, myopathological and MRI findings in the first German patient suffering from a myosin storage myopathy due to a heterozygous R 1845W missense mutation.

  3. Electrospun zein fibers using glyoxal as the cross-linking reagent

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Glyoxal has been used to provide zein electrospun fibers that are resistant to dissolution by known zein solvents. Durable fibers with diameters between 0.2 and 0.7 micrometers could be produced. The reaction between zein and glyoxal was carried out in acetic acid at temperatures between 25 and 60...

  4. The cellular uptake and transport of zein nanoparticles: Effect of sodium caseinate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cellular evaluation of zein nanoparticles has not been studied systematically due to their poor redispersibility. Caseinate (CAS) stabilized zein nanoparticles have been recently developed with better redispersibility in salt solutions. In this study, zein-CAS nanoparticles were prepared with differ...

  5. Role of non-covalent interactions in the production of visco-elastic material from zein

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Zein has been used in the production of a wide variety of materials during the last century. One of the more intriguing developments in zein utilization has been the discovery that zein can be made to form a visco-elastic dough for bread production. Although significant research has been conducted t...

  6. Zein purificatin for use in producing gluten-free bread and electro-spun fibers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The residual lipids, yellow color and off-odor of commercial zein are major deterrents to its usage for food and medical applications. Methodologies to de-fat, deodorize and decolorize those zein products can be accomplished by column filtrations of commercial zein, dissolved in aqueous ethanol, pas...

  7. Storage Stability of Food Protein Hydrolysates-A Review.

    PubMed

    Rao, Qinchun; Klaassen Kamdar, Andre; Labuza, Theodore P

    2016-05-18

    In recent years, mainly due to the specific health benefits associated with (1) the discovery of bioactive peptides in protein hydrolysates, (2) the reduction of protein allergenicity by protein hydrolysis, and (3) the improved protein digestibility and absorption of protein hydrolysates, the utilization of protein hydrolysates in functional foods and beverages has significantly increased. Although the specific health benefits from different hydrolysates are somewhat proven, the delivery and/or stability of these benefits is debatable during distribution, storage, and consumption. In this review, we discuss (1) the quality changes in different food protein hydrolysates during storage; (2) the resulting changes in the structure and texture of three food matrices, i.e., low moisture foods (LMF, aw < 0.6), intermediate moisture foods (IMF, 0.6 ≤ aw < 0.85), and high moisture foods (HMF, aw ≥ 0.85); and (3) the potential solutions to improve storage stability of food protein hydrolysates. In addition, we note there is a great need for evaluation of biofunction availability of bioactive peptides in food protein hydrolysates during storage.

  8. Optimized zein nanospheres for improved oral bioavailability of atorvastatin

    PubMed Central

    Hashem, Fahima M; Al-Sawahli, Majid M; Nasr, Mohamed; Ahmed, Osama AA

    2015-01-01

    Background This work focuses on the development of atorvastatin utilizing zein, a natural, safe, and biocompatible polymer, as a nanosized formulation in order to overcome the poor oral bioavailability (12%) of the drug. Methods Twelve experimental runs of atorvastatin–zein nanosphere formula were formulated by a liquid–liquid phase separation method according to custom fractional factorial design to optimize the formulation variables. The factors studied were: weight % of zein to atorvastatin (X1), pH (X2), and stirring time (X3). Levels for each formulation variable were designed. The selected dependent variables were: mean particle size (Y1), zeta potential (Y2), drug loading efficiency (Y3), drug encapsulation efficiency (Y4), and yield (Y5). The optimized formulation was assayed for compatibility using an X-ray diffraction assay. In vitro diffusion of the optimized formulation was carried out. A pharmacokinetic study was also done to compare the plasma profile of the atorvastatin–zein nanosphere formulation versus atorvastatin oral suspension and the commercially available tablet. Results The optimized atorvastatin–zein formulation had a mean particle size of 183 nm, a loading efficiency of 14.86%, and an encapsulation efficiency of 29.71%. The in vitro dissolution assay displayed an initial burst effect, with a cumulative amount of atorvastatin released of 41.76% and 82.3% after 12 and 48 hours, respectively. In Wistar albino rats, the bioavailability of atorvastatin from the optimized atorvastatin–zein formulation was 3-fold greater than that from the atorvastatin suspension and the commercially available tablet. Conclusion The atorvastatin–zein nanosphere formulation improved the oral delivery and pharmacokinetic profile of atorvastatin by enhancing its oral bioavailability. PMID:26150716

  9. Comparative proteome analysis of egg yolk plasma proteins during storage.

    PubMed

    Gao, Dan; Qiu, Ning; Liu, Yaping; Ma, Meihu

    2017-06-01

    Physical changes such as chicken egg white thinning and egg yolk flattening occur during storage, implying a decline in egg quality. To reveal the deteriorative process related to chicken egg internal quality, a comparative proteomic method was used in this study to analyze the alterations in egg yolk plasma proteins at different storage times (0, 20 and 40 days) under an ambient temperature of 22 ± 2 °C. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry, 33 protein spots representing 12 proteins were identified with significant (P < 0.05) alterations in abundance at different storage times. The proteins that showed significant changes in abundance included serum albumin, vitellogenin fragments, IgY chains, ovalbumin, ovoinhibitor, α 2 -macroglobulin-like protein 1-like, hemopexin, transthyretin, apolipoprotein A-I and β 2 -glycoprotein I precursor. Accelerating degradation for most egg yolk plasma proteins was observed after prolonged storage (from day 20 to day 40). It is likely that the increased degradation of protease inhibitors such as ovoinhibitor and α 2 -macroglobulin-like protein 1-like during prolonged storage lead to an imbalance of protease and antiprotease in egg yolk, which may play a key role in the degradation of egg yolk proteins. These findings will provide an insight into the effects of storage on egg yolk protein changes and give a deeper understanding of the deteriorative process of chicken egg yolk. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Behavior of whey protein concentrates under extreme storage conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The overseas demand for whey protein concentrates (WPC) has increased steadily in recent years. Emergency aid foods often include WPC, but shelf-life studies of whey proteins under different shipment and storage conditions have not been conducted in the last 50 yr. Microbial quality, compound form...

  11. Computational approaches for the classification of seed storage proteins.

    PubMed

    Radhika, V; Rao, V Sree Hari

    2015-07-01

    Seed storage proteins comprise a major part of the protein content of the seed and have an important role on the quality of the seed. These storage proteins are important because they determine the total protein content and have an effect on the nutritional quality and functional properties for food processing. Transgenic plants are being used to develop improved lines for incorporation into plant breeding programs and the nutrient composition of seeds is a major target of molecular breeding programs. Hence, classification of these proteins is crucial for the development of superior varieties with improved nutritional quality. In this study we have applied machine learning algorithms for classification of seed storage proteins. We have presented an algorithm based on nearest neighbor approach for classification of seed storage proteins and compared its performance with decision tree J48, multilayer perceptron neural (MLP) network and support vector machine (SVM) libSVM. The model based on our algorithm has been able to give higher classification accuracy in comparison to the other methods.

  12. Fabrication and characterization of Pickering emulsions and oil gels stabilized by highly charged zein/chitosan complex particles (ZCCPs).

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Juan; Yin, Shou-Wei; Wu, Lei-Yan; Qi, Jun-Ru; Guo, Jian; Yang, Xiao-Quan

    2016-12-15

    Herein, we reported a facile method to fabricate ultra-stable, surfactant- and antimicrobial-free Pickering emulsions by designing and modulating emulsions' interfaces via zein/chitosan colloid particles (ZCCPs). Highly charged ZCCPs with neutral wettability were produced by a facile anti-solvent procedure. The ZCCPs were shown to be effective Pickering emulsifiers because the emulsions formed were highly resistant to coalescence over a 9-month storage period. The ZCCPs were adsorbed irreversibly at the interface during emulsification, forming a hybrid network framework in which zein particles were embedded within the chitosan network, yielding ultra-stable food-grade zein/chitosan colloid particles stabilized Pickering emulsions (ZCCPEs). Moreover, stable surfactant-free oil gels were obtained by a one-step freeze-drying process of the precursor ZCCPEs. This distinctive interfacial architecture accounted for the favourable physical performance, and potentially oxidative and microbial stability of the emulsions and/or oil gels. This work opens up a promising route via a food-grade Pickering emulsion-template approach to transform liquid oil into solid-like fats with zero trans-fat formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bioactive films of zein/magnetite magnetically stimuli-responsive for controlled drug release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marín, Tíffany; Montoya, Paula; Arnache, Oscar; Pinal, Rodolfo; Calderón, Jorge

    2018-07-01

    The Zein films in two configurations with magnetite nanoparticles (zein/NPs) and magnetite-acetaminophen (zein/NPs/Drug) were used as magnetically stimuli-responsive systems to propose a model of controlled release by dissolution and diffusion mechanism. Composite material films of zein/NPs and zein/NPs/Drug were made by dispersion of magnetite nanoparticles into zein solution then solvent casting of the solution on a flat Teflon substrate. The properties of composite films were analyzed by magnetization curves of (MvsH) and measurements of magnetic force microscopy (MFM). Drug release from the zein/NPs/Drug composite films was determined using a type II dissolution apparatus for a period of 2 h under applied magnetic field conditions. In addition, the diffusion mechanism was tested with zein/NPs films into diffusion cell containing acetaminophen solution for 24 h and using a permanent magnet as a remote trigger device. The results showed that the magnetite nanoparticles contained in the zein/NPs and zein/NPs/Drug composite films are stable, i.e., they do not undergo sufficiently high levels of oxidation as to alter their magnetic properties. Furthermore, the dissolution and diffusion results lead us to conclude that zein composite films effectively behave as stimuli-responsive systems triggered by an external magnetic field applied. The result is a model controlled release system whereby drug release can be controlled by adjusting the magnitude of the applied magnetic field.

  14. Self-assembled amphiphilic zein-lactoferrin micelles for tumor targeted co-delivery of rapamycin and wogonin to breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sabra, Sally A; Elzoghby, Ahmed O; Sheweita, Salah A; Haroun, Medhat; Helmy, Maged W; Eldemellawy, Maha A; Xia, Ying; Goodale, David; Allan, Alison L; Rohani, Sohrab

    2018-07-01

    Protein-based micelles have shown significant potential for tumor-targeted delivery of anti-cancer drugs. In this light, self-assembled nanocarriers based on GRAS (Generally recognized as safe) amphiphilic protein co-polymers were synthesized via carbodiimide coupling reaction. The new nano-platform is composed of the following key components: (i) hydrophobic zein core to encapsulate the hydrophobic drugs rapamycin (RAP) and wogonin (WOG) with high encapsulation efficiency, (ii) hydrophilic lactoferrin (Lf) corona to enhance the tumor targeting, and prolong systemic circulation of the nanocarriers, and (iii) glutaraldehyde (GLA)-crosslinking to reduce the particle size and improve micellar stability. Zein-Lf micelles showed relatively rapid release of WOG followed by slower diffusion of RAP from zein core. This sequential release may aid in efflux pump inhibition by WOG thus sensitizing tumor cells to RAP action. Interestingly, these micelles showed good hemocompatibility as well as enhanced serum stability owing to the brush-like architecture of Lf shell. Moreover, this combined nano-delivery system maximized synergistic cytotoxicity of RAP and WOG in terms of tumor inhibition in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and Ehrlich ascites tumor animal model as a result of enhanced active targeting. Collectively, GLA-crosslinked zein-Lf micelles hold great promise for combined RAP/WOG delivery to breast cancer with reduced drug dose, minimized side effects and maximized anti-tumor efficacy. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Core-shell biopolymer nanoparticle delivery systems: synthesis and characterization of curcumin fortified zein-pectin nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hu, Kun; Huang, Xiaoxia; Gao, Yongqing; Huang, Xulin; Xiao, Hang; McClements, David Julian

    2015-09-01

    Biopolymer core-shell nanoparticles were fabricated using a hydrophobic protein (zein) as the core and a hydrophilic polysaccharide (pectin) as the shell. Particles were prepared by coating cationic zein nanoparticles with anionic pectin molecules using electrostatic deposition (pH 4). The core-shell nanoparticles were fortified with curcumin (a hydrophobic bioactive molecule) at a high loading efficiency (>86%). The resulting nanoparticles were spherical, relatively small (diameter ≈ 250 nm), and had a narrow size distribution (polydispersity index ≈ 0.24). The encapsulated curcumin was in an amorphous (rather than crystalline form) as detected by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectra indicated that the encapsulated curcumin interacted with zein mainly through hydrophobic interactions. The nanoparticles were converted into a powdered form that had good water-dispersibility. These core-shell biopolymer nanoparticles could be useful for incorporating curcumin into functional foods and beverages, as well as dietary supplements and pharmaceutical products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Whey protein concentrate storage at elevated temperature and humidity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dairy processors are finding new export markets for whey protein concentrate (WPC), a byproduct of cheesemaking, but they need to know if full-sized bags of this powder will withstand high temperature and relative humidity (RH) levels during unrefrigerated storage under tropical conditions. To answ...

  17. Trace analysis of nitrite ions in environmental samples by using in-situ synthesized Zein biopolymeric nanoparticles as the novel green solid phase extractor.

    PubMed

    Hatamie, Amir; Nassiri, Mahmoud; Alivand, Meghdad Doust; Bhatnagar, Amit

    2018-01-01

    For the first time, a novel green method using Zein biopolymeric nanoparticles as a green dispersive solid-phase extractor is reported for the separation and preconcentration of trace amount of nitrite (NO 2 - ) ions in ppb levels. The Zein protein is a biodegradable hydrophobic plant protein that is obtained from corn and is composed of a number of hydrophobic amino acids. Zein bionanoparticles were synthesized in an anti-solvent process and used as a new biosorbent in the extraction technique. In the proposed technique, by using a standard method at first, a mixture of 1-naphthylamine and sulphanilic acid as selective regents was added to the samples, and in the presence of the nitrite ion, a red azo product was formed. After that, the ethanolic Zein solution (equal to 15mg) was injected rapidly into the sample, based on the anti-solvent process. Zein bionanoparticles (BNPs) were produced, the adsorbed colour product was separated by centrifugation, and finally samples were analysed with the spectrophotometric method. The influence of different variables such as pH, buffer and amount of buffer, amount of adsorbent and effect of time on extraction were investigated and Zein BNPs were characterized by TEM, SEM, and FT-IR techniques. The main advantages of Zein as a new solid-phase extractor are that this biopolymer is non-toxic, stable, widely available, biodegradable, very hydrophobic, and can be fabricated easily. Under optimal experimental conditions, the linear correlation coefficient (r 2 ) was found to be 0.9972 at the concentration range of 5.0-1000ngmL -1 . The limit of detection was 2.3ngmL -1 (0.05μM). This method was applied successfully for the analysis of sea and river waters as well as industrial wastewater samples. Finally, this method follows the US EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency) and WHO (World Health Organization) international standards for nitrite analysis. In addition, it has several advantages to warrant its applicability in the near

  18. Higher accumulation of F1-V fusion recombinant protein in plants after induction of protein body formation.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, M Lucrecia; Topal, Emel; Martin, Federico; Cardineau, Guy A

    2010-01-01

    Improving foreign protein accumulation is crucial for enhancing the commercial success of plant-based production systems since product yields have a major influence on process economics. Cereal grain evolved to store large amounts of proteins in tightly organized aggregates. In maize, gamma-Zein is the major storage protein synthesized by the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and stored in specialized organelles called protein bodies (PB). Zera (gamma-Zein ER-accumulating domain) is the N-terminal proline-rich domain of gamma-zein that is sufficient to induce the assembly of PB formation. Fusion of the Zera domain to proteins of interest results in assembly of dense PB-like, ER-derived organelles, containing high concentration of recombinant protein. Our main goal was to increase recombinant protein accumulation in plants in order to enhance the efficiency of orally-delivered plant-made vaccines. It is well known that oral vaccination requires substantially higher doses than parental formulations. As a part of a project to develop a plant-made plague vaccine, we expressed our model antigen, the Yersinia pestis F1-V antigen fusion protein, with and without a fused Zera domain. We demonstrated that Zera-F1-V protein accumulation was at least 3x higher than F1-V alone when expressed in three different host plant systems: Ncotiana benthamiana, Medicago sativa (alfalfa) and Nicotiana tabacum NT1 cells. We confirmed the feasibility of using Zera technology to induce protein body formation in non-seed tissues. Zera expression and accumulation did not affect plant development and growth. These results confirmed the potential exploitation of Zera technology to substantially increase the accumulation of value-added proteins in plants.

  19. Enzymatic hydrolysis, grease permeation, and water barrier properties of zein isolate coated paper.

    PubMed

    Parris, N; Dickey, L C; Wiles, J L; Moreau, R A; Cooke, P H

    2000-03-01

    An inexpensive zein-lipid mixture was isolated from yellow dent, dry-milled corn. Grease permeation through zein isolate applied to brown Kraft paper was found to be independent of loading levels at zein isolate levels above 30 mg/16 in.(2). The data shows that water vapor transmission rates depended on the amount of coating applied. Triacylglycerols were the most abundant lipid in milled corn but were absent in the zein isolate (perhaps due to hydrolysis by lipases). Zein from the paper was hydrolyzed enzymatically and the hydrolysis monitored by SDS-capillary electrophoresis. At an E:S ratio of 1:100 no further increase in the hydrolysate peak occurred after 10 and 30 min for alpha-chymotrypsin and pancreatin 8 x; however, zein and lipid were still present 1 h after hydrolysis by pancreatin 1 x.

  20. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of biodegradable films prepared from Schiff bases of zein.

    PubMed

    Soliman, E A; Khalil, A A; Deraz, S F; El-Fawal, G; Elrahman, S Abd

    2014-10-01

    Pure zein is known to be very hydrophobic, but is still inappropriate for coating and film applications because of their brittle nature. In an attempt to improve the flexibility and the antimicrobial activity of these coatings and films, Chemical modification of zein through forming Schiff bases with different phenolic aldhydes was tried. Influence of this modifications on mechanical, topographical, wetting properties and antimicrobial activity of zein films were evaluated. The chemical structure of the Schiff bases films were characterized by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. The results indicate an improvement in mechanical properties with chemically modification of zein to form Schiff bases leading to a reduction in the elastic modulus. An increase in the elongation at break has been observed, but with slight influence on tensile strength. Plasticized zein films have similar initial contact angle (∼40°). An increase in reaction temperature and time increases film's affinity towards water. As shown by contact angle measurements, a noticeable relation was found between film composition and the hydrophilicity. Surface topography also varied by forming Schiff bases, becoming rougher than zein-based films. The antibacterial activities of zein and Schiff bases of zein-based films were investigated against gram-positive bacteria (Listeria innocua, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus and Clostridium sporogenes) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella enterica). It was found that the antibacterial activity of the Schiff bases-based films was more effective than that of zein-based films.

  1. Interaction and formation mechanism of binary complex between zein and propylene glycol alginate.

    PubMed

    Sun, Cuixia; Dai, Lei; Gao, Yanxiang

    2017-02-10

    The anti-solvent co-precipitation method was used to fabricate the zein-propylene glycol alginate (PGA) binary complex with different mass ratios of zein to PGA (20:1, 10:1, 5:1, 2:1 and 1:1) at pH 4.0. Results showed that attractive electrostatic interaction between zein and PGA occurred and negatively charged binary complex with large size and high turbidity was formed due to the charge neutralization. Hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic effects were involved in the interactions between zein and PGA, leading to the changed secondary structure and improved thermal stability of zein. Aggregates in the irregular shape with large size were obviously observed in the AFM images. PGA alone exhibited a fine filamentous network structure, while zein-PGA binary complex showed a rough branch-like pattern and the surface of "branch" was closely adsorbed by lots of spherical zein particles. Q in zein-PGA binary complex dispersions presented the improved photochemical and thermal stability. The potential mechanism of a two-step process was proposed to explain the formation of zein-PGA binary complexes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Structural Insights into Triglyceride Storage Mediated by Fat Storage-Inducing Transmembrane (FIT) Protein 2

    PubMed Central

    Gross, David A.; Snapp, Erik L.; Silver, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Fat storage-Inducing Transmembrane proteins 1 & 2 (FIT1/FITM1 and FIT2/FITM2) belong to a unique family of evolutionarily conserved proteins localized to the endoplasmic reticulum that are involved in triglyceride lipid droplet formation. FIT proteins have been shown to mediate the partitioning of cellular triglyceride into lipid droplets, but not triglyceride biosynthesis. FIT proteins do not share primary sequence homology with known proteins and no structural information is available to inform on the mechanism by which FIT proteins function. Here, we present the experimentally-solved topological models for FIT1 and FIT2 using N-glycosylation site mapping and indirect immunofluorescence techniques. These methods indicate that both proteins have six-transmembrane-domains with both N- and C-termini localized to the cytosol. Utilizing this model for structure-function analysis, we identified and characterized a gain-of-function mutant of FIT2 (FLL(157-9)AAA) in transmembrane domain 4 that markedly augmented the total number and mean size of lipid droplets. Using limited-trypsin proteolysis we determined that the FLL(157-9)AAA mutant has enhanced trypsin cleavage at K86 relative to wild-type FIT2, indicating a conformational change. Taken together, these studies indicate that FIT2 is a 6 transmembrane domain-containing protein whose conformation likely regulates its activity in mediating lipid droplet formation. PMID:20520733

  3. Zein Increases the Cytoaffinity and Biodegradability of Scaffolds 3D-Printed with Zein and Poly(ε-caprolactone) Composite Ink.

    PubMed

    Jing, Linzhi; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Hang; Lu, Yuyun; Bian, Jinsong; Sun, Jie; Huang, Dejian

    2018-05-25

    Electrohydrodynamic printing (EHDP) has attracted extensive interests as a powerful technology to fabricate micro- to nano-scale fibrous scaffolds in a custom-tailored manner for biomedical applications. A few synthetic biopolymer inks are applicable to this EHDP technology, but the fabricated scaffolds suffered from low mechanical strength, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. In this study, a series of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)/zein composite inks were developed and their printability was examined on a solution-based EHDP system for scaffold fabrication. Multilayer grid scaffolds were manufactured by PCL, PCL/zein-10, and PCL/zein-20 inks, respectively and characterized. The mechanical strength of scaffolds printed by PCL/zein composite inks was remarkably enhanced in terms of Young's modulus and yield stress. The enzyme-accelerated in vitro degradation study demonstrated that zein-containing scaffolds exhibited dose-responsive improvement on the degradation rate as evidenced by surface morphological change of fibers. Moreover, the biocompatibility of PCL/zein scaffolds, tested on mice embryonic fibroblast (NIH/3T3) and human nonsmall lung cancer cell (H1299), manifested better cell affinity. Our findings suggest that scaffolds fabricated by the solution-based EHDP with PCL/zein composite inks can significantly improve Young's modulus, yield stress, biocompatibility, and biodegradability and have potential applications in drug delivery systems, 3D cell culture modeling, or tissue engineering.

  4. 2S Albumin Storage Proteins: What Makes them Food Allergens?

    PubMed

    Moreno, F Javier; Clemente, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    2S albumin storage proteins are becoming of increasing interest in nutritional and clinical studies as they have been reported as major food allergens in seeds of many mono- and di-cotyledonous plants. This review describes the main biochemical, structural and functional properties of these proteins thought to play a role in determining their potential allergenicity. 2S albumins are considered to sensitize directly via the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The high stability of their intrinsic protein structure, dominated by a well-conserved skeleton of cysteine residues, to the harsh conditions present in the GIT suggests that these proteins are able to cross the gut mucosal barrier to sensitize the mucosal immune system and/or elicit an allergic response. The flexible and solvent-exposed hypervariable region of these proteins is immunodominant and has the ability to bind IgE from allergic patients sera. Several linear IgE-binding epitopes of 2S albumins spanning this region have been described to play a major role in allergenicity; the role of conformational epitopes of these proteins in food allergy is far from being understood and need to be investigated. Finally, the interaction of these proteins with other components of the food matrix might influence the absorption rates of immunologically reactive 2S albumins but also in their immune response.

  5. 2S Albumin Storage Proteins: What Makes them Food Allergens?

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, F. Javier; Clemente, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    2S albumin storage proteins are becoming of increasing interest in nutritional and clinical studies as they have been reported as major food allergens in seeds of many mono- and di-cotyledonous plants. This review describes the main biochemical, structural and functional properties of these proteins thought to play a role in determining their potential allergenicity. 2S albumins are considered to sensitize directly via the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The high stability of their intrinsic protein structure, dominated by a well-conserved skeleton of cysteine residues, to the harsh conditions present in the GIT suggests that these proteins are able to cross the gut mucosal barrier to sensitize the mucosal immune system and/or elicit an allergic response. The flexible and solvent-exposed hypervariable region of these proteins is immunodominant and has the ability to bind IgE from allergic patients´ sera. Several linear IgE-binding epitopes of 2S albumins spanning this region have been described to play a major role in allergenicity; the role of conformational epitopes of these proteins in food allergy is far from being understood and need to be investigated. Finally, the interaction of these proteins with other components of the food matrix might influence the absorption rates of immunologically reactive 2S albumins but also in their immune response. PMID:18949071

  6. The Encapsulation of Hemagglutinin in Protein Bodies Achieves a Stronger Immune Response in Mice than the Soluble Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Hofbauer, Anna; Melnik, Stanislav; Tschofen, Marc; Arcalis, Elsa; Phan, Hoang T.; Gresch, Ulrike; Lampel, Johannes; Conrad, Udo; Stoger, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Zein is a water-insoluble polymer from maize seeds that has been widely used to produce carrier particles for the delivery of therapeutic molecules. We encapsulated a recombinant model vaccine antigen in newly formed zein bodies in planta by generating a fusion construct comprising the ectodomain of hemagglutinin subtype 5 and the N-terminal part of γ-zein. The chimeric protein was transiently produced in tobacco leaves, and H5-containing protein bodies (PBs) were used to immunize mice. An immune response was achieved in all mice treated with H5-zein, even at low doses. The fusion to zein markedly enhanced the IgG response compared the soluble H5 control, and the effect was similar to a commercial adjuvant. The co-administration of adjuvants with the H5-zein bodies did not enhance the immune response any further, suggesting that the zein portion itself mediates an adjuvant effect. While the zein portion used to induce protein body formation was only weakly immunogenic, our results indicate that zein-induced PBs are promising production and delivery vehicles for subunit vaccines. PMID:26909090

  7. Protein accumulation and rumen stability of wheat γ-gliadin fusion proteins in tobacco and alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaodong; Chi-Ham, Cecilia L; Cohen-Davidyan, Tamar; DeBen, Christopher; Getachew, Girma; DePeters, Edward; Putnam, Daniel; Bennett, Alan

    2015-09-01

    The nutritional value of various crops can be improved by engineering plants to produce high levels of proteins. For example, because methionine deficiency limits the protein quality of Medicago Sativa (alfalfa) forage, producing alfalfa plants that accumulate high levels of a methionine-rich protein could increase the nutritional value of that crop. We used three strategies in designing methionine-rich recombinant proteins that could accumulate to high levels in plants and thereby serve as candidates for improving the protein quality of alfalfa forage. In tobacco, two fusion proteins, γ-gliadin-δ-zein and γ-δ-zein, as well as δ-zein co-expressed with β-zein, all formed protein bodies. However, the γ-gliadin-δ-zein fusion protein accumulated to the highest level, representing up to 1.5% of total soluble protein (TSP) in one transformant. In alfalfa, γ-gliadin-δ-zein accumulated to 0.2% of TSP, and in an in vitro rumen digestion assay, γ-gliadin-δ-zein was more resistant to microbial degradation than Rubisco. Additionally, although it did not form protein bodies, a γ-gliadin-GFP fusion protein accumulated to much higher levels, 7% of TSP, than a recombinant protein comprised of an ER localization signal fused to GFP in tobacco. Based on our results, we conclude that γ-gliadin-δ-zein is a potential candidate protein to use for enhancing methionine levels in plants and for improving rumen stability of forage protein. γ-gliadin fusion proteins may provide a general platform for increasing the accumulation of recombinant proteins in transgenic plants. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Characterization of seed storage protein patterns of Heliotropium digynum.

    PubMed

    Alwhibi, Mona Soliman

    2017-09-01

    Heliotropium digynum , is a shrub that has ecological importance. The height of the plant differs from one population to another and the difference in length of the inflorescence can be attributed to environmental factors, such as rainfall or type of soil and temperature. To date, no study has shed light on estimation in seed samples of H. digynum in Saudi Arabia. So, the aim is to evaluate and characterize the protein patterns of seed storage proteins of H. digynum to be used as fingerprint of this plant in Saudi Arabia. It is collected from different locations in the central region of Saudi Arabia and total protein extraction from plant was compared in SDS-PAGE. The genetic relationships among all cultivars were analyzed using UPGMA and NJ using Total Lab TL and in the same way using Jaccard Similarity Coefficient dendrogram using STATISTICA (ver.8) software. Results, our data show that amounts of protein are different, although they are of the same type or from the same geographical region. Amounts ranged between 22 and 1.5 mg/g of dry weight. Less amount of protein was obtained from the group of samples collected from Dir'iyah area, and the highest amount of protein was from the group of samples collected from Dyrab area in general.

  9. Influence of ensiling time and inoculation on alteration of the starch-protein matrix in high-moisture corn

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fates of hydrophobic zein proteins, which encapsulate corn starch creating vitreous endosperm, have not been investigated in high moisture corn (HMC). To assess influences of ensiling time and inoculation on hydrophobic zein proteins in HMC, quadruplicate samples of two random corns (A and B) co...

  10. Storage study and quality evaluation of coconut protein powder.

    PubMed

    Naik, Aduja; Prakash, Maya; R, Ravi; Raghavarao, Ksms

    2013-11-01

    Coconut skim milk and insoluble protein are 2 major byproducts in the production of virgin coconut oil. Coconut skim milk was homogenized along with insoluble protein and spray dried to obtain a value-added product, namely, coconut protein powder (CPP). This study deals with the storage study of CPP under different conditions (refrigerated [control], ambient and accelerated). CPP samples were withdrawn periodically at designated intervals of 15 d for accelerated and control, and 30 d for ambient condition. CPP stored at different conditions exhibited marginal moisture uptake (by 0.74 % w/w for control, 0.76 % w/w for ambient, and 1.26 % w/w for accelerated condition) and as a result, had very little effect on the functional properties of the powder. Withdrawn CPP was tested for sensory quality aspects and subjected to instrumental analysis as well. Withdrawn CPP was incorporated as a milk substitute in dessert (Kheer). Quantitative descriptive analysis of the powder and product (Kheer) showed no significant difference in attributes of CPP during the storage period of 2 mo. Electronic nose analysis revealed that CPP samples were not much different with respect to aroma pattern matching, respectively. © 2013 CSIR-Central Food Technological Research Institute.

  11. Impact of different isolation procedures on the functionality of zein and kafirin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Commercial corn prolamin (zein) aggregates in water above room temperature into an extensible, viscoelastic gluten-like substance. This specific functionality of zein can be used in the production of superior gluten-free bread. The present study examined laboratory-scale isolation of such functional...

  12. Melt processing of Zein with Polyvinylprrolidone and Cloisite**R Nonoclay to improve tensile properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Zein, the predominant prolamine in corn, is one of the potential major co-products of the bioethanol industry. Historically, it was used predominantly in the coatings and textile industries (1). In the 1950’s, though, petroleum-based products became more cost effective and zein fell out of favor. ...

  13. Copper excess impairs mobilization of storage proteins in bean cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Karmous, Inès; El Ferjani, Ezzedine; Chaoui, Abdelilah

    2011-12-01

    Germination represents a limiting stage of plant life cycle. One of the underlying metabolic activities following imbibition of seed is the reserve mobilization. Seeds of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. soisson nain hatif) were germinated by soaking in distilled water or 200 μM CuCl(2). Storage proteins breakdown and amino acids freeing from reserve tissues were investigated. Compared to the control, Cu caused a reduction in germination rate, embryo growth, and in mobilization of cotyledonary biomass. The failure in albumin and globulin hydrolysis after the exposure to the pollutant was argued by (1) higher contents of remaining proteins than control ones, (2) persistence of some polypeptide bands resolved by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of albumin and globulin-rich fractions, and (3) decrease in the availability of amino acids. Nitrogen starvation in embryonic axis should be associated with the Cu-imposed delay in growth.

  14. Fabrication of a biomimetic ZeinPDA nanofibrous scaffold impregnated with BMP-2 peptide conjugated TiO2 nanoparticle for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Babitha, S; Annamalai, Meenakshi; Dykas, Michal Marcin; Saha, Surajit; Poddar, Kingshuk; Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Venkatesan, Thirumalai; Korrapati, Purna Sai

    2018-04-01

    A biomimetic Zein polydopamine based nanofiber scaffold was fabricated to deliver bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) peptide conjugated titanium dioxide nanoparticles in a sustained manner for investigating its osteogenic differentiation potential. To prolong its retention time at the target site, BMP-2 peptide has been conjugated to titanium dioxide nanoparticles owing to its high surface to volume ratio. The effect of biochemical cues from BMP-2 peptide and nanotopographical stimulation of electrospun Zein polydopamine nanofiber were examined for its enhanced osteogenic expression of human fetal osteoblast cells. The sustained delivery of bioactive signals, improved cell adhesion, mineralization, and differentiation could be attributed to its highly interconnected nanofibrous matrix with unique material composition. Further, the expression of osteogenic markers revealed that the fabricated nanofibrous scaffold possess better cell-biomaterial interactions. These promising results demonstrate the potential of the composite nanofibrous scaffold as an effective biomaterial substrate for bone regeneration. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. A role for seed storage proteins in Arabidopsis seed longevity

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thu-Phuong; Cueff, Gwendal; Hegedus, Dwayne D; Rajjou, Loïc; Bentsink, Leónie

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics approaches have been a useful tool for determining the biological roles and functions of individual proteins and identifying the molecular mechanisms that govern seed germination, vigour and viability in response to ageing. In this work the dry seed proteome of four Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes, that carry introgression fragments at the position of seed longevity quantitative trait loci and as a result display different levels of seed longevity, was investigated. Seeds at two physiological states, after-ripened seeds that had the full germination ability and aged (stored) seeds of which the germination ability was severely reduced, were compared. Aged dry seed proteomes were markedly different from the after-ripened and reflected the seed longevity level of the four genotypes, despite the fact that dry seeds are metabolically quiescent. Results confirmed the role of antioxidant systems, notably vitamin E, and indicated that protection and maintenance of the translation machinery and energy pathways are essential for seed longevity. Moreover, a new role for seed storage proteins (SSPs) was identified in dry seeds during ageing. Cruciferins (CRUs) are the most abundant SSPs in Arabidopsis and seeds of a triple mutant for three CRU isoforms (crua crub cruc) were more sensitive to artificial ageing and their seed proteins were highly oxidized compared with wild-type seeds. These results confirm that oxidation is involved in seed deterioration and that SSPs buffer the seed from oxidative stress, thus protecting important proteins required for seed germination and seedling formation. PMID:26184996

  16. Seed storage proteins as a system for teaching protein identification by mass spectrometry in biochemistry laboratory.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Karl A; Tan-Wilson, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) has become an important tool in studying biological systems. One application is the identification of proteins and peptides by the matching of peptide and peptide fragment masses to the sequences of proteins in protein sequence databases. Often prior protein separation of complex protein mixtures by 2D-PAGE is needed, requiring more time and expertise than instructors of large laboratory classes can devote. We have developed an experimental module for our Biochemistry Laboratory course that engages students in MS-based protein identification following protein separation by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE, a technique that is usually taught in this type of course. The module is based on soybean seed storage proteins, a relatively simple mixture of proteins present in high levels in the seed, allowing the identification of the main protein bands by MS/MS and in some cases, even by peptide mass fingerprinting. Students can identify their protein bands using software available on the Internet, and are challenged to deduce post-translational modifications that have occurred upon germination. A collection of mass spectral data and tutorials that can be used as a stand-alone computer-based laboratory module were also assembled. Copyright © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Characterization of cassava starch based foam blended with plant proteins, kraft fiber, and palm oil.

    PubMed

    Kaisangsri, Nattapon; Kerdchoechuen, Orapin; Laohakunjit, Natta

    2014-09-22

    Cassava starch foam (CSF) trays blended with zein, gluten, soy protein, kraft fiber, and palm oil at various concentrations: 0, 5, 10 and 15% by weight of starch, were characterized. The addition of zein and gluten into CSF resulted in consolidated and homogeneous structural foams compared to its controls. Moreover, the flexural and compressive strength increased with increasing kraft, zein and gluten. CSF containing 15% kraft gave the highest flexural and compressive strength. However, the addition of palm oil into CSF gave the lowest flexural strength and compressive strength. The observed water absorption and water solubility index of CSFs blended with 15% zein and 15% gluten protein was lowest. Although kraft, zein and gluten could improve mechanical properties, water absorption and water solubility were greater than the expanded polystyrene foam (EPS). The CSF trays in this study might be an alternative for packing low water content foods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Abundant storage protein depletion from tuber proteins using ethanol precipitation method: Suitability to proteomics study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Min; Gupta, Ravi; Kim, Sun Hyung; Wang, Yiming; Rakwal, Randeep; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Kim, Sun Tae

    2015-05-01

    High-abundance proteins (HAPs) hamper in-depth proteome study necessitating development of a HAPs depletion method. Here, we report a novel ethanol precipitation method (EPM) for HAPs depletion from total tuber proteins. Ethanol showed a dose-dependent effect on depletion of sporamin from sweet potato and patatin from potato tubers, respectively. The 50% ethanol was an optimal concentration. 2DE analysis of EPM-prepared sweet potato proteins also revealed enrichment of storage proteins (SPs) in ethanol supernatant (ES) resulting in detection of new low-abundance proteins in ethanol pellet (EP), compared to total fraction. The ES fraction showed even higher trypsin inhibitor activity than total proteins, further showing the efficacy of EPM in enrichment of sporamin in ES fraction. Application of this method was demonstrated for comparative proteomics of two sweet potato cultivars (Hwang-geum and Ho-bac) and purification of SP (sporamin) in its native form, as examples. Comparative proteomics identified many cultivar specific protein spots and selected spots were confidently assigned for their protein identity using MALDI-TOF-TOF analysis. Overall, the EPM is simple, reproducible, and economical for depletion of SPs and is suitable for downstream proteomics study. This study opens a door for its potential application to other tuber crops or fruits rich in carbohydrates. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Fabrication, characterization and antimicrobial activities of thymol-loaded zein nanoparticles stabilized by sodium caseinate-chitosan hydrochloride double layers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaqiong; Niu, Yuge; Luo, Yangchao; Ge, Mei; Yang, Tian; Yu, Liangli Lucy; Wang, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Thymol-loaded zein nanoparticles stabilized with sodium caseinate (SC) and chitosan hydrochloride (CHC) were prepared and characterized. The SC stabilized nanoparticles had well-defined size range and negatively charged surface. Due to the presence of SC, the stabilized zein nanoparticles showed a shift of isoelectric point from 6.18 to 5.05, and had a desirable redispersibility in water at neutral pH after lyophilization. Coating with CHC onto the SC stabilized zein nanoparticles resulted in increased particle size, reversal of zeta potential value from negative to positive, and improved encapsulation efficiency. Both thymol-loaded zein nanoparticles and SC stabilized zein nanoparticles had a spherical shape and smooth surface, while the surfaces of CHC-SC stabilized zein nanoparticles seemed rough and had some clumps. Encapsulated thymol was more effective in suppressing gram-positive bacterium than un-encapsulated thymol for a longer time period. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Preparation, characterization and stability of curcumin-loaded zein-shellac composite colloidal particles.

    PubMed

    Sun, Cuixia; Xu, Chenqi; Mao, Like; Wang, Di; Yang, Jie; Gao, Yanxiang

    2017-08-01

    Curcumin-loaded zein-shellac composite particles were prepared by the antisolvent co-precipitation method. The encapsulation efficiency of curcumin was significantly improved from 82.7% in zein particles to 93.2% in zein-shellac complex particles. The result of differential scanning calorimetry suggested that curcumin in the polymeric matrix was in an amorphous state. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed that curcumin had non-covalently interacted with zein and shellac, mainly through hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction. Aggregates in irregular shapes, with large sizes, were found by atomic force microscopy, and conglutination, integration or fusion of different entities into network structures occurred at a high level of shellac. At the mass ratio of zein to shellac of 1:1, curcumin in the complex particles exhibited improved photochemical and thermal stability. Curcumin-loaded zein-shellac complex particles allowed the controlled release of curcumin in both PBS medium and simulated gastrointestinal fluids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Quercetagetin-Loaded Zein-Propylene Glycol Alginate Ternary Composite Particles Induced by Calcium Ions: Structure Characterization and Formation Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sun, Cuixia; Wei, Yang; Li, Ruirui; Dai, Lei; Gao, Yanxiang

    2017-05-17

    The complexation of zein and propylene glycol alginate (PGA) was confirmed to improve the entrapment efficiency and loading capacity of quercetagetin (Q) in our previous study. The present work focused on the influence and induction mechanism of calcium ions on structures of Q-loaded zein-PGA ternary composite particles. The incorporation of Ca 2+ resulted in the formation of aggregates with a large dimension between zein particles, led to obvious conformational, secondary, and tertiary structural changes of zein, and caused the disappearance of crystalline structure of zein. PGA exhibited a fine filamentous network structure and became much thicker and stronger in the presence of Ca 2+ . The presence of Q promoted the affinity and binding capacity of Ca 2+ to zein and PGA. An interwoven network structure with enhanced firmness and density was observed in Q-loaded zein-PGA composite particles, leading to improved thermal stability. Three potential mechanisms were proposed to explain the structural characteristics induced by Ca 2+ , including particle-particle collision for zein particles, chain-chain association for PGA molecules, and simultaneous cross-linking coupled with aggregating for Q-loaded zein-PGA composite particles.

  2. Size-controlled fabrication of zein nano/microparticles by modified anti-solvent precipitation with/without sodium caseinate

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feng; Chen, Yan; Liu, Shubo; Qi, Jian; Wang, Weiying; Wang, Chenhua; Zhong, Ruiyue; Chen, Zhijun; Li, Xiaoming; Guan, Yuanzhou; Kong, Wei; Zhang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Zein-based nano/microparticles have been demonstrated to be promising carrier systems for both the food industry and biomedical applications. However, the fabrication of size-controlled zein particles has been a challenging issue. In this study, a modified anti-solvent precipitation method was developed, and the effects of various factors, such as mixing method, solvent/anti-solvent ratio, temperature, zein concentrations and the presence of sodium caseinate (SC) on properties of zein particles were investigated. Evidence is presented that, among the previously mentioned factors, the mixing method, especially mixing rate, could be used as an effective parameter to control the size of zein particles without changing other parameters. Moreover, through fine-tuning the mixing rate together with zein concentration, particles with sizes ranging from nanometers to micrometers and low polydispersity index values could be easily obtained. Based on the size-controlled fabrication method, SC-coated zein nanoparticles could also be obtained in a size-controlled manner by incubation of the coating material with the already-formed zein particles. The resultant nanoparticles showed better performance in both drug loading and controlled release, compared with zein/SC hybrid nanoparticles fabricated by adding aqueous ethanol solution to SC solution. The possible mechanisms of the nanoprecipitation process and self-assembly formation of these nanoparticles are discussed. PMID:29184408

  3. Size-controlled fabrication of zein nano/microparticles by modified anti-solvent precipitation with/without sodium caseinate.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Chen, Yan; Liu, Shubo; Qi, Jian; Wang, Weiying; Wang, Chenhua; Zhong, Ruiyue; Chen, Zhijun; Li, Xiaoming; Guan, Yuanzhou; Kong, Wei; Zhang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Zein-based nano/microparticles have been demonstrated to be promising carrier systems for both the food industry and biomedical applications. However, the fabrication of size-controlled zein particles has been a challenging issue. In this study, a modified anti-solvent precipitation method was developed, and the effects of various factors, such as mixing method, solvent/anti-solvent ratio, temperature, zein concentrations and the presence of sodium caseinate (SC) on properties of zein particles were investigated. Evidence is presented that, among the previously mentioned factors, the mixing method, especially mixing rate, could be used as an effective parameter to control the size of zein particles without changing other parameters. Moreover, through fine-tuning the mixing rate together with zein concentration, particles with sizes ranging from nanometers to micrometers and low polydispersity index values could be easily obtained. Based on the size-controlled fabrication method, SC-coated zein nanoparticles could also be obtained in a size-controlled manner by incubation of the coating material with the already-formed zein particles. The resultant nanoparticles showed better performance in both drug loading and controlled release, compared with zein/SC hybrid nanoparticles fabricated by adding aqueous ethanol solution to SC solution. The possible mechanisms of the nanoprecipitation process and self-assembly formation of these nanoparticles are discussed.

  4. Mechanical and spectroscopic characterization of crosslinked zein films cast from solutions of acetic acid leading to a new mechanism for the crosslinking of oleic acid plasticized zein films.

    PubMed

    Turasan, Hazal; Barber, Emma A; Malm, Morgan; Kokini, Jozef L

    2018-06-01

    This study discovered through FTIR, FT-Raman and rheological measurements that glutaraldehyde binds to zein through the amine groups of glutamine turns by replacing the already-bonded oleic acid molecules and forming imine structures. As a secondary crosslinking mechanism, glutaraldehyde unfolds some of the α-helices and turns them into β-sheets. While crosslinking resulted in stiffer and less ductile zein films, it made the surface of the films rougher, measured using AFM, and more hydrophilic, measured using WCA. In the crosslinking conditions in this study, the number of crosslinks estimated from rubber elasticity theory were not enough to change the water vapor permeability of the films significantly. Improving the understanding of crosslinking mechanism and its effects on physical and chemical properties of zein films can be useful to develop stiffer, stronger and more durable platforms for biodegradable biosensors, microfluidic devices or scaffolds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Novel insights into the effect of nitrogen on storage protein biosynthesis and protein body development in wheat caryopsis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xurun; Chen, Xinyu; Wang, Leilei; Yang, Yang; Zhu, Xiaowei; Shao, Shanshan; Cui, Wenxue; Xiong, Fei

    2017-04-01

    Molecular and cytological mechanisms concerning the effects of nitrogen on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) storage protein biosynthesis and protein body development remain largely elusive. We used transcriptome sequencing, proteomics techniques, and light microscopy to investigate these issues. In total, 2585 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 57 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were found 7 days after anthesis (DAA), and 2456 DEGs and 64 DEPs were detected 18 DAA after nitrogen treatment. Gene ontology terms related to protein biosynthesis processes enriched these numbers by 678 and 582 DEGs at 7 and 18 DAA, respectively. Further, 25 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways were involved in protein biosynthesis at both 7 and 18 DAA. DEPs related to storage protein biosynthesis contained gliadin and glutenin subunits, most of which were up-regulated after nitrogen treatment. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that some gliadin and glutenin subunit encoding genes were differentially expressed at 18 DAA. Structural observation revealed that wheat endosperm accumulated more and larger protein bodies after nitrogen treatment. Collectively, our findings suggest that nitrogen treatment enhances storage protein content, endosperm protein body quantity, and partial processing quality by altering the expression levels of certain genes involved in protein biosynthesis pathways and storage protein expression at the proteomics level. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Temperature of frozen storage affects the nature and consequences of protein oxidation in beef patties.

    PubMed

    Utrera, Mariana; Morcuende, David; Estévez, Mario

    2014-03-01

    The effect of three frozen storage temperatures (-8, -18 and -80 °C) on protein oxidation in beef patties was studied through the analysis of novel oxidation markers. Additionally, the connection between lipid and protein oxidation and the impact of the latter on particular quality traits (water holding capacity, color and texture) of subsequently processed beef patties (cooking/cold-stored) were investigated. Protein oxidation was measured as the loss of tryptophan fluorescence and formation of diverse lysine oxidation products (α-aminoadipic semialdehyde, α-aminoadipic acid and Schiff bases). Lipid oxidation was assessed by levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and hexanal. A significant effect of storage temperature on protein oxidation was detected. Frozen storage increased the susceptibility of meat proteins to undergo further oxidation during processing. Timely interactions were found between lipid and protein oxidation. Plausible mechanisms by which oxidative damage to proteins may have an impact in particular quality traits are thoroughly discussed. © 2013.

  7. Encapsulation of indole-3-carbinol and 3'3'-diindolylmethane in zein/carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles with controlled release property and improved stability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and diindolylmethane (DIM) are two bioactive compounds from Cruciferous vegetables. Their stabilities are the major challenges for their pharmaceutical applications. In this study, zein and zein/carboxymethyl chitosan (zein/CMCS) nanoparticles have been prepared to encapsulat...

  8. Grain sorghum proteomics: An integrated approach towards characterization of seed storage proteins in kafirin allelic variants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seed protein composition determines quality traits, such as value for food, feedstock and biomaterials uses. Sorghum seed proteins are predominantly prolamins known as kafirins. Located primarily on the periphery of storage protein bodies, cysteine-rich ß- and gama-kafirins are thought to prevent en...

  9. Structure and function of seed storage proteins in faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yujiao; Wu, Xuexia; Hou, Wanwei; Li, Ping; Sha, Weichao; Tian, Yingying

    2017-05-01

    The protein subunit is the most important basic unit of protein, and its study can unravel the structure and function of seed storage proteins in faba bean. In this study, we identified six specific protein subunits in Faba bean (cv. Qinghai 13) combining liquid chromatography (LC), liquid chromatography-electronic spray ionization mass (LC-ESI-MS/MS) and bio-information technology. The results suggested a diversity of seed storage proteins in faba bean, and a total of 16 proteins (four GroEL molecular chaperones and 12 plant-specific proteins) were identified from 97-, 96-, 64-, 47-, 42-, and 38-kD-specific protein subunits in faba bean based on the peptide sequence. We also analyzed the composition and abundance of the amino acids, the physicochemical characteristics, secondary structure, three-dimensional structure, transmembrane domain, and possible subcellular localization of these identified proteins in faba bean seed, and finally predicted function and structure. The three-dimensional structures were generated based on homologous modeling, and the protein function was analyzed based on the annotation from the non-redundant protein database (NR database, NCBI) and function analysis of optimal modeling. The objective of this study was to identify the seed storage proteins in faba bean and confirm the structure and function of these proteins. Our results can be useful for the study of protein nutrition and achieve breeding goals for optimal protein quality in faba bean.

  10. Optimization of caseinate-coated simvastatin-zein nanoparticles: improved bioavailability and modified release characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Osama A A; Hosny, Khaled M; Al-Sawahli, Majid M; Fahmy, Usama A

    2015-01-01

    The current study focuses on utilization of the natural biocompatible polymer zein to formulate simvastatin (SMV) nanoparticles coated with caseinate, to improve solubility and hence bioavailability, and in addition, to modify SMV-release characteristics. This formulation can be utilized for oral or possible depot parenteral applications. Fifteen formulations were prepared by liquid-liquid phase separation method, according to the Box-Behnken design, to optimize formulation variables. Sodium caseinate was used as an electrosteric stabilizer. The factors studied were: percentage of SMV in the SMV-zein mixture (X1), ethanol concentration (X2), and caseinate concentration (X3). The selected dependent variables were mean particle size (Y1), SMV encapsulation efficiency (Y2), and cumulative percentage of drug permeated after 1 hour (Y3). The diffusion of SMV from the prepared nanoparticles specified by the design was carried out using an automated Franz diffusion cell apparatus. The optimized SMV-zein formula was investigated for in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters compared with an oral SMV suspension. The optimized nanosized SMV-zein formula showed a 131 nm mean particle size and 89% encapsulation efficiency. In vitro permeation studies displayed delayed permeation characteristics, with about 42% and 85% of SMV cumulative amount released after 12 and 48 hours, respectively. Bioavailability estimation in rats revealed an augmentation in SMV bioavailability from the optimized SMV-zein formulation, by fourfold relative to SMV suspension. Formulation of caseinate-coated SMV-zein nanoparticles improves the pharmacokinetic profile and bioavailability of SMV. Accordingly, improved hypolipidemic activities for longer duration could be achieved. In addition, the reduced dosage rate of SMV-zein nanoparticles improves patient tolerability and compliance.

  11. Optimization of caseinate-coated simvastatin-zein nanoparticles: improved bioavailability and modified release characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Osama AA; Hosny, Khaled M; Al-Sawahli, Majid M; Fahmy, Usama A

    2015-01-01

    The current study focuses on utilization of the natural biocompatible polymer zein to formulate simvastatin (SMV) nanoparticles coated with caseinate, to improve solubility and hence bioavailability, and in addition, to modify SMV-release characteristics. This formulation can be utilized for oral or possible depot parenteral applications. Fifteen formulations were prepared by liquid–liquid phase separation method, according to the Box–Behnken design, to optimize formulation variables. Sodium caseinate was used as an electrosteric stabilizer. The factors studied were: percentage of SMV in the SMV-zein mixture (X1), ethanol concentration (X2), and caseinate concentration (X3). The selected dependent variables were mean particle size (Y1), SMV encapsulation efficiency (Y2), and cumulative percentage of drug permeated after 1 hour (Y3). The diffusion of SMV from the prepared nanoparticles specified by the design was carried out using an automated Franz diffusion cell apparatus. The optimized SMV-zein formula was investigated for in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters compared with an oral SMV suspension. The optimized nanosized SMV-zein formula showed a 131 nm mean particle size and 89% encapsulation efficiency. In vitro permeation studies displayed delayed permeation characteristics, with about 42% and 85% of SMV cumulative amount released after 12 and 48 hours, respectively. Bioavailability estimation in rats revealed an augmentation in SMV bioavailability from the optimized SMV-zein formulation, by fourfold relative to SMV suspension. Formulation of caseinate-coated SMV-zein nanoparticles improves the pharmacokinetic profile and bioavailability of SMV. Accordingly, improved hypolipidemic activities for longer duration could be achieved. In addition, the reduced dosage rate of SMV-zein nanoparticles improves patient tolerability and compliance. PMID:25670883

  12. Removal of surface lipids improves the functionality of commercial zein in viscoelastic zein-starch dough for gluten-free breadmaking

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Maize prolamin (zein), together with starch, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, sugar, salt, yeast and water can form wheat-like cohesive, extensible, viscoelastic dough when mixed above room temperature (e.g. 40 °C). This dough is capable of holding gas. However, it is excessively extensible, and when ...

  13. Compatibility of melt-processed zein blends with methylenediphenyl 4,4'-diisocyanate-thermal, mechanical and physical properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corn zein was melt-processed with methylenediphenyl 4,4'-diisocyanate (MDI) using triethylamine (TEA) as catalyst. The objective is to construct a melt-processed, compatible blend of zein with MDI that can be used as a building block for generating bio-based thermoplastics. The impact of cross-linki...

  14. Short communication: The effect of liquid storage on the flavor of whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Park, Curtis W; Parker, Megan; Drake, MaryAnne

    2016-06-01

    Unit operations in dried dairy ingredient manufacture significantly influence sensory properties and, consequently, their use and consumer acceptance in a variety of ingredient applications. In whey protein concentrate (WPC) manufacture, liquid can be stored as whey or WPC before spray drying. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of storage, composition, and bleaching on the flavor of spray-dried WPC80. Liquid whey was manufactured and subjected to the following treatments: bleached or unbleached and liquid whey or liquid WPC storage. The experiment was replicated 3 times and included a no-storage control. All liquid storage was performed at 4°C for 24h. Flavor of the final spray-dried WPC80 was evaluated by a trained panel and volatile compound analyses. Storage of liquids increased cardboard flavor, decreased sweet aromatic flavor, and resulted in increased volatile lipid oxidation products. Bleaching altered the effect of liquid storage. Storage of unbleached liquid whey decreased sweet aromatic flavor and increased cardboard flavor and volatile lipid oxidation products compared with liquid WPC80 and no storage. In contrast, storage of bleached liquid WPC decreased sweet aromatic flavor and increased cardboard flavor and associated volatile lipid oxidation products compared with bleached liquid whey or no storage. These results confirm that liquid storage increases off-flavors in spray-dried protein but to a variable degree, depending on whether bleaching has been applied. If liquid storage is necessary, bleached WPC80 should be stored as liquid whey and unbleached WPC80 should be stored as liquid WPC to mitigate off-flavors. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Preparation, characterisation and antioxidant activities of rutin-loaded zein-sodium caseinate nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuangling; Han, Yue

    2018-01-01

    Novel rutin-loaded zein-sodium caseinate nanoparticles (ZP) with antioxidant activity in aqueous medium were investigated. The results showed that the sodium caseinate concentrations, dosages of rutin and ethanol volume fractions significantly affected the zein nanoparticles' characteristics. Concerning the antioxidant properties, the highest values of rutin loaded ZP obtained using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging and 2 and 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) decolourisation assays were 52.7% and 71.2%, respectively, and the total antioxidant capacity was 0.40 nmol g-1. The results suggest that zein-sodium caseinate nanoparticles can be used as a new nano carrier system for rutin or other water insoluble active ingredients.

  16. Preparation, characterisation and antioxidant activities of rutin-loaded zein-sodium caseinate nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yue

    2018-01-01

    Novel rutin-loaded zein-sodium caseinate nanoparticles (ZP) with antioxidant activity in aqueous medium were investigated. The results showed that the sodium caseinate concentrations, dosages of rutin and ethanol volume fractions significantly affected the zein nanoparticles’ characteristics. Concerning the antioxidant properties, the highest values of rutin loaded ZP obtained using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging and 2 and 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) decolourisation assays were 52.7% and 71.2%, respectively, and the total antioxidant capacity was 0.40 nmol g-1. The results suggest that zein-sodium caseinate nanoparticles can be used as a new nano carrier system for rutin or other water insoluble active ingredients. PMID:29579133

  17. Mouse fat storage-inducing transmembrane protein 2 (FIT2) promotes lipid droplet accumulation in plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fat Storage-Inducing Transmembrane protein 2 (FIT2) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized protein that plays an important role in lipid droplet (LD) formation in animal cells. However, no obvious homologue of FIT2 is found in plants. Here, we tested the function of FIT2 in plant cells by ectopi...

  18. Control of storage-protein synthesis during seed development in pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed Central

    Gatehouse, J A; Evans, I M; Bown, D; Croy, R R; Boulter, D

    1982-01-01

    The tissue-specific syntheses of seed storage proteins in the cotyledons of developing pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds have been demonstrated by estimates of their qualitative and quantitative accumulation by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and rocket immunoelectrophoresis respectively. Vicilin-fraction proteins initially accumulated faster than legumin, but whereas legumin was accumulated throughout development, different components of the vicilin fraction had their predominant periods of synthesis at different stages of development. The translation products in vitro of polysomes isolated from cotyledons at different stages of development reflected the synthesis in vivo of storage-protein polypeptides at corresponding times. The levels of storage-protein mRNA species during development were estimated by 'Northern' hybridization using cloned complementary-DNA probes. This technique showed that the levels of legumin and vicilin (47000-Mr precursors) mRNA species increased and decreased in agreement with estimated rates of synthesis of the respective polypeptides. The relative amounts of these messages, estimated by kinetic hybridization were also consistent. Legumin mRNA was present in leaf poly(A)+ RNA at less than one-thousandth of the level in cotyledon poly(A)+ (polyadenylated) RNA, demonstrating tissue-specific expression. Evidence is presented that storage-protein mRNA species are relatively long-lived, and it is suggested that storage-protein synthesis is regulated primarily at the transcriptional level. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:6897609

  19. Zein nanoparticles as delivery systems for covalently linked and physically entrapped folic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuacharoen, Thanida; Sabliov, Cristina M.

    2017-02-01

    Zein nanoparticles covalently linked to folic acid were hypothesized to sustain the release of the folic acid in addition to targeting cancer cells overexpressing folate-binding receptors, whereas zein nanoparticles with physically entrapped folic acid would only be able to control the release of the bioactive without targeting of cancer cells. The two types of particles, folic acid covalently linked zein nanoparticles (ZN-FA nps) and zein nanoparticles with entrapped folic acid (ZN(FA) nps), were synthesized and the covalent link between folic acid and zein was assessed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR). Their size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, morphology, and loading capacity were evaluated by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and spectrophotometric technique. The release studies of the folic acid preformed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 37 °C for 7 days concluded that the release of the loaded folic acid was sustained over 7 days for both systems. The cytotoxicity was investigated using a methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, and the results showed that zein nanoparticles were biocompatible to HeLa (an overexpressing folate receptor cells) and A549 (a deficient folate receptor cells) cells, which have different levels of folate receptors on surface and both folic acid nanoparticle systems were able to diminish the adverse toxic effect of folic acid to cells. The increased uptake of ZN-FA nps relative to ZN(FA) nps supported the use of ZN-FA nps as targeting nanoagents to cells overexpressing folate receptors.

  20. SYNTHESIS AND STORAGE OF MICROTUBULE PROTEINS BY SEA URCHIN EMBRYOS

    PubMed Central

    Raff, Rudolf A.; Greenhouse, Gerald; Gross, Kenneth W.; Gross, Paul R.

    1971-01-01

    Studies employing colchicine binding, precipitation with vinblastine sulfate, and acrylamide gel electrophoresis confirm earlier proposals that Arbacia punctulata and Lytechinus pictus eggs and embryos contain a store of microtubule proteins. Treatment of 150,000 g supernatants from sea urchin homogenates with vinblastine sulfate precipitates about 5% of the total soluble protein, and 75% of the colchicine-binding activity. Electrophoretic examination of the precipitate reveals two very prominent bands. These have migration rates identical to those of the A and B microtubule proteins of cilia. These proteins can be made radioactive at the 16 cell stage and at hatching by pulse labeling with tritiated amino acids. By labeling for 1 hr with leucine-3H in early cleavage, then culturing embryos in the presence of unlabeled leucine, removal of newly synthesized microtubule proteins from the soluble pool can be demonstrated. Incorporation of labeled amino acids into microtubule proteins is not affected by culturing embryos continuously in 20 µg/ml of actinomycin D. Microtubule proteins appear, therefore, to be synthesized on "maternal" messenger RNA. This provides the first protein encoded by stored or "masked" mRNA in sea urchin embryos to be identified. PMID:5165266

  1. Identification of chromosome regions controlling seed storage proteins of narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius).

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Islam, Shahidul; Yang, Huaan; Ma, Wujun; Yan, Guijun

    2013-05-01

    Narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) is a valuable legume crop for animal feed and human health food because of its high proteins content. However, the genetics of seed storage proteins is unclear, limiting further improvement of protein quantity and quality. In this study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry was used for the first time to analyze lupin seed storage proteins and the spectra generated was treated as markers to investigate the chromosome locations controlling seed storage proteins in the narrow-leafed lupin. In a recombinant inbred line population of 89 individuals, 48 polymorphic protein peaks were identified and seven of which were successfully mapped onto four existing linkage groups: two on NLL-04, three on NLL-05, one on NLL-07 and one on NLL-14, with LOD values ranging from 2.6 to 7.7 confirming a significant linkage. Most protein-based markers showed distorted segregation and were failed to be integrated into the reference map. Among them, 31 were grouped into six clusters and the other ten were totally unlinked. This study provides a significant clue to study the comparative genomics/proteomics among legumes as well as for protein marker-assisted breeding. The distribution pattern of genes controlling seed storage protein revealed in this study probably exists universally among legumes or even all plants and animals. Whether genes controlling seed storage protein share the same gene expression pattern controlling other enzymes and what is the mechanism behind it are the questions which remain to be answered in the future.

  2. Biochemistry of Fern Spore Germination: Globulin Storage Proteins in Matteuccia struthiopteris L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Templeman, Thomas S.; DeMaggio, Augustus E.; Stetler, David A.

    1987-01-01

    Two globulin storage proteins have been identified in spores of the ostrich fern, Matteuccia struthiopteris (L.) Todaro. The two proteins comprise a significant amount of the total spore protein, are predominantly salt-soluble, and can be extracted by other solvents to a limited extent. The large 11.3 Svedberg unit (S) globulin is composed of five polypeptides with molecular weights of 21,000, 22,000, 24,000, 28,000 and 30,000. Each polypeptide has several isoelectric point (pI) variants between pH 5 and 7. The small 2.2S storage protein has a pI > 10.5 and is composed of at least two major polypeptides of 6,000 and 14,000 Mr. The amino acid composition of both storage proteins reveals that the 11.3S protein is particularly rich in aspartic and glutamic acid, while the 2.2S protein has few acidic amino acids. During imbibition and germination the globulin fraction declines rapidly, with a corresponding degradation of individual polypeptides of each protein. Polyclonal antibodies against each of the two proteins were produced and used for immunolocalization to determine the site of storage protein deposition within the quiescent spore. The proteins were sequestered in protein bodies of 2 to 10 micrometers, that are morphologically similar to those found in the seeds of flowering plants. The results suggest that spore globulins are biochemically similar to seed globulins, especially those found in some cruciferous seeds. Images Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:16665699

  3. Conservation of polypyrimidine tract binding proteins and their putative target RNAs in several storage root crops.

    PubMed

    Kondhare, Kirtikumar R; Kumar, Amit; Hannapel, David J; Banerjee, Anjan K

    2018-02-07

    Polypyrimidine-tract binding proteins (PTBs) are ubiquitous RNA-binding proteins in plants and animals that play diverse role in RNA metabolic processes. PTB proteins bind to target RNAs through motifs rich in cytosine/uracil residues to fine-tune transcript metabolism. Among tuber and root crops, potato has been widely studied to understand the mobile signals that activate tuber development. Potato PTBs, designated as StPTB1 and StPTB6, function in a long-distance transport system by binding to specific mRNAs (StBEL5 and POTH1) to stabilize them and facilitate their movement from leaf to stolon, the site of tuber induction, where they activate tuber and root growth. Storage tubers and root crops are important sustenance food crops grown throughout the world. Despite the availability of genome sequence for sweet potato, cassava, carrot and sugar beet, the molecular mechanism of root-derived storage organ development remains completely unexplored. Considering the pivotal role of PTBs and their target RNAs in potato storage organ development, we propose that a similar mechanism may be prevalent in storage root crops as well. Through a bioinformatics survey utilizing available genome databases, we identify the orthologues of potato PTB proteins and two phloem-mobile RNAs, StBEL5 and POTH1, in five storage root crops - sweet potato, cassava, carrot, radish and sugar beet. Like potato, PTB1/6 type proteins from these storage root crops contain four conserved RNA Recognition Motifs (characteristic of RNA-binding PTBs) in their protein sequences. Further, 3´ UTR (untranslated region) analysis of BEL5 and POTH1 orthologues revealed the presence of several cytosine/uracil motifs, similar to those present in potato StBEL5 and POTH1 RNAs. Using RT-qPCR assays, we verified the presence of these related transcripts in leaf and root tissues of these five storage root crops. Similar to potato, BEL5-, PTB1/6- and POTH1-like orthologue RNAs from the aforementioned storage root

  4. Structural characterization, formation mechanism and stability of curcumin in zein-lecithin composite nanoparticles fabricated by antisolvent co-precipitation.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lei; Sun, Cuixia; Li, Ruirui; Mao, Like; Liu, Fuguo; Gao, Yanxiang

    2017-12-15

    Curcumin (Cur) exhibits a range of bioactive properties, but its application is restrained due to its poor water solubility and sensitivity to environmental stresses. In this study, zein-lecithin composite nanoparticles were fabricated by antisolvent co-precipitation technique for delivery of Cur. The result showed that the encapsulation efficiency of Cur was significantly enhanced from 42.03% in zein nanoparticles to 99.83% in zein-lecithin composite nanoparticles. The Cur entrapped in the nanoparticles was in an amorphous state confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. Fourier transform infrared analysis revealed that hydrogen bonding, electrostatic interaction and hydrophobic attraction were the main interactions among zein, lecithin, and Cur. Compared with single zein and lecithin nanoparticles, zein-lecithin composite nanoparticles significantly improved the stability of Cur against thermal treatment, UV irradiation and high ionic strength. Therefore, zein-lecithin composite nanoparticles could be a potential delivery system for water-insoluble bioactive compounds with enhanced encapsulation efficiency and chemical stability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Zein/Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) electrospun blend fiber scaffolds: Preparation, characterization and cytocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Zhijiang, Cai; Qin, Zhang; Xianyou, Song; Yuanpei, Liu

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, a series of Zein/Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) blend fiber scaffolds have been prepared by electrospinning method. The electrospun fibers showed a circular and uniform morphology with random distribution. The blend fiber scaffolds possessed well interconnected porous fibrous network structure with high porosity and large aspect surface areas. The FTIR and XPS spectra of Zein/P(3HB-co-4HB) blend fibers demonstrated the same characteristics to that of pure Zein and P(3HB-co-4HB) electrospun fibers. However, Zein might hinder the crystallization of P(3HB-co-4HB) owing to the formation of weak intermolecular interactions, which can affect the preferential orientation of P(3HB-co-4HB) molecules. Only one glass transition temperature (Tg) can be detected for electrospun Zein/P(3HB-co-4HB) blend fiber scaffolds implying the miscibility of Zein and P(3HB-co-4HB) in the blend fibers. The Zein/P(3HB-co-4HB) blend fiber scaffolds showed about 50% of improvement in tensile strength and 400% of increase in elongation at break by increasing P(3HB-co-4HB) content from 20% to 80%. The cytocompatibility of the Zein/P(3HB-co-4HB) blend fiber scaffolds was preliminarily evaluated by cell culture in vitro. The as-prepared electrospun Zein/P(3HB-co-4HB) blend fiber scaffolds with the characteristics of good biocompatibility, excellent pore characteristic as well as sufficient mechanical properties should be more promising for applications as tissue engineering scaffold. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification and characterisation of seed storage protein transcripts from Lupinus angustifolius

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In legumes, seed storage proteins are important for the developing seedling and are an important source of protein for humans and animals. Lupinus angustifolius (L.), also known as narrow-leaf lupin (NLL) is a grain legume crop that is gaining recognition as a potential human health food as the grain is high in protein and dietary fibre, gluten-free and low in fat and starch. Results Genes encoding the seed storage proteins of NLL were characterised by sequencing cDNA clones derived from developing seeds. Four families of seed storage proteins were identified and comprised three unique α, seven β, two γ and four δ conglutins. This study added eleven new expressed storage protein genes for the species. A comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of NLL conglutins with those available for the storage proteins of Lupinus albus (L.), Pisum sativum (L.), Medicago truncatula (L.), Arachis hypogaea (L.) and Glycine max (L.) permitted the analysis of a phylogenetic relationships between proteins and demonstrated, in general, that the strongest conservation occurred within species. In the case of 7S globulin (β conglutins) and 2S sulphur-rich albumin (δ conglutins), the analysis suggests that gene duplication occurred after legume speciation. This contrasted with 11S globulin (α conglutin) and basic 7S (γ conglutin) sequences where some of these sequences appear to have diverged prior to speciation. The most abundant NLL conglutin family was β (56%), followed by α (24%), δ (15%) and γ (6%) and the transcript levels of these genes increased 103 to 106 fold during seed development. We used the 16 NLL conglutin sequences identified here to determine that for individuals specifically allergic to lupin, all seven members of the β conglutin family were potential allergens. Conclusion This study has characterised 16 seed storage protein genes in NLL including 11 newly-identified members. It has helped lay the foundation for efforts to use molecular

  7. Identification and characterisation of seed storage protein transcripts from Lupinus angustifolius.

    PubMed

    Foley, Rhonda C; Gao, Ling-Ling; Spriggs, Andrew; Soo, Lena Y C; Goggin, Danica E; Smith, Penelope M C; Atkins, Craig A; Singh, Karam B

    2011-04-04

    In legumes, seed storage proteins are important for the developing seedling and are an important source of protein for humans and animals. Lupinus angustifolius (L.), also known as narrow-leaf lupin (NLL) is a grain legume crop that is gaining recognition as a potential human health food as the grain is high in protein and dietary fibre, gluten-free and low in fat and starch. Genes encoding the seed storage proteins of NLL were characterised by sequencing cDNA clones derived from developing seeds. Four families of seed storage proteins were identified and comprised three unique α, seven β, two γ and four δ conglutins. This study added eleven new expressed storage protein genes for the species. A comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of NLL conglutins with those available for the storage proteins of Lupinus albus (L.), Pisum sativum (L.), Medicago truncatula (L.), Arachis hypogaea (L.) and Glycine max (L.) permitted the analysis of a phylogenetic relationships between proteins and demonstrated, in general, that the strongest conservation occurred within species. In the case of 7S globulin (β conglutins) and 2S sulphur-rich albumin (δ conglutins), the analysis suggests that gene duplication occurred after legume speciation. This contrasted with 11S globulin (α conglutin) and basic 7S (γ conglutin) sequences where some of these sequences appear to have diverged prior to speciation. The most abundant NLL conglutin family was β (56%), followed by α (24%), δ (15%) and γ (6%) and the transcript levels of these genes increased 103 to 106 fold during seed development. We used the 16 NLL conglutin sequences identified here to determine that for individuals specifically allergic to lupin, all seven members of the β conglutin family were potential allergens. This study has characterised 16 seed storage protein genes in NLL including 11 newly-identified members. It has helped lay the foundation for efforts to use molecular breeding approaches to improve

  8. The effects of frozen tissue storage conditions on the integrity of RNA and protein.

    PubMed

    Auer, H; Mobley, J A; Ayers, L W; Bowen, J; Chuaqui, R F; Johnson, L A; Livolsi, V A; Lubensky, I A; McGarvey, D; Monovich, L C; Moskaluk, C A; Rumpel, C A; Sexton, K C; Washington, M K; Wiles, K R; Grizzle, W E; Ramirez, N C

    2014-10-01

    Unfixed tissue specimens most frequently are stored for long term research uses at either -80° C or in vapor phase liquid nitrogen (VPLN). There is little information concerning the effects such long term storage on tissue RNA or protein available for extraction. Aliquots of 49 specimens were stored for 5-12 years at -80° C or in VPLN. Twelve additional paired specimens were stored for 1 year under identical conditions. RNA was isolated from all tissues and assessed for RNA yield, total RNA integrity and mRNA integrity. Protein stability was analyzed by surface-enhanced or matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS, MALDI-TOF-MS) and nano-liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-ESI-MS/MS). RNA yield and total RNA integrity showed significantly better results for -80° C storage compared to VPLN storage; the transcripts that were preferentially degraded during VPLN storage were these involved in antigen presentation and processing. No consistent differences were found in the SELDI-TOF-MS, MALDI-TOF-MS or nLC-ESI-MS/MS analyses of specimens stored for more than 8 years at -80° C compared to those stored in VPLN. Long term storage of human research tissues at -80° C provides at least the same quality of RNA and protein as storage in VPLN.

  9. Purification and Initial Functions of Sex-Specific Storage Protein 2 in Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianqing; Shu, Tejun; Chen, Jian; Ye, Man; Lv, Zhengbing; Nie, Zuoming; Gai, Qijing; Yu, Wei; Zhang, Yaozhou

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we identified a heat-resistant protein from the chrysalis stage of the silkworm which we named sex-specific storage protein 2 (SSP2). This protein was stable even at 80 °C, and has an amino acid sequence that is 90.65 % homologous to SP2. We utilized the heat-resistant characteristics of SSP2 to purify the protein and maintain its biological activity. In addition, using flow cytometry and the MTT assay, we found that SSP2 had anti-apoptotic effects on BmN cells, and that SSP2 could also inhibit cell apoptosis induced by chemical factors. These results suggest that SSP2 has a cell-protective function, and provides a basis for future work on the function of storage proteins in silkworm.

  10. Biodegradable Zein-Based Blend Films: Structural, Mechanical and Barrier Properties

    PubMed Central

    Filho, José Francisco Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Summary The effect of adding a hydrocolloid on the structural, mechanical and barrier properties of zein-based blend films is evaluated. Zein-oleic acid blend film with added xanthan gum (Z-OA-XG) showed higher water solubility (13.09%) and opacity (8.49 AU/mm) than zein-oleic acid (Z-OA) film (10.80% and 5.19 AU/mm, respectively). Furthermore, Z-OA film had greater flexibility with lower Young’s Modulus (YM=5.02 MPa) and higher elongation at break (η=10.62%); nonetheless, it was less resistant to tension (tensile strength σ=8.5 MPa) than Z-OA-XG film, which showed YM, η and σ of 6.38 MPa, 6.66% and 10.485 MPa, respectively. Both films had glossy and homogeneous structure with comparable water vapour and oxygen barrier properties around 4.39·10–11 and 1.82·10–13 g/(Pa·s·m), respectively. Based on that, xanthan gum structure influenced mainly mechanical and light barrier properties of zein-oleic acid blend films. PMID:27904368

  11. Kinetics of piroxicam release from low-methylated pectin/zein hydrogel microspheres

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The kinetics of a model drug (piroxicam) release from pectin/zein hydrogel microspheres was studied under conditions simulating the gastrointestinal tract. It is established that the rate-limiting step in the release mechanism is drug diffusion out of the microspheres rather than its dissolution. ...

  12. Preparation and characterization of a novel conformed bipolymer paclitaxel-nanoparticle using tea polysaccharides and zein.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuqin; Wang, Xiuming; Li, Weiwei; Yuan, Guoqi; Pan, Yuxiang; Chen, Haixia

    2016-08-01

    To improve the aqueous solubility of the anticancer agent paclitaxel (PTX), a newly conformed bipolymer paclitaxel-nanoparticle using tea polysaccharide (TPS) and zein was prepared and characterized. Tea polysaccharide was used as a biopolymer shell and zein was as the core and the optimal formula was subjected to the characteristic study by TEM, DSC, FTIR and in vitro release study. Results showed that the optimal particle was acquired with particle yield at 40.01%, drug loading at 0.12% and diameters around 165nm when the concentration of tea polysaccharide was set at 0.2%, and the amount of PTX:zein=1:10. The particle was a nanoparticle with spherical surface and the encapsulated PTX was in an amorphous form rather than cystalline form. PTX was interacted with zein and polysaccharide through O H and CO groups and it had a sustained release. The results suggested that the novel bipolymer might be a promising agent for PTX delivery and tea polysaccharide was demonstrated its function in drug delivery system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Decolorization/Deodorization of Zein via Activated Carbons and Molecular Sieves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A series of commercial activated carbons generated from different media and selective microporous zeolites with different pore sizes were used in a batch system to sequester the low molecular weight odor and color contaminants in commercial zein products. Because the adsorbents can also adsorb prot...

  14. Controlled release properties of zein-fatty acid blend films for multiple bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Arcan, Iskender; Yemenicioğlu, Ahmet

    2014-08-13

    To develop edible films having controlled release properties for multiple bioactive compounds, hydrophobicity and morphology of zein films were modified by blending zein with oleic (C18:1)Δ⁹, linoleic (C18:2)Δ(9,12), or lauric (C₁₂) acids in the presence of lecithin. The blend zein films showed 2-8.5- and 1.6-2.9-fold lower initial release rates for the model active compounds, lysozyme (LYS) and (+)-catechin (CAT), than the zein control films, respectively. The change of fatty acid chain length affected both CAT and LYS release rates while the change of fatty acid double bond number affected only the CAT release rate. The film morphologies suggested that the blend films owe their controlled release properties mainly to the microspheres formed within their matrix and encapsulation of active compounds. The blend films showed antilisterial activity and antioxidant activity up to 81 μmol Trolox/cm². The controlled release of multiple bioactive compounds from a single film showed the possibility of combining application of active and bioactive packaging technologies and improving not only safety and quality but also health benefits of packed food.

  15. Grain sorghum proteomics: integrated approach toward characterization of endosperm storage proteins in kafirin allelic variants.

    PubMed

    Cremer, Julia E; Bean, Scott R; Tilley, Michael M; Ioerger, Brian P; Ohm, Jae B; Kaufman, Rhett C; Wilson, Jeff D; Innes, David J; Gilding, Edward K; Godwin, Ian D

    2014-10-08

    Grain protein composition determines quality traits, such as value for food, feedstock, and biomaterials uses. The major storage proteins in sorghum are the prolamins, known as kafirins. Located primarily on the periphery of the protein bodies surrounding starch, cysteine-rich β- and γ-kafirins may limit enzymatic access to internally positioned α-kafirins and starch. An integrated approach was used to characterize sorghum with allelic variation at the kafirin loci to determine the effects of this genetic diversity on protein expression. Reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography and lab-on-a-chip analysis showed reductions in alcohol-soluble protein in β-kafirin null lines. Gel-based separation and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry identified a range of redox active proteins affecting storage protein biochemistry. Thioredoxin, involved in the processing of proteins at germination, has reported impacts on grain digestibility and was differentially expressed across genotypes. Thus, redox states of endosperm proteins, of which kafirins are a subset, could affect quality traits in addition to the expression of proteins.

  16. Pharmacoperone drugs: targeting misfolded proteins causing lysosomal storage-, ion channels-, and G protein-coupled receptors-associated conformational disorders.

    PubMed

    Hou, Zhi-Shuai; Ulloa-Aguirre, Alfredo; Tao, Ya-Xiong

    2018-06-01

    Conformational diseases are caused by structurally abnormal proteins that cannot fold properly and achieve their native conformation. Misfolded proteins frequently originate from genetic mutations that may lead to loss-of-function diseases involving a variety of structurally diverse proteins including enzymes, ion channels, and membrane receptors. Pharmacoperones are small molecules that cross the cell surface plasma membrane and reach their target proteins within the cell, serving as molecular scaffolds to stabilize the native conformation of misfolded or well-folded but destabilized proteins, to prevent their degradation and promote correct trafficking to their functional site of action. Because of their high specificity toward the target protein, pharmacoperones are currently the focus of intense investigation as therapy for several conformational diseases. Areas covered: This review summarizes data on the mechanisms leading to protein misfolding and the use of pharmacoperone drugs as an experimental approach to rescue function of distinct misfolded/misrouted proteins associated with a variety of diseases, such as lysosomal storage diseases, channelopathies, and G protein-coupled receptor misfolding diseases. Expert commentary: The fact that many misfolded proteins may retain function, offers a unique therapeutic opportunity to cure disease by directly correcting misrouting through administering pharmacoperone drugs thereby rescuing function of disease-causing, conformationally abnormal proteins.

  17. Protein oxidation and proteolysis during storage and in vitro digestion of pork and beef patties.

    PubMed

    Rysman, Tine; Van Hecke, Thomas; Van Poucke, Christof; De Smet, Stefaan; Van Royen, Geert

    2016-10-15

    The effect of protein oxidation on proteolysis during meat digestion was investigated following storage and subsequent in vitro digestion of beef and pork patties. Protein oxidation was evaluated as thiol oxidation, total carbonylation, and specific carbonylation (α-amino adipic and γ-glutamic semialdehyde). Furthermore, 4-hydroxyphenylalanine, a hydroxylation product of phenylalanine, was identified and quantified as a new protein oxidation marker. After 7days of chilled illuminated storage (4°C), significant oxidative modifications were quantified and the oxidative degradation was continued during in vitro digestion. The observed effects were more abundant in beef patties. Protein oxidation before digestion resulted in impaired proteolysis during digestion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Seed Storage Proteins as a System for Teaching Protein Identification by Mass Spectrometry in Biochemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Karl A.; Tan-Wilson, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) has become an important tool in studying biological systems. One application is the identification of proteins and peptides by the matching of peptide and peptide fragment masses to the sequences of proteins in protein sequence databases. Often prior protein separation of complex protein mixtures by 2D-PAGE is needed,…

  19. Storage stability of cauliflower soup powder: The effect of lipid oxidation and protein degradation reactions.

    PubMed

    Raitio, Riikka; Orlien, Vibeke; Skibsted, Leif H

    2011-09-15

    Soups based on cauliflower soup powders, prepared by dry mixing of ingredients and rapeseed oil, showed a decrease in quality, as evaluated by a sensory panel, during the storage of the soup powder in the dark for up to 12weeks under mildly accelerated conditions of 40°C and 75% relative humidity. Antioxidant, shown to be effective in protecting the rapeseed bulk oil, used for the powder preparation, had no effect on storage stability of the soup powder. The freshly prepared soup powder had a relatively high concentration of free radicals, as measured by electron spin resonance spectroscopy, which decreased during storage, and most remarkably during the first two weeks of storage, with only marginal increase in lipid hydroperoxides as primary lipid oxidation products, and without any increase in secondary lipid oxidation products. Analyses of volatiles by SPME-GC-MS revealed a significant increase in concentrations of 2-methyl- and 3-methyl butanals, related to Maillard reactions, together with an increase in 2-acetylpyrrole concentration. The soup powders became more brown during storage, as indicated by a decreasing Hunter L-value, in accord with non-enzymatic browning reactions. A significant increase in the concentrations of dimethyl disulfide in soup powder headspace indicated free radical-initiated protein oxidation. Protein degradation, including Maillard reactions and protein oxidation, is concluded to be more important than lipid oxidation in determining the shelf-life of dry cauliflower soup powder. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Protein body-inducing fusions for high-level production and purification of recombinant proteins in plants.

    PubMed

    Conley, Andrew J; Joensuu, Jussi J; Richman, Alex; Menassa, Rima

    2011-05-01

    For the past two decades, therapeutic and industrially important proteins have been expressed in plants with varying levels of success. The two major challenges hindering the economical production of plant-made recombinant proteins include inadequate accumulation levels and the lack of efficient purification methods. To address these limitations, several fusion protein strategies have been recently developed to significantly enhance the production yield of plant-made recombinant proteins, while simultaneously assisting in their subsequent purification. Elastin-like polypeptides are thermally responsive biopolymers composed of a repeating pentapeptide 'VPGXG' sequence that are valuable for the purification of recombinant proteins. Hydrophobins are small fungal proteins capable of altering the hydrophobicity of their respective fusion partner, thus enabling efficient purification by surfactant-based aqueous two-phase systems. Zera, a domain of the maize seed storage protein γ-zein, can induce the formation of protein storage bodies, thus facilitating the recovery of fused proteins using density-based separation methods. These three novel protein fusion systems have also been shown to enhance the accumulation of a range of different recombinant proteins, while concurrently inducing the formation of protein bodies. The packing of these fusion proteins into protein bodies may exclude the recombinant protein from normal physiological turnover. Furthermore, these systems allow for quick, simple and inexpensive nonchromatographic purification of the recombinant protein, which can be scaled up to industrial levels of protein production. This review will focus on the similarities and differences of these artificial storage organelles, their biogenesis and their implication for the production of recombinant proteins in plants and their subsequent purification. © 2011 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2011 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied

  1. Nutritional value and digestion rate of rhea meat proteins in association with storage and cooking processes.

    PubMed

    Filgueras, Renata S; Gatellier, Philippe; Ferreira, Claude; Zambiazi, Rui C; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique

    2011-09-01

    The nutritional value of proteins was investigated after the storage and cooking of rhea M. Gastrocnemius pars interna. Oxidation of basic and aromatic amino acids, surface hydrophobicity and aggregation state of proteins, were determined in raw and cooked meat. In addition, myofibrillar proteins were exposed in vitro to proteases of the digestive tract. Cooking markedly affected the protein surface hydrophobicity. The BBP bound content was three times greater in cooked than in fresh rhea meat. A small increment in tryptophan content after cooking was observed. Storage influenced Schiff bases formation indicating the presence of protein-aldehyde adducts after cooking. High content of Schiff bases was found after cooking of samples stored for 5 days, demonstrating a probable implication of free amino groups, most likely from lysine. Cooking decreased the myofibrillar protein susceptibility to pepsin activity. After cooking, the proteolysis rate by pancreatic enzymes increased. Our findings support the importance of protein aggregation in the nutritional value of meat proteins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nonenzymatic Browning and Protein Aggregation in Royal Jelly during Room-Temperature Storage.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Jiangtao; Wang, Xueyu; Liu, Liqiang; Zhang, Hongcheng

    2018-02-28

    Royal jelly possesses numerous functional properties. Improper storage usually causes bioactivity loss, especially queen differentiation activity. To determine changes in royal jelly, we investigated nonenzymatic browning and protein changes in royal jelly during room-temperature storage from 1 to 6 months. Our results indicate that royal jelly experiences nonenzymatic browning and protein aggregation. The products of nonenzymatic browning dramatically increased, especially N ε -carboxymethyl lysine (CML) with growth of approximately 7-fold. We speculate that CML may be recognized as a freshness marker for royal jelly. Our results also demonstrate that the major royal jelly protein 1 (MRJP1) monomer gradually aggregated with MRJP1 oligomers into new oligomers of about 440 and 700 kDa. This suggests that the reduction of MRJP1 monomer may be attributable to aggregation. We provide the novel explanation that the differentiation loss of royal jelly may be due to the aggregation of MRJP1 limiting the honeybees' ability to digest and absorb royal jelly.

  3. Effects of storage conditions on results for quantitative and qualitative evaluation of proteins in canine urine.

    PubMed

    Théron, Marie-Laure; Piane, Laetitia; Lucarelli, Laetitia; Henrion, Rémi; Layssol-Lamour, Catherine; Palanché, Florence; Concordet, Didier; Braun, Jean-Pierre D; Trumel, Catherine; Lavoué, Rachel

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate effects of storage conditions on the canine urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPC) and on SDS-agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE) of urinary proteins. SAMPLE Urine specimens from 20 proteinuric (UPC > 0.5) and 20 nonproteinuric (UPC ≤ 0.2) dogs. PROCEDURES UPC and SDS-AGE were performed on urine specimens stored at room temperature (20°C) and 4°C for up to 5 days and at -20° and -80°C for up to 360 days; some specimens were subjected to 3 freeze-thaw cycles. Results were compared with those obtained for fresh urine specimens. RESULTS UPC was not affected by storage at room temperature or by freezing. A decrease in UPC was observed for specimens from nonproteinuric dogs after 5 days at 4°C (10%) and from both groups after 90 days at -20° and -80°C (≤ 20% and ≤ 15%, respectively). The SDS-AGE profiles revealed no visual changes regardless of duration of storage for specimens stored at room temperature, 4°C, and -80°C, except for 1 profile after 360 days at -80°C. Repeated freeze-thaw cycles did not affect SDS-AGE profiles. Appearance or strengthening of high-molecular-weight bands that could alter interpretation was evident in SDS-AGE profiles after storage at -20°C for ≥ 15 days (31/40 dogs). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Storage of urine at -20° or -80°C for up to 1 year influenced the UPC without affecting clinical interpretation. Storage of urine specimens at -20°C impaired visual analysis of SDS-AGE. When SDS-AGE cannot be performed on fresh or recently refrigerated urine specimens, storage at -80°C is recommended.

  4. Stability of lutein encapsulated whey protein nano-emulsion during storage

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Mingruo

    2018-01-01

    Lutein is a hydrophobic carotenoid that has multiple health functions. However, the application of lutein is limited due to its poor solubility in water and instability under certain conditions during storage. Hereby we generated lutein loaded nano-emulsions using whey protein isolate (WPI) or polymerized whey protein isolate (PWP) with assistance of high intensity ultrasound and evaluate their stability during storage at different conditions. We measured the particle size, zeta-potential, physical stability and lutein content change. Results showed that the PWP based nano-emulsion system was not stable in the tested Oil/Water/Ethanol system indicated by the appearance of stratification within only one week. The WPI based nano-emulsion system showed stable physiochemical stability during the storage at 4°C. The lutein content of the system was reduced by only 4% after four weeks storage at 4°C. In conclusion, our whey protein based nano-emulsion system provides a promising strategy for encapsulation of lutein or other hydrophobic bioactive molecules to expand their applications. PMID:29415071

  5. Physicochemical properties and storage stability of soybean protein nanoemulsions prepared by ultra-high pressure homogenization.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Mukherjee, Dipaloke; Chang, Sam K C

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of the ultrahigh pressure homogenization (pressure, protein concentration, oil phase fraction, pH, temperature, and ionic strength) and storage on the properties of nanoemulsions (100-500nm range), which were stabilized by laboratory-prepared soybean protein isolate (SPI), β-conglycinin (7S) and glycinin (11S). The nanoemulsions made with SPI, 7S and 11S proteins exhibited considerable stability over various ionic strengths (0-500mM NaCl), pH (<4 or >7), thermal treatments (30-60°C) and storage (0-45days). The far-UV spectra of SPI, 7S, 11S dispersions, and SPI-, 7S-, 11S protein-stabilized nanoemulsions were analyzed for the protein structural changes following lipid removal. The ultra-high pressure homogenization changed the secondary structure of SPI, 7S, 11S proteins in the nanoemulsions, and enhanced their stability. This study demonstrated that SPI, 7S, and 11S proteins can be used as effective emulsifiers in nanoemulsions prepared by ultra-high pressure homogenization. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Effect of pasteurization on the protein composition and oxidative stability of beer during storage.

    PubMed

    Lund, Marianne N; Hoff, Signe; Berner, Torben S; Lametsch, René; Andersen, Mogens L

    2012-12-19

    The impacts of pasteurization of a lager beer on protein composition and the oxidative stability were studied during storage at 22 °C for 426 days in the dark. Pasteurization clearly improved the oxidative stability of beer determined by ESR spectroscopy, whereas it had a minor negative effect on the volatile profile by increasing volatile compounds that is generally associated with heat treatment and a loss of fruity ester aroma. A faster rate of radical formation in unpasteurized beer was consistent with a faster consumption of sulfite. Beer proteins in the unpasteurized beer were more degraded, most likely due to proteolytic enzyme activity of yeast remnants and more precipitation of proteins was also observed. The differences in soluble protein content and composition are suggested to result in differences in the contents of prooxidative metals as a consequence of the proteins ability to bind metals. This also contributes to the differences in oxidative stabilities of the beers.

  7. Biological evaluation of pearl millet protein: effect of different treatments and storage.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, R; Kapoor, A C

    1990-07-01

    Whole grain flour of one variety (HC-4) of pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum L. Leeke) after giving different treatments (defatting, butylated hydroxyanisole, ascorbic acid and thermal) was stored in earthen pots at prevailing room temperature (28-34 degrees C) and relative humidity (70-80%) for 30 days. The flour samples were evaluated for protein quality using rats. Storage of flour for 30 days markedly reduced the protein quality. The values of protein efficiency ratio, true digestibility, biological value, net protein retention and net protein utilisation were significantly (P less than 0.05) higher in fresh and treated flour than untreated flour. Among treated flours, defatted flour showed best growth followed by butylated hydroxyanisole, thermal and ascorbic acid treated flour.

  8. Effect of pomegranate peel extract on lipid and protein oxidation in beef meatballs during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Sebahattin Serhat; Soyer, Ayla; Işıkçı, Fatma

    2016-06-01

    Antioxidant effect of pomegranate peel extract (PE) to retard lipid and protein oxidation was investigated in meatballs during refrigerated storage at 4±1°C. Concentrated lyophilised water extract of pomegranate peel was incorporated into freshly minced beef meat at 0.5% and 1% concentrations and compared with 0.01% butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as a reference and control (without any antioxidant). PE showed high phenolic content and antioxidant activity. In PE added samples, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value, peroxide formation, loss of sulfhydryl groups and formation of protein carbonyls were lower than control (P<0.01) after 8 days of storage. Sensory evaluation with respect to colour and rancid odour revealed that PE incorporation in meatballs prolonged the refrigerated storage up to 8 days. Addition of both 0.5 and 1% PE in meatballs reduced lipid and protein oxidation and improved sensory scores. These results indicated that PE was effective on retarding lipid and protein oxidation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A proteomic approach reveals the variation in human platelet protein composition after storage at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shichun; Jiang, Tianlun; Fan, Yahan; Zhao, Shuming

    2018-03-29

    Cryopreservation can slow down the metabolism and decrease the risk of bacterial contamination. But, chilled platelets (PLTs) show a reduced period in circulation due to the rapid clearance by hepatic cells or spleen macrophages after transfusion. The deleterious changes that PLTs undergo are mainly considered the result of PLT protein variation. However, the basis for proteomic variation of stored PLTs remains poorly understood. Besides count, activation markers (CD62P and Annexin V), and aggregation, we used quantitative mass spectrometry to create the first comprehensive and quantitative human PLT proteome of samples stored at different temperatures (22°C, 10°C and -80°C). We found different conditions caused different platelet storage lesion (PSL). PLT count was decreased no matter at what temperature stored. PLTs viability at low temperature dropped by 21.78% and 11.21%, respectively, as compared 10.26% at room temperature, there were no significant differences between the storage methods. Membrane expression of CD62P gradually increased in all groups especially stored at 22°C up to 40% and 10°C up to 30%. However, exposure of PS on the PLT membrane was below 1% in every group. The PLT proteome showed there were 575 and 454 potential proteins identified by general iTRAQ analysis and phosphorylation iTRAQ a nalysis, respectively, among them, 33 common differentially expressed proteins caused by storage time and 44 caused by storage temperature Especially, membrane-bound proteins (such as FERMT3, STX4, MYL9 and TAGLN2) played key roles in PLT storage lesion. The pathways "Endocytosis", "Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis" and "Regulation of actin cytoskeleton" were affected predominantly by storage time. And the pathways "SNARE interactions in vesicular transport" and "Vasopressin-regulated water reabsorption" were affected by cold storage in our study. Proteomic results can help us to understand PLT biochemistry and physiology and thus unravel the mechanisms

  10. [Cereal bars with soy protein and wheat germ, physicochemical characteristics and texture during the storage].

    PubMed

    Castro Freitas, Daniela D G

    2005-09-01

    Studies analyzing cereal bars have reported on consumer characteristics and preferences in sensory analyses and on their market growth, however little has been published on their physicochemical data and texture properties. Thus the objective of this research was to provide information about the storage of a cereal bar formulation with high protein and vitamin levels based on soy protein and wheat germ, packaged in 3 different films (A: PET/PEBD; B: PETmet/PEBD; C: PET/PEBD/AL/PEBD), during 6 months under environmental conditions of temperature (25 +/- 2 degrees C) and relative humidity (56%). The moisture content, water activity, pH and total acidity of the cereal bars were determined. The textural measurements accompanied during storage were breaking strength, hardness and cohesiveness. The cereal bars presented variations in water activity (Aw), moisture content and total acidity during storage. The moisture content of the bars tended to increase, which led to a significant (p = 0.05) influence on the texture characteristics of breaking strength and hardness, in the different packaging films tested. The increase in the values for breaking strength (A: 4756,5N; B: 5093,0N; C: 5575,6N) at 45 days of storage was attributed to a possible crystallization of the agglutinating syrup used for the bars. The textured soy protein used in the formulation could also have contributed to this fact due to its hygroscopic character, also interfering in the decrease in the cohesiveness measurements (deformation) with time. The effect of the different barrier properties of the packaging films tested was significant (p < 0.05) in the stability of the cereal bars during storage.

  11. Ultrafine fibers of zein and anthocyanins as natural pH indicator.

    PubMed

    Prietto, Luciana; Pinto, Vania Zanella; El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; de Morais, Michele Greque; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira; Lim, Loong-Tak; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

    2018-05-01

    pH-sensitive indicator membranes, which are useful for pharmaceutical, food, and packaging applications, can be formed by encapsulating halochromic compounds within various solid supports. Accordingly, electrospinning is a versatile technique for the development of these indicators, by entrapping pH dyes within ultrafine polymer fibers. The ultrafine zein fibers, containing 5% (w/v) anthocyanins, had an average diameter of 510 nm. The pH-sensitive membrane exhibited color changes from pink to green when exposed to acidic and alkaline buffers, respectively. The contact angle was negligible after 10 and 2 s for neat and 5% anthocyanin-loaded zein membranes, respectively. The pH membranes exhibited color changes in a board pH range, which can potentially be used in various active packaging applications. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Stability of selected serum proteins after long-term storage in the Janus Serum Bank.

    PubMed

    Gislefoss, Randi E; Grimsrud, Tom K; Mørkrid, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Human serum from biobanks is frequently used in prospective epidemiological studies. Long-term storage may modify its composition. A better understanding of the stability of the serum components may improve the interpretation of future studies. The concentrations of selected proteins; immunoglobulins, carrier proteins and enzymes in samples stored at -25 degrees C for 25 years and 2 years were compared with 1-month-old samples. For each length of storage time, 130 specimens were randomly selected from apparently healthy male blood donors aged 40-49 years. We examined the distribution of values, compared dispersion and localization of central tendency, and established reference intervals for each component. The study demonstrated non-significant or numerically small group differences in the concentrations of albumin, aspartate amino transferase, cystatin C, immunoglobulin E, immunoglobulin G, and sex hormone binding globulin. Mean values between fresh and 25-year-old samples suggested larger differences during storage for alanine amino transferase (-73.4%), creatinine kinase (-96.1%), insulin C-peptide (-98.7%), ferritin (-18.5%) and transferrin (+8.2%). The findings showed that long-term storage can introduce a considerable bias for vulnerable components.

  13. Characterization and Identification of Cryptic Biopeptides in Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh K. Koch) Storage Proteins.

    PubMed

    Mares-Mares, Everardo; Gutiérrez-Vargas, Santiago; Pérez-Moreno, Luis; Ordoñez-Acevedo, Leandro G; Barboza-Corona, José E; León-Galván, Ma Fabiola

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this research was to identify and characterize the encoded peptides present in nut storage proteins of Carya illinoinensis . It was found, through in silico prediction, proteomic analysis, and MS spectrometry, that bioactive peptides were mainly found in albumin and glutelin fractions. Glutelin was the major fraction with ~53% of the nut storage proteins containing at least 21 peptides with different putative biological activities, including antihypertensives, antioxidants, immunomodulators, protease inhibitors, and inhibitors of cell cycle progression in cancer cells. Data showed that using 50  μ g/mL tryptic digests of enriched peptides obtained from nut glutelins is able to induce up to 19% of apoptosis in both HeLa and CasKi cervical cancer cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report that shows the potential value of the nut-encoded peptides to be considered as adjuvants in cancer therapies.

  14. Characterization and Identification of Cryptic Biopeptides in Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh K. Koch) Storage Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Vargas, Santiago; Pérez-Moreno, Luis; Ordoñez-Acevedo, Leandro G.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this research was to identify and characterize the encoded peptides present in nut storage proteins of Carya illinoinensis. It was found, through in silico prediction, proteomic analysis, and MS spectrometry, that bioactive peptides were mainly found in albumin and glutelin fractions. Glutelin was the major fraction with ~53% of the nut storage proteins containing at least 21 peptides with different putative biological activities, including antihypertensives, antioxidants, immunomodulators, protease inhibitors, and inhibitors of cell cycle progression in cancer cells. Data showed that using 50 μg/mL tryptic digests of enriched peptides obtained from nut glutelins is able to induce up to 19% of apoptosis in both HeLa and CasKi cervical cancer cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report that shows the potential value of the nut-encoded peptides to be considered as adjuvants in cancer therapies. PMID:29279842

  15. Effects of Male Hypogonadism on Regional Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Storage and Lipogenic Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Santosa, Sylvia; Jensen, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone has long been known to affect body fat distribution, although the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We investigated the effects of chronic hypogonadism in men on adipose tissue fatty acid (FA) storage and FA storage factors. Twelve men with chronic hypogonadism and 13 control men matched for age and body composition: 1) underwent measures of body composition with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and an abdominal CT scan; 2) consumed an experimental meal containing [3H]triolein to determine the fate of meal FA (biopsy-measured adipose storage vs. oxidation); 3) received infusions of [U-13C]palmitate and [1-14C]palmitate to measure rates of direct free (F)FA storage (adipose biopsies). Adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase, acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS), and diacylglycerol acetyl-transferase (DGAT) activities, as well as, CD36 content were measured to understand the mechanism by which alterations in fat storage occur in response to testosterone deficiency. Results of the study showed that hypogonadal men stored a greater proportion of both dietary FA and FFA in lower body subcutaneous fat than did eugonadal men (both p<0.05). Femoral adipose tissue ACS activity was significantly greater in hypogonadal than eugonadal men, whereas CD36 and DGAT were not different between the two groups. The relationships between these proteins and FA storage varied somewhat between the two groups. We conclude that chronic effects of testosterone deficiency has effects on leg adipose tissue ACS activity which may relate to greater lower body FA storage. These results provide further insight into the role of androgens in body fat distribution and adipose tissue metabolism in humans. PMID:22363653

  16. Mechanistic analysis of Zein nanoparticles/PLGA triblock in situ forming implants for glimepiride.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Osama Abdelhakim Aly; Zidan, Ahmed Samir; Khayat, Maan

    2016-01-01

    The study aims at applying pharmaceutical nanotechnology and D-optimal fractional factorial design to screen and optimize the high-risk variables affecting the performance of a complex drug delivery system consisting of glimepiride-Zein nanoparticles and inclusion of the optimized formula with thermoresponsive triblock copolymers in in situ gel. Sixteen nanoparticle formulations were prepared by liquid-liquid phase separation method according to the D-optimal fractional factorial design encompassing five variables at two levels. The responses investigated were glimepiride entrapment capacity (EC), particle size and size distribution, zeta potential, and in vitro drug release from the prepared nanoparticles. Furthermore, the feasibility of embedding the optimized Zein-based glimepiride nanoparticles within thermoresponsive triblock copolymers poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-block-poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) in in situ gel was evaluated for controlling glimepiride release rate. Through the systematic optimization phase, improvement of glimepiride EC of 33.6%, nanoparticle size of 120.9 nm with a skewness value of 0.2, zeta potential of 11.1 mV, and sustained release features of 3.3% and 17.3% drug released after 2 and 24 hours, respectively, were obtained. These desirability functions were obtained at Zein and glimepiride loadings of 50 and 75 mg, respectively, utilizing didodecyldimethylammonium bromide as a stabilizer at 0.1% and 90% ethanol as a common solvent. Moreover, incorporating this optimized formulation in triblock copolymers-based in situ gel demonstrated pseudoplastic behavior with reduction of drug release rate as the concentration of polymer increased. This approach to control the release of glimepiride using Zein nanoparticles/triblock copolymers-based in situ gel forming intramuscular implants could be useful for improving diabetes treatment effectiveness.

  17. Genomic Analysis of Storage Protein Deficiency in Genetically Related Lines of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    Pandurangan, Sudhakar; Diapari, Marwan; Yin, Fuqiang; Munholland, Seth; Perry, Gregory E.; Chapman, B. Patrick; Huang, Shangzhi; Sparvoli, Francesca; Bollini, Roberto; Crosby, William L.; Pauls, Karl P.; Marsolais, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    A series of genetically related lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) integrate a progressive deficiency in major storage proteins, the 7S globulin phaseolin and lectins. SARC1 integrates a lectin-like protein, arcelin-1 from a wild common bean accession. SMARC1N-PN1 is deficient in major lectins, including erythroagglutinating phytohemagglutinin (PHA-E) but not α-amylase inhibitor, and incorporates also a deficiency in phaseolin. SMARC1-PN1 is intermediate and shares the phaseolin deficiency. Sanilac is the parental background. To understand the genomic basis for variations in protein profiles previously determined by proteomics, the genotypes were submitted to short-fragment genome sequencing using an Illumina HiSeq 2000/2500 platform. Reads were aligned to reference sequences and subjected to de novo assembly. The results of the analyses identified polymorphisms responsible for the lack of specific storage proteins, as well as those associated with large differences in storage protein expression. SMARC1N-PN1 lacks the lectin genes pha-E and lec4-B17, and has the pseudogene pdlec1 in place of the functional pha-L gene. While the α-phaseolin gene appears absent, an approximately 20-fold decrease in β-phaseolin accumulation is associated with a single nucleotide polymorphism converting a G-box to an ACGT motif in the proximal promoter. Among residual lectins compensating for storage protein deficiency, mannose lectin FRIL and α-amylase inhibitor 1 genes are uniquely present in SMARC1N-PN1. An approximately 50-fold increase in α-amylase inhibitor like protein accumulation is associated with multiple polymorphisms introducing up to eight potential positive cis-regulatory elements in the proximal promoter specific to SMARC1N-PN1. An approximately 7-fold increase in accumulation of 11S globulin legumin is not associated with variation in proximal promoter sequence, suggesting that the identity of individual proteins involved in proteome rebalancing might

  18. Influence of yogurt fermentation and refrigerated storage on the stability of protein toxin contaminants.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Lauren S; Triplett, Odbert A; Tolleson, William H

    2015-06-01

    Dairy products sold in a ready-to-eat form present the risk that adulterants persisting through manufacturing, storage, and distribution would reach consumers. Pathogenic microbes, including shigatoxigenic strains of Escherichia coli and the toxins they produce, are common food safety hazards associated with dairy products. Ricin and abrin are plant-derived ribosome-inactivating protein toxins related to the shiga-like toxins produced by E. coli. Limited information exists on the effects of manufacturing processes on the stabilities of these heat-resistant ribosome-inactivating proteins in the presence of foods. The goal of this study was to determine how typical yogurt manufacturing and storage processes influence ribosome-inactivating protein toxins. Ricin and abrin were added to skim or whole milk and batch pasteurized. Complete inactivation of both toxins was observed after 30 minutes at 85 °C. If the toxins were added after pasteurization, the levels of ricin and abrin in yogurt and their cytotoxic activities did not change significantly during fermentation or refrigerated storage for 4 weeks. The activities of ricin and abrin were inhibited by skim milk, nonfat yogurt, whole milk, and whole milk yogurt. The results showed minimal effects of the toxins on yogurt pH and %titratable acidity but inhibitory effects of yogurt on toxin activity. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Review the role of terminal domains during storage and assembly of spider silk proteins.

    PubMed

    Eisoldt, Lukas; Thamm, Christopher; Scheibel, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Fibrous proteins in nature fulfill a wide variety of functions in different structures ranging from cellular scaffolds to very resilient structures like tendons and even extra-corporal fibers such as silks in spider webs or silkworm cocoons. Despite their different origins and sequence varieties many of these fibrous proteins share a common building principle: they consist of a large repetitive core domain flanked by relatively small non-repetitive terminal domains. Amongst protein fibers, spider dragline silk shows prominent mechanical properties that exceed those of man-made fibers like Kevlar. Spider silk fibers assemble in a spinning process allowing the transformation from an aqueous solution into a solid fiber within milliseconds. Here, we highlight the role of the non-repetitive terminal domains of spider dragline silk proteins during storage in the gland and initiation of the fiber assembly process. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Effects of lamination and coating with drying oils on tensile and barrier properties of zein films.

    PubMed

    Rakotonirainy, A M; Padua, G W

    2001-06-01

    Zein films plasticized with oleic acid have been considered potentially useful for biodegradable packaging applications. However, moisture was found to affect their tensile and gas barrier properties. We investigated the effects of two converting processes, fusion lamination and coating with drying oils, on tensile properties and gas permeability of zein films. Zein films were laminated to 4-ply sheets in a Carver press and coated with tung oil, linseed oil, or a mixture of tung and soybean oils. Tensile properties and permeability to water vapor, oxygen, and carbon dioxide were measured according to ASTM methods. Laminated films were clearer, tougher, and more flexible, and had a smoother finish than nontreated sheets. Lamination decreased O(2) and CO(2) permeability by filling in voids and pinholes in the film structure. Coating increased tensile strength and elongation and decreased water vapor permeability. Coatings acted as a composite layer preventing crack propagation and increasing film strength. They also formed a highly hydrophobic surface that prevented film wetting.

  1. Protein mobilities and P-selectin storage in Weibel-Palade bodies.

    PubMed

    Kiskin, Nikolai I; Hellen, Nicola; Babich, Victor; Hewlett, Lindsay; Knipe, Laura; Hannah, Matthew J; Carter, Tom

    2010-09-01

    Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) we measured the mobilities of EGFP-tagged soluble secretory proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and in individual Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs) at early (immature) and late (mature) stages in their biogenesis. Membrane proteins (P-selectin, CD63, Rab27a) were also studied in individual WPBs. In the ER, soluble secretory proteins were mobile; however, following insertion into immature WPBs larger molecules (VWF, Proregion, tPA) and P-selectin became immobilised, whereas small proteins (ssEGFP, eotaxin-3) became less mobile. WPB maturation led to further decreases in mobility of small proteins and CD63. Acute alkalinisation of mature WPBs selectively increased the mobilities of small soluble proteins without affecting larger molecules and the membrane proteins. Disruption of the Proregion-VWF paracrystalline core by prolonged incubation with NH(4)Cl rendered P-selectin mobile while VWF remained immobile. FRAP of P-selectin mutants revealed that immobilisation most probably involves steric entrapment of the P-selectin extracellular domain by the Proregion-VWF paracrystal. Significantly, immobilisation contributed to the enrichment of P-selectin in WPBs; a mutation of P-selectin preventing immobilisation led to a failure of enrichment. Together these data shed new light on the transitions that occur for soluble and membrane proteins following their entry and storage into post-Golgi-regulated secretory organelles.

  2. Protein changes in the albedo of citrus fruits on postharvesting storage.

    PubMed

    Lliso, Ignacio; Tadeo, Francisco R; Phinney, Brett S; Wilkerson, Curtis G; Talón, Manuel

    2007-10-31

    In this work, major protein changes in the albedo of the fruit peel of Murcott tangor (tangerine x sweet orange) during postharvest ageing were studied through 2D PAGE. Protein content in matured on-tree fruits and in fruits stored in nonstressing [99% relative humidity (RH) and 25 degrees C], cold (99% RH and 4 degrees C), and drought (60% RH and 25 degrees C) conditions was initially determined. Protein identification through MS/MS determinations revealed in all samples analyzed the occurrence of manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn SOD), actin, ATP synthase beta subunit (ATPase), citrus salt-stress associated protein (CitSap), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP), and a cysteine proteinase (CP) of the papain family. The latter protein was identified in two different gel spots, with different molecular mass, suggesting the simultaneous presence of the proteinase precursor and its active form. While Mn SOD, actin, ATPase, and CitSap were unchanged in the assayed conditions, TCTP and APX were downregulated during the postharvest ageing process. Ageing-induced APX repression was also reversed by drought. CP contents in albedo, which were similar in on- and off-tree fruits, were strongly dependent upon cold storage. The active/total CP protein ratio significantly increased after cold exposure. This proteomic survey indicates that major changes in protein content in the albedo of the peel of postharvest stored citrus fruits are apparently related to the activation of programmed cell death (PCD).

  3. A study on maize proteins as a potential new tablet excipient.

    PubMed

    Georget, Dominique M R; Barker, Susan A; Belton, Peter S

    2008-06-01

    This investigation has examined the use of zein proteins from maize as the major component in oral controlled-release tablets, such formulations often being required to improve patient compliance. Tablets containing ground zein proteins, calcium hydrogen orthophosphate, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, theophylline and magnesium stearate were produced by wet granulation and compression on a single station tablet press and were compared to directly compressed tablets based on zein proteins, calcium hydrogen orthophosphate and theophylline. Non invasive techniques such as Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Raman spectroscopy were employed to investigate any changes in the secondary structure of zein proteins during tablet production. Random coils, alpha helices and beta sheets predominated and their relative content remained unaffected during grinding, wet granulation and compression, indicating that formulations based on zeins will be robust, i.e. insensitive to minor changes in the production conditions. Drug release from the tablets was studied using a standard pharmacopoeial dissolution test. Dissolution profiles in water, 0.1M HCl (pH=1) and phosphate buffer (pH=6.8) show that only a limited amount of theophylline was released after 4.5h, suggesting that zein proteins could act as a potential vehicle for oral controlled drug release. Analysis of the theophylline release profiles using the Peppas and Sahlin model reveals that diffusion and polymer relaxation occurred in acidic (pH=1) and buffered (pH=6.8) conditions for wet granulated tablets, whereas diffusion was predominant in directly compressed tablets. In conclusion, the present study has shown that zeins can be successfully used as a pharmaceutical excipient, and in particular as a matrix in monolithic controlled release tablets.

  4. Effects of postmortem storage temperature on sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) muscle protein degradation: analysis by 2-D DIGE and MS.

    PubMed

    Terova, Genciana; Addis, Maria Filippa; Preziosa, Elena; Pisanu, Salvatore; Pagnozzi, Daniela; Biosa, Grazia; Gornati, Rosalba; Bernardini, Giovanni; Roggio, Tonina; Saroglia, Marco

    2011-07-01

    Storage conditions are known to be important for postmortem deterioration of fish muscle, and temperature is one of the factors with the strongest impact on this process. In order to shed light on the influence of temperature on the status of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) muscle proteins during postmortem storage, a 2-D DIGE and mass spectrometry study was performed on fish kept at either 1 or 18°C for 5 days. As expected, the greatest alterations in sea bass filet protein composition were observed upon postmortem storage at 18°C, with distinct changes appearing in the 2-D protein profile after 5 days of storage at this temperature. In particular, degradation of the myofibrillar protein myosin heavy chain and of the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, among the most abundant muscle proteins, could be clearly observed upon storage at higher temperatures. Although to a lesser extent, however, several proteins were observed to vary in abundance also upon storage for 5 days at 1°C. In particular, one of the most interesting observations was the rapid and significant decrease in the abundance of nucleoside diphosphate kinase B and phosphoglycerate mutase 2, which was observed also at low storage temperatures and appeared to be temperature-independent. The results of this study offer new knowledge on changes occurring in sea bass muscle proteins during postmortem storage at different temperatures and provide indications on protein degradation trends that might be useful for monitoring freshness of fish and quality of storage conditions. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Dynamic changes in proteins during apple (Malus x domestica) fruit ripening and storage

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yun; Jiang, Li; Zhang, Li; Kang, Ruoyi; Yu, Zhifang

    2014-01-01

    A proteomic study, using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight, was conducted in apple fruit (cv. ‘Golden Delicious’) starting at 10 days prior to harvest through 50 days in storage. Total protein was extracted using a phenol/sodium dodecyl sulfate protocol. More than 400 protein spots were detected in each gel and 55 differentially expressed proteins (p<0.05) were subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight analysis. Fifty-three of these proteins were finally identified using an apple expressed sequence tag database downloaded from Genome Database for Rosaceae and placed into six categories. The categories and the percentage of proteins placed in each category were stress response and defense (49.0%), energy and metabolism (34.0%), fruit ripening and senescence (5.6%), signal transduction (3.8%), cell structure (3.8%) and protein synthesis (3.8%). Proteins involved in several multiple metabolic pathways, including glycolysis, pentose–phosphate pathway, anti-oxidative systems, photosynthesis and cell wall synthesis, were downregulated, especially during the climacteric burst in respiration and during the senescent stages of fruit development. Proteins classified as allergens or involved in cell wall degradation were upregulated during the ripening process. Some protein spots exhibited a mixed pattern (increasing to maximal abundance followed by a decrease), such as 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase, L-ascorbate peroxidase and abscisic acid response proteins. The identification of differentially expressed proteins associated with physiological processes identified in the current study provides a baseline of information for understanding the metabolic processes and regulatory mechanisms that occur in climacteric apple fruit during ripening and senescence. PMID:26504530

  6. Lysosomal storage disease upon disruption of the neuronal chloride transport protein ClC-6

    PubMed Central

    Poët, Mallorie; Kornak, Uwe; Schweizer, Michaela; Zdebik, Anselm A.; Scheel, Olaf; Hoelter, Sabine; Wurst, Wolfgang; Schmitt, Anja; Fuhrmann, Jens C.; Planells-Cases, Rosa; Mole, Sara E.; Hübner, Christian A.; Jentsch, Thomas J.

    2006-01-01

    Mammalian CLC proteins function as Cl− channels or as electrogenic Cl−/H+ exchangers and are present in the plasma membrane and intracellular vesicles. We now show that the ClC-6 protein is almost exclusively expressed in neurons of the central and peripheral nervous systems, with a particularly high expression in dorsal root ganglia. ClC-6 colocalized with markers for late endosomes in neuronal cell bodies. The disruption of ClC-6 in mice reduced their pain sensitivity and caused moderate behavioral abnormalities. Neuronal tissues showed autofluorescence at initial axon segments. At these sites, electron microscopy revealed electron-dense storage material that caused a pathological enlargement of proximal axons. These deposits were positive for several lysosomal proteins and other marker proteins typical for neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), a lysosomal storage disease. However, the lysosomal pH of Clcn6−/− neurons appeared normal. CLCN6 is a candidate gene for mild forms of human NCL. Analysis of 75 NCL patients identified ClC-6 amino acid exchanges in two patients but failed to prove a causative role of CLCN6 in that disease. PMID:16950870

  7. Thermal stability, storage and release of proteins with tailored fit in silica.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun-Chu; Smith, Tristan; Hicks, Robert H; Doekhie, Aswin; Koumanov, Francoise; Wells, Stephen A; Edler, Karen J; van den Elsen, Jean; Holman, Geoffrey D; Marchbank, Kevin J; Sartbaeva, Asel

    2017-04-24

    Biological substances based on proteins, including vaccines, antibodies, and enzymes, typically degrade at room temperature over time due to denaturation, as proteins unfold with loss of secondary and tertiary structure. Their storage and distribution therefore relies on a "cold chain" of continuous refrigeration; this is costly and not always effective, as any break in the chain leads to rapid loss of effectiveness and potency. Efforts have been made to make vaccines thermally stable using treatments including freeze-drying (lyophilisation), biomineralisation, and encapsulation in sugar glass and organic polymers. Here for the first time we show that proteins can be enclosed in a deposited silica "cage", rendering them stable against denaturing thermal treatment and long-term ambient-temperature storage, and subsequently released into solution with their structure and function intact. This "ensilication" method produces a storable solid protein-loaded material without the need for desiccation or freeze-drying. Ensilication offers the prospect of a solution to the "cold chain" problem for biological materials, in particular for vaccines.

  8. Thermal stability, storage and release of proteins with tailored fit in silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yun-Chu; Smith, Tristan; Hicks, Robert H.; Doekhie, Aswin; Koumanov, Francoise; Wells, Stephen A.; Edler, Karen J.; van den Elsen, Jean; Holman, Geoffrey D.; Marchbank, Kevin J.; Sartbaeva, Asel

    2017-04-01

    Biological substances based on proteins, including vaccines, antibodies, and enzymes, typically degrade at room temperature over time due to denaturation, as proteins unfold with loss of secondary and tertiary structure. Their storage and distribution therefore relies on a “cold chain” of continuous refrigeration; this is costly and not always effective, as any break in the chain leads to rapid loss of effectiveness and potency. Efforts have been made to make vaccines thermally stable using treatments including freeze-drying (lyophilisation), biomineralisation, and encapsulation in sugar glass and organic polymers. Here for the first time we show that proteins can be enclosed in a deposited silica “cage”, rendering them stable against denaturing thermal treatment and long-term ambient-temperature storage, and subsequently released into solution with their structure and function intact. This “ensilication” method produces a storable solid protein-loaded material without the need for desiccation or freeze-drying. Ensilication offers the prospect of a solution to the “cold chain” problem for biological materials, in particular for vaccines.

  9. Convergent evolution of plant and animal embryo defences by hyperstable non-digestible storage proteins.

    PubMed

    Pasquevich, María Yanina; Dreon, Marcos Sebastián; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Mu, Huawei; Heras, Horacio

    2017-11-20

    Plants have evolved sophisticated embryo defences by kinetically-stable non-digestible storage proteins that lower the nutritional value of seeds, a strategy that have not been reported in animals. To further understand antinutritive defences in animals, we analysed PmPV1, massively accumulated in the eggs of the gastropod Pomacea maculata, focusing on how its structure and structural stability features affected its capacity to withstand passage through predator guts. The native protein withstands >50 min boiling and resists the denaturing detergent sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), indicating an unusually high structural stability (i.e., kinetic stability). PmPV1 is highly resistant to in vitro proteinase digestion and displays structural stability between pH 2.0-12.0 and 25-85 °C. Furthermore, PmPV1 withstands in vitro and mice digestion and is recovered unchanged in faeces, supporting an antinutritive defensive function. Subunit sequence similarities suggest a common origin and tolerance to mutations. This is the first known animal genus that, like plant seeds, lowers the nutritional value of eggs by kinetically-stable non-digestible storage proteins that survive the gut of predators unaffected. The selective pressure of the harsh gastrointestinal environment would have favoured their appearance, extending by convergent evolution the presence of plant-like hyperstable antinutritive proteins to unattended reproductive stages in animals.

  10. Zea mays Taxilin Protein Negatively Regulates Opaque-2 Transcriptional Activity by Causing a Change in Its Sub-Cellular Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nan; Qiao, Zhenyi; Liang, Zheng; Mei, Bing; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2012-01-01

    Zea mays (maize) Opaque-2 (ZmO2) protein is an important bZIP transcription factor that regulates the expression of major storage proteins (22-kD zeins) and other important genes during maize seed development. ZmO2 is subject to functional regulation through protein-protein interactions. To unveil the potential regulatory network associated with ZmO2, a protein-protein interaction study was carried out using the truncated version of ZmO2 (O2-2) as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen with a maize seed cDNA library. A protein with homology to Taxilin was found to have stable interaction with ZmO2 in yeast and was designated as ZmTaxilin. Sequence analysis indicated that ZmTaxilin has a long coiled-coil domain containing three conserved zipper motifs. Each of the three zipper motifs is individually able to interact with ZmO2 in yeast. A GST pull-down assay demonstrated the interaction between GST-fused ZmTaxilin and ZmO2 extracted from developing maize seeds. Using onion epidermal cells as in vivo assay system, we found that ZmTaxilin could change the sub-cellular distribution of ZmO2. We also demonstrated that this change significantly repressed the transcriptional activity of ZmO2 on the 22-kD zein promoter. Our study suggests that a Taxilin-mediated change in sub-cellular distribution of ZmO2 may have important functional consequences for ZmO2 activity. PMID:22937104

  11. SPINS: standardized protein NMR storage. A data dictionary and object-oriented relational database for archiving protein NMR spectra.

    PubMed

    Baran, Michael C; Moseley, Hunter N B; Sahota, Gurmukh; Montelione, Gaetano T

    2002-10-01

    Modern protein NMR spectroscopy laboratories have a rapidly growing need for an easily queried local archival system of raw experimental NMR datasets. SPINS (Standardized ProteIn Nmr Storage) is an object-oriented relational database that provides facilities for high-volume NMR data archival, organization of analyses, and dissemination of results to the public domain by automatic preparation of the header files required for submission of data to the BioMagResBank (BMRB). The current version of SPINS coordinates the process from data collection to BMRB deposition of raw NMR data by standardizing and integrating the storage and retrieval of these data in a local laboratory file system. Additional facilities include a data mining query tool, graphical database administration tools, and a NMRStar v2. 1.1 file generator. SPINS also includes a user-friendly internet-based graphical user interface, which is optionally integrated with Varian VNMR NMR data collection software. This paper provides an overview of the data model underlying the SPINS database system, a description of its implementation in Oracle, and an outline of future plans for the SPINS project.

  12. The pupylation machinery is involved in iron homeostasis by targeting the iron storage protein ferritin.

    PubMed

    Küberl, Andreas; Polen, Tino; Bott, Michael

    2016-04-26

    The balance of sufficient iron supply and avoidance of iron toxicity by iron homeostasis is a prerequisite for cellular metabolism and growth. Here we provide evidence that, in Actinobacteria, pupylation plays a crucial role in this process. Pupylation is a posttranslational modification in which the prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein Pup is covalently attached to a lysine residue in target proteins, thus resembling ubiquitination in eukaryotes. Pupylated proteins are recognized and unfolded by a dedicated AAA+ ATPase (Mycobacterium proteasomal AAA+ ATPase; ATPase forming ring-shaped complexes). In Mycobacteria, degradation of pupylated proteins by the proteasome serves as a protection mechanism against several stress conditions. Other bacterial genera capable of pupylation such as Corynebacterium lack a proteasome, and the fate of pupylated proteins is unknown. We discovered that Corynebacterium glutamicum mutants lacking components of the pupylation machinery show a strong growth defect under iron limitation, which was caused by the absence of pupylation and unfolding of the iron storage protein ferritin. Genetic and biochemical data support a model in which the pupylation machinery is responsible for iron release from ferritin independent of degradation.

  13. The pupylation machinery is involved in iron homeostasis by targeting the iron storage protein ferritin

    PubMed Central

    Küberl, Andreas; Polen, Tino; Bott, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The balance of sufficient iron supply and avoidance of iron toxicity by iron homeostasis is a prerequisite for cellular metabolism and growth. Here we provide evidence that, in Actinobacteria, pupylation plays a crucial role in this process. Pupylation is a posttranslational modification in which the prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein Pup is covalently attached to a lysine residue in target proteins, thus resembling ubiquitination in eukaryotes. Pupylated proteins are recognized and unfolded by a dedicated AAA+ ATPase (Mycobacterium proteasomal AAA+ ATPase; ATPase forming ring-shaped complexes). In Mycobacteria, degradation of pupylated proteins by the proteasome serves as a protection mechanism against several stress conditions. Other bacterial genera capable of pupylation such as Corynebacterium lack a proteasome, and the fate of pupylated proteins is unknown. We discovered that Corynebacterium glutamicum mutants lacking components of the pupylation machinery show a strong growth defect under iron limitation, which was caused by the absence of pupylation and unfolding of the iron storage protein ferritin. Genetic and biochemical data support a model in which the pupylation machinery is responsible for iron release from ferritin independent of degradation. PMID:27078093

  14. The trafficking pathway of a wheat storage protein in transgenic rice endosperm.

    PubMed

    Oszvald, Maria; Tamas, Laszlo; Shewry, Peter R; Tosi, Paola

    2014-04-01

    The trafficking of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of plant cells is a topic of considerable interest since this organelle serves as an entry point for proteins destined for other organelles, as well as for the ER itself. In the current work, transgenic rice was used to study the pattern and pathway of deposition of the wheat high molecular weight (HMW) glutenin sub-unit (GS) 1Dx5 within the rice endosperm using specific antibodies to determine whether it is deposited in the same or different protein bodies from the rice storage proteins, and whether it is located in the same or separate phases within these. The protein distribution and the expression pattern of HMW sub-unit 1Dx5 in transgenic rice endosperm at different stages of development were determined using light and electron microscopy after labelling with antibodies. The use of HMW-GS-specific antibodies showed that sub-unit 1Dx5 was expressed mainly in the sub-aleurone cells of the endosperm and that it was deposited in both types of protein body present in the rice endosperm: derived from the ER and containing prolamins, and derived from the vacuole and containing glutelins. In addition, new types of protein bodies were also formed within the endosperm cells. The results suggest that the HMW 1Dx5 protein could be trafficked by either the ER or vacuolar pathway, possibly depending on the stage of development, and that its accumulation in the rice endosperm could compromise the structural integrity of protein bodies and their segregation into two distinct populations in the mature endosperm.

  15. A cytosolic copper storage protein provides a second level of copper tolerance in Streptomyces lividans.

    PubMed

    Straw, Megan L; Chaplin, Amanda K; Hough, Michael A; Paps, Jordi; Bavro, Vassiliy N; Wilson, Michael T; Vijgenboom, Erik; Worrall, Jonathan A R

    2018-01-24

    Streptomyces lividans has a distinct dependence on the bioavailability of copper for its morphological development. A cytosolic copper resistance system is operative in S. lividans that serves to preclude deleterious copper levels. This system comprises of several CopZ-like copper chaperones and P 1 -type ATPases, predominantly under the transcriptional control of a metalloregulator from the copper sensitive operon repressor (CsoR) family. In the present study, we discover a new layer of cytosolic copper resistance in S. lividans that involves a protein belonging to the newly discovered family of copper storage proteins, which we have named Ccsp (cytosolic copper storage protein). From an evolutionary perspective, we find Ccsp homologues to be widespread in Bacteria and extend through into Archaea and Eukaryota. Under copper stress Ccsp is upregulated and consists of a homotetramer assembly capable of binding up to 80 cuprous ions (20 per protomer). X-ray crystallography reveals 18 cysteines, 3 histidines and 1 aspartate are involved in cuprous ion coordination. Loading of cuprous ions to Ccsp is a cooperative process with a Hill coefficient of 1.9 and a CopZ-like copper chaperone can transfer copper to Ccsp. A Δccsp mutant strain indicates that Ccsp is not required under initial copper stress in S. lividans, but as the CsoR/CopZ/ATPase efflux system becomes saturated, Ccsp facilitates a second level of copper tolerance.

  16. Effects of chilled-then-frozen storage (up to 52weeks) on an indicator of protein oxidation and indices of protein degradation in lamb M. longissimus lumborum.

    PubMed

    Coombs, Cassius E O; Holman, Benjamin W B; Collins, Damian; Kerr, Matthew J; Friend, Michael A; Hopkins, David L

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the protein oxidation properties of lamb following chilled-then-frozen storage. Experimental (n=360) M. longissimus lumborum (LL) were randomly sampled from the boning room of a commercial Australian abattoir, at 24h post mortem, and assigned to five chilled storage periods (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8weeks) and six subsequent frozen storage periods (0, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 52weeks). Upon completion of each storage treatment combination, corresponding LL were sub-sectioned and analysed for carbonyl content, protein solubility, nitrate/nitrite content, particle size analysis and estimated myoglobin fractions. The association between these protein measures and shear force was also explored. During chilled storage, particle size and sarcoplasmic protein solubility decreased which indicated protein degradation, while frozen storage only affected myoglobin oxidation. Tenderness was best explained by decreased particle size, decreased deoxymyoglobin and increased oxymyoglobin. No carbonyl effects were observed. It can be concluded that, according to these analyses, that in chilled-then-frozen lamb carbonyl formation was negligible. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cleavage of the Drosophila seminal protein Acp36DE in mated females enhances its sperm storage activity.

    PubMed

    Avila, Frank W; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2017-08-01

    Sperm storage in the mated female reproductive tract (RT) is required for optimal fertility in numerous species with internal fertilization. In Drosophila melanogaster, sperm storage is dependent on female receipt of seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) during mating. The seminal fluid protein Acp36DE is necessary for the accumulation of sperm into storage. In the female RT, Acp36DE localizes to the anterior mating plug and also to a site in the common oviduct, potentially "corralling" sperm near the entry sites into the storage organs. Genetic studies showed that Acp36DE is also required for a series of conformational changes of the uterus that begin at the onset of mating and are hypothesized to move sperm towards the entry sites of the sperm storage organs. After Acp36DE is transferred to the female RT, the protein is cleaved by the astacin-metalloprotease Semp1. However, the effect of this cleavage on Acp36DE's function in sperm accumulation into storage is unknown. We used mass spectrometry to identify the single cleavage site in Acp36DE. We then mutated this site and tested the effects on sperm storage. Mutations of Acp36DE's cleavage site that slowed or prevented cleavage of the protein slowed the accumulation of sperm into storage, although they did not affect uterine conformational changes in mated females. Moreover, the N-terminal cleavage product of Acp36DE was sufficient to mediate sperm accumulation in storage, and it did so faster than versions of Acp36DE that could not be cleaved or were only cleaved slowly. These results suggest that cleavage of Acp36E may increase the number of bioactive molecules within the female RT, a mechanism similar to that hypothesized for Semp1's other substrate, the seminal fluid protein ovulin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prolonging hypothermic storage (4 C) of bovine embryos with fish antifreeze protein.

    PubMed

    Ideta, Atsushi; Aoyagi, Yoshito; Tsuchiya, Kanami; Nakamura, Yuuki; Hayama, Kou; Shirasawa, Atsushi; Sakaguchi, Kenichiro; Tominaga, Naomi; Nishimiya, Yoshiyuki; Tsuda, Sakae

    2015-01-01

    Embryos obtained via superovulation are necessary for mammalian artificial reproduction, and viability is a key determinant of success. Nonfreezing storage at 4 C is possible, but currently used storage solutions can maintain embryo viability for only 24-48 h. Here we found that 10 mg/ml antifreeze protein (AFP) dissolved in culture medium 199 with 20% (v/v) fetal bovine serum and 25 mM HEPES could keep bovine embryos alive for 10 days at 4 C. We used a recombinant AFP isolated from the notched-fin eelpout (Zoarces elongatus Kner). Photomicroscopy indicated that the AFP-embryo interaction was enhanced at 37 C. Embryos pre-warmed with the AFP solution at 37 C for 60 min maintained high viability, whereas those that were not pre-warmed could live no longer than 7 days. Thus, short-term storage of bovine embryos was achieved by a combination of AFP-containing medium and controlled pre-warming.

  19. Protein oxidation in emulsified cooked burger patties with added fruit extracts: Influence on colour and texture deterioration during chill storage.

    PubMed

    Ganhão, Rui; Morcuende, David; Estévez, Mario

    2010-07-01

    The influence of protein oxidation, as measured by the dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) method, on colour and texture changes during chill storage (2 degrees C, 12days) of cooked burger patties was studied. Extracts from arbutus-berries (Arbutus unedoL., AU), common hawthorns (Crataegus monogynaL., CM), dog roses (Rosa caninaL., RC) and elm-leaf blackberries (Rubus ulmifoliusSchott., RU) were prepared, added to burger patties (3% of total weight) and evaluated as inhibitors of protein oxidation and colour and texture changes. Negative (no added extract, C) and positive control (added quercetin; 230mg/kg, Q) groups were also considered. The significant increase of protein carbonyls during chill storage of control burger patties reflect the intense oxidative degradation of the muscle proteins. Concomitantly, an intense loss of redness and increase of hardness was found to take place in burger patties throughout refrigerated storage. Most fruit extracts as well as Q significantly reduced the formation of protein carbonyls and inhibited colour and texture deterioration during chill storage. Likely mechanisms through which protein oxidation could play a major role on colour and texture changes during chill storage of burger patties are discussed. Amongst the extracts, RC was most suitable for use as a functional ingredient in processed meats since it enhanced oxidative stability, colour and texture properties of burger patties with no apparent drawbacks. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of water deficit on breadmaking quality and storage protein compositions in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiaxing; Liu, Dongmiao; Deng, Xiong; Zhen, Shoumin; Wang, Zhimin; Yan, Yueming

    2018-03-12

    Water deficiency affects grain proteome dynamics and storage protein compositions, resulting in changes in gluten viscoelasticity. In this study, the effects of field water deficit on wheat breadmaking quality and grain storage proteins were investigated. Water deficiency produced a shorter grain-filling period, a decrease in grain number, grain weight and grain yield, a reduced starch granule size and increased protein content and glutenin macropolymer contents, resulting in superior dough properties and breadmaking quality. Reverse phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the total gliadin and glutenin content and the accumulation of individual components were significantly increased by water deficiency. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis detected 144 individual storage protein spots with significant accumulation changes in developing grains under water deficit. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed that water deficiency resulted in significant upregulation of 12 gliadins, 12 high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits and 46 low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that the expression of storage protein biosynthesis-related transcription factors Dof and Spa was upregulated by water deficiency. The present results illustrated that water deficiency leads to increased accumulation of storage protein components and upregulated expression of Dof and Spa, resulting in an improvement in glutenin strength and breadmaking quality. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Differential Roles of Iron Storage Proteins in Maintaining the Iron Homeostasis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Anil K.

    2017-01-01

    Ferritins and bacterioferritins are iron storage proteins that represent key players in iron homeostasis. Several organisms possess both forms of ferritins, however, their relative physiological roles are less understood. Mycobacterium tuberculosis possesses both ferritin (BfrB) and bacterioferritin (BfrA), playing an essential role in its pathogenesis as reported by us earlier. This study provides insights into the role of these two proteins in iron homeostasis by employing M. tuberculosis bfr mutants. Our data suggests that BfrA is required for efficient utilization of stored iron under low iron conditions while BfrB plays a crucial role as the major defense protein under excessive iron conditions. We show that these two proteins provide protection against oxidative stress and hypoxia. Iron incorporation study showed that BfrB has higher capacity for storing iron than BfrA, which augurs well for efficient iron quenching under iron excess conditions. Moreover, iron release assay demonstrated that BfrA has 3 times superior ability to release stored iron emphasizing its requirement for efficient iron release under low iron conditions, facilitated by the presence of heme. Thus, for the first time, our observations suggest that the importance of BfrA or BfrB separately might vary depending upon the iron situation faced by the cell. PMID:28060867

  2. A new look on protein-polyphenol complexation during honey storage: is this a random or organized event with the help of dirigent-like proteins?

    PubMed

    Brudzynski, Katrina; Sjaarda, Calvin; Maldonado-Alvarez, Liset

    2013-01-01

    Honey storage initiates melanoidin formation that involves a cascade of seemingly unguided redox reactions between amino acids/proteins, reducing sugars and polyphenols. In the process, high molecular weight protein-polyphenol complexes are formed, but the mechanism involved remains unknown. The objective of this study was twofold: to determine quantitative and qualitative changes in proteins in honeys stored for prolonged times and in different temperatures and to relate these changes to the formation of protein-polyphenol complexes. Six -month storage decreased the protein content by 46.7% in all tested honeys (t-test, p<0.002) with the rapid reduction occurring during the first three month. The changes in protein levels coincided with alterations in molecular size and net charge of proteins on SDS -PAGE. Electro-blotted proteins reacted with a quinone-specific nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) on nitrocellulose membranes indicating that quinones derived from oxidized polyphenols formed covalent bonds with proteins. Protein-polyphenol complexes isolated by size-exclusion chromatography differed in size and stoichiometry and fall into two categories: (a) high molecular weight complexes (230-180 kDa) enriched in proteins but possessing a limited reducing activity toward the NBT and (b) lower molecular size complexes (110-85 kDa) enriched in polyphenols but strongly reducing the dye. The variable stoichiometry suggest that the large, "protein-type" complexes were formed by protein cross-linking, while in the smaller, "polyphenol-type" complexes polyphenols were first polymerized prior to protein binding. Quinones preferentially bound a 31 kDa protein which, by the electrospray quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (ESI-Qtof-MS) analysis, showed homology to dirigent-like proteins known for assisting in radical coupling and polymerization of phenolic compounds. These findings provide a new look on protein-polyphenol interaction in honey where the reaction of quinones

  3. Effect of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration on the protein composition of cereal grain.

    PubMed

    Wroblewitz, Stefanie; Hüther, Liane; Manderscheid, Remy; Weigel, Hans-Joachim; Wätzig, Hermann; Dänicke, Sven

    2014-07-16

    The present study investigates effects of rising atmospheric CO2 concentration on protein composition of maize, wheat, and barley grain, especially on the fractions prolamins and glutelins. Cereals were grown at different atmospheric CO2 concentrations to simulate future climate conditions. Influences of two nitrogen fertilization levels were studied for wheat and barley. Enriched CO2 caused an increase of globulin and B-hordein of barley. In maize, the content of globulin, α-zein, and LMW polymers decreased, whereas total glutelin, zein, δ-zein, and HMW polymers rose. Different N supplies resulted in variations of barley subfractions and wheat globulin. Other environmental influences showed effects on the content of nearly all fractions and subfractions. Variations in starch-protein bodies caused by different CO2 treatments could be visualized by scanning electron microscopy. In conclusion, climate change would have impacts on structural composition of proteins and, consequently, on the nutritional value of cereals.

  4. Refrigerated storage of platelets initiates changes in platelet surface marker expression and localization of intracellular proteins.

    PubMed

    Wood, Ben; Padula, Matthew P; Marks, Denese C; Johnson, Lacey

    2016-10-01

    Platelets (PLTs) are currently stored at room temperature (22°C), which limits their shelf life, primarily due to the risk of bacterial growth. Alternatives to room temperature storage include PLT refrigeration (2-6°C), which inhibits bacterial growth, thus potentially allowing an extension of shelf life. Additionally, refrigerated PLTs appear more hemostatically active than conventional PLTs, which may be beneficial in certain clinical situations. However, the mechanisms responsible for this hemostatic function are not well characterized. The aim of this study was to assess the protein profile of refrigerated PLTs in an effort to understand these functional consequences. Buffy coat PLTs were pooled, split, and stored either at room temperature (20-24°C) or under refrigerated (2-6°C) conditions (n = 8 in each group). PLTs were assessed for changes in external receptor expression and actin filamentation using flow cytometry. Intracellular proteomic changes were assessed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Western blotting. PLT refrigeration significantly reduced the abundance of glycoproteins (GPIb, GPIX, GPIIb, and GPIV) on the external membrane. However, refrigeration resulted in the increased expression of high-affinity integrins (αIIbβ3 and β1) and activation and apoptosis markers (CD62P, CD63, and phosphatidylserine). PLT refrigeration substantially altered the abundance and localization of several cytoskeletal proteins and resulted in an increase in actin filamentation, as measured by phalloidin staining. Refrigerated storage of PLTs induces significant changes in the expression and localization of both surface-expressed and intracellular proteins. Understanding these proteomic changes may help to identify the mechanisms resulting in the refrigeration-associated alterations in PLT function and clearance. © 2016 AABB.

  5. Fabrication, characterization and biomedical application of two-nozzle electrospun polycaprolactone/zein-calcium lactate composite nonwoven mat.

    PubMed

    Liao, Nina; Joshi, Mahesh Kumar; Tiwari, Arjun Prasad; Park, Chan-Hee; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the current work is to incorporate calcium lactate (CL) into polycaprolactone (PCL)/zein composite micro/nanofibrous scaffolds via electrospinning to engineer bone tissue. In this study, a composite micro/nano fibrous scaffold was fabricated using a single two-nozzle electrospinning system to combine indicative nanofibers from a blended solution of zein-CL and micro-sized fibers from a PCL solution. Incorporation of the CL into the PCL/zein fibers were shown to improve the wettability, tensile strength and biological activity of the composite mats. Moreover, the composite mats have a high efficiency to nucleate calcium phosphate from simulated body fluid (SBF) solution. An in vitro cell culture with osteoblast cells demonstrated that the electrospun composite mats possessed improved biological properties, including a better cell adhesion, spread and proliferation. This study has demonstrated that the PCL/zein-CL composite provides a simple platform to fabricate a new biomimetic scaffold for bone tissue engineering, which can recapitulate both the morphology of extracellular matrix and composition of the bone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Preparation of zein nanoparticles by using solution-enhanced dispersion with supercritical CO2 and elucidation with computational fluid dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sining; Zhao, Yaping

    2017-01-01

    Nanoparticles have attracted more and more attention in the medicinal field. Zein is a biomacromolecule and can be used as a carrier for delivering active ingredients to prepare controlled release drugs. In this article, we presented the preparation of zein nanoparticles by solution-enhanced dispersion by supercritical CO2 (SEDS) approach. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were applied to characterize the size and morphology of the obtained particles. The nozzle structure and the CO2 flow rate greatly affected the morphology and the size of the particles. The size of zein was able to be reduced to 50–350 nm according to the different conditions. The morphologies of the resultant zein were either sphere or the filament network consisted of nanoparticles. The influence of the nozzle structure and the CO2 flow rate on the velocity field was elucidated by using computational fluid dynamics. The nozzle structure and the CO2 flow rate greatly affected the distribution of the velocity field. However, a similar velocity field could also be obtained when the nozzle structure or the CO2 flow rate, or both were different. Therefore, the influence of the nozzle structure and the CO2 flow rate on the size and morphology of the particles, can boil down to the velocity field. The results demonstrated that the velocity field can be a potential criterion for producing nanoparticles with controllable morphology and size, which is useful to scale-up the SEDS process. PMID:28496324

  7. Preparation of zein nanoparticles by using solution-enhanced dispersion with supercritical CO2 and elucidation with computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Li, Sining; Zhao, Yaping

    2017-01-01

    Nanoparticles have attracted more and more attention in the medicinal field. Zein is a biomacromolecule and can be used as a carrier for delivering active ingredients to prepare controlled release drugs. In this article, we presented the preparation of zein nanoparticles by solution-enhanced dispersion by supercritical CO 2 (SEDS) approach. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were applied to characterize the size and morphology of the obtained particles. The nozzle structure and the CO 2 flow rate greatly affected the morphology and the size of the particles. The size of zein was able to be reduced to 50-350 nm according to the different conditions. The morphologies of the resultant zein were either sphere or the filament network consisted of nanoparticles. The influence of the nozzle structure and the CO 2 flow rate on the velocity field was elucidated by using computational fluid dynamics. The nozzle structure and the CO 2 flow rate greatly affected the distribution of the velocity field. However, a similar velocity field could also be obtained when the nozzle structure or the CO 2 flow rate, or both were different. Therefore, the influence of the nozzle structure and the CO 2 flow rate on the size and morphology of the particles, can boil down to the velocity field. The results demonstrated that the velocity field can be a potential criterion for producing nanoparticles with controllable morphology and size, which is useful to scale-up the SEDS process.

  8. Seed storage protein gene promoters contain conserved DNA motifs in Brassicaceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae

    PubMed Central

    Fauteux, François; Strömvik, Martina V

    2009-01-01

    Background Accurate computational identification of cis-regulatory motifs is difficult, particularly in eukaryotic promoters, which typically contain multiple short and degenerate DNA sequences bound by several interacting factors. Enrichment in combinations of rare motifs in the promoter sequence of functionally or evolutionarily related genes among several species is an indicator of conserved transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. This provides a basis for the computational identification of cis-regulatory motifs. Results We have used a discriminative seeding DNA motif discovery algorithm for an in-depth analysis of 54 seed storage protein (SSP) gene promoters from three plant families, namely Brassicaceae (mustards), Fabaceae (legumes) and Poaceae (grasses) using backgrounds based on complete sets of promoters from a representative species in each family, namely Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.), soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) respectively. We have identified three conserved motifs (two RY-like and one ACGT-like) in Brassicaceae and Fabaceae SSP gene promoters that are similar to experimentally characterized seed-specific cis-regulatory elements. Fabaceae SSP gene promoter sequences are also enriched in a novel, seed-specific E2Fb-like motif. Conserved motifs identified in Poaceae SSP gene promoters include a GCN4-like motif, two prolamin-box-like motifs and an Skn-1-like motif. Evidence of the presence of a variant of the TATA-box is found in the SSP gene promoters from the three plant families. Motifs discovered in SSP gene promoters were used to score whole-genome sets of promoters from Arabidopsis, soybean and rice. The highest-scoring promoters are associated with genes coding for different subunits or precursors of seed storage proteins. Conclusion Seed storage protein gene promoter motifs are conserved in diverse species, and different plant families are characterized by a distinct combination of conserved motifs

  9. Differential response to sulfur nutrition of two common bean genotypes differing in storage protein composition.

    PubMed

    Pandurangan, Sudhakar; Sandercock, Mark; Beyaert, Ronald; Conn, Kenneth L; Hou, Anfu; Marsolais, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the relatively low concentration of sulfur amino acids in legume seeds might be an ecological adaptation to nutrient poor, marginal soils. SARC1 and SMARC1N-PN1 are genetically related lines of common bean (dry bean, Phaseolus vulgaris) differing in seed storage protein composition. In SMARC1N-PN1, the lack of phaseolin and major lectins is compensated by increased levels of sulfur-rich proteins, resulting in an enhanced concentration of cysteine and methionine, mostly at the expense of the abundant non-protein amino acid, S-methylcysteine. To identify potential effects associated with an increased concentration of sulfur amino acids in the protein pool, the response of the two genotypes to low and high sulfur nutrition was evaluated under controlled conditions. Seed yield was increased by the high sulfate treatment in SMARC1N-PN1. The seed concentrations of sulfur, sulfate, and S-methylcysteine were altered by the sulfur treatment in both genotypes. The concentration of total cysteine and extractible globulins was increased specifically in SMARC1N-PN1. Proteomic analysis identified arcelin-like protein 4, lipoxygenase-3, albumin-2, and alpha amylase inhibitor beta chain as having increased levels under high sulfur conditions. Lipoxygenase-3 accumulation was sensitive to sulfur nutrition only in SMARC1N-PN1. Under field conditions, both SARC1 and SMARC1N-PN1 exhibited a slight increase in yield in response to sulfur treatment, typical for common bean.

  10. Influence of prolonged storage process, pasteurization, and heat treatment on biologically-active human milk proteins.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jih-Chin; Chen, Chao-Huei; Fang, Li-Jung; Tsai, Chi-Ren; Chang, Yu-Chuan; Wang, Teh-Ming

    2013-12-01

    The bioactive proteins in human milk may be influenced by prolonged storage process, pasteurization, and heat treatment. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of these procedures. Three forms of human milk - freshly expressed, frozen at -20°C for a prolonged duration, and pasteurized milk - were collected from 14 healthy lactating mothers and a milk bank. The concentrations of major bioactive proteins (secretory immunoglobulin A, lactoferrin, lysozyme, and leptin) were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Changes in these proteins by heat treatment at 40°C or 60°C for 30 minutes were further evaluated. The mean concentrations of lactoferrin and secretory immunoglobulin A were significantly reduced by 66% and 25.9%, respectively, in pasteurized milk compared with those in freshly-expressed milk. Heat treatment at 40°C or 60°C did not cause significant changes in lactoferrin and secretory immunoglobulin A, but there was an apparent increase in lysozyme (p = 0.016). There were no significant differences in leptin level among these three forms of milk prior to (p = 0.153) or after heat treatment (p = 0.053). Various freezing/heating/pasteurization processes applied to human milk prior to delivery to neonates could affect the concentration of immunomodulatory proteins, especially lactoferrin, secretory immunoglobulin A, and lysozyme. Leptin was unaffected by the various handling processes tested. Fresh milk was found to be the best food for neonates. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the functional activity of these proteins and their effects on infants' immunological status. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Ascorbate and Apple Phenolics Affect Protein Oxidation in Emulsion-Type Sausages during Storage and in Vitro Digestion.

    PubMed

    Rysman, Tine; Van Hecke, Thomas; De Smet, Stefaan; Van Royen, Geert

    2016-05-25

    The effect of sodium ascorbate and apple phenolics on the oxidative stability of emulsion-type sausages during storage and digestion was investigated. Emulsion-type sausages containing 0.05% sodium ascorbate or 3% freeze-dried apple pomace were subjected to chilled illuminated storage and subsequent in vitro digestion. Lipid oxidation was assessed as TBARS, and protein oxidation was evaluated as thiol oxidation, total carbonyls, and γ-glutamic and α-amino adipic semialdehyde. Proteolysis was measured after digestion to evaluate protein digestibility. The results suggest the presence of protein-ascorbate and protein-phenol interactions, which may decrease protein digestibility and may interfere with spectrophotometric methods for measuring oxidation.

  12. Biological iron-sulfur storage in a thioferrate-protein nanoparticle

    SciTech Connect

    Vaccaro, Brian J.; Clarkson, Sonya M.; Holden, James F.

    Iron–sulfur clusters are ubiquitous in biology and function in electron transfer and catalysis. We assembled them from iron and cysteine sulfur on protein scaffolds. Iron is typically stored as iron oxyhydroxide, ferrihydrite, encapsulated in 12 nm shells of ferritin, which buffers cellular iron availability. We have characterized IssA, a protein that stores iron and sulfur as thioferrate, an inorganic anionic polymer previously unknown in biology. IssA forms nanoparticles reaching 300 nm in diameter and is the largest natural metalloprotein complex known. It is a member of a widely distributed protein family that includes nitrogenase maturation factors, NifB and NifX. IssAmore » nanoparticles are visible by electron microscopy as electron-dense bodies in the cytoplasm. Purified nanoparticles appear to be generated from 20 nm units containing B 6,400 Fe atoms and B 170 IssA monomers. In support of roles in both iron–sulfur storage and cluster biosynthesis, IssA reconstitutes the [4Fe-4S] cluster in ferredoxin in vitro.« less

  13. Biological iron-sulfur storage in a thioferrate-protein nanoparticle

    DOE PAGES

    Vaccaro, Brian J.; Clarkson, Sonya M.; Holden, James F.; ...

    2017-07-20

    Iron–sulfur clusters are ubiquitous in biology and function in electron transfer and catalysis. We assembled them from iron and cysteine sulfur on protein scaffolds. Iron is typically stored as iron oxyhydroxide, ferrihydrite, encapsulated in 12 nm shells of ferritin, which buffers cellular iron availability. We have characterized IssA, a protein that stores iron and sulfur as thioferrate, an inorganic anionic polymer previously unknown in biology. IssA forms nanoparticles reaching 300 nm in diameter and is the largest natural metalloprotein complex known. It is a member of a widely distributed protein family that includes nitrogenase maturation factors, NifB and NifX. IssAmore » nanoparticles are visible by electron microscopy as electron-dense bodies in the cytoplasm. Purified nanoparticles appear to be generated from 20 nm units containing B 6,400 Fe atoms and B 170 IssA monomers. In support of roles in both iron–sulfur storage and cluster biosynthesis, IssA reconstitutes the [4Fe-4S] cluster in ferredoxin in vitro.« less

  14. Arabidopsis Intracellular NHX-Type Sodium-Proton Antiporters are Required for Seed Storage Protein Processing.

    PubMed

    Ashnest, Joanne R; Huynh, Dung L; Dragwidge, Jonathan M; Ford, Brett A; Gendall, Anthony R

    2015-11-01

    The Arabidopsis intracellular sodium-proton exchanger (NHX) proteins AtNHX5 and AtNHX6 have a well-documented role in plant development, and have been used to improve salt tolerance in a variety of species. Despite evidence that intracellular NHX proteins are important in vacuolar trafficking, the mechanism of this role is poorly understood. Here we show that NHX5 and NHX6 are necessary for processing of the predominant seed storage proteins, and also influence the processing and activity of a vacuolar processing enzyme. Furthermore, we show by yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) technology that the C-terminal tail of NHX6 interacts with a component of Retromer, another component of the cell sorting machinery, and that this tail is critical for NHX6 activity. These findings demonstrate that NHX5 and NHX6 are important in processing and activity of vacuolar cargo, and suggest a mechanism by which NHX intracellular (IC)-II antiporters may be involved in subcellular trafficking. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Zein Nanoparticles as Eco-Friendly Carrier Systems for Botanical Repellents Aiming Sustainable Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Jhones L de; Campos, Estefânia V R; Pereira, Anderson E S; Pasquoto, Tatiane; Lima, Renata; Grillo, Renato; Andrade, Daniel Junior de; Santos, Fabiano Aparecido Dos; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes

    2018-02-14

    Botanical repellents represent one of the main ways of reducing the use of synthetic pesticides and the contamination of soil and hydric resources. However, the poor stability and rapid degradation of these compounds in the environment hinder their effective application in the field. Zein nanoparticles can be used as eco-friendly carrier systems to protect these substances against premature degradation, provide desirable release characteristics, and reduce toxicity in the environment and to humans. In this study, we describe the preparation and characterization of zein nanoparticles loaded with the main constituents of the essential oil of citronella (geraniol and R-citronellal). The phytotoxicity, cytotoxicity, and insect activity of the nanoparticles toward target and nontarget organisms were also evaluated. The botanical formulations showed high encapsulation efficiency (>90%) in the nanoparticles, good physicochemical stability, and effective protection of the repellents against UV degradation. Cytotoxicity and phytotoxicity assays showed that encapsulation of the botanical repellents decreased their toxicity. Repellent activity tests showed that nanoparticles containing the botanical repellents were highly repellent against the Tetranychus urticae Koch mite. This nanotechnological formulation offers a new option for the effective use of botanical repellents in agriculture, reducing toxicity, protecting against premature degradation, and providing effective pest control.

  16. Physical, Structural, Barrier, and Antifungal Characterization of Chitosan–Zein Edible Films with Added Essential Oils

    PubMed Central

    Escamilla-García, Monserrat; Calderón-Domínguez, Georgina; Chanona-Pérez, Jorge J.; Mendoza-Madrigal, Angélica G.; Di Pierro, Prospero; García-Almendárez, Blanca E.; Amaro-Reyes, Aldo

    2017-01-01

    Edible films (EFs) have gained great interest due to their ability to keep foods safe, maintaining their physical and organoleptic properties for a longer time. The aim of this work was to develop EFs based on a chitosan–zein mixture with three different essential oils (EOs) added: anise, orange, and cinnamon, and to characterize them to establish the relationship between their structural and physical properties. The addition of an EO into an EF significantly affected (p < 0.05) the a* (redness/greenness) and b* (yellowness/blueness) values of the film surface. The EFs presented a refractive index between 1.35 and 1.55, and thus are classified as transparent. The physical properties of EFs with an added EO were improved, and films that incorporated the anise EO showed significantly lower water vapor permeability (1.2 ± 0.1 g mm h−1 m−2 kPa−1) and high hardness (104.3 ± 3.22 MPa). EFs with an added EO were able to inhibit the growth of Penicillium sp. and Rhizopus sp. to a larger extent than without an EO. Films’ structural changes were the result of chemical interactions among amino acid side chains from zein, glucosamine from chitosan, and cinnamaldehyde, anethole, or limonene from the EOs as detected by a Raman analysis. The incorporation of an EO in the EFs’ formulation could represent an alternative use as coatings to enhance the shelf life of food products. PMID:29117148

  17. Physical, Structural, Barrier, and Antifungal Characterization of Chitosan-Zein Edible Films with Added Essential Oils.

    PubMed

    Escamilla-García, Monserrat; Calderón-Domínguez, Georgina; Chanona-Pérez, Jorge J; Mendoza-Madrigal, Angélica G; Di Pierro, Prospero; García-Almendárez, Blanca E; Amaro-Reyes, Aldo; Regalado-González, Carlos

    2017-11-08

    Edible films (EFs) have gained great interest due to their ability to keep foods safe, maintaining their physical and organoleptic properties for a longer time. The aim of this work was to develop EFs based on a chitosan-zein mixture with three different essential oils (EOs) added: anise, orange, and cinnamon, and to characterize them to establish the relationship between their structural and physical properties. The addition of an EO into an EF significantly affected ( p < 0.05) the a* (redness/greenness) and b* (yellowness/blueness) values of the film surface. The EFs presented a refractive index between 1.35 and 1.55, and thus are classified as transparent. The physical properties of EFs with an added EO were improved, and films that incorporated the anise EO showed significantly lower water vapor permeability (1.2 ± 0.1 g mm h -1 m -2 kPa -1 ) and high hardness (104.3 ± 3.22 MPa). EFs with an added EO were able to inhibit the growth of Penicillium sp. and Rhizopus sp. to a larger extent than without an EO. Films' structural changes were the result of chemical interactions among amino acid side chains from zein, glucosamine from chitosan, and cinnamaldehyde, anethole, or limonene from the EOs as detected by a Raman analysis. The incorporation of an EO in the EFs' formulation could represent an alternative use as coatings to enhance the shelf life of food products.

  18. Gallic acid loaded PEO-core/zein-shell nanofibers for chemopreventive action on gallbladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Francisca; Hermosilla, Jeyson; Sanhueza, Claudia; Mora-Lagos, Barbara; Fuentes, Irma; Rubilar, Mónica; Concheiro, Angel; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen

    2018-07-01

    Coaxial electrospinning was used to develop gallic acid (GA) loaded poly(ethylene oxide)/zein nanofibers in order to improve its chemopreventive action on human gallbladder cancer cells. Using a Plackett-Burman design, the effects of poly(ethylene oxide) and zein concentration and applied voltage on the diameter and morphology index of nanofibers were investigated. Coaxial nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). GA loading efficiency as high as 77% was obtained under optimal process conditions. The coaxial nanofibers controlled GA release in acid and neutral pH medium. Cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production on gallbladder cancer cell lines GB-d1 and NOZ in the presence of GA-nanofibers were assessed. GA-nanofibers triggered an increase in the cellular cytotoxicity compared with free GA on GB-d1 and NOZ cells. Statistically significant differences were found in ROS levels of GA-nanofibers compared with free GA on NOZ cells. Differently, ROS production on GB-d1 cell line was similar. Based on these results, the coaxial nanofibers obtained in this study under optimized operational conditions offer an alternative for the development of a GA release system with improved chemopreventive action on gallbladder cancer cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Pectin/zein microspheres as a sustained drug delivery system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A series of microspheres were prepared from pectins and corn proteins from various sources in the presence of the divalent ions calcium or zinc. The results showed that the yield of microsphere and the efficiency of drug incorporation were dependent on the type and ratio of biopolymers, the size of ...

  20. Effect of storage conditions on carbon-centered radicals in soy protein products.

    PubMed

    Boatright, William L; Lei, Qingxin; Shah Jahan, M

    2009-09-09

    Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, the levels of carbon-centered radicals in retail samples of isolated soy protein (ISP), soy protein concentrate (SPC), and powdered soy milk were estimated to contain from 6.12 x 10(14) to 1.98 x 10(15) spins/g of soy product. Roasted soy nuts contained about 5.70 x 10(15) spins/g. The peak to peak line width of the carbon-centered radicals from soy nuts was about 10 gauss, whereas ISP samples with a similar peak height had a peak to peak line width of about 8 gauss. Retail snack bars containing ISP, SPC, and/or roasted soy nuts with a total protein content of either 13, 21, or 29% contained 5.32 x 10(14), 6.67 x 10(14), and 5.74 x 10(14) spins/g of snack bar, respectively. Levels of carbon-centered radicals in newly prepared samples of ISP were much lower than levels in the retail soy protein products and levels previously reported for commercial ISP and laboratory ISP samples. The levels of radicals in ISP samples increased over a 12-25 week period of storage in the dark at 22 degrees C and exposed to air from about 8.00 x 10(13) spins/g immediately after preparation to 9.95 x 10(14) spins/g of ISP. Storing the ISP samples under nitrogen at 22 degrees C greatly reduced the increase in radical content, whereas storing the ISP in 99.9% oxygen at 40 degrees C accelerated the formation of stable carbon-centered radicals. ISP samples hydrated at either 22 or 92 degrees C, rapidly frozen, and dried lost about 92% of the trapped radicals. The level of carbon-centered radicals in these same ISP samples immediately began to increase during subsequent storage exposed to the air and gradually returned to similar levels obtained before they were hydrated.

  1. A strategy for targeting recombinant proteins to protein storage vacuoles by fusion to Brassica napus napin in napin-depleted seeds.

    PubMed

    Hegedus, Dwayne D; Baron, Marcus; Labbe, Natalie; Coutu, Cathy; Lydiate, Derek; Lui, Helen; Rozwadowski, Kevin

    2014-03-01

    Seeds are capable of accumulating high levels of seed storage proteins (SSP), as well as heterologous proteins under certain conditions. Arabidopsis thaliana was used to develop a strategy to deplete seeds of an endogenous SSP and then replenish them with the same protein fused to a heterologous protein. In several other studies, competition with endogenous SSP for space and metabolic resources was shown to affect the accumulation of recombinant proteins in seeds. We used RNAi to reduce the expression of the five napin genes and deplete the seeds of this SSP. Targeting a recombinant protein to a vacuole or structure within the seed where it can be protected from cytosolic proteases can also promote its accumulation. To achieve this, a synthetic Brassica napus napin gene (Bn napin) was designed that was both impervious to the A. thaliana napin (At napin) RNAi construct and permitted fusion to a heterologous protein, in this case green fluorescent protein (GFP). GFP was placed in several strategic locations within Bn napin with consideration to maintaining structure, processing sites and possible vacuolar targeting signals. In transgenic A. thaliana plants, GFP was strongly localized to the seed protein storage vacuole in all Bn napin fusion configurations tested, but not when expressed alone. This SSP depletion-replenishment strategy outlined here would be applicable to expression of recombinant proteins in industrial crops that generally have large repertoires of endogenous SSP genes. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of sterilization, packaging, and storage on vitamin C degradation, protein denaturation, and glycation in fortified milks.

    PubMed

    Gliguem, H; Birlouez-Aragon, I

    2005-03-01

    Monitoring the nutritional quality of dietetic milk throughout its shelf life is particularly important due to the high susceptibility of some vitamins to oxidation, and the continuous development of the Maillard reaction during storage. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the vitamin C content and protein modification by denaturation and glycation on fortified milk samples (growth milks) destined for 1- to 3-yr-old children. The influences of the sterilization process, formulation, packaging, and storage duration at ambient temperature in the dark were studied. Vitamin C degradation was particularly influenced by type of packaging. The use of a 3-layered opaque bottle was associated with complete oxidation of vitamin C after 1 mo of storage, whereas in the 6-layered opaque bottle, which has an oxygen barrier, the vitamin C content slowly decreased to reach 25% of the initial concentration after 4 mo of storage. However, no significant effect of vitamin C degradation during storage could be observed in terms of Maillard reaction, despite the fact that a probable impact occurred during sterilization. Furosine content and the FAST (fluorescence of advanced Maillard products and soluble tryptophan) index-indicators of the early and advanced Maillard reaction, respectively-were significantly higher in the in-bottle sterilized milk samples compared with UHT samples, and in fortified milk samples compared with cow milk. However, after 1 mo, the impact of storage was predominant, increasing the furosine level and the FAST index at similar levels for the differently processed samples. The early Maillard reaction developed continuously throughout the storage period.In conclusion, only packaging comprising an oxygen and light barrier is compatible with vitamin C fortification of milk. Furthermore, short storage time or low storage temperature is needed to retard vitamin C degradation, protein denaturation, and development of the Maillard reaction.

  3. Induced synthesis of toroid-like lead sulfide nanocomposites in ethanol solution through a protein templating route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Qin, Dezhi; Yang, Guangrui; Du, Xian; Zhang, Qiuxia; Li, Feng

    2015-09-01

    The toroid-like PbS nanocrystals have been prepared in zein ethanol solution based on self-assembly template of protein molecules. From transmission electron microscopy observation, the obtained samples were monodispersed with an average size of about 47 nm. The chemical composition and crystal structure of nanocomposites were determined by X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrum measurements. The interaction between PbS and zein was investigated through Fourier transform infrared, photoluminescence, circular dichroism (CD) spectra, and thermogravimetric analysis. The PbS nanocrystals could react with nitrogen and oxygen atoms of zein molecules through coordination and electrostatic force. The CD spectra results suggested that PbS nanocrystals induced the conformational transition of protein from α-helix to β-sheet and then self-assembled into ring or toroid nanostructure. The quenching of zein fluorescence induced by PbS nanocrystals also showed the change in the chemical microenvironments of the fluorescent amino acid residues in the protein structure. The key step of this facile, biomimetic route was the formation of self-assembly nanostructure of zein, which could regulate the nucleation and growth of toroid-like PbS nanocrystals.

  4. Mouse fat storage-inducing transmembrane protein 2 (FIT2) promotes lipid droplet accumulation in plants.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yingqi; McClinchie, Elizabeth; Price, Ann; Nguyen, Thuy N; Gidda, Satinder K; Watt, Samantha C; Yurchenko, Olga; Park, Sunjung; Sturtevant, Drew; Mullen, Robert T; Dyer, John M; Chapman, Kent D

    2017-07-01

    Fat storage-inducing transmembrane protein 2 (FIT2) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized protein that plays an important role in lipid droplet (LD) formation in animal cells. However, no obvious homologue of FIT2 is found in plants. Here, we tested the function of FIT2 in plant cells by ectopically expressing mouse (Mus musculus) FIT2 in Nicotiana tabacum suspension-cultured cells, Nicotiana benthamiana leaves and Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Confocal microscopy indicated that the expression of FIT2 dramatically increased the number and size of LDs in leaves of N. benthamiana and Arabidopsis, and lipidomics analysis and mass spectrometry imaging confirmed the accumulation of neutral lipids in leaves. FIT2 also increased seed oil content by ~13% in some stable, overexpressing lines of Arabidopsis. When expressed transiently in leaves of N. benthamiana or suspension cells of N. tabacum, FIT2 localized specifically to the ER and was often concentrated at certain regions of the ER that resembled ER-LD junction sites. FIT2 also colocalized at the ER with other proteins known to be involved in triacylglycerol biosynthesis or LD formation in plants, but not with ER resident proteins involved in electron transfer or ER-vesicle exit sites. Collectively, these results demonstrate that mouse FIT2 promotes LD accumulation in plants, a surprising functional conservation in the context of a plant cell given the apparent lack of FIT2 homologues in higher plants. These results suggest also that FIT2 expression represents an effective synthetic biology strategy for elaborating neutral lipid compartments in plant tissues for potential biofuel or bioproduct purposes. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Mouse fat storage-inducing transmembrane protein 2 (FIT2) promotes lipid droplet accumulation in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yingqi; McClinchie, Elizabeth; Price, Ann

    Fat storage-inducing transmembrane protein 2 (FIT2) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized protein that plays an important role in lipid droplet (LD) formation in animal cells. However, no obvious homologue of FIT2 is found in plants. We tested the function of FIT2 in plant cells by ectopically expressing mouse (Mus musculus) FIT2 in Nicotiana tabacum suspension-cultured cells, Nicotiana benthamiana leaves and Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Confocal microscopy indicated that the expression of FIT2 dramatically increased the number and size of LDs in leaves of N. benthamiana and Arabidopsis, and lipidomics analysis and mass spectrometry imaging confirmed the accumulation of neutral lipids inmore » leaves. FIT2 also increased seed oil content by ~13% in some stable, overexpressing lines of Arabidopsis. Furthermore, when expressed transiently in leaves of N. benthamiana or suspension cells of N. tabacum, FIT2 localized specifically to the ER and was often concentrated at certain regions of the ER that resembled ER-LD junction sites. FIT2 also colocalized at the ER with other proteins known to be involved in triacylglycerol biosynthesis or LD formation in plants, but not with ER resident proteins involved in electron transfer or ERvesicle exit sites. Collectively, these results demonstrate that mouse FIT2 promotes LD accumulation in plants, a surprising functional conservation in the context of a plant cell given the apparent lack of FIT2 homologues in higher plants. Our results suggest also that FIT2 expression represents an effective synthetic biology strategy for elaborating neutral lipid compartments in plant tissues for potential biofuel or bioproduct purposes.« less

  6. Mouse fat storage-inducing transmembrane protein 2 (FIT2) promotes lipid droplet accumulation in plants

    DOE PAGES

    Cai, Yingqi; McClinchie, Elizabeth; Price, Ann; ...

    2017-01-18

    Fat storage-inducing transmembrane protein 2 (FIT2) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized protein that plays an important role in lipid droplet (LD) formation in animal cells. However, no obvious homologue of FIT2 is found in plants. We tested the function of FIT2 in plant cells by ectopically expressing mouse (Mus musculus) FIT2 in Nicotiana tabacum suspension-cultured cells, Nicotiana benthamiana leaves and Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Confocal microscopy indicated that the expression of FIT2 dramatically increased the number and size of LDs in leaves of N. benthamiana and Arabidopsis, and lipidomics analysis and mass spectrometry imaging confirmed the accumulation of neutral lipids inmore » leaves. FIT2 also increased seed oil content by ~13% in some stable, overexpressing lines of Arabidopsis. Furthermore, when expressed transiently in leaves of N. benthamiana or suspension cells of N. tabacum, FIT2 localized specifically to the ER and was often concentrated at certain regions of the ER that resembled ER-LD junction sites. FIT2 also colocalized at the ER with other proteins known to be involved in triacylglycerol biosynthesis or LD formation in plants, but not with ER resident proteins involved in electron transfer or ERvesicle exit sites. Collectively, these results demonstrate that mouse FIT2 promotes LD accumulation in plants, a surprising functional conservation in the context of a plant cell given the apparent lack of FIT2 homologues in higher plants. Our results suggest also that FIT2 expression represents an effective synthetic biology strategy for elaborating neutral lipid compartments in plant tissues for potential biofuel or bioproduct purposes.« less

  7. Incorporating Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil and sodium bentonite nano-clay open a new perspective to use zein films as bioactive packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Kashiri, Mahboobeh; Maghsoudlo, Yahya; Khomeiri, Morteza

    2017-10-01

    Active zein films with different levels of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil were produced successfully. To enhance properties of this biopolymer for food packaging applications, sodium bentonite clay was used at two levels (2 and 4%). The results indicated that the addition of Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil caused a reduction in tensile strength and Young's modulus and slight increase in the percent of elongation at break of the films. Maximum solubility in water and water vapor permeability was observed by incorporation of 10% Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil in the zein matrix. Transmission electron microscopy micrographs of zein film were verified by the exfoliation of the layers of sodium bentonite clay in the zein matrix. Stronger films with lower water vapor permeability and water solubility were evident of good distribution of sodium bentonite clay in the zein matrix. According to the results, 2% sodium bentonite clay was selected for evaluation of nano active film properties. Water vapor permeability, UV light barrier, tensile strength, and Young's modulus values of active films were improved by incorporation of 2% sodium bentonite clay. The antibacterial activity of different contents of Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil in vapor phase demonstrated that use of Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil in the liquid phase was more effective than in vapor phase. The antibacterial zein-based films showed that active zein film with 5 and 10% Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil had reductions of 1.68 log and 2.99 log, respectively, against Listeria monocytogenes and 1.39 and 3.07 log against Escherichia coli. Nano active zein film containing 10% Z. multiflora Boiss. essential oil and 2% sodium bentonite clay showed better antibacterial properties against L. monocytogenes (3.23 log) and E. coli (3.17 log).

  8. Changes of microbial spoilage, lipid-protein oxidation and physicochemical properties during post mortem refrigerated storage of goat meat.

    PubMed

    Sabow, Azad Behnan; Sazili, Awis Qurni; Aghwan, Zeiad Amjad; Zulkifli, Idrus; Goh, Yong Meng; Ab Kadir, Mohd Zainal Abidin; Nakyinsige, Khadijah; Kaka, Ubedullah; Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda

    2016-06-01

    Examined was the effect of post mortem refrigerated storage on microbial spoilage, lipid-protein oxidation and physicochemical traits of goat meat. Seven Boer bucks were slaughtered, eviscerated and aged for 24 h. The Longissimus lumborum (LL) and Semitendinosus (ST) muscles were excised and subjected to 13 days post mortem refrigerated storage. The pH, lipid and protein oxidation, tenderness, color and drip loss were determined in LL while microbiological analysis was performed on ST. Bacterial counts generally increased with increasing aging time and the limit for fresh meat was reached at day 14 post mortem. Significant differences were observed in malondialdehyde (MDA) content at day 7 of storage. The thiol concentration significantly reduced as aging time increased. The band intensities of myosin heavy chain (MHC) and troponin-T significantly decreased as storage progressed, while actin remained relatively stable. After 14 days of aging, tenderness showed significant improvement while muscle pH and drip loss reduced with increase in storage time. Samples aged for 14 days had higher lightness (P < 0.05) and lower (P < 0.05) yellowness and redness. Post mortem refrigerated storage influenced oxidative and microbial stability and physico-chemical properties of goat meat. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. Effect of frozen storage on the structure and enzymatic activities of myofibrillar proteins of rabbit skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Kang, J O; Ito, T; Fukazawa, T

    1983-01-01

    The effect of frozen storage on the biochemical properties of myofibrils, and of their major constituents, actin and myosin, was investigated. Extractability of myofibrillar proteins increased slightly for 3 weeks during frozen storage of muscle, decreasing thereafter. The change in myofibrillar ATPase activity during frozen storage was consistent with that of a reconstituted acto-heavy meromyosin (HMM) complex prepared from frozen stored muscle at the same weight ratio of actin to myosin as in situ. However, myosin ATPase activity showed a different pattern of change when compared with myofibrillar ATPase activity. The maximum velocity of acto-HMM ATPase activity and the apparent dissociation constant of the acto-HMM complex decreased for 1 week during frozen storage, increasing thereafter, indicating that the affinity of actin for myosin was greatest in muscle which had been frozen for 1 week. Copyright © 1983. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Increasing Sucrose Uptake Capacity of Wheat Grains Stimulates Storage Protein Synthesis1[W

    PubMed Central

    Weichert, Nicola; Saalbach, Isolde; Weichert, Heiko; Kohl, Stefan; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Hause, Bettina; Varshney, Alok; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Strickert, Marc; Kumlehn, Jochen; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Increasing grain sink strength by improving assimilate uptake capacity could be a promising approach toward getting higher yield. The barley (Hordeum vulgare) sucrose transporter HvSUT1 (SUT) was expressed under control of the endosperm-specific Hordein B1 promoter (HO). Compared with the wild type, transgenic HOSUT grains take up more sucrose (Suc) in vitro, showing that the transgene is functional. Grain Suc levels are not altered, indicating that Suc fluxes are influenced rather than steady-state levels. HOSUT grains have increased percentages of total nitrogen and prolamins, which is reflected in increased levels of phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, isoleucine, and leucine at late grain development. Transcript profiling indicates specific stimulation of prolamin gene expression at the onset of storage phase. Changes in gene expression and metabolite levels related to carbon metabolism and amino acid biosynthesis suggest deregulated carbon-nitrogen balance, which together indicate carbon sufficiency and relative depletion of nitrogen. Genes, deregulated together with prolamin genes, might represent candidates, which respond positively to assimilate supply and are related to sugar-starch metabolism, cytokinin and brassinosteroid functions, cell proliferation, and sugar/abscisic acid signaling. Genes showing inverse expression patterns represent potential negative regulators. It is concluded that HvSUT1 overexpression increases grain protein content but also deregulates the metabolic status of wheat (Triticum aestivum) grains, accompanied by up-regulated gene expression of positive and negative regulators related to sugar signaling and assimilate supply. In HOSUT grains, alternating stimulation of positive and negative regulators causes oscillatory patterns of gene expression and highlights the capacity and great flexibility to adjust wheat grain storage metabolism in response to metabolic alterations. PMID:20018590

  11. Ocatin. A Novel Tuber Storage Protein from the Andean Tuber Crop Oca with Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities1

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Teresita; Alape-Girón, Alberto; Flores-Díaz, Marietta; Flores, Hector E.

    2002-01-01

    The most abundant soluble tuber protein from the Andean crop oca (Oxalis tuberosa Mol.), named ocatin, has been purified and characterized. Ocatin accounts for 40% to 60% of the total soluble oca tuber proteins, has an apparent molecular mass of 18 kD and an isoelectric point of 4.8. This protein appears to be found only in tubers and is accumulated only within the cells of the pith and peridermis layers (peel) of the tuber as it develops. Ocatin inhibits the growth of several phytopathogenic bacteria (Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Agrobacterium radiobacter, Serratia marcescens, and Pseudomonas aureofaciens) and fungi (Phytophthora cinnamomi, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Nectria hematococcus). Ocatin displays substantial amino acid sequence similarity with a widely distributed group of intracellular pathogenesis-related proteins with a hitherto unknown biological function. Our results showed that ocatin serves as a storage protein, has antimicrobial properties, and belongs to the Betv 1/PR-10/MLP protein family. Our findings suggest that an ancient scaffolding protein was recruited in the oca tuber to serve a storage function and that proteins from the Betv 1/PR-10/MLP family might play a role in natural resistance to pathogens. PMID:11950978

  12. Ocatin. A novel tuber storage protein from the andean tuber crop oca with antibacterial and antifungal activities.

    PubMed

    Flores, Teresita; Alape-Girón, Alberto; Flores-Díaz, Marietta; Flores, Hector E

    2002-04-01

    The most abundant soluble tuber protein from the Andean crop oca (Oxalis tuberosa Mol.), named ocatin, has been purified and characterized. Ocatin accounts for 40% to 60% of the total soluble oca tuber proteins, has an apparent molecular mass of 18 kD and an isoelectric point of 4.8. This protein appears to be found only in tubers and is accumulated only within the cells of the pith and peridermis layers (peel) of the tuber as it develops. Ocatin inhibits the growth of several phytopathogenic bacteria (Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Agrobacterium radiobacter, Serratia marcescens, and Pseudomonas aureofaciens) and fungi (Phytophthora cinnamomi, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Nectria hematococcus). Ocatin displays substantial amino acid sequence similarity with a widely distributed group of intracellular pathogenesis-related proteins with a hitherto unknown biological function. Our results showed that ocatin serves as a storage protein, has antimicrobial properties, and belongs to the Betv 1/PR-10/MLP protein family. Our findings suggest that an ancient scaffolding protein was recruited in the oca tuber to serve a storage function and that proteins from the Betv 1/PR-10/MLP family might play a role in natural resistance to pathogens.

  13. Proteomics for exploiting diversity of lupin seed storage proteins and their use as nutraceuticals for health and welfare.

    PubMed

    Cabello-Hurtado, Francisco; Keller, Jean; Ley, José; Sanchez-Lucas, Rosa; Jorrín-Novo, Jesús V; Aïnouche, Abdelkader

    2016-06-30

    Lupins have a variety of both traditional and modern uses. In the last decade, reports assessing the benefits of lupin seed proteins have proliferated and, nowadays, the pharmaceutical industry is interested in lupin proteins for human health. Modern genomics and proteomics have hugely contributed to describing the diversity of lupin storage genes and, above all, proteins. Most of these studies have been centered on few edible lupin species. However, Lupinus genus comprises hundreds of species spread throughout the Old and New Worlds, and these resources have been scarcely explored and exploited. We present here a detailed review of the literature on the potential of lupin seed proteins as nutraceuticals, and the use of -omic tools to analyze seed storage polypeptides in main edible lupins and their diversity at the Lupinus inter- and intra-species level. In this sense, proteomics, more than any other, has been a key approach. Proteomics has shown that lupin seed protein diversity, where post-translational modifications yield a large number of peptide variants with a potential concern in bioactivity, goes far beyond gene diversity. The future extended use of second and third generation proteomics should definitely help to go deeper into coverage and characterization of lupin seed proteome. Some important topics concerning storage proteins from lupin seeds are presented and analyzed in an integrated way in this review. Proteomic approaches have been essential in characterizing lupin seed protein diversity, which goes far beyond gene diversity since the protein level adds to the latter differential proteolytic cleavage of conglutin pro-proteins and a diverse array of glycosylation forms and sites. Proteomics has also proved helpful for screening and studying Lupinus germplasm with the future aim of exploiting and improving food production, quality, and nutritional values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Antioxidant activity of pomegranate peel extract on lipid and protein oxidation in beef meatballs during frozen storage.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Sebahattin Serhat; Işıkçı, Fatma; Soyer, Ayla

    2017-07-01

    Antioxidant effect of pomegranate peel extract (PE) to retard lipid and protein oxidation in beef meatballs was investigated during frozen storage at -18±1°C. Concentrated and freeze dried aqueous extract of pomegranate peel was incorporated into freshly prepared meatball mix at 0.5% and 1.0% concentrations, and compared with 0.01% butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and control (without any antioxidant). In PE treated samples, particularly in high PE concentration, peroxide, malondialdehyde and carbonyl formation, loss of total protein solubility and sulfhydryl groups were significantly lower than control after 6months of storage. A diminution of both myofibrillar (MP) and sarcoplasmic (SP) proteins of high molecular weight was detected after 6months of the storage according to gel electrophoresis patterns. The 1.0% PE led to maintain colour intensity (C) and hue (h°) value. The results from sensory analyses revealed that PE addition to meatballs was effective on preventing rancid odour formation. Addition of both 0.5 and 1% PE in meatballs reduced lipid and protein oxidation and improved sensory scores. These results indicated that PE was effective on retarding lipid and protein oxidations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of storage and heating on protein glycation levels of processed lactose-free and regular bovine milk products.

    PubMed

    Milkovska-Stamenova, Sanja; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2017-04-15

    Thermal treatment preserves the microbiological safety of milk, but also induces Maillard reactions modifying for example proteins. The purpose of this study was evaluating the influence of consumer behaviors (storage and heating) on protein glycation degrees in bovine milk products. Lactosylation and hexosylation sites were identified in ultra-high temperature (UHT), lactose-free pasteurized, and lactose-free UHT milk (ULF) and infant formula (IF) using tandem mass spectrometry (electron transfer dissociation). Overall, 303 lactosylated and 199 hexosylated peptides were identified corresponding to 170 lactosylation (31 proteins) and 117 hexosylation sites (25 proteins). In quantitative terms, storage increased lactosylation up to fourfold in UHT and IF and hexosylation up to elevenfold in ULF and threefold in IF. These levels increased additionally twofold when the stored samples were heated (40°C). In conclusion, storage and heating appear to influence protein glycation levels in milk at similar or even higher degrees than industrial processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A New Look on Protein-Polyphenol Complexation during Honey Storage: Is This a Random or Organized Event with the Help of Dirigent-Like Proteins?

    PubMed Central

    Brudzynski, Katrina; Sjaarda, Calvin; Maldonado-Alvarez, Liset

    2013-01-01

    Honey storage initiates melanoidin formation that involves a cascade of seemingly unguided redox reactions between amino acids/proteins, reducing sugars and polyphenols. In the process, high molecular weight protein-polyphenol complexes are formed, but the mechanism involved remains unknown. The objective of this study was twofold: to determine quantitative and qualitative changes in proteins in honeys stored for prolonged times and in different temperatures and to relate these changes to the formation of protein-polyphenol complexes. Six -month storage decreased the protein content by 46.7% in all tested honeys (t-test, p<0.002) with the rapid reduction occurring during the first three month. The changes in protein levels coincided with alterations in molecular size and net charge of proteins on SDS –PAGE. Electro-blotted proteins reacted with a quinone-specific nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) on nitrocellulose membranes indicating that quinones derived from oxidized polyphenols formed covalent bonds with proteins. Protein-polyphenol complexes isolated by size-exclusion chromatography differed in size and stoichiometry and fall into two categories: (a) high molecular weight complexes (230–180 kDa) enriched in proteins but possessing a limited reducing activity toward the NBT and (b) lower molecular size complexes (110–85 kDa) enriched in polyphenols but strongly reducing the dye. The variable stoichiometry suggest that the large, “protein-type” complexes were formed by protein cross-linking, while in the smaller, “polyphenol-type” complexes polyphenols were first polymerized prior to protein binding. Quinones preferentially bound a 31 kDa protein which, by the electrospray quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (ESI-Qtof-MS) analysis, showed homology to dirigent-like proteins known for assisting in radical coupling and polymerization of phenolic compounds. These findings provide a new look on protein-polyphenol interaction in honey where the

  17. Proteomic Analysis of Differentially Accumulated Proteins in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Fruit Peel in Response to Pre-storage Cold Acclimation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bin; Shen, Fei; Zhu, Shijiang

    2018-01-01

    Harvested fruits are still living organs and respond to environmental stimuli. Low temperature storage is effective in extending life of harvested fruit, but it may also cause chilling injury. Cold acclimation has been shown to induce chilling tolerance in plants, but what proteomic changes caused by cold acclimation are related to defense against chilling stress remains largely unclear. Here, 3 d of pre-storage cold acclimation (PsCA) at 10°C reduced chilling injury and secondary disease severity in cucumber stored at 5°C by 51 and 94%, respectively, compared with the control which was directly stored at 5°C. Proteomic analysis of cucumber peel identified 21 significant differentially-accumulated proteins (SDAPs) right after PsCA treatment and 23 after the following cold storage (PsCA+CS). These proteins are mainly related to stress response and defense (SRD), energy metabolism, protein metabolism, signal transduction, primary metabolism, and transcription. The SRD proteins, which made up 37% of the 21 and 47% of the 23, respectively, represented the largest class of SDAPs, and all but one protein were up-regulated, suggesting accumulation of proteins involved in defense response is central feature of proteomic profile changes brought about by PsCA. In fruit just after PsCA treatment, the identified SDAPs are related to responses to various stresses, including chilling, salt stress, dehydration, fungi, bacteria, insects, and DNA damage. However, after prolonged cold storage, the targeted proteins in acclimated fruit were narrowed down in scope to those involved in defense against chilling and pathogens. The change patterns at the transcription level of the majority of the up-regulated differentially-accumulated proteins were highly consistent with those at protein level. Taken all, the results suggest that the short-time cold acclimation initiated comprehensive defense responses in cucumber fruit at first, while the long term storage thereafter altered the

  18. Proteomic Analysis of Differentially Accumulated Proteins in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Fruit Peel in Response to Pre-storage Cold Acclimation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Shen, Fei; Zhu, Shijiang

    2017-01-01

    Harvested fruits are still living organs and respond to environmental stimuli. Low temperature storage is effective in extending life of harvested fruit, but it may also cause chilling injury. Cold acclimation has been shown to induce chilling tolerance in plants, but what proteomic changes caused by cold acclimation are related to defense against chilling stress remains largely unclear. Here, 3 d of pre-storage cold acclimation (PsCA) at 10°C reduced chilling injury and secondary disease severity in cucumber stored at 5°C by 51 and 94%, respectively, compared with the control which was directly stored at 5°C. Proteomic analysis of cucumber peel identified 21 significant differentially-accumulated proteins (SDAPs) right after PsCA treatment and 23 after the following cold storage (PsCA+CS). These proteins are mainly related to stress response and defense (SRD), energy metabolism, protein metabolism, signal transduction, primary metabolism, and transcription. The SRD proteins, which made up 37% of the 21 and 47% of the 23, respectively, represented the largest class of SDAPs, and all but one protein were up-regulated, suggesting accumulation of proteins involved in defense response is central feature of proteomic profile changes brought about by PsCA. In fruit just after PsCA treatment, the identified SDAPs are related to responses to various stresses, including chilling, salt stress, dehydration, fungi, bacteria, insects, and DNA damage. However, after prolonged cold storage, the targeted proteins in acclimated fruit were narrowed down in scope to those involved in defense against chilling and pathogens. The change patterns at the transcription level of the majority of the up-regulated differentially-accumulated proteins were highly consistent with those at protein level. Taken all, the results suggest that the short-time cold acclimation initiated comprehensive defense responses in cucumber fruit at first, while the long term storage thereafter altered the

  19. Storage stability of packaged baby formula in poly(lactide)-whey protein isolate laminated pouch.

    PubMed

    Phupoksakul, Thunyaluck; Leuangsukrerk, Manusawee; Somwangthanaroj, Anongnat; Tananuwong, Kanitha; Janjarasskul, Theeranun

    2017-08-01

    The use of biodegradable polymeric materials has been proposed as an environmentally-friendly alternative to petroleum-based packaging. To extend the shelf life of food products, these bioplastics must possess appropriate barrier properties and food-package stability. In the present study, shelf life analysis of packaged baby formula in biopolymeric, multilayer film, fabricated from poly(lactide) (PLA) and whey protein isolate (WPI), PLA/WPI/PLA and PLA pouches was performed at 4-35  o C and 50-59% relative humidity. Despite the possible sorption of food components into contact PLA surfaces, the results demonstated that the transparency and barrier properties of PLA-based pouches were insignificantly changed over time (P > 0.05), although the films showed a slow rate of color change. The baby formula packaged in PLA/WPI/PLA had a delayed lipid oxidation compared to the sample in the PLA pouch, especially at a higher temperature. The application of WPI in the multilayer structure shifted the shelf life determination factor from lipid oxidation to moisture gain. The results indicate that the PLA/WPI/PLA pouch has good storage stability. The film could be used to package dry food properly at 4-35  o C and 50-59% relative humidity for an extended period of time. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Survival of salmonella transformed to express green fluorescent protein on Italian parsley as affected by processing and storage.

    PubMed

    Duffy, E A; Cisneros-Zevallos, L; Castillo, A; Pillai, S D; Ricke, S C; Acuff, G R

    2005-04-01

    To study the effect of processing and storage parameters on the survival of Salmonella on fresh Italian parsley, parsley bunches were dipped for 3 or 15 min in suspensions that were preequilibrated to 5, 25, or 35 degrees C and inoculated with Salmonella transformed to express enhanced green fluorescent protein. Loosely attached and/or associated, strongly attached and/or associated, and internalized and/or entrapped Salmonella cells were enumerated over 0, 1, and 7 days of storage at 25 degrees C and over 0, 1, 7, 14, and 30 days of storage at 4 degrees C using surface-plating procedures. Leaf sections obtained from samples after 0, 1, and 7 days of storage were examined using confocal scanning laser microscopy. Temperature of the dip suspension had little effect on the attachment and survival of Salmonella cells on parsley. Regardless of the temperature or duration of dip, Salmonella was internalized. Immersion for longer times resulted in higher numbers of attached and internalized cells. Microscopic observations supported these results and revealed Salmonella cells near the stomata and within cracks in the cuticle. Storage temperature had the greatest impact on the survival of Salmonella cells on parsley. When stored at 25 degrees C, parsley had a shelf life of 7 days, and Salmonella populations significantly increased over the 7 days of storage. For parsley stored at 4 degrees C, numbers of Salmonella cells decreased over days 0, 1, and 7. After 7 days of storage, there were no viable internalized Salmonella cells detected. Storage temperature represents an important control point for the safety of fresh parsley.

  1. A plasma membrane sucrose-binding protein that mediates sucrose uptake shares structural and sequence similarity with seed storage proteins but remains functionally distinct.

    PubMed

    Overvoorde, P J; Chao, W S; Grimes, H D

    1997-06-20

    Photoaffinity labeling of a soybean cotyledon membrane fraction identified a sucrose-binding protein (SBP). Subsequent studies have shown that the SBP is a unique plasma membrane protein that mediates the linear uptake of sucrose in the presence of up to 30 mM external sucrose when ectopically expressed in yeast. Analysis of the SBP-deduced amino acid sequence indicates it lacks sequence similarity with other known transport proteins. Data presented here, however, indicate that the SBP shares significant sequence and structural homology with the vicilin-like seed storage proteins that organize into homotrimers. These similarities include a repeated sequence that forms the basis of the reiterated domain structure characteristic of the vicilin-like protein family. In addition, analytical ultracentrifugation and nonreducing SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrate that the SBP appears to be organized into oligomeric complexes with a Mr indicative of the existence of SBP homotrimers and homodimers. The structural similarity shared by the SBP and vicilin-like proteins provides a novel framework to explore the mechanistic basis of SBP-mediated sucrose uptake. Expression of the maize Glb protein (a vicilin-like protein closely related to the SBP) in yeast demonstrates that a closely related vicilin-like protein is unable to mediate sucrose uptake. Thus, despite sequence and structural similarities shared by the SBP and the vicilin-like protein family, the SBP is functionally divergent from other members of this group.

  2. Redox changes accompanying storage protein mobilization in moist chilled and warm incubated walnut kernels prior to germination.

    PubMed

    Shahmoradi, Zeynab; Tamaskani, Fatemeh; Sadeghipour, Hamid Reza; Abdolzadeh, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in the redox state of storage proteins and the associated proteolytic processes were investigated in moist-chilled and warm-incubated walnut (Juglans regia L.) kernels prior to germination. The kernel total protein labeling with a thiol-specific fluorochrome i.e. monobromobimane (mBBr) revealed more reduction of 29-32 kDa putative glutelins, while in the soluble proteins, both putative glutelins and 41, 55 and 58 kDa globulins contained reduced disulfide bonds during mobilization. Thus, the in vivo more reduced disulfide bonds of storage proteins corresponds to greater solubility. After the in vitro reduction of walnut kernel proteins pre-treated by N-ethyl maleimide (NEM) with dithioerythrethiol (DTT) and bacterial thioredoxin, the 58 kDa putative globulin and a 6 kDa putative albumin were identified as disulfide proteins. Thioredoxin stimulated the reduction of the H(2)O(2)-oxidized 6 kDa polypeptide, but not the 58 kDa polypeptide by DTT. The solubility of 6 kDa putative albumin, 58 and 19-24 kDa putative globulins and glutelins, respectively, were increased by DTT. The in vitro specific mobilization of the 58 kDa polypeptide that occurred at pH 5.0 by the kernel endogenous protease was sensitive to the serine-protease inhibitor phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) and stimulated by DTT. The specific degradation of the 58 kDa polypeptide might be achieved through thioredoxin-mediated activation of a serine protease and/or reductive unfolding of its 58 kDa polypeptide substrate. As redox changes in storage proteins occurred equally in both moist chilled and warm incubated walnut kernels, the regulatory functions of thioredoxins in promoting seed germination may be due to other germination related processes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification of New Anti-inflammatory Peptides from Zein Hydrolysate after Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion and Transport in Caco-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qiufang; Chalamaiah, Meram; Ren, Xiaofeng; Ma, Haile; Wu, Jianping

    2018-02-07

    Chronic inflammation is an underlying contributor to various chronic diseases. The objectives of this study were to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of zein hydrolysate after simulated gastrointestinal digestion and Caco-2 cell absorption and to identify novel anti-inflammatory peptides after transport across Caco-2 cells. Three zein hydrolysates were prepared and further digested using gastrointestinal proteases; their transports were studied in Caco-2 cells. Anti-inflammatory activity was studied in endothelial EA.hy926 cells. Three zein hydrolysates and their digests significantly decreased the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) induced pro-inflammatory vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) by 37.3-66.0%. Eleven novel peptides with 5-9 amino acid residues were sequenced; three peptides showed strong anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the VCAM-1 by 54-38.9% and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by 36.5-28.6% at 0.2 mM. A new approach to identify novel anti-inflammatory peptides that could survive gastrointestinal digestion and absorption was developed.

  4. Effects of different thermal treatments and storage on the proximate composition and protein quality in canned tuna.

    PubMed

    García-Arias, M T; Navarro, M P; García-Linares, M C

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this project was to study the modifications in nutrient composition, amino acid content, and protein quality of white tuna preserves after each of the thermal treatments involved in the canning process. Also the influence that a three years storage period at room temperature has on the nutritional quality of canned tuna was studied. The biological assays used for the study of the protein utilization were carried out on Wistar rats, fed on semi-synthetic diets for 12 days varying only the protein source, casein or tuna provided as follows: raw, cooked in brine, steamed, sterilized tuna, and canned tuna stored for three years. The sterilization process and storage time led to a great increase in the lipid content of the canned tuna and to a porcentual decrease in protein, and moisture content. Amino acid composition of canned and cooked tuna did not show great modifications compared to raw tuna. Neither protein digestibility nor biological value of the cooked, canned, and stored tuna showed any deterioration. The protein quality of white tuna meat preserves has been compared with preserves made up of red and white tuna meat.

  5. Development of novel zein-sodium caseinate nanoparticle (ZP)-stabilized emulsion films for improved water barrier properties via emulsion/solvent evaporation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Juan; Yin, Ye-Chong; Yin, Shou-Wei; Yang, Xiao-Quan; Shi, Wei-Jian; Tang, Chuan-He; Wang, Jin-Mei

    2013-11-20

    This work attempted to develop novel high barrier zein/SC nanoparticle (ZP)-stabilized emulsion films through microfluidic emulsification (ZPE films) or in combination with solvent (ethyl acetate) evaporation techniques (ZPE-EA films). Some physical properties, including tensile and optical properties, water vapor permeability (WVP), and surface hydrophobicity, as well as the microstructure of ZP-stabilized emulsion films were evaluated and compared with SC emulsion (SCE) films. The emulsion/solvent evaporation approach reduced lipid droplets of ZP-stabilized emulsions, and lipid droplets of ZP-stabilized emulsions were similar to or slightly lower than that of SC emulsions. However, ZP- and SC-stabilized emulsion films exhibited a completely different microstructure, nanoscalar lipid droplets were homogeneously distributed in the ZPE film matrix and interpenetrating protein-oil complex networks occurred within ZPE-EA films, whereas SCE films presented a heterogeneous microstructure. The different stabilization mechanisms against creaming or coalescence during film formation accounted for the preceding discrepancy of the microstructures between ZP-and SC-stabilized emulsion films. Interestingly, ZP-stabilized emulsion films exhibited a better water barrier efficiency, and the WVP values were only 40-50% of SCE films. A schematic representation for the formation of ZP-stabilized emulsion films was proposed to relate the physical performance of the films with their microstructure and to elucidate the possible forming mechanism of the films.

  6. A study of different indicators of Maillard reaction with whey proteins and different carbohydrates under adverse storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Leiva, Graciela E; Naranjo, Gabriela B; Malec, Laura S

    2017-01-15

    This study examined different indicators of each stage of Maillard reaction under adverse storage conditions in a system with whey proteins and lactose or glucose. The analysis of lysine loss by the o-phthaldialdehyde method can be considered a good indicator of the early stage, showing considerable differences in reactivity when systems with mono and disaccharides were analyzed. Capillary electrophoresis proved to be a sensitive method for evaluating the extent of glycosylation of the native proteins, providing valuable information when the loss of lysine was not significant. The estimation of the Amadori compound from the determination of total 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde would have correlate well with reactive lysine content if the advanced stages of the reaction had not been reached. For assessing the occurrence of the intermediate and final stages, the measurement of free 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde and color, proved not to be suitable for storage conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Coregulation of soybean vegetative storage protein gene expression by methyl jasmonate and soluble sugars.

    PubMed

    Mason, H S; Dewald, D B; Creelman, R A; Mullet, J E

    1992-03-01

    The soybean vegetative storage protein genes vspA and vspB are highly expressed in developing leaves, stems, flowers, and pods as compared with roots, seeds, and mature leaves and stems. In this paper, we report that physiological levels of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and soluble sugars synergistically stimulate accumulation of vsp mRNAs. Treatment of excised mature soybean (Glycine max Merr. cv Williams) leaves with 0.2 molar sucrose and 10 micromolar MeJA caused a large accumulation of vsp mRNAs, whereas little accumulation occurred when these compounds were supplied separately. In soybean cell suspension cultures, the synergistic effect of sucrose and MeJA on the accumulation of vspB mRNA was maximal at 58 millimolar sucrose and was observed with fructose or glucose substituted for sucrose. In dark-grown soybean seedlings, the highest levels of vsp mRNAs occurred in the hypocotyl hook, which also contained high levels of MeJA and soluble sugars. Lower levels of vsp mRNAs, MeJA, and soluble sugars were found in the cotyledons, roots, and nongrowing regions of the stem. Wounding of mature soybean leaves induced a large accumulation of vsp mRNAs when wounded plants were incubated in the light. Wounded plants kept in the dark or illuminated plants sprayed with dichlorophenyldimethylurea, an inhibitor of photosynthetic electron transport, showed a greatly reduced accumulation of vsp mRNAs. The time courses for the accumulation of vsp mRNAs induced by wounding or sucrose/MeJA treatment were similar. These results strongly suggest that vsp expression is coregulated by endogenous levels of MeJA (or jasmonic acid) and soluble carbohydrate during normal vegetative development and in wounded leaves.

  8. Coregulation of Soybean Vegetative Storage Protein Gene Expression by Methyl Jasmonate and Soluble Sugars 1

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Hugh S.; DeWald, Daryll B.; Creelman, Robert A.; Mullet, John E.

    1992-01-01

    The soybean vegetative storage protein genes vspA and vspB are highly expressed in developing leaves, stems, flowers, and pods as compared with roots, seeds, and mature leaves and stems. In this paper, we report that physiological levels of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and soluble sugars synergistically stimulate accumulation of vsp mRNAs. Treatment of excised mature soybean (Glycine max Merr. cv Williams) leaves with 0.2 molar sucrose and 10 micromolar MeJA caused a large accumulation of vsp mRNAs, whereas little accumulation occurred when these compounds were supplied separately. In soybean cell suspension cultures, the synergistic effect of sucrose and MeJA on the accumulation of vspB mRNA was maximal at 58 millimolar sucrose and was observed with fructose or glucose substituted for sucrose. In dark-grown soybean seedlings, the highest levels of vsp mRNAs occurred in the hypocotyl hook, which also contained high levels of MeJA and soluble sugars. Lower levels of vsp mRNAs, MeJA, and soluble sugars were found in the cotyledons, roots, and nongrowing regions of the stem. Wounding of mature soybean leaves induced a large accumulation of vsp mRNAs when wounded plants were incubated in the light. Wounded plants kept in the dark or illuminated plants sprayed with dichlorophenyldimethylurea, an inhibitor of photosynthetic electron transport, showed a greatly reduced accumulation of vsp mRNAs. The time courses for the accumulation of vsp mRNAs induced by wounding or sucrose/MeJA treatment were similar. These results strongly suggest that vsp expression is coregulated by endogenous levels of MeJA (or jasmonic acid) and soluble carbohydrate during normal vegetative development and in wounded leaves. ImagesFigure 1Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:16668757

  9. Viability and growth promotion of starter and probiotic bacteria in yogurt supplemented with whey protein hydrolysate during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowska, Anna; Babij, Konrad; Szołtysik, Marek; Chrzanowska, Józefa

    2017-11-22

    The effect of whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) addition on growth of standard yoghurt cultures and Bifidobacterium adolescentis during co-fermentation and its viability during storage at 4ºC in yoghurts has been evaluated. WPH was obtained with the use of serine protease from Y. lipolytica yeast. Stirred probiotic yoghurts were prepared by using whole milk standardized to 16% of dry matter with the addition of either whey protein concentrate, skim milk powder (SMP), WPH-SMP (ratio 1:1), WPH. The hydrolysate increased the yoghurt culture counts at the initial stage of fermentation and significantly inhibited the decrease in population viability throughout the storage at 4ºC in comparison to the control. The post-fermentation acidification was also retarded by the addition of WPH. The hydrolysate did not increase the Bifidobacterium adolescentis counts at the initial stage. However, the WPH significantly improved its viability. After 21 days of storage, in the yogurts supplemented with WPH, the population of these bacteria oscillated around 3.04 log10 CFU/g, while in samples where SMP or whey protein concentrate was used, the bacteria were no longer detected.

  10. Characterization of microparticles prepared by emulsion method from pectin and protein

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study, pectin was extracted from apple peel and formulated into microparticles in combination with zein, an edible food protein. The physical, chemical, and structural properties of the resultant pectin structures were evaluated. The resultant microparticles were also examined in vitro for c...

  11. Elucidating the evolutionary history and expression patterns of nucleoside phosphorylase paralogs (vegetative storage proteins) in Populus and the plant kingdom

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nucleoside phosphorylases (NPs) have been extensively investigated in human and bacterial systems for their role in metabolic nucleotide salvaging and links to oncogenesis. In plants, NP-like proteins have not been comprehensively studied, likely because there is no evidence of a metabolic function in nucleoside salvage. However, in the forest trees genus Populus a family of NP-like proteins function as an important ecophysiological adaptation for inter- and intra-seasonal nitrogen storage and cycling. Results We conducted phylogenetic analyses to determine the distribution and evolution of NP-like proteins in plants. These analyses revealed two major clusters of NP-like proteins in plants. Group I proteins were encoded by genes across a wide range of plant taxa while proteins encoded by Group II genes were dominated by species belonging to the order Malpighiales and included the Populus Bark Storage Protein (BSP) and WIN4-like proteins. Additionally, we evaluated the NP-like genes in Populus by examining the transcript abundance of the 13 NP-like genes found in the Populus genome in various tissues of plants exposed to long-day (LD) and short-day (SD) photoperiods. We found that all 13 of the Populus NP-like genes belonging to either Group I or II are expressed in various tissues in both LD and SD conditions. Tests of natural selection and expression evolution analysis of the Populus genes suggests that divergence in gene expression may have occurred recently during the evolution of Populus, which supports the adaptive maintenance models. Lastly, in silico analysis of cis-regulatory elements in the promoters of the 13 NP-like genes in Populus revealed common regulatory elements known to be involved in light regulation, stress/pathogenesis and phytohormone responses. Conclusion In Populus, the evolution of the NP-like protein and gene family has been shaped by duplication events and natural selection. Expression data suggest that previously

  12. Diel pattern of circadian clock and storage protein gene expression in leaves and during seed filling in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    PubMed

    Weiss, Julia; Terry, Marta I; Martos-Fuentes, Marina; Letourneux, Lisa; Ruiz-Hernández, Victoria; Fernández, Juan A; Egea-Cortines, Marcos

    2018-02-14

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an important source of protein supply for animal and human nutrition. The major storage globulins VICILIN and LEGUMIN (LEG) are synthesized from several genes including LEGA, LEGB, LEGJ and CVC (CONVICILIN). The current hypothesis is that the plant circadian core clock genes are conserved in a wide array of species and that primary metabolism is to a large extent controlled by the plant circadian clock. Our aim was to investigate a possible link between gene expression of storage proteins and the circadian clock. We identified cowpea orthologues of the core clock genes VunLHY, VunTOC1, VunGI and VunELF3, the protein storage genes VunLEG, VunLEGJ, and VunCVC as well as nine candidate reference genes used in RT-PCR. ELONGATION FACTOR 1-A (ELF1A) resulted the most suitable reference gene. The clock genes VunELF3, VunGI, VunTOC1 and VunLHY showed a rhythmic expression profile in leaves with a typical evening/night and morning/midday phased expression. The diel patterns were not completely robust and only VungGI and VungELF3 retained a rhythmic pattern under free running conditions of darkness. Under field conditions, rhythmicity and phasing apparently faded during early pod and seed development and was regained in ripening pods for VunTOC1 and VunLHY. Mature seeds showed a rhythmic expression of VunGI resembling leaf tissue under controlled growth chamber conditions. Comparing time windows during developmental stages we found that VunCVC and VunLEG were significantly down regulated during the night in mature pods as compared to intermediate ripe pods, while changes in seeds were non-significant due to high variance. The rhythmic expression under field conditions was lost under growth chamber conditions. The core clock gene network is conserved in cowpea leaves showing a robust diel expression pattern except VunELF3 under growth chamber conditions. There appears to be a clock transcriptional reprogramming in pods and seeds compared to

  13. Use of antimicrobial biodegradable packaging to control Listeria monocytogenes during storage of cooked ham.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Begonya; Aymerich, Teresa; Monfort, Josep M; Garriga, Margarita

    2007-11-30

    The antimicrobial effect against L. monocytogenes of biodegradable films (alginate, zein and polyvinyl alcohol) containing enterocins was investigated. Survival of the pathogen was studied by means of challenge tests performed at 6 degrees C during 8 and 29 days, for air-packed and vacuum-packed sliced cooked ham, respectively. Air packaging was tested with two concentrations of enterocins (200 and 2000 AU/cm2). Control air-packed cooked ham showed an increase of L. monocytogenes from 10(4) to 10(7) CFU/g after 8 days. By contrast, packaging with antimicrobial films effectively slowed down the pathogen's growth, leading to final counts lower than in control lots. Air-packaging with alginate films containing 2000 AU/cm2 of enterocins effectively controlled L. monocytogenes for 8 days. An increase of only 1 log unit was observed in zein and polyvinyl alcohol lots at the same enterocin concentration. Vacuum packaging with films containing enterocins (2000 AU/cm2) also delayed the growth of the pathogen. No increase from inoculated levels was observed during 15 days in antimicrobial alginate films. After 29 days of storage, the lowest counts were obtained in samples packed with zein and alginate films containing enterocins, as well as with zein control films. The most effective treatment for controlling L. monocytogenes during 6 degrees C storage was vacuum-packaging of sliced cooked ham with alginate films containing 2000 AU/cm2 of enterocins. From the results obtained it can concluded that antimicrobial packaging can improve the safety of sliced cooked ham by delaying and reducing the growth of L. monocytogenes.

  14. Extraction and characterization of non-zein proteins in corn germ from wet-milling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The current fuel energy situation involving escalating gasoline prices and greater demand for biofuels like ethanol are expected to add more co-products from corn processing to an already-saturated market. There is greater urgency to identify and develop novel uses for corn co-products to increase ...

  15. Effect of long term chilled (up to 5 weeks) then frozen (up to 12 months) storage at two different sub-zero holding temperatures on beef: 3. Protein structure degradation and a marker of protein oxidation.

    PubMed

    Holman, Benjamin W B; Coombs, Cassius E O; Morris, Stephen; Kerr, Matthew J; Hopkins, David L

    2018-05-01

    Different chilled (~0.1 °C for up to 5 weeks) then frozen storage (up to 12 months) combinations and two frozen storage holding temperatures (-12 °C and -18 °C) effects on beef M. longissimus lumborum (LL) protein structure degradation and a marker of protein oxidation were tested. Particle size (PS) analysis and protein solubility results found storage combination effects on protein degradation to be significant (P < 0.05), although the influence of frozen holding temperatures was negligible. LL carbonyl, and nitrate and nitrite content responses were variable and yet broadly reflected an increased incidence of protein oxidation across increasing chilled storage and ensuing frozen storage periods - this aspect meriting future exploration. Total myoglobin content and the estimated myoglobin redox fractions (metmyoglobin, deoxymyoglobin, and oxymyoglobin) were also subject to storage treatment. These findings demonstrate the capacity for beef storage selection (chilled-then-frozen) to manage compositional protein changes and its implications on sensory quality traits across comparative 'long term' durations. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Storage proteins of common bean identified with 2D-PAGE

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The common bean is a significant source of protein, complex carbohydrates, fiber, and minerals. Seeds of most dry beans contain 15 to 25% protein and are rich in lysine but low in the sulfur containing amino acids cysteine and methionine. Knowledge of common bean proteins is important for research a...

  17. Distinct Roles of Protein Disulfide Isomerase and P5 Sulfhydryl Oxidoreductases in Multiple Pathways for Oxidation of Structurally Diverse Storage Proteins in Rice[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Onda, Yayoi; Nagamine, Ai; Sakurai, Mutsumi; Kumamaru, Toshihiro; Ogawa, Masahiro; Kawagoe, Yasushi

    2011-01-01

    In the rice (Oryza sativa) endosperm, storage proteins are synthesized on the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER), in which prolamins are sorted to protein bodies (PBs) called type-I PB (PB-I). Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family oxidoreductase PDIL2;3, an ortholog of human P5, contains a conserved structural disulfide in the redox-inactive thioredoxin-like (TRX) domain and was efficiently targeted to the surface of PB-I in a redox active site–dependent manner, whereas PDIL1;1, an ortholog of human PDI, was localized in the ER lumen. Complementation analyses using PDIL1;1 knockout esp2 mutant indicated that the a and a′ TRX domains of PDIL1;1 exhibited similar redox activities and that PDIL2;3 was unable to perform the PDIL1;1 functions. PDIL2;3 knockdown inhibited the accumulation of Cys-rich 10-kD prolamin (crP10) in the core of PB-I. Conversely, crP10 knockdown dispersed PDIL2;3 into the ER lumen. Glutathione S-transferase-PDIL2;3 formed a stable tetramer when it was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant PDIL2;3 tetramer facilitated α-globulin(C79F) mutant protein to form nonnative intermolecular disulfide bonds in vitro. These results indicate that PDIL2;3 and PDIL1;1 are not functionally redundant in sulfhydryl oxidations of structurally diverse storage proteins and play distinct roles in PB development. We discuss PDIL2;3-dependent and PDIL2;3-independent oxidation pathways that sustain disulfide bonds of crP10 in PB-I. PMID:21278127

  18. Zein nanoparticle as a novel BMP6 derived peptide carrier for enhanced osteogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells.

    PubMed

    Hadavi, Mahvash; Hasannia, Sadegh; Faghihi, Shahab; Mashayekhi, Farhad; Homazadeh, Homayoun; Mostofi, Seyed Behrooz

    2018-01-26

    Zein nanoparticles as a carrier system for BMP6-derived peptide were prepared by liquid-liquid phase separation procedure and characterized with SEM, DLS, FTIR and thermogravimetric methods. After peptide encapsulation, nanoparticle size increased from 236.3 ± 92.2 nm to 379.4 ± 116.8 nm. The encapsulation efficiency of peptide was 72.6% and the release of peptide from Zein nanoparticles was partly sustained in trypsin containing phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4) for up to 14 days. Peptide-loaded nanoparticles showed similar cell viability compared with blank ones. ALP activity of C2C12 cells treated with peptide-loaded nanoparticles (500 µg/mL) was evaluated 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after culture. In peptide-loaded nanoparticles, ALP activity was significantly higher (p < .05) compared with other groups at day 14. Alizarin Red S staining showed, C2C12 cells behind peptide-loaded nanoparticles had significantly (p < .05) higher calcium deposition at day 21. The results of RT-qPCR show that the BMP-6 peptide activated expression of RUNX2 as a transcription factor. In turn, RUNX2 regulates SPP1 and BGLAP gene expression, as osteogenic marker genes. The results confirm that the peptide-loaded Zein nanoparticles, as osteoinductive material, may be used to repair small area of bone defects, with low load bearing.

  19. Effect of Type of Protein-Based Microcapsules and Storage at Various Ambient Temperatures on the Survival and Heat Tolerance of Spray Dried Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Dianawati, Dianawati; Lim, Seng Feng; Ooi, Yasmin Beng Houi; Shah, Nagendra P

    2017-09-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of types of protein-based microcapsules and storage at various ambient temperatures on the survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus during exposure to simulated gastrointestinal tract and on the change in thermo-tolerance during heating treatment. The encapsulating materials were prepared using emulsions of protein (sodium caseinate, soy protein isolate, or pea protein), vegetable oil, and glucose, with maltodextrin was used as a wall material. The formulations were heated at 90 °C for 30 min to develop Maillard substances prior to being incorporated with L. acidophilus. The mixtures were then spray dried. The microspheres were stored at 25, 30, and 35 °C for 8 wk and examined every 4 wk. The addition of proteins as encapsulating materials demonstrated a significant protective effect (P < 0.05) as compared to the control sample. Sodium caseinate and soy protein isolate appeared more effective than pea protein in protecting the bacteria after spray drying and during the storage at different room temperatures. Storage at 35 °C resulted in a significant decrease in survival at end of storage period regardless the type of encapsulating materials. The addition of protein-based materials also enhanced the survival of L. acidophilus during exposure to simulated gastrointestinal condition as compared to the control. After spray drying and after 0th wk storage, casein, soy protein isolate, and pea protein-based formulations protected the bacteria during heat treatment. In fact, a significant decrease in thermal tolerance was inevitable after 2 wk of storage at 25 °C. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  20. Finite cell lines of turkey sperm storage tubule cells: ultrastructure and protein analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cell lines of turkey sperm storage tubule (SST) epithelial cells were established. Turkey SSTs were dissected from freshly obtained uterovaginal junction (UVJ) tissue and placed in explants culture on various substrates and media. Primary cultures of SST epithelium only survived and grew from SST ex...

  1. Zinc deficiency-induced iron accumulation, a consequence of alterations in iron regulatory protein-binding activity, iron transporters, and iron storage proteins.

    PubMed

    Niles, Brad J; Clegg, Michael S; Hanna, Lynn A; Chou, Susan S; Momma, Tony Y; Hong, Heeok; Keen, Carl L

    2008-02-22

    One consequence of zinc deficiency is an elevation in cell and tissue iron concentrations. To examine the mechanism(s) underlying this phenomenon, Swiss 3T3 cells were cultured in zinc-deficient (D, 0.5 microM zinc), zinc-supplemented (S, 50 microM zinc), or control (C, 4 microM zinc) media. After 24 h of culture, cells in the D group were characterized by a 50% decrease in intracellular zinc and a 35% increase in intracellular iron relative to cells in the S and C groups. The increase in cellular iron was associated with increased transferrin receptor 1 protein and mRNA levels and increased ferritin light chain expression. The divalent metal transporter 1(+)iron-responsive element isoform mRNA was decreased during zinc deficiency-induced iron accumulation. Examination of zinc-deficient cells revealed increased binding of iron regulatory protein 2 (IRP2) and decreased binding of IRP1 to a consensus iron-responsive element. The increased IRP2-binding activity in zinc-deficient cells coincided with an increased level of IRP2 protein. The accumulation of IRP2 protein was independent of zinc deficiency-induced intracellular nitric oxide production but was attenuated by the addition of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine or ascorbate to the D medium. These data support the concept that zinc deficiency can result in alterations in iron transporter, storage, and regulatory proteins, which facilitate iron accumulation.

  2. Transition Metal Ions Enable the Transition from Electrospun Prolamin Protein Fibers to Nitrogen-Doped Freestanding Carbon Films for Flexible Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yixiang; Yang, Jingqi; Du, Rongbing; Chen, Lingyun

    2017-07-19

    Flexible carbon ultrafine fibers are highly desirable in energy storage and conversion devices. Our previous finding showed that electrospun hordein/zein fibers stabilized by Ca 2+ were successfully transferred into nitrogen-doped carbon ultrafine fibers for supercapacitors. However, their relatively brittle nature needed to be improved. Inspired by this stabilizing effect of Ca 2+ , in this work, four transition metal divalent cations were used to assist the formation of flexible hordein/zein-derived carbon ultrafine fibers. Without alteration of the electrospinnability, adequate amounts of zinc acetate and cobalt acetate supported the fibrous structure during pyrolysis. This resulted in flexible freestanding carbon films consisting of well-defined fibers with nitrogen-doped graphitic layers and hierarchical pores. These carbon films were easily cut into small square pieces and directly applied as working electrode in the three-electrode testing system without the need for polymer binders or conducting agents. Notably, the hz-Zn0.3-p electrode, synthesized with 0.3 mol/L Zn 2+ and post-acid treatment, exhibited a specific capacitance of 393 F/g (at 1 A/g), a large rate capability (72.3% remained at 20 A/g), and a capacitance retention of ∼98% after 2000 charging-discharging cycles at 10 A/g. These superior electrochemical properties were attributed to the synergistic effects of the well-developed graphitic layers induced by Zn 2+ , the nitrogen-decorated carbon structure, and the interconnected channels generated by HCl treatment. This research advances potential applications for prolamin proteins as nitrogen-containing raw materials in developing carbon structures for high-performance supercapacitors.

  3. Influence of cooking methods and storage time on lipid and protein oxidation and heterocyclic aromatic amines production in bacon.

    PubMed

    Soladoye, O P; Shand, P; Dugan, M E R; Gariépy, C; Aalhus, J L; Estévez, M; Juárez, M

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to examine the influence of cooking methods and pre-determined refrigerated storage days on the production of lipid oxidation (TBARS), protein oxidation (PROTOX) and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) in bacon. Forty-four pork bellies selected from pigs varying in breed, sex and diets to introduce variability in composition were processed as bacon. Sliced-bacon was stored at 4°C either for 2 or 28days and these storage groups were cooked either with microwave or frying pan. Microwave led to significantly higher PROTOX (P<0.001), while frying pan led to higher levels of HAA and TBARS in bacon (P<0.001). Frying pan cooking increased the saltiness and crispiness of bacon (P<0.05) whereas other sensory attributes were not affected (P>0.05) by the cooking methods and storage times. Similarly, the fatty acid composition of pork belly did not significantly influence the production of HAA, TBARS and PROTOX produced in bacon during cooking. Overall, microwave cooking had lesser impact on the production of carcinogenic compounds in bacon with only minor impact on sensory attributes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Performance of starter in yogurt supplemented with soy protein isolate and biotransformation of isoflavones during storage period.

    PubMed

    Pham, T Thuy; Shah, Nagendra P

    2009-01-01

    In this study, soy protein isolate (SPI) (4%, v/w) was supplemented to the yogurt mix to increase the amount of biologically active isoflavone in yogurt (SY). The control yogurt was without any SPI supplementation (USY). The supplementation significantly (P < 0.05) increased the lactose metabolism by the yogurt starter including Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 (Lb 11842) and Streptococcus thermophilus ST 1342 (ST 1342) during the fermentation process by 4.7%. The starter produced more acetic acid and less lactic acid in SY than that in USY and altered the ratio of lactic and acetic acid during the entire storage period. The viability of both Lb 11842 and ST 1342 in SY was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than that in USY from 14 d of the storage period, however, their concentration still remained high (8.11 to 8.84 log CFU/g). The starter transformed 72.8% of total inactive isoflavone glycosides (IG) to active isoflavone aglycones (IA), increasing the IA content from 1.35 to 15.01 mg/100 g sample. During the storage period, IA concentration slowly rose from 15.02 to 15.51 mg/100 g sample.

  5. Proteomic analysis of seed storage proteins in wild rice species of the Oryza genus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chunmiao; Cheng, Zaiquan; Zhang, Cheng; Yu, Tengqiong; Zhong, Qiaofang; Shen, J Qingxi; Huang, Xingqi

    2014-01-01

    The total protein contents of rice seeds are significantly higher in the three wild rice species (Oryza rufipogon Grill., Oryza officinalis Wall. and Oryza meyeriana Baill.) than in the cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). However, there is still no report regarding a systematic proteomic analysis of seed proteins in the wild rice species. Also, the relationship between the contents of seed total proteins and rice nutritional quality has not been thoroughly investigated. The total seed protein contents, especially the glutelin contents, of the three wild rice species were higher than those of the two cultivated rice materials. Based on the protein banding patterns of SDS-PAGE, O. rufipogon was similar to the two cultivated rice materials, followed by O. officinalis, while O. meyeriana exhibited notable differences. Interestingly, O. meyeriana had high contents of glutelin and low contents of prolamine, and lacked 26 kDa globulin band and appeared a new 28 kDa protein band. However, for O. officinali a 16 kDa protein band was absent and a row of unique 32 kDa proteins appeared. In addition, we found that 13 kDa prolamine band disappeared while special 14 kDa and 12 kDa protein bands were present in O. officinalis. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis revealed remarkable differences in protein profiles of the wild rice species and the two cultivated rice materials. Also, the numbers of detected protein spots of the three wild rice species were significantly higher than those of two cultivated rice. A total of 35 differential protein spots were found for glutelin acidic subunits, glutelin precursors and glutelin basic subunits in wild rice species. Among those, 18 protein spots were specific and 17 major spots were elevated. Six differential protein spots for glutelin acidic subunits were identified, including a glutelin type-A 2 precursor and five hypothetical proteins. This was the first report on proteomic analysis of the three wild rice species

  6. Effects of brown seaweed polyphenols, α-tocopherol, and ascorbic acid on protein oxidation and textural properties of fish mince (Pagrosomus major) during frozen storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tiantian; Li, Zhenxing; Yuan, Fangzhou; Lin, Hong; Pavase, Tushar Ramesh

    2017-03-01

    Frozen storage of minced fish is currently one of the most important techniques to maintain its functional properties. However, some deterioration does occur during frozen storage and cause quality loss. The effects of brown seaweed polyphenols, α-tocopherol, and ascorbic acid on lipid and protein oxidation and textural properties of red sea bream (Pagrosomus major) during 90 days of frozen storage at -18 °C were investigated. All added antioxidants at 1 g kg -1 resulted in significantly lower thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) compared to the control during the 45 days of frozen storage. The antioxidants were also effective in retarding protein oxidation concerning to total sulfhydryl content and protein carbonyl content. Brown seaweed polyphenols and α-tocopherol significantly retarded the inactivation of Ca 2+ -ATPase activity during the first 45 days, whereas ascorbic acid had no such effect. The antioxidant activity showed either an invariable or decrease trend after 45 days storage. Adding antioxidants had a significant effect on the breaking force of the gels during the frozen storage period. These results indicate that brown seaweed polyphenols and α-tocopherol can be used to prevent oxidative reactions and thus maintain the structure of the gel formed by fish mince during frozen storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. New insights into globoids of protein storage vacuoles in wheat aleurone using synchrotron soft X-ray microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Regvar, Marjana; Eichert, Diane; Kaulich, Burkhard; Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Pongrac, Paula; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Kreft, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Mature developed seeds are physiologically and biochemically committed to store nutrients, principally as starch, protein, oils, and minerals. The composition and distribution of elements inside the aleurone cell layer reflect their biogenesis, structural characteristics, and physiological functions. It is therefore of primary importance to understand the mechanisms underlying metal ion accumulation, distribution, storage, and bioavailability in aleurone subcellular organelles for seed fortification purposes. Synchrotron radiation soft X-ray full-field imaging mode (FFIM) and low-energy X-ray fluorescence (LEXRF) spectromicroscopy were applied to characterize major structural features and the subcellular distribution of physiologically important elements (Zn, Fe, Na, Mg, Al, Si, and P). These direct imaging methods reveal the accumulation patterns between the apoplast and symplast, and highlight the importance of globoids with phytic acid mineral salts and walls as preferential storage structures. C, N, and O chemical topographies are directly linked to the structural backbone of plant substructures. Zn, Fe, Na, Mg, Al, and P were linked to globoid structures within protein storage vacuoles with variable levels of co-localization. Si distribution was atypical, being contained in the aleurone apoplast and symplast, supporting a physiological role for Si in addition to its structural function. These results reveal that the immobilization of metals within the observed endomembrane structures presents a structural and functional barrier and affects bioavailability. The combination of high spatial and chemical X-ray microscopy techniques highlights how in situ analysis can yield new insights into the complexity of the wheat aleurone layer, whose precise biochemical composition, morphology, and structural characteristics are still not unequivocally resolved. PMID:21447756

  8. Effect of barrier properties of zein colloidal particles and oil-in-water emulsions on oxidative stability of encapsulated bioactive compounds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oxidation of encapsulated bioactive compounds is a key challenge that limits shelf-life of bioactive containing products. The objectives of this study were to compare differences between the oxidative barrier properties of biopolymer particle based encapsulation system (zein colloidal particles) and...

  9. Chemical Characterization and Release of Polyphenols from Pecan Nut Shell [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh) C. Koch] in Zein Microparticles for Bioactive Applications.

    PubMed

    Kureck, Itamara; Policarpi, Priscila de Brito; Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Maciel, Matheus Vinícius de Oliveira Brisola; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T; Barreto, Pedro Luiz Manique; Block, Jane Mara

    2018-05-03

    The pecan nut [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh) C. Koch] is a natural source of polyphenols with antioxidant properties. In this study, the encapsulation of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of pecan nut shell were evaluated for the release of bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential in order to explore food applications using zein as encapsulating agent. The extracts showed high contents of total phenolics, condensed tannins and high antioxidant activity. Concentrations of proanthocyanidins were 9-fold higher in hydroalcoholic extracts. The LC-DAD analysis showed that catechins were the major phenolic compounds in samples, with epigallocatechin levels up to 138.62 mg mL -1 . Zein microparticles loaded with aqueous extract released 2.3 times more phenolic compounds than the hydroalcoholic extracts and the DSC thermograms showed that extracts of pecan nut shell remained thermally stable up to 240 °C. The zein microcapsules obtained in this study were efficiently encapsulated and represent an interesting additive due its high antioxidant capacity, physicochemical characteristics and morphology. The use of zein microparticles combined with natural extracts constitute a step forward in the improvement of current technology for delivering phenolic compounds with applications in functional foods and nutraceuticals.

  10. Comparison of an extender containing defined milk protein fractions with a skim milk-based extender for storage of equine semen at 5 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Pagl, Roland; Aurich, Jörg E; Müller-Schlösser, Frank; Kankofer, Marta; Aurich, Christine

    2006-09-15

    A problem of semen extenders based on milk or egg yolk is the fact that these biological products consist of a variety of substances. Extenders containing only components with clearly protective effects on spermatozoa would thus be an advantage. In this study, we have compared the effects of an extender containing defined caseinates and whey proteins only (EquiPro, defined milk protein extender) with skim milk extender on equine spermatozoa during cooled storage. The defined milk protein extender was used with and without the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). In a second experiment, semen was diluted with PBS or defined milk protein extender and was either stored directly or 90% of seminal plasma was removed by centrifugation and replaced by defined milk protein extender before storage. In both experiments, eight stallions were available for semen collections. Motility, velocity and membrane integrity of spermatozoa were determined by CASA immediately after semen processing and after 24, 48 and 72 h of storage at 5 degrees C. Total motility after 24 h of storage was lowest in semen diluted with PBS (p<0.05 versus all extenders). At 48 and 72 h, motility of spermatozoa in defined milk protein extender was significantly (p<0.05) higher than in PBS or skim milk extender. Velocity of spermatozoa after storage was highest in defined milk protein extender. Membrane integrity after storage was significantly (p<0.05) lower in semen diluted with PBS than in semen diluted with both extenders. Addition of NAC was without effect on the examined parameters. Centrifugation further increased the percentage of motile and membrane-intact spermatozoa in the defined milk protein extender (p<0.05). Velocity of spermatozoa in this extender was not negatively affected by centrifugation.

  11. The shoot meristem identity gene TFL1 is involved in flower development and trafficking to the protein storage vacuole

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Eun Ju; Rojas-Pierce, Marcela; Pan, Songqin; Carter, Clay; Serrano-Mislata, Antonio; Madueño, Francisco; Rojo, Enrique; Surpin, Marci; Raikhel, Natasha V.

    2007-01-01

    Plants are unique in their ability to store proteins in specialized protein storage vacuoles (PSVs) within seeds and vegetative tissues. Although plants use PSV proteins during germination, before photosynthesis is fully functional, the roles of PSVs in adult vegetative tissues are not understood. Trafficking pathways to PSVs and lytic vacuoles appear to be distinct. Lytic vacuoles are analogous evolutionarily to yeast and mammalian lysosomes. However, it is unclear whether trafficking to PSVs has any analogy to pathways in yeast or mammals, nor is PSV ultrastructure known in Arabidopsis vegetative tissue. Therefore, alternative approaches are required to identify components of this pathway. Here, we show that an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant that disrupts PSV trafficking identified TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1), a shoot meristem identity gene. The tfl1-19/mtv5 (for “modified traffic to the vacuole”) mutant is specifically defective in trafficking of proteins to the PSV. TFL1 localizes to endomembrane compartments and colocalizes with the putative δ-subunit of the AP-3 adapter complex. Our results suggest a developmental role for the PSV in vegetative tissues. PMID:18003908

  12. Influence of sodium nitrite on protein oxidation and nitrosation of sausages subjected to processing and storage.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xianchao; Li, Chenyi; Jia, Xu; Guo, Yan; Lei, Na; Hackman, Robert M; Chen, Lin; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-06-01

    The influence of NaNO2 content on protein oxidation and nitrosation was investigated in cooked sausages at different concentrations (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg NaNO2/kg). Dependent on concentration, NaNO2 had both anti- and pro-oxidant effects on protein oxidation. The antioxidant effects of NaNO2 on the protein oxidation were evidenced by significantly lower carbonyl contents, higher free amines and lower surface hydrophobicities. The pro-oxidant effects of NaNO2 on protein oxidation resulted in a decrease of sulfhydryls and an increase of disulfide bonds. NaNO2 also improved the protein nitrosation inducing the formation of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT). Moreover, 3-NT had significant correlations with parameters of protein oxidation, indicating that 3-NT may be a possible marker for protein oxidation. Results of this study contribute to an understanding of the impact of NaNO2 on food quality and help to identify optimal formulations of cured meat products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Zein Microneedles for Localized Delivery of Chemotherapeutic Agents to Treat Breast Cancer: Drug Loading, Release Behavior, and Skin Permeation Studies.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Shubhmita; Kumari, Pooja; Pattarabhiran, Srijanaki Paravastu; Venuganti, Venkata Vamsi Krishna

    2018-05-01

    Localized delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to treat breast cancer could limit their adverse drug reactions. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of physico-chemical properties of chemotherapeutic agents in their loading, release behavior, and skin permeation using microneedles. Zein microneedles were fabricated using the micromolding technique containing 36 microneedles in a 1-cm 2 area. These microneedles were loaded with two anti-breast cancer drugs, tamoxifen and gemcitabine, having different water solubilities. Entrapment or surface coating of chemotherapeutic agents in zein microneedles was optimized to achieve greater loading efficiency. The greatest loading achieved was 607 ± 21 and 1459 ± 74 μg for tamoxifen and gemcitabine using the entrapment approach, respectively. Skin permeation studies in excised porcine skin showed that the coating on microneedles approach results in greater skin deposition for tamoxifen; while the poke-and-patch approach would provide greater skin permeation for gemcitabine. Taken together, it can be concluded that different loading strategies and skin penetration approaches have to be studied for delivery of small molecules using polymeric microneedles.

  14. Physicochemical Changes and Glycation Reaction in Intermediate-Moisture Protein-Sugar Foods with and without Addition of Resveratrol during Storage.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Zhanwu; Gu, Mantun; Hao, Wangjun; Shen, Yixiao; Zhang, Weimin; Zheng, Lili; Ai, Binling; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Xu, Zhimin

    2016-06-22

    An intermediate-moisture food (IMF) model consisting of whey protein isolate and glucose and an IMF model fortified with resveratrol were used to study the effect of resveratrol on physicochemical changes and glycation of protein-sugar-rich foods during storage. The water activity (aw) of the storage was controlled at 0.75 or 0.56. The browning rate or hardness of fortified IMFs was significantly lower than that of IMFs after 45-day storage. The rate of Maillard reaction in the samples stored at aw 0.56 was higher than that of samples stored at aw 0.75. The fortified IMFs had lower levels of AGEs (advanced glycation end products), CML (N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)-l-lysine), and insoluble protein during storage. The inhibition capability of resveratrol against glycation was also confirmed by using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis to monitor glycated proteins and protein aggregation in the samples. The results of this study suggested that resveratrol could be used as an inhibitor to reduce the formation of undesirable AGEs and other Maillard reaction products in foods during storage.

  15. Presence of the storage seed protein vicilin in internal organs of larval Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Uchôa, Adriana F; DaMatta, Renato A; Retamal, Claudio A; Albuquerque-Cunha, José M; Souza, Sheila M; Samuels, Richard I; Silva, Carlos P; Xavier-Filho, José

    2006-02-01

    Variant vicilins (7S storage globulins) of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata) are considered as the main resistance factor present in some African genotypes against the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. It has been suggested that the toxic properties of vicilins may be related to their recognition and interaction with glycoproteins and other membrane constituents along the digestive tract of the insect. However, the possibility of a systemic effect has not yet been investigated. The objective of this work was to study the fate of 7S storage globulins of V. unguiculata in several organs of larvae of the cowpea weevil C. maculatus. Results demonstrated binding of vicilins to brush border membrane vesicles, suggesting the existence of specific receptors. Vicilins were detected in the haemolymph, in the midgut, and in internal organs, such as fat body and malpighian tubules. There is evidence of accumulation of vicilins in the fat body of both larvae and adults. The absorption of vicilins and their presence in insect tissues parallels classical sequestration of secondary compounds.

  16. Influence of pre-cooking protein paste gelation conditions and post-cooking gel storage conditions on gel texture.

    PubMed

    Paker, Ilgin; Matak, Kristen E

    2016-01-15

    Gelation conditions affect the setting of myofibrillar fish protein gels. Therefore the impact of widely applied pre-cooking gelation time/temperature strategies and post-cooking period on the texture and color of final protein gels was determined. Four pre-cooking gelation strategies (no setting time, 30 min at 25 °C, 1 h at 40 °C or 24 h at 4 °C) were applied to protein pastes (fish protein concentrate and standard functional additives). After cooking, texture and color were analyzed either directly or after 24 h at 4 °C on gels adjusted to 25 °C. No-set gels were harder, gummier and chewier (P < 0.05) when analyzed immediately after cooling; however, gel chewiness, cohesiveness and firmness indicated by Kramer force benefited from 24 h at 4 °C gel setting when stored post-cooking. Gel-setting conditions had a greater (P < 0.05) effect on texture when directly analyzed and most changes occurred in no-set gels. There were significant (P < 0.05) changes between directly analyzed and post-cooking stored gels in texture and color, depending on the pre-cooking gelation strategy. Pre-cooking gelation conditions will affect final protein gel texture and color, with gel stability benefiting from a gel-setting period. However, post-cooking storage may have a greater impact on final gels, with textural attributes becoming more consistent between all samples. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Nature's polyoxometalate chemistry: X-ray structure of the Mo storage protein loaded with discrete polynuclear Mo-O clusters.

    PubMed

    Kowalewski, Björn; Poppe, Juliane; Demmer, Ulrike; Warkentin, Eberhard; Dierks, Thomas; Ermler, Ulrich; Schneider, Klaus

    2012-06-13

    Some N(2)-fixing bacteria prolong the functionality of nitrogenase in molybdenum starvation by a special Mo storage protein (MoSto) that can store more than 100 Mo atoms. The presented 1.6 Å X-ray structure of MoSto from Azotobacter vinelandii reveals various discrete polyoxomolybdate clusters, three covalently and three noncovalently bound Mo(8), three Mo(5-7), and one Mo(3) clusters, and several low occupied, so far undefinable clusters, which are embedded in specific pockets inside a locked cage-shaped (αβ)(3) protein complex. The structurally identical Mo(8) clusters (three layers of two, four, and two MoO(n) octahedra) are distinguishable from the [Mo(8)O(26)](4-) cluster formed in acidic solutions by two displaced MoO(n) octahedra implicating three kinetically labile terminal ligands. Stabilization in the covalent Mo(8) cluster is achieved by Mo bonding to Hisα156-N(ε2) and Gluα129-O(ε1). The absence of covalent protein interactions in the noncovalent Mo(8) cluster is compensated by a more extended hydrogen-bond network involving three pronounced histidines. One displaced MoO(n) octahedron might serve as nucleation site for an inhomogeneous Mo(5-7) cluster largely surrounded by bulk solvent. In the Mo(3) cluster located on the 3-fold axis, the three accurately positioned His140-N(ε2) atoms of the α subunits coordinate to the Mo atoms. The formed polyoxomolybdate clusters of MoSto, not detectable in bulk solvent, are the result of an interplay between self- and protein-driven assembly processes that unite inorganic supramolecular and protein chemistry in a host-guest system. Template, nucleation/protection, and catalyst functions of the polypeptide as well as perspectives for designing new clusters are discussed.

  18. Storage influence on the functional, sensory and keeping quality of quality protein maize flour.

    PubMed

    Shobha, D; Kumar, H V Dileep; Sreeramasetty, T A; Puttaramanaik; Gowda, K T Pandurange; Shivakumar, G B

    2014-11-01

    Apart from nutritional values functional and sensory properties affect the behavior of food system and its acceptability for consumption during storage. Hence keeping quality of maize flour (HQPM-7) with and without lime treatment(control) was studied in terms of functional (bulk density, pH, swelling capacity, water and oil absorption capacity, least gelation concentration, peroxide value), sensory (appearance, color, taste, texture, mouth feel and overall acceptability) and rolling parameters (water absorption by flour, rolling quality, diameter after baking ) for a period of 6 months under room temperature (25 ± 5 °C) in two types of packages viz, LDPE cover (P) and plastic box (B). Physical parameters such as length, breadth and thickness (11.26-10.52 mm, 9.67-9.14 mm, & 4.72-3.95 mm) were reduced in lime treated grains compared to control. Significant increase (p ≤ 0.05) in ash content of lime treated flour (1.67 ± 0.01 g) was observed compared to control (1.5 ± 0.02 g). Calcium content of lime treated maize flour increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) from 48 to 136 mg. There is a significant reduction in functional properties of flour after 3 and 2 months irrespective in polyethylene cover and plastic box. The properties like rolling quality, diameter after baking and water uptake by the flour were reduced significantly (p ≤ 0.05) after 4 months of storage in treated and after 1 month in control samples. Sensory scores of roti (dry pan cake) decreased significantly after 3 months of storage with an overall acceptability score of 4.0 and 3.4. In control samples mean taste (3.6), mouth feel (3.8) as well as OAA scores (3.8) decreased after second month. Hence lime treated maize flour with added nutritional benefits is suitable for making rotis of good palatability and can be stored in LDPE covers up to 3 months.

  19. Novel Synthesis of Core-Shell Silica Nanoparticles for the Capture of Low Molecular Weight Proteins and Peptides.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Leon, Sergio G; Sarabia-Sainz, Jose Andre-I; Montfort, Gabriela Ramos-Clamont; Guzman-Partida, Ana M; Robles-Burgueño, Maria Del Refugio; Vazquez-Moreno, Luz

    2017-10-12

    Silica nanoparticles were functionalized with immobilized molecular bait, Cibacron Blue, and a porous polymeric bis-acrylamide shell. These nanoparticles represent a new alternative to capture low molecular weight (LMW) proteins/peptides, that might be potential biomarkers. Functionalized core-shell silica nanoparticles (FCSNP) presented a size distribution of 243.9 ± 11.6 nm and an estimated surface charge of -38.1 ± 0.9 mV. The successful attachment of compounds at every stage of synthesis was evidenced by ATR-FTIR. The capture of model peptides was determined by mass spectrometry, indicating that only the peptide with a long sequence of hydrophobic amino acids (alpha zein 34-mer) interacted with the molecular bait. FCSNP excluded the high molecular weight protein (HMW), BSA, and captured LMW proteins (myoglobin and aprotinin), as evidenced by SDS-PAGE. Functionalization of nanoparticles with Cibacron Blue was crucial to capture these molecules. FCSNP were stable after twelve months of storage and maintained a capacity of 3.1-3.4 µg/mg.

  20. Whey protein aerogel as blended with cellulose crystalline particles or loaded with fish oil.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Maede; Madadlou, Ashkan; Saboury, Ali Akbar

    2016-04-01

    Whey protein hydrogels blended with nanocrystalline and microcrystalline cellulose particles (NCC and MCC, respectively) were prepared, followed by freeze-drying, to produce aerogels. NCC blending increased the Young's modulus, and elastic character, of the protein aerogel. Aerogels were microporous and mesoporous materials, as characterized by the pores sizing 1.2 nm and 12.2 nm, respectively. Blending with NCC decreased the count of both microporous and mesoporous-classified pores at the sub-100 nm pore size range investigated. In contrast, MCC blending augmented the specific surface area and pores volume of the aerogel. It also increased moisture sorption affinity of aerogel. The feasibility of conveying hydrophobic nutraceuticals by aerogels was evaluated through loading fish oil into the non-blended aerogel. Oil loading altered its microstructure, corresponding to a peak displacement in Fourier-transform infra-red spectra, which was ascribed to increased hydrophobic interactions. Surface coating of aerogel with zein decreased the oxidation susceptibility of the loaded oil during subsequent storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mass Spectrometric Identification of the Arginine and Lysine deficient Proline Rich Glutamine Rich Wheat Storage Proteins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of enzymatic digest has made possible identification of a wide variety of proteins and complex samples prepared by such techniques as RP-HPLC or 2-D gel electrophoresis. Success requires peptide fragmentation to be indicative of the peptide amino acid sequence. The f...

  2. Changes in microbial populations of WPC34 and WPC80 whey protein during long term storage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of whey protein (WPC34 and WPC80) as a food ingredient and as a base for making biodegradable products is increasing. The need to alleviate world hunger in arid and semi-arid regions demands that we investigate the behavior of native bacteria in these products, especially during long term st...

  3. Characterization of soybean storage and allergen protein affected by environmental and genetic factors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Knowledge of the impact of genetic variability and diverse environments on the protein composition of crop seed is of value for the comparative safety assessments in the development of genetically engineered (GMO) crops. The objective of this study was to determine the role of genotype (G), environ...

  4. Trade-off between soluble protein production and nutritional storage in Bromeliaceae

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Ana Zangirolame; Mercier, Helenice; Oliveira, Rafael Silva; Romero, Gustavo Quevedo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Bromeliads are able to occupy some of the most nutrient-poor environments especially because they possess absorptive leaf trichomes, leaves organized in rosettes, distinct photosynthetic pathways [C3, Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) or facultative C3–CAM], and may present an epiphytic habit. The more derived features related to these traits are described for the Tillandsioideae subfamily. In this context, the aims of this study were to evaluate how terrestrial predators contribute to the nutrition and performance of bromeliad species, subfamilies and ecophysiological types, whether these species differ in their ecophysiological traits and whether the physiological outcomes are consistent among subfamilies and types (e.g. presence/absence of tank, soil/tank/atmosphere source of nutrients, trichomes/roots access to nutrients). Methods Isotopic (15N-enriched predator faeces) and physiological methods (analyses of plant protein, amino acids, growth, leaf mass per area and total N incorporated) in greenhouse experiments were used to investigate the ecophysiological contrasts between Tillandsioideae and Bromelioideae, and among ecophysiological types when a predatory anuran contributes to their nutrition. Key Results It was observed that Bromelioideae had higher concentrations of soluble protein and only one species grew more (Ananas bracteatus), while Tillandsioideae showed higher concentrations of total amino acids, asparagine and did not grow. The ecophysiological types that showed similar protein contents also had similar growth. Additionally, an ordination analysis showed that the subfamilies and ecophysiological types were discrepant considering the results of the total nitrogen incorporated from predators, soluble protein and asparagine concentrations, relative growth rate and leaf mass per area. Conclusions Bromeliad subfamilies showed a trade-off between two strategies: Tillandsioideae stored nitrogen into amino acids possibly for

  5. Soybean protein-based microparticles for oral delivery of probiotics with improved stability during storage and gut resistance.

    PubMed

    González-Ferrero, C; Irache, J M; González-Navarro, C J

    2018-01-15

    The present work describes the encapsulation of probiotics using a by-product as wall material and a process feasible to be scaled-up: coacervation of soybean protein concentrate (SPC) by using calcium salts and spray-drying. SPC was extracted from soybean flour, produced during the processing of soybean milk, by alkaline extraction following isoelectric precipitation. Two probiotic strains were selected for encapsulation (Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 220 and Lactobacillus casei CECT 475) in order to evaluate the ability of SPC to encapsulate and protect bacteria from stress conditions. The viability of these encapsulated strains under in vitro gastrointestinal conditions and shelf-life during storage were compared with the most common forms commercialized nowadays. Results show that SPC is a feasible material for the development of probiotic microparticles with adequate physicochemical properties and enhanced significantly both probiotic viability and tolerance against simulated gastrointestinal fluids when compared to current available commercial forms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fe(II) formation after interaction of the amyloid β-peptide with iron-storage protein ferritin.

    PubMed

    Balejcikova, Lucia; Siposova, Katarina; Kopcansky, Peter; Safarik, Ivo

    2018-05-09

    The interaction of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) with the iron-storage protein ferritin was studied in vitro. We have shown that Aβ during fibril formation process is able to reduce Fe(III) from the ferritin core (ferrihydrite) to Fe(II). The Aβ-mediated Fe(III) reduction yielded a two-times-higher concentration of free Fe(II) than the spontaneous formation of Fe(II) by the ferritin itself. We suggest that Aβ can also act as a ferritin-specific metallochaperone-like molecule capturing Fe(III) from the ferritin ferrihydrite core. Our observation may partially explain the formation of Fe(II)-containing minerals in human brains suffering by neurodegenerative diseases.

  7. High frequency of IgE sensitization towards kiwi seed storage proteins among peanut allergic individuals also reporting allergy to kiwi.

    PubMed

    van Odijk, Jenny; Sjölander, Sigrid; Brostedt, Peter; Borres, Magnus P; Englund, Hillevi

    2017-01-01

    IgE sensitization to storage proteins from nuts and seed is often related to severe allergic symptoms. There is a risk of immunological IgE cross-reactivity between storage proteins from different species. The potential clinical implication of such cross-reactivity is that allergens other than the known sensitizer can cause allergic symptoms. Previous studies have suggested that kiwi seed storage proteins may constitute hidden food allergens causing cross-reactive IgE-binding with peanut and other tree nut homologs, thereby mediating a potential risk of causing allergy symptoms among peanut ant tree nut allergic individuals. The objective of this study was to investigate the degree of sensitization towards kiwi fruit seed storage proteins in a cohort of peanut allergic individuals. A cohort of 59 adolescents and adults with peanut allergy was studied, and self reported allergies to a number of additional foods were collected. Quantitative IgE measurements to seed storage proteins from kiwi and peanut were performed. In the cohort, 23 out of the 59 individuals were reporting kiwi fruit allergy (39%). The frequency of IgE sensitization to kiwi fruit and to any kiwi seed storage protein was higher among peanut allergic individuals also reporting kiwi fruit allergy ( P  = 0.0001 and P  = 0.01). A positive relationship was found between IgE levels to 11S globulin (r = 0.65) and 7S globulin (r = 0.48) allergens from kiwi and peanut, but IgE levels to 2S albumin homologs did not correlate. Patients reporting kiwi fruit allergy also reported allergy to hazelnut ( P  = 0.015), soy ( P  < 0.0001), pea ( P  = 0.0002) and almond ( P  = 0.016) to a higher extent than peanut allergic individuals without kiwi allergy. Thirty-nine percent of the peanut allergic patients in this cohort also reported kiwi fruit allergy, they displayed a higher degree of sensitization to kiwi storage proteins from both kiwi and peanut, and they also reported a higher extent of allergy

  8. Teff, an Orphan Cereal in the Chloridoideae, Provides Insights into the Evolution of Storage Proteins in Grasses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Xu, Jianhong; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Messing, Joachim

    2016-06-13

    Seed storage proteins (SSP) in cereals provide essential nutrition for humans and animals. Genes encoding these proteins have undergone rapid evolution in different grass species. To better understand the degree of divergence, we analyzed this gene family in the subfamily Chloridoideae, where the genome of teff (Eragrostis tef) has been sequenced. We find gene duplications, deletions, and rapid mutations in protein-coding sequences. The main SSPs in teff, like other grasses, are prolamins, here called eragrostins. Teff has γ- and δ-prolamins, but has no β-prolamins. One δ-type prolamin (δ1) in teff has higher methionine (33%) levels than in maize (23-25%). The other δ-type prolamin (δ2) has reduced methionine residues (<10%) and is phylogenetically closer to α prolamins. Prolamin δ2 in teff represents an intermediate between δ and α types that appears to have been lost in maize and other Panicoideae, and was replaced by the expansion of α-prolamins. Teff also has considerably larger numbers of α-prolamin genes, which we further divide into five sub-groups, where α2 and α5 represent the most abundant α-prolamins both in number and in expression. In addition, indolines that determine kernel softness are present in teff and the panicoid cereal called foxtail millet (Setaria italica) but not in sorghum or maize, indicating that these genes were only recently lost in some members of the Panicoideae Moreover, this study provides not only information on the evolution of SSPs in the grass family but also the importance of α-globulins in protein aggregation and germplasm divergence. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  9. Trade-off between soluble protein production and nutritional storage in Bromeliaceae.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Ana Zangirolame; Mercier, Helenice; Oliveira, Rafael Silva; Romero, Gustavo Quevedo

    2016-11-01

    Bromeliads are able to occupy some of the most nutrient-poor environments especially because they possess absorptive leaf trichomes, leaves organized in rosettes, distinct photosynthetic pathways [C 3 , Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) or facultative C 3 -CAM], and may present an epiphytic habit. The more derived features related to these traits are described for the Tillandsioideae subfamily. In this context, the aims of this study were to evaluate how terrestrial predators contribute to the nutrition and performance of bromeliad species, subfamilies and ecophysiological types, whether these species differ in their ecophysiological traits and whether the physiological outcomes are consistent among subfamilies and types (e.g. presence/absence of tank, soil/tank/atmosphere source of nutrients, trichomes/roots access to nutrients). Isotopic ( 15 N-enriched predator faeces) and physiological methods (analyses of plant protein, amino acids, growth, leaf mass per area and total N incorporated) in greenhouse experiments were used to investigate the ecophysiological contrasts between Tillandsioideae and Bromelioideae, and among ecophysiological types when a predatory anuran contributes to their nutrition. It was observed that Bromelioideae had higher concentrations of soluble protein and only one species grew more (Ananas bracteatus), while Tillandsioideae showed higher concentrations of total amino acids, asparagine and did not grow. The ecophysiological types that showed similar protein contents also had similar growth. Additionally, an ordination analysis showed that the subfamilies and ecophysiological types were discrepant considering the results of the total nitrogen incorporated from predators, soluble protein and asparagine concentrations, relative growth rate and leaf mass per area. Bromeliad subfamilies showed a trade-off between two strategies: Tillandsioideae stored nitrogen into amino acids possibly for transamination reactions during nutritional stress and

  10. Proteomic profiling of maize opaque endosperm mutants reveals selective accumulation of lysine-enriched proteins

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Kyla J.; Jia, Shangang; Zhang, Chi; Holding, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Reduced prolamin (zein) accumulation and defective endoplasmic reticulum (ER) body formation occurs in maize opaque endosperm mutants opaque2 (o2), floury2 (fl2), defective endosperm*B30 (DeB30), and Mucronate (Mc), whereas other opaque mutants such as opaque1 (o1) and floury1 (fl1) are normal in these regards. This suggests that other factors contribute to kernel texture. A liquid chromatography approach coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) proteomics was used to compare non-zein proteins of nearly isogenic opaque endosperm mutants. In total, 2762 proteins were identified that were enriched for biological processes such as protein transport and folding, amino acid biosynthesis, and proteolysis. Principal component analysis and pathway enrichment suggested that the mutants partitioned into three groups: (i) Mc, DeB30, fl2 and o2; (ii) o1; and (iii) fl1. Indicator species analysis revealed mutant-specific proteins, and highlighted ER secretory pathway components that were enriched in selected groups of mutants. The most significantly changed proteins were related to stress or defense and zein partitioning into the soluble fraction for Mc, DeB30, o1, and fl1 specifically. In silico dissection of the most significantly changed proteins revealed novel qualitative changes in lysine abundance contributing to the overall lysine increase and the nutritional rebalancing of the o2 and fl2 endosperm. PMID:26712829

  11. Effect of storage temperature on survival and recovery of thermal and extrusion injured Escherichia coli populations in whey protein concentrate and corn meal

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In a previous study, we reported viability loss of Escherichia coli populations in corn (CP) and whey protein products (WPP) extruded at different temperatures. However, information on the effect of storage temperatures on injured bacterial populations was not addressed. The objective of this study ...

  12. Effects of heat stress and probiotic supplementation on protein functionality and oxidative stability of ground chicken leg meat during display storage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of heat stress and probiotic supplementation on protein functionality and oxidative stability of ground chicken leg meat during display storage. Two hundred and forty 1-day-old male chicks (5 bird per pen) were randomly subjected to four treatments...

  13. Expression and characterization of a histidine-rich protein, Hpn: potential for Ni2+ storage in Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Ruiguang; Watt, Rory M.; Sun, Xuesong; Tanner, Julian A.; He, Qing-Yu; Huang, Jian-Dong; Sun, Hongzhe

    2005-01-01

    Hpn is a small cytoplasmic protein found in Helicobacter pylori, which binds Ni2+ ions with moderate affinity. Consisting of 60 amino acids, the protein is rich in histidine (28 residues, 46.7%), as well as glutamate, glycine and serine residues (in total 31.7%), and contains short repeating motifs. In the present study, we report the detailed biophysical characterization of the multimeric status and Ni2+-binding properties of purified recombinant Hpn under physiologically relevant conditions. The protein exists as an equilibration of multimeric forms in solution, with 20-mers (approx. 136 kDa) being the predominant species. Using equilibrium dialysis, ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma MS) and UV/visible spectroscopy, Hpn was found to bind five Ni2+ ions per monomer at pH 7.4, with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 7.1 μM. Importantly, Ni2+ binding to Hpn is reversible: metal is released either in the presence of a chelating ligand such as EDTA, or at a slightly acidic pH (pH for half dissociation, pH1/2 ∼6.3). Ni2+ binding induces conformational changes within the protein, increasing β-sheet and reducing α-helical content, from 22% to 37%, and 20% to 10% respectively. Growth curves of Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) both with and without the hpn gene performed under Ni2+ pressure clearly implied a role for Hpn to protect the cells from higher concentrations of external metal ions. Similarly, the accumulation of Ni2+ in these cells expressing Hpn from a plasmid was approx. 4-fold higher than in uninduced controls or control cultures that lacked the plasmid. Similarly, levels of Ni2+ in wild-type H. pylori 26695 cells were higher than those in H. pylori hpn-deletion mutant strains. Hpn may potentially serve multiple roles inside the bacterium: storage of Ni2+ ions in a ‘reservoir’; donation of Ni2+ to other proteins; and detoxification via sequestration of excess Ni2+. PMID:16164421

  14. Effect of Soy Protein Hydrolysates Prepared by Subcritical Water Processing on the Physicochemical Properties of Pork Patty during Chilled Storage

    PubMed Central

    Min, Sang-Gi

    2015-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of soy protein hydrolysates (SPHs) addition on the quality characteristics of pork patties. The SPHs was prepared by subcritical water process (SWP) at 180℃ without holding time and mixed with the pork patty components at varying concentrations (0-3%), and the patties were stored at 4℃ for 14 d. As quality parameters, instrumental color, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), pH, water holding capacity (WHC) and shear force were measured at the end of storage. Regardless of SPHs concentration, the addition of SPHs significantly manifested low L* and high a* values compared to those of untreated control (p<0.05). For b* value, addition of SPHs in the 0.5-1.5% was unaffected, while >2.0% of SPHs caused significantly lower b* than control (p<0.05). The color changes in pork patties with and without SPHs were also identified in visual appearance where the pork patties containing 0.5-2.0% showed bright red color which was comparable to brownish color of control and patties containing >2.5% SPHs. Lipid oxidation was delayed by the addition of 0.5-1.5% SPHs, while it was accelerated by the addition of 3% SPHs. The pH of patties increased with increasing concentration of SPHs, whereas there were no significant differences in WHC and shear force of patties. Consequently, the results indicated that the addition of 0.5-1.5% SPHs had a potential advantage in suppressing oxidative deterioration of fat-containing meat products during chilled storage. PMID:26761879

  15. Effect of Soy Protein Hydrolysates Prepared by Subcritical Water Processing on the Physicochemical Properties of Pork Patty during Chilled Storage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-Kyung; Ko, Bo-Bae; Min, Sang-Gi; Hong, Geun-Pyo

    2015-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of soy protein hydrolysates (SPHs) addition on the quality characteristics of pork patties. The SPHs was prepared by subcritical water process (SWP) at 180℃ without holding time and mixed with the pork patty components at varying concentrations (0-3%), and the patties were stored at 4℃ for 14 d. As quality parameters, instrumental color, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), pH, water holding capacity (WHC) and shear force were measured at the end of storage. Regardless of SPHs concentration, the addition of SPHs significantly manifested low L* and high a* values compared to those of untreated control (p<0.05). For b* value, addition of SPHs in the 0.5-1.5% was unaffected, while >2.0% of SPHs caused significantly lower b* than control (p<0.05). The color changes in pork patties with and without SPHs were also identified in visual appearance where the pork patties containing 0.5-2.0% showed bright red color which was comparable to brownish color of control and patties containing >2.5% SPHs. Lipid oxidation was delayed by the addition of 0.5-1.5% SPHs, while it was accelerated by the addition of 3% SPHs. The pH of patties increased with increasing concentration of SPHs, whereas there were no significant differences in WHC and shear force of patties. Consequently, the results indicated that the addition of 0.5-1.5% SPHs had a potential advantage in suppressing oxidative deterioration of fat-containing meat products during chilled storage.

  16. Effect of subsoiling in fallow period on soil water storage and grain protein accumulation of dryland wheat and its regulatory effect by nitrogen application.

    PubMed

    Sun, Min; Gao, ZhiQiang; Zhao, WeiFeng; Deng, LianFeng; Deng, Yan; Zhao, HongMei; Ren, AiXia; Li, Gang; Yang, ZhenPing

    2013-01-01

    To provide a new way to increase water storage and retention of dryland wheat, a field study was conducted at Wenxi experimental site of Shanxi Agricultural University. The effect of subsoiling in fallow period on soil water storage, accumulation of proline, and formation of grain protein after anthesis were determined. Our results showed that subsoiling in fallow period could increase water storage in the 0-300 cm soil at pre-sowing stage and at anthesis stage with low or medium N application, especially for the 60-160 cm soil. However, the proline content, glutamine synthetase (GS) activity, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity in flag leaves and grains were all decreased by subsoiling in fallow period. In addition, the content of albumin, gliadin, and total protein in grains were also decreased while globulin content, Glu/Gli, protein yield, and glutelin content were increased. With N application increasing, water storage of soil layers from 20 to 200 cm was decreased at anthesis stage. High N application resulted in the increment of proline content and GS activity in grains. Besides, correlation analysis showed that soil storage in 40-160 cm soil was negatively correlated with proline content in grains; proline content in grains was positively correlated with GS and GDH activity in flag leaves. Contents of albumin, globulin and total protein in grains were positively correlated with proline content in grains and GDH activity in flag leaves. In conclusion, subsoiling in fallow period, together with N application at 150 kg·hm(-2), was beneficial to increase the protein yield and Glu/Gli in grains which improve the quality of wheat.

  17. Potential costs of bacterial infection on storage protein gene expression and reproduction in queenless Apis mellifera worker bees on distinct dietary regimes.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Anete Pedro; Martins, Juliana Ramos; Guidugli-Lazzarini, Karina Rosa; Macedo, Liliane Maria Fróes; Bitondi, Márcia Maria Gentile; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino

    2012-09-01

    Insects are able to combat infection by initiating an efficient immune response that involves synthesizing antimicrobial peptides and a range of other defense molecules. These responses may be costly to the organism, resulting in it exploiting endogenous resources to maintain homeostasis or support defense to the detriment of other physiological needs. We used queenless worker bees on distinct dietary regimes that may alter hemolymph protein storage and ovary activation to investigate the physiological costs of infection with Serratia marcescens. The expression of the genes encoding the storage proteins vitellogenin and hexamerin 70a, the vitellogenin receptor, and vasa (which has a putative role in reproduction), was impaired in the infected bees. This impairment was mainly evident in the bees fed beebread, which caused significantly higher expression of these genes than did royal jelly or syrup, and this was confirmed at the vitellogenin and hexamerin 70a protein levels. Beebread was also the only diet that promoted ovary activation in the queenless bees, but this activation was significantly impaired by the infection. The expression of the genes encoding the storage proteins apolipophorins-I and -III and the lipophorin receptor was not altered by infection regardless the diet provided to the bees. Similarly, the storage of apolipophorin-I in the hemolymph was only slightly impaired by the infection, independently of the supplied diet. Taken together these results indicate that, infection demands a physiological cost from the transcription of specific protein storage-related genes and from the reproductive capacity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Subsoiling in Fallow Period on Soil Water Storage and Grain Protein Accumulation of Dryland Wheat and Its Regulatory Effect by Nitrogen Application

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Min; Gao, ZhiQiang; Zhao, WeiFeng; Deng, LianFeng; Deng, Yan; Zhao, HongMei; Ren, AiXia; Li, Gang; Yang, ZhenPing

    2013-01-01

    To provide a new way to increase water storage and retention of dryland wheat, a field study was conducted at Wenxi experimental site of Shanxi Agricultural University. The effect of subsoiling in fallow period on soil water storage, accumulation of proline, and formation of grain protein after anthesis were determined. Our results showed that subsoiling in fallow period could increase water storage in the 0–300 cm soil at pre-sowing stage and at anthesis stage with low or medium N application, especially for the 60–160 cm soil. However, the proline content, glutamine synthetase (GS) activity, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity in flag leaves and grains were all decreased by subsoiling in fallow period. In addition, the content of albumin, gliadin, and total protein in grains were also decreased while globulin content, Glu/Gli, protein yield, and glutelin content were increased. With N application increasing, water storage of soil layers from 20 to 200 cm was decreased at anthesis stage. High N application resulted in the increment of proline content and GS activity in grains. Besides, correlation analysis showed that soil storage in 40–160 cm soil was negatively correlated with proline content in grains; proline content in grains was positively correlated with GS and GDH activity in flag leaves. Contents of albumin, globulin and total protein in grains were positively correlated with proline content in grains and GDH activity in flag leaves. In conclusion, subsoiling in fallow period, together with N application at 150 kg·hm−2, was beneficial to increase the protein yield and Glu/Gli in grains which improve the quality of wheat. PMID:24098371

  19. Effects of heat stress and probiotic supplementation on protein functionality and oxidative stability of ground chicken leg meat during display storage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Ji-Han; Yan, Feifei; Cheng, Heng-Wei; Brad Kim, Yuan H

    2017-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of heat stress and probiotic supplementation on protein functionality and oxidative stability of ground chicken leg during display storage. Two hundred and forty, 1-day-old male chicks (5 birds per pen) were subjected to four treatments in a 2 (thermoneutral condition at 21 °C and cyclic heat stress at 32-21-32 °C for 10 h day -1 ) × 2 (regular diet with 0 or 0.25 g kg -1 Bacillus subtilis) factorial design. Chickens were harvested at day 46, and pairs of whole legs were collected at 1 day postmortem. The chicken legs were deboned, ground, tray-packaged with oxygen-permeable film, and displayed for 3 days. Heat stress and probiotic supplementation had no impact on pH, water-holding capacity, color, protein functionality, lipid lipolysis and lipid/protein oxidation stability (P > 0.05). Display storage increased the pH and lipid oxidation of ground chicken legs (P < 0.05). In addition, protein oxidation occurred during display storage, as determined via an increased carbonyl group (P = 0.0109) and reduced thiol group (P < 0.0001). The results of the present study indicate that chronic heat stress and probiotic supplementation had no practical adverse impact on protein functionality and oxidative stability of ground chicken leg meat. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. The effect of melanin-free extract from Sepia esculenta ink on lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and water-holding capacity of tilapia fillet during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Duan, Zhen-Hua; Liu, Hua-Zhong; Luo, Ping; Gu, Yi-Peng; Li, Yan-Qun

    2018-03-14

    Preservative effect of melanin-free extract of Sepia esculenta ink (MFESI) on Sparus latus fillet has been verified in our previous work. This study aims to further approach the mechanism of MFESI for extending the shelf-life of fish fillet during cold storage. Tilapia fillets were treated with different dosage of MFESI (0, 15, 25 and 35 mg/ml) and packed with preservative film for succedent cold-storage at 4 °C for scheduled time. Contents of total volatile basic nitrogen and sulfydryl and carbanyl groups were measured for evaluating protein oxidation. Malondialdehyde contents were measured for estimating lipid peroxidation and loss of water was used to determine water-holding capacity of fillet. The data indicated that MFESI not only possessed certain degree of antioxidant capacity in vitro, also lengthened shelf-life of tilapia fillet in cold-storage condition. Apart from 15 mg/ml, both 25 and 35 mg/ml of MFESI obviously prevented lipid and protein from oxidation and reduced loss of water from tilapia fillets, and the latter was more effective than the former. MFESI can repress lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation and reduce water loss, maintain the tilapia fillets quality and, thus, it could be an effective and natural preservative for extending the shelf-life of tilapia fillets during cold storage.

  1. Effect of Chitin Isolated from Crustaceans and Cephalopods on Denaturation of Fish Myofibrillar Protein and the State of Water during Frozen Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Yasumitsu; Zhang, Nong; Nozaki, Yukinori

    The effect of chitin hydrolysate made from shell of crustaceans and cartilage of cephalopods on the denaturation and the state of water of lizard fish myofibrillar protein (Mf) during frozen storage at -250°C for 120 days were investigated. 5.0% chitin hydrolysate (dried matter) added Mf samples were frozen at -25°C and storage for 120 days, and the change of inactivation of Mf Ca-ATPase and the change of unfrozen water in Mf were examined during the frozen storage. The decrease of Mf Ca-ATPase during frozen storage were slow by addition of chitin hydrolysate. The amount of unfrozen water in Mf were increased by addition of chitin hydrolysate, and decreaced gradually during frozen storage. On the other hand, the amount of unfrozen water of the control were decreaced suddenly during frozen storage. Above results suggest that chitin hydrolysate has cryoprotective effect on Mf. It is guessed that the mechanism of cryoprotective effect of chitin hydrolysate may be caused by an interaction between hydration sphere of Mf and equatorial OH groups in the molecular structure of chitin hydrolysate.

  2. Mutation in the γ2-subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase stimulates cardiomyocyte proliferation and hypertrophy independent of glycogen storage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Maengjo; Hunter, Roger W; Garcia-Menendez, Lorena; Gong, Guohua; Yang, Yu-Ying; Kolwicz, Stephen C; Xu, Jason; Sakamoto, Kei; Wang, Wang; Tian, Rong

    2014-03-14

    AMP-activated protein kinase is a master regulator of cell metabolism and an attractive drug target for cancer and metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Point mutations in the regulatory γ2-subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (encoded by Prkag2 gene) caused a unique form of human cardiomyopathy characterized by cardiac hypertrophy, ventricular preexcitation, and glycogen storage. Understanding the disease mechanisms of Prkag2 cardiomyopathy is not only beneficial for the patients but also critical to the use of AMP-activated protein kinase as a drug target. We sought to identify the pro-growth-signaling pathway(s) triggered by Prkag2 mutation and to distinguish it from the secondary response to glycogen storage. In a mouse model of N488I mutation of the Prkag2 gene (R2M), we rescued the glycogen storage phenotype by genetic inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate-stimulated glycogen synthase activity. Ablation of glycogen storage eliminated the ventricular preexcitation but did not affect the excessive cardiac growth in R2M mice. The progrowth effect in R2M hearts was mediated via increased insulin sensitivity and hyperactivity of Akt, resulting in activation of mammalian target of rapamycin and inactivation of forkhead box O transcription factor-signaling pathways. Consequently, cardiac myocyte proliferation during the postnatal period was enhanced in R2M hearts followed by hypertrophic growth in adult hearts. Inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin activity by rapamycin or restoration of forkhead box O transcription factor activity by overexpressing forkhead box O transcription factor 1 rescued the abnormal cardiac growth. Our study reveals a novel mechanism for Prkag2 cardiomyopathy, independent of glycogen storage. The role of γ2-AMP-activated protein kinase in cell growth also has broad implications in cardiac development, growth, and regeneration.

  3. Silencing of the sulfur rich α-gliadin storage protein family in wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.) causes no unintended side-effects on other metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Zörb, Christian; Becker, Dirk; Hasler, Mario; Mühling, Karl H.; Gödde, Victoria; Niehaus, Karsten; Geilfus, Christoph-Martin

    2013-01-01

    Wheat is an important source of proteins and metabolites for human and animal nutrition. To assess the nutritional quality of wheat products, various protein and diverse metabolites have to be evaluated. The grain storage protein family of the α-gliadins are suggested to be the primary initiator of the inflammatory response to gluten in Celiac disease patients. With the technique of RNAi, the α-gliadin storage protein fraction in wheat grains was recently knocked down. From a patient's perspective, this is a desired approach, however, this study aims to evaluate whether such a down-regulation of these problematic α-gliadins also has unintended side-effects on other plant metabolites. Such uncontrolled and unknown arbitrary effects on any metabolite in plants designated for food production would surely represent an avoidable risk for the consumer. In general, α-gliadins are rich in sulfur, making their synthesis and content depended of the sulfur supply. For this reason, the influence of the application of increasing sulfur amounts on the metabolome of α-gliadin-deficient wheat was additionally investigated because it might be possible that e.g., considerable high/low amounts of S might increase or even induce such unintended effects that are not observable under moderate S nutrition. By silencing the α-gliadin genes, a recently developed wheat line that lacks the set of 75 corresponding α-gliadin proteins has become available. The plants were subsequently tested for RNAi-induced effects on metabolites that were not directly attributable to the specific effects of the RNAi-approach on the α-gliadin proteins. For this, GC-MS-based metabolite profiles were recorded. A comparison of wild type with gliadin-deficient plants cultivated in pot experiments revealed no differences in all 109 analyzed metabolites, regardless of the S-nutritional status. No unintended effects attributable to the RNAi-based specific genetic deletion of a storage protein fraction were

  4. Effects of diet, packaging, and irradiation on protein oxidation, lipid oxidation, and color of raw broiler thigh meat during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Xiao, S; Zhang, W G; Lee, E J; Ma, C W; Ahn, D U

    2011-06-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of dietary treatment, packaging, and irradiation singly or in combination on the oxidative stability of broiler chicken thigh meat. A total of 120 four-week-old chickens were divided into 12 pens (10 birds/pen), and 4 pens of broilers were randomly assigned to a control oxidized diet (5% oxidized oil) or an antioxidant-added diet [500 IU of vitamin E + 200 mg/kg of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)] and fed for 2 wk. After slaughter, thigh meats were separated, ground, packaged in either oxygen-permeable or oxygen-impermeable vacuum bags, and irradiated at 0 or 3 kGy. Lipid oxidation (TBA-reactive substances), protein oxidation (carbonyl), and color of the meat were measured at 1, 4, and 7 d of refrigerated storage. The lipid and protein oxidation of thigh meats from birds fed the diet supplemented with antioxidants (vitamin E + BHA) was significantly lower than the lipid and protein oxidation of birds fed the control diet, whereas the lipid and protein oxidation of broilers fed the oxidized oil diet was higher than that of birds fed the control diet. Vacuum packaging slowed, but irradiation accelerated, the lipid and protein oxidation of thigh meat during storage. Dietary antioxidants (vitamin E + BHA) and irradiation treatments showed a stronger effect on lipid oxidation than on protein oxidation. A significant correlation between lipid and protein oxidation in meat was found during storage. Dietary supplementation of vitamin E + BHA and the irradiation treatment increased the lightness and redness of thigh meat, respectively. It is suggested that appropriate use of dietary antioxidants in combination with packaging could be effective in minimizing oxidative changes in irradiated raw chicken thigh meat.

  5. Endosperm Protein Synthesis and l-[35S]Methionine Incorporation in Maize Kernels Cultured In Vitro1

    PubMed Central

    Cully, David E.; Gengenbach, Burle G.; Smith, Jane A.; Rubenstein, Irwin; Connelly, James A.; Park, William D.

    1984-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine protein synthesis and l-[35S] methionine incorporation into the endosperm of Zea mays L. kernels developing in vitro. Two-day-old kernels of the inbred line W64A were placed in culture on a defined medium containing 10 microCuries l-[35S] methionine per milliliter (13 milliCuries per millimole) and harvested at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 days after pollination. Cultured kernels attained a final endosperm mass of 120 milligrams compared to 175 milligrams for field-grown controls. Field and cultured kernels had similar concentrations (microgram per milligram endospern) for total protein, albumin plus globulin, zein, and glutelin fractions at most kernel ages. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing patterns for endosperm proteins were similar for field and cultured kernels throughout development. By 15 days, over 70% of the l-[35S]methionine taken up was present in endosperm proteins. Label incorporation visualized by fluorography generally followed the protein intensity of the stained gels. The high methionine content, low molecular weight zeins (i.e. 15 and 9 kilodaltons) were highly labeled. All of the radioactivity in hydrolyzed zein samples was recovered in the methionine peak indicating minimal conversion to l-[35S]cysteine. The procedure described here is suitable for long term culture and labeling experiments in which continued kernel development is required. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:16663428

  6. Sorptive capacity of membrane lipids, storage lipids, and proteins: a preliminary study of partitioning of organochlorines in lean fish from a PCB-contaminated freshwater lake.

    PubMed

    Mäenpää, Kimmo; Leppänen, Matti T; Figueiredo, Kaisa; Tigistu-Sahle, Feven; Käkelä, Reijo

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge on the internal distribution of halogenated organic chemicals (HOCs) would improve our understanding of dose-effect relationships and subsequently improve risk assessment of contaminated sites. Herein, we determine the concentrations of HOCs based on equilibrium partitioning in storage lipids, membrane lipids, and proteins in field-contaminated fish using equilibrium sampling devices. The study shows the importance of protein as a sorptive phase in lean fish. Our results provide a basis for using species-specific equilibrium partitioning coefficients between sorptive tissues and fish internal water as a substitute for K(ow) in, for example, upgrading models that simulate food-chain accumulation of the chemical.

  7. Seed storage protein deficiency improves sulfur amino acid content in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): redirection of sulfur from gamma-glutamyl-S-methyl-cysteine.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Meghan; Chapman, Ralph; Beyaert, Ronald; Hernández-Sebastià, Cinta; Marsolais, Frédéric

    2008-07-23

    The contents of sulfur amino acids in seeds of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are suboptimal for nutrition. They accumulate large amounts of a gamma-glutamyl dipeptide of S-methyl-cysteine, a nonprotein amino acid that cannot substitute for methionine or cysteine in the diet. Protein accumulation and amino acid composition were characterized in three genetically related lines integrating a progressive deficiency in major seed storage proteins, phaseolin, phytohemagglutinin, and arcelin. Nitrogen, carbon, and sulfur contents were comparable among the three lines. The contents of S-methyl-cysteine and gamma-glutamyl-S-methyl-cysteine were progressively reduced in the mutants. Sulfur was shifted predominantly to the protein cysteine pool, while total methionine was only slightly elevated. Methionine and cystine contents (mg per g protein) were increased by up to ca. 40%, to levels slightly above FAO guidelines on amino acid requirements for human nutrition. These findings may be useful to improve the nutritional quality of common bean.

  8. Ammonium accumulation in commercially available embryo culture media and protein supplements during storage at 2-8°C and during incubation at 37°C.

    PubMed

    Kleijkers, Sander H M; van Montfoort, Aafke P A; Bekers, Otto; Coonen, Edith; Derhaag, Josien G; Evers, Johannes L H; Dumoulin, John C M

    2016-06-01

    Does ammonium accumulate in commercially available culture media and protein supplements used for in vitro development of human pre-implantation embryos during storage and incubation? Ammonium accumulates in ready-to-use in vitro fertilization (IVF) culture media during storage at 2-8°C and in ready-to-use IVF culture media and protein supplements during incubation at 37°C. Both animal and human studies have shown that the presence of ammonium in culture medium has detrimental effects on embryonic development and pregnancy rate. It is, therefore, important to assess the amount of ammonium accumulation in ready-to-use IVF culture media under conditions that are common in daily practice. Ammonium accumulation was investigated in 15 ready-to-use media, 11 protein-free media and 8 protein supplements. Ammonium was measured by the use of an enzymatic method with glutamate dehydrogenase. To simulate the storage and incubation conditions during IVF treatments, ammonium concentrations were measured at different time-points during storage at 2-8°C for 6 weeks and during incubation at 37°C for 4 days. All ready-to-use, i.e. protein supplemented, culture media showed ammonium accumulation during storage for 6 weeks (ranging from 9.2 to 99.8 µM) and during incubation for 4 days (ranging from 8.4 to 138.6 µM), resulting in levels that might affect embryo development. The protein supplements also showed ammonium accumulation, while the culture media without protein supplementation did not. The main sources of ammonium buildup in ready-to-use culture media were unstable glutamine and the protein supplements. No additional ammonium buildup was found during incubation when using an oil overlay or with the presence of an embryo in the culture droplet. In addition to the unstable glutamine and the protein supplements, other free amino acids might contribute to the ammonium buildup. We did not investigate the deterioration of other components in the media. Break-down of

  9. [Study of the reineta protein modifications (Brama australis), put under freezing and storage to -18 degrees C and -30 degrees C].

    PubMed

    Abugoch, Lilian; Quitral, Vilma; Larraín, M Angélica; Vinagre, Julia; Kriukov, Andrei; Chávez, Gloria

    2006-12-01

    The objective of the present work was to study functional and thermal properties of reineta (Brama australis) frozen meat, analysed by water retention capacity (WRC), gel forming capacity (GFC), texture, emulsifying capacity and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). For this study, reineta fillets were obtained and extracted by the same conditions, and cutted, packaged, frozen and stored at -18 degrees C and -30 degrees C for 7 months. The results obtained, showed that there were no signifficant differences in the responses to thermal treatment for all the specimens. For samples frozen at -18 degrees C and -30 degrees C, the protein contents were 23.5 + 0.0 and 25.4 + 1.0%, respectively. The WRC values were 0.45 + 0.1 and 1.59 +/- 0.0 g water/g protein, respectively. The gel forming capacity was only present in the fresh samples, whereas the frozen stored ones only form protein aggregates. The emulsifying capacity was between 960 and 1400 g oil / g protein, and the storage time increased this value. The miosin denaturation temperature (Td) and denaturation enthalpy (?H), obtained by DSC, fluctuated between 39.2 +/- 0.5 to 44.8 +/- 0.8 degrees C and 1.12 +/- 0.3 to 0.52 +/- 0.2 J/g, respectively. The actina values were between 71.0 +/- 0.6 to 75.3 +/- 0.5 degrees C and between 0.5 +/- 0.1 to 0.7 +/- 0.1 J/g. Cooperativity decreased as the storage time increased. This is showing a certain degree of protein displacement. The values found by thermal analyses showed a direct relationship with the functional properties, both decreasing with storage time.

  10. The Abundant Class III Chitinase Homolog in Young Developing Banana Fruits Behaves as a Transient Vegetative Storage Protein and Most Probably Serves as an Important Supply of Amino Acids for the Synthesis of Ripening-Associated Proteins1

    PubMed Central

    Peumans, Willy J.; Proost, Paul; Swennen, Rony L.; Van Damme, Els J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Analyses of the protein content and composition revealed dramatic changes in gene expression during in situ banana (Musa spp.) fruit formation/ripening. The total banana protein content rapidly increases during the first 60 to 70 d, but remains constant for the rest of fruit formation/ripening. During the phase of rapid protein accumulation, an inactive homolog of class III chitinases accounts for up to 40% (w/v) of the total protein. Concomitant with the arrest of net protein accumulation, the chitinase-related protein (CRP) progressively decreases and several novel proteins appear in the electropherograms. Hence, CRP behaves as a fruit-specific vegetative storage protein that accumulates during early fruit formation and serves as a source of amino acids for the synthesis of ripening-associated proteins. Analyses of individual proteins revealed that a thaumatin-like protein, a β-1,3-glucanase, a class I chitinase, and a mannose-binding lectin are the most abundant ripening-associated proteins. Because during the ripening of prematurely harvested bananas, similar changes take place as in the in situ ripening bananas, CRP present in immature fruits is a sufficient source of amino acids for a quasi-normal synthesis of ripening-associated proteins. However, it is evident that the conversion of CRP in ripening-associated proteins takes place at an accelerated rate, especially when climacteric ripening is induced by ethylene. The present report also includes a discussion of the accumulation of the major banana allergens and the identification of suitable promoters for the production of vaccines in transgenic bananas. PMID:12376669

  11. Colour, lipid and protein stability of Rhea americana meat during air- and vacuum-packaged storage: influence of muscle on oxidative processes.

    PubMed

    Filgueras, R S; Gatellier, P; Aubry, L; Thomas, A; Bauchart, D; Durand, D; Zambiazi, R C; Santé-Lhoutellier, V

    2010-11-01

    Physicochemical characteristics and oxidative stability during storage were determined in Gastrocnemius pars interna (GN) and Iliofiburalis (IF) muscles of Rhea americana. Glycolytic potential (GP) and pH decline of muscles were measured within the first 24 h post mortem. Colour, lipid and protein stability were determined during storage of meat, i.e. 5 days under air-packaging at 4°C, or 28 days under vacuum-packaging at 4°C. In parallel, anti-oxidant status of muscles was estimated by measuring α-tocopherol content and anti-oxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase and catalase), while pro-oxidant status was evaluated by determining haeminic iron and long chain fatty acids (especially polyunsaturated fatty acids). The ultimate pH was similar in both muscles, but the GP value was significantly higher in IF than in GN muscle. Haeminic iron and alpha-tocopherol content differed between muscles, with 30% more haeminic iron (p<0.05) and 134% more alpha-tocopherol (p<0.001) in IF than GN muscle. The IF muscle presented higher lipid content and lower PUFA/SFA ratio (polyunsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids) than GN muscle. With storage under air-packaging, lipid and protein oxidation of rhea muscles increased up to 275% and 30%, respectively. This increase was more rapidly and marked in IF muscle. The IF also showed high level of metmyoglobin accumulation after 3 days of storage (47%) and was rejected by 1 consumer out of 2 in sensorial analysis. Under vacuum-packaging, both muscles showed a high stability of colour and no oxidation of lipids and proteins. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of abscisic acid, ethylene and sugars on the mobilization of storage proteins and carbohydrates in seeds of the tropical tree Sesbania virgata (Leguminosae).

    PubMed

    Tonini, Patricia Pinho; Purgatto, Eduardo; Buckeridge, Marcos Silveira

    2010-10-01

    Endospermic legumes are abundant in tropical forests and their establishment is closely related to the mobilization of cell-wall storage polysaccharides. Endosperm cells also store large numbers of protein bodies that play an important role as a nitrogen reserve in this seed. In this work, a systems approach was adopted to evaluate some of the changes in carbohydrates and hormones during the development of seedlings of the rain forest tree Sesbania virgata during the period of establishment. Seeds imbibed abscisic acid (ABA), glucose and sucrose in an atmosphere of ethylene, and the effects of these compounds on the protein contents, α-galactosidase activity and endogenous production of ABA and ethylene by the seeds were observed. The presence of exogenous ABA retarded the degradation of storage protein in the endosperm and decreased α-galactosidase activity in the same tissue during galactomannan degradation, suggesting that ABA represses enzyme action. On the other hand, exogenous ethylene increased α-galactosidase activity in both the endosperm and testa during galactomannan degradation, suggesting an inducing effect of this hormone on the hydrolytic enzymes. Furthermore, the detection of endogenous ABA and ethylene production during the period of storage mobilization and the changes observed in the production of these endogenous hormones in the presence of glucose and sucrose, suggested a correlation between the signalling pathway of these hormones and the sugars. These findings suggest that ABA, ethylene and sugars play a role in the control of the hydrolytic enzyme activities in seeds of S. virgata, controlling the process of storage degradation. This is thought to ensure a balanced flow of the carbon and nitrogen for seedling development.

  13. Evaluation of gallic acid loaded zein sub-micron electrospun fibre mats as novel active packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Neo, Yun Ping; Swift, Simon; Ray, Sudip; Gizdavic-Nikolaidis, Marija; Jin, Jianyong; Perera, Conrad O

    2013-12-01

    The applicability of gallic acid loaded zein (Ze-GA) electrospun fibre mats towards potential active food packaging material was evaluated. The surface chemistry of the electrospun fibre mats was determined using X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS). The electrospun fibre mats showed low water activity and whitish colour. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy revealed the stability of the fibre mats over time. The Ze-GA fibre mats displayed similar rapid release profiles, with Ze-GA 20% exhibiting the fastest release rate in water as compared to the others. Gallic acid diffuses from the electrospun fibres in a Fickian diffusion manner and the data obtained exhibited a better fit to Higuchi model. L929 fibroblast cells were cultured on the electrospun fibres to demonstrate the absence of cytotoxicity. Overall, the Ze-GA fibre mats demonstrated antibacterial activity and properties consistent with those considered desirable for active packaging material in the food industry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of gel properties and biochemical characteristics of myofibrillar protein from bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) affected by frozen storage and a hydroxyl radical-generation oxidizing system.

    PubMed

    Lu, Han; Zhang, Longteng; Li, Qingzheng; Luo, Yongkang

    2017-05-15

    We wanted to clarify whether gel properties can be affected by in vivo or in vitro myofibrillar protein oxidation and, thus, to provide relevant information and a scientific foundation for the processing of gel products. To accomplish this, we measured the changes in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), total disulfide (SS) content, surface hydrophobicity (So-ANS), carbonyl content, and gel texture and water-holding capacity (WHC) of isolated myofibrillar protein from bighead carp fillets during frozen storage and under different H 2 O 2 concentrations, which were used to represent in vivo and in vitro conditions, respectively. The results indicated that a certain range in content of disulfide crosslinks (0.91mol/10 5 g protein) would promote gel hardness. Mild protein oxidation caused by a certain degree of frozen storage and hydroxyl radicals can promote gel texture and WHC. Based on those results, freezing bighead carp for a certain period can be used to produce gel products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Oviductal expression of avidin, avidin-related protein-2 and progesterone receptor in turkey hens in relation to sperm storage: effects of oviduct tissue type, sperm presence, and turkey line

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The turkey hen’s sperm storage tubules (SST), located in the uterovaginal junction (UVJ) of the oviduct, maintain viable sperm for up to10 weeks after a single insemination. The mechanisms of this in vivo sperm storage are poorly understood. Our objective was to evaluate mRNA and protein expression...

  16. Maize endosperm-specific transcription factors O2 and PBF network the regulation of protein and starch synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Zheng, Xixi; Yang, Jun; Messing, Joachim; Wu, Yongrui

    2016-01-01

    The maize endosperm-specific transcription factors opaque2 (O2) and prolamine-box binding factor (PBF) regulate storage protein zein genes. We show that they also control starch synthesis. The starch content in the PbfRNAi and o2 mutants was reduced by ∼5% and 11%, respectively, compared with normal genotypes. In the double-mutant PbfRNAi;o2, starch was decreased by 25%. Transcriptome analysis reveals that >1,000 genes were affected in each of the two mutants and in the double mutant; these genes were mainly enriched in sugar and protein metabolism. Pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase 1 and 2 (PPDKs) and starch synthase III (SSIII) are critical components in the starch biosynthetic enzyme complex. The expression of PPDK1, PPDK2, and SSIII and their protein levels are further reduced in the double mutants as compared with the single mutants. When the promoters of these genes were analyzed, we found a prolamine box and an O2 box that can be additively transactivated by PBF and O2. Starch synthase IIa (SSIIa, encoding another starch synthase for amylopectin) and starch branching enzyme 1 (SBEI, encoding one of the two main starch branching enzymes) are not directly regulated by PBF and O2, but their protein levels are significantly decreased in the o2 mutant and are further decreased in the double mutant, indicating that o2 and PbfRNAi may affect the levels of some other transcription factor(s) or mRNA regulatory factor(s) that in turn would affect the transcript and protein levels of SSIIa and SBEI. These findings show that three important traits—nutritional quality, calories, and yield—are linked through the same transcription factors. PMID:27621432

  17. Efficient recovery of proteins from multiple source samples after TRIzol(®) or TRIzol(®)LS RNA extraction and long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Simões, André E S; Pereira, Diane M; Amaral, Joana D; Nunes, Ana F; Gomes, Sofia E; Rodrigues, Pedro M; Lo, Adrian C; D'Hooge, Rudi; Steer, Clifford J; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Borralho, Pedro M; Rodrigues, Cecília M P

    2013-03-15

    nucleic acid extraction with TRIzol(®) and TRIzol(®)LS compared to the manufacturer`s protocol, allowing downstream immunoblotting and evaluation of steady-state relative protein expression levels. The method was validated in large sets of samples from multiple sources, including human colon cancer and brains of transgenic Alzheimer's disease mice model, stored in TRIzol(®)-chloroform for up to two years. Collectively, we provide a faster and cheaper alternative to the TRIzol(®) manufacturer`s protein extraction protocol, illustrating the high relevance, and wide applicability, of the present protein isolation method for the immunoblot evaluation of steady-state relative protein expression levels in samples from multiple sources, and following prolonged storage.

  18. Avocado by-products as inhibitors of color deterioration and lipid and protein oxidation in raw porcine patties subjected to chilled storage.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Carpena, J G; Morcuende, D; Estévez, M

    2011-10-01

    Processing of avocados generates an important amount of by-products such as peels and seeds that are rich in bioactive substances with proven radical suppressing activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of peel and seed extracts from two avocado varieties-'Hass' and 'Fuerte'-as inhibitors of lipid and protein oxidation and color deterioration of raw porcine patties during chilled storage (4 °C/15 days). Avocado extracts significantly (p<0.05) reduced the loss of redness and the increase of lightness during storage of porcine patties. 'Fuerte' extracts were more efficient at inhibiting discoloration of chilled patties than 'Hass' extracts. Patties treated with avocado extracts had significantly lower amounts of TBA-RS than control ones throughout the storage. 'Hass' avocado extracts significantly inhibited the formation of protein carbonyls in chilled patties at day 15. The present results highlight the potential usage of extracts from avocado by-products as ingredients for the production of muscle foods with enhanced quality traits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Chitin Isolated from Crustaceans and Cephalopods on Denaturation of Fish Myofibrillar Protein and the State of Water during Frozen Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arredondo Romero, Eduardo; Nakamura, Yukio; Yamashita, Yasumitsu; Ichikawa, Hisashi; Goto, Shingi; Osatomi, Kiyoshi; Nozaki, Yukinori

    From the point of view of utilization of shells as a waste product of fishery industry, the cryoprotective effect of chitin made from shell of crustaceans (Japanese fan lobster and Japanese swimming crab) and cartilage of cephalopods (spear squid) are studied. Chitin from the shells and cartilage were added to lizard fish myofibrils, and the changes of unfrozen water in myofibrils and ATPase activity of myofibrillar protein were observed during frozen storage at -250°C for 120days. The amount of unfrozen water were increased by addition of three kinds of chitin, and decreased moderately during forzen storage. Whereas, in the chitin free sample, the amount of unfrozen water were decreased rapidly during frozen storage. Changes of ATPase activity of samples showed similar tendency to that of the amount of unfrozen water. The present moderate cryoprotective effect of chitin and data of unfrozen water and ATPase activity of myofibrillar protein suggest the importance of the amount of unfrozen water in frozen matrix.

  20. Identification and characterization of finger millet OPAQUE2 transcription factor gene under different nitrogen inputs for understanding their role during accumulation of prolamin seed storage protein.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Vikram Singh; Kumar, Lallan; Gupta, Supriya; Jaiswal, J P; Pandey, Dinesh; Kumar, Anil

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we report the isolation and characterization of the mRNA encoding OPAQUE2 (O2) like TF of finger millet (FM) ( Eleusine coracana) ( EcO2 ). Full-length EcO2 mRNA was isolated using conserved primers designed by aligning O2 mRNAs of different cereals followed by 3' and 5' RACE (Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends). The assembled full-length EcO2 mRNA was found to contain an ORF of 1248-nt coding the 416 amino acids O2 protein. Domain analysis revealed the presence of the BLZ and bZIP-C domains which is a characteristic feature of O2 proteins. Phylogenetic analysis of EcO2 protein with other bZIP proteins identified using finger millet transcriptome data and O2 proteins of other cereals showed that EcO2 shared high sequence similarity with barley BLZ1 protein. Transcripts of EcO2 were detected in root, stem, leaves, and seed development stages. Furthermore, to investigate nitrogen responsiveness and the role of EcO2 in regulating seed storage protein gene expression, the expression profiles of EcO2 along with an α-prolamin gene were studied during the seed development stages of two FM genotypes (GE-3885 and GE-1437) differing in grain protein content (13.8 and 6.2%, respectively) grown under increasing nitrogen inputs. Compared to GE-1437, the EcO2 was relatively highly expressed during the S2 stage of seed development which further increased as nitrogen input was increased. The Ecα - prolamin gene was strongly induced in the high protein genotype (GE-3885) at all nitrogen inputs. These results indicate the presence of nitrogen responsiveness regulatory elements which might play an important role in accumulating protein in FM genotypes through modulating EcO2 expression by sensing plant nitrogen status.

  1. Proteomic analysis of common bean seed with storage protein deficiency reveals up-regulation of sulfur-rich proteins and starch and raffinose metabolic enzymes, and down-regulation of the secretory pathway.

    PubMed

    Marsolais, Frédéric; Pajak, Agnieszka; Yin, Fuqiang; Taylor, Meghan; Gabriel, Michelle; Merino, Diana M; Ma, Vanessa; Kameka, Alexander; Vijayan, Perumal; Pham, Hai; Huang, Shangzhi; Rivoal, Jean; Bett, Kirstin; Hernández-Sebastià, Cinta; Liu, Qiang; Bertrand, Annick; Chapman, Ralph

    2010-06-16

    A deficiency in major seed storage proteins is associated with a nearly two-fold increase in sulfur amino acid content in genetically related lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Their mature seed proteome was compared by an approach combining label-free quantification by spectral counting, 2-DE, and analysis of selective extracts. Lack of phaseolin, phytohemagglutinin and arcelin was mainly compensated by increases in legumin, alpha-amylase inhibitors and mannose lectin FRIL. Along with legumin, albumin-2, defensin and albumin-1 were major contributors to the elevated sulfur amino acid content. Coordinate induction of granule-bound starch synthase I, starch synthase II-2 and starch branching enzyme were associated with minor alteration of starch composition, whereas increased levels of UDP-glucose 4-epimerase were correlated with a 30% increase in raffinose content. Induction of cell division cycle protein 48 and ubiquitin suggested enhanced ER-associated degradation. This was not associated with a classical unfolded protein response as the levels of ER HSC70-cognate binding protein were actually reduced in the mutant. Repression of rab1 GTPase was consistent with decreased traffic through the secretory pathway. Collectively, these results have implications for the nutritional quality of common bean, and provide information on the pleiotropic phenotype associated with storage protein deficiency in a dicotyledonous seed. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Potential of plant proteins for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Narendra; Yang, Yiqi

    2011-10-01

    Various natural and synthetic polymers are being explored to develop biomaterials for tissue engineering and drug delivery. Although proteins are preferable over carbohydrates and synthetic polymers, biomaterials developed from proteins lack the mechanical properties and/or biocompatibilities required for medical applications. Plant proteins are widely available, have low potential to be immunogenic and can be made into fibers, films, hydrogels and micro- and nano-particles for medical applications. Studies, mostly with zein, have demonstrated the potential of using plant proteins for tissue engineering and drug delivery. Although other plant proteins such as wheat gluten and soyproteins have also shown biocompatibility using in vitro studies, fabricating biomaterials such as nano-fibers and nano-particles from soy and wheat proteins offers considerable challenges. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Effects of the aspartic protease inhibitor from Lupinus bogotensis seeds on the growth and development of Hypothenemus hampei: an inhibitor showing high homology with storage proteins.

    PubMed

    Molina, Diana; Patiño, Luisa; Quintero, Mónica; Cortes, José; Bastos, Sara

    2014-02-01

    The coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei is a pest that causes great economic damage to coffee grains worldwide. Because the proteins consumed are digested by aspartic proteases in the insect's midgut, the inhibition of these proteases by transferring a gene encoding an aspartic protease inhibitor from Lupinus bogotensis Benth. to coffee plants could provide a promising strategy to control this pest. Five aspartic protease inhibitors from L. bogotensis (LbAPI) were accordingly purified and characterized. The gene encoding the L. bogotensis aspartic protease inhibitor (LbAPI), with the highest inhibitory activity against H. hampei, was expressed in Escherichia coli and the purified recombinant protein (rLbAPI), with a molecular mass of 15 kDa, was subsequently assessed for its ability to inhibit the aspartic protease activity present in the H. hampei midgut in vitro, as well as its effects on the growth and development of H. hampei in vivo. The in vitro experiments showed that rLbAPI was highly effective against aspartic proteases from H. hampei guts, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 2.9 μg. The in vivo experiments showed that the concentration of rLbAPI (w/w) in the artificial diet necessary to cause 50% mortality (LD50) of the larvae was 0.91%. The amino acid sequence of LbAPI had high homology (52-80%) to the seed storage proteins, vicilin and β-conglutin, suggesting that this protein was generated by evolutionary events from a β-conglutin precursor. Based on these results, LbAPI may have a dual function as storage protein, and as defense protein against H. hampei. These results provide a promising alternative to obtain a coffee plant resistant to H. hampei. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Wild blueberry polyphenol-protein food ingredients produced by three drying methods: Comparative physico-chemical properties, phytochemical content, and stability during storage.

    PubMed

    Correia, Roberta; Grace, Mary H; Esposito, Debora; Lila, Mary Ann

    2017-11-15

    Particulate colloidal aggregate food ingredients were prepared by complexing wheat flour, chickpea flour, coconut flour and soy protein isolate with aqueous wild blueberry pomace extracts, then spray drying, freeze drying, or vacuum oven drying to prepare dry, flour-like matrices. Physico-chemical attributes, phytochemical content and stability during storage were compared. Eighteen anthocyanins peaks were identified for samples. Spray dried matrices produced with soy protein isolate had the highest concentration of polyphenols (156.2mg GAE/g) and anthocyanins (13.4mg/g) and the most potent DPPH scavenging activity (714.1μmolesTE/g). Spray dried blueberry polyphenols complexed with protein were protected from degradation during 16weeks at 4°C and 20°C. Soy protein isolate more efficiently captured and stabilized wild blueberry pomace phytochemicals than other protein sources. Overall, spray drying the blueberry extracts complexed with protein proved to be an environment-friendly strategy to produce stable functional ingredients with multiple applications for the food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. ORFer--retrieval of protein sequences and open reading frames from GenBank and storage into relational databases or text files.

    PubMed

    Büssow, Konrad; Hoffmann, Steve; Sievert, Volker

    2002-12-19

    Functional genomics involves the parallel experimentation with large sets of proteins. This requires management of large sets of open reading frames as a prerequisite of the cloning and recombinant expression of these proteins. A Java program was developed for retrieval of protein and nucleic acid sequences and annotations from NCBI GenBank, using the XML sequence format. Annotations retrieved by ORFer include sequence name, organism and also the completeness of the sequence. The program has a graphical user interface, although it can be used in a non-interactive mode. For protein sequences, the program also extracts the open reading frame sequence, if available, and checks its correct translation. ORFer accepts user input in the form of single or lists of GenBank GI identifiers or accession numbers. It can be used to extract complete sets of open reading frames and protein sequences from any kind of GenBank sequence entry, including complete genomes or chromosomes. Sequences are either stored with their features in a relational database or can be exported as text files in Fasta or tabulator delimited format. The ORFer program is freely available at http://www.proteinstrukturfabrik.de/orfer. The ORFer program allows for fast retrieval of DNA sequences, protein sequences and their open reading frames and sequence annotations from GenBank. Furthermore, storage of sequences and features in a relational database is supported. Such a database can supplement a laboratory information system (LIMS) with appropriate sequence information.

  6. Energy Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  7. Microbial Relatives of the Seed Storage Proteins of Higher Plants: Conservation of Structure and Diversification of Function during Evolution of the Cupin Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Dunwell, Jim M.; Khuri, Sawsan; Gane, Paul J.

    2000-01-01

    This review summarizes the recent discovery of the cupin superfamily (from the Latin term “cupa,” a small barrel) of functionally diverse proteins that initially were limited to several higher plant proteins such as seed storage proteins, germin (an oxalate oxidase), germin-like proteins, and auxin-binding protein. Knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of two vicilins, seed proteins with a characteristic β-barrel core, led to the identification of a small number of conserved residues and thence to the discovery of several microbial proteins which share these key amino acids. In particular, there is a highly conserved pattern of two histidine-containing motifs with a varied intermotif spacing. This cupin signature is found as a central component of many microbial proteins including certain types of phosphomannose isomerase, polyketide synthase, epimerase, and dioxygenase. In addition, the signature has been identified within the N-terminal effector domain in a subgroup of bacterial AraC transcription factors. As well as these single-domain cupins, this survey has identified other classes of two-domain bicupins including bacterial gentisate 1,2-dioxygenases and 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoate dioxygenases, fungal oxalate decarboxylases, and legume sucrose-binding proteins. Cupin evolution is discussed from the perspective of the structure-function relationships, using data from the genomes of several prokaryotes, especially Bacillus subtilis. Many of these functions involve aspects of sugar metabolism and cell wall synthesis and are concerned with responses to abiotic stress such as heat, desiccation, or starvation. Particular emphasis is also given to the oxalate-degrading enzymes from microbes, their biological significance, and their value in a range of medical and other applications. PMID:10704478

  8. Proteomic Analysis of Lettuce Seed Germination and Thermoinhibition by Sampling of Individual Seeds at Germination and Removal of Storage Proteins by Polyethylene Glycol Fractionation1

    PubMed Central

    Song, Bin-Yan; Deng, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Yue; Liu, Shu-Jun; Møller, Ian Max; Song, Song-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Germination and thermoinhibition in lettuce (Lactuca sativa ‘Jianyexianfeng No. 1’) seeds were investigated by a proteomic comparison among dry seeds, germinated seeds at 15°C, at 15°C after imbibition at 25°C for 48 h, or at 25°C in KNO3 (all sampled individually at germination), and ungerminated seeds at 25°C, a thermoinhibitory temperature. Before two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis, storage proteins (greater than 50% of total extractable protein) were removed by polyethylene glycol precipitation, which significantly improved the detection of less abundant proteins on two-dimensional gels. A total of 108 protein spots were identified to change more than 2-fold (P < 0.05) in abundance in at least one germination treatment. Nineteen proteins increasing and one protein decreasing in abundance during germination had higher abundance in germinated 15°C, 15°C after imbibition at 25°C for 48 h, and 25°C in KNO3 seeds than in ungerminated 25°C seeds. Gene expression of 12 of those proteins correlated well with the protein accumulation. Methionine metabolism, ethylene production, lipid mobilization, cell elongation, and detoxification of aldehydes were revealed to be potentially related to lettuce seed germination and thermoinhibition. Accumulation of three proteins and expression of five genes participating in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis correlated positively with seed germinability. Inhibition of this pathway by lovastatin delayed seed germination and increased the sensitivity of germination to abscisic acid. MVA pathway-derived products, cytokinins, partially reversed the lovastatin inhibition of germination and released seed thermoinhibition at 25°C. We conclude that the MVA pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis is involved in lettuce seed germination and thermoinhibition. PMID:25736209

  9. [Analysis of storage proteins (prolamines, puroindolines and waxy) in common wheat lines Triticum aestivum L. x (Triticum timopheevii Zhuk. x Triticum tauschii) with complex resistance to fungal infections].

    PubMed

    Obukhova, L V; Laĭkova, L I; Shumnyĭ, V K

    2010-06-01

    Storage proteins (prolamines, puroindolines, and Waxy) were studied in common wheat introgression lines obtained with the use of the Saratovskaya 29 (S29) cultivar line and synthetic hexaploid wheat (Triticum timopheevii Zhuk. x T. tauschii) (Sintetik, Sin.) and displaying complex resistance to fungal infections. Comparative analysis of storage proteins in the introgression lines of common wheat Triticum aestivum L. and in the parental forms revealed the only line (BC5) having a substitution at the Gli-B2 locus from Sintetik. Hybrid lines subjected to nine back crosses with the recurrent parental form S29 and selections for resistance to pathogens can be considered as nearly isogenic for the selected trait and retaining the allelic composition of (1) prolamines responsible for the bread-making qualitiy, (2) puroindolines associated with grain texture, and (3) Waxy proteins responsible for nutritive qualities. These lines are valuable as donors of immunity in breeding programs without the loss of the quality of flour and grain as compared to the S29 line and are also important in searching for genes determining resistance to leaf and stem rust and to powdery mildew. The amphiploid has a number of characters (silent Glu-A 1 locus and Ha genotype) that can negatively affect the quality of flour and grain and thus should be taken into account when choosing this donor.

  10. Iron storage proteins are essential for the survival and pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in THP-1 macrophages and the guinea pig model of infection.

    PubMed

    Reddy, P Vineel; Puri, Rupangi Verma; Khera, Aparna; Tyagi, Anil K

    2012-02-01

    Iron is one of the crucial elements required for the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, excess free iron becomes toxic for the cells because it catalyzes the production of reactive oxygen radicals, leading to oxidative damage. Hence, it is essential for the pathogen to have the ability to store intracellular iron in an iron-rich environment and utilize it under iron depletion. M. tuberculosis has two iron storage proteins, namely BfrA (Rv1876; a bacterioferritin) and BfrB (Rv3841; a ferritin-like protein). However, the demonstration of biological significance requires the disruption of relevant genes and the evaluation of the resulting mutant for its ability to survive in the host and cause disease. In this study, we have disrupted bfrA and bfrB of M. tuberculosis and demonstrated that these genes are crucial for the storage and supply of iron for the growth of bacteria and to withstand oxidative stress in vitro. In addition, the bfrA bfrB double mutant (H37Rv ΔbfrA ΔbfrB) exhibited a marked reduction in its ability to survive inside human macrophages. Guinea pigs infected with H37Rv ΔbfrA ΔbfrB exhibited a marked diminution in the dissemination of the bacilli to spleen compared to that of the parental strain. Moreover, guinea pigs infected with H37Rv ΔbfrA ΔbfrB exhibited significantly reduced pathological damage in spleen and lungs compared to that of animals infected with the parental strain. Our study clearly demonstrates the importance of these iron storage proteins in the survival and pathogenesis of M. tuberculosis in the host and establishes them as attractive targets for the development of new inhibitors against mycobacterial infections.

  11. Effect of storage temperature on survival and recovery of thermal and extrusion injured Escherichia coli K-12 in whey protein concentrate and corn meal.

    PubMed

    Ukuku, Dike O; Mukhopadhyay, Sudarsan; Onwulata, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we reported inactivation of Escherichia coli populations in corn product (CP) and whey protein product (WPP) extruded at different temperatures. However, information on the effect of storage temperatures on injured bacterial populations was not addressed. In this study, the effect of storage temperatures on the survival and recovery of thermal death time (TDT) disks and extrusion injured E. coli populations in CP and WPP was investigated. CP and WPP inoculated with E. coli bacteria at 7.8 log(10) CFU/g were conveyed separately into the extruder with a series 6300 digital type T-35 twin screw volumetric feeder set at a speed of 600 rpm and extruded at 35°C, 55°C, 75°C, and 95°C, or thermally treated with TDT disks submerged into water bath set at 35°C, 55°C, 75°C, and 95°C for 120 s. Populations of surviving bacteria including injured cells in all treated samples were determined immediately and every day for 5 days, and up to 10 days for untreated samples during storage at 5°C, 10°C, and 23°C. TDT disks treatment at 35°C and 55°C did not cause significant changes in the population of the surviving bacteria including injured populations. Extrusion treatment at 35°C and 55°C led to significant (p<0.05) reduction of E. coli populations in WPP as opposed to CP. The injured populations among the surviving E. coli cells in CP and WPP extruded at all temperatures tested were inactivated during storage. Population of E. coli inactivated in samples extruded at 75°C was significantly (p<0.05) different than 55°C during storage. Percent injured population could not be determined in samples extruded at 95°C due to absence of colony forming units on the agar plates. The results of this study showed that further inactivation of the injured populations occurred during storage at 5°C for 5 days suggesting the need for immediate storage of 75°C extruded CP and WPP at 5°C for at least 24 h to enhance their microbial safety.

  12. Characterization and comparison of proteins in the sperm storage tubules of female chickens to bovine epididymal fluid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Female birds are able to store sperm in crypts called sperm storage tubules (SSTs) in their reproductive tracts for between two and six weeks. Comparatively, sperm in a cow’s reproductive tract remain viable for between 18 and 24 hours. The objective of this experiment was to try to identify and co...

  13. Dual role for the latent transforming growth factor-beta binding protein in storage of latent TGF-beta in the extracellular matrix and as a structural matrix protein

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The role of the latent TGF-beta binding protein (LTBP) is unclear. In cultures of fetal rat calvarial cells, which form mineralized bonelike nodules, both LTBP and the TGF-beta 1 precursor localized to large fibrillar structures in the extracellular matrix. The appearance of these fibrillar structures preceded the appearance of type I collagen fibers. Plasmin treatment abolished the fibrillar staining pattern for LTBP and released a complex containing both LTBP and TGF-beta. Antibodies and antisense oligonucleotides against LTBP inhibited the formation of mineralized bonelike nodules in long-term fetal rat calvarial cultures. Immunohistochemistry of fetal and adult rat bone confirmed a fibrillar staining pattern for LTBP in vivo. These findings, together with the known homology of LTBP to the fibrillin family of proteins, suggest a novel function for LTBP, in addition to its role in matrix storage of latent TGF-beta, as a structural matrix protein that may play a role in bone formation. PMID:7593177

  14. Pu-Erh Tea Down-Regulates Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Protein and Stearyol-CoA Desaturase to Reduce Fat Storage in Caenorhaditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Ding, YiHong; Zou, XiaoJu; Jiang, Xue; Wu, JieYu; Zhang, YuRu; Chen, Dan; Liang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of Pu-erh has been reported to result in numerous health benefits, but the mechanisms underlying purported weight-loss and lowering of lipid are poorly understood. Here, we used the nematode Caenorhaditis elegans to explore the water extract of Pu-erh tea (PTE) functions to reduce fat storage. We found that PTE down-regulates the expression of the master fat regulator SBP-1, a homologue of sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) and its target stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), a key enzyme in fat biosynthesis, leading to an increased ratio of stearic acid (C18:0) to oleic acid (C18:1n-9), and subsequently decreased fat storage. We also found that both the pharyngeal pumping rate and food uptake of C. elegans decreased with exposure to PTE. Collectively, these results provide an experimental basis for explaining the ability of Pu-erh tea in promoting inhibition of food uptake and the biosynthesis of fat via SBP-1 and SCD, thereby reducing fat storage. PMID:25659129

  15. Effects of Tannic Acid on Lipid and Protein Oxidation, Color, and Volatiles of Raw and Cooked Chicken Breast Meat during Storage

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hijazeen, Marwan; Lee, Eun Joo; Mendonca, Aubrey; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of tannic acid (TA) on the oxidative stability and the quality characteristics of ground chicken breast meat. Five treatments including (1) control (none added), (2) 2.5 ppm TA, (3) 5 ppm TA, (4) 10 ppm TA, and (5) 5 ppm butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) were added to boneless, skinless ground chicken breast meat, and used for both raw and cooked meat studies. For the raw meat study, the ground chicken breast meat was packaged in oxygen-permeable bags and stored at 4 °C for 7 days. For the cooked study, raw ground meat samples were vacuum-packaged in oxygen-impermeable vacuum bags, cooked in-bag to the internal temperature of 75 °C, re-packaged in oxygen-permeable bags, and then stored. Both raw and cooked meats were analyzed for lipid and protein oxidation, color, and volatiles (cooked meat only) at 0, 3, and 7 days of storage. Raw meats with 10 ppm of TA added had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower lipid and protein oxidation than other treatments during storage. In addition, TA at 10 ppm level maintained the highest color a*- and L*-values during storage. Cooked chicken breast meat with 5 and 10 ppm TA added produced significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower amounts of off-odor volatiles than other treatments. Among the volatile compounds, the amount of hexanal increased rapidly during storage for cooked meat. However, meats with 5 and 10 ppm TA added showed the lowest amount of hexanal and other aldehydes related to lipid oxidation, indicating a strong antioxidant effect of TA in cooked chicken breast meat. Furthermore, the differences in aldehydes among the treatments were bigger in cooked than in raw meat, indicating that the antioxidant effect of TA in cooked meat was greater than that in raw meat. Therefore, TA at >5 ppm can be used as a good natural preservative in cooked chicken meat to maintain its quality during storage. PMID:27304971

  16. Proteome approaches to characterize seed storage proteins related to ditelocentric chromosomes in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Islam, Nazrul; Woo, Sun-Hee; Tsujimoto, Hisashi; Kawasaki, Hiroshi; Hirano, Hisashi

    2002-09-01

    Changes in protein composition of wheat endosperm proteome were investigated in 39 ditelocentric chromosome lines of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Chinese Spring. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining has resolved a total of 105 protein spots in a gel. Quantitative image analysis of protein spots was performed by PDQuest. Variations in protein spots between the euploid and the 39 ditelocentric lines were evaluated by spot number, appearance, disappearance and intensity. A specific spot present in all gels was taken as an internal standard, and the intensity of all other spots was calculated as the ratio of the internal standard. Out of the 1755 major spots detected in 39 ditelocentric lines, 1372 (78%) spots were found variable in different spot parameters: 147 (11%) disappeared, 978 (71%) up-regulated and 247 (18%) down-regulated. Correlation studies in changes in protein intensities among 24 protein spots across the ditelocentric lines were performed. High correlations in changes of protein intensities were observed among the proteins encoded by genes located in the homoeologous arms. Locations of structural genes controlling 26 spots were identified in 10 chromosomal arms. Multiple regulators of the same protein located at various chromosomal arms were also noticed. Identification of structural genes for most of the proteins was found difficult due to multiple regulators encoding the same protein. Two novel subunits (1B(Z,) 1BDz), the structure of which are very similar to the high molecular weight glutenin subunit 12, were identified, and the chromosome arm locations of these subunits were assigned.

  17. Quercetin loaded biopolymeric colloidal particles prepared by simultaneous precipitation of quercetin with hydrophobic protein in aqueous medium.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ashok R; Heussen, Patricia C M; Hazekamp, Johan; Drost, Ellen; Velikov, Krassimir P

    2012-07-15

    Quercetin loaded biopolymeric colloidal particles were prepared by precipitating quercetin (water insoluble polyphenol) and zein (hydrophobic protein), simultaneously, by adding their hydro-alcoholic solution to aqueous solution in presence of sodium caseinate as an electrosteric stabiliser. The presence of protein resulted in altering the shape of quercetin precipitates from needle-like to spherical shape at higher zein proportions, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The average particle size of zein:quercetin composite particles was below 200 nm (130-161 nm) with negative surface charge (-30 to -41 mV), as confirmed by dynamic light scattering and electrophoretic mobility data. Solid state characterisation (X-ray diffraction) and spectroscopic measurements (UV-Vis and IR spectroscopy) confirmed characteristic changes in quercetin due to the entrapment in the biopolymeric matrix of colloidal particles. Results from anti-oxidant study demonstrated the advantage of entrapping quercetin in the colloidal particles in terms of the chemical stability in the alkaline pH and against photodegradation under UV-light irradiation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Implications of non-covalent interactions in zein-starch dough and bread quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Breads made from non-wheat flours are made from thick batters and are lower quality than wheat bread. The development of visco-elastic doughs from non-wheat proteins would allow a wider range of gluten-free products and would improve the quality of such foods. Only recently has the mechanism of zei...

  19. Deletion mutagenesis identifies a haploinsufficient role for gamma-zein in opaque-2 endosperm modification

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Quality Protein Maize (QPM) is a hard kernel variant of the high-lysine mutant, opaque-2. Using gamma irradiation, we created opaque QPM variants to identify opaque-2 modifier genes and to investigate deletion mutagenesis combined with Illumina sequencing as a maize functional genomics tool. A K0326...

  20. Quality of black beans as a function of long-term storage and moldy development: Chemical and functional properties of flour and isolated protein.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Cristiano Dietrich; Ziegler, Valmor; Lindemann, Igor da Silva; Hoffmann, Jessica Fernanda; Vanier, Nathan Levien; Oliveira, Maurício de

    2018-04-25

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of moisture content and storage temperature on the percentage of moldy and fermented beans, mycotoxins levels, phenolic acids content, pasting properties of whole flour, as well as functional and thermal properties of protein isolates from black beans stored for 12 months. Beans stored under 14%/32 °C exhibited 16% of fermented grains, while at 17%/25 °C (42.3%) and 17%/32 °C (93.5%) of moldy plus fermented grains, named drastic conditions (DC). Mycotoxins were not present in grains from all storage conditions. Reduction of gallic, caffeic, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid contents, and increase of sinapic acid were observed in DC. Reduction of peak, final, and setback viscosities of bean flours in DC indicate the application in refrigerated and frozen products. The increase in foaming and reduction in foam degradation of the proteins highlights their use in beverages where the foam is an important factor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of slurry ice on the functional properties of proteins related to quality loss during skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) chilled storage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Deng, Shang-gui; Gao, Meng; Chen, Jing

    2015-04-01

    The effect of slurry ice on the quality of Skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) during chilling storage was investigated and compared to flake ice. Slurry ice-treated samples showed significantly higher springiness and chewiness variables than the blank and flake ice-treated samples (P < 0.05). The growth of microorganisms in tuna muscle treated with slurry ice was also down significantly (P < 0.05), and the total aerobic counts didn't reach higher scores than 5.0 log CFU/g during the whole chilling storage. Additionally, the myofibrillar protein, Ca(2+)-ATPase activity, and total sulfydryl (SH) content in muscle treated with slurry ice were all significantly higher than the blank and flake-iced samples (P < 0.05). This was probably due to the faster cooling, subzero final-temperature, and larger heat exchange derived from slurry ice. Standard error of mean and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis results also confirmed that slurry ice treatment could effectively retard the degradation of myofibrillar proteins and showed a positive effect on the stability of tissue structures. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Experimental and computational analysis of a large protein network that controls fat storage reveals the design principles of a signaling network.

    PubMed

    Al-Anzi, Bader; Arpp, Patrick; Gerges, Sherif; Ormerod, Christopher; Olsman, Noah; Zinn, Kai

    2015-05-01

    An approach combining genetic, proteomic, computational, and physiological analysis was used to define a protein network that regulates fat storage in budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). A computational analysis of this network shows that it is not scale-free, and is best approximated by the Watts-Strogatz model, which generates "small-world" networks with high clustering and short path lengths. The network is also modular, containing energy level sensing proteins that connect to four output processes: autophagy, fatty acid synthesis, mRNA processing, and MAP kinase signaling. The importance of each protein to network function is dependent on its Katz centrality score, which is related both to the protein's position within a module and to the module's relationship to the network as a whole. The network is also divisible into subnetworks that span modular boundaries and regulate different aspects of fat metabolism. We used a combination of genetics and pharmacology to simultaneously block output from multiple network nodes. The phenotypic results of this blockage define patterns of communication among distant network nodes, and these patterns are consistent with the Watts-Strogatz model.

  3. Dietary protein level and origin (casein and highly purified soybean protein) affect hepatic storage, plasma lipid transport, and antioxidative defense status in the rat.

    PubMed

    Madani, S; Prost, J; Belleville, J

    2000-05-01

    The effects of different proportions (10, 20, and 30%) of dietary casein or highly purified soybean protein on lipid metabolism were studied in growing Wistar rats. Hepatic, plasma and lipoprotein lipid, and protein concentrations, plasma thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels, and resistance of red blood cells against free-radical attack were determined after a 4-wk dietary regimen. Compared with the 20% casein diet, the 20% soybean protein diet exhibited similar cholesterolemia but lower plasma triacylglycerol concentrations and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particle number, as measured by diminished contents of VLDL-triacylglycerol, VLDL-protein, and VLDL-apolipoprotein (Apo) B (B-100 and B-48). The soybean protein diet raised high-density lipoprotein (HDL)(2-3) particle number, as measured by enhanced concentrations of HDL(2-3) cholesterol, HDL-phospholipid, and HDL-ApoA-I. Increasing casein or soybean protein level (from 10 to 30%) in the diet involved higher VLDL-ApoB (B-100 and B-48), indicating an increase in the number of VLDL particles. Feeding the 30% casein or 30% soybean protein diet enhanced LDL-HDL(1) cholesterol contents. Despite similar HDL(2-3)-ApoA-I levels, the 30% casein diet enhanced the HDL(2-3) mass and its cholesterol concentrations. In contrast, feeding either the 10 or 30% soybean protein diet significantly lowered HDL(2-3) cholesterol and ApoA-I levels. These effects on cholesterol distribution in lipoprotein fractions occurred despite unchanged total cholesterol concentrations in plasma. Feeding 20% soybean protein versus 20% casein involved lower plasma TBARS concentrations. Decreasing casein or soybean protein levels in the diet were associated with higher plasma TBARS concentrations and had a lower resistance of red blood cells against free-radical attack. The present study shows that dietary protein level and origin play an important role in lipoprotein metabolism and the antioxidative defense status but do not

  4. The oviducal protein, heat-shock 70-kDa protein 8, improves the long-term survival of ram spermatozoa during storage at 17°C in a commercial extender.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, R E; Fazeli, A; Watson, P F; Holt, W V

    2012-01-01

    Poor fertility rates are often observed when fresh ram semen stored in conventional extenders is used for cervical artificial insemination (AI). Heat-shock 70-kDa protein 8 (HSPA8), found within the oviduct, prolongs boar, ram and bull sperm survival at body temperatures in vitro. Here, we aimed to determine whether supplementing extenders (INRA-96 and RSD-1) with HSPA8 (4 µg mL⁻¹) would improve their performance in maintaining freshly collected ram sperm viability and sperm nuclear DNA integrity during storage over 48 h at 17°C. Sperm function was assessed at 1, 6, 24 and 48h and this experiment was repeated using 25 × 10⁶ and 800 × 10⁶ spermatozoa mL⁻¹. INRA96 supplemented with HSPA8 maintained sperm viability significantly better than INRA96 alone at both sperm concentrations. However, sperm nuclear DNA fragmentation (DF) increased significantly during storage using the higher sperm concentration, irrespective of the extender and the protein treatment used. Increasing levels of sperm nuclear DF over time could explain why poor fertility rates are often observed following cervical AI using stored ram semen. However, further research is required to ascertain whether supplementing the commercially available INRA96 extender with HSPA8 will improve fertility rates following cervical AI using stored ram semen.

  5. The Effect of Plant Proteins Derived from Cereals and Legumes on Heme Iron Absorption.

    PubMed

    Weinborn, Valerie; Pizarro, Fernando; Olivares, Manuel; Brito, Alex; Arredondo, Miguel; Flores, Sebastián; Valenzuela, Carolina

    2015-10-30

    The aim of this study is to determine the effect of proteins from cereals and legumes on heme iron (Fe) absorption. The absorption of heme Fe without its native globin was measured. Thirty adult females participated in two experimental studies (15 per study). Study I focused on the effects of cereal proteins (zein, gliadin and glutelin) and study II on the effects of legume proteins (soy, pea and lentil) on heme Fe absorption. When heme was given alone (as a control), study I and II yielded 6.2% and 11.0% heme absorption (p > 0.05). In study I, heme Fe absorption was 7.2%, 7.5% and 5.9% when zein, gliadin and glutelin were added, respectively. From this, it was concluded that cereal proteins did not affect heme Fe absorption. In study II, heme Fe absorption was 7.3%, 8.1% and 9.1% with the addition of soy, pea and lentil proteins, respectively. Only soy proteins decreased heme Fe absorption (p < 0.05). These results suggest that with the exception of soy proteins, which decreased absorption, proteins derived from cereals and legumes do not affect heme Fe absorption.

  6. Short communication: Effect of storage temperature on the solubility of milk protein concentrate 80 (MPC80) treated with NaCl or KCl.

    PubMed

    Sikand, V; Tong, P S; Walker, J; Wang, T; Rodriguez-Saona, L E

    2016-03-01

    A previous study in our laboratory showed that addition of 150 mM NaCl or KCl into diafiltration water improved the solubility of freshly made milk protein concentrate 80 (MPC80). In the present study, the objectives were (1) to evaluate the solubility of NaCl- or KCl-treated MPC80 samples kept at varying temperatures and then stored for extensive periods at room temperature (21 °C ± 1 °C); and (2) to determine if MPC80 samples stored at different temperatures and protein conformation can be grouped or categorized together. Freshly manufactured MPC80 samples were untreated (control), processed with NaCl, or processed with KCl. One set of sample bags was stored at 4 °C; second and third sets of bags were kept at 25 °C and 55 °C for 1 mo (31 d) and then transferred to room temperature (21 °C ± 1 °C) storage conditions for 1 yr (365 d). Samples were tested for nitrogen solubility index (NSI) and for protein changes by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Analysis of variance results for NSI showed 2 significantly different groupings of MPC80 samples. The more soluble group contained samples treated with NaCl or KCl and stored at either 4 °C or 25 °C. These samples had mean NSI >97.5%. The less soluble groups contained all control samples, regardless of storage temperature, and NaCl- or KCl-treated samples stored at 55 °C. These samples had mean NSI from 39.5 to 58%. Within each of these groups (more soluble and less soluble), no significant differences in solubility were detected. Pattern recognition analysis by soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) was used to assess protein changes during storage by monitoring the amide I and amide II (1,700(-1) to 1,300 cm(-1)) regions. Dominant bands were observed at 1,385 cm(-1) for control, 1,551 cm(-1) for KCl-treated samples, and 1,694 cm(-1) for NaCl-treated samples. Moreover, SIMCA clustered the MPC80 samples stored at 4 °C separately from samples stored at 25 °C and 55 °C. This study

  7. Novel magnetic hollow zein nanoparticles for preconcentration of chlorpyrifos from water and soil samples prior to analysis via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

    PubMed

    Rahimi Moghadam, Mojtaba; Zargar, Behrooz; Rastegarzadeh, Saadat

    2018-04-30

    Herein, magnetically hollow zein nanoparticles were synthesized and used as a magnetic sorbent for the preconcentration of chlorpyrifos and its analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Morphology of the sorbent was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In this study, the effects of important parameters such as pH of the solution, adsorption and desorption time, type and volume of desorption solvent, and salt addition were investigated. Under optimized experimental conditions, the linear range was from 50 to 2000 μg mL-1, and an LOD of 25 μg L-1 was calculated. The relative standard deviations (RSD) varied from 3.8 to 5.1% (n = 5). The enrichment factors for 50 and 100 μg L-1 samples were calculated as 187 and 210, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied in soil and water samples and showed good extraction recoveries.

  8. Green self-assembly of zein-conjugated ZnO/Cd(OH)Cl hierarchical nanocomposites with high cytotoxicity and immune organs targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hua-Jie; Cao, Ying; Wang, Cai-Feng; Cui, Shi-Zhong; Mi, Li-Wei; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2016-04-01

    Inorganic nanomedicines in the fight against cancer have progressed rapidly during recent years, with the synergistic advantages of multifunctional nanosystems compared to single component. Herein, a drug-combination opinion was introduced into “nanomedicine” based on the understanding of Trojan horse-anti-tumor mechanism of inorganic nano-medicines. Moreover, we reported the green and facile synthesis route of mono-dispersed and rod-like zein-conjugated ZnO/Cd(OH)Cl hierarchical nanocomposites. We found that the nanocomposites exhibited high-efficiency killing ability to tumor cells through lipid peroxidation mediated-membrane disintegration route. The safety studies in BALB/c mice didn’t detect injection anaphylaxis, hemolysis and cytotoxicity. More interestingly, the nano-composites could specially accumulate in liver and kidney, which will be helpful for targeting cure to these regional cancers.

  9. Floating gate memory with charge storage dots array formed by Dps protein modified with site-specific binding peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamitake, Hiroki; Uenuma, Mutsunori; Okamoto, Naofumi; Horita, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Yamashita, Ichro; Uraoka, Yukiharu

    2015-05-01

    We report a nanodot (ND) floating gate memory (NFGM) with a high-density ND array formed by a biological nano process. We utilized two kinds of cage-shaped proteins displaying SiO2 binding peptide (minTBP-1) on their outer surfaces: ferritin and Dps, which accommodate cobalt oxide NDs in their cavities. The diameters of the cobalt NDs were regulated by the cavity sizes of the proteins. Because minTBP-1 is strongly adsorbed on the SiO2 surface, high-density cobalt oxide ND arrays were obtained by a simple spin coating process. The densities of cobalt oxide ND arrays based on ferritin and Dps were 6.8 × 1011 dots cm-2 and 1.2 × 1012 dots cm-2, respectively. After selective protein elimination and embedding in a metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitor, the charge capacities of both ND arrays were evaluated by measuring their C-V characteristics. The MOS capacitor embedded with the Dps ND array showed a wider memory window than the device embedded with the ferritin ND array. Finally, we fabricated an NFGM with a high-density ND array based on Dps, and confirmed its competent writing/erasing characteristics and long retention time.

  10. Hormone signaling linked to silkmoth sex pheromone biosynthesis involves Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-mediated phosphorylation of the insect PAT family protein Bombyx mori lipid storage droplet protein-1(BmLsd)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The structurally-related members of the PAT family of proteins, which are so name based on similarity amongst perilipin, adipophilin/adipocyte differentiation-related protein (ADRP), and tail-interacting protein of 47 kilodaltons (TIP47), are cytoplasmic lipid droplet (LD)-associated proteins charac...

  11. Nitrogen Monoxide (NO) Storage and Transport by Dinitrosyl-Dithiol-Iron Complexes: Long-lived NO That Is Trafficked by Interacting Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Suryo Rahmanto, Yohan; Kalinowski, Danuta S.; Lane, Darius J. R.; Lok, Hiu Chuen; Richardson, Vera; Richardson, Des R.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen monoxide (NO) markedly affects intracellular iron metabolism, and recent studies have shown that molecules traditionally involved in drug resistance, namely GST and MRP1 (multidrug resistance-associated protein 1), are critical molecular players in this process. This is mediated by interaction of these proteins with dinitrosyl-dithiol-iron complexes (Watts, R. N., Hawkins, C., Ponka, P., and Richardson, D. R. (2006) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 7670–7675; Lok, H. C., Suryo Rahmanto, Y., Hawkins, C. L., Kalinowski, D. S., Morrow, C. S., Townsend, A. J., Ponka, P., and Richardson, D. R. (2012) J. Biol. Chem. 287, 607–618). These complexes are bioavailable, have a markedly longer half-life compared with free NO, and form in cells after an interaction between iron, NO, and glutathione. The generation of dinitrosyl-dithiol-iron complexes acts as a common currency for NO transport and storage by MRP1 and GST P1-1, respectively. Understanding the biological trafficking mechanisms involved in the metabolism of NO is vital for elucidating its many roles in cellular signaling and cytotoxicity and for development of new therapeutic targets. PMID:22262835

  12. Serotonin storage pools in basophil leukemia and mast cells: characterization of two types of serotonin binding protein and radioautographic analysis of the intracellular distribution of (/sup 3/H)serotonin

    SciTech Connect

    Tamir, H.; Theoharides, T.C.; Gershon, M.D.

    1982-06-01

    The binding of serotonin to protein(s) derived from rat basophil leukemia (RBL) cells and mast cells was studied. Two types of serotonin binding protein in RBL cells was found. These proteins differed from one another in molecular weight and eluted in separate peaks from sephadex G-200 columns. Peak I protein (KD = 1.9 x 10/sup -6/ M) was a glycoprotein that bound to concanavalin A (Con A); Peak II protein (KD/sub 1/ = 4.5 x 10/sup -/8 M; KD/sub 2/ = 3.9 x 10/sup -6/ M) did not bind to Con A. Moreover, binding of (/sup 3/H)serotonin to protein ofmore » Peak I was sensitive to inhibition by reserpine, while binding of (/sup 3/H)serotonin to protein of Peak II resisted inhibition by that drug. Other differences between the two types of binding protein were found, the most significant of which was the far more vigorous conditions of homogenization required to extract Peak I than Peak II protein. Electron microscope radioautographic analysis of the intracellular distribution of (/sup 3/H) serotonin taken up in vitro by RBL cells or in vivo by murine mast cells indicated that essentially all of the labeled amine was located in cytoplasmic granules.No evidence for a pool in the cytosol was found and all granules were capable of becoming labeled. The presence of two types of intracellular serotonin binding proteins in these cells may indicate that there are two intracellular storage compartments for the amine. Both may be intragranular, but Peak I protein may be associated with the granular membrane while Peak II protein may be more free within the granular core. Different storage proteins may help to explain the differential release of amines from mast cell granules.« less

  13. A fluorescent reporter protein containing AtRMR1 domains is targeted to the storage and central vacuoles in Arabidopsis thaliana and tobacco leaf cells.

    PubMed

    Scabone, Camila María; Frigerio, Lorenzo; Petruccelli, Silvana

    2011-10-01

    To develop a new strategy to target recombinant proteins to the vacuolar storage system in transgenic plants, the ability of the transmembrane and cytosolic domains of Arabidopsis receptor homology-transmembrane-RING H2-1 (AtRMR1) was evaluated. A secreted version of RFP (secRFP) and a fusion of it to the transmembrane and cytosolic domains of AtRMR1 (RFP-TMCT) were produced and studied both in transient and stable expression assays. Transient expression in leaves of Nicotiana tabacum showed that secRFP is secreted to the apoplast while its fusion to TMCT of AtRMR1 is sufficient to prevent secretion of the reporter. In tobacco leaves, RFP-TMCT reporter showed an endoplasmic reticulum pattern in early expression stages while in late expression stages, it was found in the vacuolar lumen. For the first time, the role of TM and CT domains of AtRMR1 in stable expression in Arabidopsis thaliana is presented; the fusion of TMCT to secRFP is sufficient to sort RFP to the lumen of the central vacuoles in leaves and roots and to the lumen of PSV in cotyledons of mature embryos. In addition, biochemical studies performed in extract from transgenic plants showed that RFP-TMCT is an integral membrane protein. Full-length RFP-TMCT was also found in the vacuolar lumen, suggesting internalization into destination vacuole. Not colocalization of RFP-TMCT with tonoplast and plasma membrane markers were observed. This membrane vacuolar determinant sorting signal could be used for future application in molecular pharming as an alternative means to sort proteins of interest to vacuoles.

  14. Electrospun Zein/PCL Fibrous Matrices Release Tetracycline in a Controlled Manner, Killing Staphylococcus aureus Both in Biofilms and Ex Vivo on Pig Skin, and are Compatible with Human Skin Cells.

    PubMed

    Alhusein, Nour; Blagbrough, Ian S; Beeton, Michael L; Bolhuis, Albert; De Bank, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the destruction of clinically-relevant bacteria within biofilms via the sustained release of the antibiotic tetracycline from zein-based electrospun polymeric fibrous matrices and to demonstrate the compatibility of such wound dressing matrices with human skin cells. Zein/PCL triple layered fibrous dressings with entrapped tetracycline were electrospun. The successful entrapment of tetracycline in these dressings was validated. The successful release of bioactive tetracycline, the destruction of preformed biofilms, and the viability of fibroblast (FEK4) cells were investigated. The sustained release of tetracycline from these matrices led to the efficient destruction of preformed biofilms from Staphylococcus aureus MRSA252 in vitro, and of MRSA252 and ATCC 25923 bacteria in an ex vivo pig skin model using 1 × 1 cm square matrices containing tetracycline (30 μg). Human FEK4 cells grew normally in the presence of these matrices. The ability of the zein-based matrices to destroy bacteria within increasingly complex in vitro biofilm models was clearly established. An ex vivo pig skin assay showed that these matrices, with entrapped tetracycline, efficiently kill bacteria and this, combined with their compatibility with a human skin cell line suggest these matrices are well suited for applications in wound healing and infection control.

  15. Silicone Oil Microdroplets and Protein Aggregates in Repackaged Bevacizumab and Ranibizumab: Effects of Long-term Storage and Product Mishandling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lu; Ammar, David A.; Ross, Lindsey A.; Mandava, Naresh; Kahook, Malik Y.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To quantify levels of subvisible particles and protein aggregates in repackaged bevacizumab obtained from compounding pharmacies, as well as in samples of bevacizumab and ranibizumab tested in controlled laboratory experiments. Methods. Repackaged bevacizumab was purchased from four external compounding pharmacies. For controlled laboratory studies, bevacizumab and placebo were drawn into plastic syringes and incubated at −20°C, 4°C, and room temperature (with and without exposure to light) for 12 weeks. In addition, mechanical shock occurring during shipping was mimicked with syringes containing bevacizumab. Particle counts and size distributions were quantified by particle characterization technology. Levels of monomer and soluble aggregates of bevacizumab were determined with size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC). Results. Repackaged bevacizumab from the compounding pharmacies had a wide range of particle counts (89,006 ± 56,406 to 602,062 ± 18,349/mL). Bevacizumab sampled directly from the original glass vial had particle counts of 63,839 ± 349/mL. There was up to a 10% monomer loss in the repackaged bevacizumab. Laboratory samples of repackaged bevacizumab and placebo had initial particle counts, respectively, of 283,675 ± 60,494/mL and 492,314 ± 389,361/mL. Freeze-thawing of both bevacizumab and placebo samples led to >1.2 million particles/mL. In all repackaged samples, most of the particles were due to silicone oil. SE-HPLC showed no significant differences for repackaged samples incubated in the laboratory under various conditions, compared with bevacizumab directly from vial. However, repeated freeze-thawing caused a more than 10% monomer loss. Conclusions. Bevacizumab repackaged in plastic syringes could contain protein aggregates and is contaminated by silicone oil microdroplets. Freeze-thawing or other mishandling can further increase levels of particle contaminants. PMID:21051703

  16. Predicting protein aggregation during storage in lyophilized solids using solid state amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange with mass spectrometric analysis (ssHDX-MS).

    PubMed

    Moorthy, Balakrishnan S; Schultz, Steven G; Kim, Sherry G; Topp, Elizabeth M

    2014-06-02

    Solid state amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange with mass spectrometric analysis (ssHDX-MS) was used to assess the conformation of myoglobin (Mb) in lyophilized formulations, and the results correlated with the extent of aggregation during storage. Mb was colyophilized with sucrose (1:1 or 1:8 w/w), mannitol (1:1 w/w), or NaCl (1:1 w/w) or in the absence of excipients. Immediately after lyophilization, samples of each formulation were analyzed by ssHDX-MS and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to assess Mb conformation, and by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to determine the extent of aggregation. The remaining samples were then placed on stability at 25 °C and 60% RH or 40 °C and 75% RH for up to 1 year, withdrawn at intervals, and analyzed for aggregate content by SEC and DLS. In ssHDX-MS of samples immediately after lyophilization (t = 0), Mb was less deuterated in solids containing sucrose (1:1 and 1:8 w/w) than in those containing mannitol (1:1 w/w), NaCl (1:1 w/w), or Mb alone. Deuterium uptake kinetics and peptide mass envelopes also indicated greater Mb structural perturbation in mannitol, NaCl, or Mb-alone samples at t = 0. The extent of deuterium incorporation and kinetic parameters related to rapidly and slowly exchanging amide pools (Nfast, Nslow), measured at t = 0, were highly correlated with the extent of aggregation on storage as measured by SEC. In contrast, the extent of aggregation was weakly correlated with FTIR band intensity and peak position measured at t = 0. The results support the use of ssHDX-MS as a formulation screening tool in developing lyophilized protein drug products.

  17. Predicting Protein Aggregation during Storage in Lyophilized Solids Using Solid State Amide Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange with Mass Spectrometric Analysis (ssHDX-MS)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Solid state amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange with mass spectrometric analysis (ssHDX-MS) was used to assess the conformation of myoglobin (Mb) in lyophilized formulations, and the results correlated with the extent of aggregation during storage. Mb was colyophilized with sucrose (1:1 or 1:8 w/w), mannitol (1:1 w/w), or NaCl (1:1 w/w) or in the absence of excipients. Immediately after lyophilization, samples of each formulation were analyzed by ssHDX-MS and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to assess Mb conformation, and by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to determine the extent of aggregation. The remaining samples were then placed on stability at 25 °C and 60% RH or 40 °C and 75% RH for up to 1 year, withdrawn at intervals, and analyzed for aggregate content by SEC and DLS. In ssHDX-MS of samples immediately after lyophilization (t = 0), Mb was less deuterated in solids containing sucrose (1:1 and 1:8 w/w) than in those containing mannitol (1:1 w/w), NaCl (1:1 w/w), or Mb alone. Deuterium uptake kinetics and peptide mass envelopes also indicated greater Mb structural perturbation in mannitol, NaCl, or Mb-alone samples at t = 0. The extent of deuterium incorporation and kinetic parameters related to rapidly and slowly exchanging amide pools (Nfast, Nslow), measured at t = 0, were highly correlated with the extent of aggregation on storage as measured by SEC. In contrast, the extent of aggregation was weakly correlated with FTIR band intensity and peak position measured at t = 0. The results support the use of ssHDX-MS as a formulation screening tool in developing lyophilized protein drug products. PMID:24816133

  18. Gain of function AMP-activated protein kinase γ3 mutation (AMPKγ3R200Q) in pig muscle increases glycogen storage regardless of AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    Scheffler, Tracy L; Park, Sungkwon; Roach, Peter J; Gerrard, David E

    2016-06-01

    Chronic activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) increases glycogen content in skeletal muscle. Previously, we demonstrated that a mutation in the ryanodine receptor (RyR1(R615C)) blunts AMPK phosphorylation in longissimus muscle of pigs with a gain of function mutation in the AMPKγ3 subunit (AMPKγ3(R200Q)); this may decrease the glycogen storage capacity of AMPKγ3(R200Q) + RyR1(R615C) muscle. Therefore, our aim in this study was to utilize our pig model to understand how AMPKγ3(R200Q) and AMPK activation contribute to glycogen storage and metabolism in muscle. We selected and bred pigs in order to generate offspring with naturally occurring AMPKγ3(R200Q), RyR1(R615C), and AMPKγ3(R200Q) + RyR1(R615C) mutations, and also retained wild-type littermates (control). We assessed glycogen content and parameters of glycogen metabolism in longissimus muscle. Regardless of RyR1(R615C), AMPKγ3(R200Q) increased the glycogen content by approximately 70%. Activity of glycogen synthase (GS) without the allosteric activator glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) was decreased in AMPKγ3(R200Q) relative to all other genotypes, whereas both AMPKγ3(R200Q) and AMPKγ3(R200Q) + RyR1(R615C) muscle exhibited increased GS activity with G6P. Increased activity of GS with G6P was not associated with increased abundance of GS or hexokinase 2. However, AMPKγ3(R200Q) enhanced UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase 2 (UGP2) expression approximately threefold. Although UGP2 is not generally considered a rate-limiting enzyme for glycogen synthesis, our model suggests that UGP2 plays an important role in increasing flux to glycogen synthase. Moreover, we have shown that the capacity for glycogen storage is more closely related to the AMPKγ3(R200Q) mutation than activity. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  19. Covariation of human microsomal protein per gram of liver with age: absence of influence of operator and sample storage may justify interlaboratory data pooling.

    PubMed

    Barter, Z E; Chowdry, J E; Harlow, J R; Snawder, J E; Lipscomb, J C; Rostami-Hodjegan, A

    2008-12-01

    Scaling of metabolic clearance values from liver microsomal data or recombinantly expressed cytochrome P450 enzymes to predict human hepatic clearance requires knowledge of the amount of microsomal protein per gram of liver (MPPGL). Identification of physiological covariates of MPPGL requires analysis of values from large diverse populations, which necessitates pooling of data from numerous sources. To ensure compatibility between results obtained within and between studies, the impact of interoperator differences and sample storage on values of MPPGL was investigated. With use of triplicate samples from one liver (HL86), no statistically significant difference was detected between values of MPPGL prepared from samples stored at -80 degrees C (23.5 +/- 1.2 mg g(-1)) and those determined using fresh tissue (21.9 +/- 0.3 mg g(-1)). Although there was a significant difference in the yield of microsomal protein obtained from another liver sample (HL43) by three different operators (17 +/- 1, 19 +/- 2, and 24 +/- 1 mg g(-1); p = 0.004, analysis of variance), no difference was observed in the estimated MPPGL after application of appropriate correction factors for each operator (28 +/- 1, 30 +/- 5, and 31 +/- 4 mg g(-1)). The result provided justification for pooling reported values of MPPGL for use in covariate analysis. Investigation of the relationship between age and MPPGL provided preliminary evidence that MPPGL values increase from birth to a maximum of 40 mg g(-1) [95% confidence interval for the geometric mean (95% CI mean(geo)): 37-43 mg g(-1) at approximately 28 years followed by a gradual decrease in older age (mean of 29 mg g(-1) at 65 years; 95% CI mean(geo): 27-32 mg g(-1)). Accordingly, appropriate age-adjusted scaling factors should be used in extrapolating in vitro clearance values to clinical studies.

  20. Effects of sulfate concentrations on the expression of a soybean seed storage protein gene and its reversibility in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Hirai, M Y; Fujiwara, T; Chino, M; Naito, S

    1995-10-01

    Transgenic expression of genes encoding the alpha' and beta subunits of beta-conglycinin, one of the major seed storage proteins of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.), was analyzed in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. under conditions of sulfate deficiency. Temporal patterns of expression of both the intact beta subunit gene and the beta subunit gene promoter fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene are similar in soil-less cultures using rockwool, suggesting that the response to sulfate deficiency is regulated mainly at the level of transcription. In hydroponic cultures with various concentrations of sulfate, expression of both the intact beta subunit gene and the beta subunit gene promoter-GUS fusion gene were negatively correlated to increased sulfate concentrations in the culture medium. Transfer of transgenic A. thaliana plants carrying the beta subunit gene promoter-GUS fusion from sulfate-deficient to sulfate-sufficient control medium caused GUS activity in developing siliques to be repressed within two days. A reverse shift, where the plants were transferred from the control to sulfate-deficient medium, caused GUS activity to become higher than that in seeds of the control plants within two days. These results indicate that the expression of the beta subunit gene promoter responds rapidly to changes of sulfate availability.

  1. Antioxidant activity of black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) extract and its inhibitory effect on lipid and protein oxidation of pork patties during chilled storage.

    PubMed

    Jia, Na; Kong, Baohua; Liu, Qian; Diao, Xinping; Xia, Xiufang

    2012-08-01

    This experiment was conducted to assess the antioxidant efficacy of black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) extract (BCE) in raw pork patties during chilled storage. The extracting conditions of frozen BCE including ethanol concentrations (0-100%) and extracting times (0.25-12h) were studied. BCE extracted with 40% ethanol for 2h had the highest anthocyanin content, the strongest radical scavenging activities as well as the second strongest reducing power. BCE was condensed and added to pork patties at 5, 10 or 20 g/kg. Compared with the control, BCE treatments significantly decreased the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance values and carbonyls formation and reduced the sulfhydryl loss of pork patties in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05), which showed that the BCE significantly inhibited lipid and protein oxidation. The BCE-treated patties showed significantly higher redness (P<0.05) than the control. The findings demonstrated strong potential for BCE as a natural antioxidant in meat and meat products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Isolation and characterization of the promoter sequence of a cassava gene coding for Pt2L4, a glutamic acid-rich protein differentially expressed in storage roots.

    PubMed

    de Souza, C R; Aragão, F J; Moreira, E C O; Costa, C N M; Nascimento, S B; Carvalho, L J

    2009-03-24

    Cassava is one of the most important tropical food crops for more than 600 million people worldwide. Transgenic technologies can be useful for increasing its nutritional value and its resistance to viral diseases and insect pests. However, tissue-specific promoters that guarantee correct expression of transgenes would be necessary. We used inverse polymerase chain reaction to isolate a promoter sequence of the Mec1 gene coding for Pt2L4, a glutamic acid-rich protein differentially expressed in cassava storage roots. In silico analysis revealed putative cis-acting regulatory elements within this promoter sequence, including root-specific elements that may be required for its expression in vascular tissues. Transient expression experiments showed that the Mec1 promoter is functional, since this sequence was able to drive GUS expression in bean embryonic axes. Results from our computational analysis can serve as a guide for functional experiments to identify regions with tissue-specific Mec1 promoter activity. The DNA sequence that we identified is a new promoter that could be a candidate for genetic engineering of cassava roots.

  3. SciTech Connect

    Uzun, Suzan; Ilavsky, Jan; Padua, Graciela Wild

    Zein, a protein of corn, has an amphiphilic molecule capable of self-assembly into distinctly different structures. In this work, ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) was applied to investigate the formation of self-assembled zein structures in binary solvent systems of ethanol and water. Our study included observing structural changes due to aging. Three hierarchical structures were identified in zein-solvent systems, molecular zein 2D films, believed to be formed by zein rods assembled first into one-dimensional fibers and then into two-dimensional films, and 3D spherical aggregates. Aging did not change the size or shape of primary units, but promoted their self-assembly into intermediatemore » 2D structures and shaped 3D structures into well19 defined spheres. We found that the rheological parameters, consistency index (K) and behavior index (n), storage and loss moduli (G’ and G”) were also measured. K and n, changed markedly with aging, from nearly Newtonian low consistency fresh samples to highly viscous pseudoplastic aged samples. G’ and G” increased with aging for all samples reflecting increased interactions among zein self-assembled structures. Furthermore, viscoelastic parameters indicated that zein dispersions formed gels upon aging. It was observed that USAX reported on molecular scale self-assembly processes, while rheological measurements reported on the macroscale interaction between self-assembled particles. Raman spectra suggested that α-helix to β-sheet transformations prompted zein self-assembly, which influenced the size and morphology of molecular assemblies and ultimately the rheological properties of zein dispersions.« less

  4. Increasing heat storage by wearing extra clothing during upper body exercise up-regulates heat shock protein 70 but does not modify the cytokine response.

    PubMed

    Leicht, Christof A; Papanagopoulos, Aris; Haghighat, Sam; Faulkner, Steve H

    2017-09-01

    Plasma heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) concentrations rise during heat stress, which can independently induce cytokine production. Upper body exercise normally results in modest body temperature elevations. The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of additional clothing on the body temperature, cytokine and HSP70 responses during this exercise modality. Thirteen males performed 45-min constant-load arm cranking at 63% maximum aerobic power (62 ± 7%V̇O 2peak ) in either a non-permeable whole-body suit (intervention, INT) or shorts and T-shirt (control, CON). Exercise resulted in a significant increase of IL-6 and IL-1ra plasma concentrations (P < 0.001), with no difference between conditions (P > 0.19). The increase in HSP70 from pre to post was only significant for INT (0.12 ± 0.11ng∙mL -1 , P < 0.01 vs. 0.04 ± 0.18 ng∙mL -1 , P = 0.77). Immediately following exercise, T core was elevated by 0.46 ± 0.29 (INT) and 0.37 ± 0.23ºC (CON), respectively (P < 0.01), with no difference between conditions (P = 0.16). The rise in mean T skin (2.88 ± 0.50 and 0.30 ± 0.89ºC, respectively) and maximum heat storage (3.24 ± 1.08 and 1.20 ± 1.04 J∙g -1 , respectively) was higher during INT (P < 0.01). Despite large differences in heat storage between conditions, the HSP70 elevations during INT, even though significant, were very modest. Possibly, the T core elevations were too low to induce a more pronounced HSP70 response to ultimately affect cytokine production.

  5. Quantifying Young's moduli of protein fibrils and particles with bimodal force spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Jay; Charnley, Mirren; Cheng, Christopher; Reynolds, Nicholas P; Jones, Owen G

    2017-10-19

    Force spectroscopy is a means of obtaining mechanical information of individual nanometer-scale structures in composite materials, such as protein assemblies for use in consumer films or gels. As a recently developed force spectroscopy technique, bimodal force spectroscopy relates frequency shifts in cantilevers simultaneously excited at multiple frequencies to the elastic properties of the contacted material, yet its utility for quantitative characterization of biopolymer assemblies has been limited. In this study, a linear correlation between experimental frequency shift and Young's modulus of polymer films was used to calibrate bimodal force spectroscopy and quantify Young's modulus of two protein nanostructures: β-lactoglobulin fibrils and zein nanoparticles. Cross-sectional Young's modulus of protein fibrils was determined to be 1.6 GPa while the modulus of zein nanoparticles was determined as 854 MPa. Parallel measurement of β-lactoglobulin fibril by a competing pulsed-force technique found a higher cross-sectional Young's modulus, highlighting the importance of comparative calibration against known standards in both pulsed and bimodal force spectroscopies. These findings demonstrate a successful procedure for measuring mechanical properties of individual protein assemblies with potential use in biological or packaging applications using bimodal force spectroscopy.

  6. Indirect effects of immunological tolerance to a regular dietary protein reduce cutaneous scar formation.

    PubMed

    Cantaruti, Thiago Anselmo; Costa, Raquel Alves; de Souza, Kênia Soares; Vaz, Nelson Monteiro; Carvalho, Cláudia Rocha

    2017-07-01

    Oral tolerance refers to the specific inhibition of immune responsiveness to T-cell-dependent antigens contacted through the oral route before parenteral immunization. Oral tolerance to one protein does not inhibit immune responses to other unrelated proteins, but parenteral injection of tolerated antigens plus adjuvant into tolerant, but not normal, mice inhibits immune responses to antigens injected concomitantly or soon thereafter. The inhibitory effect triggered by parenteral injection of tolerated proteins is known as bystander suppression or indirect effects of oral tolerance. Intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin (OVA) plus alum adjuvant in OVA-tolerant mice soon before skin injury inhibits inflammation and improves cutaneous wound healing. However, as OVA is not a regular component of mouse chow, we tested whether indirect effects could be triggered by zein, the main protein of corn that is regularly present in mouse chow. We show that intraperitoneal injection of a single dose (10 μg) of zein plus alum adjuvant soon before skin injury in mice reduces leucocyte infiltration but increase the number of T cells and the expression of resistin-like molecule-α (a marker of alternatively activated macrophages) in the wound bed, increases the expression of transforming growth factor-β 3 in the newly formed epidermis and reduces cutaneous scar formation. These results suggest that indirect effects of oral tolerance triggered by parenteral injection of regular dietary components may be further explored as one alternative way to promote scarless wound healing. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Bypassing Iron Storage in Endodermal Vacuoles Rescues the Iron Mobilization Defect in the natural resistance associated-macrophage protein3natural resistance associated-macrophage protein4 Double Mutant1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Mary, Viviane; Schnell Ramos, Magali; Gillet, Cynthia; Socha, Amanda L.; Giraudat, Jérôme; Agorio, Astrid; Merlot, Sylvain; Clairet, Colin; Kim, Sun A.; Punshon, Tracy; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Thomine, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    To improve seed iron (Fe) content and bioavailability, it is crucial to decipher the mechanisms that control Fe storage during seed development. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds, most Fe is concentrated in insoluble precipitates, with phytate in the vacuoles of cells surrounding the vasculature of the embryo. NATURAL RESISTANCE ASSOCIATED-MACROPHAGE PROTEIN3 (AtNRAMP3) and AtNRAMP4 function redundantly in Fe retrieval from vacuoles during germination. When germinated under Fe-deficient conditions, development of the nramp3nramp4 double mutant is arrested as a consequence of impaired Fe mobilization. To identify novel genes involved in seed Fe homeostasis, we screened an ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized population of nramp3nramp4 seedlings for mutations suppressing their phenotypes on low Fe. Here, we report that, among the suppressors, two independent mutations in the VACUOLAR IRON TRANSPORTER1 (AtVIT1) gene caused the suppressor phenotype. The AtVIT1 transporter is involved in Fe influx into vacuoles of endodermal and bundle sheath cells. This result establishes a functional link between Fe loading in vacuoles by AtVIT1 and its remobilization by AtNRAMP3 and AtNRAMP4. Moreover, analysis of subcellular Fe localization indicates that simultaneous disruption of AtVIT1, AtNRAMP3, and AtNRAMP4 limits Fe accumulation in vacuolar globoids. PMID:26232490

  8. Pathomechanisms in Lysosomal Storage Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Walkley, Steven U.; Vanier, Marie T.

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomal diseases are inherited metabolic disorders caused by defects in a wide spectrum of lysosomal and a few non-lysosomal proteins. In most cases a single type of primary storage material is identified, which has been used to name and classify the disorders: hence the terms sphingolipidoses, gangliosidoses, mucopolysaccharidoses, glycoproteinoses, and so forth. In addition to this primary storage, however, a host of secondary storage products can also be identified, more often than not having no direct link to the primary protein defect. Lipids - glycosphingolipids and phospholipids, as well as cholesterol - are the most ubiquitous and best studied of these secondary storage materials. While in the past typically considered nonspecific and nonconsequential features of these diseases, newer studies suggest direct links between secondary storage and disease pathogenesis and support the view that understanding all aspects of this sequestration process will provide important insights into the cell biology and treatment of lysosomal disease. PMID:19111580

  9. Genetic Basis of Variation in Rice Seed Storage Protein (Albumin, Globulin, Prolamin, and Glutelin) Content Revealed by Genome-Wide Association Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pingli; Shen, Zhikang; Ming, Luchang; Li, Yibo; Dan, Wenhan; Lou, Guangming; Peng, Bo; Wu, Bian; Li, Yanhua; Zhao, Da; Gao, Guanjun; Zhang, Qinglu; Xiao, Jinghua; Li, Xianghua; Wang, Gongwei; He, Yuqing

    2018-01-01

    Rice seed storage protein (SSP) is an important source of nutrition and energy. Understanding the genetic basis of SSP content and mining favorable alleles that control it will be helpful for breeding new improved cultivars. An association analysis for SSP content was performed to identify underlying genes using 527 diverse Oryza sativa accessions grown in two environments. We identified more than 107 associations for five different traits, including the contents of albumin (Alb), globulin (Glo), prolamin (Pro), glutelin (Glu), and total SSP (Total). A total of 28 associations were located at previously reported QTLs or intervals. A lead SNP sf0709447538, associated for Glu content in the indica subpopulation in 2015, was further validated in near isogenic lines NIL(Zhenshan97) and NIL(Delong208), and the Glu phenotype had significantly difference between two NILs. The association region could be target for map-based cloning of the candidate genes. There were 13 associations in regions close to grain-quality-related genes; five lead single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were located less than 20 kb upstream from grain-quality-related genes ( PG5a , Wx , AGPS2a , RP6 , and, RM1 ). Several starch-metabolism-related genes ( AGPS2a , OsACS6 , PUL , GBSSII , and ISA2 ) were also associated with SSP content. We identified favorable alleles of functional candidate genes, such as RP6 , RM1 , Wx , and other four candidate genes by haplotype analysis and expression pattern. Genotypes of RP6 and RM1 with higher Pro were not identified in japonica and exhibited much higher expression levels in indica group. The lead SNP sf0601764762, repeatedly detected for Alb content in 2 years in the whole association population, was located in the Wx locus that controls the synthesis of amylose. And Alb content was significantly and negatively correlated with amylose content and the level of 2.3 kb Wx pre-mRNA examined in this study. The associations or candidate genes identified would

  10. Low-molecular weight protein profiling of genetically modified maize using fast liquid chromatography electrospray ionization and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Koc, Anna; Cañuelo, Ana; Garcia-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Diaz, Antonio; Trojanowicz, Marek

    2012-06-01

    In this work, the use of liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS) has been evaluated for the profiling of relatively low-molecular weight protein species in both genetically modified (GM) and non-GM maize. The proposed approach consisted of a straightforward sample fractionation with different water and ethanol-based buffer solutions followed by separation and detection of the protein species using liquid chromatography with a small particle size (1.8 μm) C(18) column and electrospray-time-of-flight mass spectrometry detection in the positive ionization mode. The fractionation of maize reference material containing different content of transgenic material (from 0 to 5% GM) led to five different fractions (albumins, globulins, zeins, zein-like glutelins, and glutelins), all of them containing different protein species (from 2 to 52 different species in each fraction). Some relevant differences in the quantity and types of protein species were observed in the different fractions of the reference material (with different GM contents) tested, thus revealing the potential use of the proposed approach for fast protein profiling and to detect tentative GMO markers in maize. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Lipid and protein oxidation of α-linolenic acid-enriched pork during refrigerated storage as influenced by diet supplementation with olive leaves (Olea europea L.) or α-tocopheryl acetate.

    PubMed

    Botsoglou, Evropi; Govaris, Alexander; Ambrosiadis, Ioannis; Fletouris, Dimitrios

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of diet supplementation with olive leaves or α-tocopheryl acetate on lipid and protein oxidation of raw and cooked n-3 enriched-pork during refrigerated storage. Enrichment of pork with α-linolenic acid through diet supplementation with linseed oil enhanced (p≤0.05) lipid oxidation in both raw and cooked chops but had no effect (p>0.05) on protein oxidation during refrigerated storage while decreasing (p≤0.05) the sensory attributes of cooked pork. Diet supplementation with olive leaves or α-tocopheryl acetate had no effect (p>0.05) on the fatty acid composition of pork but decreased (p≤0.05) lipid oxidation while exerting no effect (p>0.05) on protein oxidation in both raw and cooked α-linolenic acid-enriched chops stored and chilled for 9 days. Moreover, olive leaves and α-tocopheryl acetate supplemented at 10 g/kg and 200mg/kg diet, respectively, exerted (p≤0.05) a beneficial effect on the sensory attributes of cooked α-linolenic acid-enriched pork chops. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. CaMKII-MEDIATED PHOSPHORYLATION OF THE BOMBYX MORI LIPID STORAGE DROPLET PROTEIN-1 (BmLsd1), AN INSECT PAT FAMILY PROTEIN, IS ESSENTIAL FOR SILKMOTH SEX PHEROMONE BIOSYNTHESIS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The structurally-related members of the PAT family of proteins, which are so name based on similarity amongst perilipin, adipophilin/adipocyte differentiation-related protein (ADRP), and tail-interacting protein of 47 kilodaltons (TIP47), are cytoplasmic lipid droplet (LD)-associated proteins charac...

  13. The 57Fe hyperfine interactions in iron storage proteins in liver and spleen tissues from normal human and two patients with mantle cell lymphoma and acute myeloid leukemia: a Mössbauer effect study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshtrakh, M. I.; Alenkina, I. V.; Vinogradov, A. V.; Konstantinova, T. S.; Semionkin, V. A.

    2015-04-01

    Study of human spleen and liver tissues from healthy persons and two patients with mantle cell lymphoma and acute myeloid leukemia was carried out using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution. Small variations in the 57Fe hyperfine parameters for normal and patient's tissues were detected and related to small variations in the 57Fe local microenvironment in ferrihydrite cores. The differences in the relative parts of more crystalline and more amorphous core regions were also supposed for iron storage proteins in normal and patients' spleen and liver tissues.

  14. Dietary actinidin from kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward) increases gastric digestion and the gastric emptying rate of several dietary proteins in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Carlos A; Hindmarsh, Jason P; Gonzalez, Lucrecia; Boland, Mike J; Moughan, Paul J; Rutherfurd, Shane M

    2014-04-01

    Dietary actinidin influences the extent to which some dietary proteins are digested in the stomach, and it is hypothesized that the latter modulation will in turn affect their gastric emptying rate (GE). In this study, the effect of dietary actinidin on GE and gastric digestion of 6 dietary protein sources was determined in growing rats. Each dietary protein source [beef muscle, gelatin, gluten, soy protein isolate (SPI), whey protein isolate, and zein] was included in 2 semisynthetic diets as the sole nitrogen source. For each protein source, 1 of the 2 diets contained actinidin [76.5 U/g dry matter (DM)] in the form of ground freeze-dried green kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward), whereas the other diet contained freeze-dried gold kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis cv. Hort16A), which is devoid of actinidin (3.4 U/g DM). For both diets, dietary kiwifruit represented 20% of the diet on a DM basis. The real-time GE was determined in rats gavaged with a single dose of the diets using magnetic resonance spectroscopy over 150 min (n = 8 per diet). Gastric protein digestion was determined based on the free amino groups in the stomach chyme collected from rats fed the diets (n = 8 per diet) that were later killed. GE differed across the protein sources [e.g., the half gastric emptying time (T(½)) ranged from 157 min for gluten to 266 min for zein] (P < 0.05). Dietary actinidin increased the gastric digestion of beef muscle (0.6-fold), gluten (3.2-fold), and SPI (0.6-fold) and increased the GE of the diets containing beef muscle (43% T(½)) and zein (23% T(½); P < 0.05). There was an inverse correlation between gastric protein digestion and DM retained in the stomach (r = -0.67; P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary actinidin increased gastric protein digestion and accelerated the GE for several dietary protein sources. GE may be influenced by gastric protein digestion, and dietary actinidin can be used to modulate GE and protein digestion in the stomach of some

  15. Protein and solute distribution in drug substance containers during frozen storage and post-thawing: a tool to understand and define freezing-thawing parameters in biotechnology process development.

    PubMed

    Kolhe, Parag; Badkar, Advait

    2011-01-01

    Active pharmaceutical ingredient for biotechnology-based drugs, commonly known as drug substance (DS), is often stored frozen for longer shelf-life. Freezing DS enhances stability by slowing down reaction rates that lead to protein instability, minimizes the risk of microbial growth, and eliminates the risk of transport-related stress. High density polyethylene bottles are commonly used for storing monoclonal antibody DS due to good mechanical stress/strain resistant properties even at low temperatures. Despite the aforementioned advantages for frozen storage of DS, this is not devoid of risks. Proteins are known to undergo ice-water surface denaturation, cryoconcentration, and cold denaturation during freezing. A systematic investigation was performed to better understand the protein and solute distribution along with potential of aggregate formation during freeze and thaw process. A significant solute and protein concentration gradient was observed for both frozen and thawed DS bottles. In case of thawed DS, cryoconcentration was localized in the bottom layer and a linear increase in concentration as a function of liquid depth was observed. On the other hand, for frozen DS, a "bell shaped" cryoconcentration distribution was observed between the bottom layers and centre position. A cryoconcentration of almost three-fold was observed for frozen DS in the most concentrated part when freezing was conducted at -20 and -40 °C and 2.5-fold cryoconcentration was observed in the thawed DS before mixing. The information obtained in this study is critical to design freeze thaw experiments, storage condition determination, and process improvement in manufacturing environment. Copyright © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  16. Archive Storage Media Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranade, Sanjay

    1990-01-01

    Reviews requirements for a data archive system and describes storage media alternatives that are currently available. Topics discussed include data storage; data distribution; hierarchical storage architecture, including inline storage, online storage, nearline storage, and offline storage; magnetic disks; optical disks; conventional magnetic…

  17. Dietary protein deficiency affects n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids hepatic storage and very low density lipoprotein transport in rats on different diets.

    PubMed

    Bouziane, M; Prost, J; Belleville, J

    1994-04-01

    Fatty livers and the similarity between the skin lesions in kwashiorkor and those described in experimental essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency have led to the hypothesis that protein and EFA deficiencies may both occur in chronic malnutrition. The relationship between serum very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and hepatic lipid composition was studied after 28 d of protein depletion to determine the interactions between dietary protein levels and EFA availability. Rats were fed purified diets containing 20 or 2% casein and 5% fat as either soybean oil rich in EFA, or salmon oil rich in eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, or hydrogenated coconut oil poor in EFA. Animals were divided into six groups, SOC (20% casein + 5% soybean oil), SOd (2% casein + 5% soybean oil), COC (20% casein + 5% hydrogenated coconut oil), COd (2% casein + 5% hydrogenated coconut oil), SAC (20% casein + 5% salmon oil) and SAd (2% casein + 5% salmon oil). After 28 d, liver steatosis and reduced VLDL-phospholipid contents (P < 0.001) were observed in protein-deficient rats. In protein deficiency, triacylglycerol and phospholipid fatty acid compositions in both liver and VLDL showed a decreased polyunsaturated-to-saturated fatty acid ratio. This ratio was higher with the salmon oil diets and lower with the hydrogenated coconut oil diets. Furthermore, independent of the oil in the diet, protein deficiency decreased linoleic and arachidonic acids in VLDL phospholipids. Conversely, despite decreased proportions of EPA at low protein levels, DHA levels remained higher in rats fed salmon oil diets.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Lysosomal Lipid Storage Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, Heike; Sandhoff, Konrad

    2011-01-01

    Lysosomal lipid storage diseases, or lipidoses, are inherited metabolic disorders in which typically lipids accumulate in cells and tissues. Complex lipids, such as glycosphingolipids, are constitutively degraded within the endolysosomal system by soluble hydrolytic enzymes with the help of lipid binding proteins in a sequential manner. Because of a functionally impaired hydrolase or auxiliary protein, their lipid substrates cannot be degraded, accumulate in the lysosome, and slowly spread to other intracellular membranes. In Niemann-Pick type C disease, cholesterol transport is impaired and unesterified cholesterol accumulates in the late endosome. In most lysosomal lipid storage diseases, the accumulation of one or few lipids leads to the coprecipitation of other hydrophobic substances in the endolysosomal system, such as lipids and proteins, causing a “traffic jam.” This can impair lysosomal function, such as delivery of nutrients through the endolysosomal system, leading to a state of cellular starvation. Therapeutic approaches are currently restricted to mild forms of diseases with significant residual catabolic activities and without brain involvement. PMID:21502308

  19. Transgenic Mice Expressing a Truncated Form of CREB-Binding Protein (CBP) Exhibit Deficits in Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity and Memory Storage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Marcelo A.; Kaplan, Michael P.; Park, Alice; Blanchard, Edward J.; Oliveira, Ana M. M.; Lombardi, Thomas L.; Abel, Ted

    2005-01-01

    Deletions, translocations, or point mutations in the CREB-binding protein (CBP) gene have been associated with Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome; a human developmental disorder characterized by retarded growth and reduced mental function. To examine the role of CBP in memory, transgenic mice were generated in which the CaMKII[alpha] promoter drives…

  20. Effects of the addition of blood plasma proteins on physico-chemical properties of emulsion-type pork sausage during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungho; Jin, Sangkeun; Choi, Jungseok

    2017-10-01

    Most slaughter blood is discarded, resulting in problems related to costs for wastewater disposal and environmental pollution. However, animal blood contains various proteins such as albumin, globulin and globin and can be used as a natural emulsifier, stabiliser and colour additive. Thus, this study was carried out to investigate the effect of blood plasma proteins on the physico-chemical properties of emulsion-type pork sausages stored at 4°C over 5 weeks. The emulsion-type pork sausages with plasma powders had higher pH than the other treatments during week 5, and higher shear force than the control (P < 0.05). The lightness values of the sausages with plasma powders were lower than the other treatments, whereas the redness and yellowness values were similar with those of the others. The sausages with plasma powders (cattle plasma powder and commercial pig plasma powder) had respectively increased texture properties. In the sensory evaluation, all proteins did not have significant impact on sensory of pork sausages. The results confirmed that plasma protein powders can be considered as a binder for the production of excellent meat products compared to other binders. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Thermoplastic processing of proteins for film formation--a review.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Izquierdo, V M; Krochta, J M

    2008-03-01

    Increasing interest in high-quality food products with increased shelf life and reduced environmental impact has encouraged the study and development of edible and/or biodegradable polymer films and coatings. Edible films provide the opportunity to effectively control mass transfer among different components in a food or between the food and its surrounding environment. The diversity of proteins that results from an almost limitless number of side-chain amino-acid sequential arrangements allows for a wide range of interactions and chemical reactions to take place as proteins denature and cross-link during heat processing. Proteins such as wheat gluten, corn zein, soy protein, myofibrillar proteins, and whey proteins have been successfully formed into films using thermoplastic processes such as compression molding and extrusion. Thermoplastic processing can result in a highly efficient manufacturing method with commercial potential for large-scale production of edible films due to the low moisture levels, high temperatures, and short times used. Addition of water, glycerol, sorbitol, sucrose, and other plasticizers allows the proteins to undergo the glass transition and facilitates deformation and processability without thermal degradation. Target film variables, important in predicting biopackage performance under various conditions, include mechanical, thermal, barrier, and microstructural properties. Comparisons of film properties should be made with care since results depend on parameters such as film-forming materials, film formulation, fabrication method, operating conditions, testing equipment, and testing conditions. Film applications include their use as wraps, pouches, bags, casings, and sachets to protect foods, reduce waste, and improve package recyclability.

  2. Chemical Effects during Storage of Frozen Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powrie, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses (1) characteristics, interrelationships, and distribution of food constituents (including water) in unfrozen food systems; (2) the freezing process; and (3) chemical changes in food during frozen storage. Protein alterations and lipid oxidation are emphasized. (JN)

  3. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOEpatents

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  4. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOEpatents

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2014-11-25

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material, such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  5. Phosphorylation of serine residues is fundamental for the calcium-binding ability of Orchestin, a soluble matrix protein from crustacean calcium storage structures.

    PubMed

    Hecker, Arnaud; Testenière, Olivier; Marin, Frédéric; Luquet, Gilles

    2003-01-30

    Orchestia cavimana is a terrestrial crustacean, which cyclically stores calcium in diverticula of the midgut, in the form of calcified amorphous concretions. These concretions are associated with a proteinaceous matrix, the main constituent of the soluble matrix is Orchestin, an acidic calcium-binding protein [Testenière et al., Biochem. J. 361 (2002) 327-335]. In the present paper, we clearly demonstrate that Orchestin is phosphorylated on serine and tyrosine residues, but that calcium binding only occurs via the phosphoserine residues. To our knowledge, this is the first example of an invertebrate mineralization for which a post-translational modification is clearly related to an important function of a calcifying protein.

  6. Effect of a low-density polyethylene film containing butylated hydroxytoluene on lipid oxidation and protein quality of Sierra fish (Scomberomorus sierra) muscle during frozen storage.

    PubMed

    Torres-Arreola, Wilfrido; Soto-Valdez, Herlinda; Peralta, Elizabeth; Cardenas-López, José Luis; Ezquerra-Brauer, Josafat Marina

    2007-07-25

    Fresh sierra fish (Scomberomorus sierra) fillets were packed in low-density polyethylene films with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT-LDPE) added. Fillets packed in LDPE with no BHT were used as controls (LDPE). The packed fillets were stored at -25 degrees C for 120 days in which the film released 66.5% of the antioxidant. The influence of the antioxidant on lipid and protein quality, lipid oxidation, muscle structure changes, and shear-force resistance was recorded. As compared to LDPE films, fillets packed in BHT-LDPE films showed lower lipid oxidation, thiobarbituric acid values (4.20 +/- 0.52 vs 11.95 +/- 1.06 mg malonaldehyde/kg), peroxide values (7.20 +/- 1.38 vs 15.15 +/- 1.48 meq/kg), and free fatty acids (7.98 +/- 0.43 vs 11.83 +/- 1.26% of oleic acid). Fillets packed in BHT-LDPE films showed less tissue damage and lost less firmness than fillets packed in LDPE. A significant relationship between lipid oxidation and texture was detected (R2 adjusted, 0.70-0.73). BHT-LDPE films may be used not only to prevent lipid oxidation but also to minimize protein damage to prolong the shelf life of sierra fish.

  7. Immunological Evidence for the Existence of a Carrier Protein for Sucrose Transport in Tonoplast Vesicles from Red Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Root Storage Tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Getz, H. P.; Grosclaude, J.; Kurkdjian, A.; Lelievre, F.; Maretzki, A.; Guern, J.

    1993-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were raised in mice against a highly purified tonoplast fraction from isolated red beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. conditiva) root vacuoles. Positive hybridoma clones and sub-clones were identified by prescreening using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and by postscreening using a functional assay. This functional assay consisted of testing the impact of hybridoma supernatants and antibody-containing ascites fluids on basal and ATP-stimulated sugar uptake in vacuoles, isolated from protoplasts, as well as in tonoplast vesicles, prepared from tissue homogenates of red beet roots. Antibodies from four clones were particularly positive in ELISAs and they inhibited sucrose uptake significantly. These antibodies were specific inhibitors of sucrose transport, but they exhibited relatively low membrane and species specificity since uptake into red beet root protoplasts and sugarcane tonoplast vesicles was inhibited as well. Fast protein liquid chromatography assisted size exclusion chromatography on Superose 6 columns yielded two major peaks in the 55 to 65-kD regions and in the 110- to 130-kD regions of solubilized proteins from red beet root tonoplasts, which reacted positively in immunoglobulin-M(IgM)-specific ELISAs with anti-sugarcane tonoplast monoclonal IgM antibodies. Only reconstituted proteoliposomes containing polypeptides from the 55- to 65-kD band took up [14C]-sucrose with linear rates for 2 min, suggesting that this fraction contains the tonoplast sucrose carrier. PMID:12231863

  8. Storage stability of biodegradable polyethylene glycol microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Era; Sheth, Saahil; Polito, Kristen; Sell, Scott A.; Zustiak, Silviya P.

    2017-10-01

    Degradable hydrogel microspheres are popular choices for multiple biomedical applications, including drug, protein, or cell carriers for minimally invasive delivery. Clinical transitioning of such new, sensitive pharmaceutical preparations requires investigation of storage methods that retain key properties for extended time. In this study, we sought to determine the influence of seven common storage conditions on the physical and mechanical properties of degradable polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel microspheres: 25 °C, 4 °C, -80 °C, lyophilization/-20 °C, dimethyl sulfoxide/-80 °C, dimethyl sulfoxide/lyophilization/-20 °C, vacuum/-20 °C. We have outlined the storage conditions in detail and explained their effect on swelling ratio, stiffness and degradation rate post-storage. Additionally, we have implemented protein-loaded hydrogels to evaluate the effect of storage conditions on diffusivity as well as protein stability post-storage. We found that hydrogels could be stored short-term (1-4 d) under moist conditions (i.e. storage without drying) without a substantial loss of properties. For extended storage (7-28 d), they could be stored either at  -80 °C (moist condition) or vacuum drying (dry condition).

  9. Position-dependent interactions of Y-box protein 2 (YBX2) with mRNA enable mRNA storage in round spermatids by repressing mRNA translation and blocking translation-dependent mRNA decay.

    PubMed

    Kleene, Kenneth C

    2016-03-01

    Many mRNAs encoding proteins needed for the construction of the specialized organelles of spermatozoa are stored as translationally repressed, free messenger ribonucleoproteins in round spermatids, to be actively translated in elongating and elongated spermatids. The factors that repress translation in round spermatids, however, have been elusive. Two lines of evidence implicate the highly abundant and well-known translational repressor, Y-box protein 2 (YBX2), as a critical factor: First, protamine 1 (Prm1) and sperm-mitochondria cysteine-rich protein (Smcp) mRNAs are prematurely recruited onto polysomes in Ybx2-knockout mouse round spermatids. Second, mutations in 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) cis-elements that abrogate YBX2 binding activate translation of Prm1 and Smcp mRNAs in round spermatids of transgenic mice. The abundance of YBX2 and its affinity for variable sequences, however, raise questions of how YBX2 targets specific mRNAs for repression. Mutations to the Prm1 and Smcp mRNAs in transgenic mice reveal that strong repression in round spermatids requires YBX2 binding sites located near the 3' ends of their 3'UTRs as locating the same sites in upstream positions produce negligible repression. This location-dependence implies that the assembly of repressive complexes is nucleated by adjacent cis-elements that enable cooperative interactions of YBX2 with co-factors. The available data suggest that, in vertebrates, YBX2 has the important role of coordinating the storage of translationally repressed mRNAs in round spermatids by inhibiting translational activity and the degradation of transcripts via translation-dependent deadenylation. These insights should facilitiate future experiments designed to unravel how YBX2 targets mRNAs for repression in round spermatids and how mutations in the YBX2 gene cause infertility in humans. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 83: 190-207, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Mitochondrial protein acetylation as a cell-intrinsic, evolutionary driver of fat storage: chemical and metabolic logic of acetyl-lysine modifications.

    PubMed

    Ghanta, Sirisha; Grossmann, Ruth E; Brenner, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Hormone systems evolved over 500 million years of animal natural history to motivate feeding behavior and convert excess calories to fat. These systems produced vertebrates, including humans, who are famine-resistant but sensitive to obesity in environments of persistent overnutrition. We looked for cell-intrinsic metabolic features, which might have been subject to an evolutionary drive favoring lipogenesis. Mitochondrial protein acetylation appears to be such a system. Because mitochondrial acetyl-coA is the central mediator of fuel oxidation and is saturable, this metabolite is postulated to be the fundamental indicator of energy excess, which imprints a memory of nutritional imbalances by covalent modification. Fungal and invertebrate mitochondria have highly acetylated mitochondrial proteomes without an apparent mitochondrially targeted protein lysine acetyltransferase. Thus, mitochondrial acetylation is hypothesized to have evolved as a nonenzymatic phenomenon. Because the pKa of a nonperturbed Lys is 10.4 and linkage of a carbonyl carbon to an ε amino group cannot be formed with a protonated Lys, we hypothesize that acetylation occurs on residues with depressed pKa values, accounting for the propensity of acetylation to hit active sites and suggesting that regulatory Lys residues may have been under selective pressure to avoid or attract acetylation throughout animal evolution. In addition, a shortage of mitochondrial oxaloacetate under ketotic conditions can explain why macronutrient insufficiency also produces mitochondrial hyperacetylation. Reduced mitochondrial activity during times of overnutrition and undernutrition would improve fitness by virtue of resource conservation. Micronutrient insufficiency is predicted to exacerbate mitochondrial hyperacetylation. Nicotinamide riboside and Sirt3 activity are predicted to relieve mitochondrial inhibition.

  11. Mitochondrial protein acetylation as a cell-intrinsic, evolutionary driver of fat storage: chemical and metabolic logic of acetyl-lysine modifications

    PubMed Central

    Ghanta, Sirisha; Grossmann, Ruth E.; Brenner, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Hormone systems evolved over 500 million years of animal evolution to motivate feeding behavior and convert excess calories to fat. These systems produced vertebrates, including humans, who are famine-resistant but sensitive to obesity in environments of persistent overnutrition. We looked for cell-intrinsic metabolic features, which might have been subject to an evolutionary drive favoring lipogenesis. Mitochondrial protein acetylation appears to be such a system. Because mitochondrial acetyl-coA is the central mediator of fuel oxidation and is saturable, this metabolite is postulated to be the fundamental indicator of energy excess, which imprints a memory of nutritional imbalances by covalent modification. Fungal and invertebrate mitochondria have highly acetylated mitochondrial proteomes without an apparent mitochondrially-targeted protein lysine acetyltransferase. Thus, mitochondrial acetylation is hypothesized to have evolved as a nonenzymatic phenomenon. Because the pKa of a nonperturbed Lys is 10.4 and linkage of a carbonyl carbon to an ε amino group cannot be formed with a protonated Lys, we hypothesize that acetylation occurs on residues with depressed pKa values, accounting for the propensity of acetylation to hit active sites and suggesting that regulatory Lys residues may have been under selective pressure to avoid or attract acetylation throughout animal evolution. In addition, a shortage of mitochondrial oxaloacetate under ketotic conditions can explain why macronutrient insufficiency also produces mitochondrial hyperacetylation. Reduced mitochondrial activity during times of overnutrition and undernutrition would improve fitness by virtue of resource conservation. Micronutrient insufficiency is predicted to exacerbate mitochondrial hyperacetylation. Nicotinamide riboside and Sirt3 activity are predicted to relieve mitochondrial inhibition. PMID:24050258

  12. Biomarker for Glycogen Storage Diseases

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-07-03

    Fructose Metabolism, Inborn Errors; Glycogen Storage Disease; Glycogen Storage Disease Type I; Glycogen Storage Disease Type II; Glycogen Storage Disease Type III; Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV; Glycogen Storage Disease Type V; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VI; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VII; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VIII

  13. Confocal Raman Microscopy for the Determination of Protein and Quaternary Ammonium Ion Loadings in Biocatalytic Membranes for Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Rong; Abdellaoui, Sofiene; Kitt, Jay P.

    Here, the need to immobilize active enzyme, while ensuring high rates of substrate turnover and electronic charge transfer with an electrode, is a centrally important challenge in the field of bioelectrocatalysis. In this work, we demonstrate the use of confocal Raman microscopy as a tool for quantitation and molecular-scale structural characterization of ionomers and proteins within biocatalytic membranes to aid in the development of energy efficient biofuel cells. A set of recently available short side chain Aquivion ionomers spanning a range of equivalent weight (EW) suitable for enzyme immobilization was investigated. Aquivion ionomers (790 EW, 830 EW and 980 EW)more » received in the proton-exchanged (SO 3H) form were treated with tetra-n-butylammonium bromide (TBAB) to neutralize the ionomer and expand the size of ionic domains for enzyme incorporation. Through the use of confocal Raman microscopy, membrane TBA+ ion content was predicted in calibration studies to within a few percent of the conventional titrimetric method across the full range of TBA + : SO 3 - ratios of practical interest (0.1 to 1.7). Protein incorporation into membranes was quantified at the levels expected in biofuel cell electrodes. Furthermore, features associated with the catalytically active, enzyme-coordinated copper center were evident between 400 cm -1 - 500 cm -1 in spectra of laccase catalytic membranes, demonstrating the potential to interrogate mechanistic chemistry at the enzyme active site of biocathodes under fuel cell reaction conditions. When benchmarked against the 1100 EW Nafion ionomer in glucose/air enzymatic fuel cells (EFCs), EFCs with laccase air-breathing cathodes prepared from TBA + modified Aquivion ionomers were able to reach maximum power densities (P max) up to 1.5 times higher than EFCs constructed with cathodes prepared from TBA + modified Nafion. The improved performance of EFCs containing the short side chain Aquivion ionomers relative to Nafion is

  14. Confocal Raman Microscopy for the Determination of Protein and Quaternary Ammonium Ion Loadings in Biocatalytic Membranes for Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage

    DOE PAGES

    Cai, Rong; Abdellaoui, Sofiene; Kitt, Jay P.; ...

    2017-11-14

    Here, the need to immobilize active enzyme, while ensuring high rates of substrate turnover and electronic charge transfer with an electrode, is a centrally important challenge in the field of bioelectrocatalysis. In this work, we demonstrate the use of confocal Raman microscopy as a tool for quantitation and molecular-scale structural characterization of ionomers and proteins within biocatalytic membranes to aid in the development of energy efficient biofuel cells. A set of recently available short side chain Aquivion ionomers spanning a range of equivalent weight (EW) suitable for enzyme immobilization was investigated. Aquivion ionomers (790 EW, 830 EW and 980 EW)more » received in the proton-exchanged (SO 3H) form were treated with tetra-n-butylammonium bromide (TBAB) to neutralize the ionomer and expand the size of ionic domains for enzyme incorporation. Through the use of confocal Raman microscopy, membrane TBA+ ion content was predicted in calibration studies to within a few percent of the conventional titrimetric method across the full range of TBA + : SO 3 - ratios of practical interest (0.1 to 1.7). Protein incorporation into membranes was quantified at the levels expected in biofuel cell electrodes. Furthermore, features associated with the catalytically active, enzyme-coordinated copper center were evident between 400 cm -1 - 500 cm -1 in spectra of laccase catalytic membranes, demonstrating the potential to interrogate mechanistic chemistry at the enzyme active site of biocathodes under fuel cell reaction conditions. When benchmarked against the 1100 EW Nafion ionomer in glucose/air enzymatic fuel cells (EFCs), EFCs with laccase air-breathing cathodes prepared from TBA + modified Aquivion ionomers were able to reach maximum power densities (P max) up to 1.5 times higher than EFCs constructed with cathodes prepared from TBA + modified Nafion. The improved performance of EFCs containing the short side chain Aquivion ionomers relative to Nafion is

  15. (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Canavalin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Canavalin. The major storage protein of leguminous plants and a major source of dietary protein for humans and domestic animals. It is studied in efforts to enhance nutritional value of proteins through protein engineerings. It is isolated from Jack Bean because of it's potential as a nutritional substance. Principal Investigator on STS-26 was Alex McPherson.

  16. Actinidin enhances protein digestion in the small intestine as assessed using an in vitro digestion model.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Lovedeep; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J; Drummond, Lynley; Boland, Mike J

    2010-04-28

    This paper describes an in vitro study that tests the proposition that actinidin from green kiwifruit influences the digestion of proteins in the small intestine. Different food proteins, from sources including soy, meat, milk, and cereals, were incubated in the presence or absence of green kiwifruit extract (containing actinidin) using a two-stage in vitro digestion system consisting of an incubation with pepsin at stomach pH (simulating gastric digestion) and then with added pancreatin at small intestinal pH, simulating upper tract digestion in humans. The digests from the small intestinal stage (following the gastric digestion phase) were subjected to gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) to assess loss of intact protein and development of large peptides during the in vitro simulated digestion. Kiwifruit extract influenced the digestion patterns of all of the proteins to various extents. For some proteins, actinidin had little impact on digestion. However, for other proteins, the presence of kiwifruit extract resulted in a substantially greater loss of intact protein and different peptide patterns from those seen after digestion with pepsin and pancreatin alone. In particular, enhanced digestion of whey protein isolate, zein, gluten, and gliadin was observed. In addition, reverse-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) analysis showed that a 2.5 h incubation of sodium caseinate with kiwifruit extract alone resulted in approximately 45% loss of intact protein.

  17. Influence of dietary canola oil and palm oil blend and refrigerated storage on fatty acids, myofibrillar proteins, chemical composition, antioxidant profile and quality attributes of semimembranosus muscle in goats.

    PubMed

    Adeyemi, Kazeem D; Sabow, Azad B; Shittu, Rafiat M; Karim, Roselina; Sazili, Awis Q

    2015-01-01

    Improving the unsaturated fatty acid content of ruminant meat is essential due to the generally saturated nature of fatty acids in ruminant meat and the negative effects this can have on human health. Nonetheless, enhancing the unsaturated fatty acid content of ruminant meat can have adverse effects on the shelf life and quality attributes of the meat. This study assessed the effects of dietary 80 % canola oil and 20 % palm oil blend (CPOB) on fatty acid composition, antioxidants, oxidative spoilage, cholesterol and physicochemical properties of semimembranosus (SM) muscle from goats. Twenty four Boer bucks were randomly assigned to diets containing on dry matter basis 0, 4 and 8 % CPOB, fed for 100 d and slaughtered. The carcasses were subjected to a 7 d postmortem refrigerated storage. All analyses were conducted on the SM muscle. Diet had no effect (P > 0.05) on the concentration of free thiol and carbonyl and the band intensity of myosin heavy chain, actin and troponin T. The muscle glycogen, pH, water holding capacity, tenderness, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity, total carotenoid, δ-tocopherol, cholesterol and proximate composition did not differ (P > 0.05) between diets. The SM muscle from goats fed 4 and 8 % CPOB had lower (P < 0.05) concentration of C14:0 and C16:0 and higher (P < 0.05) concentration of C18:1 trans-11, C18:1ω-9, C18:3ω-3, C20:5ω-3 and C22:5ω-3 than the SM muscle from the control goats. Dietary CPOB increased (P < 0.05) the concentration of α and γ tocopherol and meat redness (a*) on d 1 and 4 postmortem. Regardless of diet, antioxidant vitamins, and shear force decreased (P < 0.05) while drip loss, lipid and protein oxidation increased (P < 0.05) as postmortem storage progressed. Results evince that dietary CPOB can be used as a management tool to enhance the beneficial fatty acids and antioxidant contents of chevon without deleterious effects on its physicochemical properties and shelf life.

  18. Initial blood storage experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surgenor, Douglas MACN.

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of conducting experiments with the formed elements of the blood under conditions of microgravity opens up important opportunities to improve the understanding of basic formed element physiology, as well as, contribution to improved preservation of the formed elements for use in transfusion. The physiological, biochemical, and physical changes of the membrane of the erythrocyte, platelet, and leukocyte was studied during storage under two specific conditions: standard blood bank conditions and microgravity, utilizing three FDA approved plastic bags. Storage lesions; red cell storage on Earth; platelet storage on Earth; and leukocyte storage Earth were examined. The interaction of biomaterials and blood cells was studied during storage.

  19. Lysosomal storage diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Carlos R.; Gahl, William A.

    2016-01-01

    Lysosomes are cytoplasmic organelles that contain a variety of different hydrolases. A genetic deficiency in the enzymatic activity of one of these hydrolases will lead to the accumulation of the material meant for lysosomal degradation. Examples include glycogen in the case of Pompe disease, glycosaminoglycans in the case of the mucopolysaccharidoses, glycoproteins in the cases of the oligosaccharidoses, and sphingolipids in the cases of Niemann-Pick disease types A and B, Gaucher disease, Tay-Sachs disease, Krabbe disease, and metachromatic leukodystrophy. Sometimes, the lysosomal storage can be caused not by the enzymatic deficiency of one of the hydrolases, but by the deficiency of an activator protein, as occurs in the AB variant of GM2 gangliosidosis. Still other times, the accumulated lysosomal material results from failed egress of a small molecule as a consequence of a deficient transporter, as in cystinosis or Salla disease. In the last couple of decades, enzyme replacement therapy has become available for a number of lysosomal storage diseases. Examples include imiglucerase, taliglucerase and velaglucerase for Gaucher disease, laronidase for Hurler disease, idursulfase for Hunter disease, elosulfase for Morquio disease, galsulfase for Maroteaux-Lamy disease, alglucosidase alfa for Pompe disease, and agalsidase alfa and beta for Fabry disease. In addition, substrate reduction therapy has been approved for certain disorders, such as eliglustat for Gaucher disease. The advent of treatment options for some of these disorders has led to newborn screening pilot studies, and ultimately to the addition of Pompe disease and Hurler disease to the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel (RUSP) in 2015 and 2016, respectively. PMID:29152458

  20. Storage Media for Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trautman, Rodes

    1983-01-01

    Reviews computer storage devices designed to provide additional memory for microcomputers--chips, floppy disks, hard disks, optical disks--and describes how secondary storage is used (file transfer, formatting, ingredients of incompatibility); disk/controller/software triplet; magnetic tape backup; storage volatility; disk emulator; and…

  1. Thermal energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The planning and implementation of activities associated with lead center management role and the technical accomplishments pertaining to high temperature thermal energy storage subsystems are described. Major elements reported are: (1) program definition and assessment; (2) research and technology development; (3) industrial storage applications; (4) solar thermal power storage applications; and (5) building heating and cooling applications.

  2. PACS storage technology update: holographic storage.

    PubMed

    Colang, John E; Johnston, James N

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the emerging technology of holographic storage and its effect on picture archiving and communication systems (PACS). A review of the emerging technology is presented, which includes a high level description of holographic drives and the associated substrate media, the laser and optical technology, and the spatial light modulator. The potential advantages and disadvantages of holographic drive and storage technology are evaluated. PACS administrators face myriad complex and expensive storage solutions and selecting an appropriate system is time-consuming and costly. Storage technology may become obsolete quickly because of the exponential nature of the advances in digital storage media. Holographic storage may turn out to be a low cost, high speed, high volume storage solution of the future; however, data is inconclusive at this early stage of the technology lifecycle. Despite the current lack of quantitative data to support the hypothesis that holographic technology will have a significant effect on PACS and standards of practice, it seems likely from the current information that holographic technology will generate significant efficiencies. This paper assumes the reader has a fundamental understanding of PACS technology.

  3. Alkali-catalyzed low temperature wet crosslinking of plant proteins using carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Narendra; Li, Ying; Yang, Yiqi

    2009-01-01

    We report the development of a new method of alkali-catalyzed low temperature wet crosslinking of plant proteins to improve their breaking tenacity without using high temperatures or phosphorus-containing catalysts used in conventional poly(carboxylic acid) crosslinking of cellulose and proteins. Carboxylic acids are preferred over aldehyde-containing crosslinkers for crosslinking proteins and cellulose because of their low toxicity and cost and ability to improve the desired properties of the materials. However, current knowledge in carboxylic acid crosslinking of proteins and cellulose requires the use of carboxylic acids with at least three carboxylic groups, toxic phosphorous-containing catalysts and curing at high temperatures (150-185 degrees C). The use of high temperatures and low pH in conventional carboxylic acid crosslinking has been reported to cause substantial strength loss and/or undesired changes in the properties of the crosslinked materials. In this research, gliadin, soy protein, and zein fibers have been crosslinked with malic acid, citric acid, and butanetetracarboxylic acid to improve the tenacity of the fibers without using high temperatures and phosphorus-containing catalysts. The new method of wet crosslinking using carboxylic acids containing two or more carboxylic groups will be useful to crosslink proteins for various industrial applications.

  4. Oxidative deterioration of pork during superchilling storage.

    PubMed

    Pomponio, Luigi; Ruiz-Carrascal, Jorge

    2017-12-01

    In superchilling (SC), meat is kept at temperatures around 1 °C below its initial freezing point, leading to a significant increase in shelf life. This study aimed to address the oxidative changes taking place in pork loins during prolonged storage at SC temperature. Loins were stored either at chilling (CH) conditions (2-4 °C) for 4 weeks or at SC temperature (around -1 °C) for 12 weeks. Storage at SC temperature diminished the rate of lipid and protein oxidation and discoloration in pork loins, so that final levels of most oxidation products and instrumental color values after 12 weeks of SC storage were similar to those after 4 weeks at CH conditions. However, hexanal content peaked by the end of SC storage, pointing to a potential accumulation of compounds from lipid oxidation during SC storage. SC storage of pork slows down the rate of lipid and protein oxidation. However, accumulation of volatile compounds from lipid oxidation could be a limiting factor for shelf life. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Storages Are Not Forever

    DOE PAGES

    Cambria, Erik; Chattopadhyay, Anupam; Linn, Eike; ...

    2017-05-27

    Not unlike the concern over diminishing fossil fuel, information technology is bringing its own share of future worries. Here, we chose to look closely into one concern in this paper, namely the limited amount of data storage. By a simple extrapolatory analysis, it is shown that we are on the way to exhaust our storage capacity in less than two centuries with current technology and no recycling. This can be taken as a note of caution to expand research initiative in several directions: firstly, bringing forth innovative data analysis techniques to represent, learn, and aggregate useful knowledge while filtering outmore » noise from data; secondly, tap onto the interplay between storage and computing to minimize storage allocation; thirdly, explore ingenious solutions to expand storage capacity. Throughout this paper, we delve deeper into the state-of-the-art research and also put forth novel propositions in all of the abovementioned directions, including space- and time-efficient data representation, intelligent data aggregation, in-memory computing, extra-terrestrial storage, and data curation. The main aim of this paper is to raise awareness on the storage limitation we are about to face if current technology is adopted and the storage utilization growth rate persists. In the manuscript, we propose some storage solutions and a better utilization of storage capacity through a global DIKW hierarchy.« less

  6. Storages Are Not Forever

    SciTech Connect

    Cambria, Erik; Chattopadhyay, Anupam; Linn, Eike

    Not unlike the concern over diminishing fossil fuel, information technology is bringing its own share of future worries. Here, we chose to look closely into one concern in this paper, namely the limited amount of data storage. By a simple extrapolatory analysis, it is shown that we are on the way to exhaust our storage capacity in less than two centuries with current technology and no recycling. This can be taken as a note of caution to expand research initiative in several directions: firstly, bringing forth innovative data analysis techniques to represent, learn, and aggregate useful knowledge while filtering outmore » noise from data; secondly, tap onto the interplay between storage and computing to minimize storage allocation; thirdly, explore ingenious solutions to expand storage capacity. Throughout this paper, we delve deeper into the state-of-the-art research and also put forth novel propositions in all of the abovementioned directions, including space- and time-efficient data representation, intelligent data aggregation, in-memory computing, extra-terrestrial storage, and data curation. The main aim of this paper is to raise awareness on the storage limitation we are about to face if current technology is adopted and the storage utilization growth rate persists. In the manuscript, we propose some storage solutions and a better utilization of storage capacity through a global DIKW hierarchy.« less

  7. Cassava root membrane proteome reveals activities during storage root maturation.

    PubMed

    Naconsie, Maliwan; Lertpanyasampatha, Manassawe; Viboonjun, Unchera; Netrphan, Supatcharee; Kuwano, Masayoshi; Ogasawara, Naotake; Narangajavana, Jarunya

    2016-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important crops of Thailand. Its storage roots are used as food, feed, starch production, and be the important source for biofuel and biodegradable plastic production. Despite the importance of cassava storage roots, little is known about the mechanisms involved in their formation. This present study has focused on comparison of the expression profiles of cassava root proteome at various developmental stages using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS. Based on an anatomical study using Toluidine Blue, the secondary growth was confirmed to be essential during the development of cassava storage root. To investigate biochemical processes occurring during storage root maturation, soluble and membrane proteins were isolated from storage roots harvested from 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month-old cassava plants. The proteins with differential expression pattern were analysed and identified to be associated with 8 functional groups: protein folding and degradation, energy, metabolism, secondary metabolism, stress response, transport facilitation, cytoskeleton, and unclassified function. The expression profiling of membrane proteins revealed the proteins involved in protein folding and degradation, energy, and cell structure were highly expressed during early stages of development. Integration of these data along with the information available in genome and transcriptome databases is critical to expand knowledge obtained solely from the field of proteomics. Possible role of identified proteins were discussed in relation with the activities during storage root maturation in cassava.

  8. Seasonal thermal energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minor, J. E.

    1980-03-01

    The Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) Program demonstrates the economic storage and retrieval of thermal energy on a seasonal basis, using heat or cold available from waste or other sources during a surplus period to reduce peak period demand, reduce electric utilities peaking problems, and contribute to the establishment of favorable economics for district heating and cooling systems for commercialization of the technology. The STES Program utilizes ground water systems (aquifers) for thermal energy storage. The STES Program is divided into an Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) Demonstration Task for demonstrating the commercialization potential of aquifer thermal energy storage technology using an integrated system approach to multiple demonstration projects and a parallel Technical Support Task designed to provide support to the overall STES Program, and to reduce technological and institutional barriers to the development of energy storage systems prior to significant investment in demonstration or commercial facilities.

  9. A new storage-ring light source

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Alex

    2015-06-01

    A recently proposed technique in storage ring accelerators is applied to provide potential high-power sources of photon radiation. The technique is based on the steady-state microbunching (SSMB) mechanism. As examples of this application, one may consider a high-power DUV photon source for research in atomic and molecular physics or a high-power EUV radiation source for industrial lithography. A less challenging proof-of-principle test to produce IR radiation using an existing storage ring is also considered.

  10. Water Storage: Quo Vadis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smakhtin, V.

    2017-12-01

    Humans stored water - in various forms - for ages, coping with water resources variability, and its extremes - floods and droughts. Storage per capita, and other storage-related indicators, have essentially become one way of reflecting the progress of economic development. Massive investments went into large surface water reservoirs that have become the characteristic feature of the earth's landscapes, bringing both benefits and controversy. As water variability progressively increases with changing climate, globally, on one hand, and the idea of sustainable development receives strong traction, on another - it may be worth the while to comprehensively examine current trends and future prospects for water storage development. The task is surely big, to say the least. The presentation will aim to initiate a structured discussion on this multi-facet issue and identify which aspects and trends of water storage development may be most important in the context of Sustainable Development Goals, Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, Paris Agreement on Climate Change, and examine how, where and to what extent water storage planning can be improved. It will cover questions like i) aging of large water storage infrastructure, the current extent of this trend in various geographical regions, and possible impacts on water security and security of nations; ii) improved water storage development planning overall in the context of various water development alternatives and storage options themselves and well as their combinations iii) prospects for another "storage revolution" - speed increase in dam numbers, and where, if at all this is most likely iv) recent events in storage development, e.g. is dam decommissioning a trend that picks pace, or whether some developing economies in Asia can do without going through the period of water storage construction, with alternatives, or suggestions for alleviation of negative impacts v) the role of subsurface storage as an

  11. A practical method for extending the biuret assay to protein determination of corn-based products.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zelong; Pan, Junhui

    2017-06-01

    A modified biuret method suitable for protein determination of corn-based products was developed by introducing a combination of an alkaline reagent with sodium dodecyl sulfate (reagent A) and heat treatments. The method was tested on seven corn-based samples. The results showed mostly good agreement (P>0.05) as compared to the Kjeldahl values. The proposed method was found to enhance the accuracy of prediction on zein content using bovine serum albumin as standard. Reagent A and sample treatment were proved to effectively improve protein solubilization for the thermally-dried corn-based products, e.g. corn gluten meal. The absorbance was stable for at least 1-h. Moreover, the whole measurement of protein content only needs 15-20min more than the traditional biuret assay, and can be performed in batches. The findings suggest that the proposed method could be a timesaving alternative for routine protein analyses in corn processing factories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Wind-energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    Program SIMWEST can model wind energy storage system using any combination of five types of storage: pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel, and pneumatic. Program is tool to aid design of optional system for given application with realistic simulation for further evaluation and verification.

  13. Open systems storage platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Kirby

    1992-01-01

    The building blocks for an open storage system includes a system platform, a selection of storage devices and interfaces, system software, and storage applications CONVEX storage systems are based on the DS Series Data Server systems. These systems are a variant of the C3200 supercomputer with expanded I/O capabilities. These systems support a variety of medium and high speed interfaces to networks and peripherals. System software is provided in the form of ConvexOS, a POSIX compliant derivative of 4.3BSD UNIX. Storage applications include products such as UNITREE and EMASS. With the DS Series of storage systems, Convex has developed a set of products which provide open system solutions for storage management applications. The systems are highly modular, assembled from off the shelf components with industry standard interfaces. The C Series system architecture provides a stable base, with the performance and reliability of a general purpose platform. This combination of a proven system architecture with a variety of choices in peripherals and application software allows wide flexibility in configurations, and delivers the benefits of open systems to the mass storage world.

  14. Grain Handling and Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Troy G.; Minor, John

    This text for a secondary- or postecondary-level course in grain handling and storage contains ten chapters. Chapter titles are (1) Introduction to Grain Handling and Storage, (2) Elevator Safety, (3) Grain Grading and Seed Identification, (4) Moisture Control, (5) Insect and Rodent Control, (6) Grain Inventory Control, (7) Elevator Maintenance,…

  15. Energy Storage Criteria Handbook.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    Phase Change Material Heating System .......................... 311 14.3.1 Analysis of Storage Purpose ........................... 312 14.3.2 Choosing...329 Worksheet I: Cost Analysis of PCM System ...................... 330 14.4 Water Tank Cold Storage...Selecting Components ........................333 14.5.6 Economic Analysis .......................................334 Worksheet A: Cooling Load and Tank

  16. On Information Storage Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leimkuhler, Ferdinand F.

    The transfer of information through space and time in communication systems is often accompanied by significant delays which give rise to meaningful storage problems. Mathematical models have been developed for the study of these kinds of problems which are applicable to the design of manual, library-type, or mechanized information storage and…

  17. Mass Storage Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranade, Sanjay; Schraeder, Jeff

    1991-01-01

    Presents an overview of the mass storage market and discusses mass storage systems as part of computer networks. Systems for personal computers, workstations, minicomputers, and mainframe computers are described; file servers are explained; system integration issues are raised; and future possibilities are suggested. (LRW)

  18. Optical storage networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, Ulrich

    2001-11-01

    For efficient business continuance and backup of mission- critical data an inter-site storage network is required. Where traditional telecommunications costs are prohibitive for all but the largest organizations, there is an opportunity for regional carries to deliver an innovative storage service. This session reveals how a combination of optical networking and protocol-aware SAN gateways can provide an extended storage networking platform with the lowest cost of ownership and the highest possible degree of reliability, security and availability. Companies of every size, with mainframe and open-systems environments, can afford to use this integrated service. Three mayor applications are explained; channel extension, Network Attached Storage (NAS), Storage Area Networks (SAN) and how optical networks address the specific requirements. One advantage of DWDM is the ability for protocols such as ESCON, Fibre Channel, ATM and Gigabit Ethernet, to be transported natively and simultaneously across a single fiber pair, and the ability to multiplex many individual fiber pairs over a single pair, thereby reducing fiber cost and recovering fiber pairs already in use. An optical storage network enables a new class of service providers, Storage Service Providers (SSP) aiming to deliver value to the enterprise by managing storage, backup, replication and restoration as an outsourced service.

  19. Energy Storage Economics

    SciTech Connect

    Elgqvist, Emma M

    This presentation provides an overview on energy storage economics including recent market trends, battery terminology and concepts, value streams, challenges, and an example of how photovoltaics and storage can be used to lower demand charges. It also provides an overview of the REopt Lite web tool inputs and outputs.

  20. Lysosomal storage disorders: The cellular impact of lysosomal dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are a family of disorders that result from inherited gene mutations that perturb lysosomal homeostasis. LSDs mainly stem from deficiencies in lysosomal enzymes, but also in some non-enzymatic lysosomal proteins, which lead to abnormal storage of macromolecular substrates. Valuable insights into lysosome functions have emerged from research into these diseases. In addition to primary lysosomal dysfunction, cellular pathways associated with other membrane-bound organelles are perturbed in these disorders. Through selective examples, we illustrate why the term “cellular storage disorders” may be a more appropriate description of these diseases and discuss therapies that can alleviate storage and restore normal cellular function. PMID:23185029

  1. ERDA's Chemical Energy Storage Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swisher, J. H.; Kelley, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    The Chemical Energy Storage Program is described with emphasis on hydrogen storage. Storage techniques considered include pressurized hydrogen gas storage, cryogenic liquid hydrogen storage, storage in hydride compounds, and aromatic-alicyclic hydrogen storage. Some uses of energy storage are suggested. Information on hydrogen production and hydrogen use is also presented. Applications of hydrogen energy systems include storage of hydrogen for utilities load leveling, industrial marketing of hydrogen both as a chemical and as a fuel, natural gas supplementation, vehicular applications, and direct substitution for natural gas.

  2. Lysosomal exocytosis and lipid storage disorders

    PubMed Central

    Samie, Mohammad Ali; Xu, Haoxing

    2014-01-01

    Lysosomes are acidic compartments in mammalian cells that are primarily responsible for the breakdown of endocytic and autophagic substrates such as membranes, proteins, and lipids into their basic building blocks. Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are a group of metabolic disorders caused by genetic mutations in lysosomal hydrolases required for catabolic degradation, mutations in lysosomal membrane proteins important for catabolite export or membrane trafficking, or mutations in nonlysosomal proteins indirectly affecting these lysosomal functions. A hallmark feature of LSDs is the primary and secondary excessive accumulation of undigested lipids in the lysosome, which causes lysosomal dysfunction and cell death, and subsequently pathological symptoms in various tissues and organs. There are more than 60 types of LSDs, but an effective therapeutic strategy is still lacking for most of them. Several recent in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that induction of lysosomal exocytosis could effectively reduce the accumulation of the storage materials. Meanwhile, the molecular machinery and regulatory mechanisms for lysosomal exocytosis are beginning to be revealed. In this paper, we first discuss these recent developments with the focus on the functional interactions between lipid storage and lysosomal exocytosis. We then discuss whether lysosomal exocytosis can be manipulated to correct lysosomal and cellular dysfunction caused by excessive lipid storage, providing a potentially general therapeutic approach for LSDs. PMID:24668941

  3. Storage resource manager

    SciTech Connect

    Perelmutov, T.; Bakken, J.; Petravick, D.

    Storage Resource Managers (SRMs) are middleware components whose function is to provide dynamic space allocation and file management on shared storage components on the Grid[1,2]. SRMs support protocol negotiation and reliable replication mechanism. The SRM standard supports independent SRM implementations, allowing for a uniform access to heterogeneous storage elements. SRMs allow site-specific policies at each location. Resource Reservations made through SRMs have limited lifetimes and allow for automatic collection of unused resources thus preventing clogging of storage systems with ''orphan'' files. At Fermilab, data handling systems use the SRM management interface to the dCache Distributed Disk Cache [5,6] and themore » Enstore Tape Storage System [15] as key components to satisfy current and future user requests [4]. The SAM project offers the SRM interface for its internal caches as well.« less

  4. Plutonium storage criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, D.; Ascanio, X.

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy has issued a technical standard for long-term (>50 years) storage and will soon issue a criteria document for interim (<20 years) storage of plutonium materials. The long-term technical standard, {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides,{close_quotes} addresses the requirements for storing metals and oxides with greater than 50 wt % plutonium. It calls for a standardized package that meets both off-site transportation requirements, as well as remote handling requirements from future storage facilities. The interim criteria document, {open_quotes}Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Solid Materials{close_quotes}, addresses requirements for storing materials with less thanmore » 50 wt% plutonium. The interim criteria document assumes the materials will be stored on existing sites, and existing facilities and equipment will be used for repackaging to improve the margin of safety.« less

  5. Electricity storage using a thermal storage scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation, many of which have an unpredictably intermittent nature, will inevitably lead to a greater demand for large-scale electricity storage schemes. For example, the expanding fraction of electricity produced by wind turbines will require either backup or storage capacity to cover extended periods of wind lull. This paper describes a recently proposed storage scheme, referred to here as Pumped Thermal Storage (PTS), and which is based on "sensible heat" storage in large thermal reservoirs. During the charging phase, the system effectively operates as a high temperature-ratio heat pump, extracting heat from a cold reservoir and delivering heat to a hot one. In the discharge phase the processes are reversed and it operates as a heat engine. The round-trip efficiency is limited only by process irreversibilities (as opposed to Second Law limitations on the coefficient of performance and the thermal efficiency of the heat pump and heat engine respectively). PTS is currently being developed in both France and England. In both cases, the schemes operate on the Joule-Brayton (gas turbine) cycle, using argon as the working fluid. However, the French scheme proposes the use of turbomachinery for compression and expansion, whereas for that being developed in England reciprocating devices are proposed. The current paper focuses on the impact of the various process irreversibilities on the thermodynamic round-trip efficiency of the scheme. Consideration is given to compression and expansion losses and pressure losses (in pipe-work, valves and thermal reservoirs); heat transfer related irreversibility in the thermal reservoirs is discussed but not included in the analysis. Results are presented demonstrating how the various loss parameters and operating conditions influence the overall performance.

  6. 12. NORTHWEST CORNER OF STORAGE MAGAZINE (BUILDING 342) IN STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. NORTHWEST CORNER OF STORAGE MAGAZINE (BUILDING 342) IN STORAGE AREA. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  7. Striped tertiary storage arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drapeau, Ann L.

    1993-01-01

    Data stripping is a technique for increasing the throughput and reducing the response time of large access to a storage system. In striped magnetic or optical disk arrays, a single file is striped or interleaved across several disks; in a striped tape system, files are interleaved across tape cartridges. Because a striped file can be accessed by several disk drives or tape recorders in parallel, the sustained bandwidth to the file is greater than in non-striped systems, where access to the file are restricted to a single device. It is argued that applying striping to tertiary storage systems will provide needed performance and reliability benefits. The performance benefits of striping for applications using large tertiary storage systems is discussed. It will introduce commonly available tape drives and libraries, and discuss their performance limitations, especially focusing on the long latency of tape accesses. This section will also describe an event-driven tertiary storage array simulator that is being used to understand the best ways of configuring these storage arrays. The reliability problems of magnetic tape devices are discussed, and plans for modeling the overall reliability of striped tertiary storage arrays to identify the amount of error correction required are described. Finally, work being done by other members of the Sequoia group to address latency of accesses, optimizing tertiary storage arrays that perform mostly writes, and compression is discussed.

  8. Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Iver E.; Ellis, Timothy W.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Ting, Jason; Terpstra, Robert; Bowman, Robert C.; Witham, Charles K.; Fultz, Brent T.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2000-06-13

    A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

  9. Data storage technology comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R.

    1990-01-01

    The role of data storage and data storage technology is an integral, though conceptually often underestimated, portion of data processing technology. Data storage is important in the mass storage mode in which generated data is buffered for later use. But data storage technology is also important in the data flow mode when data are manipulated and hence required to flow between databases, datasets and processors. This latter mode is commonly associated with memory hierarchies which support computation. VLSI devices can reasonably be defined as electronic circuit devices such as channel and control electronics as well as highly integrated, solid-state devices that are fabricated using thin film deposition technology. VLSI devices in both capacities play an important role in data storage technology. In addition to random access memories (RAM), read-only memories (ROM), and other silicon-based variations such as PROM's, EPROM's, and EEPROM's, integrated devices find their way into a variety of memory technologies which offer significant performance advantages. These memory technologies include magnetic tape, magnetic disk, magneto-optic disk, and vertical Bloch line memory. In this paper, some comparison between selected technologies will be made to demonstrate why more than one memory technology exists today, based for example on access time and storage density at the active bit and system levels.

  10. Thermal energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodzka, P. G.; Picklesimer, E. A.

    1978-01-01

    The general scope of study on thermal energy storage development includes: (1) survey and review possible concepts for storing thermal energy; (2) evaluate the potentials of the surveyed concepts for practical applications in the low and high temperature ranges for thermal control and storage, with particular emphasis on the low temperature range, and designate the most promising concepts; and (3) determine the nature of further studies required to expeditiously convert the most promising concept(s) to practical applications. Cryogenic temperature control by means of energy storage materials was also included.

  11. Cryptography from noisy storage.

    PubMed

    Wehner, Stephanie; Schaffner, Christian; Terhal, Barbara M

    2008-06-06

    We show how to implement cryptographic primitives based on the realistic assumption that quantum storage of qubits is noisy. We thereby consider individual-storage attacks; i.e., the dishonest party attempts to store each incoming qubit separately. Our model is similar to the model of bounded-quantum storage; however, we consider an explicit noise model inspired by present-day technology. To illustrate the power of this new model, we show that a protocol for oblivious transfer is secure for any amount of quantum-storage noise, as long as honest players can perform perfect quantum operations. Our model also allows us to show the security of protocols that cope with noise in the operations of the honest players and achieve more advanced tasks such as secure identification.

  12. Hydrogen storage compositions

    DOEpatents

    Li, Wen; Vajo, John J.; Cumberland, Robert W.; Liu, Ping

    2011-04-19

    Compositions for hydrogen storage and methods of making such compositions employ an alloy that exhibits reversible formation/deformation of BH.sub.4.sup.- anions. The composition includes a ternary alloy including magnesium, boron and a metal and a metal hydride. The ternary alloy and the metal hydride are present in an amount sufficient to render the composition capable of hydrogen storage. The molar ratio of the metal to magnesium and boron in the alloy is such that the alloy exhibits reversible formation/deformation of BH.sub.4.sup.- anions. The hydrogen storage composition is prepared by combining magnesium, boron and a metal to prepare a ternary alloy and combining the ternary alloy with a metal hydride to form the hydrogen storage composition.

  13. Industrial storage applications overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duscha, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    The implementation of a technology demonstration for the food processing industry, development and technology demonstrations for selected near-term, in-plant applications and advanced industrial applications of thermal energy storage are overviewed.

  14. Energy Storage: George Crabtree

    SciTech Connect

    Crabtree, George

    2016-10-06

    George Crabtree, Argonne scientist and Director of Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, discusses the importance of developing the next generation of batteries and how that could help transform the electricity grid.

  15. Energy Storage: George Crabtree

    ScienceCinema

    Crabtree, George

    2018-06-13

    George Crabtree, Argonne scientist and Director of Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, discusses the importance of developing the next generation of batteries and how that could help transform the electricity grid.

  16. Center for Hydrogen Storage.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-06-01

    The main goals of this project were to (1) Establish a Center for Hydrogen Storage Research at Delaware State University for the preparation and characterization of selected complex metal hydrides and the determination their suitability for hydrogen ...

  17. Aβ1-16 conformational changes induced by heavy metals, antioxidants, and corn zeins: CD, AFM, SEM, and FT-IR studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murariu, Manuela; Mihai, Marcela; Zaharia, Marius; Drochioiu, Gabi

    2014-10-01

    Amyloid-beta (known also as Aβ or A-beta or beta-amyloid) is a peptide of 36-43 amino acids that appears to be the main constituent of amyloid plaques in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. The transformation process from α-helix to β-sheet structures appears to be one of the major factors in the genesis and evolution of a variety of neurodegenerative diseases such as AD, Parkinson's disease (PD), and several prion diseases [1,2]. Metal-based reactions of some polypeptides and proteins are considered as a common denominator for neurodegenerative diseases (Figure 1) [3,4]. Amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregates are associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and may be promoted by the trace amounts of metal ions like aluminium, iron, zinc or copper [5-11]. For example, copper ions cause the peptide aggregation to a great extent and highly increase the neurotoxicity exhibited by Aβ1-40 in cell culture [11].

  18. Analog storage integrated circuit

    DOEpatents

    Walker, J. T.; Larsen, R. S.; Shapiro, S. L.

    1989-01-01

    A high speed data storage array is defined utilizing a unique cell design for high speed sampling of a rapidly changing signal. Each cell of the array includes two input gates between the signal input and a storage capacitor. The gates are controlled by a high speed row clock and low speed column clock so that the instantaneous analog value of the signal is only sampled and stored by each cell on coincidence of the two clocks.

  19. Energy storage apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P. A.; Evans, H. E. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A high efficiency, flywheel type energy storage device which comprises an electronically commutated d.c. motor/generator unit having a massive flywheel rotor magnetically suspended around a ring shaped stator is presented. During periods of low energy demand, the storage devices were operated as a motor, and the flywheel motor was brought up to operating speed. Energy was drawn from the device functioning as a generator as the flywheel rotor rotated during high energy demand periods.

  20. Optimization of Munitions Storage.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    zones of land around each facility place a significant economic cost on the storage of munitions (Schreyer, 1970: 1). Munitions storage is a subject...ADDTOT, BTOTAL 353 REAL MPH,MW ,MPD, MPU ,4,MPNEW,MCD 354 IF (SW2.NE.0) GO TO 1 355 SW2 - 1 356 WRITE (6,2) 357 GO TO 3 358 1 IF (REC.EQ.0) GO TO 4 359 IF

  1. Analog storage integrated circuit

    DOEpatents

    Walker, J.T.; Larsen, R.S.; Shapiro, S.L.

    1989-03-07

    A high speed data storage array is defined utilizing a unique cell design for high speed sampling of a rapidly changing signal. Each cell of the array includes two input gates between the signal input and a storage capacitor. The gates are controlled by a high speed row clock and low speed column clock so that the instantaneous analog value of the signal is only sampled and stored by each cell on coincidence of the two clocks. 6 figs.

  2. Energy Storage Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, David

    2017-07-01

    As renewable energy use expands there will be a need to develop ways to balance its variability. Storage is one of the options. Presently the main emphasis is for systems storing electrical power in advanced batteries (many of them derivatives of parallel developments in the electric vehicle field), as well as via liquid air storage, compressed air storage, super-capacitors and flywheels, and, the leader so far, pumped hydro reservoirs. In addition, new systems are emerging for hydrogen generation and storage, feeding fuel cell power production. Heat (and cold) is also a storage medium and some systems exploit thermal effects as part of wider energy management activity. Some of the more exotic ones even try to use gravity on a large scale. This short book looks at all the options, their potentials and their limits. There are no clear winners, with some being suited to short-term balancing and others to longer-term storage. The eventual mix adopted will be shaped by the pattern of development of other balancing measures, including smart-grid demand management and super-grid imports and exports.

  3. WEAPONS STORAGE AREA. FROM RIGHT TO LEFT, ABOVEGROUND STORAGE MAGAZINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEAPONS STORAGE AREA. FROM RIGHT TO LEFT, ABOVEGROUND STORAGE MAGAZINE (BUILDING 3568), SPARES INERT STORAGE BUILDING (BUILDING 3570), MISSILE ASSEMBLY SHOP (BUILDING 3578) AND SEGREGATED MAGAZINE STORAGE BUILDING (BUILDING 3572). VIEW TO NORTHWEST - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, U.S. Route 9, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  4. Quality and storage stability of extruded puffed corn-fish snacks during 6-month storage at ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Shaviklo, Gholam Reza; Thorkelsson, Gudjon; Rafipour, Fereidon; Sigurgisladottir, Sjofn

    2011-03-30

    Cereal-based snacks are usually low in protein and other nutrients. Increased health awareness of consumers has led the food industry to develop fortified snacks with functional ingredients. Three types of extruded corn-fish snacks, containing 150 g kg(-1) carp mince and 150 g kg(-1) trout mince, 30 g kg(-1) freeze-dried saithe protein and a regular corn snack (control). were produced to study quality changes and storage stability of the products during 6-month storage at 27±2 °C. All products had the same level of water activity and proximate composition except for protein. Fortified snacks had a protein content of 93-98 g kg(-1) , compared with 65 g kg(-1) in the control. A significant increase was observed for peroxide value during storage (0.0 to 2.8 meq kg(-1)). Scores for attributes describing oxidation and off odors and flavors increased after 5-6 months' storage but attributes describing puffed corn snack odor and flavor did not change during storage of any of the products. Extrusion of corn grits with fish flesh/fish protein can be used to produce high-protein products that would be an option to provide nutrient snacks for consumers and to increase fish consumption. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Biomarkers in Lysosomal Storage Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bobillo Lobato, Joaquin; Jiménez Hidalgo, Maria; Jiménez Jiménez, Luis M.

    2016-01-01

    A biomarker is generally an analyte that indicates the presence and/or extent of a biological process, which is in itself usually directly linked to the clinical manifestations and outcome of a particular disease. The biomarkers in the field of lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) have particular relevance where spectacular therapeutic initiatives have been achieved, most notably with the introduction of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). There are two main types of biomarkers. The first group is comprised of those molecules whose accumulation is directly enhanced as a result of defective lysosomal function. These molecules represent the storage of the principal macro-molecular substrate(s) of a specific enzyme or protein, whose function is deficient in the given disease. In the second group of biomarkers, the relationship between the lysosomal defect and the biomarker is indirect. In this group, the biomarker reflects the effects of the primary lysosomal defect on cell, tissue, or organ functions. There is no “gold standard” among biomarkers used to diagnosis and/or monitor LSDs, but there are a number that exist that can be used to reasonably assess and monitor the state of certain organs or functions. A number of biomarkers have been proposed for the analysis of the most important LSDs. In this review, we will summarize the most promising biomarkers in major LSDs and discuss why these are the most promising candidates for screening systems. PMID:28933418

  6. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLGOY CONSORTIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-04-23

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feetmore » (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. Base funding for the consortium is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In addition, funding is anticipated from the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and is scheduled for completion on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project includes the creation of the GSTC structure, development of constitution (by-laws) for the consortium, and development and refinement of a technical approach (work

  7. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-04-17

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feetmore » (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. Base funding for the consortium is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In addition, funding is anticipated from the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and is scheduled for completion on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project includes the creation of the GSTC structure, development of constitution (by-laws) for the consortium, and development and refinement of a technical approach (work

  8. Spacecraft cryogenic gas storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rysavy, G.

    1971-01-01

    Cryogenic gas storage systems were developed for the liquid storage of oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and helium. Cryogenic storage is attractive because of the high liquid density and low storage pressure of cryogens. This situation results in smaller container sizes, reduced container-strength levels, and lower tankage weights. The Gemini and Apollo spacecraft used cryogenic gas storage systems as standard spacecraft equipment. In addition to the Gemini and Apollo cryogenic gas storage systems, other systems were developed and tested in the course of advancing the state of the art. All of the cryogenic storage systems used, developed, and tested to date for manned-spacecraft applications are described.

  9. Free Fatty Acid Storage in Human Visceral and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Asem H.; Koutsari, Christina; Mundi, Manpreet; Stegall, Mark D.; Heimbach, Julie K.; Taler, Sandra J.; Nygren, Jonas; Thorell, Anders; Bogachus, Lindsey D.; Turcotte, Lorraine P.; Bernlohr, David; Jensen, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Because direct adipose tissue free fatty acid (FFA) storage may contribute to body fat distribution, we measured FFA (palmitate) storage rates and fatty acid (FA) storage enzymes/proteins in omental and abdominal subcutaneous fat. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Elective surgery patients received a bolus of [1-14C]palmitate followed by omental and abdominal subcutaneous fat biopsies to measure direct FFA storage. Long chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase activities, CD36, fatty acid-binding protein, and fatty acid transport protein 1 were measured. RESULTS Palmitate tracer storage (dpm/g adipose lipid) and calculated palmitate storage rates were greater in omental than abdominal subcutaneous fat in women (1.2 ± 0.8 vs. 0.7 ± 0.4 μmol ⋅ kg adipose lipid−1 ⋅ min−1, P = 0.005) and men (0.7 ± 0.2 vs. 0.2 ± 0.1, P < 0.001), and both were greater in women than men (P < 0.0001). Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue palmitate storage rates correlated with ACS activity (women: r = 0.66, P = 0.001; men: r = 0.70, P = 0.007); in men, CD36 was also independently related to palmitate storage rates. The content/activity of FA storage enzymes/proteins in omental fat was dramatically lower in those with more visceral fat. In women, only omental palmitate storage rates were correlated (r = 0.54, P = 0.03) with ACS activity. CONCLUSIONS Some adipocyte FA storage factors correlate with direct FFA storage, but sex differences in this process in visceral fat do not account for sex differences in visceral fatness. The reduced storage proteins in those with greater visceral fat suggest that the storage factors we measured are not a predominant cause of visceral adipose tissue accumulation. PMID:21810594

  10. Radioactive waste storage issues

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, Daniel E.

    1994-08-15

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal)more » of wastes generated solely within a state`s boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected.« less

  11. Energy storage connection system

    DOEpatents

    Benedict, Eric L.; Borland, Nicholas P.; Dale, Magdelena; Freeman, Belvin; Kite, Kim A.; Petter, Jeffrey K.; Taylor, Brendan F.

    2012-07-03

    A power system for connecting a variable voltage power source, such as a power controller, with a plurality of energy storage devices, at least two of which have a different initial voltage than the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. The power system includes a controller that increases the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. When such output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a first one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the first one of the energy storage devices. The controller then causes the output voltage of the variable voltage power source to continue increasing. When the output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a second one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the second one of the energy storage devices.

  12. Cytocompatible and water stable ultrafine protein fibers for tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qiuran

    This dissertation proposal focuses on the development of cytocompatible and water stable protein ultrafine fibers for tissue engineering. The protein-based ultrafine fibers have the potential to be used for biomedicine, due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, similarity to natural extracellular matrix (ECM) in physical structure and chemical composition, and superior adsorption properties due to their high surface to volume ratio. However, the current technologies to produce the protein-based ultrafine fibers for biomedical applications still have several problems. For instance, the current electrospinning and phase separation technologies generate scaffolds composed of densely compacted ultrafine fibers, and cells can spread just on the surface of the fiber bulk, and hardly penetrate into the inner sections of scaffolds. Thus, these scaffolds can merely emulate the ECM as a two dimensional basement membrane, but are difficult to mimic the three dimensional ECM stroma. Moreover, the protein-based ultrafine fibers do not possess sufficient water stability and strength for biomedical applications, and need modifications such as crosslinking. However, current crosslinking methods are either high in toxicity or low in crosslinking efficiency. To solve the problems mentioned above, zein, collagen, and gelatin were selected as the raw materials to represent plant proteins, animal proteins, and denatured proteins in this dissertation. A benign solvent system was developed specifically for the fabrication of collagen ultrafine fibers. In addition, the gelatin scaffolds with a loose fibrous structure, high cell-accessibility and cell viability were produced by a novel ultralow concentration phase separation method aiming to simulate the structure of three dimensional (3D) ECM stroma. Non-toxic crosslinking methods using citric acid as the crosslinker were also developed for electrospun or phase separated scaffolds from these three proteins, and proved to be

  13. Inertial energy storage device

    DOEpatents

    Knight, Jr., Charles E.; Kelly, James J.; Pollard, Roy E.

    1978-01-01

    The inertial energy storage device of the present invention comprises a composite ring formed of circumferentially wound resin-impregnated filament material, a flanged hollow metal hub concentrically disposed in the ring, and a plurality of discrete filament bandsets coupling the hub to the ring. Each bandset is formed of a pair of parallel bands affixed to the hub in a spaced apart relationship with the axis of rotation of the hub being disposed between the bands and with each band being in the configuration of a hoop extending about the ring along a chordal plane thereof. The bandsets are disposed in an angular relationship with one another so as to encircle the ring at spaced-apart circumferential locations while being disposed in an overlapping relationship on the flanges of the hub. The energy storage device of the present invention has the capability of substantial energy storage due to the relationship of the filament bands to the ring and the flanged hub.

  14. Protein Oxidation and Sensory Quality of Brine-Injected Pork Loins Added Ascorbate or Extracts of Green Tea or Maté during Chill-Storage in High-Oxygen Modified Atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Jongberg, Sisse; Tørngren, Mari Ann; Skibsted, Leif H

    2018-01-15

    Background: Ascorbate is often applied to enhance stability and robustness of brine-injected pork chops sold for retail, but may affect protein oxidation, while plant extracts are potential substitutes. Methods: Brine-injected pork chops (weight-gain ~12%, NaCl ~0.9%) prepared with ascorbate (225 ppm), green tea extract (25 ppm gallic acid equivalents (GAE)), or maté extract (25 ppm GAE) stored (5 °C, seven days) in high-oxygen atmosphere packaging (MAP: 80% O₂ and 20% CO₂) were analyzed for color changes, sensory quality, and protein oxidation compared to a control without antioxidant. Results: No significant differences were observed for green tea and maté extracts as compared to ascorbate when evaluated based on lipid oxidation derived off-flavors, except for stale flavor, which maté significantly reduced. All treatments increased the level of the protein oxidation product, α-aminoadipic semialdehyde as compared to the control, and ascorbate was further found to increase thiol loss and protein cross-linking, with a concomitant decrease in the sensory perceived tenderness. Conclusions: Green tea and maté were found to equally protect against lipid oxidation derived off-flavors, and maté showed less prooxidative activity towards proteins as compared to ascorbate, resulting in more tender meat. Maté is a valuable substitute for ascorbate in brine-injected pork chops.

  15. Protein Oxidation and Sensory Quality of Brine-Injected Pork Loins Added Ascorbate or Extracts of Green Tea or Maté during Chill-Storage in High-Oxygen Modified Atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    Tørngren, Mari Ann

    2018-01-01

    Background: Ascorbate is often applied to enhance stability and robustness of brine-injected pork chops sold for retail, but may affect protein oxidation, while plant extracts are potential substitutes. Methods: Brine-injected pork chops (weight-gain ~12%, NaCl ~0.9%) prepared with ascorbate (225 ppm), green tea extract (25 ppm gallic acid equivalents (GAE)), or maté extract (25 ppm GAE) stored (5 °C, seven days) in high-oxygen atmosphere packaging (MAP: 80% O2 and 20% CO2) were analyzed for color changes, sensory quality, and protein oxidation compared to a control without antioxidant. Results: No significant differences were observed for green tea and maté extracts as compared to ascorbate when evaluated based on lipid oxidation derived off-flavors, except for stale flavor, which maté significantly reduced. All treatments increased the level of the protein oxidation product, α-aminoadipic semialdehyde as compared to the control, and ascorbate was further found to increase thiol loss and protein cross-linking, with a concomitant decrease in the sensory perceived tenderness. Conclusions: Green tea and maté were found to equally protect against lipid oxidation derived off-flavors, and maté showed less prooxidative activity towards proteins as compared to ascorbate, resulting in more tender meat. Maté is a valuable substitute for ascorbate in brine-injected pork chops. PMID:29342928

  16. REDOX electrochemical energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    Reservoirs of chemical solutions can store electrical energy with high efficiency. Reactant solutions are stored outside conversion section where charging and discharging reactions take place. Conversion unit consists of stacks of cells connected together in parallel hydraulically, and in series electrically. Stacks resemble fuel cell batteries. System is 99% ampere-hour efficient, 75% watt hour efficient, and has long projected lifetime. Applications include storage buffering for remote solar or wind power systems, and industrial load leveling. Cost estimates are $325/kW of power requirement plus $51/kWh storage capacity. Mass production would reduce cost by about factor of two.

  17. Thermal energy storage material

    DOEpatents

    Leifer, Leslie

    1976-01-01

    A thermal energy storage material which is stable at atmospheric temperature and pressure and has a melting point higher than 32.degree.F. is prepared by dissolving a specific class of clathrate forming compounds, such as tetra n-propyl or tetra n-butyl ammonium fluoride, in water to form a substantially solid clathrate. The resultant thermal energy storage material is capable of absorbing heat from or releasing heat to a given region as it transforms between solid and liquid states in response to temperature changes in the region above and below its melting point.

  18. Protein stability: a crystallographer’s perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Deller, Marc C., E-mail: mdeller@stanford.edu; Kong, Leopold; Rupp, Bernhard

    An understanding of protein stability is essential for optimizing the expression, purification and crystallization of proteins. In this review, discussion will focus on factors affecting protein stability on a somewhat practical level, particularly from the view of a protein crystallographer. Protein stability is a topic of major interest for the biotechnology, pharmaceutical and food industries, in addition to being a daily consideration for academic researchers studying proteins. An understanding of protein stability is essential for optimizing the expression, purification, formulation, storage and structural studies of proteins. In this review, discussion will focus on factors affecting protein stability, on a somewhatmore » practical level, particularly from the view of a protein crystallographer. The differences between protein conformational stability and protein compositional stability will be discussed, along with a brief introduction to key methods useful for analyzing protein stability. Finally, tactics for addressing protein-stability issues during protein expression, purification and crystallization will be discussed.« less

  19. CHEMICAL STORAGE: MYTHS VERSUS REALITY

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, F

    A large number of resources explaining proper chemical storage are available. These resources include books, databases/tables, and articles that explain various aspects of chemical storage including compatible chemical storage, signage, and regulatory requirements. Another source is the chemical manufacturer or distributor who provides storage information in the form of icons or color coding schemes on container labels. Despite the availability of these resources, chemical accidents stemming from improper storage, according to recent reports (1) (2), make up almost 25% of all chemical accidents. This relatively high percentage of chemical storage accidents suggests that these publications and color coding schemes althoughmore » helpful, still provide incomplete information that may not completely mitigate storage risks. This manuscript will explore some ways published storage information may be incomplete, examine the associated risks, and suggest methods to help further eliminate chemical storage risks.« less

  20. Applications of mutant yeast strains with low glycogen storage capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, G. R.; Schubert, W. W.; Stokes, B. O.

    1981-01-01

    Several strains of Hansenula polymorpha were selected for possible low glycogen storage characteristics based on a selective I2 staining procedure. The levels of storage carbohydrates in the mutant strains were found to be 44-70% of the levels in the parent strain for cultures harvested in stationary phase. Similar differences generally were not found for cells harvested in exponential phase. Yeast strains deficient in glycogen storage capability are valuable in increasing the relative protein value of microbial biomass and also may provide significant cost savings in substrate utilization in fermentative processes.

  1. Solar Energy: Heat Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on heat storage is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

  2. Ryazanskiy unpacks Storage Containers

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-08

    ISS038-E-043150 (8 Feb. 2014) --- Russian cosmonaut Sergey Ryazanskiy, Expedition 38 flight engineer, unpacks storage containers from the ISS Progress 54 cargo spacecraft, which docked to the Pirs docking compartment of the International Space Station on Feb. 5, 2014.

  3. Storage research roundup

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With so much research being done in the areas of potato production, variety development, genetics, disease resistance and pest management it is easy to miss some of the research being done on potato storage. Below are highlights from a few of the noteworthy papers published recently that relate to t...

  4. Storage effects at culverts

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-05-01

    Temporary ponding of water on the upstream side of a culvert serves to reduce the peak discharge that the culvert : must convey. In most cases the discharge reduction resulting from detention storage is minor and can be neglected in : design. However...

  5. Education Highlights: Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Santillan, Jose; Bareno, Javier

    Argonne intern Jose Santillan from University of Minnesota worked with Argonne mentor Javier Bareno in studying lithium-ion battery separators using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. This research will help scientists make lithium-ion batteries for energy storage last longer for less cost.

  6. 173. STORAGE ROOM, LOOKING WEST FROM ELEVATOR SHAFT INTO STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    173. STORAGE ROOM, LOOKING WEST FROM ELEVATOR SHAFT INTO STORAGE AREA ADDED AS PART OF 1905 ELEVATOR ADDITION. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  7. 175. STORAGE ROOM, SOUTH WALL OF STORAGE ROOM, ADDED WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    175. STORAGE ROOM, SOUTH WALL OF STORAGE ROOM, ADDED WITH ELEVATOR ADDITION OF 1905. WALL IS EXTERIOR OF ORIGINAL WAGON WORKS OF 1883. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  8. 174. STORAGE ROOM, SOUTH WEST CORNER OF STORAGE AREA ADDED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    174. STORAGE ROOM, SOUTH WEST CORNER OF STORAGE AREA ADDED AS PART OF 1905 ELEVATOR ADDITION. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  9. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO SHOWING WEST STORAGE BASIN AT FUEL STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS PHOTO SHOWING WEST STORAGE BASIN AT FUEL STORAGE BUILDING (CPP-603). INL PHOTO NUMBER NRTS-51-689. Unknown Photographer, 1950 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. NV Energy Electricity Storage Valuation

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, James F.; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Samaan, Nader A.

    2013-06-30

    This study examines how grid-level electricity storage may benet the operations of NV Energy in 2020, and assesses whether those benets justify the cost of the storage system. In order to determine how grid-level storage might impact NV Energy, an hourly production cost model of the Nevada Balancing Authority (\\BA") as projected for 2020 was built and used for the study. Storage facilities were found to add value primarily by providing reserve. Value provided by the provision of time-of-day shifting was found to be limited. If regulating reserve from storage is valued the same as that from slower ramp ratemore » resources, then it appears that a reciprocating engine generator could provide additional capacity at a lower cost than a pumped storage hydro plant or large storage capacity battery system. In addition, a 25-MW battery storage facility would need to cost $650/kW or less in order to produce a positive Net Present Value (NPV). However, if regulating reserve provided by storage is considered to be more useful to the grid than that from slower ramp rate resources, then a grid-level storage facility may have a positive NPV even at today's storage system capital costs. The value of having storage provide services beyond reserve and time-of-day shifting was not assessed in this study, and was therefore not included in storage cost-benefit calculations.« less

  11. Relocatable explosives storage magazine

    SciTech Connect

    Liptak, R.E.; Keenan, W.A.

    A relocatable storage magazine apparatus for storing and retrieving explosives and ordnance and for partially containing and attenuating the blast, conflagration and flying debris from an accidental explosion is described comprising: (a) a container having an access hole; (b) a debris trap attached to the container, the debris trap communicating with said container via the access hole, said debris trap having vent holes for venting the pressure of an explosion from said debris trap to the atmosphere; (c) means for covering said access hole; (d) means for suspending explosives and ordnance from the covering means; (e) means for entering themore » storage magazine to store and retrieve explosives and ordnance; (f) means for retaining said covering means in a position above the access hole wherein said explosives and ordnance are accessible from the entering means.« less

  12. Cathodochromic storage device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosomworth, D. R.; Moles, W. H.

    1969-01-01

    A memory and display device has been developed by combing a fast phosphor layer with a cathodochromic layer in a cathode ray tube. Images are stored as patterns of electron beam induced optical density in the cathodo-chromic material. The stored information is recovered by exciting the backing, fast phosphor layer with a constant current electron beam and detecting the emitted radiation which is modulated by absorption in the cathodochromic layer. The storage can be accomplished in one or more TV frames (1/30 sec each). More than 500 TV line resolution and close to 2:1 contrast ratio are possible. The information storage time in a dark environment is approximately 24 hours. A reconstituted (readout) electronic video signal can be generated continuously for times in excess of 10 minutes or periodically for several hours.

  13. DPM: Future Proof Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Alejandro; Beche, Alexandre; Furano, Fabrizio; Hellmich, Martin; Keeble, Oliver; Rocha, Ricardo

    2012-12-01

    The Disk Pool Manager (DPM) is a lightweight solution for grid enabled disk storage management. Operated at more than 240 sites it has the widest distribution of all grid storage solutions in the WLCG infrastructure. It provides an easy way to manage and configure disk pools, and exposes multiple interfaces for data access (rfio, xroot, nfs, gridftp and http/dav) and control (srm). During the last year we have been working on providing stable, high performant data access to our storage system using standard protocols, while extending the storage management functionality and adapting both configuration and deployment procedures to reuse commonly used building blocks. In this contribution we cover in detail the extensive evaluation we have performed of our new HTTP/WebDAV and NFS 4.1 frontends, in terms of functionality and performance. We summarize the issues we faced and the solutions we developed to turn them into valid alternatives to the existing grid protocols - namely the additional work required to provide multi-stream transfers for high performance wide area access, support for third party copies, credential delegation or the required changes in the experiment and fabric management frameworks and tools. We describe new functionality that has been added to ease system administration, such as different filesystem weights and a faster disk drain, and new configuration and monitoring solutions based on the industry standards Puppet and Nagios. Finally, we explain some of the internal changes we had to do in the DPM architecture to better handle the additional load from the analysis use cases.

  14. Compact Holographic Data Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, T. H.; Reyes, G. F.; Zhou, H.

    2001-01-01

    NASA's future missions would require massive high-speed onboard data storage capability to Space Science missions. For Space Science, such as the Europa Lander mission, the onboard data storage requirements would be focused on maximizing the spacecraft's ability to survive fault conditions (i.e., no loss in stored science data when spacecraft enters the 'safe mode') and autonomously recover from them during NASA's long-life and deep space missions. This would require the development of non-volatile memory. In order to survive in the stringent environment during space exploration missions, onboard memory requirements would also include: (1) survive a high radiation environment (1 Mrad), (2) operate effectively and efficiently for a very long time (10 years), and (3) sustain at least a billion write cycles. Therefore, memory technologies requirements of NASA's Earth Science and Space Science missions are large capacity, non-volatility, high-transfer rate, high radiation resistance, high storage density, and high power efficiency. JPL, under current sponsorship from NASA Space Science and Earth Science Programs, is developing a high-density, nonvolatile and rad-hard Compact Holographic Data Storage (CHDS) system to enable large-capacity, high-speed, low power consumption, and read/write of data in a space environment. The entire read/write operation will be controlled with electrooptic mechanism without any moving parts. This CHDS will consist of laser diodes, photorefractive crystal, spatial light modulator, photodetector array, and I/O electronic interface. In operation, pages of information would be recorded and retrieved with random access and high-speed. The nonvolatile, rad-hard characteristics of the holographic memory will provide a revolutionary memory technology meeting the high radiation challenge facing the Europa Lander mission. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. Energy Storage Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Jankovsky, Amy L.; Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Hoberecht, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program funded the Energy Storage Project to develop battery and fuel cell technology to meet the expected energy storage needs of the Constellation Program for human exploration. Technology needs were determined by architecture studies and risk assessments conducted by the Constellation Program, focused on a mission for a long-duration lunar outpost. Critical energy storage needs were identified as batteries for EVA suits, surface mobility systems, and a lander ascent stage; fuel cells for the lander and mobility systems; and a regenerative fuel cell for surface power. To address these needs, the Energy Storage Project developed advanced lithium-ion battery technology, targeting cell-level safety and very high specific energy and energy density. Key accomplishments include the development of silicon composite anodes, lithiated-mixed-metal-oxide cathodes, low-flammability electrolytes, and cell-incorporated safety devices that promise to substantially improve battery performance while providing a high level of safety. The project also developed "non-flow-through" proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell stacks. The primary advantage of this technology set is the reduction of ancillary parts in the balance-of-plant--fewer pumps, separators and related components should result in fewer failure modes and hence a higher probability of achieving very reliable operation, and reduced parasitic power losses enable smaller reactant tanks and therefore systems with lower mass and volume. Key accomplishments include the fabrication and testing of several robust, small-scale nonflow-through fuel cell stacks that have demonstrated proof-of-concept. This report summarizes the project s goals, objectives, technical accomplishments, and risk assessments. A bibliography spanning the life of the project is also included.

  16. Storage of Unfed and Leftover Pasteurized Human Milk.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ting; Perrin, Maryanne T; Allen, Jonathan C; Osborne, Jason; Jones, Frances; Fogleman, April D

    2016-12-01

    To determine the impact of storage on bacterial growth and immunological activity of pasteurized human milk and leftover pasteurized human milk that has been exposed to the microflora in an infant's mouth. Eighteen mother-infant dyads participated in two separate studies. Mother's milk was pasteurized, and each baby was fed 1 to 2 ounces. Pasteurized and leftover pasteurized milk were stored at room (24°C) and refrigerated temperatures (4°C). After storage, milk was analyzed for bacteria, total protein, lysozyme activity, and secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) activity. In pasteurized and leftover pasteurized milk stored in the refrigerator for 7 days, total aerobic bacteria do not increase significantly and total protein and bioactive proteins are stable. At room temperature, there is a significant increase in total aerobic bacteria in leftover pasteurized milk during 12 hours of storage (p < 0.01) and a significant decrease in total protein and SIgA activity in pasteurized milk during 12 hours of storage (p = 0.02 and p = 0.03, respectively). When stored in the refrigerator, pasteurized and leftover pasteurized milk may be stored for at least 7 days when considering the variables studied. Caution should be used when storing pasteurized and leftover pasteurized milk at room temperature to prevent an increase in bacterial growth and a decrease in total protein and SIgA activity.

  17. Mass storage at NSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, Michael F.

    1993-01-01

    The need to manage large amounts of data on robotically controlled devices has been critical to the mission of this Agency for many years. In many respects this Agency has helped pioneer, with their industry counterparts, the development of a number of products long before these systems became commercially available. Numerous attempts have been made to field both robotically controlled tape and optical disk technology and systems to satisfy our tertiary storage needs. Custom developed products were architected, designed, and developed without vendor partners over the past two decades to field workable systems to handle our ever increasing storage requirements. Many of the attendees of this symposium are familiar with some of the older products, such as: the Braegen Automated Tape Libraries (ATL's), the IBM 3850, the Ampex TeraStore, just to name a few. In addition, we embarked on an in-house development of a shared disk input/output support processor to manage our every increasing tape storage needs. For all intents and purposes, this system was a file server by current definitions which used CDC Cyber computers as the control processors. It served us well and was just recently removed from production usage.

  18. Effects of storage temperature on airway exosome integrity for diagnostic and functional analyses.

    PubMed

    Maroto, Rosario; Zhao, Yingxin; Jamaluddin, Mohammad; Popov, Vsevolod L; Wang, Hongwang; Kalubowilage, Madumali; Zhang, Yueqing; Luisi, Jonathan; Sun, Hong; Culbertson, Christopher T; Bossmann, Stefan H; Motamedi, Massoud; Brasier, Allan R

    2017-01-01

    Background : Extracellular vesicles contain biological molecules specified by cell-type of origin and modified by microenvironmental changes. To conduct reproducible studies on exosome content and function, storage conditions need to have minimal impact on airway exosome integrity. Aim : We compared surface properties and protein content of airway exosomes that had been freshly isolated vs. those that had been treated with cold storage or freezing. Methods : Mouse bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) exosomes purified by differential ultracentrifugation were analysed immediately or stored at +4°C or -80°C. Exosomal structure was assessed by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and charge density (zeta potential, ζ). Exosomal protein content, including leaking/dissociating proteins, were identified by label-free LC-MS/MS. Results : Freshly isolated BALF exosomes exhibited a mean diameter of 95 nm and characteristic morphology. Storage had significant impact on BALF exosome size and content. Compared to fresh, exosomes stored at +4°C had a 10% increase in diameter, redistribution to polydisperse aggregates and reduced ζ. Storage at -80°C produced an even greater effect, resulting in a 25% increase in diameter, significantly reducing the ζ, resulting in multilamellar structure formation. In fresh exosomes, we identified 1140 high-confidence proteins enriched in 19 genome ontology biological processes. After storage at room temperature, 848 proteins were identified. In preparations stored at +4°C, 224 proteins appeared in the supernatant fraction compared to the wash fractions from freshly prepared exosomes; these proteins represent exosome leakage or dissociation of loosely bound "peri-exosomal" proteins. In preparations stored at -80°C, 194 proteins appeared in the supernatant fraction, suggesting that distinct protein groups leak from exosomes at different storage temperatures. Conclusions : Storage destabilizes the surface

  19. Scalable cloud without dedicated storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batkovich, D. V.; Kompaniets, M. V.; Zarochentsev, A. K.

    2015-05-01

    We present a prototype of a scalable computing cloud. It is intended to be deployed on the basis of a cluster without the separate dedicated storage. The dedicated storage is replaced by the distributed software storage. In addition, all cluster nodes are used both as computing nodes and as storage nodes. This solution increases utilization of the cluster resources as well as improves fault tolerance and performance of the distributed storage. Another advantage of this solution is high scalability with a relatively low initial and maintenance cost. The solution is built on the basis of the open source components like OpenStack, CEPH, etc.

  20. Thermal storage for electric utilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swet, C. J.; Masica, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    Applications of the thermal energy storage (TES) principle (storage of sensible heat or latent heat, or heat storage in reversible chemical reactions) in power systems are evaluated. Load leveling behind the meter, load following at conventional thermal power plants, solar thermal power generation, and waste heat utilization are the principal TES applications considered. Specific TES examples discussed include: storage heaters for electric-resistance space heating, air conditioning TES in the form of chilled water or eutectic salt baths, hot water TES, and trans-seasonal storage in heated water in confined aquifers.

  1. Holographic Optical Data Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timucin, Dogan A.; Downie, John D.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Although the basic idea may be traced back to the earlier X-ray diffraction studies of Sir W. L. Bragg, the holographic method as we know it was invented by D. Gabor in 1948 as a two-step lensless imaging technique to enhance the resolution of electron microscopy, for which he received the 1971 Nobel Prize in physics. The distinctive feature of holography is the recording of the object phase variations that carry the depth information, which is lost in conventional photography where only the intensity (= squared amplitude) distribution of an object is captured. Since all photosensitive media necessarily respond to the intensity incident upon them, an ingenious way had to be found to convert object phase into intensity variations, and Gabor achieved this by introducing a coherent reference wave along with the object wave during exposure. Gabor's in-line recording scheme, however, required the object in question to be largely transmissive, and could provide only marginal image quality due to unwanted terms simultaneously reconstructed along with the desired wavefront. Further handicapped by the lack of a strong coherent light source, optical holography thus seemed fated to remain just another scientific curiosity, until the field was revolutionized in the early 1960s by some major breakthroughs: the proposition and demonstration of the laser principle, the introduction of off-axis holography, and the invention of volume holography. Consequently, the remainder of that decade saw an exponential growth in research on theory, practice, and applications of holography. Today, holography not only boasts a wide variety of scientific and technical applications (e.g., holographic interferometry for strain, vibration, and flow analysis, microscopy and high-resolution imagery, imaging through distorting media, optical interconnects, holographic optical elements, optical neural networks, three-dimensional displays, data storage, etc.), but has become a prominent am advertising

  2. Energy Storage System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    SatCon Technology Corporation developed the drive train for use in the Chrysler Corporation's Patriot Mark II, which includes the Flywheel Energy Storage (FES) system. In Chrysler's experimental hybrid- electric car, the hybrid drive train uses an advanced turboalternator that generates electricity by burning a fuel; a powerful, compact electric motor; and a FES that eliminates the need for conventional batteries. The FES system incorporates technology SatCon developed in more than 30 projects with seven NASA centers, mostly for FES systems for spacecraft attitude control and momentum recovery. SatCon will continue to develop the technology with Westinghouse Electric Corporation.

  3. Waste gas storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, Brian D. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Method for storing a waste gas mixture comprised of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and inert gases, the gas mixture containing corrosive contaminants including inorganic acids and bases and organic solvents, and derived from space station operations. The gas mixture is stored under pressure in a vessel formed of a filament wound composite overwrap on a metal liner, the metal liner being pre-stressed in compression by the overwrap, thereby avoiding any tensile stress in the liner, and preventing stress corrosion cracking of the liner during gas mixture storage.

  4. BINARY STORAGE ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Chu, J.C.

    1958-06-10

    A binary storage device is described comprising a toggle provided with associsted improved driver circuits adapted to produce reliable action of the toggle during clearing of the toggle to one of its two states. or transferring information into and out of the toggle. The invention resides in the development of a self-regulating driver circuit to minimize the fluctuation of the driving voltages for the toggle. The disclosed driver circuit produces two pulses in response to an input pulse: a first or ''clear'' pulse beginning nt substantially the same time but endlrg slightly sooner than the second or ''transfer'' output pulse.

  5. Energy storage financing :

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, Richard

    Project financing is emerging as the linchpin for the future health, direction, and momentum of the energy storage industry. Market leaders have so far relied on selffunding or captive lending arrangements to fund projects. New lenders are proceeding hesitantly as they lack a full understanding of the technology, business, and credit risks involved in this rapidly changing market. The U.S. Department of Energy is poised to play a critical role in expanding access to capital by reducing the barriers to entry for new lenders, and providing trusted analytical benchmarks to better judge and price the risk in systematic ways.

  6. Biogenesis of zinc storage granules in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Tejeda-Guzmán, Carlos; Rosas-Arellano, Abraham; Kroll, Thomas; Webb, Samuel M; Barajas-Aceves, Martha; Osorio, Beatriz; Missirlis, Fanis

    2018-03-19

    Membrane transporters and sequestration mechanisms concentrate metal ions differentially into discrete subcellular microenvironments for use in protein cofactors, signalling, storage or excretion. Here we identify zinc storage granules as the insect's major zinc reservoir in principal Malpighian tubule epithelial cells of Drosophila melanogaster The concerted action of Adaptor Protein-3, Rab32, HOPS and BLOC complexes as well as of the white-scarlet (ABCG2-like) and ZnT35C (ZnT2/ZnT3/ZnT8-like) transporters is required for zinc storage granule biogenesis. Due to lysosome-related organelle defects caused by mutations in the homologous human genes, patients with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome may lack zinc granules in beta pancreatic cells, intestinal paneth cells and presynaptic vesicles of hippocampal mossy fibers. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Terrestrial Energy Storage SPS Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Terrestrial energy storage systems for the SSP system were evaluated that could maintain the 1.2 GW power level during periods of brief outages from the solar powered satellite (SPS). Short-term outages of ten minutes and long-term outages up to four hours have been identified as "typical" cases where the ground-based energy storage system would be required to supply power to the grid. These brief interruptions in transmission could result from performing maintenance on the solar power satellite or from safety considerations necessitating the power beam be turned off. For example, one situation would be to allow for the safe passage of airplanes through the space occupied by the beam. Under these conditions, the energy storage system needs to be capable of storing 200 MW-hrs and 4.8 GW-hrs, respectively. The types of energy storage systems to be considered include compressed air energy storage, inertial energy storage, electrochemical energy storage, superconducting magnetic energy storage, and pumped hydro energy storage. For each of these technologies, the state-of-the-art in terms of energy and power densities were identified as well as the potential for scaling to the size systems required by the SSP system. Other issues addressed included the performance, life expectancy, cost, and necessary infrastructure and site locations for the various storage technologies.

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