Paredes-León, Ricardo; Morales-Malacara, Juan B
Hirstiella jimenezi new species is described from specimens found on the gecko Phyllodactylus bordai Taylor in the southern part of Mexico and also recorded from a single specimen of P. tuberculosus magnus Taylor. The female, male, deutonymph, and larva are described and illustrated. This is the first finding of Pterygosomatid mites on hosts of this genus.
Feather mites (Acari: Astigmata) were analyzed with low temperature scanning electron microscopy (LT-SEM), including the description of three new species: Plicatalloptes atrichogynus sp. nov. (Analgoidea: Alloptidae) from the Neotropical cormorant Phalacrocorax brasilianus (Gmelin, 1789) (Pelecanifo...
The Tuckerellidae is the only a phytophagous family within the Tetranychoidea (Acari) that retains the ancestral prostigmatan condition of three nymphal stages during development; however it is only the female developmental sequence that retains a tritonymphal stage. Adult females develop from a tr...
Because of their small size and tolerance to many of the control procedures used for a wide variety of commodities, Acari species have become one of the fastest, unwanted pest travelers since the beginning of this century. This special issue includes eleven studies on adventive and invasive Acari sp...
There are approximately 55,000 described Acari species, accounting for almost half of all known Arachnida species, but total estimated Acari diversity is reckoned to be far greater. One important source of currently hidden Acari diversity is cryptic speciation, which poses challenges to taxonomists ...
Ermilov, Sergey G.
Abstract A species list of identified oribatid mite taxa (Acari, Oribatida) in the fauna of Vietnam is provided. During 1967–2015, a total of 535 species/subspecies from 222 genera and 81 families was registered. Of these, 194 species/subspecies were described as new for science from Vietnam. PMID:26798306
Osperalycus tenerphagus, a new genus and species of Nematalycidae (Acari: Endeostigmata), is described from Ohio, USA, using light microscopy and low temperature scanning electron microscopy. Specimens were extracted from two different loam soils. This genus can be readily distinguished from the oth...
Howell, Anna D; Daugovish, Oleg
The spider mite, Eotetranychus lewisi (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae), is a new emerging pest in California commercial strawberries. The predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae), typically used for biocontrol of Tetranychus urticae (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae), provided growers little to no control of E. lewisi. Four commonly used phytoseiid predatory mites: P. persimilis, Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor), N. fallacis (Garman), and Amblyseius andersoni (Chant), were used in lab studies to investigate which is best at managing E. lewisi populations. We als o investigated t he interactions between T. urticae and E. lewisi and in relation to phytoseiid efficiency given the potential for indirect effects of biocontrol. When E. lewisi and T. urticae are present on the same leaf, T. urticae populations increase and begin displacing E. lewisi. P. persimilis did not feed on E. lewisi, but the other three predatory mites consumed the spider mites and lowered their populations. When both E. lewisi and T. urticae are present on the same leaf, N. fallacis and A. andersoni fed on both types of mites equally and were capable of decreasing both populations. N. californicus fed on E. lewisi first and decreased its population, but allowed T. urticae populations to increase. P. persimilis may be insufficient at controlling E. lewisi and its use may instead enhance E. lewisi populations.
Mangalaus ikrishianusandhanus n. gen., n. sp., (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea), collected from erineum on the underside of leaves of Cordia dichotoma (Boraginaceae) is described and illustrated from specimens collected at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) in New Delhi, India....
Oliver, Jonathan D.; Lynn, Geoffrey E.; Burkhardt, Nicole Y.; Price, Lisa D.; Nelson, Curtis M.; Kurtti, Timothy J.; Munderloh, Ulrike G.
Abstract A reduction in the use of animals in infectious disease research is desirable for animal welfare as well as for simplification and standardization of experiments. An artificial silicone-based membrane-feeding system was adapted for complete engorgement of adult and nymphal Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae), and for infecting nymphs with pathogenic, tick-borne bacteria. Six wild-type and genetically transformed strains of four species of bacteria were inoculated into sterile bovine blood and fed to ticks. Pathogens were consistently detected in replete nymphs by polymerase chain reaction. Adult ticks that ingested bacteria as nymphs were evaluated for transstadial transmission. Borrelia burgdorferi and Ehrlichia muris -like agent showed high rates of transstadial transmission to adult ticks, whereas Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia monacensis demonstrated low rates of transstadial transmission/maintenance. Artificial membrane feeding can be used to routinely maintain nymphal and adult I. scapularis , and infect nymphs with tick-borne pathogens. PMID:26721866
el Kady, G A; Shoukry, A; Ragheb, D A; el Said, A M; Habib, K S; Morsy, T A
Mites are arthropods distinguished from ticks by usually being microscopical in size and have a hypostome unarmed with tooth-like anchoring processes. They are group in a number of suborders, each with super-families and families including many genera of medical and economic importance. In this paper, commensal rodents (Rattus norvegicus, R. r. alexandrinus and R. r. frugivorous) were surveyed in the Suez Canal Zone for their acari ectoparasites. Four species of mites were recovered. In a descending order of mite indices, they were Eulaelaps stabularis (4.83 on 6 rats), Laelaps nuttalli (3.11 on 27 rats), Ornithonyssus bacoti (1.66 on 9 rats) and Dermanyssus gallinae (0.66 on 24 rats). The overall mite indices in the three governorates were 3.66 in Suez, 2.82 in Ismailia and zero in Port Said. The medical and economic importance of the mites were discussed.
The brown dog tick can be a serious residential pest due to its unique ability, among ticks, to complete its lifecycle indoors. A single engorged and fertilized female tick can oviposit around 4,000 eggs, allowing indoor establishment to be rapid and easy to miss in early-stage infestations. Acari...
Alberto B. Broce; Ludek Zurek; James A. Kalisch; Robert Brown; David L. Keith; David Gordon; Janis Geodeke; Cal Welbourn; John Moser; Ronald Ochoa; Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner; Fuyuen Yip; Jacob Weber
High incidences of red, itching, and painful welts on people in the midwestern United States led to the discovery of a European species of mite, Pyemotes herfsi (Oudemans) (Acari: Pyemotidae), preying on gall-making midge larvae on oak leaves. The mites' great reproductive potential, small size, and high capacity for dispersal by wind make them...
Tbrahim Cakmak; Tulin Aksit; Sultan Cobanoglu
Pyemotes johnmoseri (Khaustov) (Acari: Pyemotidae) was collected from Hypoborus ficus (Erichson) and Hesperophanes griseus Fab. (Col.: Cerambycidae) in fig (Ficus carica cv Calymirna) orchards in Aydin, Turkey during 2003-2004. We describe and illustrate the male and female of P. ...
Stanislav Klauz; Peter Masan; John C. Moser
The deutonymphal stage and adults of Schizosthetus simulatrix Athias- Henriot, 1982 (Acari, Mesostigmata, Parasitidae), originally known from Canary Islands and Portugal, has been illustrated and described or redescribed, respectively. The subadults of S. simulatk have not previously been described. This very specialised subcorticolous species lives in galleries of...
Investigations have been conducted in Europe in the last decade in order to find potential agents for biological control of invasive teasels in North America. During surveys conducted in Serbia in May 2007, the new eriophyid mite species Aculops dipsaci n. sp. (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyidae) was ...
Proper identification of mites (Arachnida: Acari) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare mite specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, specimen clearing, use...
Marquardt, Tomasz; Faleńczyk-Koziróg, Katarzyna; Kaczmarek, Sławomir
We observed the oviposition behaviour of the soil mite Pergamasus brevicornis Berlese (Acari: Parasitidae) using continuous video-monitoring. Oviposition consisted of six sequential phases. The first phase (I) involved inspection of the substrate. In the second phase (II) there were rhythmic movements of the first pair of legs and slight reciprocating movements of the body. The third (III) was a resting phase. In the fourth phase (IV) the gnathosoma was lowered and the body was raised. In the next phase (V) there were two sub-phases. During the first (Va), the female held the egg below the gnathosoma. In the second sub-phase (Vb), the gnathosoma moved up holding the egg, which was then placed on the substrate. The last phase (VI) involved intense 'cleaning' movements of the chelicerae and palps. During Va a protective external eggshell structure is gradually formed, involving a phase where the egg shell is sticky. After moving the egg to the substrate, the female freed her palps and chelicerae from the sticky egg shell and cleaned her gnathosomal appendages. Phases II-V took on average 207 ± 69 s.
NiedbaŁa, Wojciech; Liu, Dong
As important representatives of Oribatida (Acari), ptyctimous mites comprise more than 1400 described species in 40 genera and subgenera, with nearly cosmopolitan distribution except for the Arctic and Antarctic Regions. They are capable of folding the aspidosoma under the opisthosoma to protect their appendages, and are primarily soil and litter inhabitants, feeding on fungi and decaying plant remains with various levels of specificity. Our purpose was to provide a detailed catalogue of all known ptyctimous mite species in the world with information of distribution, taxonomic issues and some remarks. Data of known juvenile instars of ptyctimous mites which were not included in Norton Ermilov (2014) were added. We hope that our catalogue with bibliography will be helpful in taxonomic and ecological studies. The catalogue presents taxonomic information and geographic distribution of 1431 known species of the world belonging to 42 genera and eight families (not including data of genus and species inquirenda, nomina nuda and species without author name). Among them, 261 species are listed as synonyms, 43 species inquirenda, nine homonyms, 17 new synonyms, one new subgenus Mahuntritia subgenus nov. and three new names are included in the catalogue.
Ernst Ebermann; John C. Moser
Four species of Scutacarus and one of Imparipes (Acari: Scutacaridae) are documented as phoretic from alates and workers of the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) in Louisiana and Tennessee, U.S.A. One, Imparipes (Imparipes) louisianae)
The southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini), is a haematophagous arachnid (Acari: Ixodidae) recognized globally as an economically important ectoparasite of cattle in tropical and subtropical agroecosystems. Populations of this invasive tick species around the wo...
Shinmen, Tsubasa; Yano, Shuichi; Osakabe, Mh
As it walks, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) spins a trail of silk threads, that is followed by the predatory mite, Neoseiulus womersleyi Schicha (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Starved adult female N. womersleyi followed T. urticae trails laid down by five T. urticae females but did not follow a trail of one T. urticae female, suggesting that the amount of spun threads and their chemical components should correlate positively with the number of T. urticae individuals. To examine whether chemical components of T. urticae trails are responsible for the predatory mite's trail following, we collected separate T. urticae threads from the exuviae and eggs, and then washed the threads with methanol to separate chemical components from physical attributes of the threads. Female N. womersleyi did not follow T. urticae trails that had been washed with methanol but contained physical residues, but they did follow the direction to which the methanol extracts of the T. urticae trails was applied. These results suggest that the predatory mite follows chemical, not physical, attributes of T. urticae trails.
Labruna, Marcelo B; Jorge, Rodrigo S P; Sana, Dênis A; Jácomo, Anah Tereza A; Kashivakura, Cyntia K; Furtado, Mariana M; Ferro, Claudia; Perez, Samuel A; Silveira, Leandro; Santos, Tarcísio S; Marques, Samuel R; Morato, Ronaldo G; Nava, Alessandra; Adania, Cristina H; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Gomes, Albério A B; Conforti, Valéria A; Azevedo, Fernando C C; Prada, Cristiana S; Silva, Jean C R; Batista, Adriana F; Marvulo, Maria Fernanda V; Morato, Rose L G; Alho, Cleber J R; Pinter, Adriano; Ferreira, Patrícia M; Ferreira, Fernado; Barros-Battesti, Darci M
The present study reports field data of ticks infesting wild carnivores captured from July 1998 to September 2004 in Brazil. Additional data were obtained from one tick collection and from previous published data of ticks on carnivores in Brazil. During field work, a total of 3437 ticks were collected from 89 Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox), 58 Chrysocyon brachyurus (maned wolf), 30 Puma concolor (puma), 26 Panthera onca (jaguar), 12 Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon), 4 Speothos venaticus (bush dog), 6 Pseudalopex vetulus (hoary fox), 6 Nasua nasua (coati), 6 Leopardus pardalis (ocelot), 2 Leopardus tigrinus (oncilla), 1 Leopardus wiedii (margay), 1 Herpailurus yagouaroundi (jaguarundi), 1 Oncifelis colocolo (pampas cat), 1 Eira barbara (tayara), 1 Galictis vittata (grison), 1 Lontra longicaudis (neotropical otter), and 1 Potus flavus (kinkajou). Data obtained from the Acari Collection IBSP included a total of 381 tick specimens collected on 13 C. thous, 8 C. brachyurus, 3 P. concolor, 10 P. onca, 3 P. cancrivorus, 4 N. nasua, 1 L. pardalis, 1 L. wiedii, 4 H. yagouaroundi, 1 Galictis cuja (lesser grison), and 1 L. longicaudis. The only tick-infested carnivore species previously reported in Brazil, for which we do not present any field data are Pseudalopex gymnocercus (pampas fox), Conepatus chinga (Molina's hog-nosed skunk), and Conepatus semistriatus (striped hog-nosed skunk). We report the first tick records in Brazil on two Felidae species (O. colocolo, H. yagouaroundi), two Canidae species (P. vetulus, S. venaticus), one Procyonidae species (P. flavus) and one Mustelidae (E. barbara). Tick infestation remains unreported for 5 of the 26 Carnivora species native in Brazil: Oncifelis geoffroyi (Geoffroy's cat), Atelocynus microtis (short-eared dog), Pteronura brasiliensis (giant otter), Mustela africana (Amazon weasel), and Bassaricyon gabbii (olingo). Our field data comprise 16 tick species represented by the genera Amblyomma (12 species), Ixodes (1
Michael A. Camann; Nancy E. Gillette; Karen L. Lamoncha; Sylvia R. Mori
We studied responses of Acari, especially oribatid mites, to prescribed low-intensity fire in an east side pine site in the southern Cascade Range in California. We compared oribatid population and assemblage responses to prescribed fire in stands that had been selectively logged to enhance old growth characteristics, in logged stands to minimize old growth...
Fernández-Soto, P; Pérez-Sánchez, R; Encinas-Grandes, A
Twenty unfed larvae of Neotrombicula autumnalis (Acari: Trombiculidae) collected on vegetation in the north of Spain were examined by polymerase chain reaction for Borrelia burgdorferi (s.l.). rickettsiae, and the Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup. At least 10% of the larvae were found to contain granulocytic ehrlichiae. Because the larvae were unfed, they would necessarily have inherited the bacteria through a transovarian transmission pathway.
Although coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is the predominant host for Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), false spider mite infestations do occur on bananas and plantains (Musa spp. Colla). Since its introduction, the banana and plantain industries have been negatively impacted to different deg...
Mentz, Márcia Bohrer; Trombka, Marcelo; Silva, Guilherme Liberato da; Silva, Carlos Eugênio
We report the finding of a female brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) on the scalp of a male patient inPorto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Human parasitism by this tick is rare and has seldomly been reported in the literature, despite its recognized importance since it can act as a vector of Rickettsia rickettsii, the agent of spotted fever.
Two new species of the genus Eharius Tuttle Muma (Acari: Phytoseiidae), Eharius karuti sp. nov. and Eharius stathakisi sp. nov. are described and illustrated, based on specimens collected from Phlomis sp. and Marrubium vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) from Turkey. A key to the known species of the genus is provided.
Background Limited available sequence information has greatly impeded population genetics, phylogenetics and systematics studies in the subclass Acari (mites and ticks). Mitochondrial (mt) DNA is well known to provide genetic markers for investigations in these areas, but complete mt genomic data have been lacking for many Acari species. Herein, we present the complete mt genome of the scab mite Psoroptes cuniculi. Methods P. cuniculi was collected from a naturally infected New Zealand white rabbit from China and identified by morphological criteria. The complete mt genome of P. cuniculi was amplified by PCR and then sequenced. The relationships of this scab mite with selected members of the Acari were assessed by phylogenetic analysis of concatenated amino acid sequence datasets by Bayesian inference (BI), maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum parsimony (MP). Results This mt genome (14,247 bp) is circular and consists of 37 genes, including 13 genes for proteins, 22 genes for tRNA, 2 genes for rRNA. The gene arrangement in mt genome of P. cuniculi is the same as those of Dermatophagoides farinae (Pyroglyphidae) and Aleuroglyphus ovatus (Acaridae), but distinct from those of Steganacarus magnus (Steganacaridae) and Panonychus citri (Tetranychidae). Phylogenetic analyses using concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 protein-coding genes, with three different computational algorithms (BI, ML and MP), showed the division of subclass Acari into two superorders, supported the monophylies of the both superorders Parasitiformes and Acariformes; and the three orders Ixodida and Mesostigmata and Astigmata, but rejected the monophyly of the order Prostigmata. Conclusions The mt genome of P. cuniculi represents the first mt genome of any member of the family Psoroptidae. Analysis of mt genome sequences in the present study has provided new insights into the phylogenetic relationships among several major lineages of Acari species. PMID:25052180
Horak, Ivan G; Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Kariuki, Edward K
A new tick species belonging to the genus Rhipicephalus Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae), namely, Rhipicephalus walkerae n. sp., is described. The male and female of this species are similar to those of several species in the Rhipicephalus appendiculatus group but can be distinguished from them by the very dense pattern of medium-sized punctations covering the conscutum and scutum, long and narrow dorsal prolongation of the spiracular plate, and relatively short dorsal cornua; in addition, the male has long and narrow adanal plates without a posterolateral angle. R. walkerae is known only from Kenya, where the adults were collected from giraffes, Giraffa camelopardalis (L.).
Jacinavicius, F C; Badari, J C; Ramirez, D G; Moraes, R H P; Onofrio, V C; Barros-Battesti, D M
The Acari Collection of Instituto Butantan (IBSP), São Paulo, Brazil, includes many types and other identified mite specimens that were mounted in Hoyer's medium, mainly in the first part of last century. An effort to restore degraded preparations was initiated in 1996. In this process, an improved technique was developed, allowing the adequate cleaning of specimens mounted up to 50-70 years before. Types and other identified specimens of Trombidiformes (Harpirhynchidae and Trombiculidae), Sarcoptiformes (Acaridae, Atopomelidae, Listrophoridae, and Psoroptidae) and Mesostigmata (Dermanyssidae, Ixodorhynchidae, Laelapidae, Macronyssidae, and Spinturnicidae) deposited at IBSP Collection have been satisfactorily restored.
Ermilov, Sergey G.; Corpuz-Raros, Leonila; Tolstikov, Andrei V.
Abstract Five species of the subgenus Galumna (Galumna) (Acari, Oribatida, Galumnidae) are registered in the Philippine oribatid mite fauna. A new species, Galumna (Galumna) makilingensis sp. n., is described; it is most similar morphologically to Galumna (Galumna) tokyoensis Aoki, 1966, but differs from the latter by the morphology of porose areas Aa and Ap, rostral setae, and length of interlamellar setae. Three species, Galumna (Galumna) crenata Deb & Raychaudhuri, 1975, Galumna (Galumna) cf. exigua Sellnick, 1925 and Galumna (Galumna) khoii Mahunka, 1989, are recorded in the Philippines for the first time. The species Galumna (Galumna) crenata is redescribed. An identification key to the Philippine species of Galumna (Galumna) is given. PMID:25493051
Cricetidae and Hominidae ( Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758) (Mammalia) (Hoffmann, 1969). Note. The tick from Valle de Bravo, Estado de México, was...distribution El género Ixodes (Acari: Ixodidae) en México: claves de identifi cación para adultos, diagnosis, huéspedes y distribución Carmen Guzmán...Incorporación de Profesores de Carrera en Facultades y Escuelas para el Fortalecimiento de la Investigación (PROFIP). Tila María Pérez, Curator of CNAC
ORGANIZATION Naval Medical Research and Development Command 8b OFFICE SYMBOL (if appfoab««) NMROC 9 PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER...taiwanensis (Acari: Ixodoldea: Ixodidae) Identity of Male and Female — (UNCLASSIFIED) ~ — ~~ 12 PERSONAL ALITHOR(S) Wasser , Hilda Y. and...Cairo. EOVP»! 22c OFFICE SYMBOL R.P.D. DO FORM 1473,84 MAR ii A?R edition may be used until ««nausted All other editions are obsolete SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE UNCLASSIFIED
Safdarkhani, Hamid Khadem; Asadi, Mahdieh; Seeman, Owen D
Two new flat mite species (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tenuipalpidae), Tenuipalpus iranicus sp. nov. ex. Salix aegyptiaca (Salicaceae) and Tenuipalpus kermanicus sp. nov. ex. Tamarix aphylla (Tamaricaceae) from the Hormozgan and Kerman provinces of Iran, respectively, are described and illustrated. These species belong to the proteae species group. Tenuipalpus iranicus sp. nov. is placed in the xerocolus subgroup due to having two pairs each of setae 3a and 4a, and T. kermanicus sp. nov. is placed in the keiensis subgroup because it has one pair of setae 3a and two pairs of 4a.
Liburd, O.E.; White, J.C.; Rhodes, E.M.
The residual effects of several reduced-risk and conventional miticides were evaluated in strawberries (Fragaria z ananassa Duchesne) on the twospotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and on 2 predatory mites, Neoseiulus californicus McGregor and Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and greenhouse. The greenhouse experiments also tested the direct effects of the miticides on TSSM. The efficacy of conventional and reduced-risk miticides was evaluated on strawberry leaf discs and on whole plants for control of TSSM. Furthermore, the residual effects of these miticides were evaluated on whole strawberry plants against selective predatorymore » mites. For TSSM, 5 treatments were evaluated: a conventional miticide; fenbutatin-oxide (Vendex[reg]) and 3 reduced-risk miticides; binfenazate (Acramite 50WP[reg]), activated garlic extract (Repel[reg]), sesame seed and castor oil (Wipeout[reg]), and a water-treated control. For predatory mites, the residual effects of only Acramite[reg] and Vendex[reg] were evaluated. Acramite[reg] was the most effective acaricide in reducing TSSM populations in both the laboratory and greenhouse experiments. Vendex[reg] and Wipeout[reg] were also effective in the laboratory, but did not cause significant reduction of TSSM in the greenhouse. Repel[reg] was the least effective of the 4 pesticides evaluated. Neither Acramite[reg] nor Vendex[reg] had a significant effect on either predatory mite species. However, there appeared to be more predatory mites on the Vendex[reg]-treated plants than on the Acramite[reg]-treated plants. There were significantly more predatory mites of both species on the cue plants, which were inoculated with TSSM versus the non-cue plants, which were not inoculated. (author) [Spanish] Los efectos residuales en poblaciones de la 'arana roja', Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranichidae) y de los acaros
Gadino, Angela N; Walton, Vaughn M; Dreves, Amy J
Laboratory bioassays were conducted to evaluate the effects of six vineyard pesticides on Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten (Acari: Phytoseiidae), a key predator of the mite Calepitrimerus vitis Nalepa (Acari: Eriophyoidae), in Pacific coastal vineyards. Materials tested were whey powder, 25% boscalid + 13% pyraclostrobin (Pristine), 40% myclobutanil (Rally), micronized sulfur (92% WP), 75% ethylene bisdithiocarbamate (mancozeb; Manzate), and 91.2% paraffinic oil (JMS Stylet), all applied at three concentrations. Pesticide dilutions were directly sprayed onto T. pyri adult females and juveniles, and each treatment was assessed to determine effects on direct mortality and fecundity. Five of the six pesticides tested resulted in < 50% mortality to adult and juvenile T. pyri for all concentrations 7 d after treatment. Paraffinic oil treatments displayed direct mortality > 50% for adult and juvenile assays and resulted in significantly higher mortality. Sublethal effects were more pronounced than acute pesticide toxicity, particularly in juvenile mite bioassays. Significant decreases in fecundity were detected in the sulfur and mancozeb treatments compared with the control in juvenile tests. The relative percentage of fecundity reduction for juvenile mites was highest when applying mancozeb (> 70%), sulfur (> 25%), or myclobutanil (> 20%). Adult mites displayed the greatest reductions in fecundity from applications of paraffinic oil (> 20%) or mancozeb (> 15%) treatments. Boscalid (+ pyraclostrobin) and whey displayed the least effect on fecundity across all bioassays. These results can be used to develop management guidelines in vineyard pest management practices to help conserve and enhance predatory mite populations.
Gontijo, Lessando M; Nechols, James R; Margolies, David C; Cloyd, Raymond A
The arrangement, number, and size of plant parts may influence predator foraging behavior, either directly, by altering the rate or pattern of predator movement, or, indirectly, by affecting the distribution and abundance of prey. We report on the effects of both plant architecture and prey distribution on foraging by the predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae), on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Plants differed in leaf number (2- or 6-leafed), and there were associated differences in leaf size, plant height, and relative proportions of plant parts; but all had the same total surface area. The prey, the twospotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), were distributed either on the basal leaf or on all leaves. The effect of plant architecture on predator foraging behavior varied depending on prey distribution. The dimensions of individual plant parts affected time allocated to moving and feeding, but they did not appear to influence the frequency with which predators moved among different plant parts. Overall, P. persimilis moved less, and fed upon prey longer, on 6-leafed plants with prey on all leaves than on plants representing other treatment combinations. Our findings suggest that both plant architecture and pattern of prey distribution should be considered, along with other factors such as herbivore-induced plant volatiles, in augmentative biological control programs.
MENTZ, Márcia Bohrer; TROMBKA, Marcelo; da SILVA, Guilherme Liberato; SILVA, Carlos Eugênio
We report the finding of a female brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) on the scalp of a male patient in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Human parasitism by this tick is rare and has seldomly been reported in the literature, despite its recognized importance since it can act as a vector of Rickettsia rickettsii, the agent of spotted fever. PMID:27074329
Hajiqanbar, Hamidreza; Khaustov, Alexander; Kamali, Karim
A new species of the genus Parapygmephorus Cross, 1965 (Acari: Heterostigmatina, Neopygmephoridae) is described from Northeastern Iran. A phoretic adult female of Parapygmephorus khorasanicus Hajiqanbar and Khaustov sp. n. was discovered clasping on hairs on the ventral body surface of Halictus quadricinctus (Fabricius, 1776) (Hymenoptera; Halictidae). It is the fifth representative among the known species of the genus Parapygmephorus in the world. Differentiation of new species from other species of the genus is discussed, and a key to known world species is provided.
African swine fever in the Caribbean region (Acari: Argasidae). Prev Vet Med 2:63-70. doi:10.1016/0167-5877(84)90049-7...that A. fischeri may be a valid name, but its resurrection will hinge on comparison of African and European tick popu- lations, and, to the best of...1949. Apanaskevich and Horak (2006) demonstrated that the African populations of Hyalomma turanicum correspond to the resurrected species H.
Background The family Tetranychidae (Chelicerata: Acari) includes ~1200 species, many of which are of agronomic importance. To date, mitochondrial genomes of only two Tetranychidae species have been sequenced, and it has been found that these two mitochondrial genomes are characterized by many unusual features in genome organization and structure such as gene order and nucleotide frequency. The scarcity of available sequence data has greatly impeded evolutionary studies in Acari (mites and ticks). Information on Tetranychidae mitochondrial genomes is quite important for phylogenetic evaluation and population genetics, as well as the molecular evolution of functional genes such as acaricide-resistance genes. In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Panonychus citri (Family Tetranychidae), a worldwide citrus pest, and provide a comparison to other Acari. Results The mitochondrial genome of P. citri is a typical circular molecule of 13,077 bp, and contains the complete set of 37 genes that are usually found in metazoans. This is the smallest mitochondrial genome within all sequenced Acari and other Chelicerata, primarily due to the significant size reduction of protein coding genes (PCGs), a large rRNA gene, and the A + T-rich region. The mitochondrial gene order for P. citri is the same as those for P. ulmi and Tetranychus urticae, but distinctly different from other Acari by a series of gene translocations and/or inversions. The majority of the P. citri mitochondrial genome has a high A + T content (85.28%), which is also reflected by AT-rich codons being used more frequently, but exhibits a positive GC-skew (0.03). The Acari mitochondrial nad1 exhibits a faster amino acid substitution rate than other genes, and the variation of nucleotide substitution patterns of PCGs is significantly correlated with the G + C content. Most tRNA genes of P. citri are extremely truncated and atypical (44-65, 54.1 ± 4.1 bp), lacking either the T- or D-arm, as
Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn; Tanskul, Panita; Ratanatham, Supaporn; Watcharapichat, Pochaman; Phulsuksombati, Duangporn; Frances, Stephen P; Lerdthusnee, Kriangkrai; Linthicum, Kenneth J
Transovarial transmission of Orientia tsutsugamushi (Hayashi) in laboratory colonies of Leptotrombidium chiangraiensis Tanskul & Linthicum and Leptotrombidium imphalum (Vercammen-Grandjean & Langston) (Acari: Trombiculidae) was studied for two generations. In L. chiangraiensis, the transovarial and filial infection rate was 100% in each generation. Only infected females were produced. In L. imphalum, the transovarial infection rate of the parental generation was 100% but declined to 93.3% in the F1 generation. The overall filial infection rate was 100% in the F1 but was only 62.3% in the F2 generation. In infected lines, only infected females were produced in the F1 generation, but 1.5% of the F2 progeny were infected males. Lower rates of transovarial transmission in L. imphalum may be the cause of the lower natural infection rates found in nature.
Ren, Tian-Guang; Wu, Dian; Fletcher, Quinn E.
This paper describes a new species of chigger mite (Acari: Trombiculidae), Gahrliepia cangshanensis n. sp., from rodents in southwest China. The specimens were collected from Yunnan red-backed voles, Eothenomys miletus (Thomas, 1914), and a Chinese white-bellied rat, Niviventer confucianus (Milne-Edwards, 1871) in Yunnan Province. The new species is unique mainly in its number of dorsal setae (n=21), and it has the following features: fT (formula of palpotarsus)=4B (B=branched), fp (formula of palpal seta)=B/N/N/N/B (N=naked), a broad tongue-shaped scutum with an almost straight posterior margin, and 17 PPLs (posterior posterolateral seta) with a length of 36-43 µm. This chigger mite may also infect other rodent hosts and may be distributed in other localities. PMID:24623884
Ren, Tian-Guang; Guo, Xian-Guo; Jin, Dao-Chao; Wu, Dian; Fletcher, Quinn E
This paper describes a new species of chigger mite (ACARI: Trombiculidae), Gahrliepia cangshanensis n. sp., from rodents in southwest China. The specimens were collected from Yunnan red-backed voles, Eothenomys miletus (Thomas, 1914), and a Chinese white-bellied rat, Niviventer confucianus (Milne-Edwards, 1871) in Yunnan Province. The new species is unique mainly in its number of dorsal setae (n=21), and it has the following features: fT (formula of palpotarsus)=4B (B=branched), fp (formula of palpal seta)=B/N/N/N/B (N=naked), a broad tongue-shaped scutum with an almost straight posterior margin, and 17 PPLs (posterior posterolateral seta) with a length of 36-43 µm. This chigger mite may also infect other rodent hosts and may be distributed in other localities.
Venzal, José M; Nava, Santiago; González-Acuña, Daniel; Mangold, Atilio J; Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Lado, Paula; Guglielmone, Alberto A
A new species, Ornithodoros microlophi (Acari: Argasidae), belonging to the subgenus Alectorobius is described from larvae collected on the lizards Microlophus atacamensis (Donoso-Barros, 1966) and Microlophus quadrivittatus (Tschudi, 1845) (Squamata: Tropiduridae) in continental and insular localities from northern Chile. Larvae of O. microlophi can be distinguished from other Neotropical species of the genus Ornithodoros by a combination of the following characters, namely 10 pairs of ventral setae, venter with 6 pairs of sternal setae, dorsal plate pyriform, 19-21 pairs of dorsal setae (typically 20), 13 pairs are dorsolateral and 7 pairs are central, and hypostome with dental formula 4/4 in medial portion and apex pointed. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequences suggests that O. microlophi represents an independent lineage within Neotropical species of the Argasidae. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Onrat, Serap Tutgun; Aşçi, Ferruh; Ozkan, Muhlis
The karyotypes of water mites (Acari: Hydrachnellae: Hydrodromidae) are largely unknown. The present investigation is the first report of a study designed to characterize the chromosomes of water mites. The study was carried out with specimens of Hydrodroma despiciens collected from Eber Lake in Afyon, Turkey. Several different methods were tried to obtain chromosomes of this species. However, somatic cell culture proved to be the most effective for the preparation of chromosomes. In the present study, we determined the diploid chromosome number of Hydrodroma despiciens to be 2n = 16. However, a large metacentric chromosome was found in each metaphase, which we believed to be the X chromosome. We could not determine the sex chromosomes of this species. This study is the first approach to the cytogenetic characterization of this water mite group. Furthermore, these cytogenetic data will contribute to the understanding of the phylogenetic relationship among water mites. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the cytogenetics of water mites.
Büchel, Kerstin; Bendin, Juliane; Gharbi, Amina; Rahlenbeck, Sibylle; Dautel, Hans
Repellent efficacy of 10% EBAAP (3-[N-butyl-N-acetyl]-aminopropionic acid, ethyl ester) and 10% Icaridin ((2-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperidinecarboxylic acid 1-methylpropyl ester)) were evaluated against 20% DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) in human subject trials against ticks. Responses of host-seeking nymphs of the European castor bean tick (Ixodes ricinus L.; Acari: Ixodidae) and the North American blacklegged tick (I. scapularis Say; Acari: Ixodidae) were compared. Tests were carried out according to the US-EPA standard protocol with ethanolic solutions of the active ingredients of repellents being applied to the forearm of 10 volunteers. The upward movement of ticks was monitored until repellent failure taking up to 12.5 h. Application of 20% DEET resulted in median complete protection times (CPT; Kaplan-Meier median) between 4 and 4.5 h, while 10% EBAAP yielded CPTs of 3.5-4h. No significant differences were found between the efficacies of two repellents nor between the two species tested. The median of the CPT of a 10% Icaridin solution was 5h in nymphs of I. scapularis, but 8h in those of I. ricinus (P<0.01). Based on these studies, EBAAP and Icaridin are efficacious alternatives to DEET in their repellent activity against nymphs of the two Ixodes ticks with Icaridin demonstrating particularly promising results against I. ricinus. Future research should investigate whether similar results occur when adult Ixodes ticks or other tick species are tested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Ullah, Mohammad Shaef; Lim, Un Taek
Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), a major pest of many agricultural crops, is mainly controlled with chemical acaricides. However, predatory mites and entomopathogens have been proposed as alternative control agents. In this study, the effect of the BotaniGard ® GHA strain of Beauveria bassiana on the survival, longevity, fecundity, and egg hatch rate of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae) were studied under laboratory conditions. When B. bassiana was applied directly to P. persimilis eggs at a concentration of 1×10 8 conidia/ml, corrected hatchability was less than 5%, and the corrected mortality of nymphs and adults was not significantly different from control 10days after treatment. Phytoseiulus persimilis nymphs that hatched from treated eggs showed no significant change in their development time, adult female longevity, hatch rate, survival rates over time, or offspring sex ratio. However, significant negative effects on fecundity and life table parameters (net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of natural increase, mean generation time, finite rate of increase, and doubling time) were found when B. bassiana was applied to the adult stage. Spraying B. bassiana at 1×10 8 conidia/ml on newly emerged adults of P. persimilis caused 44% reduction in the oviposition period, 26% in adult longevity, and 63% in fecundity. Due to these negative effects, B. bassiana should be used with careful adjustment of application timing (first spray B. bassiana and then release P. persimilis) to supplement biological mite control systems using P. persimilis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tom W. Coleman; Michael I. Jones; Mark S. Hoddle; Laurel J. Haavik; John C. Moser; Mary L. Flint; Steven J. Seybold
The straw itch mite, Pyemotes tritici LagrÃ¨ze-Fossat andMontanÃ© (Acari: Pyemotidae), was discovered parasitising the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive exotic species to California, United States of America, and the Mexican goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus coxalis Waterhouse (Coleoptera:...
A new species of Formicomotes Sevastianov (Acari: Heterostigmata: Dolichocybidae) associated with termites (Isoptera: Termitidae) from Brazil, with redescription of Formicomotes octipes Sevastianov, 1980.
Khaustov, Alexander A; Frolov, Andrey V
The new species Formicomotes brasiliensis sp. nov. (Acari: Heterostigmata: Dolichocybidae), phoretic on the termite genus Nasutitermes Dudley (Insecta: Isoptera) from Brazil, is described. The genus Formicomotes Sevastianov, 1980 is recorded from the Neotropical region for the first time. Formicomotes octipes Sevastianov, 1980 is redescribed based on type material collected on the ant species Lasius fuliginosus and new specimens from Crimea collected from forest litter.
The new eriophyid mite species Aculops dipsaci n. sp. (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyidae) collected from Dipsacus laciniatus L. (Dipsacaceae) in northern Serbia is described and illustrated. Differential diagnosis is provided in comparison with Aculops salixis Xue, Song and Hong. This is the first e...
The Genus Ixodes (Acari: Ixodidae) in Mexico: Adult Identification Keys, Diagnoses, Hosts, and Distribution (El genero Ixodes (Acari: Ixodidae) en Mexico: claves de identificacion para adultos, diagnosis, huespedes y distribucion)
also from Estado de México (Hoffmann, 1969). Hosts in Mexico. Cricetidae and Hominidae ( Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758) (Mammalia) (Hoffmann, 1969...distribution El género Ixodes (Acari: Ixodidae) en México: claves de identifi cación para adultos, diagnosis, huéspedes y distribución Carmen Guzmán...postdoctoral scholarship under the Programa de Formación e Incorporación de Profesores de Carrera en Facultades y Escuelas para el Fortalecimiento de la
Prose, Robert; Breuner, Nicole E; Johnson, Tammi L; Eisen, Rebecca J; Eisen, Lars
Clothing treated with the pyrethroid permethrin is available in the United States as consumer products to prevent tick bites. We used tick bioassays to quantify contact irritancy and toxicity of permethrin-treated clothing for three important tick vectors of human pathogens: the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae); the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae); and the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Say) (Acari: Ixodidae). We first demonstrated that field-collected I. scapularis nymphs from Minnesota were as susceptible as laboratory-reared nymphs to a permethrin-treated textile. Field ticks examined in bioassays on the same day they were collected displayed contact irritancy by actively dislodging from a vertically oriented permethrin-treated textile, and a forced 1-min exposure resulted in all ticks being unable to move normally, thus posing no more than minimal risk of biting, 1 h after contact with the treated textile. Moreover, we documented lack of normal movement for laboratory-reared I. scapularis nymphs by 1 h after contact for 1 min with a wide range of permethrin-treated clothing, including garments made from cotton, synthetic materials, and blends. A comparison of the impact of a permethrin-treated textile across tick species and life stages revealed the strongest effect on I. scapularis nymphs (0% with normal movement 1 h after a 1-min exposure), followed by A. americanum nymphs (14.0%), I. scapularis females (38.0%), D. variabilis females (82.0%), and A. americanum females (98.0%). Loss of normal movement for all ticks 1 h after contact with the permethrin-treated textile required exposures of 1 min for I. scapularis nymphs, 2 min for A. americanum nymphs, and 5 min for female I. scapularis, D. variabilis, and A. americanum ticks. We conclude that use of permethrin-treated clothing shows promise to prevent bites by medically important ticks. Further research needs are discussed.
0279276E-D761-4A27-BFF7-7329E05E0F66 Infection of the Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum (Acari: Ixodidae), with Rickettsia parkeri: first report from...Spring, MD 20910-1230, U.S.A. Abstract The molecular detection of Rickettsia parkeri in a Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum, collected in Delaware...near Smyrna, Delaware. All specimens were tested for the presence of Rickettsia with a genus-specific quantitative real-time polymerase chain
Schaefer, Ina; Norton, Roy A; Scheu, Stefan; Maraun, Mark
Terrestrial fossils that document the early colonization of land are scarce for >100 my after the Cambrian explosion. This raises the question whether life on land did not exist or just did not fossilize. With a molecular dating technique, we analyzed the origin of terrestrial chelicerate microarthropods (Acari, Oribatida) which have a fossil record since the Middle Devonian that is exceptional among soil animals. Our results suggest that oribatid mites originated in the Precambrian (571+/-37 mya) and that the radiation of basal groups coincides with the gap in the terrestrial fossil record between the Cambrian explosion and the earliest fossilized records of continental ecosystems. Further, they suggest that the colonization of land started via the interstitial, approximately 150 my earlier than the oldest fossils of terrestrial ecosystems. Overall, the results imply that omnivorous and detritivorous arthropods formed a major component in early terrestrial food webs, thereby facilitating the invasion of terrestrial habitats by later colonizers of higher trophic levels. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
El-Seedi, Hesham R; Azeem, Muhammad; Khalil, Nasr S; Sakr, Hanem H; Khalifa, Shaden A M; Awang, Khalijah; Saeed, Aamer; Farag, Mohamed A; AlAjmi, Mohamed F; Pålsson, Katinka; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin
Due to the role of Ixodes ricinus (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) in the transmission of many serious pathogens, personal protection against bites of this tick is essential. In the present study the essential oils from 11 aromatic Egyptian plants were isolated and their repellent activity against I. ricinus nymphs was evaluated Three oils (i.e. Conyza dioscoridis L., Artemisia herba-alba Asso and Calendula officinalis L.) elicited high repellent activity in vitro of 94, 84.2 and 82%, respectively. The most active essential oil (C. dioscoridis) was applied in the field at a concentration of 6.5 µg/cm 2 and elicited a significant repellent activity against I. ricinus nymphs by 61.1%. The most repellent plants C. dioscoridis, C. officinalis and A. herba-alba yielded essential oils by 0.17, 0.11 and 0.14%, respectively. These oils were further investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. α-Cadinol (10.7%) and hexadecanoic acid (10.5%) were the major components of C. dioscoridis whereas in C. officinalis, α-cadinol (21.2%) and carvone (18.2%) were major components. Artemisia herba-alba contained piperitone (26.5%), ethyl cinnamate (9.5%), camphor (7.7%) and hexadecanoic acid (6.9%). Essential oils of these three plants have a potential to be used for personal protection against tick bites.
Healy, John A E; Bourke, Patrick
Ongoing work in oak woods in Killarney National Park in southwestern Ireland is focusing on the factors influencing the fine-scale aggregated distribution of Ixodes ricinus L. (Acari: Ixodidae) on the ground. The extent of reuse of stems of vegetation as questing points by adult ticks was determined by paint-marking stems on which ticks were found, counting and removing these ticks, and subsequently reexamining the same stems for ticks on two further occasions. Overall, an estimated 2,967 stems in 123 separate rush plants (Juncus effusus L.) were examined. Statistical analysis of the data demonstrated a highly significant reoccupancy by ticks of stems previously and recently used. Furthermore, it is shown that the extent of stem reuse by ticks is significantly and positively correlated with the numbers of ticks originally observed on those stems. Although other factors may be involved in generating clumping of ticks, the results are compatible with the proposition that aggregation of I. ricinus on the ground is pheromone-mediated. The findings are discussed in relation to what is known about the powers of lateral movement of I. ricinus on the ground and the possible implications for the performance of tick traps.
Martins-Hatano, F; Gettinger, D; Manhães, M L; Bergallo, H G
The goal of this study was to evaluate the morphometric variation of laelapine populations (Acari, Mesostigmata) associated with neotropical oryzomyine rodents at different geographic localities in Brazil. Three nominal mite species were selected for study, all infesting the pelage of small mammals at different localities in Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo, Bahia, and the Federal District, Brazil. To analyse morphometric characteristics, thirty-seven morphological characters distributed across the whole body of each specimen were measured. We use the Analysis of Principal Components, extracting the three first axes and projecting each mite in these axes. Major species level changes in the taxonomy of the host mammals allows an independent examination of morphometric variation of mites infesting a set of distinctly different host species at different geographic localities. Gigantolaelaps vitzthumi and Laelaps differens are associated with oryzomyine rodents of the genus Cerradomys, and consistently showed a tendency to cluster by host phylogeny. Laelaps manguinhosi associated with Nectomys rattus in central Brazil is morphometrically distinct from mites infesting N. squamipes in the coastal restingas of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo. The results obtained here indicate that laelapine mite populations can vary among geographic areas and among phylogenetically related host species. Clearly, the study of these mites at the population level can be an important tool for clarifying the taxonomy of both mites and hosts.
Lee, K V; Moon, R D; Burkness, E C; Hutchison, W D; Spivak, M
The parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) is arguably the most detrimental pest of the European-derived honey bee, Apis mellifera L. Unfortunately, beekeepers lack a standardized sampling plan to make informed treatment decisions. Based on data from 31 commercial apiaries, we developed sampling plans for use by beekeepers and researchers to estimate the density of mites in individual colonies or whole apiaries. Beekeepers can estimate a colony's mite density with chosen level of precision by dislodging mites from approximately to 300 adult bees taken from one brood box frame in the colony, and they can extrapolate to mite density on a colony's adults and pupae combined by doubling the number of mites on adults. For sampling whole apiaries, beekeepers can repeat the process in each of n = 8 colonies, regardless of apiary size. Researchers desiring greater precision can estimate mite density in an individual colony by examining three, 300-bee sample units. Extrapolation to density on adults and pupae may require independent estimates of numbers of adults, of pupae, and of their respective mite densities. Researchers can estimate apiary-level mite density by taking one 300-bee sample unit per colony, but should do so from a variable number of colonies, depending on apiary size. These practical sampling plans will allow beekeepers and researchers to quantify mite infestation levels and enhance understanding and management of V. destructor.
Rulison, Eric L.; Kuczaj, Isis; Pang, Genevieve; Hickling, Graham J.; Tsao, Jean I.; Ginsberg, Howard S.
The nymphal stage of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae), is responsible for most transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, to humans in North America. From 2010 to fall of 2012, we compared two commonly used techniques, flagging and dragging, as sampling methods for nymphal I. scapularis at three sites, each with multiple sampling arrays (grids), in the eastern and central United States. Flagging and dragging collected comparable numbers of nymphs, with no consistent differences between methods. Dragging collected more nymphs than flagging in some samples, but these differences were not consistent among sites or sampling years. The ratio of nymphs collected by flagging vs dragging was not significantly related to shrub density, so habitat type did not have a strong effect on the relative efficacy of these methods. Therefore, although dragging collected more ticks in a few cases, the numbers collected by each method were so variable that neither technique had a clear advantage for sampling nymphal I. scapularis.
Kuczyński, Lechosław; Skoracka, Anna
The distribution of galls caused by Aculus tetanothrix (Acari: Eriophyoidea) on three Salix species was studied. The factors influencing this distribution were analysed, i.e. willow species, study area and shoot length. Spatial pattern of gall distribution within the shoot was also examined. The study was conducted in Russia, Kola Peninsula. Densities of galls caused by A. tetanothrix differed significantly among willow species. Considerably higher gall density was recorded in the White Sea coast than in the Khibiny Mountains. This may be explained by the influence of a milder maritime climate that favors mite occurrence compared to a harsh and variable mountain climate that limits mite abundance. There was no relationship between the gall density and the shoot length. The highest density of galls was recorded on the inner offshoots; within the offshoot, there was a maximum density on the fifth leaf. This pattern was repeatable for all shoots studied, independent of the study area, willow species and length of shoots, suggesting the optimal conditions for A. tetanothrix exist on leaves in the middle part of a shoot. This distribution pattern may be an effect of the trade-off between the costs and benefits resulting from leaf quality and mite movement along the shoot. This hypothesis, however, needs to be tested experimentally.
Kaufman, W Reuben; Kaufman, S; Flynn, Peter C
Female Amblyomma hebraeum ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) increase their weight ∼10-fold during a 'slow phase of engorgement' (7-9 days), and a further 10-fold during the 'rapid phase' (12-24h). During the rapid phase, the cuticle thins by half, with a plastic (permanent) deformation of greater than 40% in two orthogonal directions. A stress of 2.5 MPa or higher is required to achieve this degree of deformation (Flynn and Kaufman, 2015). Using a dimensional analysis of the tick body and applying the Laplace equation, we calculated that the tick must achieve high internal hydrostatic pressures in order to engorge fully: greater than 55 kPa at a fed:unfed mass ratio of ∼20:1, when cuticle thinning commences (Flynn and Kaufman, 2011). In this study we used a telemetric pressure transducer system to measure the internal hydrostatic pressure of ticks during feeding. Sustained periods of irregular high frequency (>20 Hz) pulsatile bursts of high pressure (>55 kPa) were observed in two ticks: they had been cannulated just prior to the rapid phase of engorgement, and given access to a host rabbit for completion of the feeding cycle. The pattern of periods of high pressure generation varied over the feeding cycle and between the two specimens. We believe that these pressures exceed those reported so far for any other animal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Villanueva, Raul T; Childers, Carl C
In this study, we present field and laboratory evidence on the preference of Iphiseiodes quadripilis (Banks) for grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen) leaves compared with sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) leaves. This preference was confirmed in four orchards whether leaf samples were taken from either border trees of contiguous grapefruit or sweet orange or interior row trees with both citrus species in adjacent rows. Iphiseiodes quadripilis was most abundant in grapefruit trees in spite of the greater abundance of the Texas citrus mite, Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae) in sweet orange trees. Similar preference responses were observed in laboratory tests using a Y-tube olfactometer whether I. quadripilis were collected from sweet orange or grapefruit. Iphiseiodes quadripilis collected from grapefruit trees showed significant preference for grapefruit over sweet orange leaves in contact choice tests using an arena of alternating leaf strips (12 mm long x 2 mm wide) of sweet orange and grapefruit. However, I. quadripilis collected from sweet orange trees did not show preference for either grapefruit or sweet orange leaves. Based on these results, grapefruit leaves foster some unknown factor or factors that retain I. quadripilis in greater numbers compared with sweet orange leaves.
Coombs, Megan R; Bale, Jeffrey S
The lower and upper thermal activity thresholds of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus macropilis Banks (Acari: Phytoseiidae) were compared with those of its prey Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and one of the alternative commercially available control agents for T. urticae, Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. Adult female P. macropilis retained ambulatory function (CTmin) and movement of appendages (chill coma) at significantly lower temperatures (8.2 and 0.4 °C, respectively) than that of P. persimilis (11.1 and 3.3 °C) and T. urticae (10.6 and 10.3 °C). As the temperature was raised, P. macropilis ceased walking (CTmax) and entered heat coma (42.7 and 43.6 °C), beyond the upper locomotory limits of P. persimilis (40.0 and 41.1 °C), but before T. urticae (47.3 and 48.7 °C). Walking speeds were investigated and P. persimilis was found to have significantly faster ambulation than P. macropilis and T. urticae across a range of temperatures. The lower thermal activity threshold data indicate that P. macropilis will make an effective biological control agent in temperate climates.
Mixson, T.R.; Campbell, S.R.; Gill, J.S.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Reichard, M.V.; Schultz, T.L.; Dasch, G.A.
Ambyomma antericanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) is an aggressive tick that feeds on humans during all postembryonic life stages. In many regions of the United States, it is the tick most commonly found attached to humans. Public health interest has grown recently, due to the recognition of new human pathogens transmitted by A. antericanum and the expanding distribution of the tick. A. americanum is a vector of several bacteria pathogenic to humans. Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii cause moderate-to-severe febrile illness. 'Rickettsia amblyommii,' a member of the spotted fever group Rickettsia, also has recently been implicated as a possible human pathogen based on serologic evidence from persons recovering from illness after a tick bite. We have determined the prevalence of infection of Ehrlichia chaffeensis, E. ewingii, 'Borrelia lonestari,' and R. amblyommii within A. americanum ticks from 29 sites in nine states. Overall infection prevalences were 4.7% for E. chaffeensis (range, 0-27%), 3.5% for E. ewingii (range, 0-18.6%), 2.5% for B. lonestari (range, 0-12.2%), and 41.2% for R. amblyommii (range, 0-84.0%). In addition, 87 ticks (4.3%) were infected with two or more bacteria. This report documents new distribution records for E. ewingii, B. lonestari, and R. amblyommii and underscores the nonhomogeneous distribution of pathogen foci of infection. Additional surveillance throughout the range of A. antericanum is warranted to increase physician and public awareness of the risk of disease to humans from exposure to the agents transmitted by this tick.
Lee, J K; Moraru, G M; Stokes, J V; Wills, R W; Mitchell, E; Unz, E; Moore-Henderson, B; Harper, A B; Varela-Stokes, A S
Amblyomma maculatum Koch (Acari: Ixodidae), the primary vector for Rickettsia parkeri, may also be infected with a rickettsia of unknown pathogenicity, "Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae." Infection rates with these rickettsiae vary geographically, and coinfected ticks have been reported. In this study, infection rates of R. parkeri and "Ca. R. andeanae" were evaluated, and rickettsial DNA levels quantified, in 335 questing adult A. maculatum collected in 2013 (n = 95), 2014 (n = 139), and 2015 (n = 101) from Oktibbeha County, MS. Overall infection rates of R. parkeri and "Ca. R. andeanae" were 28.7% and 9.3%, respectively, with three additional A. maculatum (0.9%) coinfected. While R. parkeri-infected ticks were detected all three years (34.7% in 2013; 13.7% in 2014; 43.6% in 2015), "Ca. R. andeanae" was not detected in 2013, and was detected at rates of 10.8% in 2014, and 15.8% in 2015. Interestingly, rickettsial DNA levels in singly-infected ticks were significantly lower in "Ca. R. andeanae"-infected ticks compared to R. parkeri-infected ticks (P < 0.0001). Thus, both infection rates and rickettsial DNA levels were higher for R. parkeri than "Ca. R. andeanae." Infection rates of R. parkeri were also higher, and "Ca. R. andeanae" lower, here compared to A. maculatum reported previously in Kansas and Oklahoma. As we continue to monitor infection rates and levels, we anticipate that understanding temporal changes will improve our awareness of human risk for spotted fever rickettsioses. Further, these data may lead to additional studies to evaluate potential interactions among sympatric Rickettsia species in A. maculatum at the population level. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Ditillo, J L; Kennedy, G G; Walgenbach, J F
The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is an important pest of tomatoes in North Carolina. Resident populations of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis have recently been detected on field-grown tomatoes in central North Carolina, and potentially can be a useful biological control agent against T. urticae Laboratory bioassays were used to assess lethal and reproductive effects of 10 insecticides and five fungicides commonly used in commercial tomato production (chlorantraniliprole, spinetoram, permethrin, imidacloprid, dimethoate, dinotefuran, thiamethoxam, bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, azoxystrobin, chlorothalonil, boscalid, cyazofamid, and mancozeb) on P. persimilis adult females and eggs. Insecticides were tested using concentrations equivalent to 1×, 0.5×, and 0.1× of the recommended field rates. Fungicides were tested at the 1× rate only. Dimethoate strongly impacted P. persimilis with high adult mortality, reduced fecundity, and reduced hatch of eggs laid by treated adults, particularly at high concentrations. The pyrethroids lambda-cyhalothrin, bifenthrin, and fenpropathrin were associated with repellency and reproductive effects at high concentrations. Bifenthrin additionally caused increased mortality at high concentrations. Chlorantraniliprole, dinotefuran, and permethrin did not significantly affect mortality or reproduction. Imidacloprid significantly reduced fecundity and egg viability, but was not lethal to adult P. persimilis Thiamethoxam negatively impacted fecundity at the 1× rate. There were no negative effects associated with fungicide exposure with the exception of mancozeb, which impacted fecundity. Field trials were conducted to explore the in vivo impacts of screened insecticides on P. persimilis populations in the field. Field trials supported the incompatibility of dimethoate with P. persimilis populations. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf
Javadi Khederi, Saeid; Khanjani, Mohammad; Gholami, Mansur; Bruno, Giovanni Luigi
Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to study the expression of some marker genes involved in the interaction between grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and the erineum mite Colomerus vitis Pagenstecher (Acari: Eriophyidae). Potted vines of cultivars Atabaki (resistant to C. vitis), Ghalati (susceptible to C. vitis) and Muscat Gordo (moderately resistant to C. vitis) were infested at the six-leaf stage. The expression of protease inhibitor (PIN), beta-1,3-glucanase (GLU), polygalacturonase inhibitor (PGIP), Vitis vinifera proline-rich protein 1 (PRP1), stilbene synthase (STS), and lipoxygenase (LOX) genes was assessed on young leaves collected 96, 120 and 144 h after mite infestation (hami). As a control, non-infested leaves collected 24 h before mite infestations were used. Differences were detected in expression of the selected genes during the C. vitis-grapevine interaction. The resistant cultivar Atabaki increased the expression of LOX, STS, GLU, PGIP and PRP1 genes during the first 120 hami. On the contrary, in the susceptible Ghalati, all selected genes showed an expression level similar or lower than non-infested leaves. Muscat Gordo increased the expression of all selected genes in comparison with non-infested leaves, but it was lower than in Atabaki. Significant transcript accumulation of PIN gene was detected for Muscat Gordo whereas it was slightly up-regulated in Ghalati and Atabaki. LOX, STS, PIN, GLU, PGIP and PRP1 genes were clearly expressed in response to C. vitis infestation. We therefore infer that expression of PGIP, PIN and PRP1 genes could represent a defense strategy against C. vitis infestations in grapevine leaves.
Costa, A F; Teodoro, P E; Bhering, L L; Fornazier, M J; Andrade, J S; Martins, D S; Zanuncio Junior, J S
Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) is considered the main pest of strawberry. Several factors can favor its development, among them the genotype susceptibility and cropping system. The aims of this study were to evaluate the agronomic performance of strawberry cultivars under different managements and to identify strawberry cultivars that meet tolerance to T. urticae and high fruit yield. Thirteen cultivars of strawberry ('Albion', 'Aleluia', 'Aromas', 'Camarosa', 'Camino Real', 'Campinas', 'Diamante', 'Dover', 'Festival', 'Seascape', 'Toyonoka', 'Tudla', and 'Ventana') under three managements (open field, low tunnel, and high tunnel) were evaluated. The T. urticae attack to different cultivars was influenced by managements, being low tunnel the one that provided higher infestations in the most evaluated cultivars. 'Camarosa' was the cultivar with the lower incidence of pest and 'Dover' had the higher infestation. The genotype most suitable for growing under different managements is the 'Festival' genotype, since it meets tolerance to T. urticae, high fruit yield, and phenotypic stability.
Heethoff, M; Domes, K; Laumann, M; Maraun, M; Norton, R A; Scheu, S
Theories on the evolution and maintenance of sex are challenged by the existence of ancient parthenogenetic lineages such as bdelloid rotifers and darwinulid ostracods. It has been proposed that several parthenogenetic and speciose taxa of oribatid mites (Acari) also have an ancient origin. We used nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I to estimate the age of the parthenogenetic oribatid mite species Platynothrus peltifer. Sixty-five specimens from 16 sites in North America, Europe and Asia were analysed. Seven major clades were identified. Within-clade genetic distances were below 2 % similar to the total intraspecific genetic diversity of most organisms. However, distances between clades averaged 56 % with a maximum of 125 %. We conclude that P. peltifer, as it is currently conceived, has existed for perhaps 100 million years, has an extant distribution that results from continental drift rather than dispersal and was subject to several cryptic speciations.
Castro, Elizeu B; Feres, Reinaldo J F; Ochoa, Ronald; Bauchan, Gary R
The Cerrado is the second largest Brazilian biome, and is considered to be a "hotspot" due the great concentration of endemic species and high rate of deforestation. Surveys of the mite fauna present in this biome have revealed a great number of new species. In this paper, we describe Tenuipalpus spinosaurus sp. nov. (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), a new species of Tenuipalpus sensu stricto, from adult females, deutonymphs, protonymphs, larvae and eggs, collected on Terminalia argentea (Combretaceae), from the Cerrado in Brazil. Females of this new species bear a prominent longitudinal crest on the opisthosoma. The ontogenetic changes in the idiosoma and leg chaetotaxy of all stages are presented. A key to the world species of Tenuipalpus sensu stricto is provided.
Opit, George P; Perret, Jamis; Holt, Kiffnie; Nechols, James R; Margolies, David C; Williams, Kimberly A
Efficacy, costs, and impact on crop salability of various biological and chemical control strategies for Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) were evaluated on mixed plantings of impatiens, Impatiens wallerana Hook.f (Ericales: Balsaminaceae), and ivy geranium, Pelargonium peltatum (1.) L'Hér. Ex Aiton (Geraniales: Geraniaceae), cultivars in commercial greenhouses. Chemical control consisting of the miticide bifenazate (Floramite) was compared with two biological control strategies using the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Treatments were 1) a single, early application of bifenazate; 2) a single, early release of predatory mites at a 1:4 predator:pest ratio based on leaf samples to estimate pest density; 3) a weekly release of predatory mites at numbers based on the area covered by the crop; and 4) an untreated control. T. urticae populations were monitored for 3 wk after the earliest treatment. When plants were ready for market, their salability was estimated. Bifenazate and density-based P. persimilis treatments effectively reduced T. urticae numbers starting 1 wk after plants had been treated, whereas the scheduled, area-based P. persimilis treatment had little or no effect. The percentage of flats that could be sold at the highest market wholesale price ranged from 15 to 33%, 44 to 86%, 84 to 95%, and 92 to 100%, in the control, weekly area-based P. persimilis, bifenazate, and single density-based P. persimilis treatments, respectively. We have shown that in commercial greenhouse production of herbaceous ornamental bedding plants, estimating pest density to determine the appropriate number of predators to release is as effective and offers nearly the same economic benefit as prophylactic use of pesticides.
Delfino, M M S; Ribeiro, S C; Furtado, I P; Anjos, L A; Almeida, W O
Parasitism of the lizard Tropidurus hispidus by Geckobiella sp. and by larvae of Eutrombicula alfreddugesi was examined in a mountainous area in Chapada do Araripe (07° 16' S and 39° 26' W), southern Ceará State, Brazil. Of the 56 lizards collected (26 females, 27 males, and 3 juveniles), 40 (total prevalence of 71.42%) were infested by mites. Mite-pockets were the sites most heavily infested by E. alfreddugesi larvae, while Geckobiella sp. was found uniformly distributed under scales over the host's entire body. The female specimens of T. hispidus parasitised by E. alfreddugesi had an average infestation rate of 8.57 ± 3.62, 1-27, while the males had an average infestation rate of 11.90 ± 2.63, 1-25. The female specimens parasitised by Geckobiella sp. had an average infestation rate of 5.91 ± 2.28, 1-25, while the males had an average infestation rate of 5.43 ± 1.52, 1-23. Seven specimens were also infested by eggs and immature forms of unidentified mites (average 2.28 ± 0.89, 1-7). There were no significant differences between the total prevalence of mites on adult male (70.4%) and adult female (65.4%) lizards. The body sizes of the hosts did not influence their infestation rates. The average infestation intensity by E. alfreddugesi (10.2 ± 8.7) was significantly greater than the average infestation intensity by Geckobiella sp. (5.9 ± 6.8). T. hispidus is the new host record to Geckobiella mites.
Schütte, Conny; Kleijn, Prisca W; Dicke, Marcel
Adult female Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari, Phytoseiidae) of one of our laboratory populations showed a lower degree of attraction to herbivore-induced plant volatiles than other laboratory populations. We hypothesized earlier that this consistent change in foraging behavior is a symptom of a disease, as it is a contagious phenomenon. Here we describe more symptoms by comparing mated females of this population (non-responding (NR) population) with mated females of other populations that are strongly attracted to herbivore-induced plant volatiles (responding populations). The most apparent characteristic of the NR population was the presence of numerous dorso-ventrally flattened females (76% of all females). These females had a normal size after mating but shrank during adulthood. Independent of their age, shrunken females did not reproduce and died a few days after shrinking. In addition to these profound differences in short term performance, females from the NR-population showed behavioral changes, including a lower degree of attraction to herbivore-induced plant volatiles, a higher tendency to leave a prey-patch and a lower predation rate. Moreover, about half of the live females of the NR-population carried birefringent dumbbell-shaped crystals in the legs whereas live females of a responding population carried crystals only in the lumen of the Malpighian tubules and the rectum. The symptom 'crystals in the legs' was correlated with low reproduction. Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction of these crystals revealed that they contain calcium and phosphorus along with carbon and oxygen. Crystals with comparable elemental compositions and the same characteristic concentric layering are well known in insects, where they are thought to play a major role in detoxification of calcium and heavy metals, and in storage of phosphorus. The fraction of predators carrying a white spot in the distal part of the opisthosoma, due to accumulation of excretory
Abstract The family Ameroseiidae Evans, 1961 (Acari: Mesostigmata) includes a total of 12 valid and adequately described genera, namely Afrocypholaelaps Elsen, 1972, Ameroseiella Bregetova, 1977, Ameroseius Berlese, 1904, Asperolaelaps Womersley, 1956, Brontispalaelaps Womersley, 1956, Epicriopsis Berlese, 1916, Hattena Domrow, 1963, Kleemannia Oudemans, 1930, Neocypholaelaps Vitzthum, 1942, Pseudoameroseius gen. n., Sertitympanum Elsen & Whitaker, 1985 and Sinoseius Bai & Gu, 1995. One of these genera includes subgenera, namely Kleemannia (Primoseius) Womersley, 1956. All genera are reviewed and re-diagnosed, and a dichotomous key is provided for their identification. Ameroseius (50 species), Kleemannia (28 species) and Neocypholaelaps (22 species) are the largest genera in the family. Ameroseiella, Kleemannia, Kleemannia (Primoseius) and Sinoseius are considered to be valid taxa and, in presented systematic classification, they are removed from synonymy with Ameroseius. The genus Pseudoameroseius gen. n., with type species Ameroseius michaelangeli Moraza, 2006 (from Canary Islands), is newly erected to further refine broad primary concept of Ameroseius as understood by some former authors (Karg, Bregetova). Asperolaelaps is removed from synonymy with Neocypholaelaps. Three new species are here described, namely Ameroseius renatae sp. n. (based on specimens from Slovakia), Kleemannia dolichochaeta sp. n. (from Spain) and Kleemannia miranda sp. n. (from U.S.A.). The following new junior synonymies are proposed: Ameroseius apodius Karg, 1971 = Ameroseiella macrochelae (Westerboer, 1963); Ameroseius bregetovae Livshits & Mitrofanov, 1975 = Neocypholaelaps favus Ishikawa, 1968; Ameroseius chinensis Khalili-Moghadam & Saboori, 2016 = Ameroseius guyimingi Ma, 1997; Ameroseius crassisetosus Ye & Ma, 1993, Ameroseius qinghaiensis Li & Yang, 2000 and Ameroseius norvegicus Narita, Abduch & Moraes, 2015 = Ameroseius corbiculus (Sowerby, 1806); Ameroseius dubitatus Berlese
Servat, Grace Patricia; Cruz, Roxana; Vitorino, Joyce; Deichmann, Jessica
We document chigger mite (Acari: Trombiculidae) ectoparasitic infestation (prevalence and intensity) on a population of Catharus ustulatus (Turdidae) wintering at a site in southeastern Peru undergoing development for natural gas exploration (PAD A). We compare prevalence (i.e., the proportion of individuals infested by chigger mites) and intensity (i.e., the average number of larvae and larvae clusters in infested individuals) at forest edge (< 100 m) and interior (> 100 m) from PAD A, as variation in biotic (e.g., vegetation cover) and abiotic (e.g., relative humidity and temperature) factors are expected to influence chigger mite abundance. Chigger mite prevalence was 100% - all C. ustulatus captured were infested regardless of distance. The range of variation in larvae (2-72 larvae/individual) and cluster intensity (1-4 clusters/individual) did not differ between edge and interior (P > 0.05), despite differences in herbaceous vegetation cover (UM-W = 180, n = 30, 31; P < 0.01). Ectoparasitic prevalence and intensity in long-distance migratory birds might add risks to an already hazardous journey, as ectoparasitic variation and other selective pressures experienced by individuals at each locality may not only be a cause of within-site mortality but by affecting the physical condition of birds it may be carry over to subsequent sites, affecting reproductive success and survival. Documenting ectoparasitism at any phase of the life cycle of migrants could improve understanding of population declines of migratory birds.
Ghazy, Noureldin Abuelfadl; Suzuki, Takeshi; Amano, Hiroshi; Ohyama, Katsumi
Humidity-controlled cold storage, in which the water vapour pressure is saturated, can prolong the survival of the predatory mites Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) and Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae). However, information on the optimum air temperature for long-term storage by this method is limited. The authors evaluated the survival of mated adult females of N. californicus and P. persimilis at 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5 °C under saturated water vapour condition (vapour pressure deficit 0.0 kPa). N. californicus showed a longer survival time than P. persimilis at all the air temperatures. The longest mean survival time of N. californicus was 11 weeks at 7.5 °C, whereas that of P. persimilis was 8 weeks at 5.0 °C. After storage at 7.5 °C for 8 weeks, no negative effect on post-storage oviposition was observed in N. californicus, whereas the oviposition of P. persimilis stored at 5.0 °C for 8 weeks was significantly reduced. The interspecific variation in the response of these predators to low air temperature might be attributed to their natural habitat and energy requirements. These results may be useful for the long-term storage of these predators, which is required for cost-effective biological control. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
Erdmann, Georgia; Scheu, Stefan; Maraun, Mark
Most European forests are managed by humans. However, the manner and intensity of management vary. While the effect of forest management on above-ground communities has been investigated in detail, effects on the below-ground fauna remain poorly understood. Oribatid mites are abundant microarthropods in forest soil and important decomposers in terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we investigated the effect of four forest types (i.e., managed coniferous forests; 30 and 70 years old managed beech forests; natural beech forests) on the density, diversity and community structure of oribatid mites (Acari). The study was replicated at three regions in Germany: the Swabian Alb, the Hainich and the Schorfheide. To relate changes in oribatid mite community structure to environmental factors, litter mass, pH, C and N content of litter, fine roots and C content of soil were measured. Density of oribatid mites was highest in the coniferous forests and decreased in the order 30 years old, 70 years old, and natural beech forests. Mass of the litter layer and density of oribatid mites were strongly correlated indicating that the litter layer is an important factor regulating oribatid mite densities. Diversity of oribatid mites was little affected by forest type indicating that they harbor similar numbers of niches. Species composition differed between the forest types, suggesting different types of niches. The community structure of oribatid mites differed more strongly between the three regions than between the forest types indicating that regional factors are more important than effects associated with forest type.
Rêgo, Adriano S; Teodoro, Adenir V; Maciel, Anilde G S; Sarmento, Renato A
The cassava green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa, is a key pest of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae), and it may be kept in check by naturally occurring predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae. In addition to predatory mites, abiotic factors may also contribute to regulate pest mite populations in the field. Here, we evaluated the population densities of both M. tanajoa and the generalist predatory mite Euseius ho DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae) over the cultivation cycle (11 months) of cassava in four study sites located around the city of Miranda do Norte, Maranhão, Brazil. The abiotic variables rainfall, temperature and relative humidity were also recorded throughout the cultivation cycle of cassava. We determined the relative importance of biotic (density of E. ho) and abiotic (rainfall, temperature and relative humidity) factors to the density of M. tanajoa. The density of M. tanajoa increased whereas the density of E. ho remained constant throughout time. A hierarchical partitioning analysis revealed that most of the variance for the density of M. tanajoa was explained by rainfall and relative humidity followed by E. ho density and temperature. We conclude that abiotic factors, especially rainfall, were the main mechanisms driving M. tanajoa densities.
The problem of the unnatural transfer of exotic ticks (Acari: Ixodida) on reptiles (Reptilia) imported to Poland is presented. In the period from 2003 to 2007, 382 specimens of reptiles belonging to the following genera were investigated: Testudo, Iguana, Varanus, Gongylophis, Python, Spalerosophis, Psammophis. The reptiles most infested with ticks are imported to Poland from Ghana in Africa, and are the commonly bred terrarium reptiles: Varanus exanthematicus and Python regius. As a result of the investigations, the transfer of exotic ticks on reptiles to Poland was confirmed. There were 2104 specimens of the genera Amblyomma and Hyalomma. The following species were found: Amblyomma exornatum Koch, 1844, Amblyomma flavomaculatum (Lucas, 1846), Amblyomma latum Koch, 1844, Amblyomma nuttalli Donitz, 1909, Amblyomma quadricavum (Schulze, 1941), Amblyomma transversale (Lucas, 1844), Amblyomma varanense (Supino, 1897), Amblyomma sp. Koch, 1844, Hyalomma aegyptium (Linnaeus, 1758). All the species of ticks of genus Amblyomma revealed have been discovered in Poland for the first time. During the research, 13 cases of anomalies of morphological structure were confirmed in the ticks A. flavomaculatum, A. latum and H. aegyptium. The expanding phenomenon of the import of exotic reptiles in Poland and Central Europe is important for parasitological and epidemiological considerations, and therefore requires monitoring and wide-ranging prophylactic activities to prevent the inflow of exotic parasites to Poland. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Roy, Somnath; Muraleedharan, Narayanannair; Mukhopadhyay, Ananda
Oligonychus coffeae Nietner (Acari: Tetranychidae), the red spider mite (RSM), is a major pest of tea (Camellia sinensis) in most tea-producing countries. Nymphs and adults of RSM lacerate cells, producing minute characteristic reddish brown marks on the upper surface of mature leaves, which turn red in severe cases of infestation, resulting in crop loss. The pest is present on tea all the year round, although numbers vary depending on season. Their number increases as the weather warms up and decreases markedly once rains set in. Under optimal conditions there may be 22 overlapping generations in a year. Parthenogenesis is known to occur; consequently, all mite stages can be found at a given time. Their infestation is mainly confined to the upper surface of the mature leaves and could readily be identified by the bronzing of the leaf. There are several naturally occurring insect predators, such as coccinellid and staphylinid larvae, lacewing larvae, and mite predators, most importantly species of the families Phytoseiidae and Stigmaeidae. Integrated management has been adopted to control this mite pest, involving cultural, mechanical, physical, biological and chemical methods. This review collates the most important works carried out on biology, ecology and management of O. coffeae. Also the scope of future studies for better management of this regular mite pest of tea is discussed.
Bu, Chunya; Li, Jinling; Wang, Xiao-Qin; Shi, Guanglu; Peng, Bo; Han, Jingyu; Gao, Pin; Wang, Younian
Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Acari: Tetranychidae) is a worldwide polyphagous agricultural pest that has the title of resistance champion among arthropods. We reported previously the identification of the acaricidal compound β-sitosterol from Mentha piperita and Inula japonica. However, the acaricidal mechanism of β-sitosterol is unclear. Due to the limited genetic research carried out, we de novo assembled the transcriptome of T. cinnabarinus using Illumina sequencing and conducted a differential expression analysis of control and β-sitosterol-treated mites. In total, we obtained >5.4 G high-quality bases for each sample with unprecedented sequencing depth and assembled them into 22,941 unigenes. We identified 617 xenobiotic metabolism-related genes involved in detoxification, binding, and transporting of xenobiotics. A highly expanded xenobiotic metabolic system was found in mites. T. cinnabarinus detoxification genes—including carboxyl/cholinesterase and ABC transporter class C—were upregulated after β-sitosterol treatment. Defense-related proteins, such as Toll-like receptor, legumain, and serine proteases, were also activated. Furthermore, other important genes—such as the chloride channel protein, cytochrome b, carboxypeptidase, peritrophic membrane chitin binding protein, and calphostin—may also play important roles in mites' response to β-sitosterol. Our results demonstrate that high-throughput-omics tool facilitates identification of xenobiotic metabolism-related genes and illustration of the acaricidal mechanisms of β-sitosterol. PMID:26078964
Abou El-Atta, Doaa Abd El-Maksoud; Osman, Mohamed Ali
This study investigated development, reproduction and life table parameters of the astigmatid mold mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) (Acari: Acaridae) feeding on egg-masses or adult females of the nematode Meloidogyne incognita, egg-masses of the nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis, ras cheese or yeast at 25 ± 1 °C, 70 ± 10 % RH in the dark. Immature developmental times were shorter when the mite was fed females of M. incognita followed by yeast. Different prey/diet types had no significant effect on longevity and lifespan of both males and females. Daily oviposition rate (eggs/female/day) was highest for mites fed yeast (20.8 ± 1.8 eggs) and lowest for mites fed females of M. incognita (6.6 ± 0.5). Intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m) was highest for mites fed yeast compared to other prey/diet; no significant differences in r m were observed among mites fed on non-yeast diets. This result may suggest a role of T. putrescentiae as biocontrol agent of plant-parasitic nematodes and the yeast may be used for mite mass-production purposes.
New records of water mites of the family Torrenticolidae (Acari, Hydrachnidia) with descriptions of two new species from Nanshih River system in Taiwan and redescription of Torrenticola ussuriensis (Sokolow, 1940) from the Russian Far East
Pešić, Vladimir; Semenchenko, Ksenia A.; Chatterjee, Tapas; Yam, Rita S.W.; Chan, Benny K.K.
Abstract New records of torrenticolid water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Torrenticolidae) from Nanshih River, Taiwan, are presented. Two new species are described: Torrenticola nanshihensis and Torrenticola taiwanicus; the latter species is compared with Torrenticola ussuriensis (Sokolow, 1940), a poorly known species which is re-described based on a new material from the Russian Far East; Monatractides cf. circuloides (Halík, 1930)is reported for the first time for Taiwan. PMID:21998497
Bouagga, Sarra; Urbaneja, Alberto; Pérez-Hedo, Meritxell
The combined release of Orius laevigatus (Fieber) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) with Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) provides effective control of sweet pepper key pests, such as thrips and whiteflies. However, the management of the aphids can still be improved. Recently, the predatory mirids Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Miridae) and Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur) (Hemiptera: Miridae) have been found to be effective in the control of aphids, thrips and whiteflies when tested alone. Hence, integrating one of these two mirids with A. swirskii might enhance sweet pepper pest management. In this work, we began by investigating the co-occurrence of both mirid species when released together with A. swirskii. This was compared to the standard release of O. laevigatus with A. swirskii. N. tenuis and A. swirskii were involved in a bidirectional intraguild predation (IGP). On the contrary, this interaction (IGP) was apparently unidirectional in the case of M. pygmaeus with A. swirskii and O. laevigatus with A. swirskii. Both, M. pygmaeus and O. laevigatus significantly reduced the abundance of A. swirskii. Secondly, in a greenhouse experiment, where the same release combinations were tested (either N. tenuis, M. pygmaeus or O. laevigatus combined with A. swirskii), IGP seemed to be neutralized. Mirids with A. swirskii significantly suppressed thrips, whitefly, and aphid infestations. Contrarily, the combined use of O. laevigatus with A. swirskii did not reached a satisfactory control for aphids, despite the reduction in thrips and whitefly densities. Therefore, our results suggest that the use of mirids combined with A. swirskii could result in more efficient and robust biological control programs in sweet pepper crops.
Ogrzewalska, Maria; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda A; Marcili, Arlei; Nava, Santiago; González-Acuña, Daniel; Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Ruiz-Arrondo, Ignacio; Venzal, José M; Mangold, Atilio; Labruna, Marcelo B
The tick Amblyomma parvitarsum (Acari: Ixodidae) has established populations in Andean and Patagonic environments of South America. For the present study, adults of A. parvitarsum were collected in highland areas (elevation >3500 m) of Argentina and Chile during 2009-2013, and tested by PCR for rickettsial infection in the laboratory, and isolation of rickettsiae in Vero cell culture by the shell vial technique. Overall, 51 (62.2%) out of 82 A. parvitarsum adult ticks were infected by spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae, which generated DNA sequences 100% identical to each other, and when submitted to BLAST analysis, they were 99.3% identical to corresponding sequence of the ompA gene of Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest. Rickettsiae were successfully isolated in Vero cell culture from two ticks, one from Argentina and one from Chile. DNA extracted from the third passage of the isolates of Argentina and Chile were processed by PCR, resulting in partial sequences for three rickettsial genes (gltA, ompB, ompA). These sequences were concatenated and aligned with rickettsial corresponding sequences available in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the A. pavitarsum rickettsial agent grouped under high bootstrap support in a clade composed by the SFG pathogens R. sibirica, R. africae, R. parkeri, Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, and two unnamed SFG agents of unknown pathogenicty, Rickettsia sp. strain NOD, and Rickettsia sp. strain ApPR. The pathogenic role of this A. parvitarsum rickettsia cannot be discarded, since several species of tick-borne rickettsiae that were considered nonpathogenic for decades are now associated with human infections. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.
Immediato, Davide; Camarda, Antonio; Iatta, Roberta; Puttilli, Maria Rita; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Di Paola, Giancarlo; Giangaspero, Annunziata; Otranto, Domenico; Cafarchia, Claudia
The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) (Acari: Dermanyssidae) is one of the most economically important ectoparasites of laying hens worldwide. Chemical control of this mite may result in environmental and food contamination, as well as the development of drug resistance. High virulence of Beauveria bassiana sensu lato strains isolated from naturally infected hosts or from their environment has been demonstrated toward many arthropod species, including ticks. However, a limited number of studies have assessed the use of B. bassiana for the control of D. gallinae s.l. and none of them have employed native strains. This study reports the pathogenicity of a native strain of B. bassiana (CD1123) against nymphs and adults of D. gallinae. Batches of nymph and adult mites (i.e., n=720 for each stage) for treated groups (TGs) were placed on paper soaked with a 0.1% tween 80 suspension of B. bassiana (CIS, 10(5), 10(7) and 10(9) conidia/ml), whilst 240 untreated control mites for each stage (CG) were exposed only to 0.1% tween 80. The mites in TG showed a higher mortality at all stages (p<0.01) when compared to CG, depending on the time of exposure and the conidial concentration. A 100% mortality rate was recorded using a CIS of 10(9) conidia/ml 12 days post infection (DPI) in adults and 14 DPI in nymphs. B. bassiana suspension containing 10(9) conidia/ml was highly virulent towards nymph and adult stages of D. gallinae, therefore representing a possible promising natural product to be used in alternative or in combination to other acaricidal compounds currently used for controlling the red mite. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wantuch, Holly A; Tarpy, David R
The parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) has plagued European honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), in the Americas since its introduction in the 1980s. For many years, these mites were sufficiently controlled using synthetic acaricides. Recently, however, beekeepers have experienced increased resistance by mites to chemical pesticides, which are also known to leave residues in hive products such as wax and honey. Thus there has been increased emphasis on nonchemical integrated pest management control tactics for Varroa. Because mites preferentially reproduce in drone brood (pupal males), we developed a treatment strategy focusing on salvaging parasitized drones while removing mites from them. We removed drone brood from colonies in which there was no acaricidal application and banked them in separate "drone-brood receiving" colonies treated with pesticides to kill mites emerging with drones. We tested 20 colonies divided into three groups: 1) negative control (no mite treatment), 2) positive control (treatment with acaricides), and 3) drone-brood removal and placement into drone-brood receiving colonies. We found that drone-brood trapping significantly lowered mite numbers during the early months of the season, eliminating the need for additional control measures in the spring. However, mite levels in the drone-brood removal group increased later in the summer, suggesting that this benefit does not persist throughout the entire season. Our results suggest that this method of drone-brood trapping can be used as an element of an integrated control strategy to control varroa mites, eliminating a large portion of the Varroa population with limited chemical treatments while retaining the benefits of maintaining adult drones in the population.
Kreipe, Victoria; Corral-Hernández, Elena; Scheu, Stefan; Schaefer, Ina; Maraun, Mark
Species of the genus Steganacarus are soil-living oribatid mites (Acari, Phthiracaridae) with a ptychoid body. The phylogeny and species status of the species of Steganacarus are not resolved, some authors group all ten German species of Steganacarus within the genus Steganacarus whereas others split them into three subgenera, Steganacarus, Tropacarus and Atropacarus. Additionally, two species, S. magnus and T. carinatus, comprise morphotypes of questionable species status. We investigated the phylogeny and species status of ten European Steganacarus species, i.e. S. applicatus, S. herculeanus, S. magnus forma magna, S. magnus forma anomala, S. spinosus, Tropacarus brevipilus, T. carinatus forma carinata, T. carinatus forma pulcherrima, Atropacarus striculus and Rhacaplacarus ortizi. We used two molecular markers, a 251 bp fragment of the nuclear gene 28S rDNA (D3) and a 477 bp fragment of the mitochondrial COI region. The phylogeny based on a combined analysis of D3 and COI separated four subgenera (Steganacarus, Tropacarus and Atropacarus, Rhacaplacarus) indicating that they form monophyletic groups. The COI region separated all ten species of the genus Steganacarus and showed variation within some species often correlating with the geographic origin of the species. Resolution of the more conserved D3 region was limited, indicating that radiation events are rather recent. Overall, our results indicate that both genes alone cannot be used for phylogeny and barcoding since variation is too low in D3 and too high in COI. However, when used in combination these genes provide reliable insight into the phylogeny, radiation and species status of taxa of the genus Steganacarus.
Vázquez, Luís; Panadero, Rosario; Dacal, Vicente; Pato, Francisco Javier; López, Ceferino; Díaz, Pablo; Arias, María Sol; Fernández, Gonzalo; Díez-Baños, Pablo; Morrondo, Patrocinio
During the 2007 and 2008 hunting seasons (April-October) the skin of 367 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.), hunted in different preserves from Galicia (Northwestern Spain), were examined for ticks (Acari: Ixodidae). The overall prevalence of infestation by ticks was 83.1%. The predominant species was Ixodes ricinus (83.1%), whereas a single Dermacentor marginatus specimen appeared in one roe deer. All developmental stages of I. ricinus were found parasitizing roe deer, the adults being the most frequent (82.2%), followed by nymphs (45.6%) and larvae (27.2%). The mean intensity of infestation by I. ricinus was 43.2 ± 49.85; most of them were adults (30.7 ± 31.64) and in a lesser extend nymphs (16.9 ± 24.74) and larvae (10.7 ± 29.90). Ixodes ricinus was present all over the study with percentages that oscillated between 100% in spring and 57.4% in autumn. CHAID algorithm showed the sex of roe deer as the most influential factor in tick prevalence, followed by the climatic area. The different developmental stages of I. ricinus were more frequent in males than in females, and the prevalence of adults and larvae were higher in roe deer from coastal areas than in those from mountainous and central areas, whereas nymphs were more frequent in mountainous areas. Host age and density were not determinants for tick infestation. Our results confirm that roe deer are important hosts for I. ricinus in northwestern Spain, serving as a vehicle for the geographic distribution of these ticks.
Johnson, Tammi L; Graham, Christine B; Boegler, Karen A; Cherry, Cara C; Maes, Sarah E; Pilgard, Mark A; Hojgaard, Andrias; Buttke, Danielle E; Eisen, Rebecca J
Tick-borne pathogens transmitted by Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae), also known as the deer tick or blacklegged tick, are increasing in incidence and geographic distribution in the United States. We examined the risk of tick-borne disease exposure in 9 national parks across six Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic States and the District of Columbia in 2014 and 2015. To assess the recreational risk to park visitors, we sampled for ticks along frequently used trails and calculated the density of I. scapularis nymphs (DON) and the density of infected nymphs (DIN). We determined the nymphal infection prevalence of I. scapularis with a suite of tick-borne pathogens including Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia miyamotoi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti. Ixodes scapularis nymphs were found in all national park units; DON ranged from 0.40 to 13.73 nymphs per 100 m2. Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, was found at all sites where I. scapularis was documented; DIN with B. burgdorferi ranged from 0.06 to 5.71 nymphs per 100 m2. Borrelia miyamotoi and A. phagocytophilum were documented at 60% and 70% of the parks, respectively, while Ba. microti occurred at just 20% of the parks. Ixodes scapularis is well established across much of the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic States, and our results are generally consistent with previous studies conducted near the areas we sampled. Newly established I. scapularis populations were documented in two locations: Washington, D.C. (Rock Creek Park) and Greene County, Virginia (Shenandoah National Park). This research demonstrates the potential risk of tick-borne pathogen exposure in national parks and can be used to educate park visitors about the importance of preventative actions to minimize tick exposure. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.
Silva, Camila de Lima; Graciolli, Gustavo
Acari ectoparasites were collected from bats during 12 months in the Rio Negro farm (19°34'22″S and 56°14'36″W), Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 654 bats belonging to the families Phyllostomidae, Noctilionidae, Molossidae, Vespertilionidae and Emballonuridae were captured. Only 136 bats of nine genera and 11 species were parasitised. Periglischrus iheringi Oudemans was the most abundant mite species, and this prevalence may be related to the low degree of host specificity of this species and due to the broad geographical distribution of its hosts. The greatest mean intensity was found to Periglischrus torrealbai Machado-Allison on Phyllostomus discolor Wagner (Phyllostomidae) and Periglischrus tonatii Herrin and Tipton associated with Lophostoma silviculum d'Orbigny (Phyllostomidae), which also had the highest prevalence of infestation.
Prakash, Batah Kunalan; Low, Van Lun; Vinnie-Siow, Wei Yin; Tan, Tiong Kai; Lim, Yvonne Ai-Lian; Morvarid, Akhavan Rezaei; AbuBakar, Sazaly; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd
Canine babesiosis is an emerging tick-borne disease with a worldwide distribution, including Malaysia. While the prevalence of Babesia has been documented from dogs in Malaysia, occurrence of Babesia has been relatively little studied in their tick vectors. Accordingly, a total of 240 dogs and 140 Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.) (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks from Malaysia were molecularly screened for the presence of Babesia protozoa in the present study. Babesia gibsoni was only detected in ticks (1.4%), whereas Babesia vogeli was detected in both ticks (1.4%) and dogs (2.1%). This study highlights the detection of B. gibsoni and B. vogeli for the first time, in both adult and nymphal stages of R. sanguineus s.l. in Malaysia, suggesting the potential role of this tick species in transmitting canine babesiosis.
Expression analysis of Drosophila doublesex, transformer-2, intersex, fruitless-like, and vitellogenin homologs in the parahaploid predator Metaseiulus occidentalis (Chelicerata: Acari: Phytoseiidae).
Pomerantz, Aaron F; Hoy, Marjorie A
Characterization and expression analyses are essential to gain insight into sex-determination pathways in members of the Acari. Little is known about sex determination at the molecular level in the western orchard predatory mite Metaseiulus occidentalis (Arthropoda: Chelicerata: Arachnida: Acari: Phytoseiidae), a parahaploid species. In this study, eight genes previously identified as putative homologs to genes involved in the sex-determination pathway in Drosophila melanogaster were evaluated for sex-specific alternative splicing and sex-biased expression using reverse-transcriptase PCR and quantitative real-time PCR techniques, respectively. The homologs evaluated in M. occidentalis included two doublesex-like genes (Moccdsx1 and Moccdsx2), transformer-2 (Mocctra-2), intersex (Moccix), two fruitless-like genes (MoccBTB1 and MoccBTB2), as well as two vitellogenin-like genes (Moccvg1 and Moccvg2). Single transcripts of equal size were detected in males and females for Moccdsx1, Moccdsx2, Mocctra-2, Moccix, and MoccBTB2, suggesting that their pre-mRNAs do not undergo alternative splicing in a sex-specific manner. Three genes, Moccdsx1, Moccdsx2 and MoccBTB2, displayed male-biased expression relative to females. One gene, Moccix, displayed female-biased expression relative to males. Two genes, Mocctra-2 and MoccBTB1, did not display detectable differences in transcript abundance in males and females. Expression of Moccvg1 and Moccvg2 were detected in females only, and transcript levels were up-regulated in mated females relative to unmated females. To our knowledge, this represents the first attempt to elucidate expression patterns of putative sex-determination genes in an acarine. This study is an initial step towards understanding the sex-determination pathway in the parahaploid M. occidentalis.
Ahn, Jeong Joon; Son, Youngsoo; He, Yaqian; ...
Temperature plays an important role in the growth and development of arthropods, and thus the current trend of climate change will alter their biology and species distribution. We used Chaetodactylus krombeini (Acari: Chaetodactylidae), a cleptoparasitic mite associated with Osmia bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), as a model organism to investigate how temperature affects the development and voltinism of C. krombeini in the eastern United States. The effects of temperature on the stage-specific development of C. krombeini were determined at seven constant temperatures (16.1, 20.2, 24.1, 27.5, 30.0, 32.4 and 37.8°C). Parameters for stage-specific development, such as threshold temperatures and thermal constant, weremore » determined by using empirical models. Results of this study showed that C. krombeini eggs developed successfully to adult at all temperatures tested except 37.8°C. The nonlinear and linear empirical models were applied to describe quantitatively the relationship between temperature and development of each C. krombeini stage. The nonlinear Lactin model estimated optimal temperatures as 31.4, 32.9, 32.6 and 32.5°C for egg, larva, nymph, and egg to adult, respectively. In the linear model, the lower threshold temperatures were estimated to be 9.9, 14.7, 13.0 and 12.4°C for egg, larva, nymph, and egg to adult, respectively. The thermal constant for each stage completion were 61.5, 28.1, 64.8 and 171.1 degree days for egg, larva, nymph, and egg to adult, respectively. Under the future climate scenarios, the number of generations (i.e., voltinism) would increase more likely by 1.5 to 2.0 times by the year of 2100 according to simulation. Lastly, the findings herein firstly provided comprehensive data on thermal development of C. krombeini and implications for the management of C. krombeini populations under global warming were discussed.« less
Ahn, Jeong Joon; Son, Youngsoo; He, Yaqian
Temperature plays an important role in the growth and development of arthropods, and thus the current trend of climate change will alter their biology and species distribution. We used Chaetodactylus krombeini (Acari: Chaetodactylidae), a cleptoparasitic mite associated with Osmia bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), as a model organism to investigate how temperature affects the development and voltinism of C. krombeini in the eastern United States. The effects of temperature on the stage-specific development of C. krombeini were determined at seven constant temperatures (16.1, 20.2, 24.1, 27.5, 30.0, 32.4 and 37.8°C). Parameters for stage-specific development, such as threshold temperatures and thermal constant, weremore » determined by using empirical models. Results of this study showed that C. krombeini eggs developed successfully to adult at all temperatures tested except 37.8°C. The nonlinear and linear empirical models were applied to describe quantitatively the relationship between temperature and development of each C. krombeini stage. The nonlinear Lactin model estimated optimal temperatures as 31.4, 32.9, 32.6 and 32.5°C for egg, larva, nymph, and egg to adult, respectively. In the linear model, the lower threshold temperatures were estimated to be 9.9, 14.7, 13.0 and 12.4°C for egg, larva, nymph, and egg to adult, respectively. The thermal constant for each stage completion were 61.5, 28.1, 64.8 and 171.1 degree days for egg, larva, nymph, and egg to adult, respectively. Under the future climate scenarios, the number of generations (i.e., voltinism) would increase more likely by 1.5 to 2.0 times by the year of 2100 according to simulation. Lastly, the findings herein firstly provided comprehensive data on thermal development of C. krombeini and implications for the management of C. krombeini populations under global warming were discussed.« less
Ahn, Jeong Joon; Son, Youngsoo; He, Yaqian; Lee, Eungul; Park, Yong-Lak
Temperature plays an important role in the growth and development of arthropods, and thus the current trend of climate change will alter their biology and species distribution. We used Chaetodactylus krombeini (Acari: Chaetodactylidae), a cleptoparasitic mite associated with Osmia bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), as a model organism to investigate how temperature affects the development and voltinism of C. krombeini in the eastern United States. The effects of temperature on the stage-specific development of C. krombeini were determined at seven constant temperatures (16.1, 20.2, 24.1, 27.5, 30.0, 32.4 and 37.8°C). Parameters for stage-specific development, such as threshold temperatures and thermal constant, were determined by using empirical models. Results of this study showed that C. krombeini eggs developed successfully to adult at all temperatures tested except 37.8°C. The nonlinear and linear empirical models were applied to describe quantitatively the relationship between temperature and development of each C. krombeini stage. The nonlinear Lactin model estimated optimal temperatures as 31.4, 32.9, 32.6 and 32.5°C for egg, larva, nymph, and egg to adult, respectively. In the linear model, the lower threshold temperatures were estimated to be 9.9, 14.7, 13.0 and 12.4°C for egg, larva, nymph, and egg to adult, respectively. The thermal constant for each stage completion were 61.5, 28.1, 64.8 and 171.1 degree days for egg, larva, nymph, and egg to adult, respectively. Under the future climate scenarios, the number of generations (i.e., voltinism) would increase more likely by 1.5 to 2.0 times by the year of 2100 according to simulation. The findings herein firstly provided comprehensive data on thermal development of C. krombeini and implications for the management of C. krombeini populations under global warming were discussed. *Scientific Article No. 3278 of the West Virginia Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, Morgantown, West Virginia PMID
Schütte, Conny; Poitevin, Olivier; Negash, Tesfaye; Dicke, Marcel
Adult female Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari, Phytoseiidae) of one of our laboratory populations (=NR-population), show the following set of symptoms: predators shrink several days after mating, cease egg production and die several days after shrinking, show a lower degree of attraction to herbivore-induced plant volatiles and a shorter choice time in olfactometer tests, have the tendency to leave a prey patch with ample food, may carry excretory crystals in the legs, may cease prey consumption, and have a lower excretion rate. We hypothesized earlier that this characteristic syndrome, called non-responding (=NR-) syndrome, is caused by a pathogen infecting P. persimilis. To further support this hypothesis we here study several transmission modes of the factor causing the NR-syndrome. In all tests we measured size, short-term fecundity, mortality, predator position, response to plant odors and crystal location, thus including 6 of the 9 symptoms known yet. No evidence was found for vertical transmission from parent to offspring. Eggs from symptomatic females of the NR-population mated by males of the NR-population gave rise to normal-sized, well performing predators, when they had been surface sterilized or transferred to a new leaf. However, such eggs gave rise to shrunken females (17%) when left on the leaf where they had been laid. In the latter case transmission via products deposited on the leaf by the mothers was possible. We therefore tested several modes of horizontal transmission by exposing females of a commercial population that never showed the NR-syndrome (=R1-population) to products related to the symptomatic NR-population. No evidence was found for transmission via food or via squashed adult females. However, symptoms were induced in adult females of the R1-population after a 3-day exposure to a live adult female of the NR-population (incubation period=3-7 days, fraction shrunken females=53%) and after a 1-day exposure to feces and
Schütte, Conny; Gols, Rieta; Kleespies, Regina G; Poitevin, Olivier; Dicke, Marcel
Adult female Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari, Phytoseiidae) of a laboratory population show a set of characteristic symptoms, designated as non-responding (NR) syndrome. Mature predators shrink, cease oviposition and die. They show a lower degree of attraction to herbivore-induced plant volatiles and a greater tendency to leave prey patches carrying ample prey. Moreover, predators may carry excretory crystals in the legs, may cease prey consumption and have a low excretion rate. Here, we satisfy Koch's postulates for a strain of Acaricomes phytoseiuli (DSM 14247) that was isolated from symptomatic female P. persimilis of the NR-population. Adult female P. persimilis were either exposed to a bacterial inoculum suspension (treatment) or to sterile distilled water (control) for a period of 3 days. Control and treated predators were examined for the occurrence of six symptoms characteristic for the NR-syndrome and the presence of A. phytoseiuli after inoculation. The latter was done by re-isolation of A. phytoseiuli from individual predators and predator feces placed on nutrient agar, by PCR-based identification and by histopathological studies of individual predators. The NR-syndrome was clearly induced in those predators that had been exposed to the bacterial inoculum (incubation time=2-5 days, fraction shrunken females=80%), whereas predators exposed to water did not show the NR-syndrome. A. phytoseiuli was never isolated from control predators whereas it could be re-isolated from 60% of the treated predators (N=37) and from feces of 41% of treated predators (N=17). Only one day after exposure A. phytoseiuli could not be re-isolated from treated predators and their feces. Light and electron microscope studies of predators exposed to A. phytoseiuli revealed striking bacterial accumulations in the lumen of the alimentary tract together with extreme degeneration of its epithelium. In addition, bacterial foci also occurred in the fat body. These phenomena
Yang, Banghe; Li, Chaopin
Mites of the genus Tyrophagus are economically important polyphagous pest commonly living on stored products and also responsible for allergic reactions to humans. Complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) and the gene features therein are widely used as molecular markers in the study of population genetics, phylogenetics as well as molecular evolution. However, scarcity on the sequence data has greatly impeded the studies in these areas pertaining to the Acari (mites and ticks). Information on the Tyrophagus mitogenomes is quite critical for phylogenetic evaluation and molecular evolution of the mitogenomes within Acariformes. Herein, we reported the complete mitogenome of the allergenic acarid storage mite Tyrophagus longior (Astigmata: Acaridae), an important member of stored food pests, and compared with those of other three acarid mites. The complete mitogenome of T. longior was a circular molecule of 13,271 bp. Unexpectedly, only 19 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs) were present, lacking trnF, trnS1 and trnQ. Furthermore, it also contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) and 2 genes for rRNA (rrnS and rrnL) commonly detected in metazoans. The four mitogenomes displayed similar characteristics with respect to the gene content, nucleotide comparison, and codon usages. Yet, the gene order of T. longior was different from that in other Acari. The J-strands of the four mitogenomes possessed high A+T content (67.4-70.0%), and exhibited positive GC-skews and negative AT-skews. Most inferred tRNAs of T. longior were extremely truncated, lacking either a D- or T-arm, as found in other acarid mites. In T. longior mitogenome the A+T-rich region was just 50 bp in length and can be folded as a stable stem-loop structure, whereas in the region some structures of microsatellite-like (AT)n and palindromic sequences was not present. Besides, reconstructing of the phylogenetic relationship based on concatenated amino acid sequences of 13 PCGs supported that monophyly of the family
Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Yoolek, Adisak; Kongkaew, Wittaya; Lerdthusnee, Kriangkrai; Khlaimanee, Nittaya; Parsartvit, Anchana; Malainual, Nat; Yong, Hoi-Sen
Scrub typhus, a rickettsial disease transmitted by several species of Leptotrombidium chiggers (larvae), is endemic in many areas of Asia. The disease is best prevented by the use of personal protective measures, including repellents. In this study commercially produced aromatic, essential oils of 13 plant species and ethanol (control) were tested in the laboratory for repellency against host-seeking chiggers of Leptotrombidium imphalum Vercammen-Grandjean and Langston (Acari: Trombiculidae). A rapid, simple and economic in vitro test method was used by exposing the chigger for up to 5 min. Repellency was based on relative percentages of chiggers attracted to test and control substances. Four of the 13 essential oils showed promise as effective repellent against L. imphalum chiggers. Syzygium aromaticum (clove) oil exhibited 100% repellency at 5% concentration (dilution with absolute ethanol), whereas Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil exhibited 100% repellency at 40% concentration. Undiluted oils of Zingiber cassamunar (plai) and Eucalyptus globules (blue gum) exhibited 100% repellency. Of the remaining nine essential oils, only 100% Pelargonium graveolens (geranium) exhibited >50% repellency (viz. 57%). Styrax torkinensis (benzoin) oil did not exhibit any repellency. These findings show that several aromatic, essential oils of plants may be useful as chigger repellent for the prevention of scrub typhus. Syzygium aromaticum oil may be safer and more economical to prevent chigger attacks than commercially available synthetic chemicals, such as DEET that may have harmful side effects.
Swei, A; Meentemeyer, R; Briggs, C J
The abiotic and biotic factors that govern the spatial distribution of Lyme disease vectors are poorly understood. This study addressed the influence of abiotic and biotic environmental variables on Ixodes pacificus Cooley & Kohls (Acari:Ixodidae) nymphs, because it is the primary vector of Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmidt, Hyde, Steigerwaldt & Brenner in the far-western United States. Three metrics of Lyme disease risk were evaluated: the density of nymphs, the density of infected nymphs, and the nymphal infection prevalence. This study sampled randomly located plots in oak (Quercus spp.) woodland habitat in Sonoma County, CA. Each plot was drag-sampled for nymphal ticks and tested for B. burgdorferi infection. Path analysis was used to evaluate the direct and indirect relationship between topographic, forest structure and microclimatic variables on ticks. Significant negative correlations were found between maximum temperature in the dry season and the density of infected ticks in 2006 and tick density in 2007, but we did not find a significant relationship with nymphal infection prevalence in either year. Tick density and infected tick density had an indirect, positive correlation with elevation, mediated through temperature. This study found that in certain years but not others, temperature maxima in the dry season may constrain the density and density of infected I. pacificus nymphs. In other years, biotic or stochastic factors may play a more important role in determining tick density.
Roh, Hyun Sik; Lim, Eu Gene; Kim, Jinwoo; Park, Chung Gyoo
Thirty-four plant essential oils were screened for their acaricidal and oviposition deterrent activities against two-spotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), in the laboratory using a leaf-dip bioassay. From initial trials, sandalwood and common thyme oils were observed to be the most effective against TSSM adult females. Subsequent trials confirmed that only sandalwood oil was significantly active (87.2 ± 2.9% mortality) against TSSM adult females. Sandalwood oil also demonstrated oviposition deterring effects based on a 89.3% reduction of the total number of eggs on leaf disks treated with the oil. GC-MS analysis revealed that the main components of the sandalwood oil were α-santalol (45.8%), β-santalol (20.6%), β-sinensal (9.4%), and epi-β-santalol (3.3%). A mixture of α- and β-santalol (51.0:22.9, respectively) produced significantly higher mortality (85.5 ± 2.9%) and oviposition deterrent effects (94.7% reduction in the number of eggs) than the control. Phytotoxicity was not shown on rose shoots to which a 0.1% solution of sandalwood oil was applied.
Molecular characterization and evolutionary insights into potential sex-determination genes in the western orchard predatory mite Metaseiulus occidentalis (Chelicerata: Arachnida: Acari: Phytoseiidae).
Pomerantz, Aaron F; Hoy, Marjorie A; Kawahara, Akito Y
Little is known about the process of sex determination at the molecular level in species belonging to the subclass Acari, a taxon of arachnids that contains mites and ticks. The recent sequencing of the transcriptome and genome of the western orchard predatory mite Metaseiulus occidentalis allows investigation of molecular mechanisms underlying the biological processes of sex determination in this predator of phytophagous pest mites. We identified four doublesex-and-mab-3-related transcription factor (dmrt) genes, one transformer-2 gene, one intersex gene, and two fruitless-like genes in M. occidentalis. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted to infer the molecular relationships to sequences from species of arthropods, including insects, crustaceans, acarines, and a centipede, using available genomic data. Comparative analyses revealed high sequence identity within functional domains and confirmed that the architecture for certain sex-determination genes is conserved in arthropods. This study provides a framework for identifying potential target genes that could be implicated in the process of sex determination in M. occidentalis and provides insight into the conservation and change of the molecular components of sex determination in arthropods.
Oliveira, Anibal R; Castro, Thiago R; Capalbo, Deise M F; Delalibera, Italo
Insecticides derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and plants genetically modified (GM) to express B. thuringiensis toxins are important alternatives for insect pest control worldwide. Risk assessment of B. thuringiensis toxins to non-target organisms has been extensively studied but few toxicological tests have considered soil invertebrates. Oribatid mites are one of the most diverse and abundant arthropod groups in the upper layers of soil and litter in natural and agricultural systems. These mites are exposed to the toxic compounds of GM crops or pesticides mainly when they feed on vegetal products incorporated in the soil. Although some effects of B. thuringiensis products on Acari have been reported, effects on oribatid mites are still unknown. This study investigated the effects of the ingestion of Bt cotton Bollgard and of the B. thuringiensis commercial product Dipel WP on the pantropical species Scheloribates praeincisus (Scheloribatidae). Ingestion of Bollgard and Dipel did not affect adult and immature survivorship and food consumption (estimated by number of fecal pellets produced daily) or developmental time of immature stages of S. praeincisus. These results indicate the safety of Bollgard and Dipel to S. praeincisus under field conditions where exposition is lower and other food sources besides leaves of Bt plants are available. The method for toxicological tests described here can be adapted to other species of Oribatida, consisting on a new option to risk assessment studies.
Bochkov, Andre V; Skirnisson, Karl
A new species of syringophilid mites, Mironovia lagopus sp. nov. (Acari: Syringophilidae) is described from feather quills of the rock ptarigman Lagopus muta (Montin) (Phasianidae) from Iceland. Females of this new species differ from the closely related Mironovia rouloul Skoracki and Sikora by setae d2, which are subequal or 1.1-1.2 times shorter than setae e2 (vs. d2 1.4-1.5 times longer than e2 in Mironovia rouloul) and by setae ag1, which are 1.3-1.5 times shorter than ag2 (vs. ag1 1.7-1.8 times shorter than ag2). The postembryonic stages of this new species are figured and described in details. In ontogeny of Mironovia spp., the observed pattern of setal appearance is not different from the pattern in other galliform-associated genera such as Syringophilus and Colinophilus, with exception for tarsal setae p'I, II which are absent in protonymphs. The key to all four species of the genus Mironovia is also provided.
Skoracki, Maciej; Unsoeld, Markus; Marciniak, Natalia; Sikora, Bozena
The quill mite fauna of the family Syringophilidae (Acari: Prostigmata: Cheyletoidea) associated with owls (Aves: Strigiformes) is reviewed. A new genus is proposed, Neobubophilus Skoracki & Unsoeld gen. nov. It differs from closely related Bubophilus (Bubophilus Philips and Norton, 1978) by the absence of leg setae vsII in the both sexes. In addition, four new species are described: (1) Neobubophilus cunicularius Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Athene cunicularia (Molina, 1782) (Strigidae) from Paraguay; (2) Neobubophilus atheneus Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Athene noctua (Scopoli, 1769) and Athene brama (Temminck, 1821) (Strigidae), both from India; (3) Bubophilus tytonus Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Tyto alba affinis (Blyth, 1862) (Tytonidae) from Cameroon, and (4) Megasyringophilus dalmas Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Megascops choliba (Vieillot, 1817) (Strigidae) from Venezuela. The following new host species are given: Bubo bubo (Linnaeus, 1758) (Strigidae) from Nepal for Bubophilus ascalaphus (Philips and Norton 1978) and Strix woodfordii (Smith, 1834) (Strigidae) from Tanzania for Bubophilus aluconis (aluconis Nattress and Skoracki 2009). A key for syringophilid genera and species associated with owls is constructed. The host-parasite relationships of syringophilid mites and owls are discussed. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com Version of Record, first published online May 24, 2016 with fixed content and layout in compliance with Art. 18.104.22.168 ICZN.
Zhao, Ya-E; Wang, Zheng-Hang; Xu, Yang; Wu, Li-Ping; Hu, Li
According to base pairing, the rRNA folds into corresponding secondary structures, which contain additional phylogenetic information. On the basis of sequencing for complete rDNA sequences (18S, ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2 and 28S rDNA) of Demodex, we predicted the secondary structure of the complete rDNA sequence (18S, 5.8S, and 28S rDNA) of Demodex folliculorum, which was in concordance with that of the main arthropod lineages in past studies. And together with the sequence data from GenBank, we also predicted the secondary structures of divergent domains in SSU rRNA of 51 species and in LSU rRNA of 43 species from four superfamilies in Acari (Cheyletoidea, Tetranychoidea, Analgoidea and Ixodoidea). The multiple alignment among the four superfamilies in Acari showed that, insertions from Tetranychoidea SSU rRNA formed two newly proposed helixes, and helix c3-2b of LSU rRNA was absent in Demodex (Cheyletoidea) taxa. Generally speaking, LSU rRNA presented more remarkable differences than SSU rRNA did, mainly in D2, D3, D5, D7a, D7b, D8 and D10. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Long-Term Effects of Berberis thunbergii (Ranunculales: Berberidaceae) Management on Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) Abundance and Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) Prevalence in Connecticut, USA.
Williams, Scott C; Linske, Megan A; Ward, Jeffrey S
Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii de Candolle; Ranunculales: Berberidaceae) is an exotic invasive shrub that escaped cultivation in the United States and is now permanently established in many eastern and midwestern states. This study examined the long-term impacts of Japanese barberry management on blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis Say; Acari: Ixodidae) abundances and associated prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi (Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt, and Brenner; Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae), the etiologic agent of Lyme disease. At six locations across Connecticut, adult I. scapularis were sampled for up to 10 yr. At each location, we sampled an area where barberry infestations were unmanipulated, adjacent areas where barberry was virtually nonexistent, and areas where barberry was managed utilizing a variety of techniques. Barberry management reduced B. burgdorferi-infected adult I. scapularis (BBIAIS) abundances (191/ha ± 64 SE) over 6 yr to statistically indifferent from that of no barberry areas (140/ha ± 47 SE; P = 0.080) and significantly less than intact barberry stands (458/ha ± 80 SE; P = 0.026). Over 9 yr, BBIAIS abundances in managed barberry remained lower than intact barberry stands (P = 0.037), but increased to be significantly greater than no barberry areas (P = 0.007) as cover increased over time. Longer-term data further document that Japanese barberry infestations are favorable habitat for I. scapularis. Control of Japanese barberry and other invasives should be at least on a 5-yr rotation to maintain low levels of invasive cover and eliminate humidity refugia to expose juvenile I. scapularis to more hostile environmental conditions in the interest of public health. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Nchu, Felix; Magano, Solomon R; Eloff, Jacobus N
Dichloromethane (DCM) extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) bulbs was assessed for its repellent effect against the hard tick, Hyalomma rufipes (Acari: Ixodidae) using two tick behavioural bioassays; Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, under laboratory conditions. These bioassays exploit the questing behaviour of H. rufipes, a tick that in nature displays ambush strategy, seeking its host by climbing up on vegetation and attaching to a passing host. One hundred microlitres (100 µL) of the test solution containing DCM extract of garlic bulbs and DCM at concentrations of 0.35%, 0.7% or 1.4% w/v were evaluated. DCM only was used for control. Tick repellency increased significantly (R2 = 0.98) with increasing concentration (40.03% - 86.96%) yielding an EC50 of 0.45% w/v in Type B repellency bioassay. At concentration of 1.4% w/v, the DCM extract of garlic bulbs produced high repellency index of 87% (male ticks) and 87.5% (female ticks) in the Type A repellency bioassay. Only 4% avoidance of male ticks or female ticks was recorded in the Type B repellency bioassay. In the corresponding controls, the mean numbers of non-repelled male or female ticks were 80% and 41 males or 38 females of 50 ticks in the Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, respectively. The variations in the results could be attributed to the difference in tick repellent behaviours that were assessed by the two repellency bioassays; the Type A repellency bioassay assessed repellent effect of garlic extracts without discriminating between deterrence and avoidance whereas the Type B repellency bioassay only assessed avoidance response. Generally, DCM extract of garlic was repellent against H. rufipes, albeit weak tick repellency was obtained in the Type B repellency bioassay. Furthermore, this study established that the tick repellent activity of garlic extracts is predominantly by deterrence.
Chen, Brian L; Mullens, Bradley A
Off-host survival of the northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini & Fanzago) (Acari: Macronyssidae), and the chicken body louse, Menacanthus stramineus (Nitzsch) (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae), was studied at 12 combinations of temperature (15, 21, 27, and 33 degrees C) and humidity (31, 65, and 85% RH). Mite protonymphs and louse third instars survived longer on average than the respective adult stages. Higher temperatures significantly reduced survival of adult and immature stages of both ectoparasites, whereas relative humidity had significant effects on O. sylviarum (especially protonymphs) but not M. stramineus. The LT50 values for adult northern fowl mites ranged from 1.9 (at 33 degrees C, 31%RH) to 8.3 d (at 15 degrees C, 85%RH), LT50 values for mite protonymphs ranged from 2.0 (at 33 degrees C, 31%RH) to 18.1 d (at 15 degrees C, 85%RH), LT50 values for adult lice ranged from 0.5 (at 33 degrees C, 31%RH) to 1.7 d (at 15 degrees C, 65%RH), and LT50 values for nymphal lice ranged from 1.2 (at 33 degrees C, 65%RH) to 3.3 d (at 21 degrees C, 31%RH). Maximum survival of the northern fowl mite was up to 35 d for adults and 29 d for protonymphs. Maximum survival for the chicken body louse was 3.3 d for adults and 5.8 d for nymphs. The data provide minimum guidelines for leaving poultry houses vacant long enough to allow ectoparasites to die before introduction of subsequent new flocks.
Description of a new species of Ixodes Latreille, 1795 (Acari: Ixodidae) and redescription of I. lasallei Méndez & Ortiz, 1958, parasites of agoutis and pacas (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae, Cuniculidae) in Central and South America.
Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Bermúdez, Sergio E
Ixodes bocatorensis n. sp. (Acari: Ixodidae), is described based on adults ex agoutis (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae), pacas (Rodentia: Cuniculidae) and "tapir and sloth" (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae and Pilosa) from Colombia, Panama and Venezuela. Adults of I. bocatorensis n. sp. are similar to those of I. lasallei Méndez & Ortiz, 1958 but can be distinguished by the scutum dimensions, punctation pattern, gnathosoma and palpi measurements and their ratios, basis capituli anterior angle and shape of the spur of palpal segment I ventrally. For comparative purposes the female of I. lasallei is redescribed and the true male of this species is described for the first time. Studied adults of I. lasallei were found on agoutis, pacas and ocelot (Carnivora: Felidae) in Colombia, Peru and Venezuela.
First description of the male and redescription of the female of Ixodes tapirus Kohls, 1956 (Acari: Ixodidae), a parasite of tapirs (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae) from the mountains of Colombia, Costa Rica and Panama.
Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Domínguez, Lillian G; Torres, Sugeys S; Bernal, Juan A; Montenegro, Victor M; Bermúdez, Sergio E
The male of Ixodes tapirus Kohls, 1956 (Acari: Ixodidae) is described for the first time and the female is redescribed in greater detail. Adults of I. tapirus are similar to those of Ixodes guatemalensis Kohls, 1956, Ixodes lasallei Méndez & Ortiz, 1958, Ixodes montoyanus Cooley, 1944 and Ixodes venezuelensis Kohls, 1953 but can be distinguished by their overall size, the amount of sclerotisation of the conscutum and accessory plates, the shape of the scutum, the number of punctations and their pattern on the conscutum and scutum, the depth of the punctations on the basis capituli dorsally, the shape and size of the porose areas and the size and shape of the auriculae. Adults of I. tapirus were collected from tapirs and vegetation in the mountains of Colombia, Panama and recorded from Costa Rica for the first time.
Chemical composition and acaricidal activity of the essential oil of Baccharis dracunculifolia De Candole (1836) and its constituents nerolidol and limonene on larvae and engorged females of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).
de Assis Lage, Tiago Coelho; Montanari, Ricardo Marques; Fernandes, Sergio Antonio; de Oliveira Monteiro, Caio Márcio; de Oliveira Souza Senra, Tatiane; Zeringota, Viviane; da Silva Matos, Renata; Daemon, Erik
Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (common name "alecrim-do-campo" in Brazil) is a plant with widespread distribution in South America that is the botanical origin of green propolis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and acaricidal activity of the essential oil of B. dracunculifolia and its constituents nerolidol and limonene on unengorged larvae and engorged females of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). The essential oil yield was 0.8% of dry mass and the major constituents were nerolidol (22.3%), germacrene D (7.2%), limonene (6.9%), β-pinene (6.7) and bicyclogermacrene (6.5%). The acaricidal activity of the essential oil and the pure compounds nerolidol and (R)-(+)-limonene were assessed in the laboratory through the modified larval packet test (LPT) and the female immersion test (FIT). In the LPT, the essential oil and nerolidol were both active, causing more than 90% mortality at concentrations from 15.0 and 10.0 mg mL(-1), respectively, whereas (R)-(+)-limonene was not active. In the FIT, the oil and nerolidol caused reduction in the quantity and quality of eggs produced, with control percentages of 96.3% and 90.3% at concentrations of 60.0 and 50.0 mg mL(-1), respectively. It can be concluded that the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of B. dracunculifolia and its major component nerolidol have high activity on R. microplus larvae and engorged females. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The Tenuipalpidae from the Casuarinaceae are reviewed. Twelve new species are described, from one new genus and six established genera: Chaudhripalpus costacola Beard & Seeman sp. nov., Crossipalpus gersoni Beard & Seeman sp. nov., Crossipalpus raveni Beard & Seeman sp. nov., Magdalenapalpus capera...
Stekolnikov, Alexandr A
The chigger mite genus Leptotrombidium Nagayo, Miyagawa, Mitamura and Imamura, 1916 is reviewed using literature data. For 340 larval species brief diagnoses, synonymy, data on type hosts and type localities are provided. The genus is divided into species-groups based on morphological evidence enabling easier establishment of group-membership of un-known specimens in the future. Some species groups are supported by a hierarchical cluster analysis with multiscale boot-strap resampling applied to a matrix including 335 species and geographic morphotypes and 19 standard quantitative characters. Six new species from mammalian hosts are described: L. aenigmami sp. nov., L. abramovi sp. nov., L. tikhon-ovi sp. nov., L. bochkovi sp. nov., L. laoense sp. nov., and L. megaloti sp. nov. from Laos. Seven names created by Ver-cammen-Grandjean and Langston (1976) for infrasubspecific entities are applied to species with the same descriptions: Leptotrombidium tenompaki sp. nov., L. kinabalui sp. nov., L. megabodense sp. nov., L. minului sp. nov., L. ului sp. nov., L. megalangati sp. nov., and L. saigoni sp. nov. A new replacement name is proposed: L. ushi nom. nov. pro L. hsui Wu, Yang and Li, 1999 (praeocc. Yu, Yang and Gong, 1986). Nineteen new synonyms and 7 new combinations are proposed: Leptotrombidium (= Hsuella Wang, Li and Shi, 1989, syn. nov.; = Leptotrombidium (Monosigmum) Wen, 2001, syn. nov.), L. deliense (Walch, 1922) (= L. deliense sinense Wen and Chen, 1984, syn. nov.; = L. deliense microsetosa Zhao, Tang and Mo, 1986, syn. nov.), L. sialkotense Vercammen-Grandjean and Langston, 1976 (= L. jishoum Wen, Li, Zhang and Liao, 1988, syn. nov.), L. imphalum Vercammen-Grandjean and Langston, 1976 (= L. imphalum sabahense Vercam-men-Grandjean and Langston, 1976, syn. nov.; = L. chiangraiensis Tanskul and Linthicum, 1997, syn. nov.), L. wenense Wu, Wen, Yang and Wu, 1982 (= L. kaohuense Li, Wang and Chen, 1997, syn. nov.), L. longimedian Brown, 1992 (= L. mindanensis Brown, 1992, syn. nov.), L. silvaticum Hushcha and Schluger, 1967 (= L. pakistanum Vercammen-Grandjean and Langston, 1976, syn. nov.), L. cricethrionis Wen, Sun and Sun, 1984 (= L. rusticum Yu, Yang and Gong, 1986, syn. nov.), L. intermedium (Nagayo, Mitamura and Tamiya, 1920) (= Trombicula (L.) daisen Kumada and Sasa, 1953, syn. nov.; = Trombicula hiranumai Kanda, 1942, syn. nov.), L. fletcheri (Womersley and Heaslip, 1943) (= L. fletcheri fran-colini Wen and Xiang, 1984b, syn. nov.), L. apertum Kudryashova, 1979 (= L. sorosi Kharadov, 1995, syn. nov.; = L. tolaicus Kharadov, 2000, syn. nov.), L. turdicola Vercammen-Grandjean and Langston, 1976 (= L. muntiaci Xiang and Wen, 1984d, syn. nov.; = L. suense Wen, 1984g, syn. nov.), L. paradux Vercammen-Grandjean and Langston, 1976 (= L. montanum Stekolnikov, 2004, syn. nov.), L. hubeiense (Wang, Li and Shi, 1989) comb. nov. from Hsuella, L. dunqingi (Liu, Xiang and Ma, 2003) comb. nov. from Hsuella, L. nainae (Kharadov, 1990) comb. nov. from Montivagum, L. mon-golicum (Kudryashova, 1988) comb. nov. from Montivagum, L. kunitzkyi (Kudryashova, 1988) comb. nov. from Monti-vagum, L. alaicum (Kharadov, 1994) comb. nov. from Montivagum, and Lorillatum nudisensillum (Yu, Gong and Tao, 1981) comb. nov. from Leptotrombidium. A key to Leptotrombidium species is provided.
Tenuipalpus Donnadieu is the most speciose genus of the family Tenuipalpidae, with over 300 described species. The descriptions of many of these species are incomplete, and lack important information necessary for accurate species identification. The objective of this study was to re-describe specie...
Tulin Askit; Ibrahim Cakmak; John Moser
The Aegean Region of Turkey is one of the largest dried fig producers in the world. A Turkish cultivar sarilop (Ficus carica cv. Calimyrna L.) possesses good qualities for drying process, and has been grown extensively for many years in Turkey. Hypoborus ficus is the most common xylophagous insect attacking fig trees in Aydin (AksÂ¸it et al. 2003). This pest attacks...
Choi, Won-Il; Lee, Sang-Geui; Park, Hyung-Man; Ahn, Young-Joon
Fifty-three plant essential oils were tested for their toxicity against eggs and adults of Tetranychus urticae Koch as well as adults of Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, by using a filter paper diffusion bioassay without allowing direct contact. Responses varied according to oil type and dose, and mite species. In a plastic container (4.5 by 9.5 cm) bioassay at 14 x 10(-3) microl/ml air, caraway seed, citronella java, lemon eucalyptus, pennyroyal, and peppermint oils gave > 90% mortality against adult T. urticae, whereas 82 and 81% mortality was observed with sage and spearmint oils, respectively. With the exception of sage oil, the other six essential oils were highly effective against T. urticae eggs at 9.3 x 10(-3) microl/ml air. Against adult P. persimilis, these six test oils caused > 90% mortality at 7.1 x 10(-3) microl/ml air. Particularly peppermint oil at 4.7 x 10(-3) microl/ml air was highly toxic. In an acrylic cage (30 by 30 by 40 cm ) test, lemon eucalyptus, pennyroyal, peppermint, and spearmint oils were highly effective against adult T. urticae at 1.4 x 10(-3) microl/ml air. These results indicate that the mode of delivery of these essential oils was largely a result of action in the vapor phase via the respiratory system. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential fumigants for T. urticae control.
Pence, Danny B.; Thomas, N.J.
A new species is described and additional host records are presented for 2 other species of deutonymphs of the family Hypoderatidae from the subcutaneous adipose tissues of the wood stork, Mycteria americana L. Phalacrodectes (Phalacrodectes) mycteria n. sp. appears to share affinities with species from both pelicaniform and ciconiiform hosts, but it most closely resembles P. (P.) punctatissimus (Černý) Pence & Courtney from pelicans in idiosomal chaetotaxy, cutdcular sclerotization, and posteriorly divergent, widely separated genital openings. The new species differs from this and other species of the genus by its small size, the degree of separation of the genital openings with papillae, no secondary sclerotization in the perigenital area or surrounding the genital openings, and the long filiform setae s and w on genu III. There was a mixed infection of Neottialges kutzeri Fain and N. mycteriae Pence in all of 7 wood storks examined from Florida and Georgia; P. (P) mycteria was found in 4 of these hosts. This is the 7th species described as a deutonymph in the genus Phalacrodectes. The apparent close affinity of P. (P.) mycteria with P. (P.) punctatissimus and allied species from pelicaniform versus ciconiiform birds appears to be inconsistent with the established host-parasite relationships based on classical avian taxonomic relationships. However, this apparent affinity may be more reflective of the close relationships between the families of pelicans, ibises and spoonbills, and storks as recently proposed by DNA-DNA hybridization studies.
Kontschán, Jenő; Friedrich, Stefan
Soil dwelling Uropodina mites were collected from a primary lowland rainforest in Amazonian Peru. The species found belong to three different families. A new diagnosis and the type genus of Tetrasejaspidae fam. nov. are given, and the family is recorded from Peru for the first time on the basis of Tetrasejaspis sellnicki Hirschmann, 1973. Two rotundabaloghid mites were collected (Rotundabaloghia (Circobaloghia) magna Hirschmann, 1992 and Rotundabaloghia (Circobaloghia) iquitosensis Hirschmann, 1992), both already reported from Peru. A new species (Origmatrachys peruensis sp. nov.) from the family Trachyuropodidae was collected in large numbers from soil, and is described on the basis of females, males, nymphs and larvae. This is the first description of the protonymphs and larvae of Origmatrachys. The new species differs from the previously described ones in the basis of sculptural pattern of dorsal, ventral, sternal shields and the length of the setae in the central part of the dorsal shield. A new key to the known adults and deutonymphs of Origmatrachys is given.
Mastropaolo, Mariano; Beltrán-Saavedra, L Fabián; Guglielmone, Alberto A
The tick species reported in Bolivia are reviewed here as (1) endemic or established: Ornithodoros echimys, O. guaporensis, O. hasei, O. kohlsi, O. mimon, O. peropteryx, O. rostratus, Otobius megnini, Amblyomma auricularium, A. cajennense, A. calcaratum, A. coelebs, A. dubitatum, A. humerale, A. incisum, A. longirostre, A. naponense, A. nodosum, A. oblongoguttatum, A. ovale, A. parvitarsum, A. parvum, A. pecarium, A. pseudoconcolor, A. rotundatum, A. scalpturatum, A. tigrinum, A. triste, Dermacentor nitens, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, H. leporispalustris, I. boliviensis, I. cooleyi, I. luciae, Rhipicephalus microplus, R. sanguineus, and (2) erroneously reported: Ornithodoros puertoricensis, O. talaje, O. turicata, Amblyomma americanum, A. maculatum, A. multipunctum, Ixodes ricinus, I. scapularis, Rhipicephalus annulatus. Many of these records are lacking locality and/or host, and some of them need new findings for confirmation. Some of the species recorded may represent a threat for human and animal health, therefore would be of great value to make a countrywide survey of ticks in order to update the information presented in this work. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Babesia (Luo et al. 2002), Ehrlichia (Wen et al. 2002), Rickettsia (Hirunkanokpun et al. 2003), and Theileria (Sarataphan et al. 1999; Chansiri and...Sarataphan N (2002) Molecular phylogenetic study of Theileria sp. (Thung Song) based on the thymidylate synthetase gene. Parasitol Res 88:S33–S35...Chansiri K, Kawazu S, Kamio T, Tereda Y, Fujisaki K, Philippe H, Sarataphan N (1999) Molecular phylogenetic studies on Theileria parasites based on small
Shin, Eun Hee; Roh, Jong Yul; Park, Won Il; Song, Bong Gu; Chang, Kyu-Sik; Lee, Wook-Gyo; Lee, Hee Il; Park, Chan; Park, Mi-Yeoun; Shin, E-Hyun
Transovarial transmission of Orientia tsutsugamushi in colonies of Leptotrombidium palpale was studied in the parent and F1 and F2 generations. Both transovarial transmission and filial infection rates were 100% in the parent and F1 generations of Leptotrombidium palpale. The filial infection rate in the F1 generation was 100%, but it declined to 94.3% in the F2 progeny. The sex ratio of the F1 generation from infected L. palpale was 1∶0.8 (male:female) and the proportion of males was relatively high. This study is the first to report on the transovarial transmission of O. tsutsugamushi in L. palpale. High transovarial transmission rates in L. palpale suggest that this species might be one of the major vectors of tsutsugamushi disease in Korea.
Shin, Eun Hee; Roh, Jong Yul; Park, Won Il; Song, Bong Gu; Chang, Kyu-Sik; Lee, Wook-Gyo; Lee, Hee Il; Park, Chan; Park, Mi-Yeoun; Shin, E-Hyun
Transovarial transmission of Orientia tsutsugamushi in colonies of Leptotrombidium palpale was studied in the parent and F1 and F2 generations. Both transovarial transmission and filial infection rates were 100% in the parent and F1 generations of Leptotrombidium palpale. The filial infection rate in the F1 generation was 100%, but it declined to 94.3% in the F2 progeny. The sex ratio of the F1 generation from infected L. palpale was 1∶0.8 (male:female) and the proportion of males was relatively high. This study is the first to report on the transovarial transmission of O. tsutsugamushi in L. palpale. High transovarial transmission rates in L. palpale suggest that this species might be one of the major vectors of tsutsugamushi disease in Korea. PMID:24721932
Takahashi, M; Morita, K; Tsuji, O; Misumi, H; Otsuji, J; Hori, E; Kawanura, A; Tanaka, H
Engorged larvae of Leptotrombidium akamushi (Brumpt), a vector of scrub typhus, were reared in small plastic containers placed on the ground and fed fresh eggs of the collembolan Sinella curviseta Brook. Engorged larvae obtained in October developed into deutonymphs through protonymphs approximately 1 mo before winter and became dormant in the cold winter season (approximately 3 mo). Most deutonymphs developed into tritonymphs in April and adults in May. Females began laying eggs in mid-June and the numbers of unfed larvae showed a peak in August. The mites reared from July rapidly developed into adults by August, and laid eggs in September. Larvae were most abundant in October, and adults became dormant in the winter. The same adults laid eggs from early May to late June and, upon hatching, the larval population peaked in early July of the 2nd summer. Most larvae died before the 2nd winter. Eggs hatched approximately 3 wk after oviposition and longevity of unfed larvae was 2 mo. Because of this very short incubation period, L. akamushi larvae occur in the summer, whereas L. pallidum Nagayo, Miyagawa, Mitamura & Tamiya, and L. scutellare Nagayo, Miyagawa, Mitamura, Tamiya & Tenjin occur in the autumn, although 3 species lay eggs from May to August.
Almeida, Juliana C; Silva, Shirley S P; Serra-Freire, Nicolau M; Valim, Michel P
The result of a survey of ectoparasites infesting bats in southeastern Brazil is presented. Of 181 bats belonging to 16 species, 10 (34.1%) were infested by streblid flies (Streblidae), nine (33.5%) by spinturnicid mites (Spinturnicidae), and five (8.3%) by macronyssid mites (Macronyssidae). One species of the families Trombiculidae and Myobiidae was found. A total of 195 streblids, 178 spinturnicids, and 76 macronyssids was collected. Paratrichobius longicrus was the most abundant bat fly species (50 specimens). The spinturnicid mite Periglischrus iheringi was the most abundant ectoparasite species (159 specimens) and was recorded on three different bat species; Radfordiella desmodi was the most numerous macronyssid (69 specimens).
Bassini-Silva, R; Jacinavicius, F C; Mendoza-Roldan, J A; Daemon, E; Barros-Battesti, D M
The chigger mite genus Blankaartia includes 28 known species, of which 10 are distributed in the Nearctic and Neotropical regions. These species preferentially parasitize birds, but occasionally they can also be found on rodents, bats, and reptiles, showing low host selectivity. In the present study, we report the presence of this genus in Brazil for the first time, including the first report of Blankaartia sinnamaryi (Floch and Fauran) and the description of a new species of Blankaartia collected from birds (Order Passeriformes). © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com Version of Record, first published online October 5, 2016 with fixed content and layout in compliance with Art. 22.214.171.124 ICZN.
comprises the Amazonic and Chaco domains. The Amazonic domain is represented by the Cerrado phyto–geographical province (CePP) in the north–east and by the...geographical provinces of Cerrado and Paranaense belong to the Amazonic domain whereas Chaco province is within the Chaco domain. 258 NAVA ET AL. RESULTS...Ecuador, Panama, Peru and Venezuela. Ornithodoros talaje (Guérin-Méneville)/ Ornithodoros puertoricensis Fox. Cordero et al. (1928) found adults of Orn
Cytochrome P450s are the major phase I drug metabolising enzymes found in most organisms, including arthropods. Much of the work within the area of xenobiotic metabolism in this group of animals has centered around mosquito species, e.g. Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus, due to their rol...
Kuo, Chi-Chien; Shu, Pei-Yun; Mu, Jung-Jung; Lee, Pei-Lung; Wu, Yin-Wen; Chung, Chien-Kung; Wang, Hsi-Chieh
Ticks are second to mosquitoes as the most important disease vectors, and recent decades have witnessed the emergence of many novel tick-borne rickettsial diseases, but systematic surveys of ticks and tick-borne rickettsioses are generally lacking in Asia. We collected and identified ticks from small mammal hosts between 2006 and 2010 in different parts of Taiwan. Rickettsia spp. infections in ticks were identified by targeting ompB and gltA genes with nested polymerase chain reaction. In total, 2,732 ticks were collected from 1,356 small mammals. Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides Supino (51.8% of total ticks), Haemaphysalis bandicota Hoogstraal & Kohls (28.0%), and Ixodes granulatus Supino (20.0%) were the most common tick species, and Rattus losea Swinhoe (44.7% of total ticks) and Bandicota indica Bechstein (39.9%) were the primary hosts. The average Rickettsia infective rate in 329 assayed ticks was 31.9% and eight Rickettsia spp. or closely related species were identified. This study shows that rickettsiae-infected ticks are widespread in Taiwan, with a high diversity of Rickettsia spp. circulating in the ticks. Because notifiable rickettsial diseases in Taiwan only include mite-borne scrub typhus and flea-borne murine typhus, more studies are warranted for a better understanding of the real extent of human risks to rickettsioses in Taiwan. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Morgan, Marjorie S.; Arlian, Larry G.; Rider, S. Dean; Grunwald, William C.; Cool, David R.
The pruritic skin disease scabies is caused by the burrowing of the itch mite Sarcoptes scabiei (De Geer). It is difficult to diagnose this disease because its symptoms often resemble those of other skin diseases. No reliable blood or molecular diagnostic test is available. The aim of this project was to begin to characterize the scabies proteome to identify scabies mite proteins, including those that may be useful in the development of a diagnostic test or vaccine. Various scabies mite extracts were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis, and 844 Coomassie Blue-stained protein spots were excised, subjected to trypsin digestion, and analyzed by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of-Flight/Time-Of-Flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). Tryptic fragment sequences determined by MS were searched against the recently completed S. scabiei annotated genome, leading to the identification of >150 proteins. Only 10 proteins hit to previously identified scabies proteins including actin, tropomyosin, and several ABC transporters. Thirteen proteins had homology to dust mite allergens (members of groups 8, 10, 13, 17, 20, 25, and 28). Most other sequences showed some homology to proteins in other mites and ticks including homologs of calmodulin, calreticulin, lipocalin, and glutathione-S-transferase. These data will now allow the identification of the proteins to which scabies patients produce antibodies, including those that may be good candidates for inclusion in a diagnostic test and vaccine. PMID:26792847
Bakkes, Deon K; De Klerk, Daniel; Latif, Abdalla A; Mans, Ben J
Afrotropical Ornithodoros (Ornithodoros) ticks are revised based on qualitative morphology of females and nymphs, as well as tarsus I shape outlines of females measured in a geometric morphometric framework. These lines of evidence corroborate lineages based on 16S rRNA nucleotide sequence data. Four previously unrecognized species are described, along with a revived nomen nudum that was previously considered a synonym. Afrotropical Ornithodoros (Ornithodoros) now comprise ten species. Ornithodoros moubata and Ornithodoros porcinus are separated from three other species in southern Africa (Ornithodoros compactus, Ornithodoros phacochoerusn. sp., Ornithodoros waterbergensisn. sp.), with O. porcinus restricted to central east Africa. Known species boundaries for Ornithodoros apertus and O. compactus are supported. Ornithodoros savignyi are separated from three other species in South Africa and Namibia, with O. savignyi restricted to north Africa. Neumann's Ornithodoros pavimentosusnom. rev. are resurrected from synonymy as a species that occur in Bushmanland, Namaqualand and Namibia, while Ornithodoros kalahariensisn. sp. occur in Kalahari thornveld, and Ornithodoros noorsveldensisn. sp. occur in Noorsveld thicket of South Africa. Detailed descriptions are given for each species along with high resolution images and point map distributions. Support is provided for speciation driven by riverine barriers, Pliocene uplift and differential arid tolerance. Exaggerated tarsus I shape in the O. savignyi group suggests adaptation to fossorial habits and soil type. Conversely, reduced tarsus I shape in the O. moubata group is suggested as an evolutionary consequence of the life history change from soil to warthog burrows. This study represents an integrative (iterative) approach to delimiting Afrotropical Ornithodoros (Ornithodoros) species, and provides the first application of tarsus I shape outlines in a geometric morphometric framework for testing species boundaries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Despite the economic importance of eriophyoid mites as agricultural pests, especially of cereal crops, knowledge of the eriophyoid fauna in Turkey remains incomplete. This paper presents the results of a 3-year study on grass-infesting eriophyoid mites in Turkey. The aim of this study was to collect...
Tucci, E C; Prado, A P; Araújo, R P
The development, viability, and life cycle parameters of Dermanyssus gallinae at five different temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 degrees C), and at relative humidity 70-85% were evaluated. Life cycle duration was 690.75 h (28 days) at 15 degrees C, 263.12h (11 days) at 20 degrees C, 164.63 h (7 days) at 25 degrees C, 140.69 h (6 days) at 30 degrees C and 172.04 h (7 days) at 35 degrees C. The optimal development temperature for D. gallinae was 30 degrees C, with the greatest survival in all stages and the shortest development time. High mortality at 35 degrees C indicated that this temperature had adverse effects on development of D. gallinae, and that in field conditions D. gallinae populations may decrease or even disappear due to the negative impact of high temperature on development. There were no significant differences in the pre-oviposition period among the four temperatures 20-35 degrees C, indicating that temperature did not affect this part of the life cycle.
Tucci, Edna Clara; do Prado, Angelo P; de Araújo, Raquel Pires
The thermal requirements for development of Dermanyssus gallinae were studied under laboratory conditions at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 degrees C, a 12h photoperiod and 60-85% RH. The thermal requirements for D. gallinae were as follows. Preoviposition: base temperature 3.4 degrees C, thermal constant (k) 562.85 degree-hours, determination coefficient (R(2)) 0.59, regression equation: Y= -0.006035 + 0.001777x. Egg: base temperature 10.60 degrees C, thermal constant (k) 689.65 degree-hours, determination coefficient (R(2)) 0.94, regression equation: Y= -0.015367 + 0.001450x. Larva: base temperature 9.82 degrees C, thermal constant (k) 464.91 degree-hours, determination coefficient (R(2)) 0.87, regression equation: Y= -0.021123 + 0.002151x. Protonymph: base temperature 10.17 degrees C, thermal constant (k) 504.49 degree-hours, determination coefficient (R(2)) 0.90, regression equation: Y= -0.020152 + 0.001982x. Deutonymph: base temperature 11.80 degrees C, thermal constant (k) 501.11 degree-hours, determination coefficient (R(2)) 0.99, regression equation: Y= -0.023555 + 0.001996x. The results obtained showed that 15 to 42 generations of Dermanyssus gallinae may occur during the year in the State of São Paulo, as estimated based on isotherm charts. Dermanyssus gallinae may develop continually in the State of São Paulo, with a population decrease in the winter. There were differences between the developmental stages of D. gallinae in relation to thermal requirements.
Ferragut, Francisco; Navia, Denise
Predatory phytoseiid mites have been intensively studied and surveyed in the last decades because of their economic importance as biocontrol agents of agricultural pests. However, many regions of the world remain unexplored and the diversity of the family worldwide is still fragmentary. Up to date no phytoseiid species have been collected in the southernmost part of the Earth down to latitude 45º S. In this study Phytoseiidae were sampled from native vegetation in southern Argentina and Chile in the regions of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego Island. Thirteen species were collected, five of which were previously described and eight, Chileseius australis n. sp., Neoseiulus mapuche n. sp., Typhlodromips valdivianus n. sp., T. fissuratus n. sp., Amblyseius grandiporus n. sp., A. caliginosus n. sp., Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) anomalos n. sp. and Metaseiulus parabrevicollis n. sp. are proposed as new to science and are described and diagnosed.
Two new tarsonemid species of the genus Daidalotarsonemus found on both native and crop plants in Brazil are described herein, based on adult females: Daidalotarsonemus esalqi sp. n. and Daidalotarsonemus savanicus sp. n. A key is provided to distinguish females of Daidalotarsonemus species known to...
Vásquez, Carlos; Aponte, Orlando; Morales, José; Sanabria, María E; García, Grisaly
Life cycle, fecundity and longevity of the avocado brown mite, Oligonychus punicae (Hirst), were studied on six grapevine cultivars (Tucupita, Villanueva, Red Globe, Sirah, Sauvignon and Chenin Blanc), under laboratory conditions at 27 +/- 2 degrees C, 80 +/- 10% RH, and L12:D12 photoperiod. Mite-infested leaves were collected from vineyards, placed in paper bags and taken to the laboratory. A laboratory mite culture was established using the grape cultivar Criolla Negra as host plant. To elucidate potential effects on avocado brown mite parameters, we assessed levels of secondary metabolites, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and polyphenols, of leaves of the six grape cultivars, as well as the thickness of the adaxial cuticle-epidermis. The life cycle of O. punicae differed among cultivars with average values ranging between 8.2 days on Tucupita leaves and 9.1 days on Sirah. Relatively high fecundity was found on Tucupita leaves (2.8 eggs/female/day) during 11.4 oviposition days, while low fecundity values occurred on Sirah and Villanueva leaves, with 0.9 and 1.8 eggs/female/day during 7.9 and 6.7 days, respectively. Average longevity of O. punicae females ranged from 8.1 to 17.5 days on Sirah and Sauvignon leaves, respectively. Intrinsic rate of increase (r (m)) was highest on Sauvignon (0.292) and Tucupita (0.261), and lowest on Sirah (0.146) and Villanueva (0.135). Although significant differences in cuticle-epidermis thickness were detected among the six cultivars, it seemed not to affect mite parameters. Secondary metabolite content also varied between the cultivars. Generally, increasing flavonoid content coincided with decreasing reproductive parameters. The natural plant resistance observed in this study could be useful in the development of an integrated pest management program for mite pests in grape production.
Inoue, N; Hanada, K; Tsuji, N; Igarashi, I; Nagasawa, H; Mikami, T; Fujisaki, K
Effects of fetal bovine serum (FBS) and complement on phagocytic activity in Ornithodaros moubata (Murray 1877) hemocytes and protease activity in the hemocytes were examined. At least three morphologically different cell types, granulocytes, plasmatocytes, and prohemocytes, were detected in hemolymph of O. moubata, and granulocytes and plasmatocytes showed phagocytic activity. FBS altered phagocytic activity of granulocytes, and complement affected phagocytic activity of plasmatocytes. Ticks were inoculated with fluorescent polystyrene beads in combination with FBS or complement. The average number of beads in granulocytes was significantly higher in the FBS injected group than the control (P < 0.01). The percentage of bead-ingesting plasmatocytes in complement inoculated ticks was significantly lower than that in heat-inactivated complement inoculated and control ticks (P < 0.05). Proteases of tick hemocytes localized in small granules in the cytoplasm not only in phagocytic hemocytes but also in prohemocytes. Results suggested modulation of tick hemocyte function through serum components, and digestion of phagocytosed foreign bodies in the hemocytes.
Gianizella, Sergio L; Martins, Thiago F; Onofrio, Valeria C; Aguiar, Nair O; Gravena, Waleska; do Nascimento, Carlos A R; Neto, Laérzio C; Faria, Diogo L; Lima, Natália A S; Solorio, Monica R; Maranhão, Louise; Lima, Ivan J; Cobra, Iury V D; Santos, Tamily; Lopes, Gerson P; Ramalho, Emiliano E; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B
The tick fauna of Brazil is currently composed by 72 species. The state of Amazonas is the largest of Brazil, with an area of ≈ 19% of the Brazilian land. Besides its vast geographic area, only 19 tick species have been reported for Amazonas. Herein, lots containing ticks from the state of Amazonas were examined in three major tick collections from Brazil. A total of 5933 tick specimens were examined and recorded, comprising 2693 males, 1247 females, 1509 nymphs, and 484 larvae. These ticks were identified into the following 22 species: Amblyomma cajennense sensu lato, Amblyomma calcaratum, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dissimile, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma geayi, Amblyomma goeldii, Amblyomma humerale, Amblyomma latepunctatun, Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma naponense, Amblyomma oblongoguttatum, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma rotundatum, Amblyomma scalpturatum, Amblyomma varium, Dermacentor nitens, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Ixodes cf. Ixodes fuscipes, Ixodes luciae, Rhipicephalus microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato. Ticks were collected from 17 (27.4%) out of the 62 municipalities that currently compose the state of Amazonas. The following four species are reported for the first time in the state of Amazonas: A. coelebs, A. dubitatum, H. juxtakochi, and Ixodes cf. I. fuscipes. The only tick species previously reported for Amazonas and not found in the present study is Amblyomma parvum. This study provides a great expansion of geographical and host records of ticks for the state of Amazonas, which is now considered to have a tick fauna composed by 23 species. It is noteworthy that we report 1391 Amblyomma nymphs that were identified to 13 different species.
Os ácaros tenuipalpídeos ou ácaros planos são importantes fitófagos constituintes do agroecossistema e florestas semitropical e tropical (JEPPSON et al., 1975; HOY, 2011), sendo que algumas espécies estão associadas à transmissão de fitovírus (CHAGAS et al., 2001 e 2003; CHILDERS et al., 2001; KITAJ...
Berger, K.A.; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Gonzalez, L.; Mather, T.N.
Laboratory studies have shown clear relationships between relative humidity (RH) and the activity and survival of Ixodes scapularis Say (blacklegged tick). However, field studies have produced conflicting results. We examined this relationship using weekly tick count totals and hourly RH observations at three field sites, stratified by latitude, within the state of Rhode Island. Records of nymphal tick abundance were compared with several RH-related variables (e.g., RH at time of sampling and mean weekly daytime RH). In total, 825 nymphs were sampled in 2009, a year of greater precipitation, with a weighted average leaf litter RH recorded at time of sampling of 85.22%. Alternatively, 649 nymphs were collected in 2010, a year of relatively low precipitation, and a weighted average RH recorded at time of sampling was 75.51%. Negative binomial regression analysis of tick count totals identified cumulative hours <82% RH threshold as a significant factor observed in both years (2009: P = 0.0037; 2010: P < 0.0001). Mean weekly daytime RH did not significantly predict tick activity in either year. However, mean weekly daytime RH recorded with 1-wk lag before sample date was a significant variable (P = 0.0016) in 2010. These results suggest a lag effect between moisture availability and patterns of tick activity and abundance. Differences in the relative importance of each RH variable between years may have been due to abnormally wet summer conditions in 2009.
Bernardi, Daniel; Botton, Marcos; da Cunha, Uemerson Silva; Bernardi, Oderlei; Malausa, Thibaut; Garcia, Mauro Silveira; Nava, Dori Edson
The spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is the major strawberry pest in Brazil. The main strategies for its control comprise synthetic acaricides and predatory mites. The recent register of a commercial formula of azadirachtin (Azamax(®) 12 g L(-1) ) can be viable for control of T. urticae. In this work, the effects of azadirachtin on T. urticae and its compatibility with predatory mites Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus macropilis in the strawberry crop were evaluated. Azadirachtin was efficient against T. urticae, with a mortality rate similar to that of abamectin. In addition, the azadirachtin showed lower biological persistence (7 days) than abamectin (21 days). Azadirachtin did not cause significant mortality of adult predatory mites (N. californicus and P. macropilis), but it did reduce fecundity by 50%. However, egg viability of the azadirachtin treatments was similar to that of the control (>80% viability). The use of azadirachtin and predatory mites is a valuable tool for controlling T. urticae in strawberry crop. Azadirachtin provided effective control of T. urticae and is compatible with the predatory mites N. californicus and P. macropilis. It is an excellent tool to be incorporated into integrated pest management for strawberry crop in Brazil. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.
Seiedy, Marjan; Saboori, Alireza; Zahedi-Golpayegani, Azadeh
Determination of attraction and avoidance behavior of predators is important in concomitant use of multiple natural enemies to control a pest. The olfactory response of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis was studied to odors related to Tetranychus urticae adults infected by Beauveria bassiana DEBI008 in 0, 24, 48 and 72 h intervals, both in absence and in presence of plants. In plant-present experiments, P. persimilis attraction was neither towards adults of T. urticae infected by 0.02 % Tween 80 (as control), nor to the ones infected by B. bassiana for 0 or 24 h, whereas significant attraction towards the control was observed when tested against T. urticae infected by B. bassiana for 48 or 72 h. In absence of plants, P. persimilis displayed significant avoidance of T. urticae infected by B. bassiana for 48 or 72 h, when their alternative option was 0.02 % Tween 80-infected T. urticae adults. These results indicate that P. persimilis can recognize the presence of B. bassiana and that the predator avoids the fungus. This suggests that the two natural enemy species can be used together in biological control programmes.
Skirvin, D J; Fenlon, J S
The functional response of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot to eggs of its prey, the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch was examined on three plant species. Experiments were done to determine whether differences in the functional response on the three plant species were due to the morphological features of the crop directly on the predator or through an effect of the plant species on the prey. The results show that crop morphology is the only factor influencing the predatory ability of P. persimilis on the three plant species. Fewer eggs were eaten on Ceanothus thyrsiflorus var. 'Autumnal Blue', the plant species with hairy leaves, and greater numbers of prey consumed on Choisya ternata, a species with smooth leaves. However, similarly few eggs were eaten on the smooth, but waxy leaved Euonymus japonicus as on Ceanothus thyrsiflorus, demonstrating that morphological characters of leaves other than the possession of hairs and trichomes may affect the rates of predation. The implications of these results for the tritrophic interactions between plant, predator and prey, and the development of suitable biological control strategies are discussed.
Vangansbeke, Dominiek; De Schrijver, Lien; Spranghers, Thomas; Audenaert, Joachim; Verhoeven, Ruth; Nguyen, Duc Tung; Gobin, Bruno; Tirry, Luc; De Clercq, Patrick
Increasing energy costs force glasshouse growers to switch to energy saving strategies. In the temperature integration approach, considerable daily temperature variations are allowed, which not only have an important influence on plant growth but also on the development rate of arthropods in the crop. Therefore, we examined the influence of two constant temperature regimes (15 °C/15 °C and 20 °C/20 °C) and one alternating temperature regime (20 °C/5 °C, with an average of 15 °C) on life table parameters of Phytoseiulus persimilis and Neoseiulus californicus and their target pest, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae at a 16:8 (L:D) h photoperiod and 65 ± 5 % RH. For females of both predatory mites the alternating temperature regime resulted in a 25-30 % shorter developmental time as compared to the corresponding mean constant temperature regime of 15 °C/15 °C. The immature development of female spider mites was prolonged for 7 days at 15 °C/15 °C as compared to 20 °C/5 °C. With a daytime temperature of 20 °C, no differences in lifetime fecundity were observed between a nighttime temperature of 20 and 5 °C for P. persimilis and T. urticae. The two latter species did show a higher lifetime fecundity at 20 °C/5 °C than at 15 °C/15 °C, and their daily fecundity at the alternating regime was about 30 % higher than at the corresponding mean constant temperature. P. persimilis and T. urticae showed no differences in sex ratio between the three temperature regimes, whereas the proportion of N. californicus females at 15 °C/15 °C (54.2 %) was significantly lower than that at 20 °C/5 °C (69.4 %) and 20 °C/20 °C (67.2 %). Intrinsic rates of increase were higher at the alternating temperature than at the corresponding mean constant temperature for both pest and predators. Our results indicate that thermal responses of the studied phytoseiid predators to alternating temperature regimes used in energy saving strategies in glasshouse crops may have consequences for their efficacy in biological control programs.
Greco, Nancy M; Sánchez, Norma E; Liljesthröm, Gerardo G
Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) is a promising agent for successful Tetranychus urticae Koch control through conservation techniques, in strawberry crops in La Plata (Buenos Aires, Argentina). In prey-predator interaction, initial relative densities have an important effect on system dynamics. The economic threshold level (ETL) used for this pest in the present study was 50 active mites per leaflet. In our laboratory experiments, initial T. urticae to N. californicus ratio had a significant effect on the population abundance of T. urticae at a 7-day period. When pest/predator ratio was 5/1 (at initial pest densities from 5 to 15 females/leaflet) the final number of active T. urticae/leaflet was significantly lower than the ETL, while at 20 females/leaflet this number did not differ from the ETL. At 7.5/1 ratio, the final number of active T. urticae/leaflet, at initial pest densities from 5 to 15 females/leaflet, reached the ETL without surpassing it. At 10/1 and 15/1 ratios, pest densities exceeded the ETL only at 15 initial T. urticae/leaflet. Most greenhouse and field observations were consistent with the predictions of a graphical model based on experimental results. This predator was very effective in limiting pest densities at a 7-day period and within the range of pest-predator ratios and absolute densities used in this study. Conservation of N. californicus promoting favorable pest/predator ratios may result in early control of T. urticae.
Background Dermanyssus gallinae (poultry red mite) is a major threat for the poultry industry and is of significant interest for public health. Identification of D. gallinae can be difficult for scientists not familiar with mite morphology and terminology especially when trying to use identification keys. Moreover, this species may easily be confused with another dermanyssoid mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (northern fowl mite), which often shares the same hosts and environment. Methods Specimens of D. gallinae were collected at poultry farms in the Puglia and performed for light and scanning electron microscopy observations, identification and micrographs. Moreover specimens of O. sylviarum were collected separately macerated and mounted on slides for light microscopy observations, identification and pictures. Results The micrographs used in this study, based on LM and SEM observations, highlight the following important identifying characters of D. gallinae: the prominent shoulders of the dorsal shield and the jagged edges of the shield reticulations, the position of setae j1, s1 and the epigynal pores, and the presence on tibia IV pl of one seta. Additional micrographs highlighting the shape of the dorsal (abruptly narrowed posteriorly) and epigynal (narrowly rounded posteriorly) shields and the chelicera (elongate, with distinct digits) of O. sylviarum enable its differentiation from D.gallinae. Conclusion The photographic support provided here (both LM and SEM pictures) can be considered a practical tool for scientists who are not well acquainted with the morphology of D.gallinae, and who are involved with classical and molecular systematics, veterinary and human health aspects of poultry red mites. PMID:22647594
A gallery of the key characters to ease identification of Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Gamasida: Dermanyssidae) and allow differentiation from Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Acari: Gamasida: Macronyssidae).
Di Palma, Antonella; Giangaspero, Annunziata; Cafiero, Maria Assunta; Germinara, Giacinto S
Dermanyssus gallinae (poultry red mite) is a major threat for the poultry industry and is of significant interest for public health. Identification of D. gallinae can be difficult for scientists not familiar with mite morphology and terminology especially when trying to use identification keys. Moreover, this species may easily be confused with another dermanyssoid mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (northern fowl mite), which often shares the same hosts and environment. Specimens of D. gallinae were collected at poultry farms in the Puglia and performed for light and scanning electron microscopy observations, identification and micrographs. Moreover specimens of O. sylviarum were collected separately macerated and mounted on slides for light microscopy observations, identification and pictures. The micrographs used in this study, based on LM and SEM observations, highlight the following important identifying characters of D. gallinae: the prominent shoulders of the dorsal shield and the jagged edges of the shield reticulations, the position of setae j1, s1 and the epigynal pores, and the presence on tibia IV pl of one seta. Additional micrographs highlighting the shape of the dorsal (abruptly narrowed posteriorly) and epigynal (narrowly rounded posteriorly) shields and the chelicera (elongate, with distinct digits) of O. sylviarum enable its differentiation from D.gallinae. The photographic support provided here (both LM and SEM pictures) can be considered a practical tool for scientists who are not well acquainted with the morphology of D.gallinae, and who are involved with classical and molecular systematics, veterinary and human health aspects of poultry red mites.
The influence of sublethal deposits of agricultural mineral oil on the functional and numerical responses of Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to its prey, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).
Xue, Yingen; Meats, Alan; Beattie, G Andrew C; Spooner-Hart, Robert; Herron, Grant A
Occasional pesticide application in integrated pest management to at least part of a crop requires that any biological control agents must re-invade previously sprayed areas in order that resurgent pests can be constrained. The ability of the phytoseiid predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis to feed on adult two-spotted spider mite (TSSM) Tetranychus urticae on excised leaf discs in both control conditions and in a treatment with a sub lethal residue of agricultural mineral oil (AMO) was assessed. The predator exhibited a Type II functional response with the asymptote significantly higher in the AMO conditions due to the fact that the prey grew slower and reached a smaller size in this treatment. In terms of prey volume eaten, the satiation level of the predator was unchanged by the AMO deposits. The numbers of eggs produced by adult P. persimilis females at densities of 4, 8 and 16 TSSM adult females/disc in the control were significantly higher than those in the AMO treatment, but were similar for the higher density levels, 32 and 64 prey per disc. Thus the functional response in terms of volume of prey eaten explained the numerical response in terms of predator eggs produced. The presence of AMO deposits when the prey were at high density had no effect on predator efficiency (volume eaten) but resulted in a lower intake than that in control conditions when there was a greater distance between prey.
Skirvin, D J; Stavrinides, M C; Skirvin, D J
The effect of plant architecture, in terms of leaf hairiness, and prey spatial arrangement, on predation rate of eggs of the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, by the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot was examined on cut stems of chrysanthemums. Three levels of leaf hairiness (trichome density) were obtained using two different chrysanthemum cultivars and two ages within one of the cultivars. The number of prey consumed by P. persimilis was inversely related to trichome density. At low prey densities (less than ten eggs per stem), prey consumption did not differ in a biologically meaningful way between treatments. The effect of prey spatial arrangement on the predation rate of P. persimilis was also examined. Predation rates were higher in prey patches on leaves adjacent to the release point of P. persimilis, but significantly greater numbers of prey were consumed in higher density prey patches compared to low density patches. The predators exhibited non-random searching behaviour, spending more time on leaves closest to the release point. The implications of these findings for biological control and predator-prey dynamics are discussed.
The effect of indoxacarb and five other insecticides on Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae), Amblyseius fallacis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and nymphs of Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae).
Bostanian, Noubar J; Akalach, Mohammed
A laboratory study assessed the contact toxicity of indoxacarb, abamectin, endosulfan, insecticidal soap, S-kinoprene and dimethoate to Amblyseius fallacis (Garman), Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and nymphs of Orius insidiosus (Say). Amblyseius fallacis is a predacious phytoseiid mite and an integral part of integrated pest management (IPM) programmes in North American apple orchards. The other two beneficials are widely used in greenhouses to manage various arthropod pests infesting vegetable and ornamental crops. Indoxacarb is a slow-acting insecticide, so toxicity data were recorded 7 days post-treatment when the data had stabilised. It showed no toxicity to O. insidiosus nymphs or to A. fallacis or P. persimilis adults. The LC50 values for O. insidiosus nymphs and P. persimilis could not be estimated with their associated confidence limits, because the g values were greater than 0.5 and under such circumstances the lethal concentration would lie outside the limits. The LC50 for A. fallacis was 7.6x the label rate. The fecundity of P. persimilis was reduced by 26.7%. The eclosion of treated eggs from both species of beneficial mites was not affected adversely. Among the other pest control products, S-kinoprene and endosulfan affected adversely at least one species of the predators, whereas dimethoate, abamectin and insecticidal soap were very toxic to all three beneficials. Indoxacarb should be evaluated as a pest control product in IPM programmes. Copyright (c) 2006 Crown in the right of Canada.
The response of Typhlodromus pyri, a key predator of grapevine rust mite (Calepitrimerus vitis), to MeSA was tested using a Y-tube olfactometer in laboratory bioassays. Six doses ranging from 200 to 0.002 µg of diluted MeSA were tested. Significantly higher proportions of T. pyri preferred MeSA at ...
Josek, Tanya; Allan, Brian F; Alleyne, Marianne
The Haller's organ plays a crucial role in a tick's ability to detect hosts. Even though this sensory organ is vital to tick survival, the morphology of this organ is not well understood. The objective of this study was to characterize variation in the morphological components of the Haller's organ of three medically important tick species using quantitative methods. The Haller's organs of Ixodes scapularis Say (Ixodida: Ixodidae) (black-legged tick), Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Ixodida: Ixodidae) (lone star tick), and Dermacentor variabilis (Say) (Ixodida: Ixodidae) (American dog tick) were morphologically analyzed using environmental scanning electron microscopy and geometric morphometrics, and the results were statistically interpreted using canonical variate analysis. Our data reveal significant, quantitative differences in the morphology of the Haller's organ among all three tick species and that in D. variabilis the sensory structure is sexually dimorphic. Studies like this can serve as a quantitative basis for further studies on sensor physiology, behavior, and tick species life history, potentially leading to novel methods for the prevention of tick-borne disease.
Thirty-three taxa associated with Ips typographus were identified, of which fifteen species were phoretic. The most abundant species were Insectolaelaps quadrisetus (Mesostigmata), Siculobata lentonycha (Oribata), Diapterobates humeralis (Oribata), Ereymetes propescutulis (...
Jaenson, Thomas G T; Värv, Kairi; Fröjdman, Isabella; Jääskeläinen, Anu; Rundgren, Kaj; Versteirt, Veerle; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Medlock, Jolyon M; Golovljova, Irina
The tick species Ixodes ricinus and I. persulcatus are of exceptional medical importance in the western and eastern parts, respectively, of the Palaearctic region. In Russia and Finland the range of I. persulcatus has recently increased. In Finland the first records of I. persulcatus are from 2004. The apparent expansion of its range in Finland prompted us to investigate if I. persulcatus also occurs in Sweden. Dog owners and hunters in the coastal areas of northern Sweden provided information about localities where ticks could be present. In May-August 2015 we used the cloth-dragging method in 36 localities potentially harbouring ticks in the Bothnian Bay area, province Norrbotten (NB) of northern Sweden. Further to the south in the provinces Västerbotten (VB) and Uppland (UP) eight localities were similarly investigated. Ixodes persulcatus was detected in 9 of 36 field localities in the Bothnian Bay area. Nymphs, adult males and adult females (n = 46 ticks) of I. persulcatus were present mainly in Alnus incana - Sorbus aucuparia - Picea abies - Pinus sylvestris vegetation communities on islands in the Bothnian Bay. Some of these I. persulcatus populations seem to be the most northerly populations so far recorded of this species. Dog owners asserted that their dogs became tick-infested on these islands for the first time 7-8 years ago. Moose (Alces alces), hares (Lepus timidus), domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and ground-feeding birds are the most likely carriers dispersing I. persulcatus in this area. All ticks (n = 124) from the more southern provinces of VB and UP were identified as I. ricinus. The geographical range of the taiga tick has recently expanded into northern Sweden. Increased information about prophylactic, anti-tick measures should be directed to people living in or visiting the coastal areas and islands of the Baltic Bay.
In the of period 2003-2007, a total of 382 specimens of reptiles belonging to the following genera were investigated: Testudo, Iguana, Varanus, Gongylophis, Python, Spalerosophis, Psammophis. The material for the present study was a collection of reptiles owned by the "Animals" Ltd from Swietochłowice (Upper Silesia, Poland), specialising in import of exotic animals to Poland, as well as the reptile collections of private breeders. The reptiles that turned out to be the most heavily infected with ticks were the commonly bred terrarium reptiles: Varanus exanthematicus and Python regius and they were imported to Poland from Ghana, Africa. Exotic reptiles are also imported from Southern Europe, Asia and Central America. The presently reported study helped to confirm the fact of transfer of exotic ticks on reptiles to Poland. A total of 2104 tick specimens, representing all stages of development (males, females, nymphs, larvae), were collected. They represented species of the genera Amblyomma and Hyalomma. The following species were found: Amblyomma exornatum Koch, 1844, Amblyomma flavomaculatum (Lucas, 1846), Amblyomma latum Koch, 1844, Amblyomma nuttalli Dönitz, 1909, Amblyomma quadricavum Schulze, 1941, Amblyomma transversale (Lucas, 1844), Amblyomma varanense (Supino, 1897), Amblyomma spp. Koch, 1844, Hyalomma aegyptium (Linnaeus, 1758). All the species of ticks of genus Ambylomma revealed have been discovered in Poland for the first time. The overall prevalence of infection was 77.6%. The highest prevalence value (81.2%) was observed on pythons (Python regius) and (78.7%) on monitor lizards (Varanus exanthematicus). The highest number of ticks was collected from Python regius and Varanus exanthematicus. The mean infection intensity for V. exanthematicus was 7.6 ticks per host, while for P. regius the intensity reached 4.7 ticks. The most abundant tick transferred to Poland on a host was an African tick, Amblyomma latum. Fifty eight specimens of monitor lizards (V. salvator and V. exanthematicus) and 92 specimens pythons (P. regius) were examined, with detailed descriptions of where the parasite was feeding on the body of the host. Among the 434 specimens of ticks collected from the monitor lizards, the majority were attached on the host's legs (40.5%), on the trunk (29.3%), on the head (20.3%), with fewest on the tail (9.9%). Also, 430 specimens of ticks were collected from the bodies of pythons. They mostly parasitized along the whole length of the back (54.4%) and on the stomach side of the trunk (29.8%), less frequently in the area of the cloaca (5.6%), around the eyes (3.7%), in the nostril openings (0.9%) and on the remainder of the head (5.6%). On the hosts, ticks were found at different development stages, but adult development stages dominated. The most frequent were males (999 specimens), then adult females (552 specimens), nymphs (508 specimens) and larvae (45 specimens). During the research, 13 cases of anomalies of morphological structure were confirmed for ticks Amblyomma flavomaculatum, Amblyomma latum and Hyalomma aegyptium. Asymmetries and deformations of the general body shape were observed, as were anomalies concerning structures on the surface of the body and anomalies of the legs. For the first time in Poland, epidemiological tests were carried out in the direction of the infection of exotic ticks gathered from reptiles with micro-organisms which pose a threat for the health of people and animals. For this purpose, molecular techniques - polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing were used. The isolates from 345 ticks, were examined for the presence of DNA of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, which is the etiological factor in human granulocytic anaplasmosis, and Rickettsia spp. from the spotted fever group, causing human rickettsiosis. This study confirmed the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in two ticks of Amblyomma flavomaculatum (constituting 0.6% of all the ticks investigated) feeding on Varanus exanthematicus. None of the tick specimens, however, contained Rickettsia spp. DNA. The expanding phenomenon of the import of exotic reptiles in Poland and Central Europe is important for parasitological and epidemiological reasons and therefore requires monitoring and wide-ranging prophylactic activities to prevent the inflow of exotic parasites to Poland.
Background Amblyomma cajennense F. is one of the best known and studied ticks in the New World because of its very wide distribution, its economical importance as pest of domestic ungulates, and its association with a variety of animal and human pathogens. Recent observations, however, have challenged the taxonomic status of this tick and indicated that intraspecific cryptic speciation might be occurring. In the present study, we investigate the evolutionary and demographic history of this tick and examine its genetic structure based on the analyses of three mitochondrial (12SrDNA, d-loop, and COII) and one nuclear (ITS2) genes. Because A. cajennense is characterized by a typical trans-Amazonian distribution, lineage divergence dating is also performed to establish whether genetic diversity can be linked to dated vicariant events which shaped the topology of the Neotropics. Results Total evidence analyses of the concatenated mtDNA and nuclear + mtDNA datasets resulted in well-resolved and fully congruent reconstructions of the relationships within A. cajennense. The phylogenetic analyses consistently found A. cajennense to be monophyletic and to be separated into six genetic units defined by mutually exclusive haplotype compositions and habitat associations. Also, genetic divergence values showed that these lineages are as distinct from each other as recognized separate species of the same genus. The six clades are deeply split and node dating indicates that they started diverging in the middle-late Miocene. Conclusions Behavioral differences and the results of laboratory cross-breeding experiments had already indicated that A. cajennense might be a complex of distinct taxonomic units. The combined and congruent mitochondrial and nuclear genetic evidence from this study reveals that A. cajennense is an assembly of six distinct species which have evolved separately from each other since at least 13.2 million years ago (Mya) in the earliest and 3.3 Mya in the latest lineages. The temporal and spatial diversification modes of the six lineages overlap the phylogeographical history of other organisms with similar extant trans-Amazonian distributions and are consistent with the present prevailing hypothesis that Neotropical diversity often finds its origins in the Miocene, after the Andean uplift changed the topology and consequently the climate and ecology of the Neotropics. PMID:24320199
Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Tunholi Alves, Victor Menezes; da Silva, Jairo Pinheiro; Nora Castro, Rosane; Salgueiro, Fernanda Barbosa; Perinotto, Wendell Marcelo de Souza; Gôlo, Patrícia Silva; Camargo, Mariana Guedes; Angelo, Isabele da Costa; Bittencourt, Vânia Rita Elias Pinheiro
Rhipicephalus microplus is an important tick in tropical regions due to the high economic losses caused by its parasitism. Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana are well-known entomopathogenic fungi that can afflict R. microplus ticks. The development of new targets and strategies to control this parasite can be driven by studies of this tick's physiology. Recently, it was reported that when exposed to adverse physiological conditions, ticks can activate fermentative pathways, indicating transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism. Nevertheless, the precise mechanism by which entomopathogenic fungi influence R. microplus metabolism has not been clarified, limiting understanding of the tick-fungus association. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of infection of ticks by M. anisopliae and B. bassiana on the amount of selected carboxylic acids present in the hemolymph, enabling increased understanding of changes previously reported. The results showed preservation in the concentrations of oxalic, lactic, and pyruvic acids in the hemolymph 24 and 48 h after dropping from cattle; while there were variations in the concentration of these carboxylic acids after infection of female ticks to M. anisopliae and B. bassiana. Significant increases were observed in the concentration of oxalic and lactic acids and significant reduction of pyruvic acid for both observation times (24 and 48 h) after infection by entomopathogenic fungi. These results indicate that B. bassiana and M. anisopliae infection alters the basal metabolism of R. microplus females, resulting in the activation of fermentative pathways.
Zhioua, E.; Browning, M.; Johnson, P.W.; Ginsberg, H.S.; LeBrun, R.A.
The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is highly pathogenic to the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis. Spore concentrations of 108/ml for engorged larvae and 107/ml for engorged females resulted in 100% tick mortality, 2 wk post-infection. The LC50 value for engorged larvae (concentration to kill 50% of ticks) was 107 spores/ml. Metarhizium anisopliae shows considerable potential as a microbial control agent for the management of Ixodes scapularis.
Monteiro, Caio Márcio Oliveira; Araújo, Laryssa Xavier; Matos, Renata Silva; da Silva Golo, Patrícia; Angelo, Isabele Costa; de Souza Perinotto, Wendell Marcelo; Coelho Rodrigues, Camila Aparecida; Furlong, John; Bittencourt, Vânia Rita Elias Pinheiro; Prata, Márcia Cristina Azevedo
The aim of the study was to assess the effect of the association of entomopathogenic nematodes and fungi on Rhipicephalus microplus. The nematodes used were Heterorhabditis bacteriophora HP88 and Heterorhabditis indica LPP1 and the fungi were Metarhizium anisopliae IBCB 116 and Beauveria bassiana ESALQ 986. In the groups treated with the fungi, the females were immersed for 3 min in a conidial suspension, while in the groups treated with the nematodes, the ticks were exposed to infective juveniles. To evaluate the interaction between entomopathogens, the females were first immersed in a conidial suspension and then exposed to the nematodes. The egg mass weight and hatching percentage values of the groups treated with M. anisopliae IBCB 116 and B. bassiana ESALQ 986 in the two experiments were statistically similar (p > 0.05) to the values of the control group. In the groups treated only with nematodes, there was a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the egg mass weight, a fact also observed for the hatching percentage of the group treated with H. indica LPP1. In all the groups treated with nematodes in association with fungi, there was a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the egg mass weight and hatching percentage. The percentage of control of the groups treated with fungi alone varied from 31 to 55%. In the groups treated with nematodes associated or not with fungi, the control percentage was always greater than 90% and reached 100% in the group treated with H. bacteriophora HP88 associated with the fungus M. anisopliae IBCB 116.
Tuininga, Amy R.; Miller, Jessica L.; Morath, Shannon U.; Daniels, Thomas J.; Falco, Richard C.; Marchese, Michael; Sahabi, Sadia; Rosa, Dieshia; Stafford, Kirby C.
Entomopathogenic fungi are commonly found in forested soils that provide tick habitat, and many species are pathogenic to Ixodes scapularis Say, the blacklegged tick. As a first step to developing effective biocontrol strategies, the objective of this study was to determine the best methods to isolate entomopathogenic fungal species from field-collected samples of soils and ticks from an Eastern deciduous forest where I. scapularis is common. Several methods were assessed: (1) soils, leaf litter, and ticks were plated on two types of media; (2) soils were assayed for entomopathogenic fungi using the Galleria bait method; (3) DNA from internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear ribosomal repeat was extracted from pure cultures obtained from soils, Galleria, and ticks and was amplified and sequenced; and (4) DNA was extracted directly from ticks, amplified, and sequenced. We conclude that (1) ticks encounter potentially entomopathogenic fungi more often in soil than in leaf litter, (2) many species of potentially entomopathogenic fungi found in the soil can readily be cultured, (3) the Galleria bait method is a sufficiently efficient method for isolation of these fungi from soils, and (4) although DNA extraction from ticks was not possible in this study because of small sample size, DNA extraction from fungi isolated from soils and from ticks was successful and provided clean sequences in 100 and 73% of samples, respectively. A combination of the above methods is clearly necessary for optimal characterization of entomopathogenic fungi associated with ticks in the environment. PMID:19496427
Tuininga, Amy R; Miller, Jessica L; Morath, Shannon U; Daniels, Thomas J; Falco, Richard C; Marchese, Michael; Sahabi, Sadia; Rosa, Dieshia; Stafford, Kirby C
Entomopathogenic fungi are commonly found in forested soils that provide tick habitat, and many species are pathogenic to Ixodes scapularis Say, the blacklegged tick. As a first step to developing effective biocontrol strategies, the objective of this study was to determine the best methods to isolate entomopathogenic fungal species from field-collected samples of soils and ticks from an Eastern deciduous forest where I. scapularis is common. Several methods were assessed: (1) soils, leaf litter, and ticks were plated on two types of media; (2) soils were assayed for entomopathogenic fungi using the Galleria bait method; (3) DNA from internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear ribosomal repeat was extracted from pure cultures obtained from soils, Galleria, and ticks and was amplified and sequenced; and (4) DNA was extracted directly from ticks, amplified, and sequenced. We conclude that (1) ticks encounter potentially entomopathogenic fungi more often in soil than in leaf litter, (2) many species of potentially entomopathogenic fungi found in the soil can readily be cultured, (3) the Galleria bait method is a sufficiently efficient method for isolation of these fungi from soils, and (4) although DNA extraction from ticks was not possible in this study because of small sample size, DNA extraction from fungi isolated from soils and from ticks was successful and provided clean sequences in 100 and 73% of samples, respectively. A combination of the above methods is clearly necessary for optimal characterization of entomopathogenic fungi associated with ticks in the environment.
Umina, P A; Hoffmann, A A
Earth mites are major winter pests of a variety of crops and pastures in southern Australia. Competition between four earth mite species was investigated using field and shadehouse experiments. The influence of different plant hosts on the frequency and intensity of competitive interactions also were examined. This information is important, because control attempts that eradicate one species of mite could be directly followed by an increase in abundance of another earth mite species. There were strong effects of intraspecific competition on the reproductive rate of species, while interspecific interactions between Halotydeus destructor (Tucker) and Penthaleus species and between the three Penthaleus species also were detected. Competitive abilities were altered on the different plant types. On pasture, the competitive advantage swayed between Penthaleus major (Dugés), H. destructor, and Penthaleus falcatus (Qin & Halliday). Penthaleus sp. x was the strongest competitor in a mixture of wheat, Triticum aestivum (L.), and oats, Avena sativa (L.), whereas on canola, Brassica napus (L.), and bristly ox-tongue, Picris echioides (L.), P. falcatus, and H. destructor were superior competitors. These results suggest that competition is a strong force influencing the abundance of earth mites in the field and that host plant factors are important in shaping the type of interactions. This highlights the importance of identifying mite species when considering control options and suggests that effective control recommendations need to be developed for each individual species.
Fischer, Barbara M; Schatz, Heinrich
Oribatid mite communities were studied in the Central Alps (Obergurgl, Tyrol, Austria). Samples were taken on four sites along an altitudinal gradient from 2050 m a.s.l to 2900 m a.s.l., in different vegetation units (pine forest, Nardetum, Caricetum, Androsacetum). A total of 86 species were found, most of them occurred only at one altitude, four species were found in all four study sites. Three taxa could not be ascribed to a certain species (Carabodes sp. Mycobates sp., Tectocepheus sp.). Species richness and density of oribatid mites decrease with increasing altitude. The results are compared with previous studies in the same region and show remarkable shifts in species composition.
Loaiza, Jose R; Miller, Matthew J; Bermingham, Eldredge; Sanjur, Oris I; Jansen, Patrick A; Rovira, Jose R; Alvarez, Eric; Rodriguez, Eric; Davis, Philip; Dutari, Larissa C; Pecor, James; Foley, Desmond; Radtke, Meghan; Pongsiri, Montira J
Free-ranging ticks are widely known to be restricted to the ground level of vegetation. Here, we document the capture of the tick species Amblyomma tapirellum in light traps placed in the forest canopy of Barro Colorado Island, central Panama. A total of forty eight adults and three nymphs were removed from carbon dioxide–octenol baited CDC light traps suspended 20 meters above the ground during surveys for forest canopy mosquitoes. To our knowledge, this represents the first report of questing ticks from the canopy of tropical forests. Our finding suggests a novel ecological relationship between A. tapirellum and arboreal mammals, perhaps monkeys that come to the ground to drink or to feed on fallen fruits. PMID:25075277
Pfingstl, Tobias; Lienhard, Andrea; Jagersbacher-Baumann, Julia
The small archipelago of Bermuda is a geologically young landmass in the Western Atlantic Ocean and recently turned out to be inhabited by a number of intertidal oribatid mites. One newly described species, Carinozetes bermudensis, showed an unusual vast range of habitats like sandy beaches, rocky substrate and mangroves. In the present study, 13 Bermudian populations of C. bermudensis were analysed to verify species integrity of specimens from different microhabitats. A morphometric analysis of 17 continuous variables as well as a molecular genetic investigation of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I revealed the existence of a new species Carinozetes mangrovi sp. nov., inhabiting exclusively intertidal algae growing on mangrove roots. Although both species are morphologically nearly identical, the configuration of the genus-specific ventral carinae represents a clear diagnostic character. The high genetic divergence of approximately 12 % of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene sequence between C. bermudensis and C. mangrovi sp. nov. suggests that these two species diverged before the emergence of the Bermuda islands. Accordingly, both of them are older than the geologically young archipelago of Bermuda.
Mitra, S S; Buckley, P A; Buckley, F G; Ginsberg, H S
Acquisition of ticks by bird hosts is a central process in the transmission cycles of many tick-borne zoonoses, but tick recruitment by birds has received little direct study. We documented acquisition of Ixodes scapularis Say on birds at Fire Island, NY, by removing ticks from mist-netted birds, and recording the number of ticks on birds recaptured within 4 d of release. Eight bird species acquired at least 0.8 ticks bird(-1) day(-1) during the seasonal peak for at least one age class of I. scapularis. Gray Catbirds, Eastern Towhees, Common Yellowthroats, and Northern Waterthrushes collectively accounted for 83% of all tick acquisitions; and six individuals apportioned among Black-billed Cuckoo, Gray Catbird, Eastern Towhee, and Common Yellowthroat were simultaneously infested with both larvae and nymphs. Bird species with the highest acquisition rates were generally ground foragers, whereas birds that did not acquire ticks in our samples generally foraged above the ground. Tick acquisition by birds did not differ between deciduous and coniferous forests. Among the 15 bird species with the highest recruitment rates, acquisition of nymphs was not correlated with acquisition of larvae. Tick acquisition rates by individual bird species were not correlated with the reservoir competence of those species for Lyme borreliae. However, birds with high tick acquisition rates can contribute large numbers of infected ticks, and thus help maintain the enzootic cycle, even if their levels of reservoir competence are relatively low.
Mironov, S V; Malyshev, L L
A process of infecting the chaffinch nestlings Fringilla coelebs with three analgoid feather mites, Analges passerinus L., 1758, Monojoubertia microphylla (Robin, 1877), and Pteronyssoides striatus (Robin, 1977), commonly occurred on this bird species was investigated. 15 nests contained totally 65 nestlings, from 2 to 6 individuals in a brood, have been examined from the day of hatching till 11th day. Observations were held in the neighbourhood of the bird banding station "Rybachy" (Russia, Kaliningrad Province) in June of 1982. Number of mites on alive nestlings taken temporarily from their nest was counted by means of binocular lens under the magnification x12.5 and x25. The nestlings receive the mites from the chaffinch female during the night time, when the female sits together with the young birds and heats them. In the condition of this prolonged direct contact the mites migrate from the female onto the nestlings. As it was shown in our study of seasonal dynamics of mites on the chaffinch (Mironov, 2000), the chaffinch female only gives its mites to young generation and looses about three quarter of its mite micropopulation during the nesting period (June), hile in the chaffinch males the number of mites continues to increase during all summer. The infections with three feather mite species happen in the second part of the nestling's stay in the nest. The starting time of this process, its intensity, and sex and age structure of mite micropopulations on the nestlings just before their leaving the nest are different in the mite species examined. These peculiarities of feather mite species are determined by the biology of examined species, and first of all by their morphological characteristic and specialisation to different microhabitats, i.e. certain structural zones of plumage. Pteronyssoides striatus (Pteronyssidae) is rather typical mite specialised to feathers with vanes. In adult birds with completely developed plumage this species occupies the ventral surface of the big upper coverts of primary flight feathers. This species appears on the chaffinch nestlings in a significant number on 7th day. The mites occupy the basal parts of primary flight feathers represented in that moment by the rods only. They sit on practically open and smooth surface of this microhabitat, which is uncommon for them, because the vanes of the big upper coverts are not yet open and also represented by thin rods. During the period of the last 5 days (from 7 to 11th day) the mean number of mites per one nestling increases from 2.3 +/- 0.5 to 17.1 +/- 1.8 mites. Just before the day, when the nestling leave the nest, the tritonymphs absolutely predominate (82.4%) in the micropopulation of P. striatus. Analges passerinus (Analgidae) is specialised to live in the friable layer formed by numerous not-engaged thread barbles of the down feathers and basal parts of the body covert feathers. Mites have special hooks on legs used for hard attaching to the barbles and for fast moving in the friable layer of feathers. On the chaffinch nestlings, these mites appear usually on 8th day, when the rod-like body covert feathers begin to open on apices and form short brushes; however some individuals occur on the skin of nestlings even on 6th day. The mean number of mites per nestling on the 11th day reaches 16.5 +/- 1.4 individuals. The micropopulation of A. passerinus is represented on the nestlings mainly by the females (45.5%), tritonymphs (23.6%) and males (11.5%). Monojobertia microphylla (Proctophyllodidae) is a typical dweller of feathers with large vanes. Mites of this species commonly occupy the ventral surface of primary and secondary flight feathers and also respective big upper covert feathers of wings. M. microphylla appears on the nestlings in a significant number (7.1 +/- 1.2 mites) on 9th day, only when the primary flight feathers already have short vanes about 10 mm in length. In next three days the number of mites increases very fast and reaches on 11th day 60.3 +/- 5.7 mites per nestling. In the micropopulation of this species, the tritonymphs count 38.3%, and the quota of males and females is 25.3% each. The migration of this species goes most intensively, than in two other species. An analitic selection of logistic curves shows, that the increasing of mite number during the process of infection with three mite species may be most adequately described by the sigmoid curves with clearly recognizable levels of saturation, which can be theoretically reached. Indeed, the number of mite individuals being able to migrate onto the nestlings is limited by their number on a respective chaffinch female. In a contrast, the increasing of plumage indices, for instance the length of flight feathers, has almost linear character during the period of observation. The beginning of mite migration is determined by the development of respective microhabitats in the plumage of nestlings, or at least by the development of certain structure elements of plumage, where mites are able to attach for a while, before that moment, when the nestlings will develop the plumage completely and begin to fly. In three mite species examined, the process of infection was performed by older stages, namely by the imago and/or tritonymphs. This can be explained by two reasons. On the one hand, the older stages are most active in their movement, resistible and able to survive successfully on new host individuals. On the other hand, the older stage are ready for the reproduction or will be ready after one moulting. The older stages of mites can quickly create a large and self-supporting micropopulations on the birds, therefore this strategy ensures a successful subsequent existence of the parasite species. In cases, when mites (A. passerinus, M. microphylla) migrate into the respective microhabitats structurally corresponding to their normal microhabitats on adult birds, the micropopulations of these mite species include a significant or dominant quota of females and males. When the normal microhabitat is not yet formed, feather mites migrate into neighboring structure elements of plumage, where they can survive and wait for the development of normal microhabitat, to which they are well adapted. Therefore, in the case of P. striatus, its micropopulations on the chaffinch nestlings are represented mainly by the tritonymphs.
Three new species, Daidalotarsonemus oliveirai Rezende, Lofego & Ochoa, sp. nov.,Excelsotarsonemus caravelis Rezende, Lofego & Ochoa, sp. nov. and E. tupi Rezende, Lofego & Ochoa, sp. nov. are described and illustrated. Measurements for these species are provided, as well as drawings, phase contrast...
Navarro, María-Jesús; Gea, Francisco-José; Escudero-Colomar, L Adriana
The myceliophagous mite Microdispus lambi has become a veritable plague since 1996, when it was first observed in Spanish mushroom crops, and is now causing substantial economic losses, particulary in spring and summer. This study looks at seasonal variation of the pest, its distribution on commercial farms and the population development during the crop cycle of the common white mushroom, Agaricus bisporus. Over a period of 18 months, 24 consecutive mushroom crop cycles were monitored and a total of 24 spawn and 960 substrate samples were analysed. We found that it is usually the substrates in the growing rooms that are infested, most commonly the compost. In many cases, the pest can be detected when the first 'flush'-i.e., mushroom growth surge, with weekly periodicity-is harvested, although damage does not become evident until the third flush. Mites were detected at the back of the mushroom growing room and, to a lesser extent, near the access door.
Hornok, Sándor; Wang, Yuanzhi; Otranto, Domenico; Keskin, Adem; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Kontschán, Jenő; Takács, Nóra; Farkas, Róbert; Sándor, Attila D
Haemaphysalis erinacei is one of the few ixodid tick species for which valid names of subspecies exist. Despite their disputed taxonomic status in the literature, these subspecies have not yet been compared with molecular methods. The aim of the present study was to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of H. erinacei subspecies, in the context of the first finding of this tick species in Romania. After morphological identification, DNA was extracted from five adults of H. e. taurica (from Romania and Turkey), four adults of H. e. erinacei (from Italy) and 17 adults of H. e. turanica (from China). From these samples fragments of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and 16S rRNA genes were amplified via PCR and sequenced. Results showed that cox1 and 16S rRNA gene sequence divergences between H. e. taurica from Romania and H. e. erinacei from Italy were below 2%. However, the sequence divergences between H. e. taurica from Romania and H. e. turanica from China were high (up to 7.3% difference for the 16S rRNA gene), exceeding the reported level of sequence divergence between closely related tick species. At the same time, two adults of H. e. taurica from Turkey had higher 16S rRNA gene similarity to H. e. turanica from China (up to 97.5%) than to H. e. taurica from Romania (96.3%), but phylogenetically clustered more closely to H. e. taurica than to H. e. turanica. This is the first finding of H. erinacei in Romania, and the first (although preliminary) phylogenetic comparison of H. erinacei subspecies. Phylogenetic analyses did not support that the three H. erinacei subspecies evaluated here are of equal taxonomic rank, because the genetic divergence between H. e. turanica from China and H. e. taurica from Romania exceeded the usual level of sequence divergence between closely related tick species, suggesting that they might represent different species. Therefore, the taxonomic status of the subspecies of H. erinacei needs to be revised based on a larger number of specimens collected throughout its geographical range.
J.C. Moser; R.L. Smiley; I.S. Otvos
Pyemotes barbara, n. sp., is illustrated and described.This species is parasitic on pupae of Barbara colfaxiana (Kearfott), one of the important cone and seed pests of Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco.The Pyemotes mite considered here is a candidate for the biological control of forest insects.
Niedbała, Wojciech; Starý, Josef
Three new species of the family Phthiracaridae, Austrophthiracarus longisetosus sp. nov., Phthiracarus allocotos sp. nov., Protophthiracarus amboroensis sp. nov. from Bolivia are described and figured. A comparison of morphological similarities with the most closely related species is presented. Additional descriptions and taxonomical notes for three ptyctimous species: Acrotritia peruensis (Hammer, 1961), Acrotritia vestita (Berlese, 1913), and Steganacarus (Rhacaplacarus) sedecimus Niedbała, 2004 are added. A list of twenty six ptyctimous species from Bolivia is presented, ten of these species are new records for the fauna of Bolivia. A key to all species of ptyctimous mites of Bolivia is presented.
to the comparatively recent rules promulgated by the American Arachnological Society Committee on Common Names of Arachnids (2003), most of... Arachnological Society Committee on Common Names of Arachnids (2003) Common Names of Arachnids, Fifth Edition. American Tarantula Society, accessible online
Ginsberg, H.S.; Zhioua, E.
Nymphal and adult Ixodes scapularis Say were sampled by flagging at 2 sites on a barrier island, Fire Island, NY, and at 2 sites on the nearby mainland. Nymphal densities did not differ consistently between island and mainland sites, but adult densities were consistently lower on the island. We tested whether lower adult densities on the island resulted from greater nymphal mortality on the island than the mainland, or whether adult ticks on the island were poorly sampled by flagging because they had attached abundantly to deer, which were common on Fire Island. Differential nymphal mortality on islands vs. mainland did not explain this difference in adult densities because survival of flat and engorged nymphs in enclosures was the same at island and mainland sites. Ticks were infected by parasitic wasps on the island and not the mainland, but the infection rate (4.3%) was too low to explain the difference in adult tick densities. In contrast, exclusion of deer by game fencing on Fire Island resulted in markedly increased numbers of adult ticks in flagging samples inside compared to samples taken outside the exclosures. Therefore, the scarcity of adult ticks in flagging samples on Fire Island resulted, at least in part, from the ticks being unavailable to flagging samples because they were on deer hosts. Differences in the densities of flagged ticks inside and outside the exclosures were used to estimate the percentage of questing adults on Fire Island that found deer hosts, excluding those that attached to other host species. Approximately 56% of these questing adult ticks found deer hosts in 1995 and 50% found deer hosts in 1996. Therefore, in areas where vertebrate hosts are highly abundant, large proportions of the questing tick population can find hosts. Moreover, comparisons of tick densities at different sites by flagging can potentially be biased by differences in host densities among sites.
Carroll, J.F.; Russek-Cohen, E.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.
We conclude a mark-recapture study in which drag-collected ticks were removed from some park trails weekly from April to July. Weekly survival rates (probability of surviving and remaining on the trails) were significantly lower on trials used heavily by hikers, horses, and pets than on trails used less frequently. Although usage was the only obvious difference among these trails, differences in weekly survival rate estimates may be attributable to differential success in acquiring hosts. The estimated probability of capturing a host-seeking tick located along a trail on a single drag was 0.20 on the drag alone, and 0.25 including the person dragging. When routes parallel to the trails and of equal lengths were dragged immediately after sampling the trails, only .apprxeq. 5% as many ticks (including ticks on the person dragging) were found off the trails as on them. We found no evidence of reduced tick numbers on removal trails, but this result should be considered inconclusive because the power of the discerning test was low. However, the data reported here provide insights into turnover rates of the adult Dermacentor variabilis population and effectiveness of the drag as a sampling device.
Carroll, M.C.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Hyland, K.E.
The distribution of nymphal Ixodes dammini Spielman, Clifford, Piesman & Corwin in residential lawns was assessed by flagging on Prudence Island, RI. The number of ticks per sample was five times greater in lawns adjacent to woods than in lawns adjacent to other lawns. Relative tick abundance was negatively correlated with distance from the woods, but the decline was gradual. Spirochete prevalence in ticks did not differ among lawn types or at different distances from the woods. Therefore, barriers that keep people away from the wood edge probably lower the risk of acquiring Lyme disease, but there is still a risk. Even with physical barriers at lawn-wood edges, personal precautions to prevent tick bites should be followed.
Castro, B M C; Soares, M A; Andrade Júnior, V C; Santos Júnior, V C; Fontes, P C R; Wilcken, C F; Serrão, J E; Zanuncio, J C
Tetranychus ludeni damages the sweet potato. Pest development can vary between plant genotypes. The objective was to identify the preference of Tetranychus ludeni for Ipomoea batatas genotypes, from the germplasm bank at the Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (UFVJM). Natural infestations of this mite were observed on 54 sweet potato genotypes in potted, in a greenhouse. Three mite-infested leafs of each genotype were collected and analyzed. The red mite showed different population density rate in genotypes. The BD 29 genotype was found to be highly susceptible, the BD 08, BD 57, BD 17 and Espanhola genotypes were moderately susceptible, and the others forty-nine genotypes showed low susceptibility to the mite.
Few specimens of water mites have been collected from Pacific Island streams, especially higher elevation, head water streams. Uchida (1935, 1939) and Cook & Bright (1983) published 11 species of water mites from the Palau Islands, while Cook (1957) reported two Arrenurus species from the main island of Yap in the Caroline Island chain. Viets (...
Rahman, Touhidur; Spafford, Helen; Broughton, Sonya
Spinosad is a biopesticide widely used for control of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande). It is reported to be non-toxic to several predatory mite species used for the biological control of thrips. Predatory mites Typhlodromips montdorensis (Schicha), Neoseiulus cucumeris (Oudemans) and Hypoaspis miles (Berlese) have been used for control of F. occidentalis. This study investigated the impact of direct and residual toxicity of spinosad on F. occidentalis and predatory mites. The repellency of spinosad residues to these predatory mites was also investigated. Direct contact to spinosad effectively reduced the number of F. occidentalis adults and larvae, causing > 96% mortality. Spinosad residues aged 2-96 h were also toxic to F. occidentalis. Direct exposure to spinosad resulted in > 90% mortality of all three mite species. Thresholds for the residual toxicity (contact) of spinosad (LT25 ) were estimated as 4.2, 3.2 and 5.8 days for T. montdorensis, N. cucumeris and H. miles respectively. When mites were simultaneously exposed to spinosad residues and fed spinosad-intoxicated thrips larvae, toxicity increased. Residual thresholds were re-estimated as 5.4, 3.9 and 6.1 days for T. montdorensis, N. cucumeris and H. miles respectively. Residues aged 2-48 h repelled T. montdorensis and H. miles, and residues aged 2-24 h repelled N. cucumeris. Predatory mites can be safely released 6 days after spinosad is applied for the management of F. occidentalis. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.
Richard W. Hofstetter; J. C. Moser; R. McGuire
Many species of mite that live exclusively in decaying wood and subcortical environments have intricate relationships with bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) (e.g., in the genus Dendroctonus, Ips, Scolytus) (Lindquist, 1969; Moser, 1975; Hirschmann and Wisniewski, 1983; Karg, 1993). These mites depend on bark beetles or other subcorticolous insects...
Treatment schedules to maintain low levels of Varroa mites in honey bee colonies were tested in hives started from either package bees or splits of larger colonies. The schedules were developed based on predictions of Varroa population growth generated from a mathematical model of honey bee colony ...
Takahashi, Mamoru; Misumi, Hitoko; Urakami, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Satoko; Furui, Sataro; Yamamoto, Seigo; Furuya, Yumiko; Misumi, Motohiro; Matsumoto, Isao
Between 1983 and 1999, 27 human cases of scrub typhus (two fatal) occurred in the Nodagawa River basin of northern Kyoto, Japan, an area where no cases had been previously reported. Antibody screening of infected patients' sera showed that nine of 15 patients had high titers against the Gilliam type of Orientia tsutsugamushi (Hayashi). To determine the vector mite transmitting the disease, we studied rodent and chigger populations in and near a rice field alongside the Nodagawa River between 1996 and 1999. The most common rodent species was Microtus montebelli (Milne-Edwards), representing 73.3% (33/45) of the population. The mite index (average number of mites per infested host) was highest (190.8) in Leptotrombidium pallidum Nagayo, Mitamura & Tamiya parasitizing on M. montebelli, followed by Leptotrombidium intermedium (Nagayo, Mitamura & Tamiya) (174.9) on the same host species. Orientia tsutsugamushi was isolated from 60.5% (23/38) of rodents and from 71.2% (37/52) of pools of engorged L. pallidum. The Gilliam type of O. tsutsugamushi was most prevalent in rodents, and in engorged L. pallidum and it was the only type recovered from 10 isolates inoculated into L 929 cells for indirect immunofluorescence examination. Orientia tsutsugamushi infected 14.3% (181/1263) and 14.8% (306/2066) of engorged and unfed L. pallidum larvae, respectively, and was also detected in 0.055% (2/3634) of unfed L. intermedium, although previous studies suggest that this mite rarely bites humans. These results show that L. pallidum is the primary vector species of scrub typhus in this new endemic area in Japan.
Background For over a decade, the presence of trombiculid mites in some mountain areas of La Rioja (Northern Spain) and their association with seasonal human dermatitis have been recognized. This work aimed to establish the species identity of the agent causing trombiculiasis in the study area. Methods Trombiculid larvae (chigger mites) were collected from vegetation in the Sierra Cebollera Natural Park and in Sierra La Hez during an outbreak of human trombiculiasis in 2010. Three specimens collected from a bird were also examined. Identification was made using morphological and morphometric traits based on the most recent taxonomic sources. A comparison of those mites with specimens of the same species collected throughout Europe was performed by means of cluster analysis with multiscale bootstrap resampling and calculation of approximately unbiased p-values. Results All collected mites were identified as Neotrombicula inopinata (Oudemans, 1909). Therefore, this species is the most likely causative agent of trombiculiasis in Spain, not Neotrombicula autumnalis (Shaw, 1790), as it was generally assumed. No chigger was identified as N. autumnalis in the study area. Neotrombicula inopinata clearly differs from N. autumnalis in the presence of eight or more setae in the 1st and 2nd rows of dorsal idiosomal setae vs. six setae in N. autumnalis. Comparison of N. inopinata samples from different locations shows significant geographic variability in morphometric traits. Samples from Western and Eastern Europe and the Caucasus formed three separate clusters. Conclusion Since the taxonomical basis of many studies concerning N. autumnalis as a causative agent of trombiculiasis is insufficient, it is highly possible that N. inopinata may be hiding behind the common name of “harvest bug” in Europe, together with N. autumnalis. PMID:24589214
Kaluz, Stanislav K; Hung, Nguyen Manh; Capek, Miroslav; Literak, Ivan
A total of 12 chigger species (Acariformes: Trombiculidae) occurred on 7 bird species in Vietnam. Two new species, namely Neoschoengastia vietnamensis sp. nov. and Hypogastia stekolnikovi sp. nov. are described, figured and compared with similar species placed in relevant genera using differential diagnoses of related species. Figures and diagnosis of Leptotrombidium taiyuanense Tian and Wen, 1984 are added. Odontacarus audy (Radford, 1946), Leptotrombidium allosetum Wang, Liao and Lin, 1981, L. taiyuanense, Leptotrombidium hanseni Traub and Lakshana, 1966, Leptotrombidium kunshui Wen and Xiang, 1984, Leptotrombidium paradux Vercammen-Grandjean and Langston, 1976, Leptotrombidium turdicola Vercammen-Grandjean and Langston, 1976, Neotrombicula elegans Schluger, 1966 and Neoschoengastia longitar-salis Schluger and Belskaya, 1966 were recorded in Vietnam for the first time.
Myint, K S; Linthicum, K J; Tanskul, P; Lerdthusnee, K; Vaughn, D W; Manomuth, C; Mongkolsirichaikul, D; Hansukjariya, P; Hastriter, M W
Immunocytochemical methods were developed and tested for their ability to detect the distribution of Orientia tsutsugamushi in paraffin sections of adult chiggers (Leptotrombidium imphalum Vercammen-Grandjean & Langston). Rickettsial antigen was detected by application of a simple direct or amplified immunocytochemistry procedure and an indirect immunofluorescent procedure. In the direct procedure alkaline phosphatase conjugation to the mouse polyclonal antibody to the Karp strain was followed by the HistoMark Red test system to detect rickettsial antigen. The amplification procedure used a similar method but used an unlabeled primary antibody followed by secondary biotinylated antimouse IgG, streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase, and the HistoMark Red test system. The immunofluorescent procedure included a biotinylated secondary antibody followed by addition of a streptavidin-FITC conjugate. Specific tissue tropisms in infected chiggers were observed in the salivary glands, nervous tissue, and ovaries of adult female mites in all procedures; however, nonspecific fluorescence of the chigger limited definitive identification of tissue tropisms with the indirect immunofluorescent procedure.
Stekolnikov, Alexandr A; Santibáñez, Paula; Palomar, Ana M; Oteo, José A
For over a decade, the presence of trombiculid mites in some mountain areas of La Rioja (Northern Spain) and their association with seasonal human dermatitis have been recognized. This work aimed to establish the species identity of the agent causing trombiculiasis in the study area. Trombiculid larvae (chigger mites) were collected from vegetation in the Sierra Cebollera Natural Park and in Sierra La Hez during an outbreak of human trombiculiasis in 2010. Three specimens collected from a bird were also examined. Identification was made using morphological and morphometric traits based on the most recent taxonomic sources. A comparison of those mites with specimens of the same species collected throughout Europe was performed by means of cluster analysis with multiscale bootstrap resampling and calculation of approximately unbiased p-values. All collected mites were identified as Neotrombicula inopinata (Oudemans, 1909). Therefore, this species is the most likely causative agent of trombiculiasis in Spain, not Neotrombicula autumnalis (Shaw, 1790), as it was generally assumed. No chigger was identified as N. autumnalis in the study area. Neotrombicula inopinata clearly differs from N. autumnalis in the presence of eight or more setae in the 1st and 2nd rows of dorsal idiosomal setae vs. six setae in N. autumnalis. Comparison of N. inopinata samples from different locations shows significant geographic variability in morphometric traits. Samples from Western and Eastern Europe and the Caucasus formed three separate clusters. Since the taxonomical basis of many studies concerning N. autumnalis as a causative agent of trombiculiasis is insufficient, it is highly possible that N. inopinata may be hiding behind the common name of "harvest bug" in Europe, together with N. autumnalis.
Hanifah, Azima Laili; Ismail, Siti Hazar Awang; Ming, Ho Tze
Four commercial repellents were evaluated in the laboratory against Leptotrombidium deliense chiggers. Both in vitro and in vivo methods were used to determine repellency of the compounds. The repellents were Kellis (containing citronella oil, jojoba oil and tea tree oil), Kaps (containing citronella oil), BioZ (containing citronella oil, geranium oil and lemon grass oil) and Off (containing DEET). The combination of three active ingredients: citronella oil, geranium oil, lemon grass oil gave the highest repellency (87%) followed by DEET (84%). In vitro repellencies ranged from 73% to 87%. There was no significant difference between the four products. All the repellents had 100% in vivo repellency compared to 41-57% for the controls.
Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Olazabal, Juan; Lopez-Urbina, María T; Gonzalez, Armando E
Trombiculiasis is an infestation caused by larvae members of the family Trombiculidae, common called chigger mites. In this study is presented the first case of trombiculiasis caused by the infestation of chigger mite Eutrombicula in alpacas from Peru. Twenty-two alpacas of a total of 130 animals were infested by Eutrombicula sp. The chigger mite location was only in the face skin folds and around the eyes. In addition, all alpacas infested had alopecia and dermatitis in the infected zone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Stekol'nikov, A A
Two new chigger mite species closely related to Leptotrombidium europaeum (Daniel et Brelih, 1959) are described from small mammals collected in Caucasus and Transcaucasia. L. alanicum sp. n. differs from L. europaeum in having shorter legs (TaIII = 61-81, Ip = 734-927 versus 72-90, and 855-1017), shorter scutal and idiosomal setae (D(min) = = 30-45, D(max) = 48-67, H = 59, PL = 58 versus 40-52, 54-69, 64, 63), slightly smaller scutum (AP = 25, SD = 47, PW = 89 versus 28, 50, 91), and more numerous idiosomal setae (87 versus 81). L. montanum sp. n. differs from L. europaeum in having more numerous idiosomal setae (102 versus 81), longer scutal and idiosomal setae (AM = 61, AL = 44, H = 68, D(max) = 66 versus 56, 41, 64, 62), thicker legs (TaW = 19 versus 18), and broader scutum (PW = 95 versus 91). Exact identification of both new species is possible only using classification functions constructed by means of discriminant analysis. These three Leptotrombidium species expose sympatric distribution in Daghestan (Eastern Caucasus). L. alanicum and L. montanum also occurred together in Krasnodar Territory (Western Caucasus). Each of these species includes a number of local geographical forms precisely distinguished from each other. Morphometric differences between L. alanicum and L. montanum agree with eco-geographical rules being previously found in chigger mites from other genera. However, differences between local forms of these species show other tendencies directed controversially in part. Therefore it is probable that interspecific differences in this case correspond to the variability which took place in the process of speciation.
Stekol'nikov, A A
Intraspecific morphological variation of the chigger mite species Montivagum dihumerale (Traub et Nadchatram, 1967) is studied. Eco-geographic rules of the variation are revealed. General size of mites is found to be increased along with the rise of the high-mountain character of the landscape in the collection localities. The numbers of idiosomal setae are varied independently from the size parameters and geographically close populations are proved to be the most similar by these characters. At the same time, numbers of the setae of different types play the leading role in the discrimination of closely related Montivagum species, while the eco-geographical rules have not been found in this genus at the level of interspecific differences. As a result, the hypothesis is set up, that a significant degree of isolation of local populations separated from each other by high mountain ranges of the Central Asia is the main factor of speciation in the genus Montivagum. Regional character of this speciation mode is confirmed by the comparison with other chigger mites taxa.
Takahashi, Mamoru; Misumi, Hitoko; Urakami, Hiroshi; Saito, Teruo; Misumi, Motohiro; Matsumoto, Isao; Suzuki, Hiroshi
We present the first definitive evidence that the mite Neotrombicula nagayoi bites humans under natural conditions in Japan. Initially, bites resulted in mild pruritus without pain. However, skin reactions increased gradually year by year with severe pruritus with pain being reported by the victim after being bitten repeatedly. Six species of trombiculid mites comprising three genera were isolated from soil samples collected from August to October in both 2001 and 2002 at a study site where a man was bitten by N. nagayoi. The dominant species was L. intermedium (72.4%) followed by L. pallidum (8.3%) and N. nagayoi (8.1%). N. nagayoi was found only in August and September. We did not detect the pathogen Orientia tsutsugamushi in any of the unfed larvae, including N. nagayoi, collected from the soil samples.
Stekol'nikov, A A
Numbers of scutal, coxal and sternal setae were counted in 1393 specimens of 5 Hirsutiella species. All observed chaetotactic anomalies were classified into 3 groups: 1) "rare" anomalies, such as absence of one AL, AM, coxal or sternal setae, presence of additional AL, AM, coxal or anterior sternal setae; 2) presence of 1-2 post-posterolateral soutal setae (PPL); 3) presence of additional 1-3 posterior sternal setae. "Rare" anomalies were found in 2.8% of the specimens examined. They were observed usually in northern or alpine populations. Obviously, it is an effect of more frequent ontogenetic failures in rigorous climate conditions being out of optimum for trombiculids. The quota of the individuals with PPL in a set of H. steineri samples varied from 16 to 74%, while in the other samples of this species the presence of the single (and not more) PPL were found very seldom, as well as in the other species examined. In the similar way, the additional posterior sternal setae were found with the frequency up to 100% in the some samples of H. steineri, H. hexasternalis and H. alpina, but in other ones they were present only in few specimens. Since in a series of cases the ratio of the number of specimens with PPL to the number of specimens without PPL, as well as the ratio of the number of specimens with fSt = 2.4 to the number of specimens with fSt = 2.2 is almost equal to 2, one can suppose that the variance of this characters has a genetic basis. All samples having a high frequency of the PPL appearance or the appearance of additional posterior sternal setae were collected in the alpine zone. It is an evident example of the ecogeographical rules, which were reported previously by the author for the quantitative characters in species of the genera Neotrombicula (Stekolnikov, 1996, 1998, 1999) and Hirsutiella (Stekolnikov, 2001). It is possible that the PPL appearance is caused by the higher humidity of the climate, and the appearance of additional posterior sternal setae--by the low temperature. It is supported by the fact that the samples with high friquency of individuals having PPL are specific to damp areas of Western Caucasus, while the populations with high frequency of additional posterior sternal setae appear to be characteristic for regions with more dry climate (Daghestan, Turkey, Chelyabinsk Region of Russia). The fact, that in some populations of H. steineri, the individuals having PPL are prevalent, can serve as a serious argument for the abolishment of the genera Hoffmannina Brennan et Jones, 1959 and Aboriginesia Kudryashova, 1993 distinguished from related groups only by the presence of this setae.
Lerdthusnee, Kriangkrai; Khlaimanee, Nittaya; Monkanna, Taweesak; Sangjun, Noppadon; Mungviriya, Siriporn; Linthicum, Kenneth J; Frances, Stephen P; Kollars, Thomas M; Coleman, Russell E
Thirteen different laboratory colonies of Leptotrombidim chiggers [L. chiangraiensis Tanskul & Linthicum, L. deliense Walch and L. imphalum (Vercammen-Grandjean &Langston)] were evaluated for their ability to transmit Orientia tsutsugamushi (Hyashi) to mice. Of 4,372 transmission attempts using individual chiggers from all 13 colonies, 75% (n = 3,275) successfully infected mice. Transmission rates for the individual chigger colonies ranged from 7 to 80%. Increasing the number of chiggers that fed on a given mouse generally increased transmission rates. Transmission of O. tsutsugamushi to mice by different generations (F1-F11) of certain chigger colonies was stable; however, transmission rates varied greatly in other colonies. Transmission rates (both vertical and horizontal) of several L. changraiensis colonies and the L. deliense colony were the highest, suggesting that these colonies may be useful for the development of a chigger-challenge model that can be used to evaluate the efficacy of candidate scrub typhus vaccines or therapeutic agents in laboratory mice.
Jacinavicius, Fernando de Castro; Bassini-Silva, Ricardo; Mendoza-Roldan, Jairo Alfonso; Pepato, Almir Rogério; Ochoa, Ronald; Welbourn, Cal; Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes
A checklist of the family Trombiculidae and Leeuwenhoekiidae is presented, containing 63 species in 30 genera of chiggers from 80 different hosts and 146 localities in Brazil. The type locality and depository are provided, including new locality and host records for the country.
Oliver, J.H. Jr.; Stanley, M.A.
Amblyomma americanum males were treated with 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 16 krad of gamma radiation. Testes of ticks treated with 2, 3, 4, 8, and 16 krad were smaller than those of ticks irradiated at lower levels and controls. No recognizable alteration in timing of spermatogenesis was noted among the different radiation groups, but severe breakdown and depletion of germinal cells was noted at 4, 8, and 16 krad. Percent hatch of larvae from crosses of irradiated males and untreated females decreased with increasing radiation level. No hatch was observed from eggs of females mated to malesmore » treated at 2 krad or higher.« less
Goff, M L; McKown, R D
Hexidionis garfieldi is described as new from specimens collected off a domestic cat. Felis silvestris f. catus Schreber, in Corpus Christi, TX. The genus Hexidionis Vercammen-Grandjean & Loomis, 1967, is rediagnosed and a key to the 11 included species given.
Peng, Pei-Ying; Guo, Xian-Guo; Ren, Tian-Guang; Song, Wen-Yu
This paper studied the species diversity and fauna distribution of chigger mites on small mammals in Yunnan province, southwest Yunnan. In total, 120,138 individuals of chigger mites were collected from 13,760 individual small mammals, and these mites were identified as comprising two families, 26 genera, and 274 species. Of the five zoogeographical subregions, the mite species diversity in subregions I and II was higher than that in subregions III, IV, and V. Four mite species (Leptotrombidium scutellare, Leptotrombidium sinicum, Leptotrombidium deliense, and Helenicula simena) were the most dominant species in the whole province. Several vector species of chigger mites co-existed in Yunnan, and L. deliense (a main vector of scrub typhus in China) was mainly distributed in subregions IV and V with lower latitude and average altitude whereas L. scutellare (also a main vector in China) was mainly distributed in subregions I, II, and III with higher latitude and average altitude. Some geographically widely distributed mite species were also the mites with wide host ranges and low host specificity. The dominant mite species and their clustering tendency in the dendrogram of hierarchical clustering analysis were highly in accordance with the zoogeographical divisions. The species diversity of chigger mites showed a parabolic tendency from the low altitude (<500 m) to the high altitude (>3,500 m) along the vertical gradients and reached the highest value in the middle altitude regions in 2,000-2,500 m. The highest species diversity of the mites and their small mammal hosts happened in the regions around the Hengduan Mountains, which is a hotspot of biodiversity in Asia continent. The host and its sample size, geographical scope, landscape, topography, and some other factors comprehensively influence the species diversity and faunal distribution of chigger mites. A systematic field investigation with a wide geographical scope and large host sample is strongly recommended in the fauna study of chigger mites and other ectoparasites.
Stekol'nikov, A A
Intraspecific variability in three closely related chigger mite species of the genus Hirsutiella Schluger et Vysotzkaya, 1970, H. steineri (Kepka, 1966), H. llogorensis (Daniel, 1960), and H. alpina Stekolnikov, 2001 has been studied based on materials collected in Caucasus and Turkey. It is established that both H. steineri and H. llogorensis include Western Caucasian and Asian forms, the first one being larger than the second one. Western Caucasian samples of H. steineri are also split into large and small forms. The large form inhabits screes with larvae occurring mainly on snow voles, and the small form inhabits meadows and forests with larvae parasitizing snow voles as well as mice of the genus Apodemus and pine voles. Asian population of H. steineri include small low-mountain form which is hard to distinguish from H. llogorensis. In the light of the new data on variability, morphological border between these two species are specified. Correlations between some characters and altitude above sea level are shown within the Western Caucasian and Asian forms of both species, and also in H. alpina. All the three species can occur together on the same individual hosts, but they have different sets of main hosts and different distribution among biotopes in the area of sympatria. The border between H. steineri and H. llogorensis in the places of sympatria can be indistinct owing to the presence of small ecological forms of H. steineri. Our results give a basis for the construction of alternative hypotheses concerning the processes of speciation in trombiculids. Chiggers species could be formed in allopatric way, on the base of such geographical forms, as Western and Asian forms of the Caucasian Hirsutiella species, but they could also be formed in sympatric way, distributing among neighbouring biotopes (e.g., screes and meadows, or screes and forests), as large and small forms of Western Caucasian H. steineri do.
Choi, Yeon-Joo; Lee, Eun-Mi; Park, Jin-Mi; Lee, Kyung-Min; Han, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Jae-Kwon; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Song, Hyeon-Je; Choi, Myung-Sik; Kim, Ik-Sang; Park, Kyung-Hee; Jang, Won-Jong
This study revealed the presence of various rickettsial agents in mites from wild rodents collected in Southern Jeolla Province, Korea, by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequence analysis of a partial citrate synthase and rickettsia outer membrane protein B genes. Rickettsial agents closely related to the Rickettsia species TwKM02, R. australis, and the Rickettsia species Cf15 were successfully identified in this study, for the first time in Korea, and R. japonica, R. akari, R. conorii, R. felis, and R. typhi were also detected, as previously described. The data presented in this paper extend knowledge on the geographic distribution of SFG rickettsiae in eastern Asia and it may necessary to consider the role of mites in rickettsial transmission.
Kampen, H; Schöler, A; Metzen, M; Oehme, R; Hartelt, K; Kimmig, P; Maier, W A
Larvae of the trombiculid mite Neotrombicula autumnalis were collected at 18 sites in and around Bonn, Germany, to be screened for infection with Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. by means of PCR. Questing larvae numbering 1380 were derived from the vegetation and 634 feeding ones were removed from 100 trapped micromammals including voles, mice, shrews and hedgehogs. In a laboratory infection experiment, a further 305 host-seeking larvae from the field were transferred onto Borrelia-positive mice and gerbils, and examined for spirochete infection at various intervals after repletion. In three cases borrelial DNA could be amplified from the mites: (1) from a larva feeding on a wild-caught greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula), (2) from a pool of four larvae feeding on a B. garinii-positive laboratory mouse, and (3) from a nymph that had fed on a B. afzelii-positive laboratory gerbil as a larva. In the first case, borrelial species determination by DNA hybridization of the PCR product was only possible with a B. burgdorferi complex-specific probe but not with a species-specific one. In the second case, probing showed the same borrelial genospecies (B. garinii) as the laboratory host had been infected with. In the latter case, however, DNA hybridization demonstrated B. valaisiana while the laboratory host had been infected with B. afzelii. Subsequent DNA sequencing confirmed much higher similarity of the PCR product to B. valaisiana than to B. afzelii indicating an infection of the mite prior to feeding on the laboratory host. The negligible percentage of positive mites found in this study suggests that either the uptake of borrelial cells by feeding trombiculids is an extremely rare event or that ingested spirochetes are rapidly digested. On the other hand, the results imply a possible transstadial and transovarial transmission of borreliae once they are established in their trombiculid host. However, unless the transmission of borreliae to a given host is demonstrated, a final statement on the vector competence of trombiculid mites is not possible.
Huang, Xiao-Dan; Cheng, Peng; Zhao, Yu-Qiang; Li, Wen-Juan; Zhao, Jiu-Xu; Liu, Hong-Mei; Kou, Jing-Xuan; Gong, Mao-Qing
Chigger mites are parasites of rodents and other vertebrates, invertebrates, and other arthropods, and are the only vectors of scrub typhus, in addition to other zoonoses. Therefore, investigating their distribution, diversity, and seasonal abundance is important for public health. Rodent surveillance was conducted at 6 districts in Shandong Province, northern China (114–112°E, 34–38°N), from January to December 2011. Overall, 225/286 (78.7%) rodents captured were infested with chigger mites. A total of 451 chigger mites were identified as belonging to 5 most commonly collected species and 3 genera in 1 family. Leptotrombidium scutellare and Leptotrombidium intermedia were the most commonly collected chigger mites. L. scutellare (66.2%, 36.7%, and 49.0%) was the most frequently collected chigger mite from Apodemus agrarius, Rattus norvegicus, and Microtus fortis, respectively, whereas L. intermedia (61.5% and 63.2%) was the most frequently collected chigger mite from Cricetulus triton and Mus musculus, respectively. This study demonstrated a relatively high prevalence of chigger mites that varied seasonally in Shandong Province, China. PMID:29103271
Huang, Xiao-Dan; Cheng, Peng; Zhao, Yu-Qiang; Li, Wen-Juan; Zhao, Jiu-Xu; Liu, Hong-Mei; Kou, Jing-Xuan; Gong, Mao-Qing
Chigger mites are parasites of rodents and other vertebrates, invertebrates, and other arthropods, and are the only vectors of scrub typhus, in addition to other zoonoses. Therefore, investigating their distribution, diversity, and seasonal abundance is important for public health. Rodent surveillance was conducted at 6 districts in Shandong Province, northern China (114-112°E, 34-38°N), from January to December 2011. Overall, 225/286 (78.7%) rodents captured were infested with chigger mites. A total of 451 chigger mites were identified as belonging to 5 most commonly collected species and 3 genera in 1 family. Leptotrombidium scutellare and Leptotrombidium intermedia were the most commonly collected chigger mites. L. scutellare (66.2%, 36.7%, and 49.0%) was the most frequently collected chigger mite from Apodemus agrarius, Rattus norvegicus, and Microtus fortis, respectively, whereas L. intermedia (61.5% and 63.2%) was the most frequently collected chigger mite from Cricetulus triton and Mus musculus, respectively. This study demonstrated a relatively high prevalence of chigger mites that varied seasonally in Shandong Province, China.
Peng, Pei-Ying; Guo, Xian-Guo; Ren, Tian-Guang; Song, Wen-Yu; Dong, Wen-Ge; Fan, Rong
Chigger mites are a large group of arthropods and the larvae of mites are ectoparasites. Some species of ectoparasitic mites (larvae) can be the transmitting vectors of tsutsugamushi disease (scrub typhus). Yunnan Province is located in the southwest of China with complicated topographic landform and high biodiversity, where there are five zoogeographical subregions. Rodents and some other small mammals were trapped and examined for ectoparasitic chigger mites in 29 investigation sites in Yunnan during 2001-2013. From 13,760 individuals and 76 species of small mammal hosts, we collected 274 species of mites, which were identified as comprising 26 genera in two families. The species diversity of chigger mites (274 species) in the present study were not only much higher than that from other provinces of China but also largely exceeded that recorded from other regions and countries in the world. Of the five zoogeographical subregions, both the species diversity and Shannon-Weiner's diversity of mites were the highest in subregion II (southern subregion of Hengduan Mountains) with middle altitudes and middle latitude. Both the species diversity of mites and Shannon-Wiener diversity index showed a parabolic tendency from the low altitude (<500 m) to the high altitude (>3500 m) along the vertical gradients with the peak occurring in the middle-altitude regions (2000-2500 m). Of four dominant hosts, the species richness of mites was highest on Eothenomys miletus (S = 165) and Shannon-Wiener diversity index was highest on Rattus norvegicus (H = 3.13). Along latitude gradients, species richness of chigger mites increased first and then decreased, peaking at 25° to 26° N with 193 mite species. The geographical location, complex topography, and landscape with diverse small mammal hosts in Yunnan Province have contributed to the extremely high species diversity of mites in the province. The large sampling size of small mammal hosts in a wide geographical scope within a long time span also made it possible to have collected so many species of chigger mites.
Tanskul, P; Linthicum, K J
Leptotrombidium (Leptotrombidium) chiangraiensis Tanskul & Linthicum is described and illustrated as new from specimens collected from the rodents Rattus rattus (L., 1758), Rattus argentiventer (Robinson & Kloss, 1916), Rattus losea (Swinhoe, 1870), and Bandicota indica (Bechstein, 1800) in Chiangrai Province northern Thailand. The new species was collected in active rice fields and adjacent fruit plantation areas. The etiological agent of scrub typhus, Orientia (formerly Rickettsia) tsutsugamushi (Hayashi), has been isolated from patients who live and work in the same habitat where L. chiangraiensis is the predominant Leptotrombidium species.
Frances, S P; Watcharapichat, P; Phulsuksombati, D
Vertical transmission of Orientia tsutsugamushi (Hayashi), the etiologic agent for scrub typhus, was studied in two lines of naturally infected Leptotrombidium deliense Walch. In one line of mites originating from a single adult (V3M), the rate of filial transmission was 100% for the first two laboratory generations, but declined to 86.6% in the third laboratory generation. The vertical infection rate in this line of mites was 100% for the parental generation, but declined to 95.6% for the F1 generation and 88.6% for F2. The transmission of O. tsutsugamushi in another line of L. deliense (V3F) was less efficient than mites originating from V3M. In the initial laboratory generation of V3F a filial transmission rate of 100% was recorded. However, none of the F2 generation of this line transmitted rickettsiae to mice (Mus musculus L.), resulting in a filial transmission rate of 0%. Transmission of O. tsutsugamushi to mice by progeny from cohort larvae originally from the same adult (V3F) was also studied in the laboratory and these were found to be relatively poor transmitters of rickettsiae. The filial infection rate of F2 larvae was 60%, F3 was 88.8%, and F4 was 55.9%. The biology of infected L. deliense was studied and compared with uninfected mites reared under the same laboratory conditions. The results showed that infected female L. deliense laid approximately the same or more eggs as uninfected adults. The rate of development of the progeny of infected L. deliense was not significantly different from uninfected mites.
Goff, M L; Saboori, A
Odontacarus khanjani Goff & Saboori (Leeuwenhoekiidae) and Neotrombicula iranensis Goff & Saboori (Trombiculidae) were described as new. Both species were collected as unengorged larvae on alfalfa plants, Medicago sativa, in western Iran.
Literak, Ivan; Kocianova, Elena; Dusbabek, Frantisek; Martinu, Jana; Podzemny, Petr; Sychra, Oldrich
In winter months during 2003-2006, wild birds were captured and examined for ticks and chiggers at two sites near Brno, Czech Republic. In total, 1,362 birds, mostly passerines, were examined. The tick Ixodes arboricola Schulze et Schlottke, 1929 was found on 47 (3%) birds of six species. Ixodes ricinus Linnaeus, 1758 was found on 11 (1%) birds of five species. Larvae of chiggers Ascoschoengastia latyshevi (Schluger 1955) were found on 13 (1%) birds of six species. I. arboricola and A. latyshevi associated with hole-nesting birds can appear on birds rather frequently even during winter months. I. ricinus occurs on birds in winter sporadically.
Guzmán-Cornejo, Carmen; Robbins, Richard G.; Guglielmone, Alberto A.; Montiel-Parra, Griselda; Rivas, Gerardo; Pérez, Tila María
Abstract Distribution and host data from published literature and previously unpublished collection records are provided for all nine species of the Holarctic tick genus Dermacentor that are known to occur in Mexico, as well as two species that may occur there. Parasite-host and host-parasite lists are presented, together with a gazetteer of collection localities and their geographical coordinates. PMID:27110147
de Souza, Izabel Vieira; Sá Argolo, Poliane; Júnior, Manoel Guedes Correa Gondim; de Moraes, Gilberto José; Bittencourt, Maria Aparecida Leão; Oliveira, Anibal Ramadan
Abstract The cultivation of tropical fruit trees has grown considerably in the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Some of these have been severely attacked by phytophagous mites, which are usually controlled by the use of chemical pesticides. However, there is today a growing interest for the adoption of less aggressive measures of pest control, as for example the use of predatory mites. Most of the plant-inhabiting predatory mites belong to the family Phytoseiidae. The objective of this paper is to report the phytoseiid species found in an intensive survey conducted on cultivated tropical fruit trees in fifteen localities of the southern coast of Bahia. Measurements of relevant morphological characters are provided for each species, to complement the understanding of the morphological variation of these species. Twenty-nine species of sixteen genera were identified. A key was elaborated to assist in the separation of these species. Fifteen species are reported for the first time in the state, raising to sixty-six the number of species of this family now known from Bahia. Seventy-two percent of the species collected belong to Amblyseiinae, followed by Typhlodrominae (21%) and Phytoseiinae (7%). The most diverse genus was Amblyseius. Amblyseius operculatus De Leon was the most frequent and abundant species. Studies should be conducted to evaluate the possible role of the most common predators as control agents of the phytophagous mites co-occurring with them. PMID:26668542
Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter
The adaptive canalization hypothesis predicts that highly fitness-relevant traits are canalized via past selection, resulting in low phenotypic plasticity and high robustness to environmental stress. Accordingly, we hypothesized that the level of phenotypic plasticity of male body size of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis (low plasticity) and Neoseiulus californicus (high plasticity) reflects the effects of body size variation on fitness, especially male lifetime reproductive success (LRS). We first generated small and standard-sized males of P. persimilis and N. californicus by rearing them to adulthood under limited and ample prey supply, respectively. Then, adult small and standard-sized males were provided with surplus virgin females throughout life to assess their mating and reproductive traits. Small male body size did not affect male longevity or the number of fertilized females but reduced male LRS of P. persimilis but not N. californicus . Proximately, the lower LRS of small than standard-sized P. persimilis males correlated with shorter mating durations, probably decreasing the amount of transferred sperm. Ultimately, we suggest that male body size is more strongly canalized in P. persimilis than N. californicus because deviation from standard body size has larger detrimental fitness effects in P. persimilis than N. californicus .
Roh, Hyun Sik; Park, Kye Chung; Park, Chung Gyoo
Thirty-four essential oils were screened for their repellent activities against the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae), at 0.1% concentration level using choice and no-choice laboratory bioassays. Of these, 20 essential oils showed significant repellencies against T. urticae in the choice tests. In subsequent no-choice tests using these 20 essential oils, only sandalwood oil showed significant repellency against T. urticae. Total number of eggs oviposited by T. urticae was significantly lower than controls in the choice tests when the kidney bean leaves were treated with 1 of 14 essential oils. The significant repellency of sandalwood oil against T. urticae lasted at least for 5 h at the 0.1% concentration level. Our GC-MS analysis indicated that the major components of the sandalwood oil were alpha-santalol (45.8%), beta-santalol (20.6%), beta-sinensal (9.4%), and epi-beta-santalol (3.3%). Santanol, a mixture of the two main components in the sandalwood oil, appears to be responsible for the repellency of sandalwood oil against T. urticae.
Ginsberg, Howard S.; LeBrun, Roger A.; Heyer, Klaus; Zhioua, Elyes
The potential for nontarget effects of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin, when used for biological control of ticks, was assessed in laboratory trials. Fungal pathogenicity was studied against convergent ladybird beetles, Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, house crickets, Acheta domesticus (L.), and the milkweed bugs Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas). Fungal spores applied with a spray tower produced significant mortality in H. convergens and A. domesticus, but effects on O. fasciatus were marginal. Placing treated insects with untreated individuals resulted in mortality from horizontal transmission to untreated beetles and crickets, but not milkweed bugs. Spread of fungal infection in the beetles resulted in mortality on days 4–10 after treatment, while in crickets mortality was on day 2 after treatment, suggesting different levels of pathogenicity and possibly different modes of transmission. Therefore, M. anisopliae varies in pathogenicity to different insects. Inundative applications can potentially affect nontarget species, but M. anisopliae is already widely distributed in North America, so applications for tick control generally would not introduce a novel pathogen into the environment. Pathogenicity in lab trials does not, by itself, demonstrate activity under natural conditions, so field trials are needed to confirm these results and to assess methods to minimize nontarget exposure.
Carnohan, Lucas P; Kaufman, Phillip E; Allan, Sandra A; Gezan, Salvador A; Weeks, Emma N I
The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latrielle), can be a serious residential pest due to its unique ability, among ticks, to complete its lifecycle indoors. A single engorged and fertilized female tick can oviposit around 4,000 eggs, allowing indoor establishment to be rapid and easy to miss in early-stage infestations. Acaricide treatment is currently the primary method of control, but can be costly and can lead to the development of acaricide resistance in tick populations. Traps of various designs can be used to help monitor and manage populations of indoor pests, such as cockroaches and bed bugs, but there are currently no commercially available traps for use with brown dog tick infestations. This study included a comparison of four commercially available bed bug traps (NightWatch [BioSensory Inc., Putnam, CT], Bed Bug Beacon [PackTite, Fort Collins, CO], ClimbUp [Susan McKnight Inc., Memphis, TN], and Verify [FMC Corporation, Philadelphia, PA]) with regard to their efficacy in capturing brown dog ticks, and also compared tick attraction to ClimbUp traps baited with several stimuli including CO2. Significantly more ticks were captured and attracted to the NightWatch and CO2-baited ClimbUp traps than the other two trap models. The results suggest that bed bug traps may be useful in brown dog tick monitoring, and CO2 will likely be an important component of a trapping system employed in the future. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.
Yang, Si-Xia; Guo, Chao; Zhao, Xiu-Ting; Sun, Jing-Tao; Hong, Xiao-Yue
The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch has two forms: green form and red form. Understanding the molecular basis of how these two forms established without divergent genetic background is an intriguing area. As a well-known epigenetic process, DNA methylation has particularly important roles in gene regulation and developmental variation across diverse organisms that do not alter genetic background. Here, to investigate whether DNA methylation could be associated with different phenotypic consequences in the two forms of T. urticae, we surveyed the genome-wide cytosine methylation status and expression level of DNA methyltransferase 3 (Tudnmt3) throughout their entire life cycle. Methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) analyses of 585 loci revealed variable methylation patterns in the different developmental stages. In particular, principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) indicates a significant epigenetic differentiation between female adults of the two forms. The gene expression of Tudnmt3 was detected in all examined developmental stages, which was significantly different in the adult stage of the two forms. Together, our results reveal the epigenetic distance between the two forms of T. urticae, suggesting that DNA methylation might be implicated in different developmental demands, and contribute to different phenotypes in the adult stage of these two forms. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Amblyomma mixtum is a tick species in the Amblyomma cajennense complex. The known geographic range of A. mixtum extends from Texas in the USA to western Ecuador and some islands in the Caribbean. Amblyomma mixtum is a vector of disease agents of veterinary and public health importance. The objective...
Hubert, J; Nesvorná, M; Kopecký, J; Ságová-Marečková, M; Poltronieri, P
Carpoglyphus lactis is a stored product mite infesting saccharide-rich stored commodities including dried fruits, wine, beer, milk products, jams and honey. The association with micro-organisms can improve the survival of mites on dried fruits. The microbial communities associated with C. lactis were studied in specimens originating from the packages of dried apricot, plums and figs and compared to the laboratory strain reared on house dust mite diet (HDMd). Clone libraries of bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region were constructed and analysed by operational taxonomic unit (OTU) approach. The 16S rRNA gene libraries differed among the compared diets. The sequences classified to the genera Leuconostoc, Elizabethkingia, Ewingella, Erwinia, Bacillus and Serratia were prevailing in mites sampled from the dried fruits. The ITS library showed smaller differences between the laboratory strain on HDMd and the isolates from dried fruits packages, with the exception of the mite strain from dried plums. The population growth was used as an indirect indicator of fitness and decreased in the order from yeast diet to HDMd and dried fruits. The treatment and pretreatment of mites by antibiotics did not reveal the presence of antagonistic bacteria which might slow down the C. lactis population growth. The shifts of the microbial community in the gut of C. lactis were induced by the diet changes. The identified yeasts and bacteria are suggested as the main food source of stored product mites on dried fruits. The study describes the adaptation of C. lactis to feeding on dried fruits including the interaction with micro-organisms. We also identified potentially pathogenic bacteria carried by the mites to dried fruits for human consumption. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Johnson, T L; Bjork, J K H; Neitzel, D F; Dorr, F M; Schiffman, E K; Eisen, R J
Ixodes scapularis Say, the black-legged tick, is the primary vector in the eastern United States of several pathogens causing human diseases including Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, and babesiosis. Over the past two decades, I. scapularis-borne diseases have increased in incidence as well as geographic distribution. Lyme disease exists in two major foci in the United States, one encompassing northeastern states and the other in the Upper Midwest. Minnesota represents a state with an appreciable increase in counties reporting I. scapularis-borne illnesses, suggesting geographic expansion of vector populations in recent years. Recent tick distribution records support this assumption. Here, we used those records to create a fine resolution, subcounty-level distribution model for I. scapularis using variable response curves in addition to tests of variable importance. The model identified 19% of Minnesota as potentially suitable for establishment of the tick and indicated with high accuracy (AUC = 0.863) that the distribution is driven by land cover type, summer precipitation, maximum summer temperatures, and annual temperature variation. We provide updated records of established populations near the northwestern species range limit and present a model that increases our understanding of the potential distribution of I. scapularis in Minnesota. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.
Johnson, T. L.; Bjork, J. K. H.; Neitzel, D. F.; Dorr, F. M.; Schiffman, E. K.; Eisen, R. J.
Ixodes scapularis Say, the black-legged tick, is the primary vector in the eastern United States of several pathogens causing human diseases including Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, and babesiosis. Over the past two decades, I. scapularis-borne diseases have increased in incidence as well as geographic distribution. Lyme disease exists in two major foci in the United States, one encompassing northeastern states and the other in the Upper Midwest. Minnesota represents a state with an appreciable increase in counties reporting I. scapularis-borne illnesses, suggesting geographic expansion of vector populations in recent years. Recent tick distribution records support this assumption. Here, we used those records to create a fine resolution, subcounty-level distribution model for I. scapularis using variable response curves in addition to tests of variable importance. The model identified 19% of Minnesota as potentially suitable for establishment of the tick and indicated with high accuracy (AUC = 0.863) that the distribution is driven by land cover type, summer precipitation, maximum summer temperatures, and annual temperature variation. We provide updated records of established populations near the northwestern species range limit and present a model that increases our understanding of the potential distribution of I. scapularis in Minnesota. PMID:27026161
Rulison, Eric L; Lebrun, Roger A; Ginsberg, Howard S
Ambient temperature can influence tick development time, and can potentially affect tick interactions with pathogens and with vertebrate hosts. We studied the effect of ambient temperature on duration of attachment of larval blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say, to eastern fence lizards, Sceloporus undulatus (Bosc & Daudin). Feeding periods of larvae that attached to lizards under preferred temperature conditions for the lizards (WARM treatment: temperatures averaged 36.6°C at the top of the cage and 25.8°C at the bottom, allowing behavioral thermoregulation) were shorter than for larvae on lizards held under cool conditions (COOL treatment temperatures averaged 28.4°C at top of cage and 24.9°C at the bottom). The lizards were infested with larvae four times at roughly monthly intervals. Larval numbers successfully engorging and dropping declined and feeding period was longer after the first infestation. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.
Liu, Dong; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang
Three new species of Austrophthiracarus (Oribatida: Phthiracaridae) from New Zealand are described: Austrophthiracarus matuku sp. nov. from the Bethells Matuku Reserve, Auckland, Austrophthiracarus notoporosus sp. nov. from the Tutoko Bench, Fiordland and Austrophthiracarus karioi sp. nov. from the Mt. Karioi, Waikato. Holotype specimens are deposited in the New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research and paratypes are deposited in the Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Rocha, Matheus Dos Santos; Rodrigues, Everton Nei Lopes; Ferla, Noeli Juarez
Neocunaxoides promatae sp. nov., Bonzia flechtmanni sp. nov. and Dactyloscirus multiscutus sp. nov. are described from soil and leaf litter in Atlantic rainforest and Atlantic Araucaria forest in natural environments in São Francisco de Paula municipality, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. In addition, the species Pulaeus quadrisolenidius Castro & Den Heyer 2009 and Lupaeus lectus Castro & Den Heyer (2009) are registered for the first time in this State.
J.T. Sorensen; D.N. Kinn; R.L. Doutt
Bdella longicornis L. was studied to assess its role in winter morality of Tetranychus pacificus McGregor in northern California vineyards. Data indicate this predator was present in vineyards during winter and is most common on mature vine trunks near ground level; it was absent from July to September. We discuss consumption...
Kamczyc, Jacek; Urbanowski, Cezary; Pers-Kamczyc, Emilia
Density, diversity and assemblage structure of Mesostigmata (cohorts Gamasina and Uropodina) were investigated in Scots pine forests differing in forest age (young: 9-40 years and mature: 83-101 years) in which wildfire occurred. This animal group belongs to the dominant acarine predators playing a crucial role in soil food webs and being important as biological control agents. In total, six forests (three within young and three within mature stands) were inspected in Puszcza Knyszyńska Forest Complex in May 2015. At each forest area, sampling was done from burned and adjacent control sites with steel cylinders for heat extraction of soil fauna. Data were analyzed statistically with nested ANOVA. We found a significant effect on mite density of both fire and forest age, with more mites in mature forests and control plots. In total, 36 mite taxa were identified. Mite diversity differed significantly between forest ages but not between burned versus control. Our study indicated that all studied forests are characterized by unique mite species and that the mite communities are dominated by different mite species depending on age forest and surface wildfire occurrence. Finally, canonical correspondence analysis ranked the mite assemblages from control mature, through burned young and burned mature, away from the control young.
J. P. Woodring; John C. Moser
The adult female and male plus the tritonymph of Histiostoma conjuncta (Woodring and Moser, 1970) (new comb.) and described. The species is known to be associated with various pine bark beetles from Honduras, Guatemala, and Louisiana.
Zhioua, Elyes; Heyer, Klaus; Browning, M.; Ginsberg, Howard S.; LeBrun, Roger A.
Pathogenicity of the entomopathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki de Barjac & Lemille was tested against the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say. Engorged larvae dipped in a solution of 108 spores per ml showed 96% mortality, 3 wk post-infection. The LC50 value for engorged larvae (concentration required to kill 50% of ticks) was 107 spores/ml. Bacillus thuringiensis shows considerable potential as a microbial control agent for the management of Ixodes scapularis.
Rulison, Eric L.; LeBrun, Roger A.; Ginsberg, Howard S.
Ambient temperature can influence tick development time, and can potentially affect tick interactions with pathogens and with vertebrate hosts. We studied the effect of ambient temperature on duration of attachment of larval blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say, to eastern fence lizards, Sceloporus undulatus (Bose & Daudin). Feeding periods of larvae that attached to lizards under preferred temperature conditions for the lizards (WARM treatment: temperatures averaged 36.6°C at the top of the cage and 25.8°C at the bottom, allowing behavioral thermoregulation) were shorter than for larvae on lizards held under cool conditions (COOL treatment temperatures averaged 28.4°C at top of cage and 24.9°C at the bottom). The lizards were infested with larvae four times at roughly monthly intervals. Larval numbers successfully engorging and dropping declined and feeding period was longer after the first infestation.
The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Latreille, 1806), is an ectoparasite and disease vector of significant veterinary and public health importance that is distributed widely around the world. The indiscriminate use of chemicals for tick control exerts a strong selective pressure...
Oliveira, Anibal R; Argolo, Poliane S; Moraes, Gilberto J de; Norton, Roy A; Schatz, Heinrich
A checklist of the oribatid mite species reported in Brazil is presented, including all published records up to 2015. A total of 576 described species in 206 genera and 83 families is presented. Information includes the names by which each species was reported in the Brazilian literature, its general known distribution and by Brazilian States, references, and remarks, when needed. As with most countries, there was a slow early accumulation of knowledge but in recent decades the pace of description has been relatively high. A graphical overview of the number of described oribatid mite species from Brazil in different decades is given. The proportion contributed by each of the major oribatid groups is generally similar to that of the overall world fauna, with a composition that reflects the South American fauna and all of the Neotropics in general. There is a relatively low percentage of primitive mites (Palaeosomata, Enarthronota) other than Lohmanniidae and Mesoplophoridae, which are quite diverse. The Brachypylina comprises about 68% of the oribatid mite fauna. In the checklist, 41% of the species are known only from Brazil, 37% from the Neotropical region, 13.5% have a wider distribution in the global tropical and subtropical regions, and 8.5% are considered cosmopolitan or semicosmopolitan species. The number of descriptions of new species since 2000 from Brazil (73 spp.) and South America (230) is high, but the oribatid mite fauna of these countries remains poorly known. Only continued studies can determine if the high number of species known only from Brazil is an indication of high endemism.
Jacinavicius, Fernando de Castro; Bassini-Silva, Ricardo; Mendoza-Roldan, Jairo Alfonso; Pepato, Almir Rogério; Ochoa, Ronald; Welbourn, Cal; Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes
Abstract A checklist of the family Trombiculidae and Leeuwenhoekiidae is presented, containing 63 species in 30 genera of chiggers from 80 different hosts and 146 localities in Brazil. The type locality and depository are provided, including new locality and host records for the country. PMID:29670435
BUDACHETRI, KHEMRAJ; BROWNING, REBECCA E.; ADAMSON, STEVEN W.; DOWD, SCOT E.; CHAO, CHIEN-CHUNG; CHING, WEI-MEI; KARIM, SHAHID
The aim of this study was to survey the bacterial diversity of Amblyomma maculatum Koch, 1844, and characterize its infection with Rickettsia parkeri. Pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA was used to determine the total bacterial population in A. maculatum. Pyrosequencing analysis identified Rickettsia in A. maculatum midguts, salivary glands, and saliva, which indicates successful trafficking in the arthropod vector. The identity of Rickettsia spp. was determined based on sequencing the rickettsial outer membrane protein A (rompA) gene. The sequence homology search revealed the presence of R. parkeri, Rickettsia amblyommii, and Rickettsia endosymbiont of A. maculatum in midgut tissues, whereas the only rickettsia detected in salivary glands was R. parkeri, suggesting it is unique in its ability to migrate from midgut to salivary glands, and colonize this tissue before dissemination to the host. Owing to its importance as an emerging infectious disease, the R. parkeri pathogen burden was quantified by a rompB-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay and the diagnostic effectiveness of using R. parkeri polyclonal antibodies in tick tissues was tested. Together, these data indicate that field-collected A. maculatum had a R. parkeri infection rate of 12–32%. This study provides an insight into the A. maculatum microbiome and confirms the presence of R. parkeri, which will serve as the basis for future tick and microbiome interaction studies. PMID:24605461
The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...
Roma, Gislaine Cristina; de Souza, Leonardo Peres; Brienza, Paula Desjardins; Furquim, Karim Christina Scopinho; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel
As recent studies have shown that ecdysteroids may play a major role in the regulation of vitellogenesis in Ixodidae, the present study quantified, by means of a radioimmunoassay, the levels of ecdysteroids present in the hemolymph of semi-engorged females of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks obtained from control females (exposed to distilled water) and those exposed to increasing concentrations of permethrin. The levels of ecdysteroids decreased significantly as the concentration of permethrin increased, suggesting that this compound could be an inhibitor of ecdysteroids secretion, and consequently interfering with the reproductive ability of these ticks, since this hormone is responsible for the synthesis and incorporation of vitellogenin by oocytes. This study complements the previous results with R. sanguineus semi-engorged females, showing that permethrin is a potent agent causing major morphological changes in tick oocytes, such as the appearance of large vacuoles in the cytoplasm, reduction in the amount of yolk granules and a decrease in oocyte size, thus culminating in cell death and consequently reducing or preventing reproduction in treated females. The findings that permethrin leads to a decrease in ecdysteroid titers could represent an entry step into this scenario. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Montserrat, M; de la Peña, F; Hormaza, J I; González-Fernández, J J
The persea mite Oligonychus perseae is a pest of avocado trees that builds extremely dense webbed nests that protect them against natural enemies, including phytoseiid mites. Nests have one or two marginal entrances that are small and flattened. The predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus co-occurs with O. perseae in the avocado orchards of the south-east of Spain. Penetration inside nests through the entrances by this predator is thought to be hindered by its size and its globular-shaped body. However, in the field it has repeatedly been found inside nests that were clearly ripped. Perhaps penetration of the nests has been facilitated by nest wall ripping caused by some other species or by unfavourable abiotic factors. However, to assess whether N. californicus is also able to enter the nest of O. perseae by itself, we carried out laboratory experiments and made a short film. They show how this predator manages to overcome the webbed wall, and that it can penetrate and forage inside nests of O. perseae.
Dermacentor reticulatus ticks from Poland were investigated by molecular methods for the presence of rickettsiae. During 2003/2004, a total of 285 adult ticks was assayed using primers RpCS.877 and RpCS.1258 derived from the citrate synthase (gltA) gene, and 116 samples (40.7%) were positive for rickettsial DNA. Ten out of these positive samples were further assayed using SLO1F and SLO1R primers derived form the rOmpA-encoding gene to confirm that detected rickettsiae belong to the spotted fever group (SFG). The obtained sequence of a fragment of the gltA gene of Rickettsia sp. isolated from Polish D. reticulatus demonstrated 96-98% similarities to Rickettsia slovaca, Rickettsia sibirica, Rickettsia honei, and other SFG rickettsiae. The nucleotide sequences of the amplified fragments of the ompA gene were 98% homologous to RpA4 Rickettsia sp. reported from ticks collected in territories of the former Soviet Union.
Novakova, Marketa; Costa, Francisco B; Krause, Frantisek; Literak, Ivan; Labruna, Marcelo B
Recently, a new rickettsia named 'Candidatus Rickettsia vini' belonging to the spotted fever group has been molecularly detected in Ixodes arboricola ticks in Spain, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Turkey, with prevalence reaching up to 100 %. The aim of this study was to isolate this rickettsia in pure culture, and to describe it as a new Rickettsia species. A total of 148 ornitophilic nidicolous ticks Ixodes arboricola were collected in a forest near Breclav (Czech Republic) and examined for rickettsiae. Shell vial technique was applied to isolate rickettsiae in Vero cells. Rickettsial isolation was confirmed by optical microscopy and sequencing of partial sequences of the rickettsial genes gltA, ompA, ompB, and htrA. Laboratory guinea pigs and chickens were used for experimental infestations and infections. Animal blood sera were tested by immunofluorescence assay employing crude antigens of various rickettsiae. Rickettsia vini n. sp. was successfully isolated from three males of I. arboricola. Phylogenetic analysis of fragments of 1092, 590, 800, and 497 nucleotides of the gltA, ompA, ompB, and htrA genes, respectively, showed closest proximity of R. vini n. sp. to Rickettsia japonica and Rickettsia heilongjiangensis belonging to the spotted fever group. Experimental infection of guinea pigs and chickens with R. vini led to various levels of cross-reactions of R. vini-homologous antibodies with Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri, 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii', Rickettsia rhipicephali, Rickettsia bellii, and Rickettsia felis. Laboratory infestations by R. vini-infected I. arboricola larvae on chickens led to no seroconversion to R. vini n. sp., nor cross-reactions with R. rickettsii, R. parkeri, 'Ca. R. amblyommii', R. rhipicephali, R. bellii or R. felis. Our results suggest that R. vini n. sp. is possibly a tick endosymbiont, not pathogenic for guinea pigs and chickens. Regarding specific phenotypic characters and significant differences of DNA sequences in comparison to the most closely related species (R. japonica and R. heilongjiangensis), we propose to classify the isolate as a new species, Rickettsia vini.
Lafri, Ismail; Leulmi, Hamza; Baziz-Neffah, Fadhila; Lalout, Reda; Mohamed, Chergui; Mohamed, Karakallah; Parola, Philippe; Bitam, Idir
Argasid ticks are vectors of viral and bacterial agents that can infect humans and animals. In Africa, relapsing fever borreliae are neglected arthropod-borne pathogens that cause mild to deadly septicemia and miscarriage. It would be incredibly beneficial to be able to simultaneous detect and identify other pathogens transmitted by Argasid ticks. From 2012 to 2014, we conducted field surveys in 4 distinct areas of Algeria. We investigated the occurrence of soft ticks in rodent burrows and yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) nests in 10 study sites and collected 154 soft ticks. Molecular identification revealed the occurrence of two different soft tick genera and five species, including Carios capensis in yellow-legged gull nests and Ornithodoros occidentalis, Ornithodoros rupestris, Ornithodoros sonrai, Ornithodoros erraticus in rodent burrows. Rickettsial DNA was detected in 41/154, corresponding to a global detection rate of 26.6%. Sequences of the citrate synthase (gltA) gene suggest that this agent is a novel spotted fever group Rickettsia. For the first time in Algeria, we characterize a novel Rickettsia species by molecular means in soft ticks. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Polsomboon, Suppaluck; Hoel, David F; Murphy, Jittawadee R; Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Motoki, Maysa; Robbins, Richard G; Bautista, Kim; Bricen O, Ireneo; Achee, Nicole L; Grieco, John P; Ching, Wei-Mei; Chao, Chien-Chung
Little is known about tick-borne rickettsial pathogens in Belize, Central America. We tested ixodid ticks for the presence of Rickettsia species in three of the six northern and western Belizean districts. Ticks were collected from domestic animals and tick drags over vegetation in 23 different villages in November 2014, February 2015, and May 2015. A total of 2,506 collected ticks were identified to the following species: Dermacentor nitens Neumann (46.69%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) (19.55%), Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini) (19.47%), Amblyomma cajennense complex (9.74%), Amblyomma maculatum Koch (3.47%), Amblyomma ovale Koch (0.68%), Ixodes nr affinis (0.16%), Amblyomma nr maculatum (0.12%), and Amblyomma nr oblongoguttatum (0.12%). Ticks were pooled according to species, life stage (larva, nymph, or adult), and location (n = 509) for DNA extraction and screened for genus Rickettsia by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). All 42 positive pools were found to be positive for spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia in pools of A. cajennense complex (n = 33), A. maculatum (n = 4), A. nr maculatum (n = 1), A. ovale (n = 1), R. sanguineus (n = 1), and I. nr affinis (n = 2). Rickettsia amblyommatis was identified from A. cajennense complex and A. nr maculatum. Rickettsia parkeri was found in A. maculatum, and Rickettsia sp. endosymbiont was detected in I. nr affinis. The presence of infected ticks suggests a risk of tick-borne rickettsioses to humans and animals in Belize. This knowledge can contribute to an effective tick management and disease control program benefiting residents and travelers. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.
Ogrzewalska, Maria; Literák, Ivan; Capek, Miroslav; Sychra, Oldřich; Calderón, Víctor Álvarez; Rodríguez, Bernardo Calvo; Prudencio, Carlos; Martins, Thiago F; Labruna, Marcelo B
The aim of this study was to document the presence of Rickettsia spp. in ticks parasitizing wild birds in Costa Rica. Birds were trapped at seven locations in Costa Rica during 2004, 2009, and 2010; then visually examined for the presence of ticks. Ticks were identified, and part of them was tested individually for the presence of Rickettsia spp. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers targeting fragments of the rickettsial genes gltA and ompA. PCR products were DNA-sequenced and analyzed in BLAST to determine similarities with previously reported rickettsial agents. A total of 1878 birds were examined, from which 163 birds (9%) were infested with 388 ticks of the genera Amblyomma and Ixodes. The following Amblyomma (in decreasing order of abundance) were found in immature stages (larvae and nymphs): Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma calcaratum, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma sabanerae, Amblyomma varium, Amblyomma maculatum, and Amblyomma ovale. Ixodes ticks were represented by Ixodes minor and two unclassified species, designated here as Ixodes sp. genotype I, and Ixodes sp. genotype II. Twelve of 24 tested A. longirostre ticks were found to be infected with 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii', and 2 of 4 A. sabanerae were found to be infected with Rickettsia bellii. Eight of 10 larval Ixodes minor were infected with an endosymbiont (a novel Rickettsia sp. agent) genetically related to the Ixodes scapularis endosymbiont. No rickettsial DNA was found in A. calcaratum, A. coelebs, A. maculatum, A. ovale, A. varium, Ixodes sp. I, and Ixodes sp. II. We report the occurrence of I. minor in Costa Rica for the first time and a number of new bird host-tick associations. Moreover, 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' and R. bellii were found in A. longirostre and A. sabanerae, respectively, in Costa Rica for the first time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Trout Fryxell, R T; Steelman, C D; Szalanski, A L; Billingsley, P M; Williamson, P C
Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), caused by the etiological agent Rickettsia rickettsii, is the most severe and frequently reported rickettsial illness in the United States, and is commonly diagnosed throughout the southeast. With the discoveries of Rickettsia parkeri and other spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) in ticks, it remains inconclusive if the cases reported as RMSF are truly caused by R. rickettsii or other SFGR. Arkansas reports one of the highest incidence rates of RMSF in the country; consequently, to identify the rickettsiae in Arkansas, 1,731 ticks, 250 white-tailed deer, and 189 canines were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the rickettsial genes gltA, rompB, and ompA. None of the white-tailed deer were positive, while two of the canines (1.1%) and 502 (29.0%) of the ticks were PCR positive. Five different tick species were PCR positive: 244 (37%) Amblyomma americanum L., 130 (38%) Ixodes scapularis Say, 65 (39%) Amblyomma maculatum (Koch), 30 (9%) Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille, 7 (4%) Dermacentor variabilis Say, and 26 (44%) unidentified Amblyomma ticks. None of the sequenced products were homologous to R. rickettsii. The most common Rickettsia via rompB amplification was Rickettsia montanensis and nonpathogenic Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii, whereas with ompA amplification the most common Rickettsia was Ca. R. amblyommii. Many tick specimens collected in northwest Arkansas were PCR positive and these were commonly A. americanum harboring Ca. R. amblyommii, a currently nonpathogenic Rickettsia. Data reported here indicate that pathogenic R. rickettsii was absent from these ticks and suggest by extension that other SFGR are likely the causative agents for Arkansas diagnosed RMSF cases. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Huang, Yuting; Zhao, Li; Zhang, Zhentang; Liu, Miaomiao; Xue, Zaifeng; Ma, Dongqiang; Sun, Xifeng; Sun, Yue; Zhou, Chuanmin; Qin, Xiangrong; Zhu, Yelei; Li, Wenqian; Yu, Hao; Yu, Xue-Jie
Leptotrombidium scutellare mites, the vector of Orientia tsutsugamushi, have rarely been reported to associate with Rickettsia species. Three hundred nineteen chiggers were collected from the ears of 32 rodents captured in Huangdao District of Qingdao City, China, in October 2015. The chigger samples were tested for Rickettsia, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus, and hantavirus by PCR or RT-PCR amplification. All mites were classified morphologically and molecularly as L. scutellare chiggers. Rickettsial DNA sequences were amplified for four genes including 16S rRNA, ompB, gltA, and 17 kD protein genes. The minimum infection rate (MIR; number of positive pools/total specimens tested) of the Rickettsia species in the chiggers were 2.8% (9/319). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that individual genes were closely related to different Rickettsia species including R. felis (with 16S rRNA gene), R. australis (with gltA gene), an unnamed Rickettsia sp. TwKM02 (with ompB gene), and Rickettsia endosymbiont of soft tick Ornithodoros erraticus (with 17 kD protein gene). Phylogenic analysis of the concatenated sequence of 16S rRNA, gltA, ompB, and 17 kD protein genes indicated that the Rickettsia species from L. scutellare chigger was most closely related to R. australis and R. akari. These results indicated that the Rickettsia species in chiggers was unique; it was named Candidatus Rickettsia leptotrombidium. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus and hantavirus were not amplified from the chiggers, suggesting lack of infection of these pathogens in the chiggers. A unique Rickettsia species was detected in L. scutellare, which expanded the knowledge on the vector distribution of Rickettsia. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Paddock, Christopher D; Goddard, Jerome
Amblyomma maculatum Koch (the Gulf Coast tick) is a three-host, ixodid tick that is distributed throughout much of the southeastern and south-central United States, as well as several countries throughout Central and South America. A considerable amount of scientific literature followed the original description of A. maculatum in 1844; nonetheless, the Gulf Coast tick was not recognized as a vector of any known pathogen of animals or humans for >150 years. It is now identified as the principal vector of Hepatozoon americanum, the agent responsible for American canine hepatozoonosis, and Rickettsia parkeri, the cause of an emerging, eschar-associated spotted fever group rickettsiosis identified throughout much of the Western Hemisphere. Coincident with these discoveries has been recognition that the geographical distribution of A. maculatum in the United States is far more extensive than described 70 yr ago, supporting the idea that range and abundance of certain tick species, particularly those with diverse host preferences, are not fixed in time or space, and may change over relatively short intervals. Renewed interest in the Gulf Coast tick reinforces the notion that the perceived importance of a particular tick species to human or animal health can be relatively fluid, and may shift dramatically with changes in the distribution and abundance of the arthropod, its vertebrate hosts, or the microbial agents that transit among these organisms. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.
Allerdice, Michelle E J; Hecht, Joy A; Karpathy, Sandor E; Paddock, Christopher D
Amblyomma maculatum Koch (the Gulf Coast tick) is an aggressive, human-biting ixodid tick distributed throughout much of the southeastern United States and is the primary vector for Rickettsia parkeri, an emerging human pathogen. Amblyomma maculatum has diverse host preferences that include white-tailed deer, a known reservoir for Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species, including the human pathogens E. ewingii and E. chaffeensis. To examine more closely the potential role of A. maculatum in the maintenance of various pathogenic Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species, we screened DNA samples from 493 questing adult A. maculatum collected from six U.S. states using broad-range Anaplasmataceae and Ehrlichia genus-specific PCR assays. Of the samples tested, four (0.8%) were positive for DNA of Ehrlichia ewingii, one (0.2%) was positive for Anaplasma platys, and one (0.2%) was positive for a previously unreported Ehrlichia species closely related to Ehrlichia muris and an uncultivated Ehrlichia species from Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks in Japan. No ticks contained DNA of Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia canis, the Panola Mountain Ehrlichia, or Anaplasma phagocytophilum. This is the first identification of E. ewingii, A. platys, and the novel Ehrlichia in questing Gulf Coast ticks; nonetheless the low prevalence of these agents suggests that A. maculatum is not likely an important vector of these zoonotic pathogens. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.
CNAC002165); 2&, Santa Rosa, Comitán, 14-VI-1937, NA [Hoffmann 1962] (CNAC002162). GUER- RERO: 3&, Atoyac, Panthera onca, Homo sapiens [Neumann 1906...Vigía, Santiago Tuxtla, 7-IV-1967, Homo sapiens (recorded as “man”) (CNAC005075). Ixodes brunneus Koch New record MEXICO D. F.: 1&, Chapultepec, 4-XI...Ferrari-Pérez) Ixodes spinipalpis Sylvilagus sp. Ixodes dentatus PRIMATES Atelidae Ateles geoffroyi Kuhl Ixodes loricatus Hominidae Homo sapiens L
Aktas, M; Özübek, S
This study investigated possible transovarial and transstadial transmission of Hepatozoon canis by Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) ticks collected from naturally infected dogs in a municipal dog shelter and the grounds of the shelter. Four hundred sixty-five engorged nymphs were collected from 16 stray dogs that were found to be infected with H. canis by blood smear and PCR analyses and maintained in an incubator at 28 °C for moulting. Four hundred eighteen nymphs moulted to adults 14-16 d post collection. Unfed ticks from the shelter grounds comprised 1,500 larvae, 2,100 nymphs, and 85 adults; were sorted according to origin, developmental stage, and sex into 117 pools; and screened by 18S rRNA PCR for Hepatozoon infection. Of 60 adult tick pools examined, 51 were infected with H. canis. The overall maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) of infection rate was calculated as 21.0% (CI 15.80-28.21). Hepatozoon canis was detected in 31 out of 33 female pools (MLE 26.96%, CI 17.64-44.33) and 20 out of 27 male pools (MLE 14.82%, CI 20.15-46.41). Among 42 unfed nymph pools collected from the shelter, 26 were infected with H. canis, and MLE of infection was calculated as 1.9% (CI 1.25-2.77). No H. canis DNA was detected in any of the gDNA pools consisting of larva specimens. Partial sequences of the 18S rRNA gene shared 99-100% similarity with the corresponding H. canis isolates. Our results revealed the transstadial transmission of H. canis by R. sanguineus, both from larva to nymph and from nymph to adult, in field conditions. However, there were no evidence of transovarial transmission. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Rubini, A S; Paduan, K S; Martins, T F; Labruna, M B; O'Dwyer, L H
The present study aimed to evaluate under controlled conditions the acquisition of Hepatozoon canis by Amblyomma ovale after feeding on infected dogs, and the subsequent induction of infection in uninfected dogs that ingested the experimentally infected ticks. Two H. canis naturally infected dogs were infested with A. ovale adult ticks derived from an uninfected laboratory tick colony. After feeding, two A. ovale females presented H. canis oocysts in the hemolymph at the first and fourth days after removal of ticks from dogs. The oocysts had an average size of 244.34 microm x 255.46 microm. Three uninfected dogs were fed with ticks previously fed on the infected dogs. Only one dog became infected 32 days after oral inoculation, presenting circulating gametocytes, parasitemia less than 1%, and positive PCR confirmed to be H. canis by DNA sequencing. The results obtained indicated A. ovale ticks as potential vector of H. canis in rural areas of Brazil.
Pence, Danny B.; Cole, Rebecca A.
Thalassornectes (Alcidectes) aukletae, originally described from two species of auklets (Charadriiformes: Alcidae) from maritime eastern Russia, is reported from a third species of pelagic charadriiform (Stercorariidae), the pomarine jaeger, Stercorarius poinarinus (Temminck), from Florida. The specimens from the jaeger are slightly smaller, the genital apodeme is more heavily sclerotized, paired setae gm are twice as long and there are other minor variations in the idiosomal and leg chaetotaxy. These differences are not considered sufficient to warrant taxonomic separation at the species or subspecies level from the nominate species T. (A.) aukletae. The same hypopus occurring across different families of birds is unusual in the Hypoderatidae. The diversity in hosts from several orders of birds, low intensities of infection in the two species from Africa, low prevalences in alcids from Russia, and rarity of these hypoderatids in all surveyed hosts leads us to speculate that the true host affinities of species in the genus Thalassornectes are unknown. The alternative consideration is that these are simply uncommon species that are very host specific.
Brevipalpus phoenicis sensu lato has been identified from countries all over the world and has been associated with many different host plant species. As a taxon, it shows a degree of morphological variation. A combination such as this often indicates that the taxon actually represents a complex o...
The Cerrado is the second largest Brazilian biome, and is considered to be a “hotspot” due the great concentration of en-demic species and high rate of deforestation. Surveys of the mite fauna present in this biome have revealed a great number of new species. In this paper, we describe Tenuipalpus s...
Tenuipalpus toropi sp. nov., is described from females, males, deutonymphs, protonymphs and larvae collected on Sapium glandulatum (Vell.) Pax (Euphorbiaceae) from the northwest of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. We include details of the development in idiosomal and leg chaetotaxy for all stages of...
This is the first record of Tenuipalpus uvae De Leon (Tenuipalpidae) in Brazil. Specimens were collected from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae) in the states of Amapa (Northern Brazil) and Pernambuco (northeast)....
A new species of Tenuipalpus, T. sarcophilus n. sp., (Tenuipalpidae) is described from specimens collected from several species of ornamental succulent plants in Florida, including Crassula tetragona L, Sedum spp., Echeveria spp., Pachyphytum spp. (Crassulaceae) and Aloe spp. (Asphodelaceae), and fr...
Martins, Thiago F; Gianizella, Sérgio L; Nunes, Pablo H; Faria, Diogo C L O; Do Nascimento, Carlos A R; Abrahão, Carlos R; Miranda, Flávia R; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Ramirez, Diego G; Barros-Battesti, Darci M; Labruna, Marcelo B
Since its original description from the Amazonian region, the tick species Amblyomma goeldii Neumann, 1899 has been misidentified with Amblyomma rotundatum Koch, 1844 in different countries of the Neotropical region. Because of this, some authors have considered that the only confirmed records of A. goeldii were from French Guyana. Herein, we reviewed all specimens of A. goeldii that have been deposited at two tick collections in Brazil. In addition, we describe the nymphal stage of A. goeldii for the first time. A total of 10 unpublished records of the adult stage of A. goeldii are recorded from the Amazonian region of Brazil, confirming the occurrence of A. goeldii in this country. Except for one record on the snake Boa constrictor Linnaeus, all records of A. goeldii reported in the present study were from anteaters (Pilosa: Myrmecophagidae). Our results, in conjunction with previous literature records, indicate that anteaters and large snakes are important hosts for the adult stage of A. goeldii. The nymph of A. goeldii is morphologically similar to the nymphs of Amblyomma romitii Tonelli-Rondelli, 1939, Amblyomma dissimile Koch, 1844, and A. rotundatum. We present a modification of a previously published taxonomic key of Amblyomma nymphs from Brazil, in order to perform taxonomic identification of the nymph of A. goeldii based on external morphology. The geographical distribution of A. goeldii appears to be restricted to the Amazonian region. There were no previous host records for the immature stages of A. goeldii, thus it is expected that the present nymphal description will facilitate further works on the ecology of this poorly studied tick species.
Couret, Janelle; Dyer, M.C.; Mather, T.N.; Han, S.; Tsao, J.I.; LeBrun, R.A.; Ginsberg, Howard
Measuring rates of acquisition of the Lyme disease pathogen, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt & Brenner, by the larval stage of Ixodes scapularis Say is a useful tool for xenodiagnoses of B. burgdorferi in vertebrate hosts. In the nymphal and adult stages of I. scapularis, the duration of attachment to hosts has been shown to predict both body engorgement during blood feeding and the timing of infection with B. burgdorferi. However, these relationships have not been established for the larval stage of I. scapularis. We sought to establish the relationship between body size during engorgement of larval I. scapularis placed on B. burgdorferi-infected, white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus Rafinesque) and the presence or absence of infection in larvae sampled from hosts over time. Body size, time, and their interaction were the best predictors of larval infection with B. burgdorferi. We found that infected larvae showed significantly greater engorgement than uninfected larvae as early as 24 h after placement on a host. These findings may suggest that infection with B. burgdorferi affects the larval feeding process. Alternatively, larvae that engorge more rapidly on hosts may acquire infections faster. Knowledge of these relationships can be applied to improve effective xenodiagnosis of B. burgdorferi in white-footed mice. Further, these findings shed light on vector–pathogen–host interactions during an understudied part of the Lyme disease transmission cycle.
Ermilov, Sergey G.; Bayartogtokh, Badamdorj; Sandmann, Dorothee; Marian, Franca; Maraun, Mark
Abstract We described two new species, Haplozetes paraminimicoma sp. n. and Protoribates ecuadoriensis sp. n. from Ecuador. Additionally, a detailed supplementary description of Trachyoribates (Rostrozetes) glaber (Beck, 1965) is given on the basis of Ecuadorian specimens, which was known previously only from Peru. An annotated checklist of all identified taxa of Haplozetidae from Ecuador is presented. PMID:24223487
Pence, Danny B.; Spalding, M.G.; Bergan, J.F.; Cole, Rebecca A.
New host, geographic records, or both are established for 14 species of hypoderatid deutonymphs from 14 species of birds in North America. Ten of these records are regarded as examples of a potential host colonization event where these hypopi have become established in hosts other than those with which they are normally associated. Herein, potential host colonization events by hypoderatid deutonymphs are regarded as more of an ecologically determined than physiologically specific phenomenon, often specifically related to sharing of nesting sites in the same rookeries by different host taxa. Neottialges ibisicola Young & Pence is placed as a junior synonym of Neottialges plegadicola Fain. The taxonomic status of Hypodectes propus from columbid versus ardeid hosts needs further study.
Ginsberg, Howard S.; Zhioua, Elyes; Mitra, Shaibal; Fischer, Jason L.; Buckley, P.A.; Verret, Frank; Underwood, H. Brian; Buckley, Francine G.
Spatial distribution patterns of black-legged ticks, Ixodes scapularis, in deciduous and coniferous woodlands were studied by sampling ticks in different woodland types and at sites from which deer had been excluded and by quantifying movement patterns of tick host animals (mammals and birds) at the Lighthouse Tract, Fire Island, NY, from 1994 to 2000. Densities of nymphal ticks were greater in deciduous than coniferous woods in 3 of 7 yr. Only engorged ticks survived the winter, and overwintering survival of engorged larvae in experimental enclosures did not differ between deciduous and coniferous woods. Nymphs were not always most abundant in the same forest type as they had been as larvae, and the habitat shift between life stages differed in direction in different years. Therefore, forest type by itself did not account for tick distribution patterns. Nymphal densities were lower where deer had been excluded compared with areas with deer present for 3 yr after exclusion, suggesting that movement patterns of vertebrate hosts influenced tick distribution, but nymphal densities increased dramatically in one of the enclosures in the fourth year. Therefore, movements of ticks on animal hosts apparently contribute substantially to tick spatial distribution among woodland types, but the factor(s) that determine spatial distribution of nymphal I. scapularis shift from year to year.
Domingues, Luciana Ferreira; Giglioti, Rodrigo; Feitosa, Karina Alves; Fantatto, Rafaela Regina; Rabelo, Márcio Dias; Oliveira, Márcia Cristina de Sena; Oliveira, Gilson Pereira de; Bechara, Gervasio Henrique; Chagas, Ana Carolina de Souza
Measures to control the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, based only on chemical products are becoming unsustainable, mainly because of the development of resistance. The objective of this study was to test the effect of the aqueous extract of pineapple skin (AEPS) and bromelain extracted from the stem (Sigma-Aldrich®, B4882) on engorged females and larvae of R. (B.) microplus in vitro. These substances were diluted in water and evaluated at eight concentrations. Engorged females were collected and distributed in groups of 10, with three repetitions for each treatment. After immersion in the solutions, the females were placed in an incubator for observation of survival, oviposition and larval hatching. The larval packet method was used, also with three repetitions with about 100 larvae each. The packets were incubated and the readings were performed after 24 h. The estimated reproduction and efficacy of the solutions were calculated. The LC(50) and LC(90) were estimated using the Probit procedure of the SAS program. The eight concentrations were compared within each treatment by the Tukey test. For the experiment with engorged females, the most effective concentrations were 125, 250 and 500 mg/mL: 33%, 48% and 59% for the AEPS and 27%, 51% and 55% for the bromelain. The LC(50) and LC(90) values were, respectively, 276 and 8691 mg/mL for AEPS and 373 and 5172 mg/mL for bromelain. None of the dilutions tested was effective against the larvae of R. (B.) microplus. This is the first report of the action of pineapple extracts or their constituents on cattle ticks. The results demonstrate that further studies regarding composition of tick cuticle, with evaluation of other solvents and formulations, should be conducted seeking to enhance the effect of pineapple extracts and compounds against this ectoparasite. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hubert, Jan; Nesvorna, Marta; Volek, Vlado
From 2008 to 2014, stored product mites have been reported from prepackaged dried food on the market in the Czech Republic. The infestation was by Carpoglyphus lactis (L.) in dried fruits and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) in dog feed. The infestation is presumably caused by poor protection of the packages. We compared various packaging methods for their resistance to mites using dried apricots and dog feed in laboratory experiments. The trial packages included nine different plastic films, monofilm, duplex and triplex, and one type of plastic cup (ten replicates per packaging type). All packaging materials are available on the Czech market for dried food products. The samples of dried food were professionally packed in a factory and packaged dried apricots were exposed to C. lactis and dog food to T. putrescentiae. After 3 months of exposure, the infestation and mite density of the prepackaged food was assessed. Mites were found to infest six types of packages. Of the packaging types with mites, 1-5 samples were infested and the maximum abundance was 1,900 mites g(-1) of dried food. Mites entered the prepackaged food by faulty sealing. Inadequate sealing is suggested to be the major cause of the emerged infestation of dried food.
Ermilov, Sergey G; Salavatulin, Vladimir M; Kaga, Wataru; Shimano, Satoshi
The morphology of adult instars of two oribatid mites of the genus Neoribates, N. pallidus Aoki, 1988 and N. alius Fujikawa, 2007, is analyzed. Comparisons were based on holotype and paratypes (for N. alius) and specimens identified by the original author (for N. pallidus). Both species were described from Japan. Neoribates alius is recognized as a junior subjective synonym of N. pallidus.
ADDRESS(ES) USAF School of Aerospace Medicine Aeromedical Research Dept/FHT 2510 Fifth St., Bldg. 840 Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433-7913 8...Durden2, Elizabeth H. Foley3 & Will K. Reeves4 1Illinois Natural History Survey, Prairie Research Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana...the taxonomic level. Further research into the pathogens and diversity of bat parasites and diseases is an open field of research in the tropics. Some
Kemmitt, G; Valverde-Garcia, P; Hufnagl, A; Bacci, L; Zotz, A
The impact of the fungicides mancozeb, myclobutanil, and meptyldinocap on populations of Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten was evaluated under field conditions, when applied following the good agricultural practices recommended for their use. Two complementary statistical models were used to analyze the population reduction compared to the control: a linear mixed model to estimate the mean effect of the fungicide, and a generalized linear mixed model (proportional odds mixed model) to estimate the cumulative probability for those effects being equal or less than a specific IOBC class (International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animal and Plants). Findings from 27 field experiments in a range of different vine-growing regions in Europe indicated that the use of mancozeb, myclobutanil, and meptyldinocap caused minimal impact on naturally occurring populations of T. pyri. Both statistical models confirmed that although adverse effects on T. pyri can occur under certain conditions after several applications of any of the three fungicides studied, the probability of the effects occurring is low and they will not persist. These methods demonstrated how data from a series of trials could be used to evaluate the variability of the effects caused by the chemical rather than relying on the worst-case findings from a single trial. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Hugh-Jones, M.; Barre, N.; Nelson, G.; Wehnes, K.; Warner, J.; Garvin, J.; Garris, G.
The feasibility of identifying specific habitats of the African bont tick, Amblyomma variegatum, from Landsat-TM images was investigated by comparing remotely sensed images of visible farms in Grande Terre (Guadeloupe) with field observations made in the same period of time (1986-1987). The different tick habitates could be separated using principal component analysis. The analysis clustered the sites by large and small variance of band values, and by vegetation and moisture indexes. It was found that herds in heterogeneous sites with large variances had more ticks than those in homogeneous or low variance sites. Within the heterogeneous sites, those with high vegetation and moisture indexes had more ticks than those with low values.
Cunha, Lucas M; Cunha, Mariana M; Leite, Romário C; Silva, Israel J; Oliveira, Paulo R de
This work aims to compare the performance of corrugated paper and "taquaril" bamboo (Phyllostachys sp.) straw traps for collecting (in sampling) Dermanyssus gallinae in a metal cages battery laying hens. The presence of eggs in the two trap models were compared using a Qui-square test and a proportion confidence interval test. Total daily values of mobile instars gathered in each type of trap were compared using the Wilcoxon's test. The amount of traps containing eggs was not different in neither of the traps (p < 0,05). The number of mobile instars sampled at every two days per trap model was different (p = 0,01). Counting in the corrugated paper traps showed a Gauss distribution histogram and was superior to the values of the bamboo straw traps.
Kim, Hyun Kyung; Lee, Seung Ju; Hwang, Bang-Yeon; Yoon, Jong Ung; Kim, Gil-Hah
The acaricidal activity of a methanolic extract and fractions from the rhizome of Cnidium officinale against Dermanyssus gallinae adults was investigated. The C. officinale methanolic extract exhibited 100% acaricidal activity after 48 h of treatment at a dose of 4000 ppm. The acaricidal constituents of the plant were sequentially partitioned with several solvents and then purified using silica gel column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed (Z)-ligustilide as a constituent of C. officinale. Acaricidal activity was examined in three experimental tests (spray, fumigation and contact), with the spraying method being the most effective. The methanolic extract of C. officinale showed both contact and fumigant activities, though only fumigant activity was observed with (Z)-ligustilide. The fumigant effects of the methanolic extract and (Z)-ligustilide caused 86.5 and 62.6% mortality, respectively, of D. gallinae adults at 48 h. Among (Z)-ligustilide, acaricides (bifenthrin, cypermethrin and spinosad) and butylidenephthalide, bifenthrin displayed the highest acaricidal activity, and the activity of butylidenephthalide was 2.3-fold higher than that of (Z)-ligustilide. These results suggest that C. officinale-derived material can be used for the development of a control agent for D. gallinae.
Abdigoudarzi, Mohammad; Mirafzali, Mahmoud S; Belgheiszadeh, Hamid
The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae is one of the most economically important ectoparasites in hens and some species of mammals worldwide. Cases of human infestation have been reported worldwide. In this study we report infestation in three members of a family referred with pruritus and allergic dermatitis rash. They have collected very small animals and carried them to the laboratory which later was confirmed as D. gallinae. They claimed that they had been bitten with this ectoparasite. This is the first case report of human infestation owing to D. gallinae from Iran.
Immediato, Davide; Figueredo, Luciana Aguiar; Iatta, Roberta; Camarda, Antonio; de Luna, Rafaela Lira Nogueira; Giangaspero, Annunziata; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto; Otranto, Domenico; Cafarchia, Claudia
Essential oils (EOs) and entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana (Bb) strains have the potential to be used as alternative insecticides and acaricides for controlling ectoparasites as Dermanyssus gallinae. These compounds have some limitations in their use: the acaricidal effect of EOs is rapid, but short-lived, whilst that of Bb is delayed, but long-lived. To evaluate the effect of both compounds combined against D. gallinae, the non-toxic dose of Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus citriodora, Thymus vulgaris and Eugenia caryophyllata essential oils were firstly calculated for "native" strains of Bb. Subsequently, the effects of the combination of selected EOs with Bb against nymph and adult poultry red mites (PRMs) was assessed. EO concentrations ranging from 0.0015 to 8% v/v (i.e., nine double dilutions) were used to evaluate their effect on germination, sporulation and vegetative growth rates of native strains of Bb. A total of 1440 mites (720 nymphs and 720 adults) were divided into three-treated group (TGs) and one control group (CG). In TGs, mites were exposed to Bb in combination with the selected EO (TG1), EO alone (TG2) or Bb (TG3) alone. In the CG, mites were exposed to 0.1% tween 80 plus EO solvent (CG). E. globulus and E. citriodora were toxic for Bb in concentrations higher than 0.2% and 0.003% respectively, whilst E. caryophyllata and T. vulgaris were toxic at all concentrations tested against Bb. Based on the results of the toxicity assays against Bb, E. globulus was chosen to be tested as acaricide resulting non-toxic for Bb at concentration lower than 0.4%. Increased mortality of D. gallinae adults was recorded in TG1 than those in other TGs from 4days post-infection (T+4DPI). A 100% mortality of D. gallinae was recorded in adults at T+9DPI and at T+10DPI in nymphs in TG1 and later than T+11DPI in the other TGs. Used in combination with E. globulus, Bb displayed an earlier acaricidal effect towards both haematophagous D. gallinae stages. The combination of B. bassiana and E. globulus at 0.2% might be used for controlling arthropods of medical and veterinary importance as D. gallinae. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Abdigoudarzi, Mohammad; Mirafzali, Mahmoud S; Belgheiszadeh, Hamid
The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae is one of the most economically important ectoparasites in hens and some species of mammals worldwide. Cases of human infestation have been reported worldwide. In this study we report infestation in three members of a family referred with pruritus and allergic dermatitis rash. They have collected very small animals and carried them to the laboratory which later was confirmed as D. gallinae. They claimed that they had been bitten with this ectoparasite. This is the first case report of human infestation owing to D. gallinae from Iran. PMID:25629073
Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt) is one of several phytoseiid species that are available for purchase to supplement endemic predator populations that are not providing sufficient control of spider mites. We performed a series of releases of commercially reared G. occidentalis in commercial apple (...
Zheng, Li-Hao; Chen, Jun
Four new species of the genus Fissicepheus Balogh Mahunka, 1967 from China are described on the basis of adults: Fissicepheus (Fissicepheus) aokii sp. nov., types from Shanxi Province, F. (F.) combicondylus sp. nov., from Guangdong Province, F. (F.) confragosus sp. nov., from Sichuan Province, and F. wangae sp. nov. from Beijing City. A revised generic diagnosis and a key to the 26 known species worldwide of Fissicepheus are provided. Compared with the diagnosis of the subgenus F. (Psammocepheus) Aoki, 1970, F. (P.) haradai Choi, 1986 is moved to the nominotypical subgenus: F. (F.) haradai Choi, 1986.
Ogihara, Kazumasa; Horigane, Mari; Nakajima, Yoshiro; Moribayashi, Atsuko; Taylor, DeMar
A blood meal is required for reproduction in most argasid female ticks. The blood meal appears to stimulate an organ in the posterior end to produce a fat body stimulating factor (FSF), which is thought to be an ecdysteroid, to induce vitellogenin (Vg) synthesis. In this study, the relationship of vitellogenesis and ecdysteroids was investigated by measuring Vg and ecdysteroid titers while observing oocyte development and oviposition in mated and virgin females. Oviposition occurred from day 10 after engorgement in mated females and continued up to 40-50 days, whereas egg maturation and oviposition did not occur in virgin females. Vg titers in the hemolymph peaked on day 6 after engorgement and subsequently declined in mated females. Interestingly, Vg synthesis occurred and ovarian development progressed to the development of early vitellogenic oocytes in virgin females but oocyte maturation and oviposition did not occur. Topical application of ecdysteroids induced oviposition in fed virgin females indicating that ecdysteroids may induce oviposition. Concentrations of ecdysteroids for 20 days after engorgement revealed several peaks in mated female whole body extracts, but no peaks in virgin female extracts. In the hemolymph of only mated females, ecdysteroid titers showed two peaks that followed the early peak of ecdysteroids in the whole body on day 4 and 6 after engorgement. In addition, ecdysteroids in the reproductive tissues increased with the development of the ovary in mated females and this increase coincided with the latter peaks of the whole body. These observations indicate that physiological elevation of ecdysteroids accelerate Vg synthesis, and may induce egg maturation and stimulate oviposition in fed mated Ornithodoros moubata females.
Sanches, Gustavo S; Araujo, Andrea M; Martins, Thiago F; Bechara, Gervásio H; Labruna, Marcelo B; Camargo-Mathias, Maria I
Oocyte maturation in the thelytokous parthenogenetic tick Amblyomma rotundatum was examined for the first time using light and scanning electron microscopy. The panoistic ovary lacks nurse and follicular cells and is a single continuous tubular structure forming a lumen delimited by the ovarian wall. Oocytes of tick species are usually classified according to cytoplasm appearance, the presence of germinal vesicle, the presence of yolk granules, and the chorion. However, for this species, we also use oocyte size as an auxiliary tool since most oocytes were in stages I-III and were histologically very similar. Oocytes were classified into five development stages, and specific characteristics were observed: mature oocytes with thin chorion, pedicel cells arranged forming an epithelium with two or more oocytes attached by the same structure, and a large number of oocytes in the process of reabsorption. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Sampieri, B R; Furquim, K C S; Nunes, P H; Camargo-Mathias, M I
Tick control has been accomplished through the use of synthetic acaricides, which has created resistant individuals, as well as contaminating the environment and nontarget organisms. Substances of plant origin, such as oils and extracts of eucalyptus and neem leaves, have been researched as an alternative to replace the synthetic acaricides. Ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil have recently been shown as a promising alternative in eliminating bacterial contamination during ethanol fermentation, by acting as an effective biocide. The same positive results have been observed when these esters are added to the food given to tick-infested rabbits. This study tested the effect of these substance on the reproductive system of Rhipicephalus sanguineus females, added to rabbit food, more specifically on oogenesis. For this, four groups were established: four control groups (CG1, CG2, CG3, and CG4) and four treatment groups (TG1, TG2, TG3, and TG4) with one rabbit in each (New Zealand White), used as hosts. After full 4 days feeding (semi-engorgement), the females were collected and had their ovaries extracted. In this study, it was observed that R. sanguineus females exposed to esters had their ovaries modified, which was demonstrated through transmission electron microscopy techniques. The addition of ricinoleic esters to the diet of tick-infested rabbits revealed how toxic such substances are for the cytoplasmic organelles of oocytes and pedicel cells. These compounds can change the morphophysiology of germ and somatic cells, consequently influencing their viability and, therefore, confirming that the ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil are a promising substance in the control of R. sanguineus.
Denardi, Sandra Eloisi; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Oliveira, Patrícia Rosa de; Nunes, Erika Takagi; Saito, Kelly Cristina; Mathias, Maria Izabel Camargo
In this work we describe the internal morphology of the female reproductive system of the cayenne tick Amblyomma cajennense. This system is represented by a panoistic ovary, which lacks nurse cells in the germarium. This ovary consists of a single tube, in which a large number of oocytes develop asynchronously, thus accompanying the processes of yolk deposition in the oocytes. The oocytes were classified into stages that varied from I to V, according to: cytoplasm appearance, presence of the germ vesicle, presence of yolk granules, and presence of chorion. The study of vitellogenesis dynamics suggest that the yolk elements are deposited in the oocyte following a preferencial sequence, in which the lipids are the first to appear, followed by proteins an finally by the carbohydrates. In this way the yolk of A. cajennense ticks have these three elements that may be free in the cytoplasm or chemically bounded forming glycoprotein or lipoprotein complexes.
Smith, Alexander D; Reuben Kaufman, W
We have identified the full-length cDNA encoding a vitellogenin receptor (VgR) from the African bont tick Amblyomma hebraeum Koch (1844). VgRs are members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor superfamily that promote the uptake of the yolk protein vitellogenin (Vg), from the haemolymph. The AhVgR (GenBank accession No. JX846592) is 5703 bp, and encodes an 1801 aa protein with a 196.5 kDa molecular mass following cleavage of a 22 aa signal peptide. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that AhVgR is highly similar to other tick VgRs. AhVgR is expressed in only the ovary of mated, engorged females, and is absent in all other female tissues and in both fed and unfed males. Unfed, adult females injected with a VgR-dsRNA probe to knock-down VgR expression experienced a significant delay in ovary development and started oviposition significantly later than controls. These results indicate that the expression of AhVgR is important for the uptake of Vg and subsequent maturation of the oocytes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yang, Xiaolong; Yu, Zhijun; He, Yanjie; Xu, Xiaoli; Gao, Zhihua; Wang, Hui; Chen, Jie; Liu, Jingze
Vitellin (Vt) was purified from eggs of parthenogenetic bush tick Haemaphysalis longicornis by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. Our results revealed that only one single Vt existed in parthenogenetic bush tick, and the purified Vt was proved to be a hemoglycolipoprotein consisting of nine polypeptides with molecular weights of 203, 147, 126, 82, 74, 70, 61, 47 and 31 kDa, respectively. Polyclonal antibody and monoclonal antibody against Vt were produced using the purified Vt. The change in vitellogenin (Vg) and Vt levels over time of the parthenogenetic H. longicornis was established, and the Vg content in haemolymph and Vt in ovary at different feeding or engorgement statuses was also determined using a double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The Vg level in haemolymph was distinctly increased on the day of engorgement (1.785 mg/mL) and continued to increase until 2nd day post-engorgement (5.611 mg/mL). There was a slight decrease in Vg level after 4 days of engorgement, and a second peak was observed on day 2 post-oviposition (10.774 mg/mL). Subsequently, Vg content continuously decreased and reached a low level on the 10th day post-oviposition. The Vt content in ovary continuously increased once the female reached its critical weight (0.024 mg per female), and reached the maximum level on day 2 post-oviposition (1.942 mg per female). Afterwards, Vt content rapidly decreased.
Seron Sanches, Gustavo; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel
This study describes the ovary anatomy and dynamics of oocytes maturation process of Amblyomma brasiliense ticks. The ovary is of panoistic type lacking nurse and follicular cells. This organ consists of a single continuous tubular structure comprising a lumen delimited by the ovarian wall. Oocytes of this tick species are classified into five stages (I-V) and described based on cytoplasm appearance, presence of germ vesicle, yolk granules aspects, and chorium deposition. Oocytes of various sizes and at different developmental stages remain attached to the ovary by a cellular pedicel until completing stage V. Then they are released into the ovary lumen and from there into the exterior.
Sanches, Gustavo S; André, Marcos R; do Prado, Angelo P; Allegretti, Silmara M; Remedio, Rafael N; Nunes, Pablo H; Machado, Rosangela Z; Bechara, Gervásio H; Camargo-Mathias, Maria I
The sloth's giant tick Amblyomma varium Koch, which is a neotropical species that inhabits tropical rainforests, is the largest tick reported to date. The adult stage of this tick parasitizes mammals from the families Bradypodidae and Magalonychidae (Xenarthra) nearly exclusively. This study aimed to describe morphological and histological features of the reproductive system and the oocyte maturation process of this tick species. The ovary of A. varium is a long single tubular organ that is horseshoe-shaped, winding and arranged in the posterior part of the body. Two oviducts are connected to the ovary on each side; these thicken at certain region forming the uterus (common oviduct), followed by a muscular connecting tube, vagina and genital aperture. A large number of oocytes at different stages of development are attached to the ovary wall by the pedicel, as they reach maturity they are released into the ovary lumen and from there to the genital aperture. These oocytes develop simultaneously and asynchronically along the ovary. Amblyomma varium oocytes were classified into five development stages (i.e., I-V), and specific characteristics were observed; the processes of yolk and chorion deposition begin early in oocytes stage II, and oocytes V exhibit a very thick chorion and eggs of a large size. These characteristics are likely adaptations that enhance the survival and the reproductive success of this extremely host-specific tick, which is limited to a particular environment.
Kim, Young-Ha; slam, Mohammad Saiful; You, Myung-Jo
Proteomic tools allow large-scale, high-throughput analyses for the detection, identification, and functional investigation of proteome. For detection of antigens from Haemaphysalis longicornis, 1-dimensional electrophoresis (1-DE) quantitative immunoblotting technique combined with 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) immunoblotting was used for whole body proteins from unfed and partially fed female ticks. Reactivity bands and 2-DE immunoblotting were performed following 2-DE electrophoresis to identify protein spots. The proteome of the partially fed female had a larger number of lower molecular weight proteins than that of the unfed female tick. The total number of detected spots was 818 for unfed and 670 for partially fed female ticks. The 2-DE immunoblotting identified 10 antigenic spots from unfed females and 8 antigenic spots from partially fed females. Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) of relevant spots identified calreticulin, putative secreted WC salivary protein, and a conserved hypothetical protein from the National Center for Biotechnology Information and Swiss Prot protein sequence databases. These findings indicate that most of the whole body components of these ticks are non-immunogenic. The data reported here will provide guidance in the identification of antigenic proteins to prevent infestation and diseases transmitted by H. longicornis. PMID:25748713
da Silva Costa, Luís Flávio; Nunes, Pablo Henrique; Soares, João Fábio; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel
Considering the fact that the dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, has a great potential to become the vector of Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF) for humans, the present study aimed to describe the distribution of the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiological agent of BSF, in different regions of the ovaries of R. sanguineus using histological techniques. The ovaries were obtained from positive females confirmed by the hemolymph test and fed in the nymph stage on guinea pigs inoculated with R. rickettsii. The results showed a general distribution of R. rickettsii in the ovary cells, being found in oocytes in all stages of development (I, II, III, IV and V) most commonly in the periphery of the oocyte and also in the cytoplasm of pedicel cells. The histological analysis of the ovaries of R. sanguineus infected females confirmed the presence of the bacterium, indicating that the infection can interfere negatively in the process of reproduction of the ticks, once alterations were detected both in the shape and cell structure of the oocytes which contained bacteria.
Chao, Li-Lian; Shih, Chien-Ming
The genetic identity of Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick was determined for the first time in Taiwan. The phylogenetic relationships were analyzed by comparing the sequences of mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA gene obtained from 32 strains of ticks representing six species of Rhipicephalus, two species of Dermacentor and two outgroup species (Haemaphysalis inermis and Ixodes ricinus). Seven major clades can be easily distinguished by neighbour-joining analysis and were congruent by maximum-parsimony method. All R. sanguineus ticks of Taiwan were genetically affiliated to the tropical lineage group of R. sanguineus sensu lato with highly homogeneous sequence (99.7-100% similarity), and can be discriminated from the temperate lineage group of Rhipicephalus sp. II and R. turanicus with a sequence divergence ranging from 1.7 to 5.2%. In contrast, the nucleotide variations among other Rhipicephalus spp. and other species/genus of ticks compared with the R. sanguineus ticks of Taiwan were measured from 10.6 to 25.5%. Moreover, intra- and inter-species analysis based on the genetic distance (GD) values indicated a lower level (GD < 0.003) within tropical lineage group compared with temperate lineage group (GD > 0.055) of Rhipicephalus, as well as other (GD > 0.129) and outgroup (GD > 0.236) species. Our results provide the first genetic identification of R. sanguineus ticks collected from Taiwan and demonstrate that all these R. sanguineus of Taiwan affiliated to the tropical lineage group of R. sanguineus sensu lato.
Chao, Li-Lian; Lu, Chun-Wei; Lin, Ying-Fang; Shih, Chien-Ming
Genetic identity and morphological features of a human biting tick, Amblyomma testudinarium, were determined for the first time in Taiwan. Morphological features of adult male and female ticks of Am. testudinarium were observed and photographed by a stereo- microscope. The genetic identity was analyzed by comparing the sequences of mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA gene obtained from 18 strains of ticks representing 10 species of Amblyomma, and four outgroup species of Dermacentor and Rhipicephalus ticks. Nine major clades could be easily distinguished by neighbour-joining analysis and were congruent by maximum-parsimony method. All these Am. testudinarium ticks collected from Taiwan and Japan were genetically affiliated to a monophyletic group with highly homogeneous sequence (99.8-100% similarity), and can be discriminated from other species of Amblyomma and other genera of ticks (Dermacentor and Rhipicephalus) with a sequence divergence ranging from 6.9 to 23.9%. Moreover, intra- and inter-species analysis based on the genetic distance (GD) values indicated a lower level (GD < 0.003) within the same lineage of Am. testudinarium ticks collected from Taiwan and Japan, as compared with other lineage groups (GD > 0.108) of Amblyomma ticks, as well as outgroup (GD > 0.172) species. Our results provide the first distinguished features of adult Am. testudinarium ticks and the first genetic identification of Am. testudinarium ticks collected from humans in Taiwan. Seasonal prevalence, host range, and vectorial capacity of this tick species in Taiwan need to be further clarified.
Araújo, Laryssa Xavier; Novato, Tatiane Pinheiro Lopes; Zeringota, Viviane; Matos, Renata Silva; Senra, Tatiane Oliveira Souza; Maturano, Ralph; Prata, Márcia Cristina Azevedo; Daemon, Erik; Monteiro, Caio Márcio Oliveira
This is the first study to investigate the activity of thymol on Rhipicephalus microplus larvae under semi-natural conditions. For this purpose, tests were conducted in pots with Brachiaria decumbens seedlings containing cattle tick larvae. Thymol, diluted in ethanol 50° GL, was tested at concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, and 20.0 mg/mL, along with the control group treated with the solvent alone. Each treatment was composed of five pots (1 pot = a repetition). The experiment was performed in three steps. On the first day, the larvae were applied at the base of the signalgrass. Twenty-four hours later, approximately 25 mL of the solution was applied with thymol on the top of the vegetation in each pot. The survival of the larvae was measured 24 h after application of the solutions. Each pot was analyzed individually, and the grass fillets contained larvae were cut with scissors, placed in Petri dishes, and taken to the laboratory to count the number of living larvae. At the highest concentrations (10, 15, and 20 mg /mL), the number of live larvae declined by more than 95 % in relation to the control group. The lethal concentration 50 % (LC50) and LC90 values were 3.45 and 9.25 mg/ml, respectively. The application of thymol in semi-natural conditions starting concentration of 10 mg/mL significantly reduced the number of living R. microplus larvae.
Bellini, Marcos R; de Araujo, Ralf V; Silva, Edmilson S; de Moraes, Gilberto J; Berti Filho, Evoneo
Several annual and perennial crops are severely attacked by mites from the family Eriophyidae, Tenuipalpidae and Tetranychidae. A suitable alternative commonly used in several countries for the control of these pest mites involve the use of predatory mites in the family Phytoseiidae. The phytoseiid fauna in the Brazilian natural vegetation is very rich, but nothing is known about the biology of most of these species, as it is the case with Proprioseiopsis cannaensis (Muma). The objective of this study was to determine biological parameters of P. cannaensis fed on pest mite species such as Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead) (Eriophyidae), Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Tenuipalpidae) and Tetranychus urticae Koch (Tetranychidae). To enable a comparison for different food sources, one of the treatments consisted of pollen from Typha angustifolia L. The study was conducted in the laboratory at 25+/-1 masculineC, 80+/-10% RH and Photophase of 12 h. Proprioseiopsis cannaensis did not complete the development when it was fed on P. oleivora. Its fecundity was very low with all other food sources (maximum of 3.3 eggs/female with pollen of T. angustifolia). The values of r m for P. cannaensis were -0.05, -0.09 and 0.002 when fed on B. phoenicis, T. urticae and pollen respectively. The unsatisfactory results from the four types of food sources do not permit us to conclude that P. cannaensis utilizes mites from the family Eriophyidae, Tenuipalpidae, Tetranychidae or pollen from different plant species as principal sources of food in nature.
Norton, Roy A; Fuangarworn, Marut
Nanohystrix hammerae n. gen., n. sp.--proposed on the basis of numerous adults and a few juveniles--is a new oribatid mite of the infraorder Enarthronota that appears to be phylogenetically relictual and endemic to northern New Zealand, in habitats ranging from native shrublands to native and semi-native forests. With an adult body length of 1-1.2 mm, the species is the largest known enarthronote mite outside Lohmanniidae, and it has an unusual combination of plesiomorphic and apomorphic traits. Plesiomorphies include: a well-formed median (naso) eye and pigmented lateral eyes; a bothridial seta with a simple, straight base; a vertically-oriented gnathosoma; a peranal segment; adanal sclerites partially incorporated in notogaster (uncertain polarity); three genu I solenidia and a famulus on tarsus II. Autapomorphies include: five pairs of pale cuticular disks on the notogaster, with unknown function; six pairs of long, erectile notogastral setae, including pair h2 incorporated in the second transverse scissure along with the f-row, and pair h1 in a third scissure; chelicerae that are unusually broad, creating a flat-faced appearance; legs I that are inferred to have an unusually wide range of motion. Further, it is the only enarthronote species known to have an elongated ovipositor, and one of few to have glassy, luminous notogastral setae. The gastronotum of juveniles lacks transverse scissures, but has isolated sclerites supporting setae, including erectile setae. The large character gaps between N. hammerae and other enarthronote taxa justifies proposal of a monotypic new family--Nanohystricidae n. fam.--which is tentatively grouped with several other relictual families in the paraphyletic Heterochthonioidea. Small muscles appear to be involved in the operation of all erectile setae, but seem to be only depressors, with erection effected by hysterosomal distension. Based on gut contents, its food is primarily fungal hyphae and spores, though ingestion of small arthropods also occurs (perhaps by necrophagy). Collections were made by Berlese-funnel samples of litter, by sweeping low vegetation, and (mainly) by pitfall traps; the latter two suggest that adults are surface-active. Tritonymphs were collected by pitfall traps, but earlier juveniles were collected only by Berlese-funnels. Adults are frequently infected with a eugregarine parasite, which can entirely fill the digestive caeca; immature trophozoites were also seen in tritonymphs. Adults also can serve as hosts for dispersal of secondary capilliconidia of the fungal genus Basidiobolus.
Lubelczyk, Charles; Lacombe, Eleanor H; Elias, Susan P; Beati, Lorenza; Rand, Peter W; Smith, Robert P
Ticks collected from mustelids from four counties in Maine and one in New Hampshire were identified after harvest. Of the 18 fishers Martes pennanti Erxleben, two mink Neovison vison Schreber, and one long-tailed weasel Mustela frenata Lichtenstein, 589 ticks were collected and identified. They were identified as, in order of abundance, Ixodes gregsoni Lindquist, Wu, and Redner (158 larvae, 189 nymphs, four adults), Ixodes cookei Packard (99 larvae, 77 nymphs, six adults), Ixodes scapularis Say (53 adults), Dermacentor variabilis Say (two nymphs), and Ixodes angustus Neumann (one nymph). Seasonally, all but the D. variabilis were collected in winter. This study reports the first record of adult I. scapularis from a M. pennanti in the northeastern United States. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Debnath, Pranab; Karmakar, Krishna
Three new eriophyoid mite species, namely Dichopelmus puncti n. sp. (Eriophyidae) from cogan grass, Imperata cylindrica (Poaceae); Calacarus kalyaniensis n. sp. (Eriophyidae) from Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae) and Neorhynacus bidhanae n. sp. (Diptilomiopidae) from Croton caudatus (Euphorbiaceae), are described and illustrated from West Bengal, India. The new species are vagrants on the leaves of their respective host plants with no visible damage observed. Keys to the known species of Dichopelmus and Neorhynacus are provided along with a checklist of eriophyoid mites species present in West Bengal.
Labruna, Marcelo B; de Paula, Cátia D; Lima, Thiago F; Sana, Dênis A
From June 2000 to June 2001, a total of 741 ticks were collected from 51 free-living wild animals captured at the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, located alongside an approximately 180 km course of the Paran river, between the states of S o Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, comprising 9 species of 3 genera: Ambly-omma (7 species), Boophilus (1) and Anocentor (1). A total of 421 immature Amblyomma ticks were reared in laboratory until the adult stage, allowing identification of the species. A. cajennense was the most frequent tick species (mostly immature stages) collected on 9 host species: Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla,Cerdocyon thous, Puma concolor,Tayassu tajacu, Mazama gouazoubira,Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris,Alouatta caraya, Cebus apella. Other tick species were less common, generally restricted to certain host taxa.
Babaeian, Esmaeil; Saboori, Alireza; Gwiazdowicz, Dariusz J.; Etemad, Vahid
Abstract Two new species records of Oplitidae, Oplitis exopodi Hunter & Farrier, 1975 and Oplitis sarcinulus Hunter & Farrier, 1976 are redescribed based on Iranian specimens from leaf-litter forest in Mazandaran province, northern Iran. A key to the Iranian species of Oplitis is presented. PMID:27587975
Li, Jing; Wu, Hai-Qiang; Liu, Zhi-Gang
Volatile oil from the clove bud was extracted by petroleum ether using Soxhlet Extractor. The acaricidal activity was examined using direct contact and vapour phase toxicity bioassays. In a filter paper contact toxicity bio-assay, at 2.5 h after treatment, clove bud oil at a dose of 12.20 microg/cm2 killed all dust mites. As judged by 24-h LD50 values, potent fumigant action was observed with clove bud oil (12.20 microg/cm2), showing an adequate acaricidal activity against indoor Dermatophagoides farinae.
Owen, Jeb P; Mullens, Bradley A
Heat and vibration are common host-generated cues that ectoparasites use to orient to hosts. Three experiments evaluated effects of heat and vibration on the movement of northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini & Fanzago). Individual arrested mites in an isolation chamber always initiated movement (walking) after substrate vibration (7.8-min walking duration), but only initiated movement 50% of the time (2.8-min walking duration) upon exposure to a 3 degrees C heat fluctuation. Heat fluctuation in combination with vibration extended the period of activity by approximately 50% (11.6-min walking duration) compared with activity initiated by vibration alone. Mites with longer time off-host moved for shorter durations. In a choice test, individual mites consistently moved closer to a 35 degrees C heat source 1 or 6 mm away, but not to a heat source 11 mm away. In a circular arena, mites were able to orient accurately to a 35 degrees C heat source and reached the arena edge almost 4 times faster (11.2 s) than mites without a heat source (41.2 s). These results suggest that northern fowl mite is capable of directed thermo-orientation, as well as modulation of activity depending on the type of sensory information perceived. The adaptive significance of this orientation for a "permanent" ectoparasite is discussed.
Sastre, Natalia; Calvete, Oriol; Martínez-Vargas, Jessica; Medarde, Nuria; Casellas, Joaquim; Altet, Laura; Sánchez, Armand; Francino, Olga; Ventura, Jacint
Myobia sp. and Demodex sp. are two skin mites that infest mice, particularly immunodeficient or transgenic lab mice. In the present study, wild house mice from five localities from the Barcelona Roberstonian system were analysed in order to detect skin mites and compare their prevalence between standard (2n = 40) and Robertsonian mice (2n > 40). We found and identified skin mites through real-time qPCR by comparing sequences from the mitochondrial 16S rRNA and the nuclear 18S rRNA genes since no sequences are available so far using the mitochondrial gene. Fourteen positive samples were identified as Myobia musculi except for a deletion of 296 bp out to 465 bp sequenced, and one sample was identified as Demodex canis. Sampling one body site, the mite prevalence in standard and Robertsonian mice was 0 and 26%, respectively. The malfunction of the immune system elicits an overgrowth of skin mites and consequently leads to diseases such as canine demodicosis in dogs or rosacea in humans. In immunosuppressed mice, the probability of developing demodicosis is higher than in healthy mice. Since six murine toll-like receptors (TLRs) are located in four chromosomes affected by Robertsonian fusions, we cannot dismiss that differences in mite prevalence could be the consequence of the interruption of TLR function. Although ecological and/or morphological factors cannot be disregarded to explain differences in mite prevalence, the detection of translocation breakpoints in TLR genes or the analysis of TLR gene expression are needed to elucidate how Robertsonian fusions affect the immune system in mice.
The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destuctor is a serious threat to beekeeping and crops that rely on honey bee for pollination. The Varroa mite not only causes significant damage to honey bees by feeding on their haemolymph, but also serves as a vector of disease. In addition, the Varroa mite has develo...
Lofego, A C; Cavalcante, A C C; Demite, P R
Two new species, Xenotarsonemus quiriri n. sp. and Xenotarsonemus scorpius n. sp., are described and illustrated in this paper based on specimens collected on Myrtaceae plants in Atlantic Forest areas of the states of Bahia and Santa Catarina, Brazil. A key to identification of Xenotarsonemus species reported from Brazil is provided.
Vásquez, C; Colmenárez, Y; de Moraes, G J
The red palm mite, Raoiella indica Hirst, has been primarily found associated with coconut and musaceous plants in the New World. However, it has also been recorded on several other palms, heliconiaceous and zingiberaceous species. This study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of different botanical families on which R. indica has been collected in the field and of arecaceous plants of the natural vegetation of the neotropics. In total, ten species of Arecaceae as well as Heliconia psittacorum [Heliconiaceae] and Alpinia purpurata [Zingiberacae] were evaluated, using coconut as a control. The study was carried out under controlled conditions (29 ± 0.5 °C, 60 ± 10% RH and photoperiod 12 h of light). Raoiella indica was able to complete immature development only on coconut, Adonidia merrillii, Ptychosperma macarthurii, H. psittacorum and A. purpurata. Duration of the immature phase (egg-adult) ranged between 21.5 days on coconut to 34.1 days on A. purpurata. Longevity was at least 50% greater and oviposition at least 38% higher on coconut than on other plants. Intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was higher on coconut (0.166) and A. merrillii (0.042), but negative on the other two plant species. Raoiella indica could not reach adulthood on any of the other ten arecaceous species considered in the study. The results suggested R. indica to be a threat to A. merrillii in addition to coconut, but not to other evaluated plants. However, complementary studies should be conducted to investigate whether the experimental procedures adopted in this study could not have prevented the mite from a better performance than it could have been under field conditions, especially in relation to Mauritia flexuosa, one of the dominant arecaceous plants in South America.
Lotfollahi, Parisa; de Lillo, Enrico; Irani-Nejad, Karim Haddad
Abstract Three new eriophyid species (Phyllocoptinae), Shevtchenkella denticulata sp. n., Notallus pestehae sp. n. and Echinacrus ruthenicus sp. n., were described from Eryngium thyrsoideum Boiss. (Apiaceae), Pistacia vera L. (Anacardiaceae) and Lycium ruthenicum Murray (Solanaceae), respectively. All the three new species were collected from southwest of the East Azerbaijan province, Iran in 2011. It is the first record of an eriophyoid mite collected from E. thyrsoideum and L. ruthenicum and the first record of Notallus from Anacardiaceae plant family. PMID:25147456
Khanjani, Mohammad; Hoseini, Mohammad Ahmad; Amini, Fatemeh
Two new species of the genus Anoplocheylus Berlese, 1910 are described: Anoplocheylus marivaniensis sp. nov. collected from soil and rotten leaves under oak trees and Anoplocheylus qorvehiensis sp. nov. from soil under Astragalus sp. bushes in Kurdistan province, Iran. A key to females of all known species of Anoplocheylus is provided, based on original descriptions and other literature.
Peter, T F; Perry, B D; O'Callaghan, C J; Medley, G F; Shumba, W; Madzima, W; Burridge, M J; Mahan, S M
The tick vectors of heartwater (Cowdria ruminantium infection) in Zimbabwe, Amblyomma hebraeum and Amblyomma variegatum, historically were believed to be confined to the low-lying regions of the south and north-west of the country. However, country-wide surveys performed in 1975-1980 and 1988-1991 demonstrated that both species were also established in western parts of the highveld plateau and had started to encroach on the predominantly heartwater-free central and eastern highveld regions. To determine the current distributions of both the vectors and evaluate the potential threat of heartwater to animals in the highveld, a survey of ticks infesting cattle was performed in 1996 at 2994 locations in small-holder and large-scale commercial farming areas throughout Zimbabwe. Amblyomma hebraeum was collected at 1329 locations, A. variegatum at 72 locations and both A. hebraeum and A. variegatum at 13 locations. The results demonstrated that A. hebraeum was present, as previously recorded, throughout the southern half of the country and appeared to have undergone further limited spread into the central and eastern highveld regions. Only the northern-most region of the country appeared to be free of this species. Amblyomma variegatum was collected mainly in the north-west, as previously recorded, but was also found at isolated locations across the central highveld region and along the eastern border with Mozambique. This species was, however, still absent from the southern half and the northern-most regions of the country. An overlap of the distributions of the two species existed within a zone along the southern and eastern regions of the distribution of A. variegatum. These results suggest that the vectors of heartwater are spreading and threaten to introduce heartwater into intensive livestock-producing regions of the country.
Kakumanu, Madhavi L; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Sutton, Haley; Meshnick, Steven R; Nicholson, William L; Apperson, Charles S
The American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Say), is a vector of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae, including Rickettsia rickettsii the causative organism of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). In North Carolina, SFG rickettsioses (including RMSF) are a leading cause of tick-borne illness. Knowledge of the infection rate and geographic distribution of D. variabilis ticks infected with Rickettsia spp. provides information on the spatial distribution of public health risk. Accordingly, we extracted genomic DNA from adult D. variabilis collected from field habitats in 32 North Carolina counties from 2009 to 2013. A nested PCR assay of the 23S-5S intergenic spacer (IGS) region of Rickettsia coupled with reverse line blot hybridization (RLBH) with species-specific probes was used to detect and identify rickettsiae to species. Approximately half of the 532 tick DNA samples exhibited a band of the expected size on agarose gels, indicating infection with Rickettsia spp. RLBH analyses showed R. amblyommatis (formerly 'Candidatus R. amblyommii'), R. parkeri, and R. montanensis were predominant, while other Rickettsia species detected included R. conorii-like, R. massiliae, R. rhipicephali, R. canadensis, R. bellii, and some unknown Rickettsia spp. Some ticks were infected with more than one Rickettsia species. Notably, several Rickettsia-positive ticks harbored R. rickettsii. DNA sequencing was performed on a portion of the 23S-5S IGS amplicons and the results were concordant with RLB assay results. We conclude that Rickettsia spp. are common in D. variabilis in North Carolina. Geographic patterns in the occurrence of Rickettsia-infected D. variabilis ticks across the counties sampled are discussed.
Costa, Gabriel Cerqueira Alves; Soares, Adriana Coelho; Pereira, Marcos Horácio; Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo; Sant'Anna, Maurício Roberto Viana; Araujo, Ricardo Nascimento
Ornithodoros rostratus is an argasid tick and its importance is based on its hematophagy and the resulting transmission of pathogens such as Rickettsia rickettsii and Coxiella burnetii to its vertebrate hosts. In the face of a lack of physiological studies related to hematophagy in argasid ticks, this paper aims to identify and characterize the events that occur throughout the feeding by O. rostratus on live hosts. Electrical signals and alterations on the feeding site were monitored using intravital microscopy and electromyography. The analyses allowed for the characterization of four distinct events: suction, salivation, chelicerae movements and inactivity. Feeding was divided into two distinct phases: (1) penetration of mouthparts (when only salivation and chelicerae movements occurred) and the formation of the feeding pool (salivation and chelicerae movements with the first signs of suction) and (2) engorgement, during which chelicerae movements ceased and blood intake took place in feeding complexes (salivation followed by suction). Variations in patterns of the electrical signals, suction frequency and salivation showed four distinct sub-phases: (2a) suction with electrical signals of irregular shape, increased suction frequency and decreased salivation frequency throughout blood feeding; (2b) suction with electrical signals of symmetrical shape, high suction rates (3.8 Hz on average) and feeding complexes lasting for 7.7 s; (2c) suction with electrical signals of irregular shape, high suction frequency and feeding complex lasting 11.5 s; and (2d) electrical signals with no profile and the longest feeding complexes (14.5 s). Blood feeding ended with the withdrawal of the mouthparts from the host's skin. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Lyme disease in Taiwan" Primary isolation of Borrelia burgdor- idae). Acarina 10:95-136. Wilson...the recent emergence of Lyme borreliosis and human babesiosis in Taiwan (Shih and Chao 1998, 1999; Shih et al. 1997, 1998), it is imperative that these...the Ixodes kuntzi Hoogstraal & Kohls, principal vector of Lyme borreliosis in 1965.35 Taiwan collections in USNTC. northeastern Asia and is
2000) Prevalence of Lyme disease Borrelia spp. in ticks from migratory birds on the Japanese mainland. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 66, 982–986...in Japan and the isolation of Lyme disease spirochetes from bird-feeding ticks. Japanese Journal of Sanitary Zoology, 44, 315-326. Ree, H.I. (2005
Lopes, Suzana Gomes; Andrade, Gilda Vasconcellos de; Costa-Júnior, Lívio Martins
A non-engorged adult female Amblyomma dissimile and two Amblyomma sp. larvae were found parasitizing the lizard Ameiva ameiva in the municipality of Chapadinha, State of Maranhão. This is the first record in the state of Maranhão and fills a gap in the distribution of A. dissimile in Brazil. The lizard A. ameiva represents a new host for A. dissimile, and also the first record of this tick species infesting lizards of the family Teiidae in Brazil.
Colombo, Valeria C; Nava, Santiago; Antoniazzi, Leandro R; Monje, Lucas D; Racca, Andrea L; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Beldomenico, Pablo M
The present study explores associations of different factors (i.e. host parameters, presence of other ectoparasites and [mainly biotic] environmental factors) with burdens of Ixodes loricatus immature stages in one of its main hosts in Argentina, the rodent Akodon azarae. For 2 years, rodents were trapped and sampled monthly at 16 points located in four different sites in the Parana River Delta region. Data were analysed with generalized linear mixed models with a negative binomial response (counts of larvae or nymphs). The independent variables assessed were (a) environmental: trapping year, presence of cattle, type of vegetation, rodent abundance; (b) host parameters: body length, sex, body condition, blood cell counts, natural antibody titers and (c) co-infestation with other ectoparasites. Two-way interaction terms deemed a priori as relevant were also included in the analysis. Most of the associations investigated were found significant, but in general, the direction and magnitude of the associations were context-dependent. An exception was the presence of cattle, which was consistently negatively associated with both larvae and nymphs independently of all other variables considered and had the strongest effect on tick burdens. Mites, fleas and Amblyomma triste were also significantly associated (mostly positively) with larval and nymph burdens, and in many cases, they influenced associations with environmental or host factors. Our findings strongly support that raising cattle may have a substantial impact on the dynamics of I. loricatus and that interactions within the ectoparasite community may be an important-but generally ignored-driver of tick dynamics.
Gharbi, Mohamed; Darghouth, Mohamed Aziz
Hyalomma scupense (syn. Hyalomma detritum) is a two-host domestic endophilic tick of cattle and secondarily other ungulates in the Maghreb region (Africa). This species transmits several pathogens, among which two are major livestock diseases: Theileria annulata and Theileria equi. Various other pathogens are also transmitted by this tick species, such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia bovis. Hyalomma scupense is common in sub-humid and semi-arid areas of several regions in the world, mainly in the Maghreb region. In this region, adults attach to animals during the summer season; larvae and nymphs attach to their hosts during autumn, but there is a regional difference in H. scupense phenology. There is an overlap between immature and adult ticks, leading in some contexts to a dramatic modification of the epidemiology of tick-borne diseases. This tick species attaches preferentially to the posterior udder quarters and thighs. Tick burdens can reach 130 ticks per animal, with a mean of 60 ticks. Calves are 70 times less infested than adult cattle. The control can be implemented through six options: (i) rehabilitation of the farm buildings by roughcasting and smoothing the outer and inner surfaces of the enclosures and walls. This control option should be recommended to be combined with a thorough cleaning of the farm and its surrounding area. With regard to Theileria annulata infection, this control option is the most beneficial. (ii) Acaricide application to animals during the summer season, targeting adults. (iii) Acaricide application during the autumn period for the control of the immature stages. (iv) Acaricide application to the walls: many field veterinarians have suggested this option but it is only partially efficient since nymphs enter deep into the cracks and crevices. It should be used if there is a very high tick burden or if there is a high risk of tick-borne diseases. (v) Manual tick removal: this method is not efficient since the ticks can feed on several other animal species in the farm. This control option can lead to a reduction of the tick population, but not a decrease in tick-borne disease incidence. (vi) Vaccination: this control option consists of injecting the protein Hd86; trials have shown a partial effect on nymphs, with no effect on adult ticks. Combination of two of these control options is recommended in regions where there are high burdens of important tick vectors. Further studies are needed to improve our knowledge on this tick species in the Maghreb region, since the number of published studies on Hyalomma scupense in this region is very limited. © M. Gharbi et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2014.
of the cell in subtype VIh (Fig. 2). Type IX : In these oval celo, 2 subtypes are distinguished according to cell size and NSG distribution. The NSG...1977) : Neurosecretion in Ornithodoros savignyi (Audouin) (Ixodoidea : Arga- sidae ). The distribution of neurosecretory cells in the brain. J. Vet. Res
Garcia, Marcos V; Matias, Jaqueline; Aguirre, AndrÉ De A R; Csordas, Barbara G; SzabÓ, Matias P J; Andreotti, Renato
Identifying the tick species that successfully feed on humans would increase knowledge of the epidemiology of several tick-borne diseases. These species salivate into the host, increasing the risk of pathogen transmission. However, there is a lack of data in the literature regarding the ticks that prefer to feed on humans. Herein, we describe the successful feeding of Amblyomma coelebs Neumann nymphs on two of the authors after accidental tick bites occurred during field surveys in two preserved areas of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. One of the host-parasite interactions was closely monitored, and the tick development, gross host skin alterations, and related sensations are presented. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.
Zolnik, Christine P; Makkay, Amanda M; Falco, Richard C; Daniels, Thomas J
Ticks and whole blood were collected from American black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas) between October 2011 and October 2012 across four counties in northwestern New Jersey, an area where blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis Say) and their associated tick-borne pathogens are prevalent. Adult American dog ticks (Dermacentor variabilis Say) were the most frequently collected tick species in late spring, whereas adult and nymphal blacklegged ticks were found in both the late spring and fall months. Additionally, for blacklegged ticks, we determined the quality of bloodmeals that females acquired from black bears compared with bloodmeals from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman), the most important host for the adult stage of this tick species. Measures of fecundity after feeding on each host species were not significantly different, suggesting that the bloodmeal a female blacklegged tick acquires from a black bear is of similar quality to that obtained from a white-tailed deer. These results establish the American black bear as both a host and quality bloodmeal source to I. scapularis. Thus, black bears may help support blacklegged tick populations in areas where they are both present. In addition, samples of black bear blood were tested for DNA presence of three tick-borne pathogens. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Foggie and Babesia microti Franca were found in 9.2 and 32.3% of blood samples, respectively. All blood samples were quantitative polymerase chain reaction-negative for Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt, & Brenner. Although circulating pathogens were found in blood, the status of black bears as reservoirs for these pathogens remains unknown. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Schulze, T L; Jordan, R A; Hung, R W; Taylor, R C; Markowski, D; Chomsky, M S
A single barrier application of granular deltamethrin to the woodland edges of a forested residential community in late spring significantly reduced the abundance of Ixodes scapularis Say nymphs. The application also suppressed the population of Amblyomma americanum (L.) nymphs, which recently became established in the study area. The efficacy of deltamethrin is compared with other commonly used acaricides.
Zhao, Ya-E; Wu, Li-Ping
For a long time, classification of Demodex mites has been mainly based on their hosts and phenotype characteristics. The study was the first to conduct molecular identification and genetic relationship analysis for six isolates of three Demodex species by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker. Totally, 239 DNA fragments were amplified from six Demodex isolates with 10 random primers in RAPD, of which 165 were polymorphic. Using a single primer, at least five fragments and at most 40 in the six isolates were amplified, whereas within a single isolate, a range of 35-49 fragments were amplified. DNA fingerprints of primers CZ 1-9 revealed intra- and interspecies difference in six Demodex isolates, whereas primer CZ 10 only revealed interspecies difference. The genetic distance and dendrogram showed the intraspecific genetic distances were closer than the interspecific genetic distances. The interspecific genetic distances of Demodex folliculorum and Demodex canis (0.7931-0.8140) were shorter than that of Demodex brevis and D. canis (0.8182-0.8987). The RAPD-SCAR marker displayed primer CZ 10 could be applied to identify the three Demodex species. The 479-bp fragment was specific for D. brevis, and the 261-bp fragment was specific for D. canis. The conclusion was that the RAPD-SCAR multi-marker was effective in molecular identification of three Demodex species. The genetic relationship between D. folliculorum and D. canis was nearer than that between D. folliculorum and D. brevis.
Morita, Tatsushi; Ohmi, Aki; Kiwaki, Akihito; Ike, Kazunori; Nagata, Katsuyuki
A new species of Demodex was detected in the earwax of a dog with otitis externa in Saitama Prefecture, Japan, in July 2010. The opisthosoma length of the mite was slightly shorter than 1/2 of its body length, which was different from the other species in domestic dogs, D. canis and D. injai, but was similar to the form of mites termed "short-bodied species", including D. cornei. However, the stubby external form was morphologically different from those of "short-bodied species", excluding a case without a species description reported from Greece. Among known species, the mite was similar to D. equi and D. acutipes.
Desch, Clifford E; Hillier, Andrew
Demondex injai sp. nov. is described from the hair follicles of a domestic dog in Columbus, OH in October 1996. The mites occupy follicles from the orifice down to and into the sebaceous glands. The individual host may harbor both this new species and D. canis. A comparison of these two species is provided for identification purposes.
Vyszenski-Moher, Diann L; Arlian, Larry G
In a controlled laboratory study, disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) applied to carpets with a carpet-cleaning machine at a rate of 509 ml DOT/8.15 liter H2O/100 m2 (two cups DOT/2 gal H2O/100 feet2) reduced survival and population growth of live Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus by > or = 98% compared with water-cleaned and uncleaned carpets at 8 wk postcleaning. Cleaning with DOT was more effective against D. pteronyssinus than D. farinae.
Martínez, Maria M Ramírez; Lopez, M Pilar Ibarra; Iñiguez-Dávalos, Luis Ignacio; Yuill, Thomas; Orlova, Maria V; Reeves, Will K
Ectoparasites of bats in the Neotropics are diverse and play numerous ecological roles as vectors of microbial pathogens and endoparasites and as food sources for other cave fauna living both on their hosts and in bat roosts. The ectoparasites of bats in Jalisco State of western Mexico have not been as well described as those of other states with recent checklists that have focused primarily on the Yucatan Peninsula. We captured bats from 2011-2015 on the south coast and Sierra de Amula, Jalisco using mist nets, and we removed ectoparasites by hand. We identified 24 species of streblid bat flies and six ectoparasitic mites from bats caught in mist nets. There were an additional eight possibly undescribed species of Streblidae. Our collections extend the known range of species into Jalisco. © 2016 The Society for Vector Ecology.
Liao, Jhih-Rong; Ho, Chyi-Chen; Ko, Chiun-Cheng
The six mite species of the genus Euseius Wainstein from Taiwan are reviewed, including E. ovalis (Evans), E. daluensis sp. nov., E. macaranga sp. nov., E. paraovalis sp. nov., and two species recorded for the first time in Taiwan, E. aizawai (Ehara & Bhandhufalck) and E. circellatus (Wu & Li). Measurements of these species and an identification key for adult females of the six Euseius species from Taiwan are provided.
Wojciech L. Magowski; John C. Moser
Three new species of the genus Mahunka, 1972 are described and figured: A. and A. elegans spp. n. phoretic on Hylobius pales (Herbst) (Insecta: Curculionidae) from USA and A. minor sp. n. from rotten fir bark in Poland. The genus Acanthomastix...
Zhioua, E.; LeBrun, R.A.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Aeschliman, A.
The entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) and S. glaseri (Steiner) are pathogenic to engorged adult, blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis (Say), but not to unfed females, engorged nymphs, or engorged larvae. Nematodes apparently enter the tick through the genital pore, thus precluding infection of immature ticks. The timing of tick mortality, and overall mortality after 17 d, did not differ between infections by S. carpocapsae and S. glaseri. These nematodes typically do not complete their life cycles or produce infective juveniles in I. scapularis. However, both species successfully produced infective juveniles when the tick body was slit before nematode infection. Mortality of engorged I. scapularis females infected by S. carpocapsae was greater than uninfected controls, but did not vary significantly with nematode concentration (50-3,000 infective juveniles per 5-cm-diameter petri dish). The LC50 was 347.8 infective juveniles per petri dish (5 ticks per dish). Hatched egg masses of infected ticks weighed less than those of uninfected controls. Mortality of infected ticks was greatest between 20 and 30?C, and was lower at 15?C.
Wanzala, W; Okanga, S
This artcile describes the results obtained from a tick survey conducted in Haller park along the Kenyan coastline. The survey aimed at evaluating tick-host associations, assessing tick population density, and providing baseline information for planning future tick control and management in the park. Ticks (2,968) were collected by handpicking from eight species of wildlife and by dragging in 14 selected sites within the park. A considerable proportion of ticks were also collected from leaves, stems, and bark of most dominant trees, namely, Casuarina equisetifolia L. (Forst. and Forst.), Cocos nucifera L., Adansonia digitata L., Musa paradisiaca L., and Azadiracta indica Adr. Juss. Dragging was conducted in sites predominantly occupied by Cynodon dactylon L. (Pers.), Cenchrus ciliaris L., Stenotaphrum dimidiatum L. (Kuntze.) Brongn., and Brachiaria xantholeuca Hack. Ex Schinz Stapf. and Loudetia kagerensis K. Schum. Hutch. Eight tick species were identified, and the collection included Rhipicephalus pravus Dönitz 1910, Rhipicephalus pulchellus Gerstäcker 1873, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes Koch 1844, Amblyomma gemma Dönitz 1910, Amblyomma hebraeum Koch 1844, Amblyomma sparsum Neumann 1899, Amblyomma nuttalli Dönitz 1909, and Boophilus decoloratus Koch 1844. Given that the identified tick species are known to parasitize humans as well as livestock, there exist risks of emergence of zoonotic infections mediated by tick vectors. In the recreational environment of Haller park, where tick vectors share habitats with hosts, there is a need to develop sustainable and effective tick control and management strategies to minimize economic losses that tick infestation may cause.
Kuhn, K H
The blood cells, or hemocytes, of Ixodes ricinus have been shown to recognize, attack, and phagocytose microorganisms invading the body cavity, or hemocoel, of this tick. Regulated proliferation and differentiation of hemocytes, also referred to as immunocytes, is basic to an effective immune response to invading microorganisms. Therefore, this study dealt with hemopoiesis in I. ricinus, the vector tick of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Histological evidence for the presence of hemopoietic tissue, a preferential proliferation site of hemocytes, is presented. Mainly the mitotic activity of free-floating hemocytes was examined. By means of microscopical photometry and flow cytometry, all three types of hemocytes in engorging female I. ricinus were found in different stages of the cell cycle. In the engorging tick, up to 40% of the hemocytes counted were in the S phase or the G2/M phase. From this study we conclude that the differentiated hemocyte types do not differentiate from stem cells in the adult tick. Moreover, microorganisms entering the hemocoel of engorging ticks are confronted with high numbers of hemocytes and, therefore, with an effective cellular immune response.
Movila, A; Deriabina, T; Morozov, A; Sitnicova, N; Toderas, I; Uspenskaia, I; Alekhnovici, A
The Chernobyl nuclear disaster resulted in contamination of vast areas in Europe. To date, there is little knowledge about the effects of radioactive contamination on tick species. We sampled ticks from vegetation and large-sized wild mammals belonging to orders Carnivora and Artiodactyla at sites with 0.76, 1.91, and 4.50 mSv/hr ionizing radiation background values in the Polesky State Radio-Ecological Reserve of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster zone in spring 2010. Altogether, 122 questing ticks were collected from vegetation. Among collected ticks, Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius) was, by far, the most abundant species (99.2%), followed by Ixodes ricnus (L.) (0.8%), which was collected only at the 0.76 mSv/hr site. The average sex ratio female∶male was 2.9∶1.0. In parallel with the present study, we examined 3 Sus scrofa (L.), 2 Nyctereutes procyonoides (Gray), and 1 Alces alces (L.) at the 4.50 mSv/hr site; 96 D. reticulatus ticks were found on 2 N. procyonoides specimens. The mean density and the intensity of infestation were 16 ticks per animal and 48 ticks per infested animal, respectively. Future investigations are warranted to further characterize the role of various tick vectors, vertebrate reservoirs, and diversity of tick-borne pathogens in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.
Costero, A; Grayson, M A
Transmission experiments were performed with Ixodes scapularis ticks from an uninfected laboratory colony. Immature and adult ticks were exposed to Powassan (POW) viremic hamsters and rabbits, respectively. Oral infection rates for engorged larvae, nymphs and females fed on POW-infected hosts were 10%, 40%, and 57%, respectively. Transstadial transmission rates for nymphs exposed to POW virus as larvae, adults exposed as larvae, and adults exposed as nymphs, were 9.5%, 10%, and 54%, respectively. Evidence of transovarial transmission occurred when two uninfected hamsters, exposed to F2 larvae and nymphs originally exposed to POW virus in the F1 nymphal stage, seroconverted to POW virus with hemagglutination inhibition titers of 80 and 5,120, respectively; the transovarial transmission rate was 16.6%. All developmental stages were able to transmit virus orally to uninfected hosts regardless of when the ticks were originally exposed to the virus. These results suggest that I. scapularis is a competent vector of POW virus under experimental conditions.
Buczyńska, Edyta; Buczyński, Paweł; Zawal, Andrzej; Michoński, Grzegorz; Szlauer-Łukaszewska, Agnieszka
During the studies on ecology of Trichoptera of anthropogenic water bodies we have unexpectedly discovered the parasitic larvae of water mites of the species Tiphys torris on the pupa of Triaenodes bicolor. This is the first documented case of the parasitism of water mites on the caddisfly pupa as well as the first ever record of the species which is regarded as a dipteran parasite on caddisflies. The situation is very untypical for preimaginal stages of caddisflies are used by phoretic and not parasitic water mite larvae. Parasitism has been confirmed in this case by the formation of stylostomes and enlarged sizes of the bodies of the larvae. This is probably the case of facultative parasitism in which the pupa has served as a substitute of the adult form of a caddisfly.
Saboori, Alireza; Taemoori, Gholam Husein; Hakimitabar, Masoud
Pollux kovalamicus Haitlinger, 2002 is redescribed based on the holotype and three additional specimens (larvae) collected from Iran (Sistan and Baluchistan Province) and Pakistan. It is the first report of the genus from Iran. The following character states from the original description are corrected: scutum and scutalae AL and PL present, ML absent, 4n setae on BFe I (3 in original description), microseta on Ge I and II and Ti I present (absent in original description); companion seta (z) and famulus on Ta I and II present (absent in original description). Pollux walii Kamran et al., 2010 is herein considered to be a junior synonym of P. kovalamicus. A key to the world species of Pollux is given.
Hornbostel, V.L.; Zhioua, Elyes; Benjamin, Michael A.; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Ostfeld, Richard S.
Effectiveness of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, for controlling nymphal Ixodes scapularis, was tested in laboratory and field trials. In the laboratory, M. anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin strain ESC1 was moderately pathogenic, with an LC50 of 107 spores/ml and induced 70% mortality at 109 spores/ml. In a field study, however, 109 spores/ml M. anisopliae did not effectively control questing I. scapularis nymphs, and significant differences were not detected in pre- and post-treatment densities. For nymphs collected and returned to the laboratory for observation, mortality was low in treatment groups, ranging from 20 to 36%. To assess whether a chemical acaricide would synergistically enhance pathogenicity of the fungus, we challenged unfed nymphal I. scapularis with combinations of M. anisopliae and permethrin, a relatively safe pyrethroid acaricide, in two separate bioassays. Significant interactions between M. anisopliae and permethrin were not observed, supporting neither synergism nor antagonism.
Rueda-Ramírez, Diana; Varela, Amanda; Moraes, Gilberto J De
Soil mites of the Ascidae sensu Lindquist & Evans (1965) are poorly known in Colombia. This group, presently represented by the families Ascidae sensu stricto, Blattisociidae and Melicharidae, contains species known to prey on small arthropods and nematodes, thus having the potential to be used for the control of soil pests. The aim of this study was to identify species of this group from a fragment of Andean forest and a nearby grassland at the municipality of La Calera, Cundinamarca Department, Colombia, at about 2800 m of elevation. Nine species were found, including five new species, namely Gamasellodes andinus sp. nov., Gamasellodes intermedius sp. nov., Protogamasellus caleraensis sp. nov., Cheiroseius mesae sp. nov. and Proctolaelaps colombianus sp. nov. Morphological characterisation of all the species and relevant soil characteristics of the sites where the mites were collected are presented.
Skirvin, David J; Fenlon, John S
Environmental variables, such as temperature, are important in determining the efficiency of biological control in ornamental crops. This paper examines the effect of temperature on the functional response of adult female Phytoseiulus persimilis to eggs of the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae. The functional response was determined using a new functional response assay technique with plant stems as an arena, rather than leaf discs. The use of plant stems allows the influence that plant structure has on predation to be incorporated into the assay. Control assays were also used (without predators) to estimate natural losses of prey. The data were analysed using a binomial model, with the use of Abbot's formula to correct for the losses in the controls. A combined equation to describe the effect of temperature and prey density on the predation rate of Phytoseiulus persimilis was derived. The results showed that more prey are eaten as the temperature increases from 15 degrees C to 25 degrees C, but the number of prey eaten then declines at 30 degrees C, although not to the levels seen at 20 degrees C. The implication of these results for biological control in ornamental crops, where the temperature can often exceed 30 degrees C, is discussed.
van den Boom, C E M; van Beek, T A; Dicke, M
Plants infested with the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch, may indirectly defend themselves by releasing volatiles that attract the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. Several plants from different plant families that varied in the level of spider mite acceptance were tested in an olfactometer. The predatory mites were significantly attracted to the spider mite-infested leaves of all test plant species. No differences in attractiveness of the infested plant leaves were found for predatory mites reared on spider mites on the different test plants or on lima bean. Thus, experience with the spider mite-induced plant volatiles did not affect the predatory mites. Jasmonic acid was applied to ginkgo leaves to induce a mimic of a spider mite-induced volatile blend, because the spider mites did not survive when incubated on ginkgo. The volatile blend induced in ginkgo by jasmonic acid was slightly attractive to predatory mites. Plants with a high degree of direct defence were thought to invest less in indirect defence than plants with a low degree of direct defence. However, plants that had a strong direct defence such as ginkgo and sweet pepper, did emit induced volatiles that attracted the predatory mite. This indicates that a combination of direct and indirect defence is to some extent compatible in plant species.
Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter
The adaptive canalization hypothesis predicts that highly fitness-relevant traits are canalized via past selection, resulting in low phenotypic plasticity and high robustness to environmental stress. Accordingly, we hypothesized that the level of phenotypic plasticity of male body size of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis (low plasticity) and Neoseiulus californicus (high plasticity) reflects the effects of body size variation on fitness, especially male lifetime reproductive success (LRS). We first generated small and standard-sized males of P. persimilis and N. californicus by rearing them to adulthood under limited and ample prey supply, respectively. Then, adult small and standard-sized males were provided with surplus virgin females throughout life to assess their mating and reproductive traits. Small male body size did not affect male longevity or the number of fertilized females but reduced male LRS of P. persimilis but not N. californicus. Proximately, the lower LRS of small than standard-sized P. persimilis males correlated with shorter mating durations, probably decreasing the amount of transferred sperm. Ultimately, we suggest that male body size is more strongly canalized in P. persimilis than N. californicus because deviation from standard body size has larger detrimental fitness effects in P. persimilis than N. californicus. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2014, 111, 889–899. PMID:25132689
Kavousi, A; Talebi, K
Side-effects of three commonly used pesticides in Iran were evaluated on an introduced strain of the predatory mite. Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, reared for about 10 years without exposure to any pesticides. Application of pesticides was carried out either to detached bean leaves using a Potter tower at 1 mg wet deposit per cm2 or by a hand sprayer on bean plants until run off. According to an EPPO decision making scheme, pirimiphos-methyl was found to be harmful (E=90.8%) and heptenophos harmless (E=-3.7%) to the predatory mite in the residual initial toxicity tests. For determination of the hazard class of malathion a field test was found to be necessary (E=59.8%). Categories of 1, 2, 3 were determined for heptenophos, malathion and primiphos-methyl, respectively, using IOBC classification. Despite being harmful, it is possible to use pirimiphos-methyl 10 days before release of P. persimilis. Investigation of the contribution of both lethal and sub-lethal effects to total impact indicated the dominance of lethality in the case of pirimiphos-methyl, while malathion acted by both mechanisms. Heptenophos did not have negative effects on fecundity of P. persimilis but rather caused a higher rate of fecundity in comparison with the control. The mortality found in the heptenophos test was not significantly different from the control.
Bjørnson, S; Keddie, B A
Isolated colonies of the predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis, were used to gain information regarding prevalence and transmission of Microsporidium phytoseiuli. Two colonies of P. persimilis were reared on spider mite (Tetranychus urticae)-infested bean plants in isolated cages. Disease prevalence of predators from Colony 1 remained relatively low (between 0 and 15%) over 57 weeks of observation whereas disease prevalence of predators from Colony 2 increased over 3 months (from 12 to 100%). Disease prevalence among predators from Colony 1 had increased to 100% 2 months after weekly sampling had ceased for this colony and periodic sampling confirmed that disease prevalence among individuals of both colonies remained at 100%. Microsporidian spores were not detected in randomly chosen samples of T. urticae prey mites that were removed and examined biweekly during this period. Although numerous microsporidian spores were observed in smear preparations of fecal pellets examined by light microscopy, spores were not observed on leaf surfaces or predator feces when examined by SEM. The latter appeared as intact aggregates composed of numerous dumbbell-shaped crystals and it is unlikely that spores are liberated from intact fecal pellets onto leaf surfaces. Vertical transmission of M. phytoseiuli was 100%; horizontal transmission was low (14.3%) and occurred only when immature P. persimilis were permitted to develop in contact with infected immature and adult predators. The mean number of eggs produced per mated pair was highest when uninfected females were mated with uninfected males (63.2 eggs per mated pair). Although mean egg production decreased when one or both parents were infected, not all differences were significant. Male predatory mites did not contribute to infection of their progeny. Results suggest that routine examination of P. persimilis for microsporidian spores is essential for the management of M. phytoseiuli within P. persimilis colonies. Low disease prevalence and lack of obvious disease signs or symptoms, as in the case of M. phytoseiuli, increase the probability that these pathogens will escape notice unless individuals are routinely examined for pathogens. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
Okassa, Mireille; Tixier, Marie-Stéphane; Kreiter, Serge
This study focuses on the diagnostics of two natural enemy species, belonging to the genus Phytoseiulus in the family Phytoseiidae (sub-family Amblyseiinae): P. macropilis and P. persimilis. These two species are of primary importance in biological control all over the world. However, they are morphologically very similar and specific diagnostics is difficult. This study utilizes mitochondrial molecular markers (12S rRNA and Cytb mtDNA) to differentiate these two species. Morphological analyses showed significant differences between P. persimilis and P. macropilis for 17 morphological characters of the 32 considered. However, despite these significant differences, the ranges of all characters overlap. Only the serration of the macroseta on the basitarsus (StIV) allows the differentiation between P. persimilis and P. macropilis. Despite these small morphological differences, molecular results, for both mitochondrial DNA fragments considered (rRNA and Cytb mtDNA), showed a clear delineation between the specimens of P. macropilis and P. persimilis. This study emphasizes (i) that only one morphological character (serration of the seta StIV) clearly separates these two species, and (ii) the usefulness of an automatical molecular and simple diagnostic tool for accurate differentiation of the two species and ensure the morphological diagnostics. Further studies are proposed, including more DNA sequences especially for P. macropilis.
Bjørnson; Steiner; Keddie
In response to grower complaints of poor performance of Phytoseiulus persimilis, mites from 14 commercial insectaries and research colonies were examined for pathogens. Some were found to have abdominal discolorations, manifested initially as two white stripes along the dorsal sides of the body within the Malpighian tubules. Advanced signs appeared as a large, centrally located, white spot or U-shaped discoloration in the distal opisthosoma within the rectum/anal atrium. White material often accumulated and hardened within the anus and formed a rectal plug that inhibited further excretion. Most affected mites were lethargic. Adults and immatures with abdominal discoloration contained numerous densely packed, birefringent, dumbbell-shaped entities. Though occasionally observed in the colon, they occurred most frequently within the Malpighian tubules and/or rectum and anal atrium. Dumbbells measured 2-4 &mgr;m long and contained prominent concentric rings. When observed by transmission electron microscopy, the entities lacked cellular organelles. Asymptomatic mites contained few or no such entities. Dumbbell-shaped inclusions were observed in P. persimilis from all sources examined. High levels of potassium, low levels of phosphorous and sulfur, and traces of chlorine were detected by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Guanine and uric acid, known nitrogenous wastes of arachnids, do not contain these elements. The chemical composition and structure indicate that the dumbbells are crystals. Both asymptomatic mites and those specimens exhibiting abdominal discoloration were examined for pathogens using light and transmission electron microscopy. Microsporidia, virus-like particles, and a rickettsia (genus Wolbachia) were observed in some mites but showed no correlation with white abdominal discoloration or associated crystal formation. Neither were pathogens always detected in symptomatic mites. Although birefringent crystals may be naturally occurring excretory products, the cause of white abdominal signs associated with crystal accumulation in P. persimilis is unknown. These signs indicate overall poor health.
Szydło, W; Hein, G; Denizhan, E; Skoracka, A
Recent research on the wheat curl mite species complex has revealed extensive genetic diversity that has distinguished several genetic lineages infesting bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and other cereals worldwide. Turkey is the historical region of wheat and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) domestication and diversification. The close relationship between these grasses and the wheat curl mite provoked the question of the genetic diversity of the wheat curl mite in this region. The scope of the study was to investigate genetic differentiation within the wheat curl mite species complex on grasses in Turkey. Twenty-one wheat curl mite populations from 16 grass species from nine genera (Agropyron sp., Aegilops sp., Bromus sp., Elymus sp., Eremopyrum sp., Hordeum sp., Poa sp., Secale sp., and Triticum sp.) were sampled in eastern and southeastern Turkey for genetic analyses. Two molecular markers were amplified: the cytochrome oxidase subunit I coding region of mtDNA (COI) and the D2 region of 28S rDNA. Phylogenetic analyses revealed high genetic variation of the wheat curl mite in Turkey, primarily on Bromus and Hordeum spp., and exceptionally high diversity of populations associated with bread wheat. Three wheat-infesting wheat curl mite lineages known to occur on other continents of the world, including North and South America, Australia and Europe, were found in Turkey, and at least two new genetic lineages were discovered. These regions of Turkey exhibit rich wheat curl mite diversity on native grass species. The possible implications for further studies on the wheat curl mite are discussed. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Sánchez-Montes, Sokani; Guzmán-Cornejo, Carmen; Martínez-Nájera, Yecenia; Becker, Ingeborg; Venzal, José M; Labruna, Marcelo B
The genus Rickettsia includes obligate intracellular bacteria transmitted by several hematophagous arthropods such as ticks, fleas and sucking lice. In particular hard ticks (Ixodidae) have been cited as the main vectors of pathogenic rickettsiae in Mexico. However, there have been only two records of a single Rickettsia species associated with Mexican soft ticks (Argasidae). In this study, we searched for rickettsial DNA in argasid ticks (13 adults and eight nymphs of Ornithodoros yumatensis) from two bat caves in the state of Yucatan, Mexico. Additionally one larva collected in a cave from Chiapas, Mexico, and associated with Desmodus rotundus was used to corroborate the tick taxonomic determination. Of these, nine ticks (43%) yielded expected PCR products for the rickettsial gltA gene. These PCR-positive ticks were tested with additional PCR protocols targeting the rickettsial genes gltA, ompA and ompB. DNA partial sequences from these genes showed 99-100% identities with Rickettsia lusitaniae, an agent isolated from O. erraticus in Portugal, and closely related to R. felis and R. hoogstraalii. Based on the results from this study, the inventory of rickettsiae distributed in Mexico increases from six to seven species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Rivera-Páez, Fredy A; Labruna, Marcelo B; Martins, Thiago F; Perez, Jorge E; Castaño-Villa, Gabriel J; Ossa-López, Paula A; Gil, Carlos A; Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Aricapa-Giraldo, Hector J; Camargo-Mathias, Maria I
The known tick fauna of Colombia includes 58 species (15 Argasidae and 43 Ixodidae). To add to the knowledge of the biology of ticks in Colombia, hard ticks (Ixodidae) were collected from domestic animals or vegetation during 2014-2016 in 10 of Colombia's Departments. Ticks were identified to species through morphological examinations. Taxonomic identification was confirmed for some specimens by molecular methods, including phylogenetic analyses inferred from three tick genes (cytochrome c oxidase, 16S rDNA, second internal transcribed spacer). A total of 1745 tick specimens encompassing 8 species were collected. Overall, 5 tick species were recorded on cattle [Amblyomma dissimile, Amblyomma mixtum, Dermacentor nitens, Rhipicephalus microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.)], 5 on dogs (Amblyomma maculatum, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma varium, R. microplus, R. sanguineus s.l.), 3 on horses (A. mixtum, D. nitens, R. sanguineus s.l.), 3 on donkeys (A. mixtum, D. nitens, R. microplus), 1 on pig (D. nitens), and 2 from vegetation (A. mixtum, A. dissimile). This included the first records of A. mixtum from two Colombian Departments, indicating that the distribution of this tick in Colombia may be broader than currently known. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed that R. sanguineus s.l. specimens from 8 Departments belong to the "tropical species". Moreover, Colombian specimens of A. maculatum formed a large clade with GenBank sequences of A. maculatum and A. triste, although some Colombian specimens grouped with A. maculatum from the United States while others grouped with A. triste from Brazil. Significant polymorphisms were observed between specimens of A. ovale or D. nitens; for the former species, it is noteworthy that two distinct clades were observed. Our study provides new records for 8 tick species parasitizing domestic animals in Colombia, including species with veterinary and medical importance in the Neotropical region, such as R. microplus, R. sanguineus, D. nitens, A. mixtum, and A. maculatum. Noteworthy, we provide the first record of A. varium infesting a domestic mammal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Zhioua, E.; Bouattour, A.; Hu, C.M.; Gharbi, M.; Aeschliman, A.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Gern, L.
Free-living adult Ixodes ricinus L. were collected in Amdoun, situated in the Kroumiry mountains in northwestern Tunisia (North Africa). Using direct fluorescence antibody assay, the infection rate of field-collected I. ricinus by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was 30.5% (n = 72). No difference in infection rate was observed between male and female ticks. Spirochetes that had been isolated from I. ricinus from Ain Drahim (Kroumiry Mountains) in 1988 were identified as Borrelia lusitaniae (formerly genospecies PotiB2). This is the first identification of a genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from the continent of Africa.
Schulz, T A; Stewart, J S; Fowler, M E
A routine examination of a captive juvenile great-horned owl (Bubo virginianus) revealed bilateral proliferative papillary hyperkeratosis on the feet. Microscopic examination of skin scrapings produced numerous mites identified as Knemidokoptes mutans. This is the first record of this parasite in a great-horned owl. A single dose of ivermectin (200 micrograms/kg) was effective in treatment of this infection.
Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Santos-Silva, Maria Margarida
This paper introduces the first countrywide faunistic study of the tick parasites on ruminants in Portugal. The aim of this study was to map accurately the distribution of the ticks Dermacentor marginatus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus, R. bursa, Hyalomma m. marginatum, H. lusitanicum and Ixodes ricinus in Portugal. Additional information about the abiotic preferences of these species has been obtained through the use of abiotic (temperature- and vegetation-derived) variables have been recorded from remotely sensed information at a nominal resolution of 1.1 km(2). A further aim was the development of predictive models of distribution using Classification and Regression Trees (CART) methodologies. Four species (R. annulatus, R. bursa, D. marginatus and H. m. marginatum) are mostly restricted to south-eastern parts of the country, under hot and dry climate conditions of Mediterranean type. H. lusitanicum has been collected almost only in the southern half of Portugal. I. ricinus has a very patchy distribution and is mainly associated with vegetation of Quercus spp., found in southern zones of the country, but it is present also in the more humid western part. A variable number of abiotic variables, mainly temperature derived, are able to describe the preferences of the tick species. It is remarkable that variables derived from maximum values of the Normalized Derived Vegetation Index (yearly or summer-derived) only apply to discriminate areas where I. ricinus has been collected. CART models are able to map the distribution of these ticks with accuracy ranging within 75.3 and 96.4% of actual positive sites.
John C. Moser; B. Kielczewski; J. Wisniewski; S. Balazy
Populations of Pyemotes dryas (Vitzthum 1923) from Poland were bioassayed for potential use in the biological control of the southern pine beetle in the United States. The mite apparently rides and attacks a wide range of European bark beetles that attack conifers and readily consumes brood of the southern pine beetle. However, it is not phoretic on...
Permethrin is a commonly used acaricide for tick control on domestic animals and in residential environments, while fipronil use is restricted to on-animal treatment. Following widespread reports of permethrin and fipronil application failures to control indoor infestations of Rhipicephalus sanguin...
Javadi Khederi, Saeid; Khanjani, Mohammad; Gholami, Mansur; Panzarino, Onofrio; de Lillo, Enrico
Grape (Vitis vinifera) is commonly affected by the erineum strain of Colomerus vitis (GEM) in Iran and the susceptibility of grape cultivars to GEM is poorly understood. In order to evaluate the impact of GEM on grape and its defense mechanisms against the mite, an exploratory study was carried out on 19 cultivars (18 Iranian and the non-native Muscat Gordo). The differential susceptibility of cultivars to GEM was compared on the basis of the area of leaf damage induced by GEM. The cultivars White Thompson seedless of Bovanat, Atabaki Zarghan, Koladari Ghoochan and Sahebi Uroomie were less susceptible to GEM, whereas Ghalati Dodaj, Rishbaba, Muscat Gordo and Neyshaboori Birjand appeared to be the most affected by the mite. In a no-choice setup, plants of selected cultivars of these two groups were infested by GEM and assayed for 10 biomarkers usually related to plant stress mechanisms against plant feeders: the activity of defense enzymes-peroxidase (POX), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), catalase (CAT), the amount of total polyphenolics, total flavonoids, total soluble carbohydrates, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), and malondialdehyde (MDA) expressing lipid peroxidation. The biomarkers were assessed in grape leaves 7 days before releasing the mites, as well as 7, 14 and 28 days after infestation (DAI). The activity of the enzymes and the amount of the compounds usually increased in percentage after mite infestation. A significant negative correlation was found between the area of leaf damage and PPO, POX, SOD, MDA and H 2 O 2 for all sampling dates. The area of leaf damage showed a significant positive correlation with total soluble carbohydrates at 28 DAI, and significant negative correlations with CAT (at 14 and 28 DAI), PAL and total flavonoids (at 7 DAI). No correlation was observed between area of leaf damage and total polyphenolics. The biomarkers PPO, SOD, CAT activity and H 2 O 2 provided the best explanation for the response of grape cultivars to GEM infestation.
de Souza, Izabel Vieira; Sá Argolo, Poliane; Júnior, Manoel Guedes Correa Gondim; de Moraes, Gilberto José; Bittencourt, Maria Aparecida Leão; Oliveira, Anibal Ramadan
The cultivation of tropical fruit trees has grown considerably in the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Some of these have been severely attacked by phytophagous mites, which are usually controlled by the use of chemical pesticides. However, there is today a growing interest for the adoption of less aggressive measures of pest control, as for example the use of predatory mites. Most of the plant-inhabiting predatory mites belong to the family Phytoseiidae. The objective of this paper is to report the phytoseiid species found in an intensive survey conducted on cultivated tropical fruit trees in fifteen localities of the southern coast of Bahia. Measurements of relevant morphological characters are provided for each species, to complement the understanding of the morphological variation of these species. Twenty-nine species of sixteen genera were identified. A key was elaborated to assist in the separation of these species. Fifteen species are reported for the first time in the state, raising to sixty-six the number of species of this family now known from Bahia. Seventy-two percent of the species collected belong to Amblyseiinae, followed by Typhlodrominae (21%) and Phytoseiinae (7%). The most diverse genus was Amblyseius. Amblyseius operculatus De Leon was the most frequent and abundant species. Studies should be conducted to evaluate the possible role of the most common predators as control agents of the phytophagous mites co-occurring with them.
Abstract Three new intertidal oribatid species, Selenoribates elegans sp. n., Selenoribates quasimodo sp. n. and Selenoribates satanicus sp. n. are described from the archipelago of Bermuda. Selenoribates elegans sp. n. is characterized by its slender body shape, Selenoribates quasimodo sp. n. possesses a hunchback in lateral view and Selenoribates satanicus sp. n. exhibits two horn-like projections on its anterior gastronotic region. Based on these new findings, the number of Selenoribates species doubled at once and the distribution of this genus, formerly limited to the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, includes now occurrences in the Atlantic and Indo-pacific Ocean as well. The morphology of Selenoribates quasimodo sp. n. and Selenoribates satanicus sp. n. deviates conspicuously from the other known members of Selenoribates, thus indicating that not only the number of species but also the anatomy of this genus is more diverse than formerly supposed. Nymphs of Selenoribates quasimodo sp. n. show an interesting case of ontogenetic neotrichy, with gastronotic setae being duplicated with each moult. PMID:23825447
The population dynamics of the three intertidal oribatid species, Alismobates inexpectatus, Fortuynia atlantica and Carinozetes bermudensis, have been studied on the archipelago of Bermuda over the course of a year. All three species are univoltine, showing a clear seasonal demographic pattern, with reproduction from spring to late autumn and a complete standstill of egg production in winter. A seasonal shift in sex ratio could also be observed in all three species and is supposed to be based on sex-dependent mortality. The subtropical climate of Bermuda allows longer reproductive periods than shown in other intertidal or edaphic temperate species and temperature is supposed to be the main factor influencing the demography of these intertidal dwelling mites. Although all three Bermudian species exhibit the same basic seasonal demographic pattern, there are slight temporal shifts in population dynamics, presumably caused by local microclimatic differences among the populations. Larviparity, shown in other littoral oribatid mites, is clearly absent in the present species.
The temporal development of biological control of arthropod pests in perennial cropping systems is largely unreported. In this study, the development of biological control of twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch and hop aphid, Phorodon humuli (Schrank) in a new planting of hop in Oregon...
Methyl salicylate (MeSA), an herbivore induced plant volatile, can potentially elicit control of pests through attraction of beneficial arthropods. This study evaluates the effect of synthetic MeSA lures (PredaLure) on arthropod populations during the 2009 and 2010 seasons in two Oregon vineyards (...
Theileria parva is the etiologic agent of East Coast fever (ECF), an economically important disease of cattle in sub-Saharan Africa. This protozoan parasite is biologically transmitted by Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. An understanding of the details of the vector-parasite interaction may aid the d...
de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Martins, Mayara Almeida; Guedes, Patrícia Gonçalves; Peracchi, Adriano Lucio; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maues
A first survey of mite species that ectoparasitize bats in the states of Ceará and Mato Grosso was conducted. The specimens of bats and their mites were collected in areas of the Caatinga and Pantanal biomes. A total of 450 spinturnicids representing two genera and ten species was collected from 15 bat species in the Private Reserve of the Natural Patrimony Serra das Almas, Ceará State, Northeast Brazil and 138 spinturnicids represented by two genera and four species were found in seven bats species collected in Private Reserve of the Natural Patrimony Sesc Pantanal, Mato Grosso State, Central-Western Brazil. The occurrence of Cameronieta genus and the species Mesoperiglischrus natali as well as four new associations (Periglischrus iheringi - Chiroderma vizottoi; P. micronycteridis - Micronycteris sanborni; P. paracutisternus - Trachops cirrhosus; Spinturnix americanus - Myotis riparius) are registered for the first time in Brazil.
Hornok, Sándor; Görföl, Tamás; Estók, Péter; Tu, Vuong Tan; Kontschán, Jenő
In a recent study on ixodid bat ticks from Eurasia, a high genetic difference was found between Ixodes vespertilionis from Europe and Vietnam. Accordingly, it was proposed that I. vespertilionis is a species complex, with at least one additional, hitherto undescribed species. The aim of the present study was to investigate the morphology of bat ticks from Vietnam and to assess their taxonomic status in comparison with those collected in Europe. Ixodid bat ticks (two females and two nymphs) collected from the pomona leaf-nosed bat (Hipposideros pomona) (Hipposideridae) and intermediate horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus affinis) (Rhinolophidae) in Vietnam showed major morphological differences from European isolates of I. vespertilionis, including the shape of the scutum, the enclosure and shape of porose areas, the presence of a caudo-lateral collar-like ridge ventrally on the basis capituli, polytrich coxae with short setae, and grouped (non-linear) arrangement of anterior pit sensillae in Haller's organ. In this study the female and the nymph of an ixodid bat tick species from Vietnam are described for the first time. The genetic and morphological differences between I. vespertilionis Koch, 1844 and these bat ticks from Vietnam justify the status of the latter as a distinct species, Ixodes collaris Hornok n. sp.
Varroa mites are a serious pest of honey bees and the leading cause of colony losses. Varroa have relatively low reproductive rates, so populations should not increase rapidly, but often they do. Other factors might contribute to the growth of Varroa populations including mite migration into colonie...
Cheng, Shenhang; Lin, Ronghua; Zhang, Nan; Yuan, Shankui; Zhou, Xinxin; Huang, Jian; Ren, Xiaodong; Wang, Shoushan; Jiang, Hui; Yu, Caihong
Amblyseius cucumeris (Oudemans) is a beneficial non-target arthropod (NTA) and a key predator of tetranychid mites in integrated pest management (IPM) programs across China. Evaluating the toxic effects of insecticides on such predatory mites is essential for the success and development of IPM. We tested six insecticides to determine the risk of neonicotinoid insecticide toxicity to predatory mites, using the 'open glass plate method' and adult female A. cucumeris in a "worst case laboratory exposure" scenario. A 48-h toxicity test was performed using the hazard quotient (HQ) approach to evaluate the risk of each insecticide. The LR 50 values (application rate that caused 50% mortality) of acetamiprid, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, and dinotefuran were 76.4, 104.5, 84.9, and 224.6 g active ingredient (a.i.) ha -1 , respectively, with in-field HQ values of 0.40, 1.28, 0.49, and 0.82, respectively. The HQ values were lower than the trigger value of 2, and were consistent with off-field values. The risks of the four neonicotinoid insecticides to adult female A. cucumeris were acceptable in two exposure scenarios in field and off field. The 48-h LR 50 values for bifenthrin and malathion were 0.008 and 0.062 g. a.i. ha -1 , respectively, which were much lower than the recommended field application rates. The HQ values were much higher than the trigger values for both in- and off-field, indicating that the risks of these two insecticides were unacceptable. Bifenthrin and malathion posed an extremely high risk to the test species, and their use should be restricted to reduce risks to the field with augmentative releases of A. cucumeris. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Centaurea solstitialis (yellow starthistle) is an annual noxious weed that currently infests millions of acres of rangelands, non-cultivated and natural areas in the Western USA. It displaces native plant communities reducing plant diversity and forage production for livestock and wildlife. Aceria s...
Stefan Wirth; John Moser
The new species Histiostoma bJol1lquisti n. sp., associated with the Red Imported Fire Ant, Solenopsis invicta, is described by its deutonymph. A putative adult female is depicted. The deutonymphs only attach to female alates, dealates and queens of S. invicta. While queens may be covered by more than 200 deutonymphs over their entire bodies, the numbers of deutonymphs...
Guglielmone, A A; Estrada-Peña, A; Luciani, C A; Mangold, A J; Keirans, J E
Collections of Amblyomma auricularium (Conil 1878) and A. pseudoconcolor Aragão, 1908 are discussed in relation to distribution and hosts. Three tick collections (two from Argentina and a third from the USA) house a total of 574 A. auricularium (307 males, 162 females, 73 nymphs and 32 larvae) and 179 A. pseudoconcolor (96 males, 74 females, 4 nymphs and 5 larvae). Apart from an adult A. pseudoconcolor found on a bird, Nothura maculosa Temminck, 1815, all ticks were found on mammals. The great majority of specimens of both ticks species were removed from the family Dasypodidae Gray, 1821 (84.9% and 93.8% of A. auricularium and A. pseudoconcolor, respectively). Amblyomma auricularium has also been found on wild hosts of the families Myrmecophagidae and occasionally Didelphidae, Caviidae, Chinchillidae, Hydrochaeridae, Muridae, Canidae, Mustelidae, Procyonidae and domestic animals (cattle, dogs, horses), while A. pseudoconcolor has also been found occasionally on wild hosts of the family Didelphidae and on domestic animals (cattle, dogs). Amblyomma pseudoconcolor appears to be restricted to the Neotropical region, covering northern Argentina and the eastern region of South America from Uruguay to Surinam, including south-eastern Paraguay, eastern Brazil and French Guiana. Amblyomma auricularium is distributed from northern Patagonia in Argentina throughout the Neotropics into the Nearctic region up to the southern USA (Texas, Florida), with collection localities also in Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, French Guiana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Trinidad & Tobago, Uruguay and Venezuela. It is not known whether A. auricularium is an established resident of the USA.
Liu, Ruohan; Nyoike, Teresia W; Liburd, Oscar E
Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of site-specific tactics for management of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, a major pest of greenhouse and field-grown strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne). Two site-specific (spot) treatments, the miticide bifenazate (Acramite(®)) and the predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus McGregor, were compared with whole-plot treatments of bifenazate or N. californicus to determine whether T. urticae could be effectively managed in field-grown strawberry using only site-specific tactics. Additionally, the cost of site-specific tactics was compared with whole-plot treatments to determine the economic value of using site-specific management tactics for T. urticae in strawberries. In the greenhouse, all treatments equivalently reduced the number of T. urticae below control. In the field during the 2011-2012 season, more T. urticae eggs and motiles were in the whole-plot treatments of both N. californicus and bifenazate in the mid-season and late season, respectively, compared with the spot treatments. With the exception of site-specific N. californicus during the 2011-2012 field season, there were no differences in marketable yields between plots with site-specific treatments and whole-plot management. An economic analysis demonstrated a significant cost savings (75.3 %) with site-specific treatments of N. californicus compared with whole-plot application of N. californicus. Similarly, a 24.7 % reduction in cost was achieved in using site-specific bifenazate compared with whole-plot application of bifenazate. The findings indicate that site-specific treatments with N. californicus and bifenazate are competitive alternatives to whole-field application for T. urticae management in strawberries.
Managing Japanese barberry (Ranunculales: Berberidaceae) infestations reduces blacklegged tick (Acari: Ixodidae) abundance and infection prevalence with Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae).
Williams, Scott C; Ward, Jeffrey S; Worthley, Thomas E; Stafford, Kirby C
In many Connecticut forests with an overabundance of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann), Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii DC) has become the dominant understory shrub, which may provide a habitat favorable to blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis Say) and white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus Rafinesque) survival. To determine mouse and larval tick abundances at three replicate sites over 2 yr, mice were trapped in unmanipulated dense barberry infestations, areas where barberry was controlled, and areas where barberry was absent. The number of feeding larval ticks/mouse was recorded. Adult and nymphal ticks were sampled along 200-m draglines in each treatment, retained, and were tested for Borrelia burgdorferi (Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt, and Brenner) presence. Total first-captured mouse counts did not differ between treatments. Mean number of feeding larval ticks per mouse was highest on mice captured in dense barberry. Adult tick densities in dense barberry were higher than in both controlled barberry and no barberry areas. Ticks sampled from full barberry infestations and controlled barberry areas had similar infection prevalence with B. burgdorferi the first year. In areas where barberry was controlled, infection prevalence was reduced to equal that of no barberry areas the second year of the study. Results indicate that managing Japanese barberry will have a positive effect on public health by reducing the number of B. burgdorferi-infected blacklegged ticks that can develop into motile life stages that commonly feed on humans.
Sastre, Natalia; Francino, Olga; Curti, Joseph N.; Armenta, Tiffany C.; Fraser, Devaughn L.; Kelly, Rochelle M.; Hunt, Erin; Silbermayr, Katja; Zewe, Christine; Sánchez, Armand; Ferrer, Lluís
This study was conceived to detect skin mites in social mammals through real-time qPCR, and to estimate taxonomic Demodex and further Prostigmata mite relationships in different host species by comparing sequences from two genes: mitochondrial 16S rRNA and nuclear 18S rRNA. We determined the mite prevalence in the hair follicles of marmots (13%) and bats (17%). The high prevalence found in marmots and bats by sampling only one site on the body may indicate that mites are common inhabitants of their skin. Since we found three different mites (Neuchelacheles sp, Myobia sp and Penthaleus sp) in three bat species (Miotis yumanensis, Miotis californicus and Corynorhinus townsendii) and two different mites (both inferred to be members of the Prostigmata order) in one marmot species (Marmota flaviventris), we tentatively concluded that these skin mites 1) cannot be assigned to the same genus based only on a common host, and 2) seem to evolve according to the specific habitat and/or specific hair and sebaceous gland of the mammalian host. Moreover, two M. yumanensis bats harbored identical Neuchelacheles mites, indicating the possibility of interspecific cross-infection within a colony. However, some skin mites species are less restricted by host species than previously thought. Specifically, Demodex canis seems to be more transmissible across species than other skin mites. D. canis have been found mostly in dogs but also in cats and captive bats. In addition, we report the first case of D. canis infestation in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius). All these mammalian hosts are related to human activities, and D. canis evolution may be a consequence of this relationship. The monophyletic Demodex clade showing closely related dog and human Demodex sequences also supports this likely hypothesis. PMID:27802314
Viana, Lúcio André; Winck, Gisele Regina; Almeida-Santos, Marlon; Telles, Felipe Bottona da Silva; Gazêta, Gilberto Salles; Rocha, Carlos Frederico Duarte
Amblyomma rotundatum Koch is a parthenogenetic tick usually associated with reptiles and amphibians. However, relatively few studies on occurrences of ticks in wild reptile populations in Brazil have been produced. The aim of this study was to analyze the presence of ticks associated with reptile species in the Grussaí restinga, in the municipality of São João da Barra, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Between December 2010 and January 2011, 131 individuals belonging to nine species of reptiles of the order Squamata were sampled: the lizards Tropidurus torquatus (n = 51), Hemidactylus mabouia (n = 25), Mabuya agilis (n = 30), Mabuya macrorhyncha (n = 6), Cnemidophorus littoralis (n = 5) and Ameiva ameiva (n = 10); and the snakes Philodryas olfersii (n = 2), Oxyrhopus rhombifer (n = 1) and Micrurus corallinus (n = 1). The only tick species found to be associated with any of the reptiles sampled was A. rotundatum. One adult female was detected on one individual of the lizard A. ameiva, one nymph on one individual of the lizard T. torquatus and four nymphs on one individual of the snake P. olfersii. This study is the first record of parasitism of A. rotundatum involving the reptiles T. torquatus and P. olfersii as hosts. Our results suggest that in the Grussaí restinga habitat, A. rotundatum may use different species of reptiles to complete its life cycle.
The in vitro bioassay is an important tool in repellent discovery and development, with a variety of bioassays used in recent years. Several factors, such as the dimensions and configuration of test surfaces and duration of tick exposure, can influence the outcome of bioassays. We tested two tick re...
T. Aksit; I. Cakmak; J. Moser
The Aegean Region of Turkey is one of the largest dried fig producers in the world. A Turkish cultivar sarilop (Ficus carica cv. Calimyrna L.) possesses good qualities for drying process, and has been grown extensively for many years in Turkey. Hypoborus ficus is the most common xylophagous insect attacking fig trees in Aydin (AksÂ¸...
Proteomic analyses were done on 2 chemosensory appendages of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum. Proteins in the fore tarsi, which contain the olfactory Haller's organ, and in the palps, that include gustatory sensilla, were compared with proteins in the third tarsi. Also, male and female tick...
Hexane extract of chinaberry, Melia azedarach L., unripe fruits obtained from different municipalities of Goias state in Brazil were evaluated on the southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini), engorged females. Hexanic extracts were assayed in decreasing concentrations from 0....
Palacios-Vargas, José G; Villagomez, Fernando
Three new species of oribatid mites of the genus Pergalumna from a tropical rain forest in Veracruz, Mexico are described. Pergalumna hypergranulosa sp. nov. differs from Pergalumna granulatus Balogh & Mahunka, 1967 by unilaterally barbulated bothridial setae, elongated notogastric porose areas, and also a more profuse granulation of the cerotegument. Pergalumna obsidiana sp. nov. differs from P. granulatus by the unilateral barbulation of bothridial setae and the presence of protuberances on the genital plates; from Pergalumna paralongisetosa Ermilov & Kalúz, 2012 by a diverging cerotegumental granulation on the notogaster. Pergalumna dactylaris sp. nov. differs from Pergalumna striata (Pérez-Íñigo & Baggio, 1980) by its bigger size and the presence of three notogastric porose areas instead of four and from Pergalumna decorata Balogh & Mahunka, 1977, also by the bigger size, a different position of setae lm and la and smaller but not minute interlamellar setae. These are the first Mexican species descriptions of this genus.
The eriophyid mite Leipothrix dipsacivagus has been recorded from Serbia and Bulgaria on Dipsacus laciniatus and from France on D. fullonum. Host-specificity tests have shown that it can develop and reproduce only on Dipsacus spp., which indicates that it could be regarded as potential biocontrol a...
Vinarski, Maxim V; Korallo-Vinarskaya, Natalia P
We provide a list of the species of the family Haemogamasidae Oudemans, 1926 living in Asiatic Russia, with data on their synonymy, distribution, and relationships with mammal hosts. In total, 23 species of mites distributed between two genera (Eulaelaps Berlese, 1903, and Haemogamasus Berlese, 1889) are covered.
Marchenko, Irina I
Gamasiphis angaridis sp. n. is described from females and males collected from litter and soil in the North Asian part of Russia-Siberia and the Far East. This is the first species of the large genus Gamasiphis to be described from the northern Palaearctic Region. A key for the separation of females of the 11 recognisable species of Gamasiphis described in Eurasia is provided.
Shibuya, T; Itagaki, K; Ueyama, S; Hirai, N; Endo, R
We investigated the effects of morphology of host cucumber, Cucumis sativus L., leaves acclimatized to different atmospheric humidity levels on oviposition by adult females of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch. Cucumber seedlings were grown at a vapor pressure deficit (VPD) of 0.4, 1.9, or 3.0 kPa at 28°C (90%, 50%, or 20% relative humidity, respectively) in growth chambers until the second true leaves had expanded. Adult females of T. urticae were released on the adaxial surfaces of leaf squares cut from first and second true leaves in each treatment group, and held in the same humidity condition. Eggs were counted 2 d after release. The lower acclimatization humidity (higher VPD) increased trichome (leaf hair) density of the host leaves and oviposition rate, but the relationship between the trichome and oviposition differed between leaf positions. The leaf mass per area (LMA) was greater in first true leaves than in second true leaves, but was not influenced by VPD. A linear regression model with oviposition rate as the dependent variable and trichome density and LMA as independent variables showed that both variables influenced the oviposition rate approximately equally. We conclude that oviposition was accelerated under low humidity (high VPD) conditions indirectly probably through an increase in the trichome density of host leaves. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Shin, E-Hyun; Song, Bong Gu; Lee, Il Hee; Park, Mi Yeoun; Ahn, Young-Joon; Chang, Kyu-Sik
Leptotrombidium pallidum (Nagoya, Miyagawa, Mitamura & Tamiya) is a primary vector of Orientia tsutsugamushi (Hyashi), the causative agent of scrub typhus. An assessment is made of the repellency to L. pallidum larvae (chiggers) of cassia bark, eucalyptus, and star anise oils and major constituents (E)-cinnamaldehyde, 1,8-cineole, and (E)-anethole of the corresponding oils. Results were compared with those of conventional repellents DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide), IR3535 [(ethyl 3-[acetyl(butyl)amino]propanoate)], and permethrin. Based on the median repellent concentration (RC50) values, (E)-cinnamaldehyde, (E)-anethole, cassia bark oil, and star anise oil (RC50, 0.95-1.52 mg/cm2) exhibited significantly more potent repellency than DEET (3.85 mg/cm2). (E)-cinnamaldehyde, (E)-anethole, cassiabark oil, 1,8-cineole, and star anise oil were approximately 43, 16, 11, 8, and 4 times more effective than IR3535 (CC5, 6.51%) as judged by the median climbing distance-disturbing concentration (CC50) values. The median residual duration time of repellency (RT50) was significantly more pronounced in DEET (RT50, 323 min) than in all essential oils and constituents (108-167 min). In the light of global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic repellents, the three essential oils and their major constituents described merit further study as potential biorepellents for the control of L. pallidum populations.
Lado, Paula; Qurollo, Barbara; Williams, Cathy; Junge, Randall; Klompen, Hans
Lemurs are primate species that are endemic to Madagascar. At present, about 90% of lemur species are endangered, and 5 species are among the 25 most endangered primates worldwide. Health status is a major factor impacting the viability of wild populations of many endangered species including lemurs. Given this context, we analyzed the microbiome of 24 specimens of Haemaphysalis lemuris, the most common tick parasitizing lemurs in their native habitats. Ticks were collected from 6 lemur species and microbiomes analyzed using next-generation sequencing. Our results show that the H. lemuris microbiome is highly diverse, including over 500 taxa, 267 of which were identified to genus level. Analysis of the microbiome also shows that there is a distinct "host" (lemur species) component when explaining the differences among and between microbial communities of H. lemuris. This "host" component seems to overwhelm any "locality" (geographic origin of the sample) component. In addition to the microbiome data, targeted PCR was used to test for the presence of three pathogens recently detected in the blood of wild lemurs: Borrelia sp., Candidatus Neoehrlichia sp., and Babesia sp. Overall, the presence of DNA of Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., Francisella spp., and a Babesia sp., in H. lemuris, is consistent with the hypothesis that these ectoparasites may act as vector for these pathogens. Further studies assessing vector competence are needed to confirm this hypothesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Pun, Shyam Kumar; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Tarragona, Evelina L; Nava, Santiago; Maharjan, Mahendra
Males and females specimens of Amblyomma were collected from Orthriophis hodgsoni (Squamata: Colubridae) caught during routine herpetological work in Kathmandu. Morphological characteristics led to the diagnosis of A. varanense, constituting the second Nepalese species for the genus after the collection of Amblyomma gervaisi, also from a colubrid snake, almost 100 years ago. Amblyomma varanense is the 55th species found in the country, and preceded for the collection of 21 species of Haemaphysalis, 14 Ixodes, 6 Rhipicephalus, 6 Hyalomma, 4 Dermacentor, 1 Amblyomma, 1 Anomalohimalaya and 1 species of Nosomma. Eleven and 19 species have been found on humans and domestic mammals, respectively, evidencing the medical and economic importance of Nepalese Ixodidae. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Simmons, T W; Shea, J; Myers-Claypole, M A; Kruise, R; Hutchinson, M L
Although Pennsylvania has recently reported the greatest number of Lyme disease cases in the United States, with the largest increase for PA occurring in its western region, the population biology of the blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis Say) has not been adequately characterized in western PA. We studied the seasonal activity of host-seeking I. scapularis larvae, nymphs, and adults in mid-western PA over the course of a year, including a severe winter, and determined their absolute densities and collection efficiencies using replicated mark-release-recapture or removal methods. Our results are compared to those from similar studies conducted in the highly Lyme disease endemic Hudson Valley region of southeastern New York State. The seasonal activity of I. scapularis was intermediate between patterns observed in the coastal northeastern and upper Midwestern United States. Only one peak of larval activity was observed, which was later than the major peak in the Midwest, but earlier than in the northeast. Seasonal synchrony of larvae and nymphs was similar to the northeast, but the activity peaks were much closer together, although not completely overlapping as in the Midwest. Pre- and postwinter relative densities of questing adult I. scapularis were not significantly different from one another. The absolute densities and collection efficiencies of larvae, nymphs, and adults were comparable to results from classic research conducted at the Louis Calder Center in Westchester County, NY. We conclude that the population biology of I. scapularis in mid-western PA is similar to southeastern NYS contributing to a high acarological Lyme disease risk. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Medeiros-Silva, Viviane; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo; Nitz, Nadjar; Morales, Lucia Emilia D' Anduraim; Cruz, Laurício Monteiro; Sobral, Isabele Gonçalves; Boité, Mariana Côrtes; Ferreira, Gabriel Eduardo Melim; Cupolillo, Elisa; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra
The main transmission route of Leishmania infantum is through the bites of sand flies. However, alternative mechanisms are being investigated, such as through the bites of ticks, which could have epidemiological relevance. The objective of this work was to verify the presence of Leishmania spp. in Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato collected from naturally infected dogs in the Federal District of Brazil. Ticks were dissected to remove their intestines and salivary glands for DNA extraction and the subsequent amplification of the conserved region of 120 bp of kDNA and 234 bp of the hsp70 gene of Leishmania spp. The amplified kDNA products were digested with endonucleases HaeIII and BstUI and were submitted to DNA sequencing. Isolated Leishmania parasites from these ticks were analyzed by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, and the DNA obtained from this culture was subjected to microsatellite analyses. Overall, 130 specimens of R. sanguineus were collected from 27 dogs. Leishmania spp. were successfully isolated in culture from five pools of salivary glands and the intestines of ticks collected from four dogs. The amplified kDNA products from the dog blood samples and from the tick cultures, when digested by HaeIII and BstUI, revealed the presence of L. braziliensis and L. infantum. One strain was cultivated and characterized as L. infantum by enzyme electrophoresis. The amplified kDNA products from the blood of one dog showed a sequence homology with L. braziliensis; however, the amplified kDNA from the ticks collected from this dog showed a sequence homology to L. infantum. The results confirm that the specimens of R. sanguineus that feed on dogs naturally infected by L. infantum contain the parasite DNA in their intestines and salivary glands, and viable L. infantum can be successfully isolated from these ectoparasites.
The southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, spends as much as 80–90% of its life cycle as a larva questing for a host. Standard control methods are limited to on-host applications, leaving a need for methods directed at the pasture infesting stages. Reports from Brazil indic...
Moreira, Grazielle Furtado; de Morais, Matheus Rovere; Busoli, Antônio Carlos; de Moraes, Gilberto José
The aim of this work was to study the life cycle of Cosmolaelaps jaboticabalensis Moreira, Klompen and Moraes preying on Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a serious cosmopolitan pest of different crops, as well as on Protorhabditis sp. (Nematoda: Rhabditidae) and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Astigmatina: Acaridae), prospective factitious foods for the mass rearing of the predator. Experiments were conducted in a chamber at 25 ± 1 °C, 70 ± 10 % RH and in the dark. Total immature development (egg-adult) was completed in 12.3 ± 5, 6.6 ± 0.6 and 7.1 ± 0.6 on F. occidentalis, Protorhabditis sp. and T. putrescentiae, respectively. Fecundity and intrinsic rate of increase were higher on Protorhabditis sp. (71.6 ± 9.1 eggs/female; 0.28 female/female/day) than on F. occidentalis (63.8 ± 14.8; 0.23) and T. putrescentiae (43.1 ± 8.9; 0.23). Cosmolaelaps jaboticabalensis reproduces by thelytokous parthenogenesis and its larval stages can be completed without feeding. Protonymphs and deutonymphs can survive in the absence of food for about a month, and adults for almost 2 months. It was concluded that C. jaboticabalensis is a promising biological control agent of F. occidentalis and that it may be mass reared with the use of Protorhabditis sp. or T. putrescentiae.
Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of relative humidity (RH) on the population dynamics of single and mixed species of Dermatophagoides farinae (Hughes), D. pteronyssinus (Trouessart), and Euroglyphus maynei (Cooreman) at specific RHs, , and unlimited food. Sin...
Noge, Koji; Kato, Makiko; Mori, Naoki; Kataoka, Michihiko; Tanaka, Chihiro; Yamasue, Yuji; Nishida, Ritsuo; Kuwahara, Yasumasa
Geraniol dehydrogenase (GeDH), which plays an important role in the biosynthesis of neral, an alarm pheromone, was purified from the astigmatid mite Carpoglyphus lactis. The enzyme was obtained in an apparently homogeneous and active form after 1879-fold purification through seven steps of chromatography. Car. lactis GeDH was determined to be a monomer in its active form with a relative molecular mass of 42 800, which is a unique subunit structure in comparison with already established alcohol dehydrogenases. Car. lactis GeDH oxidized geraniol into geranial in the presence of NAD+. NADP+ was ineffective as a cofactor, suggesting that Car. lactis GeDH is an NAD+-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase. The optimal pH and temperature for geraniol oxidation were determined to be pH 9.0 and 25 degrees C, respectively. The Km values for geraniol and NAD+ were 51.0 microm and 59.5 microm, respectively. Car. lactis GeDH was shown to selectively oxidize geraniol, whereas its geometrical isomer, nerol, was inert as a substrate. The high specificity for geraniol suggests that Car. lactis GeDH specializes in the alarm pheromone biosynthesis of Car. lactis. Car. lactis GeDH is composed of 378 amino acids. Structurally, Car. lactis GeDH showed homology with zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases found in mammals and a mosquito (36.6-37.6% identical), and the enzyme was considered to be a member of the medium-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family, in view of the highly conserved sequences of zinc-binding and NAD+-binding sites. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that Car. lactis GeDH could be categorized as a new class, different from other established alcohol dehydrogenases.
Daniel, Milan; Stekol'nikov, Alexandr A
Three new species of chigger mites, Eutrombicula cubensis sp. n. and E. anguliscuta sp. n. from lizards and bats, and E. leiocephali sp. n. from lizards, are described. One species, E. lipovskyana (Wolfenbarger, 1953), is recorded for the first time in Cuba. Data on distribution of E. alfreddugesi (Oudemans, 1910) in Cuba are reported.
Stekolnikov, Alexandr A; González-Acuña, Daniel
The monotypic chigger mite genus Paratrombicula Goff & Whitaker, 1984 is expanded to include five species. Two new species of chiggers, parasitising iguanid lizards in Chile, Paratrombicula chilensis n. sp. and P. goffi n. sp., are described, and two species, P. neuquenensis (Goff & Gettinger, 1995) n. comb. and Paratrombicula plaumanni (Brennan & Jones, 1964) n. comb., are transferred to this genus from Parasecia Loomis, 1966 and Neotrombicula Hirst, 1925, respectively. A key to the species of Paratrombicula is presented.
Schöler, Arne; Maier, Walter A; Kampen, Helge
The harvest mite Neotrombicula autumnalis (Trombiculidae) has become a great nuisance in various vegetated areas in Germany over the last 15 years. According to reports of dermatologists, this species appears to have propagated and spread significantly. Moreover, cases of severe trombidiosis or trombidiosis-like skin reactions have been noticed at unusually early times of the year. Due to the lack of scientific studies, little is known about the ecology of N. autumnalis and its distribution, and preferred habitats cannot be predicted. A four-year study was conducted to identify trombiculid foci in different areas of Bonn in order (1) to determine the timing of larvae appearance in different years, (2) to identify the factors that lead to high larvae abundances at the mite foci ('multiple factor analysis'), and (3) to develop an ecological control strategy. By means of the 'tile catch method' (TCM) which turned out to be most appropriate to collect data on the distribution and abundances of trombiculid mites, larvae of N. autumnalis were caught from mid July until the end of October/beginning of November. The distribution of the mites was patchy, supporting the hypothesis that certain factors cause a concentration in foci. Most of the mite foci had a fixed location for at least three years. Efforts to isolate nymphs and adults in larger quantities to gain knowledge about their preferred soil areas and soil depths failed. Only some nymphs of N. autumnalis could be found living 10-40 cm deep in the soil. Due to the restriction that the nymphs and adults can only rarely be isolated in the ground, the analysis of environmental factors was executed based on abundances of questing larvae on the soil surface. The detailed analysis of soil-physical, soil-chemical and meso-faunistic factors could not finally explain the unequal distribution of the mites, although the porosity of the soil had a statistically significant slight influence on the abundance of larvae, and soil pH bordered significance, also suggesting a slight influence. Furthermore, soil temperatures during the winter seasons in three subsequent years appeared too high to affect the harvest mite. The field experiments suggest that N. autumnalis and particularly its larval stages are extremely euryoecious (meaning tolerating very different environmental conditions). Further studies are necessary: additional investigations on the influence of certain abiotic environmental factors on N. autumnalis, the search for factors underlying the rhythmicity of its life cycle ('zeitgeber'), and the reasons and mechanisms for heterogeneous distribution of soil fauna in general. Ecological control of the mite is, in principle, possible but only after identifying the foci and ascertaining their approximate dimensions with the TCM. This control strategy is the most promising one, albeit very laborious, emphasising the need of further research on the ecology of the harvest mite.
Tanskul, P; Linthicum, K J
Leptotrombidium (Leptotrombidium) imphalum Vercammen-Grandjean & Langston is redescribed and illustrated. Specimens were collected from the rodents Rattus rattus, Rattus losea, and Bandicota indica in Chiangrai Province, northern Thailand. The species was found on hosts collected on dikes at the margins of rice fields and in adjacent fruit plantations and along irrigation canals, especially in areas covered with the grasses Imperata cylindrica (lalang grass) and Saccharum arudinaceum. The etiological agent of scrub typhus, Orientia (formerly Rickettsia) tsutsugamushi has been isolated from L. (L.) imphalum, rodent hosts, and patients who live and work in the same habitats.
Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn; Tanskul, Panita; Ratanatham, Supaporn; Watcharapichat, Pochaman; Phulsuksombati, Duangporn; Frances, Stephen P; Lerdthusnee, Kriangkrai; Linthicum, Kenneth J
Leptotrombidium chiangraiensis Tanskul & Linthicum, and Leptotrombidium imphalum Vercammen-Grandjean are important vectors of scrub typhus in rice field habitats in northern Thailand. The developmental biology of all stages of the life cycle of two generations of these species of mites infected with Orientia tsutsugamushi (Hayashi) and uninfected mites is reported. The development of the infected lines of both F1 and F2 L. chiangraiensis were significantly longer than their respective uninfected lines (P < 0.05). The developmental times of uninfected and infected F1 lines of L. imphalum were not significantly different; however, F2 infected lines took significantly longer to develop (P < 0.05). Both F1 and F2 generations of infected L. imphalum and L. chiangraiensis oviposited on average >150 fewer eggs than uninfected mites.
Peng, Pei-Ying; Guo, Xian-Guo; Ren, Tian-Guang; Dong, Wen-Ge; Song, Wen-Yu
Trombiculid mites (or chigger mites) are a large group of arthropods, and some of these species are vectors of Orientia tsutsugamushi, the causative agent of tsutsugamushi disease (scrub typhus). Yunnan Province is situated in the southwest of China, and its complicated topography, special altitude gradients, and high biodiversity have aroused the interest of many scientists to study the fauna and species diversity of plants and animals. To replenish our former faunal study, this paper listed all the scientific names of trombiculid mites in Yunnan Province, together with their hosts and collection sites (geographical distribution). A total of 120,138 individuals of trombiculid mites were collected from the body surface of 13,760 small mammal hosts (89.06 % of them are rodents) in 29 collection sites (counties) of Yunnan Province from 2001 to 2013. The 120,138 mites were identified as comprising 2 families (Trombiculidae and Leeuwenhoekiidae), 26 genera, and 274 species. The genus Leptotrombidium had the most abundant species (109 species) of 26 genera. Of the six main vectors of scrub typhus in China, five of them were found in Yunnan. Of the 274 chigger mite species, 23 were determined as the newly recorded species (new records), which were found in Yunnan Province for the first time. The identified 274 species of trombiculid mites in the present paper are much more than those from other provinces in China and even largely exceeded the species of trombiculid mites recorded from some other regions and countries in the world. Based on the formula of Chao 1, the total number of chigger mite species in Yunnan was approximately estimated to be 346 species, and about 72 species might have been missed in our sampling process.
Rubio, André V; Simonetti, Javier A
We compared parasite load (prevalence and mean intensity) of Eutrombicula alfreddugesi larvae on the lizard Liolaemus tenuis sampled during January 2006 and 2007 from the interior and edges of large forest tracts in the coastal Maulino Forest (35 degrees 59'S, 72 degrees 41'W) and from nearby forest fragments (1.5-20 ha). All lizards were parasitized by chiggers regardless of location (prevalence, 100%); however, mean intensity of infestation was significantly lower at forest fragment edges compared with either large forest interiors or forest edges. We attribute differences in mean intensity to differences in microclimate among localities; maximum air temperature was significantly higher and relative humidity significantly lower in fragment edges compared with either large forest tract interior or edges.
Pham, X D; Otsuka, Y; Suzuki, H; Takaoka, H
The current study surveyed the 56-kDa type-specific antigen (TSA) gene DNAs of Orientia tsutsugamushi (Hayashi) in approximately 4.000 unengorged chiggers obtained from the soil or ground surface in an endemic and a nonendemic area of the Tsutsugamushi disease in Oita Prefecture, southwestern Japan, by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Serotypes of O. tsutsugamushi were identified by restriction fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. In the endemic area, 242 pools from five species [234 pools of Leptotrombidium scutellare (Nagayo, Miyagawa, Mitamura, Tamiya and Tenjin), two L. pallidum (Nagayo, Miyagawa, Mitamura and Tamiya), four L. kitasatoi (Fukuzumi & Obata), one L. fuji (Kuwata, Berge and Philip), and one Neotrombicula japonica (Tanaka, Kaiwa, Teramura and Kagaya)] were tested, and eight (seven pools of L. scutellare and one N. japonica) were positive for O. tsutsugamushi. Among the seven positive pools of L. scutellare, the distribution of serotypes was as follows: Kuroki (4), Gilliam (1), Karp (1), and Kawasaki (1). The first two serotypes (Kuroki and Gilliam) were identified for the first time in this species. In the nonendemic area, 128 pools from eight species were tested, and 13 were positive for O. tsutsugamushi. The positive rate was as follows: L. pallidum (4/41). L. kitasatoi (1/18), Gahrliepia saduski Womersley (2/10), L. fuji (4/50), L. himizu (Sasa, Kumada, Hayashi, Enomoto, Fukuzumi and Obata) (1/2), and Miyatrombicula kochiensis (Sasa, Kawashima and Egashira) (1/3). The latter three species were shown for the first time to harbor O. tsutsugamushi. All ofthe positive pools were Kuroki, except for two pools (one L. pallidum and one L. fuji), which were Gilliam (this serotype was also detected for the first time in L. pallidum). Further analysis revealed no differences in the nucleotide sequences (125 bp of variable domain 1 of TSA gene) of the same serotypes (i.e., Kuroki and Gilliam) among the positive samples. These data indicate that O. tsutsugamushi was widely distributed in various trombiculid species, even in the nonendemic area. The data are also suggestive of a possible horizontal transmission of O. tsutsugamushi among trombiculid species.
Stekolnikov, Alexandr A; Klimov, Pavel B
We revise chiggers belonging to the minuta-species group (genus Neotrombicula Hirst, 1925) from the Palaearctic using size-free multivariate morphometrics. This approach allowed us to resolve several diagnostic problems. We show that the widely distributed Neotrombicula scrupulosa Kudryashova, 1993 forms three spatially and ecologically isolated groups different from each other in size or shape (morphometric property) only: specimens from the Caucasus are distinct from those from Asia in shape, whereas the Asian specimens from plains and mountains are different from each other in size. We developed a multivariate classification model to separate three closely related species: N. scrupulosa, N. lubrica Kudryashova, 1993 and N. minuta Schluger, 1966. This model is based on five shape variables selected from an initial 17 variables by a best subset analysis using a custom size-correction subroutine. The variable selection procedure slightly improved the predictive power of the model, suggesting that it not only removed redundancy but also reduced 'noise' in the dataset. The overall classification accuracy of this model is 96.2, 96.2 and 95.5%, as estimated by internal validation, external validation and jackknife statistics, respectively. Our analyses resulted in one new synonymy: N. dimidiata Stekolnikov, 1995 is considered to be a synonym of N. lubrica. Both N. scrupulosa and N. lubrica are recorded from new localities. A key to species of the minuta-group incorporating results from our multivariate analyses is presented.
Daniel, Milan; Stekolnikov, Alexandr A; Hakimitabar, Masoud; Saboori, Alireza
Chigger mites of Afghanistan were studied on the base of collections made in Eastern and Central Hindu Kush, Kabul, and some other localities. Fifteen chigger species parasitizing nine species of Rodentia, two species of Lagomorpha, and one species of Soricomorpha were found, including 13 species which were not previously recorded in Afghanistan. Eco-geographical variability is observed in Shunsennia oudemansi: Individuals of this species from high-mountain localities of Eastern Hindu Kush are characterized by larger values of most morphometric characters than the specimens collected in Kabul. Vertical and horizontal distribution of chiggers and chigger-host relationships in Eastern Hindu Kush is discussed. Comparison of our data with that on chigger fauna in the region of Tirich Mir clearly demonstrates the role of the Eastern Hindu Kush main ridge as a border between different chigger faunas.
Gazêta, Gilberto S; Amorim, Marinete; Bossi, David E P; Linhares, Arício X; Serra-Freire, Nicolau M
From June 1999 to May 2001, small mammals were captured in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil and examined for ectoparasites. Analysis of ectoparasites revealed the presence of a new chigger genus and species, Caamembecaia gratiosus, from Trinomys gratiosus. This is the first record of a chigger from T. gratiosus.
Stekol'nikov, Alexandr A; Literák, Ivan; Capek, Miroslav; Havlćk, Martin
Three new species of chigger mites, Eutrombicula costaricensis sp. n., Eutrombicula passerinoruni sp. n., and Eutrombicula hectochaeta sp. n. are described from wild birds from Costa Rica. Two species, Eutrombicula pacae (Floch et Fauran, 1957) and Parasecia findata (Brennan, 1969), are recorded for the first time in Costa Rica and on new host species. Data on the distribution of Blankaartia sinnamaryi (Floch et Fauran, 1956) in Costa Rica are also reported.
Frances, S P; Watcharapichat, P; Phulsuksombati, D; Tanskul, P
Monthly collections of rodents were conducted in Phitsanulok Province, central Thailand in 1993 to investigate the role of the mite Blankaartia acuscurellaris as a vector of scrub typhus. Overall, a total of 41 rodents were collected and examined for the presence of the red colored larvae of B. acuscutellaris and yellow larvae of Leptotrombidium deliense and Ascoshoengastia sp. A total of 787 B. acuscutellaris and 1390 yellow larvae were placed into pools, triturated and isolation of Orientia tsutsugamushi attempted in laboratory mice. The sera of 8 of the collected rodents had elevated antibodies to O. tsutsugamushi indicating active infections; however, O. tsutsugamushi was not isolated from rodent tissues or pools of larvae. The results of this survey suggest that B. acuscutellaris may not be an important vector of scrub typhus, but more studies are needed in endemic areas.
Chung, Lo-Hsuan; Wu, Wen-Jer; Kuo, Chi-Chien; Wang, Hsi-Chieh
Scrub typhus is a lethal human disease transmitted by larval trombiculid mites (i.e., chiggers) that have been infected with the rickettsia Orientia tsutsugamushi. In total, 21 chigger species are known from Taiwan. We update the checklist of chiggers of Taiwan based on an intensive survey of shrew and rodent hosts in grasslands and agricultural fields in lowland Taiwan, coupled with surveys of forests in one mountainous site and an opportunistic examination of submitted host specimens. Three new species of chiggers, Gahrliepia (Gateria) lieni sp. n., Gahrliepia (Gateria) minuta sp. n., and Gahrliepia (Gateria) yilanensis sp. n., as well as 23 newly recorded chigger species, were discovered. Accordingly, recorded chigger species of Taiwan more than doubled from 21 to 47 species. Two new species and nine newly recorded chigger species were discovered in forests in one mountainous site in northeastern Taiwan, suggesting that many more chigger species may be uncovered, particularly in mountainous Taiwan. Further studies should also investigate O. tsutsugamushi infection in different chigger species to assess its risks to human health. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Frances, S P; Watcharapichat, P; Phulsuksombati, D; Tanskul, P
The ecology of Orientia tsutsugamushi (Hayashi) was studied in chiggers and small animals in an orchard near Bangkok, Thailand. Small animals were trapped monthly between July and November 1992 and examined for the presence of O. tsutsugamushi and ectoparasitic chiggers. A total of 40 Rattus rattus (L.) and 16 Tupaia glis (Diard) was trapped. O. tsutsugamushi was isolated from liver and spleen samples of 30.8% of R. rattus and 18.6% of T. glis. Antibodies to O. tsutsugamushi were detected in 95% of R rattus, and IgG antibodies persisted for up to 10 mo after removing rats from potential reinfection in the field. A total of 1,133 chiggers was identified and examined for the presence of O. tsutsugamushi using a direct fluorescent antibody test, and 2.6% Leptotrombidium deliense Walch, 5.1% Aschoshoengastia indica Hirst, 2.6% A. (Laurentella) sp. #2 and 0.9% A. (Laurentella) sp. #4 were infected. Forty-four pools of chiggers from these animals were triturated and injected into mice. Seven pools were obtained from T. glis and 1 was positive for O. tsutsugamushi, and 3 of 37 pools from R. rattus were positive. A proportion of the engorged chiggers collected was reared to the adult stage, and the progeny of these adults tested for the presence of O. tsutsugamushi. The progeny of 186 females was tested, and the progeny of 2 L. deliense was found to be naturally infected with O. tsutsugamushi.
Stekolnikov, Alexandr A; González-Acuña, Daniel
A new genus and species of chigger mites, Diaguitacarus choapensis gen. et sp. nov., is described from four lizard species of the genus Liolaemus in Choapa Province of Chile. Eight new chigger species are described from lizards of the genera Liolaemus, Phymaturus (Squamata: Liolaemidae), and Microlophus (Squamata: Tropiduridae), in Arica and Parinacota, Atacama, Coquimbo, Valparaíso, and Biobío Regions: Eutrombicula nerudai sp. nov., Eutrombicula mistrali sp. nov., Eutrombicula picunche sp. nov., Microtrombicula mapuche sp. nov., Parasecia molini sp. nov., Paratrombicula philippii sp. nov., Morelacarus jorgei sp. nov., and Morelacarus camanchaca sp. nov. A new species Proschoengastia antarctica sp. nov., which is described from American mink Neovison vison on Navarino Island (Region of Magallanes and Antártica Chilena), is the most southerly chigger species, found at the distance of about 1000 km from the continent of Antarctica. Whartonacarus chaetosus (Brennan and Jones, 1961) comb. nov., which was described from Peru, is for the first time recorded in Chile (Atacama Region) and on Microlophus atacamensis. A new combination Proschoengastia macrochaeta (Brennan and Jones, 1961) comb. nov. is established. The genus Morelacarus Vercammen-Grandjean, 1973 previously known from Mexico and southwestern USA is for the first time recorded in Chile. A review of all previously described Chilean chiggers and a key to Eutrombicula species from Chile are provided. In all, 22 species from 13 genera were recorded in Chile, of which only one species (Whartonacarus chaetosus) is known outside the country.
Daniel, Milan; Stekol'nikov, Alexandr A
Two new species of chigger mites, Hyponeoculta monocoxalae sp. n. from bats and reptiles, and Perares nudosetosus sp. n. from bats, are described. The first finding of larvae of Tectumpilosum negreai Feider, 1983 in nature is reported from a bat collected at the type locality, and the description of this species is emended. Four species, Perates monops (Brennan et Jones, 1960), Parasecia manueli (Brennan et Jones, 1960), Beamerella acutascuta Brennan, 1958, and Blankaartia sinnamaryi (Floch et Fauran, 1956), are recorded for the first time in Cuba and on new host species.
Frances, S P; Watcharapichat, P; Phulsuksombati, D; Tanskul, P; Linthicum, K J
Leptotrombidium deliense Walch that attached to sentinel laboratory mice and the roof rat, Rattus rattus (L.), placed in an orchard habitat near Bangkok, Thailand, were studied between April 1993 and April 1995. A single L. deliense larva was attached to only 1 of 51 laboratory mice placed in the study area between April and September 1993. Overall, 89/202 (44.1%) R. rattus had 1 or more L. deliense larvae attached, and Orientia tsutsugamushi (Hayashi), the etiologic agent for scrub typhus, was isolated from liver/spleen samples of 2/202 (1.0%) rats placed in an endemic area for a single night. A total of 474 L. deliense attached to sentinel R. rattus, of which 314 larvae successfully fed to repletion and were recovered, and 2 (0.6%) of these were naturally infected with O. tsutsugamushi. The occurrence of L. deliense was influenced by rainfall, with more chiggers attached to rodents in the wetter months of the year. The study showed that the risk of exposure to infection with O. tsutsugamushi is greater during the wetter months of the year, and that only a relatively small number of chigger attachments are needed to infect potential hosts.
Kollars, T M; Kengluecha, A; Khlaimanee, N; Tanskul, P
Eggs from seven colony lines of the chigger mite Leptotrombidium imphalum (Vercammen-Grandjean & Langston) were examined for infection with Orientia tsutsugamushi (Hyashi), the etiologic agent of scrub typhus. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers OtP 56.809 and OtM 56.1221, which amplify a 291 bp region of the P56 gene of O. tsutsugamushi, was used to detect scrub typhus within single eggs. All seven chigger mite lines produced infected eggs with varying rates of infection (Li1 = 8.1%, n = 124; Li2 = 45.6%, n = 90; Li3 = 30.1%, n = 144; Li4 = 31.7%, n = 145; Li5 = 21.3%, n = 136; Li6 = 41.6% n = 77; Li7 = 22.5%, n = 110). The 3 wk with the highest infection rates for each line using Fourier analysis were as follows: Li1 = 2, 7, 14; Li2 = 4, 6, 12; Li3 = 3, 6, 12; Li4 = 4, 6, 12; Li5 = 5, 7, 14; Li7 = 4, 6, 12. Li6 only had nine measurements over time; therefore, Li6 was excluded from individual analysis. Infection rates of scrub typhus in eggs occurred in a 2-wk 2-d cycle, using Fourier analysis of combined data. Not only did infection rates vary among the progeny of females, but temporal variation also occurred.
Chaisiri, Kittipong; Stekolnikov, Alexandr A; Makepeace, Benjamin L; Morand, Serge
Chigger mites of Thailand were studied on the basis of larvae collected from 19 small mammal species (17 species of Rodentia, 1 species of Erinaceomorpha, and 1 species of Scandentia) and revision of published data. Samples of 38 trombiculid species were collected from 11 provinces. Three new species were described: Trombiculindus kosapani sp. nov., Helenicula naresuani sp. nov., and Walchia chavali sp. nov. Ten species were recorded in Thailand for the first time: Leptotrombidium sialkotense Vercammen-Grandjean and Langston, 1976; Leptotrombidium subangulare Wen and Xiang, 1984; Leptotrombidium tenompaki Stekolnikov, 2013; Leptotrombidium turdicola Vercammen-Grandjean and Langston, 1976; Leptotrombidium yunlingense Yu, Yang, Zhang and Hu, 1981; Lorillatum hekouensis Yu, Chen and Lin, 1996; Helenicula pilosa (Abonnenc and Taufflieb, 1957); Gahrliepia xiaowoi Wen and Xiang, 1984; Walchia minuscuta Chen, 1978; and Walchia ventralis (Womersley, 1952). In all, 99 chigger mite species were considered; the presence of 93 species was established in Thailand by original data or properly documented records in the scientific literature. Evidence for 64 species records of 147 from a previous checklist of Thai chiggers (Tanskul 1993) remains unknown. Distribution of chigger species by geographical regions of Thailand is discussed.
Daniel, M; Stekol'nikov, A A
Three new species of chigger mites, Neotrombicula kounickyi sp. n., Leptotrombidium angkamii sp. n., and Doloisia vlastae sp. n., are described from two species of small mammals collected in the Barun Glacier Valley, Makalu region, Nepal Himalaya. Two species, Trombiculindus mehtai Fernandes et Kulkarni, 2003 and Cheladonta ikaoensis (Sasa et al., 1951) are recorded for the first time in Nepal. Data on altitude distribution of chiggers and their host preferences are given.
Lerdthusnee, Kriangkrai; Khlaimanee, Nittaya; Monkanna, Taweesak; Mungviriya, Siriporn; Leepitakrat, Warisa; Debboun, Mustapha; Coleman, Russell E
We developed a rapid and economical in vitro procedure with which to evaluate the efficacy of candidate repellents against chiggers. The procedure requires only 5 min and a small number of chiggers to obtain a valid estimate of the median effective dose. We used this procedure to evaluate the repellent activity of 11 compounds against the chigger, Leptotrombidium imphalum Vercammen-Grandjean and Langston. Median effective doses were determined for 10 of the 11 compounds. DM-165-2 (N,N-diethyl-3-flurobenzamide) was the only compound that was significantly more effective than deet.
Meng, Hao; Li, Andrew Y; Costa Junior, Livio M; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Liu, Jingze
DEET and Eight commercially available essential oils (oregano, clove, thyme, vetiver, sandalwood, cinnamon, cedarwood, and peppermint) were evaluated for repellency against host-seeking nymphs of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum. Concentration-repellency response was established using the vertical paper bioassay technique for each essential oil and compared with that of N,N-diethyl-3-methyl benzamide (DEET), a standard repellent compound present in many commercial repellent formulations. The effective concentration of DEET that repels 50% of ticks (EC50) was estimated at 0.02 mg/cm(2), while EC50s of the essential oils fall between 0.113 and 0.297 mg/cm(2). Based on EC50 estimates, oregano essential oil was the most effective among all essential oils tested, followed by clove, thyme, vetiver, sandalwood, cinnamon, cedarwood, and peppermint oils. None of the tested essential oils demonstrated a level of tick repellency found with DEET. Results from this study illustrated the challenge in search for more effective natural tick repellents.
Eight commercially available essential oils (oregano, clove, thyme, vetiver, sandalwood, cinnamon, cedarwood, and peppermint) were evaluated for repellency against host-seeking nymphs of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum. Concentration- repellency response was established using the vertical ...
Harris, Adrian L; Ullah, Roshan; Fountain, Michelle T
Tetranychus urticae is a widespread polyphagous mite, found on a variety of fruit crops. Tetranychus urticae feeds on the underside of the leaves perforating plant cells and sucking the cell contents. Foliar damage and excess webbing produced by T. urticae can reduce fruit yield. Assessments of T. urticae populations while small provide reliable and accurate ways of targeting control strategies and recording their efficacy against T. urticae. The aim of this study was to evaluate four methods for extracting low levels of T. urticae from leaf samples, representative of developing infestations. These methods were compared to directly counting of mites on leaves under a dissecting microscope. These methods were ethanol washing, a modified paraffin/ethanol meniscus technique, Tullgren funnel extraction and the Henderson and McBurnie mite brushing machine with consideration to: accuracy, precision and simplicity. In addition, two physically different leaf morphologies were compared; Prunus leaves which are glabrous with Malus leaves which are setaceous. Ethanol extraction consistently yielded the highest numbers of mites and was the most rapid method for recovering T. urticae from leaf samples, irrespective of leaf structure. In addition the samples could be processed and stored before final counting. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed in detail.
Tuan, Shu-Jen; Lin, Yung-Hsiang; Yang, Chung-Ming; Atlihan, Remzi; Saska, Pavel; Chi, Hsin
Tetranychus urticae Koch is a cosmopolitan pest whose rapid developmental rate enables it to produce colonies of thousands of individuals within a short time period. When a solitary virgin female colonizes a new host plant, it is capable of producing male offspring through the arrhenotokous parthenogenesis; once her sons mature, oedipal mating occurs and the female will produce bisexual offspring. To analyze the effect of arrhenotokous reproduction on population growth, we devised and compared separate life tables for arrhenotokous and bisexual populations of T. urticae using the age-stage, two-sex life table theory. For the cohort with bisexual reproduction, the intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate (λ), net reproductive rate (R0), and mean generation time (T) were 0.2736 d(−1), 1.3146 d(−1), 44.66 offspring, and 13.89 d, respectively. Because only male eggs were produced during the first 8 d of the oviposition period and the cohort would soon begin bisexual reproduction, it would be theoretically wrong to calculate the population parameters using the survival rate and fecundity of an arrhenotokous cohort. We demonstrated that the effect of arrhenotokous reproduction could be accurately described and evaluated using the age-stage, two-sex life table. We also used population projection based on life table data, quantitatively showing the effect that arrhenotokous reproduction has on the growth potential and management of T. urticae.
Dos Santos, Marcelo Francisco; Maltauro Soares, Magna Aparecida; Lallo, Maria Anete; Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes; de Lima-Netto, Solange; Spadacci-Morena, Diva Denelle
The Gené's organ (GO) secretes a waxy substance on eggs that reduces water loss and has antimicrobial properties. The current study evaluated morphological and histochemical aspects of GO in Amblyomma sculptum from the period of post-feeding - when ticks detach from the host - to the stage just before oviposition. In this species, GO is composed of a corpus and two pairs of glands, namely, cranial and caudal. Glandular cells are joined laterally by a system of interdigitating membranes with junctional complexes. Histochemistry showed that lipid droplets became more evident as GO developed, while glycogen gradually disappeared, and proteins were detected only near the onset of oviposition. The ultrastructural results revealed a marked distension of the cuticle filled with an amorphous material. Glandular cells showed poor endoplasmatic reticulum, many mitochondria mainly in the basal cell poles and a very developed basal labyrinth. We concluded that the development of GO in A. sculptum ticks was continuous and progressive, and it started after detachment from the host. Additionally, the ultrastructure study suggests that gland cells have an important absorption ability and a low synthetic activity, which indicates that the majority of wax precursors are derived from haemolymph. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Aceria paederiae (Nalepa) infesting leaves of Paederia foetida L. (Family Rubiaceae) in Thailand, Hong Kong and Singapore is reported for the first time. The mite induces small, round galls on both leaf surfaces. The complete descriptions of both males and females, including line drawings and SEM ...
Oliveira, D C; de Moraes, G J; Dias, C T S
The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, is one of the main pests of coconut palms (Cocos nucifera) in northeastern Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of the coconut mite and other mites on coconut palms in the state of São Paulo and to estimate the possible role of predatory mites in the control of this pest. The effect of cultivated genotypes and sampling dates on the mite populations was also estimated. We sampled attached fruits, leaflets, inflorescences, and fallen fruits. The coconut mite was the main phytophagous mite found on attached and fallen fruits, with average densities of 110.0 and 20.5 mites per fruit, respectively. The prevalent predatory mites on attached and fallen fruits were Proctolaelaps bulbosus Moraes, Reis & Gondim Jr. and Proctolaelaps bickleyi (Bram), both Melicharidae. On leaflets, the tenuipalpids Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijsks) and Tenuipalpus coyacus De Leon and the tetranychid Oligonychus modestus (Banks) were the predominant phytophagous mites. On both leaflets and inflorescences, the predominant predatory mites belonged to the Phytoseiidae. Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot) and Neoseiulus paspalivorus (De Leon), predators widely associated with the coconut mite in northeastern Brazil and several other countries, were not found. The low densities of the coconut mite in São Paulo could be related to prevailing climatic conditions, scarcity of coconut plantations (hampering the dispersion of the coconut mite between fields), and to the fact that some of the genotypes cultivated in the region are unfavorable for its development.
Antitick plants and related ethnoknowledge/ethnopractices with potential for integrated tick control and management strategies to improve livestock production are reviewed. About 231 plants reviewed showed a variety of bioactive properties, namely, being toxic, repellent, antifeedant, and antiovipositant and ability to immobilize target tick species. These ethnobotanical substances are potentially useful in developing sustainable, efficient, and effective antitick agents suitable for rural livestock farmers. Majority of these plants are holistic in action, economically affordable, user friendly, easily adaptable and accessible, and environmentally friendly and help develop community-driven tick control interventions well suited to local conditions and specific to different livestock communities. Such a multipurpose intervention best fits the recent ascendancy of individual livestock owners as the key players in tick control programmes, particularly following the withdrawal of subsidies accorded to tick control programmes by most African government agencies since mid-1980s. However, scientific validation of antitick ethnobotanicals on their efficacy and formulation of packages easily handled by local communities is necessary to achieve a significantly increased use of such remedies. It is envisaged that the results of validation may lead to the discovery of effective and affordable antitick products. The effectiveness of these “best bets” ethnopractices can be greatest, if they are appropriately blended with conventional technologies. PMID:28798806
Ginsberg, Howard; Lee, Chong; Volson, Barry; Dyer, Megan C.; LeBrun, Roger A.
The relationship between engorgement weight of female Ixodes scapularis Say and characteristics of offspring was studied using field-collected females fed on rabbits in the laboratory. The number of eggs laid was positively related to maternal engorgement weight in one trial, and larval size (estimated by scutal area) was positively related to maternal engorgement weight in the other. These results suggest a trade-off in number of eggs produced versus average size of offspring, possibly determined during late engorgement. The adults for the two trials were collected from different sites in southern Rhode Island and in different seasons (the fall adults were newly emerged, while the spring adults had presumably lived through the winter), so it is not clear whether these results reflect genetic differences or subtle environmental differences between trials. Percent egg hatch and average fat content of larvae were not related to female engorgement weight. We present a modified method to measure lipid content of pooled larval ticks.
A heterorhabditid nematode isolated from the soil of grasslands in Tecomán, Colima, Mexico, currently designated as Heterorhabditis sp. isolate JMO71, is reported to parasitize engorged cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Tick mortality ranged between 72-78% after 9-d post-exposure to...
Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Horak, Ivan G
Two new tick species belonging to the African Haemaphysalis (Rhipistoma) leachi subgroup, namely H. (R.) colesbergensis n. sp. and H. (R.) oliveri n. sp., are described. Haemaphysalis (R.) colesbergensis adults are easily differentiated from the other species of the H. (R.) leachi subgroup, including H. (R.) oliveri, by the spur on coxa IV, which is considerably longer than that on coxa III. The adults of the 2 new species are equal in size, but the dental formula of the hypostome of H. (R.) colesbergensis is 4/4 compared to 5/5 for H. (R.) oliveri. The dental formula of H. (R.) oliveri also distinguishes it from other ticks in the subgroup, namely H. (R.) leachi, H. (R.) elliptica, H. (R.) moreli, and H. (R.) punctaleachi (4/4 in these species), but not from H. (R.) paraleachi, which has a 5/5 dental arrangement. However, the average total length and width of H. (R.) oliveri males (2.47 x 1.20 mm) are considerably shorter and narrower than those of H. (R.) paraleachi males (3.81 x 1.79 mm). Similar differences in size apply to the females. Nymphs and larvae of H. (R.) colesbergensis and H. (R.) oliveri can be distinguished from those of other members of the H. (R.) leachi subgroup, as well as from each other, by a combination of the following characters: size and measurement ratios, length of posterodorsal and posteroventral spurs on palpal segment II, and number of denticles per file on the hypostome. Haemaphysalis (R.) colesbergensis is known only from South Africa, where it has been collected from domestic cats and dogs and medium-sized wild felids. Haemaphysalis (R.) oliveri is recorded only from Sudan, where it has been collected from small- to medium-sized wild felids and canids and an antelope. The hosts of the immature stages of H. (R.) colesbergensis are unknown, while nymphs of H. (R.) oliveri have been collected from rodents.
Randi A. Hansen; David C. Coleman
To investigate the relationship between litter complexity and composition and the diversity and composition of the oribatid mite fauna inhabiting it, an experiment was carried out at a single forested site in the mountains of North Carolina. USA. Natural litterfall was excluded from a series of 1 m2 plots and replaced with treatment litters that...
Anderson, Denis L; Morgan, Mathew J
Mites in the genus Tropilaelaps are parasites of social honeybees. Two species, Tropilaelaps clareae and T. koenigerum, have been recorded and their primary hosts are presumed to be the giant honeybees of Asia, Apis dorsata and A. laboriosa. The most common species, T. clareae, is also an economically important pest of the introduced Western honeybee (A. mellifera) throughout Asia and is considered an emerging threat to world apiculture. In the studies reported here, genetic (mtDNA CO-I and nuclear ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 gene sequence) and morphological variation and host associations were examined among Tropilaelaps isolates collected from A. dorsata, A. laboriosa and A. mellifera throughout Asia and neighbouring regions. The results clearly indicate that the genus contains at least four species. Tropilaelaps clareae, previously assumed to be ubiquitous in Asia, was found to be two species, and it is here redefined as encompassing haplotypes (mites with distinct mtDNA gene sequences) that parasitise native A. dorsata breviligula and introduced A. mellifera in the Philippines and also native A. d. binghami on Sulawesi Island in Indonesia. Tropilaelaps mercedesae n. sp., which until now has been mistaken for T. clareae, encompasses haplotypes that, together with haplotypes of T. koenigerum, parasitise native A. d. dorsata in mainland Asia and Indonesia (except Sulawesi Island). It also parasitises introduced A. mellifera in these and surrounding regions and, with another new species, T. thaii n. sp., also parasitises A. laboriosa in mountainous Himalayan regions. Methods are described for identifying each species. These studies help to clarify the emerging threat of Tropilaelaps to world apiculture and will necessitate a revision of quarantine protocols for countries that import and export honeybees.
Saad, El-Zemity; Hussien, Rezk; Saher, Farok; Ahmed, Zaitoon
The acaricidal activities of fourteen essential oils and fourteen of their major monoterpenoids were tested against house dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Five concentrations were used over two different time intervals 24 and 48 h under laboratory conditions. In general, it was noticed that the acaricidal effect based on LC 50 of either essential oils or monoterpenoids against the mite was time dependant. The LC 50 values were decreased by increasing of exposure time. Clove, matrecary, chenopodium, rosemary, eucalyptus and caraway oils were shown to have high activity. As for the monoterpenoids, cinnamaldehyde and chlorothymol were found to be the most effective followed by citronellol. This study suggests the use of the essential oils and their major constituents as ecofriendly biodegradable agents for the control of house dust mite, D. pteronyssinus. PMID:17111463
Saad, El-Zemity; Hussien, Rezk; Saher, Farok; Ahmed, Zaitoon
The acaricidal activities of fourteen essential oils and fourteen of their major monoterpenoids were tested against house dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Five concentrations were used over two different time intervals 24 and 48 h under laboratory conditions. In general, it was noticed that the acaricidal effect based on LC(50) of either essential oils or monoterpenoids against the mite was time dependant. The LC(50) values were decreased by increasing of exposure time. Clove, matrecary, chenopodium, rosemary, eucalyptus and caraway oils were shown to have high activity. As for the monoterpenoids, cinnamaldehyde and chlorothymol were found to be the most effective followed by citronellol. This study suggests the use of the essential oils and their major constituents as ecofriendly biodegradable agents for the control of house dust mite, D. pteronyssinus.
Guo, Xiuyang; Reuben Kaufman, W
In most ticks of the family Ixodidae, gonad maturation and spermatogenesis are stimulated by the taking of a blood meal. Previous work from this laboratory identified 35 genes that are up-regulated by feeding [Weiss, B.L., Stepczynski, J.M., Wong, P., Kaufman, W.R., 2002. Identification and characterization of genes differentially expressed in the testis/vas deferens of the fed male tick, Amblyomma hebraeum. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 32, 785-793]. The functions of most of these genes remain unknown. We used RNA interference technology to investigate the consequences of blocking the function of 13 of these genes. Attenuation of the expression of two of these in particular, AhT/VD 8 and AhT/VD 10, correlated with deformities in the testis and abnormalities in spermiogenesis. Furthermore, most females fed in the company of these males did not engorge properly and laid many fewer eggs, most of which were infertile.
+ The lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum, is a vector of several important human and animal diseases. This tick species has rapidly expanded in its geographic distribution, and its aggressive behavior has increased the risk of tick-borne diseases in these new areas. Repellents are recommended by t...
We verified infestation of Oligonychus milleri (McGregor) on plantations of Pinus caribaea (Pinaceae) and of Oligonychus ununguis (Jacobi) on plantations of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis (Myrtaceae) in State of Rondônia, Northern region of Brazil. This represents the first record of O. m...
The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...
Ixodes ricinus, the most commonly observed tick species in Poland, is known vector of microorganisms pathogenic for humans as TBE virus, Borrelia burgdorferi s.1., Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia sp. in this country. Our study aimed to find out whether this tick can also transmit also rickettsiae of the spotted fever group (SFG). DNA extracts from 560 ticks (28 females, 34 males, and 488 nymphs) collected in different wooded areas in northern Poland were examined by PCR for the detection of Rickettsia sp., using a primer set RpCS.877p and RpCS.1258n designated to amplify a 381-bp fragment of gltA gene. A total of 2.9% ticks was found to be positive. The percentage of infected females and males was comparable (10.5% and 11.8%, respectively) and 6.6-7.6 times higher than in nymphs (1.6%). Sequences of four PCR-derived DNA fragments (acc. no. DQ672603) demonstrated 99% similarity with the sequence of Rickettsia helvetica deposited in GenBank. The results obtained suggest the possible role of I. ricinus as a source of a microorganism, which recently has been identified as an agent of human rickettsioses in Europe.
Lah, Ernieenor Faraliana Che; Yaakop, Salmah; Ahamad, Mariana; George, Ernna; Nor, Shukor Md
Identification of a local species of tick, Ixodes granulatus from the family Ixodidae is essential because it has potential to be vector for spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsia and tick thypus. The aim of this study is to portray the relationships among several populations of I. granulatus collected from different species of animal hosts and localities in Peninsular Malaysia. Polymerase Chain Reaction was conducted by amplifying mitochondrial DNA marker, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences from 15 individual ticks that attached to five different hosts caught from three different localities. Confirmation of the species identity was accomplished using BLAST program. Neighbor-joining (NJ) and Maximum Parsimony (MP) tree based on COI sequences were constructed by using PAUP 4.0b10 to identify the relationship among species. The result of this study showed a high genetic heterogeneity between I. granulatus and other species of the same genus (7.2-23.7%). Furthermore, a low intraspecific variation was observed among the species of I. granulatus collected from different localities (0-3.7%). This study produced the first establishment of molecular marker for clarifying genetic species variation and diversity of local I. granulatus tick which contribute to the control of tick-borne infections.
Roth, Tara; Lane, Robert S; Foley, Janet
Francisella tularensis and Rickettsia spp. have been cultured from Haemaphysalis leporispalustris Packard, but their prevalence in this tick has not been determined using modern molecular methods. We collected H. leporispalustris by flagging vegetation and leaf litter and from lagomorphs (Lepus californicus Gray and Sylvilagus bachmani (Waterhouse)) in northern California. Francisella tularensis DNA was not detected in any of 1,030 ticks tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), whereas 0.4% of larvae tested in pools, 0 of 117 individual nymphs, and 2.3% of 164 adult ticks were PCR-positive for Rickettsia spp. Positive sites were Laurel Canyon Trail in Tilden Regional Park in Alameda Contra Costa County, with a Rickettsia spp. prevalence of 0.6% in 2009, and Hopland Research and Extension Center in Mendocino County, with a prevalence of 4.2% in 1988. DNA sequencing revealed R. felis, the agent of cat-flea typhus, in two larval pools from shaded California bay and live oak leaf litter in Contra Costa County and one adult tick from a L. californicus in chaparral in Mendocino County. The R. felis in unfed, questing larvae demonstrates that H. leporispalustris can transmit this rickettsia transovarially. Although R. felis is increasingly found in diverse arthropods and geographical regions, prior literature suggests a typical epidemiological cycle involving mesocarnivores and the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of R. felis in H. leporispalustris. Natural infection and transovarial transmission of this pathogen in the tick indicate the existence of a previously undocumented wild-lands transmission cycle that may intersect mesocarnivore-reservoired cycles and collectively affect human health risk. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
McIntosh, Douglas; Bezerra, Rodrigo Alves; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Gaiotto, Fernanda Amato; Giné, Gastón Andrés Fernandez; Albuquerque, George Rego
Studies investigating rickettsial infections in ticks parasitizing wild animals in the Northeast region of Brazil have been confined to the detection of Rickettsia amblyommii in immature stages of Amblyomma longirostre collected from birds in the state of Bahia, and in immatures and females of Amblyomma auricularium collected from the striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus) and armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus) in the state of Pernambuco. The current study extends the distribution of R. amblyommii (strain Aranha), which was detected in A. longirostre collected from the thin-spined porcupine Chaetomys subspinosus and the hairy dwarf porcupine Coendou insidiosus. In addition, we report the first detection of Rickettsia bellii in adults of A. longirostre collected from C. insidiosus in the state of Bahia.
Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Tarragona, Evelina L; Martins, Thiago F; Martín, Claudia M; Burgos-Gallardo, Freddy; Nava, Santiago; Labruna, Marcelo B; González-Acuña, Daniel
Adults of Amblyomma parvitarsum are common ectoparasites of South American camelids of the genera Lama and Vicugna, occuring in highlands of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru and also in Argentinean Patagonia. Whereas larval stages of this tick are known to feed on small lizards, host records for the nymphal instar have remained unreported. Supported by morphological and molecular analyses, herein we report A. parvitarsum nymphs parasitizing two Liolaemus species (Reptilia: Squamata) in the Andean Plateau of Argentina and Chile. Additionally, by a PCR screening targetting gltA and ompA genes, DNA of Rickettsia was detected in one of the collected nymphs. Obtained sequences of this agent were identical to a recent Rickettsia sp. described infecting adults of this tick species in Chile and Argentina.
Loftis, Amanda D; Kelly, Patrick J; Paddock, Christopher D; Blount, Keith; Johnson, Jason W; Gleim, Elizabeth R; Yabsley, Michael J; Levin, Michael L; Beati, Lorenza
Panola Mountain Ehrlichia (PME) has been suggested as an emerging pathogen of humans and dogs. Domestic goats and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are also susceptible and likely serve as reservoirs. Experimentally, both the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum (L.)) and the Gulf Coast tick (Amblyomma maculatum Koch) can transmit PME among deer and goats. In the current study, we detected PME in adult wild-caught A. maculatum from the United States and Amblyomma variegatum (F.) from the Caribbean and Africa. This significantly expands the range, potential tick vectors, and risk for exposure to PME. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Wright, Stan A; Lemenager, Debbie A; Tucker, James R; Armijos, M Veronica; Yamamoto, Sheryl A
Birds from 45 species were sampled during three spring seasons from an isolated canyon on the Sutter Buttes in California for the presence of subadult stages of Ixodes pacificus Cooley & Kohls, and for infection with Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt & Brenner. These birds were found to have an infestation prevalence of 45%, a density of 1.7 ticks per bird, and an intensity of 3.8 ticks per infested bird. There was a significant difference in the I. pacificus infestations between canopy and ground-dwelling birds. Birds also demonstrated an overall infection with B. burgdorferi of 6.4% with significant difference between bird species. Amplification and subsequent sequencing of the 23s-5s rRNA intergenic spacer region of the Borrelia genome from one bird, a hermit thrush, Catharus guttatus (Nuttall), showed that the infection in this bird was caused by B. burgdorferi sensu stricto; the first such finding in a bird from the far west. Our results suggest that birds play a role in the distribution and maintenance of I. pacificus, and possibly of B. burgdoferi, at the Sutter Buttes, CA.
Santos-Silva, Maria Margarida; Almeida, Victor Carlos; Bacellar, Fátima; Dumler, John Stephen
A total of 278 Ixodes ticks, collected from Madeira Island and Setúbal District, mainland Portugal, were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Six (4%) of 142 Ixodes ricinus nymphs collected in Madeira Island and 1 nymph and 1 male (2%) of 93 I. ventalloi collected in Setúbal District tested positive for A. phagocytophilum msp2 genes or rrs. Infection was not detected among 43 I. ricinus on mainland Portugal. All PCR products were confirmed by nucleotide sequencing to be identical or to be most closely related to A. phagocytophilum. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of A. phagocytophilum in ticks from Setúbal District, mainland Portugal, and the first documentation of Anaplasma infection in I. ventalloi. Moreover, these findings confirm the persistence of A. phagocytophilum in Madeira Island's I. ricinus. PMID:15498168
Santos, Ana Sofia; Santos-Silva, Maria Margarida; Almeida, Victor Carlos; Bacellar, Fátima; Dumler, John Stephen
A total of 278 Ixodes ticks, collected from Madeira Island and Setubal District, mainland Portugal, were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Six (4%) of 142 Ixodes ricinus nymphs collected in Madeira Island and 1 nymph and 1 male (2%) of 93 I. ventalloi collected in Setubal District tested positive for A. phagocytophilum msp2 genes or rrs. Infection was not detected among 43 I. ricinus on mainland Portugal. All PCR products were confirmed by nucleotide sequencing to be identical or to be most closely related to A. phagocytophilum. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of A. phagocytophilum in ticks from Setubal District, mainland Portugal, and the first documentation of Anaplasma infection in I. ventalloi. Moreover, these findings confirm the persistence of A. phagocytophilum in Madeira Island's I. ricinus.
Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, 1945 was described based only from female specimens collected on rubber trees from Belterra, State of Pará, Brazil. However, the original description does not provide essential information, and thus, it may be difficult to correctly identify the species. In this paper, we r...
Tenuipalpus Donnadieu is the speciose genus of the family Tenuipalpidae, with over 300 described species. The descriptions of many of these species are not complete, and important information necessary for a correct identification is missing. The objective of this study was to re-describe species of...
Saloña-Bordas, Marta I; Perotti, M Alejandra
This case study from North Spain, highlights the importance of the collection of mites in addition to insects, from crime scenes or corpses subjected to environmental constraints that reduce or minimise insect activity, such as hanged corpses. In addition, this analysis highlights the relevance of arthropods' collection in the field, even after the corpse has been moved away for autopsy. Four species of mites, phoretic on carrion (Silphidae) and rove (Staphylinidae) beetles, complemented and reinforced the autopsy analysis as well as the scarce information provided by insect activity. Poecilochirus carabi Canestrini & Canestrini, 1882 and Poecilochirus (Physoparasitus) davydovae Hyatt, 1980 (Mesostigmata: Parasitidae) were found in association with two Silphidae, Nicrophorus Fabricius, 1775 and Necrodes Leach, 1815, only when sampled in the autopsy room; this is suggestive of host-switching of mites and was likely due to the lack of availability of specific carriers in the field. The interpretation of the activity of Parasitidae mites both in the field and the autopsy room allows a better understanding of the timing and circumstances of decomposition. Phoretic deutonymphs of Pelzneria Scheucher 1957 (Astigmata: Histiostomatidae) were highly abundant, mostly P. crenulata Oudemans, 1909 and are reported for the first time on a Staphylinidae rove beetle, Creophilus maxillosus (L., 1758). Surprisingly, in this case study no Pelzneria were associated with the Silphidae found, which are their most common hosts, such as Necrodes littoralis (L., 1758) and Nicrophorus interruptus (Stephens, 1830). All histiostomatids were removed from the staphylinid (rove beetle) collected from the soil, at the scene of death, suggesting a recent arrival of the beetle. The occurrence of Staphylinidae beetles and their associated mites, such as Parasitidae and Pelzneria, and the information they provided would have been easily overlooked or lost if only the autopsy sampling would have been considered in the analysis of the case. The four mite species are reported for the first time for the Iberian Peninsula. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Elder, B. Laurel; Arlian, Larry G.; Morgan, Marjorie S.
The inflammatory and immune responses seen with the worldwide disease scabies (caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei) are complex. Clinical symptoms are delayed for weeks in patients when they are infested with scabies for the first time. This study was undertaken to elucidate the role of the human dermal microvascular endothelial cell (HMVEC-D) in modulating the inflammatory and immune responses in the skin to S. scabiei. Extracts of S. scabiei were incubated with HMVEC-D and the expression of adhesion molecules and chemokine receptors on the cells and the secretion of selected cytokines were determined by ELISA. S. scabiei extract was found to inhibit HMVEC-D expression of E-selectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) although not intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). The secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8) was also inhibited by S. scabiei extract. S. scabiei extract increased expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR-1, and both down-regulated and up-regulated expression of CXCR-2 depending on the concentration tested. These findings help explain the delayed inflammatory reaction to infestation with S. scabiei. PMID:17017228
Ermilov, Sergey G.; Martens, Jochen; Tolstikov, Andrei V.
Abstract Two new species of oribatid mites, Lepidozetes acutirostrum sp. n. and Scutozetes clavatosensillus sp. n., are described from Nepal. The genera Lepidozetes and Scutozetes are recorded for the first time for the Oriental region. The identification keys to the known species of these genera are provided. PMID:24146586
Ermilov, Sergey G.; Minor, Maria A.
Abstract Two new species of oribatid mites of the genus Macrogena (Oribatida, Ceratozetidae) are described from alpine soils of the South Island of New Zealand. Macrogena brevisensilla sp. n. and Macrogena abbreviata sp. n. differ from all species of this genus by the tridactylous legs and by the comparatively short interlamellar setae, respectively. New generic diagnosis and an identification key to the known species of Macrogena are provided. PMID:26085792
Maruyama, Ichiro; Bayartogtokh, Badamdorj; Shimano, Satoshi
Abstract The first detailed description of adults of Achipteria setulosa Golosova, 1981 with illustrations are provided, based on materials from central Japan. This species is placed in the subgenus Achipteria (Izuachipteria) Balogh & Mahunka, 1979. In addition, the species grouping of the known species in the genus Achipteria is briefly discussed, and three species-groups are proposed based on the structure of the lamellar complex. Furthermore, data on distribution, diversity and habitat ecology of all known species of Achipteriidae in Japan are presented, and a key is provided for the identification of recorded species in this country. The majority of achipteriid species found in Japan are known to be widely distributed in the vast areas of the northern hemisphere; only two species have restricted distributions in Japan. Most species of Achipteriidae in Japan are inhabitants of the litter of various forests, such as natural broad-leaved forests in high mountainous areas, soils of grasslands, wetlands and mosses growing on rocks. PMID:27110193
Humeres, Eduardo C; Morse, Joseph G
Persea mite, Oligonychus perseae Tuttle, Baker, and Abatiello, susceptibility to abamectin and milbemectin was evaluated in 2003 to determine baseline susceptibility levels in avocado groves in San Diego and Ventura Counties (California, USA) where more than 70% of the state's avocado production is concentrated. Milbemectin has yet to be used in avocado production in California and abamectin has been available for use since 1999. Baseline susceptibility ratios (in relation to the most susceptible population) of five persea mite field strains to milbemectin varied 2.1- to 2.8-fold at the LC50 and LC90, respectively. The susceptibility of seven field strains to abamectin varied slightly more (2.1- to 3.5-fold) with one strain subjected to seven sprays over the past 4 years showing slight but significant separation of LC50 and LC90's from the most susceptible strain, which is suggestive of the early stages of resistance to this product. Based on these data, baseline susceptibility levels are proposed that might be used to monitor for future persea mite resistance to these chemicals as their use in California avocado production continues.
Lara, Jesus R; Hoddle, Mark S
Oligonychus perseae Tuttle, Baker, & Abatiello is a foliar pest of 'Hass' avocados [Persea americana Miller (Lauraceae)]. The recommended action threshold is 50-100 motile mites per leaf, but this count range and other ecological factors associated with O. perseae infestations limit the application of enumerative sampling plans in the field. Consequently, a comprehensive modeling approach was implemented to compare the practical application of various binomial sampling models for decision-making of O. perseae in California. An initial set of sequential binomial sampling models were developed using three mean-proportion modeling techniques (i.e., Taylor's power law, maximum likelihood, and an empirical model) in combination with two-leaf infestation tally thresholds of either one or two mites. Model performance was evaluated using a robust mite count database consisting of >20,000 Hass avocado leaves infested with varying densities of O. perseae and collected from multiple locations. Operating characteristic and average sample number results for sequential binomial models were used as the basis to develop and validate a standardized fixed-size binomial sampling model with guidelines on sample tree and leaf selection within blocks of avocado trees. This final validated model requires a leaf sampling cost of 30 leaves and takes into account the spatial dynamics of O. perseae to make reliable mite density classifications for a 50-mite action threshold. Recommendations for implementing this fixed-size binomial sampling plan to assess densities of O. perseae in commercial California avocado orchards are discussed. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Eriophyoidea are minute phytophagous mites with great economic importance and great invasive potential. In spite of their impact on ecosystem functions, the knowledge of eriophyoid mites fauna in Arctic is lacking. Until now, only eight eriophyoid mite species were known from this region. Svalbard a...
Lone star ticks are aggressive ectoparasites of domestic and wild animals, as well as humans. These ticks can transmit many pathogens that cause disease including Erhlichia and tularemia. Common compounds used for personal protection and area sprays are N-diethyl-3-methyl benzamide (DEET) and permet...
The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, is a cosmopolitan ectoparasite and vector of pathogens that kill humans and animals. Pyrethroids represent a class of synthetic acaricides that have been used intensely to try to control the brown dog tick and mitigate the risk of tick-borne d...
Na, Young Eun; Kim, Soon-Il; Bang, Hea-Son; Kim, Byung-Seok; Ahn, Young-Joon
The toxicity of two cassia oils, four cinnamon oils and (E)-cinnamaldehyde and (E)-cinnamic acid and 34 structurally related compounds to adult Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) collected from a poultry house was examined using a vapour-phase mortality bioassay. Results were compared with those of dichlorvos, a conventional acaricide. The cassia and cinnamon oils (cinnamon technical, cinnamon #500, cassia especial, cassia true, cinnamon bark and cinnamon green leaf) exhibited good fumigant toxicity (LD(50), 11.79-26.40 μg cm(-3)). α-Methyl-(E)-cinnamaldehyde (LD(50), 0.45 μg cm(-3)) and (E)-cinnamaldehyde (0.54 μg cm(-3)) were the most toxic compounds and the toxicity of these compounds was comparable to that of dichlorvos (0.30 μg cm(-3)). Potent fumigant toxicity was also observed in allyl cinnamate, ethyl-α-cyanocinnamate, (E)-2-methoxylcinnamic acid and (Z)-2-methoxylcinnamic acid (LD(50), 0.81-0.92 μg cm(-3)). Structure-activity relationships indicate that structural characteristics, such as types of functional groups and carbon skeleton rather than vapour pressure parameter, appear to play a role in determining toxicity. The essential oils and compounds described merit further study as potential acaricides for the control of D. gallinae populations as fumigants with contact action due to global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic acaricides in the agricultural environment. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Koenraadt, C J M; Dicke, M
Infestations with ectoparasitic poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae) pose an increasing threat to poultry health and welfare. Because of resistance to acaricides and higher scrutiny of poultry products, alternative and environmentally safe management strategies are warranted. Therefore, we investigated how volatile cues shape the behavior of D. gallinae and how this knowledge may be exploited in the development of an attract-and-kill method to control mite populations. A Y-tube olfactometer bio-assay was used to evaluate choices of mites in response to cues related to conspecific mites as well as related to their chicken host. Both recently fed and starved mites showed a strong preference (84 and 85%, respectively) for volatiles from conspecific, fed mites as compared to a control stream of clean air. Mites were also significantly attracted to 'aged feathers' (that had remained in the litter for 3-4 days), but not to 'fresh feathers'. Interestingly, an air stream containing 2.5% CO(2), which mimics the natural concentration in air exhaled by chickens, did attract fed mites, but inhibited the attraction of unfed mites towards volatiles from aged feathers. We conclude that both mite-related cues (aggregation pheromones) and host-related cues (kairomones) mediate the behavior of the poultry mite. We discuss the options to exploit this knowledge as the 'attract' component of attract-and-kill strategies for the control of D. gallinae.
Huber, K; Zenner, L; Bicout, D J
The poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae is a major pest and widespread ectoparasite of laying hens and other domestic and wild birds. Under optimal conditions, D. gallinae can complete its lifecycle in less than 10 days, leading to rapid proliferation of populations in poultry systems. This paper focuses on developing a theoretical model framework to describe the population dynamics of D. gallinae. This model is then used to test the efficacy and residual effect of different control options for managing D. gallinae. As well as allowing comparison between treatment options, the model also allows comparison of treatment efficacies to different D. gallinae life stages. Three different means for controlling D. gallinae populations were subjected to the model using computer simulations: mechanical cleaning (killing once at a given time all accessible population stages), sanitary clearance (starving the mite population for a given duration, e.g. between flocks) and acaricide treatment (killing a proportion of nymphs and adults during the persistence of the treatment). Simulations showed that mechanical cleaning and sanitary clearance alone could not eradicate the model D. gallinae population, although these methods did delay population establishment. In contrast, the complete eradication of the model D. gallinae population was achieved by several successive acaricide treatments in close succession, even when a relatively low treatment level was used. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Entrekin, D.L.; Oliver, J.H. Jr.; Pound, J.M.
Protonymphal Dermanyssus gallinae were irradiated with 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0 krad of gamma radiation and subsequently monitored regarding their developmental, feeding, and mating success. Also, sex ratios of adults treated as protonymphs were recorded as were sex ratios of embryos and F1 adults produced by these adults. Doses up to 1.0 krad did not prevent development of treated protonymphs to the adult stage or stop mating. Three krad reduced the number of treated protonymphs attaining adulthood and 6.0-krad treatment prevented all mites from developing to the adult stage. Egg (embryo) production was normal for mites treated with 0.50more » krad, but significantly curtailed by doses of 0.75 krad and greater. Radiation doses used in this study did not appear to affect the normal variable sex ratios observed in untreated mites.« less
Lee, Xia; Hardy, Kristin; Johnson, Diep Hoang; Paskewitz, Susan M
As a result of the increasing incidence of Lyme disease and other tick-borne pathogens in Wisconsin, we assessed the distribution of adult blacklegged ticks through collections from hunter-killed deer in 2008 and 2009 and compared results with prior surveys beginning in 1981. Volunteers staffed 21 Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources registration stations in 21 counties in the eastern half of Wisconsin in 2008 and 10 stations in seven counties in northwestern Wisconsin in 2009. In total, 786 and 300 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were examined in 2008 and 2009, respectively. All but three stations in 2008 were positive for ticks and all stations in 2009 were positive for ticks. The three sites negative for ticks occurred within the eastern half of Wisconsin. The results indicate that range expansion of Ixodes scapularis (Say) is continuing and the risk of tick exposure is increasing, especially in the eastern one-third of the state.
Christenson, Megan; Lee, Xia; Larson, Scott; Johnson, Diep Hoang; Jensen, Julia; Meller, Megan; Paskewitz, Susan
Because of the increasing incidence of human ehrlichiosis in Wisconsin, we assessed reports of human infections by Ehrlichia chaffeensis and the distribution of its vector, the lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum (L.)). From 2008 through 2015, 158 probable and confirmed human cases of E. chaffeensis infections were reported to the Wisconsin Department of Health Services. Five cases without travel history outside of Wisconsin were confirmed as E. chaffeensis by polymerase chain reaction. Surveillance for the vector occurred from 2008 through 2015 and was based on active and passive methods, including examination of white-tailed deer, collections from live-trapped small mammals, submissions of ticks removed from wild and domestic animals through the Wisconsin Surveillance of Animals for Ticks (SWAT) program, digital or physical submissions by the public to the University of Wisconsin Insect Diagnostic or Medical Entomology laboratories, and active tick dragging. More than 50 lone star ticks (46 adults, 6 nymphs, and 1 larva) were identified. Lone star ticks were more commonly found in south central Wisconsin, particularly in Dane County, where discovery of more than one life stage in a single year indicates possible establishment. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Ginsberg, H.S.; Butler, M.; Zhioua, E.
The effects of deer exclusion on northern populations of lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum, were tested at the Lighthouse Tract, Fire Island, NY, USA, where densities of this species have increased recently. Game fencing was erected to exclude deer from two sites of roughly one ha each, and populations of nymphal and adult A. americanum within were compared with those at control sites outside the exclosures. Percent control of nymphs within vs. outside the exclosures averaged 48.4% in the four years post-treatment, compared to pretreatment values. Percent control varied markedly in different years, suggesting that factors in addition to deer densities had strong effects on population densities of A. americanum. Exclosures of this size did not control adult A. americanum. Effects of deer exclusion in this recently expanded northern population of A. americanum were similar to those that have been reported for southern populations of this species.
Rhipicephalus microplus, the cattle fever tick, is a global economic problem to the cattle industry due to direct infestation of cattle and pathogens transmitted during feeding. Cattle fever tick outbreaks continue to occur along the Mexico-U.S. border even though the tick has been eradicated from t...
Abo-Shnaf, Reham I A; Moraes, Gilberto J De
The objective of this paper is to provide a taxonomic appraisal of the melicharids from Egypt, based on specimens previously collected by different authors and on specimens newly collected by the first author of this paper, all belonging to the genus Proctolaelaps Berlese. A new species, Proctolaelaps gizaensis n. sp., is described, thus raising to six the number of Proctolaelaps species recorded from Egypt. Complementary descriptions of the following species are also provided: Proctolaelaps aegyptiacus Nasr, 1986; Proctolaelaps holoventris Moraes, Britto, Mineiro & Halliday, 2016; Proctolaelaps pygmaeus (Müller, 1859); Proctolaelaps drosophilae Karg, Baker & Jenkinson, 1995 and Proctolaelaps regalis De Leon, 1963. The latter two species were not found in Egypt, but they are related to the new species described here. They were re-described based on the type specimens from Europe and North America. A dichotomous key is given to help the separation of the Proctolaelaps species concluded to be found in Egypt.
Minor, M A; Ermilov, S G; Philippov, D A; Prokin, A A
We investigated communities of oribatid mites in five peat bogs in the north-west of the East European plain. We aimed to determine the extent to which geographic factors (latitude, separation distance), local environment (Sphagnum moss species, ground water level, biogeochemistry) and local habitat complexity (diversity of vascular plants and bryophytes in the surrounding plant community) influence diversity and community composition of Oribatida. There was a significant north-to-south increase in Oribatida abundance. In the variance partitioning, spatial factors explained 33.1 % of variability in abundance across samples; none of the environmental factors were significant. Across all bogs, Oribatida species richness and community composition were similar in Sphagnum rubellum and Sphagnum magellanicum, but significantly different and less diverse in Sphagnum cuspidatum. Sphagnum microhabitat explained 52.2 % of variability in Oribatida species richness, whereas spatial variables explained only 8.7 %. There was no distance decay in community similarity between bogs with increased geographical distance. The environmental variables explained 34.9 % of the variance in community structure, with vascular plants diversity, bryophytes diversity, and ground water level all contributing significantly; spatial variables explained 15.1 % of the total variance. Overall, only 50 % of the Oribatida community variance was explained by the spatial structure and environmental variables. We discuss relative importance of spatial and local environmental factors, and make general inferences about the formation of fauna in Sphagnum bogs.
Ginsberg, H.S.; Zhioua, E.
The distribution and survival of Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum were studied in deciduous and coniferous wooded habitats and in open habitats on Fire Island, New York, USA. The survival of nymphal I. scapularis in field enclosures was greater in forests than in open habitats, suggesting that greater survival contributes to the higher tick population in the woods. The nymphs of each species were more common in deciduous thickets (predominantly Aronia arbutifolia and Vaccinium corynbosum) than in coniferous woods (mostly Pinus rigida) in most but not all years. Larval I. scapularis were more common in coniferous sites in 1994, while the same ticks, as nymphs, were more common in deciduous sites in 1995. The survival of the nymphs was not consistently greater in either the deciduous or coniferous woods. Therefore, factors other than nymphal survival (e.g. larval overwintering survival and tick movement on hosts) probably influenced the relative nymph abundance in different forest types. Overall, the survival of A. americanum was far higher than that of I. scapularis.
Markowski, D.; Hyland, K.E.; Ginsberg, H.S.
Larval blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis, were collected from white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus, on Prudence Island (where Microtus pennsylavanicus were not captured) and from meadow voles, M. pennsylvanicus, on Patience Island (where P. leucopus was absent) in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island from June to October 1992. Ixodes scapularis larvae were also collected by flagging in the vicinity of host captures. On both islands, the relative density of larvae changed from July to September in samples from hosts, but not in flagging samples. Consequently, different sampling techniques can give different assessments of tick populations. Larvae were highly aggregated on both of the host species throughout the sampling period. As the mean relative density of larvae increased in the environment (based on flagging samples), larvae on the hosts became more dense and more crowded. Increased densities of larvae in the environment were not correlated with increased patchiness in the distribution of larvae among host animals on either island. Changes in the spatial distribution of larval I. scapularis on each host species had similar trends as larval densities and distributions within the environment. These results suggest that M. pennsylvanicus can serve as an alternative host for immature I. scapularis in a P. leucopus-free environment and have similar distributional characteristics.
SUNYAKUMTHORN, PIYANATE; PETCHAMPAI, NATTHIDA; GRASPERGE, BRITTON J.; KEARNEY, MICHAEL T.; SONENSHINE, DANIEL E.; MACALUSO, KEVIN R.
Ticks serve as both vectors and the reservoir hosts capable of transmitting spotted fever group Rickettsia by horizontal and vertical transmission. Persistent maintenance of Rickettsia species in tick populations is dependent on the specificity of the tick and Rickettsia relationship that limits vertical transmission of particular Rickettsia species, suggesting host-derived mechanisms of control. Tick-derived molecules are differentially expressed in a tissue-specific manner in response to rickettsial infection; however, little is known about tick response to specific rickettsial species. To test the hypothesis that tissue-specific tick-derived molecules are uniquely responsive to rickettsial infection, a bioassay to characterize the tick tissue-specific response to different rickettsial species was used. Whole organs of Dermacentor variabilis (Say) were exposed to either Rickettsia montanensis or Rickettsia amblyommii, two Rickettsia species common, or absent, in field-collected D. variabilis, respectively, for 1 and 12 h and harvested for quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction assays of putative immune-like tick-derived factors. The results indicated that tick genes are differently expressed in a temporal and tissue-specific manner. Genes encoding glutathione S-transferase 1 (dvgst1) and Kunitz protease inhibitor (dvkpi) were highly expressed in midgut, and rickettsial exposure downregulated the expression of both genes. Two other genes encoding glutathione S-transferase 2 (dvgst2) and β-thymosin (dvβ-thy) were highly expressed in ovary, with dvβ-thy expression significantly downregulated in ovaries exposed to R. montanensis, but not R. amblyommii, at 12-h postexposure, suggesting a selective response. Deciphering the tissue-specific molecular interactions between tick and Rickettsia will enhance our understanding of the key mechanisms that mediate rickettsial infection in ticks. PMID:24180114
Yang, Yunlong; Bajracharya, Prati; Castillo, Paula; Nachman, Ronald J; Pietrantonio, Patricia V
The cDNA of the receptor for CAP(2b)/periviscerokinin (PVK) neuropeptides, designated Rhimi-CAP(2b)-R, was cloned from synganglia of tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. This receptor is the ortholog of the insect CAP(2b)/PVK receptor, as concluded from analyses of the predicted protein sequence, phylogenetics and functional expression. Expression analyses of synganglion, salivary gland, Malpighian tubule, and ovary revealed Rhimi-CAP(2b)-R transcripts. The expression in mammalian cells of the open reading frame of Rhimi-CAP(2b)-R cDNA fused with a hemagglutinin tag at the receptor N-terminus was confirmed by immunocytochemistry. In a calcium bioluminescence assay the recombinant receptor was activated by the tick Ixodes scapularis CAP(2b)/PVK and a PVK analog with EC₅₀s of 64 nM and 249 nM, respectively. Tick pyrokinins were not active. This is the first report on the functional characterization of the CAP(2b)/PVK receptor from any tick species which will now permit the discovery of the physiological roles of these neuropeptides in ticks, as neurohormones, neuromodulators and/or neurotransmitters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Horta, Mauricio C; Pinter, Adriano; Schumaker, Teresinha T S; Labruna, Marcelo B
An Ixodes loricatus engorged female, infected with Rickettsia bellii, was collected from an opossum (Didelphis aurita) in Mogi das Cruzes, São Paulo State, Brazil. Two consecutive laboratory tick generations (F(1) and F(2)) reared from this single engorged female were evaluated for Rickettsia infection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting specific Rickettsia genes. Immature ticks fed on naïve Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) and adult ticks fed on opossum (D. aurita), both free of ticks and rickettsial infection. PCR performed on individual ticks from the F(1) (20 larvae, 10 nymphs, and 10 adults) and the F(2) (30 larvae, 30 nymphs, and 15 adults) yielded expected bands compatible with Rickettsia. All the PCR products that were sequenced, targeting gltA gene, resulted in sequences identical to each other and 99.7% (349/350) similar to the corresponding sequence of R. bellii in GenBank. The R. bellii infection on ticks from the second laboratory generation (F(2)) was confirmed by other PCR protocols and successful isolation of R. bellii in cell culture. We report for the first time a Rickettsia species infecting I. loricatus, and the first report of R. bellii in the tick genus Ixodes. We conclude that there was an efficient transovarial transmission and transstadial survival of this Rickettsia species in the tick I. loricatus. Our results suggest that R. bellii might be maintained in nature solely by transovarial transmission and transstadial survival in ticks (no amplifier vertebrate host is needed), since there has been no direct or indirect evidence of infection of vertebrate hosts by R. bellii.
Saito, Kelly Cristina; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Nunes, Erika Takagi; de Oliveira, Patricia Rosa; Denardi, Sandra Eloisi; Mathias, Maria Izabel Camargo
This study presents the morphology of the ovary, as well as the dynamics of the vitellogenesis process in oocytes of the cattle-tick Boophilus microplus. The ovary of these individuals is of the panoistic type; therefore, it lacks nurse cells. This organ consists of a single tubular structure, continuous, and composed of a lumen delimitated by a wall of small epithelial cells with rounded nuclei. In this tick species, the oocytes were classified into six stages varying from I to VI and according to: cytoplasm appearance and presence of the germ vesicle, yolk granules, and chorion. Oocytes of various sizes and at different developmental stages remain attached to the ovary through a cellular pedicel until completing stage V. Afterwards, they are liberated into the lumen and from there to the exterior. Some oocytes (classified as type VI) showed an atypical appearance indicating that some of the cellular components would be undergoing a degenerative process and/or reabsorption.
de Oliveira, Patrícia Rosa; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Denardi, Sandra Eloisi; Nunes, Erika Takagi; Camargo Mathias, Maria Izabel
This study presents the morphology of the ovary, as well as the process of the vitellogenesis in oocytes of the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The ovary of these individuals is of the panoistic type; therefore, it lacks nurse cells. This organ consists of a single tubular structure, continuous, and composed of a wall formed by small epithelial cells with rounded nuclei which delimit the lumen. The oocytes in the different developmental stages in this tick species were classified into five stages (I-V). They remain attached to the ovary during vitellogenesis by a cellular pedicel and afterwards the mature oocytes (stage V) are released into the ovary lumen.
Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel; Pereira, Natalia Rubio Claret; da Silva Reis, Camila; de Almeida, Cristiane Regina; Dos Santos Mendes, Douglas Rodrigo; de Araújo, Giselle Bezerra; Postali, Lays; Figueroa, Tober; Ferreira, Allan Roberto Fernandes; Santos, Juan Parente; de Oliveira, Patrícia Rosa
The cosmopolitan species Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. is one of the most widely distributed ticks all over the world. These ectoparasites are vectors of several pathogens and cause significant direct damage to their hosts. The biological success of these ectoparasites has been attributed to their ovaries and salivary glands, organs that ensure their survival in various environmental conditions. The importance of the ovaries in ticks is that, after mating, the individuals are able to lay approximately three thousand eggs. The present study had the objective to demonstrate the effects of deltamethrin obtained from the product Butox P CE 25 ® (MSD Saúde Animal, São Paulo, Brazil) on the ovarian development of R. sanguineus s.l. females. The chemical was tested in the concentrations of 25, 50, 100 and 200 ppm (respectively 80, 40, 20 and 10 times lower than the recommended by the manufacturer). Through the application of histological techniques and HE staining, the results showed that the deltamethrin was potentially able to modify the morphophysiology of the oocytes in all developmental stages, interfering in the vitellogenesis, causing intense vacuolation, cytoplasmic disorganization, and alterations in the chorion secretion. In addition, the chemical affected the germ vesicle of some oocytes, causing damages and hypertrophy, fragmenting the chromatin and forming bodies strongly stained by hematoxylin. Therefore, this study confirmed that the deltamethrin had an important action on the reproductive system of the R. sanguineus s.l. females, causing the precocious structural disorganization of the germ cells, consequently preventing the generation of new individuals.
Sanches, Gustavo S; de Oliveira, Patrícia R; André, Marcos R; Machado, Rosangela Z; Bechara, Gervásio H; Camargo-Mathias, Maria I
Ovarian development and egg maturation are essential stages in animal reproduction. For bisexual ixodid ticks, copulation is an important prerequisite for the completion of the gonotrophic cycle. In this study, we aimed to characterize the morpho-histological changes in the ovary and oocytes of the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus, together with the identification of feeding and reproductive parameters associated with mating. Virgin and cross-mated females (with R. turanicus males) weighed 60% less at full engorgement than females mated conspecifically. In addition, the oocytes of these females did not develop to the same advanced stages as those of the conspecifically mated females. Sequencing of a 250-bp ITS-2 fragment in eggs that originated from a cross between an R. sanguineus female and an R. turanicus male showed a genotype similar (except by a deletion of 1 thymine) to that observed in the mother, arguing against fertilization by a trans-specific male. These findings suggest that male sex peptides are species-specific molecules that influence both full engorgement and oocyte maturation. Mechanical stimulation of the gonopore alone was insufficient for the completion of the entire process of vitellogenesis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
de Oliveira, Patrícia Rosa; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel
The ovary of the Rhipicephalus sanguineus dog tick female is structurally formed by oocytes in five different stages of development (from I to V) and attached to the gonad by the pedicel. The present study evaluated possible toxic effects of the acaricide fipronil (Frontline) on ovaries of semi-engorged ticks. Sixty partially fed females of R. sanguineus tick were distributed into four groups of 15 specimens each: I--non-treated; II, III and IV--treated with 1, 5 and 10 ppm of fipronil, respectively. The acaricide induced structural changes in the oocytes of individuals of the different treated groups ranging from the presence of a few small vacuoles to cellular death. In conclusion, germinative cells of semi-engorged R. sanguineus tick female are affected by different concentrations of fipronil leading to the reduction of tick fertility.
Chinzei, Y; Taylor, D; Ando, K
Effects of juvenile hormones (JH) and JH analogs on the release of vitellogenin (Vg) into the hemolymph and ovarian development in unfed adult female ticks, Ornithodoros moubata (Murray), were investigated. Topical application of acetone solvent and injection of acetone or oils showed some increase in Vg titer in the hemolymph. Topical application of JH (JH I, JH II, JH III) and JH analogs (methoprene, S21149, S21150, and S31183) dissolved in acetone to unengorged adult females elevated Vg titer in the hemolymph but only to the same level as the acetone controls. These effects were independent of dose. Injection of JH (JH I, JH II, JH III) and methoprene dissolved in mineral oil also did not significantly increase the Vg titer in the hemolymph compared with the controls (mineral oil injection). Electrophoretic analysis of hemolymph from females 5 d after treatment topically or by injection with JH and JH analogs showed faint Vg bands which comigrated with Vg's (Vg-1 and Vg-2) of normal, engorged female hemolymph, but Vg bands were detected more clearly in the hemolymph samples that were collected greater than 2 wk after treatment. However, the same level of Vg also was detected in the hemolymph of females treated with acetone or mineral oil. Vg synthesis in females treated with JH and JH analogs was analyzed by in vivo labeling and fluorography, which showed that Vg synthesis was not induced by application of JH to unengorged females.
Broglio-Micheletti, Sônia Maria Forti; Dias, Nivia da Silva; Valente, Ellen Carine Neves; de Souza, Leilianne Alves; Lopes, Diego Olympio Peixoto; Dos Santos, Jakeline Maria
Organic plant extracts and emulsified oil of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae) (neem) were studied to evaluate its effects in control of engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini, 1887) in the laboratory. Hexane and alcoholic organic extracts, 2% (weight/volume) were used in tests of immersion for 5 minutes, prepared with seeds, solubilized in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) to 1%. The experiment was entirely randomized, consisting of 6 treatments and 5 replicates, each represented by 5 ticks. Control groups consisted of untreated females. Based on the results of this work, we can indicate that the seed extract (hexanic fraction) and óleo emulsionável I¹ concentration to 2% have significant adjuvant potential to control the cattle tick, because, cause the mortality in the first days after the treatment and interfere in the reproduction, showing to be an alternative to acaricides normally used.
Remedio, R N; Nunes, P H; Anholeto, L A; Oliveira, P R; Sá, I C G; Camargo-Mathias, M I
Neem (Azadirachta indica) has attracted the attention of researchers worldwide due to its repellent properties and recognized effects on the morphology and physiology of arthropods, including ticks. Therefore, this study aimed to demonstrate the effects of neem seed oil enriched with azadirachtin on salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, targets of great veterinary interest because of their ability to transmit pathogens to dogs. For this, R. sanguineus semi-engorged females were subjected to treatment with neem seed oil, with known azadirachtin concentrations (200, 400 and 600ppm). After dissection, salivary glands were collected and evaluated through morphological techniques in light microscopy, confocal scanning laser microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, so that the possible relation between neem action and further impairment in these ectoparasites feed performance could be established. Neem oil demonstrated a clear dose-dependent effect in the analyzed samples. The agranular (type I) and granular acini (types II and III) showed, particularly in individuals treated with the highest concentrations of the product, cells with irregular shape, intense cytoplasmic disorganization and vacuolation, dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum lumen, besides alterations in mitochondrial intermembrane space. These morphological damages may indicate modifications in salivary glands physiology, demonstrating the harmful effects of compounds present in neem oil on ticks. These results reinforce the potential of neem as an alternative method for controlling R. sanguineus ticks, instead of synthetic acaricides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kim, Soon-Ii; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Koh, Young-Yull; Clark, J Marshall; Ahn, Young-Joon
The toxicity of formulations of oil of cassia, Cinnamomum cassia Blume, (20 and 50 g L(-1) sprays and 100% oil-based fumigant) to adult Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes and D. pteronyssinus Trouessart was examined using contact and vapour-phase toxicity bioassays. Results were compared with the lethal activity of three commercial acaricides: benzyl benzoate, dibutyl phthalate and diethyl-m-toluamide (deet). The contact toxicity of cassia oil to both dust mite species was comparable with that of benzyl benzoate but was higher than that of the other two acaricides. Sprays containing 20 and 50 g L(-1) cassia oil were effective against both mite species when applied to fabric, glass, paper, plastic, tin or wood substrates. Applications of the 50 g L(-1) spray to different space volumes and surface areas determined that 50-60 mg of cassia oil was needed to control dust mites in 3.4 m(3) or in 1 m(2). In tests with fumigant devices, toxicity varied according to the thickness of non-woven fabric covering the device, the exposure time, the number of fumigant devices used and the volume of the space sprayed. Fumigant toxicity to adult D. pteronyssinus was more pronounced with devices enclosed in thinner (40 microm) versus thicker (45 or 50 microm) non-woven fabric covers. A single fumigant device with a 40 microm thick non-woven fabric cover resulted in substantial control in a space of 0.05 m(3) but exhibited only moderate to weak control in spaces >or= 0.097 m(3) at 4 days after application. Two fumigant devices gave 88% mortality in a space of 1.73 m(3). Cassia oil applied as sprays or in fumigant devices appears to provide effective protection of humans from house dust mites.
Effects of permethrin and amitraz on metabolism of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum, were examined using a flow-through carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor analyzer. Untreated adult female ticks exhibited a distinct discontinuous gas exchange pattern (DGEP) with no measurable water loss. Si...
Phytophagous mites and endophytic fungi may interact when sharing a host plant, potentially influencing one another’s growth or population dynamics; however, interactions between them are poorly known and remain largely unexplored. In this study, quantitative associations between three species of ph...
Background There is a long-standing controversial about how parthenogenetic species can be defined in absence of a generally accepted species concept for this reproductive mode. An integrative approach was suggested, combining molecular and morphological data to identify distinct monophyletic entities. Using this approach, speciation of parthenogenetic lineages was recently demonstrated for groups of bdelloid rotifers and oribatid mites. Trhypochthonius tectorum, an oribatid mite from the entirely parthenogenetic desmonomatan family Trhypochthoniidae, is traditionally treated as a single species in Central Europe. However, two new morphological lineages were recently proposed for some Austrian populations of T. tectorum, and were described as novel subspecies (T. silvestris europaeus) or form (T. japonicus forma occidentalis). We used the morphological and morphometrical data which led to this separation, and added mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences and the chemical composition of complex exocrine oil gland secretions to test this taxonomical hypothesis. This is the first attempt to combine these three types of data for integrative taxonomical investigations of oribatid mites. Results We show that the previous European species T. tectorum represents a species complex consisting of three distinct lineages in Austria (T.tectorum, T. silvestris europaeus and T. japonicus forma occidentalis), each clearly separated by morphology, oil gland secretion profiles and mitochondrial cox1 sequences. This diversification happened in the last ten million years. In contrast to these results, no variation among the lineages was found in the nuclear 18S rDNA. Conclusions Our approach combined morphological, molecular and chemical data to investigate diversity and species delineation in a parthenogenetic oribatid mite species complex. To date, hypotheses of a general oribatid mite phylogeny are manifold, and mostly based on single-method approaches. Probably, the integrative approach proposed here can be used to uncover further hidden biodiversity of glandulate Oribatida and help to build up more stable phylogenetic hypotheses in the future. PMID:21303503
Breda, M O; de Oliveira, J V; Esteves Filho, A B; Barbosa, D R S; de Santana, M F
Despite the continued efforts on the search for different genotypes, Capsicum annuum (L.) is quite susceptible to attack by pest arthropods, especially the broad mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus Banks. Thus, the host preference, population growth and the injuries assessment of P. latus was studied on six C. annuum genotypes used in Brazil (Atlantis, California Wonder, Impact, Palloma, Rubia and Tendence). Host preference was accessed in choice tests, pairing the several genotypes, and the population growth was observed through non-choice tests in laboratory. The injuries assessments were evaluated in the greenhouse, comparing the injury level among the six genotypes. The results indicate that California Wonder and Palloma genotypes were more preferred by P. latus, and Impact and Tendence were less preferred. P. latus presented positive population growth rates (ri) on all the genotypes, however, Palloma and California Wonder showed the highest values of population growth rate (ri = 0.344 and ri = 0.340, respectively), while Impact had the lowest value (ri = 0.281). All the evaluated C. annuum genotypes showed low tolerance to P. latus and exhibited several injuries, but there was no statistical difference between them. California Wonder had the highest average number of mites/leaf (57.15), while Impact and Tendence obtained the lowest values (36.67 and 35.12, respectively) at the end of the evaluation period. The total average of injuries notes at the end of the bioassay did not differ between the genotypes. The number of mites/leaf was growing for the injury scale to the note 3.0, but when the injury scale approached the note 4.0, there was observed a decrease in the number of mites/leaf for all the genotypes.
Azandémè Hounmalon, Ginette Y; Maniania, Nguya K; Niassy, Saliou; Fellous, Simon; Kreiter, Serge; Delétré, Emilie; Fiaboe, Komi K; Martin, Thibaud
Tetranychus evansi (Te) is an exotic pest of solanaceous crops in Africa. The predatory mite Phytoseiulus longipes (Pl) and the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma), are potential biocontrol agents of Te. The present study investigated efficacy of fungus-treated foam placed above or below the third Te-infested tomato leaf. The persistence of fungus-treated foam and the performance of Pl with or without fungus-treated foam were evaluated. The fungus-treated foam was effective when Te infestation was below the third tomato leaf as no damage was recorded on all upper tomato leaves up to 30 days post-treatment. However, in the control treatments, the infestation increased considerably from 9±0.3% to 100±0% at 15 days post-treatment. The reuse of the fungus-treated foam at 15, 30 and 45 days post-treatment resulted in 19±1.4%, 25±1.2% and 54±2.1% respective infestation by Te. The fungus-treated foam and Pl alone are efficient, but there is no benefit to combinting both against Te. The fungus-treated foam is an effective method to optimize the use of Ma in screenhouse conditions. These two control agents could be integrated in an IPM strategy for crops protection. However, these results need to be confirmed in large field trials. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Khanamani, Mostafa; Fathipour, Yaghoub; Talebi, Ali Asghar; Mehrabadi, Mohammad
It has been shown that pollen as a dietary supplement may increase the establishment of generalist predatory mites, and therefore pest control by these mites can be provided. Life table studies were performed to evaluate the nutritional value of seven different pollens (almond, castor-bean, date-palm, maize, bitter-orange, sunflower and mixed bee pollen) as a supplementary food source for the spider mite predator Neoseiulus californicus McGregor. In addition, the nutritional quality of each pollen species was assessed through morphological and chemical analysis. Preadult duration was longer when the predator fed on castor-bean pollen (10.01 days) and bee pollen (9.94 days) compared with the others (5.58-7.27 days). The cohort reared on almond pollen had the highest intrinsic rate of increase (r) (0.231 day -1 ), and those on mixed bee pollen had the lowest r (0.005 day -1 ). The levels of nutritional content (sugar, lipid and protein) were significantly different among tested pollens. Comparison of N. californicus life table parameters on different diets revealed that the almond pollen (and after that the maize pollen) was a more suitable diet than the others. These findings will be useful in developing appropriate strategies for conservation of N. californicus to control spider mites. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Pešić, Vladimir; Piccoli, Gustavo Cauê De Oliveira; Araújo, Marcel Santos De; Rezende, José Marcos; Gonçalves, Ana Zangirolame
The rosette architecture of some bromeliad species traps water and organic matter from the canopy in leaf axils (forming phytotelmata) and harbors many species of invertebrate animals (Frank & Lounibos 2009). Some water mites are adapted to live in phytotelmata; typically recorded from water-filled tree holes, bromeliad tanks, and a range of plant axils. Karl Viets (1939) was the first acarologist who discovered Micruracaropsis phytotelmaticola (Viets, 1939) in the water contained in the leaf bases of epiphytic Bromeliaceae in Surinam. Later on, Orghidan et al. (1977) described Arrenurus bromeliacearum Orghidan, Gruia & Viña Bayés, 1977 from phytotelmata in Cuba. Orghidan & Gruia (1987) reported Arrenurus andrewfieldi Orghidan & Gruia, 1983 from phytotelmata of epiphytic bromeliad Vriesea platynema in Venezuela. Smith & Harvey (1989) described Arrenurus kitchingi Smith & Harvey, 1989 from water-filled tree holes in Queensland, Australia. The same authors (Smith & Harvey 1989) also reported that members of genus Thyopsis occur in water-filled tree holes in Ohio, USA. Rosso de Ferradás & Fernández (2001) reported two Arrenurus species from water accumulated in Guzmania mucronata (Bromeliaceae) in Venezuela, A. andrewfieldi Orghidan & Gruia, 1983 and A. caquetiorum Rosso de Ferradás & Fernández, 2001.
Ahn, Y J; Kim, Y J; Yoo, J K
The toxicities of the herbicide glufosinate-ammonium to three predatory insect and two predatory mite species of Tetranychus urticae Koch were determined in the laboratory by the direct contact application. At a concentration of 540 ppm (a field application rate for weed control in apple orchards), glufosinate-ammonium was almost nontoxic to eggs of Amblyseius womersleyi Schicha, Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, and T. urticae but highly toxic to nymphs and adults of these three mite species, indicating that a common mode of action between predatory and phytophagous mites might be involved. In tests with predatory insects using 540 ppm, glufosinate-ammonium revealed little or no harm to larvae and pupae of Chrysopa pallens Rambur but was slightly harmful to eggs (71.2% mortality), nymphs (65.0% mortality), and adults (57.7% mortality) of Orius strigicollis Poppius. The herbicide showed no direct effect on eggs and adults of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) but was harmful, slightly harmful, and harmless to first instars (100% mortality), fourth instars (51.1% mortality), and pupae (24.5% mortality), respectively. The larvae and nymphs of predators died within 12 h after treatment, suggesting that the larvicidal and nymphicidal action may be attributable to a direct effect rather than an inhibitory action of chitin synthesis. On the basis of our data, glufosinate-ammonium caused smaller effects on test predators than on T. urticae with the exception of P. persimilis, although the mechanism or cause of selectivity remains unknown. Glufosinate-ammonium merits further study as a key component of integrated pest management.
Mondal, Sagata; Gupta, Salil Kumar
The present paper reports duration of different developmental stages as well as fecundity, longevity, oviposition periods, sex ratio, etc. of Tetranychus sayedi Baker & Pitchard on two medicinal plants, viz. Cryptolepis buchanani Roem & Schult and Justicia adhatoda L. under laboratory condition at 27.5 °C and 65% R.H. during February-March, 2016. The two hosts in which the life cycle was studied form two new records of hosts for this mite. It appears that C. buchanani is better host among the two hosts as because the life cycle (egg to adult) was completed in shorter time, recording high fecundity and longer longevity.
Prado, Julia; Quesada, Carlos; Gosney, Michael; Mickelbart, Michael V; Sadof, Clifford
Although leaf nitrogen (N) has been shown to increase the suitability of hosts to herbivorous arthropods, the responses of these pests to N fertilization on susceptible and resistant host plants are not well characterized. This study determined how different rates of N fertilization affected injury caused by the potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae Harris) and the abundance of maple spider mite (Oligonychus aceris (Shimer)) on 'Red Sunset' red maple (Acer rubrum) and 'Autumn Blaze' Freeman maple (Acer×freemanii) during two years in Indiana. N fertilization increased leaf N concentration in both maple cultivars, albeit to a lesser extent during the second year of the study. Overall, Red Sunset maples were more susceptible to E. fabae injury than Autumn Blaze, whereas Autumn Blaze maples supported higher populations of O. aceris. Differences in populations of O. aceris were attributed to differences between communities of stigmaeid and phytoseiid mites on each cultivar. Injury caused by E. fabae increased with N fertilization in a dose-dependent manner in both cultivars. Although N fertilization increased the abundance of O. aceris on both maple cultivars, there was no difference between the 20 and 40 g rates. We suggest the capacity of N fertilization to increase O. aceris on maples could be limited at higher trophic levels by the community of predatory mites. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Fournier, Valerie; Rosenheim, Jay A; Brodeur, Jacques; Johnson, Marshall W
An important element in developing a management strategy for a new pest is the study of its seasonal dynamics and within-plant distribution. Here, we studied the mite Calacarus flagelliseta Fletchmann, De Moraes & Barbosa on papaya, Papaya carica L. (Caricaceae), in Hawaii to quantify 1) patterns of seasonal abundance, 2) its distribution across different vertical strata of the papaya canopy, and 3) shifts in its use of the upper versus the lower surfaces of papaya leaves. Nondestructive sampling conducted in two papaya plantings revealed that 1) populations of C. flagelliseta peak during the summer; 2) mites are most abundant in the middle and lower strata of the plant canopy, and least abundant on the youngest leaves found in the upper canopy; and 3) mites are found more predominantly on the upper leaf surfaces when overall population density peaks, suggesting that individuals move from the lower to the upper leaf surfaces when food resources on the lower leaf surface have been exploited by conspecifics. These results have significant implications for the development of sampling plans for C. flagelliseta in papaya.
Castro, E B; Zanardi, O C; Garlet, J; Ochoa, R; Feres, R J F
We verified infestation of Oligonychus milleri (McGregor) on plantations of Pinus caribaea (Pinaceae) and of Oligonychus ununguis (Jacobi) on plantations of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis (Myrtaceae) in State of Rondônia, Northern region of Brazil. This represents the first record of O. milleri in Brazil. Oligonychus ununguis was recorded previously, on cypress. The damage caused by these two spider mites in the plantations is described herein.
Dolan, Marc C; Breuner, Nicole E; Hojgaard, Andrias; Boegler, Karen A; Hoxmeier, J Charles; Replogle, Adam J; Eisen, Lars
The recently recognized Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia mayonii, has been detected in host-seeking Ixodes scapularis Say ticks and is associated with human disease in the Upper Midwest. Although experimentally shown to be vector competent, studies have been lacking to determine the duration of time from attachment of a single B. mayonii-infected I. scapularis nymph to transmission of spirochetes to a host. If B. mayonii spirochetes were found to be transmitted within the first 24 h after tick attachment, in contrast to Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes (>24 h), then current recommendations for tick checks and prompt tick removal as a way to prevent transmission of Lyme disease spirochetes would need to be amended. We therefore conducted a study to determine the probability of transmission of B. mayonii spirochetes from single infected nymphal I. scapularis ticks to susceptible experimental mouse hosts at three time points postattachment (24, 48, and 72 h) and for a complete feed (>72-96 h). No evidence of infection with or exposure to B. mayonii occurred in mice that were fed upon by a single infected nymph for 24 or 48 h. The probability of transmission by a single infected nymphal tick was 31% after 72 h of attachment and 57% for a complete feed. In addition, due to unintended simultaneous feeding upon some mice by two B. mayonii-infected nymphs, we recorded a single occasion in which feeding for 48 h by two infected nymphs resulted in transmission and viable infection in the mouse. We conclude that the duration of attachment of a single infected nymphal I. scapularis tick required for transmission of B. mayonii appears to be similar to that for B. burgdorferi: transmission is minimal for the first 24 h of attachment, rare up to 48 h, but then increases distinctly by 72 h postattachment. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.
concern (Gratz 1999). Lyme disease, caused by the spirocheteBorrelia burgdorferi, is themost commonly reported vector-borne disease in the United States...and the incidence of Lyme disease continues to in- crease. In the past 5 yr, an average of 20,000 cases have been reported annually, whereas the...number of reported Lyme disease cases reached an all-time high of35,000 in 2008 (CDC 2010). The blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, the principal
affinis is morphologically very similar to Ixodes scapularis Say, the primary vector of Lyme disease borreliae in the eastern U.S.A. (Keirans et al. 1996...1985) implicated the white-footed mouse as the primary amplifying mammal host of Borrelia burgdorferi s. s. in the northeastern Lyme disease cycle, yet...implications for Lyme disease studies Bruce A. Harrison1, Walker H. Rayburn Jr.2, Marcee Toliver1, Eugene E. Powell1, Barry R. Engber1, Lance A. Durden3
Machtinger, Erika T; Li, Andrew Y
Lone star ticks are aggressive ectoparasites of domestic and wild animals, as well as humans. These ticks can transmit many pathogens that cause disease including Erhlichia and tularemia. Common compounds used for personal protection and area sprays are N-diethyl-3-methyl benzamide (DEET) and permethrin, but public concern over personal and environmental safety require the development of new, safer products. In the current study, four commercially available products (Wondercide, Essentria IC 3 , Vet's Best, and Mosquito Barrier) were tested for both repellent and toxic effects against lone star tick nymphs and adults. Overall, all four products were more effective against nymphs than against adults. Wondercide and Essentria IC 3 were as toxic to nymphs as permethrin at concentrations of 3.13% and higher, and as repellent as DEET at all concentrations. Nymphs were also repelled by Mosquito Barrier and Vet's Best, but these products had about half or less of the repellent effects of Wondercide and Essentria IC 3 at most of the concentrations. Adult ticks were repelled similarly by all products at all tested concentrations, but at lower levels than nymphs. Toxicity of the four tested products on adults was similar at concentrations of 12.5% and below, less than half of what was observed with permethrin with declining effectiveness as concentrations decreased. Overall, these four products may offer a natural way to repel lone star ticks, but further field testing is needed to determine rates of application and residual activity.
Carroll, J F; Mills, G D; Schmidtmann, E T
In a field test, adult blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say, of both sexes exhibited an arrestant response to substances associated with external glands on the legs of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann), their principal host. Substances rubbed from the pelage covering tarsal and interdigital glands were applied to artificial vantage points simulating vegetation on which I. scapularis adults wait for host contact. A combination of tarsal substances (applied to the apex of the simulated vantage point) and interdigital gland substances (applied to the horizontal base) elicited a greater response than either treatment alone. A minimal response was observed on untreated vantage points. In laboratory bioassays using glass tubing as vantage points, substances associated with preorbital glands of deer elicited a strong arrestant response among I. scapularis females, whereas samples rubbed from the forehead, back, and a nonglandular area on deer tarsi evoked weak arrestant responses. These results support the hypothesis that the kairomonal properties of host-generated residues, either in conjunction with or in lieu of the effects of carbon dioxide, help account for the prevalence of host-seeking ticks along animal trails.
Schulze, Terry L; Jordan, Robert A; Hung, Robert W; Puelle, Rose S; Markowski, Daniel; Chomsky, Martin S
Using polymerase chain reaction, we analyzed 529 Ixodes scapularis Say adults collected from 16 of New Jersey's 21 counties for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of Lyme disease. Overall, 261 (49.3%) were positive. B. burgdorferi was detected in ticks obtained from each county and from 53 of the 58 (93.1%) municipalities surveyed. The observed statewide prevalence in New Jersey is similar to those reported from other northeastern and mid-Atlantic states.
A new stackable modular system was developed for continuous in-vivo production of phytoseiid mites. The system consists of cage units that are filled with lima bean, Phaseolus lunatus, or red beans, P. vulgaris, leaves infested with high levels of the two-spotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae. T...
Two-spotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae (Koch), is an early season pest of cotton in the mid-southern United States and causes reduction in yield, fiber quality and impaired seed germination. Objectives of this study were to investigate the efficacy of abamectin and spiromesifen with two...
Zhao, Ya-E; Wu, Li-Ping
To confirm phylogenetic relationships in Demodex mites based on mitochondrial 16S rDNA partial sequences, mtDNA 16S partial sequences of ten isolates of three Demodex species from China were amplified, recombined, and sequenced and then analyzed with two Demodex folliculorum isolates from Spain. Lastly, genetic distance was computed, and phylogenetic tree was reconstructed. MEGA 4.0 analysis showed high sequence identity among 16S rDNA partial sequences of three Demodex species, which were 95.85 % in D. folliculorum, 98.53 % in Demodex canis, and 99.71 % in Demodex brevis. The divergence, genetic distance, and transition/transversions of the three Demodex species reached interspecies level, whereas there was no significant difference of the divergence (1.1 %), genetic distance (0.011), and transition/transversions (3/1) of the two geographic D. folliculorum isolates (Spain and China). Phylogenetic trees reveal that the three Demodex species formed three separate branches of one clade, where D. folliculorum and D. canis gathered first, and then gathered with D. brevis. The two Spain and five China D. folliculorum isolates did not form sister clades. In conclusion, 16S mtDNA are suitable for phylogenetic relationship analysis in low taxa (genus or species), but not for intraspecies determination of Demodex. The differentiation among the three Demodex species has reached interspecies level.
Zhao, Ya-E; Xu, Ji-Ru; Hu, Li; Wu, Li-Ping; Wang, Zheng-Hang
The study for the first time attempted to accomplish 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) complete sequence amplification and analysis for three Demodex species (Demodex folliculorum, Demodex brevis and Demodex canis) based on gDNA extraction from individual mites. The mites were treated by DNA Release Additive and Hot Start II DNA Polymerase so as to promote mite disruption and increase PCR specificity. Determination of D. folliculorum gDNA showed that the gDNA yield reached the highest at 1 mite, tending to descend with the increase of mite number. The individual mite gDNA was successfully used for 18S rDNA fragment (about 900 bp) amplification examination. The alignments of 18S rDNA complete sequences of individual mite samples and those of pooled mite samples ( ≥ 1000mites/sample) showed over 97% identities for each species, indicating that the gDNA extracted from a single individual mite was as satisfactory as that from pooled mites for PCR amplification. Further pairwise sequence analyses showed that average divergence, genetic distance, transition/transversion or phylogenetic tree could not effectively identify the three Demodex species, largely due to the differentiation in the D. canis isolates. It can be concluded that the individual Demodex mite gDNA can satisfy the molecular study of Demodex. 18S rDNA complete sequence is suitable for interfamily identification in Cheyletoidea, but whether it is suitable for intrafamily identification cannot be confirmed until the ascertainment of the types of Demodex mites parasitizing in dogs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yabsley, Michael J.; Clay, Sarah E.; Gibbs, Samantha E. J.; Cunningham, Mark W.; Austel, Michaela G.
Demodex mites, although usually nonpathogenic, can cause a wide range of dermatological lesions ranging from mild skin irritation and alopecia to severe furunculosis. Recently, a case of demodicosis from a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) revealed a Demodex species morphologically distinct from Demodex odocoilei. All life cycle stages were considerably larger than D. odocoilei and although similar in size to D. kutzeri and D. acutipes from European cervids, numerous morphometrics distinguished the four species. Adult males and females were 209.1 ± 13.1 and 225.5 ± 13.4 μm in length, respectively. Ova, larva, and nymphs measured 65.1 ± 4.1, 124.9 ± 11.6, and 205.1 ± 19.4 μm in length, respectively. For phylogenetic analyses, a portion of the 18S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced from samples of the WTD Demodex sp., two Demodex samples from domestic dogs, and Demodex ursi from a black bear. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the WTD Demodex was most similar to D. musculi from laboratory mice. A partial sequence from D. ursi was identical to the WTD Demodex sequence; however, these two species can be differentiated morphologically. This paper describes a second Demodex species from white-tailed deer and indicates that 18S rRNA is useful for phylogenetic analysis of most Demodex species, but two morphologically distinct species had identical partial sequences. Additional gene targets should be investigated for phylogenetic and parasite-host association studies. PMID:27335854
Izdebska, Joanna N; Rolbiecki, Leszek
This article describes morphological characteristics and occurrence of Demodex lutrae n. sp., which was found on European otter Lutra lutra (Linnaeus, 1758) in Poland. The new species was found in hairy regions of otter skin, mainly in the head area. With respect to morphological features, D. lutrae is most similar to D. canis (Leydig, 1859) from the domestic dog Canis familiaris Linnaeus, 1758. The new species is a medium-sized demodecid mite (adult stages average 200 μm in length); characteristic features of these mites are hammer-shaped supracoxal spines (setae elc.p) on dorsal side of gnathosoma and palps with 3 conical spines. Demodex lutrae is the first representative of the family Demodecidae described in a host from the subfamily Lutrinae. This paper also contains a checklist of demodecid mites known from carnivores.
Sastre, Natalia; Francino, Olga; Curti, Joseph N; Armenta, Tiffany C; Fraser, Devaughn L; Kelly, Rochelle M; Hunt, Erin; Silbermayr, Katja; Zewe, Christine; Sánchez, Armand; Ferrer, Lluís
This study was conceived to detect skin mites in social mammals through real-time qPCR, and to estimate taxonomic Demodex and further Prostigmata mite relationships in different host species by comparing sequences from two genes: mitochondrial 16S rRNA and nuclear 18S rRNA. We determined the mite prevalence in the hair follicles of marmots (13%) and bats (17%). The high prevalence found in marmots and bats by sampling only one site on the body may indicate that mites are common inhabitants of their skin. Since we found three different mites (Neuchelacheles sp, Myobia sp and Penthaleus sp) in three bat species (Miotis yumanensis, Miotis californicus and Corynorhinus townsendii) and two different mites (both inferred to be members of the Prostigmata order) in one marmot species (Marmota flaviventris), we tentatively concluded that these skin mites 1) cannot be assigned to the same genus based only on a common host, and 2) seem to evolve according to the specific habitat and/or specific hair and sebaceous gland of the mammalian host. Moreover, two M. yumanensis bats harbored identical Neuchelacheles mites, indicating the possibility of interspecific cross-infection within a colony. However, some skin mites species are less restricted by host species than previously thought. Specifically, Demodex canis seems to be more transmissible across species than other skin mites. D. canis have been found mostly in dogs but also in cats and captive bats. In addition, we report the first case of D. canis infestation in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius). All these mammalian hosts are related to human activities, and D. canis evolution may be a consequence of this relationship. The monophyletic Demodex clade showing closely related dog and human Demodex sequences also supports this likely hypothesis.
Zhao, Ya-e; Ma, Jun-xian; Hu, Li; Wu, Li-ping; De Rojas, Manuel
For a long time, classification of Demodex mites has been based mainly on their hosts and phenotypic characteristics. A new subspecies of Demodex folliculorum has been proposed, but not confirmed. Here, cox1 partial sequences of nine isolates of three Demodex species from two geographical sources (China and Spain) were studied to conduct molecular identification of D. folliculorum. Sequencing showed that the mitochondrial cox1 fragments of five D. folliculorum isolates from the facial skin of Chinese individuals were 429 bp long and that their sequence identity was 97.4%. The average sequence divergence was 1.24% among the five Chinese isolates, 0.94% between the two geographical isolate groups (China (5) and Spain (1)), and 2.15% between the two facial tissue sources (facial skin (6) and eyelids (1)). The genetic distance and rate of third-position nucleotide transition/transversion were 0.0125, 2.7 (3/1) among the five Chinese isolates, 0.0094, 3.1 (3/1) between the two geographical isolate groups, and 0.0217, 4.4 (3/1) between the two facial tissue sources. Phylogenetic trees showed that D. folliculorum from the two geographical isolate groups did not form sister clades, while those from different facial tissue sources did. According to the molecular characteristics, it appears that subspecies differentiation might not have occurred and that D. folliculorum isolates from the two geographical sources are of the same population. However, population differentiation might be occurring between isolates from facial skin and eyelids. PMID:24009203
Silva, Wilson Castro; Martins, João Ricardo de Souza; de Souza, Hellen Emília Menezes; Heinzen, Horacio; Cesio, Maria Verônica; Mato, Mauricio; Albrecht, Francine; de Azevedo, João Lúcio; de Barros, Neiva Monteiro
The mortality of 14-21-day-old Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus larvae, and the mortality and fertility of groups of engorged adult females exposed to different concentrations of hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of spiked pepper (Piper aduncum) were evaluated, using a completely randomized design with five treatment groups, two control groups, and two replicates for the larvae and five replicates for the adult females. Similar methodology was used to investigate the toxicity of the essential oil hydro-distillate (94.84% dillapiole) obtained from the P. aduncum crude hexane extract. The LC(50) of the hexane extract was 9.30 mg ml(-1) for larvae and the reproduction reduction ranged from 12.48% to 54.22%, while 0.1mg/ml(-1) of the essential oil induced 100% mortality in larvae. Literature reports on natural products active against R. microplus were listed and compared with the results presented here. These results indicate that P. aduncum extracts, and particularly its essential oil, are potential alternative control agents for R. microplus.
Vieira, Maria Isabel Botelho; Bordin, Tiago; Dall'Agnol, Bruno; Zanchin, Fabiane; Motta, Adriana Costa Da; Noro, Mirela
Here we describe an outbreak of chorioptic mange in cattle, 56 years after its first identification in Brazil. Between the months of June and July 2011, dermatitis characterized by alopecia and crusted and thickened skin at the insertion of the tail and in the ischiorectal fossa was recognized in 40 (35.7%) out of 112 Holstein cows on a farm in the northeastern mesoregion of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. After diagnosing mange caused by Chorioptes bovis, the cows were weighed and treated with 0.5% ivermectin, as a pour-on single dose, and were separated into two groups: cows in early lactation and those in late lactation. The survival rate of C. bovis and the healing rate in the two groups of infested cows were monitored every seven days through skin scrapings. After 28 days of evaluation, the cure rate through treatment was greater among cows in early lactation (p <0.0001). The survival rate of C. bovis was higher in cows in late lactation.
Grigoryeva, L A; Stanyukovich, M K
The life cycle of Ixodes persulcatus lasts 3 years in the conditions of the Leningrad province (North-West Russia), the development of each phase taking a year. The normal age of the taiga tick is 3 years. The calendar age of larvae and nymphs reaches 11-12 months under favorable abiotic and biotic factors, while the calendar age of adults does not exceed 11 months. At the preimaginal phases of development the ticks that breed in August can feed before or after winter. However, their metamorphosis begins and reaches completion within the same timeframes (from late June to early August) and lasts for about 30-50 (60) days. The survival rate of hungry and engorged larvae and nymphs after wintering is quite high (88.6-100 %). We explain the low activity of larvae and nymphs in late summer and autumn by incomplete development. Morphogenetic diapause of engorged larvae and nymphs interrupts digestion but not metamorphosis which starts only in late June and July after the complete absorption of blood from the gut cavity.
Matsuo, T; Tsukamoto, D; Inoue, N; Fujisaki, K
In the present study, 19 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against adult Ornithodoros moubata hemocytes were established, and the reactivity of the hemocytes to these mAbs was examined by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), Western blot and immunoprecipitation analyses. It was shown that the reactivities of the hemocytes to the mAbs varied among morphologically similar hemocyte types, and most mAbs produced in the present study showed the multiple band reactivity. However, the presence of shared epitopes among peptide subunits of the same protein or entirely different proteins are not common, so their reactivity could not be explained in detail. These results suggest that there are morphologically similar but functionally differentiated hemocytes. Therefore, in addition to morphological classification, the molecular-based classification of the hemocytes is also required. In order to assess the lethal effect of blood meal containing each mAb, artificial feeding was performed. The OmHC 31 showed the strongest lethal effect on adult female O. moubata. In conclusion, anti-hemocyte mAbs produced in this study are useful not only for the immunological classification of hemocytes but also for the immunological control of the tick.
Feitosa, A P S; Alves, L C; Chaves, M M; Veras, D L; Silva, E M; Aliança, A S S; França, I R S; Gonçalves, G G A; Lima-Filho, J L; Brayner, F A
Few studies have examined the cellular immune response of ticks, and further research on the characterization of the hemocytes of ticks is required, particularly on those of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) because of the medical and veterinary importance of this tick. The aims of this study were to characterize the morphology and the ultrastructure of the different types of hemocytes of adult R. sanguineus and to determine the population abundance and the ultrastructural changes in the hemocytes of ticks infected with Leishmania infantum. The hemocytes were characterized through light and transmission electron microscopy. Within the variability of circulating cells in the hemolymph of adult R. sanguineus, five cell types were identified, which were the prohemocytes, plasmatocytes, granulocytes, spherulocytes, and adipohemocytes. The prohemocytes were the smallest cells found in the hemolymph. The plasmatocytes had polymorphic morphology with vesicles and cytoplasmic projections. The granulocytes had an elliptical shape with the cytoplasm filled with granules of different sizes and electrodensities. The spherulocytes were characterized by several spherules of uniform shapes and sizes that filled the entire cytoplasm, whereas the adipohemocytes had an irregular shape with multiple lipid inclusions that occupied almost the entire cytoplasmic space. The total counts of the hemocyte population increased in the group that was infected with L. infantum. Among the different cell types, the numbers increased and the ultrastructural changes occurred in the granulocytes and the plasmatocytes in the infected group of ticks. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Perumalsamy, Haribalan; Kim, Jae Yeon; Kim, Jun-Ran; Hwang, Kum Na Ra; Ahn, Young-Joon
Pyroglyphid house dust mites are the most common cause of allergic symptoms in humans. An assessment was made of the toxicity of basil, Ocimum basilicum L, essential oil, 11 basil oil constituents, seven structurally related compounds, and another 22 previously known basil oil constituents to adult American house dust mites, Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes. The efficacy of four experimental spray formulations containing basil oil (1, 2, 3, and 4% sprays) was also assessed. Results were compared with those of two conventional acaricides benzyl benzoate and N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide. The active principles of basil oil were determined to be citral, alpha-terpineol, and linalool. Citral (24 h LC50, 1.13 microg/cm2) and menthol (1.69 microg/cm2) were the most toxic compounds, followed by methyl eugenol (5.78 microg/cm2). These compounds exhibited toxicity greater than benzyl benzoate (LC50, 8.41 microg/cm2) and N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (37.67 microg/cm2). Potent toxicity was also observed with eugenol, menthone, spathulenol, alpha-terpineol, nerolidol, zerumbone, and nerol (LC50, 12.52-21.44 microg/cm2). Interestingly, the sesquiterpenoid alpha-humulene, lacking only the carbonyl group present in zerumbone, was significantly less effective than zerumbone, indicating that the alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl group of zerumbone is a prerequisite component for toxicity. These compounds were consistently more toxic in closed versus open containers, indicating that their mode of delivery was largely a result of vapor action. Basil oil applied as 3 and 4% sprays provided 97 and 100% mortality against the mites, respectively, whereas permethrin (cis:trans, 25:75) 2.5 g/liter spray treatment resulted in 17% mortality. Our results indicate that practical dust mite control in indoor environments can be achieved by basil oil spray formulations (3 and 4% sprays) as potential contact-action fumigants.
El-Seedi, Hesham R; Khalil, Nasr S; Azeem, Muhammad; Taher, Eman A; Göransson, Ulf; Pålsson, Katinka; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin
In our search for effective tick repellents from plant origin, we investigated the effect of essential oils of four medicinal and culinary plants belonging to the family Lamiaceae on nymphs of the tick Ixodes ricinus (L.). The essential oils of the dry leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) (L.), Mentha spicata (Spearmint) (L.), Origanum majorana (Majoram) (L.), and Ocimum basilicum (Basil) (L.) were isolated by steam distillation and 15 microg/cm2 concentration of oils was tested against ticks in a laboratory bioassay. The oils of R. officinalis, M. spicata, and O. majorana showed strong repellency against the ticks 100, 93.2, and 84.3%, respectively, whereas O. basilicum only showed 64.5% repellency. When tested in the field, the oils of R. officinalis and M. spicata showed 68.3 and 59.4% repellency at a concentration of 6.5 microg/cm2 on the test cloths. The oils were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry and the major compounds from the most repellent oils were 1,8-cineole, camphor, linalool, 4-terpineol, borneol, and carvone.
Almeida, Juliana; Serra-Freire, Nicolau; Peracchi, Adriano
Spinturnicid mites are ectoparasites that infest the wings of bats, and species of the genus Periglischrus Kolenati, 1857 are associated exclusively with bats of the family Phyllostomidae. We tested the hypothesis that a long-term evolutionary association led P. iheringi to choose very specific wing locations to infest the great fruit-eating bats, Artibeus lituratus. Seven anatomical wing regions and the uropatagium from 140 bats were analyzed and a total of 78 parasites were collected. Periglischrus iheringi had a significant preference for the plagiopatagium and dactylopatgium major wing regions (i.e., large, proximal regions) and infestation was directly correlated to area (r=0.9744). However, other factors may also influence mite choice, such as higher and more stable temperature and humidity, vascularization and lower risk of displacement.
Zou, Zhiwen; Xi, Jianfei; Liu, Ge; Song, Shuxian; Xin, Tianrong; Xia, Bin
The effect of five constant temperatures (16, 20, 24, 28 and 32 °C) on the development, survival and reproduction of Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) [= Tetranychus urticae Koch (red form)] fed on cassava leaves was examined in the laboratory at 85% relative humidity. Development time of various immature stages decreased with increasing temperature, with total egg-to-adult development time varying from 27.7 to 6.7 days. The lower thermal threshold for development was 10.8 °C and the thermal constant from egg to adult was 142.4 degree-days. Pre- and post-oviposition period and female longevity all decreased as temperature increased. The longest oviposition period was observed at 20 °C with 20.4 days. Under different temperatures, mated females laid, on average, 1.0, 2.9, 4.7, 4.7 and 4.9 eggs per day, respectively. The maximum fecundity (81.5 eggs per female) was at 28 °C and the intrinsic rate of increase (r m ) was highest (0.25) at 32 °C. The results of this study indicate that T. cinnabarinus population could increase rapidly when cassava leaves serve as a food source. At the appropriate temperature T. cinnabarinus could seriously threaten growth of cassava.