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Sample records for zeller lepidoptera pyralidae

  1. Age Influence on Sexual Behavior of the Lesser Cornstalk Borer, Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Xavier, L M S; Magalhães, D M; Viana, P A; Blassioli-Moraes, M C; Borges, M; Barrigossi, J A F; Vilela, E F; Laumann, R A

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the reproductive behavior and response of Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller) males to calling females. Frequency of mating was recorded in couples during the first 7 days of the adult stage. Calling behavior of females was observed during the first 4 days of the adult stage and responses of males, in the same age intervals, to calling females were recorded in wind tunnel bioassays. The maximum number of matings occurred when the couple was between 24 and 48 h old. The scotophase period significantly influenced mating behavior, which peaked between 6 and 8 h of darkness and the mean mating duration was 93.9 ± 4.2 min. Calling females, when evaluated in a wind tunnel, attracted significantly more males than in bioassays with clean air (control). The number of individuals in calling behavior was significantly lower for females that were between 0 to 24 h old compared to the other females evaluated, but this did not influence male response. A lower proportion of males between 48 to 72 h old responded to calling females and these responses were delayed in comparison with males of other ages (0 to 24, 24 to 48, and 72 to 96 h old). These results indicate that the age of E. lignosellus males influences the response to conspecific calling females.

  2. (3Z,6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z)-Pentacosapentaene and (Z) -11-Hexadecenyl Acetate: sex attractant blend for Dioryctria amatella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Treesearch

    Daniel Miller; Jocelyn Millar; Alex Mangini; Christopher Crowe; Gary Grant

    2010-01-01

    In 2006-2008, we tested (3Z,6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z)-pentacosapentaene (pentaene) with the pheromone components (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z11-16:Ac) and (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:Ac), as sex attractants for four sympatric species of coneworms, Dioryctria Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in slash (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) and...

  3. Interrelation of mating, flight, and fecundity in navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) females

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The navel orangeworm Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is an economically important pest of nut crops in California. Improved management will require better understanding of insect dispersal, particularly relative to when mating occurs. A previous study demonstrated a more robus...

  4. Pathogenic Microorganisms Associated With the Southern Pine Coneworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Attacking Loblolly Pine

    Treesearch

    Nenad Mihelcic; James L. Hanula; Gary L. DeBarr

    2003-01-01

    Larvae of the Southern pine coneworm, Diorycha amateella (Hulst) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were collected monthly during the growing seasons of 1996 and 1997 from loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., seed orchards in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, and Virginia, and examined for pathogenic microorganisms. One fungus,

  5. The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transtilla (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) discovered in northeastern Mexico feeding on Sapindaceae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the navel orangeworm, is an important pest of a wide variety fruits and their seeds. We discovered and report for the first time A. transitella feeding on Sapindaceae in wild populations of U. speciosa (Endl.) in northeastern Mexico. We provid...

  6. Reproduction, longevity and survival of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Screened potted cactus plants (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) containing pairs of adult male and female cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were placed in a cactus field in St. Marks, Florida to measure oviposition patterns under field-realistic conditions. Results...

  7. First record of Ectomyelois muriscis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on physic nut (Jatropha curcas), a biofuel plant

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The natural infestation of fruits and stems of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) by larvae of the pyralid moth Ectomyelois muriscis (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is reported for the first time. Populations of E. muriscis on J. curcas were observed in various parts of the state of Chiapas, souther...

  8. A new phycitine moth (Vorapourouma basseti, Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) from Panama feeding on Pourouma Aubl. (Urticaceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study of the insects associated with the tree Pourouma bicolor Martius (Cecropiaceae) in Panama, resulted in the discovery of a new phycitine moth genus and species, Vorapourouma basseti (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The immatures were collected by beating vegetation using the Fort Sherman Canopy Cran...

  9. Patterns of flight behavior and capacity of unmated navel orangeworm adults (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) related to age, gender, and wing size

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a key pest of almond, pistachio, and walnut tree crops in California. Understanding dispersal of adults between orchards is important to improving management options. Laboratory flight behavior of unmated navel orangewor...

  10. Combination phenyl propionate/pheromone traps for monitoring navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in almonds in the vicinity of mating disruption

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aerosol mating disruption is used for management of navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), in an increasing portion of California almonds and pistachios. This formulation suppresses pheromone monitoring traps far beyond the treatment block, potentially complicating...

  11. Effect of piperonyl butoxide on the toxicity of four classes of insecticides to navel orangeworm (Amyelois transitella)(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a highly polyphagous economic pest of almond, pistachio, and walnut crops in California orchards. Although management of this pest has typically been through a combination of cultural control and insecticide sprays, increas...

  12. Herbicide toxicity, selectivity and hormesis of nicosulfuron on 10 Trichogrammatidae (Hymenoptera) species parasitizing Anagasta ( = Ephestia) kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs.

    PubMed

    Leite, Germano L D; de Paulo, Paula D; Zanuncio, José C; Tavares, Wagner De S; Alvarenga, Anarelly C; Dourado, Luan R; Bispo, Edilson P R; Soares, Marcus A

    2017-01-02

    Selective agrochemicals including herbicides that do not affect non-target organisms such as natural enemies are important in the integrated pest management (IPM) programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the herbicide toxicity, selectivity and hormesis of nicosulfuron, recommended for the corn Zea mays L. (Poaceae) crop, on 10 Trichogrammatidae (Hymenoptera) species. A female of each Trichogramma spp. or Trichogrammatoidea annulata De Santis, 1972 was individually placed in plastic test tubes (no choice) with a cardboard containing 45 flour moth Anagasta ( = Ephestia) kuehniella Zeller, 1879 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs. Parasitism by these natural enemies was allowed for 48 h and the cardboards were sprayed with the herbicide nicosulfuron at 1.50 L.ha -1 , along with the control (only distilled water). Nicosulfuron reduced the emergence rate of Trichogramma bruni Nagaraja, 1983 females, but increased that of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879, Trichogramma acacioi Brun, Moraes and Smith, 1984 and T. annulata females. Conversely, this herbicide increased the emergence rate of Trichogramma brasiliensis Ashmead, 1904, T. bruni, Trichogramma galloi Zucchi, 1988 and Trichogramma soaresi Nagaraja, 1983 males and decreased those of T. acacioi, Trichogramma atopovilia Oatman and Platner, 1983 and T. pretiosum males. In addition, nicosulfuron reduced the sex ratio of T. galloi, Trichogramma bennetti Nagaraja and Nagarkatti, 1973 and T. pretiosum and increased that of T. acacioi, T. bruni, T. annulata, Trichogramma demoraesi Nagaraja, 1983, T. soaresi and T. brasiliensis. The herbicide nicosulfuron was "harmless" (class 1, <30% reduction) for females and the sex ratio of all Trichogrammatidae species based on the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) classification. The possible hormesis effect of nicosulfuron on Trichogrammatidae species and on the bacterium Wolbachia sp. (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) was also discussed.

  13. Comparative life tables of leek moth, Acrolepiopsis assectella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Acrolepiidae), in its native range.

    PubMed

    Jenner, W H; Kuhlmann, U; Mason, P G; Cappuccino, N

    2010-02-01

    Leek moth, Acrolepiopsis assectella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Acrolepiidae), is an invasive alien species in eastern Canada, the larvae of which mine the green tissues of Allium spp. This study was designed to construct and analyse life tables for leek moth within its native range. Stage-specific mortality rates were estimated for the third leek moth generation at three sites in Switzerland from 2004 to 2006 to identify some of the principle factors that inhibit leek moth population growth in areas of low pest density. The contribution of natural enemies to leek moth mortality was measured by comparing mortality on caged and uncaged leeks. Total pre-imaginal mortality on uncaged plants was 99.6%, 99.1% and 96.4% in 2004, 2005 and 2006, respectively. Variation in mortality was greater among years than among sites. Total larval mortality was greater than that in the eggs and pupae. This was due largely to the high mortality (up to 83.3%) of neonates during the brief period between egg hatch and establishment of the feeding mine. Leek moth pupal mortality was significantly greater on uncaged than on caged leeks, indicating an impact by natural enemies, and this pattern was consistent over all three years of study. In contrast, the other life stages did not show consistently higher mortality rates on uncaged plants. This observation suggests that the pupal stage may be particularly vulnerable to natural enemies and, therefore, may be the best target for classical biological control in Canada.

  14. Host specificity and risk assessment of Trichogramma fuentesi (Hymenoptera:Trichogrammatidae), a potential biological agent of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a non-native moth attacking prickly pear cactus, Opuntia spp., in southeastern U.S. The insect is also an important threat to ecological systems and to native and endangered Opuntia spp. in southwestern USA. The egg parasitoid Trichogramma f...

  15. Performance improvement through quality evaluations of sterile cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), mass-reared at two insectaries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A bi-national program was established by Mexico and the United States to mitigate the threat of Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), an invasive herbivore from South America, to native Opuntia spp. biodiversity and Opuntia-based industries. Mass-rearing, sterilization, and transpo...

  16. Influence of Temperature and Relative Humidity on the Insecticidal Efficacy of Metarhizium anisopliae against Larvae of Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on Wheat.

    PubMed

    Athanassiou, Christos G; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Rumbos, Christos I; Kontodimas, Demetrius C

    2017-01-01

    A series of laboratory bioassays were conducted for the evaluation of the insecticidal efficacy of an isolate of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) against larvae of the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), under various temperature-relative humidity (r.h.) conditions. The fungus was applied at four doses (0, 8 × 106, 8 × 108, and 8 × 1010 conidia ml-1) on wheat and insect mortality was assessed after exposure of 1, 2, 7, and 14 d. Bioassays were conducted at three temperatures (20, 25, and 30 °C) and two r.h. levels (55 and 75%). Although complete control was not achieved in any case, the fungus provided a considerable level of insect control. Mortality of E. kuehniella larvae on wheat treated with M. anisopliae ranged between 41.1 and 93.3% after 14 d of exposure, whereas the respective mortality levels in control dishes never exceeded 28.3%. The increase of temperature resulted in most cases to higher efficacy, indicating that temperature is an important factor for the performance of the fungus. In contrast, in most cases r.h. did not significantly affect the efficacy of the fungus, at least for the humidity levels tested. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  17. Cracking complex taxonomy of Costa Rican moths: Anacrusis Zeller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Remarkably similar forewing patterns, striking sexual dimorphism, and rampant sympatry all combine to present a taxonomically and morphologically bewildering complex of five species of Anacrusis tortricid moths in Central America: Anacrusis turrialbae Razowski, Anacrusis piriferana (Zeller), Anacrus...

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and comparison with other Pyraloidea insects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiu-Ning; Chai, Xin-Yue; Bian, Dan-Dan; Zhou, Chun-Lin; Tang, Bo-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial (mt) genome can provide important information for the understanding of phylogenetic relationships. The complete mt genome of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) has been sequenced. The circular genome is 15 287 bp in size, encoding 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and a control region. The AT skew of this mt genome is slightly negative, and the nucleotide composition is biased toward A+T nucleotides (80.15%). All PCGs start with the typical ATN (ATA, ATC, ATG, and ATT) codons, except for the cox1 gene which may start with the CGA codon. Four of the 13 PCGs harbor the incomplete termination codon T or TA. All the tRNA genes are folded into the typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA, except for trnS1 (AGN) in which the DHU arm fails to form a stable stem-loop structure. The overlapping sequences are 35 bp in total and are found in seven different locations. A total of 240 bp of intergenic spacers are scattered in 16 regions. The control region of the mt genome is 327 bp in length and consisted of several features common to the sequenced lepidopteran insects. Phylogenetic analysis based on 13 PCGs using the Maximum Likelihood method shows that the placement of P. interpunctella was within the Pyralidae.

  19. Identification and Characterization of C-type Lectins in Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Dongxu; Wang, Lei; Ji, Jiayue; Liu, Qizhi; An, Chunju

    2018-01-01

    Abstract C-type lectins (CTLs) are a large family of calcium-dependent carbohydrate-binding proteins. They function primarily in cell adhesion and immunity by recognizing various glycoconjugates. We identified 14 transcripts encoding proteins with one or two CTL domains from the transcriptome from Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée; Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Among them, five (OfCTL-S1 through S5) only contain one CTL domain, the remaining nine (OfIML-1 through 9) have two tandem CTL domains. Five CTL-Ss and six OfIMLs have a signal peptide are likely extracellular while another two OfIMLs might be cytoplasmic. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that OfCTL-Ss had 1:1 orthologs in Lepidoptera, Diptera, Coleoptera and Hymenoptera species, but OfIMLs only clustered with immulectins (IMLs) from Lepidopteran. Structural modeling revealed that the 22 CTL domains adopt a similar double-loop fold consisting of β-sheets and α-helices. The key residues for calcium-dependent or independent binding of specific carbohydrates by CTL domains were predicted with homology modeling. Expression profiles assay showed distinct expression pattern of 14 CTLs: the expression and induction were related to the developmental stages and infected microorganisms. Overall, our work including the gene identification, sequence alignment, phylogenetic analysis, structural modeling, and expression profile assay would provide a valuable basis for the further functional studies of O. furnacalis CTLs. PMID:29718486

  20. Biological control of Indianmeal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on finished stored products using egg and larval parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Grieshop, Matthew J; Flinn, Paul W; Nechols, James R

    2006-08-01

    Biological control using hymenopteran parasitoids presents an attractive alternative to insecticides for reducing infestations and damage from the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), in retail and warehouse environments. We examined the potential for using combinations of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma deion Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), and the larval parasitoid Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for preventing infestations of P. interpunctella in coarse-ground cornmeal as well as the influence of packaging on parasitoid effectiveness. Treatments included one or both parasitoids and either cornmeal infested with P. interpunctella eggs or eggs deposited on the surface of plastic bags containing cornmeal. H. hebetor had a significant impact on the number of live P. interpunctella, suppressing populations by approximately 71% in both unbagged and bagged cornmeal. In contrast, T. deion did not suppress P. interpunctella in unbagged cornmeal. However, when released on bagged cornmeal, T. deion significantly increased the level of pest suppression (87%) over bagging alone (15%). When H. hebetor was added to bagged cornmeal, there was a significant reduction of live P. interpunctella compared with the control (70.6%), with a further reduction observed when T. deion was added (96.7%). These findings suggest that, in most situations, a combined release of both T. deion and H. hebetor would have the greatest impact; because even though packaging may protect most of the stored products, there are usually areas in the storage landscape where poor sanitation is present.

  1. Quantitative genetics of ultrasonic advertisement signalling in the lesser waxmoth Achroia grisella (Lepidoptera: pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Collins, R D; Jang, Y; Reinhold, K; Greenfield, M D

    1999-12-01

    Males of the lesser waxmoth Achroia grisella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) produce ultrasonic advertisement signals attractive to females within several metres. Previous studies showed that females prefer male signals that are louder, delivered at a faster rate, and have a greater asynchrony between pulses produced by the right and left wings. These three signal characters vary considerably within populations but are repeatable within individuals. Breeding experiments employing half-sib designs were conducted on both collectively and individually reared moths to determine genetic variance within and covariance among these signal characters. Heritabilities of all signal characters were significant among collectively reared moths. Heritabilities for signal rate and right-left wing asynchrony interval were not significant, however, among individually reared moths, suggesting the presence of significant nonadditive genetic variance or common environmental variation. Development time was also significantly heritable, but only under individual rearing. The only significant genetic correlation was between signal rate and length of the right-left wing asynchrony and this was negative. Our findings on heritability of signal characters are consistent with a coevolutionary sexual selection mechanism, but the absence of signal x development genetic correlation fails to support specifically a good-genes mechanism. The variation in heritability among conditions suggests that environmental variance may be high, and may render selection on signal characters by female choice ineffective. Thus, additive genetic variance for these characters may be maintained in the presence of directional female choice.

  2. Demonstration and Characterization of a Persistent Pheromone Lure for the Navel Orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Higbee, Bradley S; Burks, Charles S; Larsen, Thomas E

    2014-07-22

    The lack of an effective pheromone lure has made it difficult to monitor and manage the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), in the economically important crops in which it is the primary insect pest. A series of experiments was conducted to demonstrate and characterize a practical synthetic pheromone lure for capturing navel orangeworm males. Traps baited with lures prepared with 1 or 2 mg of a three- or four-component formulation captured similar numbers of males. The fluctuation over time in the number of males captured in traps baited with the pheromone lure correlated significantly with males captured in female-baited traps. Traps baited with the pheromone lure usually did not capture as many males as traps baited with unmated females, and the ratio of males trapped with pheromone to males trapped with females varied between crops and with abundance. The pheromone lure described improves the ability of pest managers to detect and monitor navel orangeworm efficiently and may improve management and decrease insecticide treatments applied as a precaution against damage. Awareness of differences between male interaction with the pheromone lure and calling females, as shown in these data, will be important as further studies and experience determine how best to use this lure for pest management.

  3. Demonstration and Characterization of a Persistent Pheromone Lure for the Navel Orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    PubMed Central

    Higbee, Bradley S.; Burks, Charles S.; Larsen, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    The lack of an effective pheromone lure has made it difficult to monitor and manage the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), in the economically important crops in which it is the primary insect pest. A series of experiments was conducted to demonstrate and characterize a practical synthetic pheromone lure for capturing navel orangeworm males. Traps baited with lures prepared with 1 or 2 mg of a three- or four-component formulation captured similar numbers of males. The fluctuation over time in the number of males captured in traps baited with the pheromone lure correlated significantly with males captured in female-baited traps. Traps baited with the pheromone lure usually did not capture as many males as traps baited with unmated females, and the ratio of males trapped with pheromone to males trapped with females varied between crops and with abundance. The pheromone lure described improves the ability of pest managers to detect and monitor navel orangeworm efficiently and may improve management and decrease insecticide treatments applied as a precaution against damage. Awareness of differences between male interaction with the pheromone lure and calling females, as shown in these data, will be important as further studies and experience determine how best to use this lure for pest management. PMID:26462827

  4. Geographical range and laboratory studies on Apanteles opuntiarum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Argentina, a candidate for biological control of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in North America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a pest that threatens native Opuntia spp. in North America. Control tactics developed and implemented against this invasive pest successfully eradicated the moth in Mexico and on barrier islands in the United States. However,...

  5. Mating disruption of the navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) using widely spaced, aerosol dispensers: is the pheromone blend the most efficacious disruptant?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a key pest of almonds and pistachios and is sometimes controlled using mating disruption as part of a program of integrated management. The formulation used has a single, non-attractive compound [(Z,Z)-11-13-hexadecadie...

  6. Phenology and egg production of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): comparison of field census data and life stage development in the field

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural phenology and development of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was studied under field conditions in St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, St. Marks, FL. from July 2006 to September 2007. Cactus pads (Opuntia stricta Haw. [Cactaceae]) were visually surveyed...

  7. Field host range of Apanteles opuntiarum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Argentina, a potential biocontrol agent of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in North America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) was successfully used for biological control of Opuntia spp. (Cactaceae) in Australia and South Africa, where no native cacti occur. Since 1989, this South American moth has been invading the southeastern United States, threatening the unique ca...

  8. Viruses in laboratory-reared cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Marti, O.G.; Myers, R.E.; Carpenter, J.E.

    2007-03-15

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Phycitinae), is a non-native species threatening a variety of native cacti, particularly endangered species of Opuntia (Zimmerman et al. 2001), on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Cactoblastis cactorum populations have expanded from Florida northward along the Atlantic coast as far as Charleston, SC, and westward along the Gulf of Mexico to Dauphin Island, south of Mobile, AL. It is feared that further movement to the west will allow C. cactorum to enter the US desert Southwest and Mexico, particularly the latter. Numerous cactus species, especially those of the genera Opuntia andmore » Nopalea, are native to the U.S. and Mexico. Local economies based on agricultural and horticultural uses of cacti could be devastated by C. cactorum (Vigueras and Portillo 2001). A bi-national control program between the US and Mexico is being developed, utilizing the sterile insect technique (SIT). In the SIT program, newly emerged moths are irradiated with a {sup 60}Co source and released to mate with wild individuals. The radiation dose completely sterilizes the females and partially sterilizes the males. When irradiated males mate with wild females, the F1 progeny of these matings are sterile. In order for the SIT program to succeed, large numbers of moths must be reared from egg to adult on artificial diet in a quarantined rearing facility (Carpenter et al. 2001). Irradiated insects must then be released in large numbers at the leading edge of the invasive population and at times which coincide with the presence of wild individuals available for mating. Mortality from disease in the rearing colony disrupts the SIT program by reducing the numbers of insects available for release.« less

  9. INSECTICIDAL AND OXIDATIVE EFFECTS OF AZADIRACHTIN ON THE MODEL ORGANISM Galleria mellonella L. (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE).

    PubMed

    Dere, Beyza; Altuntaş, Hülya; Nurullahoğlu, Z Ulya

    2015-07-01

    The insecticidal effects, specifically, changes in hemolymph total protein and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and antioxidant enzyme activities of azadirachtin (AZA) given to the wax moth, Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae via force feeding were investigated. Bioassays showed that the LD50 and LD99 (lethal dose) values of AZA were 2.1 and 4.6 μg/larva, respectively. Experimental analyses were performed with five doses of AZA (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 3 μg/larva). Total protein level in larval hemolymph increased at all AZA doses at 24 h whereas a considerable decrease was observed at 2 and 3 μg/larva doses, and only an increase displayed at 1.5 μg/larva at 72 h. The level of MDA increased at 2 and 3 μg/larva doses at 24 h compared with controls. This trend was also observed at 1.5, 2, and 3 μg/larva doses at 72 h and MDA levels were lower when compared with those of 24 h at all doses except for 1.5 μg/larva dose. Catalase activity decreased at 1, 1.5, and 2 μg/larva doses at 24 h whereas increased at all doses except for 0.5 μg/larva at 72 h compared with controls. AZA led to a decline in superoxide dismutase activity at all experimental doses at 24 and 72 h except for 3 μg/larva doses at 72 h. An increase in glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity was evident at all AZA doses at 24 h. AZA displayed 68% decline in GST activity at 72 h post treatments when compared to 24 h. Consequently, We infer that the toxicity of AZA extends beyond its known actions in molting processes to redox homeostasis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Survival of indianmeal moth and navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J A

    2007-08-01

    Concerns over insect resistance, regulatory action, and the needs of organic processors have generated renewed interest in developing nonchemical alternative postharvest treatments to fumigants used on dried fruits and nuts. Low-temperature storage has been identified as one alternative for the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hiibner), and navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), common postharvest pests in California dried fruits and nuts. The response of eggs, nondiapausing larvae, and pupae of both species to exposure to low temperatures (0, 5, and 10 degrees C) was evaluated. Eggs of both species were the least tolerant of low temperatures. At 0 and 5 degrees C, pupae were most tolerant, but at 10 degrees C, nondiapausing larvae of both species were most tolerant, with lethal time (LT)95 values of 127 and 100 d for Indianmeal moth and navel orangeworm, respectively. The response of diapausing Indianmeal moth larvae to subfreezing temperatures also was evaluated. Diapausing larvae were very cold tolerant at -10 degrees C, with LT95 values of 20 and 17 d for long-term laboratory and recently isolated cultures, respectively. Diapausing larvae were far less tolerant at lower temperatures. At -15 degrees C, LT95 values for both cultures were <23 h, and at -20 degrees C, LT95 values were <7 h. Refrigeration temperatures of 0-5 degrees C should be useful in disinfesting product contaminated with nondiapausing insects, with storage times of 3 wk needed for adequate control. Relatively brief storage in commercial freezers, provided that the temperature throughout the product was below -15 degrees C for at least 48 h, also shows potential as a disinfestation treatment, and it is necessary when diapausing Indianmeal moth larvae are present.

  11. Effects of gibberellic acid on hemocytes of Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Altuntaş, H; Kılıç, A Y; Uçkan, F; Ergin, E

    2012-06-01

    The impacts of different doses of the plant growth regulator gibberellic acid (GA(3)) in diet on the number of total and differential hemocytes, frequency of apoptotic, and necrotic hemocytes, mitotic indices, encapsulation, and melanization responses were investigated using the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae. Total hemocyte counts increased in G. mellonella larvae at all treatment doses whereas GA(3) application had no effect on the number of different hemocyte types. The occurrence of apoptosis, necrosis and mitotic indices in GA(3) treated and untreated last instars were detected by acridine orange or ethidium bromide double staining by fluorescence microscopy. While the ratio of necrotic hemocytes increased at all GA(3) treatments, that of late apoptotic cells was only higher at doses >200 ppm when compared with untreated larvae. The percentage of mitotic index also increased at 5,000 ppm. Positively charged DEAE Sephadex A-25 beads were used for analysis of the levels of encapsulation and melanization in GA(3) treated G. mellonella larvae. At four and 24 h posttreatments with Sephadex A-25 bead injection, insects were dissected under a stereomicroscope. Encapsulation rates of larval hemocytes were dependent on the extent of encapsulation and time but not treatment groups. While the extent of melanization of hemocytes showed differences related to time, in general, a decrease was observed at all doses of GA(3) treated larvae at 24 h. We suggest that GA(3) treatment negatively affects hemocyte physiology and cell immune responses inducing cells to die by necrosis and apoptosis in G. mellonella larvae.

  12. Evaluation of monitoring traps with novel bait for navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in California almond and pistachio orchards.

    PubMed

    Nay, Justin E; Peterson, Elonce M; Boyd, Elizabeth A

    2012-08-01

    Experiments conducted in three almond, Prunus dulcis (Rosales: Rosaceae), orchards and three pistachio, Pistacia vera (Sapindales: Anicardiaceae), orchards in 2009 and 2010, and determined that sticky bottom wing traps baited with ground pistachio mummies, or a combination of ground pistachio plus ground almond mummies, trapped more adult female navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), than did traps baited with ground almond mummies alone. During both years of this study, 2.9 and 1.8 more moths were caught in traps baited with pistachio mummies compared with traps baited with almond mummies in almond orchards and pistachio orchards, respectively. Also, traps located in pistachio orchards caught 5.9 and 8.3 times more navel orangeworm than were trapped from almond orchards in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Implications for use of this novel baited trap in almond and pistachio orchard integrated pest management programs are discussed.

  13. Morphological and phylogenetic analysis of a microsporidium (Nosema sp.) isolated from rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Xing, Dongxu; Yang, Qiong; Liao, Sentai; Han, Lanzhi; Li, Qingrong; Zhao, Chaoyi; Xiao, Yang; Ye, Mingqiang

    2017-10-01

    A new microsporidium was isolated from Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), one of the most important rice pests in China. The morphology and molecular systematics of this novel microsporidium were described in this study. The spores were long oval and measured 3.17 × 1.64 μm on fresh smears. Ultrastructure of the spores was characteristic for the genus Nosema: a diplokaryon, 10-12 polar filament coils of the same type, and posterior vacuole. Small subunit rRNA gene sequence data and phylogenetic analysis further confirmed that the microsporidian species from C. suppressalis belong to the true Nosema sub-group of the genus Nosema. Besides, the microsporidium Nosema sp. CS could cause systemic infection of Bombyx mori and infect silkworms through vertical transmission. Therefore, mulberry field pest control should be carefully monitored, and sanitation of mulberry leaves is essential to control the pebrine disease in sericulture.

  14. Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki x aizawai applied to spruce flowers reduced Dioryctria abietella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) infestation without affecting seed quality.

    PubMed

    Glynn, Carolyn; Weslien, Jan

    2004-12-01

    We investigated the effects of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki x aizawai (Bt) on infestation levels of two lepidopteran insects as well as on seed quality in Norway spruce, Picea abies L. (Karst.) in central Sweden. Spruce flowers (female strobili) were sprayed with a 0.2% suspension (wt:wt) of the Bt preparation Turex 50 WP, 25,000 IU/mg in water. To expose even those lepidopteran larvae that feed exclusively embedded within the cone tissue, the Bt treatment was applied to open flowers, before they closed and developed into cones. The experimental design included three main factors: treatment (untreated control, water, or Bt), spruce genotype (three clones), and spraying time (spraying before, during, and after the phase of highest pollen receptivity). The Bt treatment reduced the proportion of cones infested by the cone worm Dioryctria abietella Den. et Schiff. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) from approximately 30 to 15%. There was no statistically significant treatment effect on the infestation rate of Cydia strobilella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). The Bt variety kurstaki x aizawai treatment caused no reduction in seed quality as measured by seed weight or percentage of nonfilled seeds. There was no difference in number of seeds per cone between the Bt-treated and untreated control cones. There was a significant effect of genotype on insect infestation rates, as well as on number of seeds per cone and seed weight. Neither level of insect damage nor any seed quality parameters were affected by time of application of the treatments.

  15. Systematics of the Dioryctria abietella Species Group (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Based on Mitochondrial DNA Ann

    Treesearch

    G. Roux-Morabito; N.E. Gillette; A. Roques; L. Dormont; J. Stein; F.A.H. Sperling

    2008-01-01

    Coneworms of the genus Dioryctria Zeller include several serious pests of conifer seeds that are notoriously difficult to distinguish as species. We surveyed mitochondrial DNA variation within the abietella species group by sequencing 451 bp of cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) and 572 bp of cytochrome oxidase subunit 2 (COII...

  16. Transgenic Bt Rice Does Not Challenge Host Preference of the Target Pest of Rice Leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiao; Zhou, Wen; Liu, Hao; Zhang, Aijun; Ai, Chao-Ren; Zhou, Shuang-Shuang; Zhou, Chang-Xiang; Wang, Man-Qun

    2013-01-01

    Background Transgenic Bt rice line T2A-1 expresses a synthesized cry2A gene that shows high resistance to Lepidoptera pests, including Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Plant volatile orientation cues and the physical characteristics of the leaf surface play key roles in host location or host-plant acceptance of phytophagous insects. These volatile compounds and physical traits may become altered in Bt rice and it is not known whether this influences the behavior of C. medinalis when searching for oviposition sites. Results The results of electronic nose analysis showed that the Radar map of Bt rice cultivars was analogous to the non- Bt rice cultivars at each growing stage. PCA analysis was able to partly discriminate between some of the Bt vs. non-Bt rice sensors, but could not to separate Bt cultivars from non-Bt cultivars. The total ion chromatogram between Bt and non-Bt rice cultivars at the seedling, booting and tillering stages were similar and 25 main compounds were identified by GC-MS. For most compounds, there was no significant difference in compound quantities between Bt and non-Bt rice cultivars at equivalent growth stages. The densities of the tubercle papicles and the trichomes on the upper and lower surfaces were statistically equal in Bt and non-Bt rice. The target pest, C. medinalis, was attracted to host rice plants, but it could not distinguish between the transgenic and the isogenic rice lines. Conclusions There were no significant differences between the Bt rice line, T2A-1 and the non-Bt rice for volatiles produced or in its physical characteristics and there were no negative impacts on C. medinalis oviposition behavior. These results add to the mounting evidence that Bt rice has no negative impact on the target insect oviposition behavior. PMID:24244410

  17. Oviposition by Female Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): Description and Time Budget Analysis of Behaviors in Laboratory Studies.

    PubMed

    Sambaraju, Kishan R; Donelson, Sarah L; Bozic, Janko; Phillips, Thomas W

    2016-01-22

    The oviposition behavior of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), a major insect pest of durable stored foods, was studied in small experimental arenas under laboratory conditions using videography, and a time budget analysis of its behaviors was documented. Resting gravid females typically became active shortly after the start of the scotophase. The characteristic behaviors exhibited by mated females prior to oviposition included antennal movement, grooming of antennae and mouth parts using the forelegs, walking or flying, and abdomen bending and dragging. Pre-oviposition behaviors such as antennal grooming and walking or flying were observed to alternate several times before females commenced the abdominal dragging behavior that preceded egg laying. Eggs were laid singly or sometimes in groups, either freely or stuck to food material. Gravid females showed little or no movement during the photophase; however, they actively flew and oviposited during the scotophase. Females allocated only a small portion of their time to oviposition while the rest of the time was spent away from food. Females oviposited on food material by making repeated visits, predominantly during the first four hours of the scotophase. Visits and time spent on food declined as the scotophase advanced.

  18. Comparative Efficacy of CO2 and Ozone Gases Against Ephestia cautella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Larvae Under Different Temperature Regimes

    PubMed Central

    Husain, M.; Rasool, Khawaja G.; Tufail, Muhammad; Alhamdan, Abdullah M. A.; Mehmood, Khalid; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S.

    2015-01-01

    Comparative efficacy of three different modified atmospheres: 100% CO2, 75% CO2 + 25% N2, and 22 ppm ozone were examined against larval mortality of the almond moth, Ephestia cautella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at temperature regimes of 25°C and 35 ± 2°C and 60 ± 5% relative humidity, and 9:15 dark and light. Wandering young larval instars, which are fast growing, large enough in size and considered as more tolerant to modified atmosphere, were collected directly from the rearing culture, placed inside pitted date fruits of vars.: “Khudri,” “Ruziz,” and “Saqie,” were treated with aforementioned gases for 24, 48, and 72 h. The immediate and delayed larval mortality was recorded after each exposure timing. Ozone possessed the strongest fumigant toxicity causing 100% mortality with all varieties, at 25 and 35°C after 24 h exposure and was more effective than 75% CO2 that caused 83 and 100% immediate mortality with variety ruziz at 25 and 35°C, respectively. Extending the treatments exposure time to 72 h, 100% mortality was recorded by exposing larvae to any of the studied gases at 25 and 35°C. These results suggest that gases and temperature used in this study can be effectively used to control E. cautella in dates and stored grains. PMID:26382044

  19. Oviposition by Female Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): Description and Time Budget Analysis of Behaviors in Laboratory Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sambaraju, Kishan R.; Donelson, Sarah L.; Bozic, Janko; Phillips, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    The oviposition behavior of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), a major insect pest of durable stored foods, was studied in small experimental arenas under laboratory conditions using videography, and a time budget analysis of its behaviors was documented. Resting gravid females typically became active shortly after the start of the scotophase. The characteristic behaviors exhibited by mated females prior to oviposition included antennal movement, grooming of antennae and mouth parts using the forelegs, walking or flying, and abdomen bending and dragging. Pre-oviposition behaviors such as antennal grooming and walking or flying were observed to alternate several times before females commenced the abdominal dragging behavior that preceded egg laying. Eggs were laid singly or sometimes in groups, either freely or stuck to food material. Gravid females showed little or no movement during the photophase; however, they actively flew and oviposited during the scotophase. Females allocated only a small portion of their time to oviposition while the rest of the time was spent away from food. Females oviposited on food material by making repeated visits, predominantly during the first four hours of the scotophase. Visits and time spent on food declined as the scotophase advanced. PMID:26805893

  20. Electrophysiological responses of the rice leaffolder, cnaphalocrocis medinalis (lepidoptera: pyralidae), to rice plant volatiles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The electrophysiological activities of 38 synthetic volatiles that were known to be released from the rice plants (Poaceae: Oryza spp.) were studied using electroantennogram (EAG) recording technique on male and female antennae of the rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: ...

  1. Individual and Combined Effects of Bacillus Thuringiensis and Azadirachtin on Plodia Interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    PubMed Central

    Nouri-Ganbalani, Gadir; Borzoui, Ehsan; Abdolmaleki, Arman; Abedi, Zahra; George Kamita, Shizuo

    2016-01-01

    The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a major stored product pest that is found throughout the world. In this study, the effect of oral exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) subsp. kurstaki (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) and azadirachtin was evaluated in third instar P. interpunctella under laboratory conditions. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of Bt and azadirachtin on third instars was 490 and 241 μg a.i./ml, respectively. The median lethal time (LT50) of these insecticides was the same (4.5 d following exposure to 750 or 400 μg a.i./ml of Bt or azadirachtin, respectively). When the larvae fed on diet containing LC30 concentrations of both Bt and azadirachtin an additive interaction in terms of mortality was found. A synergistic interaction was found when the larvae fed on diet containing LC50 concentrations of both insecticides. Larvae that fed on insecticide-containing diet (either Bt or azadirachtin at an LC30 concentration, or both insecticides at LC30 or LC50 concentrations) showed lower glycogen and lipid levels, and generally lower protein content in comparison to control larvae. Larvae that fed on diet containing both Bt and azadirachtin showed reduced weight gain and nutritional indices in comparison to control larvae or larvae fed on the diet containing only one of the insecticides. Finally, exposure to both insecticides, either individually or in combination, reduced the level of digestive enzymes found in the midgut. Our findings indicate that both Bt and azadirachtin, either individually or in combination have significant potential for use in controlling of P. interpunctella. PMID:27638953

  2. Characterization of transcriptome in the Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and gene expression analysis during developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Tang, Pei-An; Wu, Hai-Jing; Xue, Hao; Ju, Xing-Rong; Song, Wei; Zhang, Qi-Lin; Yuan, Ming-Long

    2017-07-30

    The Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a worldwide pest that causes serious damage to stored foods. Although many efforts have been conducted on this species due to its economic importance, the study of genetic basis of development, behavior and insecticide resistance has been greatly hampered due to lack of genomic information. In this study, we used high throughput sequencing platform to perform a de novo transcriptome assembly and tag-based digital gene expression profiling (DGE) analyses across four different developmental stages of P. interpunctella (egg, third-instar larvae, pupae and adult). We obtained approximate 9gigabyte (GB) of clean data and recovered 84,938 unigenes, including 37,602 clusters and 47,336 singletons. These unigenes were annotated using BLAST against the non-redundant protein databases and then functionally classified based on Gene Ontology (GO), Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases (KEGG). A large number of differentially expressed genes were identified by pairwise comparisons among different developmental stages. Gene expression profiles dramatically changed between developmental stage transitions. Some of these differentially expressed genes were related to digestion and cuticularization. Quantitative real-time PCR results of six randomly selected genes conformed the findings in the DGEs. Furthermore, we identified over 8000 microsatellite markers and 97,648 single nucleotide polymorphisms which will be useful for population genetics studies of P. interpunctella. This transcriptomic information provided insight into the developmental basis of P. interpunctella and will be helpful for establishing integrated management strategies and developing new targets of insecticides for this serious pest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Individual and Combined Effects of Bacillus Thuringiensis and Azadirachtin on Plodia Interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Nouri-Ganbalani, Gadir; Borzoui, Ehsan; Abdolmaleki, Arman; Abedi, Zahra; George Kamita, Shizuo

    2016-01-01

    The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a major stored product pest that is found throughout the world. In this study, the effect of oral exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) subsp. kurstaki (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) and azadirachtin was evaluated in third instar P. interpunctella under laboratory conditions. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of Bt and azadirachtin on third instars was 490 and 241 μg a.i./ml, respectively. The median lethal time (LT50) of these insecticides was the same (4.5 d following exposure to 750 or 400 μg a.i./ml of Bt or azadirachtin, respectively). When the larvae fed on diet containing LC30 concentrations of both Bt and azadirachtin an additive interaction in terms of mortality was found. A synergistic interaction was found when the larvae fed on diet containing LC50 concentrations of both insecticides. Larvae that fed on insecticide-containing diet (either Bt or azadirachtin at an LC30 concentration, or both insecticides at LC30 or LC50 concentrations) showed lower glycogen and lipid levels, and generally lower protein content in comparison to control larvae. Larvae that fed on diet containing both Bt and azadirachtin showed reduced weight gain and nutritional indices in comparison to control larvae or larvae fed on the diet containing only one of the insecticides. Finally, exposure to both insecticides, either individually or in combination, reduced the level of digestive enzymes found in the midgut. Our findings indicate that both Bt and azadirachtin, either individually or in combination have significant potential for use in controlling of P. interpunctella. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  4. Effects of mating disruption treatments on navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) sexual communication and damage in almonds and pistachios.

    PubMed

    Higbee, Bradley S; Burks, Charles S

    2008-10-01

    Two experiments in 2003 examined the effects of different ways of dispensing the principal sex pheromone component on sexual communication among and crop damage by the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Nonpareil almonds and pistachios. A third experiment in 2004 compared the effect on navel orangeworm damage to several almond varieties using one of these dispensing systems by itself or with phosmet, phosmet alone, and an untreated control. Additional data are presented estimating release rates from timed aerosol release devices (PuffersNOW, Suterra LLC, Bend, OR) and hand-applied membrane dispensers. In 2003, puffers placed peripherally around 16-ha blocks, evenly spaced Puffers, and hand-applied dispensers reduced males captured in virgin-baited traps by > or = 95% and mating in sentinel females by > or = 69%, with evenly placed Puffers showing greater reduction of males captured and females mated compared with the other dispensing systems. Mating disruption with gridded Puffers or hand-applied devices in almonds resulted in an approximately 37% reduction of navel orangeworm damage (not significant), whereas peripheral Puffers resulted in a 16% reduction of navel orangeworm damage to almonds. In pistachios neither peripheral nor gridded Puffers reduced navel orangeworm damage, whereas insecticide reduced damage by 56%. In 2004, Puffers alone, insecticide alone, and both in combination significantly reduced navel orangeworm damage in Nonpareil almonds. In other, later harvested varieties, the insecticide treatments reduced damage, whereas the mating disruption treatment alone did not. We discuss application of these findings to management of navel orangeworm in these two crops.

  5. Effect of Piperonyl Butoxide on the Toxicity of Four Classes of Insecticides to Navel Orangeworm (Amyelois transitella) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Demkovich, Mark; Dana, Catherine E; Siegel, Joel P; Berenbaum, May R

    2015-12-01

    Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the navel orangeworm, is a highly polyphagous economic pest of almond, pistachio, and walnut crops in California. Increasing demand for these crops and their rising economic value has resulted in substantial increases of insecticide applications to reduce damage to acceptable levels. The effects of piperonyl butoxide (PBO), a methylenedioxyphenyl compound that can act as a synergist by inhibiting cytochrome P450-mediated detoxification on insecticide metabolism by A. transitella, were examined in a series of feeding bioassays with first-instar A. transitella larvae from a laboratory strain. PBO, however, can have a variety of effects on metabolism, including inhibition of glutathione-S-transferases and esterases and induction of P450s. In our study, PBO synergized the toxicity of acetamiprid, λ-cyhalothrin, and spinosad, suggesting possible involvement of P450s in their detoxification. In contrast, PBO interacted antagonistically with the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos, reducing its toxicity, an effect consistent with inhibition of P450-mediated bioactivation of this pesticide. The toxicity of the anthranilic diamide insecticide chlorantraniliprole was not altered by PBO, suggestive of little or no involvement of P450-mediated metabolism in its detoxification. Because a population of navel orangeworm in Kern County, CA, has already acquired resistance to the pyrethroid insecticide bifenthrin through enhanced P450 activity, determining the effect of adding a synergist such as PBO on detoxification of all insecticide classes registered for use in navel orangeworm management can help to develop rotation practices that may delay resistance acquisition or to implement alternative management practices where resistance is likely to evolve. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Mechanism of Resistance Acquisition and Potential Associated Fitness Costs in Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Exposed to Pyrethroid Insecticides.

    PubMed

    Demkovich, Mark; Siegel, Joel P; Higbee, Bradley S; Berenbaum, May R

    2015-06-01

    The polyphagous navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is the most destructive pest of nut crops, including almonds and pistachios, in California orchards. Management of this insect has typically been a combination of cultural controls and insecticide use, with the latter increasing substantially along with the value of these commodities. Possibly associated with increased insecticide use, resistance has been observed recently in navel orangeworm populations in Kern County, California. In studies characterizing a putatively pyrethroid-resistant strain (R347) of navel orangeworm, susceptibility to bifenthrin and β-cyfluthrin was compared with that of an established colony of susceptible navel orangeworm. Administration of piperonyl butoxide and S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate in first-instar feeding bioassays with the pyrethroids bifenthrin and β-cyfluthrin produced synergistic effects and demonstrated that cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and carboxylesterases contribute to resistance in this population. Resistance is therefore primarily metabolic and likely the result of overexpression of specific cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and carboxylesterase genes. Resistance was assessed by median lethal concentration (LC50) assays and maintained across nine generations in the laboratory. Life history trait comparisons between the resistant strain and susceptible strain revealed significantly lower pupal weights in resistant individuals reared on the same wheat bran-based artificial diet across six generations. Time to second instar was greater in the resistant strain than the susceptible strain, although overall development time was not significantly different between strains. Resistance was heritable and may have an associated fitness cost, which could influence the dispersal and expansion of resistant populations in nut-growing areas in California. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological

  7. Direct and indirect effects of development temperature on adult water balance traits of Eldana saccharina (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Kleynhans, Elsje; Conlong, Des E; Terblanche, John S

    2014-09-01

    For water balance physiology, prior thermal history may pre-condition individuals to be more sparing in their water consumption at a given temperature upon subsequent exposure, or alternatively, may relax constraints on water economy leading to more frivolous use of water at a later stage. Here we test these two major alternative hypotheses on the adult life stage of Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) by exposing them to different rearing temperatures (acclimation treatments) during immature stage development and comparing adult physiological performance (water loss rates, time to death) and water-balance related traits (body size, water content). Developmental acclimation at 20°C, 25°C or 30°C throughout the larval and pupal stage resulted in significant effects on water balance traits of two-day old adult male and female E. saccharina. In summary, lower developmental acclimation resulted in a 61% increase in water loss rate (range: 0.78mg/h) and a 26% reduction in survival time (6.8h). Initial body water content and initial body mass generally remained similar across male acclimation groups while higher developmental acclimation reduced female body mass significantly. High developmental acclimation resulted in significantly higher (∼23%) body water content at death possibly indicating a better overall ability to withstand desiccating conditions, although there was no difference in time to death compared to the intermediate group. The relationship between time to death and body mass was altered from negative at 25°C and 30°C acclimation, to positive at 20°C acclimation. These results show pervasive effects of rearing temperature on adult physiological performance, with low temperature relaxing what appear to be substantial constraints on water economy at higher temperatures for E. saccharina. Furthermore, they are significant for understanding the recent range expansion of E. saccharina into cooler environments in southern Africa and for

  8. Combination Phenyl Propionate/Pheromone Traps for Monitoring Navel Orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Almonds in the Vicinity of Mating Disruption.

    PubMed

    Burks, Charles S

    2017-04-01

    Aerosol mating disruption is used for management of navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), in an increasing portion of California almonds and pistachios. This formulation suppresses pheromone monitoring traps far beyond the treatment block, potentially complicating monitoring and management of this key pest. Phenyl propionate is an attractant used to capture adults in the presence of mating disruption, completely suppressing pheromone traps, and lures combining phenyl propionate with a pheromone lure (PPO-combo lure) synergize trap capture in the presence of mating disruption. In this study, laboratory and field trials of different phenyl propionate dispensers indicate a useful life of six weeks. Controlled experiments found similar numbers of adults captured in phenyl propionate and PPO-combo lures in the presence of varying levels of mating disruption intensity. A subsequent trial compared monitoring of field plots at various distances from fields under commercial mating disruption for much of the growing season with pheromone and PPO-combo lures. Although there was some evidence of partial suppression of capture in PPO-combo traps closer to mating disruption compared with lures farther away, there was no failure of detection as occurred with pheromone lures. The ratio of adults in pheromone and PPO-combo traps varied with proximity from treated fields. These results indicate that, in addition to monitoring in mating disruption plots, phenyl propionate lures can be useful for insuring against failure of detection of navel orangeworm pressure in areas where mating disruption is widely used. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by a US Government employee and is in the public domain in the US.

  9. A degree-day model initiated by pheromone trap captures for managing pecan nut casebearer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in pecans.

    PubMed

    Knutson, Allen E; Muegge, Mark A

    2010-06-01

    Field observations from pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) Koch, orchards in Texas were used to develop and validate a degree-day model of cumulative proportional adult flight and oviposition and date of first observed nut entry by larvae of the first summer generation of the pecan nut casebearer, Acrobasis nuxvorella Nuenzig (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The model was initiated on the date of first sustained capture of adults in pheromone traps. Mean daily maximum and minimum temperatures were used to determine the sum of degree-days from onset to 99% moth flight and oviposition and the date on which first summer generation larvae were first observed penetrating pecan nuts. Cumulative proportional oviposition (y) was described by a modified Gompertz equation, y = 106.05 x exp(-(exp(3.11 - 0.00669 x (x - 1), with x = cumulative degree-days at a base temperature of 3.33 degrees C. Cumulative proportional moth flight (y) was modeled as y = 102.62 x exp(- (exp(1.49 - 0.00571 x (x - 1). Model prediction error for dates of 10, 25, 50, 75, and 90% cumulative oviposition was 1.3 d and 83% of the predicted dates were within +/- 2 d of the observed event. Prediction error for date of first observed nut entry was 2.2 d and 77% of model predictions were within +/- 2 d of the observed event. The model provides ample lead time for producers to implement orchard scouting to assess pecan nut casebearer infestations and to apply an insecticide if needed to prevent economic loss.

  10. Physiological time model of Scirpophaga incertulas (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in rice in Guandong Province, People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Douglass E; Feng, Ge; Zhang, Runjie; Harris, Marvin K

    2005-08-01

    Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is autochthonous and monophagous on rice, Oryza spp., which favors the development of a physiological time model using degree-days (degrees C) to establish a well defined window during which adults will be present in fields. Model development of S. incertulas adult flight phenology used climatic data and historical field observations of S. incertulas from 1962 through 1988. Analysis of variance was used to evaluate 5,203 prospective models with starting dates ranging from 1 January (day 1) to 30 April (day 121) and base temperatures ranging from -3 through 18.5 degrees C. From six candidate models, which shared the lowest standard deviation of prediction error, a model with a base temperature of 10 degrees C starting on 19 January was selected for validation. Validation with linear regression evaluated the differences between predicted and observed events and showed the model consistently predicted phenological events of 10 to 90% cumulative flight activity within a 3.5-d prediction interval regarded as acceptable for pest management decision making. The degree-day phenology model developed here is expected to find field application in Guandong Province. Expansion to other areas of rice production will require field validation. We expect the degree-day characterization of the activity period will remain essentially intact, but the start day may vary based on climate and geographic location. The development and validation of the phenology model of the S. incertulas by using procedures originally developed for pecan nut casebearer, Acrobasis nuxvorella Neunzig, shows the fungibility of this approach to developing prediction models for other insects.

  11. Biology and systematics of the New World Phyllocnistis Zeller leafminers of the avocado genus Persea (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae)

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Donald R.; Wagner, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Four New World species of Phyllocnistis Zeller are described from serpentine mines in Persea (Family Lauraceae). Phyllocnistis hyperpersea,new species, mines the upper leaf surfaces of avocado, Persea americana Mill., and red bay, Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng. and ranges over much of the southeastern United States into Central America. Phyllocnistis subpersea,new species, mines the underside and occasionally upper sides of new leaves of Persea borbonia in southeastern United States. Phyllocnistis longipalpa, new species, known only from southern Florida also mines the undersides of new leaves of Persea borbonia. Phyllocnistis perseafolia,new species, mines both leaf surfaces and possibly fruits of Persea americana in Colombia, South America. As in all known species of Phyllocnistis, the early instars are subepidermal sapfeeders in young (not fully hardened) foliage, and the final instar is an extremely specialized, nonfeeding larval form, whose primary function is to spin the silken cocoon, at the mine terminus, prior to pupation. Early stages are illustrated and described for three of the species. The unusual morphology of the pupae, particularly the frontal process of the head, is shown to be one of the most useful morphological sources of diagnostic characters for species identification of Phyllocnistis. COI barcode sequence distances are provided for the four proposed species and a fifth, undescribed species from Costa Rica. PMID:21594066

  12. Biology and systematics of the New World Phyllocnistis Zeller leafminers of the avocado genus Persea (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae).

    PubMed

    Davis, Donald R; Wagner, David L

    2011-05-11

    Four New World species of Phyllocnistis Zeller are described from serpentine mines in Persea (Family Lauraceae). Phyllocnistis hyperpersea,new species, mines the upper leaf surfaces of avocado, Persea americana Mill., and red bay, Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng. and ranges over much of the southeastern United States into Central America. Phyllocnistis subpersea,new species, mines the underside and occasionally upper sides of new leaves of Persea borbonia in southeastern United States. Phyllocnistis longipalpa, new species, known only from southern Florida also mines the undersides of new leaves of Persea borbonia. Phyllocnistis perseafolia,new species, mines both leaf surfaces and possibly fruits of Persea americana in Colombia, South America. As in all known species of Phyllocnistis, the early instars are subepidermal sapfeeders in young (not fully hardened) foliage, and the final instar is an extremely specialized, nonfeeding larval form, whose primary function is to spin the silken cocoon, at the mine terminus, prior to pupation. Early stages are illustrated and described for three of the species. The unusual morphology of the pupae, particularly the frontal process of the head, is shown to be one of the most useful morphological sources of diagnostic characters for species identification of Phyllocnistis. COI barcode sequence distances are provided for the four proposed species and a fifth, undescribed species from Costa Rica.

  13. A Fixed-Precision Sequential Sampling Plan for the Potato Tuberworm Moth, Phthorimaea operculella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechidae), on Potato Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Shahbi, M; Rajabpour, A

    2017-08-01

    Phthorimaea operculella Zeller is an important pest of potato in Iran. Spatial distribution and fixed-precision sequential sampling for population estimation of the pest on two potato cultivars, Arinda ® and Sante ® , were studied in two separate potato fields during two growing seasons (2013-2014 and 2014-2015). Spatial distribution was investigated by Taylor's power law and Iwao's patchiness. Results showed that the spatial distribution of eggs and larvae was random. In contrast to Iwao's patchiness, Taylor's power law provided a highly significant relationship between variance and mean density. Therefore, fixed-precision sequential sampling plan was developed by Green's model at two precision levels of 0.25 and 0.1. The optimum sample size on Arinda ® and Sante ® cultivars at precision level of 0.25 ranged from 151 to 813 and 149 to 802 leaves, respectively. At 0.1 precision level, the sample sizes varied from 5083 to 1054 and 5100 to 1050 leaves for Arinda ® and Sante ® cultivars, respectively. Therefore, the optimum sample sizes for the cultivars, with different resistance levels, were not significantly different. According to the calculated stop lines, the sampling must be continued until cumulative number of eggs + larvae reached to 15-16 or 96-101 individuals at precision levels of 0.25 or 0.1, respectively. The performance of the sampling plan was validated by resampling analysis using resampling for validation of sampling plans software. The sampling plant provided in this study can be used to obtain a rapid estimate of the pest density with minimal effort.

  14. Field-level validation of a CLIMEX model for Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) using estimated larval growth rates.

    PubMed

    Legaspi, Benjamin C; Legaspi, Jesusa Crisostomo

    2010-04-01

    Invasive pests, such as the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), have not reached equilibrium distributions and present unique opportunities to validate models by comparing predicted distributions with eventual realized geographic ranges. A CLIMEX model was developed for C. cactorum. Model validation was attempted at the global scale by comparing worldwide distribution against known occurrence records and at the field scale by comparing CLIMEX "growth indices" against field measurements of larval growth. Globally, CLIMEX predicted limited potential distribution in North America (from the Caribbean Islands to Florida, Texas, and Mexico), Africa (South Africa and parts of the eastern coast), southern India, parts of Southeast Asia, and the northeastern coast of Australia. Actual records indicate the moth has been found in the Caribbean (Antigua, Barbuda, Montserrat Saint Kitts and Nevis, Cayman Islands, and U.S. Virgin Islands), Cuba, Bahamas, Puerto Rico, southern Africa, Kenya, Mexico, and Australia. However, the model did not predict that distribution would extend from India to the west into Pakistan. In the United States, comparison of the predicted and actual distribution patterns suggests that the moth may be close to its predicted northern range along the Atlantic coast. Parts of Texas and most of Mexico may be vulnerable to geographic range expansion of C. cactorum. Larval growth rates in the field were estimated by measuring differences in head capsules and body lengths of larval cohorts at weekly intervals. Growth indices plotted against measures of larval growth rates compared poorly when CLIMEX was run using the default historical weather data. CLIMEX predicted a single period conducive to insect development, in contrast to the three generations observed in the field. Only time and more complete records will tell whether C. cactorum will extend its geographical distribution to regions predicted by the CLIMEX model. In terms

  15. Kairomonal activities of 2-acylcyclohexane-1,3 diones produced byEphestia kuehniella zeller in eliciting searching behavior by the parasitoidBracon hebetor (say).

    PubMed

    Strand, M R; Williams, H J; Vinson, S B; Mudd, A

    1989-05-01

    2-Acylcyclohexane-1,3-diones produced in the mandibular glands ofEphestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) fifth instars acted as arrestment and host-trail following kairomones for the parasitoid,Bracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). The behavioral response of the parasitoids to the kairomone varied with kairomone concentration and distribution. However, only small differences in activity were noted for the different mandibular gland components.B. hebetor females that encountered filter paper patches impregnated with the kairomone exhibited antennation and probing behavior. Females followed trails formed with 2-[(Z,E)12,14-hexadecadienoyl]cyclohexane-1,3-dione in the same manner exhibited with host-made trails. At concentrations of 1.0 μg/mm and above, trail following was interrupted by frequent probing.

  16. Mating Disruption of the Navel Orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Using Widely Spaced, Aerosol Dispensers: Is the Pheromone Blend the Most Efficacious Disruptant?

    PubMed

    Higbee, Bradley S; Burks, Charles S; Cardé, Ring T

    2017-10-01

    The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a key pest of almonds and pistachios and is sometimes controlled using mating disruption as part of a program of integrated management. The formulation used has a single, nonattractive compound [(11Z,13Z)-hexadecadienal] as the active ingredient that is emitted from timed aerosol dispensers. This study compared this nonattractive, single-compound formulation with two aerosol formulations also containing two additional compounds [(11Z,13Z)-hexadecadien-1-ol and (3Z,6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z)-tricosapentaene] that are found in the pheromone glands, and that in combination with the aldehyde are attractive in wind-tunnel and field-attraction trials. An experiment in pistachios found 97% to 99% suppression of males captured in female-baited traps and 82-93% suppression of mating in sentinel females. Both assays revealed a trend to greater suppression by the more complete pheromone formulations. In almonds, where the abundance of navel orangeworm was lower, all three formulations suppressed males captured in traps and mating in sentinel females by >99%. Each of the formulations significantly reduced damage to Nonpareil almonds. In almonds, there were no significant differences among the formulations in disruption of sexual communication or in damage. These findings suggest that it may be possible to make mating disruption more cost-effective and to achieve higher levels of mating disruption by using attractive aerosol formulations to reduce the number of dispenser per ha. Such a formulation, however, would be more expensive to register in the United States than pheromones meeting the definition of straight-chain lepidopteran pheromone, including the currently used aldehyde-only formulation. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. Taxonomic review of the genus Indomyrlaea Roesler & Küppers 1979 of China, with descriptions of five new species (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Phycitinae).

    PubMed

    Ren, Yingdang; Yang, Linlin; Li, Houhun

    2015-08-24

    The taxonomy of the Chinese species of the genus Indomyrlaea Roesler & Küppers, 1979 is revised. Five new species, namely I. bannensis Ren & Li sp. nov., I. fastigipalpa Ren & Li sp. nov., I. nigra Ren & Li sp. nov., I. proceripalpa Ren & Li sp. nov., and I. sinuapalpa Ren & Li sp. nov., are described. The following taxonomic changes are proposed: Sandrabatis Ragonot, 1893 and its type species Sandrabatis crassiella Ragonot, 1893 are synonymized with Ceroprepes Zeller, 1867 and Ceroprepes ophthalmicella (Christoph, 1881), respectively; Indomyrlaea phaeella (Hampson, 1903) comb. nov. is transferred from Sandrabatis. The original combination Nephopterix eugraphella Ragonot, 1888 is resurrected from its previous affiliation with Indomyrlaea. A checklist and a key to all the known species of the world are included.

  18. Application of Ozone to Control Dried Fig Pests-Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)-and Its Organoleptic Properties.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Reza; Mirabi Moghaddam, Rahil; Taghizadeh, Masoud

    2017-10-01

    Ozone is a powerful oxidant which can be used for killing insects and microorganisms. In this study, ozone was applied in the gaseous form to control two species of pests in stored dried figs. The samples of figs (50 g each) were infested with adults of Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. and larvae of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller and were subjected to different combinations of ozone concentrations (2, 3, and 5 ppm) and exposure times (15, 30, 45, 60, and 90 min). Changes in organoleptic properties (color, sweetness, firmness, aroma, and overall acceptability) during ozonation were studied. The results showed that the mortality rate increased with an increase in ozone concentration and exposure time. The total mortality of both pests was achieved at an ozone concentration of 5 ppm and exposure time of 90 min. Sensory evaluation showed that ozone only had a negligible effect on aroma. Therefore, the usage of ozone is recommended during the postharvest process instead of other chemical fumigants, such as methyl bromide and phosphine. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. New data on the Pterophoridae fauna of Liberia (Lepidoptera: Pterophoridae).

    PubMed

    Ustjuzhanin, Petr; Kovtunovich, Vasily; Sáfián, Szabolcs

    2017-03-27

    There have been no special studies on plume moths of Liberia until recently. In the World Catalogue of Insects (Gielis 2003) only two species are reported from Liberia: Agdistis tamaricis (Zeller, 1847) and Megalorhipida leucodactyla (Fabricius, 1794) despite its well-known richness for other Lepidoptera groups (Fox et al. 1965, Larsen 2005) and its biogeographic position in the centre of the Upper Guinean biodiversity hotspot (Myers et al. 2000).

  20. Temperature-mediated growth thresholds of Acrobasis vaccinii (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Degree-day models link ambient temperature to the development of insects, making such models valuable tools in integrated pest management. Phenology models increase management efficacy by quantifying and predicting pest phenology. In Wisconsin, the top pest of cranberry production is the cranberry f...

  1. Synthetic pheromones disrupt male Dioryctria spp. moths in a loblolly pine seed orchard

    Treesearch

    Gary L. DeBarr; James L. Hanula; Christine G. Niwa; John C Nord

    2000-01-01

    Synthetic sex pheromones released in a loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L. (Pinaceae), seed orchard interfered with the ability of male coneworm moths, Dioryctria Zeller spp. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), to locate traps baited with sex pheromones or live females. Pherocon 1 C® traps baited with synthetic pheromones or live conspecific...

  2. Complexity in Dioryctria zimmermani Species Group: Incongruence Between Species Limits and Molecular Diversity

    Treesearch

    Amanda D. Roe; Daniel R. Miller; Susan J. Weller

    2011-01-01

    Dioryctria (Zeller 1846) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Phycitinae) moths, commonlyknown as coneworms, are a group of important coniferous pests. InterspeciÞc overlap of molecular, morphological, and behavioral traits has made identiÞcation and delimitation of these species problematic, impeding their management and control. In particular, delimitation of members of the...

  3. Review of Aesiocopa Zeller, 1877, with the descriptions of two new species (Tortricidae: Sparganothini)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The formerly monotypic genus Aesiocopa Zeller, 1877 is reviewed. Three species are included: A. vacivana Zeller, 1877 (type species) from Panama; A. necrofolia Brown & Phillips, new species, from Mexico and Costa Rica; and A. grandis Brown, new species, from Costa Rica. The genus is recorded sparing...

  4. Potential of endophytic fungi as biocontrol agents of Duponchelia fovealis (Zeller) (Lepidoptera:Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Amatuzzi, R F; Cardoso, N; Poltronieri, A S; Poitevin, C G; Dalzoto, P; Zawadeneak, M A; Pimentel, I C

    2017-11-09

    This study reports the first assessment of endophytic fungi isolated from strawberry leaves and selection of isolates for the control of Duponchelia fovealis, a new pest of strawberries. A total of 400 strawberry leaves of the cultivar 'Albion' were collected in four commercial farms. Leaves were disinfected, cut in fragments, and placed on Petri dishes containing potato dextrose agar media with tetracycline and incubated for 30 days. Following this time, 517 fungal colonies were isolated, and thirteen genera were identified: Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Nigrospora, Fusarium, Trichoderma, Chaetomium, Alternaria, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Ulocladium, Bipolaris, Diaporthe, and Phoma. Eight isolates belonging to the genera Aspergillus, Diaporthe, Paecilomyces, and Cladosporium were selected for pathogenicity bioassays against third instar larvae of D. fovealis. Isolates of Paecilomyces induced the highest mortality rates.

  5. Edible Lepidoptera in Mexico: Geographic distribution, ethnicity, economic and nutritional importance for rural people

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we reported the butterflies and moths that are consumed in Mexico. We identified 67 species of Lepidoptera that are eaten principally in their larval stage in 17 states of Mexico. These species belong to 16 families: Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Geometridae, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Sesiidae, and Sphingidae. Saturniidae, Pieridae, Noctuidae and Nymphalidae were the more species consumed with 16, 11, 9, and 8 species, respectively. The genera with the largest numbers of species were: Phassus, Phoebis, Hylesia and Spodoptera, with three species. Their local distribution, corresponding to each state of Mexico, is also presented. PMID:21211040

  6. [First report of Montagnea arenaria (D.C.) Zeller (Agaricales) in Chile].

    PubMed

    Madrid Lorca, Hugo; Muñoz, Mélica

    2006-06-01

    Montagnea arenaria (D.C.) Zeller (Agaricales), an interesting basidiomycete adapted to arid environments is recorded for the first time from a sample collected on sandy soil in the northern zone of Chile. Its mature fruiting body is described. Taxonomic and ecological comments are also addressed.

  7. Life history attributes of Indian meal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Angoumois grain moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) reared on transgenic corn kernels.

    PubMed

    Sedlacek, J D; Komaravalli, S R; Hanley, A M; Price, B D; Davis, P M

    2001-04-01

    The Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), and Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier), are two globally distributed stored-grain pests. Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the impact that corn (Zea mays L.) kernels (i.e., grain) of some Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) corn hybrids containing CrylAb Bt delta-endotoxin have on life history attributes of Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth. Stored grain is at risk to damage from Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth; therefore, Bt corn may provide a means of protecting this commodity from damage. Thus, the objective of this research was to quantify the effects of transgenic corn seed containing CrylAb delta-endotoxin on Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth survival, fecundity, and duration of development. Experiments with Bt grain, non-Bt isolines, and non-Bt grain were conducted in environmental chambers at 27 +/- 1 degrees C and > or = 60% RH in continuous dark. Fifty eggs were placed in ventilated pint jars containing 170 g of cracked or whole corn for the Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth, respectively. Emergence and fecundity were observed for 5 wk. Emergence and fecundity of Indian meal moth and emergence of Angoumois grain moth were significantly lower for individuals reared on P33V08 and N6800Bt, MON 810 and Bt-11 transformed hybrids, respectively, than on their non-Bt transformed isolines. Longer developmental times were observed for Indian meal moth reared on P33V08 and N6800Bt than their non-Bt-transformed isolines. These results indicate that MON 810 and Bt-11 CrylAb delta-endotoxin-containing kernels reduce laboratory populations of Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth. Thus, storing Bt-transformed grain is a management tactic that warrants bin scale testing and may effectively reduce Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth populations in grain without application of synthetic chemicals or pesticides.

  8. Orientation of navel orangeworm larvae and adults (Amyelois transitella: Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) toward Aspergillus flavus.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The navel orangeworm (Amyelois transitella), a pest of California tree nuts, is associated with the fungus Aspergillus flavus, and mounting evidence suggests that these two species are facultative mutualists. Navel orangeworm larvae exhibit improved growth and survival on diets containing this fungu...

  9. A character demonstrating the occurrence of mating in male Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Marti, O.G.; Carpenter, J.E.

    The reproductive system of adult male Cactoblastis cactorum, the cactus moth, was examined to determine whether the mating status of males could be ascertained. In unmated males, the posterior portion of the primary ductus ejaculatorius simplex is opaque yellow in color and contains many small football-shaped hyaline granules 3-5 x 5-10 {mu}m in size. In mated males, the posterior simplex is clear and contains no granules. The presence or absence of these characters was found to be highly reliable and should be of value in determining mating status in marked-recaptured males of this species in a sterile insect release programmore » directed against Cactoblastis. (author)« less

  10. Impact of Pesticide Resistance on Toxicity and Tolerance of Hostplant Phytochemicals in Amyelois Transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bagchi, Vikram A.; Siegel, Joel P.; Demkovich, Mark R.; Zehr, Luke N.; Berenbaum, May R.

    2016-01-01

    For some polyphagous insects, adaptation to phytochemically novel plants can enhance resistance to certain pesticides, but whether pesticide resistance expands tolerance to phytochemicals has not been examined. Amyelois transitella Walker (navel orangeworm) is an important polyphagous pest of nut and fruit tree crops in California. Bifenthrin resistance, partially attributable to enhanced cytochrome P450 (P450)-mediated detoxification, has been reported in an almond-infesting population exposed to intense pesticide selection. We compared the toxicity of bifenthrin and three phytochemicals–chlorogenic acid, and the furanocoumarins xanthotoxin and bergapten–to three strains of A. transitella: pyrethroid-resistant R347 (maintained in the laboratory for ∼10 generations), fig-derived FIG (in the laboratory for ∼25 generations), and CPQ–a laboratory strain derived from almonds ∼40 years ago). Whereas both Ficus carica (fig) and Prunus dulcis (almond) contain chlorogenic acid, furanocoumarins occur only in figs. Both R347 and FIG exhibited 2-fold greater resistance to the three phytochemicals compared with CPQ; surprisingly, bifenthrin resistance was highest in FIG. Piperonyl butoxide, a P450 synergist, increased toxicity of all three phytochemicals only in CPQ, implicating alternate tolerance mechanisms in R347 and FIG. To test the ability of the strains to utilize novel hostplants directly, we compared survival on diets containing seeds of Wisteria sinensis and Prosopis pallida, two non-host Fabaceae species; survival of FIG was highest and survival of R347 was lowest. Our results suggest that, while P450-mediated pesticide resistance enhances tolerance of certain phytochemicals in this species, it is only one of multiple biochemical adaptations associated with acquiring novel hostplants. PMID:27620560

  11. Adenanthera pavonina trypsin inhibitor retard growth of Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues; Durigan, Roberta Aparecida; da Silva, Desiree Soares; Marangoni, Sérgio; Freire, Maria das Graças Machado; Parra, José Roberto Postali

    2010-04-01

    Anagasta kuehniella is a polyphagous pest that feeds on a wide variety of stored products. The possible roles suggested for seed proteinase inhibitors include the function as a part of the plant defensive system against pest via inhibition of their proteolytic enzymes. In this study, a trypsin inhibitor (ApTI) was purified from Adenanthera pavonina seed and was tested for insect growth regulatory effect. The chronic ingestion of ApTI did result in a significant reduction in larval survival and weight. Larval and pupal developmental time of larvae fed on ApTI diet at 1% was significantly longer; the larval period was extended by 5 days and pupal period was 10 days longer, therefore delaying by up to 20 days and resulting in a prolonged period of development from larva to adult. As a result, the ApTI diet emergence rate was only 28% while the emergence rate of control larvae was 80%. The percentage of surviving adults (%S) decreased to 62%. The fourth instar larvae reared on a diet containing 1% ApTI showed a decrease in tryptic activity of gut and that no novel proteolytic form resistant to ApTI was induced. In addition, the tryptic activity in ApTI -fed larvae was sensitive to ApTI. These results suggest that ApTI have a potential antimetabolic effect when ingested by A. kuehniella. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. [Effects of pomegranate varieties on the development and fecundity of Assara inouei Yamanaka (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)].

    PubMed

    He, Chao; Shen, Deng Rong; Yin, Li Hong; Li, Xi Liang; He, Jian Cai; Yuan, Sheng Yong; Tian, Xue Jun

    2017-03-18

    Assara inouei Yanmanaka is an important pest of pomegranate fruits in Yunnan Province. To examine the effects of different pomegranate varieties on the development and reproduction of A. inouei, the biological characteristics, such as the developmental duration, the survival rate and reproduction of this pest feeding on five pomegranate varieties including Tianlvzi, Houpitianshazi, Tianguangyan, Suanlvzi and Suanshazi were observed respectively, and the life table parameters were established under the laboratory conditions of (25±1) ℃, RH (70±10)% and a photoperiod of 15 L:9 D. The results showed that there were no significant differences in the egg stage, larval stage, pupal stage, the longevity of male adults, generation duration form egg to adult and egg hatch rate among the five varieties. There were significant differences in the pre-pupal stage, the longevity of female adults, larval survival, pupation, eclosion and total survival rates, the number of eggs laid per female as well as male and female pupal mass among the five varieties, and all of which except the larval survival were higher on Suanlvzi, followed by Houpitianshazi, but there was no significant difference between these two varieties. The results of life table showed the net reproduction rate, the intrinsic rate of increase and finite rate of increase of the Suanlvzi population were the highest. There were no significant differences in the mean generation time among the five varieties, but significant difference was observed in the population doubling time, which was the shortest on Suanlvzi population. The development and reproduction of A. inouei were better on the Suanlvzi and Houpitianshazi among the five varieties.

  13. W-enriched satellite sequence in the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Dalíková, Martina; Zrzavá, Magda; Kubíčková, Svatava; Marec, František

    2017-10-01

    The W chromosome of most lepidopteran species represents the largest heterochromatin entity in the female genome. Although satellite DNA is a typical component of constitutive heterochromatin, there are only a few known satellite DNAs (satDNAs) located on the W chromosome in moths and butterflies. In this study, we isolated and characterized new satDNA (PiSAT1) from microdissected W chromosomes of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella. Even though the PiSAT1 is mainly localized near the female-specific segment of the W chromosome, short arrays of this satDNA also occur on autosomes and/or the Z chromosome. Probably due to the predominant location in the non-recombining part of the genome, PiSAT1 exhibits a relatively large nucleotide variability in its monomers. However, at least a part of all predicted functional motifs is located in conserved regions. Moreover, we detected polyadenylated transcripts of PiSAT1 in all developmental stages and in both sexes (female and male larvae, pupae and adults). Our results suggest a potential structural and functional role of PiSAT1 in the P. interpunctella genome, which is consistent with accumulating evidence for the important role of satDNAs in eukaryotic genomes.

  14. Evaluating Penetration Ability of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Larvae into Multilayer Polypropylene Packages.

    PubMed

    Scheff, Deanna S; Sehgal, Blossom; Subramanyam, Bhadriraju

    2018-04-18

    The larvae of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), can invade or penetrate packaging materials and infest food products. Energy bars with three polypropylene packaging types were challenged with eggs (first instars), third instars, and fifth instars of P. interpunctella to determine package resistance at 28 °C and 65% r.h. The packing types were also challenged with two male and two female pupae of P. interpunctella under similar conditions in order to determine which package provided the greatest protection against larval penetration. Samples infested with eggs, third instars, and pupae were evaluated after 21 days and 42 days to count the number of larvae, pupae, and adults found inside the packages. Packages challenged with fifth instars were observed after 21 days to count the number of larvae, pupae, and adults inside each package. The number and diameter of the holes were determined in each package, followed by the amount of damage sustained to the energy bar. Third and fifth instars showed a higher tendency to penetrate all of the packaging types. First instars showed a reduction in package penetration ability compared with third and fifth instars. The increase in exposure time resulted in an increase in the damage sustained to the energy bars. Among packaging types, the thickest package (Test A) was most resilient to penetration by all of the larval stages. In conclusion, energy bar manufacturers need to invest more effort into improving packaging designs, creating thicker gauge films, or advancing odor barrier technology, in order to prevent penetration and infestation by P. interpunctella larvae.

  15. Infestation of a bird and two cats by larvae of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Pinckney, R D; Kanton, K; Foster, C N; Steinberg, H; Pellitteri, P

    2001-09-01

    The larvae of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), commonly known as the Indian meal moth, often cause enormous losses in stored food supplies. We present three clinical case reports of accidental infestation by P. interpunctella larvae in two domestic cats and one parakeet. A larva gained entry into the avian host and subsequently migrated to the brain. It was alive, covered with "silk-like" fibers and confirmed to be a fourth instar. Plodia interpunctella larvae were excised with forceps from the subcutaneous tissues of the ear and neck of two cats in a different household. Previous reports of infestation by P. interpunctella larvae in vertebrates are unknown.

  16. Activity of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in and around flour mills.

    PubMed

    Doud, C W; Phillips, T W

    2000-12-01

    Studies were conducted at two flour mills where male Indian meal moths, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), were captured using pheromone-baited traps. Objectives were to determine the distribution of male P. interpunctella at different locations in and around the mills throughout the season, and to monitor moth activity before and after one of the mills was fumigated with methyl bromide to assess efficacy of treatment. Commercially available sticky traps baited with the P. interpunctella sex pheromone were placed at various locations outside and within the larger of the two mills (mill 1). Moths were captured inside mill 1 after methyl bromide fumigations. The highest numbers of P. interpunctella were caught outside the facility and at ground floor locations near outside openings. Additional traps placed in the rooms above the concrete stored-wheat silos at mill 1 during the second year captured more moths than did traps within the mill's production and warehouse areas. In another study, moths were trapped at various distances from a smaller flour mill (mill 2) to determine the distribution of moths outdoors relative to the mill. There was a negative correlation between moth capture and distance from the facility, which suggested that moth activity was concentrated at or near the flour mill. The effectiveness of the methyl bromide fumigations in suppressing moth populations could not be assessed with certainty because moths captured after fumigation may have immigrated from outside through opened loading bay warehouse doors. This study documents high levels of P. interpunctella outdoors relative to those recorded inside a food processing facility. Potential for immigration of P. interpunctella into flour mills and other stored product facilities from other sources may be greater than previously recognized. Moth entry into a food processing facility after fumigation is a problem that should be addressed by pest managers.

  17. Evaluation of acetone vapors toxicity on Plodia interpunctella (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs.

    PubMed

    Pourmirza, Ali Asghr; Nasab, Fershteh Sadeghi; Zadeh, Abas Hossein

    2007-08-01

    The efficacy of acetone vapors against carefully aged eggs of Plodia interpunctella (Hubner) at 17+/-1 and 27+/-1 degrees C at different dosage levels of acetone over various exposure times was determined. Acetone was found to be toxic to Indian meal moth eggs. Considerable variation in the susceptibility of different age groups of eggs was apparent in the fiducial limits of the LD50 values. An inverse relationship between LD50 values and exposure times was observed in age groups of tested eggs. At 27+/-1 degrees C and 24 h exposure period, eggs aged 1-2 day-old were more tolerant to acetone than other age groups, followed by 0-1 day-old, 2-3 day-old and 3-4 day-old eggs. A similar pattern of susceptibility of eggs was observed at 72 h exposure. In all bioassays, eggs exposed to higher dosages of acetone developed at smaller rate. This was significant for the eggs, which were exposed to the highest dosage for 24 h. Increasing the temperature from 17+/-1 to 27+/-1 degrees C greatly increased the efficacy of acetone. At 27+/-1 degrees C eggs of P. interpunctella were killed by less than one-third of the dosage required for control at 17+/-1 degrees C. Acetone achieved 50% mortality with a dosage of 82.76 mg L(-1) in 1-2 day-old eggs at 27+/-1 degrees C. At this temperature hatching was retarded and greatly diminished when eggs aged 1-2 day-old were exposed to 80 mg L(-1) of acetone for the 24 h exposure period. There was no evidence of a hatch delay longer than the time spent under vapors for eggs exposed at 17+/-1 or 27+/-1 degrees C, indicating that some development must have occurred under fumigation.

  18. Susceptibility of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) developmental stages to high temperatures used during structural heat treatments.

    PubMed

    Mahroof, R; Subramanyam, B

    2006-12-01

    Heating the ambient air of a whole, or a portion of a food-processing facility to 50 to 60 degrees C and maintaining these elevated temperatures for 24 to 36 h, is an old technology, referred to as heat treatment. There is renewed interest in adopting heat treatments around the world as a viable insect control alternative to fumigation with methyl bromide. There is limited published information on responses of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), exposed to elevated temperatures typically used during heat treatments. Time-mortality relationships were determined for eggs, fifth-instars (wandering-phase larvae), pupae, and adults of P. interpunctella exposed to five constant temperatures between 44 and 52 degrees C. Mortality of each stage increased with increasing temperature and exposure time. In general, fifth-instars were the most heat-tolerant stage at all temperatures tested. Exposure for a minimum of 34 min at 50 degrees C was required to kill 99% of the fifth-instars. It is proposed that heat treatments aimed at controlling fifth-instars should be able to control all other stages of P. interpunctella.

  19. Responses of striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), from Taiwan to a range of insecticides.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xuan; Chang, Cheng; Dai, Shu-Mei

    2010-07-01

    Information on the insecticide susceptibility of striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), is essential for an effective pest management programme. An early detection of resistance development can prompt the modification of current control methods and increase the lifespan of insecticides through the rotation of chemicals with different modes of action. In this study, the susceptibility of this pest in Taiwan to four classes of insecticides has been examined. Over 1000-fold resistance to carbofuran was detected in C. suppressalis collected from Chiayi and Changhua prefectures, with estimated LC(50) values of > 3 mg cm(-2). In addition, 61-fold resistance to cartap was found in the Chiayi population. On the other hand, all tested populations of rice stem borer were still relatively susceptible to chlorpyrifos, fipronil and permethrin, with LC(50) values ranging from 30 to 553 ng cm(-2). Chilo suppressalis populations collected from the central parts of Taiwan have a higher degree of resistance to the tested insecticides than those from northern areas. The occurrence of high resistance to carbofuran in the Chiayi and Changhua areas suggests that this compound should be replaced with chemicals having a different mode of action, such as chlorpyrifos, fipronil and permethrin, to which low cross-resistance has been detected. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Variable developmental rate and survival of navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on pistachio.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Joel P; Bas Kuenen, L P S

    2011-04-01

    A series of laboratory and field studies were conducted using two lines of navel orangeworm, reared on different stages of new crop and mummy pistachios, Pistacia vera L. This study demonstrated the potential importance of malformed pistachios (pea splits) to the population dynamics of navel orangeworm, because these nuts, which are available as early as two months before mature nuts, supported navel orangeworm development and survival. Overall, the developmental rate on new crop pistachios is fastest on mature nuts, 422.3 +/- 123 degree-days (DD, degrees C), but other factors such as exposure to insecticide residue also sped development, although survival decreased. Development took the longest on unharvested nuts (mummies) dried at 90 degrees C for 24 h, 2664.7 +/- 131.4 DD. In most trials development was variable and two generations could develop at the fastest rate before the slowest individual completed development, which in turn calls into question the concept of discrete generations. Generally, survival was highest on mature pistachios and other stages of new crop nut and lowest on mummies collected in May. Survival was also higher on the new varieties 'Lost Hills' and 'Golden Hills' (24.7 and 32.0%, respectively) than on the most extensively planted variety 'Kerman' (13.3%). In our trials, both the rate of development and survival were dependent on nut stage, age, variety, and quality, indicating that pistachios, like almonds, Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D. A. Webb, are a dynamic rather than a static nutrient source for navel orangeworm.

  1. Thermal death kinetics of fifth-instar Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Johnson, J A; Wang, S; Tang, J

    2003-04-01

    Heat treatments have been suggested as alternatives to chemical fumigants for control of postharvest insects in dried fruits and nuts. Conventional forced hot air treatments heat product too slowly to be practical, but radio frequency treatments are capable of more rapid product heating. While developing radio frequency heat treatments for dried fruits and nuts, the heat tolerance of nondiapausing and diapausing fifth-instar larvae of the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), was determined using a heating block system developed by Washington State University. Both a 0.5th order kinetic model and a classical empirical model were used to estimate lethal exposure times for temperatures of 44-52 degrees C for nondiapausing fifth-instar larvae. We obtained 95% mortality at exposures suitable for practical radio frequency treatments (< or = 5 min) with temperatures of 50 and 52 degrees C. Diapausing larvae were significantly more tolerant than nondiapausing larvae at the lowest treatment temperature and shortest exposure, but differences were not significant at more extreme temperature-time combinations. Previous studies showed that fifth-instar larvae of the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker), were more heat tolerant than either diapausing or nondiapausing Indianmeal moth larvae. Consequently, efficacious treatments for navel orangeworm would also control Indianmeal moth.

  2. Age-stage, two-sex life table of Parapoynx crisonalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at different temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qi; Li, Ni; Wang, Xing; Ma, Li; Huang, Jian-Bin; Huang, Guo-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Parapoynx crisonalis is an important pest of many aquatic vegetables including water chestnuts. Understanding the relationship between temperature variations and the population growth rates of P. crisonalis is essential to predicting its population dynamics in water chestnuts ponds. These relationships were examined in this study based on the age-stage, two-sex life table of P. crisonalis developed in the laboratory at 21, 24, 27, 30, 33 and 36°C. The results showed that the values of Sxj (age-stage–specific survival rate), fxj (age-stage-specific fecundity), lx (age specific survival rate) and mx (age-specific fecundity) increased as the temperature rose from 21 to 27°C, then decreased from 30 to 36°C. Temperature also had a significant effect on the net reproductive rate (R0), gross reproductive rate (GRR), intrinsic rate of increase (r) and finite rate of increase (λ). The value of these parameters were at low levels at 21, 33, and 36°C. Further, the r value decreased as the temperature rose from 24 to 30°C, while the GRR reached its highest level at 27°C. The results indicated that optimal growth and development of P. crisonalis occurred at temperatures between 24°C to 30°C when compared to the lowest temperature (21°C) and higher temperatures of 33°C and 36°C. PMID:28264022

  3. Reinvestigation of Cactoblastis Captorum (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE) sex pheromone for improved attractiveness and greater specificity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg.) is recognized as an invasive species in the Caribbean, United States, and Mexico with potential to adversely impact native cactus population. Prior work using hexane extracts of sex glands showed that the sex pheromone of this species has 54% of (Z, E) -9.12 tetradecadi...

  4. Collectively Facilitated Behavior of the Neonate Caterpillars of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Terrence D.; Wolfin, Michael; Young, Ryan; Meyer, Katelyn; Fabozzi, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The behavioral biology of the first instar larva of Cactoblastis cactorum was studied from the time of eclosion until the colony penetrated and initiated excavation of the host plant. Hatching from an egg stick was asynchronous, requiring 20 h for the entire cohort to eclose at 50%–70% RH and significantly longer at a lower range of RHs. On eclosion, neonates aggregated in an arena at the base of their egg stick and did not attempt to excavate the cladode until an average of 25 caterpillars had collected, approximately 15 h after the onset of egg hatch. Typically only a single entrance hole was formed, limiting the active process of excavating to one or a few individuals at-a-time until the host was fully penetrated and enlarged internally. Olfactometer tests showed that the neonates are strongly attracted to volatile chemicals released when caterpillars chewed into the cladode, accounting for the strong fidelity of the whole cohort to the initial site of penetration. In one instance, the caterpillars were observed to deal with an explosive release of mucilage by imbibing the liquid until the flooded zone was drained and the caterpillars could reenter the plant through the original entrance hole. Once inside the cladode, marked individuals adopted a regular cycle of defecating at the surface at a mean interval of approximately 10 min when followed for 35 successive cycles. Blanket spraying cladodes with a mandibular gland extract prior to hatching led to the independent dispersal of neonates and a failure to form an arena. When the cladode was impenetrable at the site of eclosion, the active cohort of unfed neonates set off together in search of a new site, marking and following a persistent trail that allowed late-to-eclose caterpillars to join their departed siblings. The adaptive significance of these observations is discussed in the context of the life history of the caterpillar. PMID:27809231

  5. Semiochemicals released by pecan alleviate physiological suppression in overwintering larvae of Acrobasis nuxvorella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Vargas-Arispuro, I; Corella-Madueño, M A G; Harris, M K; Martínez-Téllez, M A; Gardea, A A; Fu-Castillo, A; Orozco-Avitia, A

    2013-10-01

    Acrobasis nuxvorella Neunzig (pecan nut casebearer) is a monophagous herbivore of Carya illinoinensis (Wang.) K. Koch (pecan); both are indigenous to North America, where Carya has evolved for ≈60 million years. We hypothesized that this close association may have resulted in a parallel evolution allowing casebearer to use pecan volatiles to synchronize seasonality. Casebearer overwinters in diapause as a first-instar larva in a hibernaculum attached to a dormant pecan bud. Larval emergence from this structure after diapause or postdiapause quiescence coincides with the onset of pecan bud growth in the spring, and this interaction was the subject of this study. Dormant pecan twigs with hibernacula-infested buds were exposed to a water control or pecan volatiles from 'Western Schley' cultivar, and monitored to observe larval response by using a microcalorimeter. Initial testing showed that metabolic heat produced by overwintering larvae remained low and unchanged when exposed to water vapor and significantly increased within a few hours after exposure to volatiles from new pecan foliage. This shows that these larvae in hibernacula are in a physiologically suppressed state of diapause or postdiapause quiescence, from which they detect and respond to these pecan volatiles. Further studies to quantify larval responses showed that 90 and 80% of the larvae became active and emerged from their hibernacula ≈6 d after exposure to Western Schley and 'Wichita' volatiles, respectively. Mixtures of 13 sesquiterpenes from those pecan volatiles were identified to induce physiological activity within larvae after hours of exposure, followed some days later by larval emergence from hibernacula. Host volatiles, to our knowledge, have not previously been reported to induce early instar larvae in hibernacula to rouse from a state of physiological arrest to resume normal growth and development. This also has potential for use in pest management.

  6. Susceptibility baseline and chlorantraniliprole resistance monitoring in Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Gao, Congfen; Yao, Rong; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Wu, Min; Zhang, Shuai; Su, Jianya

    2013-10-01

    Chlorantraniliprole, a new anthranilic diamide insecticide, has been commercialized in China since 2008 for controlling of several lepidopterans, including rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis Walker. Chemical control of this pest has become difficult because of its resistance development to many conventional insecticides. To facilitate chlorantraniliprole-resistance monitoring, seedling dip bioassays were conducted in 2011 and 2012 to assess the susceptibility of 30 populations of C. suppressalis from seven provinces in China. The assays established a larval susceptibility baseline with LC50 at 1.393 mg a.i/liter. The toxicity (LC50) of chlorantraniliprole against second-instar larvae of field populations ranged from 0.568 (SL12) to 13.547 (RA12) mg a.i/liter. Substantial variations of the susceptibility to chlorantraniliprole were detected among different geographic populations, but no significant difference was observed between years for most populations except for populations from Dong'an, Cangnan, and Lujiang. Resistance ratios to the chemical ranged from 1.0 to 9.7, indicating that most colonies remained susceptible or showed certain decrease in susceptibility. Approximately, 13.3% of the populations exhibited low levels of resistance to chlorantraniliprole. These data are useful in future monitoring program for detecting any changes in susceptibility as a result of use of the insecticide.

  7. Selective insecticide-induced stimulation on fecundity and biochemical changes in Tryporyza incertulas (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ai-Hua; Wu, Jin-Cai; Yu, Yue-Shu; Liu, Jing-Lan; Yue, Jiang-Fei; Wang, Mei-Yue

    2005-08-01

    The use of selective insecticides in rice, Oryza sativa L., fields often causes resurgence of nontarget pest insects. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of two selective insecticides, buprofezin and imidacloprid, on Tryporyza incertulas (Walker), a nontarget pest. After larval feeding on rice plants treated with each insecticide, fecundity, ovary protein content, and titer of juvenile hormone III (JHIII) in the resulting female moths were determined with 'Xiushui 63' rice susceptible to T. incertulas and 'Zhendao 2' moderately resistant to T. incertulas. The fecundity of females developed from larvae that fed on the insecticide-treated Xiushui 63 plants was stimulated compared with that of moths from larvae that fed on rice plants that were not treated with either insecticide. There was no stimulating effect in females from larvae that fed on insecticide-treated Zhendao 2 plants. The weight of fourth instars (final instars) that fed on the insecticide-treated Xiushui 63 rice plants was significantly greater than that of control, increasing by 50.3 and 46.7% for 60 and 112.5 g (AI) ha(-1) buprofezin, and by 23.7 and 19.5% for 15 and 37.5 g (AI) ha(-1) imidacloprid treatments, respectively. Ovary protein content in adult females developed from larvae that fed on the rice treated with the high dose of buprofezin was significantly higher than that in control. For the high and low doses of imidacloprid during the second instar, and the low dose of imidacloprid during the fourth instar, JHIII titers in female adults were also significantly higher than that in control, increasing by 152.81, 90.52, and 114.19%, respectively.

  8. Evaluating penetration ability of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae into multilayer polypropylene packages

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Larvae of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), can invade or penetrate packaging materials and infest food products. Energy bars with three polypropylene packaging types were challenged with eggs (first instars), third, and fifth instars of P. interpunctella to determine package res...

  9. Impact of pesticide resistance on toxicity and tolerance of hostplant phytochemicals in Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For some polyphagous insects adaptation to phytochemically novel plants confers enhanced resistance to insecticides, but whether insecticide resistance enhances tolerance to novel phytochemicals has not been assessed. We used Amyelois transitella Walker (navel orangeworm), an economically important ...

  10. Impact of Pesticide Resistance on Toxicity and Tolerance of Hostplant Phytochemicals in Amyelois Transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Vikram A; Siegel, Joel P; Demkovich, Mark R; Zehr, Luke N; Berenbaum, May R

    2016-01-01

    For some polyphagous insects, adaptation to phytochemically novel plants can enhance resistance to certain pesticides, but whether pesticide resistance expands tolerance to phytochemicals has not been examined. Amyelois transitella Walker (navel orangeworm) is an important polyphagous pest of nut and fruit tree crops in California. Bifenthrin resistance, partially attributable to enhanced cytochrome P450 (P450)-mediated detoxification, has been reported in an almond-infesting population exposed to intense pesticide selection. We compared the toxicity of bifenthrin and three phytochemicals-chlorogenic acid, and the furanocoumarins xanthotoxin and bergapten-to three strains of A. transitella: pyrethroid-resistant R347 (maintained in the laboratory for ∼10 generations), fig-derived FIG (in the laboratory for ∼25 generations), and CPQ-a laboratory strain derived from almonds ∼40 years ago). Whereas both Ficus carica (fig) and Prunus dulcis (almond) contain chlorogenic acid, furanocoumarins occur only in figs. Both R347 and FIG exhibited 2-fold greater resistance to the three phytochemicals compared with CPQ; surprisingly, bifenthrin resistance was highest in FIG. Piperonyl butoxide, a P450 synergist, increased toxicity of all three phytochemicals only in CPQ, implicating alternate tolerance mechanisms in R347 and FIG. To test the ability of the strains to utilize novel hostplants directly, we compared survival on diets containing seeds of Wisteria sinensis and Prosopis pallida, two non-host Fabaceae species; survival of FIG was highest and survival of R347 was lowest. Our results suggest that, while P450-mediated pesticide resistance enhances tolerance of certain phytochemicals in this species, it is only one of multiple biochemical adaptations associated with acquiring novel hostplants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Candida pyralidae killer toxin disrupts the cell wall of Brettanomyces bruxellensis in red grape juice.

    PubMed

    Mehlomakulu, N N; Prior, K J; Setati, M E; Divol, B

    2017-03-01

    The control of the wine spoilage yeast Brettanomyces bruxellensis using biological methods such as killer toxins (instead of the traditional chemical methods, e.g. SO 2 ) has been the focus of several studies within the last decade. Our previous research demonstrated that the killer toxins CpKT1 and CpKT2 isolated from the wine yeast Candida pyralidae were active and stable under winemaking conditions. In this study, we report the possible mode of action of CpKT1 on B. bruxellensis cells in red grape juice. Brettanomyces bruxellensis cells were exposed to CpKT1 either directly or through co-inoculation with C. pyralidae. This exposure yielded a temporary or permanent decline of the spoilage yeast population depending on the initial cell concentration. Scanning electron microscopy revealed cell surface abrasion while propidium iodide viability staining showed that CpKT1 caused plasma membrane damage on B. bruxellensis cells. Our data show that the exposure to CpKT1 resulted in increased levels of β-glucan, suggesting a compensatory response of the sensitive cells. The toxin CpKT1 causes cell membrane and cell wall damage in B. bruxellensis. Candida pyralidae shows potential to be used as a biocontrol agent against B. bruxellensis in grape juice/wine. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Mating compatibility and competitiveness between wild and laboratory strains of Eldana saccharina (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) after radiation treatment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The efficacy of the sterile insect technique (SIT) applied as part of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes depends on the efficient transfer of sperm carrying dominant lethal mutations from sterile males to wild females. The success or failure of this strategy is therefore critic...

  13. Methoprene influences reproduction and flight capacity in adults of the rice leaf roller, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenee) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Juvenile hormone (JH) influences many aspects of insect biology, including oogenesis-flight syndrome tradeoffs between migration and reproduction. Drawing on studies of many migratory insects, we posed the hypothesis that JH influences migratory capacity and oogenesis in the rice leaf roller, Cnapha...

  14. Methoprene and synergized pyrethrins as an aerosol treatment to control Plodia interpunctella (Hubner), the Indian meal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aerosol insecticides (also known as ULV or fogging treatments) delivered through an ultra-low volume application system, are available commercially to control insect pests such as Plodia interpunctella Hübner, the Indianmeal moth. However, little is known about the susceptibility of eggs of P. inter...

  15. Development of cell lines from the cactophagous insect: Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and their susceptibility to three baculoviruses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The unintentional introduction of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, a successful biological control agent formerly employed in the control of invasive prickly pear cactus species (Opuntia spp.) as a possible threat to native, endangered species of cactus in the southeastern United States as we...

  16. Heat Tolerance Induction of the Indian Meal Moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Is Accompanied by Upregulation of Heat Shock Proteins and Polyols.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minhyun; Lee, Seunghee; Chun, Yong Shik; Na, Jahyun; Kwon, Hyeok; Kim, Wook; Kim, Yonggyun

    2017-08-01

    The Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella, causes massive damage to stored grains and processed foods. Heat treatment has been widely used to control insect pests infesting stored grains. However, heat treatment may result in unsatisfactory control owing to heat tolerance of target insects. This study quantified the heat tolerance and analyzed its induction in P. interpunctella. Susceptibility of P. interpunctella to different high temperatures was assessed in all developmental stages. Heat treatment at 44 °C for 1 h caused significant mortalities to all developmental stages, with late-instar larvae exhibiting the highest tolerance. However, the survivorship to heat treatment was significantly increased by pre-exposure to 37 °C for 30 min. The induction of heat tolerance was accompanied by upregulation of two heat shock proteins of Hsc70 and Hsp90. Trehalose and glycerol concentrations in the hemolymph also increased after pre-exposure to 37 °C for 30 min. RNA interference (RNAi) by specific double-stranded RNAs effectively suppressed the inducible expressions of both Hsc70 and Hsp90 in response to 37 °C for 30 min. Either RNAi of Hsc70 or Hsp90 significantly impaired the heat tolerance induction of P. interpunctella. These results suggest that the induction of heat tolerance in P. interpunctella involves the upregulation of these heat shock proteins and hemolymph polyol levels. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. A pheromone-baited trap for monitoring the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Mullen, M A.; Dowdy, A K.

    2001-07-01

    A pheromone-baited trap was developed to monitor the Indian meal moth in grocery stores and similar areas where visible traps are not desirable. The trap can be used under shelves and against walls. As a shelf mount, the trap is in close proximity to the food packages and may capture emerging insects before they mate. The trap can also be used as a hanging trap similar to the Pherocon II. When used as a shelf or wall mount, it was as effective as the Pherocon II, but when used as a hanging trap significantly fewer insects were captured.

  18. High-temperature controlled atmosphere for post-harvest control of Indian meal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on preserved flowers.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Jodi A; Shelton, Mark D

    2002-10-01

    High carbon dioxide atmospheres combined with high temperature were effective for controlling Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) pupae. Pupae were exposed to atmospheres of 60, 80, or 98% carbon dioxide (CO2) in nitrogen (N2), or 60 or 80% CO2 in air at temperatures of 26.7 degrees C or 32.2 degrees C and 60% RH. Controlled atmosphere treatments at 32.2 degrees C controlled pupae faster than the same treatments at the lower temperature. At both temperatures high CO2 concentration treatments combined with nitrogen killed pupae faster than high CO2 concentration treatments combined with air. Exposure to 80% carbon dioxide mixed with nitrogen was the most effective treatment causing 100% mortality in 12 h at 32.2 degrees C and 93.3% mortality in 18 h at 26.6 degrees C. High-temperature controlled atmosphere treatments had no adverse effects on quality of two preserved floral products, Limonium sinuatum (L.) and Gypsophila elegans (Bieb.), tested for 12, 18, and 24 h according to industry standards.

  19. Gamma radiation sensitivity of the eggs, larvae and pupae of Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Ayvaz, Abdurrahman; Albayrak, Sevil; Karaborklu, Salih

    2008-05-01

    This study focused on determining the minimal effective gamma radiation dose that prevents commodity damage caused by the Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella (Hübner). The study was also designed to assess the effect of releasing either partially sterilized males alone or both partially sterilized males and females on the reproductive potential of P. interpunctella populations. The dose of radiation required to prevent larval emergence from irradiated eggs was 350 Gy, and the same dose was also required to prevent adult emergence from mature larvae. A dose of 300 Gy was not able to prevent adult emergence from irradiated pupae. The dose at which 100% sterility was achieved in treated females mated to treated males was 300 Gy for the parental generation of irradiated pupae. Fertility of the parental males from irradiated pupae was 48.17% at 300 Gy in treated males crossed with untreated females, but male progeny of irradiated male parents had a residual fertility of 11.06% at the same dose. F(1) males from irradiated pupae were more sterile than parental males. To prevent larval emergence from irradiated eggs, a dose of 350 Gy is required. The same dose is required to prevent the larvae from reaching the adult stage. Copyright (c) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Contact toxicity of insecticides for attract-and-kill applications against adult Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Campos, Manuel; Phillips, Thomas W

    2010-07-01

    The Indian meal moth (IMM), Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), is an important pest of stored food products. Contact toxicities of 13 insecticides applied to different surfaces were evaluated at registered label and a higher dose for killing adult males. The ultimate objective was to develop attract-and-kill technologies for P. interpunctella. Two-day-old adult males were exposed to treated surfaces for 2.0 s and then paired with virgin females for mating and oviposition over a 24 h period. Permethrins and pyrethrins (organic pyrethrin and pyrethrin plus a synergist) caused over 70% mortality to males. Oviposition was impacted by these insecticides, while egg hatch was not. A second experiment tested the 8 week residual toxicity of cyfluthrin, permethrin and pyrethrin at label and at a higher dose of 20 g AI L(-1) on five surfaces: plastic-coated paper, metal, painted plastic, unpainted plastic and wood. Permethrin at 20 g AI L(-1) suppressed males at over 80% for up to 8 weeks and retained activity on surfaces made with plastic-coated paper, metal or plastic. Oviposition was variable among treatments. Egg hatch was generally unaffected by treatment. Effective attract-and-kill surfaces can be developed for killing IMM males and thereby potentially lead to reduced reproduction and, ultimately, population suppression. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Methoprene influences reproduction and flight capacity in adults of the rice leaf roller, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenểe) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Bei-Bei; Jiang, Xing-Fu; Zhang, Lei; Stanley, David Warren; Luo, Li-Zhi; Long, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) influences many aspects of insect biology, including oogenesis-flight syndrome tradeoffs between migration and reproduction. Drawing on studies of many migratory insects, we posed the hypothesis that JH influences migratory capacity and oogenesis in the rice leaf roller, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis. We treated adults moths (days 1, 2 and 3 postemergence) with the JH analog (JHA), methoprene, and then recorded the influences of JHA treatments on reproduction. JHA treatment on day 1 postemergence, but not on the other days, shortened the preoviposition period, although JHA did not influence total fecundity, oviposition period, or longevity. We infer day 1 postemergence is the JH-sensitive stage to influence reproduction. Therefore, we treated moths on day 1 postemergence with JHA and recorded flight capacity, flight muscle mass, and triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation. JHA treatments did not influence flight speed, but led to reductions in flight durations and flight distances. At day 3 posttreatment (PT), JHA-treated females flew shorter times and less distance than the controls; JHA-treated males, however, only flew shorter times than the controls. JHA treatments led to reductions in flight muscle mass in females at days 2-3 PT and reductions in TAG content in females at day 3 PT, but, these parameters were not influenced by JHA in males. These findings strongly support our hypothesis, from which we infer that JH is a major driver in C. medinalis oogenesis-flight syndrome tradeoffs. Our data also reveal a JH-sensitive stage in adulthood during which JH influences the oocyte-flight syndrome in C. medinalis. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The spatial genetic differentiation of the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) populations in West Africa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata, is an endemic insect pest that causes significant yield loss to the cowpea crop in West Africa, and contributes to food shortages and malnutrition in native human populations. The genetic structure of Maruca vitrata was investigated among five sites from Burkin...

  3. Ectomyelois Heinrich, 1956 in China, with descriptions of two new species and a key (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae, Phycitinae).

    PubMed

    Ren, Yingdang; Yang, Linlin

    2016-01-01

    Only three species belonging to the genus Ectomyelois Heinrich, 1956 are recorded from China, of which two species, Ectomyelois bipectinalis sp. n. and Ectomyelois furvivena sp. n. are described as new. We discuss the status of Ectomyelois that has been treated as a junior synonym by previous authors; we treat it as a valid genus, revised status, based on characters of the venation and female genitalia. Photographs of the adults and illustrations of the genitalia are given, along with a key to the three known Chinese species.

  4. [Biology and thermal requirements of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) parasitizing eggs of Diaphania hyalinata L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)].

    PubMed

    Melo, Ricardo L; Pratissoli, Dirceu; Polanczyk, Ricardo A; Melo, Débora F; Barros, Reginaldo; Milanez, André M

    2007-01-01

    The development and parasitism of Diaphania hyalinata L. eggs by Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner and its thermal requirements were studied at the temperatures of 18, 21, 24, 27, 30 and 33 degrees C. Thirty eggs of D. hyalinata were exposed to three females of T. atopovirilia for 5h at 25 degrees C and incubated at the different temperatures. The developmental time from egg exposure to adult, parasitism viability, number of adults per parasitized host egg and progeny sex ratio were monitored. The developmental time from egg to adult emergence of the parasitoid exhibited inverse relationship to the temperature, lasting 24.12 days at 18 degrees C and 7.36 days at 33 degrees C. Parasitism viability at 24, 27 and 30 degrees C was higher than 90%. The ratio of T. atapovirilia adult produced per egg and its sex ratio were not affected when using D. hialynata as host. The lowest threshold temperature (Tb) and estimated degree-days over Tb required by T. atopovirilia to develop on eggs of D. hyalinata was 11.99 degrees C and 130.42 masculine C, respectively. Considering the temperature regimes of two areas where cucurbitaces are cultivated in Bahia State (Rio Real and Inhambupe County) it was estimated that T. atopovirilia can achieve more than 32 generation per year. The results suggest that T. atopovirilia has potential to control D. hyalinata eggs with better chance of success under temperature regimes ranging from 24 to 27 degrees C that meets the suitable field conditions for cropping cucurbitaces.

  5. Degree-day model for timing insecticide applications to control Dioryctria amatella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in loblolly pine seed orchards

    Treesearch

    James L. Hanula; Gary L. DeBarr; Julie C. Weatherby; Larry R. Barber; C. Wayne Berisford

    2002-01-01

    Because Dioryctria amatella (Hulst) is a key pest in loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L. (Pinaceac), seed orchards in the southeastern United States, improved timing of insecticide applications would be valuable for its control. To time two fenvalerate (Pydrin® 2.4 EC) applications we tested four variations of a degree day model that...

  6. Silk Gland Gene Expression during Larval-Pupal Transition in the Cotton Leaf Roller Sylepta derogata (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    PubMed Central

    Su, Honghua; Cheng, Yuming; Wang, Zhongyang; Li, Zhong; Stanley, David; Yang, Yizhong

    2015-01-01

    The cotton leaf roller, Sylepta derogata, is a silk-producing insect pest. While young larvae feed on the underside of leaves, the older ones roll cotton leaves and feed on the leaf edges, which defoliates cotton plants. The larvae produce silk to stabilize the rolled leaf and to balloon from used to new leaves. Despite the significance of silk in the biology of pest insect species, there is virtually no information on the genes involved in their silk production. This is a substantial knowledge gap because some of these genes may be valuable targets for developing molecular pest management technologies. We addressed the gap by posing the hypothesis that silk gland gene expression changes during the transition from larvae to pupae. We tested our hypothesis using RNA-seq to investigate changes in silk gland gene expression at three developmental stages, 5th instar larvae (silk producing; 15,445,926 clean reads), prepupae (reduced silk producing; 13,758,154) and pupae (beyond silk producing; 16,787,792). We recorded 60,298 unigenes and mapped 50,158 (larvae), 48,415 (prepupae) and 46,623 (pupae) of them to the NCBI database. Most differentially expressed genes in the 5th instar larvae/prepupae libraries were relevant to nucleotide synthesis and maintenance of silk gland function. We identified down-regulated transcriptional factors and several genes involved in silk formation in the three libraries and verified the expression pattern of eight genes by qPCR. The developmental- and tissue-specific expression patterns of the fibroin light chain gene showed it was highly expressed during the larval silk-producing stage. We recorded highest expression of this gene in the larval silk gland, compared to other tissues, including midgut, hindgut, epidermis, Malpighian tubes, hemolymph and fat body. These data are a genetic resource to guide selection of key genes that may be targeted for in planta and other gene-silencing technologies for sustainable cotton agriculture. PMID:26352931

  7. Silk Gland Gene Expression during Larval-Pupal Transition in the Cotton Leaf Roller Sylepta derogata (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Su, Honghua; Cheng, Yuming; Wang, Zhongyang; Li, Zhong; Stanley, David; Yang, Yizhong

    2015-01-01

    The cotton leaf roller, Sylepta derogata, is a silk-producing insect pest. While young larvae feed on the underside of leaves, the older ones roll cotton leaves and feed on the leaf edges, which defoliates cotton plants. The larvae produce silk to stabilize the rolled leaf and to balloon from used to new leaves. Despite the significance of silk in the biology of pest insect species, there is virtually no information on the genes involved in their silk production. This is a substantial knowledge gap because some of these genes may be valuable targets for developing molecular pest management technologies. We addressed the gap by posing the hypothesis that silk gland gene expression changes during the transition from larvae to pupae. We tested our hypothesis using RNA-seq to investigate changes in silk gland gene expression at three developmental stages, 5th instar larvae (silk producing; 15,445,926 clean reads), prepupae (reduced silk producing; 13,758,154) and pupae (beyond silk producing; 16,787,792). We recorded 60,298 unigenes and mapped 50,158 (larvae), 48,415 (prepupae) and 46,623 (pupae) of them to the NCBI database. Most differentially expressed genes in the 5th instar larvae/prepupae libraries were relevant to nucleotide synthesis and maintenance of silk gland function. We identified down-regulated transcriptional factors and several genes involved in silk formation in the three libraries and verified the expression pattern of eight genes by qPCR. The developmental- and tissue-specific expression patterns of the fibroin light chain gene showed it was highly expressed during the larval silk-producing stage. We recorded highest expression of this gene in the larval silk gland, compared to other tissues, including midgut, hindgut, epidermis, Malpighian tubes, hemolymph and fat body. These data are a genetic resource to guide selection of key genes that may be targeted for in planta and other gene-silencing technologies for sustainable cotton agriculture.

  8. Reproductive biology of Apanteles opuntiarum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), biological control agent of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Mexico and USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apanteles opuntiarum, a parasitoid of cactus-feeding lepidopteran larvae, was incorrectly identified as A. alexanderi during the last 50 years. The discovery of A. opuntiarum as a new and separate species was followed by studies of its native host range. These studies revealed that the host range o...

  9. Extended geographical distribution and host range of the cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera Pyralidae)in Argentina

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A field exploration was conducted to confirm the southernmost distribution of Cactoblastis cactorum in Argentina. The distribution of the moth was extended to the south (40° 10´S) and west (66° 56´W). The native Opuntia penicilligera was recorded as a host for the first time. These findings should ...

  10. Impact of trap design and density on effectiveness of a commercial pheromone lure for monitoring navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The navel orangeworm is an important pest of almonds, pistachios, and walnuts. A commercial pheromone lure for this pest became publicly available in 2013. We compared effectiveness of this synthetic lure (NOW Biolure) between common commercial trap designs, and with unmated females in wing traps. O...

  11. Frequency of alleles conferring resistance to a Bacillus thuringiensis toxin in a Philippine population of Scirpophaga incertulas (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Bentur, J S; Andow, D A; Cohen, M B; Romena, A M; Gould, F

    2000-10-01

    Using the F2 screen methodology, we estimated the frequency of alleles conferring resistance to the Cry1Ab toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner in a Philippine population of the stem borer Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker). Evaluation of >450 isofemale lines for survival of F2 larvae on cry1Ab plants did not detect the presence of an allele conferring a high level of resistance. The frequency of such an allele in the sampled population was conservatively estimated to be <3.6 x 10(-3) with 95% confidence and a detection probability of 94%. However, there was evidence of the presence of alleles conferring partial resistance to Cry1Ab. The frequency of alleles for partial resistance was estimated as 4.8 x 10(-3) with a 95% CI between 1.3 x 10(-3) and 1.04 x 10(-2) and a detection probability of 94%. Our results suggest that the frequency of alleles conferring resistance to Cry1Ab in the population of S. incertulas sampled is not too high to preclude successful implementation of the high dose/refuge resistance management strategy.

  12. Interactions of two odorant-binding proteins from Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Güenée (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It is well known that the odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) play important roles in insect olfactory systems. However, little attention has been paid to interactions among different OBPs within the same insect antennal sensilla. To explore the interactions of OBPs in olfactory coding in the rice leaff...

  13. Overview: Identification characters of Lepidoptera eggs (Insecta)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are 160,000 species of described Lepidoptera, or moths and butterflies, on Earth. The egg stage is the least known biological stage of moths and butterflies and there have been very few comparative studies. The purpose of this video is to provide the few, major characteristics of Lepidoptera...

  14. Developmental and Reproductive Biology of the Ectoparasitoid, Elasmus steffani, in a Substitute Host, Ephestia kuehniella

    PubMed Central

    Redolfi, I.; Campos, M.

    2010-01-01

    Elasmus steffani (Viggiani) (Hymenoptera: Elasmidae) is a gregarious idiobiont ectoparasitoid of Prays oleae (Bernard) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), an olive crop pest. In the substitute host Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the duration of the developmental stages was approximately 11–15 days. The preoviposition was 8.9 ± 5.0 days, and oviposition lasted 30.4 ± 10.5 days, with a reproduction capacity of 185.5 ± 62.3 eggs per female, for a mean of 5.4 ± 0.9 eggs per day. The oviposition rhythm reached its maximum when the parasitoid was 35 days of age. The lack of food negatively influenced survival of the adults, while those fed on a honey-water mixture lived significantly longer that those that also had access to a host as food. The female parasitoid fed upon 15% of the paralyzed larvae. The virgin female E. steffani exhibits arrhenotokic parthenogenesis. PMID:20874600

  15. First record of Duponchelia fovealis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in South America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Originally from the Mediterranean region and the Canary Islands, European pepper moth Duponchelia fovealis Zeller was reported for the first time in the State of Paraná, Brazil. This is the first record of this species in South America. D. fovealis causes damage to strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa)...

  16. Monitoring Oriental Fruit Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Peach Twig Borer (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) with Clear Delta-shaped Traps

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Field studies evaluated the relative performance of a clear versus several colored delta traps baited with sex pheromone or a food bait for two key moth pests of stone fruits: oriental fruit moth, Graphollita molesta (Busck); and peach twig borer, Anarsia lineatella Zeller. Preliminary studies found...

  17. The Role of Plant Abiotic Factors on the Interactions Between Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and its Host Plant.

    PubMed

    Tu, Kun-Yu; Tsai, Shin-Fu; Guo, Tzu-Wei; Lin, Hou-Ho; Yang, Zhi-Wei; Liao, Chung-Ta; Chuang, Wen-Po

    2018-05-12

    Atmospheric temperature increases along with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. This is a major concern for agroecosystems. Although the impact of an elevated temperature or increased CO2 has been widely reported, there are few studies investigating the combined effect of these two environmental factors on plant-insect interactions. In this study, plant responses (phenological traits, defensive enzyme activity, secondary compounds, defense-related gene expression and phytohormone) of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) -susceptible and resistant rice under various conditions (environment, soil type, variety, C. medinalis infestation) were used to examine the rice-C. medinalis interaction. The results showed that leaf chlorophyll content and trichome density in rice were variety-dependent. Plant defensive enzyme activities were affected environment, variety, or C. medinalis infestation. In addition, total phenolic content of rice leaves was decreased by elevated CO2 and temperature and C. medinalis infestation. Defense-related gene expression patterns were affected by environment, soil type, or C. medinalis infestation. Abscisic acid and salicylic acid content were decreased by C. medinalis infestation. However, jasmonic acid content was increased by C. medinalis infestation. Furthermore, under elevated CO2 and temperature, rice plants had higher abscisic acid content than plants under ambient conditions. The adult morphological traits of C. medinalis also were affected by environment. Under elevated CO2 and temperature, C. medinalis adults had greater body length in the second and third generations. Taken together these results indicated that elevated CO2 and temperature not only affects plants but also the specialized insects that feed on them.

  18. Insecticidal activity of the essential oils from different plants against three stored-product insects.

    PubMed

    Ayvaz, Abdurrahman; Sagdic, Osman; Karaborklu, Salih; Ozturk, Ismet

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the insecticidal activity of essential oils from oregano, Origanum onites L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), savory, Satureja thymbra L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), and myrtle, Myrtus communis L. (Rosales: Myrtaceae) against three stored-product insects. Essential oils from three species of plants were obtained by Clevenger-type water distillation. The major compounds in these essential oils were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their insecticidal activity was tested against adults of the Mediterranean flour moth Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and the bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus Say (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). While the major compound found in oregano and savory was carvacrol, the main constituent of the myrtle was linalool. Among the tested insects, A. obtectus was the most tolerant species against the essential oils. However, the insecticidal activity of the myrtle oil was more pronounced than other oils tested against A. obtectus adults. The essential oils of oregano and savory were highly effective against P. interpunctella and E. kuehniella, with 100% mortality obtained after 24 h at 9 and 25 microl/l air for P. interpunctella and E. kuehniella, respectively. LC(50) and LC(99) values of each essential oil were estimated for each insect species.

  19. Insecticidal Activity of the Essential Oils from Different Plants Against Three Stored-Product Insects

    PubMed Central

    Ayvaz, Abdurrahman; Sagdic, Osman; Karaborklu, Salih; Ozturk, Ismet

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the insecticidal activity of essential oils from oregano, Origanum onites L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), savory, Satureja thymbra L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), and myrtle, Myrtus communis L. (Rosales: Myrtaceae) against three stored-product insects. Essential oils from three species of plants were obtained by Clevenger-type water distillation. The major compounds in these essential oils were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their insecticidal activity was tested against adults of the Mediterranean flour moth Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and the bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus Say (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). While the major compound found in oregano and savory was carvacrol, the main constituent of the myrtle was linalool. Among the tested insects, A. obtectus was the most tolerant species against the essential oils. However, the insecticidal activity of the myrtle oil was more pronounced than other oils tested against A. obtectus adults. The essential oils of oregano and savory were highly effective against P. interpunctella and E. kuehniella, with 100% mortality obtained after 24 h at 9 and 25 µl/l air for P. interpunctella and E. kuehniella, respectively. LC50 and LC99 values of each essential oil were estimated for each insect species. PMID:20578885

  20. Kinetic modelling and optimisation of antimicrobial compound production by Candida pyralidae KU736785 for control of Candida guilliermondii.

    PubMed

    Mewa-Ngongang, Maxwell; du Plessis, Heinrich W; Hutchinson, Ucrecia F; Mekuto, Lukhanyo; Ntwampe, Seteno Ko

    2017-06-01

    Biological antimicrobial compounds from yeast can be used to address the critical need for safer preservatives in food, fruit and beverages. The inhibition of Candida guilliermondii, a common fermented beverage spoilage organism, was achieved using antimicrobial compounds produced by Candida pyralidae KU736785. The antimicrobial production system was modelled and optimised using response surface methodology, with 22.5 ℃ and pH of 5.0 being the optimum conditions. A new concept for quantifying spoilage organism inhibition was developed. The inhibition activity of the antimicrobial compounds was observed to be at a maximum after 17-23 h of fermentation, with C. pyralidae concentration being between 0.40 and 1.25 × 10 9 CFU ml -1 , while its maximum specific growth rate was 0.31-0.54 h -1 . The maximum inhibitory activity was between 0.19 and 1.08 l contaminated solidified media per millilitre of antimicrobial compound used. Furthermore, the antimicrobial compound formation rate was 0.037-0.086 l VZI ml -1 ACU h -1 , respectively. The response surface methodology analysis showed that the model developed sufficiently described the antimicrobial compound formation rate 1.08 l VZI ml -1 ACU, as 1.17 l VZI ml -1 ACU, predicted under the optimum production conditions.

  1. Cloning, functional characterization, and expression profiles of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase gene from the Asiatic rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Su; Liang, Qing-Mei; Huang, Yuan-Jie; Yuan, Xin; Zhou, Wen-Wu; Qiao, Fei; Cheng, Jiaan; Gurr, Geoff M; Zhu, Zeng-Rong

    2013-01-01

    NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) is one of the most important components of the cytochrome P450 enzyme system. It catalyzes electron transfer from NADPH to all known P450s, thus plays central roles not only in the metabolism of exogenous xenobiotics but also in the regulation of endogenous hormones in insects. In this study, a full-length cDNA encoding of a CPR (named CsCPR) was isolated from the Asiatic rice striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis, by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) methods. The cDNA contains a 2061 bp open reading frame, which encodes an enzyme of 686 amino acid residues, with a calculated molecular mass of 77.6 kDa. The deduced peptide has hallmarks of typical CPR, including an N-terminal membrane anchor and the FMN, FAD and NADPH binding domains. The N-terminal-truncated protein fused with a 6 × His·tag was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3) cells and purified, specific activity and the Km values of the recombinant enzyme were determined. Tissue- and developmental stage-dependent expression of CsCPR mRNA was investigated by real-time quantitative PCR. The CsCPR mRNA was noticeably expressed in the digestive, metabolic, and olfactory organs of the larvae and adults of C. suppressalis. Our initial results would provide valuable information for further study on the interactions between CPR and cytochrome P450 enzyme systems. © 2013.

  2. Insecticidal action of Bauhinia monandra leaf lectin (BmoLL) against Anagasta kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Zabrotes subfasciatus and Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues; das Graças Machado Freire, Maria; da Silva, Maria Barbosa Reis; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso

    2007-04-01

    Bruchid beetle larvae cause major losses in grain legume crops throughout the world. Some bruchid species, such as the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) and the Mexican bean weevil (Zabrotes subfasciatus), are pests that damage stored seeds. The Mediterranean flour moth (Anagasta kuehniella) is of major economic importance as a flour and grain feeder; it is often a severe pest in flour mills. Plant lectins have been implicated as antibiosis factors against insects. Bauhinia monandra leaf lectin (BmoLL) was tested for anti-insect activity against C. maculatus, Z. subfasciatus and A. kuehniella larvae. BmoLL produced ca. 50% mortality to Z. subfaciatus and C. maculatus when incorporated into an artificial diet at a level of 0.5% and 0.3% (w/w), respectively. BmoLL up to 1% did not significantly decrease the survival of A. kuehniella larvae, but produced a decrease of 40% in weight. Affinity chromatography showed that BmoLL bound to midgut proteins of the insect C. maculatus. 33 kDa subunit BmoLL was not digested by midgut preparations of these bruchids. BmoLL-fed C. maculatus larvae increased the digestion of potato starch by 25% compared with the control. The transformation of the genes coding for this lectin could be useful in the development of insect resistance in important agricultural crops.

  3. Properties of a Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor from Delonix regia seeds against digestive proteinases of Anagasta kuehniella (Z.) and Corcyra cephalonica (S.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Macedo, M L R; Pando, S C; Chevreuil, L R; Marangoni, S

    2009-01-01

    DrTI was effective against trypsin-like enzymes from A. kuehniella and C. cephalonica, however an artificial diet was insufficient to affect the survival and body weight of either insect. The inhibitor stimulated chymotrypsin-like enzymes and probably induced the synthesis of enzymes insensitive to TLCK in neonate larvae.

  4. The effect of leaf biopesticide (Mirabilis jalapa) and entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana) combinations to some physiological characters and histology of Crocidolomia pavonana (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Sirajuddin, Nur Tasmiah, E-mail: nurtasmiah@yahoo.com; Anggraeni, Tjandra, E-mail: nurtasmiah@yahoo.com

    Crocidolomia pavonana is one of the most prominent pest that cause damage to vegetables especially Brassicaceae such us cabbage, broccoli, mustard greens and turnips, these vegetable have been widely consumed and cultivated in Indonesia. The invation of this pest might created high risk of cultivated failure. Enviromentally pest control efforts by utilizing biological control agents such us biopesticides of plants and entomopathogenic fungi have been carried out, but the work was relatively long and strongly influenced by environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to combine biopesticide of Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana to look at mortalitymore » of C. pavonana larvae observing by histological incision and scanning electron microscope. Concentration treatments of extracts M. jalapa was (control; 0,1; 0,2; 0,4 and 0,8 gr/ml) and the result showed that the effective concentration was 0,8 g/ml which affect significantly (P<0,05) in reduce pupa weight, improve pupasi time, lowering percentage of emergence imago and improve the long phase of pupa which differ significantly with control. The combination of biopesticides proved to accelerate the mortality of larvae. Histological incision observed at hour 24, 48, 72 and 96, where the biggest damage occurred at hour 96. Observation by scanning electron microscope showed fungus spores that attach to the body surface of larvae subsequently penetrate into the body. Thus the combination use of biopesticides M. jalapa and fungi B. bassiana, can be used as an alternative pest control C. pavonana.« less

  5. Efficacy of low temperatures for the control of all life stages of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The insecticidal effect of low temperatures for the control of all life stages of two stored product insects, Plodia interpunctella and Liposcelis bostrychophila, was evaluated under laboratory conditions. The temperatures tested were 0, -5, -10 and -15 °C, and, at these temperatures, the insects we...

  6. The effect of leaf biopesticide (Mirabilis jalapa) and entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana) combinations to some physiological characters and histology of Crocidolomia pavonana (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirajuddin, Nur Tasmiah; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2014-03-01

    Crocidolomia pavonana is one of the most prominent pest that cause damage to vegetables especially Brassicaceae such us cabbage, broccoli, mustard greens and turnips, these vegetable have been widely consumed and cultivated in Indonesia. The invation of this pest might created high risk of cultivated failure. Enviromentally pest control efforts by utilizing biological control agents such us biopesticides of plants and entomopathogenic fungi have been carried out, but the work was relatively long and strongly influenced by environmental factors. The purpose of this study was to combine biopesticide of Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana to look at mortality of C. pavonana larvae observing by histological incision and scanning electron microscope. Concentration treatments of extracts M. jalapa was (control; 0,1; 0,2; 0,4 and 0,8 gr/ml) and the result showed that the effective concentration was 0,8 g/ml which affect significantly (P<0,05) in reduce pupa weight, improve pupasi time, lowering percentage of emergence imago and improve the long phase of pupa which differ significantly with control. The combination of biopesticides proved to accelerate the mortality of larvae. Histological incision observed at hour 24, 48, 72 and 96, where the biggest damage occurred at hour 96. Observation by scanning electron microscope showed fungus spores that attach to the body surface of larvae subsequently penetrate into the body. Thus the combination use of biopesticides M. jalapa and fungi B. bassiana, can be used as an alternative pest control C. pavonana.

  7. Phosphine Resistance in Adult and Immature Life Stages of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Populations in California.

    PubMed

    Gautam, S G; Opit, G P; Hosoda, E

    2016-12-01

    Phosphine resistance in stored-product insects occurs worldwide and is a major challenge to continued effective use of this fumigant. We determined resistance frequencies and levels of resistance in Tribolium castaneum and Plodia interpunctella collected from California almond storage and processing facilities. Discriminating doses of phosphine were established for eggs and larvae of P. interpunctella and eggs of T. castaneum using laboratory susceptible strains of the two species. For T. castaneum and P. interpunctella eggs, discriminating doses were 62.4 and 107.8 ppm, respectively, over a 3-d fumigation period, and for P. interpunctella larvae, discriminating dose was 98.7 ppm over a 20-h fumigation period. Discriminating dose tests on adults and eggs showed that 4 out of 11 T. castaneum populations tested had resistance frequencies that ranged from 42 to 100% for adults and 54 to 100% for eggs. LC99 values for the susceptible and the most resistant adults of T. castaneum were 7.4 and 356.9 ppm over 3 d, respectively. LC99 values for T. castaneum eggs were 51.5 and 653.9 ppm, respectively. Based on adult data, the most resistant T. castaneum beetle population was 49× more resistant than the susceptible strain. Phosphine resistance frequencies in P. interpunctella eggs ranged from 4 to 20%. Results show phosphine resistance is present in both species in California. Future research will investigate phosphine resistance over a wider geographic area. In addition, the history of pest management practices in facilities where insects tested in this study originated will be determined in order to develop phosphine resistance management strategies for California almond storage and processing facilities. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Sublethal effects of four insecticides on folding and spinning behavior in the rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Yajun; Wang, Caiyun; Xu, Hongxing; Lu, Zhongxian

    2018-03-01

    The rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, is an important rice pest. The sublethal effects of chlorpyrifos, chlorantraniliprole, emamectin benzoate and spinosad were investigated on the folding and spinning behaviors of third- to fifth-instar C. medinalis larvae (L3 - L5) after insecticidal exposure of the second instar. A 25% lethal concentration (LC 25 ) of chlorpyrifos prolonged the leaf selection time of L5, and reduced the number of binds per primary fold for L4 and L5. An LC 10 of chlorantraniliprole reduced the number of binds per primary fold for L4 and increased the number of head swings per bind for L5. An LC 10 of emamectin benzoate shortened the primary fold length for L5 and decreased the number of head swings per primary fold for L3 and L4 and the number of head swings per bind for L3, while an LC 25 of emamectin benzoate shortened the fold length per 24 h for L5 and folding time for L3. An LC 10 of spinosad lowered the fold length per 24 h and the number of head swings for L5. An LC 25 of spinosad prolonged leaf selection time, and decreased primary fold length, binds per primary fold, binds per fold and fold length per 24 h in L5. Emamectin benzoate and spinosad exerted stronger sublethal effects on the folding and spinning behavior of C. medinalis than chlorpyrifos and chlorantraniliprole. These results provide better understanding of the sublethal effects of interactions of insecticides on C. medinalis. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Silicon-Mediated Resistance in a Susceptible Rice Variety to the Rice Leaf Folder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenée (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yongqiang; Lei, Wenbin; Wen, Lizhang; Hou, Maolin

    2015-01-01

    The rice leaf folder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée), is one of the most destructive rice pests in Asian countries. Rice varieties resistant to the rice leaf folder are generally characterized by high silicon content. In this study, silicon amendment, at 0.16 and 0.32 g Si/kg soil, enhanced resistance of a susceptible rice variety to the rice leaf folder. Silicon addition to rice plants at both the low and high rates significantly extended larval development and reduced larval survival rate and pupation rate in the rice leaf folder. When applied at the high rate, silicon amendment reduced third-instars’ weight gain and pupal weight. Altogether, intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of increase and net reproduction rate of the rice leaf folder population were all reduced at both the low and high silicon addition rates. Although the third instars consumed more in silicon-amended treatments, C:N ratio in rice leaves was significantly increased and food conversion efficiencies were reduced due to increased silicon concentration in rice leaves. Our results indicate that reduced food quality and food conversion efficiencies resulted from silicon addition account for the enhanced resistance in the susceptible rice variety to the rice leaf folder. PMID:25837635

  10. Anoxia-conditioning hormesis alters the relationship between irradiation doses for survival and sterility in the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One of the most important components of a Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) program is appropriate irradiation dose. Knowing the organismal dose-response enables the selection of a dose that induces the highest level of sterility while preserving the sexual competitiveness and quality of the sterile in...

  11. Volatiles emitted by Carya illinoinensis (Wang.) K. Koch as a prelude for semiochemical investigations to focus on Acrobasis nuxvorella Nuenzig (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Corella-Madueño, Maria A; Harris, Marvin K; Fu-Castillo, Agustin A; Martínez-Téllez, Miguel A; Valenzuela-Soto, Elisa M; Gálvez-Ruiz, Juan C; Vargas-Arispuro, Irasema

    2011-12-01

    Plant volatiles have complex intra- and interspecific effects in the environment that include plant/herbivore interactions. Identifying the quantity and quality of volatiles produced by a plant is needed to aid the process of determining which chemicals are exerting what effects and then examining whether these effects can be manipulated to benefit society. The qualitative characterization of volatile compounds emitted by pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wang.) K. Koch, was begun in order to establish a database for investigating how these volatiles affect Acrobasis nuxvorella Nuenzig, a monophagous pest of pecan. Headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used for the analysis of the volatile constituents of pecan during three phenological stages (dormant buds, intact new shoot growth and intact nutlets) of the Western Schley and Wichita cultivars. About 111 distinct compounds were identified from the two cultivars, accounting for ∼99% of the headspace volatiles. The chromatographic profiles of both varieties revealed variations in the volatile composition and proportion between cultivars, with a predominance of terpene hydrocarbons, of the sesquiterpenes class, as well as monoterpenes. The significantly higher responsiveness recorded for the larvae of A. nuxvorella to C. illinoinensis shoots indicates that the larvae may be activated by terpenes emanating from the new shoot growth. This is the first study that has examined volatiles of pecan in Mexico. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Effects of naturally occurring and synthetic synergists on the toxicity of three insecticides, a phytochemical and a mycotoxin to the navel orangeworm Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The navel orangeworm is the most destructive lepidopteran pest of almonds and pistachios in California as well as a serious problem in figs and walnuts. Larval feeding leaves nuts vulnerable to infection by Aspergillus spp., fungi that produce toxic aflatoxins. A potentially safe and sustainable app...

  13. Impact of agricultural adjuvants on the toxicity of the diamide insecticides chlorantraniliprole and flubendiamide toward different life stages of navel orangeworm (Amyelois transitella) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Five adjuvants, alone and in combination with two diamide insecticides (chlorantraniliprole and flubendiamide), were assessed for activity against the adults and eggs of navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker). Laboratory studies utilized a spray tower for application while field studies use...

  14. Variation in performance on cry1Ab-transformed and nontransgenic rice varieties among populations of Scirpophaga incertulas (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) from Luzon Island, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Bentur, J S; Cohen, M B; Gould, F

    2000-12-01

    We quantified variation in performance under greenhouse conditions among seven populations of Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) from Luzon Island, Philippines, on three rice varieties: 'IR58' transformed with the cry1Ab gene from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner, and nontransgenic IR58 and IR62. On IR62, S. incertutas performance did not differ among provinces for any of the 10 parameters measured, but there was a significant effect of town within province for one parameter, 20-d-old larval weight. Larval survival after 48 h on cy1Ab-transformed IR58 did not differ significantly among provinces, but did differ significantly among towns within a province. There was no geographic variation in larval survival after 48 h on control plants of IR58. Surviving insects from the cry1Ab-transformed IR58 were transferred to IR62 to complete development. There was no geographic variation in the percentage of insects completing development to adult emergence and the time required by the transferred female insects to complete development. However, there was variation among provinces in male developmental time. The absence of geographic variation on nontransgenic IR58 and the very limited variation on IR62 indicated that there was little variation in general vigor among the S. incertulas populations and thus that the variation in performance oil cry1Ab-transformed IR58 was probably attributable to differences in susceptibility to Cry1Ab.

  15. Identification and comparative expression profiles of chemoreception genes revealed from major chemoreception organs of the rice leaf folder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To better understand the olfactory mechanism in the rice leaf folder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée), one of the most serious insect pests of rice in Asia, we have established six partial transcriptomes from antennae, tarsus, and reproductive organs of male and female adults. A total of 102 genes...

  16. Identification and Comparative Expression Profiles of Chemoreception Genes Revealed from Major Chemoreception Organs of the Rice Leaf Folder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Fang-Fang; Zhao, Zhen-Fei; Yan, Miao-Jun; Zhou, Wen; Zhang, Zan; Zhang, Aijun; Lu, Zhong-Xian; Wang, Man-Qun

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the olfactory mechanisms in the rice leaf folder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée), a serious pest of rice in Asia, we established six partial transcriptomes from antennae, protarsus, and reproductive organs of male and female adults. A total of 102 transcripts were identified, including 29 odorant receptors (ORs), 15 ionotropic receptors (IRs), 30 odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), 26 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), and 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs). The expression patterns of these genes were calculated by fragments per kilobase of exon per million fragments mapped (FPKM) and validated by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Some transcripts were exclusively expressed in specific organs, such as female protarsus, whereas others were universally expressed, this varied expression profile may provide insights into the specific functions mediated by chemoreception proteins in insects. To the best of our knowledge, among the 102 identified transcripts, 81 are novel and have never been reported before. In addition, it also is the first time that ORs and IRs are identified in C. medinalis. Our findings significantly enhance the currently limited understanding olfactory mechanisms of the olfactory mechanisms underlying the chemoreception system in C. medinalis. PMID:26657286

  17. Chromosome number evolution in skippers (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Lukhtanov, Vladimir A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), as many other groups of animals and plants, simultaneously represent preservation of ancestral karyotype in the majority of families with a high degree of chromosome number instability in numerous independently evolved phylogenetic lineages. However, the pattern and trends of karyotype evolution in some Lepidoptera families are poorly studied. Here I provide a survey of chromosome numbers in skippers (family Hesperiidae) based on intensive search and analysis of published data. I demonstrate that the majority of skippers preserve the haploid chromosome number n=31 that seems to be an ancestral number for the Hesperiidae and the order Lepidoptera at whole. However, in the tribe Baorini the derived number n=16 is the most typical state which can be used as a (syn)apomorphic character in further phylogenetic investigations. Several groups of skippers display extreme chromosome number variations on within-species (e.g. the representatives of the genus Carcharodus Hübner, [1819]) and between-species (e.g. the genus Agathymus Freeman, 1959) levels. Thus, these groups can be used as model systems for future analysis of the phenomenon of chromosome instability. Interspecific chromosomal differences are also shown to be useful for discovering and describing new cryptic species of Hesperiidae representing in such a way a powerful tool in biodiversity research. Generally, the skipper butterflies promise to be an exciting group that will significantly contribute to the growing knowledge of patterns and processes of chromosome evolution. PMID:25610542

  18. Sex pheromone of the baldcypress leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Treesearch

    Brian T. Sullivan; Jeremy D. Allison; Richard A. Goyer; William P. Shepherd

    2015-01-01

    The baldcypress leafroller, Archips goyerana Kruse (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a specialist on Taxodium distichum (L.) Richard and has caused serious defoliation in swamps of southeastern Louisiana, accelerating decline of baldcypress forests concurrently suffering from nutrient depletion, prolonged flooding, and saltwater...

  19. Multi-species mating disruption in Wisconsin cranberries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous work has shown pheromone-based mating disruption to be a promising method of pest control in cranberries. Three moth species, cranberry fruitworm, Acrobasis vaccinii Riley (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Sparganothis fruitworm, Sparganothis sulfureana Clemens (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and black...

  20. Pheromone-based mating disruption in Wisconsin cranberries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pheromone-based mating disruption is a promising method of pest control in cranberries. Three moth species, cranberry fruitworm, Acrobasis vaccinii Riley (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Sparganothis fruitworm, Sparganothis sulfureana Clemens (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and black-headed fireworm, Rhopobota...

  1. Cyanogenesis - a general phenomenon in the lepidoptera

    SciTech Connect

    Witthohn, K.; Naumann, C.M.

    1987-08-01

    There are two different pathways known to be used for the detoxification of hydrocyanic acid in insects, viz., rhodanese and ..beta..-cyano-L-alanine synthase. The authors consider the latter to be indicative for cyanogenesis, while rhodanese might, in general, play a more important role in sulfur transfer for protein synthesis. This paper reports on the distribution of ..beta..-cyano-L-alanine (BCA) in the Lepidoptera. First reports of cyanogenesis are presented for the following families: Papilionidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae, Hesperiidae, Lymantriidae, Arctiidae, Notodontidae, Megalopygidae, Limacodidae, Cymatophoridae, Noctuidae, Geometridae, and Yponomeutidae. New and old records for three other families, the Nymphalidae, Zygaenidae, and Heterogynidae, are included tomore » complete the present state of knowledge. Special emphasis has been laid on the Nymphalidae, where BCA has been detected in eight subfamilies. Taxonomic, geographic, and seasonal variation has been found in a number of cases. In all cases observed so far, the source of cyanogenesis in the Lepidoptera is most probably the cyanoglucosides linamarin and lotaustralin, although cyanogenesis based on mustard oil glucosides and cyclopentenoid glucosides might occur as well. BCA has been found in both cryptic and aposematic species, including taxa such as the Pieridae, Danainae, Ithomiinae, and Arctiidae, where the defensive biology is believed to be linked with other compounds, like mustard oil glucosides, cardenolides, or pyrrolizidinie alkaloids. The ecological interaction and significance of such secondary compounds is not yet understood.« less

  2. A Molecular View of Autophagy in Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Metamorphosis represents a critical phase in the development of holometabolous insects, during which the larval body is completely reorganized: in fact, most of the larval organs undergo remodeling or completely degenerate before the final structure of the adult insect is rebuilt. In the past, increasing evidence emerged concerning the intervention of autophagy and apoptosis in the cell death processes that occur in larval organs of Lepidoptera during metamorphosis, but a molecular characterization of these pathways was undertaken only in recent years. In addition to developmentally programmed autophagy, there is growing interest in starvation-induced autophagy. Therefore we are now entering a new era of research on autophagy that foreshadows clarification of the role and regulatory mechanisms underlying this self-digesting process in Lepidoptera. Given that some of the most important lepidopteran species of high economic importance, such as the silkworm, Bombyx mori, belong to this insect order, we expect that this information on autophagy will be fully exploited not only in basic research but also for practical applications. PMID:25143951

  3. A food plant specialist in Sparganothini? A new genus and species from Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sparganocosma docsturnerorum Brown, new genus and new species, is described and illustrated from Area de Conservación (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica. The new genus shares a long, crescent- or ribbon-shaped signum in the corpus bursae of the female genitalia with Aesiocopa Zeller, 1877, Amorbia Cle...

  4. Multisensory integration in Lepidoptera: Insights into flower-visitor interactions.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Michiyo; Stewart, Finlay J; Ômura, Hisashi

    2017-04-01

    As most work on flower foraging focuses on bees, studying Lepidoptera can offer fresh perspectives on how sensory capabilities shape the interaction between flowers and insects. Through a combination of innate preferences and learning, many Lepidoptera persistently visit particular flower species. Butterflies tend to rely on their highly developed sense of colour to locate rewarding flowers, while moths have evolved sophisticated olfactory systems towards the same end. However, these modalities can interact in complex ways; for instance, butterflies' colour preference can shift depending on olfactory context. The mechanisms by which such cross-modal interaction occurs are poorly understood, but the mushroom bodies appear to play a central role. Because of the diversity seen within Lepidoptera in terms of their sensory capabilities and the nature of their relationships with flowers, they represent a fruitful avenue for comparative studies to shed light on the co-evolution of flowers and flower-visiting insects. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Flight performance of Macdunnoughia crassisigna (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Fu, X-W; Chang, H; He, L-M; Zhao, S-Y; Wu, K-M

    2017-12-01

    Macdunnoughia crassisigna Warren (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a highly destructive herbivore that poses a serious risk to cotton, maize, soybean, and cruciferous vegetables in East Asia. Examining the effects of various biotic and abiotic factors on the flight performance of M. crassisigna is crucial for a better understanding of its trans-regional migration. In this study, the flight activity of M. crassisignai moths of different ages, under different temperatures and relative humidity (RH) levels, was evaluated by tethering individuals to computerized flight mills for a 24-h trial period. The results showed that M. crassisignai had the capacity for sustained flight and the flight ability was strongest in 3-day-old individuals, and then their flight performance decreased significantly in older moths. For both sexes, temperature had a significant effect on their flight performance, and the flight activity was relatively higher at 24-28°C than other temperatures. There was a significant effect of RH on all flight parameters of the tested moths, and the flight activity was relatively higher at RH of 60-75% than other RH levels. For 3-day-old moths under the optimum conditions (24°C and 75% RH) throughout the 24 h scotophase, their mean flight distance reached 66 km, and the mean flight duration reached 13.5 h, suggesting M. crassisigna possess strong potential to undertake long-distance migration. These findings will be helpful for developing sound forecasting systems of this pest species.

  6. Candidate chemosensory ionotropic receptors in a Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Olivier, V; Monsempes, C; François, M-C; Poivet, E; Jacquin-Joly, E

    2011-04-01

    A new family of candidate chemosensory ionotropic receptors (IRs) related to ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) was recently discovered in Drosophila melanogaster. Through Blast analyses of an expressed sequenced tag library prepared from male antennae of the noctuid moth Spodoptera littoralis, we identified 12 unigenes encoding proteins related to D. melanogaster and Bombyx mori IRs. Their full length sequences were obtained and the analyses of their expression patterns suggest that they were exclusively expressed or clearly enriched in chemosensory organs. The deduced protein sequences were more similar to B. mori and D. melanogaster IRs than to iGluRs and showed considerable variations in the predicted ligand-binding domains; none have the three glutamate-interacting residues found in iGluRs, suggesting different binding specificities. Our data suggest that we identified members of the insect IR chemosensory receptor family in S. littoralis and we report here the first demonstration of IR expression in Lepidoptera. © 2010 The Authors. Insect Molecular Biology © 2010 The Royal Entomological Society.

  7. Identification to Lepidoptera Superfamily-under the microscope (Insecta)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are 160,000 species of described Lepidoptera, or moths and butterflies, on Earth, although it is estimated that the number is closer to 500,000 species. Many moths from all over the world are intercepted at U.S. ports on a wide variety of economically important commodities. The purpose of t...

  8. COMPARISON OF SAMPLING TECHNIQUES USED IN STUDYING LEPIDOPTERA POPULATION DYNAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four methods (light traps, foliage samples, canvas bands, and gypsy moth egg mass surveys) that are used to study the population dynamics of foliage-feeding Lepidoptera were compared for 10 species, including gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. Samples were collected weekly at 12 sit...

  9. Lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) oviposition on Prunus germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was used as an oviposition surrogate for the congeneric S. exitiosa (Say) to examine possible preference for Prunus germplasm. We assayed limbs of a peach cultivar (Prunus persica), peach rootstocks, plum-peach hybrid rootstocks, the...

  10. A provisional annotated list of the Lepidoptera of Honduras

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A biodiversity inventory of the Lepidoptera of Pico Bonito National Park and vicinity, in the Department of Atlantida of northern Honduras, has been initiated and will be conducted to obtain baseline data. We present a revised checklist of Honduran butterfly species (updated from the initial 1967 l...

  11. Flight Performance of Ctenoplusia agnata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaowei; Zhao, Shengyuan; Li, Chao; Wu, Xiao; Guo, Jianglong; Wu, Kongming

    2017-06-01

    Ctenoplusia agnata (Staudinger) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a highly destructive polyphagous pest of cotton, maize, soybean, and cruciferous vegetables in East Asia. The effect of various biotic and abiotic factors on the flight performance of C. agnata is crucial for a better understanding of its transregional migration. In this study, the flight performance of C. agnata moths at different ages, temperatures, and relative humidity (RH) levels, was examined by tethering individual moths to computerized flight mills for a 24-h scotophase. The results showed that 1) C. agnata had the capacity for sustained flight and the flight ability was most pronounced in 3-d-old individuals, and then their flight performance decreased significantly as the moth got older. 2) For both sexes, temperature had a significant effect on their flight performance, and the flight activity was most pronounced at 24-28 °C. 3) There was a significant effect of RH on all flight parameters of the tested moths, and the flight activity was most pronounced at RH of 60-75%. 4) For 3-d-old moths under the optimum conditions (24 °C and 75% RH) throughout the 24-h scotophase, the total flight distance reached 69.01 ± 2.13 km (females) and 62.15 ± 2.31 km (males), and the total flight duration reached 14.11 ± 0.79 h (females) and 13.08 ± 0.70 h (males), which suggests that C. agnata has a strong potential to undertake long-distance migration. These findings will be helpful for developing sound forecasting systems of this pest species. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. The mitochondrial genome of Cethosia biblis (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Xin, Tianrong; Li, Lei; Yao, Chengyi; Wang, Yayu; Zou, Zhiwen; Wang, Jing; Xia, Bin

    2016-07-01

    We present the complete mitogenome of Cethosia biblis (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in this article. The mitogenome was a circle molecular consisting of 15,286 nucleotides, 37 genes, and an A + T-rich region. The order of 37 genes was typical of insect mitochondrial DNA sequences described to date. The overall base composition of the genome is A (37.41%), T (42.80%), C (11.87%), and G (7.91%) with an A + T-rich hallmark as that of other invertebrate mitochondrial genomes. The start codon was mainly ATA in most of the mitochondrial protein-coding genes such as ND2, COI, ATP8, ND3, ND5, ND4, ND6, and ND1, but COII, ATP6, COIII, ND4L, and Cob genes employing ATG. The stop codon was TAA in all the protein-coding genes. The A + T region is located between 12S rRNA and tRNA(M)(et). The phylogenetic relationships of Lepidoptera species were constructed based on the nucleotides sequences of 13 PCGs of mitogenomes using the neighbor-joining method. The molecular-based phylogeny supported the traditional morphological classification on relationships within Lepidoptera species.

  13. Impact of Lateral Transfers on the Genomes of Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Drezen, Jean-Michel; Josse, Thibaut; Bézier, Annie; Gauthier, Jérémy; Huguet, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Transfer of DNA sequences between species regardless of their evolutionary distance is very common in bacteria, but evidence that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) also occurs in multicellular organisms has been accumulating in the past few years. The actual extent of this phenomenon is underestimated due to frequent sequence filtering of “alien” DNA before genome assembly. However, recent studies based on genome sequencing have revealed, and experimentally verified, the presence of foreign DNA sequences in the genetic material of several species of Lepidoptera. Large DNA viruses, such as baculoviruses and the symbiotic viruses of parasitic wasps (bracoviruses), have the potential to mediate these transfers in Lepidoptera. In particular, using ultra-deep sequencing, newly integrated transposons have been identified within baculovirus genomes. Bacterial genes have also been acquired by genomes of Lepidoptera, as in other insects and nematodes. In addition, insertions of bracovirus sequences were present in the genomes of certain moth and butterfly lineages, that were likely corresponding to rearrangements of ancient integrations. The viral genes present in these sequences, sometimes of hymenopteran origin, have been co-opted by lepidopteran species to confer some protection against pathogens. PMID:29120392

  14. POPULATION SYNCHRONY WITHIN AND AMONG LEPIDOPTERA SPECIES IN RELATION TO WEATHER, PHYLOGENY, AND LARVEL PHENOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. The population dynamics of native herbivore species in central Appalachian deciduous forests were studied by analysing patterns of synchrony among intra- and interspecific populations and weather. 2. Spatial synchrony of 10 Lepidoptera species and three weather variables (min...

  15. Two species of Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera) from Southeast Asia associated with downy rose myrtle, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Myrtaceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two species of Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera), Metharmostis multilineata Adamski, n. sp. (Cosmopterigidae), and Idiophantis soreuta Meyrick, 1906 (Gelechiidae), were collected in southeastern Asia for evaluation as potential biocontrol agents against downy rose myrtle, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hass...

  16. Electrophysiological responses of male and female Amyelois transitella antennae to pistachio and almond host plant volatiles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The polyphagous navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a major insect pest of California tree nuts. The larvae of A. transitella feed on kernels inflicting damage and lowering nut kernel quality. Moreover, larvae vector aflatoxigenic aspergilli resulting in internationa...

  17. Lepidoptera outbreaks in response to successional changes after the passage of Hurricane Hugo in Puerto Rico Rico

    Treesearch

    J.A. Torres

    1992-01-01

    Fifteen species of Lepidoptera occurred in large numbers in spring and early summer after the passage of Hurricane Hugo over the north-east of Puerto Rico. Spodoptera eridania (Noctuidae) was the most common of the larvae and fed on 56 plant species belonging to 31 families. All the Lepidoptera fed on early successional vegetation. Some of the plants represent new host...

  18. Host Plant-Associated Population Variation in the Carob Moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae in Iran: A Geometric Morphometric Analysis Suggests a Nutritional Basis.

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffarian, Fariba; Sarafrazi, Alimorad; Ganbalani, Gadir Nouri

    2007-01-01

    The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller, 1839) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is the most important pest of pomegranate in Iran. As it has been rarely recorded on other host plants, control methods have mostly been focused on its populations on pomegranate. In this study, shapes and sizes of wings were compared in populations on 4 host plants (pomegranate, fig, pistachio and walnut) using a landmark-based geometric morphometric method, and analysis of partial warp scores and centroid sizes. The results showed significantly smaller wing size in populations on pomegranate and a significant host plant-associated shape difference among populations as a consequence of allometric growth. This suggests that the wing size and shape differences among test populations may not have a genetic basis and could happen because of differences in the nutritional content of host plants. The results of the analysis suggest that the female carob moth lays her eggs on host plants that provide suitable conditions for hatching. The larger size of moths on hosts other than pomegranate showed that some host plants such as fig, pistachio and walnut can provide for increased stored nutritional reserves by larvae that may result in more successful over-wintering and higher fecundity in adults. This suggests that in spite of the more extensive activity of carob moth on pomegranate in Iran, populations on other host plants can have an important effect on expanding pest population sizes in following years which should be considered in control methods. PMID:20337550

  19. Insecticidal Effect of Labramin, a Lectin—Like Protein Isolated from Seeds of the Beach Apricot Tree, Labramia bojeri, on the Mediterranean Flour Moth, Ephestia kuehniella

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Diego Stéfani Teodoro; Freire, Maria das Graças Machado; Mazzafera, Paulo; Araujo-Júnior, Roberto Theodoro; Bueno, Rafael Delmond; Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the insecticidal effect of labramin, a protein that shows lectin—like properties. Labramin was isolated from seeds of the Beach Apricot tree, Labramia bojeri A. DC ex Dubard (Ericales: Sapotaceae), and assessed against the development of the Mediterranean flour moth Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), an important pest of stored products such as corn, wheat, rice, and flour. Results showed that labramin caused 90% larval mortality when incorporated in an artificial diet at a level of 1% (w/w). The presence of 0.25% labramin in the diet affected the larval and pupal developmental periods and the percentage of emerging adults. Treatments resulted in elevated levels of trypsin activity in midgut and fecal materials, indicating that labramin may have affected enzyme—regulatory mechanisms by perturbing peritrophic membranes in the midgut of is. kuehniella larvae. The results of dietary experiments with E. kuehniella larvae showed a reduced efficiency for the conversion of ingested and digested food, and an increase in approximate digestibility and metabolic cost. These findings suggest that labramin may hold promise as a control agent to engineer crop plants for insect resistance. PMID:22938183

  20. Effects of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids on the larvae of polyphagous Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Miller, James S; Feeny, Paul

    1983-06-01

    Six benzylisoquinoline alkaloids were fed to the larvae of three polyphagous Lepidoptera species: Hyphantria cunea, Spodoptera eridania, and Lymantria dispar. Exposure of last instar larvae to alkaloid-containing diets over a 24-h period resulted in reduced feeding rates and reduced growth efficiencies. Lymantria dispar larvae reared from eggs on alkaloid diets took longer to reach the fifth instar, attained lower larval weights, and showed reduced survivorship. The benzylisoquinolines tested were not equally effective as toxins or feeding inhibitors. Some produced dramatic effects while others produced no effects. The relative responses of the three caterpillar species to the six alkaloids were similar. Those benzylisoquinolines with a methylene-dioxyphenyl (1,3-benzodioxole) group were consistently the most toxic or repellent while laudanosine, a relatively simple benzylisoquinoline, was generally innocuous. Available host records indicate that benzylisoquinoline-containing plants are avoided by the larvae of these moth species.

  1. Mortality Dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Immatures in Maize.

    PubMed

    Varella, Andrea Corrêa; Menezes-Netto, Alexandre Carlos; Alonso, Juliana Duarte de Souza; Caixeta, Daniel Ferreira; Peterson, Robert K D; Fernandes, Odair Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    We characterized the dynamics of mortality factors affecting immature developmental stages of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Multiple decrement life tables for egg and early larval stages of S. frugiperda in maize (Zea mays L.) fields were developed with and without augmentative releases of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) from 2009 to 2011. Total egg mortality ranged from 73 to 81% and the greatest egg mortality was due to inviability, dislodgement, and predation. Parasitoids did not cause significant mortality in egg or early larval stages and the releases of T. remus did not increase egg mortality. Greater than 95% of early larvae died from predation, drowning, and dislodgment by rainfall. Total mortality due to these factors was largely irreplaceable. Results indicate that a greater effect in reducing generational survival may be achieved by adding mortality to the early larval stage of S. frugiperda.

  2. Mortality Dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Immatures in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Varella, Andrea Corrêa; Menezes-Netto, Alexandre Carlos; Alonso, Juliana Duarte de Souza; Caixeta, Daniel Ferreira; Peterson, Robert K. D.; Fernandes, Odair Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    We characterized the dynamics of mortality factors affecting immature developmental stages of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Multiple decrement life tables for egg and early larval stages of S. frugiperda in maize (Zea mays L.) fields were developed with and without augmentative releases of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) from 2009 to 2011. Total egg mortality ranged from 73 to 81% and the greatest egg mortality was due to inviability, dislodgement, and predation. Parasitoids did not cause significant mortality in egg or early larval stages and the releases of T. remus did not increase egg mortality. Greater than 95% of early larvae died from predation, drowning, and dislodgment by rainfall. Total mortality due to these factors was largely irreplaceable. Results indicate that a greater effect in reducing generational survival may be achieved by adding mortality to the early larval stage of S. frugiperda. PMID:26098422

  3. Hyperspectral optical imaging of two different species of lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we report a hyperspectral optical imaging application for measurement of the reflectance spectra of photonic structures that produce structural colors with high spatial resolution. The measurement of the spectral reflectance function is exemplified in the butterfly wings of two different species of Lepidoptera: the blue iridescence reflected by the nymphalid Morpho didius and the green iridescence of the papilionid Papilio palinurus. Color coordinates from reflectance spectra were calculated taking into account human spectral sensitivity. For each butterfly wing, the observed color is described by a characteristic color map in the chromaticity diagram and spreads over a limited volume in the color space. The results suggest that variability in the reflectance spectra is correlated with different random arrangements in the spatial distribution of the scales that cover the wing membranes. Hyperspectral optical imaging opens new ways for the non-invasive study and classification of different forms of irregularity in structural colors. PMID:21711872

  4. Checklist of the butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea) of Montenegro.

    PubMed

    Franeta, Filip

    2018-03-07

    Montenegro is, from an entomological point of view, one of the least studied countries in Europe. The Lepidoptera order has been severely understudied and an updated butterfly checklist has not been published for more than 30 years. Without proper knowledge on the species composition, and their distribution throughout the country, appropriate conservation measures cannot be undertaken. Thus an updated checklist of the butterflies of Montenegro was urgently needed. In this paper a list of 192 species of butterflies is presented, based on all available literature and on the authors' own data gathered from 1998 to 2017. The inclusion or omission of some species from the list, as well as the occurrence and distribution of rare species, is discussed. A short historic overview of entomological research in Montenegro is also included. Records of five species, Lycaena thersamon, Kretania sephirus, Neptis sappho, Arethusana arethusa, and Erebia alberganus, discovered for the first time in the country, are presented.

  5. Mapping global biodiversity connections with DNA barcodes: Lepidoptera of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Akhtar, Saleem; Rafi, Muhammad Athar; Mansoor, Shahid; Hebert, Paul D N

    2017-01-01

    Sequences from the DNA barcode region of the mitochondrial COI gene are an effective tool for specimen identification and for the discovery of new species. The Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) (www.boldsystems.org) currently hosts 4.5 million records from animals which have been assigned to more than 490,000 different Barcode Index Numbers (BINs), which serve as a proxy for species. Because a fourth of these BINs derive from Lepidoptera, BOLD has a strong capability to both identify specimens in this order and to support studies of faunal overlap. DNA barcode sequences were obtained from 4503 moths from 329 sites across Pakistan, specimens that represented 981 BINs from 52 families. Among 379 species with a Linnaean name assignment, all were represented by a single BIN excepting five species that showed a BIN split. Less than half (44%) of the 981 BINs had counterparts in other countries; the remaining BINs were unique to Pakistan. Another 218 BINs of Lepidoptera from Pakistan were coupled with the 981 from this study before being compared with all 116,768 BINs for this order. As expected, faunal overlap was highest with India (21%), Sri Lanka (21%), United Arab Emirates (20%) and with other Asian nations (2.1%), but it was very low with other continents including Africa (0.6%), Europe (1.3%), Australia (0.6%), Oceania (1.0%), North America (0.1%), and South America (0.1%). This study indicates the way in which DNA barcoding facilitates measures of faunal overlap even when taxa have not been assigned to a Linnean species.

  6. Mapping global biodiversity connections with DNA barcodes: Lepidoptera of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Saleem; Rafi, Muhammad Athar; Mansoor, Shahid; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2017-01-01

    Sequences from the DNA barcode region of the mitochondrial COI gene are an effective tool for specimen identification and for the discovery of new species. The Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) (www.boldsystems.org) currently hosts 4.5 million records from animals which have been assigned to more than 490,000 different Barcode Index Numbers (BINs), which serve as a proxy for species. Because a fourth of these BINs derive from Lepidoptera, BOLD has a strong capability to both identify specimens in this order and to support studies of faunal overlap. DNA barcode sequences were obtained from 4503 moths from 329 sites across Pakistan, specimens that represented 981 BINs from 52 families. Among 379 species with a Linnaean name assignment, all were represented by a single BIN excepting five species that showed a BIN split. Less than half (44%) of the 981 BINs had counterparts in other countries; the remaining BINs were unique to Pakistan. Another 218 BINs of Lepidoptera from Pakistan were coupled with the 981 from this study before being compared with all 116,768 BINs for this order. As expected, faunal overlap was highest with India (21%), Sri Lanka (21%), United Arab Emirates (20%) and with other Asian nations (2.1%), but it was very low with other continents including Africa (0.6%), Europe (1.3%), Australia (0.6%), Oceania (1.0%), North America (0.1%), and South America (0.1%). This study indicates the way in which DNA barcoding facilitates measures of faunal overlap even when taxa have not been assigned to a Linnean species. PMID:28339501

  7. Uncovering the hidden players in Lepidoptera biology: the heritable microbial endosymbionts

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    The Lepidoptera is one of the most widespread and recognisable insect orders. Due to their remarkable diversity, economic and ecological importance, moths and butterflies have been studied extensively over the last 200 years. More recently, the relationship between Lepidoptera and their heritable microbial endosymbionts has received increasing attention. Heritable endosymbionts reside within the host’s body and are often, but not exclusively, inherited through the female line. Advancements in molecular genetics have revealed that host-associated microbes are both extremely prevalent among arthropods and highly diverse. Furthermore, heritable endosymbionts have been repeatedly demonstrated to play an integral role in many aspects of host biology, particularly host reproduction. Here, we review the major findings of research of heritable microbial endosymbionts of butterflies and moths. We promote the Lepidoptera as important models in the study of reproductive manipulations employed by heritable endosymbionts, with the mechanisms underlying male-killing and feminisation currently being elucidated in moths and butterflies. We also reveal that the vast majority of research undertaken of Lepidopteran endosymbionts concerns Wolbachia. While this highly prevalent bacterium is undoubtedly important, studies should move towards investigating the presence of other, and interacting endosymbionts, and we discuss the merits of examining the microbiome of Lepidoptera to this end. We finally consider the importance of understanding the influence of endosymbionts under global environmental change and when planning conservation management of endangered Lepidoptera species. PMID:29761037

  8. Uncovering the hidden players in Lepidoptera biology: the heritable microbial endosymbionts.

    PubMed

    Duplouy, Anne; Hornett, Emily A

    2018-01-01

    The Lepidoptera is one of the most widespread and recognisable insect orders. Due to their remarkable diversity, economic and ecological importance, moths and butterflies have been studied extensively over the last 200 years. More recently, the relationship between Lepidoptera and their heritable microbial endosymbionts has received increasing attention. Heritable endosymbionts reside within the host's body and are often, but not exclusively, inherited through the female line. Advancements in molecular genetics have revealed that host-associated microbes are both extremely prevalent among arthropods and highly diverse. Furthermore, heritable endosymbionts have been repeatedly demonstrated to play an integral role in many aspects of host biology, particularly host reproduction. Here, we review the major findings of research of heritable microbial endosymbionts of butterflies and moths. We promote the Lepidoptera as important models in the study of reproductive manipulations employed by heritable endosymbionts, with the mechanisms underlying male-killing and feminisation currently being elucidated in moths and butterflies. We also reveal that the vast majority of research undertaken of Lepidopteran endosymbionts concerns Wolbachia . While this highly prevalent bacterium is undoubtedly important, studies should move towards investigating the presence of other, and interacting endosymbionts, and we discuss the merits of examining the microbiome of Lepidoptera to this end. We finally consider the importance of understanding the influence of endosymbionts under global environmental change and when planning conservation management of endangered Lepidoptera species.

  9. Annotated check list of the Pyraloidea (Lepidoptera) of America North of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Scholtens, Brian G.; Solis, M. Alma

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An annotated check list of Pyraloidea of North America north of Mexico is presented, including 861 Crambidae and 681 Pyralidae with 1542 total species. It includes all new species described, tropical species with new records in the United States, and species introduced from Europe and Asia since 1983. The Notes section provides the seminal citations, data and/or commentary to all changes since 1983 for easy and future reference. In addition, this list proposes seven new generic combinations, the transfer of a phycitine species, Salebria nigricans (Hulst), to Epipaschiinae and its syn. n. with Pococera fuscolotella (Ragonot), and three new records for the United States. Purposefully, no new taxa are described here, but we found a gradual increase of 10% in the number of species described since 1983. Finally, we also include a list of thirteen species not included or removed from the MONA list. Many higher-level changes have occurred since 1983 and the classification is updated to reflect research over the last 30 years, including exclusion of Thyrididae and Hyblaeidae from the superfamily and recognition of Crambidae and Pyralidae as separate families. The list includes multiple changes to subfamilies based on morphology such as the synonymization of the Dichogamini with the Glaphyriinae, but also incorporating recent molecular phylogenetic results such as the synonymization of the Evergestinae with the Glaphyriinae. PMID:26668552

  10. Caterpillars and moths: Part I. Dermatologic manifestations of encounters with Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Hossler, Eric W

    2010-01-01

    Caterpillars are the larval forms of moths and butterflies and belong to the order Lepidoptera. Caterpillars, and occasionally moths, have evolved defense mechanisms, including irritating hairs, spines, venoms, and toxins that may cause human disease. The pathologic mechanisms underlying reactions to Lepidoptera are poorly understood. Lepidoptera are uncommonly recognized causes of localized stings, eczematous or papular dermatitis, and urticaria. Part I of this two-part series on caterpillars and moths reviews Lepidopteran life cycles, terminology, and the epidemiology of caterpillar and moth envenomation. It also reviews the known pathomechanisms of disease caused by Lepidopteran exposures and how they relate to diagnosis and management. Part II discusses the specific clinical patterns caused by Lepidopteran exposures, with particular emphasis on groups of caterpillars and moths that cause a similar pattern of disease. It also discusses current therapeutic options regarding each pattern of disease.

  11. Ecoinformatics Can Infer Causal Effects of Crop Variety on Insect Attack by Capitalizing on 'Pseudoexperiments' Created When Different Crop Varieties Are Interspersed: A Case Study in Almonds.

    PubMed

    Rosenheim, Jay A; Higbee, Bradley S; Ackerman, Jonathan D; Meisner, Matthew H

    2017-12-05

    Capturing the complementary strengths of observational and experimental research methods usually requires the researcher to gather separate experimental and observational data sets. In some cases, however, commercial agricultural practices produce the spatial and temporal mixing of 'treatments' independently of other possibly covarying factors that is normally achieved only with formal experimentation. The resulting 'pseudoexperiments' can provide strong evidence for causal relationships. Here, we analyze a large observational data set that creates a series of such pseudoexperiments to assess the effect of different commercial varieties of almond, Prunus dulcis (Mill.) on the impact of two key lepidopteran pests, the navel orangeworm Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), and the peach twig borer Anarsia lineatella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Almonds are universally planted as polycultures of different varieties to obtain efficient cross-pollination. We find substantial differences across almond varieties in the rates of infestation of almond hulls and nutmeats by the two pests. We find no support for the hypothesis that earlier-maturing varieties sustain higher attack; for A. transitella, later-maturing varieties instead had more frequent infestation. On many almond varieties, A. lineatella reaches high infestation levels by feeding almost exclusively on the hulls, rather than nutmeats. Given the importance of these pests in directly destroying almond nuts and in promoting aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus sp. fungal infections of almonds, further work exploring the impact of these pests is warranted. Because many crops requiring cross-pollination are planted as mixtures of different varieties, commercial agricultural production data hold great potential for studying within-crop variation in susceptibility to insect attack. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights

  12. Revised classification and catalogue of global Nepticulidae and Opostegidae (Lepidoptera, Nepticuloidea)

    PubMed Central

    van Nieukerken, Erik J.; Doorenweerd, Camiel; Hoare, Robert J. B.; Davis, Donald R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A catalogue of all named Nepticulidae and Opostegidae is presented, including fossil species. The catalogue is simultaneously published online in the scratchpad http://nepticuloidea.info/ and in Catalogue of Life (http://www.catalogueoflife.org/col/details/database/id/172). We provide a historical overview of taxonomic research on Nepticuloidea and a brief ‘state of the art’. A DNA barcode dataset with 3205 barcodes is made public at the same time, providing DNA barcodes of ca. 779 species, of which 2563 are identified as belonging to 444 validly published species. We recognise 862 extant and 18 fossil species of Nepticulidae in 22 extant genera and the fossil form genus Stigmellites. We count 192 valid Opostegidae species in 7 genera, without fossils. We also list seven dubious Nepticulidae names that cannot be placed due to absent type material and poor descriptions, 18 unavailable names in Nepticulidae that cannot be placed and we also list the 33 names (including four fossils) that once were placed as Nepticulidae or Opostegidae but are now excluded. All synonyms and previous combinations are listed. The generic classification follows the Molecular phylogeny that is published almost simultaneously. Subfamilies and tribes are not recognised, Trifurculinae Scoble, 1983 is synonymised with Nepticulidae Stainton, 1854 and Opostegoidinae Kozlov, 1987 is synonymised with Opostegidae Meyrick, 1893. The status of Casanovula Hoare, 2013, Etainia Beirne, 1945, Fomoria Beirne, 1945, Glaucolepis Braun, 1917, Menurella Hoare, 2013, Muhabbetana Koçak & Kemal, 2007 and Zimmermannia Hering, 1940 is changed from subgenus to full genus, whereas two genera are considered synonyms again: Manoneura Davis, 1979, a synonym of Enteucha Meyrick, 1915 and Levarchama Beirne, 1945, a synonym of Trifurcula Zeller, 1848. We propose 87 new combinations in Nepticulidae and 10 in Opostegidae, largely due to the new classification, and re-examination of some species. We propose

  13. Species conservation profile of moths (Insecta, Lepidoptera) from Azores, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Pérez Santa-Rita, Jose V.; Nunes, Rui; Danielczak, Anja; Hochkirch, Axel; Amorim, Isabel R.; Lamelas-Lopez, Lucas; Karsholt, Ole; Vieira, Virgílio

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background The few remnants of Azorean native forests harbour a unique set of endemic moths (Insecta, Lepidoptera), some of them under severe long term threats due to small sized habitats or climatic changes. In this contribution, we present the IUCN Red List profiles of 34 endemic moths to the Azorean archipelago, including species belonging to two diverse families: Noctuidae (11 species) and Crambidae (eight species). The objective of this paper is to assess all endemic Azorean moth species and advise on possible future research and conservation actions critical for the long-trem survival of the most endangered species. New information Most species have a large distribution (i.e. 58% occur in at least four islands), very large extent of occurrence (EOO) and a relatively large area of occupancy (AOO). Only nine species are single-island endemics, three of them from Flores, three from São Miguel and one from Pico, São Jorge and Faial. Most of the species also experience continuing decline in habitat quality, number of locations and subpopulations caused by the ongoing threat from pasture intensification, forestry, invasive plant species and future climatic changes. The lack of new records may indicate that one of the species previously named is extinct (Eupithecia ogilviata). Therefore, we suggest as future conservation actions: (1) a long-term species monitoring plan and (2) control of invasive species. PMID:29706789

  14. [Origin of Lepidoptera fauna of the Southern Transural region].

    PubMed

    Utkin, N A

    2000-01-01

    The butterfly fauna of the Southern Transural region began mainly through the migration of insects from the Urals and Kazakhstan, since the end of the Cretaceous Period to the end of Paleogen, the Transural region was covered by an epiplatform sea. As this sea was retreating, the first regions of dry land appeared, which had boundaries with Kazakhstan and the Urals. They were the first to be populated by Lepidoptera. During the Pleocene and then after the Pleistocene cooling events, insects settled generally along the valley of the Tobol River and the Turgai depression, because these territories belong to intrazonal elements. At the present time, the greatest species diversity among insects in the southern Transural area is observed specifically in the Turgai depression and in areas directly adjacent to it. This territory is mainly occupied by populations unique to the Transural regions and belonging to the following species: Mantis religiosa (praying mantis), Saga pedo, Parnassius apollo (apollo), Neolycaena rhymnus, Hyponephele lupina (oriental meadow brown), Chazara persephone (dark rockbrown), Epicallia villica (cream-spot tiger), etc.

  15. Molecular systematics of the subfamily Limenitidinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

    PubMed Central

    Dhungel, Bidur

    2018-01-01

    We studied the systematics of the subfamily Limenitidinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) using molecular methods to reconstruct a robust phylogenetic hypothesis. The molecular data matrix comprised 205 Limenitidinae species, four outgroups, and 11,327 aligned nucleotide sites using up to 18 genes per species of which seven genes (CycY, Exp1, Nex9, PolII, ProSup, PSb and UDPG6DH) have not previously been used in phylogenetic studies. We recovered the monophyly of the subfamily Limenitidinae and seven higher clades corresponding to four traditional tribes Parthenini, Adoliadini, Neptini, Limenitidini as well as three additional independent lineages. One contains the genera Harma + Cymothoe and likely a third, Bhagadatta, and the other two independent lineages lead to Pseudoneptis and to Pseudacraea. These independent lineages are circumscribed as new tribes. Parthenini was recovered as sister to rest of Limenitidinae, but the relationships of the remaining six lineages were ambiguous. A number of genera were found to be non-monophyletic, with Pantoporia, Euthalia, Athyma, and Parasarpa being polyphyletic, whereas Limenitis, Neptis, Bebearia, Euryphura, and Adelpha were paraphyletic. PMID:29416955

  16. Chemical ecology and management of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Ioriatti, C; Anfora, G; Tasin, M; De Cristofaro, A; Witzgall, P; Lucchi, A

    2011-08-01

    The moth Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) feeds on grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), reducing yield and increasing susceptibility to fungal infections. L. botrana is among the most economically important insects in Europe and has recently been found in vineyards in Chile, Argentina, and California. Here, we review L. botrana biology and behavior in relation to its larval host (the grapevine) and its natural enemies. We also discuss current and future control strategies in light of our knowledge of chemical ecology, with an emphasis on the use of the sex pheromone-based strategies as an environmentally safe management approach. Pheromone-mediated mating disruption is the most promising technique available on grapes and is currently implemented on approximately 140,000 ha in Europe. Experience from several growing areas confirms the importance of collaboration between research, extension, growers, and pheromone-supply companies for the successful implementation of the mating disruption technique. In the vineyards where mating disruption has been successfully applied as an areawide strategy, the reduction in insecticide use has improved the quality of life for growers, consumers, as well as the public living near wine-growing areas and has thereby reduced the conflict between agricultural and urban communities.

  17. Toxicities of emamectin benzoate homologues and photodegradates to Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Argentine, Joseph A; Jansson, Richard K; Starner, Van R; Halliday, W Ross

    2002-12-01

    The toxicity of a number of emamectin benzoate homologues and photodegradates to five species of Lepidoptera was investigated using diet and foliar bioassays. The emamectin benzoate homologues B1a and B1b were equally toxic in the diet and foliar assays to Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), Heliothis virescens (F.), Tricoplusia ni (Hübner), and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), within each of these species. Plutella xylostella (L.) was the most sensitive species to emamectin benzoate. The AB1a photodegradate of emamectin benzoate was as toxic as the parent compound in the diet assay. However, in the foliage assay AB1a was 4.4-fold less toxic to S. exigua than the parent compound. The MFB1a photodegradate of emamectin benzoate was as toxic as the parent compound to P. xylostella, and 3.1 to 6.2 times as toxic as the parent compound to the other species in the diet assay. The order of toxicity of the photodegradates were AB1a > MFB1a > FAB1a > 8,9-Z-MAB1a > PAB1a.

  18. Development of Sparganothis sulfureana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on Cranberry Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    McMahan, Erin E.; Guédot, Christelle

    2018-01-01

    Sparganothis fruitworm (Sparganothis sulfureana Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a serious pest of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton), a native North American fruit cultivated in northern regions of the United States and southeastern Canada. This study assessed antibiosis in several cranberry cultivars commonly grown in Wisconsin. Five cultivars previously shown to host different levels of populations of S. sulfureana in commercial cranberry were assessed in this study to evaluate the performance of S. sulfureana amongst these cultivars. We measured growth and time to developmental stages of newly emerged larvae to adulthood on selected cranberry cultivars in the laboratory. There was no difference in the rates of survival to pupation and to adult emergence among any of the cultivars tested. Mid-instar larvae that fed on the cultivar ‘Ben Lear’ were heavier than those feeding on ‘GH-1’, ‘Stevens’, or ‘HyRed’, and larvae that fed on ‘Mullica Queen’ were heavier than those feeding on ‘HyRed’. However, there were no significant differences in pupal weights or in the number of days from neonate to adult emergence among varieties. Therefore, this study did not provide evidence of antibiosis among the cultivars tested, and found that larval weight was not correlated with other measurements of performance. PMID:29301287

  19. The nutrient value of Imbrasia belina Lepidoptera: Saturnidae (madora).

    PubMed

    Onigbinde, A O; Adamolekun, B

    1998-05-01

    To determine the pattern of consumption of Imbrasia belina (madora) and other edible insects and also compare the nutrient values of madora larvae and two of its variants (Anaphe venata and Cirina forda) to those of some conventional sources of protein. University of Zimbabwe. 100 workers who admitted to a history of entomophagy. Popularity score of madora compared with those of other edible insects and approximate compositions of nutrients in the larvae compared with standard proteins. Most respondents (65%) were introduced to entomophagy by their parents. Termites were the most frequently consumed, followed by madora. More respondents ate insects because of their perceived nutritional value than because of their relative availability. There was no association of entomophagy with significant side effects. The protein, fat and mineral contents of the larvae were superior to those of beef and chicken. There were no major differences in the nutrient composition of the three Lepidoptera variants. The high nutrient value and low cost of these larvae make them an important protein supplement, especially for people in the low income group.

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of Rondotia menciana (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Weiqing; Yang, Jinhong

    2015-01-01

    The mulberry white caterpillar, Rondotia menciana Moore (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) is a species with closest relationship with Bombyx mori and Bombyx mandarina, and the genetic information of R. menciana is important for understanding the diversity of the Bombycidae. In this study, the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of R. menciana was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. The mitogenome of R. menciana was determined to be 15,301 bp, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and an AT-rich region. The A+T content (78.87%) was lower than that observed for other Bombycidae insects. All PCGs were initiated by ATN codons and terminated with the canonical stop codons, except for coxII, which was terminated by a single T. All the tRNA genes displayed a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA. The length of AT-rich region (360 bp) of R. menciana mitogenome is shorter than that of other Bombycidae species. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the R. menciana was clustered on one branch with B. mori and B. mandarina from Bombycidae. PMID:25888706

  1. DNA barcodes identify Central Asian Colias butterflies (Lepidoptera, Pieridae).

    PubMed

    Laiho, Juha; Ståhls, Gunilla

    2013-12-30

    A majority of the known Colias species (Lepidoptera: Pieridae, Coliadinae) occur in the mountainous regions of Central-Asia, vast areas that are hard to access, rendering the knowledge of many species limited due to the lack of extensive sampling. Two gene regions, the mitochondrial COI 'barcode' region and the nuclear ribosomal protein RpS2 gene region were used for exploring the utility of these DNA markers for species identification. A comprehensive sampling of COI barcodes for Central Asian Colias butterflies showed that the barcodes facilitated identification of most of the included species. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on parsimony and Neighbour-Joining recovered most species as monophyletic entities. For the RpS2 gene region species-specific sequences were registered for some of the included Colias spp. Nevertheless, this gene region was not deemed useful as additional molecular 'barcode'. A parsimony analysis of the combined COI and RpS2 data did not support the current subgeneric classification based on morphological characteristics.

  2. DNA barcodes identify Central Asian Colias butterflies (Lepidoptera, Pieridae)

    PubMed Central

    Laiho, Juha; Ståhls, Gunilla

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A majority of the known Colias species (Lepidoptera: Pieridae, Coliadinae) occur in the mountainous regions of Central-Asia, vast areas that are hard to access, rendering the knowledge of many species limited due to the lack of extensive sampling. Two gene regions, the mitochondrial COI ‘barcode’ region and the nuclear ribosomal protein RpS2 gene region were used for exploring the utility of these DNA markers for species identification. A comprehensive sampling of COI barcodes for Central Asian Colias butterflies showed that the barcodes facilitated identification of most of the included species. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on parsimony and Neighbour-Joining recovered most species as monophyletic entities. For the RpS2 gene region species-specific sequences were registered for some of the included Colias spp. Nevertheless, this gene region was not deemed useful as additional molecular ‘barcode’. A parsimony analysis of the combined COI and RpS2 data did not support the current subgeneric classification based on morphological characteristics. PMID:24453557

  3. Species conservation profile of moths (Insecta, Lepidoptera) from Azores, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Borges, Paulo A V; Pérez Santa-Rita, Jose V; Nunes, Rui; Danielczak, Anja; Hochkirch, Axel; Amorim, Isabel R; Lamelas-Lopez, Lucas; Karsholt, Ole; Vieira, Virgílio

    2018-01-01

    The few remnants of Azorean native forests harbour a unique set of endemic moths (Insecta, Lepidoptera), some of them under severe long term threats due to small sized habitats or climatic changes. In this contribution, we present the IUCN Red List profiles of 34 endemic moths to the Azorean archipelago, including species belonging to two diverse families: Noctuidae (11 species) and Crambidae (eight species). The objective of this paper is to assess all endemic Azorean moth species and advise on possible future research and conservation actions critical for the long-trem survival of the most endangered species. Most species have a large distribution (i.e. 58% occur in at least four islands), very large extent of occurrence (EOO) and a relatively large area of occupancy (AOO). Only nine species are single-island endemics, three of them from Flores, three from São Miguel and one from Pico, São Jorge and Faial. Most of the species also experience continuing decline in habitat quality, number of locations and subpopulations caused by the ongoing threat from pasture intensification, forestry, invasive plant species and future climatic changes. The lack of new records may indicate that one of the species previously named is extinct ( Eupithecia ogilviata ). Therefore, we suggest as future conservation actions: (1) a long-term species monitoring plan and (2) control of invasive species.

  4. Morphological outcomes of gynandromorphism in Lycaeides butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae).

    PubMed

    Jahner, Joshua P; Lucas, Lauren K; Wilson, Joseph S; Forister, Matthew L

    2015-01-01

    The genitalia of male insects have been widely used in taxonomic identification and systematics and are potentially involved in maintaining reproductive isolation between species. Although sexual selection has been invoked to explain patterns of morphological variation in genitalia among populations and species, developmental plasticity in genitalia likely contributes to observed variation but has been rarely examined, particularly in wild populations. Bilateral gynandromorphs are individuals that are genetically male on one side of the midline and genetically female on the other, while mosaic gynandromorphs have only a portion of their body developing as the opposite sex. Gynandromorphs might offer unique insights into developmental plasticity because individuals experience abnormal cellular interactions at the genitalic midline. In this study, we compare the genitalia and wing patterns of gynandromorphic Anna and Melissa blue butterflies, Lycaeides anna (Edwards) (formerly L. idas anna) and L. melissa (Edwards) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), to the morphology of normal individuals from the same populations. Gynandromorph wing markings all fell within the range of variation of normal butterflies; however, a number of genitalic measurements were outliers when compared with normal individuals. From these results, we conclude that the gynandromorphs' genitalia, but not wing patterns, can be abnormal when compared with normal individuals and that the gynandromorphic genitalia do not deviate developmentally in a consistent pattern across individuals. Finally, genetic mechanisms are considered for the development of gynandromorphism in Lycaeides butterflies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  5. Laboratory Assessment of the Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis on Native Lepidoptera

    Treesearch

    John W. Peacock; Dale F. Schweitzer; Jane L. Carter; Normand R. Dubois

    1998-01-01

    The effect of 2 formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Foray 48B and Dipel 8AF) was evaluated on 42 species of native Lepidoptera in laboratory bioassays using instars that are present in the field at the time of gypsy moth suppression applications. Mortality was significant for 27 of the 42 species evaluated...

  6. Digestive peptidase evolution in holometabolous insects led to a divergent group of enzymes in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Dias, Renata O; Via, Allegra; Brandão, Marcelo M; Tramontano, Anna; Silva-Filho, Marcio C

    2015-03-01

    Trypsins and chymotrypsins are well-studied serine peptidases that cleave peptide bonds at the carboxyl side of basic and hydrophobic L-amino acids, respectively. These enzymes are largely responsible for the digestion of proteins. Three primary processes regulate the activity of these peptidases: secretion, precursor (zymogen) activation and substrate-binding site recognition. Here, we present a detailed phylogenetic analysis of trypsins and chymotrypsins in three orders of holometabolous insects and reveal divergent characteristics of Lepidoptera enzymes in comparison with those of Coleoptera and Diptera. In particular, trypsin subsite S1 was more hydrophilic in Lepidoptera than in Coleoptera and Diptera, whereas subsites S2-S4 were more hydrophobic, suggesting different substrate preferences. Furthermore, Lepidoptera displayed a lineage-specific trypsin group belonging only to the Noctuidae family. Evidence for facilitated trypsin auto-activation events were also observed in all the insect orders studied, with the characteristic zymogen activation motif complementary to the trypsin active site. In contrast, insect chymotrypsins did not seem to have a peculiar evolutionary history with respect to their mammal counterparts. Overall, our findings suggest that the need for fast digestion allowed holometabolous insects to evolve divergent groups of peptidases with high auto-activation rates, and highlight that the evolution of trypsins led to a most diverse group of enzymes in Lepidoptera. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Hexaflumuron on feeding response and reproduction of bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hexaflumuron (Consult® 100 EC, Dow AgroSciences) is an insect growth regulator that inhibits chitin synthesis. The efficacy of hexaflumuron mixed with 2.5 M sucrose (ppm) was evaluated in the laboratory against bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) for toxicity, proboscis exten...

  8. Tree height influences flight of lesser peachtree borer and peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) males

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Capture of males of the lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote & Robinson), and the peachtree borer, S. exitiosa (Say) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), in pheromone traps positioned at 0, 1.8, 3.6, and 5.5 m above ground was affected by tree height in different habitats. In a peach orchard wit...

  9. Laboratory virulence and orchard efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes against the lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote & Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) is indigenous to eastern North America where it is a pest of commercially grown Prunus spp., especially to southeastern peach orchards where earlier regulatory changes affected pesticide usage on peach and fa...

  10. Survival and Development of Lymantria monacha (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) on North American and Introduced Eurasian Tree Species

    Treesearch

    M.A. Keena

    2003-01-01

    Lymantria monacha (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), the nun moth, is a Eurasian pest of conifers that has potential for accidental introduction into North America. To project the potential host range of this insect if introducedinto North America, survival and development of L. monacha on 26 North American and eight introduced Eurasian tree species were examined. Seven...

  11. Host range of Caloptilia triadicae (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae): an adventive herbivore of Chinese tallowtree (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In its native range the invasive weed, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa is host to a suite of herbivores. One, Strepsicrates sp. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) was collected in China in 2014, introduced under quarantine in Florida, USA and tested against related species to determine its host range and suitability ...

  12. Effects of elevated CO2 leaf diet on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) respiration rates

    Treesearch

    Anita R. Foss; William J. Mattson; Terry M. Trier

    2013-01-01

    Elevated levels of CO2 affect plant growth and leaf chemistry, which in turn can alter host plant suitability for insect herbivores. We examined the suitability of foliage from trees grown from seedlings since 1997 at Aspen FACE as diet for the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae: paper birch (...

  13. Host plant associated genetic divergence of two Diatraea spp. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) stemborers on novel crop plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diatraea lineolata and Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) are moths with stemboring larvae that feed and develop on economically important grasses. This study investigated whether these moths have diverged from a native host plant, corn, onto introduced crop plants including sorghum, suga...

  14. Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis against Pryeria sinica(Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae), an invasive pest of Euonymus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pryeria sinica Moore (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae), an invasive pest of Euonymus, is susceptible in the second instar to the Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner product Thuricide®, and to several strains isolated from other B. thuringiensis products. Third instars are also susceptible, while susceptibility...

  15. Aggregation and foraging behavior of imported cabbageworm (Lepidoptera: pieridae) adults on blue vervain flowers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The imported cabbageworm [Pieris rapae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)], also known as the cabbage white butterfly, is an important specialized pest on cruciferous plants (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) worldwide. an unusual aggregation of the cabbage white butterflies was observed on a patch of flowering...

  16. RNA interference in Lepidoptera: an overview of successful and unsuccessful studies and implications for experimental design

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized the study of gene function, particularly in non-model insects. However, in Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) RNAi has many times proven to be difficult to achieve. Most of the negative results have been anecdotal and the positive ex...

  17. Barsine podbolotskayae sp. n. from Flores Island, Lesser Sunda Archipelago, Indonesia (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae)

    PubMed Central

    Spitsyn, Vitaly M.; Bolotov, Ivan N.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Herein Barsine podbolotskayae sp. n. (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae) is described from Flores Island, Lesser Sunda Archipelago, Indonesia. This local endemic species externally resembles Barsine exclusa Butler, 1877 from Sundaland and the Andaman Islands but differs by marking patterns and male genitalia structure. PMID:29955214

  18. Current and Future Potential Risk of Establishment of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Washington State

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a primary pest of stone fruits in many countries, including the United States. The distribution of this pest is concentrated in areas receiving higher than lower rainfall. It prefers sites where stone fruits and apple...

  19. Lacinipolia Patalis grote (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) infesting Douglas-fir cones: A new host record

    Treesearch

    Nancy G. Rappaport

    1988-01-01

    Larvai of Lacinipolia patalis (Grote) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were discovered in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziessi [Mirb.} Franco) cones collected from the Louisiana-Pacific Corporation's Little River Seed Orchard near Trinidad Head in Humboldt County, CA (elevation 91 m) during the fall of 1985. Previous surveys have not...

  20. Host range of Secusio extensa (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), and potential for biological control of Senecio madagascariensis (Asteraceae)

    Treesearch

    M. M. Ramadan; K. T. Murai; T. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Secusio extensa (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) was evaluated as a potential biological control agent for Madagascar fireweed, Senecio madagascariensis (Asteraceae), which has invaded over 400 000 acres of rangeland in the Hawaiian Islands and is toxic to cattle and horses. The moth was introduced from southeastern Madagascar...

  1. Mitochondrial genome sequence and expression profiling for the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We report on the assembly of the 14,146 base pairs (bp) near complete mitochondrial sequencing of the legume pod borer (LPB), Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), which was used to estimate divergence and relationships within the lepidopteran lineage. Arrangement and orientation of 13 protein c...

  2. Postharvest irradiation treatment for quarantine control of the invasive Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of irradiation on egg, larval, and pupal development in European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were examined. Eggs, neonates, third instars, fifth instars, and early and late stage pupae were irradiated at target doses of 50, 100, 150, or 200 Gy or left untr...

  3. Contrasting patterns of evolutionary constraint and novelty revealed by comparative sperm proteomic analysis in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Whittington, Emma; Forsythe, Desiree; Borziak, Kirill; Karr, Timothy L; Walters, James R; Dorus, Steve

    2017-12-02

    Rapid evolution is a hallmark of reproductive genetic systems and arises through the combined processes of sequence divergence, gene gain and loss, and changes in gene and protein expression. While studies aiming to disentangle the molecular ramifications of these processes are progressing, we still know little about the genetic basis of evolutionary transitions in reproductive systems. Here we conduct the first comparative analysis of sperm proteomes in Lepidoptera, a group that exhibits dichotomous spermatogenesis, in which males produce a functional fertilization-competent sperm (eupyrene) and an incompetent sperm morph lacking nuclear DNA (apyrene). Through the integrated application of evolutionary proteomics and genomics, we characterize the genomic patterns potentially associated with the origination and evolution of this unique spermatogenic process and assess the importance of genetic novelty in Lepidopteran sperm biology. Comparison of the newly characterized Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) sperm proteome to those of the Carolina sphinx moth (Manduca sexta) and the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) demonstrated conservation at the level of protein abundance and post-translational modification within Lepidoptera. In contrast, comparative genomic analyses across insects reveals significant divergence at two levels that differentiate the genetic architecture of sperm in Lepidoptera from other insects. First, a significant reduction in orthology among Monarch sperm genes relative to the remainder of the genome in non-Lepidopteran insect species was observed. Second, a substantial number of sperm proteins were found to be specific to Lepidoptera, in that they lack detectable homology to the genomes of more distantly related insects. Lastly, the functional importance of Lepidoptera specific sperm proteins is broadly supported by their increased abundance relative to proteins conserved across insects. Our results identify a burst of genetic novelty

  4. Bacterial Symbionts in Lepidoptera: Their Diversity, Transmission, and Impact on the Host

    PubMed Central

    Paniagua Voirol, Luis R.; Frago, Enric; Kaltenpoth, Martin; Hilker, Monika; Fatouros, Nina E.

    2018-01-01

    The insect’s microbiota is well acknowledged as a “hidden” player influencing essential insect traits. The gut microbiome of butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) has been shown to be highly variable between and within species, resulting in a controversy on the functional relevance of gut microbes in this insect order. Here, we aim to (i) review current knowledge on the composition of gut microbial communities across Lepidoptera and (ii) elucidate the drivers of the variability in the lepidopteran gut microbiome and provide an overview on (iii) routes of transfer and (iv) the putative functions of microbes in Lepidoptera. To find out whether Lepidopterans possess a core gut microbiome, we compared studies of the microbiome from 30 lepidopteran species. Gut bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae, Bacillaceae, and Pseudomonadaceae families were the most widespread across species, with Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Enterobacter, and Enterococcus being the most common genera. Several studies indicate that habitat, food plant, and age of the host insect can greatly impact the gut microbiome, which contributes to digestion, detoxification, or defense against natural enemies. We mainly focus on the gut microbiome, but we also include some examples of intracellular endosymbionts. These symbionts are present across a broad range of insect taxa and are known to exert different effects on their host, mostly including nutrition and reproductive manipulation. Only two intracellular bacteria genera (Wolbachia and Spiroplasma) have been reported to colonize reproductive tissues of Lepidoptera, affecting their host’s reproduction. We explore routes of transmission of both gut microbiota and intracellular symbionts and have found that these microbes may be horizontally transmitted through the host plant, but also vertically via the egg stage. More detailed knowledge about the functions and plasticity of the microbiome in Lepidoptera may provide novel leads for the

  5. Mitochondrial genome of the sweet potato hornworm, Agrius convolvuli (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), and comparison with other Lepidoptera species.

    PubMed

    Dai, Li-Shang; Li, Sheng; Yu, Hui-Min; Wei, Guo-Qing; Wang, Lei; Qian, Cen; Zhang, Cong-Fen; Li, Jun; Sun, Yu; Zhao, Yue; Zhu, Bao-Jian; Liu, Chao-Liang

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Agrius convolvuli (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) and compared it with previously sequenced mitogenomes of lepidopteran species. The mitogenome was a circular molecule, 15 349 base pairs (bp) long, containing 37 genes. The order and orientation of genes in the A. convolvuli mitogenome were similar to those in sequenced mitogenomes of other lepidopterans. All 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) were initiated by ATN codons, except for the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene, which seemed to be initiated by the codon CGA, as observed in other lepidopterans. Three of the 13 PCGs had the incomplete termination codon T, while the remainder terminated with TAA. Additionally, the codon distributions of the 13 PCGs revealed that Asn, Ile, Leu2, Lys, Phe, and Tyr were the most frequently used codon families. All transfer RNAs were folded into the expected cloverleaf structure except for tRNA Ser (AGN), which lacked a stable dihydrouridine arm. The length of the adenine (A) + thymine (T)-rich region was 331 bp. This region included the motif ATAGA followed by a 19-bp poly-T stretch and a microsatellite-like (TA) 8 element next to the motif ATTTA. Phylogenetic analyses (maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods) showed that A. convolvuli belongs to the family Sphingidae.

  6. Segmental duplications: evolution and impact among the current Lepidoptera genomes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qian; Ma, Dongna; Vasseur, Liette; You, Minsheng

    2017-07-06

    results provide a valuable resource beyond the genetic mutation to explore the genome structure for future Lepidoptera research.

  7. Fossil butterflies, calibration points and the molecular clock (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea).

    PubMed

    Jong, Rienk DE

    2017-05-25

    Fossil butterflies are extremely rare. Yet, they are the only direct evidence of the first appearance of particular characters and as such, they are crucial for calibrating a molecular clock, from which divergence ages are estimated. In turn, these estimates, in combination with paleogeographic information, are most important in paleobiogeographic considerations. The key issue here is the correct allocation of fossils on the phylogenetic tree from which the molecular clock is calibrated.The allocation of a fossil on a tree should be based on an apomorphic character found in a tree based on extant species, similar to the allocation of a new extant species. In practice, the latter is not done, at least not explicitly, on the basis of apomorphy, but rather on overall similarity or on a phylogenetic analysis, which is not possible for most butterfly fossils since they usually are very fragmentary. Characters most often preserved are in the venation of the wings. Therefore, special attention is given to possible apomorphies in venational characters in extant butterflies. For estimation of divergence times, not only the correct allocation of the fossil on the tree is important, but also the tree itself influences the outcome as well as the correct determination of the age of the fossil. These three aspects are discussed.        All known butterfly fossils, consisting of 49 taxa, are critically reviewed and their relationship to extant taxa is discussed as an aid for correctly calibrating a molecular clock for papilionoid Lepidoptera. In this context some aspects of age estimation and biogeographic conclusions are briefly mentioned in review. Specific information has been summarized in four appendices.

  8. Eye-spots in Lepidoptera attract attention in humans

    PubMed Central

    Yorzinski, Jessica L.; Platt, Michael L.; Adams, Geoffrey K.

    2015-01-01

    Many prey species exhibit defensive traits to decrease their chances of predation. Conspicuous eye-spots, concentric rings of contrasting colours, are one type of defensive trait that some species exhibit to deter predators. We examined the function of eye-spots in Lepidoptera to determine whether they are effective at deterring predators because they resemble eyes (‘eye mimicry hypothesis’) or are highly salient (‘conspicuous signal hypothesis’). We recorded the gaze behaviour of men and women as they viewed natural images of butterflies and moths as well as images in which the eye-spots of these insects were modified. The eye-spots were modified by removing them, scrambling their colours, or replacing them with elliptical or triangular shapes that had either dark or light centres. Participants were generally more likely to look at, spend more time looking at and be faster to first fixate the eye-spots of butterflies and moths that were natural compared with ones that were modified, including the elliptical eye-spots with dark centres that most resembled eyes as well as the scrambled eye-spots that had the same contrast as the natural eye-spots. Participants were most likely to look at eye-spots that were numerous, had a large surface area and were located close to the insects' heads. Participants' pupils were larger when viewing eye-spots compared with the rest of the insects' body, suggesting a greater arousal when viewing eye-spots. Our results provide some support for the conspicuous signal hypothesis (and minimal support for the eye mimicry hypothesis) and suggest that eye-spots may be effective at deterring predators because they are highly conspicuous signals that draw attention. PMID:26543589

  9. Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Responses to Sorghum bicolor (Poales: Poaceae) Tissues From Lowered Lignin Lines

    PubMed Central

    Dowd, Patrick F.; Sattler, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of lignin within biomass impedes the production of liquid fuels. Plants with altered lignin content and composition are more amenable to lignocellulosic conversion to ethanol and other biofuels but may be more susceptible to insect damage where lignin is an important resistance factor. However, reduced lignin lines of switchgrasses still retained insect resistance in prior studies. Therefore, we hypothesized that sorghum lines with lowered lignin content will also retain insect resistance. Sorghum excised leaves and stalk pith Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poales: Poaceae) from near isogenic brown midrib (bmr) 6 and 12 mutants lines, which have lowered lignin content and increased lignocellulosic ethanol conversion efficiency, were examined for insect resistance relative to wild-type (normal BTx623). Greenhouse and growth chamber grown plant tissues were fed to first-instar larvae of corn earworms, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and fall armyworms Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), two sorghum major pests. Younger bmr leaves had significantly greater feeding damage in some assays than wild-type leaves, but older bmr6 leaves generally had significantly less damage than wild-type leaves. Caterpillars feeding on the bmr6 leaves often weighed significantly less than those feeding on wild-type leaves, especially in the S. frugiperda assays. Larvae fed the pith from bmr stalks had significantly higher mortality compared with those larvae fed on wild-type pith, which suggested that bmr pith was more toxic. Thus, reducing lignin content or changing subunit composition of bioenergy grasses does not necessarily increase their susceptibility to insects and may result in increased resistance, which would contribute to sustainable production. PMID:25601946

  10. Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Responses to Sorghum bicolor (Poales: Poaceae) Tissues From Lowered Lignin Lines.

    PubMed

    Dowd, Patrick F; Sattler, Scott E

    2015-01-01

    The presence of lignin within biomass impedes the production of liquid fuels. Plants with altered lignin content and composition are more amenable to lignocellulosic conversion to ethanol and other biofuels but may be more susceptible to insect damage where lignin is an important resistance factor. However, reduced lignin lines of switchgrasses still retained insect resistance in prior studies. Therefore, we hypothesized that sorghum lines with lowered lignin content will also retain insect resistance. Sorghum excised leaves and stalk pith Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poales: Poaceae) from near isogenic brown midrib (bmr) 6 and 12 mutants lines, which have lowered lignin content and increased lignocellulosic ethanol conversion efficiency, were examined for insect resistance relative to wild-type (normal BTx623). Greenhouse and growth chamber grown plant tissues were fed to first-instar larvae of corn earworms, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and fall armyworms Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), two sorghum major pests. Younger bmr leaves had significantly greater feeding damage in some assays than wild-type leaves, but older bmr6 leaves generally had significantly less damage than wild-type leaves. Caterpillars feeding on the bmr6 leaves often weighed significantly less than those feeding on wild-type leaves, especially in the S. frugiperda assays. Larvae fed the pith from bmr stalks had significantly higher mortality compared with those larvae fed on wild-type pith, which suggested that bmr pith was more toxic. Thus, reducing lignin content or changing subunit composition of bioenergy grasses does not necessarily increase their susceptibility to insects and may result in increased resistance, which would contribute to sustainable production. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  11. Sexual differences in weight loss upon eclosion are related to life history strategy in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Molleman, Freerk; Javoiš, Juhan; Esperk, Toomas; Teder, Tiit; Davis, Robert B; Tammaru, Toomas

    2011-06-01

    Given that immature and adult insects have different life styles, different target body compositions can be expected. For adults, such targets will also differ depending on life history strategy, and thus vary among the sexes, and in females depend on the degree of capital versus income breeding and ovigeny. Since these targets may in part be approximated by loss of substances upon eclosion, comparing sexual differences in such losses upon eclosion among species that differ in life history would provide insights into insect functional ecology. We studied weight loss in eclosing insects using original data on pupal and adult live weights of 38 species of Lepidoptera (mainly Geometridae) and further literature data on 15 species of Lepidoptera and six representatives of other insect orders, and applied the phylogenetic independent contrasts approach. In addition, data on live and dry weights of pupae of four species of Lepidoptera are presented. We documented that Lepidoptera typically lose a large proportion (20-80%) of their pupal weight upon adult eclosion. Sexual differences in weight loss varied between absent and strongly male biased. Most of the weight loss was water loss, and sexual differences in adult water content correlate strongly with differences in weight loss. Using feeding habits (feeds or does not feed as an adult) and female biased sexual size dimorphism as measures of degree of capital breeding, we found that the difference among the sexes in weight loss tends to be more pronounced in capital breeding species. Additionally, females of more pro-ovigenic species (large proportion of eggs mature upon emergence) tend to have higher water contents. Our results suggests that metamorphosis is generally facilitated by a high water content, while adults excrete water upon eclosion to benefit flight unless water has been allocated to eggs, or is treated as a capital resource for adult survival or future allocation to eggs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of the fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Fang; Wang, Lin; Wu, Song; Li, Yu-Ping; Zhao, Lei; Huang, Guo-Ming; Niu, Chun-Jing; Liu, Yan-Qun; Li, Ming-Gang

    2010-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) was determined. The genome is a circular molecule 15 481 bp long. It presents a typical gene organization and order for completely sequenced lepidopteran mitogenomes, but differs from the insect ancestral type for the placement of tRNAMet. The nucleotide composition of the genome is also highly A + T biased, accounting for 80.38%, with a slightly positive AT skewness (0.010), indicating the occurrence of more As than Ts, as found in the Noctuoidea species. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) are initiated by ATN codons, except for COI, which is tentatively designated by the CGA codon as observed in other lepidopterans. Four of 13 PCGs harbor the incomplete termination codon, T or TA. All tRNAs have a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNAs, except for tRNASer(AGN), the DHU arm of which could not form a stable stem-loop structure. The intergenic spacer sequence between tRNASer(AGN) and ND1 also contains the ATACTAA motif, which is conserved across the Lepidoptera order. The H. cunea A+T-rich region of 357 bp is comprised of non-repetitive sequences, but harbors several features common to the Lepidoptera insects, including the motif ATAGA followed by an 18 bp poly-T stretch, a microsatellite-like (AT)8 element preceded by the ATTTA motif, an 11 bp poly-A present immediately upstream tRNAMet. The phylogenetic analyses support the view that the H. cunea is closerly related to the Lymantria dispar than Ochrogaster lunifer, and support the hypothesis that Noctuoidea (H. cunea, L. dispar, and O. lunifer) and Geometroidea (Phthonandria atrilineata) are monophyletic. However, in the phylogenetic trees based on mitogenome sequences among the lepidopteran superfamilies, Papillonoidea (Artogeia melete, Acraea issoria, and Coreana raphaelis) joined basally within the monophyly of Lepidoptera, which is different to the traditional classification. PMID:20376208

  13. Lepidoptera and associated parasitoids attacking Hass and non-Hass avocados in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Hoddle, Mark S; Hoddle, Christina D

    2008-08-01

    A 5-mo survey for fruit feeding Lepidoptera attacking Hass and non-Hass avocados (Persea americana Miller [Lauraceae]) was conducted in Guatemala from 1 November 2006 to 1 April 2007. In total, 6,740 fruit were collected from 22 different areas in Guatemala. Eight species of Lepidoptera, of which at least two are species new to science, were reared from avocado fruit. Reared Lepidoptera were Amorbia santamaria Phillips and Powell, Cryptaspasma sp. nr. lugubris, Euxoa sorella Schaus, Histura n. sp., Holcocera n. sp., Micrathetis triplex Walker, Netechma pyrrhodelta (Meyrick), and Stenoma catenifer Walsingham. Hymenopteran parasitoids were reared from larvae of C. sp. nr. lugubris and S. catenifer. One species of parasitoid, Pseudophanerotoma sp., was reared from field collected C. sp. nr. lugubris larvae. The dominant parasitoid reared from S. catenifer was a gregarious Apanteles sp. Other parasitoid species reared from S. catenifer larvae were Brachycyrtus sp., Macrocentrus sp., and Pristomerus sp. The oviposition preference of C. sp. nr. lugubris for avocado fruit hanging in trees, dropped fruit on the ground, or exposed avocado seeds was investigated by studying the oviposition preferences of adult female moths and determining egg hatch times in the laboratory, and by investigating the longevity of avocado fruit on the ground under prevailing field conditions. Together, data from these studies suggested that C. sp. nr. lugubris may be an unrecognized pest of avocados that causes hanging fruit to drop to the ground prematurely. The influence of season and altitude on the phenology and distribution of avocado feeding Lepidoptera in Guatemala is discussed.

  14. Low host specificity and abundance of frugivorous lepidoptera in the lowland rain forests of Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Ctvrtecka, Richard; Miller, Scott E.; Rosati, Margaret E.; Molem, Kenneth; Damas, Kipiro; Gewa, Bradley; Novotny, Vojtech

    2017-01-01

    We studied a community of frugivorous Lepidoptera in the lowland rainforest of Papua New Guinea. Rearing revealed 122 species represented by 1,720 individuals from 326 woody plant species. Only fruits from 52% (171) of the plant species sampled were attacked. On average, Lepidoptera were reared from 1 in 89 fruits and a kilogram of fruit was attacked by 1.01 individuals. Host specificity of Lepidoptera was notably low: 69% (33) of species attacked plants from >1 family, 8% (4) fed on single family, 6% (3) on single genus and 17% (8) were monophagous. The average kilogram of fruits was infested by 0.81 individual from generalist species (defined here as feeding on >1 plant genus) and 0.07 individual from specialist species (feeding on a single host or congeneric hosts). Lepidoptera preferred smaller fruits with both smaller mesocarp and seeds. Large-seeded fruits with thin mesocarp tended to host specialist species whereas those with thick, fleshy mesocarp were often infested with both specialist and generalist species. The very low incidence of seed damage suggests that pre-dispersal seed predation by Lepidoptera does not play a major role in regulating plant populations via density-dependent mortality processes outlined by the Janzen-Connell hypothesis. PMID:28231249

  15. Low host specificity and abundance of frugivorous lepidoptera in the lowland rain forests of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Sam, Katerina; Ctvrtecka, Richard; Miller, Scott E; Rosati, Margaret E; Molem, Kenneth; Damas, Kipiro; Gewa, Bradley; Novotny, Vojtech

    2017-01-01

    We studied a community of frugivorous Lepidoptera in the lowland rainforest of Papua New Guinea. Rearing revealed 122 species represented by 1,720 individuals from 326 woody plant species. Only fruits from 52% (171) of the plant species sampled were attacked. On average, Lepidoptera were reared from 1 in 89 fruits and a kilogram of fruit was attacked by 1.01 individuals. Host specificity of Lepidoptera was notably low: 69% (33) of species attacked plants from >1 family, 8% (4) fed on single family, 6% (3) on single genus and 17% (8) were monophagous. The average kilogram of fruits was infested by 0.81 individual from generalist species (defined here as feeding on >1 plant genus) and 0.07 individual from specialist species (feeding on a single host or congeneric hosts). Lepidoptera preferred smaller fruits with both smaller mesocarp and seeds. Large-seeded fruits with thin mesocarp tended to host specialist species whereas those with thick, fleshy mesocarp were often infested with both specialist and generalist species. The very low incidence of seed damage suggests that pre-dispersal seed predation by Lepidoptera does not play a major role in regulating plant populations via density-dependent mortality processes outlined by the Janzen-Connell hypothesis.

  16. Recurrent Domestication by Lepidoptera of Genes from Their Parasites Mediated by Bracoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Gasmi, Laila; Boulain, Helene; Gauthier, Jeremy; Hua-Van, Aurelie; Musset, Karine; Jakubowska, Agata K.; Aury, Jean-Marc; Volkoff, Anne-Nathalie; Huguet, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Bracoviruses are symbiotic viruses associated with tens of thousands of species of parasitic wasps that develop within the body of lepidopteran hosts and that collectively parasitize caterpillars of virtually every lepidopteran species. Viral particles are produced in the wasp ovaries and injected into host larvae with the wasp eggs. Once in the host body, the viral DNA circles enclosed in the particles integrate into lepidopteran host cell DNA. Here we show that bracovirus DNA sequences have been inserted repeatedly into lepidopteran genomes, indicating this viral DNA can also enter germline cells. The original mode of Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) unveiled here is based on the integrative properties of an endogenous virus that has evolved as a gene transfer agent within parasitic wasp genomes for ≈100 million years. Among the bracovirus genes thus transferred, a phylogenetic analysis indicated that those encoding C-type-lectins most likely originated from the wasp gene set, showing that a bracovirus-mediated gene flux exists between the 2 insect orders Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera. Furthermore, the acquisition of bracovirus sequences that can be expressed by Lepidoptera has resulted in the domestication of several genes that could result in adaptive advantages for the host. Indeed, functional analyses suggest that two of the acquired genes could have a protective role against a common pathogen in the field, baculovirus. From these results, we hypothesize that bracovirus-mediated HGT has played an important role in the evolutionary arms race between Lepidoptera and their pathogens. PMID:26379286

  17. The case for a generic phytosanitary irradiation dose of 250 Gy for Lepidoptera eggs and larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallman, Guy J.; Arthur, Valter; Blackburn, Carl M.; Parker, Andrew G.

    2013-08-01

    The literature on ionizing irradiation of Lepidoptera is critically examined for a dose that could serve as a generic phytosanitary treatment for all eggs and larvae of that order, which contains many quarantine pests that inhibit trade in fresh agricultural commodities. The measure of efficacy used in deriving this dose is the prevention of emergence of normal-looking adults that are assumed not able to fly. A dose of 250 Gy is supported by many studies comprising 34 species in 11 lepidopteran families, including those of significant quarantine importance. Two studies with two different species found that doses >250 Gy were necessary, but both of these are contradicted by other studies showing that <250 Gy is adequate. There is a lack of large-scale (>10,000 individuals) testing for families other than Tortricidae (the most important quarantine family in the Lepidoptera). Because several large-scale studies have been done with tortricids a dose of 250 Gy could be justifiable for Tortricidae if it is not acceptable for the entire Lepidoptera at this time.

  18. RNA interference in Lepidoptera: an overview of successful and unsuccessful studies and implications for experimental design.

    PubMed

    Terenius, Olle; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Garbutt, Jennie S; Eleftherianos, Ioannis; Huvenne, Hanneke; Kanginakudru, Sriramana; Albrechtsen, Merete; An, Chunju; Aymeric, Jean-Luc; Barthel, Andrea; Bebas, Piotr; Bitra, Kavita; Bravo, Alejandra; Chevalier, François; Collinge, Derek P; Crava, Cristina M; de Maagd, Ruud A; Duvic, Bernard; Erlandson, Martin; Faye, Ingrid; Felföldi, Gabriella; Fujiwara, Haruhiko; Futahashi, Ryo; Gandhe, Archana S; Gatehouse, Heather S; Gatehouse, Laurence N; Giebultowicz, Jadwiga M; Gómez, Isabel; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Groot, Astrid T; Hauser, Frank; Heckel, David G; Hegedus, Dwayne D; Hrycaj, Steven; Huang, Lihua; Hull, J Joe; Iatrou, Kostas; Iga, Masatoshi; Kanost, Michael R; Kotwica, Joanna; Li, Changyou; Li, Jianghong; Liu, Jisheng; Lundmark, Magnus; Matsumoto, Shogo; Meyering-Vos, Martina; Millichap, Peter J; Monteiro, Antónia; Mrinal, Nirotpal; Niimi, Teruyuki; Nowara, Daniela; Ohnishi, Atsushi; Oostra, Vicencio; Ozaki, Katsuhisa; Papakonstantinou, Maria; Popadic, Aleksandar; Rajam, Manchikatla V; Saenko, Suzanne; Simpson, Robert M; Soberón, Mario; Strand, Michael R; Tomita, Shuichiro; Toprak, Umut; Wang, Ping; Wee, Choon Wei; Whyard, Steven; Zhang, Wenqing; Nagaraju, Javaregowda; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Herrero, Salvador; Gordon, Karl; Swevers, Luc; Smagghe, Guy

    2011-02-01

    Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized the study of gene function, particularly in non-model insects. However, in Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) RNAi has many times proven to be difficult to achieve. Most of the negative results have been anecdotal and the positive experiments have not been collected in such a way that they are possible to analyze. In this review, we have collected detailed data from more than 150 experiments including all to date published and many unpublished experiments. Despite a large variation in the data, trends that are found are that RNAi is particularly successful in the family Saturniidae and in genes involved in immunity. On the contrary, gene expression in epidermal tissues seems to be most difficult to silence. In addition, gene silencing by feeding dsRNA requires high concentrations for success. Possible causes for the variability of success in RNAi experiments in Lepidoptera are discussed. The review also points to a need to further investigate the mechanism of RNAi in lepidopteran insects and its possible connection to the innate immune response. Our general understanding of RNAi in Lepidoptera will be further aided in the future as our public database at http://insectacentral.org/RNAi will continue to gather information on RNAi experiments. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Linking Life Table and Predation Rate for Biological Control: A Comparative Study of Eocanthecona furcellata (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Fed on Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Tuan, Shu-Jen; Yeh, Chih-Chun; Atlihan, Remzi; Chi, Hsin

    2016-02-01

    To better understand the predator-prey relationship and to compare predation rates, we studied the life table and predation rate of the predator Eocanthecona furcellata Wolff (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) when reared on two major crucifer pests, Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). The net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate, and net predation rates of E. furcellata reared on P. xylostella were 292.4 offspring, 0.1389 d(-1), 1.1490 d(-1), and 644.1 third instars of P. xylostella, respectively. These values are significantly higher than those reared on S. litura, i.e., 272.3 offspring, 0.1220 d(-1), 1.1298 d(-1), and 863.1 third instars of S. litura. To evaluate the predation potential of E. furcellata fed on P. xylostella and S. litura, we combined both the growth rate and predation rate to calculate the finite predation rate (ω); our results showed that E. furcellata is an effective predator of both S. litura (ω = 1.6029) and P. xylostella (ω = 1.4277). © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. A food plant specialist in Sparganothini: A new genus and species from Costa Rica (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae)

    PubMed Central

    Brown, John W.; Janzen, Daniel H.; Hallwachs, Winnie

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Sparganocosma docsturnerorum Brown, new genus and new species, is described and illustrated from Área de Conservación (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica. The new genus shares a long, crescent- or ribbon-shaped signum in the corpus bursae of the female genitalia with Aesiocopa Zeller, 1877, Amorbia Clemens, 1860, Amorbimorpha Kruse, 2011, Coelostathma Clemens, 1860, Lambertiodes Diakonoff, 1959, Paramorbia Powell & Lambert, 1986, Rhynchophyllus Meyrick, 1932, Sparganopseustis Powell & Lambert, 1986, Sparganothina Powell, 1986, and Sparganothoides Lambert & Powell, 1986. Putative autapomorphies for Sparganocosma include the extremely short uncus; the smooth (unspined) transtilla; and the upturned, free, distal rod of the sacculus. Adults of Sparganocosma docsturnerorum have been reared numerous times (>50) from larvae collected feeding on rain forest Asplundia utilis (Oerst.) Harling and Asplundia microphylla (Oerst.) Harling (Cyclanthaceae) at intermediate elevations (375–500 m) in ACG. Whereas most Sparganothini are generalists, typically feeding on two or more plant families, Sparganocosma docsturnerorum appears to be a specialist on Asplundia, at least in ACG. The solitary parasitoid wasp Sphelodon wardae Godoy & Gauld (Ichneumonidae; Banchinae) has been reared only from the larvae of Sparganocosma docsturnerorum. PMID:23794903

  1. Egg Cannibalism and its Life History Consequences Vary with Life Stage, Sex, and Reproductive Status in Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Bayoumy, Mohamed H; Michaud, J P

    2015-08-01

    Egg cannibalism is common in Coccinellidae, but its biological consequences have not been fully explored. We examined egg cannibalism by neonates, fourth instars, and adults of Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville for effects on development, reproduction, and progeny fitness. We also tested female adults for ability to avoid cannibalizing their own eggs and first-instar larvae, and both sexes for changes in cannibalism propensity following mating, all in the presence of ad libitum food [larvae: eggs of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), adults: Schizaphis graminum (Rondani)]. Cannibalism by neonates reduced developmental time and increased male body size. Cannibalism in the fourth instar accelerated pupation and led to the production of eggs that hatched faster, regardless of which parent cannibalized. However, egg fertility was improved only by maternal cannibalism in the fourth instar. Females recognized their own egg clusters, sometimes added eggs to them, and preferentially cannibalized nonfilial clusters. Most gravid females cannibalized a first-instar larva within 30 min, whether filial or not. Adult egg cannibalism was similar for virgin males and females, but declined after mating in males, and increased in females, although it had no effect on fecundity or fertility. Daughters of cannibal pairs were heavier than those of other mating combinations, but offspring of noncannibal parents had the fastest development. Reproductive females appeared to use egg cannibalism to reduce risk for their own eggs, increasing the number cannibalized with the number laid. Thus, egg cannibalism in coccinellids varies with life stage, sex, and reproductive condition, independent of food availability, and benefits are life stage specific. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Assessment of Geographic and Host-Associated Population Variations of the Carob Moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae, on Pomegranate, Fig, Pistachio and Walnut, Using AFLP Markers

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffarian, Fariba; Mardi, Mohsen; Sarafrazi, Alimorad; Nouri Ganbalani, Gadir

    2008-01-01

    The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller 1839) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is the most important pest of pomegranate, Punica granatum L. (Myrtales: Ponicaceae), in Iran. In this study, 6 amplified fragment length polymorphism primer combinations were used to survey the genetic structure of the geographic and putative host-associated populations of this pest in Iran. An AMOVA was performed on test populations. Pairwise differences, Mantel test, multidimensional analysis, cluster analysis and migration rate were calculated for 5 geographic populations of E. ceratoniae sharing the same host, pomegranate. In another part of the study, 3 comparisons were performed on pairwise populations that were collected on different hosts (pomegranate, fig, pistachio and walnut) in same geographic regions. The results showed high within population variation (85.51% of total variation), however geographic populations differed significantly. The Mantel test did not show correlations between genetic and geographic distances. The probable factors that affect genetic distances are discussed. Multidimensional scaling analysis, migration rate and cluster analysis on geographic populations showed that the Arsanjan population was the most different from the others while the Saveh population was more similar to the Sabzevar population. The comparisons didn't show any host fidelity in test populations. It seems that the ability of E. ceratoniae to broaden its host range with no fidelity to hosts can decrease the efficiency of common control methods that are used on pomegranate. The results of this study suggest that in spite of the effects of geographic barriers, high within-population genetic variation, migration rate and gene flow can provide the opportunity for emerging new phenotypes or behaviors in pest populations, such as broadening host range, changing egg lying places, or changing over-wintering sites to adapt to difficult conditions such as those caused by intensive control

  3. Fumigant Toxicity of Essential Oils from Basil and Spearmint Against Two Major Pyralid Pests of Stored Products.

    PubMed

    Eliopoulos, P A; Hassiotis, C N; Andreadis, S S; Porichi, A-E E

    2015-04-01

    The fumigant activity of essential oil vapors distilled from sweet basil Ocimum basilicum L. and spearmint Mentha spicata L. (Lamiaceae) were tested against two major stored products pests Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) and Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Various oil doses (0.5, 2.5, 5, 50, 250, 500, 1,000, and 1,500 µl/liter air), for an exposure period of 24 h, were tested. The essential oils were subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and revealed that the major compounds were for spearmint oil carvone (67.1%) and limonene (+1,8 cineole; 14.3%) and for basil oil linalool (45.9%), 1,8 cineole (16.7%) and eugenol (10.3%). Apart from a few exceptions, no significant differences in insecticidal action were observed between basil and spearmint oil. Both oils were highly effective against adult moths, given that notable mortality (>80%) was recorded after exposure to low doses such as 2.5 µl/liter. Noteworthy, egg mortality was also recorded, reaching 73-79% for basil and 56-60% for spearmint. Toxicity data indicated that larvae and pupae were the most tolerant stages in all cases. Larval mortality never exceeded 21 and 18%, for basil and spearmint, respectively, irrespective of moth species. Basil and spearmint oils displayed mortalities as high as 38 and 28% in pupae. Lethal doses (LD50 and LD99) values were estimated via probit analysis. Developmental stage proved to be a significant factor, whereas the effect of oil species on insect mortality was insignificant. With the exception of adult individuals, basil and spearmint oils did not show satisfactory overall insecticidal activity against E. kuehniella and P. interpunctella. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Larval food plants of Australian Larentiinae (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) - a review of available data

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background In Australia, the subfamily Larentiinae (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) comprises over 45 genera with about 270 species described so far. However, life histories of the Australian larentiine moths have barely been studied. New information The current paper presents a list of larval food plants of 51 Australian larentiine species based on literature references, data from specimen labels and own observations. Some Australian habitats are shown. Possible relationships among the taxa based on food preference of the larvae are discussed. Additionally, a list of Australasian larentiine species from the genera occurring in Australia and their food plants is presented. PMID:27099558

  5. Potential impact of genetically modified Lepidoptera-resistant Brassica napus in biodiversity hotspots: Sicily as a theoretical model.

    PubMed

    Manachini, Barbara; Bazan, Giuseppe; Schicchi, Rosario

    2018-03-14

    The general increase of the cultivation and trade of Bt transgenic plants resistant to Lepidoptera pests raises concerns regarding the conservation of animal and plant biodiversity. Demand for biofuels has increased the cultivation and importation of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), including transgenic lines. In environmental risk assessments (ERAs) for its potential future cultivation as well as for food and feed uses, the impact on wild Brassicaeae relatives and on non-target Lepidoptera should be assessed. Here we consider the potential exposure of butterflies as results of possible cultivation or naturalization of spilled seed in Sicily (Italy). Diurnal Lepidoptera, which are pollinators, can be exposed directly to the insecticidal proteins as larvae (mainly of Pieridae) through the host and through the pollen that can deposit on other host plants. Adults can be exposed via pollen and nectar. The flight periods of butterflies were recorded, and they were found to overlap for about 90% of the flowering period of B. napus for the majority of the species. In addition, B. napus has a high potential to hybridise with endemic taxa belonging to the B. oleracea group. This could lead to an exposure of non-target Lepidoptera if introgression of the Bt gene into a wild population happens. A rank of the risk for butterflies and wild relatives of oilseed rape is given. We conclude that, in environmental risk assessments, attention should be paid to plant-insect interaction especially in a biodiversity hotspot such as Sicily. © 2018 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  6. Double strand RNA-mediated RNA interference through feeding in larval gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Erebidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    RNA interference (RNAi) has gained popularity in several fields of research, silencing targeted genes by degradation of RNA. The objective of this study was to develop RNAi for use as a molecular tool in the control of the invasive pest Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), gypsy moth, which ha...

  7. Preliminary list of the leaf-roller moths (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) of Virginia with comments on spatial and temporal distribution

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Based on the examination of 3,457 pinned specimens, we document 263 species of leaf-roller moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from the Commonwealth of Virginia. The vast majority of specimens examined are from five unrelated efforts: a survey of George Washington Memorial Parkway National Park, Fairfa...

  8. Relative susceptibility of sunflower maintainer lines and resistance sources to natural infestations of the banded sunflower moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a significant seed-feeding pest of sunflowers in North America. Though some wild Helianthus spp., interspecific crosses, and H. annuus cultivars (that precede hybrid sunflower breeding) have low susceptibility to ba...

  9. Evaluation of whorl damage by fall armyworm (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) on field and greenhouse grown sweet sorghum plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)] is an economically important pest of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench]. However, resistance to fall armyworm in sweet sorghum has not been extensively studied. A collection of primarily sweet sorghum accessions were evaluated in t...

  10. Use of benzimidazole agar plates to assess fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) feeding on excised maize and sorghum leaves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an economically significant pest of sorghum and maize. To screen sorghum and maize germplasm for resistance to fall armyworm feeding, field, greenhouse, or lab bioassays are often utilized individually or in combinatio...

  11. Spatial genetic variation among Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) sampled from the United States, Puerto Rico, Panama, and Argentina

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a migratory and polyphagous pest of both cultivated and uncultivated plant species in the Western Hemisphere. Understanding the genetic diversity and gene flow of this economically important pest can help to de...

  12. Egg hatch and survival and development of beet webworm (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae at different combinations of temperature and relative humidity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To understand the role that temperature and humidity play in the population dynamics of the beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis L. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), egg hatchability, survival of 1st - 5th instars, survival of the complete larval stage, survival curves, and larval development rates were inve...

  13. Influence of trap design on capture of female grape berry moth (lepidoptera: tortricidae) with a kairomone Lure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oil-coated clear panel traps baited with a host plant-based kairomone lure are effective in monitoring female grape berry moth (GBM), Paralobesia viteana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera:Tortricidae), but servicing these traps in a vineyard is cumbersome. In this study, we compared the performance of six diff...

  14. Interspecific synchrony among foliage-feeding forest Lepidoptera species and the potential role of generalist predators as synchronizing agents

    Treesearch

    Sandy Raimondo; Marek Turcáni; Jan Patoèka; Andrew M. Liebhold

    2004-01-01

    While synchrony among geographically disjunct populations of the same species has received considerable recent attention, much less is known about synchrony between sympatric populations of two or more species. We analyzed time series of the abundance of ten species of spring foliage feeding Lepidoptera sampled over a 25- year period at 20 sites in the Slovak Republic...

  15. Biology, herbivory, and host specificity of Antiblemma leucocyma (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Miconia calvescens DC. (Melastomataceae) in Brazil

    Treesearch

    F. R. Badenes-Perez; M. T. Johnson

    2008-01-01

    Miconia calvescens DC. (Melastomataceae) is an invasive tree considered one of the greatest threats to natural ecosystems of Hawaii and other Pacific islands. The potential for using the defoliator Antiblemma leucocyma (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) as a biological control agent of M. calvescens was evaluated in...

  16. Pheromone-based disruption of Eucosma sonomana and Rhyacionia zozana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) using aerially applied microencapsulated pheromone

    Treesearch

    Nancy E. Gillette; John D. Stein; Donald R. Owen; Jeffrey N. Webster; Sylvia R. Mori

    2006-01-01

    Two aerial applications of microencapsulated pheromone were conducted on five 20.2 ha plots to disrupt western pine shoot borer (Eucosma sonomana Kearfott) and ponderosa pine tip moth (Rhyacionia zowna (Kearfott): Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) orientation to pheromones and oviposition in ponderosa pine plantations in 2002 and 2004...

  17. Phenology of Lymantria monacha (Lepidoptera:Lymantriidae) laboratory reared on spruce foliage or a newly developed artificial diet

    Treesearch

    Melody A. Keena; Alice Vandel; Oldrich. Pultar

    2010-01-01

    Lymantria monacha (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) is a Eurasian pest of conifers that has potential for accidental introduction into North America. The phenology over the entire life cycle for L. monacha individuals from the Czech Republic was compared on Picea glauca (Moench) Voss (white spruce) and a newly...

  18. Review of parasitic wasps and flies (Hymenoptera, Diptera) attacking Limacodidae (Lepidoptera) in North America, with a key to genera

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hymenopteran and dipteran parasitoids of slug caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae) from North America are reviewed and an illustrated key to 17 genera is presented. Limacodid surveys and rearing were conducted by the Lill lab (JTL, SMM, TMS) during the summer months of 2004–2009 as part of their...

  19. A large-scale, higher-level, molecular phylogenetic study of the insect order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Higher-level relationships within the Lepidoptera, and particularly within the species-rich subclade Ditrysia, are generally not well understood, although recent studies have yielded progress. 483 taxa spanning 115 of 124 families were sampled for 19 protein-coding nuclear genes. Their aligned nucle...

  20. Influence of holding temperature and irradiation on field performance of mass-reared Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) as an integral component to the area-wide integrated management of the false codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), was successfully implemented in the Western Cape region of South Africa and subsequently expanded to citrus are...

  1. Putative nicotinic acetylchloline receptor subunits express differentially through life cycle of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are the targets of neonicotinoids and spinosads, two insecticides used in orchards to effectively control codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). The nAChRs mediate the fast actions of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in synaptic tr...

  2. Lepidoptera Larvae as an Indicator of Multi-trophic Level Responses to Changing Seasonality in an Arctic Tundra Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, K. M.; Steltzer, H.; Boelman, N.; Weintraub, M. N.; Darrouzet-Nardi, A.; Wallenstein, M. D.; Sullivan, P.; Gough, L.; Rich, M.; Hendrix, C.; Kielland, K.; Philip, K.; Doak, P.; Ferris, C.; Sikes, D.

    2011-12-01

    Earlier snowmelt and warming temperatures in the Arctic will impact multiple trophic levels through the timing and availability of food resources. Lepidoptera are a vital link within the ecosystem; their roles include pollinator, parasitized host for other pollinating insects, and essential food source for migrating birds and their fledglings. Multiple environmental cues including temperature initiate plant growth, and in turn, trigger the emergence of Lepidoptera and the migrations of birds. If snowmelt is accelerated and temperature is increased, it is expected that the Lepidoptera larvae will respond to early plant growth by increasing their abundance within areas that have accelerated snowmelt and warmer conditions. In May of 2011 in a moist acidic tussock tundra system, we accelerated snowmelt by 15 days through the use of radiation-absorbing fabric and warmed air and soil temperatures using open-top chambers, individually and in combination. Every 1-2 days from May 27th to July 8th, 2 minute searches were performed for Lepidoptera larvae in all treatments; when an animal was found, their micro-habitat, surface temperature, behavior, food source, and time of day were noted. The length, body and head width were measured, and the animals were examined for braconid wasp and tachinid fly parasites. Lepidoptera larvae collected in pitfall traps from May 26th to July 7th were also examined and measured. Total density of parasitized larvae accounted for 54% of observed specimens and 50% of pitfall specimens, indicating that Lepidoptera larvae serve an integral role as a host for other pollinators. Total larvae density was highest within the accelerated snowmelt plots compared to the control plots; 66% of observed live specimens and 63% of pitfall specimens were found within the accelerated snowmelt plots. Ninety percent of the total observed animals were found within the open-top warming chambers. Peak density of animals occurred at Solar Noon between 14:00 -15

  3. Effects of Elevated CO2 on Plant Chemistry, Growth, Yield of Resistant Soybean, and Feeding of a Target Lepidoptera Pest, Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Yifei, Zhang; Yang, Dai; Guijun, Wan; Bin, Liu; Guangnan, Xing; Fajun, Chen

    2018-04-25

    Atmospheric CO2 level arising is an indisputable fact in the future climate change, as predicted, it could influence crops and their herbivorous insect pests. The growth and development, reproduction, and consumption of Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fed on resistant (cv. Lamar) and susceptible (cv. JLNMH) soybean grown under elevated (732.1 ± 9.99 μl/liter) and ambient (373.6 ± 9.21 μl/liter) CO2 were examined in open-top chambers from 2013 to 2015. Elevated CO2 promoted the above- and belowground-biomass accumulation and increased the root/shoot ratio of two soybean cultivars, and increased the seeds' yield for Lamar. Moreover, elevated CO2 significantly reduced the larval and pupal weight, prolonged the larval and pupal life span, and increased the feeding amount and excretion amount of two soybean cultivars. Significantly lower foliar nitrogen content and higher foliar sugar content and C/N ratio were observed in the sampled foliage of resistant and susceptible soybean cultivars grown under elevated CO2, which brought negative effects on the growth of S. litura, with the increment of foliar sugar content and C/N ratio were greater in the resistant soybean in contrast to the susceptible soybean. Furthermore, the increment of larval consumption was less than 50%, and the larval life span was prolonged more obvious of the larvae fed on resistant soybean compared with susceptible soybean under elevated CO2. It speculated that the future climatic change of atmospheric CO2 level arising would likely cause the increase of the soybean yield and the intake of S. litura, but the resistant soybean would improve the resistance of the target Lepidoptera pest, S. litura.

  4. Three new species and one new subspecies of Depressariinae (Lepidoptera) from Europe

    PubMed Central

    Buchner, Peter; Corley, Martin; Junnilainen, Jari

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The species Depressaria albarracinella Corley, sp. n., Agonopterix carduncelli Corley, sp. n. and Agonopterix pseudoferulae Buchner & Junnilainen, sp. n. and the subspecies Depressaria saharae Gastón & Vives ssp. tabelli Buchner, ssp. n. are described. Depressaria albarracinella was first found in Spain in 1969 and recognised as apparently new but the specimens in NHMUK have remained undescribed. Additional Spanish material has been located in ZMUC and other collections and three specimens have been found from Greece. Agonopterix carduncelli. A single male of an unidentified Agonopterix of the pallorella group was found in Algarve, Portugal in 2010. A search for larvae in March 2011 was successful and one male and one female were reared from Carthamus caeruleus. Additional specimens of the new species have been located in collections from Spain, Greece and Morocco. Agonopterix pseudoferulae. A specimen from Greece with the name Agonopterix ferulae (Zeller, 1847) found in the Klimesch collection in ZSM had forewing markings which suggested that it might be a different species. Further specimens from Italy and Greece have been examined, among them two reared from Elaeoselinum asclepium (Apiaceae). Both genitalia and barcode show that this is an undescribed species. Depressaria saharae Gastón & Vives, 2017 was described very recently (Gastón and Vives 2017) from northern Spain with a brief description, and figures of two males and male genitalia. Here the new species is redescribed, and additional data on distribution and relationships of the new species added. The opportunity is also taken to show that Canary Islands specimens with the same male genitalia should be treated as a new subspecies D. saharae ssp. tabelli Buchner, ssp. n. PMID:28769736

  5. New taxa, including three new genera show uniqueness of Neotropical Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera)

    PubMed Central

    van Nieukerken, Erik J.; Doorenweerd, Camiel; Nishida, Kenji; Snyers, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Abstract After finding distinct clades in a molecular phylogeny for Nepticulidae that could not be placed in any known genera and discovering clear apomorphic characters that define these clades, as well as a number of Neotropical species that could be placed in known genera but were undescribed, three new genera and nine new species are here described from the Neotropics: Stigmella gallicola van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. reared from galls on Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae) in Costa Rica, representing the first example of a gall making Stigmella; Stigmella schinivora van Nieukerken, sp. n. reared from leafmines on Schinus terebinthifolia (Anacardiaceae) in Argentina, Misiones; Stigmella costaricensis van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. and Stigmella intronia van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. each from a single specimen collected the same night in Costa Rica, Parque Nacional Chirripó; Stigmella molinensis van Nieukerken & Snyers, sp. n. reared from leafmines on Salix humboldtiana, Peru, Lima, the first Neotropical species of the Stigmella salicis group sensu stricto; Ozadelpha van Nieukerken, gen. n. with type species Ozadelpha conostegiae van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n., reared from leafmines on Conostegia oerstediana (Melastomataceae) from Costa Rica; Neotrifurcula van Nieukerken, gen. n. with type species Neotrifurcula gielisorum van Nieukerken, sp. n. from Chile; Hesperolyra van Nieukerken, gen. n.. with type species Fomoria diskusi Puplesis & Robinson, 2000; Hesperolyra saopaulensis van Nieukerken, sp. n., reared from an unidentified Myrtaceae, Sao Paulo, Brasil; and Acalyptris janzeni van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. from Costa Rica, Guanacaste. Five new combinations are made: Ozadelpha ovata (Puplesis & Robinson, 2000), comb. n. and Ozadelpha guajavae (Puplesis & Diškus, 2002), comb. n., Hesperolyra diskusi (Puplesis & Robinson, 2000), comb. n., Hesperolyra molybditis (Zeller, 1877), comb. n. and Hesperolyra repanda (Puplesis & Diškus, 2002), comb. n

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome of the larch hawk moth, Sphinx morio (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jee; Choi, Sei-Woong; Kim, Iksoo

    2013-12-01

    The larch hawk moth, Sphinx morio, belongs to the lepidopteran family Sphingidae that has long been studied as a family of model insects in a diverse field. In this study, we describe the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences of the species in terms of general genomic features and characteristic short repetitive sequences found in the A + T-rich region. The 15,299-bp-long genome consisted of a typical set of genes (13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes) and one major non-coding A + T-rich region, with the typical arrangement found in Lepidoptera. The 316-bp-long A + T-rich region located between srRNA and tRNA(Met) harbored the conserved sequence blocks that are typically found in lepidopteran insects. Additionally, the A + T-rich region of S. morio contained three characteristic repeat sequences that are rarely found in Lepidoptera: two identical 12-bp repeat, three identical 5-bp-long tandem repeat, and six nearly identical 5-6 bp long repeat sequences.

  7. Evolutionary Diversifaction of Aminopeptidase N in Lepidoptera by Conserved Clade-specific Amino Acid Residues

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Austin L.

    2015-01-01

    Members of the aminopepidase N (APN) gene family of the insect order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) bind the naturally insecticidal Cry toxins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of seven lepidopteran APN classes provided strong support for the hypothesis that lepidopteran APN2 class arose by gene duplication prior to the most recent common ancestor of Lepidoptera and Diptera. The Cry toxin-binding region (BR) of lepidopteran and dipteran APNs was subject to stronger purifying selection within APN classes than was the remainder of the molecule, reflecting conservation of catalytic site and adjoining residues within the BR. Of lepidopteran APN classes, APN2, APN6, and APN8 showed the strongest evidence of functional specialization, both in expression patterns and in the occurrence of conserved derived amino acid residues. The latter three APN classes also shared a convergently evolved conserved residue close to the catalytic site. APN8 showed a particularly strong tendency towards class-specific conserved residues, including one of the catalytic site residues in the BR and ten others in close vicinity to the catalytic site residues. The occurrence of class-specific sequences along with the conservation of enzymatic function is consistent with the hypothesis that the presence of Cry toxins in the environment has been a factor shaping the evolution of this multi-gene family. PMID:24675701

  8. Evaluation of pheromone-baited traps for winter moth and Bruce spanworm (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).

    PubMed

    Elkinton, Joseph S; Lance, David; Boettner, George; Khrimian, Ashot; Leva, Natalie

    2011-04-01

    We tested different pheromone-baited traps for surveying winter moth, Operophtera brumata (L.) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), populations in eastern North America. We compared male catch at Pherocon 1C sticky traps with various large capacity traps and showed that Universal Moth traps with white bottoms caught more winter moths than any other trap type. We ran the experiment on Cape Cod, MA, where we caught only winter moth, and in western Massachusetts, where we caught only Bruce spanworm, Operophtera bruceata (Hulst) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), a congener of winter moth native to North America that uses the same pheromone compound [(Z,Z,Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene] and is difficult to distinguish from adult male winter moths. With Bruce spanworm, the Pherocon 1C sticky traps caught by far the most moths. We tested an isomer of the pheromone [(E,Z,Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene] that previous work had suggested would inhibit captures of Bruce spanworm but not winter moths. We found that the different doses and placements of the isomer suppressed captures of both species to a similar degree. We are thus doubtful that we can use the isomer to trap winter moths without also catching Bruce spanworm. Pheromone-baited survey traps will catch both species.

  9. Redescription of Thalassodes antithetica Herbulot, 1962, an endemic moth from Inner Seychelles (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Geometrinae).

    PubMed

    Bolotov, Ivan N; Matyot, Pat; Bippus, Maik; Spitsyn, Vitaly M; Kolosova, Yulia S; Kondakov, Alexander V

    2016-07-19

    The Seychelles archipelago is characterized by an exceptionally high level of endemism in certain taxa, including at least 275 endemic species of Lepidoptera (Legrand 1966; Gerlach & Matyot 2006; De Prins & De Prins 2015). Despite the fact that endemics are the main objects of conservation efforts, information regarding endemic Seychelles Lepidoptera is very poor, because the majority of them are known from a single or a few specimens (Legrand 1966; Gerlach and Matyot 2006; Bolotov et al. 2014, 2015). The emerald moth specimens are lacking in extensive samples obtained by earlier collectors (Fletcher 1910; Scott 1910; Fryer 1912). Further, two emerald moth species in the genus Thalassodes Guenée, 1858 have been reported from Seychelles, i.e., the widespread T. quadraria Guenée, 1858 (Legrand 1966; Gerlach & Matyot 2006; De Prins & De Prins 2015) and the endemic T. antithetica Herbulot, 1962. The latter species is known from eight specimens, collected between 1959 and 1963 (Legrand 1966; Gerlach & Matyot 2006). Herbulot (1962) provided a very short description of this species without any illustration. The protologue consists of a description of some external characters, i.e., antennae, palpi and legs, as well as the pattern of markings, but the male and female genitalia are not described. As the main diagnostic features, Herbulot (1962) noted two specific characters in the male morphology, namely the hind tibia with a single pair of spurs and an exceptional development of the lateral processes (octavals) on the posterior margin of the eighth sternite.

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of the bag-shelter moth Ochrogaster lunifer (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae)

    PubMed Central

    Salvato, Paola; Simonato, Mauro; Battisti, Andrea; Negrisolo, Enrico

    2008-01-01

    Background Knowledge of animal mitochondrial genomes is very important to understand their molecular evolution as well as for phylogenetic and population genetic studies. The Lepidoptera encompasses more than 160,000 described species and is one of the largest insect orders. To date only nine lepidopteran mitochondrial DNAs have been fully and two others partly sequenced. Furthermore the taxon sampling is very scant. Thus advance of lepidopteran mitogenomics deeply requires new genomes derived from a broad taxon sampling. In present work we describe the mitochondrial genome of the moth Ochrogaster lunifer. Results The mitochondrial genome of O. lunifer is a circular molecule 15593 bp long. It includes the entire set of 37 genes usually present in animal mitochondrial genomes. It contains also 7 intergenic spacers. The gene order of the newly sequenced genome is that typical for Lepidoptera and differs from the insect ancestral type for the placement of trnM. The 77.84% A+T content of its α strand is the lowest among known lepidopteran genomes. The mitochondrial genome of O. lunifer exhibits one of the most marked C-skew among available insect Pterygota genomes. The protein-coding genes have typical mitochondrial start codons except for cox1 that present an unusual CGA. The O. lunifer genome exhibits the less biased synonymous codon usage among lepidopterans. Comparative genomics analysis study identified atp6, cox1, cox2 as cox3, cob, nad1, nad2, nad4, and nad5 as potential markers for population genetics/phylogenetics studies. A peculiar feature of O. lunifer mitochondrial genome it that the intergenic spacers are mostly made by repetitive sequences. Conclusion The mitochondrial genome of O. lunifer is the first representative of superfamily Noctuoidea that account for about 40% of all described Lepidoptera. New genome shares many features with other known lepidopteran genomes. It differs however for its low A+T content and marked C-skew. Compared to other

  11. Comparative transcriptome analysis of lufenuron-resistant and susceptible strains of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Antonio Rogério Bezerra; Fresia, Pablo; Cônsoli, Fernando Luis; Omoto, Celso

    2015-11-21

    The evolution of insecticide resistance in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) has resulted in large economic losses and disturbances to the environment and agroecosystems. Resistance to lufenuron, a chitin biosynthesis inhibitor insecticide, was recently documented in Brazilian populations of S. frugiperda. Thus, we utilized large-scale cDNA sequencing (RNA-Seq analysis) to compare the pattern of gene expression between lufenuron-resistant (LUF-R) and susceptible (LUF-S) S. larvae in an attempt to identify the molecular basis behind the resistance mechanism(s) of S. frugiperda to this insecticide. A transcriptome was assembled using approximately 19.6 million 100 bp-long single-end reads, which generated 18,506 transcripts with a N50 of 996 bp. A search against the NCBI non-redundant database generated 51.1% (9,457) functionally annotated transcripts. A large portion of the alignments were homologous to insects, with the majority (45%) being similar to sequences of Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). Moreover, 10% of the alignments were similar to sequences of various species of Spodoptera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), with 3% of them being similar to sequences of S. frugiperda. A comparative analysis of the gene expression between LUF-R and LUF-S S. frugiperda larvae identified 940 differentially expressed transcripts (p ≤ 0.05, t-test; fold change ≥ 4). Six of them were associated with cuticle metabolism. Of those, four were overexpressed in LUF-R larvae. The machinery involved with the detoxification process was represented by 35 differentially expressed transcripts; 24 of them belonging to P450 monooxygenases, four to glutathione-S-transferases, six to carboxylases and one to sulfotransferases. RNA-Seq analysis was validated for a number of selected candidate transcripts by using quantitative real time PCR (qPCR). The gene expression profile of LUF-R larvae of S. frugiperda differs from LUF-S larvae. In general, gene expression is much

  12. A new species of solitary Meteorus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared from caterpillars of toxic butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Scott R; Jones, Guinevere Z

    2009-01-01

    A new species of parasitoid wasp, Meteorus rugonasus Shaw and Jones (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is described from the Yanayacu Biological Station, Napo Province, Ecuador. The new species is diagnosed and compared to other species in the genus. It was reared from larvae of Pteronymia zerlina (Hewitson, 1855) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae) found feeding on leaves of Solanum (Solanaceae). The parasitoid is solitary. This is the first record of a Meteorus species attacking ithomiine Nymphalidae. A new species of parasitoid wasp, Meteorus rugonasus Shaw and Jones (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is described from the Yanayacu Biological Station, Napo Province, Ecuador. The new species is diagnosed and compared to other species in the genus. It was reared from larvae of Pteronymia zerlina (Hewitson, 1855) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae) found feeding on leaves of Solanum (Solanaceae). The parasitoid is solitary. This is the first record of a Meteorus species attacking ithomiine Nymphalidae.

  13. A New Species of Solitary Meteorus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Reared from Caterpillars of Toxic Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Scott R.; Jones, Guinevere Z.

    2009-01-01

    A new species of parasitoid wasp, Meteorus rugonasus Shaw and Jones (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is described from the Yanayacu Biological Station, Napo Province, Ecuador. The new species is diagnosed and compared to other species in the genus. It was reared from larvae of Pteronymia zerlina (Hewitson, 1855) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae) found feeding on leaves of Solanum (Solanaceae). The parasitoid is solitary. This is the first record of a Meteorus species attacking ithomiine Nymphalidae. A new species of parasitoid wasp, Meteorus rugonasus Shaw and Jones (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is described from the Yanayacu Biological Station, Napo Province, Ecuador. The new species is diagnosed and compared to other species in the genus. It was reared from larvae of Pteronymia zerlina (Hewitson, 1855) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae) found feeding on leaves of Solanum (Solanaceae). The parasitoid is solitary. This is the first record of a Meteorus species attacking ithomiine Nymphalidae. PMID:19613877

  14. Population genetic structure of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from apple orchards in central Chile.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Contreras, Eduardo; Espinoza, Juan L; Lavandero, Blas; Ramírez, Claudio C

    2008-02-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the main pest of pome fruits worldwide. Despite its economic importance, little is known about the genetic structure and patterns of dispersal at the local and regional scale, which are important aspects for establishing a control strategy for this pest. An analysis of genetic variability using microsatellites was performed for 11 codling moth populations in the two major apple (Malus domestica Borkh) cropping regions in central Chile. Despite the geographical distances between some populations (approximately 185 km), there was low genetic differentiation among populations (F(ST) = 0.002176), with only slight isolation by distance. Only approximately 0.2% of the genetic variability was found among the populations. Geographically structured genetic variation was independent of apple orchard management (production or abandoned). These results suggest a high genetic exchange of codling moth between orchards, possibly mediated by human activities related to fruit production.

  15. Scanning Electron Microscopy Study of the Antennal Sensilla of Monema flavescens Walker (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae).

    PubMed

    Yang, S; Liu, H; Zhang, J T; Liu, J; Zheng, H; Ren, Y

    2017-04-01

    Monema flavescens Walker (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae) is a serious polyphagous defoliator. Using scanning electron microscopy, the external morphology of the antennal sensilla of this pest was examined for a better understanding of the mechanisms of insect-insect and insect-plant chemical communications. The antennae of M. flavescens were filiform in shape, and 11 morphological types of sensilla were found in both sexes. Six types of likely chemosensory sensilla were identified: uniporous sensilla chaetica, multiporous sensilla trichodea, and four types of multiporous sensilla basiconica. The sensilla identified as likely mechanoreceptors included two subtypes of aporous sensilla chaetica, aporous sensilla coeloconica, aporous sensilla styloconica, and Böhm's bristles, whereas the position of the antennae was monitored by Böhm's bristles.

  16. Selection of an Artificial Diet for Laboratory Rearing of Opogona sacchari (Lepidoptera: Tineidae) (Bojer, 1856).

    PubMed

    Coelho, A; Milanez, J M; de Andrade Moral, R; Demétrio, C G B; Parra, J R P

    2018-04-01

    The banana moth Opogona sacchari (Bojer) (Lepidoptera: Tineidae) is a polyphagous pest that can cause serious damage, in particular to banana crops in southern Brazil. The insect is a quarantine pest in several countries, including Argentina, the main consumer market for bananas from southern Brazil. Little information is available about the biology and ecology of this moth, such as a suitable diet for laboratory rearing. In order to provide support for integrated pest management of the pest, this study furnished data for selecting two diets suitable for continuous laboratory rearing of O. sacchari, one based on dried beans, wheat germ, soy bran, brewer's yeast, and casein and another diet with wheat germ and casein as protein sources. With both diets, the viability of the egg-adult period exceeded 68%, with fertility over 338 eggs per female. A corrected biotic potential analysis gave similar values for the two diets.

  17. Eremonidiopsis aggregata, gen. n., sp. n. from Cuba, the third West Indian Dioptinae (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae)

    PubMed Central

    Aguila, Rayner Núñez

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new genus and species of Dioptinae (Lepidoptera, Noctuoidea, Notodontidae) is described from Cuba, this being the third taxon of the subfamily known from the West Indies. Eremonidiopsis aggregata, gen. n., sp. n., appears to be closely related to Eremonidia mirifica Rawlins & Miller from Hispaniola among members of the tribe Dioptini. Eremonidiopsis aggregata is known from two localities in the middle and western portions of the northeastern Cuban mountain range, Nipe–Sagua–Baracoa. The species inhabits low elevations (300–400 m) covered by lowland rainforest and sclerophyll rainforest. The six known specimens, all males, were part of small swarms flying near the top of an unidentified tree during the day at both collecting sites. These localities are included within protected areas, the “Pico Cristal” National Park in the West and the “Alexander von Humbolt” National Park in the East. PMID:24146561

  18. Taxonomic changes of some neotropical species of Arctiini Leach (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae).

    PubMed

    Beccacece, Hernán Mario; Zapata, Adriana Inés

    2017-05-30

    Arctiini (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae) is the most speciose tribe of tiger moths. In this study, the taxonomy of some Neotropical species of this tribe is reviewed based on habitus and, in some cases, genitalia of type specimens. Lectotypes are designated for two names. Four new combinations are proposed: Agaraea sericeum (Zerny, 1931) comb. n., Biturix nigrostriata (Rothschild, 1909) comb. n., Carales fasciatus (Rothschild, 1909) comb. n. and Opharus pallida (Dognin, 1910) comb. n. Six new synonymies are proposed: Agaraea nigrotuberculata Bryk, 1953 (=Agaraea klagesi (Rothschild, 1909)), Opharus ochracea Joicey & Talbot, 1918 and Pelochyta fergusoni Watson & Goodger, 1986 (=Opharus pallida (Dognin, 1910)), Melese flavescens Joicey & Talbot, 1918 (=Melese paranensis Dognin, 1911), Leucanopsis infucata (Berg, 1882) (=Pareuchaetes aurata aurata (Butler, 1875)) and Tessellota pura Breyer, 1957 (=Tessellota cancellata (Burmeister, 1878)). Moreover, Opharus ochracea Joicey & Talbot, 1918 comb. rev. is returned to the original genus. For each rearrangement, both remarks and information about type specimens are provided.

  19. Constancy, Distribution, and Frequency of Lepidoptera Defoliators of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla (Myrtaceae) in Four Brazilian Regions.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, G T; Zanuncio, J C; de S Tavares, W; de S Ramalho, F; Serrão, J E

    2016-12-01

    The growth of the Brazilian forest sector with monocultures favors the adaptation of Arthropoda pests. The Lepidoptera order includes major pests of Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae). The aim of this work is to study the population constancy, distribution, and frequency of Lepidoptera primary pests of Eucalyptus spp. Lepidoptera pests in Eucalyptus spp. plantations were collected in Três Marias and Guanhães (state of Minas Gerais), Niquelândia (state of Goiás), and Monte Dourado (state of Pará), Brazil, for a period of 5 years, with light traps and captures, every 15 days, for every region. The number of primary pest species (12) has been similar in the four regions, and even with 1.5 to 2.4% of the total species collected, this group has shown a high frequency, especially in Três Marias, Niquelândia, and Monte Dourado, with 66.3, 54.2, and 40.0% of the individuals collected, respectively, for 5 years. The primary pest species have been constant and frequent in all the regions, with population peaks from February to September in Três Marias, February and May in Niquelândia, and from July to September in Monte Dourado. The highest population peaks of these species have been recorded when the Eucalyptus spp. plants are 3 to 6 years old. The Guanhães region is more stable and, therefore, has a lower possibility of outbreaks of the Lepidoptera primary pest species.

  20. A revised checklist of Nepticulidae fossils (Lepidoptera) indicates an Early Cretaceous origin.

    PubMed

    Doorenweerd, Camiel; Nieukerken, Erik J Van; Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Labandeira, Conrad C

    2015-05-27

    With phylogenetic knowledge of Lepidoptera rapidly increasing, catalysed by increasingly powerful molecular techniques, the demand for fossil calibration points to estimate an evolutionary timeframe for the order is becoming an increasingly pressing issue. The family Nepticulidae is a species rich, basal branch within the phylogeny of the Lepidoptera, characterized by larval leaf-mining habits, and thereby represents a potentially important lineage whose evolutionary history can be established more thoroughly with the potential use of fossil calibration points. Using our experience with extant global Nepticulidae, we discuss a list of characters that may be used to assign fossil leaf mines to Nepticulidae, and suggest useful methods for classifying relevant fossil material. We present a checklist of 79 records of Nepticulidae representing adult and leaf-mine fossils mentioned in literature, often with multiple exemplars constituting a single record. We provide our interpretation of these fossils. Two species now are included in the collective generic name Stigmellites: Stigmellites resupinata (Krassilov, 2008) comb. nov. (from Ophiheliconoma) and Stigmellites almeidae (Martins-Neto, 1989) comb. nov. (from Nepticula). Eleven records are for the first time attributed to Nepticulidae. After discarding several dubious records, including one possibly placing the family at a latest Jurassic position, we conclude that the oldest fossils likely attributable to Nepticulidae are several exemplars representing a variety of species from the Dakota Formation (USA). The relevant strata containing these earliest fossils are now dated at 102 Ma (million years ago) in age, corresponding to the latest Albian Stage of the Early Cretaceous. Integration of all records in the checklist shows that a continuous presence of nepticulid-like leaf mines preserved as compression-impression fossils and by amber entombment of adults have a fossil record extending to the latest Early Cretaceous.

  1. Global Dosage Compensation Is Ubiquitous in Lepidoptera, but Counteracted by the Masculinization of the Z Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Huylmans, Ann Kathrin; Macon, Ariana; Vicoso, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Abstract While chromosome-wide dosage compensation of the X chromosome has been found in many species, studies in ZW clades have indicated that compensation of the Z is more localized and/or incomplete. In the ZW Lepidoptera, some species show complete compensation of the Z chromosome, while others lack full equalization, but what drives these inconsistencies is unclear. Here, we compare patterns of male and female gene expression on the Z chromosome of two closely related butterfly species, Papilio xuthus and Papilio machaon, and in multiple tissues of two moths species, Plodia interpunctella and Bombyx mori, which were previously found to differ in the extent to which they equalize Z-linked gene expression between the sexes. We find that, while some species and tissues seem to have incomplete dosage compensation, this is in fact due to the accumulation of male-biased genes and the depletion of female-biased genes on the Z chromosome. Once this is accounted for, the Z chromosome is fully compensated in all four species, through the up-regulation of Z expression in females and in some cases additional down-regulation in males. We further find that both sex-biased genes and Z-linked genes have increased rates of expression divergence in this clade, and that this can lead to fast shifts in patterns of gene expression even between closely related species. Taken together, these results show that the uneven distribution of sex-biased genes on sex chromosomes can confound conclusions about dosage compensation and that Z chromosome-wide dosage compensation is not only possible but ubiquitous among Lepidoptera. PMID:28957502

  2. Baseline Susceptibility of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) to the Novel Insecticide Spinetoram in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Weidi; Zhang, Jingming; Zhang, Pengjun; Lin, Wencai; Lin, Qingsheng; Li, Zhenyu; Hang, Fang; Zhang, Zhijun; Lu, Yaobin

    2015-04-01

    Spinetoram is a spinosyn, which is a unique class of natural insecticide. Because of its novel mode of action, spinetoram is more potent and faster acting than other insecticides, even the older spinosyn product, spinosad. On account of being efficient on insect order Lepidoptera, spinetoram provides a new alternative for control of Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), which are resistant to other chemicals. To determine the current situation of resistance of P. xylostella to spinetoram, the susceptibility of 16 P. xylostella populations from different regions of China or different time in addition to the population from laboratory was assessed using a leaf dip bioassay. The variation in spinetoram susceptibility among the 16 field populations was narrow, with median lethal concentrations (LC50 values) ranging from 0.131 to 1.001 mg/liter. Toxicity ratios (TRs) ranged from 1.5 to 7.6 and were 5.6 and 7.6 for populations SY-2 and FX-1, respectively, indicating some low level of tolerance in these populations. A discriminating concentration (a concentration that can detect the occurrence of resistance in a population) of 10 mg/liter, which was identified based on the pooled toxicological data, caused 100% mortality in all nine tested populations. The baseline susceptibility data reflect the natural variation of the P. xylostella populations to spinetoram rather than variation caused by previous exposure. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Linkage map of the peppered moth, Biston betularia (Lepidoptera, Geometridae): a model of industrial melanism

    PubMed Central

    Van't Hof, A E; Nguyen, P; Dalíková, M; Edmonds, N; Marec, F; Saccheri, I J

    2013-01-01

    We have constructed a linkage map for the peppered moth (Biston betularia), the classical ecological genetics model of industrial melanism, aimed both at localizing the network of loci controlling melanism and making inferences about chromosome dynamics. The linkage map, which is based primarily on amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and genes, consists of 31 linkage groups (LGs; consistent with the karyotype). Comparison with the evolutionarily distant Bombyx mori suggests that the gene content of chromosomes is highly conserved. Gene order is conserved on the autosomes, but noticeably less so on the Z chromosome, as confirmed by physical mapping using bacterial artificial chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization (BAC-FISH). Synteny mapping identified three pairs of B. betularia LGs (11/29, 23/30 and 24/31) as being orthologous to three B. mori chromosomes (11, 23 and 24, respectively). A similar finding in an outgroup moth (Plutella xylostella) indicates that the B. mori karyotype (n=28) is a phylogenetically derived state resulting from three chromosome fusions. As with other Lepidoptera, the B. betularia W chromosome consists largely of repetitive sequence, but exceptionally we found a W homolog of a Z-linked gene (laminin A), possibly resulting from ectopic recombination between the sex chromosomes. The B. betularia linkage map, featuring the network of known melanization genes, serves as a resource for melanism research in Lepidoptera. Moreover, its close resemblance to the ancestral lepidopteran karyotype (n=31) makes it a useful reference point for reconstructing chromosome dynamic events and ancestral genome architectures. Our study highlights the unusual evolutionary stability of lepidopteran autosomes; in contrast, higher rates of intrachromosomal rearrangements support a special role of the Z chromosome in adaptive evolution and speciation. PMID:23211790

  4. Efficacy of Silk Channel Injections with Insecticides for Management of Lepidoptera Pests of Sweet Corn.

    PubMed

    Sparks, A N; Gadal, L; Ni, X

    2015-08-01

    The primary Lepidoptera pests of sweet corn (Zea mays L. convar. saccharata) in Georgia are the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith). Management of these pests typically requires multiple insecticide applications from first silking until harvest, with commercial growers frequently spraying daily. This level of insecticide use presents problems for small growers, particularly for "pick-your-own" operations. Injection of oil into the corn ear silk channel 5-8 days after silking initiation has been used to suppress damage by these insects. Initial work with this technique in Georgia provided poor results. Subsequently, a series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of silk channel injections as an application methodology for insecticides. A single application of synthetic insecticide, at greatly reduced per acre rates compared with common foliar applications, provided excellent control of Lepidoptera insects attacking the ear tip and suppressed damage by sap beetles (Nitidulidae). While this methodology is labor-intensive, it requires a single application of insecticide at reduced rates applied ∼2 wk prior to harvest, compared with potential daily applications at full rates up to the day of harvest with foliar insecticide applications. This methodology is not likely to eliminate the need for foliar applications because of other insect pests which do not enter through the silk channel or are not affected by the specific selective insecticide used in the silk channel injection, but would greatly reduce the number of applications required. This methodology may prove particularly useful for small acreage growers. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Food searching behaviour of a Lepidoptera pest species is modulated by the foraging gene polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Chardonnet, Floriane; Capdevielle-Dulac, Claire; Chouquet, Bastien; Joly, Nicolas; Harry, Myriam; Le Ru, Bruno; Silvain, Jean-François; Kaiser, Laure

    2014-10-01

    The extent of damage to crop plants from pest insects depends on the foraging behaviour of the insect's feeding stage. Little is known, however, about the genetic and molecular bases of foraging behaviour in phytophagous pest insects. The foraging gene (for), a candidate gene encoding a PKG-I, has an evolutionarily conserved function in feeding strategies. Until now, for had never been studied in Lepidoptera, which includes major pest species. The cereal stem borer Sesamia nonagrioides is therefore a relevant species within this order with which to study conservation of and polymorphism in the for gene, and its role in foraging - a behavioural trait that is directly associated with plant injuries. Full sequencing of for cDNA in S. nonagrioides revealed a high degree of conservation with other insect taxa. Activation of PKG by a cGMP analogue increased larval foraging activity, measured by how frequently larvae moved between food patches in an actimeter. We found one non-synonymous allelic variation in a natural population that defined two allelic variants. These variants presented significantly different levels of foraging activity, and the behaviour was positively correlated to gene expression levels. Our results show that for gene function is conserved in this species of Lepidoptera, and describe an original case of a single nucleotide polymorphism associated with foraging behaviour variation in a pest insect. By illustrating how variation in this single gene can predict phenotype, this work opens new perspectives into the evolutionary context of insect adaptation to plants, as well as pest management. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Sexual Dimorphism and Allometric Effects Associated With the Wing Shape of Seven Moth Species of Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea)

    PubMed Central

    de Camargo, Nícholas Ferreira; Corrêa, Danilo do Carmo Vieira; de Camargo, Amabílio J. Aires; Diniz, Ivone Rezende

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism is a pronounced pattern of intraspecific variation in Lepidoptera. However, moths of the family Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea) are considered exceptions to this rule. We used geometric morphometric techniques to detect shape and size sexual dimorphism in the fore and hindwings of seven hawkmoth species. The shape variables produced were then subjected to a discriminant analysis. The allometric effects were measured with a simple regression between the canonical variables and the centroid size. We also used the normalized residuals to assess the nonallometric component of shape variation with a t-test. The deformations in wing shape between sexes per species were assessed with a regression between the nonreduced shape variables and the residuals. We found sexual dimorphism in both wings in all analyzed species, and that the allometric effects were responsible for much of the wing shape variation between the sexes. However, when we removed the size effects, we observed shape sexual dimorphism. It is very common for females to be larger than males in Lepidoptera, so it is expected that the shape of structures such as wings suffers deformations in order to preserve their function. However, sources of variation other than allometry could be a reflection of different reproductive flight behavior (long flights in search for sexual mates in males, and flight in search for host plants in females). PMID:26206895

  7. The relationship between epicuticular long-chained hydrocarbons and surface area - volume ratios in insects (Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Brückner, Adrian; Heethoff, Michael; Blüthgen, Nico

    2017-01-01

    Long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are common components of the epicuticle of terrestrial arthropods. CHC serve as a protective barrier against environmental influences but also act as semiochemicals in animal communication. Regarding the latter aspect, species- or intra-functional group specific CHCs composition and variation are relatively well studied. However, comparative knowledge about the relationship of CHC quantity and their relation to surface area—volume ratios in the context of water loss and protection is fragmentary. Hence, we aim to study the taxon-specific relationship of the CHC amount and surface-area to volume ratio related to their functional role (e.g. in water loss). We focused on flower visiting insects and analyzed the CHC amounts of three insect orders (Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera) using gas chromatography—mass spectrometry (GC-MS). We included 113 species from two grassland plots, quantified their CHCs, and measured their body mass and surface area. We found differences in the surface area, CHCs per body mass and the CHC density (= amount of CHCs per surface area) across the three insect taxa. Especially the Hymenoptera had a higher CHC density compared to Diptera and Lepidoptera. CHC density could be explained by surface area-volume ratios in Hymenoptera but not in Diptera and Lepidoptera. Unexpectedly, CHC density decreased with increasing surface area—volume ratios. PMID:28384308

  8. Sexual Dimorphism and Allometric Effects Associated With the Wing Shape of Seven Moth Species of Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea).

    PubMed

    de Camargo, Willian Rogers Ferreira; de Camargo, Nícholas Ferreira; Corrêa, Danilo do Carmo Vieira; de Camargo, Amabílio J Aires; Diniz, Ivone Rezende

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism is a pronounced pattern of intraspecific variation in Lepidoptera. However, moths of the family Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea) are considered exceptions to this rule. We used geometric morphometric techniques to detect shape and size sexual dimorphism in the fore and hindwings of seven hawkmoth species. The shape variables produced were then subjected to a discriminant analysis. The allometric effects were measured with a simple regression between the canonical variables and the centroid size. We also used the normalized residuals to assess the nonallometric component of shape variation with a t-test. The deformations in wing shape between sexes per species were assessed with a regression between the nonreduced shape variables and the residuals. We found sexual dimorphism in both wings in all analyzed species, and that the allometric effects were responsible for much of the wing shape variation between the sexes. However, when we removed the size effects, we observed shape sexual dimorphism. It is very common for females to be larger than males in Lepidoptera, so it is expected that the shape of structures such as wings suffers deformations in order to preserve their function. However, sources of variation other than allometry could be a reflection of different reproductive flight behavior (long flights in search for sexual mates in males, and flight in search for host plants in females). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  9. Genome-wide analysis of ionotropic receptor gene repertoire in Lepidoptera with an emphasis on its functions of Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nai-Yong; Xu, Wei; Dong, Shuang-Lin; Zhu, Jia-Ying; Xu, Yu-Xing; Anderson, Alisha

    2018-05-22

    The functions of the Ionotropic Receptor (IR) family have been well studied in Drosophila melanogaster, but only limited information is available in Lepidoptera. Here, we conducted a large-scale genome-wide analysis of the IR gene repertoire in 13 moths and 16 butterflies. Combining a homology-based approach and manual efforts, totally 996 IR candidates are identified including 31 pseudogenes and 825 full-length sequences, representing the most current comprehensive annotation in lepidopteran species. The phylogeny, expression and sequence characteristics classify Lepidoptera IRs into three sub-families: antennal IRs (A-IRs), divergent IRs (D-IRs) and Lepidoptera-specific IRs (LS-IRs), which is distinct from the case of Drosophila IRs. In comparison to LS-IRs and D-IRs, A-IRs members share a higher degree of protein identity and are distinguished into 16 orthologous groups in the phylogeny, showing conservation of gene structure. Analysis of selective forces on 27 orthologous groups reveals that these lepidopteran IRs have evolved under strong purifying selection (dN/dS≪1). Most notably, lineage-specific gene duplications that contribute primarily to gene number variations across Lepidoptera not only exist in D-IRs, but are present in the two other sub-families including members of IR41a, 76b, 87a, 100a and 100b. Expression profiling analysis reveals that over 80% (21/26) of Helicoverpa armigera A-IRs are expressed more highly in antennae of adults or larvae than other tissues, consistent with its proposed function in olfaction. However, some are also detected in taste organs like proboscises and legs. These results suggest that some A-IRs in H. armigera likely bear a dual function with their involvement in olfaction and gustation. Results from mating experiments show that two HarmIRs (IR1.2 and IR75d) expression is significantly up-regulated in antennae of mated female moths. However, no expression difference is observed between unmated female and male adults

  10. The type-material of Arctiinae (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) described by Burmeister and Berg in the collection of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (Buenos Aires, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Beccacece, Hernán M; Vincent, Benoit; Navarro, Fernando R

    2014-01-01

    Carlos G. Burmeister and Carlos Berg were among the most important and influential naturalists and zoologists in Argentina and South America and described 241 species and 34 genera of Lepidoptera. The Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (MACN) housed some of the Lepidoptera type specimens of these authors. In this study we present a catalogue with complete information and photographs of 11 Burmeister type specimens and 10 Berg type specimens of Phaegopterina, Arctiina and Pericopina (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini) housed in the MACN. Lectotypes or holotypes were designated where primary type specimens could be recognized; in some cases we were not able to recognize types. The catalogue also proposes nomenclatural changes and new synonymies: Opharus picturata (Burmeister, 1878), comb. n.; Opharus brunnea Gaede, 1923: 7, syn. n.; Hypocrisias jonesi (Schaus, 1894), syn. n.; Leucanopsis infucata (Berg, 1882), stat. rev.; Paracles argentina (Berg, 1877), sp. rev.; Paracles uruguayensis (Berg, 1886), sp. rev.

  11. The type-material of Arctiinae (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) described by Burmeister and Berg in the collection of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (Buenos Aires, Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    Beccacece, Hernán M.; Vincent, Benoit; Navarro, Fernando R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Carlos G. Burmeister and Carlos Berg were among the most important and influential naturalists and zoologists in Argentina and South America and described 241 species and 34 genera of Lepidoptera. The Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (MACN) housed some of the Lepidoptera type specimens of these authors. In this study we present a catalogue with complete information and photographs of 11 Burmeister type specimens and 10 Berg type specimens of Phaegopterina, Arctiina and Pericopina (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini) housed in the MACN. Lectotypes or holotypes were designated where primary type specimens could be recognized; in some cases we were not able to recognize types. The catalogue also proposes nomenclatural changes and new synonymies: Opharus picturata (Burmeister, 1878), comb. n.; Opharus brunnea Gaede, 1923: 7, syn. n.; Hypocrisias jonesi (Schaus, 1894), syn. n.; Leucanopsis infucata (Berg, 1882), stat. rev.; Paracles argentina (Berg, 1877), sp. rev.; Paracles uruguayensis (Berg, 1886), sp. rev. PMID:25061380

  12. Response of reproductive traits and longevity of beet webworm to temperature, and implications for migration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a facultative long-distance migratory insect pest of crops in many regions between latitudes 36-55°N. Reproductive performance of L. sticticalis is very sensitive to thermal conditions, such that outbreaks of larvae are clos...

  13. Phenyl propionate and sex pheromone for monitoring navel orangeworm in the presence of mating disruption

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The recent availability of sex pheromone lures for the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), improves options for monitoring this key pest in conventionally-managed almonds. These lures are, however, minimally effective in the presence of mating disruption. Experi...

  14. Managing pecan nut casebearer in the Southeast

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The pecan nut casebearer (PNC), Acrobasis nuxvorella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) can be a serious pest of developing pecan fruit in some pecan production areas. Determining when to take control action or if there is a need for control action is paramount for growers to prevent exceeding the economic i...

  15. Trail marking by the larvae of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) spends most of its larval life feeding within the cladodes of Opuntia cactuses, but the gregarious caterpillars begin their life outside the plant, and in the later instars make intermittent excursions over plant surfaces to access new cladodes and to t...

  16. Determining host suitability of pecan for stored-product insects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A no-choice test was performed to determine survival and reproductive capacity of stored-product insect pests on pecan, Carya illinoensis (Wangenheim) Koch. Insects used were Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae); sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis...

  17. Comparison of monitoring techniques in and near almonds and pistachios under mating disruption treatment for navel orangeworm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As use of mating disruption for control of the navel orangeworm Amyelois transitella Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in California increases, it becomes more important to find non-pheromonal attractants that perform well for monitoring both in the presence and absence of mating disruption. According...

  18. A petition for the introduction and field release of the Chondrilla root moth, Bradyrrhoa gilveolella (Treitschke), for the biological control of Rush skeletonweed in North America

    Treesearch

    J. L. Littlefield; J. Birdsall; J. Helsley; G. Markin

    2000-01-01

    Rush skeletonweed, Chondrilla juncea L. (Asteraceae), is considered a noxious weed in many western states and is currently a target for biological control. Bradyrrhoa gilveolella (Treitschke) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a root-feeding moth being considered for use in the biological control of rush skeletonweed. This organism will...

  19. The complete genome sequence of Plodia interpunctella granulovirus: Discovery of an unusual inhibitor-of-apoptosis gene

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a common pest of stored goods with a worldwide distribution. The complete genome sequence for a larval pathogen of this moth, the baculovirus Plodia interpunctella granulovirus (PiGV), was determined by next-generation sequenci...

  20. Monitoring Amyelois transitella Males and Females with Phenyl Propionate Traps in Almonds and Pistachios

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Attractants that lure both sexes and both mated and unmated females have been used to monitor the effect of mating disruption on the mating status and relative abundance of lepidopteran females. For the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), phenyl propionate attra...

  1. Characterisation of the Manduca sexta sperm proteome: Genetic novelty underlying sperm composition in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Whittington, Emma; Zhao, Qian; Borziak, Kirill; Walters, James R; Dorus, Steve

    2015-07-01

    The application of mass spectrometry based proteomics to sperm biology has greatly accelerated progress in understanding the molecular composition and function of spermatozoa. To date, these approaches have been largely restricted to model organisms, all of which produce a single sperm morph capable of oocyte fertilisation. Here we apply high-throughput mass spectrometry proteomic analysis to characterise sperm composition in Manduca sexta, the tobacco hornworm moth, which produce heteromorphic sperm, including one fertilisation competent (eupyrene) and one incompetent (apyrene) sperm type. This resulted in the high confidence identification of 896 proteins from a co-mixed sample of both sperm types, of which 167 are encoded by genes with strict one-to-one orthology in Drosophila melanogaster. Importantly, over half (55.1%) of these orthologous proteins have previously been identified in the D. melanogaster sperm proteome and exhibit significant conservation in quantitative protein abundance in sperm between the two species. Despite the complex nature of gene expression across spermatogenic stages, a significant correlation was also observed between sperm protein abundance and testis gene expression. Lepidopteran-specific sperm proteins (e.g., proteins with no homology to proteins in non-Lepidopteran taxa) were present in significantly greater abundance on average than those with homology outside the Lepidoptera. Given the disproportionate production of apyrene sperm (96% of all mature sperm in Manduca) relative to eupyrene sperm, these evolutionarily novel and highly abundant proteins are candidates for possessing apyrene-specific functions. Lastly, comparative genomic analyses of testis-expressed, ovary-expressed and sperm genes identified a concentration of novel sperm proteins shared amongst Lepidoptera of potential relevance to the evolutionary origin of heteromorphic spermatogenesis. As the first published Lepidopteran sperm proteome, this whole

  2. Key biosynthetic gene subfamily recruited for pheromone production prior to the extensive radiation of Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Moths have evolved highly successful mating systems, relying on species-specific mixtures of sex pheromone components for long-distance mate communication. Acyl-CoA desaturases are key enzymes in the biosynthesis of these compounds and to a large extent they account for the great diversity of pheromone structures in Lepidoptera. A novel desaturase gene subfamily that displays Δ11 catalytic activities has been highlighted to account for most of the unique pheromone signatures of the taxonomically advanced ditrysian species. To assess the mechanisms driving pheromone evolution, information is needed about the signalling machinery of primitive moths. The currant shoot borer, Lampronia capitella, is the sole reported primitive non-ditrysian moth known to use unsaturated fatty-acid derivatives as sex-pheromone. By combining biochemical and molecular approaches we elucidated the biosynthesis paths of its main pheromone component, the (Z,Z)-9,11-tetradecadien-1-ol and bring new insights into the time point of the recruitment of the key Δ11-desaturase gene subfamily in moth pheromone biosynthesis. Results The reconstructed evolutionary tree of desaturases evidenced two ditrysian-specific lineages (the Δ11 and Δ9 (18C>16C)) to have orthologs in the primitive moth L. capitella despite being absent in Diptera and other insect genomes. Four acyl-CoA desaturase cDNAs were isolated from the pheromone gland, three of which are related to Δ9-desaturases whereas the fourth cDNA clusters with Δ11-desaturases. We demonstrated that this transcript (Lca-KPVQ) exclusively accounts for both steps of desaturation involved in pheromone biosynthesis. This enzyme possesses a Z11-desaturase activity that allows transforming the palmitate precursor (C16:0) into (Z)-11-hexadecenoic acid and the (Z)-9-tetradecenoic acid into the conjugated intermediate (Z,Z)-9,11-tetradecadienoic acid. Conclusion The involvement of a single Z11-desaturase in pheromone biosynthesis of a non

  3. Principles of the highly ordered arrangement of metaphase I bivalents in spermatocytes of Agrodiaetus (Insecta, Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Lukhtanov, Vladimir A; Dantchenko, Alexander V

    2002-01-01

    the above findings, we proposed a model of bivalent distribution in the Lepidoptera. According to the model, during congregation in the prometaphase stage there is a centripetal movement of bivalents made by a force directed to the centre of the metaphase plate transverse to the spindle. This force is proportional to the kinetochore size of a particular bivalent. The Lepidoptera have a special near-holokinetic type of chromosome organisation. Therefore, large bivalents having large kinetochores are situated in the central part of metaphase plate. Another possible factor affecting the bivalent position is the interaction of bivalents with the cisternae of the membrane system compartmentalising the intraspindle space.

  4. Changes in insecticide resistance of the rice striped stem borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Su, Jianya; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Wu, Min; Gao, Congfen

    2014-02-01

    Application of insecticides is the most important method to control Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), and continuous use of individual insecticides has driven the rapid development of insecticide resistance in C. suppressalis during the past 30 yr. Monitoring insecticide resistance provides information essential for integrated pest management. Insecticide resistance of field populations to monosultap, triazophos, chlorpyrifos, and abamectin in China was examined in 2010 and 2011. The results indicated that the resistance levels of 14 field populations to four insecticides were significantly different. Four populations showed moderate resistance, and other populations possessed low-level resistance or were susceptible to monosultap. Nine populations displayed an extremely high or a high level of resistance to triazophos, whereas four populations were sensitive to this agent. Five populations exhibited a low level of resistance to abamectin, while the others remained sensitive. When compared with historical data, resistance to monosultap and triazophos decreased significantly, and the percentage of populations with high-level or extremely high-level resistance was obviously reduced. By contrast, the resistance to abamectin increased slightly. The increasing and decreasing resistance levels reported in this study highlight the different evolutionary patterns of insecticide resistance in C. suppressalis. An overreliance on one or two insecticides may promote rapid development of resistance. Slow development of resistance to abamectin, which was used mainly in mixtures with other insecticides, implies that the use of insecticide mixtures may be an effective method to delay the evolution of resistance to insecticides.

  5. Abdominal macrochaetae of female Hylesia oratex Dyar, 1913 (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Saturniidae): external morphology and medical significance.

    PubMed

    Brito, Rosângela; Specht, Alexandre; Filho, Wilson S A; Fronza, Edegar; Mielke, Carlos G C

    2015-09-01

    The representatives of the genus Hylesia Hübner, [1820] are significant among the medically important Lepidoptera. Adult females use abdominal setae to wrap and protect the eggs that remain for months in nature. These setae, in contact with human skin, may cause allergic reactions including swelling, itching and local erythema, known as lepidopterism. The morphology of the abdominal scales and setae from the female H. oratex Dyar, 1913 is herein described and aspects related to their medical significance are discussed. Portions of each abdominal segment were examined through a scanning electron microscope. Two types of scales without medical importance, and two types of setae with medical importance, classified as "true setae" and "modified setae" were found. The true setae, which are slightly fusiform and have radially arranged lateral projections, are responsible for the allergic reactions caused by skin penetration. The modified setae, which are larger, curved, with the median enlarged and serrated margins, can be responsible for the release of chemical substances. This information provides a better understanding of the structure of the urticating setae, which are responsible for lepidopterism outbreaks in humans, and contributes towards the identification of the moth species involved.

  6. Aquatic respiration as a potential survival mechanism of Brephidium pseudofea (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) larvae to intertidal environments.

    PubMed

    Warren, V; Daniels, J C; Hahn, D A

    2011-10-01

    The eastern pygmy blue, Brephidium pseudofea (Morrison) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Polyommatinae), inhabits intertidal environments that are periodically flooded. The immature stages are subject to salt or brackish water inundation during this time and therefore must endure many stressors, including respiratory limitation and salt exposure. Our goal was to investigate possible mechanisms used by the larval stages of B. pseudofea to endure periodic tidal inundation by using physiological and morphological analyses in comparison with several species of terrestrial lepidopteran larvae. A review of tidal charts showed that the immature stages of B. pseudofea would be prone to complete inundation two to five times per month during the summer months (May to August) and partial submersion for up to 20 d per month during the rest of the year. Larvae of several terrestrial lepidopteran species studied consumed oxygen under water for a limited period, but B. pseudofea demonstrated substantially higher oxygen consumption. Light microscopy of B. pseudofea larvae revealed small air pockets in and around the spiracles when submerged in tap water; these air pockets disappeared when exposed to detergent solution. The resulting air pockets may function as a diffusion layer for oxygen to be absorbed from the surrounding water or may act in conjunction with trans-cuticular gas exchange to meet the larva's respiratory needs. Morphological examination by scanning electron microscopy showed that B. psudofea larvae have distinctively small, clavate setae that appear insufficient to effectively support a functional plastron.

  7. Impact of Cultivation and Subsequent Burial on Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Baughman, William B; Nelson, Peter N; Grieshop, Matthew J

    2015-06-01

    We assessed the efficacy of cultivation as a potential management strategy for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in apple orchards. Cocooned codling moth pupae and thinning apples infested with plum curculio larvae were cultivated over in the field. Emergence, percent burial, damage to buried fruit, and depth of burial was recorded. In the laboratory, both insects were buried at variable depths in sand and potting soil and emergence was measured. A greater proportion of plum curculio larvae buried in infested fruit under laboratory conditions survived to adulthood compared with unburied infested fruit, down to 15 cm. No codling moth adults emerged from under 1 cm or more of sand. Buried codling moth larvae experienced drastically reduced survival to adulthood compared with unburied larvae. These results indicate that strip cultivation may negatively impact codling moth diapausing larvae and pupae on the ground, but not likely to negatively impact plum curculio in infested dropped apples. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  8. Genetic Variation of Beet Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Populations Detected Using Microsatellite Markers in Iran.

    PubMed

    Golikhajeh, Neshat; Naseri, Bahram; Razmjou, Jabraeil; Hosseini, Reza; Aghbolaghi, Marzieh Asadi

    2018-05-28

    In order to understand the population genetic diversity and structure of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a serious pest of sugar beet in Iran and the world, we genotyped 133 individuals from seven regions in Iran using four microsatellite loci. Significant difference was seen between the observed and expected heterozygosity in all loci. A lower observed heterozygosity than expected heterozygosity indicated a low heterozygosity in these populations. The value of F showed a high genetic differentiation, so that the mean of Fst was 0.21. Molecular analysis variance showed significant differences within and among populations with group variance accounted for 71 and 21%, respectively. No correlation was found between pair-wise Fst and geographic distance by Mantel test. Bayesian clustering analysis grouped all regions to two clusters. These data suggested that a combination of different factors, such as geographic distance, environmental condition, and physiological behavior in addition to genetic factors, could play an important role in forming variation within and between S. exigua populations.

  9. Projecting the current and future potential global distribution of Hyphantria cunea (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) using CLIMEX.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xuezhen; He, Shanyong; Zhu, Chenyi; Wang, Tao; Xu, Zhichun; Shixiang, Zong

    2018-05-23

    The international invasive and quarantined defoliating insect Hyphantria cunea Drury (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) causes huge ecological and economic losses in the world. The future climate change may alter the distribution of H. cunea and aggravate the damage. In the present study, we used CLIMEX to project the potential global distribution of H. cunea according to both historical climate data (1950-2000) and future climate warming estimates (2011-2100) to define the impact of climate change. Under the historical climate scenario, we found that H. cunea can survive on every continent, and temperature is the main factor that limits its establishment. With climate change, the suitability will increase in middle and high latitude regions, while decrease in the low latitude regions. Besides, tropic regions will be most sensitive to the climate change impacts for the pest to survive. The impacts of climate change will also increase over time, whether the positive impacts or negative impacts. The projected potential distributions provide a theoretical basis for quarantine and control strategies for the management of this pest in each country. Furthermore, these results provide substantial guidance for studies of the effects of climate change on other major forest pests. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. The wing pattern of Moerarchis Durrant, 1914 (Lepidoptera: Tineidae) clarifies transitions between predictive models

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of wing pattern in Lepidoptera is a popular area of inquiry but few studies have examined microlepidoptera, with fewer still focusing on intraspecific variation. The tineid genus Moerarchis Durrant, 1914 includes two species with high intraspecific variation of wing pattern. A subset of the specimens examined here provide, to my knowledge, the first examples of wing patterns that follow both the ‘alternating wing-margin’ and ‘uniform wing-margin’ models in different regions along the costa. These models can also be evaluated along the dorsum of Moerarchis, where a similar transition between the two models can be seen. Fusion of veins is shown not to effect wing pattern, in agreement with previous inferences that the plesiomorphic location of wing veins constrains the development of colour pattern. The significant correlation between wing length and number of wing pattern elements in Moerarchis australasiella shows that wing size can act as a major determinant of wing pattern complexity. Lastly, some M. australasiella specimens have wing patterns that conform entirely to the ‘uniform wing-margin’ model and contain more than six bands, providing new empirical insight into the century-old question of how wing venation constrains wing patterns with seven or more bands. PMID:28405390

  11. Within-Host Competition between Two Entomopathogenic Fungi and a Granulovirus in Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Pauli, Giuliano; Moura Mascarin, Gabriel; Eilenberg, Jørgen; Delalibera Júnior, Italo

    2018-06-13

    We provide insights into how the interactions of two entomopathogenic fungi and a virus play a role in virulence, disease development, and pathogen reproduction for an economically important insect crop pest, the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). In our model system, we highlight the antagonistic effects of the co-inoculation of Beauveria bassiana and granulovirus (DisaGV) on virulence, compared to their single counterparts. By contrast, combinations of Metarhizium anisopliae and B. bassiana , or M. anisopliae and DisaGV, have resulted in additive effects against the insect. Intriguingly, most cadavers that were derived from dual or triple infections, produced signs/symptoms of only one species after the death of the infected host. In the combination of fungi and DisaGV, there was a trend where a higher proportion of viral infection bearing conspicuous symptoms occurred, except when the larvae were inoculated with M. anisopliae and DisaGV at the two highest inoculum rates. Co-infections with B. bassiana and M. anisopliae did not affect pathogen reproduction, since the sporulation from co-inoculated larvae did not differ from their single counterparts.

  12. Influence of azadirachtin and methoxyfenozide on life parameters of Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Pineda, Samuel; Martínez, Ana-Mabel; Figueroa, José-Isaac; Schneider, Marcela-Inés; Del Estal, Pedro; Viñuela, Elisa; Gómez, Benjamin; Smagghe, Guy; Budia, Flor

    2009-08-01

    Effects on adult longevity, fecundity and fertility, as well as long-term effects on progeny were determined through oral exposure of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) adults to azadirachtin and methoxyfenozide. Both compounds reduced adult longevity by 2.3 d at the higher concentrations tested, but no significant differences were observed between sexes. Fecundity and fertility were significantly affected for both insecticides, although this effect was only dose-dependent for azadirachtin. The progeny from adults treated with azadirachtin or methoxyfenozide were only affected in percentage of pupation of eggs that successfully hatched, but no effects were observed in adult emergence of individuals that successfully pupated for either insecticide. In the second part of this study, each sex was exposed separately to methoxyfenozide by topical application or ingestion. Adult fecundity was more affected when moths were treated by ingestion than when treated topically, with a mean number eggs laid per female of 343 +/- 89 and 932 +/- 79, respectively. Finally, azadirachtin applied to pepper plants showed a significant oviposition deterrence activity on S. littoralis adults. However, when fecundity was scored for one additional day in females that had been previously exposed to pepper, Capsicum annum L., plants treated with this insecticide, the number of eggs laid per female did not differ significantly from that of controls. The effects of azadirachtin and methoxyfenozide on S. littoralis suggest changes in population dynamics of this pest in crops treated with these insecticides.

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Dai, Li-Shang; Zhu, Bao-Jian; Qian, Cen; Zhang, Cong-Fen; Li, Jun; Wang, Lei; Wei, Guo-Qing; Liu, Chao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) was determined (GenBank accession No. KM023645). The length of this mitogenome is 16,014 bp with 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and an A + T-rich region. It presents the typical gene organization and order for completely sequenced lepidopteran mitogenomes. The nucleotide composition of the genome is highly A + T biased, accounting for 81.48%, with a slightly positive AT skewness (0.005). All PCGs are initiated by typical ATN codons, except for the gene cox1, which uses CGA as its start codon. Some PCGs harbor TA (nad5) or incomplete termination codon T (cox1, cox2, nad2 and nad4), while others use TAA as their termination codons. The A + T-rich region is located between rrnS and trnM with a length of 888 bp.

  14. Chronic Sublethal Effects of Cantharidin on the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhengyu; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-05-29

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is a major pest of cruciferous vegetables worldwide. Cantharidin, a natural toxin isolated from blister beetles, has been reported to be toxic to P. xylostella. However, little is known on the chronic sublethal effects of cantharidin on this species. In this study, we assessed the changes of susceptibility, development, reproduction and other demographic parameters in both the selected P. xylostella strain (Sub, selected by LC25 cantharidin for consecutive 12 generations) and the revertant strain (SubR, derived from the Sub strain without being exposed to cantharidin for 12 generations). Results revealed that the two strains maintained a relatively high-level susceptibility to cantharidin. Severe adverse effects on the population dynamics and fitness in Sub strain were observed. In addition, repeated exposure of P. xylostella to sublethal concentration of cantharidin resulted in negative effects on adult performance and deformities in adults. Although morphologically normal for individuals, the SubR strain exhibited a disadvantage in population growth rate. Our results showed that sublethal concentration of cantharidin exhibited severe negative effects on population growth for longtime. These findings would be useful for assessing the potential effects and risk of cantharidin on P. xylostella and for developing effective integrated pest management.

  15. Chronic Sublethal Effects of Cantharidin on the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhengyu; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-01-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is a major pest of cruciferous vegetables worldwide. Cantharidin, a natural toxin isolated from blister beetles, has been reported to be toxic to P. xylostella. However, little is known on the chronic sublethal effects of cantharidin on this species. In this study, we assessed the changes of susceptibility, development, reproduction and other demographic parameters in both the selected P. xylostella strain (Sub, selected by LC25 cantharidin for consecutive 12 generations) and the revertant strain (SubR, derived from the Sub strain without being exposed to cantharidin for 12 generations). Results revealed that the two strains maintained a relatively high-level susceptibility to cantharidin. Severe adverse effects on the population dynamics and fitness in Sub strain were observed. In addition, repeated exposure of P. xylostella to sublethal concentration of cantharidin resulted in negative effects on adult performance and deformities in adults. Although morphologically normal for individuals, the SubR strain exhibited a disadvantage in population growth rate. Our results showed that sublethal concentration of cantharidin exhibited severe negative effects on population growth for longtime. These findings would be useful for assessing the potential effects and risk of cantharidin on P. xylostella and for developing effective integrated pest management. PMID:26035491

  16. Host Selection Behavior and the Fecundity of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) on Multiple Host Plants

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bin; Shi, Zhanghong; Hou, Youming

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Insect herbivores often have higher densities on host plants grown in monocultures than those in diverse environments. The underlying mechanisms are thought to be that polyphagous insects have difficulty in selecting food or oviposition sites when multiple host plants exist. However, this hypothesis needs to be extensively investigated. Our field experiments revealed that the population of the diamondback moths, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), significantly decreased in a mixed cropping field compared with a monoculture. To determine the reasons for the reduction in population in the mixed cropping field, the takeoff behavior and fecundity of females in no-choice and free-choice laboratory environments were compared by video recordings of host selection by P. xylostella . Adults displayed a significantly higher takeoff frequency in free-choice environments than those in no-choice treatments and preferred landing on Brassica campestris (L.) or Brassica juncea (Coss) plants in contrast with Brassica oleracea (L.). Female adults in the free-choice environment also laid fewer eggs compared with the monoculture. Olfaction experiments demonstrated orientation by P. xylostella to host volatiles when presented with a choice between plant odors and clean air, but females showed no preference when odors from three Brassicaceae species were presented simultaneously. We conclude that mixed cropping alters the host-finding behavior of P. xylostella resulting in reduced oviposition. PMID:25527573

  17. Assessment of commercially available pheromone lures for monitoring diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in canola.

    PubMed

    Evenden, M L; Gries, R

    2010-06-01

    Sex pheromone monitoring lures from five different commercial sources were compared for their attractiveness to male diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in canola, Brassica napus L., fields in western Canada. Lures that had the highest pheromone release rate, as determined by aeration analyses in the laboratory, were the least attractive in field tests. Lures from all the commercial sources tested released more (Z)-11-hexadecenal than (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate and the most attractive lures released a significantly higher aldehyde to acetate ratio than less attractive lures. Traps baited with sex pheromone lures from APTIV Inc. (Portland, OR) and ConTech Enterprises Inc. (Delta, BC, Canada) consistently captured more male diamondback moths than traps baited with lures from the other sources tested. In two different lure longevity field trapping experiments, older lures were more attractive to male diamondback moths than fresh lures. Pheromone release from aged lures was constant at very low release rates. The most attractive commercially available sex pheromone lures tested attracted fewer diamondback moth males than calling virgin female moths suggesting that research on the development of a more attractive synthetic sex pheromone lure is warranted.

  18. Analysis of the Mating and Reproductive Traits of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wen; Liu, Li; Li, Pengyan; Sun, Hui; Qin, Yuchuan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The reproductive traits of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) were investigated and analyzed by different analytical methods. Simple statistical analysis showed relatively higher mating rates maintained from 21:00 to 2:00, thereafter dropping to a minimum at about 18:00. Mating rates were affected by female and male age. Mating was most likely to take place between females and males that were 1 d old. Correlation and factor analysis indicated that mating delayed females have a relatively lower and unsuccessful mating rate and relatively shorter copulation duration, with lower egg hatchability and fecundity; in addition, the mating delayed male would reduce female’s fertility. Delay of mating prolonged life of both males and females. A higher and successful mating rate would cause a higher egg hatchability and fecundity. Canonical correlation analysis showed that mating age and successful copulation of female play a decisive role for her fecundity and longevity, and mating age and mating rates of male play a decisive role for his longevity. PMID:25434041

  19. Bird predation on cutworms (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in wheat fields and chlorpyrifos effects on brain cholinesterase activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEwen, L.C.; DeWeese, L.R.; Schladweiler, P.

    1986-01-01

    Horned larks, Eremophila alpestris (L.), and McCown's longspurs, Calcarius mccownii (Lawrence), were collected at intervals from two winter wheat fields in Montana [USA] after aerial application of chlorpyrifos to control cutworms. Both bird species had a high (95-100%) incidence of Lepidoptera, mostly pale western cutworms, Agrotis orthogonia Morrison, in their stomachs at 3 days postspray. Incidence of cutworms and other insects in stomachs of birds from sprayed fields was lower at 9 and 16 days postspray than in control birds, presumably due to insecticide-caused reduction of insects. Effects of birds on population dynamics of insect pests in wheat are unknown, but birds do contribute to cutworm mortality. Predation is one of the limiting factors to cutworm increase and can supplement insecticidal control. Brain cholinesterase activity in horned larks collected from the sprayed fields at 3 and 9 days postspray was significantly lower than in unexposed larks, but at 16 days the difference was not significant. Although nontarget birds clearly were exposed to chlorpyrifos and manifested a sublethal physiological response, toxic effects were less severe than those resulting from endrin application for cutworm control in wheat. More study is needed of larger chlorpyrifos-treated fields under a variety of conditions to fully assess effects on nontarget life.

  20. Modeling the Habitat Retreat of the Rediscovered Endemic Hawaiian Moth Omiodes continuatalis Wallengren (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    PubMed Central

    Vorsino, Adam E.; King, Cynthia B.; Haines, William P.; Rubinoff, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Survey data over the last 100 years indicate that populations of the endemic Hawaiian leafroller moth, Omiodes continuatalis (Wallengren) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), have declined, and the species is extirpated from large portions of its original range. Declines have been attributed largely to the invasion of non-native parasitoid species into Hawaiian ecosystems. To quantify changes in O. continuatalis distribution, we applied the maximum entropy modeling approach using Maxent. The model referenced historical (1892–1967) and current (2004–2008) survey data, to create predictive habitat suitability maps which illustrate the probability of occurrence of O. continuatalis based on historical data as contrasted with recent survey results. Probability of occurrence is predicted based on the association of biotic (vegetation) and abiotic (proxy of precipitation, proxy of temperature, elevation) environmental factors with 141 recent and historic survey locations, 38 of which O. continuatalis were collected from. Models built from the historical and recent surveys suggest habitat suitable for O. continuatalis has changed significantly over time, decreasing both in quantity and quality. We reference these data to examine the potential effects of non-native parasitoids as a factor in changing habitat suitability and range contraction for O. continuatalis. Synthesis and applications: Our results suggest that the range of O. continuatalis, an endemic Hawaiian species of conservation concern, has shrunk as its environment has degraded. Although few range shifts have been previously demonstrated in insects, such contractions caused by pressure from introduced species may be important factors in insect extinctions. PMID:23300954

  1. Pollination by nocturnal Lepidoptera, and the effects of light pollution: a review

    PubMed Central

    MacGregor, Callum J; Pocock, Michael J O; Fox, Richard; Evans, Darren M

    2015-01-01

    1. Moths (Lepidoptera) are the major nocturnal pollinators of flowers. However, their importance and contribution to the provision of pollination ecosystem services may have been under-appreciated. Evidence was identified that moths are important pollinators of a diverse range of plant species in diverse ecosystems across the world. 2. Moth populations are known to be undergoing significant declines in several European countries. Among the potential drivers of this decline is increasing light pollution. The known and possible effects of artificial night lighting upon moths were reviewed, and suggest how artificial night lighting might in turn affect the provision of pollination by moths. The need for studies of the effects of artificial night lighting upon whole communities of moths was highlighted. 3. An ecological network approach is one valuable method to consider the effects of artificial night lighting upon the provision of pollination by moths, as it provides useful insights into ecosystem functioning and stability, and may help elucidate the indirect effects of artificial light upon communities of moths and the plants they pollinate. 4. It was concluded that nocturnal pollination is an ecosystem process that may potentially be disrupted by increasing light pollution, although the nature of this disruption remains to be tested. PMID:25914438

  2. Strength of silk attachment to Ilex chinensis leaves in the tea bagworm Eumeta minuscula (Lepidoptera, Psychidae).

    PubMed

    Wolff, Jonas O; Lovtsova, Julia; Gorb, Elena; Dai, Zhendong; Ji, Aihong; Zhao, Zhihui; Jiang, Nan; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2017-03-01

    Silks play an important role in the life of various arthropods. A highly neglected prerequisite to make versatile use of silks is sufficient attachment to substrates. Although there have been some studies on the structure and mechanics of silk anchorages of spiders, for insects only anecdotal reports on attachment-associated spinning behaviour exist. Here, we experimentally studied the silk attachment of the pupae and last instar caterpillars of the tea bagworm Eumeta minuscula (Butler 1881) (Lepidoptera, Psychidae) to the leaves of its host plant Ilex chinensis We found that the bagworms spin attachment discs, which share some structural features with those of spiders, like a plaque consisting of numerous overlaid, looped glue-coated silk fibres and the medially attaching suspension thread. Although the glue, which coats the fibres, cannot spread and adhere very well to the leaf surface, high pull-off forces were measured, yielding a mean safety factor (force divided by the animal weight) of 385.6. Presumably, the bagworms achieve this by removal of the leaf epidermis prior to silk attachment, which exposes the underlying tissue that represents a much better bonding site. This ensures a reliable attachment during the immobile, vulnerable pupal stage. This is the first study on the biomechanics and structure of silk attachments to substrates in insects. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Transmembrane ion distribution during recovery from freezing in the woolly bear caterpillar Pyrrharctia isabella (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae).

    PubMed

    Boardman, Leigh; Terblanche, John S; Sinclair, Brent J

    2011-08-01

    During extracellular freezing, solutes in the haemolymph are concentrated, resulting in osmotic dehydration of the cells, which must be reversed upon thawing. Here, we used freeze tolerant Pyrrharctia isabella (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) larvae to examine the processes of ion redistribution after thawing. To investigate the effect of the intensity of cold exposure on ion redistribution after thawing, we exposed caterpillars to -14°C, -20°C or -30°C for 35h. To investigate the effect of duration of cold exposure on ion redistribution after thawing, we exposed the caterpillars to -14°C for up to 6 weeks while sampling several time points. The concentrations of Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) were measured after thawing in the haemolymph, fat body, muscle, midgut tissue and hindgut tissue. Being frozen for long durations (>3 weeks) or at low temperatures (-30°C) both result in 100% mortality, although different ions and tissues appear to be affected by each treatment. Both water distribution and ion content changes were detected after thawing, with the largest effects seen in the fat body and midgut tissue. Magnesium homeostasis appears to be vital for post-freeze survival in these larvae. The movement of ions during thawing lagged behind the movement of water, and ion homeostasis was not restored within the same time frame as water homeostasis. Failure to regain ion homeostasis after thawing is therefore implicated in mortality of freeze tolerant insects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development and reproduction of Podisus distinctus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) fed on larva of Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae).

    PubMed

    Lacerda, M C; Ferreira, A M R M; Zanuncio, T V; Zanuncio, J C; Bernardino, A S; Espindula, M C

    2004-05-01

    Biological control has been reducing the use of chemical products against insect pests, especially predatory Pentatomidae. Species of this group can present high variations in their life cycle as a result of their diet. Thus, the objective of this research was to study nymph development and reproduction of Podisus distinctus (Stäl, 1860) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) fed on Bombyx mori L., 1758 (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) larvae (T1), compared to those fed on Tenebrio molitor L., 1758 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) (T2) and Musca domestica L., 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae (T3) at a temperature of 25 +/- 0.5 degrees C, relative humidity of 70 +/- 2%, and photophase of 12 h. Predators fed on B. mori showed duration of the nymph phase (18.68 +/- 1.02) similar to those fed on T. molitor (18.32 +/- 1.49). Pre-oviposition and oviposition periods and number of egg masses, besides eggs and nymphs per female, were higher with B. mori (5.83 +/- 2.02; 15.00 +/- 7.40; 8.42 +/- 1.84; 296.69 +/- 154.75; and 228.55 +/- 141.04, respectively) while longevity of males and females of P. distinctus was 25.76 +/- 16.15 and 35.00 +/- 16.15 days with T. molitor, and 20.57 +/- 13.60 and 23.46 +/- 12.35 days with B. mori, respectively.

  5. Wolbachia density changes seasonally amongst populations of the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)

    PubMed Central

    Sumi, Takuto; Miura, Kazuki; Miyatake, Takahisa

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies showed that the survival rate of Wolbachia decreases under high temperature in incubators. It is also known that a high density of Wolbachia in the host body reduces the host emergence rate, while low densities fail to change reproduction rates. However, few studies have examined the density of Wolbachia in hosts in the field. Here, we focus on Wolbachia infection of the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), which is distributed throughout the Japanese islands. We examined the rate and density of Wolbachia infection in the bodies of butterflies at thirteen locations in Japan. At seven of these places, we collected butterflies in different seasons to determine seasonal differences in the infection rate and density and found that Wolbachia density has seasonal differences within the same population. Moreover, to determine whether Wolbachia density has a geographical cline, we compared the infection density of Wolbachia amongst all geographical populations. In addition, we determined the sequences of Wolbachia wsp and host mtDNA CO1 haplotypes of all populations. The results showed that Wolbachia density increased in early summer and decreased in autumn. Further, the density of Wolbachia infecting the same strain of Z. maha varied amongst populations, although no tendency in geographical cline was observed. PMID:28403227

  6. Taxonomy of Mechanitis (f.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) from the west Colombian Andes: an integrative approach.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, C E; Uribe, S I

    2012-12-01

    Species identification in the butterfly genus Mechanitis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) becomes difficult when it is based only on wing color patterns, a common practice in butterfly taxonomy. Difficulties in Mechanitis taxonomy are related to the widespread mimicry and polymorphism among species belonging to this genus. Species recognition and inventories of Mechanitis genus in geographic areas as the Andean region of Colombia are of particular interest and the use of more than one character for taxonomic identification is desirable. In this study, we included morphological, ecological, and mitochondrial DNA data to identify the occurring species in this region. Species of Mechanitis were studied from ecological, morphological, and molecular perspectives considering host plant identification, oviposition behavior, and life cycles under laboratory conditions. Immature morphology, patterns of wing color, and genital structures of adults were also studied. The genetic barcoding region of the cytochrome oxidase I mitochondrial gene was sequenced and used to verify the limits between species previously defined by the other characters and to validate its usefulness for species delimitation in this particular genus. The integrative approach combining independent datasets successfully allowed species identification as compared to the approach based on a single dataset. Three well-differentiated species were found in the studied region, Mechanitis menapis (Hewitson), Mechanitis polymnia (Linnaeus), and Mechanitis lysimnia (Fabricius). New valuable characters that could improve taxonomic identification in this genus are considered.

  7. Hindwings are unnecessary for flight but essential for execution of normal evasive flight in Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Jantzen, Benjamin; Eisner, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In Lepidoptera, forewings and hindwings are mechanically coupled and flap in synchrony. Flight is anteromotoric, being driven primarily by action of the forewings. Here we report that lepidopterans can still fly when their hindwings are cut off, a procedure reducing their total wing surface, on average, by nearly one half. However, as we demonstrate by analysis of three-dimensional flight trajectories of a moth and a butterfly (Lymantria dispar and Pieris rapae), hindwing removal causes lepidopterans to incur a loss in both linear and turning acceleration, so that they are unable to exercise their normal flight maneuverability. Without hindwings they still are able to zigzag aerially (the ablation has no effect on their turning radius in flight) but at lesser speed and therefore less evasively. Consequently, hindwings in the expanded state in which they occur in lepidopterans seem to contribute in an essential way to lepidopteran survival. Moths in today's world, we argue, may rely on their evasive flight primarily to avoid capture by bats, whereas butterflies, which we propose advertise their evasiveness collectively through shared aposematism, may depend upon it primarily for defense against birds. Aerial agility thus may be the chief adaptive asset derived by lepidopterans from possession of oversize hindwings. PMID:18936482

  8. Toxicity and residual efficacy of chlorantraniliprole, spinetoram, and emamectin benzoate to obliquebanded leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Sial, Ashfaq A; Brunner, Jay F

    2010-08-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the residual toxicity of spinetoram, chlorantraniliprole, and emamectin benzoate to obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Larvae were exposed to apple (Malus spp.) foliage collected at different intervals after an airblast sprayer application at the manufacturer-recommended field rate and half the field rate. A mortality of 100% was recorded at field rate applications of spinetoram, chlorantraniliprole, and emamectin benzoate through 59, 38, and 10 d after treatment (DAT), respectively. Significantly less foliage was consumed by C. rosaceana larvae surviving in the emamectin, chlorantraniliprole, and spinetoram treatments compared with those exposed to untreated foliage. Third-instar C. rosaceana exposed to fresh residues on terminal foliage showed 100% mortality after 5-d exposure to spinetoram residues and after 10-d exposure to chlorantraniliprole and emamectin benzoate. The effects of larval movement from foliage with fresh residues was examined by transferring neonate larvae from foliage treated with spinetoram, chlorantraniliprole, or emamectin benzoate to untreated foliage after various exposure intervals. An exposure of 1, 3, and 6 d was required for spinetoram, chlorantraniliprole, and emamectin benzoate to cause 100% mortality at the field rate, respectively. The higher the concentration of chlorantraniliprole and emamectin benzoate, the less exposure time was necessary to cause high levels of mortality in C. rosaceana neonates. Our results indicate that these novel insecticides are highly toxic to C. rosaceana larvae. Implications of these results for C. rosaceana management programs are discussed.

  9. A kairomone based attract-and-kill system effective against alfalfa looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Camelo, Leonardo de A; Landolt, Peter J; Zack, Richard S

    2007-04-01

    A chemical lure derived from flowers that are visited by moths attracts male and female alfalfa loopers, Autographa californica (Speyer) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). This feeding attractant is dispensed from polypropylene bottles that provide controlled release for several weeks. A killing station was tested in the laboratory, in a screenhouse, and in the field in combination with this lure as an "attract-and-kill" system. Starved alfalfa looper adults (moths) were strongly attracted to the attract-and-kill station in a flight tunnel, and 90.9% of female moths and 87.6% of male moths that contacted the station died. In commercial fields of alfalfa hay, female moths captured in monitoring traps were reduced by 80-93% in plots receiving 125 attract-and-kill stations per hectare. In screenhouse trials using two attract-and-kill stations per screenhouse, oviposition on potted lettuce plants by starved female alfalfa looper moths was reduced by 98.5%. Moths were less likely to be attracted to lures when provided sugar before flight tunnel assays, and oviposition by fed moths was much less affected by attract-and-kill stations in screenhouse trials, compared with starved moths. This method has potential as a means to manage alfalfa looper populations in vegetable and other agricultural crops. However, consideration must be given to competing food and odor sources in the field.

  10. Effects of phenotypic plasticity on pathogen transmission in the field in a Lepidoptera-NPV system.

    PubMed

    Reeson, A F; Wilson, K; Cory, J S; Hankard, P; Weeks, J M; Goulson, D; Hails, R S

    2000-08-01

    In models of insect-pathogen interactions, the transmission parameter (ν) is the term that describes the efficiency with which pathogens are transmitted between hosts. There are two components to the transmission parameter, namely the rate at which the host encounters pathogens (contact rate) and the rate at which contact between host and pathogen results in infection (host susceptibility). Here it is shown that in larvae of Spodoptera exempta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), in which rearing density triggers the expression of one of two alternative phenotypes, the high-density morph is associated with an increase in larval activity. This response is likely to result in an increase in the contact rate between hosts and pathogens. Rearing density is also known to affect susceptibility of S. exempta to pathogens, with the high-density morph showing increased resistance to a baculovirus. In order to determine whether density-dependent differences observed in the laboratory might affect transmission in the wild, a field trial was carried out to estimate the transmission parameter for S. exempta and its nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV). The transmission parameter was found to be significantly higher among larvae reared in isolation than among those reared in crowds. Models of insect-pathogen interactions, in which the transmission parameter is assumed to be constant, will therefore not fully describe the S. exempta-NPV system. The finding that crowding can influence transmission in this way has major implications for both the long-term population dynamics and the invasion dynamics of insect-pathogen systems.

  11. Yield Response to Mexican Rice Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Injury in Bioenergy and Conventional Sugarcane and Sorghum.

    PubMed

    Vanweelden, M T; Wilson, B E; Beuzelin, J M; Reagan, T E; Way, M O

    2015-10-01

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is an invasive stem borer of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.), and poses a threat against the production of dedicated bioenergy feedstocks in the U.S. Gulf Coast region. A 2-yr field study was conducted in Jefferson County, TX, to evaluate yield losses associated with E. loftini feeding on bioenergy and conventional cultivars of sugarcane and sorghum under natural and artificially established E. loftini infestations. Bioenergy sugarcane (energycane) 'L 79-1002' and 'Ho 02-113' and sweet sorghum 'M81E' exhibited reduced E. loftini injury; however, these cultivars, along with high-biomass sorghum cultivar 'ES 5140', sustained greater losses in fresh stalk weight. Negative impacts to sucrose concentration from E. loftini injury were greatest in energycane, high-biomass sorghum, and sweet sorghum cultivars. Even under heavy E. loftini infestations, L 79-1002, Ho 02-113, and 'ES 5200' were estimated to produce more ethanol than all other cultivars under suppressed infestations. ES 5200, Ho 02-113, and L 79-1002 hold the greatest potential as dedicated bioenergy crops for production of ethanol in the Gulf Coast region; however, E. loftini management practices will need to be continued to mitigate yield losses. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Various chemical strategies to deceive ants in three Arhopala species (lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) exploiting Macaranga myrmecophytes.

    PubMed

    Inui, Yoko; Shimizu-Kaya, Usun; Okubo, Tadahiro; Yamsaki, Eri; Itioka, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Macaranga myrmecophytes (ant-plants) are generally well protected from herbivore attacks by their symbiotic ants (plant-ants). However, larvae of Arhopala (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) species survive and develop on specific Macaranga ant-plant species without being attacked by the plant-ants of their host species. We hypothesized that Arhopala larvae chemically mimic or camouflage themselves with the ants on their host plant so that the larvae are accepted by the plant-ant species of their host. Chemical analyses of cuticular hydrocarbons showed that chemical congruency varied among Arhopala species; A. dajagaka matched well the host plant-ants, A. amphimuta did not match, and unexpectedly, A. zylda lacked hydrocarbons. Behaviorally, the larvae and dummies coated with cuticular chemicals of A. dajagaka were well attended by the plant-ants, especially by those of the host. A. amphimuta was often attacked by all plant-ants except for the host plant-ants toward the larvae, and those of A. zylda were ignored by all plant-ants. Our results suggested that conspicuous variations exist in the chemical strategies used by the myrmecophilous butterflies that allow them to avoid ant attack and be accepted by the plant-ant colonies.

  13. Immunochemical quantitation, size distribution, and cross-reactivity of lepidoptera (moth) aeroallergens in southeastern Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Wynn, S.R.; Swanson, M.C.; Reed, C.E.

    1988-07-01

    With an immunochemical method, we analyzed outdoor air samples during a 3-year period for concentrations of the predominant local species of moth, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Haworth). Airborne particulates were collected on fiberglass filter sheets with an Accu-Vol sampler located 1.5 m above ground on the southeastern Minnesota prairie. Filter eluates analyzed by RIA inhibition contained concentrations of moth protein peaking in June and August to September of each year, with levels comparable to reported immunochemically measured levels of pollen and mold allergens. These peaks also corresponded with total numbers of moths captured in light traps. Moth-allergen activity was distributed in particlemore » sizes ranging from 0.8 to greater than 4.1 micron when sized samples were obtained by use of an Andersen cascade impaction head. By RIA inhibition, there was cross-reactivity between P. unipuncta and insects of different genera, families, and orders, but not with pollens or molds. Forty-five percent of 257 patients with immediate positive skin tests to common aeroallergens had positive skin tests to one or more commercially available whole body insect extracts. Of 120 patients with allergic rhinitis believed to be primarily caused by ragweed sensitivity, 5% also had elevated specific IgE to moths. We conclude that airborne concentrations of Lepidoptera can be measured immunochemically and that moths may be a seasonal allergen in the United States.« less

  14. Evolution of Resistance by Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Infesting Insecticidal Crops in the Southern United States

    PubMed Central

    Onstad, David; Crain, Philip; Crespo, Andre; Hutchison, William; Buntin, David; Porter, Pat; Catchot, Angus; Cook, Don; Pilcher, Clint; Flexner, Lindsey; Higgins, Laura

    2016-01-01

    We created a deterministic, frequency-based model of the evolution of resistance by corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), to insecticidal traits expressed in crops planted in the heterogeneous landscapes of the southern United States. The model accounts for four generations of selection by insecticidal traits each year. We used the model results to investigate the influence of three factors on insect resistance management (IRM): 1) how does adding a third insecticidal trait to both corn and cotton affect durability of the products, 2) how does unstructured corn refuge influence IRM, and 3) how do block refuges (50% compliance) and blended refuges compare with regard to IRM? When Bt cotton expresses the same number of insecticidal traits, Bt corn with three insecticidal traits provides longer durability than Bt corn with two pyramided traits. Blended refuge provides similar durability for corn products compared with the same level of required block refuge when the rate of refuge compliance by farmers is 50%. Results for Mississippi and Texas are similar, but durabilities for corn traits are surprisingly lower in Georgia, where unstructured corn refuge is the highest of the three states, but refuge for Bt cotton is the lowest of the three states. Thus, unstructured corn refuge can be valuable for IRM but its influence is determined by selection for resistance by Bt cotton. PMID:26637533

  15. Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, W. D.; Arthur, V.; Mastrangelo, T.

    2010-10-01

    As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to gamma radiation. This species is considered as one of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Eggs (12 h old) were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation. Surviving larvae were allowed to feed on an artificial diet. Three days after irradiation, it was verified that larvae's cephalic capsules were significantly affected by gamma radiation, and the estimated mean LD 90 and LD 99 were 66.3 Gy and 125.8 Gy, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs revealed to be quite radiosensitive and very low doses as 50 Gy were sufficient to disrupt G. molesta embryogenesis. At 25 Gy, only male adults originated from the surviving larvae and, after mating with untreated fertile females, shown to be sterile.

  16. DNA Barcoding of the Korean Lymantria Hübner, 1819 (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Lymantriinae) for Quarantine Inspection.

    PubMed

    Kang, Tae Hwa; Lee, Kwang-Su; Lee, Heung-Sik

    2015-08-01

    DNA barcoding and morphological analyses of Korean Lymantria (Erebidae, Lepidoptera) were conducted for quarantine inspection. In DNA barcoding, Lymantria dispar identified through quarantine inspection was distinguished as three species, L. dispar asiatica, L. albescens, and L. xylina. Lymantria monacha, which is known as a single species in Korea, is revealed as containing three species, L. monacha, L. minomonis, and L. sugii. At the subspecies level, L. dispar dispar formed a single cluster, whereas L. d. asiatica and L. d. japonica formed a cluster containing both subspecies. In morphological re-examination on DNA barcoding results, L. dispar was distinguished from L. albescens by wing pattern, and from L. xylina by papillae anale. L. monacha and the related species were hard to be distinct from each other by using wing pattern, but it was easily distinct through comparison of genitalia. Therefore, DNA barcoding led to accurate identification in species level, but in subspecies level, only a taxon showing geographically far distance was discriminated from the others. These results may provide a taxonomic outline of the Korean Lymantria fauna and may be used as an identification reference for Lymantria species during quarantine inspection. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Geographic Origin and Host Cultivar Influence on Digestive Physiology of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Golikhajeh, Neshat; Razmjou, Jabraeil

    2017-01-01

    Digestive enzymatic activity in three geographic strains (Miandiab, Kalposh and Moghan regions) of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) reared on different sugar beet cultivars (Dorothea, Rozier, Persia and Perimer) was studied under laboratory conditions (25 ± 1 °C, 65 ± 5% RH, and a photo period of 16:8 (L:D) h photoperiod). The results of this study demonstrated that digestive protease and amylase activity of S. exigua larvae was affected by both geographic origin of the pest and host plant cultivar. Three strains reared on the same sugar beet cultivars demonstrated different levels of proteolytic and amylolytic activities in fourth and fifth instars. The highest proteolytic and amylolytic activity, in most cases, was observed in larvae collected from Kalposh region. Among different sugar beet cultivars, the highest protease activity in three strains was observed on cultivars Rozier and Perimer. Nevertheless, the highest amylase activity was seen on cultivar Dorothea, and the lowest activity was seen on cultivar Rozier. This study suggested that variations in digestive enzymatic activity of three geographic strains of S. exigua might be attributed to local adaptation with their local host plant and environmental conditions inherent by larvae. PMID:28069730

  18. Pollination by nocturnal Lepidoptera, and the effects of light pollution: a review.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, Callum J; Pocock, Michael J O; Fox, Richard; Evans, Darren M

    2015-06-01

    1. Moths (Lepidoptera) are the major nocturnal pollinators of flowers. However, their importance and contribution to the provision of pollination ecosystem services may have been under-appreciated. Evidence was identified that moths are important pollinators of a diverse range of plant species in diverse ecosystems across the world. 2. Moth populations are known to be undergoing significant declines in several European countries. Among the potential drivers of this decline is increasing light pollution. The known and possible effects of artificial night lighting upon moths were reviewed, and suggest how artificial night lighting might in turn affect the provision of pollination by moths. The need for studies of the effects of artificial night lighting upon whole communities of moths was highlighted. 3. An ecological network approach is one valuable method to consider the effects of artificial night lighting upon the provision of pollination by moths, as it provides useful insights into ecosystem functioning and stability, and may help elucidate the indirect effects of artificial light upon communities of moths and the plants they pollinate. 4. It was concluded that nocturnal pollination is an ecosystem process that may potentially be disrupted by increasing light pollution, although the nature of this disruption remains to be tested.

  19. An Evaluation of Butterfly Gardens for Restoring Habitat for the Monarch Butterfly (Lepidoptera: Danaidae).

    PubMed

    Cutting, Brian T; Tallamy, Douglas W

    2015-10-01

    The eastern migratory monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus L.) population in North America hit record low numbers during the 2013-2014 overwintering season, prompting pleas by scientists and conservation groups to plant the butterfly's milkweed host plants (Asclepias spp.) in residential areas. While planting butterfly gardens with host plants seems like an intuitive action, no previous study has directly compared larval survival in gardens and natural areas to demonstrate that gardens are suitable habitats for Lepidoptera. In this study, milkweed was planted in residential gardens and natural areas. In 2009 and 2010, plants were monitored for oviposition by monarch butterflies and survival of monarch eggs and caterpillars. Monarchs oviposited significantly more frequently in gardens than in natural sites, with 2.0 and 6.2 times more eggs per plant per observation in 2009 and 2010, respectively. There were no significant differences in overall subadult survival between gardens and natural areas. Significant differences in survival were measured for egg and larval cohorts when analyzed separately, but these were not consistent between years. These results suggest that planting gardens with suitable larval host plants can be an effective tool for restoring habitat for monarch butterflies. If planted over a large area, garden plantings may be useful as a partial mitigation for dramatic loss of monarch habitat in agricultural settings. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Wolbachia density changes seasonally amongst populations of the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae).

    PubMed

    Sumi, Takuto; Miura, Kazuki; Miyatake, Takahisa

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies showed that the survival rate of Wolbachia decreases under high temperature in incubators. It is also known that a high density of Wolbachia in the host body reduces the host emergence rate, while low densities fail to change reproduction rates. However, few studies have examined the density of Wolbachia in hosts in the field. Here, we focus on Wolbachia infection of the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), which is distributed throughout the Japanese islands. We examined the rate and density of Wolbachia infection in the bodies of butterflies at thirteen locations in Japan. At seven of these places, we collected butterflies in different seasons to determine seasonal differences in the infection rate and density and found that Wolbachia density has seasonal differences within the same population. Moreover, to determine whether Wolbachia density has a geographical cline, we compared the infection density of Wolbachia amongst all geographical populations. In addition, we determined the sequences of Wolbachia wsp and host mtDNA CO1 haplotypes of all populations. The results showed that Wolbachia density increased in early summer and decreased in autumn. Further, the density of Wolbachia infecting the same strain of Z. maha varied amongst populations, although no tendency in geographical cline was observed.

  1. Monitoring populations of saddled prominent (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae) with pheromone-baited traps.

    PubMed

    Spear-O'Mara, Jennifer; Allen, Douglas C

    2007-04-01

    Field trials with three types of pheromone traps were performed in eight northern hardwood stands in northern New York state to develop a population-monitoring tool for the saddled prominent, Heterocampa guttivitta (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae). Lure specificity and the relationship between pheromone trap catch and subsequent egg density were examined. A study of moth emergence in relation to temperature was designed to determine whether moth activity throughout the flight season can be predicted using a growing degree-day (DD) model. Pherocon 1C wing traps were significantly more effective than the green Unitrap bucket style. Catch was not affected by position when traps were > or =20 m from an opening (road), and lures were specific to saddled prominent. Lure specificity was examined using green Multipher bucket traps, which effectively attracted and held moths. In the first year of the study, number of viable eggs per 10 leaf clusters was significantly correlated (r2 = 0.59) with average moth catch/trap in pheromone-baited Pherocon traps. When differences in stand density (basal area) and relative abundance of sugar maple (percentage of total stems per hectare), the principle host, were accounted for, the multiple regression model also was significant and r2 = 0. 83. Neither model, however, was significant the second year. Using a base temperature of 5.5 degrees C and on-site temperature data, the peak of moth flight occurred at 316 +/- 8 DD and end of flight occurred at 533 +/- 9 DD.

  2. Strength of silk attachment to Ilex chinensis leaves in the tea bagworm Eumeta minuscula (Lepidoptera, Psychidae)

    PubMed Central

    Lovtsova, Julia; Gorb, Elena; Dai, Zhendong; Ji, Aihong; Zhao, Zhihui; Jiang, Nan; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2017-01-01

    Silks play an important role in the life of various arthropods. A highly neglected prerequisite to make versatile use of silks is sufficient attachment to substrates. Although there have been some studies on the structure and mechanics of silk anchorages of spiders, for insects only anecdotal reports on attachment-associated spinning behaviour exist. Here, we experimentally studied the silk attachment of the pupae and last instar caterpillars of the tea bagworm Eumeta minuscula (Butler 1881) (Lepidoptera, Psychidae) to the leaves of its host plant Ilex chinensis. We found that the bagworms spin attachment discs, which share some structural features with those of spiders, like a plaque consisting of numerous overlaid, looped glue-coated silk fibres and the medially attaching suspension thread. Although the glue, which coats the fibres, cannot spread and adhere very well to the leaf surface, high pull-off forces were measured, yielding a mean safety factor (force divided by the animal weight) of 385.6. Presumably, the bagworms achieve this by removal of the leaf epidermis prior to silk attachment, which exposes the underlying tissue that represents a much better bonding site. This ensures a reliable attachment during the immobile, vulnerable pupal stage. This is the first study on the biomechanics and structure of silk attachments to substrates in insects. PMID:28250101

  3. Temperature niche shift observed in a Lepidoptera population under allochronic divergence.

    PubMed

    Santos, H; Paiva, M R; Tavares, C; Kerdelhué, C; Branco, M

    2011-09-01

    A process of adaptive divergence for tolerance to high temperatures was identified using a rare model system, consisting of two sympatric populations of a Lepidoptera (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) with different life cycle timings, a 'mutant' population with summer larval development, Leiria SP, and the founder natural population, having winter larval development, Leiria WP. A third, allopatric population (Bordeaux WP) was also studied. First and second instar larvae were experimentally exposed to daily-cycles of heat treatment reaching maximum values of 36, 38, 40 and 42 °C; control groups placed at 25 °C. A lethal temperature effect was only significant at 42 °C, for Leiria SP, whereas all temperatures tested had a significant negative effect upon Leiria WP, thus indicating an upper threshold of survival c.a. 6 °C above that of the WP. Cox regression model, for pooled heat treatments, predicted mortality hazard to increase for Leiria WP (+108%) and Bordeaux WP (+78%) in contrast to Leiria SP; to increase by 24% for each additional °C; and to decrease by 53% from first to second instar larvae. High variability among individuals was observed, a population characteristic that may favour selection and consequent adaptation. Present findings provide an example of ecological differentiation, following a process of allochronic divergence. Results further contribute to a better understanding of the implications of climate change for ecological genetics. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  4. Seasonal dynamics and spatial distribution pattern of Parapoynx crisonalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on water chestnuts

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jie; Wang, Xing; Huang, Jian-Bin; Huang, Guo-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Parapoynx crisonalis (Walker, 1859) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a major pest of aquatic vegetables and aquatic landscape plants. It has been responsible for causing considerable economic damage to water chestnut (Trapa natans) plants. In the Changsha vicinity of China, P. crisonalis has five generations a year. Populations of P. crisonalis were relatively low in April and began to rapidly rise at the beginning of May. At the end of July and early August, the population dropped dramatically. A rebound occurred at the end of August and early September, which was referred to as the second population peak. From then, until early November, the P. crisonalis population steadily diminished in preparation for overwintering. The primary factors influencing the seasonal dynamics of P. crisonalis were the climatic conditions, especially the temperature, and secondarily precipitation. Between May and October, the P. crisonalis adults were evenly distributed in the pond. In May and June, the eggs of P. crisonalis were present in an aggregate distribution, due to the effects of environmental heterogeneity. In July and August, however, they were found to be in a uniform distribution. PMID:28863164

  5. Identification of Diatraea spp. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) based on cytochrome oxidase II.

    PubMed

    Barrera, Gloria Patricia; Villamizar, Laura Fernanda; Espinel, Carlos; Quintero, Edgar Mauricio; Belaich, Mariano Nicolás; Toloza, Deisy Liseth; Ghiringhelli, Pablo Daniel; Vargas, Germán

    2017-01-01

    Diatraea spp. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) are a group of insects that are agriculture pests in many economically relevant crops such as sugarcane, sorghum, corn and rice. Recognized species for this genus respond differentially to natural enemies used in their biological control, emphasizing the importance of species in a regional approach. Currently, identification is based on the male genitalia. However, the availability of specimens collected from field and subjectivity based on the character recognition can seriously hamper species identification, and therefore result in inadequate pest management. To overcome this, individuals of Diatraea spp. preliminarily classified male genitalia and obtained from reared conditions and the field (both derived from natural populations occurring in Colombia) were analyzed using genitalic morphometry and molecular biology specifically using a fragment of the cytochrome oxidase subunit II (CO II) mitochondrial gene. Although morphometric analysis did not show any overriding results regarding genitalia morphology, the bioinformatics analyses of CO II sequences resulted in an adequate classification of the individuals within the recognized species. It also, revealed that the occurrence of clades associated with geographical distribution may be associated with cryptic species. The latter was also confirmed by a Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) methodology evaluating the same fragment of CO II. This experimental approach allows properly recognizing each species and in consequence is proposed as an effective tool in Diatraea species identification.

  6. Seasonal dynamics and spatial distribution pattern of Parapoynx crisonalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on water chestnuts.

    PubMed

    Li, Ni; Chen, Qi; Zhu, Jie; Wang, Xing; Huang, Jian-Bin; Huang, Guo-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Parapoynx crisonalis (Walker, 1859) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a major pest of aquatic vegetables and aquatic landscape plants. It has been responsible for causing considerable economic damage to water chestnut (Trapa natans) plants. In the Changsha vicinity of China, P. crisonalis has five generations a year. Populations of P. crisonalis were relatively low in April and began to rapidly rise at the beginning of May. At the end of July and early August, the population dropped dramatically. A rebound occurred at the end of August and early September, which was referred to as the second population peak. From then, until early November, the P. crisonalis population steadily diminished in preparation for overwintering. The primary factors influencing the seasonal dynamics of P. crisonalis were the climatic conditions, especially the temperature, and secondarily precipitation. Between May and October, the P. crisonalis adults were evenly distributed in the pond. In May and June, the eggs of P. crisonalis were present in an aggregate distribution, due to the effects of environmental heterogeneity. In July and August, however, they were found to be in a uniform distribution.

  7. Identification of Diatraea spp. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) based on cytochrome oxidase II

    PubMed Central

    Villamizar, Laura Fernanda; Espinel, Carlos; Quintero, Edgar Mauricio; Belaich, Mariano Nicolás; Toloza, Deisy Liseth

    2017-01-01

    Diatraea spp. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) are a group of insects that are agriculture pests in many economically relevant crops such as sugarcane, sorghum, corn and rice. Recognized species for this genus respond differentially to natural enemies used in their biological control, emphasizing the importance of species in a regional approach. Currently, identification is based on the male genitalia. However, the availability of specimens collected from field and subjectivity based on the character recognition can seriously hamper species identification, and therefore result in inadequate pest management. To overcome this, individuals of Diatraea spp. preliminarily classified male genitalia and obtained from reared conditions and the field (both derived from natural populations occurring in Colombia) were analyzed using genitalic morphometry and molecular biology specifically using a fragment of the cytochrome oxidase subunit II (CO II) mitochondrial gene. Although morphometric analysis did not show any overriding results regarding genitalia morphology, the bioinformatics analyses of CO II sequences resulted in an adequate classification of the individuals within the recognized species. It also, revealed that the occurrence of clades associated with geographical distribution may be associated with cryptic species. The latter was also confirmed by a Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) methodology evaluating the same fragment of CO II. This experimental approach allows properly recognizing each species and in consequence is proposed as an effective tool in Diatraea species identification. PMID:28873431

  8. Evaluation of artificial diets for Attacus atlas (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) in Yogyakarta Special Region, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sukirno, Sukirno; Situmorang, J; Sumarmi, S; Soesilohadi, R C Hidayat; Pratiwi, R; Sukirno, Sukirno; Situmorang, J; Sumarmi, S; Soesilohadi, R C Hidayat; Pratiwi, R

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate artificial diets that can be used to successfully culture the atlas silk moth, Attacus atlas L. (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) indoors. Four plant species were evaluated as the basic component of each diet, barringtonia (Barringtonia asiatica), cheesewood (Nauclea orientalis), soursop (Annona muricata), and mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni). Evaluation of the nutritional value of each diet was determined by an analysis of the hemolymph proteins of sixth instars using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Survivorship, cocoon quality, and hemolymph protein content of larvae fed the barringtonia diet were higher than those of larvae fed mahogany-, cheesewood-, and soursop-based artificial diets. The average adult emergence of those fed the barringtonia-based diet was 74.5%. The weights of the cocoon in this treatment with the pupa and the empty cocoons were 7.0 and 1.1 g, respectively. Hemolymph of the larvae fed the barringtonia-based artificial diet had the highest concentration of protein with an average of 28.06 mg/ml. The atlas moth reared on the barringtonia-based artificial diet was comparable with those reared only on barringtonia leaves. However, the weight of empty cocoons, adult wingspan, and amount of hemolymph protein were lower than in those reared on barringtonia leaves only. This may suggest that the artificial barringtonia-based diet requires additional protein for maximum efficiency.

  9. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the giant silkworm moth, Eriogyna pyretorum (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shao-Tong; Hong, Gui-Yun; Yu, Miao; Li, Na; Yang, Ying; Liu, Yan-Qun; Wei, Zhao-Jun

    2009-05-22

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Eriogyna pyretorum (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) was determined as being composed of 15,327 base pairs (bp), including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and a control region. The arrangement of the PCGs is the same as that found in the other sequenced lepidopteran. The AT skewness for the E. pyretorum mitogenome is slightly negative (-0.031), indicating the occurrence of more Ts than As. The nucleotide composition of the E. pyretorum mitogenome is also biased toward A + T nucleotides (80.82%). All PCGs are initiated by ATN codons, except for cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 2 (cox1 and cox2). Two of the 13 PCGs harbor the incomplete termination codon by T. All tRNA genes have a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA, with the exception of trnS1(AGN) and trnS2(UCN). Phylogenetic analysis among the available lepidopteran species supports the current morphology-based hypothesis that Bombycoidea, Geometroidea, Notodontidea, Papilionoidea and Pyraloidea are monophyletic. As has been previously suggested, Bombycidae (Bombyx mori and Bombyx mandarina), Sphingoidae (Manduca sexta) and Saturniidae (Antheraea pernyi, Antheraea yamamai, E. pyretorum and Caligula boisduvalii) formed a group.

  10. The complete mitogenome sequence of the Japanese oak silkmoth, Antheraea yamamai (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Ryeol; Kim, Man Il; Hong, Mee Yeon; Kim, Kee Young; Kang, Pil Don; Hwang, Jae Sam; Han, Yeon Soo; Jin, Byung Rae; Kim, Iksoo

    2009-09-01

    The 15,338-bp long complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the Japanese oak silkmoth, Antheraea yamamai (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) was determined. This genome has a gene arrangement identical to those of all other sequenced lepidopteran insects, but differs from the most common type, as the result of the movement of tRNA(Met) to a position 5'-upstream of tRNA(Ile). No typical start codon of the A. yamamai COI gene is available. Instead, a tetranucleotide, TTAG, which is found at the beginning context of all sequenced lepidopteran insects was tentatively designated as the start codon for A. yamamai COI gene. Three of the 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) harbor the incomplete termination codon, T or TA. All tRNAs formed stable stem-and-loop structures, with the exception of tRNA(Ser)(AGN), the DHU arm of which formed a simple loop as has been observed in many other metazoan mt tRNA(Ser)(AGN). The 334-bp long A + T-rich region is noteworthy in that it harbors tRNA-like structures, as has also been seen in the A + T-rich regions of other insect mitogenomes. Phylogenetic analyses of the available species of Bombycoidea, Pyraloidea, and Tortricidea bolstered the current morphology-based hypothesis that Bombycoidea and Pyraloidea are monophyletic (Obtectomera). As has been previously suggested, Bombycidae (Bombyx mori and B. mandarina) and Saturniidae (A. yamamai and Caligula boisduvalii) formed a reciprocal monophyletic group.

  11. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Ctenoptilum vasava (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Pyrginae) and Its Phylogenetic Implication

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Jiasheng; Sun, Qianqian; Zhao, Huabin; Sun, Xiaoyan; Gai, Yonghua; Yang, Qun

    2012-01-01

    We here report the first complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of a skipper, Ctenoptilum vasava Moore, 1865 (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Pyrginae). The mt genome of the skipper is a circular molecule of 15,468 bp, containing 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 24 putative transfer RNA (tRNA), genes including an extra copy of trnS (AGN) and a tRNA-like insertion trnL (UUR), 13 protein-coding genes and an AT-rich region. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) are initiated by ATN codons and terminated by the typical stop codon TAA or TAG, except for COII which ends with a single T. The intergenic spacer sequence between trnS (AGN) and ND1 genes also contains the ATACTAA motif. The AT-rich region of 429 bp is comprised of nonrepetitive sequences, including the motif ATAGA followed by an 19 bp poly-T stretch, a microsatellite-like (AT)3 (TA)9 element next to the ATTTA motif, an 11 bp poly-A adjacent to tRNAs. Phylogenetic analyses (ML and BI methods) showed that Papilionoidea is not a natural group, and Hesperioidea is placed within the Papilionoidea as a sister to ((Pieridae + Lycaenidae) + Nymphalidae) while Papilionoidae is paraphyletic to Hesperioidea. This result is remarkably different from the traditional view where Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea are considered as two distinct superfamilies. PMID:22577351

  12. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the giant silkworm moth, Eriogyna pyretorum (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae)

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shao-Tong; Hong, Gui-Yun; Yu, Miao; Li, Na; Yang, Ying; Liu, Yan-Qun; Wei, Zhao-Jun

    2009-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Eriogyna pyretorum (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) was determined as being composed of 15,327 base pairs (bp), including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and a control region. The arrangement of the PCGs is the same as that found in the other sequenced lepidopteran. The AT skewness for the E. pyretorum mitogenome is slightly negative (-0.031), indicating the occurrence of more Ts than As. The nucleotide composition of the E. pyretorum mitogenome is also biased toward A + T nucleotides (80.82%). All PCGs are initiated by ATN codons, except for cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 2 (cox1 and cox2). Two of the 13 PCGs harbor the incomplete termination codon by T. All tRNA genes have a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA, with the exception of trnS1(AGN) and trnS2(UCN). Phylogenetic analysis among the available lepidopteran species supports the current morphology-based hypothesis that Bombycoidea, Geometroidea, Notodontidea, Papilionoidea and Pyraloidea are monophyletic. As has been previously suggested, Bombycidae (Bombyx mori and Bombyx mandarina), Sphingoidae (Manduca sexta) and Saturniidae (Antheraea pernyi, Antheraea yamamai, E. pyretorum and Caligula boisduvalii) formed a group. PMID:19471586

  13. Antixenosis and Antibiosis Resistance in Rice Cultivars against Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Tabari, M A; Fathi, S A A; Nouri-Ganbalani, G; Moumeni, A; Razmjou, J

    2017-08-01

    The striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an important pest afflicting rice in most rice-growing countries in the world. Deliniating the categories of resistance in rice genotypes under field conditions could be helpful in managment of this pest. Two categories of resistance, antixenosis and antibiosis, were examined in ten popular and diverse rice genotypes of different origin that had been selected for their resistance to the striped stem borer in a previous study. Significant differences were found between genotypes for the number of egg masses, number of eggs, preference index, larval and pupal weight, larval development time, larval survival rate, larval mine length, and leaf trichome density. It was found that the rice genotypes Novator, A7801, and Nemat had the more pronounced antixenosis-type resistance, whereas AB1 and Shirodi had better antiobiosis-type resistance. Interestingly, the rice genotype AN-74 for which Nemat is the parental line showed both types of resistance and could be effectively used in an integrated pest management of the rice striped stem borer.

  14. Combined toxicity of chlorantraniliprole, lambda-cyhalothrin, and imidacloprid to the silkworm Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanmei; Zhang, Hui; He, Fengmei; Li, Xuesheng; Tan, Huihua; Zeng, Dongqiang

    2018-05-29

    Insecticides with different modes of action may act in combination, in ways such as drifting, spray equipment residual, or utilizing concurrently in mulberry orchards or nearby agricultural fields. Silkworms may suffer from a diverse impact on the survival. In this study, the toxicity of chlorantraniliprole, lambda-cyhalothrin, and imidacloprid and their combinations to the second instar of silkworms (Bombyx mori (L.)(Lepidoptera: Bombycidae)) were evaluated after 48 and 72 h treatment by the leaf-dipping method and the combination index (CI)-isobologram equation. After 48 h treatment, results indicated that (1) the increasing order of toxicity was imidacloprid < chlorantraniliprole < lambda-cyhalothrin, and that (2) synergism was predominated in most combinations excepted for the lambda-cyhalothrin + imidacloprid combination which displayed an additive effect at f a value 0.5. Then, after 72 h treatment, results exhibited that (1) the increasing order of toxicity was imidacloprid < lambda-cyhalothrin < chlorantraniliprole, and that (2) only the chlorantraniliprole + imidacloprid mixture yielded antagonism at f a value 0.5; the other combinations performed an additive effect at least. Consequently, combined toxicity of mixtures may pose a worse effect on silkworm than single toxicity of insecticides. Therefore, we suggest that insecticide mixtures should be added into ecotoxicological risk assessment.

  15. The molecular and physiological impact of bisphenol A in Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Kontogiannatos, Dimitris; Swevers, Luc; Zakasis, Giannis; Kourti, Anna

    2015-03-01

    In the present study we investigated the potential relative effects of bisphenol A (BPA) and RH-5992 (tebufenozide) on the development and metamorphosis of the corn stalk borer, Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). A number of morphological and molecular factors were examined in order to identify the toxic and the endocrine-relative action of these two chemicals. We observed that BPA, RH-5992 and the combination of BPA/RH-5992 caused a developmental delay by extending the transition period between larval and pupal instars. These chemicals also reduced adult emergence and caused molting malformations during development and metamorphosis. In the corn stalk borer, BPA exhibits ecdysteroid activities in a fashion similar to that of the ecdysone agonist RH-5992. These results suggest that exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of BPA during the early stages of the corn borer's life cycle can result in various disorders that may be a consequence of endocrine disruption. The molecular mechanism by which BPA interferes with the physiological processes was also investigated. A significant induction was observed in the expression levels of the ecdysone-induced genes SnEcR and SnUSP, after injection of BPA and RH-5992. Additionally, we found that BPA acts as a very weak agonist of ecdysteroids in Bombyx mori derived Bm5 cell lines. From these cellular and molecular assays, our results brought evidence that BPA, like RH-5992, interferes with the ecdysteroidal pathways of the lepidopteran insect species.

  16. Various Chemical Strategies to Deceive Ants in Three Arhopala Species (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) Exploiting Macaranga Myrmecophytes

    PubMed Central

    Inui, Yoko; Shimizu-kaya, Usun; Okubo, Tadahiro; Yamsaki, Eri; Itioka, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Macaranga myrmecophytes (ant-plants) are generally well protected from herbivore attacks by their symbiotic ants (plant-ants). However, larvae of Arhopala (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) species survive and develop on specific Macaranga ant-plant species without being attacked by the plant-ants of their host species. We hypothesized that Arhopala larvae chemically mimic or camouflage themselves with the ants on their host plant so that the larvae are accepted by the plant-ant species of their host. Chemical analyses of cuticular hydrocarbons showed that chemical congruency varied among Arhopala species; A. dajagaka matched well the host plant-ants, A. amphimuta did not match, and unexpectedly, A. zylda lacked hydrocarbons. Behaviorally, the larvae and dummies coated with cuticular chemicals of A. dajagaka were well attended by the plant-ants, especially by those of the host. A. amphimuta was often attacked by all plant-ants except for the host plant-ants toward the larvae, and those of A. zylda were ignored by all plant-ants. Our results suggested that conspicuous variations exist in the chemical strategies used by the myrmecophilous butterflies that allow them to avoid ant attack and be accepted by the plant-ant colonies. PMID:25853675

  17. Larval Biology of Anthophagous Eumaeini (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae, Theclinae) in the Cerrado of Central Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Neuza A. P.; Duarte, Marcelo; Araújo, Eliezer B.; Morais, Helena C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The biology and morphology of the early stages of 22 species of Eumaeini (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae, Theclinae) are presented. Observations were collected through the inspection of inflorescences in the field and the rearing of 214 larvae in laboratory. Allosmaitia strophius (Godart) associated with Malpighiaceae species and the polyphagous Strymon mulucha (Hewitson) were the most frequently collected species. Detritivory was observed in two species, Electrostrymon endymion (F.) and Kisutam syllis (Godman & Salvin), and myrmecophily in four other species, A. strophius , Ministrymon azia (Hewitson), Parrhasius polibetes (Stoll), and S. mulucha . Cannibalism was observed in A. strophius ; in addition, the pupa of this and of three other species produced audible sounds. Paiwarria aphaca (Hewitson) was highlighted because of the great difference observed between its first and last instars, as well as the marked difference between that species and the larvae of Paiwarria umbratus (Geyer) documented in Costa Rica. Larvae of Calycopis mimas (Godman & Salvin) displayed “bungee jumping” behavior when stimulated. Parasitoids (Diptera, Hymenoptera) attacked 21 larvae of eight species, A. strophius , K. syllis , M. azia , Pai. aphaca , P. polibetes , Rekoa marius (Lucas), S. mulucha , and Tmolus venustus (H.H. Druce). Illustrations of immatures and parasitoids are provided. PMID:25368090

  18. Identification and Characterization of Pathogen-Response Genes (repat) in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Machado, Vilmar; Serrano, Jose; Galián, Jose

    2016-01-01

    The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda, Noctuidae, Lepidoptera) is one of the most important crop pests in the Americas, causing significant damage to maize, rice and sorghum. The mechanisms that determine its defences against pathogens are particularly relevant for the development of management and control strategies. We used an in silico approach to identify and characterize pathogen response genes (repat) present in different tissue libraries of S. fugiperda. The analyses revealed complete cDNA for nine repat genes; of these, repat15 and repat39 were found in libraries from a specific tissue--the midgut of larvae fed with xenobiotic substances. High expression levels of some genes were found in different libraries: 39 hits in repat30 in challenged hemocytes, 16 hits in repat31 in fat body, 10 hits in repat32 in fat body and 10 in challenged hemocytes, and 10 hits in repat38 in midgut of non-treated larvae and midgut of larvae fed with natural and xenobiotic substances. The genes corresponded to two ontology categories, stress response and immune response, and their phylogenetic relationships, nucleotide similarity, number of amino acid residues and molecular weights agree with what has been described for repat genes. It is noteworthy that proteins encoded by the repat genes of S. frugiperda have important defence functions in other tissues beyond midgut and that their functional categories are likely diverse, as they are related to cell envelope structure, energy metabolism, transport and binding.

  19. Bioecology of Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and associated larval parasitoids reared from Hass avocados in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Hoddle, Mark S; Hoddle, Christina D

    2008-06-01

    A 10-wk study of the avocado seed-feeding moth Stenoma catenifer Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae), was conducted in a commercial 'Hass' avocado (Persea americana Miller [Lauraceae]) orchard in Guatemala. Up to 45% of fruit in the orchard were damaged by larval S. catenifer. Larval-to-adult survivorship for 1,881 S. catenifer larvae in Hass fruit was 37%, and adult sex ratio was 51% female. Four species of larval parasitoid were reared from field-collected S. catenifer larvae. The most common parasitoid reared was a gregarious Apanteles sp., which parasitized 53% of larvae and produced on average eight to nine cocoons per host. Apanteles sp. sex ratio was 47% female and 87% of parasitoids emerged successfully from cocoons. Apanteles sp. longevity was approximately equal to 1.5 d in the absence of food, and when provisioned with honey, parasitoids survived for 5-7 d. The mean number of cocoons produced by Apanteles sp. per host, and larval parasitism rates were not significantly affected by the number of S. catenifer larvae inhabiting seeds. Oviposition studies conducted with S. catenifer in the laboratory indicated that this moth lays significantly more eggs on the branch to which the fruit pedicel is attached than on avocado fruit. When given a choice between Hass and non-Hass avocados, S. catenifer lays up to 2.69 times more eggs on Hass.

  20. Is air pollution responsible for melanism in Lepidoptera and for scarcity of all orders of insects in New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, J.

    1972-01-01

    An attempt has been made at explaining why light normal forms of Lepidoptera are found in southern New Jersey, yet, in the northern part of the state more melanic forms appear in greater numbers. The author believes that air pollution is responsible for the melanism and the scarcity of all orders of insects. Smog, which filters out some components of sunlight, is believed to be the pollutant which causes the melanism. Insecticides and smog are believed to be responsible for the scarcity of insects.

  1. Disruption of the leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in citrus: effect of blend and placement height, longevity of disruption and emission profile of a new dispenser

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent efforts to disrupt mating of the leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), a global pest of citrus, have focused on the use of SPLAT™ (ISCA Technologies), a flowable wax emulsion intended to serve as a slow-release matrix for pheromones. Early success with this...

  2. A review of five species, and descriptions of three new species, in the genus Ogdoconta Butler (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Condicinae, Condicini) from North America north of Mexcio

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The species of the genus Ogdoconta Butler, 1891 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Condicinae, Condicini) from North America north of Mexico are reviewed, and a description of the genus is given. Ogdoconta satana Metzler, Knudson, & Poole, new species, is described from New Mexico and Texas, Ogdoconta rufipen...

  3. The leafmining Leurocephala schinusae (Lepidoptera Gracillariidae): Not suitable for the biological control of Schinus terebinthifolius (Sapindales Anacardiaceae)in continental USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Leurocephala schinusae Davis & Mc Kay (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) was studied to assess its suitability as a biological control agent of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), a serious environmental weed in the USA and elsewhere in the world. The host range was determined by ...

  4. Two psammophilic noctuids (Lepidoptera) newly associated with beach plum Prunus maritima: The Dune Noctuid (Sympistis riparia) and Coastal Heathland Cutworm (Abagrotis nefascia) in Northeastern North America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Beach Plum Prunus maritima Marshall 1785 not Wangenh. 1787 (Rosaceae) represents both a new crop under development and an under-acknowledged host plant for several Lepidoptera rthat have undergone declines in the Northeastern USA. The Coastal Heathland Cutworm Abagrotis nefascia (Smith) and the Dune...

  5. Field evaluation of effect of temperature on release of Disparlure from a pheromone-baited trapping system used to monitor gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)

    Treesearch

    Patrick C. Tobin; Aijun Zhang; Ksenia Onufrieva; Donna Leonard

    2011-01-01

    Traps baited with disparlure, the synthetic form of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), sex pheromone are used to detect newly founded populations and estimate population density across the United States. The lures used in trapping devices are exposed to field conditions with varying climates, which can affect the rate...

  6. Impact of planting dates on a seed maggot, Neotephritis finalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), and sunflower bud moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) damage in cultivated sunflower

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Neotephritis finalis (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and sunflower bud moth, Suleima helianthana (Riley) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are major head-infesting insect pests of cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Planting date was evaluated as a cultural pest management strategy for control of N...

  7. A single major QTL controls expression of larval Cry1F resistance trait in Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and is independent of midgut receptor genes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an introduced crop pest in North America that causes major damage to corn, and reduces yield of food, feed, and biofuel materials. Transgenic hybrid corn expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin Cry1F is highly lethal to O...

  8. Influence of trap design on upwind flight behavior and capture of female grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidea) with a kairomone lure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oil-coated clear panel traps baited with a host plant-based kairomone lure are effective in monitoring female grape berry moth (GBM), Paralobesia viteana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera:Tortricidae), but servicing these traps in a vineyard is cumbersome. In this study, we compared the performance of differen...

  9. Acrapex azumai Sugi (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) as a possible biological control agent of the invasive weed Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. (Poaceae) in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lepidopteran larvae were discovered boring in the basal stems of Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. (Poaceae) in Itoshima city, Fukuoka Prefecture, Kyushu, Japan. Adults reared from these larvae were identified as Acrapex azumai Sugi (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Sequencing of the CO1 (cytochrome oxidase 1...

  10. CRISPR/Cas9 editing of the codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) CpomOR1 gene affects egg production and viability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major pest of pome fruit worldwide. The inclusion of semiochemicals, including the main sex pheromone (codlemone), in codling moth IPM programs has drastically reduced the amount of chemical insecticides needed to control this ...

  11. Evaluation of the effects of light entensity and time interval after the start of scotophase on the female flight propensity of Asian gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Erebidae)

    Treesearch

    Fang Chen; Juan Shi; Melody Keena

    2016-01-01

    Asian gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), females are capable of flight, but little is known about what causes the variation in flight propensity that has been observed. The female flight propensity and capability of Asian gypsy moth from seven geographic populations (three from China, two from Russia, one from Japan, and one...

  12. F2 screen for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab2-maize in field populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from the southern United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target of transgenic maize and cotton expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in both North and South America. In 2013 and 2014, a total of 215 F2 two-parent families of S. frugiperda were established usin...

  13. Application of a frequency distribution method for determining instars of the beet armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from widths of cast head capsules

    Treesearch

    Y. Chen; S. J. Seybold

    2013-01-01

    Instar determination of field-collected insect larvae has generally been based on the analysis of head capsule width frequency distributions or bivariate plotting, but few studies have tested the validity of such methods. We used head capsules from exuviae of known instars of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae),...

  14. Toward reconstructing the hyper-diverse radiation of ditrysian Lepidoptera (Insecta): initial evidence from 123 exemplars and 5 protein-coding nuclear genes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the mega-diverse insect order Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths; 165,000 species total), 98% of the species fall in the clade Ditrysia, relationships within which are little understood. As the first step in a long-term study of ditrysian phylogeny, we tested the ability of maximum likelihood ana...

  15. Three new species of Rectiostoma Becker, 1982 (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Depressariidae) from Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We describe three new species of Rectiostoma Becker, 1982 from Costa Rica: R. annemayae Heikkilä and Metz spec. nov., R. eowilsoni Heikkilä and Metz spec. nov. and R. philipmayi Heikkilä and Metz spec. nov. We used a data set of DNA COI-barcodes accumulated for Lepidoptera collected at Area de Conse...

  16. Biology, behavior, and larval morphology of Salbia lotanalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a potential biological control agent of Miconia calvescens (Myrtales: Melastomataceae) from Costa Rica

    Treesearch

    Alexander Castillo; M. Tracy Johnson; Francisco R. Badenes-Pérez

    2014-01-01

    The leaf roller Salbia lotanalis Druce (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a potential biological control agent of Miconia calvescens de Candolle (Melastomataceae), was studied in Costa Rica. Larvae were collected from a field site near San Jose and the insect was reared in the laboratory to study its biology and behavior. Chaetotaxy and...

  17. Testing DNA barcode performance in 1000 species of European lepidoptera: large geographic distances have small genetic impacts.

    PubMed

    Huemer, Peter; Mutanen, Marko; Sefc, Kristina M; Hebert, Paul D N

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the performance of DNA barcodes (mt cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene) in the identification of 1004 species of Lepidoptera shared by two localities (Finland, Austria) that are 1600 km apart. Maximum intraspecific distances for the pooled data were less than 2% for 880 species (87.6%), while deeper divergence was detected in 124 species. Despite such variation, the overall DNA barcode library possessed diagnostic COI sequences for 98.8% of the taxa. Because a reference library based on Finnish specimens was highly effective in identifying specimens from Austria, we conclude that barcode libraries based on regional sampling can often be effective for a much larger area. Moreover, dispersal ability (poor, good) and distribution patterns (disjunct, fragmented, continuous, migratory) had little impact on levels of intraspecific geographic divergence. Furthermore, the present study revealed that, despite the intensity of past taxonomic work on European Lepidoptera, nearly 20% of the species shared by Austria and Finland require further work to clarify their status. Particularly discordant BIN (Barcode Index Number) cases should be checked to ascertain possible explanatory factors such as incorrect taxonomy, hybridization, introgression, and Wolbachia infections.

  18. Ancient Expansion of the Hox Cluster in Lepidoptera Generated Four Homeobox Genes Implicated in Extra-Embryonic Tissue Formation

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, William R.; Gibbs, Melanie; Breuker, Casper J.; Holland, Peter W. H.

    2014-01-01

    Gene duplications within the conserved Hox cluster are rare in animal evolution, but in Lepidoptera an array of divergent Hox-related genes (Shx genes) has been reported between pb and zen. Here, we use genome sequencing of five lepidopteran species (Polygonia c-album, Pararge aegeria, Callimorpha dominula, Cameraria ohridella, Hepialus sylvina) plus a caddisfly outgroup (Glyphotaelius pellucidus) to trace the evolution of the lepidopteran Shx genes. We demonstrate that Shx genes originated by tandem duplication of zen early in the evolution of large clade Ditrysia; Shx are not found in a caddisfly and a member of the basally diverging Hepialidae (swift moths). Four distinct Shx genes were generated early in ditrysian evolution, and were stably retained in all descendent Lepidoptera except the silkmoth which has additional duplications. Despite extensive sequence divergence, molecular modelling indicates that all four Shx genes have the potential to encode stable homeodomains. The four Shx genes have distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns in early development of the Speckled Wood butterfly (Pararge aegeria), with ShxC demarcating the future sites of extraembryonic tissue formation via strikingly localised maternal RNA in the oocyte. All four genes are also expressed in presumptive serosal cells, prior to the onset of zen expression. Lepidopteran Shx genes represent an unusual example of Hox cluster expansion and integration of novel genes into ancient developmental regulatory networks. PMID:25340822

  19. Is It an Ant or a Butterfly? Convergent Evolution in the Mitochondrial Gene Order of Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Babbucci, Massimiliano; Basso, Andrea; Scupola, Antonio; Patarnello, Tomaso; Negrisolo, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Insect mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA) are usually double helical and circular molecules containing 37 genes that are encoded on both strands. The arrangement of the genes is not constant for all species, and produces distinct gene orders (GOs) that have proven to be diagnostic in defining clades at different taxonomic levels. In general, it is believed that distinct taxa have a very low chance of sharing identically arranged GOs. However, examples of identical, homoplastic local rearrangements occurring in distinct taxa do exist. In this study, we sequenced the complete mtDNAs of the ants Formica fusca and Myrmica scabrinodis (Formicidae, Hymenoptera) and compared their GOs with those of other Insecta. The GO of F. fusca was found to be identical to the GO of Dytrisia (the largest clade of Lepidoptera). This finding is the first documented case of an identical GO shared by distinct groups of Insecta, and it is the oldest known event of GO convergent evolution in animals. Both Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera acquired this GO early in their evolution. Using a phylogenetic approach combined with new bioinformatic tools, the chronological order of the evolutionary events that produced the diversity of the hymenopteran GOs was determined. Additionally, new local homoplastic rearrangements shared by distinct groups of insects were identified. Our study showed that local and global homoplasies affecting the insect GOs are more widespread than previously thought. Homoplastic GOs can still be useful for characterizing the various clades, provided that they are appropriately considered in a phylogenetic and taxonomic context. PMID:25480682

  20. Emamectin benzoate (Affirm). a modern insecticide for the control of lepidoptera larvae on fruits, grapes and vegetables crops.

    PubMed

    Liguori, R; Correia, R; Thomas, C; Decaudin, B; Cisneros, J; Lopez, A

    2010-01-01

    Emamectin benzoate (Affirm) is a novel insecticide with potent efficacy against many specie of lepidoptera which are damaging fruits and leaves of agricultural crops. The active ingredient belongs to the naturally derived chemical group of avermectine, causing paralysis of lepidoptera larvae due to the activation of chloride channel at nerves level. Affirm is acting mainly through ingestion, due to its mode of action and fast activity, it is effective at very low rates and on all instars stages. It has been developed for the use on pomefruits, stonefruits, grapes and a broda range of vegetables crops at a rate range of 1.5 to 3 g ai/100L. The product shows translaminar activity and rapid degradation on leaf surface; therefore the active ingredient breaks down in a very short time to sublethal doses for most beneficials organisms living on the vegetation. The short rentry time, generally 24 hours for beneficials and impollinators, makes Affirm compatible for IPM programme in orchards and greenhouses. Also the residue profile is very favourable, leading to a very low maximum residue level and short preharvest interval in all edible crops.

  1. Effects of ultraviolet-B exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana on herbivory by two crucifer-feeding insects (Lepidoptera)

    SciTech Connect

    Grant-Petersson, J.; Renwick, J.A.A.

    1996-02-01

    Larvae of Pieris rapae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) and Trichoplusia ni (Huebner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were fed foliage from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. plants that had received a high dose of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) or from control plants. Treatments were compared using the Student independent t-test. P. rapae larvae consumed less of the foliage exposed to UV-B than control foliage. This difference as significant in older but not younger larvae, and the older P. rapae larvae fed foliage exposed to UV-B weighed significantly less. For T. ni, however, consumption and larval weights were approximately equal for UV-exposed and control foliage. No significant differencesmore » in growth rates per unit consumption on UV-exposed versus control foliage were found for either species. Chemical analysis showed that flavonoid levels increased in response to UV-B. Results suggested that UV-inducible flavonoids may act as feeding deterrents to P. rapae but not to T. ni. 56 refs., 6 figs.« less

  2. Structural and Mechanical Properties of Cocoons of Antherina suraka (Saturniidae, Lepidoptera), an Endemic Species Used for Silk Production in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wen-Yen; Carney, David A.; Wagoner Johnson, Amy J.; Berenbaum, May R.

    2017-01-01

    Antherina suraka Boisduval (Saturniidae, Lepidoptera) produces a silken cocoon that has been the focus of efforts to create a commercial wild silk industry in Madagascar. In this study, structural and mechanical properties of the cocoon of A. suraka from two sites were measured and compared to the cocoon of Bombyx mori L. (Bombycidae, Lepidoptera) the world's most common source for silk. Results of environmental scanning electron microscopy and mechanical testing showed that the silk sheet of A. suraka cocoon is less compact, with greater thickness and lower tensile strength and stiffness than that of B. mori. Confirming these results, stiffness and cell and thread density were found to be negatively correlated with thickness, and the cell and thread volumes were positively correlated with thickness. Antherina suraka showed no major differences between silk sheets from Kirindy and Isalo sites in either structural or mechanical properties, except for mean cell volume, which was greater in cocoons from Kirindy. Comparison between the two layers forming the cocoon showed that the inner layer has greater elastic modulus, denser silk distribution and lower porosity. Cocoons from both Kirindy and Isalo are suitable for sericulture. Although the inner layer of cocoon silk is of higher quality than the outer layer, the fact that both layers are of great but lower tensile strength than B. mori silk suggests that the current practice of sewing the two layers together for making one single layer fabric should be continued in efforts to produce a commercially viable product. PMID:28130459

  3. Comprehensive Molecular Sampling Yields a Robust Phylogeny for Geometrid Moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)

    PubMed Central

    Sihvonen, Pasi; Mutanen, Marko; Kaila, Lauri; Brehm, Gunnar; Hausmann, Axel; Staude, Hermann S.

    2011-01-01

    Background The moth family Geometridae (inchworms or loopers), with approximately 23 000 described species, is the second most diverse family of the Lepidoptera. Apart from a few recent attempts based on morphology and molecular studies, the phylogeny of these moths has remained largely uninvestigated. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a rigorous and extensive molecular analysis of eight genes to examine the geometrid affinities in a global context, including a search for its potential sister-taxa. Our maximum likelihood analyses included 164 taxa distributed worldwide, of which 150 belong to the Geometridae. The selected taxa represent all previously recognized subfamilies and nearly 90% of recognized tribes, and originate from all over world. We found the Geometridae to be monophyletic with the Sematuridae+Epicopeiidae clade potentially being its sister-taxon. We found all previously recognized subfamilies to be monophyletic, with a few taxa misplaced, except the Oenochrominae+Desmobathrinae complex that is a polyphyletic assemblage of taxa and the Orthostixinae, which was positioned within the Ennominae. The Sterrhinae and Larentiinae were found to be sister to the remaining taxa, followed by Archiearinae, the polyphyletic assemblage of Oenochrominae+Desmobathrinae moths, Geometrinae and Ennominae. Conclusions/Significance Our study provides the first comprehensive phylogeny of the Geometridae in a global context. Our results generally agree with the other, more restricted studies, suggesting that the general phylogenetic patterns of the Geometridae are now well-established. Generally the subfamilies, many tribes, and assemblages of tribes were well supported but their interrelationships were often weakly supported by our data. The Eumeleini were particularly difficult to place in the current system, and several tribes were found to be para- or polyphyletic. PMID:21673814

  4. Characterization of a single-nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus of Thysanoplusia orichalcea L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, X W; Carner, G R

    2000-05-01

    A single-nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) isolated from Thysanoplusia orichalcea L. (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) (ThorNPV) in Indonesia has tetrahedral occlusion bodies (OBs) with a width of 1. 22 microm (range = 0.803-1.931 microm). The length of the virion with an envelope averaged 0.29 and 0.23 microm without an envelope. ThorNPV was propagated in Pseudoplusia includens (Walker) and its authenticity was confirmed by sequence analysis of the polyhedrin gene of the ThorNPV produced in T. orichalcea and P. includens. Polyhedrin amino acid sequence analysis revealed that ThorNPV belongs to Group II of baculoviruses and is closely related to Trichoplusia ni single nucleocapsid NPV, sharing 97.6% sequence identity. Infectivity of ThorNPV against third instar P. includens was low, with a LD(50) value of 65,636 OBs/larva. Electron microscopy of infected tissues showed many polyhedra without virions embedded, which might explain the low virulence against P. includens. Differences in virion occlusion rates between individual cells in the same tissue suggested that the inoculum consisted of at least two variants that differed in the gene(s) controlling virion occlusion. In a host range test using the LD(50) value to P. includens against Spodoptera exigua, S. frugiperda, S. eridania, Anticarsia gemmatalis, Helicoverpa zea, Trichoplusia ni, and P. includens, P. includens was the only species infected. The virus infected primarily the fat body, tracheal epithelium, and hypodermis. The genomic size of the ThorNPV is 135 kb. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  5. Draft genome and reference transcriptomic resources for the urticating pine defoliator Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae).

    PubMed

    Gschloessl, B; Dorkeld, F; Berges, H; Beydon, G; Bouchez, O; Branco, M; Bretaudeau, A; Burban, C; Dubois, E; Gauthier, P; Lhuillier, E; Nichols, J; Nidelet, S; Rocha, S; Sauné, L; Streiff, R; Gautier, M; Kerdelhué, C

    2018-05-01

    The pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae) is the main pine defoliator in the Mediterranean region. Its urticating larvae cause severe human and animal health concerns in the invaded areas. This species shows a high phenotypic variability for various traits, such as phenology, fecundity and tolerance to extreme temperatures. This study presents the construction and analysis of extensive genomic and transcriptomic resources, which are an obligate prerequisite to understand their underlying genetic architecture. Using a well-studied population from Portugal with peculiar phenological characteristics, the karyotype was first determined and a first draft genome of 537 Mb total length was assembled into 68,292 scaffolds (N50 = 164 kb). From this genome assembly, 29,415 coding genes were predicted. To circumvent some limitations for fine-scale physical mapping of genomic regions of interest, a 3X coverage BAC library was also developed. In particular, 11 BACs from this library were individually sequenced to assess the assembly quality. Additionally, de novo transcriptomic resources were generated from various developmental stages sequenced with HiSeq and MiSeq Illumina technologies. The reads were de novo assembled into 62,376 and 63,175 transcripts, respectively. Then, a robust subset of the genome-predicted coding genes, the de novo transcriptome assemblies and previously published 454/Sanger data were clustered to obtain a high-quality and comprehensive reference transcriptome consisting of 29,701 bona fide unigenes. These sequences covered 99% of the cegma and 88% of the busco highly conserved eukaryotic genes and 84% of the busco arthropod gene set. Moreover, 90% of these transcripts could be localized on the draft genome. The described information is available via a genome annotation portal (http://bipaa.genouest.org/sp/thaumetopoea_pityocampa/). © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Biological Characteristics of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Induced to Diapause in Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Oscar Arnaldo Batista Neto e; Bernardi, Daniel; Botton, Marcos; Garcia, Mauro Silveira

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In southern Brazil, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) uses diapause as survival strategy during the winter (May–August). In our study, we evaluated the effect of diapause on biological characteristics of the species for 4 months in laboratory. Newly hatched larvae of G. molesta were induced to diapause changing the photoperiod and temperature (T) (12 ± 1°C), relative humidity (RH) (70 ± 10%), and a photophase of 12 h and, when they started diapause in the prepupal stage, the conditions were kept for 4 months. Afterwards, the insects were induced to finalize the diapause process at T 25 ± 1°C, RH 70 ± 10%, and a photophase of 16 h. We evaluated the duration and viability of the larval stages and pupae, pupae weight at 24 h and sex ratio (sr), periods of preoviposition, oviposition, and postoviposition; adult life span (males and females); fecundity (daily and total); embryonic period duration and eggs viability, comparing the data with insects nondiapause. The results show that diapause greatly affected the viability of pupal–adult stages of the population (21.8%) when compared with insects’ nondiapause (80.0%). Total fecundity (83.0 eggs) and mean life span (12.0 d) of insects diapause was significantly lower compared with insects nondiapause (173.0 and 17.0), respectively. However, these differences were not observed in the sr, which was similar to insects diapause (sr = 0.41) and insects nondiapause (sr = 0.49). The diapause induced for 4 months negatively affects reproduction and life span of adults of G. molesta. PMID:25527572

  7. Biological characteristics of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) induced to diapause in laboratory.

    PubMed

    Neto e Silva, Oscar Arnaldo Batista; Bernardi, Daniel; Botton, Marcos; Garcia, Mauro Silveira

    2014-01-01

    In southern Brazil, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) uses diapause as survival strategy during the winter (May-August). In our study, we evaluated the effect of diapause on biological characteristics of the species for 4 months in laboratory. Newly hatched larvae of G. molesta were induced to diapause changing the photoperiod and temperature (T) (12 ± 1°C), relative humidity (RH) (70 ± 10%), and a photophase of 12 h and, when they started diapause in the prepupal stage, the conditions were kept for 4 months. Afterwards, the insects were induced to finalize the diapause process at T 25 ± 1°C, RH 70 ± 10%, and a photophase of 16 h. We evaluated the duration and viability of the larval stages and pupae, pupae weight at 24 h and sex ratio (sr), periods of preoviposition, oviposition, and postoviposition; adult life span (males and females); fecundity (daily and total); embryonic period duration and eggs viability, comparing the data with insects nondiapause. The results show that diapause greatly affected the viability of pupal-adult stages of the population (21.8%) when compared with insects' nondiapause (80.0%). Total fecundity (83.0 eggs) and mean life span (12.0 d) of insects diapause was significantly lower compared with insects nondiapause (173.0 and 17.0), respectively. However, these differences were not observed in the sr, which was similar to insects diapause (sr = 0.41) and insects nondiapause (sr = 0.49). The diapause induced for 4 months negatively affects reproduction and life span of adults of G. molesta. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  8. Two new genera of metalmark butterflies of North and Central America (Lepidoptera, Riodinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Trujano-Ortega, Marysol; García-Vázquez, Uri Omar; Callaghan, Curtis J.; Ávalos-Hernández, Omar; Luis-Martínez, Moisés Armando; Llorente-Bousquets, Jorge Enrique

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Two new genera of Riodinidae (Insecta: Lepidoptera) are described, Neoapodemia Trujano-Ortega, gen. n. (Neoapodemia nais (W. H. Edwards, 1876), comb. n., N. chisosensis Freeman, 1964, comb. n.) and Plesioarida Trujano-Ortega & García-Vázquez, gen. n. (Plesioarida palmerii palmerii (W. H. Edwards, 1870), comb. n., P. palmerii arizona (Austin, [1989]), comb. n., P. palmerii australis (Austin, [1989]), comb. n., P. hepburni hepburni (Godman & Salvin, 1886), comb. n., P. hepburni remota (Austin, 1991), comb. n., P. murphyi (Austin, [1989]), comb. n., P. hypoglauca hypoglauca (Godman & Salvin, 1878), comb. n., P. hypoglauca wellingi (Ferris, 1985), comb. n., P. walkeri (Godman & Salvin, 1886), comb. n., P. selvatica (De la Maza & De la Maza, 2017), comb. n.). Neoapodemia Trujano-Ortega, gen. n. is distributed in the southwestern USA and northeastern Mexico, while Plesioarida Trujano-Ortega & García-Vázquez, gen. n. is present from the southern USA to Central America. Species of these genera were previously classified as Apodemia C. Felder & R. Felder but molecular and morphological evidence separate them as new taxa. Morphological diagnoses and descriptions are provided for both new genera, including the main distinctive characters from labial palpi, prothoracic legs, wing venation and genitalia, as well as life history traits. A molecular phylogeny of one mitochondrial gene (COI) and two nuclear genes (EF-1a and wg) are also presented of most species of Apodemia, Neoapodemia Trujano-Ortega, gen. n., Plesioarida Trujano-Ortega & García-Vázquez, gen. n., and sequences of specimens from all tribes of Riodinidae. We compare the characters of Apodemia, Neoapodemia Trujano-Ortega, gen. n. and Plesioarida Trujano-Ortega & García-Vázquez, gen. n. and discuss the differences that support the description of these new taxa. This is a contribution to the taxonomy of the Riodinidae of North America of which the generic diversity is greater than previously

  9. Selection and life history traits of tebufenozide-resistant sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Akbar, W; Ottea, J A; Beuzelin, J M; Reagan, T E; Huang, F

    2008-12-01

    Varying susceptibility to tebufenozide was recorded in the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), collected from Louisiana sugarcane locations with different selection pressures. Results from diet incorporation bioassays with tebufenozide indicated significant increases in LC50 (3.78-fold) and LC90 (7-fold) values for a colony from Duson (DU), an area with higher selection pressure, compared with a colony from Alexandria (ALEX), an area with no selection pressure. Differences were not detected in LC50 values among colonies from areas where use of tebufenozide was discontinued or rotated with other chemistries. Selections with tebufenozide of DU larvae over 12 generations resulted in a highly resistant colony (DU-R) with 27.1- and 83.3-fold increases in LC50 and LC90 values, respectively. Comparison of pupal weight, days to pupation, and emergence after exposure to an equitoxic (LC20) concentration of tebufenozide revealed a decrease in pupal weight (34 and 33% for males and females, respectively), and an increase in days to pupation (47 and 40% for males and females, respectively), and emergence (43 and 33% for males and females, respectively) for the DU-R colony compared with the parent DU colony. Fecundity of DU-R females decreased to 72 eggs per female compared with 180 (DU) and 261 (ALEX). Egg viability of the ALEX and DU colonies was 61 and 56%, respectively, whereas only 27% of eggs laid by females from the DU-R colony hatched. These results are discussed in terms of their practical implications for control of D. saccharalis in Louisiana sugarcane.

  10. Morphology, ultrastructure, and chemical compounds of the osmeterium of Heraclides thoas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    PubMed

    Martínez, Luis Carlos; Plata-Rueda, Angelica; da Silva Neves, Guilherme; Cossolin, Jamile Fernanda; Dos Santos, Marcelo Henrique; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2018-05-11

    The osmeterium, found in papilionoid larvae, is an eversible organ with an exocrine gland that produces substances in response to the mechanical disturbances caused by natural enemies. The anatomy, histology and ultrastructure of the osmeterium, and the chemical composition of its secretion in Heraclides thoas (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) were studied. Heraclides thoas larvae have a Y-shaped osmeterium in the thorax. The surface of the osmeterium has a rough cuticle lining cells with papillae and irregular folds, whereas the cells that limited the gland pores are irregular, folded, and devoid of papillae. Two types of cells are found: (i) cuticular epidermal cells on the surface of the tubular arms of the osmeterium and (ii) secretory cells of the ellipsoid gland within the region of the glandular pore. Cuticular epidermal cells show a thick cuticle, with several layers divided into epicuticle and lamellar endocuticle. Secretory cells are polygonal, with extensive folds in the basal plasma membrane that formed extracellular channels. The cytoplasm has mitochondria, ribosomes, and numerous vacuoles, whereas the nucleus is irregular in shape with decondensed chromatin. The chemical composition of the osmeterial secretion comprised (Z)-α-bisabolene (25.4%), α-bisabol (20.6%), β-bisabolene (13.1%), (E)-α-bisabolene 8%), β-pinene (9.91%), longipinene epoxide (8.92%), (Z)-β-farnesene (6.96%), β-caryophyllene (2.05%), farnesol (1.86%), linalyl propionate (1.86%), and 1-octyn-4-ol (1.07%). The morphological features suggest that the cuticular epidermal cells play a major role in the maintenance and protection of the osmeterium, whereas secretory cells are responsible for production of osmeterial secretions.

  11. Ecdysteroidogenesis and development in Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Focus on PTTH-stimulated pathways.

    PubMed

    Scieuzo, Carmen; Nardiello, Marisa; Salvia, Rosanna; Pezzi, Marco; Chicca, Milvia; Leis, Marilena; Bufo, Sabino A; Vinson, S Bradleigh; Rao, Asha; Vogel, Heiko; Falabella, Patrizia

    2018-02-15

    Post-embryonic development and molting in insects are regulated by endocrine changes, including prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH)-stimulated ecdysone secretion by the prothoracic glands (PGs). In Lepidoptera, two pathways are potentially involved in PTTH-stimulated ecdysteroidogenesis, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/TOR). We investigated the potential roles of both these pathways in Heliothis virescens ecdysteroidogenesis. We identified putative proteins belonging to MAPK and PI3K/Akt/TOR signaling cascades, using transcriptomic analyses of PGs from last (fifth) instar larvae. Using western blots, we measured the phosphorylation of 4E-BP and S6K proteins, the main targets of TOR, following the in vitro exposure of PGs to brain extract containing PTTH (hereafter referred to as PTTH) and/or the inhibitors of MAPK (U0126), PI3K (LY294002) or TOR (rapamycin). Next, we measured ecdysone production, under the same experimental conditions, by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). We found that in Heliothis virescens last instar larvae, both pathways modulated PTTH-stimulated ecdysteroidogenesis. Finally, we analyzed the post-embryonic development of third and fourth instar larvae fed on diet supplemented with rapamycin, in order to better understand the role of the TOR pathway in larval growth. When rapamycin was added to the diet of larvae, the onset of molting was delayed, the growth rate was reduced and abnormally small larvae/pupae with high mortality rates resulted. In larvae fed on diet supplemented with rapamycin, the growth of PGs was suppressed, and ecdysone production and secretion were inhibited. Overall, the in vivo and in vitro results demonstrated that, similarly to Bombyx mori, MAPK and PI3K/Akt/TOR pathways are involved in PTTH signaling-stimulated ecdysteroidogenesis, and indicated the important role of TOR protein in H. virescens systemic growth. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All

  12. Survival and development of Lymantria monacha (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) on North American and introduced Eurasian tree species.

    PubMed

    Keena, M A

    2003-02-01

    Lymantria monacha (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), the nun moth, is a Eurasian pest of conifers that has potential for accidental introduction into North America. To project the potential host range of this insect if introduced into North America, survival and development of L. monacha on 26 North American and eight introduced Eurasian tree species were examined. Seven conifer species (Abies concolor, Picea abies, P. glauca, P. pungens, Pinus sylvestris with male cones, P. menziesii variety glance, and Tsuga canadensis) and six broadleaf species (Betula populifolia, Malus x domestica, Prunus serotiaa, Quercus lobata, Q. rubra, and Q. velutina) were suitable for L. monacha survival and development. Eleven of the host species tested were rated as intermediate in suitability, four conifer species (Larix occidentalis, P. nigra, P. ponderosa, P. strobus, and Pseudotsuga menziesii variety menziesii) and six broadleaf species (Carpinus caroliniana, Carya ovata, Fagus grandifolia, Populus grandidentata, Q. alba, and Tilia cordata) and the remaining 10 species tested were rated as poor (Acer rubrum, A. platanoidies, A. saccharum, F. americana, Juniperus virginiana, Larix kaempferi, Liriodendron tulipfera, Morus alba, P. taeda, and P. deltoides). The phenological state of the trees had a major impact on establishment, survival, and development of L. monacha on many of the tree species tested. Several of the deciduous tree species that are suitable for L. monacha also are suitable for L. dispar (L.) and L. mathura Moore. Establishment of L. monacha in North America would be catastrophic because of the large number of economically important tree species on which it can survive and develop, and the ability of mated females to fly and colonize new areas.

  13. Evaluation of five antibiotics on larval gut bacterial diversity of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiao-Li; Kang, Zhi-Wei; Pan, Qin-Jian; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2015-10-01

    Larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), have rich microbial communities inhabiting the gut, and these bacteria contribute to the fitness of the pest. In this study we evaluated the effects of five antibiotics (rifampicin, ampicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin sulfate and chloramphenicol) on the gut bacterial diversity of P. xylostella larvae. We screened five different concentrations for each antibiotic in a leaf disc assay, and found that rifampicin and streptomycin sulfate at 3 mg/mL significantly reduced the diversity of the bacterial community, and some bacterial species could be rapidly eliminated. The number of gut bacteria in the rifampicin group and streptomycin sulfate group decreased more rapidly than the others. With the increase of antibiotic concentration, the removal efficiency was improved, whereas toxic effects became more apparent. All antibiotics reduced larval growth and development, and eventually caused high mortality, malformation of the prepupae, and hindered pupation and adult emergence. Among the five antibiotics, tetracycline was the most toxic and streptomycin sulfate was a relatively mild one. Some dominant bacteria were not affected by feeding antibiotics alone. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis graph showed that the most abundant and diverse bacteria in P. xylostella larval gut appeared in the cabbage feeding group, and diet change and antibiotics intake influenced gut flora abundance. Species diversity was significantly reduced in the artificial diet and antibiotics treatment groups. After feeding on the artificial diet with rifampicin, streptomycin sulfate and their mixture for 10 days, larval gut bacteria could not be completely removed as detected with the agarose gel electrophoresis method. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  14. [A new subspecies of Heraclides androgeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) and its biogeographical aspects].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Fernández, Isabel; Luis-Martínez, Armando; Llorente-Bousquets, Jorge

    2013-06-01

    A new subspecies of Heraclides androgeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) and its biogeographical aspects. Heraclides androgeus epidaurus was described and illustrated by Godman & Salvin in 1890 based on specimens obtained in Veracruz, indicating that their distribution encompassed both the Pacific and Atlantic sides of Mexico. Later authors commented that there were morphological differences between the male wings from both populations. We analyzed, described and nominated Heraclides androgeus reyesorum ssp. nov. Vargas, Llorente & Luis distributed in the Mexican Pacific coast, based on 62 specimens, and compared it with H a. epidaurus from the Gulf of Mexico, based on more than 200 specimens housed at UNAM: Museo de Zoología, Facultad de Ciencias and the Colección Nacional de Insectos of the Instituto de Biologia, as well as some collections from the USA. The main characters were the width of the yellow and black bands on forewings in males, which had a significant difference between the populations of both sides of Mexico, although some characters were variable and showed partial overlap. In the hindwings, the differences were the extent of the subterminal lunules in dorsal and ventral view. We also analyzed the male genitalia, finding notorious differences in both sclerotic processes of the harpe. Subspecific differences between females refer to the brightness and extent of green spots on the hindwings and the extent of lunules in the ventral view. The greatest abundance of H. a. reyesorum ssp. nov. was in the tropical deciduous forest, with gallery forest and in the lower range of the cloud forest, present at altitudes of 500-800 m and 1000-1 750 m, respectively. We discussed the pattern of endemism due to historical vicariant processes and explain the presence of the new subspecies of H. androgeus and other taxa of specific level.

  15. Effects of Exyra ridingsii (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Sarracenia flava (Nepenthales: Sarraceniaceae).

    PubMed

    Ricci, Christine A; Meier, Albert J; Meier, Ouida W; Philips, T Keith

    2017-12-08

    Exyra ridingsii (Riley) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a moth whose obligate host is the pitcher plant Sarracenia flava (L.) (Nepenthales: Sarraceniaceae). The entire life cycle of the moth is completed in the trumpets of this fire-dependent plant that is found throughout the southeastern United States in bogs, long-leaf pine savannas, and pocosins. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of E. ridingsii on S. flava, including the effect of herbivory on trumpet height in the year subsequent to feeding and whether moths select trumpets for oviposition based on height. Although most forms of herbivory by insects might be expected to have negative effects on plants by reducing photosynthetic abilities, it would be counterproductive for herbivory by E. ridingsii to negatively affect S. flava as this plant is the only possible habitat for E. ridingsii. At each site in selected quadrats, the number of trumpets, trumpet height, trumpet status, number of trumpets in a clump, and number of clumps were recorded. The relationship between height and herbivory was analyzed using a linear model, and a positive correlation was found between height and herbivory. E. ridingsii herbivory had no effect on the next year's growth of S. flava based on a Spearman's correlation. Therefore, we concluded that E. ridingsii has little effect on S. flava populations and has likely evolved to selectively avoid herbivory on more vulnerable, smaller plants. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Phylogeny of the pollinating yucca moths, with revision of Mexican species (Tegeticula and Parategeticula; Lepidoptera, Prodoxidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Pellmyr, Olof; Balcazar-Lara, Manuel; Segraves, Kari A.

    2008-02-01

    ABSTRACT The yucca moths (Tegeticula and Parategeticula; Lepidoptera, Prodoxidae) are well-known for their obligate relationship as exclusive pollinators of yuccas. Revisionary work in recent years has revealed far higher species diversity than historically recognized, increasing the number of described species from four to 21. Based on field surveys in Mexico and examination of collections, we describe five additional species: T. californica Pellmyr sp. nov., T. tehuacana Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov., T. tambasi Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov., T. baja Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov., and P. californica Pellmyr & Balcázar-Lara sp. nov. Tegeticula treculeanella Pellmyr is identified as amore » junior synonym of T. mexicana Bastida. A diagnostic key to the adults of all species of the T. yuccasella complex is provided. A phylogeny based on a 2104-bp segment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the cytochrome oxidase I and II region supported monophyly of the two pollinator genera, and strongly supported monophyly of the 17 recognized species of the T. yuccasella complex. Most relationships are well-supported, but some relationships within a recent and rapidly diversified group of 11 taxa are less robust, and in one case conflicts with a whole-genome data set (AFLP). The current mtDNA-based analyses, together with previously published AFLP data, provide a robust phylogenetic foundation for future studies of life history evolution and host interactions in one of the classical models of coevolution and obligate mutualism. ADDITIONAL KEY WORDS: mutualism, pollination, molecular phylogenetics, mitochondrial DNA« less

  17. Effect of electron beam irradiation on developmental stages of Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Junheon; Chung, Soon-Oh; Jang, Sin Ae; Jang, Miyeon; Park, Chung Gyoo

    2015-07-01

    Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an economically important and polyphagous pest, which harms various kinds of food crops and important agricultural plants, such as cotton and paprika. Effects of electron beam irradiation at six dose levels between 50 and 350 Gy on the egg (24-48 h old), the larval (4-5th instar), and the pupal (7-d old for female, 5-d old for male) development, and on the adult (1-d old) reproduction were tested to identify a potential quarantine treatment dose. Increased doses of irradiation on eggs decreased egg hatchability, pupation and adult emergence and increased larval period. ED99 values for inhibition of hatching, pupation and emergence were 460.6, 236.9 and 197.8 Gy, respectively. When larvae were irradiated with more than 280 Gy, no larvae could develop into pupae. ED99 values for inhibition of pupation and adult emergence were 265.6 and 189.6 Gy, respectively. Even though the irradiation on pupa did not completely inhibit adult emergence, most of the pupae emerged to deformed adults. When adults were irradiated, fecundity was not affected. However, F1 egg hatching was completely inhibited at the dose of 350 Gy. ED99 value for inhibition of adult emergence was estimated at 366.5 Gy. Our results suggest that electron beam irradiation could be recommendable as an alternative to MB and as a phytosanitary treatment for quarantine. A treatment dose of less than or equal to 220 Gy is suggested as a potential quarantine treatment to H. armigera egg for prevention of pupation and to larva for prevention of adult emerge.

  18. Molecular Phylogeny of the Small Ermine Moth Genus Yponomeuta (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) in the Palaearctic

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Hubert; Lieshout, Niek; Van Ginkel, Wil E.; Menken, Steph B. J.

    2010-01-01

    Background The small ermine moth genus Yponomeuta (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) contains 76 species that are specialist feeders on hosts from Celastraceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and several other plant families. The genus is a model for studies in the evolution of phytophagous insects and their host-plant associations. Here, we reconstruct the phylogeny to provide a solid framework for these studies, and to obtain insight into the history of host-plant use and the biogeography of the genus. Methodology/Principal Findings DNA sequences from an internal transcribed spacer region (ITS-1) and from the 16S rDNA (16S) and cytochrome oxidase (COII) mitochondrial genes were collected from 20–23 (depending on gene) species and two outgroup taxa to reconstruct the phylogeny of the Palaearctic members of this genus. Sequences were analysed using three different phylogenetic methods (parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian inference). Conclusions/Significance Roughly the same patterns are retrieved irrespective of the method used, and they are similar among the three genes. Monophyly is well supported for a clade consisting of the Japanese (but not the Dutch) population of Yponomeuta sedellus and Y. yanagawanus, a Y. kanaiellus–polystictus clade, and a Rosaceae-feeding, western Palaearctic clade (Y. cagnagellus–irrorellus clade). Within these clades, relationships are less well supported, and the patterns between the different gene trees are not so similar. The position of the remaining taxa is also variable among the gene trees and rather weakly supported. The phylogenetic information was used to elucidate patterns of biogeography and resource use. In the Palaearctic, the genus most likely originated in the Far East, feeding on Celastraceae, dispersing to the West concomitant with a shift to Rosaceae and further to Salicaceae. The association of Y. cagnagellus with Euonymus europaeus (Celastraceae), however, is a reversal. The only oligophagous species, Y. padellus, belongs

  19. That awkward age for butterflies: insights from the age of the butterfly subfamily Nymphalinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Wahlberg, Niklas

    2006-10-01

    The study of the historical biogeography of butterflies has been hampered by a lack of well-resolved phylogenies and a good estimate of the temporal span over which butterflies have evolved. Recently there has been surge of phylogenetic hypotheses for various butterfly groups, but estimating ages of divergence is still in its infancy for this group of insects. The main problem has been the sparse fossil record for butterflies. In this study I have used a surprisingly good fossil record for the subfamily Nymphalinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) to estimate the ages of diversification of major lineages using Bayesian relaxed clock methods. I have investigated the effects of varying priors on posterior estimates in the analyses. For this data set, it is clear that the prior of the rate of molecular evolution at the ingroup node had the largest effect on the results. Taking this into account, I have been able to arrive at a plausible history of lineage splits, which appears to be correlated with known paleogeological events. The subfamily appears to have diversified soon after the K/T event about 65 million years ago. Several splits are coincident with major paleogeological events, such as the connection of the African and Asian continents about 21 million years ago and the presence of a peninsula of land connecting the current Greater Antilles to the South American continent 35 to 33 million years ago. My results suggest that the age of Nymphalidae is older than the 70 million years speculated to be the age of butterflies as a whole.

  20. Captures of Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) With Sex Pheromone Traps in NE China Corn and Soybeans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ri-Zhao; Li, Lian-Bing; Klein, Michael G; Li, Qi-Yun; Li, Peng-Pei; Sheng, Cheng-Fa

    2016-02-01

    Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), commonly referred to as the Asian corn borer, is the most important corn pest in Asia. Although capturing males with pheromone traps has recently been the main monitoring tool and suppression technique, the best trap designs remain unclear. Commercially available Delta and funnel traps, along with laboratory-made basin and water traps, and modified Delta traps, were evaluated in corn and soybean fields during 2013-2014 in NE China. The water trap was superior for capturing first-generation O. furnacalis (1.37 times the Delta trap). However, the basin (8.3 ± 3.2 moths/trap/3 d), Delta (7.9 ± 2.5), and funnel traps (7.0 ± 2.3) were more effective than water traps (1.4 ± 0.4) during the second generation. Delta traps gave optimal captures when deployed at ca. 1.57 × the highest corn plants, 1.36× that of average soybean plants, and at the field borders. In Delta traps modified by covering 1/3 of their ends, captures increased by ca. 15.7 and 8.1% in the first and second generations, respectively. After 35 d in the field, pheromone lures were still ca. 50% as attractive as fresh lures, and retained this level of attraction for ca. 25 more days. Increased captures (first and second generation: 90.9 ± 9.5%; 78.3 ± 9.3%) were obtained by adding a lure exposed for 5 d to funnel traps baited with a 35-d lure. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Purification, Characterization, and Sensitivity to Pesticides of Carboxylesterase From Dendrolimus superans (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Chuan-shan; Cao, Chuan-wang; Zhang, Guo-cai; Wang, Zhi-ying

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Through a combination of steps including centrifugation, ammonium sulfate gradient precipitation, sephadex G-25 gel chromatography, diethylaminoethyl cellulose 52 ion-exchange chromatography and hydroxyapatite affinity chromatography, carboxylesterase (CarE, EC3.1.1.1) from sixth instar larch caterpillar moth, Dendrolimus superans (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) larvae was purified and its biochemical properties were compared between crude homogenate and purified CarE. The final purified CarE after hydroxyapatite chromatography had a specific activity of 52.019 μmol/(min·mg protein), 138.348-fold of crude homogenate, and the yield of 2.782%. The molecular weight of the purified CarE was approximately 84.78 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Three pesticides (dichlorvos, lambda-cyhalothrin, and avermectins) showed different inhibition to crude CarE and purified CarE, respectively. In vitro median inhibitory concentration indicated that the sensitivity of CarE (both crude homogenate and final purified CarE) to pesticides was in decreasing order of dichlorvos > avermectins > lambda-cyhalothrin. By the kinetic analysis, the substrates alpha-naphthyl acetate (α-NA) and beta-naphthyl acetate (β-NA) showed lesser affinity to crude extract than purified CarE. The results also indicated that both crude homogenate and purified CarE had more affinity to α-NA than to β-NA, and the Kcat and Vmax values of crude extract were lower than purified CarE using α-NA or β-NA as substrate. PMID:25525114

  2. Partial Life History of Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Summer Hosts.

    PubMed

    Moonga, M N; Davis, J A

    2016-08-01

    The soybean looper, Chrysodeixis includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a major defoliating pest of soybeans, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, in Louisiana. However, other alternate host crops in the agroecosystem have the potential to impact C. includens populations. Life table statistics of C. includens on four host plants were evaluated. C. includens larvae were fed leaves of three cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. cultivars 'DP 143 B2RF,' 'DP 174 RF,' and 'PHY 485 WRF'; cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers 'California Blackeye'; three soybean cultivars 'Lyon,' 'PI 227687,' and 'RC 4955'; and sweetpotato Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamarck 'Evangeline.' All C. includens larvae reared on cotton cultivars DP 143 B2RF and PHY 485 WRF experienced 100% mortality during the first instar. Total developmental period of preadult C. includens was significantly shorter on cotton DP 174 RF and cowpea California Blackeye but longer on sweetpotato Evangeline. Sweetpotato Evangeline had the highest amount of leaf tissue consumed and soybean Lyon had the least. Pupal weight was highest when insects fed on cotton DP 174 RF and lowest on soybean PI 227687. Life table statistics showed that the highest intrinsic rate of increase and net reproductive rate were attained when insects were reared on cotton DP 174 RF and cowpea California Blackeye whilst the lowest were recorded on soybean PI 227687. This study provides valuable information on the role of alternative host crops on the partial life history of C. includens in Louisiana agroecosystems. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Importance of Habitat Heterogeneity in Richness and Diversity of Moths (Lepidoptera) in Brazilian Savanna.

    PubMed

    Braga, Laura; Diniz, Ivone Rezende

    2015-06-01

    Moths exhibit different levels of fidelity to habitat, and some taxa are considered as bioindicators for conservation because they respond to habitat quality, environmental change, and vegetation types. In this study, we verified the effect of two phytophysiognomies of the Cerrado, savanna and forest, on the diversity distribution of moths of Erebidae (Arctiinae), Saturniidae, and Sphingidae families by using a hierarchical additive partitioning analysis. This analysis was based on two metrics: species richness and Shannon diversity index. The following questions were addressed: 1) Does the beta diversity of moths between phytophysiognomies add more species to the regional diversity than the beta diversity between sampling units and between sites? 2) Does the distribution of moth diversity differ among taxa? Alpha and beta diversities were compared with null models. The additive partitioning of species richness for the set of three Lepidoptera families identified beta diversity between phytophysiognomies as the component that contributed most to regional diversity, whereas the Shannon index identified alpha diversity as the major contributor. According to both species richness and the Shannon index, beta diversity between phytophysiognomies was significantly higher than expected by chance. Therefore, phytophysiognomies are the most important component in determining the richness and composition of the community. Additive partitioning also indicated that individual families of moths respond differently to the effect of habitat heterogeneity. The integrity of the Cerrado mosaic of phytophysiognomies plays a crucial role in maintaining moth biodiversity in the region. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Factors Influencing Expression of Antixenosis in Soybean to Anticarsia gemmatalis and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Boiça Júnior, Arlindo Leal; De Souza, Bruno Henrique Sardinha; Costa, Eduardo Neves; Ribeiro, Zulene Antonio; Stout, Michael Joseph

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate some factors that influence the expression of antixenosis in soybean genotypes against Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Free-choice and no-choice feeding assays were performed with the resistant soybean genotype IAC 100 and the susceptible genotype BRSGO 8360 using A. gemmatalis and S. frugiperda larvae. The following factors that may affect expression of resistance were evaluated: one larva versus two larvae per leaf disc; use of larvae without prior feeding suspension versus larvae starved for 3 h prior to the assay; leaf discs versus entire leaflets; upper part versus lower part of the plant; and, vegetative versus reproductive growth stages. The level of resistance exhibited by the genotype IAC 100 was high enough to not be obscured by the effects of all factors assayed in the present study upon the feeding preference of A. gemmatalis and S. frugiperda larvae. However, our results demonstrate the importance of knowing the optimal conditions for conducting an assay for evaluating resistance of genotypes for specialist and generalist insect species. Utilization of two larvae of A. gemmatalis per leaf disc, not starved before the assays, with leaf discs from the upper part of plants at the reproductive growth stage provided better discrimination of differences in antixenosis expression in soybean genotypes. For S. frugiperda, use of one larva per leaf disc, not starved before the assays, with leaf discs from the lower part of plants at the reproductive growth stage gave more satisfactory results for feeding preference tests. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Spatial distribution of grape root borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) infestations in Virginia vineyards and implications for sampling.

    PubMed

    Rijal, J P; Brewster, C C; Bergh, J C

    2014-06-01

    Grape root borer, Vitacea polistiformis (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) is a potentially destructive pest of grape vines, Vitis spp. in the eastern United States. After feeding on grape roots for ≍2 yr in Virginia, larvae pupate beneath the soil surface around the vine base. Adults emerge during July and August, leaving empty pupal exuviae on or protruding from the soil. Weekly collections of pupal exuviae from an ≍1-m-diameter weed-free zone around the base of a grid of sample vines in Virginia vineyards were conducted in July and August, 2008-2012, and their distribution was characterized using both nonspatial (dispersion) and spatial techniques. Taylor's power law showed a significant aggregation of pupal exuviae, based on data from 19 vineyard blocks. Combined use of geostatistical and Spatial Analysis by Distance IndicEs methods indicated evidence of an aggregated pupal exuviae distribution pattern in seven of the nine blocks used for those analyses. Grape root borer pupal exuviae exhibited spatial dependency within a mean distance of 8.8 m, based on the range values of best-fitted variograms. Interpolated and clustering index-based infestation distribution maps were developed to show the spatial pattern of the insect within the vineyard blocks. The temporal distribution of pupal exuviae showed that the majority of moths emerged during the 3-wk period spanning the third week of July and the first week of August. The spatial distribution of grape root borer pupal exuviae was used in combination with temporal moth emergence patterns to develop a quantitative and efficient sampling scheme to assess infestations.

  6. Suppression of leopard moth (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) populations in olive trees in Egypt through mating disruption.

    PubMed

    Hegazi, E M; Khafagi, W E; Konstantopoulou, M A; Schlyter, F; Raptopoulos, D; Shweil, S; Abd El-Rahman, S; Atwa, A; Ali, S E; Tawfik, H

    2010-10-01

    The leopard moth, Zeuzera pyrina (L.) (Lepidoptera: Cossidae), is a damaging pest for many fruit trees (e.g., apple [Malus spp.], pear [Pyrus spp.] peach [Prunus spp.], and olive [Olea]). Recently, it caused serious yield losses in newly established olive orchards in Egypt, including the death of young trees. Chemical and biological control have shown limited efficiency against this pest. Field tests were conducted in 2005 and 2006 to evaluate mating disruption (MD) for the control of the leopard moth, on heavily infested, densely planted olive plots (336 trees per ha). The binary blend of the pheromone components (E,Z)-2,13-octadecenyl acetate and (E,Z)-3,13-octadecenyl acetate (95:5) was dispensed from polyethylene vials. Efficacy was measured considering reduction of catches in pheromone traps, reduction of active galleries of leopard moth per tree and fruit yield in the pheromone-treated plots (MD) compared with control plots (CO). Male captures in MD plots were reduced by 89.3% in 2005 and 82.9% in 2006, during a trapping period of 14 and 13 wk, respectively. Application of MD over two consecutive years progressively reduced the number of active galleries per tree in the third year where no sex pheromone was applied. In all years, larval galleries outnumbered moth captures. Fruit yield from trees where sex pheromone had been applied in 2005 and 2006 increased significantly in 2006 (98.8 +/- 2.9 kg per tree) and 2007 (23 +/- 1.3 kg per tree) compared with control ones (61.0 +/- 3.9 and 10.0 +/- 0.6 kg per tree, respectively). Mating disruption shows promising for suppressing leopard moth infestation in olives.

  7. Karyosystematics and molecular taxonomy of the anomalous blue butterflies (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae) from the Balkan Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Vishnevskaya, Maria S.; Saifitdinova, Alsu F.; Lukhtanov, Vladimir A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Balkan Peninsula represents one of the hottest biodiversity spots in Europe. However, the invertebrate fauna of this region is still insufficiently investigated, even in respect of such well-studied organisms as Lepidoptera. Here we use a combination of chromosomal, molecular and morphological markers to rearrange the group of so-called anomalous blue butterflies (also known as ‘brown complex’ of the subgenus Agrodiaetus Hübner, [1822] and as the Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) admetus (Esper, 1783) species group) and to reveal its cryptic taxonomic structure. We demonstrate that Polyommatus aroaniensis (Brown, 1976) is not as widespread in the Balkans as was previously thought. In fact, it has a dot-like distribution range restricted to the Peloponnese Peninsula in South Greece. Polyommatus orphicus Kolev, 2005 is not as closely related to the Turkish species Polyommatus dantchenkoi (Lukhtanov & Wiemers, 2003) as was supposed earlier. Instead, it is a Balkan endemic represented by two subspecies: Polyommatus orphicus orphicus (Bulgaria) and Polyommatus orphicus eleniae Coutsis & De Prins, 2005 (Northern Greece). Polyommatus ripartii (Freyer, 1830) is represented in the Balkans by an endemic subspecies Polyommatus ripartii pelopi. The traditionally recognized Polyommatus admetus (Esper, 1783) is shown to be a heterogeneous complex and is divided into Polyommatus admetus sensu stricto (the Balkans and west Turkey) and Polyommatus yeranyani (Dantchenko & Lukhtanov, 2005) (east Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Iran). Polyommatus nephohiptamenos (Brown & Coutsis, 1978) is confirmed to be a species with a dot-like distribution range in Northern Greece. Finally, from Central Greece (Timfristos and Parnassos mountains) we describe Polyommatus timfristos Lukhtanov, Vishnevskaya & Shapoval, sp. n. which differs by its haploid chromosome number (n=38) from the closely related and morphologically similar Polyommatus aroaniensis (n=47-48) and Polyommatus orphicus (n

  8. Phylogeography and genetic diversity of a widespread Old World butterfly, Lampides boeticus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae).

    PubMed

    Lohman, David J; Peggie, Djunijanti; Pierce, Naomi E; Meier, Rudolf

    2008-10-30

    Evolutionary genetics provides a rich theoretical framework for empirical studies of phylogeography. Investigations of intraspecific genetic variation can uncover new putative species while allowing inference into the evolutionary origin and history of extant populations. With a distribution on four continents ranging throughout most of the Old World, Lampides boeticus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) is one of the most widely distributed species of butterfly. It is placed in a monotypic genus with no commonly accepted subspecies. Here, we investigate the demographic history and taxonomic status of this widespread species, and screen for the presence or absence of the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia. We performed phylogenetic, population genetic, and phylogeographic analyses using 1799 bp of mitochondrial sequence data from 57 specimens collected throughout the species' range. Most of the samples (>90%) were nearly genetically identical, with uncorrected pairwise sequence differences of 0-0.5% across geographic distances >9,000 km. However, five samples from central Thailand, Madagascar, northern Australia and the Moluccas formed two divergent clades differing from the majority of samples by uncorrected pairwise distances ranging from 1.79-2.21%. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that L. boeticus is almost certainly monophyletic, with all sampled genes coalescing well after the divergence from three closely related taxa included for outgroup comparisons. Analyses of molecular diversity indicate that most L. boeticus individuals in extant populations are descended from one or two relatively recent population bottlenecks. The combined analyses suggest a scenario in which the most recent common ancestor of L. boeticus and its sister taxon lived in the African region approximately 7 Mya; extant lineages of L. boeticus began spreading throughout the Old World at least 1.5 Mya. More recently, expansion after population bottlenecks approximately 1.4 Mya seem to have displaced most

  9. Red & black or black & white? Phylogeny of the Araschnia butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and evolution of seasonal polyphenism.

    PubMed

    Fric, Z; Konvicka, M; Zrzavy, J

    2004-03-01

    Phylogeny of the butterfly genera Araschnia, Mynes, Symbrenthia and Brensymthia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Nymphalini) is reconstructed, based on 140 morphological and ecological characters. The resulting tree shows that Araschnia is a sister group of the clade including Symbrenthia, Mynes and Brensymthia (Symbrenthia is paraphyletic in the respect of remaining genera; Symbrenthia hippalus is a derived species of Mynes). The species-level relationships within Araschnia are robustly supported as follows: (A. davidis (prorsoides ((zhangi doris) (dohertyi (levana burejana))))). Analysis of the wing colour-pattern characters linked with the seasonal polyphenism in the Araschnia species suggests that the black and white coloration of the long-day (summer) generation is apomorphic. Biogeographically, the origin of polyphenism in Araschnia predates the dispersal of some Araschnia species towards the Palaearctic temperate zone, and the ecological cause of the polyphenism itself is then probably not linked with thermoregulation. The possible mimetic/cryptic scenarios for the origin of Araschnia polyphenism are discussed.

  10. Female sex pheromone secreted by Carmenta mimosa (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), a biological control agent for an invasive weed in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Vang, Le Van; Khanh, Chau Nguyen Quoc; Shibasaki, Hiroshi; Ando, Tetsu

    2012-01-01

    Larvae of the clearwing moth, Carmenta mimosa (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), bore into the trunk of Mimosa pigra L., which is one of the most invasive weeds in Vietnam. GC-EAD and GC-MS analyses of a pheromone gland extract revealed that the female moths produced (3Z,13Z)-3,13-octadecadienyl acetate. A lure baited with the synthetic acetate alone successfully attracted C. mimosa males in a field test. While the addition of a small amount of the corresponding alcohol did not strongly diminish the number of captured males, a trace of the aldehyde derivative or the (3E,13Z)-isomer markedly inhibited the attractiveness of the acetate. The diurnal males were mainly attracted from 6:00 am to 12:00 am.

  11. Sensilla on the Antennae and Ovipositor of the Sea Buckthorn Carpenter Moth, Holcocerus hippophaecolus Hua et al (Lepidoptera: Cossidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, R; Zhang, L; Xu, L L; Zong, S X; Luo, Y Q

    2015-02-01

    Holcocerus hippophaecolus Hua et al (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) is an important boring pest that damages the sea buckthorn Hippophae rhamnoides. Larvae of H. hippophaecolus cause major losses of this shrub in Northern China, with severe economic and ecological consequences. In this study, we used scanning electron microscopy to investigate the typology, morphology, and distribution of sensilla on the antennae and ovipositor of H. hippophaecolus. In total, seven subtypes of sensilla were found on the antennae, i.e., chaetica, trichodea (two subtypes), basiconica (two subtypes), coeloconica, and Böhm bristles. In addition, three types of sensilla were detected on the ovipositor, i.e., chaetica, trichodea, and basiconica. The identification of these sensilla types could provide morphological evidence to facilitate a better understanding of the host location, mate finding, and oviposition processes of this important species.

  12. Geographic distribution, phylogeny, and genetic diversity of the fruit- and blood-feeding moth Calyptra thalictri Borkhausen (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Erebidae).

    PubMed

    Zaspel, Jennifer M; Scott, Clare H; Hill, Sharon R; Ignell, Rickard; Kononenko, Vladimir S; Weller, Susan J

    2014-10-01

    Facultative blood feeding on live animals or carrion is widespread within Lepidoptera. Male moths within the genus Calyptra are known to use their fruit-piercing mouthparts to occasionally feed on mammalian blood. The Palearctic species Calyptra thalictri is known to exhibit differential feeding behaviors that appear to be based on geographic location. This species is known to pierce fruit throughout its range but has recently been reported to also feed on human blood under experimental conditions in the Russian Far East. Here we document the distribution of this widespread species, reconstruct its evolutionary history, and calculate its genetic diversity for the first time. Recently collected samples are combined with museum specimens to model suitable environments for this taxon. Our findings suggest that while the blood-feeding populations are not monophyletic, there is geographical structure. Our analysis of macroclimate variables suggests that altitude and precipitation are the environmental variables most critical to habitat suitability in this lineage.

  13. Conserved Patterns of Sex Chromosome Dosage Compensation in the Lepidoptera (WZ/ZZ): Insights from a Moth Neo-Z Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Walters, James R.; Knipple, Douglas C.

    2017-01-01

    Where previously described, patterns of sex chromosome dosage compensation in the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) have several unusual characteristics. Other female-heterogametic (ZW/ZZ) species exhibit female Z-linked expression that is reduced compared with autosomal expression and male Z expression. In the Lepidoptera, however, Z expression typically appears balanced between sexes but overall reduced relative to autosomal expression, that is Z ≈ ZZ < AA. This pattern is not easily reconciled with theoretical expectations for the evolution of sex chromosome dosage compensation. Moreover, conflicting results linger due to discrepancies in data analyses and tissues sampled among lepidopterans. To address these issues, we performed RNA-seq to analyze sex chromosome dosage compensation in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, which is a species from the earliest diverging lepidopteran lineage yet examined for dosage compensation and has a neo-Z chromosome resulting from an ancient Z:autosome fusion. While supported by intraspecific analyses, the Z ≈ ZZ < AA pattern was further evidenced by comparative study using autosomal orthologs of C. pomonella neo-Z genes in outgroup species. In contrast, dosage compensation appears to be absent in reproductive tissues. We thus argue that inclusion of reproductive tissues may explain the incongruence from a prior study on another moth species and that patterns of dosage compensation are likely conserved in the Lepidoptera. Notably, this pattern appears convergent with patterns in eutherian mammals (X ≈ XX < AA). Overall, our results contribute to the notion that the Lepidoptera present challenges both to classical theories regarding the evolution of sex chromosome dosage compensation and the emerging view of the association of dosage compensation with sexual heterogamety. PMID:28338816

  14. Astrotischeria neotropicana sp. nov.-a leaf-miner on Sida, Malvaceae, currently with the broadest distribution range in the Neotropics (Lepidoptera, Tischeriidae).

    PubMed

    Diškus, Arūnas; Stonis, Jonas R

    2015-11-05

    This paper describes Astrotischeria neotropicana Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. (Lepidoptera: Tischeriidae), a new leaf-miner on Sida (Malvaceae) with a broad distribution range in tropical Central & South America. The new species is currently recorded from the Amazon Basin in Peru and Ecuador to tropical lowlands in Guatemala and Belize (including the Caribbean Archipelago). The new species is illustrated with photographs of the adults, male and female genitalia, and the leaf-mines; distribution map is also provided.

  15. Mesoionic pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidinones: Discovery of dicloromezotiaz as a lepidoptera insecticide acting on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors1,2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenming; Holyoke, Caleb W; Barry, James; Cordova, Daniel; Leighty, Robert M; Tong, My-Hanh T; Hughes, Kenneth A; Lahm, George P; Pahutski, Thomas F; Xu, Ming; Briddell, Twyla A; McCann, Stephen F; Henry, Yewande T; Chen, Yuzhong

    2017-02-15

    A novel class of mesoionic pyrido[1,2-a]pyrimidinones has been discovered with exceptional insecticidal activity controlling a number of insect species. In this communication, we report the part of the optimization program that led to the identification of dicloromezotiaz as a potent insecticide to control a broad range of lepidoptera. Our efforts in discovery, synthesis, structure-activity relationship elucidation, and biological activity evaluation are also presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Exploration of Bacillus thuringiensis Berl. from soil and screening test its toxicity on insects of Lepidoptera order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astuti, DT; Pujiastuti, Y.; Suparman, SHK; Damiri, N.; Nugraha, S.; Sembiring, ER; Mulawarman

    2018-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is a gram-positive bacterium that produces crystal proteins toxic (ᴕ-endotoxin) specific to the target insect, but is not toxic to humans and non-target organisms. This study aims to explore the origin of the soil bacterium B. thuringiensis sub-district Sekayu, Banyuasin, South Sumatra and toxicity to larvae of lepidoptera. Fifty soil samples were taken from Musi Banyuasin District, namely 15 from Kayuare strip 2, 20 from Kayuare and 15 from Lumpatan. Isolation, characterization, identification and screening test were conducted in the laboratorium of Pest and Disease, Agricultural Faculty, Sriwijaya University. Isolat codes were given based on the area origin of the samples. Results of the study showed that from 50 isolates of bacteria that had been isolated, there were 15 bacterial isolates, characterized by morphology and physiology the same as B. thuringiensis, which has round colonies, white, wrinkled edges, slippery, elevation arise, aerobic and gram-positive. Of the 15 codes that contain positive isolates of B. thuringiensis, we have obtained several isolates of the following codes: KJ2D5, KJ2N1, KJ2N4, KJ2B3, KJ3R1, KJ3R2, KJ3R3, KJ3R5, KJ3J3, KJ3J4, KJ3P1, DLM5, DLKK12, and DLKK23. Results of screening tests on insects of the Lepidoptera Order showed that there were six isolates that had toxic to Plutella xylostella and Spodoptera litura insects, ie bacterial isolate codes DLM5, KJ3R3, KJ3R5, KJ3J4, KJ3P1, and DLKK23.

  17. Structural and Mechanical Properties of Cocoons of Antherina suraka (Saturniidae, Lepidoptera), an Endemic Species Used for Silk Production in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Randrianandrasana, Maminirina; Wu, Wen-Yen; Carney, David A; Wagoner Johnson, Amy J; Berenbaum, May R

    2017-01-01

    Antherina suraka Boisduval (Saturniidae, Lepidoptera) produces a silken cocoon that has been the focus of efforts to create a commercial wild silk industry in Madagascar. In this study, structural and mechanical properties of the cocoon of A. suraka from two sites were measured and compared to the cocoon of Bombyx mori L. (Bombycidae, Lepidoptera) the world's most common source for silk. Results of environmental scanning electron microscopy and mechanical testing showed that the silk sheet of A. suraka cocoon is less compact, with greater thickness and lower tensile strength and stiffness than that of B. mori Confirming these results, stiffness and cell and thread density were found to be negatively correlated with thickness, and the cell and thread volumes were positively correlated with thickness. Antherina suraka showed no major differences between silk sheets from Kirindy and Isalo sites in either structural or mechanical properties, except for mean cell volume, which was greater in cocoons from Kirindy. Comparison between the two layers forming the cocoon showed that the inner layer has greater elastic modulus, denser silk distribution and lower porosity. Cocoons from both Kirindy and Isalo are suitable for sericulture. Although the inner layer of cocoon silk is of higher quality than the outer layer, the fact that both layers are of great but lower tensile strength than B. mori silk suggests that the current practice of sewing the two layers together for making one single layer fabric should be continued in efforts to produce a commercially viable product. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  18. Oral Administration of TAT-PTD-Diapause Hormone Fusion Protein Interferes With Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Development.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhou; Li, Yongli; Yuan, Chunyan; Zhang, Yongan; Qu, Liangjian

    2015-01-01

    Diapause hormone (DH), which can terminate diapause in Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), has shown promise as a pest control method. However, the main challenge in using DH as an insecticide lies in achieving effective oral delivery, since the peptide may be degraded by digestive enzymes in the gut. To improve the efficacy of oral DH application, the Clostera anastomosis (L.) (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae) diapause hormone (caDH) was fused to the Protein Transduction Domain (PTD) of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 transactivator of transcription (TAT). Cellular transduction of TAT-caDH was verified with the use of a green fluorescent protein fusion, and its ability to terminate diapause was verified by injection into diapausing H. armigera pupae. Orally administered TAT-caDH resulted in larval growth inhibition. In TAT-caDH-treated insects, larval duration was delayed and the pupation rates were decreased at both development promoting conditions [27 °C, a photoperiod of 14:10(L:D) h] and diapause inducing conditions [20 °C, a photoperiod of 10:14(L:D) h]. No significant difference in diapause rate was observed between the TAT-caDH-treated and caDH-treated or control pupae maintained at diapause inducing conditions. Our results show that treatment with a recombinant TAT-caDH protein can affect larval development in H. armigera, and it suggest that TAT-DH treatment may be useful for controlling pests. This study is the first record of oral DH application in insect. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  19. Genetic and Biological Analysis of Colombian Phthorimaea operculella Granulovirus Isolated from Tecia solanivora (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)▿

    PubMed Central

    Espinel-Correal, Carlos; Léry, Xavier; Villamizar, Laura; Gómez, Juliana; Zeddam, Jean Louis; Cotes, Alba Marina; López-Ferber, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Tecia solanivora (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is an invasive potato pest of the north of South America that recently colonized zones where Phthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), a taxonomically related insect, was established. Nowadays, both species can be found in most areas in different proportions. The Phthorimaea operculella granulovirus (PhopGV) was found to efficiently control P. operculella and was used as a biopesticide in storage conditions. However, no appropriate biological control methods exist for T. solanivora, and the use of granulovirus isolates would provide a solution. The Colombian Corporation for Agricultural Research (CORPOICA) carried out several T. solanivora larva samplings in Colombia with the aim of finding potential isolates. Five geographical granulovirus isolates from T. solanivora (VG001, VG002, VG003, VG004, and VG005) were found, and molecular analysis by REN profiles shows three different genotypic variants in Colombia. Analysis of their genomes revealed their relatedness to PhopGV. Two isolates exhibited submolar bands in their REN patterns, suggesting a mixture of viral genotypes. These data were confirmed by PCR amplification and sequencing of particular regions of the viral genomes. Their biological activity was assayed on both hosts, T. solanivora and P. operculella. A significantly higher pathogenicity in both hosts was observed with isolates VG001 and VG005 than with isolate VG003 or a Peruvian isolate (from P. operculella) used as a reference in the bioassay. Based on their molecular and biological activity characteristics, VG001 and VG005 isolates should be selected for further analysis in order to establish their potential as biological control agents. PMID:20870793

  20. The evolution of colour polymorphism in British winter-active Lepidoptera in response to search image use by avian predators.

    PubMed

    Weir, Jamie C

    2018-05-10

    Phenotypic polymorphism in cryptic species is widespread. This may evolve in response to search image use by predators exerting negative frequency-dependent selection on intraspecific colour morphs, 'apostatic selection'. Evidence exists to indicate search image formation by predators and apostatic selection operating on wild prey populations, though not to demonstrate search image use directly resulting in apostatic selection. The present study attempted to address this deficiency, using British Lepidoptera active in winter as a model system. It has been proposed that the typically polymorphic wing colouration of these species represents an anti-search image adaptation against birds. To test (a) for search image-driven apostatic selection, dimorphic populations of artificial moth-like models were established in woodland at varying relative morph frequencies and exposed to predation by natural populations of birds. In addition, to test (b) whether abundance and degree of polymorphism are correlated across British winter-active moths, as predicted where search image use drives apostatic selection, a series of phylogenetic comparative analyses were conducted. There was a positive relationship between artificial morph frequency and probability of predation, consistent with birds utilizing search images and exerting apostatic selection. Abundance and degree of polymorphism were found to be positively correlated across British Lepidoptera active in winter, though not across all taxonomic groups analysed. This evidence is consistent with polymorphism in this group having evolved in response to search image-driven apostatic selection and supports the viability of this mechanism as a means by which phenotypic and genetic variation may be maintained in natural populations. © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  1. Antennal transcriptome analysis and comparison of olfactory genes in two sympatric defoliators, Dendrolimus houi and Dendrolimus kikuchii (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sufang; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Hongbin; Kong, Xiangbo

    2014-09-01

    The Yunnan pine and Simao pine caterpillar moths, Dendrolimus houi Lajonquière and Dendrolimus kikuchii Matsumura (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), are two closely related and sympatric pests of coniferous forests in southwestern China, and olfactory communication systems of these two insects have received considerable attention because of their economic importance. However, there is little information on the molecular aspect of odor detection about these insects. Furthermore, although lepidopteran species have been widely used in studies of insect olfaction, few work made comparison between sister moths on the olfactory recognition mechanisms. In this study, next-generation sequencing of the antennal transcriptome of these two moths were performed to identify the major olfactory genes. After comparing the antennal transcriptome of these two moths, we found that they exhibit highly similar transcripts-associated GO terms. Chemosensory gene families were further analyzed in both species. We identified 23 putative odorant binding proteins (OBP), 17 chemosensory proteins (CSP), two sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMP), 33 odorant receptors (OR), and 10 ionotropic receptors (IR) in D. houi; and 27 putative OBPs, 17 CSPs, two SNMPs, 33 ORs, and nine IRs in D. kikuchii. All these transcripts were full-length or almost full-length. The predicted protein sequences were compared with orthologs in other species of Lepidoptera and model insects, including Bombyx mori, Manduca sexta, Heliothis virescens, Danaus plexippus, Sesamia inferens, Cydia pomonella, and Drosophila melanogaster. The sequence homologies of the orthologous genes in D. houi and D. kikuchii are very high. Furthermore, the olfactory genes were classed according to their expression level, and the highly expressed genes are our target for further function investigation. Interestingly, many highly expressed genes are ortholog gene of D. houi and D. kikuchii. We also found that the Classic OBPs were

  2. Are Adult Crambid Snout Moths (Crambinae) and Larval Stages of Lepidoptera Suitable Tools for an Environmental Monitoring of Transgenic Crops? — Implications of a Field Test

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Andreas; Dolek, Matthias; Theißen, Bernhard; Zapp, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) have been suggested for the environmental monitoring of genetically modified (GM) crops due to their suitability as ecological indicators, and because of the possible adverse impact of the cultivation of current transgenic crops. The German Association of Engineers (VDI) has developed guidelines for the standardized monitoring of Lepidoptera describing the use of light traps for adult moths, transect counts for adult butterflies, and visual search for larvae. The guidelines suggest recording adults of Crambid Snout Moths during transect counts in addition to butterflies, and present detailed protocols for the visual search of larvae. In a field survey in three regions of Germany, we tested the practicability and effort-benefit ratio of the latter two VDI approaches. Crambid Snout Moths turned out to be suitable and practical indicators, which can easily be recorded during transect counts. They were present in 57% of the studied field margins, contributing a substantial part to the overall Lepidoptera count, thus providing valuable additional information to the monitoring results. Visual search of larvae generated results in an adequate effort-benefit ratio when searching for lepidopteran larvae of common species feeding on nettles. Visual search for larvae living on host plants other than nettles was time-consuming and yielded much lower numbers of recorded larvae. Beating samples of bushes and trees yielded a higher number of species and individuals. This method is especially appropriate when hedgerows are sampled, and was judged to perform intermediate concerning the relationship between invested sampling effort and obtained results for lepidopteran larvae. In conclusion, transect counts of adult Crambid Moths and recording of lepidopteran larvae feeding on nettles are feasible additional modules for an environmental monitoring of GM crops. Monitoring larvae living on host plants other than nettles and beating samples of bushes

  3. [Characterization of the damage of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) and Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to structures of cotton plants].

    PubMed

    Santos, Karen B Dos; Meneguim, Ana M; Santos, Walter J Dos; Neves, Pedro M O J; Santos, Rachel B Dos

    2010-01-01

    The cotton plant, Gossypium hirsutum, hosts various pests that damage different structures. Among these pests, Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) and Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are considered important. The objectives of this study were to characterize and to quantify the potential damage of S. eridania and S. cosmioides feeding on different structures of cotton plants. For this purpose, newly-hatched larvae were reared on the following plant parts: leaf and flower bud; leaf and boll; flower bud or boll; and leaf, flower bud and boll. The survival of S. cosmioides and S. eridania was greater than 80% and 70% for larvae fed on cotton plant parts offered separately or together, respectively. One larva of S. eridania damaged 1.7 flower buds, but did not damage bolls, while one larva of S. cosmioides damaged 5.2 flower buds and 3.0 cotton bolls. Spodoptera eridania and S. cosmioides can be considered species with potential to cause economic damage to cotton plants because they can occur throughout cotton developmental stages causing defoliation and losses of reproductive structures. Therefore, the results validate field observations that these two species of Spodoptera are potential pests for cotton.

  4. Insecticide Efficacy and Timing for Control of Western Bean Cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Dry and Snap Beans.

    PubMed

    Goudis, L A; Trueman, C L; Baute, T S; Hallett, R H; Gillard, C L

    2016-02-01

    The western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a recent pest of corn, dry,and snap beans, in the Great Lakes region, and best practices for its management in beans need to be established.Insecticide efficacy and application timing field studies, conducted in 2011–2013, determined that lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorantraniliprole were capable of reducing western bean cutworm feeding damage in dry beans from 2.3 to 0.4% in preharvest samples, and in snap beans from 4.8 to 0.1% of marketable pods, respectively. The best application timing in dry beans was determined to be 4–18 d after 50% egg hatch. No economic benefit was found when products were applied to dry beans, and despite high artificial inoculation rates, damage to marketable yield was relatively low. Thiamethoxam, methoxyfenozide, and spinetoram were also found to be effective at reducing western bean cutworm damage in dry bean to as low as 0.3% compared to an untreated control with 2.5% damaged pods. In snap beans, increased return on investment between CAD$400 and CAD$600 was seen with multiple applications of lambda-cyhalothrin, and with chlorantraniliprole applied 4 d after egg mass infestation.

  5. Color Changes Upon Cooling of Lepidoptera Scales Containing Photonic Nanoarchitectures, and a Method for Identifying the Changes

    PubMed Central

    Tamáska, István; Kértész, Krisztién; Vértesy, Zofia; Bálint, Zsolt; Kun, András; Yen, ShenHorn; Biró, Lászlo Péter

    2013-01-01

    The effects produced by the condensation of water vapor from the environment in the various intricate nanoarchitectures occurring in the wing scales of several Lepidoptera species were investigated by controlled cooling (from 23° C, room temperature to -5 to -10° C) combined with in situ measurements of changes in the reflectance spectra. It was determined that all photonic nanoarchitectures giving a reflectance maximum in the visible range and having an open nanostructure exhibited alteration of the position of the reflectance maximum associated with the photonic nanoarchitectures. The photonic nanoarchitectures with a closed structure exhibited little to no alteration in color. Similarly, control specimens colored by pigments did not exhibit a color change under the same conditions. Hence, this method can be used to identify species with open photonic nanoarchitectures in their scales. For certain species, an almost complete disappearance of the reflectance maximum was found. All specimens recovered their original colors following warming and drying. Cooling experiments using thin copper wires demonstrated that color alterations could be limited to a width of a millimeter or less. Dried museum specimens did not exhibit color changes when cooled in the absence of a heat sink due to the low heat capacity of the wings. PMID:24206534

  6. Insecticide toxicity to the borer Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): developmental and egg-laying effects.

    PubMed

    Silva, R S; Arcanjo, L P; Soares, J R S; Ferreira, D O; Serrão, J E; Martins, J C; Costa, Á H; Picanço, M C

    2018-04-01

    Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is one of the major pests of solanaceous plants in South America. It is considered a great threat by the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization due to the serious economic damage that it causes on tomato farms; therefore, controlling this pest is a challenging task in South America. Controlling N. elegantalis at the egg stage is the best way to prevent it from damaging crops; however, thorough studies about the effectiveness of chemicals on the different life stages of this insect pest are lacking. In this study, the effects of different chemical classes were evaluated on N. elegantalis adults, female oviposition behavior, larvae, eggs, and embryonic development. None of the tested insecticides demonstrated toxicity to the adults; however, the results showed that cartap hydrochloride affects oviposition behavior. Moreover, methomyl and cartap hydrochloride exhibited high toxicity against the eggs and larvae, with higher than 80% of mortality. These insecticides interrupted larval hatching and caused alterations in the chorion layer. Flubendiamide and deltamethrin demonstrated toxicity on N. elegantalis larvae; however, lufenuron, indoxacarb, methoxyfenozide, and chlorantraniliprole demonstrated low toxicity on both eggs and larvae, with lower than 70% of mortality. Fruit treated with cartap hydrochloride had a deterrent effect. The ovicidal activity revealed by methomyl and cartap hydrochloride might provide new approaches regarding insecticide effects on eggs. Methomyl, cartap hydrochloride, flubendiamide, and deltamethrin demonstrated toxicity on larvae. The evaluation of the chorion of the eggshell in this study has clarified the toxic effect of methomyl and cartap hydrochloride on eggs.

  7. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a P-Glycoprotein from the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Lixia; Yang, Jiaqiang; Hou, Wenjie; Xu, Baoyun; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Zhang, Youjun; Zhou, Xuguo; Wu, Qingjun

    2013-01-01

    Macrocyclic lactones such as abamectin and ivermectin constitute an important class of broad-spectrum insecticides. Widespread resistance to synthetic insecticides, including abamectin and ivermectin, poses a serious threat to the management of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), a major pest of cruciferous plants worldwide. P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a member of the ABC transporter superfamily, plays a crucial role in the removal of amphiphilic xenobiotics, suggesting a mechanism for drug resistance in target organisms. In this study, PxPgp1, a putative Pgp gene from P. xylostella, was cloned and characterized. The open reading frame (ORF) of PxPgp1 consists of 3774 nucleotides, which encodes a 1257-amino acid peptide. The deduced PxPgp1 protein possesses structural characteristics of a typical Pgp, and clusters within the insect ABCB1. PxPgp1 was expressed throughout all developmental stages, and showed the highest expression level in adult males. PxPgp1 was highly expressed in midgut, malpighian tubules and testes. Elevated expression of PxPgp1 was observed in P. xylostella strains after they were exposed to the abamectin treatment. In addition, the constitutive expressions of PxPgp1 were significantly higher in laboratory-selected and field-collected resistant strains in comparison to their susceptible counterpart. PMID:24264038

  8. Chemical Compounds and Bioactivity of Aqueous Extracts of Alibertia spp. in the Control of Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Lucas L. S.; Sobreiro, Ana I.; Couto, Irys F. S.; Silva, Rosicléia M.; Pereira, Fabricio F.; Heredia-Vieira, Silvia C.; Cardoso, Claudia A. L.; Mauad, Munir; Scalon, Silvana P. Q.; Verza, Sandra S.

    2017-01-01

    Successive applications of insecticides to control Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) have resulted in the emergence of resistant populations of this insect. A novel control measure for this target insect could be the use of botanical insecticides derived from plant tissues. Hence, we experimentally tested aqueous extracts of Alibertia edulis (Rich.), Alibertia intermedia (Mart.), and Alibertia sessilis (Vell.) K. Schum. found in the Brazilian savannah in order to investigate their potential to disrupt the life cycle of P. xylostella. Aqueous extracts of the leaves of A. intermedia and A. sessilis negatively affected the development of P. xylostella in all stages of the life cycle, prolonging the larval stage and causing mortality in the larval or pupal stages. Treatments with A. intermedia and A. sessilis extracts caused the lowest fecundity and the number of hatched larvae. The harmful effects of these aqueous extracts on the life cycle of P. xylostella may be attributable to the flavonoids and other phenolic compounds present in A. intermedia and A. sessilis. These aqueous botanical extracts are low in toxicity when compared to non-aqueous pesticides, and may emerge as an effective approach for control of populations of P. xylostella. PMID:29165339

  9. Superfamily of genes encoding G protein-coupled receptors in the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Wu, S-F; Yu, H-Y; Jiang, T-T; Gao, C-F; Shen, J-L

    2015-08-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest and most versatile superfamily of cell membrane proteins, which mediate various physiological processes including reproduction, development and behaviour. The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is one of the most notorious insect pests, preferentially feeding on cruciferous plants. P. xylostella is not only one of the world's most widespread lepidopteran insects, but has also developed resistance to nearly all classes of insecticides. Although the mechanisms of insecticide resistance have been studied extensively in many insect species, few investigations have been carried out on GPCRs in P. xylostella. In the present study, we identified 95 putative GPCRs in the P. xylostella genome. The identified GPCRs were compared with their homologues in Bombyx mori and Drosophila melanogaster. Our results suggest that GPCRs in different insect species may have evolved by a birth-and-death process. One of the differences among compared insects is the duplication of short neuropeptide F receptor and adipokinetic hormone receptors in P. xylostella and B. mori. Another divergence is the decrease in quantity and diversity of the stress-tolerance gene, Mth, in P. xylostella. The evolution by the birth-and-death process is probably involved in adaptation to the feeding behaviour, reproduction and stress responses of P. xylostella. Some of the genes identified in the present study could be potential targets for the development of novel pesticides. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  10. Chemical Compounds and Bioactivity of Aqueous Extracts of Alibertia spp. in the Control of Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Peres, Lucas L S; Sobreiro, Ana I; Couto, Irys F S; Silva, Rosicléia M; Pereira, Fabricio F; Heredia-Vieira, Silvia C; Cardoso, Claudia A L; Mauad, Munir; Scalon, Silvana P Q; Verza, Sandra S; Mussury, Rosilda M

    2017-11-22

    Successive applications of insecticides to control Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) have resulted in the emergence of resistant populations of this insect. A novel control measure for this target insect could be the use of botanical insecticides derived from plant tissues. Hence, we experimentally tested aqueous extracts of Alibertia edulis (Rich.), Alibertia intermedia (Mart.), and Alibertia sessilis (Vell.) K. Schum. found in the Brazilian savannah in order to investigate their potential to disrupt the life cycle of P. xylostella . Aqueous extracts of the leaves of A. intermedia and A. sessilis negatively affected the development of P. xylostella in all stages of the life cycle, prolonging the larval stage and causing mortality in the larval or pupal stages. Treatments with A. intermedia and A. sessilis extracts caused the lowest fecundity and the number of hatched larvae. The harmful effects of these aqueous extracts on the life cycle of P. xylostella may be attributable to the flavonoids and other phenolic compounds present in A. intermedia and A. sessilis . These aqueous botanical extracts are low in toxicity when compared to non-aqueous pesticides, and may emerge as an effective approach for control of populations of P. xylostella .

  11. Enhanced attraction of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) to pheromone-baited traps with the addition of green leaf volatiles.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengyan; Zhu, Junwei; Qin, Yuchuan

    2012-08-01

    Diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is one of the most serious pests of Brassicaceae crops worldwide. Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of P. xylostella to green leaf volatiles (GLVs) alone or together with its female sex pheromone were investigated in laboratory and field. GLVs 1-hexanol and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol elicited strong electroantennographic responses from unmated male and female P. xylostella, whereas (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate only produced a relatively weak response. The behavioral responses of unmated moths to GLVs were further tested in Y-tube olfactometer experiments. (E)-2-Hexenal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate induced attraction of males, reaching up to 50%, significantly higher than the response to the unbaited control arm. In field experiments conducted in 2008 and 2009, significantly more moths were captured in traps baited with synthetic sex pheromone with either (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate alone or a blend of (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, and (E)-2-hexenal compared with sex pheromone alone and other blend mixtures. These results demonstrated that GLVs could be used to enhance the attraction of P. xylostella males to sex pheromone-baited traps.

  12. delta-Endotoxin proteins associated with spherical parasporal inclusions of the four Lepidoptera-specific Bacillus thuringiensis strains.

    PubMed

    Wasano, N; Kim, K H; Ohba, M

    1998-04-01

    Four Lepidoptera-specific reference strains of Bacillus thuringiensis, belonging to serovars sumiyoshiensis (H3a:3d), fukuokaensis (H3a:3d:3e), darmstadiensis (H10a:10b) and japonensis (H23), which produce spherical parasporal inclusions, were examined for comparative characterization of delta-endotoxins. SDS-PAGE profiles of the alkali-solubilized parasporal inclusions revealed the presence of single major protein bands of 130 kDa in the four strains. Chymotrypsin and trypsin treatment of the proteins gave profiles different from those of the strains HD-1 (serovar kurstaki, H3a:3b:3c) and T84 A1 (serovar sotto, H4a:4b). Also, minor variations were observed in proteolysis profiles among the four strains. The LC50 values of purified parasporal inclusions for the silkworm (Bombyx mori) larvae were 7.35, 6.45, 3.08 and 2.63 micrograms g-1 diet, respectively, showing that their toxicity levels were 5-15 times lower than that of the strain HD-1 (0.49 microgram g-1 diet). Analysis by immunodiffusion and immunoblotting with polyclonal antisera revealed that parasporal inclusion proteins of the four strains are highly related, whereas they shared few or no common antigens with those of the strains HD-1, T84 A1 and Buibui (serovar japonensis).

  13. Sublethal exposure to methoxyfenozide-treated surfaces reduces the attractiveness and responsiveness in adult oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Reinke, Michael D; Barrett, Bruce A

    2007-02-01

    The chemical communication (female attractiveness and male responsiveness) of adult oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), exposed to surfaces treated with the ecdysteroid agonist methoxyfenozide for 48 h were investigated in two laboratory wind tunnel assays. The recapture assay examined the ability of treated males to orient to a single cage of treated females, and the data gathered were mean percentage of males recaptured per treatment. The male sexual behavior assay examined some specific orientation behaviors (associated with sexual excitability) of treated males when they were given a choice of two competing pheromone sources (cages of treated females), and the data gathered were mean time males spent in upwind plume orientations and at source contact (female cage) per treatment. Data from the recapture assay suggests that exposure to methoxyfenozide impacts male responsiveness more than female attractiveness. In contrast, data from the sexual behavior assay strongly revealed that exposure to methoxyfenozide-treated surfaces does negatively impact both the ability of calling females to attract males and of aroused males to display sustained upwind flight behavior and time spent at the female cages.

  14. Large variation in mitochondrial DNA of sexual and parthenogenetic Dahlica triquetrella (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) shows multiple origins of parthenogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obligate parthenogenesis is relatively rare in animals. Still, in some groups it is quite common and has evolved and persisted multiple times. These groups may provide important clues to help solve the ‘paradox of sex’. Several species in the Psychidae (Lepidoptera) have obligate parthenogenesis. Dahlica triquetrella is one of those species where multiple transitions to parthenogenesis are postulated based on intensive cytological and behavioural studies. This has led to the hypothesis that multiple transitions from sexuals to diploid parthenogens occurred during and after the last glacial period, followed by transitions from parthenogenetic diploids to parthenogenetic tetraploids. Our study is the first to test these hypotheses using a molecular phylogeny based on mtDNA from multiple sexual and parthenogenetic populations from a wide geographic range. Results Parthenogenetic (and sexual) D. triquetrella are not monophyletic, and considerable sequence variation is present suggesting multiple transitions to parthenogenesis. However, we could not establish ancestral sexual haplotypes from our dataset. Our data suggest that some parthenogenetic clades have evolved, indicating origins of parthenogenesis before the last glacial period. Conclusions Multiple transitions to parthenogenesis have taken place in Dahlica triquetrella, confirming previous hypotheses. The number of different parthenogenetic clades, haplotypes and their apparent evolutionary age, clearly show that parthenogenesis has been a very successful reproductive strategy in this species over a long period. PMID:23622052

  15. Large variation in mitochondrial DNA of sexual and parthenogenetic Dahlica triquetrella (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) shows multiple origins of parthenogenesis.

    PubMed

    Elzinga, Jelmer A; Jokela, Jukka; Shama, Lisa N S

    2013-04-26

    Obligate parthenogenesis is relatively rare in animals. Still, in some groups it is quite common and has evolved and persisted multiple times. These groups may provide important clues to help solve the 'paradox of sex'. Several species in the Psychidae (Lepidoptera) have obligate parthenogenesis. Dahlica triquetrella is one of those species where multiple transitions to parthenogenesis are postulated based on intensive cytological and behavioural studies. This has led to the hypothesis that multiple transitions from sexuals to diploid parthenogens occurred during and after the last glacial period, followed by transitions from parthenogenetic diploids to parthenogenetic tetraploids. Our study is the first to test these hypotheses using a molecular phylogeny based on mtDNA from multiple sexual and parthenogenetic populations from a wide geographic range. Parthenogenetic (and sexual) D. triquetrella are not monophyletic, and considerable sequence variation is present suggesting multiple transitions to parthenogenesis. However, we could not establish ancestral sexual haplotypes from our dataset. Our data suggest that some parthenogenetic clades have evolved, indicating origins of parthenogenesis before the last glacial period. Multiple transitions to parthenogenesis have taken place in Dahlica triquetrella, confirming previous hypotheses. The number of different parthenogenetic clades, haplotypes and their apparent evolutionary age, clearly show that parthenogenesis has been a very successful reproductive strategy in this species over a long period.

  16. Long-term benefits to the growth of ponderosa pines from controlling southwestern pine tip moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and weeds.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Michael R; Chen, Zhong

    2004-12-01

    The southwestern pine tip moth, Rhyacionia neomexicana (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a native forest pest that attacks seedlings and saplings of ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws, in the southwestern United States. Repeated attacks can cause severe deformation of host trees and significant long-term growth loss. Alternatively, effective control of R. neomexicana, vegetative competition, or both in young pine plantations may increase survival and growth of trees for many years after treatments are applied. We test the null hypothesis that 4 yr of R. neomexicana and weed control with insecticide, weeding, and insecticide plus weeding would not have any residual effect on survival and growth of trees in ponderosa pine plantation in northern Arizona 14 yr post-treatment, when the trees were 18 yr old. Both insecticide and weeding treatment increased tree growth and reduced the incidence of southwestern pine tip moth damage compared with the control. However, weeding alone also significantly increased tree survival, whereas insecticide alone did not. The insecticide plus weeding treatment had the greatest tree growth and survival, and the lowest rate of tip moth damage. Based on these results, we rejected our null hypothesis and concluded that there were detectable increases in the survival and growth of ponderosa pines 14 yr after treatments applied to control R. neomexicana and weeds.

  17. Oviposition Preference and Survival of the Mexican Rice Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Bioenergy and Conventional Sugarcane and Sorghum.

    PubMed

    VanWeelden, M T; Wilson, B E; Beuzelin, J M; Reagan, T E; Way, M O

    2017-08-01

    Oviposition preference and host suitability of the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), on bioenergy and conventional cultivars of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., and sorghum, Sorghum spp., were examined in a series of greenhouse experiments. Two energycane cultivars, two sugarcane cultivars, two high-biomass sorghum cultivars, and one sweet sorghum cultivar were assessed at two phenological stages (immature and mature). Mature plants possessed greater availability of dry leaf material compared with immature plants, and all E. loftini eggs were observed exclusively on dry leaves. Oviposition did not vary among host combinations (cultivar by phenological stage); however, eggs per plant and eggs per oviposition event were numerically greater on mature plants than immature plants. In a no-choice experiment, survival from egg to adult did not vary among host combinations, with <2.0% of E. loftini larvae surviving to adulthood. Failed establishment by neonates on plants was 13.4- to 53.9-fold greater than successful establishment across all host combinations. Results from this study suggest that plant physical characteristics continue to play an important role in host selection, but further evaluations will be needed to quantify other characteristics which influence host suitability. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Color changes upon cooling of Lepidoptera scales containing photonic nanoarchitectures, and a method for identifying the changes.

    PubMed

    Tamáska, István; Kértész, Krisztién; Vértesy, Zofia; Bálint, Zsolt; Kun, András; Yen, Shenhorn; Biró, Lászlo Péter

    2013-01-01

    The effects produced by the condensation of water vapor from the environment in the various intricate nanoarchitectures occurring in the wing scales of several Lepidoptera species were investigated by controlled cooling (from 23° C, room temperature to -5 to -10° C) combined with in situ measurements of changes in the reflectance spectra. It was determined that all photonic nanoarchitectures giving a reflectance maximum in the visible range and having an open nanostructure exhibited alteration of the position of the reflectance maximum associated with the photonic nanoarchitectures. The photonic nanoarchitectures with a closed structure exhibited little to no alteration in color. Similarly, control specimens colored by pigments did not exhibit a color change under the same conditions. Hence, this method can be used to identify species with open photonic nanoarchitectures in their scales. For certain species, an almost complete disappearance of the reflectance maximum was found. All specimens recovered their original colors following warming and drying. Cooling experiments using thin copper wires demonstrated that color alterations could be limited to a width of a millimeter or less. Dried museum specimens did not exhibit color changes when cooled in the absence of a heat sink due to the low heat capacity of the wings.

  19. Assessing the spatial distribution of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) eggs in open-field tomato cultivation through geostatistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Martins, Júlio C; Picanço, Marcelo C; Silva, Ricardo S; Gonring, Alfredo Hr; Galdino, Tarcísio Vs; Guedes, Raul Nc

    2018-01-01

    The spatial distribution of insects is due to the interaction between individuals and the environment. Knowledge about the within-field pattern of spatial distribution of a pest is critical to planning control tactics, developing efficient sampling plans, and predicting pest damage. The leaf miner Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is the main pest of tomato crops in several regions of the world. Despite the importance of this pest, the pattern of spatial distribution of T. absoluta on open-field tomato cultivation remains unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the spatial distribution of T. absoluta in 22 commercial open-field tomato cultivations with plants at the three phenological development stages by using geostatistical analysis. Geostatistical analysis revealed that there was strong evidence for spatially dependent (aggregated) T. absoluta eggs in 19 of the 22 sample tomato cultivations. The maps that were obtained demonstrated the aggregated structure of egg densities at the edges of the crops. Further, T. absoluta was found to accomplish egg dispersal along the rows more frequently than it does between rows. Our results indicate that the greatest egg densities of T. absoluta occur at the edges of tomato crops. These results are discussed in relation to the behavior of T. absoluta distribution within fields and in terms of their implications for improved sampling guidelines and precision targeting control methods that are essential for effective pest monitoring and management. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Juvenile hormone analog technology: effects on larval cannibalism and the production of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    PubMed

    Elvira, Sonia; Williams, Trevor; Caballero, Primitivo

    2010-06-01

    The production of a multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), has been markedly increased by using juvenile hormone analog (JHA) technology to generate a supernumerary sixth instar in the species. In the current study we compared the incidence of cannibalism in S. exigua fifth and sixth instars reared at low (two larvae per dish) and a high density (10 larvae per dish). The incidence of cannibalism was significantly higher in fifth instars compared with sixth instars and increased with rearing density on both instars. Infected larvae were more prone to become victims of cannibalism than healthy individuals in mixed groups comprising 50% healthy + 50% infected larvae in both instars reared at high density. Instar had a marked effect on occlusion body (OB) production because JHA-treated insects produced between 4.8- and 5.6-fold increase in OB production per dish compared with fifth instars at high and low densities, respectively. The insecticidal characteristics of OBs produced in JHA-treated insects, as indicated by LD50 values, were similar to those produced in untreated fourth or fifth instars. Because JHA technology did not increase the prevalence of cannibalism and had no adverse effect on the insecticidal properties of SeMNPV OBs, we conclude that the use of JHAs to generate a supernumerary instar is likely to be compatible with mass production systems that involve gregarious rearing of infected insects.

  1. Frequency of Cry1F Non-Recessive Resistance Alleles in North Carolina Field Populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guoping; Reisig, Dominic; Miao, Jin; Gould, Fred; Huang, Fangneng; Feng, Hongqiang

    2016-01-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target species of transgenic corn (Zea mays L.) that expresses single and pyramided Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin. In 2014, S. frugiperda were collected from a light trap in North Carolina, and a total of 212 F1/F2 isofemale lines of S. frugiperda were screened for resistance to Bt and non-Bt corn. All of the 212 isolines were susceptible to corn tissue expressing Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab, Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab, and Cry1F + Cry1Ab + Vip3Aa20. Growth rate bioassays were performed to isolate non-recessive Bt resistance alleles. Seven individuals out of the 212 isofemale lines carried major non-recessive alleles conferring resistance to Cry1F. A pooled colony was created from the seven individuals. This colony was 151.21 times more resistant to Cry1F than a known-susceptible population and was also resistant to Cry1A.105, but was not resistant to Cry2Ab and Vip3Aa20. The results demonstrate that field populations of S. frugiperda collected from North Carolina are generally susceptible to Cry1F, but that some individuals carry resistant alleles. The data generated in this study can be used as baseline data for resistance monitoring. PMID:27119741

  2. Developing optimum sample size and multistage sampling plans for Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larval infestation and injury in northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Ifoulis, A A; Savopoulou-Soultani, M

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this research was to quantify the spatial pattern and develop a sampling program for larvae of Lobesia botrana Denis and Schiffermüller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), an important vineyard pest in northern Greece. Taylor's power law and Iwao's patchiness regression were used to model the relationship between the mean and the variance of larval counts. Analysis of covariance was carried out, separately for infestation and injury, with combined second and third generation data, for vine and half-vine sample units. Common regression coefficients were estimated to permit use of the sampling plan over a wide range of conditions. Optimum sample sizes for infestation and injury, at three levels of precision, were developed. An investigation of a multistage sampling plan with a nested analysis of variance showed that if the goal of sampling is focusing on larval infestation, three grape clusters should be sampled in a half-vine; if the goal of sampling is focusing on injury, then two grape clusters per half-vine are recommended.

  3. Establishment of Striacosta albicosta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) as a Primary Pest of Corn in the Great Lakes Region.

    PubMed

    Smith, J L; Baute, T S; Sebright, M M; Schaafsma, A W; DiFonzo, C D

    2018-05-30

    Western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a pest of corn, Zea maize L., and dry edible beans, Phaseolus sp. L., native to the western United States. Following the range expansion into the U.S. Corn Belt, pheromone trap monitoring began in the Great Lakes region in 2006. The first S. albicosta was captured in Michigan in 2006 and in Ontario, Canada in 2008. Pheromone traps were used to document spread and increasing captures of S. albicosta across Michigan and Ontario until 2012. Trapping confirmed the univoltine life cycle of S. albicosta in this region and identified peak flight, typically occurring in late July. Overwintering of S. albicosta in this region was confirmed by emergence from infested fields and overwintering experiments. Multiple soil textures were infested with prepupae, and recovery was assessed throughout the winter. Overwintering success was not affected by soil texture; however, prepupae were found at greater depths in coarse-textured soils. Soil temperatures at overwintering depths did not reach the supercooling point. Injury to corn by S. albicosta increased in incidence, severity and geographic range from 2010 to 2014 in field plots. Decreasing control of injury by Cry1F corn hybrids was observed over time. These findings show that S. albicosta has established as a perennial corn pest in the Great Lakes region due to observations of overwintering success and unmanaged injury. We recommend S. albicosta obtain primary pest status in this region within regulatory framework and a resistance management plan be required for traits targeting this pest.

  4. Attraction, Feeding Preference, and Performance of Spodoptera frugiperda Larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Reared on Two Varieties of Maize.

    PubMed

    De La Rosa-Cancino, Wilmar; Rojas, Julio C; Cruz-Lopez, Leopolodo; Castillo, Alfredo; Malo, Edi A

    2016-04-01

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an economically important pest of maize and other crops in the Americas. Studies suggest that modern varieties of maize lost some of their natural defense mechanisms against herbivores during domestication and agricultural selection. In the present study, we evaluated the attraction, feeding preference (host fidelity and consumption rate), and performance of S. frugiperda larvae reared on hybrid (Pioneer P4063W) and landrace (Tuxpeño) varieties of maize. We also evaluated the damage caused by S. frugiperda to Pioneer and Tuxpeño maize plants in the field. We found that fifth-instar larvae were more attracted to Pioneer plants than to Tuxpeño plants in a Y-tube olfactometer. Additionally, the fall armyworm larvae showed more fidelity to Pioneer leaves than to Tuxpeño leaves. However, the larval consumption rate was similar for both types of maize plants. The life cycle of S. frugiperda was significantly longer when the larvae were reared on Tuxpeño leaves than on Pioneer leaves. In the field, the Pioneer variety was infested with more S. frugiperda larvae than the Tuxpeño variety. Thus, our results provide evidence that modern varieties of maize may have lost some of their defensive traits during selective breeding. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Transcriptome Sequencing, and Rapid Development and Application of SNP Markers for the Legume Pod Borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    PubMed Central

    Margam, Venu M.; Coates, Brad S.; Bayles, Darrell O.; Hellmich, Richard L.; Agunbiade, Tolulope; Seufferheld, Manfredo J.; Sun, Weilin; Kroemer, Jeremy A.; Ba, Malick N.; Binso-Dabire, Clementine L.; Baoua, Ibrahim; Ishiyaku, Mohammad F.; Covas, Fernando G.; Srinivasan, Ramasamy; Armstrong, Joel; Murdock, Larry L.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.

    2011-01-01

    The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an insect pest species of crops grown by subsistence farmers in tropical regions of Africa. We present the de novo assembly of 3729 contigs from 454- and Sanger-derived sequencing reads for midgut, salivary, and whole adult tissues of this non-model species. Functional annotation predicted that 1320 M. vitrata protein coding genes are present, of which 631 have orthologs within the Bombyx mori gene model. A homology-based analysis assigned M. vitrata genes into a group of paralogs, but these were subsequently partitioned into putative orthologs following phylogenetic analyses. Following sequence quality filtering, a total of 1542 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were predicted within M. vitrata contig assemblies. Seventy one of 1078 designed molecular genetic markers were used to screen M. vitrata samples from five collection sites in West Africa. Population substructure may be present with significant implications in the insect resistance management recommendations pertaining to the release of biological control agents or transgenic cowpea that express Bacillus thuringiensis crystal toxins. Mutation data derived from transcriptome sequencing is an expeditious and economical source for genetic markers that allow evaluation of ecological differentiation. PMID:21754987

  6. Effects of X-ray irradiation on different stages of Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and DNA damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avan Aksoy, Hatice; Yazıcı, Nizamettin; Erel, Yakup

    2017-01-01

    The corn stalk borer, Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an important corn pest in the Mediterranean countries. In this study, we investigated the influence of X-ray irradiation on different developmental stages, reproduction and DNA damage to the insect. Eggs (0-24 h old), larvae (5th instar), pupae (5 days after pupation) and adults (24 h after emergence) were irradiated with X-ray irradiation at target doses of 0 (control), 50, 100, 150 and 200 Gy. Eggs irradiated at all doses did not hatch. When 5th instar were irradiated pupation and adult emergence significantly decreased. Fecundity of adults from irradiated pupae was inhibited and no eggs were laid. Moreover, adult longevity decreased after irradiation compared to control. Larvae, pupae, and adults of S. nonagrioides were studied using the single-cell gel electrophoresis (DNA comet) directly after irradiation. X-ray irradiated larvae, pupae, and adults showed typical DNA fragmentation in a dose-dependent manner compared with cells from non-irradiated groups. The amount of DNA damage increased as doses increased and possibly could be used to estimate dose applied in commercial phytosanitary irradiation treatments. Furthermore, irradiation would be an effective phytosanitary treatment for shipped commodities at risk infestation with S. nonagrioides.

  7. Characterization, distribution, biology and impact on Italian walnut orchards of the invasive North-American leafminer Coptodisca lucifluella (Lepidoptera: Heliozelidae).

    PubMed

    Bernardo, U; van Nieukerken, E J; Sasso, R; Gebiola, M; Gualtieri, L; Viggiani, G

    2015-04-01

    The leafminer Coptodisca sp. (Lepidoptera: Heliozelidae), recently recorded for the first time in Europe on Italian black and common walnut trees, is shown to be the North-American Coptodisca lucifluella (Clemens) based on morphological (forewing pattern) and molecular (cytochrome oxidase c subunit I sequence) evidence. The phylogenetic relatedness of three species feeding on Juglandaceae suggests that C. lucifluella has likely shifted, within the same host plant family, from its original North-American hosts Carya spp. to Juglans spp. Over the few years since its detection, it has established in many regions in Italy and has become a widespread and dominant invasive species. The leafminer completes three to four generations per year, with the first adults emerging in April-May and mature larvae of the last generation starting hibernation in September-October. Although a high larval mortality was recorded in field observations (up to 74%), the impact of the pest was substantial with all leaves infested at the end of the last generation in all 3 years tested. The distribution of the leafminer in the canopy was homogeneous. The species is redescribed and illustrated, a lectotype is designated and a new synonymy is established.

  8. An evaluation of western bean cutworm pheromone trapping techniques (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in a corn and soybean agroecosystem.

    PubMed

    Dorhout, David L; Rice, Marlin E

    2008-04-01

    Pheromone traps can be used to monitor for adult western bean cutworms, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and for the timing of field scouting. Understanding the effect that different trapping techniques have on adult captures could help corn (Zea mays L.) producers make better pest management decisions. Several approaches to trapping adults were evaluated in 2005 and 2006 by using two different pheromone traps (sticky wing and jug traps) in two different environments (corn or corn/soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] at three different heights (0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 m). There was no significant difference in the trap catches by trap type in either 2005 or 2006. There were significantly more adults captured in traps placed between two cornfields than traps placed between corn/soybean fields during both years. Trap height also was significant, with the traps at 1.2 and 1.8 m catching more moths than traps at 0.6 m during both years. These results show that trapping techniques do affect trap catches and that either trap type placed between two cornfields at either 1.2 or 1.8 m above the ground will maximize trap catches.

  9. Cost-effective binomial sequential sampling of western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), egg masses in corn.

    PubMed

    Paula-Moraes, S; Burkness, E C; Hunt, T E; Wright, R J; Hein, G L; Hutchison, W D

    2011-12-01

    Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a native pest of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and corn (Zea mays L.). As a result of larval feeding damage on corn ears, S. albicosta has a narrow treatment window; thus, early detection of the pest in the field is essential, and egg mass sampling has become a popular monitoring tool. Three action thresholds for field and sweet corn currently are used by crop consultants, including 4% of plants infested with egg masses on sweet corn in the silking-tasseling stage, 8% of plants infested with egg masses on field corn with approximately 95% tasseled, and 20% of plants infested with egg masses on field corn during mid-milk-stage corn. The current monitoring recommendation is to sample 20 plants at each of five locations per field (100 plants total). In an effort to develop a more cost-effective sampling plan for S. albicosta egg masses, several alternative binomial sampling plans were developed using Wald's sequential probability ratio test, and validated using Resampling for Validation of Sampling Plans (RVSP) software. The benefit-cost ratio also was calculated and used to determine the final selection of sampling plans. Based on final sampling plans selected for each action threshold, the average sample number required to reach a treat or no-treat decision ranged from 38 to 41 plants per field. This represents a significant savings in sampling cost over the current recommendation of 100 plants.

  10. Frequency of Cry1F Non-Recessive Resistance Alleles in North Carolina Field Populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Guoping; Reisig, Dominic; Miao, Jin; Gould, Fred; Huang, Fangneng; Feng, Hongqiang

    2016-01-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target species of transgenic corn (Zea mays L.) that expresses single and pyramided Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin. In 2014, S. frugiperda were collected from a light trap in North Carolina, and a total of 212 F1/F2 isofemale lines of S. frugiperda were screened for resistance to Bt and non-Bt corn. All of the 212 isolines were susceptible to corn tissue expressing Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab, Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab, and Cry1F + Cry1Ab + Vip3Aa20. Growth rate bioassays were performed to isolate non-recessive Bt resistance alleles. Seven individuals out of the 212 isofemale lines carried major non-recessive alleles conferring resistance to Cry1F. A pooled colony was created from the seven individuals. This colony was 151.21 times more resistant to Cry1F than a known-susceptible population and was also resistant to Cry1A.105, but was not resistant to Cry2Ab and Vip3Aa20. The results demonstrate that field populations of S. frugiperda collected from North Carolina are generally susceptible to Cry1F, but that some individuals carry resistant alleles. The data generated in this study can be used as baseline data for resistance monitoring.

  11. Microscopic analysis of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) embryonic development before and after treatment with azadirachtin, lufenuron, and deltamethrin.

    PubMed

    Correia, Alicely A; Wanderley-Teixeira, Valéria; Teixeira, Alvaro A C; Oliveira, José V; Gonçalves, Gabriel G A; Cavalcanti, MaríIia G S; Brayner, Fábio A; Alves, Luiz C

    2013-04-01

    The botanical insecticides, growth regulators, and pyrethroids have an effect on the biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith). However, no emphasis has been given to the effect of these insecticides on embryonic development of insects, in histological level. Thus, this research aimed to examine by light and scanning electron microscopy S. frugiperda eggs and to describe the embryonic development, before and after immersion treatment, using commercial concentrations and lower concentrations than commercial ones, of the compounds lufenuron (Match), azadirachtin (AzaMax), and deltamethrin (Decis-positive control). For light microscopy semithin sections of eggs were used, and for scanning electron microscopy, images of the surface of eggs, treated and untreated with insecticides. The morphological characteristics of S. frugiperda eggs, in general, were similar to those described in the literature for most of the insects in the order Lepidoptera. Spherical eggs slightly flattened at the poles, with chorion, yolk, vitelline membrane, and embryo formation. In both microscopic analysis, we observed that insecticides acted immediately and independent of concentration, resulting absence, or incomplete embryo, presented yolk granules widely dispersed, without vitellophage formation, chorion disintegration, disorganized blastoderm, presenting vacuoles, yolk region with amorphous cells, and formation of completely uncharacterized appendages. Thus, we conclude that the compounds lufenuron and azadirachtin interfere on S. frugiperda embryonic development.

  12. New Insight into the Management of the Tomato Leaf Miner, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) with Entomopathogenic Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Kamali, Shokoofeh; Karimi, Javad; Koppenhöfer, Albrecht M

    2018-02-09

    The tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a serious threat to tomato production in the world. Due to serious issues with insecticide resistance, there is a dire need for alternative control methods. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) have potential for the biological control of T. absoluta. In the laboratory, we examined the effect of temperature, soil type, and exposure time on the efficacy of the EPN species Steinernema carpocapsae (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae) against last-instar T. absoluta larvae. Both species caused high mortality in loamy sand (89%) and coco peat (93%) but not in sandy loam (17%). H. bacteriophora caused 92-96% mortality at 19, 25, and 31°C; S. carpocapsae caused 89-91% mortality at 25 and 31°C but only 76% at 19°C. Both species caused similar mortality levels after 65-min exposure; thereafter, mortality increased only with S. carpocapsae reaching high levels even at a low concentration. Both species infected larvae within leaf galleries. When applied to whole large tomato plants in the greenhouse, both species provided similar control levels (48-51%) at high pest densities. Both species could be incorporated as an effective alternative to synthetic insecticides into T. absoluta management programs in greenhouse tomato production. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Control of Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae, Steinernematidae) in peach orchards.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho Barbosa Negrisoli, Carla Ruth; Negrisoli, Aldomario Santo; Garcia, Mauro Silveira; Dolinski, Claudia; Bernardi, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    Oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is considered a major pest in temperate fruit trees, such as peach and apple. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are regarded as viable for pest management control due to their efficiency against tortricid in these trees. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of native EPNs from Rio Grande do Sul state against pre-pupae of G. molesta under laboratory and field conditions. In the laboratory, pre-pupae of G. molesta were placed in corrugated cardboard sheets inside glass tubes and exposed to 17 different EPNs strains at concentrations of 6, 12, 24, 48 and 60 IJs/cm(2) and maintained at 25 °C, 70 ± 10% RH and photophase of 16 h. Insect mortality was recorded 72 h after inoculation of EPNs. Steinernema rarum RS69 and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora RS33 were the most virulent strains and selected for field application (LC95 of 70.5 and 53.8 IJs/cm(2), respectively). Both strains were highly efficient under field conditions when applied in aqueous suspension directed to larvae on peach tree trunk, causing mortality of 94 and 97.0%, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Ando-Patagonian Stigmella magnispinella group (Lepidoptera, Nepticulidae) with description of new species from Ecuador, Peru and Argentina.

    PubMed

    Stonis, Jonas R; Remeikis, Andrius; Diškus, Arūnas; Gerulaitis, Virginijus

    2016-12-01

    On the basis of morphological studies of collection samples from the Andes (Ecuador, Peru and Argentina), we describe five new species of Stigmella Schrank (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae): S. varispinella Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. (Ecuador), S. olekarsholti Remeikis Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. magnispinella Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov. (Peru), S. dolia Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov., and S. patagonica Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov. (Argentina). All treated taxa belong to the newly designated S. magnispinella group. Images of adults and genitalia, pictorial keys, a distribution map, and photographs of the leaf-mines of S. olekarsholti are included.

  15. Biology and host range of Tecmessa elegans (Lepidoptera:Notodontidae) a leaf-feeding moth evaluated as a potential biological control agent for Schinus terebinthifolius (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) in the USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During surveys for natural enemies that could potentially be used as classical biological control agents of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Brazilian pepper) which is invasive in the USA, the caterpillar, Tecmessa elegans Schaus (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae), was recorded feeding on the leaves of the ...

  16. Pre-release efficacy assessment of the leaf-mining moth Digitivalva delaireae (Lepidoptera: Glyphipterigidae), a potential biological control agent for Cape-ivy, Delairea odorata (Asteraceae), in western North America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The leaf-mining moth Digitivalva delaireae Gaedike & Kruger (Lepidoptera: Glyphipterigidae) is a potential biological control agent for the invasive vine Cape-ivy, Delairea odorata Lemaire (Asteraceae), in western North America, where two morphological varieties (stipulate and exstipulate) of Cape-i...

  17. Estimation of resistance allele frequency to maize incorporated Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab2 protein in field populations of the fall army Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from south region of the United State

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target of transgenic maize and cotton expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in both North and South Americas. In the falls of 2013 and 2014, a total of 215 F2 two-parent families of S. frugiperda were es...

  18. Optimization of pheromone lure and trap design for monitoring the fire coneworm, Dioryctria abietivorella

    Treesearch

    W. B. Strong; J. G. Millar; G. G. Grant; J. A. Moreira; J. M. Chong; C. Rodolph

    2008-01-01

    The major components of the sex pheromone of Dioryctria abietivorella (Groté) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) were recently identified as (9Z,11E)-tetradecadien-1-yl acetate (9Z,11E-14:Ac) and a polyunsaturated, long-chain hydrocarbon (3Z,6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z)-pentacosapentaene (C25 pentaene). The optimal ratio of these components and the role of potential minor components were not...

  19. Differential parasitism of seed-feeding Cydia (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) by native and alien wasp species relative to elevation in subalpine Sophora (Fabaceae) forests on Mauna Kea, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oboyski, P.T.; Slotterback, J.W.; Banko, P.C.

    2004-01-01

    Alien parasitic wasps, including accidental introductions and purposefully released biological control agents, have been implicated in the decline of native Hawaiian Lepidoptera. Understanding the potential impacts of alien wasps requires knowledge of ecological parameters that influence parasitism rates for species in their new environment. Sophora seed-feeding Cydia spp. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) were surveyed for larval parasitoids to determine how native and alien wasps are partitioned over an elevation gradient (2200-2800 m) on Hawaii Island, Hawaii. Parasitism rate of native Euderus metallicus (Eulophidae) increased with increased elevation, while parasitism rate by immigrant Calliephialtes grapholithae (Ichneumonidae) decreased. Parasitism by Pristomerus hawaiiensis (Ichneumonidae), origins uncertain, also decreased with increased elevation. Two other species, Diadegma blackburni (Ichneumonidae), origins uncertain, and Brasema cushmani (Eupelmidae), a purposefully introduced biological control agent for pepper weevil, did not vary significantly with elevation. Results are contrasted with a previous study of this system with implications for the conservation of an endangered bird species that feed on Cydia larvae. Interpretation of results is hindered by lack of knowledge of autecology of moths and wasps, origins, phylogeny, systematics, competitive ability, and physiological limitations of each wasp species. These factors should be incorporated into risk analysis for biological control introductions and invasive species programs. ?? 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  20. The density of females of Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) affects their reproductive performance on pupae of Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae).

    PubMed

    Pereira, Fabricio F; Zanuncio, José C; Serrão, José E; Zanuncio, Teresinha V; Pratissoli, Dirceu; Pastori, Patrik L

    2010-06-01

    Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a gregarious and polyphagous parasitoid mainly of Lepidoptera pupae. The objective of this paper as to study the developent of parasitoid on Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) pupae exposed to one, nine, 18, 27, 36, 45 or 54 female P. elaeisis, respectively. The females of the parasitoid remained in contact with pupae for 24 hours in glass tubes (14.0 x 2.2 cm), packed in a climatic chamber regulated at 25 +/- 2 degrees C, 70 +/- 10% relative humidity and photo phase of 12 hours. With the exception of density 1:1 (72.72%), in other densities parasitism was 100%. Adults of P. elaeisis did not emerge from pupae at densities of 1:1 and 9:1, but 100.0% of parasitoid emergence was observed at the density of 45:1 and 54.54% at 54:1. The duration of the life cycle of this parasitoid ranged from 20 to 28 days. P. elaeisis produced 49 to 589 descendants per pupa of B. mori. The sex ratio of P. elaeisis ranged from 0.93 +/- 0.01 to 0.97 +/- 0.01 without differences with 18, 27, 36, 45 and 54 females/host. This parasitoid should be reared with the density of 45 females per pupa of B. mori.

  1. Electroantennogram Responses to Plant Volatiles Associated with Fenvalerate Resistance in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Houjun, Tian; Lin, Shuo; Chen, Yong; Chen, Yixin; Zhao, Jianwei; Gu, Xiaojun; Wei, Hui

    2018-05-28

    The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is the main destructive insect pest of brassica vegetables around the world, and has developed resistance to numerous insecticides. Although host plant volatiles are important in pest control, the mechanism of low-level insecticide resistance in P. xylostella due to plant volatiles has not been examined. Here, electroantennograms (EAGs) were used to compare the responses of adult male and female DBMs of a susceptible strain (S-strain) and a derived resistant strain, Fen-R-strain (6.52-fold more resistant than the S-strain), to different concentrations of nine plant volatiles. We found significantly different relative EAG responses between S-strain and Fen-R-strain males to different concentrations of methyl jasmonate, methyl salicylate, and octanal. The relative EAG responses of S-strain and Fen-R-strain females to different concentrations of β-myrcene, methyl jasmonate, methyl salicylate, and allyl isothiocyanate were significantly different. Fen-R-strain females showed lower EAG responses to most of the tested plant volatiles (at concentrations of 1:10) than males, except for allyl isothiocyanate. A larger difference in relative EAG response to α-farnesene and β-myrcene was found between S-strain and Fen-R-strain females than between males of the two strains. A larger difference in relative EAG response to octanal, nonanal, and octan-1-ol was found between S-strain and Fen-R-strain males than between females of the two strains. These results illustrate the relationship between the function of plant volatiles and resistance in an insect pest species, and provide a scientific basis for resistance evolutionary theory in pest management research.

  2. Expression Profiles of the Trehalose-6-Phosphate Synthase Gene Associated With Thermal Stress in Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Tingting; Gao, Yulin; He, Kanglai

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Trehalose is the major blood sugar in insects. Physiological significance of this compound has been extensively reported. Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) is an important enzyme in the trehalose biosynthesis pathway. Full-length cDNAs of TPS (Of tps) and its alternative splicing isoform (Of tps_isoformI) were cloned from the Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée; Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae. The Of tps and Of tps_isoformI transcripts were 2913 and 1689 bp long, contained 2529 and 1293 bp open reading frames encoding proteins of 842 and 430 amino acids with a molecular mass of 94.4 and 48.6 kDa, respectively. Transcriptional profiling and response to thermal stress of Of tps gene were determined by quantitative real-time PCR showing that the Of tps was predominantly expressed in the larval fat body, significantly enhanced during molting and transformation; and thermal stress also induced Of tps expression. Gene structure analysis is indicating that one TPS domain and one trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP) domain were located at the N- and C-termini of Of        TPS, respectively, while only the TPS domain was detected in OfTPS_isoformI. Three-dimensional modeling and heterologous expression were developed to predict the putative functions of OfTPS and Of   TPS_isoformI. We infer that the expression of Of tps gene is thermally induced and might be crucial for larvae survival.

  3. Selective flowers to attract and enhance Telenomus laeviceps (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae): a released biocontrol agent of Mamestra brassicae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Barloggio, G; Tamm, L; Nagel, P; Luka, H

    2018-05-10

    The importance of the right food source for the survival and reproduction of certain insect species is well documented. In the case of biocontrol agents, this is even more important in order to reach a high predation or parasitation performance. The egg parasitoid Telenomus laeviceps (Förster, 1861) (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) is a promising candidate for mass release as a biological control agent of the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). However, adult T. laeviceps need a sugar-rich food source to increase their parasitation performance and produce a good amount of female offspring. Released biocontrol agents were shown to benefit from conservation biocontrol, which includes the provision of selected flowers as nectar resources for beneficial insects. In Switzerland, Centaurea cyanus L. (Asteraceae), Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (Polygonaceae) and Vicia sativa L. (Fabaceae) are successfully implemented in the field to attract and promote natural enemies of different cabbage pests. In this study, we investigated the potential of these selected flowers to attract and promote T. laeviceps under laboratory conditions. In Y-tube olfactometer experiments, we first tested whether the three nectar providing plant species are attractive to T. laeviceps. Furthermore, we assessed their effects on survival and parasitation performance of adult T. laeviceps. We found that flowers of F. esculentum and C. cyanus were attractive in contrast to V. sativa. Also fecundity and the number of female offspring produced were higher for females kept on F. esculentum and C. cyanus than on V. sativa. In contrast, survival was similar on all treatments. Our findings present a further key step towards the implementation of T. laeviceps as a biocontrol agent.

  4. Lethal and sublethal effects of insecticides on Engytatus varians (Heteroptera: Miridae), a predator of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Aguilar, Daniel Alberto; Soares, Marianne Araújo; Passos, Luis Clepf; Martínez, Ana Mabel; Pineda, Samuel; Carvalho, Geraldo Andrade

    2018-06-19

    The mirid Engytatus varians (Distant) is a promising biological control agent of the tomato borer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), one of the most destructive pests of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). The effects of five insecticides commonly used on tomato crops in Brazil were evaluated on E. varians in laboratory and semifield conditions. Glass Petri dish with residues of chlorfenapyr, thiamethoxam, and abamectin caused ˃90% mortality in both stages of the predator 72 h post-treatment, except imidacloprid that caused 78% of nymphs mortality. Teflubenzuron caused 24 and 66% mortality on adults and nymphs, respectively. The offspring of females derived from treated nymphs with teflubenzuron was significantly lower than the control but not when females were treated as adults. Longevity of males derived from nymphs treated with teflubenzuron was significantly reduced, but no effects were observed on females. When males and females were treated as adults with teflubenzuron there were no effects on their longevity. In the greenhouse-aged tomato plants, the 2 h-old residues of thiamethoxam, chlorfenapyr, and abamectin caused more than 70% of mortality of third instar of E. varians at 72 h post-treatment, 12 day-old residues of all three compounds caused a mortality lower than 30%. These data suggest that teflubenzuron can be associated with releases of E. varians adults, while the use of other evaluated pesticides should be avoided in this situation. Although, the low persistence of these products indicate that their spraying and later releases of E. varians adults on tomato crops are a possible strategy to control T. absoluta.

  5. Resistance to Diamide Insecticides in Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae): Comparison Between Lab-Selected Strains and Field-Collected Populations.

    PubMed

    Qin, Chao; Wang, Cheng-Hua; Wang, Ying-Ying; Sun, Shi-Qing; Wang, Huan-Huan; Xue, Chao-Bin

    2018-04-02

    Diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.; Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is an important pest of crucifers worldwide. The extensive use of diamide insecticides has led to P. xylostella resistance and this presents a serious threat to vegetable production. We selected chlorantraniliprole (Rf) and flubendiamide (Rh) resistance strains of P. xylostella with resistance ratios of 684.54-fold and 677.25-fold, respectively. The Rf and Rh strains underwent 46 and 36 generations of lab-selection for resistance, respectively. Low cross resistance of Rh to cyantraniliprole was found. Cross resistance to chlorfenapyr, tebufenozid, and indoxacarb was not found in Rf and Rh strains. The P. xylostella ryanodine receptor gene (PxRyR) transcripts level in the Rf and Rh strains was up-regulated. Except for Rf34 and Rh36, PxRyR expression in all generations of Rf and Rh selection gradually increased with increasing resistance. Two resistant populations were field-collected from Guangzhou Baiyun (Rb) and Zengcheng (Rz) and propagated for several generations without exposure to any pesticide had higher PxRyR expression than the susceptible strain (S). In the S strain, PxRyR expression was not related to the resistance ratio. Gene sequencing found that the RyR 4946 gene site was glycine (G) in the S, Rf, and Rh strains, and was glutamate (E) with 70% and 80% frequency in the Rb and Rz populations, respectively. The 4946 gene site was substituted by valine (V) with the frequency of 30% and 20% in Rb and Rz populations, respectively. These results increase the understanding of the mechanisms of diamide insecticide resistance in P. xylostella.

  6. Sex Pheromone Dosages and Release Point Densities for Mating Disruption of Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in NE China Corn Fields.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ri-Zhao; Jow, Chung-Kuang; Klein, Michael G; Jia, Yu-di; Zhang, Da-Yu; Li, Lan-Bing

    2017-08-01

    Mating disruption of Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) with its sex pheromone has not been commonly used in NE China due to a lack of information about optimal sex pheromone dosages and the density of release points required in the field. During 2014-2016, first, the two active pheromone ingredients were evaluated in the laboratory alone at ca. 2.5-5.0 mg, or in combination at 0.2-6.0 mg, to disrupt male O. furnacalis mating behaviors. Then, mating disruption areas, with radii of <8.0 m, were determined with those same dosages in corn, an orchard, and soybean fields by comparing male captures in sentinel traps in the control plots with those in corresponding disruption treatments. Finally, 6.0 (F30) and 0.2 mg (Fs) dosages were used in fields at 20-640 and 200-6,400 release points/ha. We found that ≧6.0 mg of the binary pheromone mixture, or ca. 5.0 mg of either of the two single components, completely disrupted mating behaviors, and F30 of the binary mixture provided a 200-m2 disruption area, with at least 50% capture reductions. At a density of 60-640 and 600-6,400 points/ha in a corn field, F30 and Fs dosages provided >90% mating disruption, leaf protection, and ear protection. The dispenser densities and inverse male catches in traps tended to follow a noncompetitive mechanism of mating disruption. Since 85% disruption of mating with 200-400 0.02 mg release points/ha was obtained, that level is recommended as the choice in future NE China O. furnacalis IPM programs. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. A Large-Scale, Higher-Level, Molecular Phylogenetic Study of the Insect Order Lepidoptera (Moths and Butterflies)

    PubMed Central

    Regier, Jerome C.; Mitter, Charles; Zwick, Andreas; Bazinet, Adam L.; Cummings, Michael P.; Kawahara, Akito Y.; Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Zwickl, Derrick J.; Cho, Soowon; Davis, Donald R.; Baixeras, Joaquin; Brown, John; Parr, Cynthia; Weller, Susan; Lees, David C.; Mitter, Kim T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Higher-level relationships within the Lepidoptera, and particularly within the species-rich subclade Ditrysia, are generally not well understood, although recent studies have yielded progress. We present the most comprehensive molecular analysis of lepidopteran phylogeny to date, focusing on relationships among superfamilies. Methodology / Principal Findings 483 taxa spanning 115 of 124 families were sampled for 19 protein-coding nuclear genes, from which maximum likelihood tree estimates and bootstrap percentages were obtained using GARLI. Assessment of heuristic search effectiveness showed that better trees and higher bootstrap percentages probably remain to be discovered even after 1000 or more search replicates, but further search proved impractical even with grid computing. Other analyses explored the effects of sampling nonsynonymous change only versus partitioned and unpartitioned total nucleotide change; deletion of rogue taxa; and compositional heterogeneity. Relationships among the non-ditrysian lineages previously inferred from morphology were largely confirmed, plus some new ones, with strong support. Robust support was also found for divergences among non-apoditrysian lineages of Ditrysia, but only rarely so within Apoditrysia. Paraphyly for Tineoidea is strongly supported by analysis of nonsynonymous-only signal; conflicting, strong support for tineoid monophyly when synonymous signal was added back is shown to result from compositional heterogeneity. Conclusions / Significance Support for among-superfamily relationships outside the Apoditrysia is now generally strong. Comparable support is mostly lacking within Apoditrysia, but dramatically increased bootstrap percentages for some nodes after rogue taxon removal, and concordance with other evidence, strongly suggest that our picture of apoditrysian phylogeny is approximately correct. This study highlights the challenge of finding optimal topologies when analyzing hundreds of taxa. It also

  8. Differences in winter cold hardiness reflect the geographic range disjunction of Neophasia menapia and Neophasia terlooii (Lepidoptera: Pieridae).

    PubMed

    Halbritter, Dale A; Teets, Nicholas M; Williams, Caroline M; Daniels, Jaret C

    Predicting how rapid climate change will affect terrestrial biota depends on a thorough understanding of an organism's biology and evolutionary history. Organisms at their range boundaries are particularly sensitive to climate change. As predominantly terrestrial poikilotherms, insects are often geographically limited by extremes in ambient temperatures. We compared the cold hardiness strategies of two geographically widespread butterflies, the pine white, Neophasia menapia, and the Mexican pine white, N. terlooii (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), at the near-contact zone of their range boundaries. Eggs are laid on pine needles and are exposed to harsh winter conditions. Eggs were collected from wild-caught butterflies, and we determined the supercooling point (SCP) and lower lethal temperature (LLT 50 ) of overwintering eggs. The SCP of Neophasia menapia eggs (-29.0 ± 0.6 °C) was significantly lower than that of N. terlooii eggs (-21.8 ± 0.7 °C). Both species were freeze-intolerant and capable of surviving down to their respective SCPs (LLT 50 of N. menapia between -30 and -31 °C, N. terlooii between -20 and -21 °C). Cold exposure time did not affect the survival of N. menapia, but N. terlooii experienced somewhat greater mortality at sub-freezing temperatures during longer exposures. Our results, coupled with an analysis of microclimate data, indicate that colder winters in northern Arizona may contribute to the northern range limit for N. terlooii. Furthermore, careful analysis of historical weather data indicates that mortality from freezing is unlikely in southern Arizona but possible in northern Arizona. Movements of Neophasia range boundaries could be monitored as potential biological responses to climate change. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Palaeoenvironmental Shifts Drove the Adaptive Radiation of a Noctuid Stemborer Tribe (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Apameini) in the Miocene

    PubMed Central

    Toussaint, Emmanuel F. A.; Condamine, Fabien L.; Kergoat, Gael J.; Capdevielle-Dulac, Claire; Barbut, Jérôme; Silvain, Jean-François; Le Ru, Bruno P.

    2012-01-01

    Between the late Oligocene and the early Miocene, climatic changes have shattered the faunal and floral communities and drove the apparition of new ecological niches. Grassland biomes began to supplant forestlands, thus favouring a large-scale ecosystem turnover. The independent adaptive radiations of several mammal lineages through the evolution of key innovations are classic examples of these changes. However, little is known concerning the evolutionary history of other herbivorous groups in relation with this modified environment. It is especially the case in phytophagous insect communities, which have been rarely studied in this context despite their ecological importance. Here, we investigate the phylogenetic and evolutionary patterns of grass-specialist moths from the species-rich tribe Apameini (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). The molecular dating analyses carried out over the corresponding phylogenetic framework reveal an origin around 29 million years ago for the Apameini. Ancestral state reconstructions indicate (i) a potential Palaearctic origin of the tribe Apameini associated with a major dispersal event in Afrotropics for the subtribe Sesamiina; (ii) a recent colonization from Palaearctic of the New World and Oriental regions by several independent lineages; and (iii) an ancestral association of the tribe Apameini over grasses (Poaceae). Diversification analyses indicate that diversification rates have not remained constant during the evolution of the group, as underlined by a significant shift in diversification rates during the early Miocene. Interestingly, this age estimate is congruent with the development of grasslands at this time. Rather than clade ages, variations in diversification rates among genera better explain the current differences in species diversity. Our results underpin a potential adaptive radiation of these phytophagous moths with the family Poaceae in relation with the major environmental shifts that have occurred in the Miocene. PMID

  10. Seasonal ecology and thermal constraints of Telenomus spp. (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae), egg parasitoids of the hemlock looper (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).

    PubMed

    Legault, Simon; Hébert, Christian; Blais, Julie; Berthiaume, Richard; Bauce, Eric; Brodeur, Jacques

    2012-12-01

    We describe seasonal patterns of parasitism by Telenomus coloradensis Crawford, Telenomus droozi Muesebeck, Telenomus flavotibiae Pelletier (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae), and Trichogramma spp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), egg parasitoids of the hemlock looper, Lambdina fiscellaria (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), after a 3-yr survey of defoliated stands in the lower St. Lawrence region (Quebec, Canada). Results from sentinel trap sampling indicate that T. coloradensis and T. droozi are the most common species, whereas parasitism by T. flavotibiae and Trichogramma spp. is rare. Telenomus coloradensis and T. droozi show similar seasonal periods of parasitism, both species being active in early spring (late April) at temperatures as low as 4°C. Using thermal threshold (T(0)) and thermal constant (K) for immature development of T. coloradensis males and females from egg to adult emergence, we estimated that the spring progeny emerges in the middle of the summer while hemlock looper eggs are absent from the forest environment. Parasitoid females would then mate and remain in the environment to 1) exploit alternate host species, 2) enter into quiescence and later parasitize eggs laid by hemlock looper females in the fall, 3) enter into a reproductive diapause and parasitize hemlock looper eggs only the next spring, or all of these. Although previous studies have shown that T. coloradensis can overwinter in its immature form within the host egg, our field and laboratory results indicate that in the lower St. Lawrence region, this species principally enters diapause as fertilized females, with a mean supercooling point of -30.6°C in the fall.

  11. Mortality of Eggs and Newly Hatched Larvae of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Exposed to High Temperatures in the Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Kiaeian Moosavi, F; Cargnus, E; Pavan, F; Zandigiacomo, P

    2017-06-01

    The hypothesis that bunch-zone leaf removal reduces infestations of the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), by increasing egg and larval mortality owing to sunlight exposure was evaluated in the laboratory by subjecting different egg stages (white, red-eyes, and black-head) and newly hatched larvae to high temperatures. Based on temperatures recorded in a northern Italian vineyard on sun-exposed berries belonging to south-west facing bunches, eggs were subjected to constant temperatures of 40 °C and 37 °C for one or two periods of 3 or 6 h, and to 24-h temperature cycle with peak of 40 °C. Larvae were exposed to 24-h high-temperature cycles with peaks of 35, 37, and 40 °C. The results showed partial egg mortality at 40 °C, increasing with exposure hours and periods, and as eggs matured. Egg mortality was not affected by exposure to 37 °C. Larval survival already decreased significantly at 37 °C and was even lower at 40 °C. These laboratory data are in agreement with the hypothesis that temperatures reached by berries exposed to sunlight cause egg and larval mortality. Data on egg and larval susceptibility to high temperatures have also implications for species distribution and effects of climate change. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Phylogenetic Molecular Species Delimitations Unravel Potential New Species in the Pest Genus Spodoptera Guenée, 1852 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, Pascaline; Barbut, Jérôme; Le Ru, Bruno; Silvain, Jean-François; Clamens, Anne-Laure; d’Alençon, Emmanuelle; Kergoat, Gael J.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays molecular species delimitation methods promote the identification of species boundaries within complex taxonomic groups by adopting innovative species concepts and theories (e.g. branching patterns, coalescence). As some of them can efficiently deal with large single-locus datasets, they could speed up the process of species discovery compared to more time consuming molecular methods, and benefit from the existence of large public datasets; these methods can also particularly favour scientific research and actions dealing with threatened or economically important taxa. In this study we aim to investigate and clarify the status of economically important moths species belonging to the genus Spodoptera (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), a complex group in which previous phylogenetic analyses and integrative approaches already suggested the possible occurrence of cryptic species and taxonomic ambiguities. In this work, the effectiveness of innovative (and faster) species delimitation approaches to infer putative species boundaries has been successfully tested in Spodoptera, by processing the most comprehensive dataset (in terms of number of species and specimens) ever achieved; results are congruent and reliable, irrespective of the set of parameters and phylogenetic models applied. Our analyses confirm the existence of three potential new species clusters (for S. exigua (Hübner, 1808), S. frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) and S. mauritia (Boisduval, 1833)) and support the synonymy of S. marima (Schaus, 1904) with S. ornithogalli (Guenée, 1852). They also highlight the ambiguity of the status of S. cosmiodes (Walker, 1858) and S. descoinsi Lalanne-Cassou & Silvain, 1994. This case study highlights the interest of molecular species delimitation methods as valuable tools for species discovery and to emphasize taxonomic ambiguities. PMID:25853412

  13. Impact of Field Densities of the Naturalized Defoliator Caloptilia triadicae (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) on the Invasive Weed Chinese Tallowtree.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, G S; Hight, S D; Wright, S A

    2017-12-08

    Chinese tallowtree, Triadica sebifera (L.) Small (Euphoriaceae), is one of the most aggressive weeds of coastal wetlands and forests of the southeastern United States. The lack of specialist herbivores in the invaded range may be one of the factors that contribute to the invasive nature of this weed. Chinese tallowtree has been the target of a classical biological control project since 2006. Several herbivore species are being tested for biological control of Chinese tallowtree. Concurrently, an adventive herbivore, Caloptilia triadicae Davis (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), was found feeding on Chinese tallowtree in the southeastern United States in 2004 and now occurs throughout the invaded range. Field populations of C. triadicae from two sites caused extensive mining damage to the Chinese tallowtree leaves. The greatest damage occurred after 30 d of exposure to C. triadicae in the herbivory treatment and amounted to about 25-30 leaf mines (early instars) and leaf rolls (late instars) per plant. Insecticide-treated plants had atmost 5-10 leaf mines and rolls per plant. Despite this difference, plant growth in height, number of new branches, and leaves did not differ significantly from plants protected from herbivory. Analysis of harvested plant results suggested that, in general, herbivory had little impact on biomass. However, there was a slight reduction in trunk weights in the unrestriced herbivory treatment compared with the insecticide-treated plants. Although this study exposed experimental plants to only 60 d of herbivory, these results suggested that C. triadicae alone will not exert sufficient control of invasive populations of Chinese tallowtree. Furthermore, they indicated that continued development of biological control agents that target Chinese tallowtree are needed. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. Comparative Effectiveness of Potential Elicitors of Plant Resistance against Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Four Crop Plants.

    PubMed

    Gordy, John W; Leonard, B Rogers; Blouin, David; Davis, Jeffrey A; Stout, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Feeding by insect herbivores activates plant signaling pathways, resulting in the enhanced production of secondary metabolites and other resistance-related traits by injured plants. These traits can reduce insect fitness, deter feeding, and attract beneficial insects. Organic and inorganic chemicals applied as a foliar spray, seed treatment, or soil drench can activate these plant responses. Azelaic acid (AA), benzothiadiazole (BTH), gibberellic acid (GA), harpin, and jasmonic acid (JA) are thought to directly mediate plant responses to pathogens and herbivores or to mimic compounds that do. The effects of these potential elicitors on the induction of plant defenses were determined by measuring the weight gains of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (FAW) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on four crop plants, cotton, corn, rice, and soybean, treated with the compounds under greenhouse conditions. Treatment with JA consistently reduced growth of FAW reared on treated cotton and soybean. In contrast, FAW fed BTH- and harpin-treated cotton and soybean tissue gained more weight than those fed control leaf tissue, consistent with negative crosstalk between the salicylic acid and JA signaling pathways. No induction or inconsistent induction of resistance was observed in corn and rice. Follow-up experiments showed that the co-application of adjuvants with JA failed to increase the effectiveness of induction by JA and that soybean looper [Chrysodeixis includens (Walker)], a relative specialist on legumes, was less affected by JA-induced responses in soybean than was the polyphagous FAW. Overall, the results of these experiments demonstrate that the effectiveness of elicitors as a management tactic will depend strongly on the identities of the crop, the pest, and the elicitor involved.

  15. Bioactivity of compounds from Acmella oleracea against Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and selectivity to two non-target species.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Shaiene C; Carvalho, Geraldo A; Picanço, Marcelo C; Morais, Elisangela G F; Pereira, Rogério M

    2012-03-01

    Tropical plants are recognised sources of bioactive compounds that can be used for pest control. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological activity of compounds present in Acmella oleracea (Asteracea) against Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), which is the main pest of tomato crops in Latin America. The selectivity of these compounds to the predator Solenopsis saevissima (Smith) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and to the pollinator Tetragonisca angustula (Latr.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponinae) was also of interest. A bioassay screening with hexane and ethanol extracts from 23 plants was performed. The hexane extract of A. oleraceae was the most active of the extracts and was selected for further study. The following three alkamides were isolated from a hexane extract of the aerial parts of A. oleracea: spilanthol, (E)-N-isobutylundeca-2-en-8,10-diynamide and (R, E)-N-(2-methylbutyl)undeca-2-en-8,10-diynamide. All of the isolated compounds showed insecticidal activity, with spilanthol being the most active (LD(50) = 0.13 µg mg(-1) ) against T. absoluta. The alkamides were selective to both beneficial species studied. The crude hexane extract of A. oleraceae showed high insecticidal activity and can be used to control T. absoluta in organic or conventional crops. Quantification of LD(50) values of isolated compounds against T. absoluta showed that alkamides could serve as potent insecticides for T. absoluta control programmes. Spilanthol was the main alkamide active isolated. This alkamide is the most promising as it has the highest insecticidal activity and is selective to non-target organisms. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Inorganic elements in the fat bodies of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae parasitized by Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, D O; Zucchi, T D; Zucchi, O L A D; Nascimento Filho, V F; Almeida, E; Cônsoli, F L

    2010-08-01

    Koinobiont parasitoids use several strategies to regulate the host's physiological processes during parasitism. Although many aspects of host-parasitoid interactions have been explored, studies that attempted to assess the effects of parasitism on the availability of inorganic elements in the host are virtually nonexistent. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effects of parasitism on the concentrations of inorganic elements in the fat bodies of larvae of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) during the development of the parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), by using total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF). TXRF analysis allowed comparisons of the changes in the availability of the elements P, S, K, Ca, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn in the fat body tissues of D. saccharalis larvae parasitized by C. flavipes. Overall, the concentration of inorganic elements was higher early in parasitoid development (1 and 3days after parasitism) compared to non-parasitized larvae, but much lower towards the end of parasitoid development (7 and 9days after parasitism). Ca, K, and S were reduced after the fifth day of parasitism, which affected the total abundance of inorganic elements observed in the fat bodies of the parasitized hosts. The regulatory mechanisms or pathological effects related to the observed variation of the host inorganic elements induced by the parasitoid remain unknown, but there might be a strategy to make these elements available to the parasitoid larvae at the end of their development, when higher metabolic activity of the host fat body is required to sustain parasitoid growth. The observed variation of the host's inorganic elements could also be related to the known effects of parasitism on the host's immune response. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Global Phylogeny of Leafmining Ectoedemia Moths (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae): Exploring Host Plant Family Shifts and Allopatry as Drivers of Speciation

    PubMed Central

    Doorenweerd, Camiel; van Nieukerken, Erik J.; Menken, Steph B. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Host association patterns in Ectoedemia (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) are also encountered in other insect groups with intimate plant relationships, including a high degree of monophagy, a preference for ecologically dominant plant families (e.g. Fagaceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and Betulaceae) and a tendency for related insect species to feed on related host plant species. The evolutionary processes underlying these patterns are only partly understood, we therefore assessed the role of allopatry and host plant family shifts in speciation within Ectoedemia. Methodology Six nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers with a total aligned length of 3692 base pairs were used to infer phylogenetic relationships among 92 species belonging to the subgenus Ectoedemia of the genus Ectoedemia, representing a thorough taxon sampling with a global coverage. The results support monophyletic species groups that are congruent with published findings based on morphology. We used the obtained phylogeny to explore host plant family association and geographical distribution to investigate if host shifts and allopatry have been instrumental in the speciation of these leafmining insects. Significance We found that, even though most species within species groups commonly feed on plants from one family, shifts to a distantly related host family have occasionally occurred throughout the phylogeny and such shifts are most commonly observed towards Betulaceae. The largest radiations have occurred within species groups that feed on Fagaceae, Rosaceae, and Salicaceae. Most species are restricted to one of the seven global biogeographic regions, but within species groups representatives are commonly found in different biogeographic regions. Although we find general patterns with regard to host use and biogeography, there are differences between clades that suggest that different drivers of speciation, and perhaps drivers that we did not examine, have shaped diversity patterns in different

  18. Identification of the Mamestra configurata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) peritrophic matrix proteins and enzymes involved in peritrophic matrix chitin metabolism.

    PubMed

    Toprak, Umut; Erlandson, Martin; Baldwin, Doug; Karcz, Steve; Wan, Lianglu; Coutu, Cathy; Gillott, Cedric; Hegedus, Dwayne D

    2016-10-01

    The peritrophic matrix (PM) is essential for insect digestive system physiology as it protects the midgut epithelium from damage by food particles, pathogens, and toxins. The PM is also an attractive target for development of new pest control strategies due to its per os accessibility. To understand how the PM performs these functions, the molecular architecture of the PM was examined using genomic and proteomic approaches in Mamestra configurata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a major pest of cruciferous oilseed crops in North America. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analyses of the PM identified 82 proteins classified as: (i) peritrophins, including a new class with a CBDIII domain; (ii) enzymes involved in chitin modification (chitin deacetylases), digestion (serine proteases, aminopeptidases, carboxypeptidases, lipases and α-amylase) or other reactions (β-1,3-glucanase, alkaline phosphatase, dsRNase, astacin, pantetheinase); (iii) a heterogenous group consisting of polycalin, REPATs, serpin, C-Type lectin and Lsti99/Lsti201 and 3 novel proteins without known orthologs. The genes encoding PM proteins were expressed predominantly in the midgut. cDNAs encoding chitin synthase-2 (McCHS-2), chitinase (McCHI), and β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (McNAG) enzymes, involved in PM chitin metabolism, were also identified. McCHS-2 expression was specific to the midgut indicating that it is responsible for chitin synthesis in the PM, the only chitinous material in the midgut. In contrast, the genes encoding the chitinolytic enzymes were expressed in multiple tissues. McCHS-2, McCHI, and McNAG were expressed in the midgut of feeding larvae, and NAG activity was present in the PM. This information was used to generate an updated model of the lepidopteran PM architecture. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. High toxicity of camphene and γ-elemene from Wedelia prostrata essential oil against larvae of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; AlSalhi, Mohamad S; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Maggi, Filippo

    2018-04-01

    The development of eco-friendly biopesticides in the fight against agricultural pests is an important challenge nowadays. The essential oil of Wedelia prostrata Hemsl. is known for its multipurpose biological activities in Chinese folk medicine. However, limited efforts attempted to understand the potential insecticidal activity of its main individual constituents and related mechanism of action. In this research, we investigated the insecticidal activity of W. prostrata against the crop pest Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Toxicity on 4th instar larvae was assessed after 24 h of exposure. The LC 50 and LC 90 of the W. prostrata essential oil were 167.46 and 322.12 μg/ml, respectively. GC-MS analyses were carried out to shed light on the oil chemical composition. Main constituents were the monoterpene camphene (9.6%) and the sesquiterpenes γ-elemene (7.6%), α-humulene (6.9%), and (E,E)-α-farnesene (7.3%). The pure constituents were evaluated for their insecticidal activity on S. litura 4th instar larvae. The most toxic molecule was camphene (LC 50  = 6.28 μg/ml), followed by γ-elemene, (LC 50  = 10.64 μg/ml), α-humulene (LC 50  = 12.89 μg/ml), and (E,E)-α-farnesene (LC 50  = 16.77 μg/ml). Overall, our experiments highlighted the promising potential of camphene and γ-elemene from W. prostrata essential oil against larvae of S. litura, allowing us to propose these two compounds for the development of newer pesticides in the fight against crop pests. Further studies aimed at evaluating the potential synergy between these two molecules, as well as their stability in field conditions are ongoing.

  20. Species richness of Eurasian Zephyrus hairstreaks (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Theclini) with implications on historical biogeography: An NDM/VNDM approach

    PubMed Central

    Yago, Masaya; Settele, Josef; Li, Xiushan; Ueshima, Rei; Grishin, Nick V.; Wang, Min

    2018-01-01

    Aim A database based on distributional records of Eurasian Zephyrus hairstreaks (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Theclini) was compiled to analyse their areas of endemism (AoEs), species richness and distribution patterns, to explore their locations of past glacial refugia and dispersal routes. Methods Over 2000 Zephyrus hairstreaks occurrences are analysed using the NDM/VNDM algorithm, for the recognition of AoEs. Species richness was calculated by using the option ‘Number of different classes’ to count the different classes of a variable presented in each 3.0°×3.0° grid cell, and GIS software was used to visualize distribution patterns of endemic species. Results Centres of species richness of Zephyrus hairstreaks are situated in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (EQTP), Hengduan Mountain Region (HDMR) and the Qinling Mountain Region (QLMR). Latitudinal gradients in species richness show normal distribution with the peak between 25° N and 35° N in the temperate zone, gradually decreasing towards the poles. Moreover, most parts of central and southern China, especially the area of QLMR-EQTP-HDMR, were identified as AoEs that may have played a significant role as refugia during Quaternary global cooling. There are four major distributional patterns of Zephyrus hairstreaks in Eurasia: Sino-Japanese, Sino-Himalayan, high-mountain and a combined distribution covering all three patterns. Conclusions Zephyrus hairstreaks probably originated at least 23–24 Myr ago in E. Asia between 25° N to 35° N in the temperate zone. Cenozoic orogenies caused rapid speciation of this tribe and extrusion of the Indochina block resulted in vicariance between the Sino-Japanese and the Sino-Himalayan patterns. The four distribution patterns provided two possible dispersal directions: Sino-Japanese dispersal and Sino-Himalayan dispersal. PMID:29351314

  1. Species richness of Eurasian Zephyrus hairstreaks (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Theclini) with implications on historical biogeography: An NDM/VNDM approach.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Hailing; Yago, Masaya; Settele, Josef; Li, Xiushan; Ueshima, Rei; Grishin, Nick V; Wang, Min

    2018-01-01

    A database based on distributional records of Eurasian Zephyrus hairstreaks (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Theclini) was compiled to analyse their areas of endemism (AoEs), species richness and distribution patterns, to explore their locations of past glacial refugia and dispersal routes. Over 2000 Zephyrus hairstreaks occurrences are analysed using the NDM/VNDM algorithm, for the recognition of AoEs. Species richness was calculated by using the option 'Number of different classes' to count the different classes of a variable presented in each 3.0°×3.0° grid cell, and GIS software was used to visualize distribution patterns of endemic species. Centres of species richness of Zephyrus hairstreaks are situated in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (EQTP), Hengduan Mountain Region (HDMR) and the Qinling Mountain Region (QLMR). Latitudinal gradients in species richness show normal distribution with the peak between 25° N and 35° N in the temperate zone, gradually decreasing towards the poles. Moreover, most parts of central and southern China, especially the area of QLMR-EQTP-HDMR, were identified as AoEs that may have played a significant role as refugia during Quaternary global cooling. There are four major distributional patterns of Zephyrus hairstreaks in Eurasia: Sino-Japanese, Sino-Himalayan, high-mountain and a combined distribution covering all three patterns. Zephyrus hairstreaks probably originated at least 23-24 Myr ago in E. Asia between 25° N to 35° N in the temperate zone. Cenozoic orogenies caused rapid speciation of this tribe and extrusion of the Indochina block resulted in vicariance between the Sino-Japanese and the Sino-Himalayan patterns. The four distribution patterns provided two possible dispersal directions: Sino-Japanese dispersal and Sino-Himalayan dispersal.

  2. Pupation Behaviors and Emergence Successes of Ectropis grisescens (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in Response to Different Substrate Types and Moisture Contents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huifang; Ma, Tao; Xiao, Qiang; Cao, Panrong; Chen, Xuan; Wen, Yuzhen; Xiong, Hongpeng; Qin, Wenquan; Liang, Shiping; Jian, Shengzhe; Li, Yanjun; Sun, Zhaohui; Wen, Xiujun; Wang, Cai

    2017-12-08

    Ectropis grisescens Warren (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is one of the most severe pests of tea plants in China. This species commonly pupates in soil; however, little is known about its pupation ecology. In the present study, choice and no-choice tests were conducted to investigate the pupation behaviors and emergence success of E. grisescens in response to different substrates (sand, sandy loam 1, sandy loam 2, and silt loam) and moisture contents (5, 20, 35, 50, 65, and 80%). Moisture-choice bioassays showed that significantly more E. grisescens individuals pupated in or on soil (sandy loam 1 and 2 and silt loam) that was at the intermediate moisture levels, whereas 5%- and 35%-moisture sand was significantly more preferred over 80%-moisture sand for pupating. Substrate-choice bioassays showed that sand was most preferred by E. grisescens individuals at 20%- and 80%-moisture levels, but no preference was detected among the four substrates at 50%-moisture content. No-choice tests showed that the percentage of burrowed E. grisescens individuals and pupation depth were significantly lower when soil was dry (20% moisture) or wet (80% moisture). In addition, 20%-moisture sandy loam 2 and silt loam significantly decreased the body water content of pupae and emergence success of adults compared to 50%-moisture content. However, each measurement (percentage of burrowed individuals, pupation depth, body water content, or emergence success) was similar when compared among different moisture levels of sand. Interestingly, pupae buried with 80%-moisture soil exhibited significantly lower emergence success than that were unburied. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. The case for a generic phytosanitary irradiation dose of 400 Gy for Lepidoptera that infest shipped commodities as pupae.

    PubMed

    Hallman, Guy J; Parker, Andrew C; Blackburn, Carl M

    2013-04-01

    The pros and cons of a generic phytosanitary irradiation dose against all Lepidoptera pupae on all commodities are discussed. The measure of efficacy is to prevent the F1 generation from hatching (F1 egg hatch) when late pupae are irradiated. More data exist for this measure than for others studied, and it is also commercially tenable (i.e., prevention of adult emergence would require a high dose not tolerated by fresh commodities). The dose required to prevent F1 egg hatch provides a liberal margin of security for various reasons. A point at issue is that correctly irradiated adults could be capable of flight and thus be found in survey traps in importing countries resulting in costly and unnecessary regulatory action. However, this possibility would be rare and should not be a barrier to the adoption of this generic treatment. The literature was thoroughly examined and only studies that could reasonably satisfy criteria of acceptable irradiation and evaluation methodology, proper age of pupae, and adequate presentation of raw data were accepted. Based on studies with 34 species in nine families, we suggest an efficacious dose of 400 Gy. However, large-scale confirmatory testing (> or = 30,000 individuals) has only been reported for one species. A dose as low as 350 Gy might suffice if results of more large-scale studies were available or the measure of efficacy were extended beyond prevention of F1 egg hatch, but data to defend measures of efficacy beyond F1 egg hatch are scarce and more would need to be generated.

  4. Mitochondrial phylogeny, divergence history and high-altitude adaptation of grassland caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Lymantriinae: Gynaephora) inhabiting the Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ming-Long; Zhang, Qi-Lin; Zhang, Li; Jia, Cheng-Lin; Li, Xiao-Peng; Yang, Xing-Zhuo; Feng, Run-Qiu

    2018-05-01

    Grassland caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Lymantriinae: Gynaephora) are the most important pests in alpine meadows of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and have well adapted to high-altitude environments. To further understand the evolutionary history and their adaptation to the TP, we newly determined seven complete TP Gynaephora mitogenomes. Compared to single genes, whole mitogenomes provided the best phylogenetic signals and obtained robust results, supporting the monophyly of the TP Gynaephora species and a phylogeny of Arctiinae + (Aganainae + Lymantriinae). Incongruent phylogenetic signals were found among single mitochondrial genes, none of which recovered the same phylogeny as the whole mitogenome. We identified six best-performing single genes using Shimodaira-Hasegawa tests and found that the combinations of rrnS and either cox1 or cox3 generated the same phylogeny as the whole mitogenome, indicating the phylogenetic potential of these three genes for future evolutionary studies of Gynaephora. The TP Gynaephora species were estimated to radiate on the TP during the Pliocene and Quaternary, supporting an association of the diversification and speciation of the TP Gynaephora species with the TP uplifts and associated climate changes during this time. Selection analyses revealed accelerated evolutionary rates of the mitochondrial protein-coding genes in the TP Gynaephora species, suggesting that they accumulated more nonsynonymous substitutions that may benefit their adaptation to high altitudes. Furthermore, signals of positive selection were detected in nad5 of two Gynaephora species with the highest altitude-distributions, indicating that this gene may contribute to Gynaephora's adaptation to divergent altitudes. This study adds to the understanding of the TP Gynaephora evolutionary relationships and suggests a link between mitogenome evolution and ecological adaptation to high-altitude environments in grassland caterpillars. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc

  5. Identification and Characterization of 30 K Protein Genes Found in Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiao-Feng; Li, Yi-Nü; Yi, Yong-Zhu; Xiao, Xing-Guo; Zhang, Zhi-Fang

    2015-01-01

    The 30 K proteins, the major group of hemolymph proteins in the silkworm, Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), are structurally related with molecular masses of ∼30 kDa and are involved in various physiological processes, e.g., energy storage, embryonic development, and immune responses. For this report, known 30 K protein gene sequences were used as Blastn queries against sequences in the B. mori transcriptome (SilkTransDB). Twenty-nine cDNAs (Bm30K-1–29) were retrieved, including four being previously unidentified in the Lipoprotein_11 family. The genomic structures of the 29 genes were analyzed and they were mapped to their corresponding chromosomes. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis revealed that the 29 genes encode three types of 30 K proteins. The members increased in each type is mainly a result of gene duplication with the appearance of each type preceding the differentiation of each species included in the tree. Real-Time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (Q-PCR) confirmed that the genes could be expressed, and that the three types have different temporal expression patterns. Proteins from the hemolymph was separated by SDS-PAGE, and those with molecular mass of ∼30 kDa were isolated and identified by mass spectrometry sequencing in combination with searches of various databases containing B. mori 30K protein sequences. Of the 34 proteins identified, 13 are members of the 30 K protein family, with one that had not been found in the SilkTransDB, although it had been found in the B. mori genome. Taken together, our results indicate that the 30 K protein family contains many members with various functions. Other methods will be required to find more members of the family. PMID:26078299

  6. A Transcontinental Challenge — A Test of DNA Barcode Performance for 1,541 Species of Canadian Noctuoidea (Lepidoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Zahiri, Reza; Lafontaine, J. Donald; Schmidt, B. Christian; deWaard, Jeremy R.; Zakharov, Evgeny V.; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2014-01-01

    This study provides a first, comprehensive, diagnostic use of DNA barcodes for the Canadian fauna of noctuoids or “owlet” moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuoidea) based on vouchered records for 1,541 species (99.1% species coverage), and more than 30,000 sequences. When viewed from a Canada-wide perspective, DNA barcodes unambiguously discriminate 90% of the noctuoid species recognized through prior taxonomic study, and resolution reaches 95.6% when considered at a provincial scale. Barcode sharing is concentrated in certain lineages with 54% of the cases involving 1.8% of the genera. Deep intraspecific divergence exists in 7.7% of the species, but further studies are required to clarify whether these cases reflect an overlooked species complex or phylogeographic variation in a single species. Non-native species possess higher Nearest-Neighbour (NN) distances than native taxa, whereas generalist feeders have lower NN distances than those with more specialized feeding habits. We found high concordance between taxonomic names and sequence clusters delineated by the Barcode Index Number (BIN) system with 1,082 species (70%) assigned to a unique BIN. The cases of discordance involve both BIN mergers and BIN splits with 38 species falling into both categories, most likely reflecting bidirectional introgression. One fifth of the species are involved in a BIN merger reflecting the presence of 158 species sharing their barcode sequence with at least one other taxon, and 189 species with low, but diagnostic COI divergence. A very few cases (13) involved species whose members fell into both categories. Most of the remaining 140 species show a split into two or three BINs per species, while Virbia ferruginosa was divided into 16. The overall results confirm that DNA barcodes are effective for the identification of Canadian noctuoids. This study also affirms that BINs are a strong proxy for species, providing a pathway for a rapid, accurate estimation of animal diversity. PMID

  7. The Lepidoptera Odorant Binding Protein gene family: Gene gain and loss within the GOBP/PBP complex of moths and butterflies.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Richard G; Große-Wilde, Ewald; Zhou, Jing-Jiang

    2015-07-01

    Butterflies and moths differ significantly in their daily activities: butterflies are diurnal while moths are largely nocturnal or crepuscular. This life history difference is presumably reflected in their sensory biology, and especially the balance between the use of chemical versus visual signals. Odorant Binding Proteins (OBP) are a class of insect proteins, at least some of which are thought to orchestrate the transfer of odor molecules within an olfactory sensillum (olfactory organ), between the air and odor receptor proteins (ORs) on the olfactory neurons. A Lepidoptera specific subclass of OBPs are the GOBPs and PBPs; these were the first OBPs studied and have well documented associations with olfactory sensilla. We have used the available genomes of two moths, Manduca sexta and Bombyx mori, and two butterflies, Danaus plexippus and Heliconius melpomene, to characterize the GOBP/PBP genes, attempting to identify gene orthologs and document specific gene gain and loss. First, we identified the full repertoire of OBPs in the M. sexta genome, and compared these with the full repertoire of OBPs from the other three lepidopteran genomes, the OBPs of Drosophila melanogaster and select OBPs from other Lepidoptera. We also evaluated the tissue specific expression of the M. sexta OBPs using an available RNAseq databases. In the four lepidopteran species, GOBP2 and all PBPs reside in single gene clusters; in two species GOBP1 is documented to be nearby, about 100 kb from the cluster; all GOBP/PBP genes share a common gene structure indicating a common origin. As such, the GOBP/PBP genes form a gene complex. Our findings suggest that (1) the lepidopteran GOBP/PBP complex is a monophyletic lineage with origins deep within Lepidoptera phylogeny, (2) within this lineage PBP gene evolution is much more dynamic than GOBP gene evolution, and (3) butterflies may have lost a PBP gene that plays an important role in moth pheromone detection, correlating with a shift from

  8. A Laboratory Study on the Modeling of Temperature-Dependent Development and Antioxidant System of Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    PubMed Central

    Shamakhi, Leila; Zibaee, Arash; Karimi-Malati, Azadeh; Hoda, Hassan

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The developmental rates of Chilo suppressalis (Walker; Lepidoptera: Crambidae) were investigated at different constant temperatures of 11, 18, 22, 24, 26, 30, 32, 34, and 36°C to find out temperature thresholds, thermal requirements and larval antioxidant responses. The time to complete immature stages separately reduced by raising the rearing temperature except for eggs which showed no significant differences at 30–34°C. Data analysis by traditional and Ikemoto–Takai linear models determined Tmin of 10.0 and 9.92°C as well as thermal constants of 840.34 and 848.0 DD for the overall immature stages. The models including Analytis, Briere-2, Lactin-2, and Sharpe–Schoolfield–Ikemoto (SSI) calculated Tmin values of 9.15, 9.57, 10.0, and 11.37°C for overall immature stages while Tfast was found to be 33.8, 33.3, 33.7, and 33.0°C, respectively. Tmax was calculated as 35.12, 34.66, 34.56, 36.84, 34.11, and 35.15°C for Analytis, Briere-2, Lactin-2, SSI, Logan-6, and Logan-10. Topt using SSI was calculated as 24.42°C for total developmental time. The larvae exposure to 34°C in the short-term period demonstrated the highest activities of catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase compared to control (24°C). Activities of ascorbate peroxidase and glucose-6-phosphate hydrogenase also increased at 34°C in the short-term period for all preparations. The larvae exposed to 34°C in short-term period showed the highest amounts of Malondialdehyde and oxidized and reduced thiols (RSSR/RSH) ratio compared to control. These results may be useful to explain potentially ecological performance of C. suppressalis as the major pest of rice in Iran. PMID:29718498

  9. Metabolic insights into the cold survival strategy and overwintering of the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Huan; Meng, Qian; Wang, Menglong; Zhou, Guiling; Li, Xuan; Wang, Hongtuo; Miao, Lin; Qin, Qilian; Zhang, Jihong

    2017-07-01

    The common cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a destructive pest in Asia. Although overwintering in the field has not been reported for this species, their larvae are capable of long-term survival in fluctuating temperatures, i.e., 5°C (12h) plus 13°C (12h), if food is available. With an increase in climate change due to global warming and the widespread use of greenhouses, further understanding of their cold survival strategy is needed to predict and control their population in the future. In this study, metabolomics was performed to analyze the metabolic features of S. litura larvae exposed to two typical low temperatures: 15°C and 4°C, at which the development, locomotion and feeding activities are maintained or halted, respectively. The results showed that the strategies that regulate lipid and amino acid metabolism were similar at 15°C and 4°C. Cold exposure induced a metabolic shift of energy from carbohydrate to lipid and decreased free amino acids level. Biosynthesis likely contributed to the decrease in amino acids levels even at 4°C, a non-feeding temperature, suggesting an insufficient suppression of anabolism. This explains why food and high temperature pulses are necessary for their long-term cold survival. Glycometabolism was different between 15°C and 4°C. Carbohydrates were used rapidly at 15°C, while trehalose accumulated at 4°C. Interestingly, abundant trehalose and serine are prominent features of Spodoptera exigua larvae, an overwintering species, when compared to S. litura larvae. Exposure to 4°C also induced up-regulation of carbohydrase and protease in the guts of S. litura. Therefore, it is likely that concurrence of food supplement and fluctuating temperatures could facilitate the cold survival of S. litura larvae. We also found that exposure to 4°C could activate the mevalonate pathway in S. litura larvae, which might be related to glycometabolism at 4°C. Overall, our study describes

  10. Effect of Bt-176 maize pollen on first instar larvae of the Peacock butterfly (Inachis io) (Lepidoptera; Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Felke, Martin; Langenbruch, Gustav-Adolf; Feiertag, Simon; Kassa, Adane

    2010-01-01

    More than 10 years after registration of the first Bt maize cultivar in Europe, there still exists a remarkable lack of data on effects on Lepidoptera which would be necessary for a complete and comprehensive environmental risk assessment. So far only very few European butterfly species have been tested in this aspect. In our study the effect of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize pollen (event Bt-176) on the development and survival of neonate larvae of the Peacock butterfly, Inachis io (L.) was for the first time shown. The results of our study suggest that the Peacock butterfly may serve as a model organism for assessing potential side effects of new developed transgenic Bt crops on non-target butterflies in a GMO environmental risk assessment. The study was done under laboratory conditions by exposing larvae of the Peacock butterfly to various pollen doses of transgenic maize event Bt-176 (cv. PACTOL CB) or the conventional isogenic maize (cv. PACTOL) using a no-choice test. Larvae feeding for 48 h on nettle plants (Urtica dioica) that were contaminated with higher pollen concentrations from Bt-176 maize (205 and 388 applied pollen.cm⁻²) suffered a significantly higher mortality rate (68 and 85% respectively) compared to larvae feeding on leaves with no pollen (11%), or feeding on leaves with pollen from conventional maize (6 to 25%). At lower Bt maize pollen doses (23-104 applied pollen.cm⁻²),mortality ranged from 11-25% and there were no apparent differences among treatments. The corresponding LC₅₀-and LC₉₀-values for neonate larvae of the Peacock butterfly were 187 and 448 applied pollen grains.cm⁻² of Bt-176, respectively.Weight of larvae surviving consumption of Bt-176 maize pollen declined between 10 and 81% with increased pollen doses (r = -0.95). The highest weight reduction (81%) corresponded to the highest pollen concentration (388 pollen grains applied.cm⁻²). Ingestion of pollen from the conventional maize hybrid did not

  11. Species-Level Para- and Polyphyly in DNA Barcode Gene Trees: Strong Operational Bias in European Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Mutanen, Marko; Kivelä, Sami M; Vos, Rutger A; Doorenweerd, Camiel; Ratnasingham, Sujeevan; Hausmann, Axel; Huemer, Peter; Dincă, Vlad; van Nieukerken, Erik J; Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos; Vila, Roger; Aarvik, Leif; Decaëns, Thibaud; Efetov, Konstantin A; Hebert, Paul D N; Johnsen, Arild; Karsholt, Ole; Pentinsaari, Mikko; Rougerie, Rodolphe; Segerer, Andreas; Tarmann, Gerhard; Zahiri, Reza; Godfray, H Charles J

    2016-11-01

    The proliferation of DNA data is revolutionizing all fields of systematic research. DNA barcode sequences, now available for millions of specimens and several hundred thousand species, are increasingly used in algorithmic species delimitations. This is complicated by occasional incongruences between species and gene genealogies, as indicated by situations where conspecific individuals do not form a monophyletic cluster in a gene tree. In two previous reviews, non-monophyly has been reported as being common in mitochondrial DNA gene trees. We developed a novel web service "Monophylizer" to detect non-monophyly in phylogenetic trees and used it to ascertain the incidence of species non-monophyly in COI (a.k.a. cox1) barcode sequence data from 4977 species and 41,583 specimens of European Lepidoptera, the largest data set of DNA barcodes analyzed from this regard. Particular attention was paid to accurate species identification to ensure data integrity. We investigated the effects of tree-building method, sampling effort, and other methodological issues, all of which can influence estimates of non-monophyly. We found a 12% incidence of non-monophyly, a value significantly lower than that observed in previous studies. Neighbor joining (NJ) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods yielded almost equal numbers of non-monophyletic species, but 24.1% of these cases of non-monophyly were only found by one of these methods. Non-monophyletic species tend to show either low genetic distances to their nearest neighbors or exceptionally high levels of intraspecific variability. Cases of polyphyly in COI trees arising as a result of deep intraspecific divergence are negligible, as the detected cases reflected misidentifications or methodological errors. Taking into consideration variation in sampling effort, we estimate that the true incidence of non-monophyly is ∼23%, but with operational factors still being included. Within the operational factors, we separately assessed the

  12. Physiological Responses Induced by Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Feeding in Maize and Their Effects on O. furnacalis Performance.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingfei; Guo, Jianqing; He, Kanglai; Bai, Shuxiong; Zhang, Tiantao; Zhao, Jiuran; Wang, Zhenying

    2017-04-01

    Plants damaged by herbivorous insects often respond by mounting a series of defense responses that can inhibit the insect's fitness. Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a major insect pest in maize throughout much of Asia, Australia, and the western Pacific islands. We examined the effects of O. furnacalis -induced maize defenses on O. furnacalis fitness, and explained the effects from biochemical changes that occur in maize leaves in response to O. furnacalis feeding. The results of the age-stage, two-sex life table showed that significantly longer larval and pupal life spans, and total preoviposition period (TPOP) occurred. A decrease in the longevity and fecundity of female adults was observed in O. furnacalis fed on O. furnacalis -damaged leaves. The mean generation time ( T ), finite rate of increase ( ), net reproductive rate ( R 0 ), and intrinsic rate of increase ( r ) were also correspondingly affected. Biochemical assays indicated that 24 h of O. furnacalis herbivory resulted in decreased levels of the benzoxazinoids, 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA), and 2-(2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one)-β-D-glucopyranose (DIMBOA-Glc), and a corresponding increase in 2-(2-hydroxy-4,7-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one)-β-D-glucopyranose (HDMBOA-Glc). Maize also exhibited higher activities of the defensive enzymes-peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO)-after 24 h of herbivory. We concluded that exposure to O. furnacalis -damaged leaves had an inhibitory impact on the fitness of the neonate to pupa stages of O. furnacalis . The observed higher level of HDMBOA-Glc and higher enzymatic activities of POD, SOD, CAT, and PPO may account, in part, for the observed inhibitory effects on O. furnacalis fitness. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email

  13. CR1 clade of non-LTR retrotransposons from Maculinea butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae): evidence for recent horizontal transmission

    PubMed Central

    Novikova, Olga; Śliwińska, Ewa; Fet, Victor; Settele, Josef; Blinov, Alexander; Woyciechowski, Michal

    2007-01-01

    Background Non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons are mobile genetic elements that propagate themselves by reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Non-LTR retrotransposons are known to evolve mainly via vertical transmission and random loss. Horizontal transmission is believed to be a very rare event in non-LTR retrotransposons. Our knowledge of distribution and diversity of insect non-LTR retrotransposons is limited to a few species – mainly model organisms such as dipteran genera Drosophila, Anopheles, and Aedes. However, diversity of non-LTR retroelements in arthropods seems to be much richer. The present study extends the analysis of non-LTR retroelements to CR1 clade from four butterfly species of genus Maculinea (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). The lycaenid genus Maculinea, the object of interest for evolutionary biologists and also a model group for European biodiversity studies, possesses a unique, specialized myrmecophilous lifestyle at larval stage. Their caterpillars, after three weeks of phytophagous life on specific food plants drop to the ground where they are adopted to the ant nest by Myrmica foraging workers. Results We found that the genome of Maculinea butterflies contains multiple CR1 lineages of non-LTR retrotransposons, including those from MacCR1A, MacCR1B and T1Q families. A comparative analysis of RT nucleotide sequences demonstrated an extremely high similarity among elements both in interspecific and intraspecific comparisons. CR1A-like elements were found only in family Lycaenidae. In contrast, MacCR1B lineage clones were extremely similar to CR1B non-LTR retrotransposons from Bombycidae moths: silkworm Bombyx mori and Oberthueria caeca. Conclusion The degree of coding sequence similarity of the studied elements, their discontinuous distribution, and results of divergence-versus-age analysis make it highly unlikely that these sequences diverged at the same time as their host taxa. The only reasonable alternative

  14. Species-Level Para- and Polyphyly in DNA Barcode Gene Trees: Strong Operational Bias in European Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Mutanen, Marko; Kivelä, Sami M.; Vos, Rutger A.; Doorenweerd, Camiel; Ratnasingham, Sujeevan; Hausmann, Axel; Huemer, Peter; Dincă, Vlad; van Nieukerken, Erik J.; Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos; Vila, Roger; Aarvik, Leif; Decaëns, Thibaud; Efetov, Konstantin A.; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Johnsen, Arild; Karsholt, Ole; Pentinsaari, Mikko; Rougerie, Rodolphe; Segerer, Andreas; Tarmann, Gerhard; Zahiri, Reza; Godfray, H. Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    The proliferation of DNA data is revolutionizing all fields of systematic research. DNA barcode sequences, now available for millions of specimens and several hundred thousand species, are increasingly used in algorithmic species delimitations. This is complicated by occasional incongruences between species and gene genealogies, as indicated by situations where conspecific individuals do not form a monophyletic cluster in a gene tree. In two previous reviews, non-monophyly has been reported as being common in mitochondrial DNA gene trees. We developed a novel web service “Monophylizer” to detect non-monophyly in phylogenetic trees and used it to ascertain the incidence of species non-monophyly in COI (a.k.a. cox1) barcode sequence data from 4977 species and 41,583 specimens of European Lepidoptera, the largest data set of DNA barcodes analyzed from this regard. Particular attention was paid to accurate species identification to ensure data integrity. We investigated the effects of tree-building method, sampling effort, and other methodological issues, all of which can influence estimates of non-monophyly. We found a 12% incidence of non-monophyly, a value significantly lower than that observed in previous studies. Neighbor joining (NJ) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods yielded almost equal numbers of non-monophyletic species, but 24.1% of these cases of non-monophyly were only found by one of these methods. Non-monophyletic species tend to show either low genetic distances to their nearest neighbors or exceptionally high levels of intraspecific variability. Cases of polyphyly in COI trees arising as a result of deep intraspecific divergence are negligible, as the detected cases reflected misidentifications or methodological errors. Taking into consideration variation in sampling effort, we estimate that the true incidence of non-monophyly is ∼23%, but with operational factors still being included. Within the operational factors, we separately assessed the

  15. Revision of the genus Aseptis McDunnough (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Xylenini) with a description of two new genera, Paraseptis and Viridiseptis

    PubMed Central

    Mustelin, Tomas; Crabo, Lars G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The genus Aseptis McDunnough (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Xylenini, Xylenina) is revised to include 15 species based on morphological and molecular data. Several new synonymies are introduced. In addition, two genera are described because of significant morphological differences from Aseptis: Paraseptis gen. n., and Viridiseptis gen. n., resulting in the new combinations Paraseptis adnixa (Grote), comb. n., and Viridiseptis marina (Grote), comb. n. Although this work is primarily based on morphological data, DNA sequence data for the 658-base pair “barcode” segment of the mitochondrial gene for subunit 1 of cytochrome c oxidase was used as a secondary support for taxonomic changes within Aseptis and for the two new genera. Our work should provide clarity and stability in a previously difficult genus. PMID:26692788

  16. Redescription of Campoletis sonorensis (Cameron, 1886) (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Campopleginae), parasitoid of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Camargo, L F; Brito, R A; Penteado-Dias, A M

    2015-11-01

    The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae) is a voracious pest of numerous crops of economic importance throughout the New World. In Brazil, its larvae are attacked by several species of parasitoid wasps, making them potential candidate as biological control agents against this pest. A survey of the parasitoid fauna on S. frugiperda in maize crops throughout Brazil reveals two species of Campoletis, which are morphologicaly very similar species. In this paper we combine these data with pictures from the type material of C. sonorensis and C. flavicincta, as well as their descriptions to provide a redescription to Campoletis sonorensis (Cameron, 1886) using for this both morphological characters and DNA Barcoding (Hebert et al., 2003) information, in an attempt to help with the correct identification of the taxa to improve biological control studies.

  17. Sublethal Effects of Essential Oils From Eucalyptus staigeriana (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiales: Laminaceae), and Foeniculum vulgare (Apiales: Apiaceae) on the Biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Cruz, G S; Wanderley-Teixeira, V; Oliveira, J V; Lopes, F S C; Barbosa, D R S; Breda, M O; Dutra, K A; Guedes, C A; Navarro, D M A F; Teixeira, A A C

    2016-04-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a major pest of maize, Zea mays L. Its control is often achieved through repeated applications per season of insecticides, which may lead to adverse effects on the ecosystem. Thus, the study of alternative methods with less environmental impact has expanded to include the use of essential oils. These oils are products of the secondary metabolism in plants, and their insecticidal activity has been widely demonstrated in populations of many pest insects. This study evaluated the insecticidal activities of essential oils from Eucalyptus staigeriana, Ocimum gratissimum, and Foeniculum vulgare on Spodoptera frugiperda. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry profiles and contact toxicity of these oils as well as their sublethal effects on larvae and reproductive parameters in adults were evaluated. All three oils had sublethal effects on S. frugiperda; however, the oil of O. gratissimum showed the best results at all doses tested. These essential oils may have promise for control of S. frugiperda.

  18. Characterization of Odorant Receptors from a Non-ditrysian Moth, Eriocrania semipurpurella Sheds Light on the Origin of Sex Pheromone Receptors in Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Yuvaraj, Jothi Kumar; Corcoran, Jacob A.; Andersson, Martin N.; Newcomb, Richard D.; Anderbrant, Olle; Löfstedt, Christer

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Pheromone receptors (PRs) are essential in moths to detect sex pheromones for mate finding. However, it remains unknown from which ancestral proteins these specialized receptors arose. The oldest lineages of moths, so-called non-ditrysian moths, use short-chain pheromone components, secondary alcohols, or ketones, so called Type 0 pheromones that are similar to many common plant volatiles. It is, therefore, possible that receptors for these ancestral pheromones evolved from receptors detecting plant volatiles. Hence, we identified the odorant receptors (ORs) from a non-ditrysian moth, Eriocrania semipurpurella (Eriocraniidae, Lepidoptera), and performed functional characterization of ORs using HEK293 cells. We report the first receptors that respond to Type 0 pheromone compounds; EsemOR3 displayed highest sensitivity toward (2S, 6Z)-6-nonen-2-ol, whereas EsemOR5 was most sensitive to the behavioral antagonist (Z)-6-nonen-2-one. These receptors also respond to plant volatiles of similar chemical structures, but with lower sensitivity. Phylogenetically, EsemOR3 and EsemOR5 group with a plant volatile-responding receptor from the tortricid moth Epiphyas postvittana (EposOR3), which together reside outside the previously defined lepidopteran PR clade that contains the PRs from more derived lepidopteran families. In addition, one receptor (EsemOR1) that falls at the base of the lepidopteran PR clade, responded specifically to β-caryophyllene and not to any other additional plant or pheromone compounds. Our results suggest that PRs for Type 0 pheromones have evolved from ORs that detect structurally-related plant volatiles. They are unrelated to PRs detecting pheromones in more derived Lepidoptera, which, in turn, also independently may have evolved a novel function from ORs detecting plant volatiles. PMID:29126322

  19. Environmental risk assessment for the small tortoiseshell Aglais urticae and a stacked Bt-maize with combined resistances against Lepidoptera and Chrysomelidae in central European agrarian landscapes.

    PubMed

    Schuppener, Mechthild; Mühlhause, Julia; Müller, Anne-Katrin; Rauschen, Stefan

    2012-09-01

    The cultivation of Lepidoptera-resistant Bt-maize may affect nontarget butterflies. We assessed the risk posed by event MON89034 × MON88017 (expressing Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2 against corn borers) to nontarget Lepidoptera. Using the small tortoiseshell Aglais urticae, a butterfly species common in central Europe, as a test organism we (i) assessed the toxicity of Bt-maize pollen on butterfly larvae; (ii) measured pollen deposition on leaves of the host plant Urtica dioica; (iii) mapped the occurrence and distribution of host plants and larvae in two arable landscapes in Germany during maize anthesis; and (iv) described the temporal occurrence of a 1-year population of A. urticae. (i) Larvae-fed 200 Bt-maize pollen grains/cm(2) had a reduced feeding activity. Significant differences in developmental time existed at pollen densities of 300 Bt-maize pollen grains/cm(2) and in survival at 400 grains/cm(2). (ii) The highest pollen amount found was 212 grains/cm(2) at the field margin. Mean densities were much lower. (iii) In one region, over 50% of A. urticae nests were located within 5 m of a maize field, while in the other, all nests were found in more than 25 m distance to a maize field. (iv) The percentage of larvae developing during maize anthesis was 19% in the study area. The amount of pollen from maize MON89034 × MON88017 found on host plants is unlikely to adversely affect a significant proportion of larvae of A. urticae. This paper concludes that the risk of event MON89034 × MON88017 to populations of this species is negligible. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Resistance to Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Euxesta stigmatias (Diptera: Ulidiidae) in sweet corn derived from exogenous and endogenous genetic systems.

    PubMed

    Nuessly, G S; Scully, B T; Hentz, M G; Beiriger, R; Snook, M E; Widstrom, N W

    2007-12-01

    Field trials using Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Euxesta stigmatias Loew (Diptera: Ulidiidae) were conducted to evaluate resistance and potential damage interactions between these two primary corn, Zea mays L., pests against Lepidoptera-resistant corn varieties derived from both endogenous and exogenous sources. The endogenous source of resistance was maysin, a C-glycosyl flavone produced in high concentrations in varieties 'Zapalote Chico 2451' and 'Zapalote Chico sh2'. The exogenous resistance source was the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)11 gene that expresses Cry1A(b) insecticidal protein found in 'Attribute GSS-0966'. Damage by the two pests was compared among these resistant varieties and the susceptible 'Primetime'. Single-species tests determined that the Zapalote Chico varieties and GSS-0966 effectively reduced S. frugiperda larval damage compared with Primetime. E. stigmatias larval damage was less in the Zapalote Chico varieties than the other varieties in single-species tests. E. stigmatias damage was greater on S. frugiperda-infested versus S. frugiperda-excluded ears. Ears with S. frugiperda damage to husk, silk and kernels had greater E. stigmatias damage than ears with less S. frugiperda damage. Reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of nonpollinated corn silk collected from field plots determined that isoorientin, maysin, and apimaysin plus 3'-methoxymaysin concentrations followed the order Zapalote Chico sh2 > Zapalote Chico 2451 > Attribute GSS-0966 = Primetime. Chlorogenic acid concentrations were greatest in Zapalote Chico 2451. The two high maysin Zapalote Chico varieties did as well against fall armyworm as the Bt-enhanced GSS-0966, and they outperformed GSS-0966 against E. stigmatias.

  1. Influence of Rearing Substrates and Nontarget Hosts on the Bionomics of the Tachinid Parasitoid Nemorilla maculosa (Diptera: Tachinidae).

    PubMed

    Agbessenou, Ayaovi; Tounou, Agbéko Kodjo; Dannon, Elie Ayitondji; Datinon, Benjamin; Agboton, Cyriaque; Srinivasan, Ramasamy; Pittendrigh, Barry Robert; Tamò, Manuele

    2018-04-05

    The tachinid Nemorilla maculosa Meigen (Diptera: Tachinidae) was introduced from Taiwan to Benin for evaluating its potential as a biocontrol candidate against the cowpea pest Maruca vitrata (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). To optimize its rearing, we assessed the influence of M. vitrata larval age and rearing substrate-cowpea germinating grains and peabush leaves-on its life table parameters, while its host specificity was investigated with regard to nontarget effects. Parasitism rates were higher when older larvae (10- and 14-d old) were offered to females of N. maculosa compared to the younger (2-, 4-, and 6-d old) host larvae. Regardless of the rearing substrate, development time was longer for females than males, and females lived longer than males irrespective of the age of the host. Sex ratio did not vary significantly with host ages or rearing substrate. The average number of eggs laid by a female reared from M. vitrata larvae feeding on cowpea germinating grains or peabush leaves was 94.2 ± 4.38 and 71.9 ± 1.70 eggs, respectively. The host suitability of N. maculosa was assessed by testing four nontarget Lepidoptera species: Spodoptera littoralis Boisduval (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Sesamia calamistis Hampson (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), and Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Larvae of S. littoralis and C. cephalonica were successfully parasitized while N. maculosa did not develop in the larvae of E. saccharina and S. calamistis although they were parasitized. Despite the potential of N. maculosa as a biological control agent against the pod borer M. vitrata, more detailed nontarget studies, extending to other native Crambidae species, are needed before making decisions on field releases.

  2. Speyeria (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) Conservation.

    PubMed

    Sims, Steven R

    2017-04-25

    Speyeria (Nymphalidae) are a conspicuous component of the North American butterfly fauna. There are approximately 16 species and >100 associated subspecies (or geographical variants). Speyeria are univoltine, occupy a wide range of habitats, overwinter as first instar larvae, and feed only on native violets. Speyeria species have become a model group for studies of evolution, speciation, and conservation. Several species and subspecies are threatened or endangered. The reasons for this vary with the taxa involved, but always involve the degradation or loss of quality habitat for larvae and adults. The impacts of climate change must be considered among the causes for habitat degradation and in the establishment of conservation measures. In addition to increasing the available habitat, conservation efforts should consider maintaining habitat in a seral "disturbed" successional stage that selectively favors the growth of violets and preferred adult nectar sources. A major future challenge will be determining the most effective allocation of conservation resources to those species and subspecies that have the greatest potential to respond favorably to these efforts.

  3. Speyeria (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Steven R.

    2017-01-01

    Speyeria (Nymphalidae) are a conspicuous component of the North American butterfly fauna. There are approximately 16 species and >100 associated subspecies (or geographical variants). Speyeria are univoltine, occupy a wide range of habitats, overwinter as first instar larvae, and feed only on native violets. Speyeria species have become a model group for studies of evolution, speciation, and conservation. Several species and subspecies are threatened or endangered. The reasons for this vary with the taxa involved, but always involve the degradation or loss of quality habitat for larvae and adults. The impacts of climate change must be considered among the causes for habitat degradation and in the establishment of conservation measures. In addition to increasing the available habitat, conservation efforts should consider maintaining habitat in a seral “disturbed” successional stage that selectively favors the growth of violets and preferred adult nectar sources. A major future challenge will be determining the most effective allocation of conservation resources to those species and subspecies that have the greatest potential to respond favorably to these efforts. PMID:28441319

  4. Novel nanoscale pheromone dispenser for more accurate evaluation of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) attract-and-kill strategies in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Czarnobai De Jorge, Bruna; Bisotto-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Pereira, Cláudio Nunes; Sant'Ana, Josué

    2017-09-01

    Nanotechnology has recently allowed the production of formulations for controlled release of active ingredients. In the present study, the electrospinning technique was used to produce nanoscale dispensers for attract-and-kill strategies. Non-woven nanofibres containing insecticide (cypermethrin) and (E)-8,(Z)-8-dodecenyl acetate and (Z)-8-dodecanol (0.87 mg L -1 ), the main components of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) (Busck) pheromone, were evaluated in laboratory experiments. Male electroantennographic (EAG) responses and mortality (tarsal-contact and attract-and-kill behavioural cages) bioassays were performed for nanofibres (with and without insecticide) exposed for different periods (21, 42, 63 and 84 days) in controlled and non-exposed conditions. There were no significant differences in G. molesta male EAG responses based on the time of exposure within treatments. Nanofibres with pheromone only and with pheromone plus insecticide elicited equal EAG responses. Mortality in tarsal-contact bioassays was greater than 87% after exposure for 84 days. In the attract-and-kill bioassays, mortality ranged from 28.4 to 56.6%, although no difference was observed on insect mortalities over time (24, 48 and 72 h). Incorporation of cypermethrin in nanofibres did not interfere with G. molesta attractiveness. Both aspects of the strategy, the attractant and killing effects, were recorded using innovative nanofibres, and long-term effects suggest a controlled release of pheromone and insecticide. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Effects of Moth Age and Rearing Temperature on the Flight Performance of the Loreyi Leafworm, Mythimna loreyi (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), in Tethered and Free Flight.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jianyang; Liu, Yueqiu; Zhang, Lei; Cheng, Yunxia; Sappington, Thomas W; Jiang, Xingfu

    2018-05-28

    To understand the migratory flight behaviors of the loreyi leafworm, Mythimna loreyi Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), both tethered (flight distance, time, and velocity) and free-flight activity (flight action, duration, and frequency) of adults at different ages, sexes, and temperatures were investigated using computer-controlled insect flight mills and an autonomous flight monitoring system. Tethered flight activity differed significantly among ages and rearing temperature, but not sex. Newly emerged adults (the first day after emergence) displayed the lowest flight time, distance, and speed. However, flight performance increased with age, peaking at 3 d. Relatively strong flight performance was maintained up to 5 d postemergence and then declined significantly by day 6. There was no significant difference in flight performance between sexes for 3-d-old moths. Adults reared as larvae at 24°C averaged significantly longer flight duration and distance than those reared at other temperatures. Both lower and higher rearing temperatures negatively affected tethered flight. Similar results among age and rearing temperature treatments were observed in autonomous free-flight tests. During 12-h free-flight tests, flight activity peaked from 6 to 10 h after beginning of darkness. Free-flight activity of 1- and 6-d-old adults was significantly less than that of 3-, 4-, and 5-d-old adults. Adults reared at 24°C showed significantly greater free-flight action, duration, and frequency than those reared at other temperatures. The results suggest that M. loreyi may be a migratory species.

  6. De novo transcriptome sequencing and comparative analysis of midgut tissues of four non-model insects pertaining to Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Diptera and Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Gazara, Rajesh K; Cardoso, Christiane; Bellieny-Rabelo, Daniel; Ferreira, Clélia; Terra, Walter R; Venancio, Thiago M

    2017-09-05

    Despite the great morphological diversity of insects, there is a regularity in their digestive functions, which is apparently related to their physiology. In the present work we report the de novo midgut transcriptomes of four non-model insects from four distinct orders: Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera), Musca domestica (Diptera), Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera) and Dysdercus peruvianus (Hemiptera). We employed a computational strategy to merge assemblies obtained with two different algorithms, which substantially increased the quality of the final transcriptomes. Unigenes were annotated and analyzed using the eggNOG database, which allowed us to assign some level of functional and evolutionary information to 79.7% to 93.1% of the transcriptomes. We found interesting transcriptional patterns, such as: i) the intense use of lysozymes in digestive functions of M. domestica larvae, which are streamlined and adapted to feed on bacteria; ii) the up-regulation of orthologous UDP-glycosyl transferase and cytochrome P450 genes in the whole midguts different species, supporting the existence of an ancient defense frontline to counter xenobiotics; iii) evidence supporting roles for juvenile hormone binding proteins in the midgut physiology, probably as a way to activate genes that help fight anti-nutritional substances (e.g. protease inhibitors). The results presented here shed light on the digestive and structural properties of the digestive systems of these distantly related species. Furthermore, the produced datasets will also be useful for scientists studying these insects. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Cecidonius pampeanus, gen. et sp. n.: an overlooked and rare, new gall-inducing micromoth associated with Schinus in southern Brazil (Lepidoptera, Cecidosidae).

    PubMed

    Moreira, Gilson R P; Eltz, Rodrigo P; Pase, Ramoim B; Silva, Gabriela T; Bordignon, Sérgio A L; Mey, Wolfram; Gonçalves, Gislene L

    2017-01-01

    Galls induced by the larval stage of cecidosids (Lepidoptera: Cecidosidae) are complex, multi-trophic systems, still poorly studied. They may be associated with other insect feeding guilds, including inquilines, kleptoparasites, cecidophages, parasitoids, and predators. By causing death of the gall inducer early in life and altering the gall phenotype, inquilines may lead to misidentification of the true gall inducers. Here, we describe through light and scanning electron microscopy Cecidonius pampeanus , a new genus and species of cecidosid moth, from the Pampa biome, south Brazil. It induces unnoticed, small galls under swollen stems of Schinus weinmannifolius Mart. ex Engl. (Anacardiaceae). Such galls are severely attacked early in ontogeny either by unidentified parasitoids belonging to Lyrcus Walker (Pteromalidae) that feed upon the inducer, or by inquiline wasps of the genus Allorhogas Gahan (Braconidae). The inquilines modify the galls into large ones that last longer and promptly call attention. Free-living galls are rare and dehiscent, pupation of C. pampeanus occurring on the ground. Due to these reasons the true inducer has been overlooked in this case for more than a century. Additionally we inferred a phylogeny for Cecidosidae using sequences from mitochondrial and nuclear loci, and characterized genetic variation and gene flow across ten populations. Despite its natural history similarities with the African genus Scyrotis , Cecidonius is a much younger lineage, more closely related to the Neotropical cecidosids. C. pampeanus populations, which are now confined to a few mountain areas within its distribution range due to habitat destruction, are also genetically isolated, requiring conservation measures.

  8. Broad-scale latitudinal variation in female reproductive success contributes to the maintenance of a geographic range boundary in bagworms (Lepidoptera: Psychidae).

    PubMed

    Rhainds, Marc; Fagan, William F

    2010-11-30

    Geographic range limits and the factors structuring them are of great interest to biologists, in part because of concerns about how global change may shift range boundaries. However, scientists lack strong mechanistic understanding of the factors that set geographic range limits in empirical systems, especially in animals. Across dozens of populations spread over six degrees of latitude in the American Midwest, female mating success of the evergreen bagworm Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) declines from ∼100% to ∼0% near the edge of the species range. When coupled with additional latitudinal declines in fecundity and in egg and pupal survivorship, a spatial gradient of bagworm reproductive success emerges. This gradient is associated with a progressive decline in local abundance and an increased risk of local population extinction, up to a latitudinal threshold where extremely low female fitness meshes spatially with the species' geographic range boundary. The reduction in fitness of female bagworms near the geographic range limit, which concords with the abundant centre hypothesis from biogeography, provides a concrete, empirical example of how an Allee effect (increased pre-reproductive mortality of females in sparsely populated areas) may interact with other demographic factors to induce a geographic range limit.

  9. RNA interference-mediated silencing of genes involved in the immune responses of the soybean pod borer Leguminivora glycinivorella (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Ruixue; Li, Tianyu; Liu, Xinxin; Ni, Hejia; Li, Wenbin

    2018-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) technology may be useful for developing new crop protection strategies against the soybean pod borer (SPB; Leguminivora glycinivorella), which is a critical soybean pest in northeastern Asia. Immune-related genes have been recently identified as potential RNAi targets for controlling insects. However, little is known about these genes or mechanisms underlying their expression in the SPB. In this study, we completed a transcriptome-wide analysis of SPB immune-related genes. We identified 41 genes associated with SPB microbial recognition proteins, immune-related effectors or signalling molecules in immune response pathways (e.g., Toll and immune deficiency pathways). Eleven of these genes were selected for a double-stranded RNA artificial feeding assay. The down-regulated expression levels of LgToll-5-1a and LgPGRP-LB2a resulted in relatively high larval mortality rates and abnormal development. Our data represent a comprehensive genetic resource for immune-related SPB genes, and may contribute to the elucidation of the mechanism regulating innate immunity in Lepidoptera species. Furthermore, two immune-related SPB genes were identified as potential RNAi targets, which may be used in the development of RNAi-mediated SPB control methods. PMID:29910977

  10. Comparison of Phenotypic Value Changes in Pure Lines of Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) During Consecutive Generations Following Initial Selection on Cocoon Weight

    PubMed Central

    Seidavi, Alireza; Goldsmith, Marian R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The experiments reported here were conducted to investigate the effect of selection on three quantitative traits, namely cocoon weight, cocoon shell weight, and cocoon shell percentage, during four generations by rearing six pure breeds of domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) of Chinese and Japanese origin compared with random unselected groups as controls. All stages of rearing and data recording were performed over four rearing periods, with generations 1–3 during successive spring seasons and generation 4 during the autumn season in year 3. Each pure line contained two groups of selected and random (control) groups. Comparisons included the effect of selection methods, pure line, and generation on the phenotypic values. We found strong main effects of pure line, generation, sex, and group and support for nearly all interactions between these main effects for all three response traits. The results indicated that cocoon weight and cocoon shell weight in the selected group were higher than in the control or nonselected group. Both selected and nonselected groups had the lowest cocoon weight, cocoon shell weight, and cocoon shell percentage in the fourth generation when environmental conditions during the autumn season were less favorable than spring. The cocoon weight and cocoon shell weight averages were higher for nonselected groups in the second and third generations, and for the selected group in the first generation due to the direct effect of selection. PMID:25527593

  11. A major host plant volatile, 1-octen-3-ol, contributes to mating in the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendera, M.; Ekesi, S.; Ndung'u, M.; Srinivasan, R.; Torto, B.

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies on the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a serious pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabales: Fabaceae), in sub-Saharan Africa have focused on sex pheromones, but the role of the host plant on sexual behavior has not been explored. We investigated this interaction in the laboratory using behavioral assays and chemical analyses. We found that the presence of cowpea seedlings and a dichloromethane extract of the leaf increased coupling in the legume pod borer by 33 and 61 %, respectively, compared to the control, suggesting the involvement of both contact and olfactory cues. We used coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC/EAD) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to identify compounds from the cowpea leaf extract, detected by M. vitrata antenna. We found that the antennae of the insect consistently detected four components, with 1-octen-3-ol identified as a common and dominant component in both the volatiles released by the intact cowpea plant and leaf extract. We therefore investigated its role in the coupling of M. vitrata. In dose-response assays, 1-octen-3-ol increased coupling in M. vitrata with increasing dose of the compound compared to the control. Our results suggest that the cowpea volatile 1-octen-3-ol contributes to M. vitrata sexual behavior.

  12. Effects of Aqueous Extracts of Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae) on the Growth and Reproduction of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Sâmia, R R; de Oliveira, R L; Moscardini, V F; Carvalho, G A

    2016-10-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is considered a pest of maize crops throughout the Western Hemisphere. We report on the effects of aqueous extracts of leaves and bark of Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae) on the biology of S. frugiperda, as an alternative source of natural bioactive molecules for the sustainable management of this pest. Second instars were sprayed with aqueous extracts prepared with 5% (w/v) plant material and/or fed on an artificial diet containing extracts at a concentration equivalent to 0.25% (w/v) for 17 days. Both leaf and bark extracts of C. langsdorffii significantly reduced S. frugiperda food intake, feces, and larval weight and caused a delay in larval development. Additionally, C. langsdorffii-based extracts increased the oviposition period; induced morphological changes in the eggs, including deformation of the corium and malformation of the micropylar and aeropylar regions; and reduced egg viability. But, aqueous extracts of C. langsdorffii exhibited no negative effects on larval and pupal survival, duration of the pupal stage, survival of pupae, sex ratio, longevity, duration of pre-oviposition period, and female fecundity. Aqueous extracts of leaves and bark of C. langsdorffii are promising alternatives for the control of S. frugiperda in maize crops.

  13. Gene sequence variations and expression patterns of mitochondrial genes are associated with the adaptive evolution of two Gynaephora species (Lepidoptera: Lymantriinae) living in different high-elevation environments.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi-Lin; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Tian-Xuan; Wang, Juan; Zhu, Qian-Hua; Chen, Jun-Yuan; Yuan, Ming-Long

    2017-04-30

    The adaptive evolution of animals to high-elevation environments has been extensively studied in vertebrates, while few studies have focused on insects. Gynaephora species (Lepidoptera: Lymantriinae) are endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and represent an important insect pest of alpine meadows. Here, we present a detailed comparative analysis of the mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of two Gynaephora species inhabiting different high-elevation environments: G. alpherakii and G. menyuanensis. The results indicated that the general mitogenomic features (genome size, nucleotide composition, codon usage and secondary structures of tRNAs) were well conserved between the two species. All of mitochondrial protein-coding genes were evolving under purifying selection, suggesting that selection constraints may play a role in ensuring adequate energy production. However, a number of substitutions and indels were identified that altered the protein conformations of ATP8 and NAD1, which may be the result of adaptive evolution of the two Gynaephora species to different high-elevation environments. Levels of gene expression for nine mitochondrial genes in nine different developmental stages were significantly suppressed in G. alpherakii, which lives at the higher elevation (~4800m above sea level), suggesting that gene expression patterns could be modulated by atmospheric oxygen content and environmental temperature. These results enhance our understanding of the genetic bases for the adaptive evolution of insects endemic to the QTP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification and validation of reference genes for normalization of gene expression analysis using qRT-PCR in Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Songdou; An, Shiheng; Li, Zhen; Wu, Fengming; Yang, Qingpo; Liu, Yichen; Cao, Jinjun; Zhang, Huaijiang; Zhang, Qingwen; Liu, Xiaoxia

    2015-01-25

    Recent studies have focused on determining functional genes and microRNAs in the pest Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Most of these studies used quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Suitable reference genes are necessary to normalize gene expression data of qRT-PCR. However, a comprehensive study on the reference genes in H. armigera remains lacking. Twelve candidate reference genes of H. armigera were selected and evaluated for their expression stability under different biotic and abiotic conditions. The comprehensive stability ranking of candidate reference genes was recommended by RefFinder and the optimal number of reference genes was calculated by geNorm. Two target genes, thioredoxin (TRX) and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), were used to validate the selection of reference genes. Results showed that the most suitable candidate combinations of reference genes were as follows: 28S and RPS15 for developmental stages; RPS15 and RPL13 for larvae tissues; EF and RPL27 for adult tissues; GAPDH, RPL27, and β-TUB for nuclear polyhedrosis virus infection; RPS15 and RPL32 for insecticide treatment; RPS15 and RPL27 for temperature treatment; and RPL32, RPS15, and RPL27 for all samples. This study not only establishes an accurate method for normalizing qRT-PCR data in H. armigera but also serve as a reference for further study on gene transcription in H. armigera and other insects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A mathematical model of exposure of non-target Lepidoptera to Bt-maize pollen expressing Cry1Ab within Europe.

    PubMed

    Perry, J N; Devos, Y; Arpaia, S; Bartsch, D; Gathmann, A; Hails, R S; Kiss, J; Lheureux, K; Manachini, B; Mestdagh, S; Neemann, G; Ortego, F; Schiemann, J; Sweet, J B

    2010-05-07

    Genetically modified (GM) maize MON810 expresses a Cry1Ab insecticidal protein, derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), toxic to lepidopteran target pests such as Ostrinia nubilalis. An environmental risk to non-target Lepidoptera from this GM crop is exposure to harmful amounts of Bt-containing pollen deposited on host plants in or near MON810 fields. An 11-parameter mathematical model analysed exposure of larvae of three non-target species: the butterflies Inachis io (L.), Vanessa atalanta (L.) and moth Plutella xylostella (L.), in 11 representative maize cultivation regions in four European countries. A mortality-dose relationship was integrated with a dose-distance relationship to estimate mortality both within the maize MON810 crop and within the field margin at varying distances from the crop edge. Mortality estimates were adjusted to allow for physical effects; the lack of temporal coincidence between the susceptible larval stage concerned and the period over which maize MON810 pollen is shed; and seven further parameters concerned with maize agronomy and host-plant ecology. Sublethal effects were estimated and allowance made for aggregated pollen deposition. Estimated environmental impact was low: in all regions, the calculated mortality rate for worst-case scenarios was less than one individual in every 1572 for the butterflies and one in 392 for the moth.

  16. Bioactivity of Piper hispidinervum (Piperales: Piperaceae) and Syzygium aromaticum (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) oils, with or without formulated Bta on the biology and immunology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Cruz, G S; Wanderley-Teixeira, V; Oliveira, J V; Correia, A A; Breda, M O; Alves, T J S; Cunha, F M; Teixeira, A A C; Dutra, K A; Navarro, D M A F

    2014-02-01

    The combination of essential oils and Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner may represent an interesting control strategy. Thus, the study tested the following hypothesis: the combination of long pepper oil (Piper hispidinervum L.) and clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) oils in two concentrations with Xentari WG (Bta) yields a more effective control of Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) affecting biological and reproductive parameters and leading to changes in the levels of phenoloxidase and nitric oxide in the hemolymph of the pest. The results demonstrate that only long pepper oil, at the highest concentration with Xentari WG (Bta), promotes reduced larval survival. However, both oils with or without the insecticide interfere in the biology and humoral immunity of S.frugiperda. All treatments caused a decrease in the amount of eggs, except for the clove oil at both concentrations without Bta. Therefore, the use of these oils is a promising alternative for the integrated management of S. frugiperda; however, its association with Bta demonstrated no significant increase in their efficiency.

  17. Novel microsatellite markers for the oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and effects of null alleles on population genetics analyses.

    PubMed

    Song, W; Cao, L-J; Wang, Y-Z; Li, B-Y; Wei, S-J

    2017-06-01

    The oriental fruit moth (OFM) Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is an important economic pest of stone and pome fruits worldwide. We sequenced the OFM genome using next-generation sequencing and characterized the microsatellite distribution. In total, 56,674 microsatellites were identified, with 11,584 loci suitable for primer design. Twenty-seven polymorphic microsatellites, including 24 loci with trinucleotide repeat and three with pentanucleotide repeat, were validated in 95 individuals from four natural populations. The allele numbers ranged from 4 to 40, with an average value of 13.7 per locus. A high frequency of null alleles was observed in most loci developed for the OFM. Three marker panels, all of the loci, nine loci with the lowest null allele frequencies, and nine loci with the highest null allele frequencies, were established for population genetics analyses. The null allele influenced estimations of genetic diversity parameters but not the OFM's genetic structure. Both a STRUCTURE analysis and a discriminant analysis of principal components, using the three marker panels, divided the four natural populations into three groups. However, more individuals were incorrectly assigned by the STRUCTURE analysis when the marker panel with the highest null allele frequency was used compared with the other two panels. Our study provides empirical research on the effects of null alleles on population genetics analyses. The microsatellites developed will be valuable markers for genetic studies of the OFM.

  18. A review of insect parasitoids associated with Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) in Italy. 1. DipteraTachinidae and HymenopteraBraconidae (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Scaramozzino, Pier Luigi; Loni, Augusto; Lucchi, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    This paper is aimed to summarize the information available on the parasitoid complex of the European Grapevine Moth (EGVM), Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) (Lepidoptera Tortricidae) in Italy. The list is the result of the consultation of a vast bibliography published in Italy for almost two hundred years, from 1828 to date. This allowed the clarification and correction of misunderstandings and mistakes on the taxonomic position of each species listed. In Italy the complex of parasitoids detected on EGVM includes approximately 90 species belonging to ten families of Hymenoptera (Braconidae, Ichneumonidae, Chalcididae, Eulophidae, Eupelmidae, Eurytomidae, Pteromalidae, Torymidae, Trichogrammatidae, and Bethylidae) and one family of Diptera (Tachinidae). This paper deals with EGVM parasitoids of the families Tachinidae (Diptera) and Braconidae (Hymenoptera). Only two species of Tachinidae are associated to EGVM larvae in Italy, Actia pilipennis (Fallen) and Phytomyptera nigrina (Meigen), whereas the record of Eurysthaea scutellaris (Robineau-Desvoidy) is doubtful. Moreover, 21 species of Braconidae are reported to live on EGVM, but, unfortunately, eight of them were identified only at generic level. Bracon mellitor Say has been incorrectly listed among the parasitoids of Lobesia botrana . Records concerning Ascogaster rufidens Wesmael, Meteorus sp., Microgaster rufipes Nees, and Microplitis tuberculifer (Wesmael) are uncertain.

  19. A review of insect parasitoids associated with Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) in Italy. 1. Diptera Tachinidae and Hymenoptera Braconidae (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae)

    PubMed Central

    Scaramozzino, Pier Luigi; Loni, Augusto; Lucchi, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This paper is aimed to summarize the information available on the parasitoid complex of the European Grapevine Moth (EGVM), Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) (Lepidoptera Tortricidae) in Italy. The list is the result of the consultation of a vast bibliography published in Italy for almost two hundred years, from 1828 to date. This allowed the clarification and correction of misunderstandings and mistakes on the taxonomic position of each species listed. In Italy the complex of parasitoids detected on EGVM includes approximately 90 species belonging to ten families of Hymenoptera (Braconidae, Ichneumonidae, Chalcididae, Eulophidae, Eupelmidae, Eurytomidae, Pteromalidae, Torymidae, Trichogrammatidae, and Bethylidae) and one family of Diptera (Tachinidae). This paper deals with EGVM parasitoids of the families Tachinidae (Diptera) and Braconidae (Hymenoptera). Only two species of Tachinidae are associated to EGVM larvae in Italy, Actia pilipennis (Fallen) and Phytomyptera nigrina (Meigen), whereas the record of Eurysthaea scutellaris (Robineau-Desvoidy) is doubtful. Moreover, 21 species of Braconidae are reported to live on EGVM, but, unfortunately, eight of them were identified only at generic level. Bracon mellitor Say has been incorrectly listed among the parasitoids of Lobesia botrana. Records concerning Ascogaster rufidens Wesmael, Meteorus sp., Microgaster rufipes Nees, and Microplitis tuberculifer (Wesmael) are uncertain. PMID:28325964

  20. Quality of mass-reared codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) after long-distance transportation: 1. Logistics of shipping procedures and quality parameters as measured in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Blomefield, T; Carpenter, J E; Vreysen, M J B

    2011-06-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a proven effective control tactic against lepidopteran pests when applied in an areawide integrated pest management program. The construction of insect mass-rearing facilities requires considerable investment and moth control strategies that include the use of sterile insects could be made more cost-effective through the importation of sterile moths produced in other production centers. For codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), this is an attractive option because mating studies have confirmed the absence of mating barriers between codling moth populations from geographically different areas. To assess the feasibility of long-distance transportation of codling moths, pupae and adult moths were transported in 2004 from Canada to South Africa in four shipments by using normal commercial transport routes. The total transport time remained below 67 h in three of the consignments, but it was 89 h in the fourth consignment. Temperature in the shipping boxes was fairly constant and remained between -0.61 and 0.16 degrees C for 76.8-85.7% of the time. The data presented indicate that transporting codling moths as adults and pupae from Canada to South Africa had little effect on moth emergence, longevity, and ability to mate, as assessed in the laboratory. These results provide support to the suggestion that the STT for codling moth in pome fruit production areas might be evaluated and implemented by the importation of irradiated moths from rearing facilities in a different country or hemisphere.