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Sample records for zentrum fur luft

  1. Fur productivity of submarginal farmland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uhler, F.M.; Llewellyn, L.M.

    1952-01-01

    A submarginal tract of a thousand acres on the Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, Maryland, was trapped for three seasons (1943-46) to determine the fur-productivity of the area. The tract yielded 392 fur animals, the pelts of which were sold at public auction for $1119.00. This resulted in an average income from trapping of approximately forty cents per acre per year. The habitats most productive of catches of fur animals were hedgerows and wood and road margins, followed by bottomland forests and lake margins. Some suggestions for improving habitat for fur animals are given.

  2. 16 CFR 301.22 - Disclosure of damaged furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... decrease the normal life and durability of such product. (b) When damaged furs are used in a fur product..., or advertising such product; as for example: Mink Fur origin: Canada Contains Damaged Fur ...

  3. 16 CFR 301.36 - Sectional fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...; as for example: Dyed Rabbit Fur origin: France Trimming: Dyed Mouton-processed Lamb Fur origin... different animal furs added to complete a fur product or skin such as the ears, snoot, or under part of the...

  4. Pet fur or fake fur? A forensic approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In forensic science there are many types of crime that involve animals. Therefore, the identification of the species has become an essential investigative tool. The exhibits obtained from such offences are very often a challenge for forensic experts. Indeed, most biological materials are traces, hair or tanned fur. With hair samples, a common forensic approach should proceed from morphological and structural microscopic examination to DNA analysis. However, the microscopy of hair requires a lot of experience and a suitable comparative database to be able to recognize with a high degree of accuracy that a sample comes from a particular species and then to determine whether it is a protected one. DNA analysis offers the best opportunity to answer the question, ‘What species is this?’ In our work, we analyzed different samples of fur coming from China used to make hats and collars. Initially, the samples were examined under a microscope, then the mitochondrial DNA was tested for species identification. For this purpose, the genetic markers used were the 12S and 16S ribosomal RNA, while the hypervariable segment I of the control region was analyzed afterwards, to determine whether samples belonged to the same individual. Results Microscopic examination showed that the fibres were of animal origin, although it was difficult to determine with a high degree of confidence which species they belonged to and if they came from a protected species. Therefore, DNA analysis was essential to try to clarify the species of these fur samples. Conclusions Macroscopic and microscopic analysis confirmed the hypothesis regarding the analyzed hair belonging to real animals, although it failed to prove with any kind of certainty which actual family it came from, therefore, the species remains unknown. Sequence data analysis and comparisons with the samples available in GenBank showed that the hair, in most cases, belonged to the Canidae family, and in one case only to

  5. Pet fur color and texture classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Jonathan; Mukherjee, Debarghar; Lim, SukHwan; Tretter, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Object segmentation is important in image analysis for imaging tasks such as image rendering and image retrieval. Pet owners have been known to be quite vocal about how important it is to render their pets perfectly. We present here an algorithm for pet (mammal) fur color classification and an algorithm for pet (animal) fur texture classification. Per fur color classification can be applied as a necessary condition for identifying the regions in an image that may contain pets much like the skin tone classification for human flesh detection. As a result of the evolution, fur coloration of all mammals is caused by a natural organic pigment called Melanin and Melanin has only very limited color ranges. We have conducted a statistical analysis and concluded that mammal fur colors can be only in levels of gray or in two colors after the proper color quantization. This pet fur color classification algorithm has been applied for peteye detection. We also present here an algorithm for animal fur texture classification using the recently developed multi-resolution directional sub-band Contourlet transform. The experimental results are very promising as these transforms can identify regions of an image that may contain fur of mammals, scale of reptiles and feather of birds, etc. Combining the color and texture classification, one can have a set of strong classifiers for identifying possible animals in an image.

  6. 77 FR 32887 - Airworthiness Directives; Burkhart GROB Luft- und Raumfahrt GmbH Powered Sailplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Burkhart GROB Luft- und Raumfahrt GmbH Powered Sailplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation... seaside and therefore exposed to a salty environment, causing the excessive corrosion. This condition, if... Programs,'' describes in more detail the scope of the Agency's authority. We are issuing this rulemaking...

  7. Ulrich C. Luft and physiology on Nanga Parbat: the winds of war.

    PubMed

    Rodway, George W

    2009-01-01

    Rodway, George W. Ulrich C. Luft and physiology on Nanga Parbat: the winds of war. High Alt. Med. Biol. 10:89-96, 2009.-Ulrich Cameron Luft (1910-1991) is a significant figure in the annals of high altitude physiology and medicine. He combined a passionate interest in mountaineering with an equally passionate interest in human physiology at a pivotal time in modern history. His involvement in the 1937 and 1938 German Nanga Parbat expeditions as mountaineer and scientist set the stage for his subsequent work in aviation physiology carried out in Germany and then later in America when aerospace medicine was emerging as a specialty. His postwar career as a scientist and educator was equally distinguished by virtue of the large numbers of young scientists he trained and his contributions to aerospace medicine over the course of several decades.

  8. 16 CFR 301.12 - Country of origin of imported furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... labeling shall be preceded by the term fur origin; as for example: Dyed Muskrat Fur Origin: Russia or Dyed... example: Tip-dyed Canadian American Sable Fur Origin: Canada or Russian Sable Fur Origin: Russia (f...

  9. 16 CFR 301.12 - Country of origin of imported furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... labeling shall be preceded by the term fur origin; as for example: Dyed Muskrat Fur Origin: Russia or Dyed... example: Tip-dyed Canadian American Sable Fur Origin: Canada or Russian Sable Fur Origin: Russia (f...

  10. 16 CFR 301.12 - Country of origin of imported furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... labeling shall be preceded by the term fur origin; as for example: Dyed Muskrat Fur Origin: Russia or Dyed... example: Tip-dyed Canadian American Sable Fur Origin: Canada or Russian Sable Fur Origin: Russia (f...

  11. 16 CFR 301.12 - Country of origin of imported furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... labeling shall be preceded by the term fur origin; as for example: Dyed Muskrat Fur Origin: Russia or Dyed... example: Tip-dyed Canadian American Sable Fur Origin: Canada or Russian Sable Fur Origin: Russia (f...

  12. 16 CFR 301.12 - Country of origin of imported furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... labeling shall be preceded by the term fur origin; as for example: Dyed Muskrat Fur Origin: Russia or Dyed... example: Tip-dyed Canadian American Sable Fur Origin: Canada or Russian Sable Fur Origin: Russia (f...

  13. 50 CFR 216.71 - Allowable take of fur seals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable take of fur seals. 216.71... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands, Taking for Subsistence Purposes § 216.71 Allowable take of fur seals. Pribilovians may take fur seals on the Pribilof Islands if such taking is (a) For subsistence uses, and (b) Not...

  14. 50 CFR 216.73 - Disposition of fur seal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Disposition of fur seal parts. 216.73... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands, Taking for Subsistence Purposes § 216.73 Disposition of fur seal parts. Except... part of a fur seal taken for subsistence uses may be sold or otherwise transferred to any person unless...

  15. 50 CFR 216.71 - Allowable take of fur seals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable take of fur seals. 216.71... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands, Taking for Subsistence Purposes § 216.71 Allowable take of fur seals. Pribilovians may take fur seals on the Pribilof Islands if such taking is (a) For subsistence uses, and (b) Not...

  16. 50 CFR 216.81 - Visits to fur seal rookeries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Visits to fur seal rookeries. 216.81... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.81 Visits to fur seal rookeries. From June 1 to October 15... any fur seal rookery or hauling grounds nor pass beyond any posted sign forbidding passage. [41 FR...

  17. 50 CFR 216.81 - Visits to fur seal rookeries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Visits to fur seal rookeries. 216.81... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.81 Visits to fur seal rookeries. From June 1 to October 15... any fur seal rookery or hauling grounds nor pass beyond any posted sign forbidding passage. [41 FR...

  18. 50 CFR 216.73 - Disposition of fur seal parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of fur seal parts. 216.73... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands, Taking for Subsistence Purposes § 216.73 Disposition of fur seal parts. Except... part of a fur seal taken for subsistence uses may be sold or otherwise transferred to any person unless...

  19. 16 CFR 301.22 - Disclosure of damaged furs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure of damaged furs. 301.22 Section 301.22 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES... decrease the normal life and durability of such product. (b) When damaged furs are used in a fur product...

  20. 16 CFR 301.32 - Fur product containing material other than fur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... required under this Act; as for example: 100% Wool Interlining—100% Recycled Wool Trim—Dyed Muskrat Fur... required under the Act and rules and regulations; as for example: Body—Leather Trim—Dyed Mink [26 FR 3187...

  1. 16 CFR 301.32 - Fur product containing material other than fur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... required under this Act; as for example: 100% Wool Interlining—100% Recycled Wool Trim—Dyed Muskrat Fur... required under the Act and rules and regulations; as for example: Body—Leather Trim—Dyed Mink [26 FR 3187...

  2. Apo and Iron Bound Fur Repression and the Role of Fur in vivo

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-24

    follicles subsequently provide the platform for development of mucosa- 20 associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) in which gastric marginal zone lymphoma can...pylori is able to effectively colonize this niche. One of the tools that H. pylori utilizes to respond to the acidic environment is urease, which is...manner than that of other organisms. H. pylori Fur appears unique in that it also utilizes apo-Fur regulation (18, 66). In this form of regulation

  3. 76 FR 13550 - Fur Products Labeling Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... products of ``relatively small quantity or values from labeling requirements. 15 U.S.C. 69(d). Exercising... things, the economic impact of, and the continuing need for, the Fur Rule provisions; the benefits of the...) Is there a continuing need for the Rules as currently promulgated? Why or why not? (2) What benefits...

  4. The German Interlinguistics Society Gesellschaft fur Interlinguistik.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O Riain, Sean

    2003-01-01

    Describes the German interlinguistics society Gesellschaft fur Interlinguistik (GIL), which was founded to bring together interlinguistics and esperantology scholars. Highlights GIL's principal fields of activity and discusses its role in the fields of international linguistic communication, language planning, esperantolgy, and the teaching of…

  5. Historic cohort study in Montreal's fur industry.

    PubMed

    Guay, D; Siemiatycki, J

    1987-01-01

    A historic cohort mortality study was carried out among two groups of male workers in the Montreal fur industry: 263 dressers and dyers and 599 fur garment manufacturers. The first group is exposed to a very wide variety of chemicals used in tanning, cleaning, and dyeing fur, including substances considered to be carcinogenic and/or mutagenic. The second group is exposed to residue from the dressing and dyeing stage and to respirable fur dust. The cohorts consisted of all active members of two unions as of January 1, 1966. The mean age of the workers was 43.2 and the mean number of years since first employment 14.1. The follow-up period was from January 1, 1966, to December 31, 1981; 95% of the workers were successfully traced. Observed deaths were compared with those expected based on mortality rates of the population of metropolitan Montreal. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for the manufacturers were significantly low, probably because of the ethnic composition of the cohort and a healthy worker effect. SMRs for the dressers and dyers were also low, but not as low as for the manufacturers. When attention was restricted to the French Canadians in the cohort, the observed deaths were close to the expected; there was a noteworthy excess of colorectal cancer (four observed, 0.8 expected) for dressers and dyers. Apart from this weak suggestive evidence, the results did not indicate any excess mortality risks in the fur industry. However, because of the relatively small number of expected and observed deaths in the cohort and especially among the heavily exposed dressers and dyers, the confidence intervals around SMR estimates were wide and excess risks cannot be ruled out.

  6. Time-of-flight Extreme Environment Diffractometer at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin

    SciTech Connect

    Prokhnenko, Oleksandr, E-mail: prokhnenko@helmholtz-berlin.de; Stein, Wolf-Dieter; Bleif, Hans-Jürgen

    2015-03-15

    The Extreme Environment Diffractometer (EXED) is a new neutron time-of-flight instrument at the BER II research reactor at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Germany. Although EXED is a special-purpose instrument, its early construction made it available for users as a general-purpose diffractometer. In this respect, EXED became one of the rare examples, where the performance of a time-of-flight diffractometer at a continuous source can be characterized. In this paper, we report on the design and performance of EXED with an emphasis on the unique instrument capabilities. The latter comprise variable wavelength resolution and wavelength band, control of the incoming beam divergence, themore » possibility to change the angular positions of detectors and their distance to the sample, and use of event recording and offline histogramming. These features combined make EXED easily tunable to the requirements of a particular problem, from conventional diffraction to small angle neutron scattering. The instrument performance is demonstrated by several reference measurements and user experiments.« less

  7. Brillouin Spectroscopy at the GeoForschungsZentrum-Potsdam: Applications in Geosciences and Materials Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquardt, H.; Speziale, S.; Reichmann, H. J.; Schmidt, C.; Schilling, F.

    2007-12-01

    Knowledge of the elastic properties of earth materials at relevant pressures and temperatures is prerequisite to adequately interpret seismic data and improve our understanding of the composition and mineralogy of the earth's interior. The study of pressure and temperature dependence of acoustic velocity in geo-fluids gives us information about their density with implications for the thermodynamic modelling of diagenetic and metamorphic processes. Furthermore elasticity of synthetic materials is of major interest for several industrial applications. We have recently completed the construction of a new Brillouin System at the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam. The new system has been designed to study elasticity of various geological as well as industrial materials at different pressure and temperature conditions. Our Brillouin system consists of a Nd:YVO4 solid state laser operating at a wavelength of 532 nm as light source and a Sandercock-type tandem multipass Fabry-Perot interferometer equipped with a photomultiplier tube for signal detection. Measurements can be performed in 60 or 90 degree symmetric forward scattering or in backscattering geometry. The large positioning system also allows for high temperature measurements in an externally heated diamond anvil cell. We present first results of elasticity measurements both on Earth's materials, such as silicates garnets and oxides, as well as hydroxides and commercially used garnet aluminates, and silicate and borate glasses as proxies for melts. Brillouin scattering has been measured to constrain the density of water-NaCl solutions, for the precise thermodynamic modelling of fluids in metamorphic systems.

  8. Facilities for macromolecular crystallography at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Uwe; Darowski, Nora; Fuchs, Martin R.

    2012-03-20

    Three macromolecular crystallography (MX) beamlines at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) are available for the regional, national and international structural biology user community. The state-of-the-art synchrotron beamlines for MX BL14.1, BL14.2 and BL14.3 are located within the low-[beta] section of the BESSY II electron storage ring. All beamlines are fed from a superconducting 7 T wavelength-shifter insertion device. BL14.1 and BL14.2 are energy tunable in the range 5-16 keV, while BL14.3 is a fixed-energy side station operated at 13.8 keV. All beamlines are equipped with CCD detectors. BL14.1 and BL14.2 are in regular user operation providing about 200 beam days permore » year and about 600 user shifts to approximately 50 research groups across Europe. BL14.3 has initially been used as a test facility and was brought into regular user mode operation during the year 2010. BL14.1 has recently been upgraded with a microdiffractometer including a mini-[kappa] goniometer and an automated sample changer. Other user facilities include office space adjacent to the beamlines, a sample preparation laboratory, a biology laboratory (safety level 1) and high-end computing resources. In this article the instrumentation of the beamlines is described, and a summary of the experimental possibilities of the beamlines and the provided ancillary equipment for the user community is given.« less

  9. Facilities for macromolecular crystallography at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Uwe; Darowski, Nora; Fuchs, Martin R.; Förster, Ronald; Hellmig, Michael; Paithankar, Karthik S.; Pühringer, Sandra; Steffien, Michael; Zocher, Georg; Weiss, Manfred S.

    2012-01-01

    Three macromolecular crystallography (MX) beamlines at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) are available for the regional, national and international structural biology user community. The state-of-the-art synchrotron beamlines for MX BL14.1, BL14.2 and BL14.3 are located within the low-β section of the BESSY II electron storage ring. All beamlines are fed from a superconducting 7 T wavelength-shifter insertion device. BL14.1 and BL14.2 are energy tunable in the range 5–16 keV, while BL14.3 is a fixed-energy side station operated at 13.8 keV. All three beamlines are equipped with CCD detectors. BL14.1 and BL14.2 are in regular user operation providing about 200 beam days per year and about 600 user shifts to approximately 50 research groups across Europe. BL14.3 has initially been used as a test facility and was brought into regular user mode operation during the year 2010. BL14.1 has recently been upgraded with a microdiffractometer including a mini-κ goniometer and an automated sample changer. Additional user facilities include office space adjacent to the beamlines, a sample preparation laboratory, a biology laboratory (safety level 1) and high-end computing resources. In this article the instrumentation of the beamlines is described, and a summary of the experimental possibilities of the beamlines and the provided ancillary equipment for the user community is given. PMID:22514183

  10. Using Fur to Estimate Mercury Concentrations in Mink

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations in fur and muscle tissue from mink (Mustela vison) were compared to determine the utility of fur analysis as a non-lethal and convenient method for predicting mercury concentrations in tissues. Sixty nine wild-trapped mink were collected in Rhode...

  11. Transcriptional regulation by Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur) in pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Troxell, Bryan; Hassan, Hosni M

    2013-01-01

    In the ancient anaerobic environment, ferrous iron (Fe(2+)) was one of the first metal cofactors. Oxygenation of the ancient world challenged bacteria to acquire the insoluble ferric iron (Fe(3+)) and later to defend against reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by the Fenton chemistry. To acquire Fe(3+), bacteria produce low-molecular weight compounds, known as siderophores, which have extremely high affinity for Fe(3+). However, during infection the host restricts iron from pathogens by producing iron- and siderophore-chelating proteins, by exporting iron from intracellular pathogen-containing compartments, and by limiting absorption of dietary iron. Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur) is a transcription factor which utilizes Fe(2+) as a corepressor and represses siderophore synthesis in pathogens. Fur, directly or indirectly, controls expression of enzymes that protect against ROS damage. Thus, the challenges of iron homeostasis and defense against ROS are addressed via Fur. Although the role of Fur as a repressor is well-documented, emerging evidence demonstrates that Fur can function as an activator. Fur activation can occur through three distinct mechanisms (1) indirectly via small RNAs, (2) binding at cis regulatory elements that enhance recruitment of the RNA polymerase holoenzyme (RNAP), and (3) functioning as an antirepressor by removing or blocking DNA binding of a repressor of transcription. In addition, Fur homologs control defense against peroxide stress (PerR) and control uptake of other metals such as zinc (Zur) and manganese (Mur) in pathogenic bacteria. Fur family members are important for virulence within bacterial pathogens since mutants of fur, perR, or zur exhibit reduced virulence within numerous animal and plant models of infection. This review focuses on the breadth of Fur regulation in pathogenic bacteria.

  12. Transcriptional regulation by Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur) in pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Troxell, Bryan; Hassan, Hosni M.

    2013-01-01

    In the ancient anaerobic environment, ferrous iron (Fe2+) was one of the first metal cofactors. Oxygenation of the ancient world challenged bacteria to acquire the insoluble ferric iron (Fe3+) and later to defend against reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by the Fenton chemistry. To acquire Fe3+, bacteria produce low-molecular weight compounds, known as siderophores, which have extremely high affinity for Fe3+. However, during infection the host restricts iron from pathogens by producing iron- and siderophore-chelating proteins, by exporting iron from intracellular pathogen-containing compartments, and by limiting absorption of dietary iron. Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur) is a transcription factor which utilizes Fe2+ as a corepressor and represses siderophore synthesis in pathogens. Fur, directly or indirectly, controls expression of enzymes that protect against ROS damage. Thus, the challenges of iron homeostasis and defense against ROS are addressed via Fur. Although the role of Fur as a repressor is well-documented, emerging evidence demonstrates that Fur can function as an activator. Fur activation can occur through three distinct mechanisms (1) indirectly via small RNAs, (2) binding at cis regulatory elements that enhance recruitment of the RNA polymerase holoenzyme (RNAP), and (3) functioning as an antirepressor by removing or blocking DNA binding of a repressor of transcription. In addition, Fur homologs control defense against peroxide stress (PerR) and control uptake of other metals such as zinc (Zur) and manganese (Mur) in pathogenic bacteria. Fur family members are important for virulence within bacterial pathogens since mutants of fur, perR, or zur exhibit reduced virulence within numerous animal and plant models of infection. This review focuses on the breadth of Fur regulation in pathogenic bacteria. PMID:24106689

  13. Generic names of northern and southern fur seals (Mammalia: Otariidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, A.L.; Robbins, C.B.

    1998-01-01

    We have resolved a nomenclatural problem discovered during research on the northern fur seal that concerns the correct generic name for this taxon and for fur seals of the Southern Hemisphere. The unfortunate practice by some 19th century authors to use names in their Latinized form, but to date them from their first appearance as French common names led to the use of Arctocephalus for southern fur seals when the name correctly applies to the northern fur seal, known today as Callorhinus ursinus. However, Arctocephalus and Callorhinus are antedated by Otoes G. Fischer, 1817, which is the earliest available generic for the fur seal of the northern Pacific. The earliest available generic name for southern fur seals is Halarctus Gill, 1866. To avoid the confusion that would result from replacing the currently used generic names with those required by strict adherence to the Principle of Priority, we have petitioned the International Commission on Zoological nomenclature to preserve Arctocephalus and Callorhinus for the southern and northern fur seals, respectively.

  14. 76 FR 45499 - Marine Mammals; Subsistence Taking of Northern Fur Seals; Harvest Estimates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    .... 110718394-1392-01] RIN 0648-BB09 Marine Mammals; Subsistence Taking of Northern Fur Seals; Harvest Estimates... governing the subsistence taking of northern fur seals, this document summarizes the annual fur seal... annual estimates of fur seal subsistence needs for 2011 through 2013 on the Pribilof Islands, Alaska...

  15. 29 CFR 780.124 - Raising of fur-bearing animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Raising of fur-bearing animals. 780.124 Section 780.124... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.124 Raising of fur-bearing animals. (a) The term “fur-bearing animals” has reference to animals which bear fur of...

  16. 29 CFR 780.124 - Raising of fur-bearing animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Raising of fur-bearing animals. 780.124 Section 780.124... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.124 Raising of fur-bearing animals. (a) The term “fur-bearing animals” has reference to animals which bear fur of...

  17. 29 CFR 780.124 - Raising of fur-bearing animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raising of fur-bearing animals. 780.124 Section 780.124... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.124 Raising of fur-bearing animals. (a) The term “fur-bearing animals” has reference to animals which bear fur of...

  18. 29 CFR 780.124 - Raising of fur-bearing animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Raising of fur-bearing animals. 780.124 Section 780.124... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.124 Raising of fur-bearing animals. (a) The term “fur-bearing animals” has reference to animals which bear fur of...

  19. 29 CFR 780.124 - Raising of fur-bearing animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Raising of fur-bearing animals. 780.124 Section 780.124... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.124 Raising of fur-bearing animals. (a) The term “fur-bearing animals” has reference to animals which bear fur of...

  20. Correlations between elements in the fur of wild animals.

    PubMed

    Długaszek, Maria; Kopczyński, Krzysztof

    2014-07-01

    There is little data on the elemental composition of wild animals fur. In the paper, an attempt has been made to evaluate the concentration of elements in the fur of roe deer, wild boar and hare. The contents of following elements: calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), aluminium (Al), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry method. Their content was in the range 0.01 (Cd) to 1,519 (Ca) μg/g. Correlations between the content of Mn, Al, Ca, Pb, Cr, Ni in the fur of animals, liver and muscle tissues were found. Thus it can be assumed that the fur of wild animals can provide an information on the bioavailability of elements and environmental exposure and can be considered as an useful biomarker in animals and environmental studies, although research on this subject should be continued.

  1. Salmonella meningoencephalomyelitis in a northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinsus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stroud, R.K.; Roelke, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Salmonella enteritidis was isolated from the brain of a neonatal northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) with gross and microscopic lesions of meningoencephalomyelitis. Microscopic lesions in the liver and lung suggested septicemia.

  2. Architecture of a Fur Binding Site: a Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lavrrar, Jennifer L.; McIntosh, Mark A.

    2003-01-01

    Fur is an iron-binding transcriptional repressor that recognizes a 19-bp consensus site of the sequence 5′-GATAATGATAATCATTATC-3′. This site can be defined as three adjacent hexamers of the sequence 5′-GATAAT-3′, with the third being slightly imperfect (an F-F-F configuration), or as two hexamers in the forward orientation separated by one base pair from a third hexamer in the reverse orientation (an F-F-x-R configuration). Although Fur can bind synthetic DNA sequences containing the F-F-F arrangement, most natural binding sites are variations of the F-F-x-R arrangement. The studies presented here compared the ability of Fur to recognize synthetic DNA sequences containing two to four adjacent hexamers with binding to sequences containing variations of the F-F-x-R arrangement (including natural operator sequences from the entS and fepB promoter regions of Escherichia coli). Gel retardation assays showed that the F-F-x-R architecture was necessary for high-affinity Fur-DNA interactions and that contiguous hexamers were not recognized as effectively. In addition, the stoichiometry of Fur at each binding site was determined, showing that Fur interacted with its minimal 19-bp binding site as two overlapping dimers. These data confirm the proposed overlapping-dimer binding model, where the unit of interaction with a single Fur dimer is two inverted hexamers separated by a C:G base pair, with two overlapping units comprising the 19-bp consensus binding site required for the high-affinity interaction with two Fur dimers. PMID:12644489

  3. 50 CFR 23.69 - How can I trade internationally in fur skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear harvested in... trade internationally in fur skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf... lynx (Lynx canadensis), gray wolf (Canis lupus), and brown bear (Ursus arctos) harvested in the United...

  4. BioRef: A versatile time-of-flight reflectometer for soft matter applications at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin

    SciTech Connect

    Strobl, M.; Kreuzer, M.; Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin

    2011-05-15

    BioRef is a versatile novel time-of-flight reflectometer featuring a sample environment for in situ infrared spectroscopy at the reactor neutron source BER II of the Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie (HZB). After two years of design and construction phase the instrument has recently undergone commissioning and is now available for specular and off-specular neutron reflectivity measurements. BioRef is especially dedicated to the investigation of soft matter systems and studies at the solid-liquid interface. Due to flexible resolution modes and variable addressable wavelength bands that allow for focusing onto a selected scattering vector range, BioRef enables a broad rangemore » of surface and interface investigations and even kinetic studies with subsecond time resolution. The instrumental settings can be tailored to the specific requirements of a wide range of applications. The performance is demonstrated by several reference measurements, and the unique option of in situ on-board infrared spectroscopy is illustrated by the example of a phase transition study in a lipid multilayer film.« less

  5. Historical analysis of Newfoundland dog fur colour genetics

    PubMed Central

    Bondeson, J.

    2015-01-01

    This article makes use of digitized historic newspapers to analyze Newfoundland dog fur colour genetics, and fur colour variations over time. The results indicate that contrary to the accepted view, the ‘Solid’ gene was introduced into the British population of Newfoundland dogs in the 1840s. Prior to that time, the dogs were white and black (Landseer) or white and brown, and thus spotted/spotted homozygotes. Due to ‘Solid’ being dominant over ‘spotted’, and selective breeding, today the majority of Newfoundland dogs are solid black. Whereas small white marks on the chest and/or paw appears to be a random event, the historical data supports the existence of an ‘Irish spotted’ fur colour pattern, with white head blaze, breast, paws and tail tip, in spotted/spotted homozygotes. PMID:26623371

  6. 77 FR 6682 - Marine Mammals; Subsistence Taking of Northern Fur Seals; Harvest Estimates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    .... 110781394-2048-02] RIN 0648-BB09 Marine Mammals; Subsistence Taking of Northern Fur Seals; Harvest Estimates...), Commerce. ACTION: Final estimates of annual fur seal subsistence needs. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the regulations governing the subsistence taking of [[Page 6683

  7. 19 CFR 12.61 - Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. 12.61...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.61 Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. (a) Fur-seal or sea-otter skins taken by Indians, Aleuts, or other...

  8. 19 CFR 12.61 - Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. 12.61...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.61 Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. (a) Fur-seal or sea-otter skins taken by Indians, Aleuts, or other...

  9. 19 CFR 12.61 - Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. 12.61...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.61 Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. (a) Fur-seal or sea-otter skins taken by Indians, Aleuts, or other...

  10. 19 CFR 12.61 - Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. 12.61...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.61 Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. (a) Fur-seal or sea-otter skins taken by Indians, Aleuts, or other...

  11. 19 CFR 12.61 - Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. 12.61...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.61 Fur-seal or sea-otter skins permitted entry. (a) Fur-seal or sea-otter skins taken by Indians, Aleuts, or other...

  12. 77 FR 41168 - Marine Mammals; Subsistence Taking of Northern Fur Seals; St. Paul Island

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... Mammals; Subsistence Taking of Northern Fur Seals; St. Paul Island AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... taking of northern fur seals on St. Paul Island. St. Paul's petition requests that NMFS revise the... seals; take a total of up to 3,000 fur seals annually compared to 2,000 currently allowed, including up...

  13. 19 CFR 11.12a - Labeling of fur products to indicate composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... violation of the act with respect to imported articles comes to the attention of a port director, the... “fur product” means any article of wearing apparel made in whole or in part of fur or used fur; except that such term shall not include such articles as the Federal Trade Commission shall exempt by reason...

  14. Photoperiod and fur lengths in the arctic fox ( Alopex lagopus L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, L. S.; Reynolds, Patricia

    1980-03-01

    Pelage is seasonally dimorphic in the Arctic fox. During the winter, fur lengths for this species are nearly double similar values taken during the summer season. Considerable site-specific differences in fur length are noted. In general, body sites which are exposed to the environment when an Arctic fox lies in a curled position show greater fur lengths in all seasons and greater seasonal variations than body sites that are more protected during rest. Well-furred sites may tend to conserve heat during periods of inactivity, and scantily furred sites may tend to dissipate heat during periods of exercise. The growth of winter fur may compensate for the severe cold of the arctic winter. Changes in fur lengths indicate a definite pattern in spite of individual variations. During the fall months, fur lengths seem to lag behind an increasing body-to-ambient temperature gradient. Both body-to-ambient temperature gradients and fur lengths peak during December through February. From March through June, gradual environmental warming is accompanied by a decrease in average fur lengths. Thus, there appears to be a remarkable parallel between the body-to-ambient temperature gradient and the fur lengths. The growth of fur in the Arctic fox parallels annual changes in ambient temperature and photoperiod.

  15. FurA contributes to the oxidative stress response regulation of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Eckelt, Elke; Meißner, Thorsten; Meens, Jochen; Laarmann, Kristin; Nerlich, Andreas; Jarek, Michael; Weiss, Siegfried; Gerlach, Gerald-F.; Goethe, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The ferric uptake regulator A (FurA) is known to be involved in iron homeostasis and stress response in many bacteria. In mycobacteria the precise role of FurA is still unclear. In the presented study, we addressed the functional role of FurA in the ruminant pathogen Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) by construction of a furA deletion strain (MAPΔfurA). RNA deep sequencing revealed that the FurA regulon consists of repressed and activated genes associated to stress response or intracellular survival. Not a single gene related to metal homeostasis was affected by furA deletion. A decisive role of FurA during intracellular survival in macrophages was shown by significantly enhanced survival of MAPΔfurA compared to the wildtype, indicating that a principal task of mycobacterial FurA is oxidative stress response regulation in macrophages. This resistance was not associated with altered survival of mice after long term infection with MAP. Our results demonstrate for the first time, that mycobacterial FurA is not involved in the regulation of iron homeostasis. However, they provide strong evidence that FurA contributes to intracellular survival as an oxidative stress sensing regulator. PMID:25705205

  16. FurA contributes to the oxidative stress response regulation of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Eckelt, Elke; Meißner, Thorsten; Meens, Jochen; Laarmann, Kristin; Nerlich, Andreas; Jarek, Michael; Weiss, Siegfried; Gerlach, Gerald-F; Goethe, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The ferric uptake regulator A (FurA) is known to be involved in iron homeostasis and stress response in many bacteria. In mycobacteria the precise role of FurA is still unclear. In the presented study, we addressed the functional role of FurA in the ruminant pathogen Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) by construction of a furA deletion strain (MAPΔfurA). RNA deep sequencing revealed that the FurA regulon consists of repressed and activated genes associated to stress response or intracellular survival. Not a single gene related to metal homeostasis was affected by furA deletion. A decisive role of FurA during intracellular survival in macrophages was shown by significantly enhanced survival of MAPΔfurA compared to the wildtype, indicating that a principal task of mycobacterial FurA is oxidative stress response regulation in macrophages. This resistance was not associated with altered survival of mice after long term infection with MAP. Our results demonstrate for the first time, that mycobacterial FurA is not involved in the regulation of iron homeostasis. However, they provide strong evidence that FurA contributes to intracellular survival as an oxidative stress sensing regulator.

  17. [Listrophorus gibbus, a fur mite in domestic rabbits (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    de Vos, J P; Dorrestein, G M

    1978-07-01

    A case of infection with the fur mite of domestic rabbits, Listrophorus gibbus, is reported. Possible methods of treatment of individual rabbits as well as of colonies of rabbits are reviewed. The presence of Listrophorus gibbus in conjunction with Cheyletiella parasitivorax is also discussed.

  18. 76 FR 72132 - Regulations Under The Fur Products Labeling Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... replace it with ``Raccoon Dog.'' HSUS first asserted that the ``true English name'' of an animal should be... name of nyctereutes procyonoidos as ``Raccoon Dog,'' and presented evidence that the scientific... as dog and cat. See Fur Information Council of America Comment at 7-8. Second, the Humane Society of...

  19. 77 FR 57043 - Regulations Under the Fur Products Labeling Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... on purportedly superior European fur-farming practices, which can change and which the Commission... procyonoides is like the common practice of using ``African Lion'' to refer to lions raised in America.\\54\\ \\51... kept for farming purposes. The Convention aims to protect animals against any unnecessary suffering or...

  20. 50 CFR 223.201 - Guadalupe fur seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....201 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Restrictions Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.201 Guadalupe fur seal. (a) Prohibitions. The...

  1. 50 CFR 223.201 - Guadalupe fur seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....201 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Restrictions Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.201 Guadalupe fur seal. (a) Prohibitions. The...

  2. 50 CFR 223.201 - Guadalupe fur seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....201 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Restrictions Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.201 Guadalupe fur seal. (a) Prohibitions. The...

  3. 50 CFR 223.201 - Guadalupe fur seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....201 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Restrictions Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.201 Guadalupe fur seal. (a) Prohibitions. The...

  4. 50 CFR 223.201 - Guadalupe fur seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....201 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Restrictions Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.201 Guadalupe fur seal. (a) Prohibitions. The...

  5. Analysis of a Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur) Mutant ofDesulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, Kelly S.; Yen, Huei-Che Bill; Hemme, Christopher L.

    2007-09-21

    Previous experiments examining the transcriptional profileof the anaerobe Desulfovibrio vulgaris demonstrated up-regulation of theFur regulon in response to various environmental stressors. To test theinvolvement of Fur in the growth response and transcriptional regulationof D. vulgaris, a targeted mutagenesis procedure was used for deletingthe fur gene. Growth of the resulting ?fur mutant (JW707) was notaffected by iron availability, but the mutant did exhibit increasedsensitivity to nitrite and osmotic stresses compared to the wild type.Transcriptional profiling of JW707 indicated that iron-bound Fur acts asa traditional repressor for ferrous iron uptake genes (feoAB) and othergenes containing a predicted Fur binding site within theirmore » promoter.Despite the apparent lack of siderophore biosynthesis genes within the D.vulgaris genome, a large 12-gene operon encoding orthologs to TonB andTolQR also appeared to be repressed by iron-bound Fur. While other genespredicted to be involved in iron homeostasis were unaffected by thepresence or absence of Fur, alternative expression patterns that could beinterpreted as repression or activation by iron-free Fur were observed.Both the physiological and transcriptional data implicate a globalregulatory role for Fur in the sulfate-reducing bacterium D.vulgaris.« less

  6. Mortality among retired fur workers. Dyers, dressers (tanners) and service workers.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, M H; Walrath, J; Waxweiler, R J

    1985-08-01

    A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted on 807 fur dyers, fur dressers (tanners), and fur service workers who were pensioned between 1952 and 1977 by the Fur, Leather and Machine Workers Union of New York City. Workplace exposures of fur workers varied with job category. Dyers were exposed to oxidative dyes used in commercial hair dyes; dressers and service workers were exposed to tanning chemicals. In a comparison with the New York City population, no significant increases in mortality were observed among the fur dyers. Among fur dressers, mortality from all malignant neoplasms [standardized mortality ratio (SMR) 151] and lung cancer (SMR 232) was significantly elevated, as was mortality from cardiovascular disease (SMR 126) among fur service workers. When examined by ethnic origin, the elevated SMR values and directly age-adjusted rate ratios suggested that foreign-born fur dressers and eastern European-born fur workers experienced the highest risks for lung and colorectal cancers, respectively. These data support previous findings of increased mortality from colorectal cancer in the foreign-born population of the United States and suggest a possible occupational etiology for the observed lung cancer excess.

  7. 50 CFR 23.69 - How can I trade internationally in fur skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) International Trade in Certain Specimens § 23.69 How can I trade internationally in fur... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in fur...

  8. 50 CFR 23.69 - How can I trade internationally in fur skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear? 23.69... skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear? (a) U.S. and...), river otter (Lontra canadensis), and Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis), and the Alaskan populations of gray...

  9. 50 CFR 23.69 - How can I trade internationally in fur skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear? 23.69... skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear? (a) U.S. and...), river otter (Lontra canadensis), and Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis), and the Alaskan populations of gray...

  10. 50 CFR 23.69 - How can I trade internationally in fur skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear? 23.69... skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada lynx, gray wolf, and brown bear? (a) U.S. and...), river otter (Lontra canadensis), and Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis), and the Alaskan populations of gray...

  11. Chemistry & migration mysteries: Fur holds clues to previous journeys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cryan, Paul M.

    2004-01-01

    The bat was not only pregnant but downright angry as I snipped a bit of fur from her back. Within a few seconds, however, she flapped her powerful wings, took off from my hand and disappeared into the night, rejoining thousands of female hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) on their migration through the mountains of New Mexico.Every spring, hundreds of these expectant mothers pass through this small stream drainage on their way to birthing grounds farther east. Their annual passage was first reported here more than 30 years ago, and it is still one of the few known migration corridors in the area.My task that night was simple: catch hoary bats and snip tiny samples of fur from their thick coats, then let them continue on their way. The explanation, however, is a bit more complicated.

  12. Prevalence of fur mites in pet rabbits in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Hun; Jun, Hyung-Kyou; Song, Kun-Ho; Gram, Dunbar; Kim, Duck-Hwan

    2008-06-01

    The prevalence of fur mites, Cheyletiella parasitovorax and Leporacarus gibbus, in pet rabbits in South Korea was investigated by a diagnostic evaluation of skin surface tape strips and hair coat combings. C. parasitovorax was found in 80 of 140 rabbits (57.1%) and L. gibbus in six of 140 rabbits (4.3%). Clinical signs of pruritus and scaling were observed in 17 of 80 and 76 of 80 infested rabbits, respectively.

  13. Epizootiology of Brucella infection in Australian fur seals.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Michael; Duignan, Pádraig J; Taylor, Trevor; Nielsen, Ole; Kirkwood, Roger; Gibbens, John; Arnould, John P Y

    2011-04-01

    Novel members of the bacterial genus Brucella have recently emerged as pathogens of various marine mammal species and as potential zoonotic agents. We investigated the epizootiology of Brucella infection in Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) by establishing demographic and temporal variations in antibody prevalence, attempting isolation of the causative agent, and determining whether this potential pathogen is involved in frequent abortions observed in this pinniped species. Two competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (cELISAs), an indirect ELISA, and a fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) were used to test sera for Brucella antibodies. The FPA and cELISA proved suitable for use in this species. Significant differences in antibody prevalence were found between age classes of seals sampled between 2007 and 2009 at one colony. Pups sampled at this site (n=134) were negative for Brucella antibodies by all serologic tests but 17 of 45 (38%) of juveniles were antibody-positive. Antibody prevalence in adult females was significantly higher than in juveniles (P=0.044). Antibody prevalence for adult females between 2003 and 2009 varied significantly over time (P=0.011), and for individuals sampled between 2003 and 2005, the likelihood of pregnancy was greater in individuals positive for Brucella antibodies (P=0.034). Inflammatory lesions suggestive of infectious agents were found in 14 of 39 aborted Australian fur seal pups, but pathologic changes were not uniformly consistent for Brucella infection. Culture and PCR investigations on fetal tissues were negative for Brucella. Culture and PCR on selected fresh or frozen tissues from 36 juvenile and adult animals were also negative. We suspect that the prevalence of active infection with Brucella in Australian fur seals is low relative to antibody prevalence.

  14. 75 FR 21243 - Marine Mammals; Subsistence Taking of Northern Fur Seals; St. George

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... Mammals; Subsistence Taking of Northern Fur Seals; St. George AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... (APA). The Pribilof Island Community of St. George Island, Traditional Council (Council) petitioned... St. George Island to take male fur seal young of the year during the fall. NMFS solicits public...

  15. Entanglements of Consumption, Cruelty, Privacy, and Fashion: The Social Controversy over Fur.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Kathryn M.; Goodnight, G. Thomas

    1994-01-01

    Posits a critical approach to the study of contemporary social controversy. Examines objectives to the use of fur as oppositional argument, rhetoric that veers from the goal of persuasion to block conventional associations and refashion communication norms. Shows how pro-fur responses illustrate strategies available to bolster, alter, or abandon…

  16. Normal hematology and serum chemistry of northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Kohyama, Kaoru; Inoshima, Yasuo

    2017-09-01

    Northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) are endemic to the North Pacific Ocean. They were hunted for their fur and became endangered in the late 1800s, but their populations recovered following the introduction of protection laws. Recently, populations have been decreasing again, although the reasons are unclear. For individuals that are bred and reared in captivity as part of ex situ conservation projects, details of blood characteristics are essential to ensure good health. However, the normal ranges of hematology and serum chemistry of captive northern fur seals have not been defined. This study determined the normal ranges of hematology and serum chemistry of captive fur seals. Blood samples were collected every month for 2 years from four captive northern fur seals in Japan (three born in an aquarium and one kept in the same aquarium following rescue). Fifteen blood characteristics and 29 serum chemistry properties were compared with those previously reported for wild northern fur seals in the USA. Several parameters were not within the normal ranges reported previously in wild northern fur seals. In particular, levels of alkaline phosphatase was outside of the normal ranges previously reported. The hematological and serum chemistry ranges in this study can help provide a guideline for understanding the health of northern fur seals in captivity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. 16 CFR 303.9 - Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols prohibited. 303.9 Section 303.9 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.9 Use of fur-bearing animal names and symbols...

  18. Isolation and characterization of Campylobacter spp. from Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) at Deception Island, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    García-Peña, F J; Pérez-Boto, D; Jiménez, C; San Miguel, E; Echeita, A; Rengifo-Herrera, C; García-Párraga, D; Ortega-Mora, L M; Pedraza-Díaz, S

    2010-09-01

    The presence of Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 41 Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) and 9 Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) at Deception Island, Antarctica. Infections were encountered in six Antarctic fur seals. The isolates, the first reported from marine mammals in the Antarctic region, were identified as Campylobacter insulaenigrae and Campylobacter lari.

  19. Uncinariasis in northern fur seal and California sea lion pups from California.

    PubMed

    Lyons, E T; DeLong, R L; Melin, S R; Tolliver, S C

    1997-10-01

    Northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) (n = 25) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) (n = 53) pups, found dead on rookeries on San Miguel Island (California, USA), were examined for adult Uncinaria spp. Prevalence of these nematodes was 96% in fur seal pups and 100% in sea lion pups. Mean intensity of Uncinaria spp. per infected pup was 643 in fur seals and 1,284 in sea lions. Eggs of Uncinaria spp. from dead sea lion pups underwent embryonation in an incubator; development to the free-living third stage larva occurred within the egg. This study provided some specific information on hookworm infections in northern fur seal and California sea lion pups on San Miguel Island. High prevalence rate of Uncinaria spp. in both species of pinnipeds was documented and much higher numbers (2X) of hookworms were present in sea lion than fur seal pups.

  20. Bacillus licheniformis Contains Two More PerR-Like Proteins in Addition to PerR, Fur, and Zur Orthologues

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Shin-Yeong; Yang, Yoon-Mo; Ryu, Su-Hyun; Kwon, Yumi; Won, Young-Bin; Lee, Yeh-Eun; Youn, Hwan; Lee, Jin-Won

    2016-01-01

    The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) family proteins include sensors of Fe (Fur), Zn (Zur), and peroxide (PerR). Among Fur family proteins, Fur and Zur are ubiquitous in most prokaryotic organisms, whereas PerR exists mainly in Gram positive bacteria as a functional homologue of OxyR. Gram positive bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus encode three Fur family proteins: Fur, Zur, and PerR. In this study, we identified five Fur family proteins from B. licheniformis: two novel PerR-like proteins (BL00690 and BL00950) in addition to Fur (BL05249), Zur (BL03703), and PerR (BL00075) homologues. Our data indicate that all of the five B. licheniformis Fur homologues contain a structural Zn2+ site composed of four cysteine residues like many other Fur family proteins. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the PerR-like proteins (BL00690 and BL00950) as well as PerRBL (BL00075), but not FurBL (BL05249) and ZurBL (BL03703), can sense H2O2 by histidine oxidation with different sensitivity. We also show that PerR2 (BL00690) has a PerR-like repressor activity for PerR-regulated genes in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that B. licheniformis contains three PerR subfamily proteins which can sense H2O2 by histidine oxidation not by cysteine oxidation, in addition to Fur and Zur. PMID:27176811

  1. Metagenomic Survey of Viral Diversity Obtained from Feces of Subantarctic and South American Fur Seals

    PubMed Central

    Kluge, Mariana; Campos, Fabrício Souza; Tavares, Maurício; de Amorim, Derek Blaese; Valdez, Fernanda Pedone; Giongo, Adriana; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Franco, Ana Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian South coast seasonally hosts numerous marine species, observed particularly during winter months. Some animals, including fur seals, are found dead or debilitated along the shore and may harbor potential pathogens within their microbiota. In the present study, a metagenomic approach was performed to evaluate the viral diversity in feces of fur seals found deceased along the coast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The fecal virome of two fur seal species was characterized: the South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) and the Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis). Fecal samples from 10 specimens (A. australis, n = 5; A. tropicalis, n = 5) were collected and viral particles were purified, extracted and amplified with a random PCR. The products were sequenced through Ion Torrent and Illumina platforms and assembled reads were submitted to BLASTx searches. Both viromes were dominated by bacteriophages and included a number of potentially novel virus genomes. Sequences of picobirnaviruses, picornaviruses and a hepevirus-like were identified in A. australis. A rotavirus related to group C, a novel member of the Sakobuvirus and a sapovirus very similar to California sea lion sapovirus 1 were found in A. tropicalis. Additionally, sequences of members of the Anelloviridae and Parvoviridae families were detected in both fur seal species. This is the first metagenomic study to screen the fecal virome of fur seals, contributing to a better understanding of the complexity of the viral community present in the intestinal microbiota of these animals. PMID:26986573

  2. Respiratory Allergens from Furred Mammals: Environmental and Occupational Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Raulf, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Furry mammals kept as pets, farm and laboratory animals are important allergen sources. The prevalence of sensitization to furred mammals appears to be increasing worldwide. Several mammalian allergens from diverse species are well characterized with regard to their molecular structure and immunogenicity, and some are already available for component-resolved allergy diagnostics. The distribution of various mammalian allergens has been extensively studied during the past few decades. Animal allergens were found to be ubiquitous in the human environment, even in places where no animals reside, with concentrations differing considerably between locations and geographical regions. This review presents an overview of identified mammalian respiratory allergens classified according to protein families, and compiles the results of allergen exposure assessment studies conducted in different public and occupational environments. PMID:29056697

  3. Dispersal of Mycobacterium tuberculosis via the Canadian fur trade

    PubMed Central

    Pepperell, Caitlin S.; Granka, Julie M.; Alexander, David C.; Behr, Marcel A.; Chui, Linda; Gordon, Janet; Guthrie, Jennifer L.; Jamieson, Frances B.; Langlois-Klassen, Deanne; Long, Richard; Nguyen, Dao; Wobeser, Wendy; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2011-01-01

    Patterns of gene flow can have marked effects on the evolution of populations. To better understand the migration dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we studied genetic data from European M. tuberculosis lineages currently circulating in Aboriginal and French Canadian communities. A single M. tuberculosis lineage, characterized by the DS6Quebec genomic deletion, is at highest frequency among Aboriginal populations in Ontario, Saskatchewan, and Alberta; this bacterial lineage is also dominant among tuberculosis (TB) cases in French Canadians resident in Quebec. Substantial contact between these human populations is limited to a specific historical era (1710–1870), during which individuals from these populations met to barter furs. Statistical analyses of extant M. tuberculosis minisatellite data are consistent with Quebec as a source population for M. tuberculosis gene flow into Aboriginal populations during the fur trade era. Historical and genetic analyses suggest that tiny M. tuberculosis populations persisted for ∼100 y among indigenous populations and subsequently expanded in the late 19th century after environmental changes favoring the pathogen. Our study suggests that spread of TB can occur by two asynchronous processes: (i) dispersal of M. tuberculosis by minimal numbers of human migrants, during which small pathogen populations are sustained by ongoing migration and slow disease dynamics, and (ii) expansion of the M. tuberculosis population facilitated by shifts in host ecology. If generalizable, these migration dynamics can help explain the low DNA sequence diversity observed among isolates of M. tuberculosis and the difficulties in global elimination of tuberculosis, as small, widely dispersed pathogen populations are difficult both to detect and to eradicate. PMID:21464295

  4. From the Fur Trade to Acid Rain: A Study of Canadian Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winans, Linda

    1988-01-01

    Presents a teaching module for upper elementary students that devotes eight class periods of study to Canadian resources. Includes study of the Canadian fur trade, fishing industry, forestry, and the problems caused by acid rain. Includes the unit evaluation. (DB)

  5. A memory like a female Fur Seal: long-lasting recognition of pup's voice by mothers.

    PubMed

    Mathevon, Nicolas; Charrier, Isabelle; Aubin, Thierry

    2004-06-01

    In colonial mammals like fur seals, mutual vocal recognition between mothers and their pup is of primary importance for breeding success. Females alternate feeding sea-trips with suckling periods on land, and when coming back from the ocean, they have to vocally find their offspring among numerous similar-looking pups. Young fur seals emit a 'mother-attraction call' that presents individual characteristics. In this paper, we review the perceptual process of pup's call recognition by Subantarctic Fur Seal Arctocephalus tropicalis mothers. To identify their progeny, females rely on the frequency modulation pattern and spectral features of this call. As the acoustic characteristics of a pup's call change throughout the lactation period due to the growing process, mothers have thus to refine their memorization of their pup's voice. Field experiments show that female Fur Seals are able to retain all the successive versions of their pup's call.

  6. Discovery of fur seal feces-associated circular DNA virus in swine feces in Japan.

    PubMed

    Oba, Mami; Katayama, Yukie; Naoi, Yuki; Tsuchiaka, Shinobu; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Okumura, Atsushi; Nagai, Makoto; Mizutani, Tetsuya

    2017-10-07

    Fur seal feces-associated circular ssDNA virus (FSfaCV) was discovered in a pig for the first time in Japan using a next-generation sequencer with duplex-specific nuclease. Full genome of the virus showed approximately 92% similarity to FSfaCVs from New Zealand fur seals. Furthermore, we investigated the prevalence of the ssDNA virus in 85 piglets in Japan, and 65 piglets were positive (76%) for the virus.

  7. Use of electrochemically activated aqueous solutions in the manufacture of fur materials.

    PubMed

    Danylkovych, Anatoliy G; Lishchuk, Viktor I; Romaniuk, Oksana O

    2016-01-01

    The influence of characteristics of electrochemically activated aqueous processing mediums in the treatment of fur skins with different contents of fatty substances was investigated. The use of electroactive water, namely anolytes and catholytes, forgoing antiseptics or surface-active materials, helped to restore the hydration of fur skins and to remove from them soluble proteins, carbohydrates and fatty substances. The activating effect of anolyte and catholyte in solutions of water on the processes of treating raw furs is explained by their special physical and chemical properties, namely the presence of free radicals, ions and molecules of water which easily penetrate cells' membranes and into the structure of non-collagen components and microfiber structure of dermic collagen. The stage of lengthy acid and salt treatment is excluded from the technical treatment as a result of using electroactivated water with high oxidizing power. A low-cost technology of processing different kinds of fur with the use of electroactivated water provides for substantial economy of water and chemical reagents, a two to threefold acceleration of the soaking and tanning processes and creation of highly elastic fur materials with a specified set of physical and chemical properties. At the same time the technology of preparatory processes of fur treatment excludes the use of such toxic antiseptics as formalin and sodium silicofluoride, which gives grounds to regard it as ecologically safe.

  8. Caroline Furness and the Evolution of Visual Variable Star Observing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    An Introduction to the Study of Variable Stars by Dr. Caroline Ellen Furness (1869-1936), Director of the Vassar College Observatory, was published in October 2015. Issued in honor of the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of Vassar College, the work was meant to fill a void in the literature, namely as both an introduction to the topic of variable stars as well as a manual explaining how they should be observed and the resulting data analyzed. It was judged to be one of the hundred best books written by an American woman in the last hundred years at the 1933 World’s Fair in Chicago. The book covers the relevant history of and background on types of variable stars, star charts, catalogs, and the magnitude scale, then describes observing techniques, including visual, photographic, and photoelectric photometry. The work finishes with a discussion of light curves and patterns of variability, with a special emphasis on eclipsing binaries and long period variables. Furness’s work is therefore a valuable snapshot of the state of astronomical knowledge, technology, and observing techniques from a century ago. Furness’s book and its reception in the scientific community are analyzed, and parallels with (and departures from) the current advice given by the AAVSO to beginning variable star observers today are highlighted.

  9. Gratings for synchrotron and FEL beamlines: a project for the manufacture of ultra-precise gratings at Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin.

    PubMed

    Siewert, F; Löchel, B; Buchheim, J; Eggenstein, F; Firsov, A; Gwalt, G; Kutz, O; Lemke, St; Nelles, B; Rudolph, I; Schäfers, F; Seliger, T; Senf, F; Sokolov, A; Waberski, Ch; Wolf, J; Zeschke, T; Zizak, I; Follath, R; Arnold, T; Frost, F; Pietag, F; Erko, A

    2018-01-01

    Blazed gratings are of dedicated interest for the monochromatization of synchrotron radiation when a high photon flux is required, such as, for example, in resonant inelastic X-ray scattering experiments or when the use of laminar gratings is excluded due to too high flux densities and expected damage, for example at free-electron laser beamlines. Their availability became a bottleneck since the decommissioning of the grating manufacture facility at Carl Zeiss in Oberkochen. To resolve this situation a new technological laboratory was established at the Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, including instrumentation from Carl Zeiss. Besides the upgraded ZEISS equipment, an advanced grating production line has been developed, including a new ultra-precise ruling machine, ion etching technology as well as laser interference lithography. While the old ZEISS ruling machine GTM-6 allows ruling for a grating length up to 170 mm, the new GTM-24 will have the capacity for 600 mm (24 inch) gratings with groove densities between 50 lines mm -1 and 1200 lines mm -1 . A new ion etching machine with a scanning radiofrequency excited ion beam (HF) source allows gratings to be etched into substrates of up to 500 mm length. For a final at-wavelength characterization, a new reflectometer at a new Optics beamline at the BESSY-II storage ring is under operation. This paper reports on the status of the grating fabrication, the measured quality of fabricated items by ex situ and in situ metrology, and future development goals.

  10. Cloning, overexpression and interaction of recombinant Fur from the cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7119 with isiB and its own promoter.

    PubMed

    Bes, M T; Hernández, J A; Peleato, M L; Fillat, M F

    2001-01-15

    A gene coding for a Fur (ferric uptake regulation) protein from the cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7119 has been cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. DNA sequence analysis confirmed the presence of a 151-amino-acid open reading frame that showed homology with the Fur proteins reported for the unicellular cyanobacteria Synechococcus 7942 and Synechocystis PCC 6803. Two putative Fur-binding sites were detected in the promoter regions of the fur gene from Anabaena. Partially purified recombinant Fur binds to the flavodoxin promoter as well as its own promoter. This suggests that the Fur gene is autoregulated in Anabaena.

  11. Sequential induction of Fur-regulated genes in response to iron limitation in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Pi, Hualiang; Helmann, John D

    2017-11-28

    Bacterial cells modulate transcription in response to changes in iron availability. The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) senses intracellular iron availability and plays a central role in maintaining iron homeostasis in Bacillus subtilis Here we utilized FrvA, a high-affinity Fe 2+ efflux transporter from Listeria monocytogenes , as an inducible genetic tool to deplete intracellular iron. We then characterized the responses of the Fur, FsrA, and PerR regulons as cells transition from iron sufficiency to deficiency. Our results indicate that the Fur regulon is derepressed in three distinct waves. First, uptake systems for elemental iron ( efeUOB ), ferric citrate ( fecCDEF ), and petrobactin ( fpbNOPQ ) are induced to prevent iron deficiency. Second, B. subtilis synthesizes its own siderophore bacillibactin ( dhbACEBF ) and turns on bacillibactin ( feuABC ) and hydroxamate siderophore ( fhuBCGD ) uptake systems to scavenge iron from the environment and flavodoxins ( ykuNOP ) to replace ferredoxins. Third, as iron levels decline further, an "iron-sparing" response ( fsrA , fbpAB , and fbpC ) is induced to block the translation of abundant iron-utilizing proteins and thereby permit the most essential iron-dependent enzymes access to the limited iron pools. ChIP experiments demonstrate that in vivo occupancy of Fur correlates with derepression of each operon, and the graded response observed here results, at least in part, from higher-affinity binding of Fur to the "late"-induced genes.

  12. Iron regulates expression of Bacillus cereus hemolysin II via global regulator Fur.

    PubMed

    Sineva, Elena; Shadrin, Andrey; Rodikova, Ekaterina A; Andreeva-Kovalevskaya, Zhanna I; Protsenko, Alexey S; Mayorov, Sergey G; Galaktionova, Darya Yu; Magelky, Erica; Solonin, Alexander S

    2012-07-01

    The capacity of pathogens to respond to environmental signals, such as iron concentration, is key to bacterial survival and establishment of a successful infection. Bacillus cereus is a widely distributed bacterium with distinct pathogenic properties. Hemolysin II (HlyII) is one of its pore-forming cytotoxins and has been shown to be involved in bacterial pathogenicity in a number of cell and animal models. Unlike many other B. cereus pathogenicity factors, HlyII is not regulated by pleiotropic transcriptional regulator PlcR but is controlled by its own regulator, HlyIIR. Using a combination of in vivo and in vitro techniques, we show that hlyII expression is also negatively regulated by iron by the global regulator Fur via direct interaction with the hlyII promoter. DNase I footprinting and in vitro transcription experiments indicate that Fur prevents RNA polymerase binding to the hlyII promoter. HlyII expression profiles demonstrate that both HlyIIR and Fur regulate HlyII expression in a concerted fashion, with the effect of Fur being maximal in the early stages of bacterial growth. In sum, these results show that Fur serves as a transcriptional repressor for hlyII expression.

  13. The behavioural response of Australian fur seals to motor boat noise.

    PubMed

    Tripovich, Joy S; Hall-Aspland, Sophie; Charrier, Isabelle; Arnould, John P Y

    2012-01-01

    Australian fur seals breed on thirteen islands located in the Bass Strait, Australia. Land access to these islands is restricted, minimising human presence but boat access is still permissible with limitations on approach distances. Thirty-two controlled noise exposure experiments were conducted on breeding Australian fur seals to determine their behavioural response to controlled in-air motor boat noise on Kanowna Island (39°10'S, 146°18'E). Our results show there were significant differences in the seals' behaviour at low (64-70 dB) versus high (75-85 dB) sound levels, with seals orientating themselves towards or physically moving away from the louder boat noise at three different sound levels. Furthermore, seals responded more aggressively with one another and were more alert when they heard louder boat noise. Australian fur seals demonstrated plasticity in their vocal responses to boat noise with calls being significantly different between the various sound intensities and barks tending to get faster as the boat noise got louder. These results suggest that Australian fur seals on Kanowna Island show behavioural disturbance to high level boat noise. Consequently, it is recommended that an appropriate level of received boat sound emissions at breeding fur seal colonies be below 74 dB and that these findings be taken into account when evaluating appropriate approach distances and speed limits for boats.

  14. The Behavioural Response of Australian Fur Seals to Motor Boat Noise

    PubMed Central

    Tripovich, Joy S.; Hall-Aspland, Sophie; Charrier, Isabelle; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Australian fur seals breed on thirteen islands located in the Bass Strait, Australia. Land access to these islands is restricted, minimising human presence but boat access is still permissible with limitations on approach distances. Thirty-two controlled noise exposure experiments were conducted on breeding Australian fur seals to determine their behavioural response to controlled in-air motor boat noise on Kanowna Island (39°10′S, 146°18′E). Our results show there were significant differences in the seals' behaviour at low (64–70 dB) versus high (75–85 dB) sound levels, with seals orientating themselves towards or physically moving away from the louder boat noise at three different sound levels. Furthermore, seals responded more aggressively with one another and were more alert when they heard louder boat noise. Australian fur seals demonstrated plasticity in their vocal responses to boat noise with calls being significantly different between the various sound intensities and barks tending to get faster as the boat noise got louder. These results suggest that Australian fur seals on Kanowna Island show behavioural disturbance to high level boat noise. Consequently, it is recommended that an appropriate level of received boat sound emissions at breeding fur seal colonies be below 74 dB and that these findings be taken into account when evaluating appropriate approach distances and speed limits for boats. PMID:22623998

  15. Mercury in fur of Daubenton's bat (Myotis daubentonii) in Southern Sweden and Comparison to Ecotoxicological Thresholds.

    PubMed

    Åkerblom, Staffan; de Jong, Johnny

    2017-11-01

    To characterise mercury (Hg) exposure in Daubenton's bat (Myotis daubentonii, Kuhl 1817) in southern Sweden, 17 specimens were captured in 2013 and back fur samples were taken for analysis to determine Hg concentrations. The fur Hg levels determined [1.15 ± 0.27 (mean ± standard deviation, n = 17) µg Hg g -1 fresh weight (fw)] represent a baseline for comparison in future assessments of Hg exposure in bat populations in northern Europe. Mercury concentrations were close to those reported in fur from other bat species, but were lower than proposed toxicological thresholds in bats (> 30 µg Hg g -1  fw) and mice (5 µg Hg g -1  fw). This is the first study to examine Hg exposure in bats in Scandinavia.

  16. A colostrum trypsin inhibitor gene expressed in the Cape fur seal mammary gland during lactation.

    PubMed

    Pharo, Elizabeth A; Cane, Kylie N; McCoey, Julia; Buckle, Ashley M; Oosthuizen, W H; Guinet, Christophe; Arnould, John P Y

    2016-03-01

    The colostrum trypsin inhibitor (CTI) gene and transcript were cloned from the Cape fur seal mammary gland and CTI identified by in silico analysis of the Pacific walrus and polar bear genomes (Order Carnivora), and in marine and terrestrial mammals of the Orders Cetartiodactyla (yak, whales, camel) and Perissodactyla (white rhinoceros). Unexpectedly, Weddell seal CTI was predicted to be a pseudogene. Cape fur seal CTI was expressed in the mammary gland of a pregnant multiparous seal, but not in a seal in its first pregnancy. While bovine CTI is expressed for 24-48 h postpartum (pp) and secreted in colostrum only, Cape fur seal CTI was detected for at least 2-3 months pp while the mother was suckling its young on-shore. Furthermore, CTI was expressed in the mammary gland of only one of the lactating seals that was foraging at-sea. The expression of β-casein (CSN2) and β-lactoglobulin II (LGB2), but not CTI in the second lactating seal foraging at-sea suggested that CTI may be intermittently expressed during lactation. Cape fur seal and walrus CTI encode putative small, secreted, N-glycosylated proteins with a single Kunitz/bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) domain indicative of serine protease inhibition. Mature Cape fur seal CTI shares 92% sequence identity with Pacific walrus CTI, but only 35% identity with BPTI. Structural homology modelling of Cape fur seal CTI and Pacific walrus trypsin based on the model of the second Kunitz domain of human tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and porcine trypsin (Protein Data Bank: 1TFX) confirmed that CTI inhibits trypsin in a canonical fashion. Therefore, pinniped CTI may be critical for preventing the proteolytic degradation of immunoglobulins that are passively transferred from mother to young via colostrum and milk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 25 CFR 309.18 - What are examples of hide, leatherwork, and fur that are Indian products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are examples of hide, leatherwork, and fur that are Indian products? 309.18 Section 309.18 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.18 What are examples of hide, leatherwork, and fur that...

  18. 25 CFR 309.18 - What are examples of hide, leatherwork, and fur that are Indian products?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are examples of hide, leatherwork, and fur that are Indian products? 309.18 Section 309.18 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.18 What are examples of hide, leatherwork, and fur that...

  19. Control of Fur synthesis by the non-coding RNA RyhB and iron-responsive decoding.

    PubMed

    Vecerek, Branislav; Moll, Isabella; Bläsi, Udo

    2007-02-21

    The Fe2+-dependent Fur protein serves as a negative regulator of iron uptake in bacteria. As only metallo-Fur acts as an autogeneous repressor, Fe2+scarcity would direct fur expression when continued supply is not obviously required. We show that in Escherichia coli post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms ensure that Fur synthesis remains steady in iron limitation. Our studies revealed that fur translation is coupled to that of an upstream open reading frame (uof), translation of which is downregulated by the non-coding RNA (ncRNA) RyhB. As RyhB transcription is negatively controlled by metallo-Fur, iron depletion creates a negative feedback loop. RyhB-mediated regulation of uof-fur provides the first example for indirect translational regulation by a trans-encoded ncRNA. In addition, we present evidence for an iron-responsive decoding mechanism of the uof-fur entity. It could serve as a backup mechanism of the RyhB circuitry, and represents the first link between iron availability and synthesis of an iron-containing protein.

  20. Effect of 60Co-gamma radiation on the properties of furs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raina, R. K.; Wali, B. K.; Wani, A. M.

    Furs pretanned with various combinations of vegetable tanning agents and retanned with alum have been irradiated with 60Co γ-radiation in the dose range 5.0-114.0 kGy. The physico-chemical modifications induced by the radiation have been assessed by measuring changes in tensile strength, absorption of water, elongation and shrinkage temperature. For investigations, samples have been taken from the same topographic region of the rabbit furs, belonging to the same age and sex. The results are discussed hereunder.

  1. THE SHIFTING BASELINE OF NORTHERN FUR SEAL ECOLOGY IN THE NORTHEAST PACIFIC OCEAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Historical data provide a baseline against which to judge the significance of recent ecological shifts and guide conservation strategies, especially for species decimated by pre-20th century harvesting. Northern fur seals (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) are a common pinniped species i...

  2. Rv2358 and FurB: Two Transcriptional Regulators from Mycobacterium tuberculosis Which Respond to Zinc

    PubMed Central

    Canneva, Fabio; Branzoni, Manuela; Riccardi, Giovanna; Provvedi, Roberta; Milano, Anna

    2005-01-01

    In a previous work, we demonstrated that the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv2358-furB operon is induced by zinc. In this study, the orthologous genes from Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155 were inactivated and mutants analyzed. Rv2358 protein was purified and found to bind upstream of the Rv2358 gene. Binding was inhibited by Zn2+ ions. PMID:16077132

  3. 75 FR 21233 - Incidental Takes of Marine Mammals During Specified Activities; Replacement and Repair of Fur...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... intermittent and early season presence through early June. The purpose of the replacement and repair operations... take of northern fur seals hauling out on St. Paul Island during their intermittent and early season... includes both territorial males and non-territorial males. In addition, NMFS estimates intermittent arrival...

  4. "Rejoicing in the Beauties of Nature": The Image of the Western Landscape during the Fur Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oman, Kerry R.

    2009-01-01

    While traveling along the Platte River on May 18, 1834, William Marshall Anderson stopped to pick up a human skull bleaching in the prairie sunlight. Anderson was from Louisville, Kentucky, and had been sent west by his physician to accompany a fur-trade caravan to the Rocky Mountains in hopes of regaining lost physical strength. He came west not…

  5. The value of wooded draws on the northern high plains for hunting, furs, and woodcutting

    Treesearch

    Ardell J. Bjugstad; Cindy F. Sorg

    1985-01-01

    Data from wildlife habitat use, wood production, and values of hunting, trapping, and firewood reflect the contribution to values of wooded draws on the northern High Plains. Values included expenditures and net willingness to pay. Approximate values per annum derived were: deer hunting $26 million; turkey hunting $1 million; fur trapping $4 million; and firewood $7...

  6. Bacillus subtilis Fur represses one of two paralogous haem-degrading monooxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Gaballa, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Identification of genes regulated by the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein has provided insights into the diverse mechanisms of adaptation to iron limitation. In the soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis, Fur senses iron sufficiency and represses genes that enable iron uptake, including biosynthetic and transport genes for the siderophore bacillibactin and uptake systems for siderophores produced by other organisms. We here demonstrate that Fur regulates hmoA (formerly yetG), which encodes a haem monooxygenase. HmoA is the first characterized member of a divergent group of putative monooxygenases that cluster separately from the well-characterized IsdG family. B. subtilis also encodes an IsdG family protein designated HmoB (formerly YhgC). Unlike hmoA, hmoB is constitutively expressed and not under Fur control. HmoA and HmoB both bind haemin in vitro with approximately 1 : 1 stoichiometry and degrade haemin in the presence of an electron donor. Mutational and spectroscopic analyses indicate that HmoA and HmoB have distinct active site architectures and interact differently with haem. We further show that B. subtilis can use haem as an iron source, but that this ability is independent of HmoA and HmoB. PMID:21873409

  7. Combined evaluation of commonly used techniques, including PCR, for diagnosis of mouse fur mites.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Eleanor M; Pearson, Laura M; Kuzma, Kristen M; Burkholder, Tanya H

    2014-01-01

    Our study evaluated and compared the false-negative rates (FNR) of a wide array of fur-mite diagnostic tests, including 2 postmortem tests (pelt exam and sticky paper) and 3 antemortem tests (adhesive tape, fur pluck, and PCR). Past publications examining fur-mite diagnostic techniques primarily used paired comparisons, evaluating tests by their level of agreement with only one other test. However, different combinations or pairs of diagnostics are used in the different studies, making the results of these comparisons difficult to interpret across all available diagnostics. In the current study, mice from a conventionally maintained colony endemic for Myobia musculi were identified as positive based on at least one positive diagnostic test. From this pool of positive animals, the FNR of all tests were quantified. The PCR assay and the pelt exam performed the best, with 0% and 2% FNR respectively, whereas tape, fur-pluck, and sticky-paper tests showed 24%, 26%, and 36% FNR, respectively. Our study shows that for mice in a colony naturally infested with Myobia musculi, PCR testing can be used for reliable antemortem detection, and pelt exam performed by experienced examiners is reliable for postmortem detection.

  8. Fukushima derived radiocesium in subsistence-consumed northern fur seal and wild celery.

    PubMed

    Ruedig, Elizabeth; Duncan, Colleen; Dickerson, Bobette; Williams, Michael; Gelatt, Thomas; Bell, Justin; Johnson, Thomas E

    2016-02-01

    In July 2014, our investigative team traveled to St. Paul Island, Alaska to measure concentrations of radiocesium in wild-caught food products, primarily northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus). The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident released radiocesium into the atmosphere and into the western Pacific Ocean; other investigators have detected Fukushima-derived radionuclides in a variety of marine products harvested off the western coast of North America. We tested two subsistence-consumed food products from St. Paul Island, Alaska for Fukushima-derived radionuclides: 54 northern fur seal, and nine putchki (wild celery, Angelica lucida) plants. Individual northern fur seal samples were below minimum detectable activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (134)Cs, but when composited, northern fur seal tissues tested positive for trace quantities of both isotopes. Radiocesium was detected at an activity concentration of 37.2 mBq (134)Cs kg(-1) f.w. (95% CI: 35.9-38.5) and 141.2 mBq (137)Cs kg(-1) f.w. (95% CI: 135.5-146.8). The measured isotopic ratio, decay-corrected to the date of harvest, was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.25-0.28). The Fukushima nuclear accident released (134)Cs and (137)Cs in roughly equal quantities, but by the date of harvest in July 2014, this ratio was 0.2774, indicating that this population of seals has been exposed to small quantities of Fukushima-derived radiocesium. Activity concentrations of both (134)Cs and (137)Cs in putchki were below detection limits, even for composited samples. Northern fur seal is known to migrate between coastal Alaska and Japan and the trace (134)Cs in northern fur seal tissue suggests that the population under study had been minimally exposed Fukushima-derived radionuclides. Despite this inference, the radionuclide quantities detected are small and no impact is expected as a result of the measured radiation exposure, either in northern fur seal or human populations consuming this species. Published by Elsevier

  9. Fukushima derived radiocesium in subsistence-consumed northern fur seal and wild celery

    DOE PAGES

    Ruedig, Elizabeth; Duncan, Colleen; Dickerson, Bobette; ...

    2015-11-28

    In July 2014, our investigative team traveled to St. Paul Island, Alaska to measure concentrations of radiocesium in wild-caught food products, primarily northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus). The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident released radiocesium into the atmosphere and into the western Pacific Ocean; other investigators have detected Fukushima-derived radionuclides in a variety of marine products harvested off the western coast of North America. We tested two subsistence-consumed food products from St. Paul Island, Alaska for Fukushima-derived radionuclides: 54 northern fur seal, and nine putchki (wild celery, Angelica lucida) plants. Individual northern fur seal samples were below minimummore » detectable activity concentrations of 137Cs and 134Cs, but when composited, northern fur seal tissues tested positive for trace quantities of both isotopes. Radiocesium was detected at an activity concentration of 37.2 mBq 134Cs kg -1 f.w. (95% CI: 35.9–38.5) and 141.2 mBq 137Cs kg -1f.w. (95% CI: 135.5–146.8). The measured isotopic ratio, decay-corrected to the date of harvest, was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.25–0.28). The Fukushima nuclear accident released 134Cs and 137Cs in roughly equal quantities, but by the date of harvest in July 2014, this ratio was 0.2774, indicating that this population of seals has been exposed to small quantities of Fukushima-derived radiocesium. Activity concentrations of both 134Cs and 137Cs in putchki were below detection limits, even for composited samples. Northern fur seal is known to migrate between coastal Alaska and Japan and the trace 134Cs in northern fur seal tissue suggests that the population under study had been minimally exposed Fukushima-derived radionuclides. Despite this inference, the radionuclide quantities detected are small and no impact is expected as a result of the measured radiation exposure, either in northern fur seal or human populations consuming this species.« less

  10. Fukushima derived radiocesium in subsistence-consumed northern fur seal and wild celery

    SciTech Connect

    Ruedig, Elizabeth; Duncan, Colleen; Dickerson, Bobette

    In July 2014, our investigative team traveled to St. Paul Island, Alaska to measure concentrations of radiocesium in wild-caught food products, primarily northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus). The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident released radiocesium into the atmosphere and into the western Pacific Ocean; other investigators have detected Fukushima-derived radionuclides in a variety of marine products harvested off the western coast of North America. We tested two subsistence-consumed food products from St. Paul Island, Alaska for Fukushima-derived radionuclides: 54 northern fur seal, and nine putchki (wild celery, Angelica lucida) plants. Individual northern fur seal samples were below minimummore » detectable activity concentrations of 137Cs and 134Cs, but when composited, northern fur seal tissues tested positive for trace quantities of both isotopes. Radiocesium was detected at an activity concentration of 37.2 mBq 134Cs kg -1 f.w. (95% CI: 35.9–38.5) and 141.2 mBq 137Cs kg -1f.w. (95% CI: 135.5–146.8). The measured isotopic ratio, decay-corrected to the date of harvest, was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.25–0.28). The Fukushima nuclear accident released 134Cs and 137Cs in roughly equal quantities, but by the date of harvest in July 2014, this ratio was 0.2774, indicating that this population of seals has been exposed to small quantities of Fukushima-derived radiocesium. Activity concentrations of both 134Cs and 137Cs in putchki were below detection limits, even for composited samples. Northern fur seal is known to migrate between coastal Alaska and Japan and the trace 134Cs in northern fur seal tissue suggests that the population under study had been minimally exposed Fukushima-derived radionuclides. Despite this inference, the radionuclide quantities detected are small and no impact is expected as a result of the measured radiation exposure, either in northern fur seal or human populations consuming this species.« less

  11. Questionnaire survey of detrimental fur animal epidemic necrotic pyoderma in Finland.

    PubMed

    Nordgren, Heli; Vapalahti, Katariina; Vapalahti, Olli; Sukura, Antti; Virtala, Anna-Maija

    2017-08-03

    In 2007, a previously unrecorded disease, fur animal epidemic necrotic pyoderma (FENP), was detected in farmed mink (Neovision vision), foxes (Vulpes lagopus) and Finnraccoons (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Finland. Symptoms included severe pyoderma with increased mortality, causing both animal welfare problems and economic losses. In 2011, an epidemiologic questionnaire was mailed to all members of the Finnish Fur Breeders' Association to assess the occurrence of FENP from 2009 through the first 6 months of 2011. The aim was to describe the geographical distribution and detailed clinical signs of FENP, as well as sources of infection and potential risk factors for the disease. A total of 239 farmers (25%) returned the questionnaire. Clinical signs of FENP were observed in 40% (95% CI 34-46%) of the study farms. In addition, the survey clarified the specific clinical signs for different animal species. The presence of disease was associated with the importation of mink, especially from Denmark (OR 9.3, 95% CI 2.6-33.0). The transmission route between Finnish farms was associated with fur animal purchases. Some risk factors such as the farm type were also indicated. As such, FENP was detected more commonly on farms with more than one species of fur animal in comparison to farms with, for example, only foxes (OR 4.6, 95% CI 2.4-8.6), and the incidence was higher on farms with over 750 breeder mink compared to smaller farms (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.6-9.0). Contact between fur animals and birds and other wildlife increased the risk of FENP on farms. Responses also indicated that blocking the entry of wildlife to the animal premises protected against FENP. FENP was most likely introduced to Finland by imported mink and spread further within the country via domestically purchased fur animals. Some potential risk factors, such as the type and size of the farm and contact with wildlife, contributed to the spread of FENP. Escape-proof shelter buildings block the entry of wildlife

  12. Characterization of the faecal bacterial community of wild young South American (Arctocephalus australis) and Subantarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus tropicalis).

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Aline Weber; Giongo, Adriana; Valdez, Fernanda P; Blaese de Amorin, Derek; Tavares, Maurício; d'Azevedo, Pedro A; Franco, Ana Claudia; Frazzon, Jeverson; Frazzon, Ana P G

    2016-03-01

    The microbiota of wild marine mammals is poorly understood, perhaps due to the migratory habits of some species and the difficulty in obtaining samples. Using high-throughput sequencing, the present study examines the faecal bacterial community of wild young South American (Arctocephalus australis) and Subantarctic fur seals (A. tropicalis). Faecal samples from South American (n = 6) and Subantarctic fur seals (n = 4) found dead along the south coast of Brazil were collected. Sequences were assigned to taxa using the Ribosomal Database Project-Bayesian classifier. Diversity of the microbiota was assessed by categorization of sequence reads into operational taxonomic units. Results indicate that Firmicutes (88.556%-84.016%) was the predominant phylum in South American and Subantarctic fur seals. The distribution of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria varied according to the fur seal species. Fusobacteria and Bacteroidetes represented less than 1% of the sequences. The most abundant order in both fur seals was Clostridiales (88.64% and 87.49%). Individual variable incidences were observed in the composition of family among the fur seals, though the families Lachnospiraceae, Peptostreptococcaceae, Ruminococcaceae and Coriobacteriaceae were more prevalent. This study provides insight into the faecal bacterial community of wild young South American and Subantarctic fur seals. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Epizoochorous dispersal by ungulates depends on fur, grooming and social interactions.

    PubMed

    Liehrmann, Océane; Jégoux, Flore; Guilbert, Marie-Alice; Isselin-Nondedeu, Francis; Saïd, Sonia; Locatelli, Yann; Baltzinger, Christophe

    2018-02-01

    The transport phase of the animal-mediated plant dispersal process is critical to dispersal effectiveness as it determines the spatial distribution of the diaspores released and their chance for further recruitment. Assessing this specific phase of the dispersal process generally requires combining diaspore retention times with the associated distances covered. Here, we specifically tested the effect of grooming behavior, interindividual contacts and ungulate fur on diaspore retention times and associated dispersal distances for the hooked diaspores of Xanthium strumarium L. experimentally attached to tamed individuals of three ungulate species. We used a comparative approach based on differing fur quality on different body zones of these three ungulates. During 6-hr sessions, we monitored for grooming and social interactions that may induce intended or inadvertent diaspore detachment. Additionally, we proposed innovative approaches to directly assessing diaspore dispersal distances by red deer in situ. Fat-tailed functions fitted diaspore retention time, highlighting the potential for long-distance dispersal events. The longer the hair, the higher the retention capacity of diaspores in the animal's fur. As predicted, donkey retained diaspores longer than red deer and dwarf goat; and we also confirmed that diaspores attached to the short hair of the head fell off more quickly than did those on the other body zones. Dwarf goat groomed more often than both red deer and donkey, but also when it carried diaspores. Up to 14% of the diaspores detached from animal fur after specific grooming behavior. We observed, in controlled conditions, for the first time and for each ungulate species, interindividual transfers of diaspores, representing 5% of the diaspores attached to animals' fur. Our results militate for incorporating animal behavior into plant dispersal modeling approaches.

  14. Relationship of the superoxide dismutase genes, sodA and sodB, to the iron uptake (/ital fur/) regulon in /ital Escherichia coli/ K-12

    SciTech Connect

    Niederhoffer, E.C.; Naranjo, C.M.; Fee, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    Expression of sodA, as indicated by MnSod activity is normal in /ital fur/ mutants. This suggests that sodA is not a member of the /ital fur/ regulon and that the putative Fe-binding, regulatory protein of sodA, suggested by Moody and Hassan is not the Fur protein. by contrast, expression of sodB, as indicated by FeSod activity, is completely blocked in /ital fur/ mutants and the effect is restored by transformation with a plasmid having a normal /ital fur/ locus. The observations suggest that Fur, either directly or indirectly, controls SodB biosynthesis. Additional observations are described which indicate that SodB andmore » Fur act together in a complicated fashion to control the biosynthesis of enterobactin. 26 refs., 3 tabs.« less

  15. Inactivation of ferric uptake regulator (Fur) attenuates Helicobacter pylori J99 motility by disturbing the flagellar motor switch and autoinducer-2 production.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ai-Yun; Kao, Cheng-Yen; Wang, Yao-Kuan; Lin, Ssu-Yuan; Lai, Tze-Ying; Sheu, Bor-Shyang; Lo, Chien-Jung; Wu, Jiunn-Jong

    2017-08-01

    Flagellar motility of Helicobacter pylori has been shown to be important for the bacteria to establish initial colonization. The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) is a global regulator that has been identified in H. pylori which is involved in the processes of iron uptake and establishing colonization. However, the role of Fur in H. pylori motility is still unclear. Motility of the wild-type, fur mutant, and fur revertant J99 were determined by a soft-agar motility assay and direct video observation. The bacterial shape and flagellar structure were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. Single bacterial motility and flagellar switching were observed by phase-contrast microscopy. Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) production in bacterial culture supernatant was analyzed by a bioluminescence assay. The fur mutant showed impaired motility in the soft-agar assay compared with the wild-type J99 and fur revertant. The numbers and lengths of flagellar filaments on the fur mutant cells were similar to those of the wild-type and revertant cells. Phenotypic characterization showed similar swimming speed but reduction in switching rate in the fur mutant. The AI-2 production of the fur mutant was dramatically reduced compared with wild-type J99 in log-phase culture medium. These results indicate that Fur positively modulates H. pylori J99 motility through interfering with bacterial flagellar switching. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Coping with heat: function of the natal coat of cape fur seal (Arctocephalus Pusillus Pusillus) pups in maintaining core body temperature.

    PubMed

    Erdsack, Nicola; Dehnhardt, Guido; Hanke, Wolf

    2013-01-01

    Cape fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus) pups spend the first weeks of life exclusively or mainly ashore. They are exposed to intense solar radiation and high temperatures for long time periods, which results in temperatures up to at least 80°C on their black natal coat. To test the hypothesis that the natal coat has a crucial function in coping with these extreme conditions, we investigated the insulating properties of the natal coat in six captive newborn Cape fur seals during the first 50 days after birth. The natal fur differs from the adult fur not only in colour, but also in density, structure, and water repellence. We measured temperature on the fur surface and within the fur, as well as skin and rectal temperature under varying environmental conditions, comparable to the species' habitat. Experiments were designed to not influence the spontaneous behaviour of the pups. Rectal temperature was constant as long as the pups stayed dry, even during long-lasting intense solar radiation for up to 3 h. Skin temperature remained close to rectal temperature as long as the fur was dry, while with wet fur, skin temperature was significantly reduced as well. Our results show that the natal coat provides an effective insulation against overheating. The severely reduced insulation of wet natal fur against cold supports the assumption that the natal fur is an adaptation to the pups' terrestrial phase of life.

  17. Coping with Heat: Function of The Natal Coat of Cape Fur Seal (Arctocephalus Pusillus Pusillus) Pups in Maintaining Core Body Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Erdsack, Nicola; Dehnhardt, Guido; Hanke, Wolf

    2013-01-01

    Cape fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus) pups spend the first weeks of life exclusively or mainly ashore. They are exposed to intense solar radiation and high temperatures for long time periods, which results in temperatures up to at least 80°C on their black natal coat. To test the hypothesis that the natal coat has a crucial function in coping with these extreme conditions, we investigated the insulating properties of the natal coat in six captive newborn Cape fur seals during the first 50 days after birth. The natal fur differs from the adult fur not only in colour, but also in density, structure, and water repellence. We measured temperature on the fur surface and within the fur, as well as skin and rectal temperature under varying environmental conditions, comparable to the species' habitat. Experiments were designed to not influence the spontaneous behaviour of the pups. Rectal temperature was constant as long as the pups stayed dry, even during long-lasting intense solar radiation for up to 3 h. Skin temperature remained close to rectal temperature as long as the fur was dry, while with wet fur, skin temperature was significantly reduced as well. Our results show that the natal coat provides an effective insulation against overheating. The severely reduced insulation of wet natal fur against cold supports the assumption that the natal fur is an adaptation to the pups' terrestrial phase of life. PMID:23951287

  18. Regional differences in plastic ingestion among Southern Ocean fur seals and albatrosses.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Peter G; de Bruyn, P J Nico; Bester, Marthán N

    2016-03-15

    We provide data on regional differences in plastic ingestion for two Southern Ocean top predators: Arctocephalus fur seals and albatrosses (Diomedeidae). Fur seals breeding on Macquarie Island in the 1990s excreted small (mainly 2-5 mm) plastic fragments, probably derived secondarily from myctophid fish. No plastic was found in the scats of these seals breeding on three islands in the southwest Indian and central South Atlantic Oceans, despite myctophids dominating their diets at these locations. Compared to recent reports of plastic ingestion by albatrosses off the east coast of South America, we confirm that plastic is seldom found in the stomachs of Thalassarche albatrosses off South Africa, but found no Diomedea albatrosses to contain plastic, compared to 26% off South America. The reasons for such regional differences are unclear, but emphasize the importance of reporting negative as well as positive records of plastic ingestion by marine biota. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Monoamine Release during Unihemispheric Sleep and Unihemispheric Waking in the Fur Seal

    PubMed Central

    Lyamin, Oleg I.; Lapierre, Jennifer L.; Kosenko, Peter O.; Kodama, Tohru; Bhagwandin, Adhil; Korneva, Svetlana M.; Peever, John H.; Mukhametov, Lev M.; Siegel, Jerome M.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Our understanding of the role of neurotransmitters in the control of the electroencephalogram (EEG) has been entirely based on studies of animals with bilateral sleep. The study of animals with unihemispheric sleep presents the opportunity of separating the neurochemical substrates of waking and sleep EEG from the systemic, bilateral correlates of sleep and waking states. Methods: The release of histamine (HI), norepinephrine (NE), and serotonin (5HT) in cortical and subcortical areas (hypothalamus, thalamus and caudate nucleus) was measured in unrestrained northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) using in vivo microdialysis, in combination with, polygraphic recording of EEG, electrooculogram, and neck electromyogram. Results: The pattern of cortical and subcortical HI, NE, and 5HT release in fur seals is similar during bilaterally symmetrical states: highest in active waking, reduced in quiet waking and bilateral slow wave sleep, and lowest in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Cortical and subcortical HI, NE, and 5HT release in seals is highly elevated during certain waking stimuli and behaviors, such as being sprayed with water and feeding. However, in contrast to acetylcholine (ACh), which we have previously studied, the release of HI, NE, and 5HT during unihemispheric sleep is not lateralized in the fur seal. Conclusions: Among the studied neurotransmitters most strongly implicated in waking control, only ACh release is asymmetric in unihemispheric sleep and waking, being greatly increased on the activated side of the brain. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 491. Citation: Lyamin OI, Lapierre JL, Kosenko PO, Kodama T, Bhagwandin A, Korneva SM, Peever JH, Mukhametov LM, Siegel JM. Monoamine release during unihemispheric sleep and unihemispheric waking in the fur seal. SLEEP 2016;39(3):625–636. PMID:26715233

  20. The foods of fur animals of the Patuxent Research Refuge, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Llewellyn, L.M.; Uhler, F.M.

    1952-01-01

    Approximately 300 digestive tracts of fur animals obtained mostly during the winter trapping season and 560 scats from animals live-trapped on the Patuxent Research Refuge near Laure!, Maryland, were analyzed. The resulting data are summarized and a brief description of the area and important habitat types is given. The animals studied include the raccoon, red fox, gray fox, mink, New York weasel, skunk, opossum, and house cat.

  1. Role of the Fur Regulon in Iron Transport in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Ollinger, Juliane; Song, Kyung-Bok; Antelmann, Haike; Hecker, Michael; Helmann, John D.

    2006-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein mediates the iron-dependent repression of at least 20 operons encoding ∼40 genes. We investigated the physiological roles of Fur-regulated genes by the construction of null mutations in 14 transcription units known or predicted to function in siderophore biosynthesis or iron uptake. We demonstrate that ywbLMN, encoding an elemental iron uptake system orthologous to the copper oxidase-dependent Fe(III) uptake system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is essential for growth in low iron minimal medium lacking citric acid. 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoyl-glycine (Itoic acid), the siderophore precursor produced by laboratory strains of B. subtilis, is of secondary importance. In the presence of citrate, the YfmCDEF ABC transporter is required for optimal growth. B. subtilis is unable to grow in minimal medium containing the iron chelator EDDHA unless the ability to synthesize the intact bacillibactin siderophore is restored (by the introduction of a functional sfp gene) or exogenous siderophores are provided. Utilization of the catecholate siderophores bacillibactin and enterobactin requires the FeuABC importer and the YusV ATPase. Utilization of hydroxamate siderophores requires the FhuBGC ABC transporter together with the FhuD (ferrichrome) or YxeB (ferrioxamine) substrate-binding proteins. Growth with schizokinen or arthrobactin is at least partially dependent on the YfhA YfiYZ importer and the YusV ATPase. We have also investigated the effects of a fur mutation on the proteome and documented the derepression of 11 Fur-regulated proteins, including a newly identified thioredoxin reductase homolog, YcgT. PMID:16672620

  2. Role of the Fur regulon in iron transport in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Ollinger, Juliane; Song, Kyung-Bok; Antelmann, Haike; Hecker, Michael; Helmann, John D

    2006-05-01

    The Bacillus subtilis ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein mediates the iron-dependent repression of at least 20 operons encoding approximately 40 genes. We investigated the physiological roles of Fur-regulated genes by the construction of null mutations in 14 transcription units known or predicted to function in siderophore biosynthesis or iron uptake. We demonstrate that ywbLMN, encoding an elemental iron uptake system orthologous to the copper oxidase-dependent Fe(III) uptake system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is essential for growth in low iron minimal medium lacking citric acid. 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoyl-glycine (Itoic acid), the siderophore precursor produced by laboratory strains of B. subtilis, is of secondary importance. In the presence of citrate, the YfmCDEF ABC transporter is required for optimal growth. B. subtilis is unable to grow in minimal medium containing the iron chelator EDDHA unless the ability to synthesize the intact bacillibactin siderophore is restored (by the introduction of a functional sfp gene) or exogenous siderophores are provided. Utilization of the catecholate siderophores bacillibactin and enterobactin requires the FeuABC importer and the YusV ATPase. Utilization of hydroxamate siderophores requires the FhuBGC ABC transporter together with the FhuD (ferrichrome) or YxeB (ferrioxamine) substrate-binding proteins. Growth with schizokinen or arthrobactin is at least partially dependent on the YfhA YfiYZ importer and the YusV ATPase. We have also investigated the effects of a fur mutation on the proteome and documented the derepression of 11 Fur-regulated proteins, including a newly identified thioredoxin reductase homolog, YcgT.

  3. The Helicobacter pylori Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur) is Essential for Growth Under Sodium Chloride Stress

    PubMed Central

    Gancz, Hanan; Merrell, D. Scott

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological data and animal models indicate that Helicobacter pylori and dietary NaCl have a synergistic ill effect on gastric maladies. Here we show that the Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur), which is a crucial regulatory factor required for H. pylori colonization, is essential for growth in the presence of high NaCl concentrations. Moreover, we demonstrate that the transcriptional response induced by sodium chloride stress exhibits similarities to that seen under iron depletion. PMID:21538253

  4. Structure Function Analysis of the Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur) of Helicobacter pylori

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-17

    Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Vibrio vulnificus and hemochromatosis (125). In addition, iron overload in haemodialysis patients is...transcriptional regulation of an iron-regulated virulence gene in Vibrio cholerae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 88:1125-9. 89. Goodwin, C. S., J. A...via direct interaction of Fur in a pathogenic bacterium, Vibrio vulnificus. J Bacteriol 189:2629-36. 76 130. Lee, H. J., K. J. Park, A. Y

  5. Revisiting Caroline Furness's An Introduction to the Study of Variable Stars on its Centenary (Poster abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, K.

    2016-06-01

    (Abstract only) A century and one month ago (October 1915) Dr. Caroline Ellen Furness (1869-1936), Director of the Vassar College Observatory, published An Introduction to the Study of Variable Stars. Issued in honor of the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of Vassar College, the work was meant to fill a void in the literature, namely as both an introduction to the topic of variable stars and as a manual explaining how they should be observed and the resulting data analyzed. It was judged to be one of the hundred best books written by an American woman in the last hundred years at the 1933 World's Fair in Chicago. The book covers the relevant history of and background on types of variable stars, star charts, catalogs, and the magnitude scale, then describes observing techniques, including visual, photographic, and photoelectric photometry. The work finishes with a discussion of light curves and patterns of variability, with a special emphasis on eclipsing binaries and long period variables. Furness's work is a valuable snapshot of the state of astronomical knowledge, technology, and observing techniques from a century ago. This presentation will analyze both Furness's book and its reception in the scientific community, and draw parallels to current advice given to beginning variable star observers.

  6. Effects of Dietary Copper and Zinc Supplementation on Growth Performance, Tissue Mineral Retention, Antioxidant Status, and Fur Quality in Growing-Furring Blue Foxes (Alopex lagopus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi; Wu, Xuezhuang; Zhang, Tietao; Guo, Jungang; Gao, Xiuhua; Yang, Fuhe; Xing, Xiumei

    2015-12-01

    A 4×2 factorial experiment with four supplemental levels of copper (0, 20, 40, or 60 mg copper per kg dry matter) from copper sulfate and two supplemental levels of zinc (40 or 200 mg zinc per kg dry matter) from zinc sulfate was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary copper and zinc supplementation on growth performance, tissue mineral retention, antioxidant status, and fur quality in growing-furring blue foxes. One hundred and twenty healthy 15-week-old male blue foxes were randomly allocated to eight dietary treatments with 15 replicates per treatment for a 70-day trial from mid-September to pelting in December. The average daily gain and feed conversion ratio were increased with copper supplementation in the first 35 days as well as the overall period (P<0.05). In addition, copper supplementation tended to increase feed intake during the first 35 days (P<0.10). Diets supplemented with 200 mg/kg zinc did not affect body gain (P>0.10) and feed intake (P>0.10) but improved feed conversion (P<0.05) compared with those supplemented 40 mg/kg zinc throughout the experiment. No copper×zinc interaction was observed for growth performance except that a tendency (P=0.09) was found for feed intake in the first 35 days. Supplementation of copper or zinc improved crude fat digestibility (P<0.01) but had no effects on the digestibility of other nutrients. Fecal copper was increased with both copper (P<0.01) and zinc addition (P<0.05). However, fecal zinc was affected only by dietary zinc addition (P<0.01). Mineral contents in serum and kidney were not affected by dietary treatments (P>0.05). However, the level of copper in the liver was increased with copper supplementation (P<0.05) and tended to decrease with zinc supplementation (P=0.08). Dietary zinc addition tended to increase the activity of alkaline phosphatase (P=0.07). The activities of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase and catalase tended to increase by copper (P=0.08) and zinc addition (P=0.05). Moreover

  7. [The parallelisms in of sound signal of domestic sheep and Northern fur seals].

    PubMed

    Nikol'skiĭ, A A; Lisitsina, T Iu

    2011-01-01

    The parallelisms in communicative behavior of domestic sheep and Northern fur seals within a herd are accompanied by parallelisms in parameters of sound signal, the calling scream. This signal ensures ties between babies and their mothers at a long distance. The basis of parallelisms is formed by amplitude modulation at two levels: the one being a direct amplitude modulation of the carrier frequency and the other--modulation of the carrier frequency oscillation. Parallelisms in the signal oscillatory process result in corresponding parallelisms in the structure of its frequency spectrum.

  8. Radiative contribution to thermal conductance in animal furs and other woolly insulators.

    PubMed

    Simonis, Priscilla; Rattal, Mourad; Oualim, El Mostafa; Mouhse, Azeddine; Vigneron, Jean-Pol

    2014-01-27

    This paper deals with radiation's contribution to thermal insulation. The mechanism by which a stack of absorbers limits radiative heat transfer is examined in detail both for black-body shields and grey-body shields. It shows that radiation energy transfer rates should be much faster than conduction rates. It demonstrates that, for opaque screens, increased reflectivity will dramatically reduce the rate of heat transfer, improving thermal insulation. This simple model is thought to contribute to the understanding of how animal furs, human clothes, rockwool insulators, thermo-protective containers, and many other passive energy-saving devices operate.

  9. The fat and the furriest: morphological changes in harp seal fur with ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Gmuca, Natalia V; Pearson, Linnea E; Burns, Jennifer M; Liwanag, Heather E M

    2015-01-01

    Ontogenetic changes in physiological performance often exemplify the development of adaptations to environmental challenges. For mammals in polar regions, the extreme cold of the environment presents a constant challenge to thermal homeostasis. The harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) is an Arctic species that shifts its thermoregulatory strategy with ontogeny. Adult harp seals primarily use blubber for insulation, but newborn harp seals instead rely on their fur coat while their blubber layer develops. Harp seal pups are weaned abruptly, less than 2 wk after birth, and must subsequently learn to swim and dive in frigid waters on their own. This study examined how the morphological characteristics of harp seal fur change with ontogeny. We compared hair length, hair circularity, and hair density for neonates (1 d old; n = 7), early-nursing pups (4 d old; n = 3), late-nursing pups (9 d old; n = 4), newly weaned (molting) pups (2 wk old; n = 5), late-weaned (molted) pups (3 wk old; n = 4), and adult harp seals (n = 4). Hairs were shorter (P < 0.001) and flatter (P < 0.001) in older animals. Additionally, hair density decreased with age (P < 0.001), in terms of both the average number of hair bundles per unit area and the average number of underhairs present in any given bundle. These morphological changes were associated with a reduced thermal resistance of the pelt in late-weaned (molted) pups and adults (P < 0.001). Results are consistent with known evolutionary patterns of fur morphology associated with the transition from fur to blubber in aquatic species, yet this is the first time such morphological differences have been demonstrated across age classes within a single species. Thus, the ontogenetic patterns described here for harp seals recapitulate the convergent phylogenetic patterns observed across secondarily aquatic species. Overall, the timing of these ontogenetic changes may limit the ability of harp seals to adapt to the deterioration of sea ice in the

  10. Building America Case Study: Duct in Conditioned Space in a Dropped Ceiling or Fur-down, Gainesville, Florida (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    Forced air distribution systems (duct systems) typically are installed out of sight for aesthetic reasons, most often in unconditioned areas such as an attic or crawlspace. Any leakage of air to or from the duct system (duct leakage) in unconditioned space not only loses energy, but impacts home and equipment durability and indoor air quality. An obvious solution to this problem is to bring the duct system into the interior of the house, either by sealing the area where the ducts are installed (sealed attic or crawlspace) or by building an interior cavity or chase above the ceiling plane (raisedmore » ceiling or fur-up chase) or below the ceiling plane (dropped ceiling or fur-down) for the duct system. This case study examines one Building America builder partner's implementation of an inexpensive, quick and effective method of building a fur-down or dropped ceiling chase.« less

  11. Technology Solutions Case Study: Duct in Conditioned Space in a Dropped Ceiling or Fur-down, Gainesville, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2014-09-01

    Forced-air distribution systems (duct systems) typically are installed out of sight for aesthetic reasons, most often in unconditioned areas such as attics or crawlspaces. Any leakage of air to or from the duct system in unconditioned space not only loses energy, but impacts home and equipment durability and indoor air quality. An obvious solution is to bring the duct system into the interior of the house, either by sealing the area where the ducts are installed (attic or crawlspace) or by building an interior cavity or chase above the ceiling plane (raised ceiling or fur-up chase) or below the ceilingmore » plane (dropped ceiling or fur-down) for the duct system. In this project, Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction team partnered with Tommy Williams Homes to implement an inexpensive, quick, and effective method of building a fur-down chase.« less

  12. A Bayesian hierarchical model of Antarctic fur seal foraging and pup growth related to sea ice and prey abundance.

    PubMed

    Hiruki-Raring, Lisa M; Ver Hoef, Jay M; Boveng, Peter L; Bengtson, John L

    2012-03-01

    We created a Bayesian hierarchical model (BHM) to investigate ecosystem relationships between the physical ecosystem (sea ice extent), a prey measure (krill density), predator behaviors (diving and foraging effort of female Antarctic fur seals, Arctocephalus gazella, with pups) and predator characteristics (mass of maternal fur seals and pups). We collected data on Antarctic fur seals from 1987/1988 to 1994/1995 at Seal Island, Antarctica. The BHM allowed us to link together predators and prey into a model that uses all the data efficiently and accounts for major sources of uncertainty. Based on the literature, we made hypotheses about the relationships in the model, which we compared with the model outcome after fitting the BHM. For each BHM parameter, we calculated the mean of the posterior density and the 95% credible interval. Our model confirmed others' findings that increased sea ice was related to increased krill density. Higher krill density led to reduced dive intensity of maternal fur seals, as measured by dive depth and duration, and to less time spent foraging by maternal fur seals. Heavier maternal fur seals and lower maternal foraging effort resulted in heavier pups at 22 d. No relationship was found between krill density and maternal mass, or between maternal mass and foraging effort on pup growth rates between 22 and 85 days of age. Maternal mass may have reflected environmental conditions prior to the pup provisioning season, rather than summer prey densities. Maternal mass and foraging effort were not related to pup growth rates between 22 and 85 d, possibly indicating that food was not limiting, food sources other than krill were being used, or differences occurred before pups reached age 22 d.

  13. Hindering the illegal trade in dog and cat furs through a DNA-based protocol for species identification.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, Luisa; Mariacher, Alessia; Fanelli, Rita; Fico, Rosario; Lorenzini, Rita

    2018-01-01

    In Western countries dogs and cats are the most popular pets, and people are increasingly opposed to their rearing for the fur industry. In 2007, a Regulation of the European Union (EU) banned the use and trade of dog and cat furs, but an official analytical protocol to identify them as source species was not provided, and violations of law are still frequent in all Member States. In this paper we report on the development and validation of a simple and affordable DNA method for species detection in furs to use as an effective tool to combat illegal trade in fur products. A set of mitochondrial primers was designed for amplification of partial cytochrome b, control region and ND1 gene in highly degraded samples, like furs and pelts. Our amplification workflow involved the use of a non-specific primer pair to perform a first test to identify the species through sequencing, then the application of species-specific primer pairs to use in singleplex end-point PCRs as confirmation tests. The advantage of this two-step procedure is twofold: on the one hand it minimises the possibility of negative test results from degraded samples, since failure of amplification with a first set of primers can be offset by successful amplification of the second, and on the other it adds confidence and reliability to final authentication of species. All designed primers were validated on a reference collection of tissue samples, obtaining solid results in terms of specificity, sensitivity, repeatability and reproducibility. Application of the protocol on real caseworks from seized furs yielded successful results also from old and dyed furs, suggesting that age and chemical staining do not necessarily affect positive amplifications. Major pros of this approach are: (1) sensitive and informative primer sets for detection of species; (2) short PCR amplicons for the analysis of poor quality DNA; (3) binding primers that avoid contamination from human DNA; (4) user-friendly protocol for any

  14. A redescription of Lithornis vulturinus (Aves, Palaeognathae) from the Early Eocene Fur Formation of Denmark.

    PubMed

    Bourdon, Estelle; Lindow, Bent

    2015-10-20

    The extinct Lithornithidae include several genera and species of flying palaeognathous birds of controversial affinities known from the Early Paleogene of North America and Europe. An almost complete, articulated skeleton from the Early Eocene marine deposits of the Fur Formation (Denmark) was recently assigned to Lithornis vulturinus Owen, 1840. This study provides a detailed redescription and comparison of this three-dimensionally preserved specimen (MGUH 26770), which is one of the best preserved representatives of the Lithornithidae yet known. We suggest that some new features might be diagnostic of Lithornis vulturinus, including a pterygoid fossa shallower than in other species of Lithornis and the presence of a small caudal process on the os palatinum. We propose that Lithornis nasi (Harrison, 1984) is a junior synonym of Lithornis vulturinus and we interpret minor differences in size and shape among the specimens as intraspecific variation. To date, Lithornis vulturinus is known with certainty from the latest Paleocene-earliest Eocene to Early Eocene of the North Sea Basin (Ølst, Fur and London Clay Formations). Among the four species of the genus Lithornis, the possibility that Lithornis plebius Houde, 1988 (Early Eocene of Wyoming) is conspecific with either Lithornis vulturinus or Lithornis promiscuus Houde, 1988 (Early Eocene of Wyoming) is discussed. The presence of closely related species of Lithornis on either side of the North Atlantic in the Early Eocene reflects the existence of a high-latitude land connection between Europe and North America at that time.

  15. PCR Testing of a Ventilated Caging System to Detect Murine Fur Mites

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Eric S; Allen, Kenneth P; Henderson, Kenneth S; Szabo, Aniko; Thulin, Joseph D

    2013-01-01

    Rodents housed in microisolation caging are commonly monitored for infectious agents by the use of soiled bedding sentinels. This strategy relies on the successful transmission of rodent pathogens from the index rodents via soiled bedding to sentinel cages and the subsequent infection or colonization of sentinel rodents. When the prevalence of a pathogen is low or the target agent is not readily transmitted by soiled bedding, alternative testing methodologies should be used. Given the continued prevalence of institutions self-reporting murine fur mites and with the advent of a new sensitive and specific PCR assay for mites, we sought to determine whether the exhaust system of an individual ventilated caging (IVC) system could be used for monitoring the rack's rodent population for mites rather than relying on the responses of sentinels. We deployed single cages of mice (Mus musculus) that were known to be infested with either Radfordia affinis or Myobia musculi on a 70-cage rack, sampled the horizontal exhaust manifolds weekly, and used the new PCR assay to test these samples for mite DNA. We detected the presence of fur mites at a 94.1% probability of detection within 4 wk of placement. Therefore, we recommend swabbing and testing the shelf exhaust manifolds of IVC racks rather than relying on soiled-bedding sentinels as an indicator of the mite status of the rodents on that rack. PMID:23562030

  16. Organohalogen contaminants and vitamins in Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus) collected during subsistence hunts in Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Reiner, Jessica L.; Becker, Paul R.; Gribble, Matthew O.; Lynch, Jennifer M.; Moors, Amanda J.; Ness, Jennifer; Peterson, Danielle; Pugh, Rebecca S.; Ragland, Tamika; Rimmer, Catherine; Rhoderick, Jody; Schantz, Michele M.; Trevillian, Jennifer; Kucklick, John R.

    2016-01-01

    During native subsistence hunts from 1987 to 2007, blubber and liver samples from 50 subadult male northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) were collected on St. Paul Island, Alaska. Samples were analyzed for legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs), recently phased out/current-use POPs, and vitamins. The legacy POPs measured from blubber samples included polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDT and metabolites), chlorobenzenes, chlordanes, and mirex. Recently phased-out/current-use POPs included in the blubber analysis were the flame retardants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and hexabromocyclododecanes. The chemical surfactants, perfluorinated alkyl acids and vitamins A and E were assessed in the liver samples. Overall, concentrations of legacy POPs are similar to levels seen in seal samples from other areas of the North Pacific Ocean and the Bering Sea. Statistically significant correlations were seen between compounds with similar functions (pesticides, flame retardants, vitamins). With sample collection spanning two decades, the temporal trends in the concentrations of POPs and vitamins were assessed. For these animals, the concentrations of the legacy POPs tend to decrease or stay the same with sampling year; however, the concentrations of the current-use POPs increased with sampling year. Vitamin concentrations tended to stay the same across the sampling years. With the population of northern fur seals from St. Paul Island on the decline, a detailed assessment of exposure to contaminants and the correlations with vitamins fills a critical gap for identifying potential population risk factors that might be associated with health effects. PMID:26142120

  17. Colony-level assessment of Brucella and Leptospira in the Guadalupe fur seal, Isla Guadalupe, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ziehl-Quirós, E Carolina; García-Aguilar, María C; Mellink, Eric

    2017-01-24

    The relatively small population size and restricted distribution of the Guadalupe fur seal Arctocephalus townsendi could make it highly vulnerable to infectious diseases. We performed a colony-level assessment in this species of the prevalence and presence of Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp., pathogenic bacteria that have been reported in several pinniped species worldwide. Forty-six serum samples were collected in 2014 from pups at Isla Guadalupe, the only place where the species effectively reproduces. Samples were tested for Brucella using 3 consecutive serological tests, and for Leptospira using the microscopic agglutination test. For each bacterium, a Bayesian approach was used to estimate prevalence to exposure, and an epidemiological model was used to test the null hypothesis that the bacterium was present in the colony. No serum sample tested positive for Brucella, and the statistical analyses concluded that the colony was bacterium-free with a 96.3% confidence level. However, a Brucella surveillance program would be highly recommendable. Twelve samples were positive (titers 1:50) to 1 or more serovars of Leptospira. The prevalence was calculated at 27.1% (95% credible interval: 15.6-40.3%), and the posterior analyses indicated that the colony was not Leptospira-free with a 100% confidence level. Serovars Icterohaemorrhagiae, Canicola, and Bratislava were detected, but only further research can unveil whether they affect the fur seal population.

  18. Foraging-Based Enrichment Promotes More Varied Behaviour in Captive Australian Fur Seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus)

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, David P.; Salverson, Marcia; Evans, Alistair R.

    2015-01-01

    During wild foraging, Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) encounter many different types of prey in a wide range of scenarios, yet in captive environments they are typically provided with a narrower range of opportunities to display their full repertoire of behaviours. This study aimed to quantitatively explore the effect of foraging-based enrichment on the behaviour and activity patterns displayed by two captive Australian fur seals at Melbourne Zoo, Australia. Food was presented as a scatter in open water, in a free-floating ball device, or in a static box device, with each treatment separated by control trials with no enrichment. Both subjects spent more time interacting with the ball and static box devices than the scatter feed. The total time spent pattern swimming was reduced in the enrichment treatments compared to the controls, while the time spent performing random swimming behaviours increased. There was also a significant increase in the total number of bouts of behaviour performed in all three enrichment treatments compared to controls. Each enrichment method also promoted a different suit of foraging behaviours. Hence, rather than choosing one method, the most effective way to increase the diversity of foraging behaviours, while also increasing variation in general activity patterns, is to provide seals with a wide range of foraging scenarios where food is encountered in different ways. PMID:25946412

  19. Perfluorinated contaminants in fur seal pups and penguin eggs from South Shetland, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Schiavone, A; Corsolini, S; Kannan, K; Tao, L; Trivelpiece, W; Torres, D; Focardi, S

    2009-06-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have emerged as a new class of global environmental pollutants. In this study, the presence of perfluorochemicals (PFCs) in penguin eggs and Antarctic fur seals was reported for the first time. Tissue samples from Antarctic fur seal pups and penguin eggs were collected during the 2003/04 breeding season. Ten PFC contaminants were determined in seal and penguin samples. The PFC concentrations in seal liver were in the decreasing order, PFOS>PFNA>PFHpA>PFUnDA while in Adélie penguin eggs were PFHpA>PFUnDA>PFDA>PFDoDA, and in Gentoo penguin eggs were PFUnDA>PFOS>PFDoDA>PFHpA. The PFC concentrations differed significantly between seals and penguins (p<0.005) and a species-specific difference was found between the two species of penguins (p<0.005). In our study we found a mean concentration of PFOS in seal muscle and liver samples of 1.3 ng/g and 9.4 ng/g wet wt, respectively, and a mean concentration in Gentoo and Adélie penguin eggs of 0.3 ng/g and 0.38 ng/g wet wt, respectively. PFCs detected in penguin eggs and seal pups suggested oviparous and viviparous transfer of PFOS to eggs and off-springs.

  20. Winter habitat predictions of a key Southern Ocean predator, the Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, Benjamin; Hindell, Mark; Bester, Marthan; De Bruyn, P. J. Nico; Trathan, Phil; Goebel, Michael; Lea, Mary-Anne

    2017-06-01

    Quantification of the physical and biological environmental factors that influence the spatial distribution of higher trophic species is central to inform management and develop ecosystem models, particularly in light of ocean changes. We used tracking data from 184 female Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) to develop habitat models for three breeding colonies for the poorly studied Southern Ocean winter period. Models were used to identify and predict the broadly important winter foraging habitat and to elucidate the environmental factors influencing these areas. Model predictions closely matched observations and several core areas of foraging habitat were identified for each colony, with notable areas of inter-colony overlap suggesting shared productive foraging grounds. Seals displayed clear choice of foraging habitat, travelling through areas of presumably poorer quality to access habitats that likely offer an energetic advantage in terms of prey intake. The relationships between environmental predictors and foraging habitat varied between colonies, with the principal predictors being wind speed, sea surface temperature, chlorophyll a concentration, bathymetry and distance to the colony. The availability of core foraging areas was not consistent throughout the winter period. The habitat models developed in this study not only reveal the core foraging habitats of Antarctic fur seals from multiple colonies, but can facilitate the hindcasting of historical foraging habitats as well as novel predictions of important habitat for other major colonies currently lacking information of the at-sea distribution of this major Southern Ocean consumer.

  1. Keeping warm with fur in cold water: entrainment of air in hairy surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasto, Alice; Regli, Marianne; Brun, Pierre-Thomas; Clanet, Christophe; Hosoi, Anette

    2015-11-01

    Instead of relying on a thick layer of body fat for insulation as many aquatic mammals do, fur seals and otters trap air in their dense fur for insulation in cold water. Using a combination of model experiments and theory, we rationalize this mechanism of air trapping underwater for thermoregulation. For the model experiments, hairy surfaces are fabricated using laser cut molds and casting samples with PDMS. Modeling the hairy texture as a network of capillary tubes, the imbibition speed of water into the hairs is obtained through a balance of hydrostatic pressure and viscous stress. In this scenario, the bending of the hairs and capillary forces are negligible. The maximum diving depth that can be achieved before the hairs are wetted to the roots is predicted from a comparison of the diving speed and imbibition speed. The amount of air that is entrained in hairy surfaces is greater than what is expected for classic Landau-Levich-Derjaguin plate plunging. A phase diagram with the parameters from experiments and biological data allows a comparison of the model system and animals.

  2. Large volcanic eruptions and the PETM: Geochemistry from the Fur Formation, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Morgan; Svensen, Henrik; Tegner, Christian; Planke, Sverre; Willumsen, Pi

    2015-04-01

    The opening of the North Atlantic Ocean during the early Cenozoic was accompanied by substantial volcanism that resulted in the deposition of numerous ash layers over much of northern Europe. This volcanism was contemporaneous with the extreme greenhouse climate of the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), and is therefore of particular interest for volcanism-climate interactions. The island of Fur, northern Denmark, contains abundant outcrops of volcanic ash layers deposited in a shallow marine environment. Over 179 distinct ash horizons (those greater than ~1 cm are numbered #-39 to #+140) are found within the ~60 m thick Fur Formation. The ash layers are predominantly black and composed of volcanic glass particles ranging from silt to sand in size. Each bed is normally graded and lacks any evidence of significant reworking. There were no volcanoes in the vicinity of Fur during this time, and the outcrops are >700 km from the break-up axis, indicating that at least some of the ash layers were formed during very large eruptions and transported a long way from the source volcanoes. A few thick grey ash layers (e.g. #-33 and #+19) are believed to have originated from volcanoes in East Greenland. Here we present geochemical data from two key sections within the Fur Formation, a beach section at Stolleklint where ashes #-34 to #-31 are exposed, and a quarry section at Jenshøj that covers ashes #+17 to #+35. The #-33 and #+19 ashes are both prominent marker horizons around 15-20 cm thick. The Stolleklint section is clay rich while the quarry section is dominated by diatomite. At Stolleklint, bulk rock total organic carbon (TOC) δ13C values throughout a 1.5 m section are relatively steady at -30.7 to -31.7 o typical of the carbon isotope excursion values of the PETM at Fur. Just above ash layer #-33, δ13C = -27.9 o characteristic of post-PETM values. The bulk rock TOC is high, 1.5 to 4 wt. %. The post-PETM quarry section is much poorer in organic material (0

  3. Zeitschrift fur erziehungs--und sozialwissenschaftliche Forschung (Journal for Education and Social Sciences Research), 1984-1988 (11 issues).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitschrift fur erziehungs--und socialwissenschaftliche Forschung (Journal for Education and Social Sciences Research), 1984

    1984-01-01

    Recognizing a growing globalization of nations and cultures, "Zeitschrift fur erziehungs--und sozialwissenchaftliche Forschung" brings together educational and social science research topics that address the interactions between education and society in their pedagogical, social, physical, economic, legal, and administrative dimensions.…

  4. Genetic Diversity and Population Parameters of Sea Otters, Enhydra lutris, before Fur Trade Extirpation from 1741–1911

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Shawn; Jameson, Ron; Etnier, Michael; Jones, Terry; Hall, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    All existing sea otter, Enhydra lutris, populations have suffered at least one historic population bottleneck stemming from the fur trade extirpations of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. We examined genetic variation, gene flow, and population structure at five microsatellite loci in samples from five pre-fur trade populations throughout the sea otter's historical range: California, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and Russia. We then compared those values to genetic diversity and population structure found within five modern sea otter populations throughout their current range: California, Prince William Sound, Amchitka Island, Southeast Alaska and Washington. We found twice the genetic diversity in the pre-fur trade populations when compared to modern sea otters, a level of diversity that was similar to levels that are found in other mammal populations that have not experienced population bottlenecks. Even with the significant loss in genetic diversity modern sea otters have retained historical structure. There was greater gene flow before extirpation than that found among modern sea otter populations but the difference was not statistically significant. The most dramatic effect of pre fur trade population extirpation was the loss of genetic diversity. For long term conservation of these populations increasing gene flow and the maintenance of remnant genetic diversity should be encouraged. PMID:22403635

  5. An der Schwelle zur Zweisprachigkeit: Fremdsprachenunterricht fur Fortgeschrittene (On the Threshold of Bilingualism: Foreign Language Learning for Advanced Students).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubler, Silvia, Ed.; Portmann, Paul R., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This collection of articles on Bilingualism includes: "Fremdsprachenunterricht fur Fortgeschrittene: ein Uberblick" (Foreign Language Learning for Advanced Students: An Overview) (Paul R. Portmann); "Never Mind the Width, Feel the Quality: From Quantity to Quality in Language Teaching at Advanced Levels" (Mike Makosch); "Irren ist menschlich: Ein…

  6. Vasculitis and Thrombosis due to the Sea Lion Lungworm, Parafilaroides decorus, in a Guadalupe Fur Seal ( Arctocephalus philippii townsendi).

    PubMed

    Seguel, Mauricio; Nadler, Steven; Field, Cara; Duignan, Padraig

    2018-05-01

    A free-ranging, male, yearling Guadalupe fur seal ( Arctocephalus philippii townsendi) died due to multifocal verminous vasculitis with thrombosis and several embolic infarcts in liver, kidney, and brain. Nematodes extracted from lung blood vessels were identified as Parafilaroides decorus, a parasite normally found in alveoli of California sea lions ( Zalophus californianus).

  7. TISSUE DISTRIBUTION OF PCBS AND ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN ALASKAN NORTHERN FUR SEALS: COMPARISON OF VARIOUS CONGENER CLASSIFICATION SCHEMES

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are believed to adversely affect reproduction and cause health problems in Pinnipeds 1-4. In this study, 145 PCB congeners and OCPs were analyzed in 10 juvenile male northern fur seals, Callorhinus ursinus, collected from Alaskan...

  8. Overexpression of FurA in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 reveals new targets for this regulator involved in photosynthesis, iron uptake and cellular morphology.

    PubMed

    González, Andrés; Bes, M Teresa; Barja, François; Peleato, M Luisa; Fillat, María F

    2010-11-01

    Previous genomic analyses of the filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 have identified three ferric uptake regulator (Fur) homologs with low sequence identities and probably different functions in the cell. FurA is a constitutive protein that shares the highest homology with Fur from heterotrophic bacteria and appears to be essential for in vitro growth. In this study, we have analysed the effects of FurA overexpression on the Anabaena sp. phenotype and investigated which of the observed alterations were directly operated by FurA. Overexpression of the regulator led to changes in cellular morphology, resulting in shorter filaments with rounded cells of different sizes. The furA-overexpressing strain showed a slower photoautotrophic growth and a marked decrease in the oxygen evolution rate. Overexpression of the regulator also decreased both catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, but did not lead to an increase in the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species. By combining phenotypic studies, reverse transcription-PCR analyses and electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we identified three novel direct targets of FurA, including genes encoding a siderophore outer membrane transporter (schT), bacterial actins (mreBCD) and the PSII reaction center protein D1 (psbA). The affinity of FurA for these novel targets was markedly affected by the absence of divalent metal ions, confirming previous evidence of a critical role for the metal co-repressor in the function of the regulator in vivo. The results unravel new cellular processes modulated by FurA, supporting its role as a global transcriptional regulator in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.

  9. Patterns in prey use among fur seals and seabirds in the Pribilof Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, E. H.; Vlietstra, L. S.; Johnson, D. S.; Zeppelin, T. K.; Byrd, G. V.; Springer, A. M.; Ream, R. R.; Hunt, G. L., Jr.

    2008-08-01

    We explored correlation in diet trends for five piscivorous predators that reproduce on the Pribilof Islands as illustrative of the shifting structure of the Bering Sea ecosystem. We evaluated the size and species of prey consumed by adult female and juvenile northern fur seals ( Callorhinus ursinus) and adults and chicks of black-legged kittiwakes ( Rissa tridactyla), red-legged kittiwakes ( Rissa brevirostris), thick-billed murres ( Uria lomvia), and common murres ( Uria aalge) from data collected between July and October 1960-2000. Sample sources included stomachs from seals and seabirds collected on pelagic foraging grounds in the eastern Bering Sea, seal scats from rookeries and seabird regurgitations and whole prey from nest sites on St. Paul and St. George Islands of the Pribilof Island archipelago. Typical prey included small fish and invertebrates (⩽20 cm for seals and ⩽12 cm for seabirds) that concentrate along frontal boundaries of the continental shelf/slope and in the epi-pelagic zone. Squids and fishes including walleye pollock ( Theragra chalcogramma), capelin ( Mallotus villosus), and sand lance ( Ammodytes hexapterus) were variably important in the diet of all five predators. Some prey, such as capelin, were principal in predator diets during the 1960s (seals) and into the early 1980s (seabirds), but declined or disappeared from all predator diets thereafter while others, such as walleye pollock, occurred with increasing frequency from the 1970s forward. As the number of individuals consuming walleye pollock increased, the overall volume of pollock in seabird diets declined. This decline was coincident with a decrease in the age and body size of pollock consumed by both seabirds and fur seals. Squid and pollock were negatively correlated in the diets of their primary consumers, northern fur seals (Pearson's coefficient -0.71, p=0.016) and thick-billed murres (Pearson's coefficient=-0.74, p=0.015) from the 1970s forward. Inter-island variation

  10. Chemical fingerprints encode mother–offspring similarity, colony membership, relatedness, and genetic quality in fur seals

    PubMed Central

    Stoffel, Martin A.; Caspers, Barbara A.; Forcada, Jaume; Giannakara, Athina; Baier, Markus; Eberhart-Phillips, Luke; Müller, Caroline; Hoffman, Joseph I.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical communication underpins virtually all aspects of vertebrate social life, yet remains poorly understood because of its highly complex mechanistic basis. We therefore used chemical fingerprinting of skin swabs and genetic analysis to explore the chemical cues that may underlie mother–offspring recognition in colonially breeding Antarctic fur seals. By sampling mother–offspring pairs from two different colonies, using a variety of statistical approaches and genotyping a large panel of microsatellite loci, we show that colony membership, mother–offspring similarity, heterozygosity, and genetic relatedness are all chemically encoded. Moreover, chemical similarity between mothers and offspring reflects a combination of genetic and environmental influences, the former partly encoded by substances resembling known pheromones. Our findings reveal the diversity of information contained within chemical fingerprints and have implications for understanding mother–offspring communication, kin recognition, and mate choice. PMID:26261311

  11. Lipids of the Tail Gland, Body and Muzzle Fur of the Red Fox, Vulpes vulpes.

    PubMed

    McLean, Stuart; Davies, Noel W; Nichols, David S

    2017-07-01

    The tail gland of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) secretes lipids containing volatile terpenes used in social communication. We have analysed lipids extracted from fur of the tail gland, body (flanks) and muzzle of foxes. GC-MS showed a novel group of iso-valerate and tiglate monoesters of alkane-1,2-diols (C18:0-22:0). There was also a larger group of Type II diesters in which a second, longer chain, fatty acid (FA) was attached to the free alcohol group. LC-MS showed the full range of diol diesters, mostly C36:0-50:0, with smaller amounts of the corresponding mono-unsaturated tiglate esters. An additional group of diesters with higher MW (C49:0-62:0) containing two long-chain FA was present in the lipids of body and muzzle fur. After saponification and GC-MS, 98 fatty acids were characterized as their methyl esters. Apart from the C5 FA, most were saturated n-, iso-, anteiso- or other methyl-branched FA (C12:0-28:0) whose structures were determined by a combination of their mass spectra and Kovats retention indices. Several FA have not previously been found in nature or in vertebrates. Thirty-four alkane-1,2-diols were found as their TMS derivatives, mostly n-, iso- or anteiso-isomers of C16:0-25:0. The tail gland had the greatest amount of wax esters, from a greater variety of FA and diols, but lacked the esters with two long-chain FA. These findings show that fox skin lipids comprise mono- and di-esters of alkane-1,2-diols, and exhibit enormous complexity due to the diversity of their constituent FA, diols and the many possible isomers of their esters.

  12. PCR Testing of IVC Filter Tops as a Method for Detecting Murine Pinworms and Fur Mites.

    PubMed

    Gerwin, Philip M; Ricart Arbona, Rodolfo J; Riedel, Elyn R; Henderson, Kenneth S; Lipman, Neil S

    2017-11-01

    We evaluated PCR testing of filter tops from cages maintained on an IVC system through which exhaust air is filtered at the cage level as a method for detecting parasite-infected and -infested cages. Cages containing 4 naïve Swiss Webster mice received 360 mL of uncontaminated aspen chip or α-cellulose bedding (n = 18 cages each) and 60 mL of the same type of bedding weekly from each of the following 4 groups of cages housing mice infected or infested with Syphacia obvelata (SO), Aspiculuris tetraptera (AT), Myocoptes musculinus (MC), or Myobia musculi (MB) and Radfordia affinis (RA; 240 mL bedding total). Detection rates were compared at 30, 60, and 90 d after initiating bedding exposure, by using PCR analysis of filter tops (media extract and swabs) and testing of mouse samples (fur swab [direct] PCR testing, fecal flotation, anal tape test, direct examination of intestinal contents, and skin scrape). PCR testing of filter media extract detected 100% of all parasites at 30 d (both bedding types) except for AT (α-cellulose bedding, 67% detection rate); identified more cages with fur mites (MB and MC) than direct PCR when cellulose bedding was used; and was better at detecting parasites than all nonmolecular methods evaluated. PCR analysis of filter media extract was superior to swab and direct PCR for all parasites cumulatively for each bedding type. Direct PCR more effectively detected MC and all parasites combined for aspen chip compared with cellulose bedding. PCR analysis of filter media extract for IVC systems in which exhaust air is filtered at the cage level was shown to be a highly effective environmental testing method.

  13. PCR Testing of IVC Filter Tops as a Method for Detecting Murine Pinworms and Fur Mites

    PubMed Central

    Gerwin, Philip M; Arbona, Rodolfo J Ricart; Riedel, Elyn R; Henderson, Kenneth S; Lipman, Neil S

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated PCR testing of filter tops from cages maintained on an IVC system through which exhaust air is filtered at the cage level as a method for detecting parasite- infected and -infested cages. Cages containing 4 naïve Swiss Webster mice received 360 mL of uncontaminated aspen chip or α-cellulose bedding (n = 18 cages each) and 60 mL of the same type of bedding weekly from each of the following 4 groups of cages housing mice infected or infested with Syphacia obvelata (SO), Aspiculuris tetraptera (AT), Myocoptes musculinus (MC), or Myobia musculi (MB) and Radfordia affinis (RA; 240 mL bedding total). Detection rates were compared at 30, 60, and 90 d after initiating bedding exposure, by using PCR analysis of filter tops (media extract and swabs) and testing of mouse samples (fur swab [direct] PCR testing, fecal flotation, anal tape test, direct examination of intestinal contents, and skin scrape). PCR testing of filter media extract detected 100% of all parasites at 30 d (both bedding types) except for AT (α-cellulose bedding, 67% detection rate); identified more cages with fur mites (MB and MC) than direct PCR when cellulose bedding was used; and was better at detecting parasites than all nonmolecular methods evaluated. PCR analysis of filter media extract was superior to swab and direct PCR for all parasites cumulatively for each bedding type. Direct PCR more effectively detected MC and all parasites combined for aspen chip compared with cellulose bedding. PCR analysis of filter media extract for IVC systems in which exhaust air is filtered at the cage level was shown to be a highly effective environmental testing method. PMID:29256370

  14. Pairing ultrasonography with endocrinology to elucidate underlying mechanisms of successful pregnancy in the northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus).

    PubMed

    Shero, Michelle R; Bergfelt, Don R; Testa, J Ward; Adams, Gregg P

    2018-01-01

    Reproductive success is one of the central tenets of conservation management programs, yet the inability to study underlying physiological processes in a minimally-invasive manner and the unpredictable nature of wild animal populations leaves large gaps in our knowledge of factors critical to successful reproduction in wild species. This study integrated ultrasonography of the reproductive tract and analysis of reproductive hormones in 172 northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) to identify intrinsic factors associated with reinitiating embryonic growth at the end of diapause. Within the first 3-4 weeks of active gestation, pregnant fur seals (n = 126) had a larger corpus luteum and fewer antral follicles than non-pregnant fur seals, or those still in diapause (n = 46). This suggests that the conceptus drives changes in ovarian status to convey its presence to the female. Morphological changes in the reproductive tract associated with pregnancy were not reflected in differences in endocrine profiles (estradiol, estrone, progesterone, and relaxin) between pregnant and non-pregnant individuals. Hormone concentrations correlated more strongly with calendar date than with the presence or size of the conceptus, demonstrating that none of these reproductive hormones were reliable markers for early pregnancy diagnosis. Instead, the northern fur seal's long diestrus may serve to reduce the probability of a temporal mismatch between corpus luteum regression and embryo implantation. Indeed, conception rates were high and confirmed rates of pregnancy loss were relatively low (11%). In this study, minimally-invasive ultrasonography was used in wild pinnipeds to detect very early pregnancy (embryonic vesicles >2 mm) in combination with ovarian and endocrine dynamics at the time of embryo implantation, shedding light on mechanisms for maternal recognition of pregnancy. This study is also the first to track whether these same animals carried the embryo to term, by

  15. Isotopic and genetic insights into the persistence of the northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, P. L.; Hadly, E. A.; Pinsky, M. L.; Newsome, S. D.

    2010-12-01

    What factors allow some species to survive in the face of climate change, disease, or anthropogenic disturbance? How do species shift their geographic distributions in the face of such challenges? These pressing questions in ecology and conservation biology are difficult to answer when looking solely at modern populations or the recent historical record. We explore these questions through analysis of DNA and the isotopic composition of modern and ancient northern fur seals (NFS, Callorhinus ursinus). The NFS is an eared seal (otariid) that ranges along the north Pacific, where it breeds on offshore islands; by far the largest modern rookeries are on the Pribilof Islands in the Bering Sea. The species shows a high degree of philopatry, and females feed while nursing, wean pups at 4 months, and spend the rest of the year foraging far offshore further south. Archaelogical study reveals that Holocene NFS had numerous breeding colonies from the Channel Islands to the Aleutians. Temperate latitude colonies collapsed in the late Holocene in response to hunting pressures and perhaps, environmental change. The species has recolonized parts of its former range since the 1960s. Despite facing similar threats, other marine mammals have failed to rebound (e.g., Guadalupe fur seals) or have exceptionally low genetic diversity indicating recent and prolonged bottlenecks (e.g., northern elephant seals). Isotopic analyses of sub-fossil growth series indicate that extirpated mid-latitude colonies weaned much later (≥12 months), like all other otariid species that breed at temperate latitudes. As a result, females were tied to rookery sites year-round and had a much-reduced migratory range relative to modern NFS females breeding in the Bering Sea, a result also supported by isotopic analyses. Serial coalescent simulations of ancient and modern DNA reveals that exceptionally high migration rates and Arctic refugia provided resilience to NFS. These traits allowed the species to

  16. Zoonotic parasites in fecal samples and fur from dogs and cats in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Overgaauw, Paul A M; van Zutphen, Linda; Hoek, Denise; Yaya, Felix O; Roelfsema, Jeroen; Pinelli, Elena; van Knapen, Frans; Kortbeek, Laetitia M

    2009-07-07

    Pets may carry zoonotic pathogens for which owners are at risk. The aim of the study is to investigate whether healthy pets harbour zoonotic parasitic infections and to make an inventory of the interactions between pet-owners and their companion animals in The Netherlands. Fecal and hair samples were collected from healthy household dogs and cats in Dutch veterinary practices. Owners were interviewed about interaction with their pets. The samples were investigated by microscopy, ELISA, and PCR. From 159 households, 152 dogs (D) and 60 cats (C), information and samples were collected and examination for several zoonotic parasites was performed. Toxocara eggs were found in 4.4% (D) and 4.6% (C) of the fecal samples and in 12.2% (D) and 3.4% (C) of the fur samples. The median epg in the fur was 17 (D) and 28 (C) and none of these eggs were viable. From 15.2% of the dog and 13.6% of the cat feces Giardia was isolated. One canine and one feline Giardia isolate was a zoonotic assemblage A (12%). Cryptosporidium sp. were present in 8.7% (D) and 4.6% (C) of the feces. Fifty percent of the owners allow the pet to lick their faces. Sixty percent of the pets visit the bedroom; 45-60% (D-C) are allowed on the bed, and 18-30% (D-C) sleep with the owner in bed. Six percent of the pets always sleep in the bedroom. Of the cats, 45% are allowed to jump onto the kitchen sink. Nearly 39% of the dog owners never clean up the feces of their dog. Fifteen percent of the dog owners and 8% of the cat owners always wash their hands after contact with the animals. Close physical contact between owners and their pets is common and poses an increased risk of transmission of zoonotic pathogens. Education of owners by the vet, specifically about hygiene and potential risks, is required.

  17. Skin and fur bacterial diversity and community structure on American southwestern bats: effects of habitat, geography and bat traits

    PubMed Central

    Hathaway, Jennifer J.M.; Kimble, Jason C.; Buecher, Debbie C.; Valdez, Ernest W.; Young, Jesse M.; Read, Kaitlyn J.H.; Northup, Diana E.

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms that reside on and in mammals, such as bats, have the potential to influence their host’s health and to provide defenses against invading pathogens. However, we have little understanding of the skin and fur bacterial microbiota on bats, or factors that influence the structure of these communities. The southwestern United States offers excellent sites for the study of external bat bacterial microbiota due to the diversity of bat species, the variety of abiotic and biotic factors that may govern bat bacterial microbiota communities, and the lack of the newly emergent fungal disease in bats, white-nose syndrome (WNS), in the southwest. To test these variables, we used 16S rRNA gene 454 pyrosequencing from swabs of external skin and fur surfaces from 163 bats from 13 species sampled from southeastern New Mexico to northwestern Arizona. Community similarity patterns, random forest models, and generalized linear mixed-effects models show that factors such as location (e.g., cave-caught versus surface-netted) and ecoregion are major contributors to the structure of bacterial communities on bats. Bats caught in caves had a distinct microbial community compared to those that were netted on the surface. Our results provide a first insight into the distribution of skin and fur bat bacteria in the WNS-free environment of New Mexico and Arizona. More importantly, it provides a baseline of bat external microbiota that can be explored for potential natural defenses against pathogens. PMID:29093998

  18. Skin and fur bacterial diversity and community structure on American southwestern bats: effects of habitat, geography and bat traits.

    PubMed

    Winter, Ara S; Hathaway, Jennifer J M; Kimble, Jason C; Buecher, Debbie C; Valdez, Ernest W; Porras-Alfaro, Andrea; Young, Jesse M; Read, Kaitlyn J H; Northup, Diana E

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms that reside on and in mammals, such as bats, have the potential to influence their host's health and to provide defenses against invading pathogens. However, we have little understanding of the skin and fur bacterial microbiota on bats, or factors that influence the structure of these communities. The southwestern United States offers excellent sites for the study of external bat bacterial microbiota due to the diversity of bat species, the variety of abiotic and biotic factors that may govern bat bacterial microbiota communities, and the lack of the newly emergent fungal disease in bats, white-nose syndrome (WNS), in the southwest. To test these variables, we used 16S rRNA gene 454 pyrosequencing from swabs of external skin and fur surfaces from 163 bats from 13 species sampled from southeastern New Mexico to northwestern Arizona. Community similarity patterns, random forest models, and generalized linear mixed-effects models show that factors such as location (e.g., cave-caught versus surface-netted) and ecoregion are major contributors to the structure of bacterial communities on bats. Bats caught in caves had a distinct microbial community compared to those that were netted on the surface. Our results provide a first insight into the distribution of skin and fur bat bacteria in the WNS-free environment of New Mexico and Arizona. More importantly, it provides a baseline of bat external microbiota that can be explored for potential natural defenses against pathogens.

  19. Skin and fur bacterial diversity and community structure on American southwestern bats: effects of habitat, geography and bat traits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, Ara S.; Hathaway, Jennifer J. M.; Kimble, Jason C.; Buecher, Debbie C.; Valdez, Ernest W.; Porras-Alfaro, Andrea; Young, Jesse M.; Read, Kaitlyn J. H.; Northup, Diana E.

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms that reside on and in mammals, such as bats, have the potential to influence their host’s health and to provide defenses against invading pathogens. However, we have little understanding of the skin and fur bacterial microbiota on bats, or factors that influence the structure of these communities. The southwestern United States offers excellent sites for the study of external bat bacterial microbiota due to the diversity of bat species, the variety of abiotic and biotic factors that may govern bat bacterial microbiota communities, and the lack of the newly emergent fungal disease in bats, white-nose syndrome (WNS), in the southwest. To test these variables, we used 16S rRNA gene 454 pyrosequencing from swabs of external skin and fur surfaces from 163 bats from 13 species sampled from southeastern New Mexico to northwestern Arizona. Community similarity patterns, random forest models, and generalized linear mixed-effects models show that factors such as location (e.g., cave-caught versus surface-netted) and ecoregion are major contributors to the structure of bacterial communities on bats. Bats caught in caves had a distinct microbial community compared to those that were netted on the surface. Our results provide a first insight into the distribution of skin and fur bat bacteria in the WNS-free environment of New Mexico and Arizona. More importantly, it provides a baseline of bat external microbiota that can be explored for potential natural defenses against pathogens.

  20. The Iron-Dependent Regulator Fur Controls Pheromone Signaling Systems and Luminescence in the Squid Symbiont Vibrio fischeri ES114

    PubMed Central

    Septer, Alecia N.; Lyell, Noreen L.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria often use pheromones to coordinate group behaviors in specific environments. While high cell density is required for pheromones to achieve stimulatory levels, environmental cues can also influence pheromone accumulation and signaling. For the squid symbiont Vibrio fischeri ES114, bioluminescence requires pheromone-mediated regulation, and this signaling is induced in the host to a greater extent than in culture, even at an equivalent cell density. Our goal is to better understand this environment-specific control over pheromone signaling and bioluminescence. Previous work with V. fischeri MJ1 showed that iron limitation induces luminescence, and we recently found that ES114 encounters a low-iron environment in its host. Here we show that ES114 induces luminescence at lower cell density and achieves brighter luminescence in low-iron media. This iron-dependent effect on luminescence required ferric uptake regulator (Fur), which we propose influences two pheromone signaling master regulators, LitR and LuxR. Genetic and bioinformatic analyses suggested that under low-iron conditions, Fur-mediated repression of litR is relieved, enabling more LitR to perform its established role as an activator of luxR. Interestingly, Fur may similarly control the LitR homolog SmcR of Vibrio vulnificus. These results reveal an intriguing regulatory link between low-iron conditions, which are often encountered in host tissues, and pheromone-dependent master regulators. PMID:23315731

  1. Mitogenomics data reveal effective population size, historical bottlenecks, and the effects of hunting on New Zealand fur seals (Arctocephalus forsteri).

    PubMed

    Emami-Khoyi, Arsalan; Paterson, Adrian M; Hartley, David A; Boren, Laura J; Cruickshank, Robert H; Ross, James G; Murphy, Elaine C; Else, Terry-Ann

    2018-05-01

    The New Zealand fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri) passed through a population bottleneck due to commercial sealing during the eighteenth to nineteenth centuries. To facilitate future management options, we reconstructed the demographic history of New Zealand fur seals in a Bayesian framework using maternally inherited, mitochondrial DNA sequences. Mitogenomic data suggested two separate clades (most recent common ancestor 5000 years ago) of New Zealand fur seals that survived large-scale human harvest. Mitochondrial haplotype diversity was high, with 45 singletons identified from 46 individuals although mean nucleotide diversity was low (0.012 ± 0.0061). Variation was not constrained geographically. Analyses of mitogenomes support the hypothesis for a population bottleneck approximately 35 generations ago, which coincides with the peak of commercial sealing. Mitogenomic data are consistent with a pre-human effective population size of approximately 30,000 that first declined to around 10,000 (due to the impact of Polynesian colonization, particularly in the first 100 years of their arrival into New Zealand), and then to 100-200 breeding individuals during peak of commercial sealing.

  2. Digeneans of northern fur seals Callorhinus ursinus (Pinnipedia: Otariidae) from five subpopulations on St. Paul Island, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, T A; Tkach, V V; Spraker, T R; Lyons, E T; Kudlai, O

    2018-04-01

    A parasitological survey of 651 northern fur seals Callorhinus ursinus L. from five subpopulations was conducted on St. Paul Island, Alaska, during July-August 2012-2014. Digenean trematodes were found in 210 of 651 fur seals with a total prevalence of 32.3%. Intensity of infection varied from 1 to 1540 parasites with mean intensity 18.4 ± 111.1 SD and median intensity of 2 specimens per host. Significant differences in prevalence and intensity of infection in northern fur seals between separate rookeries was not observed (Mann-Whitney test; p > 0.05). Four species of digeneans belonging to the families Heterophyidae (Apophallus zalophi Price, 1932, Phocitrema fusiforme Goto and Ozaki, 1930, and Galactosomum ubelakeri (Dailey, 1969)) and Troglotrematidae (Nanophyetus salmincola (Chapin, 1926)) were found. Nanophyetus salmincola is reported from C. ursinus for the first time. We obtained partial 28S rDNA sequences for all digenean species and conducted molecular phylogenetic analysis to demonstrate their phylogenetic relationships.

  3. Radiation pasteurization of mink feed: Effect of irradiated feed on reproductive performance, growth and fur quality of mink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passey, C. A.; Roy, D.; Savoie, L.; Malo, R.; Wilson, J.

    No significant differences were observed in the net birth rate of kits/female between the 7 breeding groups. However, there was reduced incidence (P = 0.05) of kit deaths among the females receiving irradiated feed, and larger kit size (P < 0.0001) at birth particularly for the litter size of 5-8 kits. The second generation minks born to parents receiving feed irradiated to a planned dose of 1 kGy weighed on average about 2.5 % more, and their fur was on average about 1 ± 0.26 cm longer (12 % more males making the top length grade). Moreover, there was no effect of irradiated feed on fur quality. Irradiation of mink feed with subsequent frozen storage of the meat component improved the microbiological quality by decreasing the incidence of Pseudomonas sp. and Salmonella sp. Radiation pasteurization of mink feed (frozen meat to 1 kGy, and dry feed to 2 kGy or more) should therefore help improve feed utilization, keep the animals healthier, and reproducing better without affecting fur quality.

  4. Fur versus feathers: pollen delivery by bats and hummingbirds and consequences for pollen production.

    PubMed

    Muchhala, Nathan; Thomson, James D

    2010-06-01

    One floral characteristic associated with bat pollination (chiropterophily) is copious pollen production, a pattern we confirmed in a local comparison of hummingbird- and bat-adapted flowers from a cloud forest site in Ecuador. Previous authors have suggested that wasteful pollen transfer by bats accounted for the pattern. Here we propose and test a new hypothesis: bats select for increased pollen production because they can efficiently transfer larger amounts of pollen, which leads to a more linear male fitness gain curve for bat-pollinated plants. Flight cage experiments with artificial flowers and flowers of Aphelandra acanthus provide support for this hypothesis; in both instances, the amount of pollen delivered to stigmas by birds is not related to the amount of pollen removed from anthers on the previous visit, while the same function for bats increases linearly. Thus, increased pollen production will be linearly related to increased male reproductive success for bat flowers, while for bird flowers, increased pollen production leads to rapidly diminishing fitness returns. We speculate that fur takes up and holds more pollen than feathers, which seem to readily shed excess grains. Our gain-curve hypothesis may also explain why evolutionary shifts from bird to bat pollination seem more common than shifts in the opposite direction.

  5. Early-life sexual segregation: ontogeny of isotopic niche differentiation in the Antarctic fur seal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kernaléguen, L.; Arnould, J. P. Y.; Guinet, C.; Cazelles, B.; Richard, P.; Cherel, Y.

    2016-09-01

    Investigating the ontogeny of niche differentiation enables to determine at which life-stages sexual segregation arises, providing insights into the main factors driving resource partitioning. We investigated the ontogeny of foraging ecology in Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella), a highly dimorphic species with contrasting breeding strategies between sexes. Sequential δ13C and δ15N values of whiskers provided a longitudinal proxy of the foraging niche throughout the whole life of seals, from weaning, when size dimorphism is minimal to the age of 5. Females exhibited an early-life ontogenetic shift, from a total segregation during their first year at-sea, to a similar isotopic niche as breeding females as early as age 2. In contrast, males showed a progressive change in isotopic niche throughout their development such that 5-year-old males did not share the same niche as territorial bulls. Interestingly, males and females segregated straight after weaning with males appearing to feed in more southerly habitats than females. This spatial segregation was of similar amplitude as observed in breeding adults and was maintained throughout development. Such early-life niche differentiation is an unusual pattern and indicates size dimorphism and breeding constraints do not directly drive sexual segregation contrary to what has been assumed in otariid seals.

  6. Marine debris ingestion by the South American Fur Seal from the Southwest Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Denuncio, Pablo; Mandiola, María Agustina; Pérez Salles, Sofía Belén; Machado, Rodrigo; Ott, Paulo H; De Oliveira, Larissa Rosa; Rodriguez, Diego

    2017-09-15

    In this paper, we examined the ingestion of marine debris (MD) in South American fur seals (SAFS), Arctocephalus australis, found dead in coastal beaches of northern Argentina and southern Brazil. Seven percent of 133 SAFS analyzed presented marine debris in their stomach (n=10), with no differences between sampling countries (Brazil n=7, Argentina n=3) and sexes (female=3; male=6). However, significant differences were observed between ages classes, with MD exclusively present in stomach contents of young specimens. Plastics represents 90% of MD ingested by the SAFS, whereas regarding the source, fishery-related items (e.g. monofilament lines) were the main MD (70%), with a lesser proportion of packaging (e.g. pieces of bags). Low numbers but large size pieces of MD were found in each stomach affected. Negative effects on the individuals could not be fully evaluated. Therefore, the potential impacts of the marine debris to the SAFS deserve further elucidation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Resting metabolic rate and heat increment of feeding in juvenile South American fur seals (Arctocephalus australis).

    PubMed

    Dassis, M; Rodríguez, D H; Ieno, E N; Denuncio, P E; Loureiro, J; Davis, R W

    2014-02-01

    Bio-energetic models used to characterize an animal's energy budget require the accurate estimate of different variables such as the resting metabolic rate (RMR) and the heat increment of feeding (HIF). In this study, we estimated the in air RMR of wild juvenile South American fur seals (SAFS; Arctocephalus australis) temporarily held in captivity by measuring oxygen consumption while at rest in a postabsorptive condition. HIF, which is an increase in metabolic rate associated with digestion, assimilation and nutrient interconversion, was estimated as the difference in resting metabolic rate between the postabsorptive condition and the first 3.5h postprandial. As data were hierarchically structured, linear mixed effect models were used to compare RMR measures under both physiological conditions. Results indicated a significant increase (61%) for the postprandial RMR compared to the postabsorptive condition, estimated at 17.93±1.84 and 11.15±1.91mL O2 min(-1)kg(-1), respectively. These values constitute the first estimation of RMR and HIF in this species, and should be considered in the energy budgets for juvenile SAFS foraging at-sea. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [The underwater and airborne horizontal localization of sound by the northern fur seal].

    PubMed

    Babushina, E S; Poliakov, M A

    2004-01-01

    The accuracy of the underwater and airborne horizontal localization of different acoustic signals by the northern fur seal was investigated by the method of instrumental conditioned reflexes with food reinforcement. For pure-tone pulsed signals in the frequency range of 0.5-25 kHz the minimum angles of sound localization at 75% of correct responses corresponded to sound transducer azimuth of 6.5-7.5 degrees +/- 0.1-0.4 degrees underwater (at impulse duration of 3-90 ms) and of 3.5-5.5 degrees +/- 0.05-0.5 degrees in air (at impulse duration of 3-160 ms). The source of pulsed noise signals (of 3-ms duration) was localized with the accuracy of 3.0 degrees +/- 0.2 degrees underwater. The source of continuous (of 1-s duration) narrow band (10% of c.fr.) noise signals was localized in air with the accuracy of 2-5 degrees +/- 0.02-0.4 degrees and of continuous broad band (1-20 kHz) noise, with the accuracy of 4.5 degrees +/- 0.2 degrees.

  9. The cestode community in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) on St. Paul Island, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, Tetiana A; Hernández-Orts, Jesús S; Lyons, Eugene T; Spraker, Terry R; Kornyushyn, Vadym V; Kuchta, Roman

    2015-08-01

    The diversity and ecology of cestodes from the northern fur seals, Callorhinus ursinus (NFS), were examined using newly collected material from 756 humanely harvested subadult males between 2011 and 2014. NFSs were collected from five different haul-outs on St. Paul Island, Alaska. A total of 14,660 tapeworms were collected with a prevalence of 98.5% and intensity up to 107 cestodes per host (mean intensity 19.7 ± 16.5 SD). Three species of tapeworms were found: Adenocephalus pacificus (Diphyllobothriidea) was the most prevalent (prevalence 97.4%), followed by Diplogonoporus tetrapterus (49.7%), and 5 immature specimens of Anophryocephalus cf. ochotensis (Tetrabothriidea) (0.5%). Most of the cestodes found in the NFS were immature (69.7%). However, only 0.9% of cestodes were in larval (plerocercoid) stages. The species composition, prevalence and intensity of cestodes from these NFSs were not statistically different between the five separate haul-outs. Significant increases in the intensity of NFS infections were observed during the study period.

  10. The cestode community in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) on St. Paul Island, Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmina, Tetiana A.; Hernández-Orts, Jesús S.; Lyons, Eugene T.; Spraker, Terry R.; Kornyushyn, Vadym V.; Kuchta, Roman

    2015-01-01

    The diversity and ecology of cestodes from the northern fur seals, Callorhinus ursinus (NFS), were examined using newly collected material from 756 humanely harvested subadult males between 2011 and 2014. NFSs were collected from five different haul-outs on St. Paul Island, Alaska. A total of 14,660 tapeworms were collected with a prevalence of 98.5% and intensity up to 107 cestodes per host (mean intensity 19.7 ± 16.5 SD). Three species of tapeworms were found: Adenocephalus pacificus (Diphyllobothriidea) was the most prevalent (prevalence 97.4%), followed by Diplogonoporus tetrapterus (49.7%), and 5 immature specimens of Anophryocephalus cf. ochotensis (Tetrabothriidea) (0.5%). Most of the cestodes found in the NFS were immature (69.7%). However, only 0.9% of cestodes were in larval (plerocercoid) stages. The species composition, prevalence and intensity of cestodes from these NFSs were not statistically different between the five separate haul-outs. Significant increases in the intensity of NFS infections were observed during the study period. PMID:26101743

  11. Use of Selamectin and Moxidectin in the Treatment of Mouse Fur Mites

    PubMed Central

    Mook, Deborah M; Benjamin, Kimberly A

    2008-01-01

    A breeding colony consisting of 250 different strains of mice was treated with the topical acaricide selamectin for the mouse fur mite Myocoptes musculinus, with no apparent ill effect, suggesting that this drug is safe for use in mice. To further evaluate their efficacy in treating Myocoptes spp., we compared selamectin with another acaricide, moxidectin, in a controlled manner. Infested mice were treated with selamectin or moxidectin at the time of cage change, and a subset of mice was retreated 10 d later. Mice underwent routine cellophane tape examination of the pelage for 1 y. Although no adult mites were found in any group at 1 mo after treatment, egg casings were found in the selamectin treatment group as late as 6 mo after treatment, prompting concern about its effectiveness. Moxidectin used in combination with cage changing was effective in eradicating mites, with mice negative for traces of mites on cellophane tape examination of the pelage from months 2 through 12 after treatment. PMID:18459708

  12. Brucella placentitis and seroprevalence in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) of the Pribilof Islands, Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Colleen G.; Tiller, Rebekah; Mathis, Demetrius; Stoddard, Robyn; Kersh, Gilbert J.; Dickerson, Bobette; Gelatt, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Brucella species infect a wide range of hosts with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. In mammals, one of the most significant consequences of Brucella infection is reproductive failure. There is evidence of Brucella exposure in many species of marine mammals, but the outcome of infection is often challenging to determine. The eastern Pacific stock of northern fur seals (NFSs, Callorhinus ursinus) has declined significantly, spawning research into potential causes for this trend, including investigation into reproductive health. The objective of the current study was to determine if NFSs on St. Paul Island, Alaska have evidence of Brucella exposure or infection. Archived DNA extracted from placentas (n = 119) and serum (n = 40) samples were available for testing by insertion sequence (IS) 711 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the Brucella microagglutination test (BMAT), respectively. As well, placental tissue was available for histologic examination. Six (5%) placentas were positive by PCR, and a single animal had severe placentitis. Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis profiles were highly clustered and closely related to other Brucella pinnipedialis isolates. A single animal was positive on BMAT, and 12 animals had titers within the borderline range; 1 borderline animal was positive by PCR on serum. The findings suggest that NFSs on the Pribilof Islands are exposed to Brucella and that the organism has the ability to cause severe placental disease. Given the population trend of the NFS, and the zoonotic nature of this pathogen, further investigation into the epidemiology of this disease is recommended. PMID:24803576

  13. Brucella placentitis and seroprevalence in northern fur seals ( Callorhinus ursinus) of the Pribilof Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Colleen G; Tiller, Rebekah; Mathis, Demetrius; Stoddard, Robyn; Kersh, Gilbert J; Dickerson, Bobette; Gelatt, Tom

    2014-07-01

    Brucella species infect a wide range of hosts with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. In mammals, one of the most significant consequences of Brucella infection is reproductive failure. There is evidence of Brucella exposure in many species of marine mammals, but the outcome of infection is often challenging to determine. The eastern Pacific stock of northern fur seals (NFSs, Callorhinus ursinus) has declined significantly, spawning research into potential causes for this trend, including investigation into reproductive health. The objective of the current study was to determine if NFSs on St. Paul Island, Alaska have evidence of Brucella exposure or infection. Archived DNA extracted from placentas ( n = 119) and serum ( n = 40) samples were available for testing by insertion sequence (IS) 711 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the Brucella microagglutination test (BMAT), respectively. As well, placental tissue was available for histologic examination. Six (5%) placentas were positive by PCR, and a single animal had severe placentitis. Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis profiles were highly clustered and closely related to other Brucella pinnipedialis isolates. A single animal was positive on BMAT, and 12 animals had titers within the borderline range; 1 borderline animal was positive by PCR on serum. The findings suggest that NFSs on the Pribilof Islands are exposed to Brucella and that the organism has the ability to cause severe placental disease. Given the population trend of the NFS, and the zoonotic nature of this pathogen, further investigation into the epidemiology of this disease is recommended.

  14. The Role of the Regulator Fur in Gene Regulation and Virulence of Riemerella anatipestifer Assessed Using an Unmarked Gene Deletion System

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yunqing; Hu, Di; Guo, Jie; Li, Xiaowen; Guo, Jinyue; Wang, Xiliang; Xiao, Yuncai; Jin, Hui; Liu, Mei; Li, Zili; Bi, Dingren; Zhou, Zutao

    2017-01-01

    Riemerella anatipestifer, an avian pathogen, has resulted in enormous economic losses to the duck industry globally. Notwithstanding, little is known regarding the physiological, pathogenic and virulence mechanisms of Riemerella anatipestifer (RA) infection. However, the role of Ferric uptake regulator (Fur) in the virulence of R. anatipestifer has not, to date, been demonstrated. Using a genetic approach, unmarked gene deletion system, we evaluated the function of fur gene in the virulence of R. anatipestifer. For this purpose, we constructed a suicide vector containing pheS as a counter selectable marker for unmarked deletion of fur gene to investigate its role in the virulence. After successful transformation of the newly constructed vector, a mutant strain was characterized for genes regulated by iron and Fur using RNA-sequencing and a comparison was made between wild type and mutant strains in both iron restricted and enriched conditions. RNA-seq analysis of the mutant strain in a restricted iron environment showed the downregulation and upregulation of genes which were involved in either important metabolic pathways, transport processes, growth or cell membrane synthesis. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay was performed to identify the putative sequences recognized by Fur. The putative Fur-box sequence was 5′-GATAATGATAATCATTATC-3′. Lastly, the median lethal dose and histopathological investigations of animal tissues also illustrated mild pathological lesions produced by the mutant strain as compared to the wild type RA strain, hence showing declined virulence. Conclusively, an unmarked gene deletion system was successfully developed for RA and the role of the fur gene in virulence was explored comprehensively. PMID:28971067

  15. Reproductive success is energetically linked to foraging efficiency in Antarctic fur seals

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The efficiency with which individuals extract energy from their environment defines their survival and reproductive success, and thus their selective contribution to the population. Individuals that forage more efficiently (i.e., when energy gained exceeds energy expended) are likely to be more successful at raising viable offspring than individuals that forage less efficiently. Our goal was to test this prediction in large long-lived mammals under free-ranging conditions. To do so, we equipped 20 lactating Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) breeding on Kerguelen Island in the Southern Ocean with tags that recorded GPS locations, depth and tri-axial acceleration to determine at-sea behaviours and detailed time-activity budgets during their foraging trips. We also simultaneously measured energy spent at sea using the doubly-labeled water (DLW) method, and estimated the energy acquired while foraging from 1) type and energy content of prey species present in scat remains, and 2) numbers of prey capture attempts determined from head acceleration. Finally, we followed the growth of 36 pups from birth until weaning (of which 20 were the offspring of our 20 tracked mothers), and used the relative differences in body mass of pups at weaning as an index of first year survival and thus the reproductive success of their mothers. Our results show that females with greater foraging efficiencies produced relatively bigger pups at weaning. These mothers achieved greater foraging efficiency by extracting more energy per minute of diving rather than by reducing energy expenditure. This strategy also resulted in the females spending less time diving and less time overall at sea, which allowed them to deliver higher quality milk to their pups, or allowed their pups to suckle more frequently, or both. The linkage we demonstrate between reproductive success and the quality of individuals as foragers provides an individual-based quantitative framework to investigate how

  16. Low Spatial Genetic Differentiation Associated with Rapid Recolonization in the New Zealand Fur Seal Arctocephalus forsteri.

    PubMed

    Dussex, Nicolas; Robertson, Bruce C; Salis, Alexander T; Kalinin, Aleksandr; Best, Hugh; Gemmell, Neil J

    2016-01-01

    Population declines resulting from anthropogenic activities are of major consequence for the long-term survival of species because the resulting loss of genetic diversity can lead to extinction via the effects of inbreeding depression, fixation of deleterious mutations, and loss of adaptive potential. Otariid pinnipeds have been exploited commercially to near extinction with some species showing higher demographic resilience and recolonization potential than others. The New Zealand fur seal (NZFS) was heavily impacted by commercial sealing between the late 18th and early 19th centuries, but has recolonized its former range in southern Australia. The species has also recolonized its former range in New Zealand, yet little is known about the pattern of recolonization. Here, we first used 11 microsatellite markers (n = 383) to investigate the contemporary population structure and dispersal patterns in the NZFS (Arctocephalus forsteri). Secondly, we model postsealing recolonization with 1 additional mtDNA cytochrome b (n = 261) marker. Our data identified 3 genetic clusters: an Australian, a subantarctic, and a New Zealand one, with a weak and probably transient subdivision within the latter cluster. Demographic history scenarios supported a recolonization of the New Zealand coastline from remote west coast colonies, which is consistent with contemporary gene flow and with the species' high resilience. The present data suggest the management of distinct genetic units in the North and South of New Zealand along a genetic gradient. Assignment of individuals to their colony of origin was limited (32%) with the present data indicating the current microsatellite markers are unlikely sufficient to assign fisheries bycatch of NZFSs to colonies. © The American Genetic Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Functional characterization of the dimerization domain of the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Erdeni; Rosell, Federico I.; Lige, Bao; Mauk, Marcia R.; Lelj-Garolla, Barbara; Moore, Geoffrey R.; Mauk, A. Grant

    2006-01-01

    The functional properties of the recombinant C-terminal dimerization domain of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Fur (ferric uptake regulator) protein expressed in and purified from Escherichia coli have been evaluated. Sedimentation velocity measurements demonstrate that this domain is dimeric, and the UV CD spectrum is consistent with a secondary structure similar to that observed for the corresponding region of the crystallographically characterized wild-type protein. The thermal stability of the domain as determined by CD spectroscopy decreases significantly as pH is increased and increases significantly as metal ions are added. Potentiometric titrations (pH 6.5) establish that the domain possesses a high-affinity and a low-affinity binding site for metal ions. The high-affinity (sensory) binding site demonstrates association constants (KA) of 10(±7)×106, 5.7(±3)×106, 2.0(±2)×106 and 2.0(±3)×104 M−1 for Ni2+, Zn2+, Co2+ and Mn2+ respectively, while the low-affinity (structural) site exhibits association constants of 1.3(±2)×106, 3.2(±2)×104, 1.76(±1)×105 and 1.5(±2)×103 M−1 respectively for the same metal ions (pH 6.5, 300 mM NaCl, 25 °C). The stability of metal ion binding to the sensory site follows the Irving–Williams order, while metal ion binding to the partial sensory site present in the domain does not. Fluorescence experiments indicate that the quenching resulting from binding of Co2+ is reversed by subsequent titration with Zn2+. We conclude that the domain is a reasonable model for many properties of the full-length protein and is amenable to some analyses that the limited solubility of the full-length protein prevents. PMID:16928194

  18. Temporal Allocation of Foraging Effort in Female Australian Fur Seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus)

    PubMed Central

    Hoskins, Andrew J.; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Across an individual's life, foraging decisions will be affected by multiple intrinsic and extrinsic drivers that act at differing timescales. This study aimed to assess how female Australian fur seals allocated foraging effort and the behavioural changes used to achieve this at three temporal scales: within a day, across a foraging trip and across the final six months of the lactation period. Foraging effort peaked during daylight hours (57% of time diving) with lulls in activity just prior to and after daylight. Dive duration reduced across the day (196 s to 168 s) but this was compensated for by an increase in the vertical travel rate (1500–1600 m·h−1) and a reduction in postdive duration (111–90 s). This suggests physiological constraints (digestive costs) or prey availability may be limiting mean dive durations as a day progresses. During short trips (<2.9 d), effort remained steady at 55% of time diving, whereas, on long trips (>2.9 d) effort increased up to 2–3 d and then decreased. Dive duration decreased at the same rate in short and long trips, respectively, before stabilising (long trips) between 4–5 d. Suggesting that the same processes (digestive costs or prey availability) working at the daily scale may also be present across a trip. Across the lactation period, foraging effort, dive duration and vertical travel rate increased until August, before beginning to decrease. This suggests that as the nutritional demands of the suckling pup and developing foetus increase, female effort increases to accommodate this, providing insight into the potential constraints of maternal investment in this species. PMID:24244511

  19. Pollution profile and biodegradation characteristics of fur-suede processing effluents.

    PubMed

    Yildiz Töre, G; Insel, G; Ubay Cokgör, E; Ferlier, E; Kabdaşli, I; Orhon, D

    2011-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of stream segregation on the biodegradation characteristics of wastewaters generated by fur-suede processing. It was conducted on a plant located in an organized industrial district in Turkey. A detailed in-plant analysis of the process profile and the resulting pollution profile in terms of significant parameters indicated the characteristics of a strong wastewater with a maximum total COD of 4285 mg L(-1), despite the excessive wastewater generation of 205 m3 (ton skin)(-1). Respirometric analysis by model calibration yielded slow biodegradation kinetics and showed that around 50% of the particulate organics were utilized at a rate similar to that of endogenous respiration. A similar analysis on the segregated wastewater streams suggested that biodegradation of the plant effluent is controlled largely by the initial washing/pickling operations. The effect of other effluent streams was not significant due to their relatively low contribution to the overall organic load. The respirometric tests showed that the biodegradation kinetics of the joint treatment plant influent of the district were substantially improved and exhibited typical levels reported for tannery wastewater, so that the inhibitory impact was suppressed to a great extent by dilution and mixing with effluents of the other plants. The chemical treatment step in the joint treatment plant removed the majority of the particulate organics so that 80% of the available COD was utilized in the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) test, a ratio quite compatible with the biodegradable COD fractions of tannery wastewater. Consequently, process kinetics and especially the hydrolysis rate appeared to be significantly improved.

  20. Seasonal study of the fungal biota of the fur of dogs.

    PubMed

    Cabañes, F J; Abarca, M L; Bragulat, M R; Castellá, G

    1996-01-01

    During a one year period, 944 dogs from the Municipal kennel of Barcelona were examined to detect animals with suspected dermatophytosis. Only a few animals (1.8%) presented skin lesions but none of them had dermatophytosis. A representative number of dogs without visible skin lesions (n = 172), selected at random, were used to carry out a seasonal study of the mycobiota of their fur. Fifteen isolates belonging to the genera Microsporum and Trichophyton were isolated from 14 of the 172 (8.1%) dogs without lesions. The identity of these fungi was Microsporum gypseum (6/15), Trichophyton terrestre (4/15), M. canis (2/15), M. cookei (2/15) and Trichophyton ajelloi (1/15) (one strain each of M. gypseum and T. ajelloi were isolated from one dog). Species of Penicillium (% prevalence = 89.5%), Alternaria (86.6%), Cladosporium (84.9%), Aspergillus (77.3%), Scopulariopsis (65.7%) and Chrysosporium (64.5%) were the most prevalent. No significant differences in the fungal biota were observed with respect to age, gender, hair length or between mixed and pure breed dogs. A large number of isolates, including species belonging to the genera Beauveria, Chrysosporium, Malbranchea and Scopulariopsis, that macroscopically and/or microscopically resemble dermatophytes and may be mistaken for them, produced a red color change in Dermatophyte Test Medium. No significant seasonal difference was detected among the isolates belonging to the most frequently encountered genera, with the exception of Scopulariopsis (higher in summer and autumn) and Chrysosporium (higher in summer). Species from other genera, with lower occurrence also presented significant differences in their seasonal distribution. Arthrinium, Aureobasidium, Chaetomium and Phoma spp. presented maximum prevalence peaks in spring, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Phoma and Rhizopus spp. in summer and Geotrichum and Mucor spp. in autumn. The Microsporum and Trichophyton species were more frequently isolated in summer.

  1. Hematology, Serum Chemistry, and Early Hematologic Changes in Free-Ranging South American Fur Seals ( Arctocephalus australis ) at Guafo Island, Chilean Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Seguel, Mauricio; Muñoz, Francisco; Keenan, Alessandra; Perez-Venegas, Diego J; DeRango, Eugene; Paves, Hector; Gottdenker, Nicole; Müller, Ananda

    2016-07-01

    The establishment of clinical pathology baseline data is critical to evaluate temporal and spatial changes in marine mammal groups. Despite increased availability of studies on hematology and biochemistry of marine mammals, reference ranges are lacking for many populations, especially among fur seal species. During the austral summers of 2014 and 2015, we evaluated basic hematologic and biochemical parameters in clinically healthy, physically restrained South American fur seal ( Arctocephalus australis ) lactating females and 2-mo-old pups. We also assessed the temporal variation of hematology parameters on the pups during their first 2 mo of life. Reference ranges of lactating females were similar to those previously reported in other fur seal species. In the case of pups, reference ranges are similar to values previously reported in sea lion species. As expected, most biochemical and hematologic values differ significantly between adult females and pups. As in other otariids, South American fur seals pups are born with higher values of total red blood cells, hemoglobin, and packed cell volume, and lower numbers of total leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils. To the best of our knowledge, data on hematology reference values for South American fur seals has not been previously reported and is useful for continued health monitoring of this species, as well as for comparisons with other otariid groups.

  2. Intestinal helminth fauna of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens and fur seal Arctocephalus australis from northern Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Orts, J S; Montero, F E; Juan-García, A; García, N A; Crespo, E A; Raga, J A; Aznar, F J

    2013-09-01

    We report on the intestinal helminth fauna of 56 South American sea lions, Otaria flavescens, and 5 South American fur seals, Arctocephalus australis, from northern Patagonia, Argentina. A total of 97,325 helminth specimens were collected from sea lions. Gravid individuals were represented by 6 species of parasites: 1 digenean (Ascocotyle (Ascocotyle) patagoniensis), 1 cestode (Diphyllobothrium spp.), 3 nematodes (Uncinaria hamiltoni, Contracaecum ogmorhini s.s., Pseudoterranova cattani) and 1 acanthocephalan (Corynosoma australe). In addition, third-stage larvae of 2 nematodes (Contracaecum sp. and Anisakis sp. type I) and 3 juvenile acanthocephalans (Andracantha sp., Profilicollis chasmagnathi and Corynosoma cetaceum) were also collected. Andracantha sp., C. ogmorhini s.s. and P. chasmagnathi represent new host records. A total of 1516 helminth specimens were collected from fur seals. Gravid individuals were represented by three species of parasites, namely, Diphyllobothrium spp., C. ogmorhini s.s. and C. australe. In addition, larvae of Contracaecum sp. and P. cattani, juveniles of C. cetaceum and immature cestodes (Tetrabothriidae gen. sp.) were also collected. Corynosoma australe was the most prevalent and abundant parasite in both hosts, accounting for >90% of all specimens. Sea lions and furs seals from northern Patagonia harbour the intestinal helminth communities that could be predicted for otariids, i.e. the combination of species of the genera Corynosoma, Diphyllobothrium, Pseudoterranova, Contracaecum and, in pups, Uncinaria. Additionally, both species of otariid are apparently unsuitable hosts (i.e. non-hosts) for as many as five parasite taxa. The inclusion or exclusion of these species affects estimation of species richness at both component community (11 versus 6 species in sea lions; 7 versus 3 species in fur seals) and infracommunity (mean: 3.1 versus 2.6 in sea lions; 2.2 versus 1.7 species) levels. Information about the reproductive status of

  3. A decrease in heat insulation of the black-clawed brush-furred rat (Lophuromys melanonyx, Petter) during adaptation to high altitudes.

    PubMed

    Ivlev, Y F; Lavrenchenko, L A

    2016-01-01

    The results of the body-surface infrared thermography of rodents of the genus Lophuromys suggest that heat insulation of the black-clawed brush-furred rat L. melanonyx, a large specialized species of the AfroAlpine zone, is worse than that of the related smaller species, the golden-footed (L. chrysopus) and shorttailed (L. brevicaudus) brush-furred rats, that inhabit tropical forest and Erica shrub, respectively. A decrease in heat insulation of the alpine species may facilitate the use of solar radiation for supporting heat balance of these diurnal animals.

  4. Kelp and dolphin gulls cause perineal wounds in South American fur seal pups (Arctocephalus australis) at Guafo Island, Chilean Patagonia

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Francisco; Montalva, Felipe; Perez-Venegas, Diego; Pavés, Héctor; Gottdenker, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    During five reproductive seasons, we documented the presence, extent and origin of perineal wounds in South American fur seal pups (Arctocephalus australis) on Guafo Island, Northern Chilean Patagonia. The seasonal prevalence of perineal wounds ranged from 5 to 9%, and new cases were more common at the end of the breeding season (February), when pups were on average two months old and were actively expelling hookworms (Uncinaria sp). Histologically, wounds corresponded to marked ulcerative lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic dermatitis with granulation tissue and mixed bacterial colonies. In 2015 and 2017, kelp gulls (Larus dominicanus) and dolphin gulls (Leucophaeus scoresbii) were observed picking and wounding the perineal area of marked pups. This behaviour occurred more frequently after the pups' defecation, when sea gulls engaged in consumption of pups' faeces. The affected pups usually had moderate to marked hookworm infections along with bloody diarrhoea and anaemia. Pups with severe wounds (23% of affected animals) had swollen perineal areas and signs of secondary systemic bacterial infection. We propose that seagulls on Guafo Island have learned to consume remains of blood and parasites in the faeces of pups affected by hookworm infection, causing perineal wounds during this process. We conclude that this perineal wounding is an unintentional, occasional negative effect of an otherwise commensal gull–fur seal relationship. PMID:28791178

  5. Kelp and dolphin gulls cause perineal wounds in South American fur seal pups (Arctocephalus australis) at Guafo Island, Chilean Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Seguel, Mauricio; Muñoz, Francisco; Montalva, Felipe; Perez-Venegas, Diego; Pavés, Héctor; Gottdenker, Nicole

    2017-07-01

    During five reproductive seasons, we documented the presence, extent and origin of perineal wounds in South American fur seal pups ( Arctocephalus australis ) on Guafo Island, Northern Chilean Patagonia. The seasonal prevalence of perineal wounds ranged from 5 to 9%, and new cases were more common at the end of the breeding season (February), when pups were on average two months old and were actively expelling hookworms ( Uncinaria sp). Histologically, wounds corresponded to marked ulcerative lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic dermatitis with granulation tissue and mixed bacterial colonies. In 2015 and 2017, kelp gulls ( Larus dominicanus ) and dolphin gulls ( Leucophaeus scoresbii ) were observed picking and wounding the perineal area of marked pups. This behaviour occurred more frequently after the pups' defecation, when sea gulls engaged in consumption of pups' faeces. The affected pups usually had moderate to marked hookworm infections along with bloody diarrhoea and anaemia. Pups with severe wounds (23% of affected animals) had swollen perineal areas and signs of secondary systemic bacterial infection. We propose that seagulls on Guafo Island have learned to consume remains of blood and parasites in the faeces of pups affected by hookworm infection, causing perineal wounds during this process. We conclude that this perineal wounding is an unintentional, occasional negative effect of an otherwise commensal gull-fur seal relationship.

  6. Effects of a 17q21 chromosome gene variant, tobacco smoke and furred pets on infant wheeze.

    PubMed

    Bräuner, E V; Loft, S; Raaschou-Nielsen, O; Vogel, U; Andersen, P S; Sørensen, M

    2012-01-01

    The first common genetic factor identified for pediatric asthma by genome-wide association is the chromosome 17q21 locus, harbouring the ORMDL3 gene. ORMDL3 is involved in facilitation of endoplasmic reticulum-mediated inflammatory responses, believed to underlie its asthma association. We investigated associations between the rs7216389 polymorphism in the 17q21 locus affecting ORMDL3 expression and the risk for recurrent wheeze and interactions with exposure to tobacco smoke and furred pets during pregnancy and infancy using a birth cohort of 101,042 infants. Rs7216389 was significantly associated with recurrent wheeze risk among 18-month-old infants. There was a 1.35-fold higher risk of recurrent wheeze among homozygous variant allele carriers compared with homozygous wild-type allele carriers. There was significant interaction between rs7216389 and domestic furred pets, with a positive association between pets and wheeze among homozygous wild-type carriers and a negative association among homozygous variant allele carriers. There was no interaction between rs7216389 and tobacco smoke exposure.

  7. Fur-dependent detoxification of organic acids by rpoS mutants during prolonged incubation under aerobic, phosphate starvation conditions.

    PubMed

    Guillemet, Mélanie L; Moreau, Patrice L

    2008-08-01

    The activity of amino acid-dependent acid resistance systems allows Escherichia coli to survive during prolonged incubation under phosphate (P(i)) starvation conditions. We show in this work that rpoS-null mutants incubated in the absence of any amino acid survived during prolonged incubation under aerobic, P(i) starvation conditions. Whereas rpoS(+) cells incubated with glutamate excreted high levels of acetate, rpoS mutants grew on acetic acid. The characteristic metabolism of rpoS mutants required the activity of Fur (ferric uptake regulator) in order to decrease the synthesis of the small RNA RyhB that might otherwise inhibit the synthesis of iron-rich proteins. We propose that RpoS (sigma(S)) and the small RNA RyhB contribute to decrease the synthesis of iron-rich proteins required for the activity of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, which redirects the metabolic flux toward the production of acetic acid at the onset of stationary phase in rpoS(+) cells. In contrast, Fur activity, which represses ryhB, and the lack of RpoS activity allow a substantial activity of the TCA cycle to continue in stationary phase in rpoS mutants, which decreases the production of acetic acid and, eventually, allows growth on acetic acid and P(i) excreted into the medium. These data may help explain the fact that a high frequency of E. coli rpoS mutants is found in nature.

  8. The Fur-Iron Complex Modulates Expression of the Quorum-Sensing Master Regulator, SmcR, To Control Expression of Virulence Factors in Vibrio vulnificus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, In Hwang; Wen, Yancheng; Son, Jee-Soo; Lee, Kyu-Ho

    2013-01-01

    The gene vvpE, encoding the virulence factor elastase, is a member of the quorum-sensing regulon in Vibrio vulnificus and displays enhanced expression at high cell density. We observed that this gene was repressed under iron-rich conditions and that the repression was due to a Fur (ferric uptake regulator)-dependent repression of smcR, a gene encoding a quorum-sensing master regulator with similarity to luxR in Vibrio harveyi. A gel mobility shift assay and a footprinting experiment demonstrated that the Fur-iron complex binds directly to two regions upstream of smcR (−82 to −36 and −2 to +27, with respect to the transcription start site) with differing affinities. However, binding of the Fur-iron complex is reversible enough to allow expression of smcR to be induced by quorum sensing at high cell density under iron-rich conditions. Under iron-limiting conditions, Fur fails to bind either region and the expression of smcR is regulated solely by quorum sensing. These results suggest that two biologically important environmental signals, iron and quorum sensing, converge to direct the expression of smcR, which then coordinates the expression of virulence factors. PMID:23716618

  9. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Beal, D.; McIlvaine , J.; Fonorow, K.

    2011-11-01

    This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces. This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing. Interior ducts result from bringing the duct work inside a home's thermal and air barrier. Architects, designers, builders, and new home buyers should thoroughly investigate any opportunity for energy savings that is as easy to implement during construction, such as the opportunity to construct interior duct work. In addition tomore » enhanced energy efficiency, interior ductwork results in other important advantages, such as improved indoor air quality, increased system durability and increased homeowner comfort. While the advantages of well-designed and constructed interior duct systems are recognized, the implementation of this approach has not gained a significant market acceptance. This guideline describes a variety of methods to create interior ducts including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces. As communication of the intent of an interior duct system, and collaboration on its construction are paramount to success, this guideline details the critical design, planning, construction, inspection, and verification steps that must be taken. Involved in this process are individuals from the design team; sales/marketing team; and mechanical, insulation, plumbing, electrical, framing, drywall and solar contractors.« less

  10. Virtual Reality and Online Databases: Will "Look and Feel" Literally Mean "Look" and "Feel"? [and]"Online" Interviews Dr. Thomas A. Furness III, Virtual Reality Pioneer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carmen

    1992-01-01

    The first of two articles discusses virtual reality (VR) and online databases; the second one reports on an interview with Thomas A. Furness III, who defines VR and explains work at the Human Interface Technology Laboratory (HIT). Sidebars contain a glossary of VR terms and a conversation with Toni Emerson, the HIT lab's librarian. (LRW)

  11. Short-term episodes of imposed fasting have a greater effect on young northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) in summer than in winter

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, David A. S.; Volpov, Beth L.; Trites, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    An unexpected shortage of food may affect wildlife in a different way depending on the time of year when it occurs. We imposed 48 h fasts on six female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus; ages 6–24 months) to identify times of year when they might be particularly sensitive to interruptions in food supply. We monitored changes in their resting metabolic rates and their metabolic response to thermal challenges, and also examined potential bioenergetic causes for seasonal differences in body mass loss. The pre-fast metabolism of the fur seals while in ambient air or submerged in water at 4°C was higher during summer (June to Sepember) than winter (November to March), and submergence did not significantly increase metabolism, indicating a lack of additional thermoregulatory costs. There was no evidence of metabolic depression following the fasting periods, nor did metabolism increase during the post-fast thermal challenge, suggesting that mass loss did not negatively impact thermoregulatory capacity. However, the fur seals lost mass at greater rates while fasting during the summer months, when metabolism is normally high to facilitate faster growth rates (which would ordinarily have been supported by higher food intake levels). Our findings suggest that summer is a more critical time of year than winter for young northern fur seals to obtain adequate nutrition. PMID:27293642

  12. Tissue Distribution of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorine Pesticides and Potential Toxicity to Alaskan Northern Fur Seals Assessed Using PCBs Congener Specific Mode of Action Schemes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The concentrations of 145 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were measured using gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry in 8 different tissues (blubber, brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, and reproductive tissues) of 10 Alaskan northern fur seals. The mean concentrations of bot...

  13. Institute for Science Education. Institut fur die Padagogik der Naturwissenschaften an der Universitat Kiel. IPN Report-in-Brief 11. 3rd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blansdorf, Klaus, Ed.

    The Institut fur die Padagogik der Naturwissenschaften (IPN) is the research institute for science education, with a national function in the Federal Republic of Germany. The IPN consists of biology education, chemistry education, physics education, educational science, research methodology/statistics, and administration/general services…

  14. Thermal implications of interactions between insulation, solar reflectance, and fur structure in the summer coats of diverse species of kangaroo.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Terence J; Maloney, Shane K

    2017-04-01

    Not all of the solar radiation that impinges on a mammalian coat is absorbed and converted into thermal energy at the coat surface. Some is reflected back to the environment, while another portion is reflected further into the coat where it is absorbed and manifested as heat at differing levels. Substantial insulation in a coat limits the thermal impact at the skin of solar radiation, irrespective where in the coat it is absorbed. In coats with low insulation, the zone where solar radiation is absorbed may govern the consequent heat load on the skin (HL-SR). Thin summer furs of four species of kangaroo from differing climatic zones were used to determine how variation in insulation and in coat spectral and structural characteristics influence the HL-SR. Coat depth, structure, and solar reflectance varied between body regions, as well as between species. The modulation of solar radiation and resultant heat flows in these coats were measured at low (1 m s -1 ) and high (6 m s -1 ) wind speeds by mounting them on a heat flux transducer/temperature-controlled plate apparatus in a wind tunnel. A lamp with a spectrum similar to solar radiation was used as a proxy for the sun. We established that coat insulation was largely determined by coat depth at natural fur lie, despite large variations in fibre density, fibre diameter, and fur mass. Higher wind speed decreased coat insulation, but depth still determined the overall level. A multiple regression analysis that included coat depth (insulation), fibre diameter, fibre density, and solar reflectance was used to determine the best predictors of HL-SR. Only depth and reflectance had significant impacts and both factors had negative weights, so, as either insulation or reflectance increased, HL-SR declined, the larger impact coming from coat reflectance. This reverses the pattern observed in deep coats where insulation dominates over effects of reflectance. Across all coats, as insulation declined, reflectance increased

  15. Australian Fur Seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) Use Raptorial Biting and Suction Feeding When Targeting Prey in Different Foraging Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, David P.; Salverson, Marcia; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Evans, Alistair R.

    2014-01-01

    Foraging behaviours used by two female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) were documented during controlled feeding trials. During these trials the seals were presented with prey either free-floating in open water or concealed within a mobile ball or a static box feeding device. When targeting free-floating prey both subjects primarily used raptorial biting in combination with suction, which was used to draw prey to within range of the teeth. When targeting prey concealed within either the mobile or static feeding device, the seals were able to use suction to draw out prey items that could not be reached by biting. Suction was followed by lateral water expulsion, where water drawn into the mouth along with the prey item was purged via the sides of the mouth. Vibrissae were used to explore the surface of the feeding devices, especially when locating the openings in which the prey items had been hidden. The mobile ball device was also manipulated by pushing it with the muzzle to knock out concealed prey, which was not possible when using the static feeding device. To knock prey out of this static device one seal used targeted bubble blowing, where a focused stream of bubbles was blown out of the nose into the openings in the device. Once captured in the jaws, prey items were manipulated and re-oriented using further mouth movements or chews so that they could be swallowed head first. While most items were swallowed whole underwater, some were instead taken to the surface and held in the teeth, while being vigorously shaken to break them into smaller pieces before swallowing. The behavioural flexibility displayed by Australian fur seals likely assists in capturing and consuming the extremely wide range of prey types that are targeted in the wild, during both benthic and epipelagic foraging. PMID:25390347

  16. Campylobacter jejuni dsb gene expression is regulated by iron in a Fur-dependent manner and by a translational coupling mechanism

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many bacterial extracytoplasmic proteins are stabilized by intramolecular disulfide bridges that are formed post-translationally between their cysteine residues. This protein modification plays an important role in bacterial pathogenesis, and is facilitated by the Dsb (disulfide bond) family of the redox proteins. These proteins function in two parallel pathways in the periplasmic space: an oxidation pathway and an isomerization pathway. The Dsb oxidative pathway in Campylobacter jejuni is more complex than the one in the laboratory E. coli K-12 strain. Results In the C. jejuni 81-176 genome, the dsb genes of the oxidative pathway are arranged in three transcriptional units: dsbA2-dsbB-astA, dsbA1 and dba-dsbI. Their transcription responds to an environmental stimulus - iron availability - and is regulated in a Fur-dependent manner. Fur involvement in dsb gene regulation was proven by a reporter gene study in a C. jejuni wild type strain and its isogenic fur mutant. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) confirmed that analyzed genes are members of the Fur regulon but each of them is regulated by a disparate mechanism, and both the iron-free and the iron-complexed Fur are able to bind in vitro to the C. jejuni promoter regions. This study led to identification of a new iron- and Fur-regulated promoter that drives dsbA1 gene expression in an indirect way. Moreover, the present work documents that synthesis of DsbI oxidoreductase is controlled by the mechanism of translational coupling. The importance of a secondary dba-dsbI mRNA structure for dsbI mRNA translation was verified by estimating individual dsbI gene expression from its own promoter. Conclusions The present work shows that iron concentration is a significant factor in dsb gene transcription. These results support the concept that iron concentration - also through its influence on dsb gene expression - might control the abundance of extracytoplasmic proteins during different stages of

  17. Campylobacter jejuni dsb gene expression is regulated by iron in a Fur-dependent manner and by a translational coupling mechanism.

    PubMed

    Grabowska, Anna D; Wandel, Michał P; Łasica, Anna M; Nesteruk, Monika; Roszczenko, Paula; Wyszyńska, Agnieszka; Godlewska, Renata; Jagusztyn-Krynicka, Elzbieta K

    2011-07-25

    Many bacterial extracytoplasmic proteins are stabilized by intramolecular disulfide bridges that are formed post-translationally between their cysteine residues. This protein modification plays an important role in bacterial pathogenesis, and is facilitated by the Dsb (disulfide bond) family of the redox proteins. These proteins function in two parallel pathways in the periplasmic space: an oxidation pathway and an isomerization pathway. The Dsb oxidative pathway in Campylobacter jejuni is more complex than the one in the laboratory E. coli K-12 strain. In the C. jejuni 81-176 genome, the dsb genes of the oxidative pathway are arranged in three transcriptional units: dsbA2-dsbB-astA, dsbA1 and dba-dsbI. Their transcription responds to an environmental stimulus - iron availability - and is regulated in a Fur-dependent manner. Fur involvement in dsb gene regulation was proven by a reporter gene study in a C. jejuni wild type strain and its isogenic fur mutant. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) confirmed that analyzed genes are members of the Fur regulon but each of them is regulated by a disparate mechanism, and both the iron-free and the iron-complexed Fur are able to bind in vitro to the C. jejuni promoter regions. This study led to identification of a new iron- and Fur-regulated promoter that drives dsbA1 gene expression in an indirect way. Moreover, the present work documents that synthesis of DsbI oxidoreductase is controlled by the mechanism of translational coupling. The importance of a secondary dba-dsbI mRNA structure for dsbI mRNA translation was verified by estimating individual dsbI gene expression from its own promoter. The present work shows that iron concentration is a significant factor in dsb gene transcription. These results support the concept that iron concentration - also through its influence on dsb gene expression - might control the abundance of extracytoplasmic proteins during different stages of infection. Our work further shows

  18. The inability of Bacillus licheniformis perR mutant to grow is mainly due to the lack of PerR-mediated fur repression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Hoon; Yang, Yoon-Mo; Ji, Chang-Jun; Ryu, Su-Hyun; Won, Young-Bin; Ju, Shin-Yeong; Kwon, Yumi; Lee, Yeh-Eun; Youn, Hwan; Lee, Jin-Won

    2017-06-01

    PerR, a member of Fur family protein, is a metal-dependent H 2 O 2 sensing transcription factor that regulates genes involved in peroxide stress response. Industrially important bacterium Bacillus licheniformis contains three PerR-like proteins (PerR BL , PerR2, and PerR3) compared to its close relative Bacillus subtilis. Interestingly, unlike other bacteria including B. subtilis, no authentic perR BL null mutant could be established for B. licheniformis. Thus, we constructed a conditional perR BL mutant using a xylose-inducible promoter, and investigated the genes under the control of PerR BL . PerR BL regulon genes include katA, mrgA, ahpC, pfeT, hemA, fur, and perR as observed for PerR BS . However, there is some variation in the expression levels of fur and hemA genes between B. subtilis and B. licheniformis in the derepressed state. Furthermore, katA, mrgA, and ahpC are strongly induced, whereas the others are only weakly or not induced by H 2 O 2 treatment. In contrast to the B. subtilis perR null mutant which frequently gives rise to large colony phenotype mainly due to the loss of katA, the suppressors of B. licheniformis perR mutant, which can form colonies on LB agar, were all catalase-positive. Instead, many of the suppressors showed increased levels of siderophore production, suggesting that the suppressor mutation is linked to the fur gene. Consistent with this, perR fur double mutant could grow on LB agar without Fe supplementation, whereas perR katA double mutant could only grow on LB agar with Fe supplementation. Taken together, our data suggest that in B. licheniformis, despite the similarity in PerR BL and PerR BS regulon genes, perR is an essential gene required for growth and that the inability of perR null mutant to grow is mainly due to elevated expression of Fur.

  19. Growth inhibition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the immunosuppressant leflunomide is due to the inhibition of uracil uptake via Fur4p.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, H

    1998-10-01

    The immunosuppressant leflunomide inhibits cytokine-stimulated proliferation of lymphoid cells in vitro and also inhibits the growth of the eukaryotic microorganism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of action of the drug, two yeast genes which suppress the anti-proliferative effect when present in multiple copies were cloned and designated MLF1 and MLF2 for multicopy suppressor of leflunomide sensitivity. DNA sequencing analysis revealed that the MLF1 gene is identical to the FUR4 gene, which encodes a uracil permease and functions to import uracil efficiently. The MLF2 was found to be identical to the URA3 gene. Excess exogenous uracil also overcomes the anti-proliferative effect of leflunomide on yeast cells. Uracil prototrophy also conferred resistance to leflunomide. Uracil uptake was inhibited by leflunomide. Thus, the growth inhibition by leflunomide seen in a S. cerevisiae ura3 auxotroph is due to the inhibition of the entry of exogenous uracil via the Fur4 uracil permease.

  20. Molecular and morphometric evidence for separate species of Uncinaria (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) in California sea lions and northern fur seals: hypothesis testing supplants verification.

    PubMed

    Nadler, S A; Adams, B J; Lyons, E T; DeLong, R L; Melin, S R

    2000-10-01

    California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) are each believed to host distinct hookworm species (Uncinaria spp.). However, a recent morphometric analysis suggested that a single species parasitizes multiple pinniped hosts, and that the observed differences are host-induced. To explore the systematics of these hookworms and test these competing hypotheses, we obtained nucleotide sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (D2/D3 28S, D18/D19 28S, and internal transcribed spacer [ITS] regions) from 20 individual hookworms parasitizing California sea lion and northern fur seal pups where their breeding grounds are sympatric. Five individuals from an allopatric population of California sea lions were also sampled for ITS-1 and D18/D19 28S sequences. The 28S D2/D3 sequences showed no diagnostic differences among hookworms sampled from individual sea lions and fur seals, whereas the 28S D18/D19 sequences had one derived (apomorphic) character demarcating hookworms from northern fur seals. ITS sequences were variable for 7 characters, with 4 derived (apomorphic) states in ITS-1 demarcating hookworms from California sea lions. Multivariate analysis of morphometric data also revealed significant differences between nematodes representing these 2 host-associated lineages. These results indicate that these hookworms represent 2 species that are not distributed indiscriminately between these host species, but instead exhibit host fidelity, evolving independently with each respective host species. This evolutionary approach to analyzing sequence data for species delimitation is contrasted with similarity-based methods that have been applied to numerous diagnostic studies of nematode parasites.

  1. Human Hair, Baltic Grey Seal (Halichoerus grypus) Fur and Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) Feathers as Accumulators of Bisphenol A and Alkylphenols.

    PubMed

    Nehring, Iga; Staniszewska, Marta; Falkowska, Lucyna

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the concentration of bisphenol A (BPA), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), and 4-nonylphenol (NP), in human hair, the fur of Baltic grey seals and the feathers of herring gulls. Hair was collected from 42 volunteers, while grey seal fur (n = 17) came from the seal centre in Hel (Marine Station of Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdansk) and gull covert feathers (n = 26) were collected from dead herring gulls along the Southern Baltic coast. Assays of phenol derivatives were conducted using the high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection technique. In human hair, the mean BPA concentration amounted to 411.2 ng g -1  dw, OP 131.2 ng g -1  dw, NP 4478.4 ng g -1  dw, in seal fur BPA 67.5 ng g -1  dw, OP 62.8 ng g -1  dw, NP 39.1 ng g -1  dw, and in feathers BPA 145.1 ng g -1  dw, OP 162.0 ng g -1  dw, NP 37.7 ng g -1  dw. The increase of the analysed EDCs in hair was significantly influenced by diet rich in products of marine origin, as well as hair colouring, heating up food in plastic containers, using home cleaning products without protective gloves and wearing newly purchased clothes without washing them first. The concentration of phenol derivatives in seal fur was influenced solely by the uniform diet rich in fish. In birds, the feeding area during molting significantly influenced the concentration of BPA, OP and NP found in covert feathers.

  2. Zur (FurB) is a key factor in the control of the oxidative stress response in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Sein-Echaluce, Violeta C; González, Andrés; Napolitano, Mauro; Luque, Ignacio; Barja, Francisco; Peleato, M Luisa; Fillat, María F

    2015-06-01

    Iron and zinc are necessary nutrients whose homeostasis is tightly controlled by members of the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) superfamily in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC7120. Although the link between iron metabolism and oxidative stress management is well documented, little is known about the connection between zinc homeostasis and the oxidative stress response in cyanobacteria. Zinc homeostasis in Anabaena is controlled by Zur, also named FurB. When overexpressed in Escherichia coli, Zur (FurB) improved cell survival during oxidative stress. In order to investigate the possible correlation between Zur and the oxidative stress response in Anabaena, zur deletion and zur-overexpressing strains have been constructed, and the consequences of Zur imbalance evaluated. The lack of Zur increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), whereas an excess of Zur enhanced oxidative stress resistance. Both mutants displayed pleiotropic phenotypes, including alterations on the filament surfaces observable by scanning electron microscopy, reduced content of endogenous H2 O2 and altered expression of sodA, catalases and several peroxiredoxins. Transcriptional and biochemical analyses unveiled that the appropriate level of Zur is required for proper control of the oxidative stress response and allowed us to identify major antioxidant enzymes as novel members of the Zur regulon. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. STS-99 / Endeavour Mission Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The primary objective of the STS-99 mission was to complete high resolution mapping of large sections of the Earth's surface using the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). This radar system will produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's Surface. This videotape presents a mission overview press briefing. The panel members are Dr. Ghassem Asrar, NASA Associate Administrator Earth Sciences; General James C. King, Director National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA); Professor Achim Bachem, Member of the Executive Board, Deutschen Zentrum fur Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), the German National Aerospace Research Center; and Professor Sergio Deiulio, President of the Italian Space Agency. Dr. Asrar opened with a summary of the history of Earth Observations from space, relating the SRTM to this history. This mission, due to cost and complexity, required partnership with other agencies and nations, and the active participation of the astronauts. General King spoke to the expectations of NIMA, and the use of the Synthetic Aperture Radar to produce the high resolution topographic images. Dr. Achim Bachem spoke about the international cooperation that this mission required, and some of the commercial applications and companies that will use this data. Dr Deiulio spoke of future plans to improve knowledge of the Earth using satellites. Questions from the press concerned use of the information for military actions, the reason for the restriction on access to the higher resolution data, the mechanism to acquire that data for scientific research, and the cost sharing from the mission's partners. There was also discussion about the mission's length.

  4. A simple model for coupled acoustic-structure resonance in Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginsberg, Jerry H.

    2005-04-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a joint project of NASA and the Deutsches Zentrum fur Luft- und Raumfahrt that has mounted a 2.5 m, 20 000 kg infrared telescope on a bulkhead of a specially modified Boeing 747-SP. A large sliding door will expose the observation bay to the exterior flow field at Mach 0.85 and 13 km altitude. In the open configuration the interaction of turbulence vortices generated at the leading and trailing edges of the opening has the possibility of inducing a strong acoustic signal. A concern has been raised that the peak frequencies of such a signal might coincide with the cavity resonances. The present work examines the transfer function for a known source in order to identify the cavity resonances. Simplistic reasoning argues that the worst case would occur if the cavity resonant frequencies are close to structural resonances. However, the structure's impedance is very low at its resonances, which means that the cavity resonant frequencies are shifted from their nominal values. The present work uses a simple one-dimensional waveguide model, in which one end is terminated by a damped single-degree-of-freedom oscillator, to explain the coupled-fluid structure resonance. The characteristic equation and formulas for the pressure and displacement transfer functions are derived. Analysis of these results leads to some surprising insights regarding the role of a structure's stiffness and mass. [Work supported by the NASA.

  5. Early Science Results from SOFIA, the Worlds Largest Airborne Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Buizer, J.

    2012-09-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, or SOFIA, is the largest flying observatory ever built, consisting of a 2.7-meter diameter telescope embedded in a modified Boeing 747-SP aircraft. SOFIA is a joint project between NASA and the German Aerospace Center Deutsches Zentrum fur Luft und-Raumfahrt. By flying at altitudes up to 45000 feet, the observatory gets above 99.9% of the infrared-absorbing water vapor in the Earth's atmosphere. This opens up an almost uninterrupted wavelength range from 0.3-1600 microns that is in large part obscured from ground based observatories. Since its 'Initial Science Flight' in December 2010, SOFIA has flown several dozen science flights, and has observed a wide array of objects from Solar System bodies, to stellar nurseries, to distant galaxies. This talk will review some of the exciting new science results from these first flights which were made by three instruments: the mid-infrared camera FORCAST, the far-infrared heterodyne spectrometer GREAT, and the optical occultation photometer HIPO.

  6. Damping SOFIA: passive and active damping for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maly, Joseph R.; Keas, Paul J.; Glaese, Roger M.

    2001-07-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy, SOFIA is being developed by NASA and the German space agency, Deutschen Zentrum fur Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), with an international contractor team. The 2.5-meter reflecting telescope of SOFIA will be the world's largest airborne telescope. Flying in an open cavity on a modified 747 aircraft, SOFIA will perform infrared astronomy while cruising at 41,000 feet and while being buffeted by a 550- mile-per-hour slipstream. A primary system requirement of SOFIA is tracking stability of 0.2 arc-seconds, and a 3-axis pointing control model has been used to evaluate the feasibility of achieving this kind of stability. The pointing control model shows that increased levels of damping in certain elastic modes of the telescope assembly will help achieve the tracking stability goal and also expand the bandwidth of the attitude controller. This paper describes the preliminary work that has been done to approximate the reduction in image motion yielded by various structure configurations that use reaction masses to attenuate the flexible motions of the telescope structure. Three approaches are considered: passive tuned-mass dampers, active-mass dampers, and attitude control with reaction-mass actuators. Expected performance improvements for each approach, and practical advantages and disadvantages associated with each are presented.

  7. An Upstream Truncation of the furA-katG Operon Confers High-Level Isoniazid Resistance in a Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clinical Isolate with No Known Resistance-Associated Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Yam, Wing Cheong; Zhang, Ying; Kao, Richard Y. T.

    2014-01-01

    Although the major causes of isoniazid (INH) resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis are confined to structural mutations in katG and promoter mutations in the mabA-inhA operon, a significant proportion of INH-resistant strains have unknown resistance mechanisms. Recently, we identified a high-level INH-resistant M. tuberculosis clinical isolate, GB005, with no known resistance-associated mutations. A comprehensive study was performed to investigate the molecular basis of drug resistance in this strain. Although no mutations were found throughout the katG and furA-katG intergenic region, the katG expression and the catalase activity were greatly diminished compared to those in H37Rv (P < 0.01). Northern blotting revealed that the katG transcript from the isolate was smaller than that of H37Rv. Sequencing analysis of furA and upstream genes discovered a 7.2-kb truncation extended from the 96th base preceding the initiation codon of katG. Complementation of the M. tuberculosis Δ(furA-katG) strain with katG and different portions of the truncated region identified a 134-bp upstream fragment of furA that was essential for full catalase activity and INH susceptibility in M. tuberculosis. The promoter activity of this fragment was also shown to be stronger than that of the furA-katG intergenic region (P < 0.01). Collectively, these findings demonstrate that deletion of the 134-bp furA upstream fragment is responsible for the reduction in katG expression, resulting in INH resistance in GB005. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that deletion of the upstream region preceding the furA-katG operon causes high-level INH resistance in a clinical isolate of M. tuberculosis. PMID:25092698

  8. Anisakids (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from stomachs of northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) on St. Paul Island, Alaska: parasitological and pathological analysis.

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, T A; Lyons, E T; Spraker, T R

    2014-12-01

    Anisakid nematodes parasitize the alimentary tracts of aquatic vertebrates, including northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) (NFS). The main purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence, intensity, and species composition of anisakids in NFSs on St. Paul Island, Alaska, and to analyze changes in NFS infection with these nematodes during the last decades. The study was carried out on St. Paul Island, Alaska, in July-August 2011-2013. Stomachs of 443 humanely harvested NFS males were collected from five separate haul-out areas. A total of 4,460 anisakid specimens were collected and identified by morphological criteria. Gross and histological examinations of stomachs were also performed. The overall prevalence of NFS infection was 91.2%; overall mean intensity 10.9, and overall median intensity 6. Five species, Anisakis simplex s. l., Contracaecum osculatum s. l., Pseudoterranova decipiens s. l., P. azarazi and Phocascaris cystophorae, were found. The prevalence of Anisakis was 46.5%, its intensity 7.5. The prevalence and intensity of Contracaecum, Pseudoterranova, and Phocascaris were 33.6% and 3.5, 81.9% and 6.5, and 5.2% and 1.7, respectively. Significant differences in the prevalence of NFS infection were observed between separate haul-outs. Comparison of the present data with the results of studies performed in the North Pacific in the 1960s, showed a significant decrease in the intensity of NFS infection with anisakids during the last decades. The prevalence of mucosal lesions in NFS stomachs caused by anisakids also decreased from 92 to 20.9%. Possible reasons for the changes in NFS infection with anisakids are discussed.

  9. Physiological response to extreme fasting in subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) pups: metabolic rates, energy reserve utilization, and water fluxes.

    PubMed

    Verrier, Delphine; Groscolas, René; Guinet, Christophe; Arnould, John P Y

    2009-11-01

    Surviving prolonged fasting requires various metabolic adaptations, such as energy and protein sparing, notably when animals are simultaneously engaged in energy-demanding processes such as growth. Due to the intermittent pattern of maternal attendance, subantarctic fur seal pups have to repeatedly endure exceptionally long fasting episodes throughout the 10-mo rearing period while preparing for nutritional independence. Their metabolic responses to natural prolonged fasting (33.4 +/- 3.3 days) were investigated at 7 mo of age. Within 4-6 fasting days, pups shifted into a stage of metabolic economy characterized by a minimal rate of body mass loss (0.7%/day) and decreased resting metabolic rate (5.9 +/- 0.1 ml O(2)xkg(-1)xday(-1)) that was only 10% above the level predicted for adult terrestrial mammals. Field metabolic rate (289 +/- 10 kJxkg(-1)xday(-1)) and water influx (7.9 +/- 0.9 mlxkg(-1)xday(-1)) were also among the lowest reported for any young otariid, suggesting minimized energy allocation to behavioral activity and thermoregulation. Furthermore, lean tissue degradation was dramatically reduced. High initial adiposity (>48%) and predominant reliance on lipid catabolism likely contributed to the exceptional degree of protein sparing attained. Blood chemistry supported these findings and suggested utilization of alternative fuels, such as beta-hydroxybutyrate and de novo synthesized glucose from fat-released glycerol. Regardless of sex and body condition, pups tended to adopt a convergent strategy of extreme energy and lean body mass conservation that appears highly adaptive for it allows some tissue growth during the repeated episodes of prolonged fasting they experience throughout their development.

  10. Long-Term Species, Sexual and Individual Variations in Foraging Strategies of Fur Seals Revealed by Stable Isotopes in Whiskers

    PubMed Central

    Kernaléguen, Laëtitia; Cazelles, Bernard; Arnould, John P. Y.; Richard, Pierre; Guinet, Christophe; Cherel, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Background Individual variations in the use of the species niche are an important component of diversity in trophic interactions. A challenge in testing consistency of individual foraging strategy is the repeated collection of information on the same individuals. Methodology/Principal Findings The foraging strategies of sympatric fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella and A. tropicalis) were examined using the stable isotope signature of serially sampled whiskers. Most whiskers exhibited synchronous δ13C and δ15N oscillations that correspond to the seal annual movements over the long term (up to 8 years). δ13C and δ15N values were spread over large ranges, with differences between species, sexes and individuals. The main segregating mechanism operates at the spatial scale. Most seals favored foraging in subantarctic waters (where the Crozet Islands are located) where they fed on myctophids. However, A. gazella dispersed in the Antarctic Zone and A. tropicalis more in the subtropics. Gender differences in annual time budget shape the seal movements. Males that do not perform any parental care exhibited large isotopic oscillations reflecting broad annual migrations, while isotopic values of females confined to a limited foraging range during lactation exhibited smaller changes. Limited inter-individual isotopic variations occurred in female seals and in male A. tropicalis. In contrast, male A. gazella showed large inter-individual variations, with some males migrating repeatedly to high-Antarctic waters where they fed on krill, thus meaning that individual specialization occurred over years. Conclusions/Significance Whisker isotopic signature yields unique long-term information on individual behaviour that integrates the spatial, trophic and temporal dimensions of the ecological niche. The method allows depicting the entire realized niche of the species, including some of its less well-known components such as age-, sex-, individual- and migration-related changes. It

  11. A draft fur seal genome provides insights into factors affecting SNP validation and how to mitigate them.

    PubMed

    Humble, E; Martinez-Barrio, A; Forcada, J; Trathan, P N; Thorne, M A S; Hoffmann, M; Wolf, J B W; Hoffman, J I

    2016-07-01

    Custom genotyping arrays provide a flexible and accurate means of genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a large number of individuals of essentially any organism. However, validation rates, defined as the proportion of putative SNPs that are verified to be polymorphic in a population, are often very low. A number of potential causes of assay failure have been identified, but none have been explored systematically. In particular, as SNPs are often developed from transcriptomes, parameters relating to the genomic context are rarely taken into account. Here, we assembled a draft Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) genome (assembly size: 2.41 Gb; scaffold/contig N50 : 3.1 Mb/27.5 kb). We then used this resource to map the probe sequences of 144 putative SNPs genotyped in 480 individuals. The number of probe-to-genome mappings and alignment length together explained almost a third of the variation in validation success, indicating that sequence uniqueness and proximity to intron-exon boundaries play an important role. The same pattern was found after mapping the probe sequences to the Walrus and Weddell seal genomes, suggesting that the genomes of species divergent by as much as 23 million years can hold information relevant to SNP validation outcomes. Additionally, reanalysis of genotyping data from seven previous studies found the same two variables to be significantly associated with SNP validation success across a variety of taxa. Finally, our study reveals considerable scope for validation rates to be improved, either by simply filtering for SNPs whose flanking sequences align uniquely and completely to a reference genome, or through predictive modelling. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Use of Anthropogenic Sea Floor Structures by Australian Fur Seals: Potential Positive Ecological Impacts of Marine Industrial Development?

    PubMed Central

    Arnould, John P. Y.; Monk, Jacquomo; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Hindell, Mark A.; Semmens, Jayson; Hoskins, Andrew J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Abernathy, Kyler; Marshall, Greg J.

    2015-01-01

    Human-induced changes to habitats can have deleterious effects on many species that occupy them. However, some species can adapt and even benefit from such modifications. Artificial reefs have long been used to provide habitat for invertebrate communities and promote local fish populations. With the increasing demand for energy resources within ocean systems, there has been an expansion of infrastructure in near-shore benthic environments which function as de facto artificial reefs. Little is known of their use by marine mammals. In this study, the influence of anthropogenic sea floor structures (pipelines, cable routes, wells and shipwrecks) on the foraging locations of 36 adult female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) was investigated. For 9 (25%) of the individuals, distance to anthropogenic sea floor structures was the most important factor in determining the location of intensive foraging activity. Whereas the influence of anthropogenic sea floor structures on foraging locations was not related to age and mass, it was positively related to flipper length/standard length (a factor which can affect manoeuvrability). A total of 26 (72%) individuals tracked with GPS were recorded spending time in the vicinity of structures (from <1% to >75% of the foraging trip duration) with pipelines and cable routes being the most frequented. No relationships were found between the amount of time spent frequenting anthropogenic structures and individual characteristics. More than a third (35%) of animals foraging near anthropogenic sea floor structures visited more than one type of structure. These results further highlight potentially beneficial ecological outcomes of marine industrial development. PMID:26132329

  13. Use of Anthropogenic Sea Floor Structures by Australian Fur Seals: Potential Positive Ecological Impacts of Marine Industrial Development?

    PubMed

    Arnould, John P Y; Monk, Jacquomo; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Hindell, Mark A; Semmens, Jayson; Hoskins, Andrew J; Costa, Daniel P; Abernathy, Kyler; Marshall, Greg J

    2015-01-01

    Human-induced changes to habitats can have deleterious effects on many species that occupy them. However, some species can adapt and even benefit from such modifications. Artificial reefs have long been used to provide habitat for invertebrate communities and promote local fish populations. With the increasing demand for energy resources within ocean systems, there has been an expansion of infrastructure in near-shore benthic environments which function as de facto artificial reefs. Little is known of their use by marine mammals. In this study, the influence of anthropogenic sea floor structures (pipelines, cable routes, wells and shipwrecks) on the foraging locations of 36 adult female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) was investigated. For 9 (25%) of the individuals, distance to anthropogenic sea floor structures was the most important factor in determining the location of intensive foraging activity. Whereas the influence of anthropogenic sea floor structures on foraging locations was not related to age and mass, it was positively related to flipper length/standard length (a factor which can affect manoeuvrability). A total of 26 (72%) individuals tracked with GPS were recorded spending time in the vicinity of structures (from <1% to >75% of the foraging trip duration) with pipelines and cable routes being the most frequented. No relationships were found between the amount of time spent frequenting anthropogenic structures and individual characteristics. More than a third (35%) of animals foraging near anthropogenic sea floor structures visited more than one type of structure. These results further highlight potentially beneficial ecological outcomes of marine industrial development.

  14. The Iron-Responsive Fur/RyhB Regulatory Cascade Modulates the Shigella Outer Membrane Protease IcsP ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Africa, Lia A. A.; Murphy, Erin R.; Egan, Nicholas R.; Wigley, Amanda F.; Wing, Helen J.

    2011-01-01

    Actin-based motility is central to the pathogenicity of the intracellular bacterial pathogen Shigella. Two Shigella outer membrane proteins, IcsA and IcsP, are required for efficient actin-based motility in the host cell cytoplasm, and the genes encoding both proteins are carried on the large virulence plasmid. IcsA triggers actin polymerization on the surface of the bacterium, leading to the formation of an actin tail that allows both intra- and intercellular spread. IcsP, an outer membrane protease, modulates the amount and distribution of the IcsA protein on the bacterial surface through proteolytic cleavage of IcsA. Transcription of icsP is increased in the presence of VirB, a DNA-binding protein that positively regulates many genes carried on the large virulence plasmid. In Shigella dysenteriae, the small regulatory RNA RyhB, which is a member of the iron-responsive Fur regulon, suppresses several virulence-associated phenotypes by downregulating levels of virB in response to iron limitation. Here we show that the Fur/RyhB regulatory pathway downregulates IcsP levels in response to low iron concentrations in Shigella flexneri and that this occurs at the level of transcription through the RyhB-dependent regulation of VirB. These observations demonstrate that in Shigella species the Fur/RyhB regulatory pathway provides a mechanism to finely tune the expression of icsP in response to the low concentrations of free iron predicted to be encountered within colonic epithelial cells. PMID:21859852

  15. The fur of mammals in exposed environments; do crypsis and thermal needs necessarily conflict? The polar bear and marsupial koala compared.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Terence J; Webster, Koa N; Maloney, Shane K

    2014-02-01

    The furs of mammals have varied and complex functions. Other than for thermoregulation, fur is involved in physical protection, sensory input, waterproofing and colouration, the latter being important for crypsis or camouflage. Some of these diverse functions potentially conflict. We have investigated how variation in cryptic colouration and thermal features may interact in the coats of mammals and influence potential heat inflows from solar radiation, much of which is outside the visible spectral range. The coats of the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) and the marsupial koala (Phascolarctus cinereus) have insulative similarities but, while they feature cryptic colouration, they are of contrasting colour, i.e. whitish and dark grey. The reflectance of solar radiation by coats was measured across the full solar spectrum using a spectroradiometer. The modulation of incident solar radiation and resultant heat flows in these coats were determined at a range of wind speeds by mounting them on a heat flux transducer/temperature-controlled plate apparatus in a wind tunnel. A lamp with a spectral distribution of radiation similar to the solar spectrum was used as a proxy for the sun. Crypsis by colour matching was apparent within the visible spectrum for the two species, U. maritimus being matched against snow and P. cinereus against Eucalyptus forest foliage. While reflectances across the full solar spectrum differed markedly, that of U. maritimus being 66 % as opposed to 10 % for P. cinereus, the heat influxes from solar radiation reaching the skin were similar. For both coats at low wind speed (1 m s(-1)), 19 % of incident solar radiation impacted as heat at the skin surface; at higher wind speed (10 m s(-1)) this decreased to approximately 10 %. Ursus maritimus and P. cinereus have high and comparable levels of fur insulation and although the patterns of reflectance and depths of penetrance of solar radiation differ for the coats, the considerable insulation limited the

  16. Current prevalence of adult Uncinaria spp. in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups on San Miguel Island, California, with notes on the biology of these hookworms.

    PubMed

    Lyons, E T; Melin, S R; DeLong, R L; Orr, A J; Gulland, F M; Tolliver, S C

    2001-06-28

    A prevalence survey for hookworms (Uncinaria spp.) was done in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups on San Miguel Island, CA, in 2000. Intestines of dead pups were examined for adult hookworms in July. These parasites were found in 95% of 20 fur seal pups and 100% of 31 sea lion pups. The number of hookworms varied from 4 to 2142 (mean = 760) in fur seal pups and from 20 to 2634 (mean = 612) in sea lion pups. A direct relationship was evident between body condition and number of hookworms in the pups; that is, pups in poor condition had fewer hookworms than those in good condition. There was a decline in the number of hookworms in sea lion pups in 2000 compared to collections in 1996. Eggs of Uncinaria spp. were found in rectal feces (collected in late September and early October) of none of 35 (0%) live fur seal pups and 41 of 48 (85%) live sea lion pups. Packed cell volume values, determined for most of the same live pups, were essentially normal for C. ursinus but were much lower than normal for most Z. californianus. Hookworm larvae were not found in blubber of fur seal and sea lion pups or in rookery sand in July. Rookery sand, positive for live hookworm larvae when put in a refrigerator, was negative at removal 2.5 years later. The average number of eggs in utero of female hookworms was 285 for three specimens from a fur seal pup and 281 from three specimens from a sea lion pup. One hookworm larva was recovered from milk stripped from the teats of a stranded Z. californianus female at The Marine Mammal Center, Sausalito, CA.

  17. Drinking behaviour and water turnover rates of Antarctic fur seal pups: implications for the estimation of milk intake by isotopic dilution.

    PubMed

    Lea, Mary-Anne; Bonadonna, Francesco; Hindell, Mark A; Guinet, Christophe; Goldsworthy, Simon D

    2002-06-01

    The estimation of milk consumption in free-ranging seals using tritium dilution techniques makes the key assumption that the animals drink no pre-formed water during the experimental period. However, frequent observations of unweaned Antarctic fur seal pups drinking water at Iles Kerguelen necessitated the testing of this assumption. We estimated water flux rates of 30 pups (10.7+/-0.3 kg) in four experimental groups by isotopic dilution over 4 days. The groups were: (1) pups held in an open air enclosure without access to water to estimate fasting metabolic water production (MWP); (2) free-ranging pups not administered additional water; (3) pups held in an open air enclosure and given a total of 300 ml of fresh water to verify technique accuracy; and (4) free-ranging pups given 200 ml of fresh water. Pups without access to water exhibited water flux rates (20.5+/-0.8 ml kg(-1)d(-1)), which were significantly lower than those observed for the free-ranging group (33.0+/-1.7 ml kg(-1) d(-1)). Mean estimated pre-formed water intake for the free-ranging experimental groups was 12.6 ml kg(-1) d(-1). Thus, MWP, measured as total water intake during fasting, may be significantly over-estimated in free-ranging Antarctic fur seal pups at Iles Kerguelen and at other sites and subsequently milk intake rates may be underestimated.

  18. Lunar cycles in diel prey migrations exert a stronger effect on the diving of juveniles than adult Galápagos fur seals.

    PubMed Central

    Horning, M; Trillmich, F

    1999-01-01

    In our study of the development of diving in Galápagos fur seals, we analysed changes in diving activity and body mass trends over the lunar cycle. Based on previously observed lunar cycles in colony attendance patterns, we hypothesized a greater impact of prey migrations of deep scattering layer organisms on younger fur seals. Using electronic dive recorders, we determined that seals dived less and deeper on moonlit nights than at new moon, and incurred body mass losses. These changes in foraging over the lunar cycle correlate with the suppression of the vertical migration of prey by lunar light. All effects were more pronounced in juveniles than adult females, with greater relative mass loss during full moon, which must (i) negatively affect long-term juvenile growth rates, (ii) lengthen periods of maternal dependence, and (iii) contribute to the lowest reproductive rate reported for seals. This underlines the importance of studying ontogeny in order to understand life histories, and for determining the susceptibility of animal populations to fluctuations in food availability. PMID:10406130

  19. Food of the Pacific white-sided dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens, Dall's porpoise, Phocoenoides dalli, and northern fur seal, Callorhinus ursinus, off California and Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stroud, Richard K.; Fiscus, Clifford H.; Kajimura, Hiroshi

    1981-01-01

    Our knowledge of the feeding habits of the Pacific white-sided dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obliquidens, and the Dall's porpoise, Phocoenoides dalli, is based on examination of the stomach contents of stranded animals, animals accidentally taken in commercial fishing gear, those taken in the western Pacific commercial fishery, and animals that died during capture attempts. Of these only a few were normally feeding animals taken at sea, whose stomach contents were thoroughly examined. Fished and squids previously identified from stomachs of dolphins and porpoises by various investigators are listed in Table 1.This paper documents the stomach contents of 44 Pacific white-sided dolphin and 9 Dall's porpoise collected at sea off California and Washington. All animals were collected by the authors during pelagic fur seal studies with the exception of three dolphins which were collected by a staff biologist during whale research voyages off California. Comparisons of stomach contents are made between the Pacific white-sided dolphins, Dall's porpoise, and northern fur seal, Callorhinus ursinus, collected near the same locations and usually on the same day. Mention of the dolphin, porpoise , and seal in this paper refers to the above-named species unless noted otherwise.

  20. Psychiatric research and science policy in Germany: the history of the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Psychiatrie (German Institute for Psychiatric Research) in Munich from 1917 to 1945).

    PubMed

    Weber, M M

    2000-09-01

    The Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Psychiatrie (DFA) in Munich, one of the most important research institutes in the field of theoretical and clinical psychiatry, was founded in 1917 by Emil Kraepelin. Its financial existence between the world wars was assured by generous donations from the Jewish American scholar and philanthropist James Loeb. The scientific work done by Walther Spielmeyer (neuropathology), Felix Plaut (serology), Kurt Schneider (clinical psychiatry) and Ernst Rudin (psychiatric genetics) earned the DFA a reputation as an international center for psychiatry and neurology. During the 'Third Reich' Ernst Rudin cooperated with the National Socialist health system. His genetic concepts provided support for eugenic programmes such as forced sterilization of individuals with psychoses. These complex interactions underscore the importance of the DFA in understanding the recent history of medicine in Germany.

  1. Ectoparasite Burden, Clinical Disease, and Immune Responses throughout Fur Mite (Myocoptes musculinus) Infestation in C57BL/6 and Rag1–/– Mice

    PubMed Central

    Moats, Cassandra R; Baxter, Victoria K; Pate, Nathan M; Watson, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Immunocompetent weanling mice infested with Myocoptes musculinus harbor high mite loads, yet burdens decrease with age. The development of immunity to the parasite may explain this observation. In this study, we followed M. musculinus burdens in Rag1−/− mice and immunocompetent C57BL/6 controls from 4 to 36 wk of age and compared the clinical signs and body weights of noninfested and infested mice of both strains over time. In addition, histopathology of skin lesions and expression of cytokines and transcription factors associated with Th1- and Th2-type immune responses were assessed. Myocoptes burdens decreased and remained low in B6 mice over time, whereas Rag1−/− mice showed an initial decrease in burdens after 4 wk of age followed by an increase from 24 to 36 wk. In addition, Rag1−/− mice had higher burdens than B6 mice over time. Both strains of infested mice exhibited clinical signs of fur mite infestation—including alopecia, poor weight gain, mite-associated debris, and pruritus—and clinical signs positively correlated with the severity of the Myocoptes burden. Histopathology of skin from both strains of infested mice showed decreased lesion severity with age, likely a result of declining mite populations. Finally, compared with noninfested controls, infested B6 mice had increased expression of markers associated with the Th2-type immune response, which increased in magnitude with increasing age and duration of infestation. These results suggest that development of adaptive immunity plays a role in control of fur mite populations and that heavier infestations may result in more severe clinical signs and skin lesions. PMID:27298244

  2. Thoracic auscultation in captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), and South African fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) with an electronic stethoscope.

    PubMed

    Scharpegge, Julia; Hartmann, Manuel García; Eulenberger, Klaus

    2012-06-01

    Thoracic auscultation is an important diagnostic method used in cases of suspected pulmonary disease in many species, as respiratory sounds contain significant information on the physiology and pathology of the lungs and upper airways. Respiratory diseases are frequent in marine mammals and are often listed as one of their main causes of death. The aim of this study was to investigate and report baseline parameters for the electronic-mediated thoracic auscultation of one cetacean species and two pinniped species in captivity. Respiratory sounds from 20 captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), 6 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), and 5 South African fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) were recorded with an electronic stethoscope. The sounds were analyzed for duration of the respiratory cycle, adventitious sounds, and peak frequencies of recorded sounds during expiration and inspiration as well as for sound intensity as reflected by waveform amplitude during the respiratory cycle. In respiratory cycles of the bottlenose dolphins' expiring "on command," the duration of the expiration was significantly shorter than the duration of the inspiration. In the examined pinnipeds of this study, there was no clear pattern concerning the duration of one breathing phase: Adventitious sounds were detected most often in bottlenose dolphins that were expiring on command and could be compared with "forced expiratory wheezes" in humans. This is the first report of forced expiratory wheezes in bottlenose dolphins; they can easily be misinterpreted as pathologic respiratory sounds. The peak frequencies of the respiratory sounds reached over 2,000 Hz in bottlenose dolphins and over 1,000 Hz in California sea lions and South African fur seals, but the variation of the frequency spectra was very high in all animals. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first systematic analysis of respiratory sounds of bottlenose dolphins and two species of pinnipeds.

  3. Investigations of peritoneal and intestinal infections of adult hookworms (Uncinaria spp.) in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups on San Miguel Island, California (2003).

    PubMed

    Lyons, Eugene T; Delong, R L; Nadler, S A; Laake, J L; Orr, A J; Delong, B L; Pagan, C

    2011-09-01

    The peritoneal cavity (PNC) and intestine of northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) pups and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups that died in late July and early August, 2003, on San Miguel Island, California, were examined for hookworms. Prevalence and morphometric studies were done with the hookworms in addition to molecular characterization. Based on this and previous molecular studies, hookworms from fur seals are designated as Uncinaria lucasi and the species from sea lions as Uncinaria species A. Adult hookworms were found in the PNC of 35 of 57 (61.4%) fur seal pups and of 13 of 104 (12.5%) sea lion pups. The number of hookworms located in the PNC ranged from 1 to 33 (median = 3) for the infected fur seal pups and 1 to 16 (median = 2) for the infected sea lion pups. In addition to the PNC, intestines of 43 fur seal and 32 sea lion pups were examined. All of these pups were positive for adult hookworms. The worms were counted from all but one of the sea lion pups. Numbers of these parasites in the intestine varied from 3 to 2,344 (median = 931) for the fur seal pups and 39 to 2,766 (median = 643) for the sea lion pups. Sea lion pups with peritoneal infections had higher intensity infections in the intestines than did pups without peritoneal infections, lending some support for the hypothesis that peritoneal infections result from high-intensity infections of adult worms. There was no difference in intestinal infection intensities between fur seal pups with and without peritoneal infections. Female adult hookworms in the intestines of both host species were significantly larger than males, and sea lion hookworms were larger than those in fur seals. Worms in the intestine also were larger than worms found in the PNC. Gene sequencing and (RFLP) analysis of (PCR) amplified (ITS) ribosomal DNA were used to diagnose the species of 172 hookworms recovered from the PNC and intestine of 18 C. ursinus and seven Z. californianus hosts

  4. Entanglement of Australian sea lions and New Zealand fur seals in lost fishing gear and other marine debris before and after Government and industry attempts to reduce the problem.

    PubMed

    Page, Brad; McKenzie, Jane; McIntosh, Rebecca; Baylis, Alastair; Morrissey, Adam; Calvert, Norna; Haase, Tami; Berris, Mel; Dowie, Dave; Shaughnessy, Peter D; Goldsworthy, Simon D

    2004-07-01

    In recent years, Australian governments and fishing industry associations have developed guiding principles aimed at reducing the impact of fishing on non-target species and the benthos and increasing community awareness of their efforts. To determine whether they reduced seal entanglement in lost fishing gear and other marine debris, we analysed Australian sea lion and New Zealand fur seal entanglement data collected from Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Contrary to our expectations, we found that entanglement rates did not decrease in recent years. The Australian sea lion entanglement rate (1.3% in 2002) and the New Zealand fur seal entanglement rate (0.9% in 2002) are the third and fourth highest reported for any seal species. Australian sea lions were most frequently entangled in monofilament gillnet that most likely originated from the shark fishery, which operates in the region where sea lions forage--south and east of Kangaroo Island. In contrast, New Zealand fur seals were most commonly entangled in loops of packing tape and trawl net fragments suspected to be from regional rock lobster and trawl fisheries. Based on recent entanglement studies, we estimate that 1478 seals die from entanglement each year in Australia. We discuss remedies such as education programs and government incentives that may reduce entanglements.

  5. Binding of the Zn2+ ion to ferric uptake regulation protein from E. coli and the competition with Fe2+ binding: a molecular modeling study of the effect on DNA binding and conformational changes of Fur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabour, Salih; Hamed, Mazen Y.

    2009-04-01

    The three dimensional structure of Ferric uptake regulation protein dimer from E. coli, determined by molecular modeling, was docked on a DNA fragment (iron box) and Zn2+ ions were added in two steps. The first step involved the binding of one Zn2+ ion to what is known as the zinc site which consists of the residues Cys 92, Cys 95, Asp 137, Asp141, Arg139, Glu 140, His 145 and His 143 with an average metal-Nitrogen distance of 2.5 Å and metal-oxygen distance of 3.1-3.2 Å. The second Zn2+ ion is bound to the iron activating site formed from the residues Ile 50, His 71, Asn 72, Gly 97, Asp 105 and Ala 109. The binding of the second Zn2+ ion strengthened the binding of the first ion as indicated by the shortening of the zinc-residue distances. Fe2+, when added to the complex consisting of 2Zn2+/Fur dimer/DNA, replaced the Zn2+ ion in the zinc site and when a second Fe2+ was added, it replaced the second zinc ion in the iron activating site. The binding of both zinc and iron ions induced a similar change in Fur conformations, but shifted residues closer to DNA in a different manner. This is discussed along with a possible role for the Zn2+ ion in the Fur dimer binding of DNA in its repressor activity.

  6. The Barrow-in-Furness legionnaires' outbreak: qualitative study of the hospital response and the role of the major incident plan.

    PubMed

    Smith, A F; Wild, C; Law, J

    2005-04-01

    To document the organisational response of Furness General Hospital to the large outbreak of legionnaire's disease in April 2002 and assess the contribution made by the hospital's major incident plan. Qualitative analysis of interview transcripts and written comments from some staff involved in the management of the incident. Documentary analysis of major incident plan and other written materials. The incident posed considerable managerial and clinical problems and this paper describes how they were overcome. In particular, strategies for dealing with supply (of staff, beds, and resources) and managing demand (by liaising with primary care and the public) seem to have been successful. Many functions necessary for managing the incident were poorly dealt with in the plan, especially procedures for handling the news media and liaison with agencies outside the hospital. Lack of explicit guidance appeared not to hinder the organisational response. There may have been an unspoken high level decision to allow staff to draw on their skills and experience in improvising a response to the initial challenge and learning adaptively as the incident unfolded. There was also evidence that staff disregarded existing job and role boundaries and focused instead on tasks, working flexibly to ensure that these tasks were completed. Protracted major incidents pose particular management challenges and may benefit from an approach different from that set out in typical major incident plans. Staff must be able to act flexibly and responsively. Some form of checklist or toolkit may be preferable to a detailed plan for some types of incident.

  7. Influence of photoperiod on pineal melatonin synthesis, fur color, body weight, and reproductive function in the female Djungarian hamster, Phodopus sungorus.

    PubMed

    Lerchl, A; Schlatt, S

    1993-01-01

    In order to investigate female Djungarian hamsters' reactions to changes of the photoperiod, the following two experiments were performed. Experiment I: Age-matched female hamsters were exposed to either short (8L:16D) or long days (16L:8D) for 38 weeks. Initially, the short-day group showed a decline in body weight, associated with changes in gonadal function and fur color. This was not maintained by the short-day group which returned, on the most part, to long-day levels, thus becoming insensitive to this regressive lighting regimen. The time courses of these events compare well with those observed in males, which suggests a common mechanism. Experiment II: Two groups of female hamsters were exposed for 8 weeks to either long days or short days. At the end of the test period, the diurnal variations in pineal content of melatonin, serotonin, hydroxyindole acetic acid, and serum melatonin were estimated, revealing marked differences between the two groups. Not only was there a prolongation of melatonin synthesis observed in the short-day animals, but there was also a significant elevation of the melatonin levels when compared to the long-day animals. Together with recent findings in males, these findings lend support to the hypothesis that, in the Djungarian hamster, the elevation of nocturnal melatonin levels may be of additional significance, with respect to the physiological changes induced by short-day photoperiods.

  8. Comparative biology of Uncinaria spp. in the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) and the northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) in California.

    PubMed

    Lyons, E T; DeLong, R L; Gulland, F M; Melin, S R; Tolliver, S C; Spraker, T R

    2000-12-01

    Studies on several aspects of the life cycle of hookworms (Uncinaria spp.) in the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) and northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) were conducted on material collected on San Miguel Island (SMI), California and at The Marine Mammal Center, Sausalito, California in 1997, 1998, and 1999. Examination of Z. californianus intestines for adult hookworms and feces for eggs revealed that longevity of these parasites in pups is about 6-8 mo, and infections are probably not present in older sea lions. Parasitic third-stage larvae (L3) were recovered from the ventral abdominal tissue of Z. californianus, suggesting transmammary transmission. Callorhinus ursinus pups had no hookworm eggs in their feces or adult worms (except for 1 probable contaminant) in their intestines in the fall and early winter, revealing that adult Uncinaria spp. are spontaneously lost at <3 mo of age of the pups. Sand samples from rookeries, used by both Z. californianus and C. ursinus, on SMI were negative for free-living, L3 in summer months but positive in fall and winter months, indicating seasonality occurred.

  9. The Sun, Moon, Wind, and Biological Imperative–Shaping Contrasting Wintertime Migration and Foraging Strategies of Adult Male and Female Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus)

    PubMed Central

    Sterling, Jeremy T; Springer, Alan M.; Iverson, Sara J.; Johnson, Shawn P.; Pelland, Noel A.; Johnson, Devin S.; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A.

    2014-01-01

    Adult male and female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) are sexually segregated in different regions of the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea during their winter migration. Explanations for this involve interplay between physiology, predator-prey dynamics, and ecosystem characteristics, however possible mechanisms lack empirical support. To investigate factors influencing the winter ecology of both sexes, we deployed five satellite-linked conductivity, temperature, and depth data loggers on adult males, and six satellite-linked depth data loggers and four satellite transmitters on adult females from St. Paul Island (Bering Sea, Alaska, USA) in October 2009. Males and females migrated to different regions of the North Pacific Ocean: males wintered in the Bering Sea and northern North Pacific Ocean, while females migrated to the Gulf of Alaska and California Current. Horizontal and vertical movement behaviors of both sexes were influenced by wind speed, season, light (sun and moon), and the ecosystem they occupied, although the expression of the behaviors differed between sexes. Male dive depths were aligned with the depth of the mixed layer during daylight periods and we suspect this was the case for females upon their arrival to the California Current. We suggest that females, because of their smaller size and physiological limitations, must avoid severe winters typical of the northern North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea and migrate long distances to areas of more benign environmental conditions and where prey is shallower and more accessible. In contrast, males can better tolerate often extreme winter ocean conditions and exploit prey at depth because of their greater size and physiological capabilities. We believe these contrasting winter behaviors 1) are a consequence of evolutionary selection for large size in males, important to the acquisition and defense of territories against rivals during the breeding season, and 2) ease environmental

  10. Fortuitous Encounters between Seagliders and Adult Female Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus) off the Washington (USA) Coast: Upper Ocean Variability and Links to Top Predator Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Pelland, Noel A.; Sterling, Jeremy T.; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A.; Ream, Rolf R.; Lee, Craig M.; Eriksen, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral responses by top marine predators to oceanographic features such as eddies, river plumes, storms, and coastal topography suggest that biophysical interactions in these zones affect predators' prey, foraging behaviors, and potentially fitness. However, examining these pathways is challenged by the obstacles inherent in obtaining simultaneous observations of surface and subsurface environmental fields and predator behavior. In this study, migratory movements and, in some cases, diving behavior of 40 adult female northern fur seals (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) were quantified across their range and compared to remotely-sensed environmental data in the Gulf of Alaska and California Current ecosystems, with a particular focus off the coast of Washington State (USA) – a known foraging ground for adult female NFS and where autonomous glider sampling allowed opportunistic comparison of seal behavior to subsurface biophysical measurements. The results show that in these ecosystems, adult female habitat utilization was concentrated near prominent coastal topographic, riverine, or inlet features and within 200 km of the continental shelf break. Seal dive depths, in most ecosystems, were moderated by surface light level (solar or lunar), mirroring known behaviors of diel vertically-migrating prey. However, seal dives differed in the California Current ecosystem due to a shift to more daytime diving concentrated at or below the surface mixed layer base. Seal movement models indicate behavioral responses to season, ecosystem, and surface wind speeds; individuals also responded to mesoscale eddies, jets, and the Columbia River plume. Foraging within small scale surface features is consistent with utilization of the inner coastal transition zone and habitats near coastal capes, which are known eddy and filament generation sites. These results contribute to our knowledge of NFS migratory patterns by demonstrating surface and subsurface behavioral responses to a spatially

  11. The sun, moon, wind, and biological imperative-shaping contrasting wintertime migration and foraging strategies of adult male and female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus).

    PubMed

    Sterling, Jeremy T; Springer, Alan M; Iverson, Sara J; Johnson, Shawn P; Pelland, Noel A; Johnson, Devin S; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A

    2014-01-01

    Adult male and female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) are sexually segregated in different regions of the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea during their winter migration. Explanations for this involve interplay between physiology, predator-prey dynamics, and ecosystem characteristics, however possible mechanisms lack empirical support. To investigate factors influencing the winter ecology of both sexes, we deployed five satellite-linked conductivity, temperature, and depth data loggers on adult males, and six satellite-linked depth data loggers and four satellite transmitters on adult females from St. Paul Island (Bering Sea, Alaska, USA) in October 2009. Males and females migrated to different regions of the North Pacific Ocean: males wintered in the Bering Sea and northern North Pacific Ocean, while females migrated to the Gulf of Alaska and California Current. Horizontal and vertical movement behaviors of both sexes were influenced by wind speed, season, light (sun and moon), and the ecosystem they occupied, although the expression of the behaviors differed between sexes. Male dive depths were aligned with the depth of the mixed layer during daylight periods and we suspect this was the case for females upon their arrival to the California Current. We suggest that females, because of their smaller size and physiological limitations, must avoid severe winters typical of the northern North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea and migrate long distances to areas of more benign environmental conditions and where prey is shallower and more accessible. In contrast, males can better tolerate often extreme winter ocean conditions and exploit prey at depth because of their greater size and physiological capabilities. We believe these contrasting winter behaviors 1) are a consequence of evolutionary selection for large size in males, important to the acquisition and defense of territories against rivals during the breeding season, and 2) ease environmental

  12. Fortuitous encounters between seagliders and adult female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) off the Washington (USA) coast: upper ocean variability and links to top predator behavior.

    PubMed

    Pelland, Noel A; Sterling, Jeremy T; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A; Ream, Rolf R; Lee, Craig M; Eriksen, Charles C

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral responses by top marine predators to oceanographic features such as eddies, river plumes, storms, and coastal topography suggest that biophysical interactions in these zones affect predators' prey, foraging behaviors, and potentially fitness. However, examining these pathways is challenged by the obstacles inherent in obtaining simultaneous observations of surface and subsurface environmental fields and predator behavior. In this study, migratory movements and, in some cases, diving behavior of 40 adult female northern fur seals (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) were quantified across their range and compared to remotely-sensed environmental data in the Gulf of Alaska and California Current ecosystems, with a particular focus off the coast of Washington State (USA)--a known foraging ground for adult female NFS and where autonomous glider sampling allowed opportunistic comparison of seal behavior to subsurface biophysical measurements. The results show that in these ecosystems, adult female habitat utilization was concentrated near prominent coastal topographic, riverine, or inlet features and within 200 km of the continental shelf break. Seal dive depths, in most ecosystems, were moderated by surface light level (solar or lunar), mirroring known behaviors of diel vertically-migrating prey. However, seal dives differed in the California Current ecosystem due to a shift to more daytime diving concentrated at or below the surface mixed layer base. Seal movement models indicate behavioral responses to season, ecosystem, and surface wind speeds; individuals also responded to mesoscale eddies, jets, and the Columbia River plume. Foraging within small scale surface features is consistent with utilization of the inner coastal transition zone and habitats near coastal capes, which are known eddy and filament generation sites. These results contribute to our knowledge of NFS migratory patterns by demonstrating surface and subsurface behavioral responses to a spatially

  13. The Barrow-in-Furness legionnaires' outbreak: qualitative study of the hospital response and the role of the major incident plan

    PubMed Central

    Smith, A; Wild, C; Law, J

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To document the organisational response of Furness General Hospital to the large outbreak of legionnaire's disease in April 2002 and assess the contribution made by the hospital's major incident plan. Method: Qualitative analysis of interview transcripts and written comments from some staff involved in the management of the incident. Documentary analysis of major incident plan and other written materials. Results: The incident posed considerable managerial and clinical problems and this paper describes how they were overcome. In particular, strategies for dealing with supply (of staff, beds, and resources) and managing demand (by liaising with primary care and the public) seem to have been successful. Many functions necessary for managing the incident were poorly dealt with in the plan, especially procedures for handling the news media and liaison with agencies outside the hospital. Lack of explicit guidance appeared not to hinder the organisational response. There may have been an unspoken high level decision to allow staff to draw on their skills and experience in improvising a response to the initial challenge and learning adaptively as the incident unfolded. There was also evidence that staff disregarded existing job and role boundaries and focused instead on tasks, working flexibly to ensure that these tasks were completed. Conclusions: Protracted major incidents pose particular management challenges and may benefit from an approach different from that set out in typical major incident plans. Staff must be able to act flexibly and responsively. Some form of checklist or toolkit may be preferable to a detailed plan for some types of incident. PMID:15788822

  14. Maternal intake of dietary virgin coconut oil modifies essential fatty acids and causes low body weight and spiky fur in mice.

    PubMed

    Gunasekaran, Renuka; Shaker, Mohammed Rafid; Mohd-Zin, Siti Waheeda; Abdullah, Aminah; Ahmad-Annuar, Azlina; Abdul-Aziz, Noraishah Mydin

    2017-01-28

    Coconut oil is commonly used as herbal medicine worldwide. There is limited information regarding its effects on the developing embryo and infant growth. We investigated the effect of virgin coconut oil post-natally and until 6 weeks old in mice (age of maturity). Females were fed with either standard, virgin olive oil or virgin coconut oil diets 1 month prior to copulation, during gestation and continued until weaning of pups. Subsequently, groups of pups borne of the respective diets were continuously fed the same diet as its mother from weaning until 6 weeks old. Profiles of the standard and coconut oil diets were analysed by gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GCFID). Analysis of the mean of the total weight gained/ loss over 6 weeks revealed that in the first 3 weeks, pups whose mothers were fed virgin coconut oil and virgin olive oil have a significantly lower body weight than that of standard diet pups. At 6 weeks of age, only virgin coconut oil fed pups exhibited significantly lower body weight. We report that virgin coconut oil modifies the fatty acid profiles of the standard diet by inducing high levels of medium chain fatty acids with low levels of essential fatty acids. Furthermore, pups borne by females fed with virgin coconut oil developed spiky fur. Our study has demonstrated that virgin coconut oil could affect infant growth and appearance via maternal intake; we suggest the use of virgin coconut oil as herbal medicine to be treated with caution.

  15. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with multidimensional scaling, binary hierarchical cluster tree and selected diagnostic masses improves species identification of Neolithic keratin sequences from furs of the Tyrolean Iceman Oetzi.

    PubMed

    Hollemeyer, Klaus; Altmeyer, Wolfgang; Heinzle, Elmar; Pitra, Christian

    2012-08-30

    The identification of fur origins from the 5300-year-old Tyrolean Iceman's accoutrement is not yet complete, although definite identification is essential for the socio-cultural context of his epoch. Neither have all potential samples been identified so far, nor there has a consensus been reached on the species identified using the classical methods. Archaeological hair often lacks analyzable hair scale patterns in microscopic analyses and polymer chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques are often inapplicable due to the lack of amplifiable ancient DNA. To overcome these drawbacks, a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) method was used exclusively based on hair keratins. Thirteen fur specimens from his accoutrement were analyzed after tryptic digest of native hair. Peptide mass fingerprints (pmfs) from ancient samples and from reference species mostly occurring in the Alpine surroundings at his lifetime were compared to each other using multidimensional scaling and binary hierarchical cluster tree analysis. Both statistical methods highly reflect spectral similarities among pmfs as close zoological relationships. While multidimensional scaling was useful to discriminate specimens on the zoological order level, binary hierarchical cluster tree reached the family or subfamily level. Additionally, the presence and/or absence of order, family and/or species-specific diagnostic masses in their pmfs allowed the identification of mammals mostly down to single species level. Red deer was found in his shoe vamp, goat in the leggings, cattle in his shoe sole and at his quiver's closing flap as well as sheep and chamois in his coat. Canid species, like grey wolf, domestic dog or European red fox, were discovered in his leggings for the first time, but could not be differentiated to species level. This is widening the spectrum of processed fur-bearing species to at least one member of the Canidae family. His fur cap was

  16. Trace elements bioaccumulation in liver and fur of Myotis myotis from two caves of the eastern side of Sicily (Italy): A comparison between a control and a polluted area.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, Margherita; Spena, Maria Teresa; Hernout, Béatrice Veronique; Grasso, Alfina; Messina, Andrea; Grasso, Rosario; Agnelli, Paolo; Brundo, Maria Violetta; Copat, Chiara

    2018-05-07

    Environmental pollution is a topic of great interest because it directly affects the quality of ecosystems and of all living organisms at different trophic and systematic levels. Together with the global climate change, the long-term surviving of many species of plants and animals is threaten, distributional patterns at global and regional levels are altered and it results in local assemblages of species that are quite different from those that currently constitute coevolved communities. .For this study, the species Myotis myotis was used as bioindicator and it was sampled from two caves in the south-east of Sicily, Pipistrelli chosen as control area and Palombara chosen as polluted area, to measure the concentrations of trace elements in fur and liver tissues. Results showed higher content of essential elements in fur in bats sampled from Pipistrelli. Conversely, higher concentrations of toxic metals in liver such as As, Cd, Pb and Hg were measured in bat samples in Palombara cave, where specimens have a hunting area extended within the boundaries of the petrochemical plant. Nevertheless, we cannot consider Palombara population as polluted by metal contamination since their tissue concentrations are overall lower than toxic thresholds values suggested for small mammals. Likewise, we cannot exclude other kind of pollutants as potential stressors of the examined population, contributing with the decreasing of bat colonies in Sicily. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Historic importance of some aspects of research by O. Wilford Olsen on hookworms (Uncinaria lucasi) in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) and Steller sea lions (Eumatopias jubatus) in 1951 on St. Paul Island, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Lyons, E T

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to disseminate, more widely, certain historically important aspects of research by O. Wilford Olsen on hookworms (Uncinaria lucasi) in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) and Steller sea lions (Eumatopias jubatus) in 1951 on St. Paul Island, Alaska. Highly meaningful facets of the research were recorded only in a report with limited availability by Olsen in 1952. Portions of his research presented here include measurements of hookworm free-living infective third-stage larvae (L3) and adults, photographs of bursae, and the conclusion that the species of hookworms (U. lucasi) is probably the same in both pinniped hosts. This information is especially important because very little has been published on taxonomy of hookworms in E. jubatus.

  18. Inactivation of NMB0419, Encoding a Sel1-Like Repeat (SLR) Protein, in Neisseria meningitidis Is Associated with Differential Expression of Genes Belonging to the Fur Regulon and Reduced Intraepithelial Replication

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming-Shi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Neisseria meningitidis is a commensal microbe that colonizes the human nasopharynx but occasionally invades the bloodstream to cause life-threatening infection. N. meningitidis MC58 NMB0419 encodes a Sel1-like repeat (SLR)-containing protein, previously implicated in invasion of epithelial cells. A gene-regulatory function was revealed in Escherichia coli expressing plasmid-borne NMB0419 and showing significantly increased epithelial adherence compared to the wild type, due to increased expression of mannose-sensitive type 1 pili. While a meningococcal NMB0419 mutant did not have altered epithelial adherence, in a transcriptome-wide comparison of the wild type and an NMB0419 mutant, a large proportion of genes differentially regulated in the mutant were involved in iron acquisition and metabolism. Fifty-one percent and 38% of genes, respectively, up- and downregulated in the NMB0419 mutant had previously been identified as being induced and repressed by meningococcal Fur. An in vitro growth defect of the NMB0419 mutant under iron restriction was consistent with the downregulation of tbpAB and hmbR, while an intraepithelial replication defect was consistent with the downregulation of tonB, exbB, and exbD, based on a known phenotype of a meningococcal tonB mutant. Disruption of the N-terminal NMB0419 signal peptide, predicted to export the protein beyond the cytoplasmic membrane, resulted in loss of functional traits in N. meningitidis and E. coli. Our study indicates that the expression of NMB0419 is associated with transcriptional changes counterbalancing the regulatory function of Fur, offering a new perspective on regulatory mechanisms involved in meningococcal interaction with epithelial cells, and suggests new insights into the roles of SLR-containing genes in other bacteria. PMID:28264906

  19. Differentiation of canine distemper virus isolates in fur animals from various vaccine strains by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism according to phylogenetic relations in china

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In order to effectively identify the vaccine and field strains of Canine distemper virus (CDV), a new differential diagnostic test has been developed based on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). We selected an 829 bp fragment of the nucleoprotein (N) gene of CDV. By RFLP analysis using BamHI, field isolates were distinguishable from the vaccine strains. Two fragments were obtained from the vaccine strains by RT-PCR-RFLP analysis while three were observed in the field strains. An 829 nucleotide region of the CDV N gene was analyzed in 19 CDV field strains isolated from minks, raccoon dogs and foxes in China between 2005 and 2007. The results suggest this method is precise, accurate and efficient. It was also determined that three different genotypes exist in CDV field strains in fur animal herds of the north of China, most of which belong to Asian type. Mutated field strains, JSY06-R1, JSY06-R2 and JDH07-F1 also exist in Northern China, but are most closely related to the standard virulent strain A75/17, designated in Arctic and America-2 genetype in the present study, respectively. PMID:21352564

  20. CCSDS Spacecraft Monitor and Control Mission Operations Interoperability Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucord, Steve; Martinez, Lindolfo

    2009-01-01

    We are entering a new era in space exploration. Reduced operating budgets require innovative solutions to leverage existing systems to implement the capabilities of future missions. Custom solutions to fulfill mission objectives are no longer viable. Can NASA adopt international standards to reduce costs and increase interoperability with other space agencies? Can legacy systems be leveraged in a service oriented architecture (SOA) to further reduce operations costs? The Operations Technology Facility (OTF) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) is collaborating with Deutsches Zentrum fur Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) to answer these very questions. The Mission Operations and Information Management Services Area (MOIMS) Spacecraft Monitor and Control (SM&C) Working Group within the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is developing the Mission Operations standards to address this problem space. The set of proposed standards presents a service oriented architecture to increase the level of interoperability among space agencies. The OTF and DLR are developing independent implementations of the standards as part of an interoperability prototype. This prototype will address three key components: validation of the SM&C Mission Operations protocol, exploration of the Object Management Group (OMG) Data Distribution Service (DDS), and the incorporation of legacy systems in a SOA. The OTF will implement the service providers described in the SM&C Mission Operation standards to create a portal for interaction with a spacecraft simulator. DLR will implement the service consumers to perform the monitor and control of the spacecraft. The specifications insulate the applications from the underlying transport layer. We will gain experience with a DDS transport layer as we delegate responsibility to the middleware and explore transport bridges to connect disparate middleware products. A SOA facilitates the reuse of software components. The prototype will leverage the

  1. Measurements of Nucleation-Mode Particle Size Distributions in Aircraft Plumes during SULFUR 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, Charles A.; Bradford, Deborah G.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the participation of the University of Denver in an airborne measurement program, SULFUR 6, which was undertaken in late September and early October of 1998 by the Deutsches Zentrum fur Luft und Raumfahrt (DLR). Scientific findings from two papers that have been published or accepted and from one manuscript that is in preparation are presented. The SULFUR 6 experiment was designed to investigate the emissions from subsonic aircraft to constrain calculations of possible atmospheric chemical and climatic effects. The University of Denver effort contributed toward the following SULFUR 6 goals: (1) To investigate the relationship between fuel sulfur content (FSC--mass of sulfur per mass of fuel) and particle number and mass emission index (El--quantity emitted per kg of fuel burned); (2) To provide upper and lower limits for the mass conversion efficiency (nu) of fuel sulfur to gaseous and particulate sulfuric acid; (3) To constrain models of volatile particle nucleation and growth by measuring the particle size distribution between 3 and 100 nm at aircraft plume ages ranging from 10(exp -1) to 10(exp 3) s; (4) To determine microphysical and optical properties and bulk chemical composition of soot particles in aircraft exhaust; and (5) To investigate the differences in particle properties between aircraft plumes in contrail and non-contrail situations. The experiment focused on emissions from the ATTAS research aircraft (a well characterized, but older technology turbojet) and from an in-service Boeing 737-300 aircraft provided by Lufthansa, with modem, high-bypass turbofan engines. Measurements were made from the DLR Dassault Falcon 900 aircraft, a modified business jet. The Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Program (AEAP) provided funding to operate an instrument, the nucleation-mode aerosol size spectrometer (N-MASS), during the SULFUR 6 campaign and to analyze the data. The N-MASS was developed at the University of Denver with the support of

  2. The Pkn22 Ser/Thr kinase in Nostoc PCC 7120: role of FurA and NtcA regulators and transcript profiling under nitrogen starvation and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Yingping, Fan; Lemeille, Sylvain; González, Andrés; Risoul, Véronique; Denis, Yann; Richaud, Pierre; Lamrabet, Otmane; Fillat, Maria F; Zhang, Cheng-Cai; Latifi, Amel

    2015-07-29

    The filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120 can fix N2 when combined nitrogen is not available. Furthermore, it has to cope with reactive oxygen species generated as byproducts of photosynthesis and respiration. We have previously demonstrated the synthesis of Ser/Thr kinase Pkn22 as an important survival response of Nostoc to oxidative damage. In this study we wished to investigate the possible involvement of this kinase in signalling peroxide stress and nitrogen deprivation. Quantitative RT-PCR experiments revealed that the pkn22 gene is induced in response to peroxide stress and to combined nitrogen starvation. Electrophoretic motility assays indicated that the pkn22 promoter is recognized by the global transcriptional regulators FurA and NtcA. Transcriptomic analysis comparing a pkn22-insertion mutant and the wild type strain indicated that this kinase regulates genes involved in important cellular functions such as photosynthesis, carbon metabolism and iron acquisition. Since metabolic changes may lead to oxidative stress, we investigated whether this is the case with nitrogen starvation. Our results rather invalidate this hypothesis thereby suggesting that the function of Pkn22 under nitrogen starvation is independent of its role in response to peroxide stress. Our analyses have permitted a more complete functional description of Ser/Thr kinase in Nostoc. We have decrypted the transcriptional regulation of the pkn22 gene, and analysed the whole set of genes under the control of this kinase in response to the two environmental changes often encountered by cyanobacteria in their natural habitat: oxidative stress and nitrogen deprivation.

  3. Impact of the 2015 El Niño-Southern Oscillation on the Abundance and Foraging Habits of Guadalupe Fur Seals and California Sea Lions from the San Benito Archipelago, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Elorriaga-Verplancken, Fernando R.; Sierra-Rodríguez, Gema E.; Rosales-Nanduca, Hiram; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Sandoval-Sierra, Julieta

    2016-01-01

    The abundance of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) (CSLs) and Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus philippii townsendi) (GFSs) from the San Benito Archipelago (SBA) was determined through nine monthly surveys in 2014–2015. Assessment of their foraging habits was examined based on the isotopic analysis of pups (maternal indicators) (SIAR/SIBER-R). Environmental variability between 2014 and 2015 was also analyzed, in terms of sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll (Chl-a) concentration. Both otariids reached their highest abundance in July of both years; however, relative to 2014, the 2015 survey showed a 59.7% decline in the total GFS abundance and a 42.9% decrease of GFS pups, while total CSL abundance decreased 52.0% and CSL pup presence decreased in 61.7%. All monthly surveys for both otariids showed a similar trend (>50% decrease in 2015). Compared to 2014, the 2015 GFSs isotopic niche was three times larger (2.0 in 2015, 0.6 in 2014) and the δ13C was significantly lower. CSLs also showed significantly lower δ13C and higher δ15N in 2015. Interannual segregation was greater for CSLs, and their pup body mass was also significantly lower during the 2015 breeding season (mean = 8.7 kg) than in the same season of 2014 (mean = 9.9 kg). The decrease in δ13C for both otariids reflected a more oceanic foraging; most likely associated with the decline in primary productivity in surrounding areas to the SBA, related to a higher SST caused by the 2015 ENSO, with a subsequent increase in foraging effort. These would explain the fewer observed individuals on land, especially pups, which showed diminished body condition (CSLs). This study highlights the importance of marine mammals as sentinel species that respond dynamically to changes in environment, providing valuable information on the effect of ENSO on pinnipeds in Mexican waters. PMID:27171473

  4. Impact of the 2015 El Niño-Southern Oscillation on the Abundance and Foraging Habits of Guadalupe Fur Seals and California Sea Lions from the San Benito Archipelago, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Elorriaga-Verplancken, Fernando R; Sierra-Rodríguez, Gema E; Rosales-Nanduca, Hiram; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Sandoval-Sierra, Julieta

    2016-01-01

    The abundance of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) (CSLs) and Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus philippii townsendi) (GFSs) from the San Benito Archipelago (SBA) was determined through nine monthly surveys in 2014-2015. Assessment of their foraging habits was examined based on the isotopic analysis of pups (maternal indicators) (SIAR/SIBER-R). Environmental variability between 2014 and 2015 was also analyzed, in terms of sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll (Chl-a) concentration. Both otariids reached their highest abundance in July of both years; however, relative to 2014, the 2015 survey showed a 59.7% decline in the total GFS abundance and a 42.9% decrease of GFS pups, while total CSL abundance decreased 52.0% and CSL pup presence decreased in 61.7%. All monthly surveys for both otariids showed a similar trend (>50% decrease in 2015). Compared to 2014, the 2015 GFSs isotopic niche was three times larger (2.0 in 2015, 0.6 in 2014) and the δ13C was significantly lower. CSLs also showed significantly lower δ13C and higher δ15N in 2015. Interannual segregation was greater for CSLs, and their pup body mass was also significantly lower during the 2015 breeding season (mean = 8.7 kg) than in the same season of 2014 (mean = 9.9 kg). The decrease in δ13C for both otariids reflected a more oceanic foraging; most likely associated with the decline in primary productivity in surrounding areas to the SBA, related to a higher SST caused by the 2015 ENSO, with a subsequent increase in foraging effort. These would explain the fewer observed individuals on land, especially pups, which showed diminished body condition (CSLs). This study highlights the importance of marine mammals as sentinel species that respond dynamically to changes in environment, providing valuable information on the effect of ENSO on pinnipeds in Mexican waters.

  5. Identification of Fur, Aconitase, and Other Proteins Expressed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis under Conditions of Low and High Concentrations of Iron by Combined Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis and Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Diane K.; Lee, Bai-Yu; Horwitz, Marcus A.; Gibson, Bradford W.

    1999-01-01

    Iron plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To gain a better understanding of iron regulation by this organism, we have used two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, and database searching to study protein expression in M. tuberculosis under conditions of high and low iron concentration. Proteins in cellular extracts from M. tuberculosis Erdman strain grown under low-iron (1 μM) and high-iron (70 μM) conditions were separated by 2-D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, which allowed high-resolution separation of several hundred proteins, as visualized by Coomassie staining. The expression of at least 15 proteins was induced, and the expression of at least 12 proteins was decreased under low-iron conditions. In-gel trypsin digestion was performed on these differentially expressed proteins, and the digestion mixtures were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry to determine the molecular masses of the resulting tryptic peptides. Partial sequence data on some of the peptides were obtained by using after source decay and/or collision-induced dissociation. The fragmentation data were used to search computerized peptide mass and protein sequence databases for known proteins. Ten iron-regulated proteins were identified, including Fur and aconitase proteins, both of which are known to be regulated by iron in other bacterial systems. Our study shows that, where large protein sequence databases are available from genomic studies, the combined use of 2-D gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, and database searching to analyze proteins expressed under defined environmental conditions is a powerful tool for identifying expressed proteins and their physiologic relevance. PMID:9864233

  6. Multi-Model Ensemble Wake Vortex Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koerner, Stephan; Holzaepfel, Frank; Ahmad, Nash'at N.

    2015-01-01

    Several multi-model ensemble methods are investigated for predicting wake vortex transport and decay. This study is a joint effort between National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt to develop a multi-model ensemble capability using their wake models. An overview of different multi-model ensemble methods and their feasibility for wake applications is presented. The methods include Reliability Ensemble Averaging, Bayesian Model Averaging, and Monte Carlo Simulations. The methodologies are evaluated using data from wake vortex field experiments.

  7. Layout of personnel accommodations for the SOFIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daughters, David M.; Bruich, J. G.; Arceneaux, Gregory P.; Zirretta, Jason; Caton, William B.

    2000-06-01

    The NASA Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Observatory is based upon a refurbished and heavily modified Boeing 747 SP aircraft. The Observatory, which provides accommodations for the Deutsches Zentrum Fur Luftund Raumfahrt 2.5 m telescope, science investigator teams, scientific instruments, mission crew and support systems. The US contractor team has removed most of the aircraft original furnishings and designed a new Layout of Personnel Accommodations (LOPA) tailored to SOFIA's needs.

  8. The historic fur trade and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varekamp, Johan C.

    2006-12-01

    Why did the Dutch come to the North American shores 400 years ago? Was it wanderlust, expansionist policies, or simply money? The earliest western explorers were the Vikings who, in the 1100s, were able to sail beyond Iceland and Greenland to Newfoundland, because they did so during the Medieval Warm Period. English explorer Henry Hudson, on the other hand, could not find a northern passage to China because the early 1600s were the coldest part of the Little Ice Age and the northern seas were frozen over (Figure 1).After Hudson's third voyage, Dutch merchants contracted several sailors to establish trading posts for beaver pelts in the Americas. Among them was Adriaen Block, who built the first western settlement on the island of Manhattan (New York) after a fire on his ship forced him to over-winter there in 1614 [Varekamp and Varekamp, 2006]. His 1614 'figurative map' shows Long Island Sound as an estuary, and introduced for the first time the name 'Niew Nederlandt' (New Netherlands).

  9. Truth in Fur Labeling Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Menendez, Robert [D-NJ

    2009-05-19

    Senate - 05/19/2009 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.2480, which became Public Law 111-313 on 12/18/2010. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. 77 FR 64437 - Airworthiness Directives; Burkhart GROB Luft-und Raumfahrt GmbH Sailplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... can remove with metal wool and that has no visible pitting in the base metal. If you cannot remove the corrosion with metal wool or if there is visible pitting in the base metal, we define it as heavy corrosion. (3) If any cracks or heavy corrosion are found during any of the inspections required in paragraph (f...

  11. 78 FR 1726 - Airworthiness Directives; Burkhart GROB Luft- und Raumfahrt GmbH Sailplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... purposes of this AD, we define slight corrosion as corrosion you can remove with metal wool and that has no visible pitting in the base metal. If you cannot remove the corrosion with metal wool or if there is visible pitting in the base metal, we define it as heavy corrosion. (3) If any cracks or heavy corrosion...

  12. 77 FR 16968 - Airworthiness Directives; Burkhart GROB Luft- und Raumfahrt GmbH Powered Sailplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... verbal contact we receive about this proposed AD. Discussion The European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA...-200. (h) Related Information Refer to MCAI European Aviation Safety Agency (EAS) AD No. 2012- 0027...- und Raumfahrt GmbH Powered Sailplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of...

  13. 16 CFR 301.38 - Advertising of furs and fur products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... general nature or kind of business conducted or to the general classification of the types or kinds of... Dyed Persian Lamb Since 1900 or X Company Manufacturers of Fine Muskrat Coats, Capes and Stoles ...

  14. EIGEN-5C - the new GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam / Groupe de Recherche de Geodesie Spatiale combined gravity field model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foerste, C.; Flechtner, F.; Stubenvoll, R.; Rothacher, M.; Kusche, J.; Neumayer, H. K.; Biancale, R.; Lemoine, J.; Barthelmes, F.; Bruinsma, S.; Koenig, R.; Dahle, C.

    2008-12-01

    Global gravity field models play a fundamental role in geodesy and Earth sciences, ranging from practical purposes, like precise orbit determination, to applications in geosciences, like investigations of the density structure of the Earth's interior. In this presentation we report on the latest, recently released EIGEN-model, EIGEN-5C (EIGEN = European Improved Gravity model of the Earth by New techniques) and its associated satellite-only model EIGEN-5S. The global gravity field model EIGEN-5C is complete to degree and order 360 (corresponding to half-wavelength of 55 km) and was jointly elaborated by GFZ Potsdam and CNES/GRGS Toulouse. As its precursor EIGEN-GL04C (released in March 2006), this model is inferred from a combination of GRACE and LAGEOS satellite tracking data with surface gravity data, based on the accumulation of normal equations. However, this new model presents remarkable changes and improvements compared to its precursors. EIGEN-5C incorporates a further extended GRACE and LAGEOS data set, covering almost the entire GRACE period from mid 2002 to end of 2007, but also newly available gravity anomaly data sets for Europe and Australia. New processing features are the complete reprocessing of the GRACE and LAGEOS data using the recent RL04 standards and background models by GFZ (combined with the GRACE/LAGEOS 10-days time series derived at GRGS based on nearly identical standards and background models) and a further extension of the full normal equations (in contrast to block diagonal form) derived from terrestrial data to a maximum degree and order of 280 (which was restricted to 179 for EIGEN-GL04C). In particular, this presentation focuses on the inter-comparison of this latest EIGEN model with the recently presented EGM08 model, which was developed by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the USA. The EIGEN-5C model and its associated satellite-only model EIGEN-5S are available for download at the ICGEM data base (International Center for Global Earth Models) at GFZ Potsdam via the following URL: http://icgem.gfz-potsdam.de/ICGEM/ potsdam.de/ICGEM/

  15. Sound attenuations of axial fan blade tones using flow-driven tunable resonator arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorny, Lee James

    Flow-excited, tunable quarter-wavelength resonators can be integrated into the shrouds of ducted subsonic axial fans. This study explores their effectiveness in reducing propagations of tonal noise by means of acoustic wave cancellation. Resonators are a non-intrusive method of generating a secondary sound field near the plane of a rotor. As they can be strategically tuned to reduce radiated noise at the blade passage frequency (BPF) and its harmonics, resonators can be useful for a variety of applications to quiet existing and future turbomachinery. Experiments have demonstrated that a single quarter wave resonator is effective in reducing unidirectional plane wave propagations for long wavelength ducted applications while an array is effective for shorter wavelength or un-ducted facilities where shrouded fans are used. Testing conducted at Center for Acoustics and Vibrations (CAV) at the Pennsylvania State University the Deutsches Zentrum fur Luft und Raumfahrt (DLR) in Berlin, Germany demonstrated that resonator arrays were effective in attenuating shorter wavelength plane-wave and higher order modal propagations of blade tone noise. A chiller fan enclosure, constructed in the CAV laboratory emulated an industrial chiller in its operation. Using this facility, resonators were observed to attenuate blade tone noise from a non-ideal ducted geometry. The approaches used in this study evolved from Helmholtz resonators to conventional quarter wave tubes, to mouth tunable resonators, and finally to back-wall tunable resonators. These developments in tuning allowed for independent control of a resonator's magnitude and phase of the secondary sound field produced by the resonators. It was demonstrated that the use of two tunable resonator chambers oriented axially on either side of the blade region enables a dipole-like secondary sound field to be passively generated and bi-directional attenuations of plane wave noise to be achieved. Tonal attenuations of 28 dB were

  16. Observatory Improvements for SOFIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peralta, Robert A.; Jensen, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a joint project between NASA and Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), the German Space Agency. SOFIA is based in a Boeing 747 SP and flown in the stratosphere to observe infrared wavelengths unobservable from the ground. In 2007 Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) inherited and began work on improving the plane and its telescope. The improvements continue today with upgrading the plane and improving the telescope. The Observatory Verification and Validation (V&V) process is to ensure that the observatory is where the program says it is. The Telescope Status Display (TSD) will provide any information from the on board network to monitors that will display the requested information. In order to assess risks to the program, one must work through the various threats associate with that risk. Once all the risks are closed the program can work towards improving the observatory.

  17. NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy 747SP shows off its new blue-and-white livery at L-3 Communications' Integrated Systems in Waco, Texas

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-25

    NASA's freshly painted Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) 747SP is shown at L-3 Communications Integrated Systems' facility in Waco, Texas, where major modifications and installation was performed. The observatory, which features a German-built 100-inch (2.5 meter) diameter infrared telescope weighing 20 tons, is approaching the flight test phase as part of a joint program by NASA and DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (German Aerospace Center). SOFIA's science and mission operations are being planned jointly by Universities Space Research Association (USRA) and the Deutsches SOFIA Institut (DSI). Once operational, SOFIA will be the world's primary infrared observatory during a mission lasting up to 20 years, as well as an outstanding laboratory for developing and testing instrumentation and detector technology.

  18. NASA's newly painted Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy 747SP is pushed back from L-3 Communications' Integrated Systems hangar in Waco, Texas

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-09-25

    NASA's freshly painted Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) 747SP aircraft sits outside a hangar at L-3 Communications Integrated Systems' facility in Waco, Texas. The observatory, which features a German-built 100-inch (2.5 meter) diameter infrared telescope weighing 20 tons, is approaching the flight test phase as part of a joint program by NASA and DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (German Aerospace Center). SOFIA's science and mission operations are being planned jointly by Universities Space Research Association (USRA) and the Deutsches SOFIA Institut (DSI). Once operational, SOFIA will be the world's primary infrared observatory during a mission lasting up to 20 years, as well as an outstanding laboratory for developing and testing instrumentation and detector technology.

  19. 16 CFR 301.0 - Fur products name guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Insectivora Talpidae Desmana moschata and Galemys pyrenaicus. Dog Carnivora Canidae Canis familiaris. Ermine... Mustelidae Mustela altaica and Mustela rixosa. Wolf ......do Canidae Canis lupus and Canis niger. Wolverine...

  20. 16 CFR 301.0 - Fur products name guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Insectivora Talpidae Desmana moschata and Galemys pyrenaicus. Dog Carnivora Canidae Canis familiaris. Ermine... Mustelidae Mustela altaica and Mustela rixosa. Wolf ......do Canidae Canis lupus and Canis niger. Wolverine...

  1. 16 CFR 301.0 - Fur products name guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Insectivora Talpidae Desmana moschata and Galemys pyrenaicus. Dog Carnivora Canidae Canis familiaris. Ermine... Mustelidae Mustela altaica and Mustela rixosa. Wolf ......do Canidae Canis lupus and Canis niger. Wolverine...

  2. 16 CFR 301.0 - Fur products name guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Insectivora Talpidae Desmana moschata and Galemys pyrenaicus. Dog Carnivora Canidae Canis familiaris. Ermine... Mustelidae Mustela altaica and Mustela rixosa. Wolf ......do Canidae Canis lupus and Canis niger. Wolverine...

  3. 16 CFR 301.0 - Fur products name guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Insectivora Talpidae Desmana moschata and Galemys pyrenaicus. Dog Carnivora Canidae Canis familiaris. Ermine... Mustelidae Mustela altaica and Mustela rixosa. Wolf ......do Canidae Canis lupus and Canis niger. Wolverine...

  4. A survey of fur mites in domestic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Flatt, R E; Wiemers, J

    1976-10-01

    A survey of six commercial rabbit colonies was conducted to determine the prevalence of the mite Cheyletiella parasitvorax. This mite was present in all six colonies, and 43.2% of 220 rabbits examined were infested. Listrophorus gibbus, reported only once previously in domestic rabbits in the United States, was found in four of the six colonies, and in 7.3% of the 220 rabbits examined. Non-parasitic mites were found in 3.2% of the samples. Over 50% of the rabbits examined had inapparent mite infestations.

  5. White fur lumber recovery at a western Washington sawmill.

    Treesearch

    E.E. Matson

    1957-01-01

    In April 1956 a study was made in western Washington to determine grades of lumber that could be expected from silver fir (Abies amabilis) and grand fir (Abies grandis) which are grouped together the lumber industry and sold as white fir. At the sawmill where the study was made, none of the lumber is seasoned and most of it is...

  6. Novel Insights into Fur Regulation in Helicobacter pylori

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-10

    Distribution of prominent bacterial phyla ...................................................... 271   Figure 27. β-diversity between PMP communities ...and can be readily acquired by most microbes that thrive in these situations. H. pylori encodes a single ferrous iron transport protein (FeoB...junctions. The approximate amplified regions are indicated by the small black bars (not drawn to scale ). (B) PCR amplification of the oorDA, oorAB, and

  7. Spray Foam Exterior Insulation with Stand-Off Furring

    SciTech Connect

    Herk, Anastasia; Baker, Richard; Prahl, Duncan

    IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, was contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to research exterior wall insulation solutions. This research investigated cost-effective deep energy retrofit (DER) solutions for improving the building shell exterior while achieving a cost-reduction goal, including reduced labor costs to reach a 50/50 split between material and labor. The strategies included exterior wall insulation plus energy upgrades as needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, and basement band joist, walls, and floors. The work can be integrated with other home improvements such as siding or window replacement. This strategy minimizesmore » physical connections to existing wall studs, encapsulates existing siding materials (including lead paint) with spray foam, and creates a vented rain screen assembly to promote drying. GreenHomes America applied construction details created by IBACOS to a test home. 2x4 framing members were attached to the wall at band joists and top plates using 'L' clips, with spray foam insulating the wall after framing was installed. Windows were installed simultaneously with the framing, including extension jambs. The use of clips in specific areas provided the best strength potential, and 'picture framing' the spray foam held the 2x4s in place. Short-term testing was performed at this house, with monitoring equipment installed for long-term testing. Testing measurements will be provided in a later report, as well as utility impact (before and after), costs (labor and materials), construction time, standard specifications, and analysis for the exterior wall insulation strategy.« less

  8. Spray Foam Exterior Insulation with Stand-Off Furring

    SciTech Connect

    Herk, Anatasia; Baker, Richard; Prahl, Duncan

    IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, was contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to research exterior wall insulation solutions. This research investigated cost-effective deep energy retrofit (DER) solutions for improving the building shell exterior while achieving a cost-reduction goal, including reduced labor costs to reach a 50/50 split between material and labor. The strategies included exterior wall insulation plus energy upgrades as needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, and basement band joist, walls, and floors. The work can be integrated with other home improvements such as siding or window replacement. This strategy minimizesmore » physical connections to existing wall studs, encapsulates existing siding materials (including lead paint) with spray foam, and creates a vented rain screen assembly to promote drying. GreenHomes America applied construction details created by IBACOS to a test home. 2x4 framing members were attached to the wall at band joists and top plates using "L" clips, with spray foam insulating the wall after framing was installed. Windows were installed simultaneously with the framing, including extension jambs. The use of clips in specific areas provided the best strength potential, and "picture framing" the spray foam held the 2x4s in place. Short-term testing was performed at this house, with monitoring equipment installed for long-term testing. Testing measurements will be provided in a later report, as well as utility impact (before and after), costs (labor and materials), construction time, standard specifications, and analysis for the exterior wall insulation strategy.« less

  9. Ihr Ticket fur Munchen (Your Ticket to Munich).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Debbie

    Texts accompanied by photographs and drawings introduce students to four means of public transportation and to major tourist attractions in Munich, German Federal Republic. Vocabulary is glossed in the margin, and texts are followed by questions and exercises. Some suggestions for additional activities are given in English. An appendix includes…

  10. 76 FR 9513 - Airworthiness Directives; BURKHART GROB LUFT-UND Model G 103 C Twin III SL Gliders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... plate) and tighten it, applying the torque following page 6.12 of the G 103 C TWIN III SL Maintenance...: The torque values and tolerances of the upper pulley wheel grooved nut have been standardized in the..., before further flight, readjust the torque of the upper pulley wheel grooved nut using the updated...

  11. 75 FR 59077 - Airworthiness Directives; GROB-WERKE (Type Certificate Previously Held by BURKHART GROB Luft- und...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... product. The MCAI describes the unsafe condition as: The manufacturer has received a report of a failed... manufacturer has received a report of a failed canopy jettison test, during a regular maintenance check. The... take about 3 work-hours and require parts costing $68, for a cost of $323 per product. We have no way...

  12. 75 FR 31734 - Airworthiness Directives; GROB-WERKE (Type Certificate Previously Held by BURKHART GROB Luft- und...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... manufacturer has received a report of a failed canopy jettison test, during a regular maintenance check. The... jettison test, during a regular maintenance check. The investigation revealed that a cable shroud of the... Information Grob Aircraft AG has issued Service Bulletin No. MSB1078-164, dated July 21, 2009. The actions...

  13. 75 FR 12466 - Airworthiness Directives; GROB-WERKE (Type Certificate Previously Held by BURKHART GROB Luft- und...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... failed canopy jettison test, during a regular maintenance check. The investigation revealed that a cable... received by the closing date and may amend this proposed AD because of those comments. We will post all... provide. We will also post a report summarizing each substantive verbal contact we receive about this...

  14. Ökophysik: Plaudereien über das Leben auf dem Land, im Wasser und in der Luft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachtigall, W.

    Prof. em. Dr. rer. nat. Werner Nachtigall, geb. 1934, war als Zoophysiologe und Biophysiker Leiter des Zoologischen Instituts der Universität des Saarlandes in Saarbrücken. In Forschung und Ausbildung hat er sich insbesondere mit Aspekten der Technischen Biologie und Bionik befasst und mit seinen Forschergruppen viele Basisdaten insbesondere zur Ökologie, Physiologie und Physik des Fliegens und Schwimmens aber auch zur Stabilität beispielsweise der Gräser erarbeitet. Lebewesen überraschen immer wieder durch ihre "Biodiversität", ihre hochspezifischen Ausgestaltungen und Anpassungen.

  15. 76 FR 27240 - Airworthiness Directives; BURKHART GROB LUFT-UND Model G 103 C Twin III SL Gliders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... AD docket shortly after receipt. List of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 39 Air transportation, Aircraft... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 [Docket No. FAA-2011... Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new...

  16. 16 CFR 301.44 - Misrepresentation of prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) No person shall, with respect to a fur or fur product, advertise such fur or fur product at alleged... shall any person advertise a fur or fur product at prices purported to be reduced from what are in fact.... (b) No person shall, with respect to a fur or fur product, advertise such fur or fur product with...

  17. Mars Radiation Surface Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alzate, N.; Grande, M.; Matthiae, D.

    2017-09-01

    Planetary Space Weather Services (PSWS) within the Europlanet H2020 Research Infrastructure have been developed following protocols and standards available in Astrophysical, Solar Physics and Planetary Science Virtual Observatories. Several VO-compliant functionalities have been implemented in various tools. The PSWS extends the concepts of space weather and space situational awareness to other planets in our Solar System and in particular to spacecraft that voyage through it. One of the five toolkits developed as part of these services is a model dedicated to the Mars environment. This model has been developed at Aberystwyth University and the Institut fur Luft- und Raumfahrtmedizin (DLR Cologne) using modeled average conditions available from Planetocosmics. It is available for tracing propagation of solar events through the Solar System and modeling the response of the Mars environment. The results have been synthesized into look-up tables parameterized to variable solar wind conditions at Mars.

  18. High Reynolds number tests of the CAST 10-2/DOA 2 airfoil in the Langley 0.3-meter transonic cryogenic tunnel, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dress, D. A.; Mcguire, P. D.; Stanewsky, E.; Ray, E. J.

    1983-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation of an advanced technology airfoil, the CAST 10-2/DOA 2, was conducted in the Langley 0.3 meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (0.3 m TCT). This was the first of a series of tests conducted in a cooperative National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fur Luft- und Raumfahrt e. V. (DFVLR) airfoil research program. Test temperature was varied from 280 K to 100 K to pressures from slightly above 1 to 5.8 atmospheres. Mach number was varied from 0.60 to 0.80, and the Reynolds number (based on airfoil chord) was varied from 4 x 10 to the 8th power to 45 x 10 to the 6th power. This report presents the experimental aerodynamic data obtained for the airfoil and includes descriptions of the airfoil model, the 0.3 m TCT, the test instrumentation, and the testing procedures.

  19. DFVLR/FAA (Deutsche Forschungs-und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt/Federal Aviation Administration) Propeller Noise Tests in the German- Dutch Wind Tunnel DNW

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    8 2.2 Test-rig Installation ................................ 9 2.3 Test Propellers ...................................... 9 2.4 In-flow...considerations, the maximUm power con- sumption of each propeller had to be limited to approximately 9 250 kW. Propeller-tip geometries as well as the radial...in the streamwise direction and arranged in a "helical" manner around a streamwise-orientated main carrier-tibe. This construct. - n concept (Fig. 9

  20. The First European Parabolic Flight Campaign with the Airbus A310 ZERO-G

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletser, Vladimir; Rouquette, Sebastien; Friedrich, Ulrike; Clervoy, Jean-Francois; Gharib, Thierry; Gai, Frederic; Mora, Christophe

    2016-12-01

    Aircraft parabolic flights repetitively provide up to 23 seconds of reduced gravity during ballistic flight manoeuvres. Parabolic flights are used to conduct short microgravity investigations in Physical and Life Sciences and in Technology, to test instrumentation prior to space flights and to train astronauts before a space mission. The use of parabolic flights is complementary to other microgravity carriers (drop towers, sounding rockets), and preparatory to manned space missions on board the International Space Station and other manned spacecraft, such as Shenzhou and the future Chinese Space Station. After 17 years of using the Airbus A300 ZERO-G, the French company Novespace, a subsidiary of the ' Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales' (CNES, French Space Agency), based in Bordeaux, France, purchased a new aircraft, an Airbus A310, to perform parabolic flights for microgravity research in Europe. Since April 2015, the European Space Agency (ESA), CNES and the ` Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.' (DLR, the German Aerospace Center) use this new aircraft, the Airbus A310 ZERO-G, for research experiments in microgravity. The first campaign was a Cooperative campaign shared by the three agencies, followed by respectively a CNES, an ESA and a DLR campaign. This paper presents the new Airbus A310 ZERO-G and its main characteristics and interfaces for scientific experiments. The experiments conducted during the first European campaign are presented.

  1. RaD-X: Complementary measurements of dose rates at aviation altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Matthias M.; Matthiä, Daniel; Forkert, Tomas; Wirtz, Michael; Scheibinger, Markus; Hübel, Robert; Mertens, Christopher J.

    2016-09-01

    The RaD-X stratospheric balloon flight organized by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration was launched from Fort Sumner on 25 September 2015 and carried several instruments to measure the radiation field in the upper atmosphere at the average vertical cutoff rigidity Rc of 4.1 GV. The German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt) in cooperation with Lufthansa German Airlines supported this campaign with an independent measuring flight at the altitudes of civil aviation on a round trip from Germany to Japan. The goal was to measure dose rates under similar space weather conditions over an area on the Northern Hemisphere opposite to the RaD-X flight. Dose rates were measured in the target areas, i.e., around vertical cutoff rigidity Rc of 4.1 GV, at two flight altitudes for about 1 h at each position with acceptable counting statistics. The analysis of the space weather situation during the flights shows that measuring data were acquired under stable and moderate space weather conditions with a virtually undisturbed magnetosphere. The measured rates of absorbed dose in silicon and ambient dose equivalent complement the data recorded during the balloon flight. The combined measurements provide a set of experimental data suitable for validating and improving numerical models for the calculation of radiation exposure at aviation altitudes.

  2. Estimation of total electron content (TEC) using spaceborne GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Key-Rok; Lightsey, E. Glenn

    2008-09-01

    TerraSAR-X (TSX), a high-resolution interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mission from DLR (German Aerospace Center, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft-und Raumfahrt), was successfully launched into orbit on June 15, 2007. It includes a dual-frequency GPS receiver called IGOR (Integrated GPS Occultation Receiver), which is a heritage NASA/JPL BlackJack receiver. The software for the TSX IGOR receiver was specially-modified software developed at UT/CSR. This software was upgraded to provide enhanced occultation capabilities. This paper describes total electron content (TEC) estimation using simulation data and onboard GPS data of TerraSAR-X. The simulated GPS data were collected using the IGOR Engineering Model (EM) in the laboratory and the onboard GPS data were collected from the IGOR Flight Model (FM) on TSX. To estimate vertical total electron content (vTEC) for the simulation data, inter-frequency biases (IFB) were estimated using the "carrier to code leveling process." For the onboard GPS data, IFBs of GPS satellites were retrieved from the navigation message and applied to the measurements.

  3. Identification and characterization of individual airborne volcanic ash particles by Raman microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ivleva, Natalia P; Huckele, Susanne; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Niessner, Reinhard; Haisch, Christoph; Baumann, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    We present for the first time the Raman microspectroscopic identification and characterization of individual airborne volcanic ash (VA) particles. The particles were collected in April/May 2010 during research aircraft flights, which were performed by Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt in the airspace near the Eyjafjallajökull volcano eruption and over Europe (between Iceland and Southern Germany). In addition, aerosol particles were sampled by an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor in Munich, Germany. As references for the Raman analysis, we used the spectra of VA collected at the ground near the place of eruption, of mineral basaltic rock, and of different minerals from a database. We found significant differences in the spectra of VA and other aerosol particles (e.g., soot, nitrates, sulfates, and clay minerals), which allowed us to identify VA among other atmospheric particulate matter. Furthermore, while the airborne VA shows a characteristic Raman pattern (with broad band from ca. 200 to ca. 700 cm(-1) typical for SiO₂ glasses and additional bands of ferric minerals), the differences between the spectra of aged and fresh particles were observed, suggesting differences in their chemical composition and/or structure. We also analyzed similarities between Eyjafjallajökull VA particles collected at different sampling sites and compared the particles with a large variety of glassy and crystalline minerals. This was done by applying cluster analysis, in order to get information on the composition and structure of volcanic ash.

  4. EARLY SCIENCE WITH SOFIA, THE STRATOSPHERIC OBSERVATORY FOR INFRARED ASTRONOMY

    SciTech Connect

    Young, E. T.; Becklin, E. E.; De Buizer, J. M.

    The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is an airborne observatory consisting of a specially modified Boeing 747SP with a 2.7 m telescope, flying at altitudes as high as 13.7 km (45,000 ft). Designed to observe at wavelengths from 0.3 {mu}m to 1.6 mm, SOFIA operates above 99.8% of the water vapor that obscures much of the infrared and submillimeter. SOFIA has seven science instruments under development, including an occultation photometer, near-, mid-, and far-infrared cameras, infrared spectrometers, and heterodyne receivers. SOFIA, a joint project between NASA and the German Aerospace Center Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft und-Raumfahrt, began initial sciencemore » flights in 2010 December, and has conducted 30 science flights in the subsequent year. During this early science period three instruments have flown: the mid-infrared camera FORCAST, the heterodyne spectrometer GREAT, and the occultation photometer HIPO. This Letter provides an overview of the observatory and its early performance.« less

  5. 17th International Microgravity Measurements Group Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard

    1998-01-01

    The Seventeenth International Microgravity Measurements Group (MGMG) meeting was held 24-26 March 1998 at the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) in Brook Park, Ohio. This meeting focused on the transition of microgravity science research from the Shuttle, Mir, and free flyers to the International Space Station. The MGMG series of meetings are conducted by the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project of the Microgravity Science Division at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The MGMG meetings provide a forum for the exchange of information and ideas about the microgravity environment and microgravity acceleration research in the Microgravity Research Program. The meeting had participation from investigators in all areas of microgravity research. The attendees included representatives from: NASA centers; National Space Development Agency of Japan; European Space Agency; Daimler Benz Aerospace AG; Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt; Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales; Canadian Space Agency, national research institutions; Universities in U.S., Italy, Germany, and Russia; and commercial companies in the U.S. and Russia. Several agencies presented summaries of the measurement, analysis, and characterization of the microgravity environment of the Shuttle, Mir, and sounding rockets over the past fifteen years. This extensive effort has laid a foundation for pursuing a similar course during future microgravity science experiment operations on the ISS. Future activities of microgravity environment characterization were discussed by several agencies who plan to operate on the ISS.

  6. Expression of transcription factors after short-term exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures to hyper-g, and to simulated and sounding rocket micro-g

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampp, R.; Babbick, M.

    Previous microarray studies with cell cultures of Arabidopsis thaliana cv Columbia have shown responses in gene expression which were partly specific to exposure to microgravity sounding rocket experiment TEXUS In order to get access to early responses upon changes in gravitational fields we used exposure times as short as 2 min For this purpose we selected a range of genes which code for different groups of transcription factors WRKY ERF MYB MADS Samples were taken in 5-min clinorotation 2- and 3-dimensional hypergravity 8g and 2-min intervals sounding rocket experiment Amounts of transcripts were determined by quantitative RT PCR Most transcripts showed a significant transient change in content within a time frame of up to 30 min after changing the external gravitational field strength They could be grouped into 1 basic stress responses which occurred under all conditions 2 clinorotation-related effects which were either identical or opposite between 2D 60 rpm 4x10 -2 g and 3D clinorotation random positioning machine and 3 alterations specific to the microgravity exposure under sounding rocket conditions MAXUS The data are discussed in relation to gravitation-dependent signalling chains and with regard to the simulation of microgravity by means of clinorotation Supported by a grant from the Deutsches Zentrum f u r Luft- und Raumfahrt e V grant no 50 WB 0143

  7. A high-resolution optical measurement system for rapid acquisition of radiation flux density maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thelen, Martin; Raeder, Christian; Willsch, Christian; Dibowski, Gerd

    2017-06-01

    To identify the power and flux density of concentrated solar radiation the Institute of Solar Research at the German Aerospace Center (DLR - Deutsches Zentrum für Luft-und Raumfahrt e. V.) has used the camera-based measurement system FATMES (Flux and Temperature Measurement System) since 1995. The disadvantages of low resolution, difficult handling and poor computing power required a revision of the existing measurement system. The measurement system FMAS (Flux Mapping Acquisition system) is equipped with state-of-the-art-hardware, is compatible with computers off-the-shelf and is programmed in LabView. The expenditure of time for an image evaluation is reduced by the factor 60 compared to FATMES. The new measurement system is no longer associated with the facilities Solar Furnace and High Flux Solar Simulator at the DLR in Cologne but is also applicable as a mobile system. The data and the algorithms are transparent throughout the complete process. The measurement accuracy of FMAS is determined to at most ±3 % until now. The error of measurement of FATMES is at least 2 % higher according to the conducted comparison tests.

  8. Gravity wave characteristics in the middle atmosphere during the CESAR campaign at Palma de Mallorca in 2011/2012: Impact of extratropical cyclones and cold fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, R.; Wüst, S.; Schmidt, C.; Bittner, M.

    2015-06-01

    Based on a measuring campaign which was carried out at Mallorca (39.6°N, 2.7°E) as cooperation between Agència Estatal de Meteorologia (AEMET) and Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, engl. 'German Aerospace Center' (DLR) in 2011/2012 (September-January), 143 radiosondes (day and night) providing vertical temperature and wind profiles were released. Additionally, nocturnal mesopause temperature measurements with a temporal resolution of about 1 min were conducted by the infrared (IR) - Ground-based Infrared P-branch Spectrometer (GRIPS) during the campaign period. Strongly enhanced gravity wave activity in the lower stratosphere is observed which can be attributed to a hurricane-like storm (so-called Medicane) and to passing by cold fronts. Statistical features of gravity wave parameters including energy densitiy and momentum fluxes are calculated. Gravity wave momentum fluxes turned out being up to five times larger during severe weather. Moreover, gravity wave horizontal propagation characteristics are derived applying hodograph and Stokes parameter analysis. Preferred directions are of southeast and northwest due to prevailing wind directions at Mallorca.

  9. CONCORD: comparison of cosmic radiation detectors in the radiation field at aviation altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Matthias M.; Trompier, François; Ambrozova, Iva; Kubancak, Jan; Matthiä, Daniel; Ploc, Ondrej; Santen, Nicole; Wirtz, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Space weather can strongly affect the complex radiation field at aviation altitudes. The assessment of the corresponding radiation exposure of aircrew and passengers has been a challenging task as well as a legal obligation in the European Union for many years. The response of several radiation measuring instruments operated by different European research groups during joint measuring flights was investigated in the framework of the CONCORD (COmparisoN of COsmic Radiation Detectors) campaign in the radiation field at aviation altitudes. This cooperation offered the opportunity to measure under the same space weather conditions and contributed to an independent quality control among the participating groups. The CONCORD flight campaign was performed with the twin-jet research aircraft Dassault Falcon 20E operated by the flight facility Oberpfaffenhofen of the German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, DLR). Dose rates were measured at four positions in the atmosphere in European airspace for about one hour at each position in order to obtain acceptable counting statistics. The analysis of the space weather situation during the measuring flights demonstrates that short-term solar activity did not affect the results which show a very good agreement between the readings of the instruments of the different institutes.

  10. A new AS-display as part of the MIRO lightweight robot for surgical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossmann, Christoph M.

    2010-02-01

    The DLR MIRO is the second generation of versatile robot arms for surgical applications, developed at the Institute for Robotics and Mechatronics at Deutsche Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) in Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany. With its low weight of 10 kg and dimensions similar to those of the human arm, the MIRO robot can assist the surgeon directly at the operating table where space is scarce. The planned scope of applications of this robot arm ranges from guiding a laser unit for the precise separation of bone tissue in orthopedics to positioning holes for bone screws, robot assisted endoscope guidance and on to the multi-robot concept for endoscopic minimally invasive surgery. A stereo-endoscope delivers two full HD video streams that can even be augmented with information, e.g vectors indicating the forces that act on the surgical tool at any given moment. SeeFront's new autostereoscopic 3D display SF 2223, being a part of the MIRO assembly, will let the surgeon view the stereo video stream in excellent quality, in real time and without the need for any viewing aids. The presentation is meant to provide an insight into the principles at the basis of the SeeFront 3D technology and how they allow the creation of autostereoscopic display solutions ranging from smallest "stamp-sized" displays to 30" desktop versions, which all provide comfortable freedom of movement for the viewer along with excellent 3D image quality.

  11. SOFIA: Flying the Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asher, Troy; Cumming, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is an international cooperative development and operations program between the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the German Space Agency, DLR (Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft-und Raumfahrt). SOFIA is a 2.5 meter, optical/infrared/sub-millimeter telescope mounted in a Boeing model 747SP-21 aircraft and will be used for many basic astronomical observations performed at stratospheric altitudes. It will accommodate installation of different focal plane instruments with in-flight accessibility provided by investigators selected from the international science community. The Facility operational lifetime is planned to be greater than 20 years. This presentation will present the results of developmental testing of SOFIA, including analysis, envelope expansion and the first operational mission. It will describe a brief history of open cavities in flight, how NASA designed and tested SOFIAs cavity, as well as flight test results. It will focus on how the test team achieved key milestones by systematically and efficiently reducing the number of test points to only those absolutely necessary to achieve mission requirements, thereby meeting all requirements and saving the potential loss of program funding. Finally, it will showcase examples of the observatory in action and the first operational mission of the observatory, illustrating the usefulness of the system to the international scientific community. Lessons learned on how to whittle a mountain of test points into a manageable sum will be presented at the conclusion.

  12. H.C. Schumacher - Center of international communication in astronomy and mediator betwen Denmark an Germany. (German Title: H.C. Schumacher - Zentrum der internationalen Kommunikation in der Astronomie und Mittler zwischen Dänemark und Deutschland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, Jürgen

    As the editor of the ``Astronomische Nachrichten'', H.C. Schumacher played an outstanding role among the astronomers of the first half of the 19th century. Altona, his place of activity, belonged to the kingdom of Denmark. Both the foundation of the ``Astronomische Nachrichten'' and its existence depended for several decades on the support by the Danish kings and high-ranking officials at the Copenhagen court. This paper analyses these questions on the basis of previously unused archival sources and discusses also Schumacher's life and his relations to the royal dynasty.

  13. "Keine Grenzen fur Frauen": Techniques for Introducing a Feminist Consciousness into the High School German Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Susan A.

    1991-01-01

    Describes projects, skits, songs, and speeches designed to stimulate student interest in and appreciation of men and women's changing roles in society, helping teachers not only to stress subject matter but also instill in their students a sense of pride, concern for others, and awareness of potential career opportunities. (Author/CB)

  14. Interplay between aggression, brain monoamines and fur color mutation in the American mink.

    PubMed

    Kulikov, A V; Bazhenova, E Y; Kulikova, E A; Fursenko, D V; Trapezova, L I; Terenina, E E; Mormede, P; Popova, N K; Trapezov, O V

    2016-11-01

    Domestication of wild animals alters the aggression towards humans, brain monoamines and coat pigmentation. Our aim is the interplay between aggression, brain monoamines and depigmentation. The Hedlund white mutation in the American mink is an extreme case of depigmentation observed in domesticated animals. The aggressive (-2.06 ± 0.03) and tame (+3.5 ± 0.1) populations of wild-type dark brown color (standard) minks were bred during 17 successive generations for aggressive or tame reaction towards humans, respectively. The Hedlund mutation was transferred to the aggressive and tame backgrounds to generate aggressive (-1.2 ± 0.1) and tame (+3.0 ± 0.2) Hedlund minks. Four groups of 10 males with equal expression of aggressive (-2) or tame (+5) behavior, standard or with the Hedlund mutation, were selected to study biogenic amines in the brain. Decreased levels of noradrenaline in the hypothalamus, but increased concentrations of the serotonin metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and dopamine metabolite, homovanillic acid, in the striatum were measured in the tame compared with the aggressive standard minks. The Hedlund mutation increased noradrenaline level in the hypothalamus and substantia nigra, serotonin level in the substantia nigra and striatum and decreased dopamine concentration in the hypothalamus and striatum. Significant interaction effects were found between the Hedlund mutation and aggressive behavior on serotonin metabolism in the substantia nigra (P < 0.001), dopamine level in the midbrain (P < 0.01) and its metabolism in the striatum (P < 0.05). These results provide the first experimental evidence of the interplay between aggression, brain monoamines and the Hedlund mutation in the American minks. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  15. Umschulung fur Frauen in den neuen Bundeslandern (Vocational Retraining for Women in the New Laender).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gieseke, Wiltrud; Siebers, Ruth

    1996-01-01

    Argues that, although women in the new German Laender show greater interest in further vocational training, retraining offers and chances for reemployment are less promising for them. Sketches perceptions and evaluations of the vocational retraining situation from the perspective of life-long learning and vocational retraining's effects on…

  16. 75 FR 11121 - Incidental Takes of Marine Mammals During Specified Activities; Replacement and Repair of Fur...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... intermittent and early season presence through early June. The purpose of the replacement and repair operations...' estimate includes territorial males, and non- territorial males. In addition, NMFS estimates intermittent...., younger than 7 years old) arrive on the island and cycle between fasting and resting on shore and foraging...

  17. Ethyl 4-(2-fur-yl)-2-oxochroman-3-carboxyl-ate.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, Maddela; Reddy, J S N; Kumar, N Ravi; Ganesh, S Viswanadha; Solomon, K Anand

    2010-05-12

    The title compound, C(16)H(14)O(5), was prepared from the reaction of 3-carbethoxy-coumarin with furan in the presence of AlCl(3) as catalyst. In the crystal, inter-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter-actions between four mol-ecules lead to a tetra-mer in the unit cell. The furan ring is anti-periplanar [C-C-C-O = 167.9 (13)°] and the ethoxy-carbonyl group is (-)anti-clinal [C-C-C-O = -128.6 (14)°] to the lactone ring.

  18. 78 FR 36693 - Rules and Regulations Under the Fur Products Labeling Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... Rules currently do, a statement that the guarantor's printed name and address will meet the signature... to section 301.47: ``Note: The printed name and address on the invoice or other document will suffice... Band Employee Benefit Plan v. Smith Barney Shearson, Inc., 76 F.3d 1245 (1st Cir. 1996) (upholding...

  19. The Rhetoric and Reality of Research Reputation: "Fur Coat and No Knickers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Loughlin, Deirdre; MacPhail, Ann; Msetfi, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation systems including global university rankings have been recently introduced as mechanisms for assessing overall academic quality, appraising research reputation and as a basis for funding and policy decisions. This study explores the concept of research reputation in terms of how it is defined, constituted and assessed. Eight…

  20. 16 CFR 301.5 - Use of Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... designating the name of the animal in the required information; as for example: “Fox, Black” shall be... of Name, Order, Family and Genus-Species. The applicable animal name appearing in the column headed... furnished for animal identification purposes and shall not be used. (b) Where the name of the animal...

  1. 16 CFR 301.5 - Use of Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... designating the name of the animal in the required information; as for example: “Fox, Black” shall be... of Name, Order, Family and Genus-Species. The applicable animal name appearing in the column headed... furnished for animal identification purposes and shall not be used. (b) Where the name of the animal...

  2. 16 CFR 301.5 - Use of Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... designating the name of the animal in the required information; as for example: “Fox, Black” shall be... of Name, Order, Family and Genus-Species. The applicable animal name appearing in the column headed... furnished for animal identification purposes and shall not be used. (b) Where the name of the animal...

  3. 16 CFR 301.5 - Use of Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... designating the name of the animal in the required information; as for example: “Fox, Black” shall be... of Name, Order, Family and Genus-Species. The applicable animal name appearing in the column headed... furnished for animal identification purposes and shall not be used. (b) Where the name of the animal...

  4. 16 CFR 301.5 - Use of Fur Products Name Guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... designating the name of the animal in the required information; as for example: “Fox, Black” shall be... of Name, Order, Family and Genus-Species. The applicable animal name appearing in the column headed... furnished for animal identification purposes and shall not be used. (b) Where the name of the animal...

  5. Of Fur, Feather, and Fin: Human's Use and Concern for Non-Human Species.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Elizabeth; Widmar, Nicole Olynk; Fulton, Joan

    2017-03-09

    The public's concern for animal welfare is evolving and it is important to consider factors that are related to concern for animals and their use by humans. An online survey of 825 U.S. residents was conducted. Relationships between approval of animal uses and stated concern for animal welfare were examined. More than 90% of respondents reported that using animals for egg production, service or therapy, pets, and milk production was acceptable to them. Respondents who were younger or reported being female less frequently found most uses acceptable than older or male respondents. Half of respondents reported concern for the welfare of bison while 40% or more stated concern for the welfare of elk, beef cattle, and dairy cattle. Respondents who stated they were concerned for the welfare of dairy cattle less frequently reported accepting using animals for meat production, livestock shows, and hunting. Thus, self-reported concern for animal species and acceptance of the use of animals were related in some instances. A better understanding of the factors related to acceptance of animal uses and concern for animal welfare will help animal-related industries and wildlife agencies develop practices that are consistent with public attitudes.

  6. Of Fur, Feather, and Fin: Human’s Use and Concern for Non-Human Species

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, Elizabeth; Widmar, Nicole Olynk; Fulton, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary An online survey of 825 U.S. residents was conducted to determine the level of approval for several uses of animals. More than 90% of respondents reported that using animals for egg production, service or therapy, pets, and milk production was acceptable to them. Older and male respondents more frequently found most of the animal uses surveyed acceptable. Half of respondents reported concern for the welfare of bison while 40% or more stated concern for the welfare of elk, beef cattle, and dairy cattle. Reported concern for animal species and acceptance of the use of animals were related in some instances. Respondents who stated they were concerned for the welfare of dairy cattle less frequently reported accepting using animals for meat production, livestock shows, and hunting. Abstract The public’s concern for animal welfare is evolving and it is important to consider factors that are related to concern for animals and their use by humans. An online survey of 825 U.S. residents was conducted. Relationships between approval of animal uses and stated concern for animal welfare were examined. More than 90% of respondents reported that using animals for egg production, service or therapy, pets, and milk production was acceptable to them. Respondents who were younger or reported being female less frequently found most uses acceptable than older or male respondents. Half of respondents reported concern for the welfare of bison while 40% or more stated concern for the welfare of elk, beef cattle, and dairy cattle. Respondents who stated they were concerned for the welfare of dairy cattle less frequently reported accepting using animals for meat production, livestock shows, and hunting. Thus, self-reported concern for animal species and acceptance of the use of animals were related in some instances. A better understanding of the factors related to acceptance of animal uses and concern for animal welfare will help animal-related industries and wildlife agencies develop practices that are consistent with public attitudes. PMID:28282913

  7. Arbeitsmittel fur den Deutschunterricht an Auslander (Materials for German Instruction to Foreigners).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufmann, Gerhard, Comp.

    This annotated German bibliography of textbooks for use in language programs includes a wide variety of instructional media. Materials are classified under: (1) language texts, (2) teachers' texts, (3) language texts for foreigners, (4) exercise books and tapes, (5) testing materials, (6) radio courses, (7) instructional films, (8) vocational…

  8. Entwicklungsarbeit am Spurendetektor fur das CDF Experiment am Tevatron (in German/English)

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, Frank

    2000-02-01

    Silicon, the element, which revolutionized the development of electronics, is known as an important and multiusable material, dominating todays electronic technology. It's properties are well investigated and today well known. Silicon is used in solar cells, computers and telecommunications. Since the Sixties semiconductors have been used as particle detectors. Initially they were operated in fixed- target experiments as calorimeters and as detectors with a high precision track reconstruction. Since the Eighties they are widely used in collider experiments as silicon microstrip or silicon pixel detectors near the primary vertex. Silicon sensors have a very good intrinsic energy resolution: for everymore » 3.6 eV released by a particle crossing the medium, one electron-hole pair is produced. Compared to 30 eV required to ionize a gas molecule in a gaseous detector, one gets 10 times the number of particles. The average energy loss and high ionized particle number with 390 e V / μm ~ 108 (electron - hole pairs)/ μm is effectively high due to the high density of silicon. These detectors allow a high precision reconstruction of tracks, primary and secondary vertices, which are especially important for b flavour tagging. The Tevatron and its detectors are being upgraded for the next data taking run starting in 2001 (RUN II). The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) [2] for the upcoming Run II and its upgraded components are described in chapter 2. The main upgrade project is the design and construction of a completely new inner tracking system.« less

  9. ASSESSING LEVELS OF INTERMITTENT EXPOSURES OF CHILDRENTO FLEA CONTROL INSECTICIDES FROM THE FUR OF DOGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are reported insecticide residues present in food, water, and surfaces such as carpets treated for flea control. However, no studies (except those we currently have in place) have quantified the transferable flea control insecticide residues which occur on pets (the majo...

  10. 16 CFR 301.7 - Describing furs by certain breed names prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., species, strain or coloring, irrespective of former usage, such descriptive matter shall not contain the... a name in an adjective form or otherwise which connotes a false geographic origin of the animal. For...

  11. 16 CFR 301.7 - Describing furs by certain breed names prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., species, strain or coloring, irrespective of former usage, such descriptive matter shall not contain the... a name in an adjective form or otherwise which connotes a false geographic origin of the animal. For...

  12. 16 CFR 301.7 - Describing furs by certain breed names prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., species, strain or coloring, irrespective of former usage, such descriptive matter shall not contain the... a name in an adjective form or otherwise which connotes a false geographic origin of the animal. For...

  13. 16 CFR 301.7 - Describing furs by certain breed names prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., species, strain or coloring, irrespective of former usage, such descriptive matter shall not contain the... a name in an adjective form or otherwise which connotes a false geographic origin of the animal. For...

  14. 16 CFR 301.7 - Describing furs by certain breed names prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., species, strain or coloring, irrespective of former usage, such descriptive matter shall not contain the... a name in an adjective form or otherwise which connotes a false geographic origin of the animal. For...

  15. Die Bedeutung der Koedukation fur die Genese der Studienfachwahl = The Impact of Coeducation on Vocational Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesen, Heinz; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents study results of the impact of coeducational and gender segregated instruction on German students' vocational choice. Reports that students in coeducational settings tend to conform with gender typical roles in choice of majors, interests, grades, and self-assessment. Concludes that female students attending girls' schools more often go…

  16. Limits to sustained energy intake. X. Effects of fur removal on reproductive performance in laboratory mice.

    PubMed

    Król, Elzbieta; Murphy, Michelle; Speakman, John R

    2007-12-01

    The maximum rate of sustained energy intake (SusEI) may limit reproductive effort and other aspects of animal performance. We have previously suggested that lactating mice are not limited centrally by the alimentary tract or peripherally by the mammary glands, but that the limits to SusEI are imposed by the capacity of the animal to dissipate body heat generated as a by-product of processing food and producing milk. To explore the nature of the limits to SusEI, we bred MF1 laboratory mice at 21 degrees C and then dorsally shaved lactating females to reduce their external insulation and thereby elevate their capacity to dissipate body heat. These mice increased their food intake by 12.0% and assimilated on average 30.9 kJ day(-1) more energy than unshaved animals. With nearly identical mean litter sizes (11.4 pups for shaved and 11.3 pups for unshaved mice), shaved mothers exported 15.2% (22.0 kJ day(-1)) more energy as milk than control individuals. The elevated milk production of shaved mice enabled them to wean litters that were 15.4% (12.2 g) heavier than offspring produced by unshaved mice. Our results argue against central, peripheral or extrinsic limits to SusEI at peak lactation and provide strong support for the heat dissipation limit hypothesis. More generally, we see many situations where heat dissipation may be a previously unrecognised factor constraining the evolution of endothermic animals - for example, the latitudinal and altitudinal trends in clutch and litter sizes and the migration patterns of birds.

  17. GENOTYPES OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM INFECTING FUR-BEARING MAMMALS DIFFER FROM THOSE INFECTING HUMANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To evaluate the public health significance of wildlife Cryptosporidium spp., five species of small wild mammals (beavers, muskrats, otters, raccoons, and foxes) living in Chesapeake Bay watersheds were examined in this study for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp., using a small...

  18. Impulse fur Bibliotheken (Impulses for Libraries). Publications of Essen University Library 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helal, Ahmed H., Ed.

    This collection of 12 papers commemorates the retirement of Bernhard Adams. Adams had a 30-year career at the Bochum University Library (Germany) and advocated innovation and automation in libraries. The papers are: (1) "Gemeinsame Wegstrecken: Bernhard Adams zur Ehre" ("Common Milestones: In Honor of Bernhard Adams") (Harro…

  19. An investigation of the effects of pitch-roll (de)coupling on helicopter handling qualities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanken, C. L.; Pausder, H. J.; Ockier, C. J.

    1995-01-01

    An extensive investigation of the effects of pitch-roll coupling on helicopter handling qualities was performed by the U.S. Army and Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), using a NASA ground-based and a DLR in-flight simulator. Over 90 different coupling configurations were evaluated using a high gain roll-axis tracking task. The results show that although the current ADS-33C coupling criterion discriminates against those types of coupling typical of conventionally controlled helicopters, it is not always suited for the prediction of handling qualities of helicopters with modern control systems. Based on the observation that high frequency inputs during tracking are used to alleviate coupling, a frequency domain pitch-roll coupling criterion that uses the average coupling ratio between the bandwidth and neutral stability frequency is formulated. This criterion provides a more comprehensive coverage with respect to the different types of coupling, shows excellent consistency, and has the additional benefit that compliance testing data are obtained from the bandwidth/phase delay tests, so that no additional flight testing is needed.

  20. Square tracking sensor for autonomous helicopter hover stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oertel, Carl-Henrik

    1995-06-01

    Sensors for synthetic vision are needed to extend the mission profiles of helicopters. A special task for various applications is the autonomous position hold of a helicopter above a ground fixed or moving target. As a proof of concept for a general synthetic vision solution a restricted machine vision system, which is capable of locating and tracking a special target, was developed by the Institute of Flight Mechanics of Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (i.e., German Aerospace Research Establishment). This sensor, which is specialized to detect and track a square, was integrated in the fly-by-wire helicopter ATTHeS (i.e., Advanced Technology Testing Helicopter System). An existing model following controller for the forward flight condition was adapted for the hover and low speed requirements of the flight vehicle. The special target, a black square with a length of one meter, was mounted on top of a car. Flight tests demonstrated the automatic stabilization of the helicopter above the moving car by synthetic vision.

  1. Telemetry distribution and processing for the second German Spacelab Mission D-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabenau, E.; Kruse, W.

    1994-01-01

    For the second German Spacelab Mission D-2 all activities related to operating, monitoring and controlling the experiments on board the Spacelab were conducted from the German Space Operations Control Center (GSOC) operated by the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) in Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany. The operational requirements imposed new concepts on the transfer of data between Germany and the NASA centers and the processing of data at the GSOC itself. Highlights were the upgrade of the Spacelab Data Processing Facility (SLDPF) to real time data processing, the introduction of packet telemetry and the development of the high-rate data handling front end, data processing and display systems at GSOC. For the first time, a robot on board the Spacelab was to be controlled from the ground in a closed loop environment. A dedicated forward channel was implemented to transfer the robot manipulation commands originating from the robotics experiment ground station to the Spacelab via the Orbiter's text and graphics system interface. The capability to perform telescience from an external user center was implemented. All interfaces proved successful during the course of the D-2 mission and are described in detail in this paper.

  2. Eigensystem realization algorithm modal identification experiences with mini-mast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappa, Richard S.; Schenk, Axel; Noll, Christopher

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes work performed under a collaborative research effort between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR, Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Luft- und Raumfahrt). The objective is to develop and demonstrate system identification technology for future large space structures. Recent experiences using the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA), for modal identification of Mini-Mast, are reported. Mini-Mast is a 20 m long deployable space truss used for structural dynamics and active vibration-control research at the Langley Research Center. A comprehensive analysis of 306 frequency response functions (3 excitation forces and 102 displacement responses) was performed. Emphasis is placed on two topics of current research: (1) gaining an improved understanding of ERA performance characteristics (theory vs. practice); and (2) developing reliable techniques to improve identification results for complex experimental data. Because of nonlinearities and numerous local modes, modal identification of Mini-Mast proved to be surprisingly difficult. Methods were available, ERA, for obtaining detailed, high-confidence results.

  3. A general theory of two- and three-dimensional rotational flow in subsonic and transonic turbomachines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Chung-Hua

    1993-01-01

    This report represents a general theory applicable to axial, radial, and mixed flow turbomachines operating at subsonic and supersonic speeds with a finite number of blades of finite thickness. References reflect the evolution of computational methods used, from the inception of the theory in the 50's to the high-speed computer era of the 90's. Two kinds of relative stream surfaces, S(sub 1) and S(sub 2), are introduced for the purpose of obtaining a three-dimensional flow solution through the combination of two-dimensional flow solutions. Nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinates are used for the governing equations. Methods of computing transonic flow along S(sub 1) and S(sub 2) stream surfaces are given for special cases as well as for fully three-dimensional transonic flows. Procedures pertaining to the direct solutions and inverse solutions are presented. Information on shock wave locations and shapes needed for computations are discussed. Experimental data from a Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fur Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DFVLR) rotor and from a Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) transonic compressor rotor are compared with the computed flow properties.

  4. NASA Alternative-Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Flight Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, B. E.; Moore, R.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Shook, M.; Winstead, E.; Ziemba, L. D.; Bulzan, D. L.; Brown, A.; Beaton, B.; Schlager, H.

    2014-12-01

    Although the emission performance of gas-turbine engines burning renewable aviation fuels have been thoroughly documented in recent ground-based studies, there is still great uncertainty regarding how the fuels effect aircraft exhaust composition and contrail formation at cruise altitudes. To fill this information gap, the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate sponsored the ACCESS flight series to make detailed measurements of trace gases, aerosols and ice particles in the near-field behind the NASA DC-8 aircraft as it burned either standard petroleum-based fuel of varying sulfur content or a 50:50 blend of standard fuel and a hydro-treated esters and fatty acid (HEFA) jet fuel produced from camelina plant oil. ACCESS 1, conducted in spring 2013 near Palmdale CA, focused on refining flight plans and sampling techniques and used the instrumented NASA Langley HU-25 aircraft to document DC-8 emissions and contrails on five separate flights of ~2 hour duration. ACCESS 2, conducted from Palmdale in May 2014, engaged partners from the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) and National Research Council-Canada to provide additional scientific expertise and sampling aircraft (Falcon 20 and CT-133, respectively) with more extensive trace gas, particle, or air motion measurement capability. Eight, muliti-aircraft research flights of 2 to 4 hour duration were conducted to document the emissions and contrail properties of the DC-8 as it 1) burned low sulfur Jet A, high sulfur Jet A or low sulfur Jet A/HEFA blend, 2) flew at altitudes between 6 and 11 km, and 3) operated its engines at three different fuel flow rates. This presentation further describes the ACCESS flight experiments, examines fuel type and thrust setting impacts on engine emissions, and compares cruise-altitude observations with similar data acquired in ground-test venues.

  5. Performance Simulations for a Spaceborne Methane Lidar Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiemle, C.; Kawa, Stephan Randolph; Quatrevalet, Mathieu; Browell, Edward V.

    2014-01-01

    Future spaceborne lidar measurements of key anthropogenic greenhouse gases are expected to close current observational gaps particularly over remote, polar, and aerosol-contaminated regions, where actual in situ and passive remote sensing observation techniques have difficulties. For methane, a "Methane Remote Lidar Mission" was proposed by Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt and Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales in the frame of a German-French climate monitoring initiative. Simulations assess the performance of this mission with the help of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations of the earth's surface albedo and atmospheric optical depth. These are key environmental parameters for integrated path differential absorption lidar which uses the surface backscatter to measure the total atmospheric methane column. Results showthat a lidar with an average optical power of 0.45W at 1.6 µm wavelength and a telescope diameter of 0.55 m, installed on a low Earth orbit platform(506 km), will measure methane columns at precisions of 1.2%, 1.7%, and 2.1% over land, water, and snow or ice surfaces, respectively, for monthly aggregated measurement samples within areas of 50 × 50 km2. Globally, the mean precision for the simulated year 2007 is 1.6%, with a standard deviation of 0.7%. At high latitudes, a lower reflectance due to snow and ice is compensated by denser measurements, owing to the orbital pattern. Over key methane source regions such as densely populated areas, boreal and tropical wetlands, or permafrost, our simulations show that the measurement precision will be between 1 and 2%.

  6. A green observatory in the Chilean Atacama desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramolla, Michael; Westhues, Christian; Hackstein, Moritz; Haas, Martin; Hodapp, Klaus; Lemke, Roland; Barr Domínguez, Angie; Chini, Rolf; Murphy, Miguel

    2016-08-01

    Since 2007, the Ruhr-Universität Bochum (RUB) in Germany and Universidad Católica del Norte (UCN) in Chile jointly operate the Universitätssternwarte der Ruhr-Universität Bochum (USB), which is located in direct neighborhood of the future E-ELT of ESO. It is the only observatory powered exclusively by solar panels and wind turbines. Excess power is stored in batteries that allow uninterrupted operation even in windless nights. The scientific equipment consists of three robotic optical telescopes with apertures ranging from 15 cm (RoBoTT) over 25 cm (BESTII) to 40 cm (BMT) and one 80 cm (IRIS) infra-red telescope. The optical telescopes are equipped with Johnson and Sloan broad band filters together with a large number of narrow and intermediate bands. In the infrared, J,H and K filters are available, accompanied by several narrow bands near the K band wavelength. The second Nasmyth focus in the 80 cm telescope feeds a high resolution echelle spectrograph similar to the FEROS instrument of ESO. This variety of instruments has evolved from different collaborations, i.e. with the University of Hawaii (IfA) in the USA, which provided the near-infrared-camera of the IRIS telescope, or with the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) in Germany, which provided the BESTII telescope. The highly automatized processes on all telescopes enable a single person to run the whole facility, providing the high cost efficiency required for an university observatory. The excellent site conditions allow projects that require daily observations of astronomical objects over epochs of several months or years. Here we report on such studies of young stellar objects from the Bochum Galactic Disk Survey, the multiplicity of stars, quasar variability or the hunt for exo-planets.

  7. An airborne perfluorocarbon tracer system and its first application for a Lagrangian experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Y.; Baumann, R.; Schlager, H.

    2015-01-01

    A perfluorocarbon tracer system (PERTRAS), specifically designed for Lagrangian aircraft experiments, has been developed by the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (German Aerospace Center, DLR). It consists of three main parts: a tracer release unit (RU), an adsorption tube sampler (ATS), and a tracer analytical system. The RU was designed for airborne tracer release experiments; meanwhile, it can be used on various platforms for different experimental purposes (here research vessel). PERTRAS was for the first time applied in the field campaign Stratospheric ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere (SHIVA) in November 2011. An amount of 8.8 kg perfluoromethylcyclopentane (PMCP) was released aboard the research vessel Sonne (RV Sonne) near the operational site of this campaign, Miri, Malaysia, on 21 November. The tracer samples collected using the ATS onboard the DLR research aircraft Falcon were analyzed in the laboratory using a thermal desorber-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) system. Guided by forecasts calculated with the Lagrangian model Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT), 64 tracer samples were collected onboard the Falcon approximately 5 and 25 h after the release, mostly with a time resolution of 1 min. Enhanced PMCP concentrations relative to ambient PMCP background values (mean: 6.62 fmol mol-1) were detected during three intersects of the fresh tracer plume (age 5 h), with a maximum value of 301.33 fmol mol-1. This indicates that the fresh tracer plume was successfully intercepted at the forecast position. During the second flight, 25 h after the release, the center of tracer plume was not detected by the sampling system due to a faster advection of the plume than forecast. The newly developed PERTRAS system has been successfully deployed for the first time. The instrumental setup and comparisons between the measurements and HYSPLIT simulations are presented in this study.

  8. An airborne perfluorocarbon tracer system and its first application for a Lagrangian experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Y.; Baumann, R.; Schlager, H.

    2014-07-01

    A perfluorocarbon tracer system (PERTRAS), specifically designed for Lagrangian aircraft experiments, has been developed by the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (German Aerospace Center, DLR). It consists of three main parts: a tracer release unit (RU), an adsorption tube sampler (ATS) and a tracer analytical system. The RU was designed for airborne tracer release experiments; meanwhile, it can be used on various platforms for different experimental purpose (here research vessel). PERTRAS was for the first time applied in the field campaign Stratospheric ozone: halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere (SHIVA) in November 2011. An amount of 8.8 kg perfluoromethylcyclopentane (PMCP) was released aboard the research vessel Sonne (RV Sonne) near the operational site of this campaign, Miri, Malaysia, on 21 November. The tracer samples collected using the ATS on board the DLR research aircraft Falcon were analyzed in the laboratory using a thermal desorber/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) system. Guided by forecasts calculated with the Lagrangian model, Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT), 64 tracer samples were collected onboard the Falcon approximately 5 and 25 h after the release, respectively, mostly with a time resolution of 1 min. Enhanced PMCP concentrations relative to ambient PMCP background values (mean: 6.62 fmol mol-1) were detected during three intersects of the fresh tracer plume (age 5 h), with a maximum value of 301.33 fmol mol-1. This indicates that the fresh tracer plume was successfully intercepted at the forecasted position. During the second flight, 25 h after the release, the center of tracer plume was not detected by the sampling system due to a faster advection of the plume than forecasted. The newly developed PERTRAS system has been successfully deployed for the first time. The instrumental set-up and comparisons between the measurements and HYSPLIT simulations are presented in this study.

  9. Assessment of four methods to estimate surface UV radiation using satellite data, by comparison with ground measurements from four stations in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arola, Antti; Kalliskota, S.; den Outer, P. N.; Edvardsen, K.; Hansen, G.; Koskela, T.; Martin, T. J.; Matthijsen, J.; Meerkoetter, R.; Peeters, P.; Seckmeyer, G.; Simon, P. C.; Slaper, H.; Taalas, P.; Verdebout, J.

    2002-08-01

    Four different satellite-UV mapping methods are assessed by comparing them against ground-based measurements. The study includes most of the variability found in geographical, meteorological and atmospheric conditions. Three of the methods did not show any significant systematic bias, except during snow cover. The mean difference (bias) in daily doses for the Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (RIVM) and Joint Research Centre (JRC) methods was found to be less than 10% with a RMS difference of the order of 30%. The Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) method was assessed for a few selected months, and the accuracy was similar to the RIVM and JRC methods. It was additionally used to demonstrate how spatial averaging of high-resolution cloud data improves the estimation of UV daily doses. For the Institut d'Aéronomie Spatiale de Belgique (IASB) method the differences were somewhat higher, because of their original cloud algorithm. The mean difference in daily doses for IASB was about 30% or more, depending on the station, while the RMS difference was about 60%. The cloud algorithm of IASB has been replaced recently, and as a result the accuracy of the IASB method has improved. Evidence is found that further research and development should focus on the improvement of the cloud parameterization. Estimation of daily exposures is likely to be improved if additional time-resolved cloudiness information is available for the satellite-based methods. It is also demonstrated that further development work should be carried out on the treatment of albedo of snow-covered surfaces.

  10. Alternative-Fuel Effects on Contrails & Cruise Emissions (ACCESS-2) Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    Although the emission performance of gas-turbine engines burning renewable aviation fuels have been thoroughly documented in recent ground-based studies, there is still great uncertainty regarding how the fuels effect aircraft exhaust composition and contrail formation at cruise altitudes. To fill this information gap, the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate sponsored the ACCESS flight series to make detailed measurements of trace gases, aerosols and ice particles in the near-field behind the NASA DC-8 aircraft as it burned either standard petroleum-based fuel of varying sulfur content or a 50:50 blend of standard fuel and a hydro-treated esters and fatty acid (HEFA) jet fuel produced from camelina plant oil. ACCESS 1, conducted in spring 2013 near Palmdale CA, focused on refining flight plans and sampling techniques and used the instrumented NASA Langley HU-25 aircraft to document DC-8 emissions and contrails on five separate flights of approx.2 hour duration. ACCESS 2, conducted from Palmdale in May 2014, engaged partners from the Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) and National Research Council-Canada to provide additional scientific expertise and sampling aircraft (Falcon 20 and CT-133, respectively) with more extensive trace gas, particle, or air motion measurement capability. Eight, muliti-aircraft research flights of 2 to 4 hour duration were conducted to document the emissions and contrail properties of the DC-8 as it 1) burned low sulfur Jet A, high sulfur Jet A or low sulfur Jet A/HEFA blend, 2) flew at altitudes between 6 and 11 km, and 3) operated its engines at three different fuel flow rates. This presentation further describes the ACCESS flight experiments, examines fuel type and thrust setting impacts on engine emissions, and compares cruise-altitude observations with similar data acquired in ground tests.

  11. Deriving an atmospheric budget of total organic bromine using airborne in-situ measurements from the Western Pacific during SHIVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sala, S.; Bönisch, H.; Keber, T.; Oram, D. E.; Mills, G.; Engel, A.

    2014-02-01

    During the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) project an extensive dataset of all halogen species relevant for the atmospheric budget of total organic bromine has been collected in the West Pacific region using the FALCON aircraft operated by the German Aerospace agency DLR (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt) covering a vertical range from the planetary boundary layer up to the ceiling altitude of the aircraft of 13 km. In total, more than 700 measurements were performed with the newly developed fully-automated in-situ instrument GHOST-MS (Gas cHromatograph for the Observation of Tracers - coupled with a Mass Spectrometer) by the Goethe University of Frankfurt (GUF) and with the onboard whole-air sampler WASP with subsequent ground based state-of-the-art GC/MS analysis by the University of East Anglia (UEA). Both instruments yield good agreement for all major (CHBr3 and CH2Br2) and minor (CHBrCl, CHBrCl2 and CHBr2Cl) VSLS (very short-lived substances), at least at the level of their 2 σ measurement uncertainties. In contrast to the suggestion that the Western Pacific could be a major source region for VSLS (Pyle et al., 2011), we found only slightly enhanced mixing ratios of brominated halogen source gases relative to the levels reported in Montzka et al. (2011) for other tropical regions. A budget for total organic bromine, including all four halons,CH3Br and the VSLS, is derived for the upper troposphere, the input region for the TTL and thus also for the stratosphere, compiled from the SHIVA dataset. With exception of the two minor VSLS CHBrCl2 and CHBr2Cl, excellent agreement with the values reported in Montzka et al. (2011) is found, while being slightly higher than previous studies from our group based on balloon-borne measurements.

  12. SUMIRAD: a near real-time MMW radiometer imaging system for threat detection in an urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dill, Stephan; Peichl, Markus; Rudolf, Daniel

    2012-10-01

    The armed forces are nowadays confronted with a wide variety of types of operations. During peace keeping missions in an urban environment, where small units patrol the streets with armored vehicles, the team leader is confronted with a very complex threat situation. The asymmetric imminence arises in most cases from so called IEDs (Improvised explosive devices) which are found in a multitude of versions. In order to avoid risky situations the early detection of possible threats due to advanced reconnaissance and surveillance sensors will provide an important advantage. A European consortium consisting of GMV S.A. (Spain, "Grupo Tecnològico e Industrial"), RMA (Belgium, "Royal Military Academy"), TUM ("Technische Universität München") and DLR (Germany, "Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt") developed in the SUM project (Surveillance in an urban environment using mobile sensors) a low-cost multi-sensor vehicle based surveillance system in order to enhance situational awareness for moving security and military patrols as well as for static checkpoints. The project was funded by the European Defense Agency (EDA) in the Joint Investment Program on Force Protection (JIP-FP). The SUMIRAD (SUM imaging radiometer) system, developed by DLR, is a fast radiometric imager and part of the SUM sensor suite. This paper will present the principle of the SUMIRAD system and its key components. Furthermore the image processing will be described. Imaging results from several measurement campaigns will be presented. The overall SUM system and the individual subsystems are presented in more detail in separate papers during this conference.

  13. The AMINO experiment: exposure of amino acids in the EXPOSE-R experiment on the International Space Station and in laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Marylène; Chabin, Annie; Colas, Cyril; Cadène, Martine; Chaput, Didier; Brack, Andre; Cottin, Herve

    2015-01-01

    In order to confirm the results of previous experiments concerning the chemical behaviour of organic molecules in the space environment, organic molecules (amino acids and a dipeptide) in pure form and embedded in meteorite powder were exposed in the AMINO experiment in the EXPOSE-R facility onboard the International Space Station. After exposure to space conditions for 24 months (2843 h of irradiation), the samples were returned to the Earth and analysed in the laboratory for reactions caused by solar ultraviolet (UV) and other electromagnetic radiation. Laboratory UV exposure was carried out in parallel in the Cologne DLR Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft und Raumfahrt). The molecules were extracted from the sample holder and then (1) derivatized by silylation and analysed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS) in order to quantify the rate of degradation of the compounds and (2) analysed by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) in order to understand the chemical reactions that occurred. The GC-MS results confirm that resistance to irradiation is a function of the chemical nature of the exposed molecules and of the wavelengths of the UV light. They also confirm the protective effect of a coating of meteorite powder. The most altered compounds were the dipeptides and aspartic acid while the most robust were compounds with a hydrocarbon chain. The MS analyses document the products of reactions, such as decarboxylation and decarbonylation of aspartic acid, taking place after UV exposure. Given the universality of chemistry in space, our results have a broader implication for the fate of organic molecules that seeded the planets as soon as they became habitable as well as for the effects of UV radiation on exposed molecules at the surface of Mars, for example.

  14. Microgravity Active Vibration Isolation System on Parabolic Flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Wenbo; Pletser, Vladimir; Yang, Yang

    2016-07-01

    The Microgravity Active Vibration Isolation System (MAIS) aims at reducing on-orbit vibrations, providing a better controlled lower gravity environment for microgravity physical science experiments. The MAIS will be launched on Tianzhou-1, the first cargo ship of the China Manned Space Program. The principle of the MAIS is to suspend with electro-magnetic actuators a scientific payload, isolating it from the vibrating stator. The MAIS's vibration isolation capability is frequency-dependent and a decrease of vibration of about 40dB can be attained. The MAIS can accommodate 20kg of scientific payload or sample unit, and provide 30W of power and 1Mbps of data transmission. The MAIS is developed to support microgravity scientific experiments on manned platforms in low earth orbit, in order to meet the scientific requirements for fluid physics, materials science, and fundamental physics investigations, which usually need a very quiet environment, increasing their chances of success and their scientific outcomes. The results of scientific experiments and technology tests obtained with the MAIS will be used to improve future space based research. As the suspension force acting on the payload is very small, the MAIS can only be operative and tested in a weightless environment. The 'Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.' (DLR, German Aerospace Centre) granted a flight opportunity to the MAIS experiment to be tested during its 27th parabolic flight campaign of September 2015 performed on the A310 ZERO-G aircraft managed by the French company Novespace, a subsidiary of the 'Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales' (CNES, French Space Agency). The experiment results confirmed that the 6 degrees of freedom motion control technique was effective, and that the vibration isolation performance fulfilled perfectly the expectations based on theoretical analyses and simulations. This paper will present the design of the MAIS and the experiment results obtained during the

  15. Spottier targets are less attractive to tabanid flies: on the tabanid-repellency of spotty fur patterns.

    PubMed

    Blaho, Miklos; Egri, Adam; Bahidszki, Lea; Kriska, Gyorgy; Hegedus, Ramon; Akesson, Susanne; Horvath, Gabor

    2012-01-01

    During blood-sucking, female members of the family Tabanidae transmit pathogens of serious diseases and annoy their host animals so strongly that they cannot graze, thus the health of the hosts is drastically reduced. Consequently, a tabanid-resistant coat with appropriate brightness, colour and pattern is advantageous for the host. Spotty coats are widespread among mammals, especially in cattle (Bos primigenius). In field experiments we studied the influence of the size and number of spots on the attractiveness of test surfaces to tabanids that are attracted to linearly polarized light. We measured the reflection-polarization characteristics of living cattle, spotty cattle coats and the used test surfaces. We show here that the smaller and the more numerous the spots, the less attractive the target (host) is to tabanids. We demonstrate that the attractiveness of spotty patterns to tabanids is also reduced if the target exhibits spottiness only in the angle of polarization pattern, while being homogeneous grey with a constant high degree of polarization. Tabanid flies respond strongly to linearly polarized light, and we show that bright and dark parts of cattle coats reflect light with different degrees and angles of polarization that in combination with dark spots on a bright coat surface disrupt the attractiveness to tabanids. This could be one of the possible evolutionary benefits that explains why spotty coat patterns are so widespread in mammals, especially in ungulates, many species of which are tabanid hosts.

  16. Spottier Targets Are Less Attractive to Tabanid Flies: On the Tabanid-Repellency of Spotty Fur Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Blaho, Miklos; Egri, Adam; Bahidszki, Lea; Kriska, Gyorgy; Hegedus, Ramon; Åkesson, Susanne; Horvath, Gabor

    2012-01-01

    During blood-sucking, female members of the family Tabanidae transmit pathogens of serious diseases and annoy their host animals so strongly that they cannot graze, thus the health of the hosts is drastically reduced. Consequently, a tabanid-resistant coat with appropriate brightness, colour and pattern is advantageous for the host. Spotty coats are widespread among mammals, especially in cattle (Bos primigenius). In field experiments we studied the influence of the size and number of spots on the attractiveness of test surfaces to tabanids that are attracted to linearly polarized light. We measured the reflection-polarization characteristics of living cattle, spotty cattle coats and the used test surfaces. We show here that the smaller and the more numerous the spots, the less attractive the target (host) is to tabanids. We demonstrate that the attractiveness of spotty patterns to tabanids is also reduced if the target exhibits spottiness only in the angle of polarization pattern, while being homogeneous grey with a constant high degree of polarization. Tabanid flies respond strongly to linearly polarized light, and we show that bright and dark parts of cattle coats reflect light with different degrees and angles of polarization that in combination with dark spots on a bright coat surface disrupt the attractiveness to tabanids. This could be one of the possible evolutionary benefits that explains why spotty coat patterns are so widespread in mammals, especially in ungulates, many species of which are tabanid hosts. PMID:22876282

  17. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF MICROSPORIDIA INDICATES THAT FUR-BEARING WILD MAMMALS CAN BE A SOURCE OF HUMAN PATHOGENIC ENTEROCYTOZOON BIENEUSI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over 13 months, 465 beavers, foxes, muskrats, otters, and raccoons were trapped in four counties in eastern Maryland and examined by molecular methods for microsporidia. A two-step nested PCR protocol was developed to amplify a 392 bp fragment of the internal transcribed spacer (...

  18. Differential resilience of Amazonian otters along the Rio Negro in the aftermath of the 20th century international fur trade.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Natalia C; Antunes, André P; Barnett, Adrian A; Macedo, Valêncio W; Shepard, Glenn H

    2018-01-01

    Commercial hunting for the international trade in animal hides in the 20th century decimated many populations of aquatic wildlife in Amazonia. However, impacts varied significantly between different species and regions, depending upon hunting intensity, accessibility of habitat, and the inherent resilience of various species and their habitats. We investigated the differential responses of two Amazonian Mustelid species, the neotropical otter and giant otter, to commercial hunting pressure along the upper Rio Negro in Brazil, and examined historical factors that influenced spatial and temporal variation in commercial exploitation. We analyzed previously unanalyzed data from historical records of hide shipments to track changes in hide sales and prices for the two species in the late 20th century. We also gathered oral histories from older Baniwa people who had witnessed or participated in commercial otter hunting. These complimentary data sources reveal how intrinsic biological and social characteristics of the two otter species interacted with market forces and regional history. Whereas giant otter populations were driven to local or regional extinction during the late 20th century by commercial hunting, neotropical otters persisted. In recent decades, giant otter populations have returned to some parts of the upper Rio Negro, a development which local people welcome as part of a generalized recovery of the ecosystems in their territory as a result of the banning of animal pelt exports and indigenous land demarcation. This paper expands the scope of the field historical ecology and reflects on the role of local knowledge in biodiversity conservation.

  19. Transferable residues from dog fur and plasma cholinesterase inhibition in dogs treated with a flea control dip containing chlorpyrifos.

    PubMed Central

    Boone, J S; Tyler, J W; Chambers, J E

    2001-01-01

    We studied chlorpyrifos, an insecticide present in a commercial dip for treating ectoparasites in dogs, to estimate the amount of transferable residues that children could obtain from their treated pets. Although the chlorpyrifos dip is no longer supported by the manufacturer, the methodology described herein can help determine transferable residues from other flea control insecticide formulations. Twelve dogs of different breeds and weights were dipped using the recommended guidelines with a commercial, nonprescription chlorpyrifos flea dip for 4 consecutive treatments at 3-week intervals (nonshampoo protocol) and another 12 dogs were dipped with shampooing between dips (shampoo protocol). The samples collected at 4 hr and 7, 14, and 21 days after treatment in the nonshampoo protocol averaged 971, 157, 70, and 26 microg chlorpyrifos, respectively; in the shampoo protocol the samples averaged 459, 49, 15, and 10 microg, respectively. The highest single sample was about 7,000 microg collected at 4 hr. The pretreatment specific activities in the plasma of the dogs were about 75 nmol/min/mg protein for butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and 9 nmol/min/mg protein for acetylcholinesterase (AChE). BChE was inhibited 50-75% throughout the study, and AChE was inhibited 11-18% in the nonshampoo protocol; inhibition was not as great in the shampoo protocol. There was no correlation (p

  20. 16 CFR 1.24 - Rules applicable to wool, fur, and textile fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Labeling Act. Rules having the force and effect of law are authorized under section 6 of the Wool Products... Identification Act, and sections 4, 5, and 6 of the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act. [40 FR 15233, Apr. 4, 1975] ...

  1. Agent-based modeling of the spread of the 1918-1919 flu in three Canadian fur trading communities.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Caroline A; Sattenspiel, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Previous attempts to study the 1918-1919 flu in three small communities in central Manitoba have used both three-community population-based and single-community agent-based models. These studies identified critical factors influencing epidemic spread, but they also left important questions unanswered. The objective of this project was to design a more realistic agent-based model that would overcome limitations of earlier models and provide new insights into these outstanding questions. The new model extends the previous agent-based model to three communities so that results can be compared to those from the population-based model. Sensitivity testing was conducted, and the new model was used to investigate the influence of seasonal settlement and mobility patterns, the geographic heterogeneity of the observed 1918-1919 epidemic in Manitoba, and other questions addressed previously. Results confirm outcomes from the population-based model that suggest that (a) social organization and mobility strongly influence the timing and severity of epidemics and (b) the impact of the epidemic would have been greater if it had arrived in the summer rather than the winter. New insights from the model suggest that the observed heterogeneity among communities in epidemic impact was not unusual and would have been the expected outcome given settlement structure and levels of interaction among communities. Application of an agent-based computer simulation has helped to better explain observed patterns of spread of the 1918-1919 flu epidemic in central Manitoba. Contrasts between agent-based and population-based models illustrate the advantages of agent-based models for the study of small populations. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Handbuch fur einen aktiven Sprachunterricht (Handbook for Active Language Instruction). Teaching Languages to Adults, Eurocentres Publication No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richterich, Rene; And Others

    This trilingual handbook (English, French, German) presents exercises for eight areas of language instruction: (1) practice in sentence patterns, (2) presentation and practice of a new item, (3) pronunciation, (4) use of pictures, (5) practicing the transfer from oral to written skills, (6) presentation and practice of conversational patterns, (7)…

  3. A Fall fur-hunt from Maine to New Brunswick, Canada: The 1858 journal of Manly Hardy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krohn, W.B.

    2005-01-01

    Ecologists, conservationists, and others increasingly ask questions that require a reliable understanding of natural conditions in the past. For example, when the US Fish and Wildlife Service proposed to list the Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) under the Federal Endangered Species Act, there was a need to know the historical status of this species in the northeastern US. The natural history writings of Manly Hardy, a successful, nineteenth-century businessman and respected amateur naturalist from Brewer, ME, proved useful in assessing the lynx's historical status. Because of the wide array of potential uses of Hardy's writings, the objective of this paper is to make biologists and other scholars aware of Hardy, especially his 15 surviving journals, 1852-1899. Hardy left the most extensive published record of any of the naturalists who wrote about wildlife in Maine from the late 1800s through the early 1900s. His articles and essays covered a wide range of subjects about a variety of bird and mammal species. A recently published biographical sketch of Hardy contains an annotated bibliography of his publications along with the republication of 14 of his mammalian works. In contrast, this article contains an example of his unpublished journal writing with significant wildlife observations.

  4. Differential resilience of Amazonian otters along the Rio Negro in the aftermath of the 20th century international fur trade

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, André P.; Barnett, Adrian A.; Macedo, Valêncio W.; Shepard, Glenn H.

    2018-01-01

    Commercial hunting for the international trade in animal hides in the 20th century decimated many populations of aquatic wildlife in Amazonia. However, impacts varied significantly between different species and regions, depending upon hunting intensity, accessibility of habitat, and the inherent resilience of various species and their habitats. We investigated the differential responses of two Amazonian Mustelid species, the neotropical otter and giant otter, to commercial hunting pressure along the upper Rio Negro in Brazil, and examined historical factors that influenced spatial and temporal variation in commercial exploitation. We analyzed previously unanalyzed data from historical records of hide shipments to track changes in hide sales and prices for the two species in the late 20th century. We also gathered oral histories from older Baniwa people who had witnessed or participated in commercial otter hunting. These complimentary data sources reveal how intrinsic biological and social characteristics of the two otter species interacted with market forces and regional history. Whereas giant otter populations were driven to local or regional extinction during the late 20th century by commercial hunting, neotropical otters persisted. In recent decades, giant otter populations have returned to some parts of the upper Rio Negro, a development which local people welcome as part of a generalized recovery of the ecosystems in their territory as a result of the banning of animal pelt exports and indigenous land demarcation. This paper expands the scope of the field historical ecology and reflects on the role of local knowledge in biodiversity conservation. PMID:29601590

  5. Bericht uber den 2. Internationalen Kongress fur Angewandte Linguistik (Report on the Second International Congress for Applied Linguistics).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Peter

    This report of the 1969 Second International Congress for Applied Linguistics contains summaries of papers and speeches on the following topics: (1) linguistics applied to literary texts, (2) computer analysis of texts, (3) research in the psychology of first language learning, (4) research in the psychology of second language learning, (5) speech…

  6. Feasibility and safety of bilateral same-session flexible ureteroscopy (FURS) for renal and ureteral stone disease

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Tamsin; Ali, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction With rising incidence of urolithiasis, treatment of stones (both symptomatic and asymptomatic) in multiple locations including bilateral stones can be controversial and challenging. We report our experience and treatment outcomes in patients undergoing bilateral, same-session ureterorenoscopy (BS-URS) for bilateral ureteric and/or renal calculi, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of such procedures. Material and methods Between May 2012 and October 2013, 251 patients underwent ureteroscopic surgery for stone disease at our institution. Of these, 21 patients underwent 25 bilateral same-session ureterorenoscopy (BS-URS) procedures during this period. Stone-free status was defined as endoscopically stone-free or radiological fragments <2 mm. Results The mean bilateral stone size was 21mm (range: 4-63 mm) with a mean operating time of 70 minutes (range 35-129 minutes). Fifteen procedures (60%) were done as day case procedures with a mean stay of 0.9 days (range 0-7 days). Of the 42 renal units treated, 80% (34/42) were stone-free after a single bilateral ureteroscopy session. A further 12% (5/42) were cleared after a re-look procedure making the overall stone free rate 92.8% (39/42). There were no major complications and 3 minor complications (2 early stent removals due to stent symptoms and 1 pyelonephritis requiring intravenous antibiotics). Conclusions Bilateral same-session ureteroscopy is a safe and effective treatment option for patients with bilateral ureteric and/or renal calculi, even with stones in multiple locations and increasing stone loads. However, as with all surgery, proper patient and equipment selection is crucial in terms of reducing complication rates and improving treatment outcomes. PMID:26251740

  7. Die sokratische Lehrstrategie und ihre Relevanz fur die heutige Didaktik (The Socratic Method and Its Relevance for Modern Teaching).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanakis, Ioannis

    1997-01-01

    Examines the Socratic method through a comparative analysis of early Platonic dialogs with theories of critical rationalism and cognitive theories based on achievement motivation. Presents details of the Socratic strategy of teaching and learning, including critical reflection, conversation, and intellectual honesty; asserts that these methods are…

  8. Assessment of HRSC Digital Terrain Models Produced for the South Polar Residual Cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putri, Alfiah Rizky Diana; Sidiropoulos, Panagiotis; Muller, Jan-Peter

    2017-04-01

    The current Digital Terrain Models available for Mars consist of NASA MOLA (Mars Orbital Laser Altimeter) Digital Terrain Models with an average resolution of 112 m/ pixel (512 pixels/degree) for the polar region. The ESA/DLR High Resolution Stereo Camera is currently orbiting Mars and mapping its surface, 98% with resolution of ≤100 m/pixel and better and 100% at lower resolution [1]. It is possible to produce Digital Terrain Models from HRSC images using various methods. In this study, the method developed on Kim and Muller [2] which uses the VICAR open source program together with photogrammetry sofrware from DLR (Deutschen Zentrums für Luft- und Raumfahrt) with image matching based on the GOTCHA (Gruen-Otto-Chau) algorithm [3]. Digital Terrain Models have been processed over the South Pole with emphasis on areas around South Polar Residual Cap from High Resolution Stereo Camera images [4]. Digital Terrain Models have been produced for 31 orbits out of 149 polar orbits available. This study analyses the quality of the DTMs including an assessment of accuracy of elevations using the MOLA MEGDR (Mission Experiment Gridded Data Records) which has roughly 42 million MOLA PEDR (Precision Experiment Data Records) points between latitudes of 78 o -90 o S. The issues encountered in the production of Digital Terrain Models will be described and the statistical results and assessment method will be presented. The resultant DTMs will be accessible via http://i-Mars.eu/web-GIS References: [1] Neukum, G. et. al, 2004. Mars Express: The Scientific Payload pp. 17-35. [2] Kim, J.-R. and J.-P. Muller. 2009. PSS vol. 57, pp. 2095-2112. [3] Shin, D. and J.-P. Muller. 2012. Pattern Recognition, 45(10), 3795 -3809. [4] Putri, A.R. D., et al., Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLI-B4, 463-469 Acknowledgements: The research leading to these results has received partial funding from the STFC "MSSL Consolidated Grant" ST/K000977/1 and partial support from the

  9. Deriving an atmospheric budget of total organic bromine using airborne in situ measurements from the western Pacific area during SHIVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sala, S.; Bönisch, H.; Keber, T.; Oram, D. E.; Mills, G.; Engel, A.

    2014-07-01

    During the recent SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) project an extensive data set of all halogen species relevant for the atmospheric budget of total organic bromine was collected in the western Pacific region using the Falcon aircraft operated by the German Aerospace agency DLR (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt) covering a vertical range from the planetary boundary layer up to the ceiling altitude of the aircraft of 13 km. In total, more than 700 measurements were performed with the newly developed fully automated in situ instrument GHOST-MS (Gas chromatograph for the Observation of Tracers - coupled with a Mass Spectrometer) by the Goethe University of Frankfurt (GUF) and with the onboard whole-air sampler WASP with subsequent ground-based state-of-the-art GC / MS analysis by the University of East Anglia (UEA). Both instruments yield good agreement for all major (CHBr3 and CH2Br2) and minor (CH2BrCl, CHBrCl2 and CHBr2Cl) VSLS (very short-lived substances), at least at the level of their 2σ measurement uncertainties. In contrast to the suggestion that the western Pacific could be a region of strongly increased atmospheric VSLS abundance (Pyle et al., 2011), we found only in the upper troposphere a slightly enhanced amount of total organic bromine from VSLS relative to the levels reported in Montzka and Reimann et al. (2011) for other tropical regions. From the SHIVA observations in the upper troposphere, a budget for total organic bromine, including four halons (H-1301, H-1211, H-1202, H-2402), CH3Br and the VSLS, is derived for the level of zero radiative heating (LZRH), the input region for the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) and thus also for the stratosphere. With the exception of the two minor VSLS CHBrCl2 and CHBr2Cl, excellent agreement with the values reported in Montzka and Reimann et al. (2011) is found, while being slightly higher than previous studies from our group based on balloon-borne measurements.

  10. Gravisensing in single-celled systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, M.; Limbach, C.

    (downward growing) rhizoids, in which statoliths sedimentation is followed by differential flank growth. Based on these results, it is evident that polymerization, dynamic reorganization and the diverse functions of actin spatiotemporally controlled by numerous actin-binding proteins are fundamental for the processes of gravity sensing and gravity-oriented polarized growth. Financial support by Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) on behalf of the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (50WB9998).

  11. Identifying Surface Changes on HRSC Images of the Mars South Polar Residual CAP (sprc)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putri, Alfiah Rizky Diana; Sidiropoulos, Panagiotis; Muller, Jan-Peter

    2016-06-01

    Models (DTMs) and Orthorectified Images (ORIs) and projected into polar stereographic projection using DLR (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt; German Aerospace Center)'s VICAR and GIS software with modifications developed by Kim & Muller (2009). Surface changes are identified in the Mars SPRC region and analysed based on their appearance in the HRSC images.

  12. Cb-LIKE - Thunderstorm forecasts up to six hours with fuzzy logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, Martin; Tafferner, Arnold

    2016-04-01

    Thunderstorms with their accompanying effects like heavy rain, hail, or downdrafts cause delays and flight cancellations and therefore high additional cost for airlines and airport operators. A reliable thunderstorm forecast up to several hours could provide more time for decision makers in air traffic for an appropriate reaction on possible storm cells and initiation of adequate counteractions. To provide the required forecasts Cb-LIKE (Cumulonimbus-LIKElihood) has been developed at the DLR (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt) Institute of Atmospheric Physics. The new algorithm is an automated system which designates areas with possible thunderstorm development by using model data of the COSMO-DE weather model, which is driven by the German Meteorological Service (DWD). A newly developed "Best-Member- Selection" method allows the automatic selection of that particular model run of a time-lagged COSMO- DE model ensemble, which matches best the current thunderstorm situation. Thereby the application of the best available data basis for the calculation of the thunderstorm forecasts by Cb-LIKE is ensured. Altogether there are four different modes for the selection of the best member. Four atmospheric parameters (CAPE, vertical wind velocity, radar reflectivity and cloud top temperature) of the model output are used within the algorithm. A newly developed fuzzy logic system enables the subsequent combination of the model parameters and the calculation of a thunderstorm indicator within a value range of 12 up to 88 for each grid point of the model domain for the following six hours in one hour intervals. The higher the indicator value the more the model parameters imply the development of thunderstorms. The quality of the Cb-LIKE thunderstorm forecasts was evaluated by a substantial verification using a neighborhood verification approach and multi-event contingency tables. The verification was performed for the whole summer period of 2012. On the basis of a

  13. High-resolution mapping of the NO2 spatial distribution over Belgian urban areas based on airborne APEX remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tack, Frederik; Merlaud, Alexis; Iordache, Marian-Daniel; Danckaert, Thomas; Yu, Huan; Fayt, Caroline; Meuleman, Koen; Deutsch, Felix; Fierens, Frans; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2017-05-01

    We present retrieval results of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) vertical column densities (VCDs), mapped at high spatial resolution over three Belgian cities, based on the DOAS analysis of Airborne Prism EXperiment (APEX) observations. APEX, developed by a Swiss-Belgian consortium on behalf of ESA (European Space Agency), is a pushbroom hyperspectral imager characterised by a high spatial resolution and high spectral performance. APEX data have been acquired under clear-sky conditions over the two largest and most heavily polluted Belgian cities, i.e. Antwerp and Brussels on 15 April and 30 June 2015. Additionally, a number of background sites have been covered for the reference spectra. The APEX instrument was mounted in a Dornier DO-228 aeroplane, operated by Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR). NO2 VCDs were retrieved from spatially aggregated radiance spectra allowing urban plumes to be resolved at the resolution of 60 × 80 m2. The main sources in the Antwerp area appear to be related to the (petro)chemical industry while traffic-related emissions dominate in Brussels. The NO2 levels observed in Antwerp range between 3 and 35 × 1015 molec cm-2, with a mean VCD of 17.4 ± 3.7 × 1015 molec cm-2. In the Brussels area, smaller levels are found, ranging between 1 and 20 × 1015 molec cm-2 and a mean VCD of 7.7 ± 2.1 × 1015 molec cm-2. The overall errors on the retrieved NO2 VCDs are on average 21 and 28 % for the Antwerp and Brussels data sets. Low VCD retrievals are mainly limited by noise (1σ slant error), while high retrievals are mainly limited by systematic errors. Compared to coincident car mobile-DOAS measurements taken in Antwerp and Brussels, both data sets are in good agreement with correlation coefficients around 0.85 and slopes close to unity. APEX retrievals tend to be, on average, 12 and 6 % higher for Antwerp and Brussels, respectively. Results demonstrate that the NO2 distribution in an urban environment, and its fine

  14. Development and Testing of Harpoon-Based Approaches for Collecting Comet Samples (Video Supplement)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, Lloyd (Compiler); Nuth, Joseph (Compiler); Amatucci, Edward (Compiler); Wegel, Donald; Smith, Walter; Leary, James; Kee, Lake; Hill, Stuart; Grebenstein, Markus; Voelk, Stefan; hide

    2017-01-01

    This video supplement contains a set of videos created during the approximately 10-year-long course of developing and testing the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) harpoon-based approach for collecting comet samples. The purpose of the videos is to illustrate various design concepts used in this method of acquiring samples of comet material, the testing used to verify the concepts, and the evolution of designs and testing. To play the videos this PDF needs to be opened in the freeware Adobe Reader. They do not seem to play while within a browser. While this supplement can be used as a stand-alone document, it is intended to augment its parent document of the same title, Development and Testing of Harpoon-Based Approaches for Collecting Comet Samples (NASA/CR-2017-219018; this document is accessible from the website: https://ssed.gsfc.nasa.gov/harpoon/SAS_Paper-V1.pdf). The parent document, which only contains text and figures, describes the overall development and testing effort and contains references to each of the videos in this supplement. Thus, the videos are primarily intended to augment the information provided by the text and figures in the parent document. This approach was followed to allow the file size of the parent document to remain small enough to facilitate downloading and storage. Some of the videos were created by other organizations, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU APL) and the German Aerospace Center called, the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), who are partnering with GSFC on developing this technology. Each video is accompanied by text that provides a summary description of its nature and purpose, as well as the identity of the authors. All videos have been edited to only show key parts of the testing. Although not all videos have sound, the sound has been retained in those that have it. Also, each video has been given one or more title screens to clarify what is going in different phases of the video.

  15. Characteristics of an airborne demonstrator for MERLIN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amediek, A.; Büdenbender, C.; Ehret, G.; Fix, A.; Kiemle, C.; Quatrevalet, M.; Wirth, M.; Dieter, H.; Löhring, J.; Klein, V.

    2012-12-01

    After three years development time, first test measurements on DLR's (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt) CO2 and CH4 airborne Lidar have started. It is an integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar for the simultaneous measurement of CO2 and CH4 columns, designed for operation onboard the new German research aircraft HALO. In the framework of the project "CHARM-F", funded by the German ministry of education and research, the lidar was developed in collaboration with Fraunhofer Institut für Lasertechnik and Kayser-Threde. Due to the special features of the aircraft, such as the maximum flight altitude of 15 km and its long range, as well as the special design of the lidar, the system is particularly suitable to be an airborne demonstrator for the French-German MERLIN project, a spaceborne IPDA lidar sounder for methane. The layout of the receiver optics allows a large field of view, i.e. a large laser footprint on ground is possible, comparable to the size obtained by a spaceborne system. So, important features that come along with ground reflectivity issues, such as albedo variations on different spatial scales, can be taken into account in the same way and can be investigated in detail. Furthermore, two detector types are used, PIN photodiodes and APDs, each with specially adapted telescopes, to compare their respective properties. The basic design of the transmitter is identical to the one envisaged for MERLIN. Also important subsystems of the presented lidar, like wavelengths stabilization and output power monitoring, can serve as demonstrators for the satellite system. The main features of the airborne system are: Two almost identical laser systems for CH4 and CO2. Nd:YAG lasers serve as the pump sources for optical parametric oscillators (OPO), injection seeded by laser diodes, to generate the desired online and offline wavelengths in single mode operation. The online wavelength is tuned to an absorption line of the measured trace gas, the

  16. Interplanetary CubeSats system for space weather evaluations and technology demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viscio, Maria Antonietta; Viola, Nicole; Corpino, Sabrina; Stesina, Fabrizio; Fineschi, Silvano; Fumenti, Federico; Circi, Christian

    2014-11-01

    between Politecnico di Torino, Sapienza University of Rome, "Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino - INAF" (Astrophysical Observatory of Torino) and Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) in Bremen.

  17. The Great Unescape: Three Mile Island, Fukushima, and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    During the Second World War, the Luftwaffe ran a maximum security prisoner of war (POW) camp called "Stalag Luft III," which imprisoned captured Allied air force servicemen. The story of the 1944 escape from Stalag Luft III is one of the most famous stories of the Second World War as described in the firsthand written account and…

  18. Bildung in Stufen: Programm und Planung fur ein dynamisches Bildungsystem (Learning by Steps: Programs and Plans for a Dynamic Educational System).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minister for Kultus, Unterricht und Volksbildung, Saarbrucken (Germany).

    This report issued by the Minister of Public Education for the Saarland reviews current governmental policies and plans designed to effect an improved system of instruction from the primary to the university level. Consideration is also given to continuing education and education for the handicapped. Proceeding on the premise that the task of…

  19. Standards for University Libraries = Normes pour les bibliotheques universitaires = Richtwerte fur Universitatsbibliotheken = Normas de bibliotecas universitarias. IFLA Professional Reports No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Beverly P., Ed.

    This statement prepared by the International Federation of Library Associations' Section of University Libraries and Other General Research Libraries presents standards of general principles designed to accomplish the following: (1) provide a means by which the quality of the library serving a university can be assessed; (2) offer guidance for…

  20. Loss of genetic diversity in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) associated with the fur trade of the 18th and 19th centuries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, S.; Jameson, R.; Etnier, M.; Flemings, M.; Bentzen, P.

    2002-01-01

    During 1969 and 1970, surveys of the endangered Yuma Clapper Rail were conducted using taped calls to elicit responses from the birds. During the two summers, more than 158 Yuma clappers were located in cattailtule marshes along the Colorado River south of Needles, California, to the International Boundary, a distance of about 240 miles. Clappers (probably of the same race) were also found in estuarian marshes of the Colorado River Delta of Mexico; in the Salton Sea; in two freshwater marsh areas near Phoenix, Arizona; and in two freshwater marshes adjacent to the lower Gila River near Tacna, Arizona.....Populations of Sonora Clapper Rails were discovered as permanent residents in five separate mangrove swamps along the west coast of Mexico in the vicinity of Kino Bay, Sonora. These observations were farther north than any heretofore reported for the race R. l. rhizophorae, and the swamps also represent the extreme northward limit of mangroves in Sonora.....During the winter, Yuma clappers did not respond to taped calls north of the International Boundary, whereas clappers along the coast of Sonora readily answered the calls during the same period of time. We conclude that most Yuma Clapper Rails migrate from their summer habitat along the Colorado River in September and do not return to the breeding areas until late April.

  1. Informationstechnische Weiterbildung Fur Frauen Von Frauen: Internationaler Workshop = Education in Informatics for Women By Women: International Workshop (Hamburg, Germany, November 30-December 3, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellebrecht, Ingrid, Ed.; And Others

    This document presents workshop results and participants' reports from the international conference "Train the Trainers in Information and Communication Technology." The participants consisted of 18 women and one man from Czechoslovakia, Russia, Latvia, Bulgaria, Romania, Mongolia, Jordan, Egypt, and the Philippines. Eleven reports were presented…

  2. BALB/c mice resistant to Toxoplasma gondii infection proved to be highly susceptible when previously infected with Myocoptes musculinus fur mites

    PubMed Central

    Welter, Áurea; Mineo, José Roberto; de Oliveira Silva, Deise Aparecida; Lourenço, Elaine Vicente; Ferro, Eloísa Amália Vieira; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina; da Silva, Neide Maria

    2007-01-01

    Summary The immune response induced by Toxoplasma gondii is characterized by Th1 immune mechanisms. We previously demonstrated that C57BL/6 mice infested with Myocoptes musculinus and infected with T. gondii by intraperitoneal route undergo accelerated mortality according to Th2 immune mechanisms induced by the acarian. To evaluate whether infection with M. musculinus influences T. gondii-induced Th1 response in a resistant mouse lineage, BALB/c, which develops latent chronic toxoplasmosis in a way similar to that observed in immunocompetent humans, this study was done. The animals were infected with T. gondii ME-49 strain 1 month after M. musculinus infestation, being the survival and the immune response monitored. The double-infected displayed higher mortality rate if compared with the mono-infected mice. In addition, infection with M. musculinus changed the T. gondii-specific immune response, converting BALB/c host to a susceptible phenotype. Spleen cells had increased the levels of IL-4 in double-infected mice. This alteration was associated with severe pneumonia, encephalitis and wasting condition. In addition, a higher tissue parasitism was observed in double-infected animals. It can be concluded that infection with these two contrasting parasites, M. musculinus and T. gondii, may convert an immunocompetent host into a susceptible one, and such a host will develop severe toxoplasmosis. PMID:17877534

  3. Die Bedeutung Subjektiver Elternschaftskonzepte fur Erziehungsverhalten und elterliche Partnerschaft. Ein Uberblick uber neuere Forschungsergebnisse (The Significance of Subjective Concepts of Parenthood for Educational Behavior and Parental Partnership).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalicki, Bernhard

    2003-01-01

    Outlines the subjective concept of parenthood as the personal interpretation of parental responsibility, distinguishing it from related theoretical concepts. Discusses, against the background of theoretical models and empirical findings, the relationship of the parenthood concept with the parents' actual educational behavior. Suggests ways to…

  4. TRANSFERABLE RESIDUES FROM DOG FUR AND PLASMA CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION IN DOGS TREATED WITH A FLEA CONTROL DIP CONTAINING CHLORPYRIFOS. (R825170)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  5. Alaska Wilderness: A Bibliography for Secondary Students on Marine Vertebrates, Birds, Small or Fur Bearing Mammals and Game Animals of Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symons, Ann

    This is an annotated bibliography for secondary school students. It contains fourteen entries on marine vertebrates, nine entries on birds, twenty-nine entries on mammals, and one on amphibians and reptiles. Some of the entries are fiction. (BB)

  6. Steuerungsmodelle fur Schulen in Europa: Schwedische Erfahrungen mit alternativen Ordnungsmodellen (Models of School Management in Europe: The Swedish Experience with Alternative Models of Management).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekholm, Mats

    1997-01-01

    Argues that recent changes in conceptions of state control over schools are due partially to the relaxation of Cold War politics. Shows that new models of management produce fewer changes in school quality than expected. Proposes that the determining factor in change is the mentality inherent in individual schools' working structures. (DSK)

  7. 16 CFR 300.8 - Use of fiber trademark and generic names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... is not the case. (g) The term fur fiber may be used to describe the hair or fur fiber or mixtures..., llama and vicuna. If the name, symbol, or depiction of any animal producing the hair or fur fiber is..., the percentage by weight of such hair or fur fiber in the total fiber weight of the wool product shall...

  8. 16 CFR 300.8 - Use of fiber trademark and generic names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... is not the case. (g) The term fur fiber may be used to describe the hair or fur fiber or mixtures..., llama and vicuna. If the name, symbol, or depiction of any animal producing the hair or fur fiber is..., the percentage by weight of such hair or fur fiber in the total fiber weight of the wool product shall...

  9. 16 CFR 300.8 - Use of fiber trademark and generic names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... is not the case. (g) The term fur fiber may be used to describe the hair or fur fiber or mixtures..., llama and vicuna. If the name, symbol, or depiction of any animal producing the hair or fur fiber is..., the percentage by weight of such hair or fur fiber in the total fiber weight of the wool product shall...

  10. 16 CFR 300.8 - Use of fiber trademark and generic names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... is not the case. (g) The term fur fiber may be used to describe the hair or fur fiber or mixtures..., llama and vicuna. If the name, symbol, or depiction of any animal producing the hair or fur fiber is..., the percentage by weight of such hair or fur fiber in the total fiber weight of the wool product shall...

  11. 16 CFR 300.8 - Use of fiber trademark and generic names.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... is not the case. (g) The term fur fiber may be used to describe the hair or fur fiber or mixtures..., llama and vicuna. If the name, symbol, or depiction of any animal producing the hair or fur fiber is..., the percentage by weight of such hair or fur fiber in the total fiber weight of the wool product shall...

  12. Air traffic simulation in chemistry-climate model EMAC 2.41: AirTraf 1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Hiroshi; Grewe, Volker; Jöckel, Patrick; Linke, Florian; Schaefer, Martin; Sasaki, Daisuke

    2016-09-01

    Mobility is becoming more and more important to society and hence air transportation is expected to grow further over the next decades. Reducing anthropogenic climate impact from aviation emissions and building a climate-friendly air transportation system are required for a sustainable development of commercial aviation. A climate optimized routing, which avoids climate-sensitive regions by re-routing horizontally and vertically, is an important measure for climate impact reduction. The idea includes a number of different routing strategies (routing options) and shows a great potential for the reduction. To evaluate this, the impact of not only CO2 but also non-CO2 emissions must be considered. CO2 is a long-lived gas, while non-CO2 emissions are short-lived and are inhomogeneously distributed. This study introduces AirTraf (version 1.0) that performs global air traffic simulations, including effects of local weather conditions on the emissions. AirTraf was developed as a new submodel of the ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model. Air traffic information comprises Eurocontrol's Base of Aircraft Data (BADA Revision 3.9) and International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) engine performance data. Fuel use and emissions are calculated by the total energy model based on the BADA methodology and Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) fuel flow method. The flight trajectory optimization is performed by a genetic algorithm (GA) with respect to a selected routing option. In the model development phase, benchmark tests were performed for the great circle and flight time routing options. The first test showed that the great circle calculations were accurate to -0.004 %, compared to those calculated by the Movable Type script. The second test showed that the optimal solution found by the algorithm sufficiently converged to the theoretical true-optimal solution. The difference in flight time between the two solutions is less than 0.01 %. The dependence of

  13. Seasonal effects on the nucleus of comet 67P revealed by Rosetta/VIRTIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosi, Federico; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Filacchione, Gianrico; Erard, Stéphane; Rouseeau, Batiste; Combe, Jean-Philippe; Capria, Maria Teresa; Leyrat, Cédric; Longobardo, Andrea; Bockelée-Morvan, Dominique; Kappel, David; Arnold, Gabriele; Fonti, Sergio; Mancarella, Francesca; Kuehrt, Ekkehard; Mottola, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    hemisphere. These three regions are chosen so as to be relatively smooth at the spatial resolution that is achieved from a distance of about 100 km (25 m/px for VIRTIS-M, 50×150 m/px for VIRTIS-H), in order to limit the effects of large-scale surface roughness. Acknowledgements: The authors would like to thank the following institutions and agencies, which supported this work: Italian Space Agency (ASI - Italy), Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES- France), Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR-Germany), National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA-USA) Rosetta Program, Science and Technology Facilities Council (UK). VIRTIS has been built by a consortium, which includes Italy, France and Germany, under the scientific responsibility of the Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali of INAF, Italy, which guides also the scientific operations. The VIRTIS instrument development has been funded and managed by ASI, with contributions from Observatoire de Meudon financed by CNES, and from DLR. The computational resources used in this research have been supplied by INAF-IAPS through the DataWell project.

  14. Comet 67P: Thermal Maps and Local Properties as Derived from Rosetta/VIRTIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosi, Federico; Capria, Maria Teresa; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Filacchione, Gianrico; Erard, Stéphane; Leyrat, Cédric; Bockelée-Morvan, Dominique; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Raponi, Andrea; Ciarniello, Mauro; Schmitt, Bernard; Arnold, Gabriele; Mottola, Stefano; Fonti, Sergio; Palomba, Ernesto; Longobardo, Andrea; Cerroni, Priscilla; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Drossart, Pierre; Kuehrt, Ekkehard

    2015-04-01

    the compositional investigation based on imaging spectroscopy data collected at shorter wavelengths. In the VIRTIS thermal images, a note of great interest is provided by the 'neck' of the comet close to the 'body', where, because of the concave shape, the 'head' casts prominent shadows on some areas when they experience maximum daily insolation. This is a place potentially subjected to considerable thermal stresses. We evaluate both the spatial thermal gradients and the temporal thermal gradients, providing implications for the surface structure. Acknowledgements: The authors would like to thank the following institutions and agencies, which supported this work: Italian Space Agency (ASI - Italy), Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES- France), Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR-Germany), National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA-USA) Rosetta Program, Science and Technology Facilities Council (UK). VIRTIS has been built by a consortium, which includes Italy, France and Germany, under the scientific responsibility of the Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali of INAF, Italy, which guides also the scientific operations. The VIRTIS instrument development has been funded and managed by ASI, with contributions from Observatoire de Meudon financed by CNES, and from DLR. The computational resources used in this research have been supplied by INAF-IAPS through the DataWell project.

  15. A comparison between CloudSat and aircraft data for mixed-phase and cirrus clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mioche, G.; Gayet, J.-F.; Minikin, A.; Herber, A.; Pelon, J.

    2009-04-01

    resolution Cloud Particle Imager probe (CPI) for imaging the ice particle morphology (2.3 microns pixels size) and standard PMS probes: 2D-C, FSSP-100 and FSSP-300. This presentation focuses on the validation of the standard parameter of the Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) of CloudSat (equivalent radar reflectivity factor Z). The different IWC(ice water content)-Z relationships determined from combined CloudSat and in situ data are then discussed. The method to derive equivalent reflectivity factor from the CPI data is first presented. According to the particle shape, a mass-diameter relationship and thus a reflectivity factor is determined for each type of ice crystal. This technique noticeably decreases the discrepancies of radar reflectivity-derived values due to the natural variability of ice crystal shapes. Comparisons of the reflectivity factor deduced from CPI and those from CloudSat for various types of clouds are then discussed. The next step to the interpretation of the CloudSat product is to derive IWC-Z relationships for assessing IWC distributions on a global scale, which is an important improvement to constrain global scale modelling. Several IWC-Z relationships are determined from in situ measurements according to the various case studies including Arctic mixed-phase clouds, Arctic and mid-latitude cirrus. The improvements on the results by using the CPI data-processing method are discussed. Acknowledgements: This work was funded by the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR BLAN06-1_137670), the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers (INSU/CNRS), the Institut Polaire Français Paul Emile Victor (IPEV), the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) and the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft-und Raumfahrt (DLR). The CloudSat data are courtesy of the CloudSat Data Processing Center.

  16. 19 CFR 12.62 - Enforcement; duties of Customs officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.62 Enforcement... made pursuant thereto; and shall seize fur seals and sea otters, or the skins thereof, killed, captured...

  17. 19 CFR 12.62 - Enforcement; duties of Customs officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.62 Enforcement... made pursuant thereto; and shall seize fur seals and sea otters, or the skins thereof, killed, captured...

  18. 19 CFR 12.62 - Enforcement; duties of Customs officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.62 Enforcement... made pursuant thereto; and shall seize fur seals and sea otters, or the skins thereof, killed, captured...

  19. 19 CFR 12.62 - Enforcement; duties of Customs officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.62 Enforcement... made pursuant thereto; and shall seize fur seals and sea otters, or the skins thereof, killed, captured...

  20. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-13 - Income from agricultural activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... produce agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing... livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on such land, and that there shall be...

  1. 29 CFR 780.119 - Employment in the specified operations generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780... livestock, bees, fur-bearing animals or poultry only if their operations relate to animals of the type named...

  2. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-13 - Income from agricultural activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... produce agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing... livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on such land, and that there shall be...

  3. 29 CFR 780.119 - Employment in the specified operations generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780... livestock, bees, fur-bearing animals or poultry only if their operations relate to animals of the type named...

  4. 29 CFR 780.119 - Employment in the specified operations generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780... livestock, bees, fur-bearing animals or poultry only if their operations relate to animals of the type named...

  5. 29 CFR 780.119 - Employment in the specified operations generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780... livestock, bees, fur-bearing animals or poultry only if their operations relate to animals of the type named...

  6. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-13 - Income from agricultural activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... produce agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing... livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on such land, and that there shall be...

  7. 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-13 - Income from agricultural activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... produce agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing... livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on such land, and that there shall be...

  8. 29 CFR 780.119 - Employment in the specified operations generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780... livestock, bees, fur-bearing animals or poultry only if their operations relate to animals of the type named...

  9. 19 CFR 12.62 - Enforcement; duties of Customs officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.62 Enforcement... made pursuant thereto; and shall seize fur seals and sea otters, or the skins thereof, killed, captured...

  10. O2 availability impacts iron homeostasis in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Beauchene, Nicole A; Mettert, Erin L; Moore, Laura J; Keleş, Sündüz; Willey, Emily R; Kiley, Patricia J

    2017-11-14

    The ferric-uptake regulator (Fur) is an Fe 2+ -responsive transcription factor that coordinates iron homeostasis in many bacteria. Recently, we reported that expression of the Escherichia coli Fur regulon is also impacted by O 2 tension. Here, we show that for most of the Fur regulon, Fur binding and transcriptional repression increase under anaerobic conditions, suggesting that Fur is controlled by O 2 availability. We found that the intracellular, labile Fe 2+ pool was higher under anaerobic conditions compared with aerobic conditions, suggesting that higher Fe 2+ availability drove the formation of more Fe 2+ -Fur and, accordingly, more DNA binding. O 2 regulation of Fur activity required the anaerobically induced FeoABC Fe 2+ uptake system, linking increased Fur activity to ferrous import under iron-sufficient conditions. The increased activity of Fur under anaerobic conditions led to a decrease in expression of ferric import systems. However, the combined positive regulation of the feoABC operon by ArcA and FNR partially antagonized Fur-mediated repression of feoABC under anaerobic conditions, allowing ferrous transport to increase even though Fur is more active. This design feature promotes a switch from ferric import to the more physiological relevant ferrous iron under anaerobic conditions. Taken together, we propose that the influence of O 2 availability on the levels of active Fur adds a previously undescribed layer of regulation in maintaining cellular iron homeostasis.

  11. The Bonn Astro/Geo Correlator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhart, Simone; Alef, Walter; Bertarini, Alessandra; La Porta, Laura; Muskens, Arno; Rottmann, Helge; Roy, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The Bonn Distributed FX (DiFX) correlator is a software correlator operated jointly by the Max- Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie (MPIfR), the Institut fur Geodasie und Geoinformation der Universitat Bonn (IGG), and the Bundesamt fur Kartographie und Geodasie (BKG) in Frankfurt.

  12. O2 availability impacts iron homeostasis in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Beauchene, Nicole A.; Mettert, Erin L.; Moore, Laura J.; Keleş, Sündüz; Willey, Emily R.; Kiley, Patricia J.

    2017-01-01

    The ferric-uptake regulator (Fur) is an Fe2+-responsive transcription factor that coordinates iron homeostasis in many bacteria. Recently, we reported that expression of the Escherichia coli Fur regulon is also impacted by O2 tension. Here, we show that for most of the Fur regulon, Fur binding and transcriptional repression increase under anaerobic conditions, suggesting that Fur is controlled by O2 availability. We found that the intracellular, labile Fe2+ pool was higher under anaerobic conditions compared with aerobic conditions, suggesting that higher Fe2+ availability drove the formation of more Fe2+-Fur and, accordingly, more DNA binding. O2 regulation of Fur activity required the anaerobically induced FeoABC Fe2+ uptake system, linking increased Fur activity to ferrous import under iron-sufficient conditions. The increased activity of Fur under anaerobic conditions led to a decrease in expression of ferric import systems. However, the combined positive regulation of the feoABC operon by ArcA and FNR partially antagonized Fur-mediated repression of feoABC under anaerobic conditions, allowing ferrous transport to increase even though Fur is more active. This design feature promotes a switch from ferric import to the more physiological relevant ferrous iron under anaerobic conditions. Taken together, we propose that the influence of O2 availability on the levels of active Fur adds a previously undescribed layer of regulation in maintaining cellular iron homeostasis. PMID:29087312

  13. Mechanistic insights into metal ion activation and operator recognition by the ferric uptake regulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Zengqin; Wang, Qing; Liu, Zhao; Zhang, Manfeng; Machado, Ana Carolina Dantas; Chiu, Tsu-Pei; Feng, Chong; Zhang, Qi; Yu, Lin; Qi, Lei; Zheng, Jiangge; Wang, Xu; Huo, Xinmei; Qi, Xiaoxuan; Li, Xiaorong; Wu, Wei; Rohs, Remo; Li, Ying; Chen, Zhongzhou

    2015-07-01

    Ferric uptake regulator (Fur) plays a key role in the iron homeostasis of prokaryotes, such as bacterial pathogens, but the molecular mechanisms and structural basis of Fur-DNA binding remain incompletely understood. Here, we report high-resolution structures of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1 Fur in four different states: apo-Fur, holo-Fur, the Fur-feoAB1 operator complex and the Fur-Pseudomonas aeruginosa Fur box complex. Apo-Fur is a transition metal ion-independent dimer whose binding induces profound conformational changes and confers DNA-binding ability. Structural characterization, mutagenesis, biochemistry and in vivo data reveal that Fur recognizes DNA by using a combination of base readout through direct contacts in the major groove and shape readout through recognition of the minor-groove electrostatic potential by lysine. The resulting conformational plasticity enables Fur binding to diverse substrates. Our results provide insights into metal ion activation and substrate recognition by Fur that suggest pathways to engineer magnetotactic bacteria and antipathogenic drugs.

  14. Zur Funktion von Weiterbildung fur Frauen in den neuen Landern im Kontext des Transformationsprozesses (On the Function of Further Education for Women in the New Laender in the Context of the Process of Transformation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiersmann, Christiane; Ambos, Ingrid

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on motives leading women in the new German Laender to participate in further education and on gender-related barriers to further education. Shows that women accept the need for further education, hoping to improve their job situation but knowing that their efforts will have a limited effect on employment chances. (DSK)

  15. 3-(Fur-2-yl)-10-(2-phenylethyl)-[1,2,4]triazino[4,3-a]benzimidazol-4(10H)-one, a novel adenosine receptor antagonist with A(2A)-mediated neuroprotective effects.

    PubMed

    Scatena, Alessia; Fornai, Francesco; Trincavelli, Maria Letizia; Taliani, Sabrina; Daniele, Simona; Pugliesi, Isabella; Cosconati, Sandro; Martini, Claudia; Da Settimo, Federico

    2011-09-21

    In this study, compound FTBI (3-(2-furyl)-10-(2-phenylethyl)[1,2,4]triazino[4,3-a]benzimidazol-4(10H)-one) was selected from a small library of triazinobenzimidazole derivatives as a potent A(2A) adenosine receptor (AR) antagonist and tested for its neuroprotective effects against two different kinds of dopaminergic neurotoxins, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) and methamphetamine (METH), in rat PC12 and in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell lines. FTBI, in a concentration range corresponding to its affinity for A(2A) AR subtype, significantly increased the number of viable PC12 cells after their exposure to METH and, to a similar extent, to MPP+, as demonstrated in both trypan blue exclusion assay and in cytological staining. These neuroprotective effects were also observed with a classical A(2A) AR antagonist, ZM241385, and appeared to be completely counteracted by the AR agonist, NECA, supporting A(2A) ARs are directly involved in FTBI-mediated effects. Similarly, in human SH-SY5Y cells, FTBI was able to prevent cell toxicity induced by MPP+ and METH, showing that this A(2A) AR antagonist has a neuroprotective effect independently by the specific cell model. Altogether these results demonstrate that the A(2A) AR blockade mediates cell protection against neurotoxicity induced by dopaminergic neurotoxins in dopamine containing cells, supporting the potential use of A(2A) AR antagonists in dopaminergic degenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease.

  16. Der Zitier-Index (Science-Citation-Index): Eine Datenbank fur das Ermitteln von neuen Ideen und Konzepten (The Science Citation Index: A Database for the Discovery of New Ideas and Concepts).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Hans-Reiner; Thormann, K.-D.

    This report discusses the use of the Science Citation Index produced by the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) as a given "expert system" in the experimental study of different search levels. The inquiry has two objectives: (1) to test whether a "traditional" information system will also produce the rudiments of a…

  17. Bericht uber den 2. Internationalen Kongress fur Angewandte Linguistik. Cambridge 8.-12. IX. 1969. [Report on the Second International Congress for Applied Linguistics, Cambridge, Dec. 8-12, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Peter

    This paper is a summary report on the Second International Congress of Applied Linguistics held in Cambridge, England in September 1969. Because of the large number of papers delivered, only a selection of the papers delivered in any one section of the Congress are considered, and the author attempts to identify current interests and trends in…

  18. Das Licht am Ende des Tunnels: Motivationsstrukturen fur den Deutschunterricht Reflexionen uber ein altes und stets neues Problem (The Light at the End of the Tunnel: Structures for Motivating German Teaching. Reflections on an Old and Continually New Problem).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classen, Albrecht

    2001-01-01

    Argues that despite the decline in enrollments in German at elementary and secondary schools and colleges and universities, there is reason to hope that interest can be invigorated. Suggests that there are easy instructional methods and materials for developing a new motivation in learning the language. (Author/VWL)

  19. Outcomes of flexible ureterorenoscopy and laser fragmentation for renal stones: comparison between digital and conventional ureteroscope.

    PubMed

    Somani, Bhaskar K; Al-Qahtani, Saeed M; de Medina, Sixtina Diez Gil; Traxer, Olivier

    2013-11-01

    To compare the outcomes of flexible ureterorenoscopy and lasertripsy (FURS) using digital and conventional FURS for kidney stones. From September 2007 to April 2011, 118 patients underwent FURS (by the same surgeon). The outcomes were compared between equal numbers of procedures (59 each) using a conventional flexible ureterorenoscope (C-FURS; Olympus URF-P5) and a digital flexible ureterorenoscope (D-FURS; Olympus URF-V). Although the deflection, working channel, and field view are similar in both, the initial and terminal diameter is 8.4F and 9.9F and 6.9F and 8.4F for the D-FURS and C-FURS, respectively. The mean stone fragmentation time was calculated by the size per operative time. The preoperative, operative, and postoperative data were retrospectively analyzed and compared. The patient demographics were comparable. The mean stone size was 12.8 and 12 mm in the C-FURS and D-FURS groups, respectively. The initial assessment of the entire pyelocaliceal system was possible in 58 of 59 cases (98%) in the C-FURS group and 56 of 59 cases (94%) in the D-FURS group. The mean operative time was significantly longer in the C-FURS group (53.8 ± 15.2 minutes vs 44.5 ± 14.9 minutes). The overall stone-free rate 1 month after the procedure was 86% in the C-FURS group and 88% in the D-FURS group. Although on comparison, the D-FURS had slightly limited maneuverability, comparable success rates can be achieved with both conventional and digital ureteroscopes. D-FURSs significantly reduced the operative time compared with C-FURSs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A pilot study on the correlation of tongue manifestation with the site of cerebral infarction in patients with stroke.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Gao, Li; Song, Jue-Xian; Zhao, Hai-Ping; Wu, Xiao-Guang; Xu, Chang-Min; Huang, Li-Yuan; Wang, Ping-Ping; Luo, Yu-Min

    2014-11-01

    To discuss the correlation of tongue manifestation with the site of cerebral infarction in patients with acute cerebral infarction. From March 2008 to February 2009, 200 cases of hospitalized patients with first unilateral cerebral infarction were chosen in the Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital. The correlation of different tongue color, fur texture, fur color with the site of cerebral infarction was analyzed. The site of cerebral infarction in patients were compared between different tongue color by Chisquare test (P=0.314), and further correspondence analysis demonstrated that there was correlation between red tongue and cortical-subcortical infarction group. The site of cerebral infarction in patients were compared between thick fur group and thin fur group, cortical-subcortical infarction occurred more frequently in the former (P=0.0008). The site of cerebral infarction in patients were compared between dry fur group, moist fur group and smooth fur group, correspondence analysis demonstrated there was correlation between dry fur and cortical-subcortical group. The site of cerebral infarction in the patients were compared between white fur group, white-yellow fur group and yellow fur group (P=0.010), and correspondence analysis demonstrated there was correlation between white fur and brainstem infarction; white-yellow fur has relationship with cortical infarction; subcortical infarction was weakly related with white-yellow fur; there was closer relationship between yellow fur and cortical-subcortical infarction. The change of tongue manifestation was associated with the site of cerebral infarction in patients, providing a new combining site for diagnosing cerebrovascular diseases by integrative medicine.

  1. Diagnosis of upper urinary tract tumours: is photodynamic diagnosis assisted ureterorenoscopy required as an addition to modern imaging and ureterorenoscopy?

    PubMed

    Aboumarzouk, Omar M; Mains, Edward; Moseley, Harry; Kata, Sławomir G

    2013-05-01

    We aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of photodynamic diagnostic ureterorenoscopy (PDD-FURS) in detection of UUT-TCC in comparison with CT Urogram (CTU) and WL-FURS. Between June 2009 and August 2011, 30 patients underwent PDD-FURS after CTU for suspicion of UUT-TCC. Ureterorenoscopy was performed for abnormal upper urinary tract on imaging. Oral 5-Aminolevulinic Acid (5-ALA) was used as a photosensitizer. All procedures were performed by single endourologist experienced in photodynamic diagnosis. The sensitivity, specificity, and detection rate of WL-FURS, PDD-FURS and CTU were calculated using the Meta-DiSc v1.4 programme. P values <0.05 were considered significant. PDD-FURS detected more UUT-TCCs than CTU or WL-FURS (94% (16/17) vs. 76.5% (13/17) vs. 82% (14/17) respectively). PDD-FURS was not significantly more sensitive than CTU and WL-FURS to detect UUT-TCC (0.94 (95% CI: 0.71-0.99) vs. 0.82 (95% CI: 0.57-0.96) vs. 0.81 (95% CI: 0.54-0.96) respectively; PDD-FURS vs. CTU: P=0.249; PDD-FURS vs. WL-FURS: P=0.277). There was no difference in the specificity between PDD-FURS and WL-FURS (1.0 (95% CI: 0.75-1.0) and 1.0 (95% CI: 0.75-1.0) respectively) (P=1), while PDD-FURS was significantly more specific than CTU (CTU: 0.21 (95% CI: 0.05-0.51) (P<0.001). PDD-FURS picked up 3 cases of CIS, which was not seen on WL-FURL and CTU. Oral 5-ALA induced PDD-FURS has a high sensitivity and specificity to detect lesions and a higher detection rate to diagnose UUT-TCC than WL-FURS and CTU. It appears to be the only tool to visualise UUT CIS lesions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A search for Potential Impact Sites in Southern Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocca, M. C. L.

    The Southern part of Argentina is composed of five Provinces; Tierra del Fuego, Santa Cruz, Chubut, Rio Negro and Neuquen. A search for potential impact sites was performed by the author through the examination of 76 color LANDSAT satellite images ( 1:250,000 - resolution = 250 meters ) at the Instituto Geografico Militar ( IGM ) of Buenos Aires city. When a potential candidate was found a more detailed study of the site was done. If available the radar X-SAR satellite images of the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Luft-und Raumfahrt, (DLR), Berlin, Germany , were also examined. The final step was to perform a review of the available published geologic information of each site at the Servicio Geologico y Minero Argentino ( SEGEMAR ), ( =Geological Survey of Argentina ), in Buenos Aires. The resulting catalogue contains information about sites where possible simple crater or complex impact structures could be present. Each case demands future detailed and `in situ' research by an impact cratering specialist. --Tierra del Fuego: TF1 ) Ushuaia 5569-II, No 218. Cerro Taarsh, Estancia San Justo. Possible complex structure. Semi-circular area of concentric low ridges. Estimated diameter : 12 km. Probably very eroded. --Santa Cruz: SC1 ) Gobernador Gregores 4969-I, No 127. Estancia La Aragonesa Possible eroded complex structure. Circular area of low ridges, estimated diameter: 10 km.. Bull's eye like morphology. SC2 ) Gobernador Gregores 4969-I, No 127. Gran Altiplanicie Central. Possible simple crater in basalts. Diameter: 1 km.. SC3 ) Tres Lagos 4972-IV, No 106. Meseta del Bagual Chico. Possible perfectly circular simple crater in basalts. Diameter: 1.0 km.. SC4 )Paso Rio Bote 5172-II, No 20. Rio Pelque, Ruta Provincial No 5. A circular bowl-shaped structure is present on fluvial deposits of pleistocenic age. Diameter: 3.5 km.. SC5 ) Caleta Olivia 4769-II, No 28. North of Cerro Doce Grande. Possible complex structure of concentric circular rings of ridges. SC6 ) Caleta

  3. Space Radar Image of Mammoth, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Luft und Raumfahrt e.v. (DLR), the major partner in science, operation and data processing of X-SAR.

  4. EFFECTS OF HEAT AND BROMOCHLOROACETIC ACID ON MALE REPRODUCTION IN HEAT SHOCK FACTOR-1 GENE KNOCKOUT MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of heat and bromochloroacetic acid on male reproduction in heat shock factor-1 gene knockout mice.
    Luft JC1, IJ Benjamin2, JB Garges1 and DJ Dix1. 1Reproductive Toxicology Division, USEPA, RTP, NC, 27711 and 2Dept of Internal Medicine, Univ.of Texas Southwestern Med C...

  5. Physik gestern und heute: Visualisierung mit der Schlierenmethode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, Peter

    2006-07-01

    Der Name des österreichischen Forschers Ernst Mach ist heute noch mit der Schallgeschwindigkeit verbunden. Diese Auszeichnung resultiert aus Machs Untersuchungen, wie sich Projektile mit Überschallgeschwindigkeit durch die Luft bewegen. Gerade in jüngster Zeit hat die Anwendung derartiger Methoden durch technische Modifikationen wieder einen Aufschwung erfahren.

  6. Drafting Instructors Look at Metrics, Computers, and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Howard

    1974-01-01

    Four drafting teachers give their opinions on how to teach metric measurement and conversion and other matters. They are Jeffry T. Lufting, James E. Kelso, L. Dayle Yeager, and Michael B. Atkins. Computer graphics, modular structures, communicative drafting, and microfilm reproduction are also discussed. (MS)

  7. SPERM MOTILITY IN HSF1 KNOCKOUT MICE AFTER HEAT SHOCK IS ASSOCIATED WITH FERTILITY DEFICITS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPERM MOTILITY IN HSF1 KNOCKOUT MICE AFTER HEAT SHOCK IS ASSOCIATED WITH FERTILITY DEFICITS. L.F. Strader*, S.D. Perreault, J.C. Luft*, and D.J. Dix*. US EPA/ORD, Reproductive Toxicology Div., Research Triangle Park, NC
    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) protect cells from environm...

  8. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF THE WATER DISINFECTANT BYPRODUCT BROMOCHLOROACETIC ACID (BCA) IN ADULT AND JUVENILE MALE C57BL/6 MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF THE WATER DISINFECTANT BYPRODUCT BROMOCHLOROACETIC ACID (BCA) IN ADULT AND JUVENILE MALE C57BL/6 MICE.
    JC Rockett, JC Luft, JB Garges and DJ Dix. Reproductive Toxicology Division, USEPA, RTP, NC, USA.
    Sponsor: G Klinefelter
    The development of wate...

  9. Exploring a Model of Situated Professional Development: Impact on Classroom Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Jonathan; Lotter, Christine; Feller, Robert; Gates, Harry

    2011-01-01

    A hallmark of current science education reform involves teaching through inquiry. However, the widespread use of inquiry-based instruction in many classrooms has not occurred (Roehrig and Luft in "Int J Sci Educ" 26:3-24, 2004; Schneider et al. in "J Res Sci Teach" 42:283-312, 2005). The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a…

  10. THE EFFECTS OF HYPERTHERMIA ON SPERMATOGENESIS, APOPTOSIS, GENE EXPRESSION AND FERTILITY IN ADULT MALE MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of hyperthermia on spermatogenesis, apoptosis, gene expression and fertility in adult male mice
    John C. Rockett1, Faye L. Mapp1, J. Brian Garges1, J. Christopher Luft1, Chisato Mori2 and David J. Dix1.
    1Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Envir...

  11. 76 FR 48814 - Applications for New Awards; Postsecondary Education Center for Individuals Who Are Deaf

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research, the Institute of Education Sciences, and the Office of...: Research priorities in the new millennium. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 7 (4), 267-280. Luft... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Applications for New Awards; Postsecondary Education Center for...

  12. Service Provider Perceptions of Key Factors Related to Postsecondary Success of Students with Learning Disabilities in Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, Nathan L.

    2012-01-01

    Students with learning disabilities have been attending postsecondary education in increasing numbers since the early 1990's. Improvements in secondary education services, legal rights to reasonable accommodations, and college services for these students have been credited with this increase (Browning, 1997; Flexer, Simmons, Luft, & Baer,…

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF A 950-GENE DNA ARRAY FOR EXAMINING GENE EXPRESSION PATTERNS IN MOUSE TESTIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development of a 950-gene DNA array for examining gene expression patterns in mouse testis.

    Rockett JC, Christopher Luft J, Brian Garges J, Krawetz SA, Hughes MR, Hee Kirn K, Oudes AJ, Dix DJ.

    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effec...

  14. USING DNA MICROARRAYS TO CHARACTERIZE GENE EXPRESSION IN TESTES OF FERTILE AND INFERTILE HUMANS AND MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    USING DNA MICROARRAYS TO CHARACTERIZE GENE EXPRESSION
    IN TESTES OF FERTILE AND INFERTILE HUMANS AND MICE

    John C. Rockett1, J. Christopher Luft1, J. Brian Garges1, M. Stacey Ricci2, Pasquale Patrizio2, Norman B. Hecht2 and David J. Dix1
    Reproductive Toxicology Divisio...

  15. Helicobacter pylori Urease Activity is Influenced by Ferric Uptake Regulator

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong Seung; Lee, Ji Hyuk; Lee, Hye Jin; Lee, Jee Hyun; Choi, Young Ok

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The role of the Ferric Uptake Regulator (FUR) in the acid resistance of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been thought to be independent of urease. However, we demonstrated in this study that Fur influences urease activity. Materials and Methods A fur knockout mutant of H. pylori was constructed by replacing the Fur gene with a kanamycin resistant marker gene. The wild-type H. pylori and fur mutant were compared for survival. The integrity of the inner membrane of the bacteria was evaluated by confocal microscopy using membrane-permeant and -impermeant fluorescent DNA probes. Urease activity of intact H. pylori was measured between pH 3 and 8. Real time PCR of both strains was performed for urease genes including ureI, ureE, ureF, ureG, and ureH. Results The fur deletion affected the survival of H. pylori at pH 4. The urease activity curve of the intact fur mutant showed the same shape as the wild-type but was 3-fold lower than the wild-type at a pH of less than 5. Real time PCR revealed that the expression of all genes was consistently down-regulated in the fur mutant. Conclusion The results of this study showed that fur appears to be involved in acid resistant H. pylori urease activity. PMID:20046512

  16. 50 CFR 218.230 - Specified activity, level of taking, and species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...), northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus), ribbon seal... seal (Arctocephalus australis), South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens), southern elephant seal...

  17. 50 CFR 218.230 - Specified activity, level of taking, and species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...), northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus), ribbon seal... seal (Arctocephalus australis), South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens), southern elephant seal...

  18. 76 FR 46279 - Marine Mammals; File No. 87-1851

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... (Lobodon carcinophagus), 35 southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina), 10 leopard seals (Hydrurga leptonyx... elephant seals (Mirounga augustirostris), and northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) in California is...

  19. 50 CFR 218.230 - Specified activity, level of taking, and species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...), northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus), ribbon seal... seal (Arctocephalus australis), South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens), southern elephant seal...

  20. 48 CFR 25.104 - Nonavailable articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Bananas. Bauxite. Beef, corned, canned. Beef extract. Bephenium hydroxynapthoate. Bismuth. Books, trade..., or cast bars. Pyrethrum flowers. Quartz crystals. Quebracho. Quinidine. Quinine. Rabbit fur felt...

  1. 48 CFR 25.104 - Nonavailable articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Bananas. Bauxite. Beef, corned, canned. Beef extract. Bephenium hydroxynapthoate. Bismuth. Books, trade..., or cast bars. Pyrethrum flowers. Quartz crystals. Quebracho. Quinidine. Quinine. Rabbit fur felt...

  2. 48 CFR 25.104 - Nonavailable articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Bananas. Bauxite. Beef, corned, canned. Beef extract. Bephenium hydroxynapthoate. Bismuth. Books, trade..., or cast bars. Pyrethrum flowers. Quartz crystals. Quebracho. Quinidine. Quinine. Rabbit fur felt...

  3. 48 CFR 25.104 - Nonavailable articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... Bananas. Bauxite. Beef, corned, canned. Beef extract. Bephenium hydroxynapthoate. Bismuth. Books, trade..., or cast bars. Pyrethrum flowers. Quartz crystals. Quebracho. Quinidine. Quinine. Rabbit fur felt...

  4. 48 CFR 25.104 - Nonavailable articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Bananas. Bauxite. Beef, corned, canned. Beef extract. Bephenium hydroxynapthoate. Bismuth. Books, trade..., or cast bars. Pyrethrum flowers. Quartz crystals. Quebracho. Quinidine. Quinine. Rabbit fur felt...

  5. Survival of the lichen model system Circinaria gyrosa before flight to the ISS (EXPOSE R2 mission)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De la Torre Noetzel, Rosa

    Abstract Space Verification Tests (SVT) are necessary for selection of the most promising biological organisms for flight experiments in Low Earth Orbit or other space destinations: Simulation of sample assembly, exposure to expected space parameters and sample disassembly are significantly advanced by such tests, will be performed with this tests, allowing post-analysis of the exposed biological material and thus a deeper understanding of the individual and synergistic effects of space. In this work we present the results obtained with the lichen species Circinaria gyrosa after the SVT 2 run-2 tests concerning the EXPOSE-R2 Mission Preflight Test Program, performed at the planetary and space simulation facilities at DLR (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Cologne, Germany) [1], from October 2013 to January 2014. This vagrant lichen species was collected at the steppic highlands of Central Spain and defined as “astrobiological model system” due to previous test at space missions (BIOPAN-6, Foton M-3) [2, 3], Therefore, C. gyrosa is part of the BIOMEX experiment (Biology and Mars Experiment, ESA) [4] which will be exposed from July 2014 to January 2016 on board of EXPOSE R2 on the International Space Station. C. gyrosa was exposed at DLR to simulated space- and Mars parameters: a) space vacuum 10-5 Pa, space UV-radiation (200-400 nm, fluence of 12 months mission = 5 x 105 kJm-2) and temperature fluctuations (-25 ºC to 10 ºC); b); Mars Simulated CO2 atmosphere, Mars pressure of 103 Pa, Mars UV-radiation (200-400 nm), and temperature fluctuations (-25 ºC to 10 ºC). In line with the lichen's well studied adaptations to harsh environmental conditions [5, 6] we observed a high recovery- and resistance capacity of C. gyrosa which was demonstrated after a 72 hours re-activation process of in the UV-Radiation and Bioclimatology Laboratories of INTA (Atmospheric Research and Instrumentation, Dept. Earth Observation). These results confirm the high survival

  6. The Far Side of the Moon -- And All the Way Around

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-11

    morphological interpretations. Each month, the WAC provides nearly complete coverage of the Moon under unique lighting. As an added bonus, the orbit-to-orbit image overlap provides stereo coverage. Reducing all these stereo images into a global topographic map is a big job, and is being led by LROC Team Members from the German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt; DLR). Several preliminary WAC topographic products have appeared in LROC featured images over the past year (Orientale basin, Sinus Iridum). For a sneak preview of the WAC global DEM with the WAC global mosaic, view a rotating composite moon (70 MB video from ASU's LROC website). The WAC topographic dataset will be completed and released later this year. The global mosaic released today is comprised of over 15,000 WAC images acquired between November 2009 and February 2011. The non-polar images were map projected onto the GLD100 shape model (WAC derived 100 m/pixel DTM), while polar images were map projected on the LOLA shape model. In addition, the LOLA derived crossover corrected ephemeris, and an improved camera pointing, provide accurate positioning (better than 100 m) of each WAC image. As part of the March 2011 PDS release, the LROC team posted the global map in ten regional tiles. Eight of the tiles are equirectangular projections that encompass 60° latitude by 90° longitude. In addition, two polar stereographic projections are available for each pole from ±60° to the pole. These reduced data records (RDR) products will be available for download on March 15, 2011. As the mission progresses, and our knowledge of the lunar photometric function increases, improved and new mosaics will be released! Work your way around the moon with these six orthographic projections constructed from WAC mosaics. The nearside view linked below is different from that released on 21 February. To read more con't here: www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/LRO/news/lro-farside.html NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

  7. Web-Based Requesting and Scheduling Use of Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeager, Carolyn M.

    2010-01-01

    Automated User's Training Operations Facility Utilization Request (AutoFUR) is prototype software that administers a Web-based system for requesting and allocating facilities and equipment for astronaut-training classes in conjunction with scheduling the classes. AutoFUR also has potential for similar use in such applications as scheduling flight-simulation equipment and instructors in commercial airplane-pilot training, managing preventive- maintenance facilities, and scheduling operating rooms, doctors, nurses, and medical equipment for surgery. Whereas requesting and allocation of facilities was previously a manual process that entailed examination of documents (including paper drawings) from different sources, AutoFUR partly automates the process and makes all of the relevant information available via the requester s computer. By use of AutoFUR, an instructor can fill out a facility-utilization request (FUR) form on line, consult the applicable flight manifest(s) to determine what equipment is needed and where it should be placed in the training facility, reserve the corresponding hardware listed in a training-hardware inventory database, search for alternative hardware if necessary, submit the FUR for processing, and cause paper forms to be printed. Auto-FUR also maintains a searchable archive of prior FURs.

  8. 19 CFR 12.60 - Importation prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.60 Importation prohibited. The transportation, importation, sale, or possession of the skins of fur seals or sea otters is prohibited if such skins were taken contrary to the provisions of section 2 of the act of February 26, 1944 (58 Stat. 100...

  9. 19 CFR 12.60 - Importation prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.60 Importation prohibited. The transportation, importation, sale, or possession of the skins of fur seals or sea otters is prohibited if such skins were taken contrary to the provisions of section 2 of the act of February 26, 1944 (58 Stat. 100...

  10. 19 CFR 12.60 - Importation prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.60 Importation prohibited. The transportation, importation, sale, or possession of the skins of fur seals or sea otters is prohibited if such skins were taken contrary to the provisions of section 2 of the act of February 26, 1944 (58 Stat. 100...

  11. 19 CFR 12.60 - Importation prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.60 Importation prohibited. The transportation, importation, sale, or possession of the skins of fur seals or sea otters is prohibited if such skins were taken contrary to the provisions of section 2 of the act of February 26, 1944 (58 Stat. 100...

  12. 16 CFR 301.10 - Use of term “Broadtail-processed Lamb” permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... “Broadtail-processed Lamb” permitted. The term Broadtail-processed Lamb may be used to describe the skin of a lamb which has been sheared, leaving a moire hair pattern on the pelt having the appearance of the true fur pattern of “Broadtail Lamb”; as for example: Dyed Broadtail-processed Lamb Fur origin: Argentina ...

  13. 43 CFR 2916.2-4 - Termination of lease; cancellation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... purpose other than the rearing of fur-bearing animals as authorized. No lease will be canceled until the... property may not be removed from the lands, except fur-bearing animals disposed of in the regular course of...) of this section, which he has a right to remove; if not removed or otherwise disposed of within the...

  14. 43 CFR 2916.2-4 - Termination of lease; cancellation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... purpose other than the rearing of fur-bearing animals as authorized. No lease will be canceled until the... property may not be removed from the lands, except fur-bearing animals disposed of in the regular course of...) of this section, which he has a right to remove; if not removed or otherwise disposed of within the...

  15. 43 CFR 2916.2-4 - Termination of lease; cancellation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... purpose other than the rearing of fur-bearing animals as authorized. No lease will be canceled until the... property may not be removed from the lands, except fur-bearing animals disposed of in the regular course of...) of this section, which he has a right to remove; if not removed or otherwise disposed of within the...

  16. 43 CFR 2916.2-4 - Termination of lease; cancellation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... purpose other than the rearing of fur-bearing animals as authorized. No lease will be canceled until the... property may not be removed from the lands, except fur-bearing animals disposed of in the regular course of...) of this section, which he has a right to remove; if not removed or otherwise disposed of within the...

  17. Cultural and Biological Adaptations to Deprivation: The Northern Ojibwa Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Charles A.

    After the fur trade reached the Ojibwa during the early 17th Century, tribe structure and function rapidly changed. The intensity of social life increased as the Ojibwa and neighboring tribes gathered to exchange fur pelts for European items. Trade became so important that intertribal hostilities arose and an almost unrestrictive slaughter of…

  18. 16 CFR 301.43 - Use of deceptive trade or corporate names, trademarks or graphic representations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., trademarks or graphic representations prohibited. 301.43 Section 301.43 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE... Regulations § 301.43 Use of deceptive trade or corporate names, trademarks or graphic representations prohibited. No person shall use in labeling, invoicing or advertising any fur or fur product a trade name...

  19. How Could a Beaver Start a War?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millward, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Students gain a better understanding of war and economics when the variables come alive through stories, artifacts, and paintings. In this article, the author describes a short story about the fur trade which can generate lots of student questions about the fur economics, the Eastern Woodland Indians, trade artifacts, and war. The author also…

  20. Theory of Non-First Norman Form Relational Databases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    741. [BR] Benn, W. and B. Radig, "Erweiterte Anfragen nach Relationenge- bilden in Form nichtnormlalisierter Relationen." In Datenbank - Systeme fur...Relationenmodells." In Datenbank -Systeme far Biro, Technik und Wissenschaft, A. Blaser, P. Pistor, Eds., Informatik-Fachberichte Nr. 94, Springer...Versionenbe- hafteter, Hierarchisch Strukturierter Tupel." In Datenbank -Systeme fur Biro, Technik und Wissenschaft, A. Blaser, P. Pistor, Eds

  1. Field Study on Moisture Problems in Exterior Walls of Family Housing Units at Naval Air Station Pensacola, Florida.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    exterior exposed concrete block walls with 2 inch (nominal) furring, 1 inch cellular board ( expanded polystyrene ) insulation, and gypsum board finish, as...furring strips, and new expanded polystyrene board thermal insu- lation and new gypsum board were installed. The purpose of the coating on the concrete

  2. 50 CFR 216.72 - Restrictions on taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... disturbance to the rookery or the increased accidental take of female seals. (3) Any taking of adult fur seals or pups, or the intentional taking of subadult female fur seals is prohibited. (4) Only subadult male... debris may only be taken if so directed by NMFS scientists. (d) The scheduling of the harvest is at the...

  3. 50 CFR 216.72 - Restrictions on taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... disturbance to the rookery or the increased accidental take of female seals. (3) Any taking of adult fur seals or pups, or the intentional taking of subadult female fur seals is prohibited. (4) Only subadult male... debris may only be taken if so directed by NMFS scientists. (d) The scheduling of the harvest is at the...

  4. 50 CFR 216.72 - Restrictions on taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... disturbance to the rookery or the increased accidental take of female seals. (3) Any taking of adult fur seals or pups, or the intentional taking of subadult female fur seals is prohibited. (4) Only subadult male... debris may only be taken if so directed by NMFS scientists. (d) The scheduling of the harvest is at the...

  5. 50 CFR 216.72 - Restrictions on taking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... disturbance to the rookery or the increased accidental take of female seals. (3) Any taking of adult fur seals or pups, or the intentional taking of subadult female fur seals is prohibited. (4) Only subadult male... debris may only be taken if so directed by NMFS scientists. (d) The scheduling of the harvest is at the...

  6. 50 CFR 216.74 - Cooperation with Federal officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... research on the Pribilof Islands who may need assistance in recording tag or other data and collecting tissue or other fur seal samples for research purposes. In addition, Pribilovians who take fur seals for... Pribilof Islands who are responsible for compiling the following information on a daily basis: (a) The...

  7. 50 CFR 216.74 - Cooperation with Federal officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... research on the Pribilof Islands who may need assistance in recording tag or other data and collecting tissue or other fur seal samples for research purposes. In addition, Pribilovians who take fur seals for... Pribilof Islands who are responsible for compiling the following information on a daily basis: (a) The...

  8. 19 CFR 12.60 - Importation prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Fur-Seal Or Sea-Otter Skins § 12.60 Importation prohibited. The transportation, importation, sale, or possession of the skins of fur seals or sea otters is prohibited if such skins were taken contrary to the provisions of section 2 of the act of February 26, 1944 (58 Stat. 100...

  9. The Aggregate National Supply of Job Openings and Firms' Procedures for Filling Positions. IAB Labour Market Research Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magvas, Emil; Spitznagel, Eugen

    Surveys by the Institut fur Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB) of German firms' job openings have been combined with job registry data from the Bundesanstalt fur Arbeit on an annual basis since 1989 in order to determine the scope and structure of the aggregate national supply of job openings. The surveys also indicated problems encountered…

  10. 16 CFR 301.48a - Guaranties not received in good faith.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guaranties not received in good faith. 301... received in good faith. A guaranty shall not be deemed to have been received in good faith within the... required label, required invoice and advertisement relating to the fur product or fur so guaranteed; (b) If...

  11. He Who Seeks Shall Find... Or Perhaps Not? Analysis of Firms' Searches for Qualified Personnel, Using Data from the IAB Establishment Panel 2000. IAB Labour Market Research Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolling, Arnd

    The success of German firms' searches for qualified personnel to fill openings in skilled occupations was examined through a statistical analysis of data from the Institut fur Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung der Bundesanstalt fur Arbeit's (IAB) establishment panel for 2000. An employer search model was used to explain the current German debate…

  12. Comparison of flexible ureterorenoscopy and mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy in treatment of lower calyceal stones smaller than 2 cm.

    PubMed

    Akbulut, Fatih; Kucuktopcu, Onur; Kandemir, Emre; Sonmezay, Erkan; Simsek, Abdulmuttalip; Ozgor, Faruk; Binbay, Murat; Muslumanoglu, Ahmet Yaser; Gurbuz, Gokhan

    2016-01-01

    To compare the outcomes of flexible ureterorenoscopy (F-URS) and mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mini-PNL) in the treatment of lower calyceal stones smaller than 2 cm. Patients who underwent F-URS and mini-PNL for the treatment of lower calyceal stones smaller than 2 cm between March 2009 and December 2014 were retrospectively evaluated. Ninety-four patients were divided into two groups by treatment modality: F-URS (Group 1: 63 patients) and mini-PNL (Group 2: 31 patients). All patients were preoperatively diagnosed with intravenous pyelography or computed tomography. Success rates for F-URS and mini-PNL at postoperative first month were 85.7% and 90.3%, respectively. Operation time, fluoroscopy time, and hospitalization time for F-URS and mini-PNL patients were 44.40 min, 2.9 min, 22.4 h, and 91.9 min, 6.4 min, and 63.8 h, respectively. All three parameters were significantly shorter among the F-URS group (p < 0.001). Postoperative hemoglobin drop was significantly lower in F-URS group compared to mini-PNL group (0.39 mg/dL vs. 1.15 mg/dL, p = 0.001). A comparison of complications according to the Clavien classification demonstrated significant differences between the groups (p = 0.001). More patients in the F-URS groups require antibiotics due to urinary tract infection, and more patients in the mini-PNL group required ureteral double J catheter insertion under general anesthesia. Although both F-URS and mini-PNL have similar success rates for the treatment of lower calyceal stones, F-URS appears to be more favorable due to shorter fluoroscopy and hospitalization times; and lower hemoglobin drops. Multicenter and studies using higher patient volumes are needed to confirm these findings.

  13. Individual Foraging Strategies Reveal Niche Overlap between Endangered Galapagos Pinnipeds

    PubMed Central

    Villegas-Amtmann, Stella; Jeglinski, Jana W. E.; Costa, Daniel P.; Robinson, Patrick W.; Trillmich, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    Most competition studies between species are conducted from a population-level approach. Few studies have examined inter-specific competition in conjunction with intra-specific competition, with an individual-based approach. To our knowledge, none has been conducted on marine top predators. Sympatric Galapagos fur seals (Arctocephalus galapagoensis) and sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki) share similar geographic habitats and potentially compete. We studied their foraging niche overlap at Cabo Douglas, Fernandina Island from simultaneously collected dive and movement data to examine spatial and temporal inter- and intra-specific competition. Sea lions exhibited 3 foraging strategies (shallow, intermediate and deep) indicating intra-specific competition. Fur seals exhibited one foraging strategy, diving predominantly at night, between 0–80 m depth and mostly at 19–22 h. Most sea lion dives also occurred at night (63%), between 0–40 m, within fur seals' diving depth range. 34% of sea lions night dives occurred at 19–22 h, when fur seals dived the most, but most of them occurred at dawn and dusk, when fur seals exhibited the least amount of dives. Fur seals and sea lions foraging behavior overlapped at 19 and 21 h between 0–30 m depths. Sea lions from the deep diving strategy exhibited the greatest foraging overlap with fur seals, in time (19 h), depth during overlapping time (21–24 m), and foraging range (37.7%). Fur seals foraging range was larger. Cabo Douglas northwest coastal area, region of highest diving density, is a foraging “hot spot” for both species. Fur seals and sea lions foraging niche overlap occurred, but segregation also occurred; fur seals primarily dived at night, while sea lions exhibited night and day diving. Both species exploited depths and areas exclusive to their species. Niche breadth generally increases with environmental uncertainty and decreased productivity. Potential competition between these species could be greater during

  14. Schritt fur Schritt: Die Durschsetzung der Rechte geistig behinderter Menschen; Pas a Pas: La mise en application des droits des personnes handicapees mentales; Paso a Paso: Puesta en practica de los derechos de los deficientes mentales (Step by Step: Implementation of the Rights of Mentally Retarded Persons).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International League of Societies for the Mentally Handicapped, Brussels (Belgium).

    The booklet presents the proceedings (in English, French, Spanish, and German) of Session 62 of the Seventh World Congress of the International League of Societies for the Mentally Handicapped, detailing some analytical guidelines for national societies on the implementation of the rights of mentally retarded persons. Rights discussed include…

  15. People and Technology: Investing in Training for Europe's Future = L'Homme et la Technologie: Investir dans la Formation pour l'Avenir de l'Europe = Menschen und Technologie: Fur Europa's Zukunft in Ausbildung Investieren. Volume II. EUROTECNET Series No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission des Communautes Europeennes (Luxembourg).

    The following papers are included in this volume: "Technological Change: The Future of Training and Work" (Lord Young of Graffham); "L'Education, la Formation et l'Evolution Technologique dans l'Industrie" (Mathias Hinterscheid); "Education, Training, and Technological Change in Industry" (Philippe Meyer);…

  16. Towards Incorporating Educational Development in the Educational System; An Evolving Model in the German Federal Republique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinst, Klaus

    The Center for Educational Technology (Bildungstechnologisches Zentrum -- BTZ) is a research, development, and implementation (R and D) organization set up by the State of Hesse, West Germany. It has the novel (for Germany) function of being a middleman between politics, research, and educational practice in developing curriculum for German pre-,…

  17. Optics for Advanced Neutron Imaging and Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Moncton, David E.; Khaykovich, Boris

    2016-03-30

    During the report period, we continued the work as outlined in the original proposal. We have analyzed potential optical designs of Wolter mirrors for the neutron-imaging instrument VENUS, which is under construction at SNS. In parallel, we have conducted the initial polarized imaging experiment at Helmholtz Zentrum, Berlin, one of very few of currently available polarized-imaging facilities worldwide.

  18. Flexible ureterorenoscopy and laser lithotripsy in children

    PubMed Central

    Yeow, When-Chan; Pemberton, Richard; Barker, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Background: Flexible ureterorenoscopy (FUR) and laser lithotripsy (LL) are techniques used in the management of upper urinary tract disorders. These techniques, so far established in adults, are now being used in children as well. We report our experience with 26 cases of pediatric upper urinary tract disorders treated using these techniques. Methods: In the period from 1997 to 2006, FUR was performed in 26 children (14 males and 12 females) in the age group of three months to 15 years with a mean age of 8.2 years. Twenty five were stented prior to undergoing FUR and 24 presented with suspected upper tract stones (17 pelvicalyceal and seven midureteric). Two cases showed JJ stent migration post-pyeloplasty. Results: Eight cases involved diagnostic procedures. Six excluded the presence of renal calculi, one had focal medullary sponge kidney, and one had calcified papillae. There were 15 cases of therapeutic FUR. Of these, 12 had LL with only one had incomplete stone fragmentation which subsequently passed spontaneously. Other therapeutic procedures included removal of migrated JJ stents and FUR with the basket removal of a midureteric calculus. Three cases failed ureterorenoscopy due to technical difficulties. The overall success rate was 88.5% for FUR. Conclusion: FUR and LL are valuable minimally invasive techniques for the examination and treatment of pediatric upper urinary tract conditions. Preoperative stenting improves passage of the ureteroscope and with progressive miniaturization of instruments, the lower weight limit will decrease. PMID:20671848

  19. Efficacy Management of Urolithiasis: Flexible Ureteroscopy versus Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Tauber, Volkmar; Wohlmuth, Martin; Hochmuth, Andreas; Schimetta, Wolfgang; Schimetta, Wofgang; Krause, F Steffen

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of flexible ureterscopy (fURS) and extracorporal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) in the treatment of urolithiasis, complemented by a subgroup analysis of lower pole calyx. Retrospective analysis of patients treated by fURS or SWL was performed by independent variables such as gender, age, nephrolith size, double-J stent (DJ stent) and stone localisation. Out of 326 patients, 165 were treated by SWL and 161 by fURS. Complete stone removal was achieved by fURS in 83.2% and by SWL in 43.0% (p < 0.001). Asymptomatic behaviour (88-89%) and complication rate (10-11%) were nearly the same in both methods. A higher retreatment rate for SWL was necessary; otherwise, an auxillary DJ stent was performed more often preoperative before fURS. The subgroup analysis of lower pole calyx confirmed these evaluations. Complete stone-free removal was almost 8 times higher after fURS compared to SWL. The efficacy of fURS in treatment of urolithiasis is substantially higher than the efficacy of SWL. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Development of Fracture Mechanics Maps for Composite Materials. Volume 3.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    RD-At69 W4 DEVELOPMENT OF FRCTURE ECHNICS NPS FOR COMPOSITE V3jMATERIALS VOLUME 3( ) DEUTSCHE FORSCHUNOS- UND YERSUCHSANSTALT FUER LUFT- UND RAUMF...DEVELOPMENT OF FRACTURE MECHANICS MAPS I FOR COMPOSITE MATERIALS Dr. H. W. Bergmann DFVLR - Institute for Structural Mechanics Braunschweig, West Germany...Brussels, Belgium ELEMENT NO . NO. NO. NO. 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) Development of N/A N/A N/A N/A Fracture MechanicsMaps for Composite

  1. Oxygen Transport to Human Tissues.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    mountain climbing. Then Dr. Luft’s scientific curiosity turned to the problems encountered by the military fliers. The effect(s) of hypoxia, decompression...instantaneous hypoxia in man. J. .4ppl. Phiwil. 8:444-454. Gioddard. R.F. and U.C.L. Intermittent positive pressure-aerosol therapy in pediatrics . Di...mood and the accompanying realization by many that the conceptual and technical advances associated with military operations in the United States and

  2. Urinary oxytocin in capuchin monkeys: Validation and the influence of social behavior.

    PubMed

    Benítez, Marcela E; Sosnowski, Meghan J; Tomeo, Olivia B; Brosnan, Sarah F

    2018-05-24

    In highly social species, like primates, oxytocin plays an important role in cooperation, and in the formation and maintenance of social relationships. Despite recent interest in the relationship between oxytocin and social behavior in nonhuman primates, relatively little is known about endogenous oxytocin in social New World Monkeys. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between oxytocin and affiliative behaviors in socially-housed captive capuchin monkeys (Sapajus [Cebus] apella) by first validating methods of analysis of urinary oxytocin in this species and, second, examining the effects of grooming and fur-rubbing behavior on oxytocin concentrations and further affiliative behavior. In the validation, we found that intranasal exogenous oxytocin significantly increased urinary oxytocin 15-60 min post-administration. Oxytocin was also implicated in both grooming and fur-rubbing behaviors. We found that oxytocin concentrations increased after subjects engaged in grooming or fur-rubbing. In addition, we found that fur-rubbing influenced affiliative behaviors, both during and after a social fur-rubbing bout. While individuals spent more time in contact and proximity while fur-rubbing, immediately following the fur-rubbing event (15-30 min afterwards) all affiliative behaviors decreased. This supports previous research that oxytocin may, in fact, initially be related to increased social distance in this species. Yet, an increase in all affiliative behaviors 30-45 min after the onset of fur-rubbing suggests that fur-rubbing, like grooming, may ultimately function to strengthen social relationships. Overall, these results support a critical role for oxytocin in affiliative behaviors that maintain and strengthen social relationships in capuchin monkeys, and highlight the complexity of the interactions among oxytocin, affiliative behaviors, and social bonding. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Managed care plan performance since 1980: another look at 2 literature reviews.

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, K

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This article compares the quality of care provided by managed care plans (MCPs) and indemnity (or fee-for-service [FFS]) plans since 1980. METHODS: The 44 studies examined are the studies that Miller and Luft cited in their 1994 and 1997 reviews of the literature comparing MCPs with FFS plans. These studies are examined to determine how well they met Miller and Luft's selection criteria and, in addition, whether they controlled for differences in the breadth of insurance coverage. RESULTS: The 44 studies generated 57 observations. MCPs scored better than FFS plans on 10 of these, equally well on 25, and worse on 22. However, only 44 of these observations met the Miller-Luft criteria plus the coverage criterion. Four of these indicated that MCP care was better, 19 that MCP and FFS care were equivalent, and 21 that MCP care was worse. CONCLUSIONS: The small body of reliable studies comparing the quality of MCP care with that of FFS care indicates that the quality of care provided by MCPs tends to be equal or inferior to that provided by FFS plans. PMID:10394307

  4. Flood Control, Mississippi River at Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-01

    The health and saftey of residents in the project area are potentially affected during major floods. A serious threat to life is always present...Warehouse (c. 1835) on St. Friol Island was one of the foremost establishments of John Jacob Astor’s American Fur Company . This old rock warehouse...prominant fur trader in the late 1700’s and early 1800’s. He served as the principal agent for the American Fur Company from 1820 to 182. °fhe house is a

  5. DISCHARGE DEVICE FOR RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL

    DOEpatents

    Ohlinger, L.A.

    1958-09-23

    A device is described fur unloading bodies of fissionable material from a neutronic reactor. It is comprised essentially of a wheeled flat car having a receptacle therein containing a liquid coolant fur receiving and cooling the fuel elements as they are discharged from the reactor, and a reciprocating plunger fur supporting the fuel element during discharge thereof prior to its being dropped into the coolant. The flat car is adapted to travel along the face of the reactor adjacent the discharge ends of the coolant tubes.

  6. All Shook Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Janet Bratton

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how second-grade students created animal rattles. For finishing touches, students can add faux fur, cords, beads, feathers, and other objects with glue or hot glue. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  7. Uptake of selenium and mercury by captive mink: Results of a controlled feeding experiment.

    PubMed

    Evans, R D; Grochowina, N M; Basu, N; O'Connor, E M; Hickie, B E; Rouvinen-Watt, K; Evans, H E; Chan, H M

    2016-02-01

    Captive, juvenile, ranch-bred, male mink (Neovison vison) were fed diets containing various concentrations of methyl-mercury (MeHg) and selenium (Se) for a period of 13 weeks and then sacrificed to determine total Hg levels in fur, blood, brain, liver and kidneys and total Se concentrations in brain tissue. As MeHg concentrations in the diet increased, concentrations of total Hg in the tissues also increased with the highest level occurring in the fur > liver = kidney > brain > blood. Concentrations of Hg in the fur were correlated (r(2) > 0.97) with liver, kidney, blood and brain concentrations. The addition of Se to the mink diet did not appear to affect most tissue concentrations of total Hg nor did it affect the partitioning of Hg between the liver:blood, kidney:blood and brain:blood; however, partitioning of Hg between fur and blood was apparently affected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 29 CFR 780.155 - Delivery “to carriers for transportation to market.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... market” includes taking agricultural or horticultural commodities, dairy products, livestock, bees or their honey, fur-bearing animals or their pelts, and poultry to any carrier (including carriers by truck...

  9. 29 CFR 780.155 - Delivery “to carriers for transportation to market.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... market” includes taking agricultural or horticultural commodities, dairy products, livestock, bees or their honey, fur-bearing animals or their pelts, and poultry to any carrier (including carriers by truck...

  10. 29 CFR 780.154 - Delivery “to market.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... * * * to market” includes taking agricultural or horticultural commodities, dairy products, livestock, bees or their honey, fur-bearing animals or their pelts, or poultry to market. It ordinarily refers to the...

  11. 29 CFR 780.154 - Delivery “to market.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... * * * to market” includes taking agricultural or horticultural commodities, dairy products, livestock, bees or their honey, fur-bearing animals or their pelts, or poultry to market. It ordinarily refers to the...

  12. 29 CFR 780.155 - Delivery “to carriers for transportation to market.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... market” includes taking agricultural or horticultural commodities, dairy products, livestock, bees or their honey, fur-bearing animals or their pelts, and poultry to any carrier (including carriers by truck...

  13. 29 CFR 780.153 - Delivery “to storage.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... storage” includes taking agricultural or horticultural commodities, dairy products, livestock, bees or their honey, fur-bearing animals or their pelts, or poultry to the places where they are to be stored or...

  14. 29 CFR 780.155 - Delivery “to carriers for transportation to market.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... market” includes taking agricultural or horticultural commodities, dairy products, livestock, bees or their honey, fur-bearing animals or their pelts, and poultry to any carrier (including carriers by truck...

  15. 29 CFR 780.155 - Delivery “to carriers for transportation to market.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... market” includes taking agricultural or horticultural commodities, dairy products, livestock, bees or their honey, fur-bearing animals or their pelts, and poultry to any carrier (including carriers by truck...

  16. 29 CFR 780.154 - Delivery “to market.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... * * * to market” includes taking agricultural or horticultural commodities, dairy products, livestock, bees or their honey, fur-bearing animals or their pelts, or poultry to market. It ordinarily refers to the...

  17. Technique Selectively Represses Immune System

    MedlinePlus

    ... from attacking myelin in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. Dr David Furness, Wellcome Images. All rights reserved ... devised a way to successfully treat symptoms resembling multiple sclerosis in a mouse model. With further development, the ...

  18. 26 CFR 41.4483-3 - Exemption for trucks used for 5,000 or fewer miles and agricultural vehicles used for 7,500 or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... commodity” is any agricultural or horticultural commodity, feed, seed, fertilizer, livestock, bees, poultry... management of livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife. A highway motor vehicle which...

  19. 26 CFR 41.4483-3 - Exemption for trucks used for 5,000 or fewer miles and agricultural vehicles used for 7,500 or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... commodity” is any agricultural or horticultural commodity, feed, seed, fertilizer, livestock, bees, poultry... management of livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife. A highway motor vehicle which...

  20. 26 CFR 41.4483-3 - Exemption for trucks used for 5,000 or fewer miles and agricultural vehicles used for 7,500 or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... commodity” is any agricultural or horticultural commodity, feed, seed, fertilizer, livestock, bees, poultry... management of livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife. A highway motor vehicle which...

  1. Kids' Quest: ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... turns interrupt others Return to Steps World-Wide Web Search Fin, Fur and Feather Bureau of Investigation ... outside this website We provide links to other web pages if you want to learn more about ...

  2. Isolation of the mite Myocoptes musculinus Koch from the Spinifex Hopping mouse (Notomys alexis).

    PubMed

    Old, J M; Hill, N J; Deane, E M

    2007-04-01

    This paper reports on the isolation and identification of the fur-clasping mite, Myocoptes musculinus, from the faeces of the Spinifex Hopping mouse (Notomys alexis). This investigation adds to the sparse records of ectoparasites collected from native Australian murids.

  3. PULSED UV: REALITIES OF ENHANCED DISINFECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative measurements of the light output from low pressure (LP), medium pressure (MP) and the pulsed UV lamps were made using calibrated spectrometry, chemical actinometry and biodosimetry approaches to compare their relative efficiency in producing germicidal UV energy. Fur...

  4. 77 FR 268 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16998

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... of 13,000 Steller sea lions, 200 harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), 10 killer whales (Orcinus orca), 10 humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), and 10 northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus). The permit is...

  5. 78 FR 64008 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ...) 67 Main St., Edinburg, 13000863 WISCONSIN Marathon County Fromm Brothers Fur and Ginsing Farm, 436 Cty. Rd. F, Hamburg, 13000864 Shawano County Lincoln School, 237 S. Sawyer St., Shawano, 13000865 [FR...

  6. 76 FR 68719 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14676

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... seals (Phoca vitulina), 1,000 northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris), and 150 northern fur... year, for a total of 15 per year. The amendment would be valid through the expiration date of the...

  7. 76 FR 59663 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16472

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella), southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina), crabeater seals... carcasses may be imported from the Antarctic. The permit is valid for five years. In compliance with the...

  8. Mercury concentrations in wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada: relationship to age and parasitism.

    PubMed

    Klenavic, Katherine; Champoux, Louise; Mike, O'Brien; Daoust, Pierre-Y; Evans, R Douglas; Evans, Hayla E

    2008-11-01

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in the fur, brain and liver of wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada. Total Hg concentrations in fur were strongly correlated with levels in the brain and liver. There was no difference in tissue concentrations between male and female mink; however, female otters had significantly higher fur, brain and liver Hg levels than males. Similarly, there was not a significant relationship between Hg concentration and age of mink, whereas in otters, Hg concentrations in all three tissues decreased significantly with age. In both species, only a very small percentage of the variability in Hg concentration was explained by age. After adjusting the data for site-to-site differences in Hg levels, Hg concentrations in the fur of mink infected by the parasite, Dioctophyma renale, were found to be significantly higher than Hg levels in uninfected mink.

  9. Preliminary investigation of a possible lung worm (Parafilaroides decorus), fish (Girella nigricans), and marine mammal (Callorhinus ursinus) cycle for San Miguel sea lion virus type 5.

    PubMed

    Smith, A W; Skilling, D E; Brown, R J

    1980-11-01

    Colostrum-deprived neonatal Northern fur seal pups (Callorhinus ursinus) were exposed to San Miguel sea lion virus type 5 (SMSV-5) by feeding them fish (Girella nigricans) infected with virus or fish infected with both the sea lion lung worm larvae (Parafilaroides decorus) and virus. Virus infection was demonstrated in 8 of 9 pups, and 1 of these developed a vesicular lesion on the flipper. In this sequence, P decorus larvae exposed to SMSV-5 were fed to G nigricans held at 15 C in a salt water aquarium; 32 days later, these fish were killed, then fed to the fur seal pups. The vesicle developed 22 days subsequent to this and SMSV-5 was reisolated from the lesion. The SMSV-5 was shown to persist for at least 23 days in infected neonatal fur seals. Attempts to establish P decorus infection in Northern fur seal pups were apparently unsuccessful.

  10. Reduced Autophagy in 5-Fluorouracil Resistant Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Cheng Wen; Kang, Kyoung Ah; Piao, Mei Jing; Ryu, Yea Seong; Fernando, Pattage Madushan Dilhara Jayatissa; Oh, Min Chang; Park, Jeong Eon; Shilnikova, Kristina; Na, Soo-Young; Jeong, Seung Uk; Boo, Sun-Jin; Hyun, Jin Won

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the role of autophagy in SNUC5/5-FUR, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) resistant SNUC5 colon cancer cells. SNUC5/5-FUR cells exhibited low level of autophagy, as determined by light microscopy, confocal microscopy, and flow cytometry following acridine orange staining, and the decreased level of GFP-LC3 puncta. In addition, expression of critical autophagic proteins such as Atg5, Beclin-1 and LC3-II and autophagic flux was diminished in SNUC5/5-FUR cells. Whereas production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was significantly elevated in SNUC5/5-FUR cells, treatment with the ROS inhibitor N-acetyl cysteine further reduced the level of autophagy. Taken together, these results indicate that decreased autophagy is linked to 5-FU resistance in SNUC5 colon cancer cells. PMID:27737524

  11. Related Medical Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... age of 5 years... Airborne allergens (e.g., pollen) may contribute to eczema flares in older children ... the nose. Most commonly associated with allergies to pollen, dust, and/or furred animals, its symptoms include ...

  12. 9 CFR 149.3 - Site audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... consists of wildlife feces, footprints, fur, or hair observed in or near the stored feed or feed.... The sterile zone must be devoid of any harborage or feed or water sources that could attract rodents...

  13. 16 CFR 301.19 - Pointing, dyeing, bleaching or otherwise artificially coloring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... bleaching means the process for producing a lighter shade of a fur, or removing off-color spots and stains... approximately .1000 grams of mink hair into a beaker with 20 ml. concentrated nitric acid. Evaporate just to...

  14. 16 CFR 301.19 - Pointing, dyeing, bleaching or otherwise artificially coloring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... bleaching means the process for producing a lighter shade of a fur, or removing off-color spots and stains... approximately .1000 grams of mink hair into a beaker with 20 ml. concentrated nitric acid. Evaporate just to...

  15. 16 CFR 301.19 - Pointing, dyeing, bleaching or otherwise artificially coloring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... bleaching means the process for producing a lighter shade of a fur, or removing off-color spots and stains... approximately .1000 grams of mink hair into a beaker with 20 ml. concentrated nitric acid. Evaporate just to...

  16. 16 CFR 301.19 - Pointing, dyeing, bleaching or otherwise artificially coloring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... bleaching means the process for producing a lighter shade of a fur, or removing off-color spots and stains... approximately .1000 grams of mink hair into a beaker with 20 ml. concentrated nitric acid. Evaporate just to...

  17. 16 CFR 301.19 - Pointing, dyeing, bleaching or otherwise artificially coloring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... bleaching means the process for producing a lighter shade of a fur, or removing off-color spots and stains... approximately .1000 grams of mink hair into a beaker with 20 ml. concentrated nitric acid. Evaporate just to...

  18. Notes on Current Planning for Higher Education in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heister, Matthias M.

    1985-01-01

    Objectives, methods, and problems of higher education planning agencies are described, and the work of the Bund-Lander-Kommission fur Bildungsplanung und Forschungsforderung is given particular emphasis. (Author/RM)

  19. 76 FR 28421 - Marine Mammals; File No. 15646

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... Rebecca Dickhut, Ph.D., Virginia Institute of Marine Science, P.O. Box 1346, Route 1208 Greate Road... following archived samples will be imported from the Swedish Museum of Natural History: fur, blood, and fat...

  20. 77 FR 19646 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17178

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... Virginia Institute of Marine Science [Responsible Party: Elizabeth Canuel, Ph.D.], P.O. Box 1346, Route... will be imported from the Swedish Museum of Natural History: fur, blood, and fat biopsies from up to...