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Sample records for zentrum nord germany

  1. Time-of-flight Extreme Environment Diffractometer at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin

    SciTech Connect

    Prokhnenko, Oleksandr, E-mail: prokhnenko@helmholtz-berlin.de; Stein, Wolf-Dieter; Bleif, Hans-Jürgen

    2015-03-15

    The Extreme Environment Diffractometer (EXED) is a new neutron time-of-flight instrument at the BER II research reactor at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Germany. Although EXED is a special-purpose instrument, its early construction made it available for users as a general-purpose diffractometer. In this respect, EXED became one of the rare examples, where the performance of a time-of-flight diffractometer at a continuous source can be characterized. In this paper, we report on the design and performance of EXED with an emphasis on the unique instrument capabilities. The latter comprise variable wavelength resolution and wavelength band, control of the incoming beam divergence, themore » possibility to change the angular positions of detectors and their distance to the sample, and use of event recording and offline histogramming. These features combined make EXED easily tunable to the requirements of a particular problem, from conventional diffraction to small angle neutron scattering. The instrument performance is demonstrated by several reference measurements and user experiments.« less

  2. Review of environmental exposure concentrations of chemical warfare agent residues and associated the fish community risk following the construction and completion of the Nord Stream gas pipeline between Russia and Germany.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik; Rahbek, Malene; Larsen, Jørn Bo

    2014-08-30

    This paper compiles all the measured chemical warfare agent (CWA) concentrations found in relation to the Nord Stream pipeline work in Danish waters for the past 5 years. Sediment and biota sampling were performed along the pipeline route in four campaigns, prior to (in 2008 and 2010), during (in 2011) and after (in 2012) the construction work. No parent CWAs were detected in the sediments. Patchy residues of CWA degradation products of Adamsite, Clark I, phenyldichloroarsine, trichloroarsine and Lewisite II, were detected in a total of 29 of the 391 sediment samples collected and analyzed the past 5 years. The cumulative fish community risk quotient for the different locations, calculated as a sum of background and added risk, ranged between 0 and 0.017 suggesting a negligible acute CWA risk toward the fish community. The added risk from sediment disturbance in relation to construction of the pipelines represents less than 2% of the total risk in the areas with the highest calculated risk. The analyses of benthic infauna corroborate the finding of CWA related low risk across the years. There was no significant difference in CWA risk before (2008) and after the pipeline construction (2012). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Brillouin Spectroscopy at the GeoForschungsZentrum-Potsdam: Applications in Geosciences and Materials Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquardt, H.; Speziale, S.; Reichmann, H. J.; Schmidt, C.; Schilling, F.

    2007-12-01

    Knowledge of the elastic properties of earth materials at relevant pressures and temperatures is prerequisite to adequately interpret seismic data and improve our understanding of the composition and mineralogy of the earth's interior. The study of pressure and temperature dependence of acoustic velocity in geo-fluids gives us information about their density with implications for the thermodynamic modelling of diagenetic and metamorphic processes. Furthermore elasticity of synthetic materials is of major interest for several industrial applications. We have recently completed the construction of a new Brillouin System at the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam. The new system has been designed to study elasticity of various geological as well as industrial materials at different pressure and temperature conditions. Our Brillouin system consists of a Nd:YVO4 solid state laser operating at a wavelength of 532 nm as light source and a Sandercock-type tandem multipass Fabry-Perot interferometer equipped with a photomultiplier tube for signal detection. Measurements can be performed in 60 or 90 degree symmetric forward scattering or in backscattering geometry. The large positioning system also allows for high temperature measurements in an externally heated diamond anvil cell. We present first results of elasticity measurements both on Earth's materials, such as silicates garnets and oxides, as well as hydroxides and commercially used garnet aluminates, and silicate and borate glasses as proxies for melts. Brillouin scattering has been measured to constrain the density of water-NaCl solutions, for the precise thermodynamic modelling of fluids in metamorphic systems.

  4. Facilities for macromolecular crystallography at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Uwe; Darowski, Nora; Fuchs, Martin R.

    2012-03-20

    Three macromolecular crystallography (MX) beamlines at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) are available for the regional, national and international structural biology user community. The state-of-the-art synchrotron beamlines for MX BL14.1, BL14.2 and BL14.3 are located within the low-[beta] section of the BESSY II electron storage ring. All beamlines are fed from a superconducting 7 T wavelength-shifter insertion device. BL14.1 and BL14.2 are energy tunable in the range 5-16 keV, while BL14.3 is a fixed-energy side station operated at 13.8 keV. All beamlines are equipped with CCD detectors. BL14.1 and BL14.2 are in regular user operation providing about 200 beam days permore » year and about 600 user shifts to approximately 50 research groups across Europe. BL14.3 has initially been used as a test facility and was brought into regular user mode operation during the year 2010. BL14.1 has recently been upgraded with a microdiffractometer including a mini-[kappa] goniometer and an automated sample changer. Other user facilities include office space adjacent to the beamlines, a sample preparation laboratory, a biology laboratory (safety level 1) and high-end computing resources. In this article the instrumentation of the beamlines is described, and a summary of the experimental possibilities of the beamlines and the provided ancillary equipment for the user community is given.« less

  5. Facilities for macromolecular crystallography at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Uwe; Darowski, Nora; Fuchs, Martin R.; Förster, Ronald; Hellmig, Michael; Paithankar, Karthik S.; Pühringer, Sandra; Steffien, Michael; Zocher, Georg; Weiss, Manfred S.

    2012-01-01

    Three macromolecular crystallography (MX) beamlines at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) are available for the regional, national and international structural biology user community. The state-of-the-art synchrotron beamlines for MX BL14.1, BL14.2 and BL14.3 are located within the low-β section of the BESSY II electron storage ring. All beamlines are fed from a superconducting 7 T wavelength-shifter insertion device. BL14.1 and BL14.2 are energy tunable in the range 5–16 keV, while BL14.3 is a fixed-energy side station operated at 13.8 keV. All three beamlines are equipped with CCD detectors. BL14.1 and BL14.2 are in regular user operation providing about 200 beam days per year and about 600 user shifts to approximately 50 research groups across Europe. BL14.3 has initially been used as a test facility and was brought into regular user mode operation during the year 2010. BL14.1 has recently been upgraded with a microdiffractometer including a mini-κ goniometer and an automated sample changer. Additional user facilities include office space adjacent to the beamlines, a sample preparation laboratory, a biology laboratory (safety level 1) and high-end computing resources. In this article the instrumentation of the beamlines is described, and a summary of the experimental possibilities of the beamlines and the provided ancillary equipment for the user community is given. PMID:22514183

  6. BioRef: A versatile time-of-flight reflectometer for soft matter applications at Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin

    SciTech Connect

    Strobl, M.; Kreuzer, M.; Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin

    2011-05-15

    BioRef is a versatile novel time-of-flight reflectometer featuring a sample environment for in situ infrared spectroscopy at the reactor neutron source BER II of the Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie (HZB). After two years of design and construction phase the instrument has recently undergone commissioning and is now available for specular and off-specular neutron reflectivity measurements. BioRef is especially dedicated to the investigation of soft matter systems and studies at the solid-liquid interface. Due to flexible resolution modes and variable addressable wavelength bands that allow for focusing onto a selected scattering vector range, BioRef enables a broad rangemore » of surface and interface investigations and even kinetic studies with subsecond time resolution. The instrumental settings can be tailored to the specific requirements of a wide range of applications. The performance is demonstrated by several reference measurements, and the unique option of in situ on-board infrared spectroscopy is illustrated by the example of a phase transition study in a lipid multilayer film.« less

  7. Transferring climate research results to stakeholder needs in Northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinke, Insa

    2013-04-01

    The North German Climate Office was established in 2006 at the Institute for Coastal Research at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Germany as consequence of an increased public information need regarding coastal climate change and its impacts in Northern Germany. The service is characterized by an intensive dialogue between regional climate research and stakeholders in Northern Germany. About once a week scientists of the North German climate office are invited to contribute to public dialogue events. Also, numerous direct inquiries are answered and expert interviews are conducted. From this dialogue process specific stakeholder information needs are localized and analysed to develop tailored information products. To provide easy and user specific access to research results interactive web tools are developed. One example is the North German climate atlas, an interactive web tool on possible future climate change in Northern Germany. Another interactive web tool is informing on present and future coastal protection needs in Northern Germany. Another aim of our information products is to assess and summarize the existing scientific knowledge on climate, climate change and impacts in Northern Germany. A mini IPCC-like regional assessment report has been published in 2010, which is summarizing, discussing and assessing the scientific knowledge on regional climate, climate change and impacts as well as possible adaptation strategies in the metropolitan region of Hamburg.

  8. Cohort profile: the Nordic Antireflux Surgery Cohort (NordASCo)

    PubMed Central

    Wahlin, Karl; Artama, Miia; Brusselaers, Nele; Färkkilä, Martti; Lynge, Elsebeth; Mattsson, Fredrik; Pukkala, Eero; Romundstad, Pål; Tryggvadóttir, Laufey; von Euler-Chelpin, My; Lagergren, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To describe a newly created all-Nordic cohort of patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), entitled the Nordic Antireflux Surgery Cohort (NordASCo), which will be used to compare participants having undergone antireflux surgery with those who have not regarding risk of cancers, other diseases and mortality. Participants Included were individuals with a GORD diagnosis recorded in any of the nationwide patient registries in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) in 1964–2014 (with various start and end years in different countries). Data regarding cancer, other diseases and mortality were retrieved from the nationwide registries for cancer, patients and causes of death, respectively. Findings to date The NordASCo includes 945 153 individuals with a diagnosis of GORD. Of these, 48 433 (5.1%) have undergone primary antireflux surgery. Median age at primary antireflux surgery ranged from 47 to 52 years in the different countries. The coding practices of GORD seem to have differed between the Nordic countries. Future plans The NordASCo will initially be used to analyse the risk of developing known or potential GORD-related cancers, that is, tumours of the oesophagus, stomach, larynx, pharynx and lung, and to evaluate the mortality in the short-term and long-term perspectives. Additionally, the cohort will be used to evaluate the risk of non-malignant respiratory conditions that might be caused by aspiration of gastric contents. PMID:28600380

  9. Surveys of microfungi in a former industrial area in Duisburg-Nord.

    PubMed

    Feige, G B; Ale-Agha, N; Dachowski, M; Kricke, R

    2002-01-01

    One hundred and forty microfungi (Ascomycetes and Deuteromycetes) were collected in the "Landschaftspark Duisburg-Nord" located in North Rhine-Westphalia. New hosts for rarely found fungi are recorded for the first time. New for Germany are Massaria inquinans (Tode) De Not. and Nitschkia grevillei (Rhem) Nannf. on Acer pseudoplatanus L., Pirottaea nigrostriata Graddon on Artemisia vulgaris L., Ceratopycnis clematidis Höhn. on Clematis vitalba L., Dasyscyphus aff. humuli (W. Phillips) Dennis on Humulus lupulus L. and Leptosphaeria derasa (Berk. & Br.) Auersw. on Senecio inaequidens DC. New for North Rhine-Westphalia are Chaetosphaerella phaeostroma (Durieu & Mont.) E. Müller & Booth and Phomopsis platanoides (Cooke) Died. on Acer pseudoplatanus L., Microsphaeropsis pseudaspera Sutton, Mycosphaerella osborniae D. Hawksw. & Sivan. and Phomopsis oblita Sacc. on Artemisia vulgaris L., Leptosphaeria acuta (Fr.) P. Karst. and Leptosphaeria doliolum (Pers.) Ces. & De Not. on Bryonia dioica Jacq., Ophiobolus erythrosporus (Riess) G. Winter and Pleospora herbarum (Pers.) Rabenh. ex Ces. & De Not. on Dipsacus sylvestris (Huds), Keissleriella ocellata (Niessl) Bose on Hypericum perforatum L., Dactylaria aff. graminicola on Lolium perenne L., Siroplacodium aff. atrum on Oenothera beinnis L., Diatrypella favacea (Fr.) Sacc. on Prunus spec., Hapalosphaeria deformans (Syd.) Syd. and Microdiscula rubicola (Bres.) Höhn. on Rubus fructicosus agg. L., Cryptodiaporthe salicina (Pers.) Wehm. on Salix alba L. and Pleurophoma pleurospora (Sacc.) Höhn. on Salix caprea L.

  10. Teaching Religion in Public Schools: Review of Warren A. Nord, "Does God Make a Difference?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Walter

    2013-01-01

    In this review of Warren Nord's "Does God Make a Difference? Taking Religion Seriously in Our Schools and Universities," Walter Feinberg provides a detailed analysis of Nord's argument that the study of religion should be constitutionally mandated as a corrective to the overwhelmingly secular course of study offered in…

  11. Joint Operations Case Study. Weseruebung Nord: Germany’s Invasion of Norway, 1940

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-03-01

    Generalleutnant Dietl, which draws heavily on Dietl’s reports and papers. See Gerda -Luise (Haenicke) Dietl and Kurt Hermann, eds., General Dietl: das...Sep. 1939-June 1941. History of the Second World War United Kingdom Military Series. Ed. J. R. M. Butler. London: HMSO, 1957. Dietl, Gerda

  12. Cohort profile: the Nordic Antireflux Surgery Cohort (NordASCo).

    PubMed

    Maret-Ouda, John; Wahlin, Karl; Artama, Miia; Brusselaers, Nele; Färkkilä, Martti; Lynge, Elsebeth; Mattsson, Fredrik; Pukkala, Eero; Romundstad, Pål; Tryggvadóttir, Laufey; Euler-Chelpin, My von; Lagergren, Jesper

    2017-06-08

    To describe a newly created all-Nordic cohort of patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), entitled the Nordic Antireflux Surgery Cohort (NordASCo), which will be used to compare participants having undergone antireflux surgery with those who have not regarding risk of cancers, other diseases and mortality. Included were individuals with a GORD diagnosis recorded in any of the nationwide patient registries in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) in 1964-2014 (with various start and end years in different countries). Data regarding cancer, other diseases and mortality were retrieved from the nationwide registries for cancer, patients and causes of death, respectively. The NordASCo includes 945 153 individuals with a diagnosis of GORD. Of these, 48 433 (5.1%) have undergone primary antireflux surgery. Median age at primary antireflux surgery ranged from 47 to 52 years in the different countries. The coding practices of GORD seem to have differed between the Nordic countries. The NordASCo will initially be used to analyse the risk of developing known or potential GORD-related cancers, that is, tumours of the oesophagus, stomach, larynx, pharynx and lung, and to evaluate the mortality in the short-term and long-term perspectives. Additionally, the cohort will be used to evaluate the risk of non-malignant respiratory conditions that might be caused by aspiration of gastric contents. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Analysis of modeling aircraft noise with the Nord2000 noise model

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-10-31

    This report provides comparisons between AEDT/INM and the Nord 2000 Noise Models for the following parameters: ground type, simple terrain (downward slope, upward slope, hill), temperature and humidity, temperature gradients (positive and negative), ...

  14. Regional Climate Service in Northern Germany -The North German Climate Office

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinke, I.; Von Storch, H.

    2012-12-01

    The North German Climate Office was established in 2006 at the Institute for Coastal Research at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Germany as consequence of an increased public information need regarding coastal climate change and its impacts in Northern Germany. The service is characterized by an intensive dialogue between regional climate research and stakeholders in Northern Germany. About once a week scientists of the North German climate office are invited to contribute to public dialogue events. Also numerous direct inquiries are answered and expert interviews are conducted. From this dialogue process specific stakeholder information needs are localized and analysed to develop tailored information products. To provide easy and user specific access to research results interactive web tools are developed. One example is the North German climate atlas, an interactive web tool on possible future climate change in Northern Germany. Another interactive web tool is informing on present and future coastal protection needs in Northern Germany. Another aim of our information products is to assess and summarize the existing scientific knowledge on climate, climate change and impacts in Northern Germany. A mini IPCC-like regional assessment report has been published in 2010, which is summarizing, discussing and assessing the scientific knowledge on regional climate, climate change and impacts as well as possible adaptation strategies in the metropolitan region of Hamburg.

  15. Gratings for synchrotron and FEL beamlines: a project for the manufacture of ultra-precise gratings at Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin.

    PubMed

    Siewert, F; Löchel, B; Buchheim, J; Eggenstein, F; Firsov, A; Gwalt, G; Kutz, O; Lemke, St; Nelles, B; Rudolph, I; Schäfers, F; Seliger, T; Senf, F; Sokolov, A; Waberski, Ch; Wolf, J; Zeschke, T; Zizak, I; Follath, R; Arnold, T; Frost, F; Pietag, F; Erko, A

    2018-01-01

    Blazed gratings are of dedicated interest for the monochromatization of synchrotron radiation when a high photon flux is required, such as, for example, in resonant inelastic X-ray scattering experiments or when the use of laminar gratings is excluded due to too high flux densities and expected damage, for example at free-electron laser beamlines. Their availability became a bottleneck since the decommissioning of the grating manufacture facility at Carl Zeiss in Oberkochen. To resolve this situation a new technological laboratory was established at the Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, including instrumentation from Carl Zeiss. Besides the upgraded ZEISS equipment, an advanced grating production line has been developed, including a new ultra-precise ruling machine, ion etching technology as well as laser interference lithography. While the old ZEISS ruling machine GTM-6 allows ruling for a grating length up to 170 mm, the new GTM-24 will have the capacity for 600 mm (24 inch) gratings with groove densities between 50 lines mm -1 and 1200 lines mm -1 . A new ion etching machine with a scanning radiofrequency excited ion beam (HF) source allows gratings to be etched into substrates of up to 500 mm length. For a final at-wavelength characterization, a new reflectometer at a new Optics beamline at the BESSY-II storage ring is under operation. This paper reports on the status of the grating fabrication, the measured quality of fabricated items by ex situ and in situ metrology, and future development goals.

  16. Improving irrigation management in L'Horta Nord (Valencia, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual-Seva, Nuria; San Bautista, Alberto; López-Galarza, Salvador; Maroto, Jose Vicente; Pascual, Bernardo

    2014-05-01

    L'Horta Nord is an important irrigation district in Valencia (Spain), especially for vegetable crops. The traditional cropping pattern in the region consists of a rotation of chufa with crops such as potato, onion, lettuce, escarole and red cabbage, being all these crops furrow irrigated. Currently, the quality of the water used is acceptable, water is not expensive and there are no limitations on supply. Consequently, growers are not aware of the volumes of water used, application efficiencies, nor water productivity for any of the crops cited. The European Framework Directive 2000/60, based on the precautionary principle, considers preventive action for measures to be taken; moreover, drought periods are becoming more frequent and extended, and water is being diverted to other uses. Thus, water use is an issue to improve. In this sense, the current situation of the irrigation in the area is analysed using chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. var. sativus Boeck.) as representative of the crops, since most of the crops in the area have shallow root systems, as chufa, which are irrigated in similar patterns. In order to analyse the irrigation performance of the traditional chufa crop as well as to achieve more sustainable results, different studies have been carried out, during the last decade. Efforts have been directed to increase water productivity, increasing yield and minimising the volumes of water applied. Different planting configurations and different irrigation thresholds, not only in furrow irrigation but also in drip irrigation, are examples of how the irrigation performance could be improved. Herein is presented a two-year study, comparing, in both furrow and drip irrigation, two irrigation schedules based on the volumetric soil water content, which was continuously monitored using capacitance sensors. Yield was significantly affected by the growing season, the irrigation system and by the irrigation schedule, and by the second order interactions of the

  17. H.C. Schumacher - Center of international communication in astronomy and mediator betwen Denmark an Germany. (German Title: H.C. Schumacher - Zentrum der internationalen Kommunikation in der Astronomie und Mittler zwischen Dänemark und Deutschland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, Jürgen

    As the editor of the ``Astronomische Nachrichten'', H.C. Schumacher played an outstanding role among the astronomers of the first half of the 19th century. Altona, his place of activity, belonged to the kingdom of Denmark. Both the foundation of the ``Astronomische Nachrichten'' and its existence depended for several decades on the support by the Danish kings and high-ranking officials at the Copenhagen court. This paper analyses these questions on the basis of previously unused archival sources and discusses also Schumacher's life and his relations to the royal dynasty.

  18. Music Training in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapia, Ivan, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This special-issue volume examines music education in the two Germanies and how music has had a great influence in the culture of the nations. The presentation is a professional and objective portrayal of music training and cultivation in Germany in the last decade of the present century. The articles attempt to outline the problems and tasks that…

  19. Drugs in East Germany.

    PubMed

    Dressler, J; Müller, E

    1997-09-01

    Germany was divided into two parts after World War II. The closed border and a nonconvertible currency in the Eastern part were the factors that did not allow a drug market to develop. Alcohol and medicaments were used as substitute drugs. Since Germany was reunified 5 years ago, there are now the same conditions prevailing for the procurement and sale of drugs in East Germany as there are in the Western German states. This report describes the current state of drug traffic, especially in Saxony, under the new social conditions.

  20. Klimanavigator - Climate Navigator - Gateway to climate knowledge in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuck-Zöller, Susanne

    2013-04-01

    Objective More than 50 German research institutions and networks are represented on www.klimanavigator.de, a common platform, where information about their work, and the latest findings from climate research and adaptation can be found. Thus Klimanavigator as a gateway to climate knowledge provides a information portal for those who have to respond to climate change. The internet portal gives an overview of the present state of research and is estimated as a decision support tool for appropriate mitigation and adaptation measures. Target Groups The portal collects the German climate research institutions to publish their scientific knowledge in a non-scientific language. Economists, policymakers, administration and the media are bound to find the names of scientific experts and institutions by an elaborated research tool. Methodology The chapter "Dossiers" is edited by the Klimanavigator-Coordinator CSC. It gathers information to a special issue looked upon from various points of view. Publications of outstanding German scientists are presented side by side, current knowledge is being synthesized, scientifically reviewed and disseminated. The latest news from climate and adaptation research is presented in an own chapter, dedicated to the press releases of the portal members. Via RSS-feed the press releases are collected from the different partner institutions. Thirdly, portraits of the member institutions, that are individually edited by themselves, draw a map of science in Germany and help to find appropriate cooperation partners. For the future further development is being planned. Common Management Klimanavigator is being managed by the partners in common. The main decisions concerning the concept and shape of the portal are made by the partners' assembly. An elected editorial committee decides about the content between the assemblies. The Climate Service Center (part of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht) concentrates on facilitating the cooperation, and

  1. Highlights from the CERN/ESO/NordForsk ''Gender in Physics Day''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primas, F.; Guinot, G.; Strandberg, L.

    2017-03-01

    In their role as observers on the EU Gender Equality Network in the European Research Area (GENERA) project, funded under the Horizon 2020 framework, CERN, ESO and NordForsk joined forces and organised a Gender in Physics Day at the CERN Globe of Science and Innovation. The one-day conference aimed to examine innovative activities promoting gender equality, and to discuss gender-oriented policies and best practice in the European Research Area (with special emphasis on intergovernmental organisations), as well as the importance of building solid networks. The event was very well attended and was declared a success. The main highlights of the meeting are reported.

  2. Germany Country Analysis Brief

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Germany was the largest energy consumer in Europe and the seventh-largest energy consumer in the world in 2015, according to BP Statistical Review of World Energy. It was also the fourth-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product (GDP) after the United States, China, and Japan in 2015. Its size and location give it considerable influence over the European Union’s energy sector. However, Germany must rely on imports to meet the majority of its energy demand.

  3. Germany in Europe 1963.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA.

    The results of the 10-week National Defense Education Act (NDEA) Third-Level Institute for Secondary School Teachers of German, conducted by Stanford University in Bad Boll, Germany, are compiled in individual reports written in both German and English by the 25 participants. Emphasizing close contact with the residents in their working and home…

  4. Career Development in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hass, Hubert

    In Germany, after elementary school, the school system splits into three branches, with students either preparing for an apprenticeship or continuing in school. A second system exists, parallel to this education system, which combines general education with basic professional training. The first key career decision point is in Grade 4, when…

  5. INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION IN GERMANY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Central Inst. for Youth and Educational Television, Munich (West Germany).

    DISCUSSIONS HELD AT THE BERLIN CONGRESS ON INSTRUCTIONAL AND EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION (SEPTEMBER 27-29, 1966) ARE BRIEFLY SUMMARIZED. THIS DOCUMENT ALSO LISTS RESEARCH PROJECTS IN INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION IN GERMANY, DESCRIBES THE BAVARIAN RADIO INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION PROGRAM, SUMMARIZES THE OPINIONS OF THE GERMAN PRESS ON INSTRUCTIONAL…

  6. Secondary Education in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonen, Gerdi

    This booklet provides a brief description of secondary education in Germany. The publication is part of a series that seeks to make the public aware of the education systems and traditions in all signatory states to the European Cultural Convention and to outline the essential problems these systems presently are facing. This short booklet…

  7. Hypertension in Germany.

    PubMed

    Neuhauser, Hannelore; Diederichs, Claudia; Boeing, Heiner; Felix, Stephan B; Jünger, Claus; Lorbeer, Roberto; Meisinger, Christine; Peters, Annette; Völzke, Henry; Weikert, Cornelia; Wild, Philipp; Dörr, Marcus

    2016-12-02

    Hypertension is a key risk factor. However, population data based on blood pressure measurements in Germany are scarce. Standardized blood pressure (BP) measurements and medication data from seven population-based studies conducted in Germany between 1994 and 2012 (66 845 participants, 25-74 years) were analyzed: the EPICPotsdam study (1994-1998, EPIC), the KORA-S4 Study (1999-2001) in Augsburg, and the Gutenberg Health Study (2007-2012, GHS) in Mainz/Mainz-Bingen provided data for descriptive comparisons. Time trends were analyzed based on identical study regions for the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (BGS98) and the German Health Examination Survey for Adults (2008-11, DEGS1) as well as the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) in Northeast Germany (1997-2001) and the SHIP-TREND study (2008-2012). BP data were adjusted for study-specific measurement devices based on calibration studies. After adjustment for study-specific measurement devices, mean systolic and diastolic BP values were lower and treatment proportions higher in recent (2007-2012) compared to older (1994-2001) studies. Mean BP decrease was most pronounced (systolic ≥ 10 mmHg) in the elderly (55-74 years). The regional SHIP-TREND data for Northeast Germany showed a decrease in mean systolic BP in young men aged 25 to 34 years; on a national level according to the DEGS1 data, however, no such decrease was observed for this group. New data add evidence for lower BP in Germany. However, the prevention potential remains high. Future research based on population-based data should place a special focus on blood pressure data in young men.

  8. Germany: The Search for Unity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Glen, Ed.

    The 12 lessons in this collection are designed so that they may be used individually, integrated into the curriculum at appropriate places, or used as a complete unit. The lessons are entitled: (1) Impressions of Germany and Germans; (2) The Location and Population of Germany; (3) Pollution in Germany: A Complex Problems; (4) German Political…

  9. [Tularemia in Germany].

    PubMed

    Kohlmann, R; Geis, G; Gatermann, S G

    2014-07-01

    The bacterium Francisella tularensis is known for more than 100 years by now as the etiological agent of the disease tularemia, a zoonotic infection with a worldwide distribution in the Northern Hemisphere. The prevalence of tularemia shows a wide geographic variation, being comparably infrequent in Germany. Tularemia can present itself with multiple clinical manifestations including ulceroglandular, glandular, oropharyngeal, oculoglandular, respiratory and typhoidal forms. Due to the low prevalence and the unspecific symptomatology, a rapid diagnosis and early start of an effective therapy are rarely obtained. Thus, in this article we summarize important aspects concerning etiology, ecology and routes of transmission, recent epidemiologic situation, clinical picture, diagnostics and treatment of tularemia, focusing on the situation in Germany. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Germany knows mining

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    Whether it is the nuance of precision or robust rock breaking strength, German suppliers have the expertise. Germany has about 120 companies in the mining equipment industry, employing some 16,000 people. The article describes some recent developments of the following companies: DBT, Liebherr, Atlas Copco, BASF, Boart Longyear, Eickhoff, IBS, Maschinenfabrik Glueckauf, Komatsu, TAKRA, Terex O & R, Thyssen Krupp Foerdertechnik and Wirtgen. 7 photos.

  11. Liver transplantation in Germany.

    PubMed

    Tacke, Frank; Kroy, Daniela C; Barreiros, Ana Paula; Neumann, Ulf P

    2016-08-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is a well-accepted procedure for end-stage liver disease in Germany. In 2015, 1489 patients were admitted to the waiting list (including 1308 new admissions), with the leading etiologies being fibrosis and cirrhosis (n = 349), alcoholic liver disease (n = 302), and hepatobiliary malignancies (n = 220). Organ allocation in Germany is regulated within the Eurotransplant system based on urgency as expressed by the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. In 2015, only 894 LTs (n = 48 from living donors) were performed at 23 German transplant centers, reflecting a shortage of organs. Several factors may contribute to the low number of organ donations. The German transplant legislation only accepts donation after brain death (not cardiac death), whereas advances in neurosurgery and a more frequently requested "palliative care" approach render fewer patients suitable as potential donors. The legislation further requires the active consent of the donor or first-degree relatives before donation. Ongoing debates within the German transplant field address the optimal management of patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and cholangiocarcinoma and measures to increase living donor transplantations. As a result of irregularities at mainly 4 German transplant centers that were exposed in 2012, guiding principles updated by the German authorities have since implemented strict rules (including internal and external auditing, the 8-eyes principle, mandatory repeated testing for alcohol consumption) to prohibit any manipulations in organ allocation. In conclusion, we will summarize important aspects on the management of LT in Germany, discuss legal and organizational aspects, and highlight challenges mainly related to the relative lack of organ donations, increasing numbers of extended criteria donors, and the peculiarities of the recipient patients. Liver Transplantation 22 1136-1142 2016 AASLD. © 2016 American

  12. Fusarium Keratitis in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Stasch, Serena; Kaerger, Kerstin; Hamprecht, Axel; Roth, Mathias; Cornely, Oliver A.; Geerling, Gerd; Mackenzie, Colin R.; Kurzai, Oliver; von Lilienfeld-Toal, Marie

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fusarium keratitis is a destructive eye infection that is difficult to treat and results in poor outcome. In tropical and subtropical areas, the infection is relatively common and associated with trauma or chronic eye diseases. However, in recent years, an increased incidence has been reported in temperate climate regions. At the German National Reference Center, we have observed a steady increase in case numbers since 2014. Here, we present the first German case series of eye infections with Fusarium species. We identified Fusarium isolates from the eye or eye-related material from 22 patients in 2014 and 2015. Thirteen isolates belonged to the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC), 6 isolates belonged to the Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC), and three isolates belonged to the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC). FSSC was isolated in 13 of 15 (85%) definite infections and FOSC in 3 of 4 (75%) definite contaminations. Furthermore, diagnosis from contact lens swabs or a culture of contact lens solution turned out to be highly unreliable. FSSC isolates differed from FOSC and FFSC by a distinctly higher MIC for terbinafine. Outcome was often adverse, with 10 patients requiring keratoplasty or enucleation. The use of natamycin as the most effective agent against keratitis caused by filamentous fungi was rare in Germany, possibly due to restricted availability. Keratitis caused by Fusarium spp. (usually FSSC) appears to be a relevant clinical problem in Germany, with the use of contact lenses as the predominant risk factor. Its outcome is often adverse. PMID:28747368

  13. [AIDS prevention in Germany].

    PubMed

    Pott, E

    2007-04-01

    In 1987 the national AIDS prevention campaign "Gib AIDS keine Chance" (Don't give AIDS a chance) was started in Germany. After a very difficult and controversial political debate about a probably successful response to AIDS, in the end a political decision was made in favour of the implementation of a long term "social learning strategy". Thus, since then the Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung (Federal Centre for Health Education, BZgA) has been running the campaign on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Health. The result of this prevention program is a low rate of infections. In Germany there were 2600 newly diagnosed infections in 2005: 59 % in homosexual men, 16 % by heterosexual contacts, 17 % in people from high prevalence countries and 7 % in i.v. drug users. In comparison to the international situation Germany has a relatively low HIV-prevalence even nowadays. However, Germany has also been confronted with an increasing number of newly diagnosed infections in the last few years. When the prevention program was started it was very important to build new structures for a successful implementation of the campaign. That meant for instance to build up an effective infrastructure for cooperation between the governmental and the nongovernmental sector, including organising the coordinated action among the partners at the federal, regional and local levels. Likewise, international networking was of great importance. A key element, relevant for the success of the campaign was the close cooperation at the federal level between the BZgA and the Deutsche AIDS Hilfe (German AIDS Help, DAH), to combine the highreach intervention in low-prevalence populations with intensive interventions for high prevalence groups. An effective national AIDS prevention campaign must reach the whole population; inform the public about the main risks of infection, about methods of protection and about what is not infectious. Moreover groups with a higher level of risk of

  14. Update: Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewenthal, Nessa P.

    The Federal Republic of Germany is widely respected for its highly developed economy, rich cultural life, and significant contributions to science, mathematics, and the arts. Designed for families or individuals planning to move to or live in Germany for extended periods of time, this book provides guidance in such practical matters as entry…

  15. [From the glorious time of homeopathy medicine chests in Nord-Schleswing (South Justland) about 1900].

    PubMed

    Marckmann, Anton

    2003-01-01

    The article deals with the origin, background and development of homoeopathy over a hundred years span, beginning with its "invention" in the early 19th century (Hahnemann). Leipzig became a center for a huge production of homoeopathic remedies through Dr. W. Schwabe's "Central-Apoteke", founded in 1878, with customers all over the world. The preparation of around one thousand products were described in 1880 in Schwabes "Pharmacopoea homoeopatica polyglotta", in five languages, and this article gives a survey of the principles in the production of the final remedies which were distributed as Schwabes homoeopatic house-chests of many varieties, containing from a few up to more than hundred bottles. Detailed instructions and guidance in the applications of the content of these popular and wide-spread chests were available for laymen from hand-books. However their use vanished gradually in the third decade of the 20th century and later, and the chests were either destroyed or put away. This was also true for the situation in South Jutland (before 1920 a german province called Nord Schleswig), nevertheless the author's research succeeded in detecting thirteen homoeopathic house-chests from the region, purchased about year 1900. An attempt is made to throw light on their origin, their use and their users at a time, when homoeopathy played a role for layman in the treatment of diseases, outside the authorized health service - or as a supplement to this.

  16. Federal Republic of Germany.

    PubMed

    1987-05-01

    The population of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) was an estimated 61 million (including West Berlin) in 1986 and is in the process of declining gradually as a result of low birth rates. The infant mortality rate is 11/1000, while life expectancy is 73.4 years for women and 67.2 years for men. Of the work force of 27.6 million, 5.4% are engaged in agriculture, 41.6% work in industry and commerce, 10% are employed by the government, and 42.7% are in the service sector. The gross national product was US$898.8 billion in 1986, with an annual growth rate of 2.6% and a per capita income of $10,680. The government is parliamentary and based on a democratic constitution emphasizing protection of individual liberty and divided power in a federal structure. Political life since the establishment of the FRG in 1949 has been characterized by remarkable stability and orderly succession. The FRG ranks among the most important economic powers in the world. The economy is largely export oriented, with 25-30% of the gross national product shipped abroad each year. Competition and free enterprise are fostered, but the state participates in the ownership and management of major sections of the economy, including public services. A major concern at present is the country's ability to adapt to new markets and to develop sophisticated technologies.

  17. The relationship between headache and religious attendance (the Nord-Trøndelag health study- HUNT)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Religious belief can be used as a pain coping strategy. Our purpose was to evaluate the relationship between headache and religious activity using prospective data from a large population-based study. Methods This longitudinal cohort study used data from two consecutive surveys in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey (HUNT 2 and 3) performed in 1995–1997; and 2006–2008. Among the 51,383 participants aged ≥ 20 years who answered headache questions at baseline, 41,766 were eligible approximately 11 years later. Of these, 25,177 (60%) completed the question in HUNT 3 regarding religious activity. Frequent religious attendees (fRA) (used as a marker of stronger religious belief than average) were defined as those who had been to church/prayer house at least once monthly during the last six months. Results In the multivariate analyses, adjusting for known potential confounders, individuals with headache 1–14 days/month in HUNT 2 were more likely to be fRA 11 years later than headache-free individuals. Migraine at baseline predisposed more strongly to fRA at follow-up (OR = 1.25; 95% CI 1.19-1.40) than did non-migrainous headache (OR = 1.13; 95% 1.04-1.23). The odds of being fRA was 48% increased (OR 1.48; 95% 1.19-1.83) among those with migraine 7–14 days/month at baseline compared to subjects without headache. In contrast, headache status at baseline did not influence the odds of being frequent visitors of concerts, cinema and/or theatre at follow-up 11 years later. Conclusions In this prospective study, headache, in particular migraine, at baseline slightly increased the odds of being fRA 11 years later. PMID:24386923

  18. The NordICC Study: Rationale and design of a randomized trial on colonoscopy screening for colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    F.Kaminski, Michal; Bretthauer, Michael; Zauber, Ann G.; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Adami, Hans-Olov; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Regula, Jaroslaw; van Leerdam, Monique; Stefansson, Tryggvi; Påhlman, Lars; Dekker, Evelien; Hernán, Miguel A.; Garborg, Kjetil; Hoff, Geir

    2017-01-01

    Background While colonoscopy screening is widely used in several European countries and the United States, no randomised trials exist to quantify its benefits. The Nordic-European Initiative on Colorectal Cancer (NordICC) is a multinational, randomized controlled trial aiming at investigating the effect of colonoscopy screening on CRC incidence and mortality. This paper describes the rationale and design of the NordICC trial. Material and methods Men and women age 55 to 64 years are drawn from the population registries in the participating countries and randomly assigned to either once-only colonoscopy screening with removal of all detected lesions, or no screening (standard of care in the trial regions). All individuals are followed for 15 years after inclusion using dedicated national registries. Results The primary endpoints of the trial are cumulative CRC-specific death and CRC incidence during 15 years of follow up. We hypothesize a 50% CRC mortality-reducing efficacy of the colonoscopy intervention and predict 50% compliance, yielding a 25% mortality reduction among those invited to screening. For 90% power and a two-sided alpha level of 0.05, using a 2:1 randomisation, 45,600 individuals will be randomised to control, and 22,800 individuals to the colonoscopy group. Interim analyses of the effect of colonoscopy on CRC incidence and mortality will be performed at 10 years follow-up. Conclusions The aim of the NordICC trial is to quantify the effectiveness of population-based colonoscopy screening. This will allow development of evidence-based guidelines for CRC screening in the general population. PMID:22723185

  19. Sexual Behavior in Germany.

    PubMed

    Haversath, Julia; Gärttner, Kathrin M; Kliem, Sören; Vasterling, Ilka; Strauss, Bernhard; Kröger, Christoph

    2017-08-21

    There have not been any population-based surveys in Germany to date on the frequency of various types of sexual behavior. The topic is of interdisciplinary interest, particularly with respect to the prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted infections. Within the context of a survey that dealt with multiple topics, information was obtained from 2524 persons about their sexual orientation, sexual practices, sexual contacts outside relationships, and contraception. Most of the participating women (82%) and men (86%) described themselves as heterosexual. Most respondents (88%) said they had engaged in vaginal intercourse at least once, and approximately half said they had engaged in oral intercourse at least once (either actively or passively). 4% of the men and 17% of the women said they had been the receptive partner in anal intercourse at least once. 5% of the respondents said they had had unprotected sexual intercourse outside their primary partnership on a single occasion, and 8% said they had done so more than once; only 2% of these persons said they always used a condom during sexual intercourse with their primary partner. Among persons reporting unprotected intercourse outside their primary partnership, 25% said they had undergone a medical examination afterward because of concern about a possible sexually transmitted infection. Among some groups of persons, routine sexual-medicine examinations may help contain the spread of sexually transmitted infections. One component of such examinations should be sensitive questioning about the types of sexual behavior that are associated with a high risk of infection. Information should be provided about the potential modes of transmission, including unprotected vaginal, oral, and anal intercourse outside the primary partnership.

  20. La tectonique active de la région nord-algérienne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yelles-Chaouche, AbdelKrim; Boudiaf, Azzedine; Djellit, Hamou; Bracene, Rabah

    2006-01-01

    En Algérie, la tectonique active est localisée dans la région nord du pays, essentiellement dans le Tell. Dans cette région, frontière entre les plaques Africaine et Eurasiatique, la déformation tectonique est l'expression de la convergence actuelle des ces deux plaques et se traduit par la fermeture progressive des bassins néogènes et par la poursuite de l'édification de la chaîne. Le long de la marge, la déformation s'exprime dans la partie de la plaine abyssale proche du continent, par le plissement de la couverture plio-quaternaire. Au niveau de la pente et sur le plateau continental, la sismicité est générée par des accidents qui se prolongent parfois à terre. Cette tectonique littorale active est à l'origine de la surrection de la côte, comme cela fut le cas lors du dernier séisme de Boumerdes du 21 mai 2003, où le soulèvement cosismique a été estimé en moyenne à 0,50 m. À terre, la sismicité s'exprime surtout le long des bordures des bassins néogènes qui longent la côte. Ces bassins se déforment en donnant des structures plicatives (synclinaux, anticlinaux) et parfois cassantes (pli-failles, failles inverses, chevauchements) orientées NE-SW à NNE-SSW. Ces dernières sont le plus souvent à l'origine des violents tremblements de terre que connaît l'Algérie. Plus au sud, la sismicité s'exprime, tout le long du Tell, le long des faisceaux de plis de direction NE-SW. Actuellement, dans les régions des Hauts Plateaux et la région de l'Atlas saharien, l'activité sismique est faible. Pour citer cet article : A. Yelles-Chaouche et al., C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  1. Paint removal activities in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbein, R.; Arnolds-Mayer, G.

    1993-03-01

    To replace paint removing chemicals containing chlorinated hydrocarbons several alternative paint stripping methods have been developed or are under study in Germany: high pressure water stripping; plastic media blasting; use of alcalic and acid activated softeners; CO2 pellet blasting; and laser application.

  2. Lise Meitner's escape from Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, Ruth Lewin

    1990-03-01

    Lise Meitner (1878-1968) achieved prominence as a nuclear physicist in Germany; although of Jewish origin, her Austrian citizenship exempted her from Nazi racial laws until the annexation of Austria in 1938 precipitated her dismissal. Forbidden to emigrate, she narrowly escaped to the Netherlands with the help of concerned friends in the international physics community.

  3. Reform of health care in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, Jeremy W.

    1991-01-01

    For the past 45 years Germany has had two health care systems: one in the former Federal Republic of Germany and one in the former German Democratic Republic. The system in the Federal Republic was undergoing some important reforms when German reunification took place in October 1990. Now the system in eastern Germany is undergoing a major transformation to bring it more into line with that in western Germany. PMID:10110879

  4. Mental health and wellbeing in spouses of persons with dementia: the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study.

    PubMed

    Ask, Helga; Langballe, Ellen Melbye; Holmen, Jostein; Selbæk, Geir; Saltvedt, Ingvild; Tambs, Kristian

    2014-05-01

    Caring for a spouse diagnosed with dementia can be a stressful situation and can put the caregiving partner at risk of loss of mental health and wellbeing. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between dementia and spousal mental health in a population-based sample of married couples older than 55 years of age. The association was investigated for individuals living together with their demented partner, as well as for individuals whose demented partner was living in an institution. Data on dementia were collected from hospitals and nursing homes in the county of Nord-Trøndelag, Norway. These data were combined with data on spousal mental health, which were collected in a population-based health screening: the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT). Of 6,951 participating couples (>55 years), 131 included one partner that had been diagnosed with dementia. Our results indicate that after adjustment for covariates, having a partner with dementia is associated with lower levels of life satisfaction and more symptoms of anxiety and depression than reported by spouses of elderly individuals without dementia. Spouses living together with a partner diagnosed with dementia experienced moderately lower levels of life satisfaction (0.35 standard deviation [SD]) and more symptoms of depression (0.38 SD) and anxiety (0.23 SD) than did their non-caregiving counterparts. Having a partner with dementia that resided in a nursing home was associated with clearly lower life satisfaction. Compared with non-caregivers, these spouses reported lower levels of life satisfaction (1.16 SD), and also more symptoms of depression (0.38 SD), and more symptoms of anxiety (0.42 SD). Having a partner with dementia is associated with loss of mental health and reduced life satisfaction. The risk of adverse mental health outcomes is greatest after the partner's nursing home admission.

  5. [Fostering of health economics in Germany].

    PubMed

    Ulrich, V

    2012-05-01

    Health economics is now well established in Germany with the aim to apply economic tools to answer problems in health and health care. After a short review of the international development of health economics and the development in Germany in particular, the article looks at selected recent topics of health economic analysis in Germany (economic evaluation, industrial economics, health and education).

  6. Epidermolysis bullosa care in Germany.

    PubMed

    Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena

    2010-04-01

    Until 2003, no structures existed in Germany for special care of patients with rare diseases, such as epidermolysis bullosa (EB). At that point, the Federal Ministry of Education and Research announced a clinical research program-networks for rare diseases. The Network Epidermolysis Bullosa (EB Network), coordinated from the Department of Dermatology, University Medical Center Freiburg, has operated since October 2003 with the goal of improving diagnostics and clinical management, elucidating disease mechanisms, and development of novel therapies for EB (www.netzwerk-eb.de). Future goals of the EB Network include securing the clinical-diagnostic and IT structures established with grant support and focusing research on molecular disease mechanisms in EB and novel biologically valid therapies. Intensive collaborations with other networks for rare genetic diseases will generate durable structures in Germany and form a basis for future international consortia. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Private medical education in Germany].

    PubMed

    Schwörer, Beatrix; Wissing, Frank

    2018-02-01

    Through the years, a range of privately funded medical training opportunities has been established in Germany. Only a few of them operate along the German Medical Licensure Act and thus underlie quality assurance regulations in Germany. Most of the courses are a result of German hospitals cooperating with universities from other EU countries. The content of the courses and the examinations underlie the regulations of the university's home country. This article aims to give an overview of the private medical training opportunities offered in Germany and to show differences compared to state funded German medical schools. The authors discuss the opportunities of private medical training as well as its challenges and risks. Basic principles concerning finances and quality assurance of national and international private medical training are provided. Regardless of their mode of financing, the superior goal of the training, according to the German Medical Licensure Act, should always be to enable young doctors to pursue further professional training, so that they can maintain the best possible quality in patient care, research, and medical education.

  8. Undergraduate medical education in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Chenot, Jean-François

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to give international readers an overview of the organisation, structure and curriculum, together with important advances and problems, of undergraduate medical education in Germany. Interest in medical education in Germany has been relatively low but has gained momentum with the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" which came into effect in 2003. Medical education had required substantial reform, particularly with respect to improving the links between theoretical and clinical teaching and the extension of interdisciplinary and topic-related instruction. It takes six years and three months to complete the curriculum and training is divided into three sections: basic science (2 years), clinical science (3 years) and final clinical year. While the reorganisation of graduate medical education required by the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" has stimulated multiple excellent teaching projects, there is evidence that some of the stipulated changes have not been implemented. Indeed, whether the medical schools have complied with this regulation and its overall success remains to be assessed systematically. Mandatory external accreditation and periodic reaccreditation of medical faculties need to be established in Germany. PMID:19675742

  9. Energy research with neutrons (ErwiN) and installation of a fast neutron powder diffraction option at the MLZ, Germany1

    PubMed Central

    Mühlbauer, Martin J.

    2018-01-01

    The need for rapid data collection and studies of small sample volumes in the range of cubic millimetres are the main driving forces for the concept of a new high-throughput monochromatic diffraction instrument at the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), Germany. A large region of reciprocal space will be accessed by a detector with sufficient dynamic range and microsecond time resolution, while allowing for a variety of complementary sample environments. The medium-resolution neutron powder diffraction option for ‘energy research with neutrons’ (ErwiN) at the high-flux FRM II neutron source at the MLZ is foreseen to meet future demand. ErwiN will address studies of energy-related systems and materials with respect to their structure and uniformity by means of bulk and spatially resolved neutron powder diffraction. A set of experimental options will be implemented, enabling time-resolved studies, rapid parametric measurements as a function of external parameters and studies of small samples using an adapted radial collimator. The proposed powder diffraction option ErwiN will bridge the gap in functionality between the high-resolution powder diffractometer SPODI and the time-of-flight diffractometers POWTEX and SAPHiR at the MLZ. PMID:29896055

  10. Club drug use in Germany.

    PubMed

    Soellner, Renate

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the epidemiology of club drug use in Germany, including the use of 3,4-methylendioxy-N-methamphetamine (MDMA) known as 'ecstasy' and related substances such as speed, amphetamines, hallucinogens, and cannabis is described on the basis of five different surveys. Two of them are representative household surveys to monitor the licit and illicit drug use behavior of the German population. The third one is a longitudinal study aimed at exploring comorbidity and posited risk and protective factors in adolescents and young adults with specific emphasis on substance use-related disorders. Since ecstasy seemed to be associated with a new music culture of the '90s called "techno," two studies investigating the relationship of using ecstasy and related substances in the techno party scene are additionally presented. The question of the clinical impact of using ecstasy and related substances is raised in terms of substance use-related and mental disorders associated with the use of ecstasy. Finally, the motivation for using and stopping the use of ecstasy is addressed. It is shown that ecstasy has reached the second place (after cannabis) in illegal drug preferences of adolescents and young adults in Germany. Evidence is found that ecstasy use as well as ecstasy use-related disorders such as "abuse" and "dependence" are of a transient, "youth-limited" nature.

  11. Housing and health in Germany.

    PubMed

    Pollack, C E; von dem Knesebeck, O; Siegrist, J

    2004-03-01

    To examine the association between housing tenure and self rated health, controlling for socioeconomic measures and testing the mediating effects of physical features of the home, pollution in the local environment, and relationships with neighbours. Cross sectional panel study with people nested within households. Analyses were performed using multilevel methods. Population based sample in Germany. People aged 16 or older were interviewed in the 1999 wave of the socio-economic panel study (n = 14 055) and nested within households (n = 7381). 44.0% of the population lived in homes that they owned. In bivariate analyses, women, people who live in apartment buildings, reside near cities, live in crowded homes, have homes in need of renovation, report higher pollution, and have distant contact with neighbours are more likely to live in rented homes. In multilevel analyses, renting a home was found to be associated with poor self rated health (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.31 to 1.68). This relation persisted after controlling for education and income and was partially mediated by the need for household renovation, the perception of air and noise pollution in the local area, and distant relationship with neighbours, all of which were significantly associated with self rated health. This study provides evidence that home ownership is significantly associated with self rated health in Germany, and this relation may be, in part, mediated by physical and social features of home and neighbourhood.

  12. Detailed study of sulfide scaling at La Courneuve Nord, a geothermal exploitation of the Paris basin, France

    SciTech Connect

    Honegger, J.L.; Czernichowski-Lauriol, I.; Criaud, A.

    1989-01-01

    The fluid of the Dogger aquifer is always used through a closed loop formed by the production well, the heating plant and the injection well. After two or three years of exploitation of the geothermal doublets in the northern part of the Paris basin, scaling and plugging problems have appeared in some cases. The results of the detailed study carried out at La Courneuve Nord, a typical site of this area, are presented. The drawdown of production rate, scaling in the heat exchanger and the increase of injection pressure required a rapid decision for workover operations on the wells. Thesemore » cleaning operations and joint research studies allowed the authors to identify the cause of the plugging as well as to locate these deposits and to estimate their importance. After cleaning operations, the hydraulic properties of the reservoir seem to be recovered. Chemical and mineralogical analyses of these deposits identified the presence of a large variety of iron sulfide and a typical corrosion product. Biochemical and bacteriological studies show a very high content of micro-organisms. A chemical model, IPDEGAZ, is used to calculate the evolution of the saturation indexes of the fluid with respect to iron sulfide phases. The effects of parameters such as pressure, temperature, degassing and addition of iron by corrosion are simulated. The results of the observation and modeling approaches are compared.« less

  13. Socioeconomic inequalities in dental services utilisation in a Norwegian county: the third Nord-Trondelag Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Vikum, Eirik; Krokstad, Steinar; Holst, Dorthe; Westin, Steinar

    2012-11-01

    To assess the level of socioeconomic inequity in dental care utilisation in Norway and enable comparison with recent international comparative studies. We studied dental care utilisation among 17,136 men and 21,414 women in the third Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey (2006-08). Respondents aged 20 years and above were included in the study, and analyses were also performed within subgroups of age and gender (20-39, 40-59, and ≥60 years). Income-related horizontal inequity was estimated by means of concentration indices. Education-related inequity was estimated as relative risks. We found consistent pro-rich income inequity among men and women of all ages. The level of income inequity was highest among men and women ≥60 years, and in this group the income gradient was steepest between the poorest and the middle quintiles. Pro-educated inequity was found exclusively among men and women ≥60 years. General attendance was high (77%). The overall level of income-related inequity in dental services utilisation was low compared to other European countries as reported in two recent international studies of socioeconomic inequalities in dental care utilisation. Pro-rich and pro-educated inequity is a public health challenge mainly in the older part of the population.

  14. Update on Germany: Now Eastern Germany Gets a Free Press. Special Report SO 8, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyn, Hermann

    Since the former East German Communist State--the German Democratic Republic (GDR)--was incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany, the federal constitution has been valid throughout the whole of Germany, guaranteeing press freedom and ending press censorship in eastern Germany. In October 1989, the GDR had 39 daily newspapers (many…

  15. The Mother Centers in Germany--Empowerment Strategies for Community Women in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeckel, Monika

    Mother Centers are a grassroots self-help movement in Germany that help stay-at-home mothers break through the isolation they experience in German society when they have children and are not available for full-time employment. There are about 300 mother center projects currently in Germany, including 40 in the former East Germany. The programs…

  16. Germany since 1945: A Focus on Berlin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Glen; Smith, Lindsey

    This lesson accompanies a videotape which examines some of the forces, personalities and events which shaped Berlin and the rest of Germany between 1945 and 1994. The lesson is introduced by using the videotape and uses references from the videotape for further classroom work. Worksheets for student use include "Events in Germany,…

  17. History of modern genetics in Germany.

    PubMed

    Hammar, Friederike

    2002-01-01

    The history of modern genetics in Germany during the 20th century is a story of missed chances. In the USA the genetic revolution opened a fascinating new field for ambitious scientists and created a rapidly growing new industry. Meanwhile Germany stood aside, combating with political and social restrictions. Promising young scientists who wanted to work in the field left Germany for the US, and big companies moved their facilities out of the country. Up until the middle of the 1990s molecular biology in Germany remained a "sleeping beauty" even though many brilliant scientists did their jobs very well. Then a somewhat funny idea changed everything: the German minister for education and science proclaimed the BioRegio contest in order to award the most powerful biotechnology region in Germany concerning academia and especially industry. Since then Germany's biotechnology industry has grown constantly and rapidly due to the foundation of a number of small biotech companies; big companies have returned their interests and their investments to Germany, paralleled by an improvement in academic research because of more funding and better support especially for younger scientists. In respect to biotechnology and molecular biology, Germany is still a developing country, but it has started to move and to take its chances in an exciting global competition.

  18. The Corporate University Landscape in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andresen, Maike; Lichtenberger, Bianka

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks first to present an overview of the corporate university landscape in Germany contrasting it with the US-American corporate university market and, second, to outline the development in Germany during the last 15 years and to have a look at future trends such as learning alliances. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  19. [Health and justice in Germany].

    PubMed

    Rosenbrock, R

    2007-12-01

    "What do we owe each other?" Variously grounded postulates and theories of social justice try to answer this question with regard to health. Equality of opportunity is widely acclaimed and in Germany also anchored in social security laws. From the perspective of equal opportunity, the author examines the state of affairs and the perspectives of equity in health. Although the deficiencies with regard to access and quality of health care are significant, but relatively moderate, they present serious threats to equity and fairness for the future. Regarding non-medical primary prevention, the reduction of inequality in health has barely begun. The largest obstacles to equity in health are to be found in the distribution and dynamics of opportunities for education, work and income. One of the tasks of public health professionals is to place the health consequences of existing policies on the political agenda.

  20. Children's "euthanasia" in Nazi Germany.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Susan; Shields, Linda; O'Donnell, Alison J

    2009-12-01

    Children with disabilities were killed during the Nazi era, often by nurses. Some nurses killed children, saying that they were under orders. Propaganda about the need for "racial purity" was all pervasive and influenced much of the population, including nurses. The German people accepted the "mercy" killing of children with disabilities. We describe the children's "euthanasia" program, explore the influence of propaganda, ask why it was acceptable to kill children, and provide historical context demonstrating "slippery slopes" which can lead to abrogation of ethical principles. Discussion of such history is essential as the ethical principles which were breached are still the cornerstone of nursing practice today. Only by openly discussing past wrongs can we attempt to ensure that they do not happen again. Archival documents from Germany and Israel, including trial depositions and transcripts, provided material, supplemented by secondary classic sources.

  1. Incidence of Narcolepsy in Germany.

    PubMed

    Oberle, Doris; Drechsel-Bäuerle, Ursula; Schmidtmann, Irene; Mayer, Geert; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte

    2015-10-01

    Following the 2009 pandemic, reports of an association between an AS03 adjuvanted H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine and narcolepsy were published. Besides determining background incidence rates for narcolepsy in Germany this study aimed at investigating whether there was a change in incidence rates of narcolepsy between the pre-pandemic, pandemic, and the post-pandemic period on the population level. Retrospective epidemiological study on the incidence of narcolepsy with additional capture-recapture analysis. German sleep centers. Eligible were patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy (ICD10 Code G47.4) within the period from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2011. None; observational study. A total of 342 sleep centers were invited to participate in the study. Adequate and suitable data were provided by 233 sleep centers (68.1%). A total of 1,198 patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy within the observed period were included, of whom 106 (8.8%) were children and adolescents under the age of 18 years and 1,092 (91.2%) were adults. In children and adolescents, the age-standardized adjusted incidence rate significantly increased from 0.14/100,000 person-years in the pre-pandemic period to 0.50/100,000 person-years in the post-pandemic period (incidence density ratio, IDR 3.57; 95% CI 1.94-7.00). In adults, no significant change was detectable. This increase started in spring 2009. For the years 2007-2011, valid estimates for the incidence of narcolepsy in Germany were provided. In individuals under 18, the incidence rates continuously increased from spring 2009. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  2. Developpement D'un Modele Climatique Regional: Fizr Simulation des Conditions de Janvier de la Cote Ouest Nord Americaine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyette, Stephane

    1995-11-01

    Le sujet de cette these concerne la modelisation numerique du climat regional. L'objectif principal de l'exercice est de developper un modele climatique regional ayant les capacites de simuler des phenomenes de meso-echelle spatiale. Notre domaine d'etude se situe sur la Cote Ouest nord americaine. Ce dernier a retenu notre attention a cause de la complexite du relief et de son controle sur le climat. Les raisons qui motivent cette etude sont multiples: d'une part, nous ne pouvons pas augmenter, en pratique, la faible resolution spatiale des modeles de la circulation generale de l'atmosphere (MCG) sans augmenter a outrance les couts d'integration et, d'autre part, la gestion de l'environnement exige de plus en plus de donnees climatiques regionales determinees avec une meilleure resolution spatiale. Jusqu'alors, les MCG constituaient les modeles les plus estimes pour leurs aptitudes a simuler le climat ainsi que les changements climatiques mondiaux. Toutefois, les phenomenes climatiques de fine echelle echappent encore aux MCG a cause de leur faible resolution spatiale. De plus, les repercussions socio-economiques des modifications possibles des climats sont etroitement liees a des phenomenes imperceptibles par les MCG actuels. Afin de circonvenir certains problemes inherents a la resolution, une approche pratique vise a prendre un domaine spatial limite d'un MCG et a y imbriquer un autre modele numerique possedant, lui, un maillage de haute resolution spatiale. Ce processus d'imbrication implique alors une nouvelle simulation numerique. Cette "retro-simulation" est guidee dans le domaine restreint a partir de pieces d'informations fournies par le MCG et forcee par des mecanismes pris en charge uniquement par le modele imbrique. Ainsi, afin de raffiner la precision spatiale des previsions climatiques de grande echelle, nous developpons ici un modele numerique appele FIZR, permettant d'obtenir de l'information climatique regionale valide a la fine echelle spatiale

  3. A strong enrichment of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in Nord-Trøndelag (central Norway) forest soil.

    PubMed

    Reimann, C; Fabian, K; Schilling, J; Roberts, D; Englmaier, P

    2015-12-01

    Analysis of soil C and O horizon samples in a recent regional geochemical survey of Nord-Trøndelag, central Norway (752 sample sites covering 25,000 km2), identified a strong enrichment of several potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in the O horizon. Of 53 elements analysed in both materials, Cd concentrations are, on average, 17 times higher in the O horizon than in the C horizon and other PTEs such as Ag (11-fold), Hg (10-fold), Sb (8-fold), Pb (4-fold) and Sn (2-fold) are all strongly enriched relative to the C horizon. Geochemical maps of the survey area do not reflect an impact from local or distant anthropogenic contamination sources in the data for O horizon soil samples. The higher concentrations of PTEs in the O horizon are the result of the interaction of the underlying geology, the vegetation zone and type, and climatic effects. Based on the general accordance with existing data from earlier surveys in other parts of northern Europe, the presence of a location-independent, superordinate natural trend towards enrichment of these elements in the O horizon relative to the C horizon soil is indicated. The results imply that the O and C horizons of soils are different geochemical entities and that their respective compositions are controlled by different processes. Local mineral soil analyses (or published data for the chemical composition of the average continental crust) cannot be used to provide a geochemical background for surface soil. At the regional scale used here surface soil chemistry is still dominated by natural sources and processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Education-based health inequalities in 18,000 Norwegian couples: the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT).

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Sara Marie; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Ernstsen, Linda; Krokstad, Steinar; Westin, Steinar

    2012-11-19

    Education-based inequalities in health are well established, but they are usually studied from an individual perspective. However, many individuals are part of a couple. We studied education-based health inequalities from the perspective of couples where indicators of health were measured by subjective health, anxiety and depression. A sample of 35,980 women and men (17,990 couples) was derived from the Norwegian Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 1995-97 (HUNT 2). Educational data and family identification numbers were obtained from Statistics Norway. The dependent variables were subjective health (four-integer scale), anxiety (21-integer scale) and depression (21-integer scale), which were captured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The dependent variables were rescaled from 0 to 100 where 100 was the worst score. Cross-sectional analyses were performed using two-level linear random effect regression models. The variance attributable to the couple level was 42% for education, 16% for subjective health, 19% for anxiety and 25% for depression. A one-year increase in education relative to that of one's partner was associated with an improvement of 0.6 scale points (95% confidence interval = 0.5-0.8) in the subjective health score (within-couple coefficient). A one-year increase in a couple's average education was associated with an improvement of 1.7 scale points (95% confidence interval = 1.6-1.8) in the subjective health score (between-couple coefficient). There were no education-based differences in the anxiety or depression scores when partners were compared, whereas there were substantial education-based differences between couples in all three outcome measures. We found considerable clustering of education and health within couples, which highlighted the importance of the family environment. Our results support previous studies that report the mutual effects of spouses on education-based inequalities in health, suggesting that couples develop

  5. Neurosurgical Resident Training in Germany.

    PubMed

    Stienen, Martin N; Gempt, Jens; Gautschi, Oliver P; Demetriades, Andreas K; Netuka, David; Kuhlen, Dominique E; Schaller, Karl; Ringel, Florian

    2017-07-01

    Introduction  Efficient neurosurgical training is of paramount importance to provide continuing high-quality medical care to patients. In this era of law-enforced working hour restrictions, however, maintaining high-quality training can be a challenge and requires some restructuring. We evaluated the current status of resident training in Germany. Methods  An electronic survey was sent to European neurosurgical trainees between June 2014 and March 2015. The responses of German trainees were compared with those of trainees from other European countries. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the effect size of the relationship between a trainee being from Germany and the outcome (e.g., satisfaction, working time). Results  Of 532 responses, 95 were from German trainees (17.8%). In a multivariate analysis corrected for baseline group differences, German trainees were 29% as likely as non-German trainees to be satisfied with clinical lectures given at their teaching facility (odds ratio [OR]: 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.18-0.49; p  < 0.0001). The satisfaction rate with hands-on operating room exposure was 73.9% and equal to the rate in Europe (OR: 0.94; 95% CI, 0.56-1.59; p  = 0.834). German trainees were 2.3 times as likely to perform a lumbar spine intervention as the primary surgeon within the first year of training (OR: 2.27; 95% CI, 1.42-3.64; p  = 0.001). However, they were less likely to perform a cervical spine procedure within 24 months of training (OR: 0.38; 95% CI, 0.17-0.82; p  = 0.014) and less likely to perform a craniotomy within 36 months of training (OR: 0.49; 95% CI, 0.31-0.79; p  = 0.003). Only 25.6% of German trainees currently adhere to the weekly limit of 48 hours as requested from the European Working Time Directive 2003/88/EC, and in an international comparison, German trainees were twice as likely to work > 50 hours per week (OR: 2.13; 95% CI, 1.25-3.61; p  = 0.005). This working time

  6. Dental tourism from Switzerland to Germany.

    PubMed

    Gheorghe, Raluca; Zürcher, Andrea; Filippi, Andreas

    In recent years the topic of dental tourism has increasingly come into focus of dentists and patients. In the present study an attempt was made to find out, why patients from a restricted region travel to Germany for dental care. In five German dental clinics located in the border area between Switzerland and Germany, 272 women and 236 men ranging in age from 5 to 94 years, who had undergone at least one dental treatment in Germany, were questioned concerning the reasons for their visits. The interviews took place within a period of 6 months and relied on a questionnaire to collect data regarding sociodemographic features and patient behavior. In comparison to residents of Germany, patients residing in Switzerland took on considerably longer travel distances for the dental visit, in some cases more than 50km (9.7%). For patients residing in Switzerland the technical equipment of the practice was more important (p<0.001), whereas for residents of Germany the cost-effective treatment was decisive (p<0.05). Almost all patients residing in Switzerland (95.6%) confirmed that dental treatments in Germany were cheaper and that additional family members also came to Germany for dental care (65.0%).

  7. Polymorphisme de l'apolipoprotéine E dans la population du nord du Maroc: fréquence et influence sur les paramètres lipidiques

    PubMed Central

    Benyahya, Fatiha; Barakat, Amina; Ghailani, Naima; Bennani, Mohcine

    2013-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de ce travail est de déterminer les fréquences alléliques et génotypiques des sites polymorphes situés dans le gène de l'apolipoprotéine E (apo E) ainsi que leur impact sur les paramètres cliniques et lipidiques dans un échantillon de la population du nord du Maroc cliniquement diagnostiqué ADH. Méthodes Le génotype de l'apo E a été analysé par séquençage direct chez 46 patients cliniquement diagnostiqués ADH selon les critères standards. Résultats Les fréquences des allèles epsilon 3, epsilon 2 et epsilon 4 ont été respectivement 78.3%, 2.2% et 19.6%. La fréquence de l'allèle epsilon 4 est très élevée chez la population du nord du Maroc en comparaison avec les populations des autres régions marocaines. Elle est similaire à celle rapportée dans les pays de l'Europe du nord. Les taux du cholestérol total, du cholestérol LDL ainsi que la présence des xanthomes et les maladies cardiovasculaires ne différent pas entre les génotypes de l'apoE. En revanche, les résultats ont montré une influence de l'allèle epsilon4 sur le taux des triglycérides chez les sujets obèses. Conclusion Le génotype de l'apoE ne peut expliquer le phénotype clinique et biochimique présenté par des patients du Nord du Maroc cliniquement diagnostiqués ADH. PMID:24396563

  8. Prevalence and associated factors of DSM-V insomnia in Norway: the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT 3).

    PubMed

    Uhlig, Benjamin Langsæter; Sand, Trond; Odegård, Siv Steinsmo; Hagen, Knut

    2014-06-01

    Many studies have assessed the prevalence of insomnia, but the influence of non-participants has largely been ignored. The objective of the present study was to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of insomnia in a large adult population using DSM-V (diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th ed.) criteria, also taking non-participants into account. This cross-sectional study used data from a questionnaire in The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT 3) performed in 2006-2008, and a subsequent non-participant study. The total adult population (n=93,860 aged > or =20 years) of Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway, was invited. Of these, 40,535 responded to the insomnia questionnaire. Among 42,024 eligible non-participants, 6918 (17%) responded to two insomnia questions. Insomnia was diagnosed by applying modified DSM-V criteria. The age-adjusted insomnia prevalence was estimated using the age distribution of all adult inhabitants of Nord-Trøndelag. Supplementary prevalence data were estimated by extrapolating data from the non-participant study. Additionally, the association between insomnia and self-reported health was estimated, adjusting for known confounders. The total age-adjusted prevalence of insomnia was 7.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.9-7.4) (8.6% for women, 5.5% for men). Adjusting for non-participants, the prevalence estimate changed to 7.9% (95% CI, 7.3-8.6) (9.4% for women, 6.4% for men). Insomnia was more than eight times more likely (OR, 8.3; 95% CI, 6.2-11.1) among individuals with very poor versus very good self-reported health, adjusting for age, gender, employment status, chronic musculoskeletal complaints, anxiety and depression. The adjusted insomnia prevalence estimate in Nord-Trøndelag was 7.9%. Insomnia was strongly associated with poor self-reported health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Space Radar Image of Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-01-27

    This is a false-color, three-frequency image of the Oberpfaffenhofen supersite, southwest of Munich in southern Germany, which shows the differences in what the three radar bands can see on the ground.

  10. Silencing the Singer. Antibioethics in Germany.

    PubMed

    Schöne-Seifert, B; Rippe, K P

    1991-01-01

    "Die Gedanken sind frei," in the words of the old song. But in Germany, thoughts are no longer free. Peter Singer, the "death ethicist," has become a special target for activists attempting to silence bioethical debate in Germany. In the context of the trauma inflicted by National Socialism, a profound unease over issues at the end of life is accompanied by an insistence that these issues are not to be discussed.

  11. Pushing the limit: forensic nursing in Germany.

    PubMed

    Lambe, Andrea; Gage-Lindner, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Violence remains a public health challenge and the nursing profession accepts this challenge by expanding its field. Although countries such as the United States, Great Britain, and Canada have employed forensic nurses for decades in different capacities, Germany has yet to follow their lead. This report discusses the German health care and legal systems and challenges Germany to develop an innovative, cost-efficient, and competent profession of forensic nursing.

  12. [Analysis of the Association between Regional Deprivation and Utilization: An Assessment of Need for Physicians in Germany].

    PubMed

    Kopetsch, T; Maier, W

    2018-01-01

    A new strategy for planning outpatient medical care needs to be developed. The social and morbidity structure of the population should be considered in the planning of needs-based provision of medical care. This paper aims to examine the extent to which the degree of regional deprivation can be incorporated in the calculation of the regional requirements for specialists in Germany. To measure regional deprivation status at district level, we used the "German Index of Multiple Deprivation" (GIMD) developed in the Helmholtz Zentrum München - German Research Center for Environmental Health. Scores were calculated for the deprivation status of each rural and urban district in Germany. The methods used to compute the deprivation-adjusted medical need are linear regression analyses. The analyses were based on regionalized data for the number of office-based physicians and their billing data. The analyses were carried out with the SPSS software package, version 20. The analyses showed a clear positive correlation between regional deprivation and the utilisation of medical services both for outpatients and in-patients, on the one hand, and mortality and morbidity, as measured by the risk adjustment factor (RSA), on the other. At the district level, the analyses also revealed varying associations between the degree of deprivation and the utilisation of the 12 groups of specialists included in the needs assessment. On this basis, an algorithm was developed by which deprivation at district level can be used to calculate an increase or a decrease in the relative number of specialists needed. Using the GIMD and various determinants of medical utilisation, the model showed that medical need increased with the level of regional deprivation. However, regarding SHI medical specialist groups, the associations found in this analysis were statistically (R 2 ) insufficient to suggest a needs assessment planning system based only on the factors analysed, thereby restricting physicians

  13. TUM Critical Zone Observatory, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Völkel, Jörg; Eden, Marie

    2014-05-01

    Founded 2011 the TUM Critical Zone Observatory run by the Technische Universität München and partners abroad is the first CZO within Germany. TUM CZO is both, a scientific as well as an education project. It is a watershed based observatory, but moving behind this focus. In fact, two mountainous areas are integrated: (1) The Ammer Catchment area as an alpine and pre alpine research area in the northern limestone Alps and forelands south of Munich; (2) the Otter Creek Catchment in the Bavarian Forest with a crystalline setting (Granite, Gneiss) as a mid mountainous area near Regensburg; and partly the mountainous Bavarian Forest National Park. The Ammer Catchment is a high energy system as well as a sensitive climate system with past glacial elements. The lithology shows mostly carbonates from Tertiary and Mesozoic times (e.g. Flysch). Source-to-sink processes are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment down to the last glacial Ammer Lake as the regional erosion and deposition base. The consideration of distal depositional environments, the integration of upstream and downstream landscape effects are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment as well. Long term datasets exist in many regards. The Otter Creek catchment area is developed in a granitic environment, rich in saprolites. As a mid mountainous catchment the energy system is facing lower stage. Hence, it is ideal comparing both of them. Both TUM CZO Catchments: The selected catchments capture the depositional environment. Both catchment areas include historical impacts and rapid land use change. Crosscutting themes across both sites are inbuilt. Questions of ability to capture such gradients along climosequence, chronosequence, anthroposequence are essential.

  14. Parental occupational exposure to solvents and heavy metals and risk of developing testicular germ cell tumors in sons (NORD-TEST Denmark).

    PubMed

    Olsson, Ann; Togawa, Kayo; Schüz, Joachim; Le Cornet, Charlotte; Fervers, Beatrice; Oksbjerg Dalton, Susanne; Pukkala, Eero; Feychting, Maria; Skakkebæk, Niels Erik; Hansen, Johnni

    2018-06-07

    Objective The present study aims to assess if parental occupational exposure to solvents or heavy metals is associated with risk of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) in sons in Denmark. Methods The NORD-TEST Denmark included 3421 cases diagnosed with TGCT at ages 14-49 years in Denmark between 1981 and 2014. Controls (N=14 024) selected from the central population registry were matched to cases on birth year. The Danish Supplementary Pension Fund provided parental occupational information. A job-exposure matrix was used to assign exposures, and conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results The overall analyses showed no significant associations except for paternal exposure to a sub-group of "heavy metal(s) and solvent(s)" (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.01-2.24). Most fathers in this category had worked in wood related jobs and were assigned exposure to chromium VI and toluene. Other sub-group analyses suggested that maternal exposure to aromatic hydrocarbon were associated with TGCT risk, in sons born in 1970-1979, and to heavy metals (chromium, iron and nickel) in sons born in 1980-1998. Conclusion NORD-TEST Denmark provides no strong support for an association between parental exposures to solvents or heavy metals and TGCT in sons, and only weak support for an association between paternal exposure to chromium and toluene and TGCT risk in sons.

  15. Education-based health inequalities in 18,000 Norwegian couples: the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Education-based inequalities in health are well established, but they are usually studied from an individual perspective. However, many individuals are part of a couple. We studied education-based health inequalities from the perspective of couples where indicators of health were measured by subjective health, anxiety and depression. Methods A sample of 35,980 women and men (17,990 couples) was derived from the Norwegian Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 1995–97 (HUNT 2). Educational data and family identification numbers were obtained from Statistics Norway. The dependent variables were subjective health (four-integer scale), anxiety (21-integer scale) and depression (21-integer scale), which were captured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The dependent variables were rescaled from 0 to 100 where 100 was the worst score. Cross-sectional analyses were performed using two-level linear random effect regression models. Results The variance attributable to the couple level was 42% for education, 16% for subjective health, 19% for anxiety and 25% for depression. A one-year increase in education relative to that of one’s partner was associated with an improvement of 0.6 scale points (95% confidence interval = 0.5–0.8) in the subjective health score (within-couple coefficient). A one-year increase in a couple’s average education was associated with an improvement of 1.7 scale points (95% confidence interval = 1.6–1.8) in the subjective health score (between-couple coefficient). There were no education-based differences in the anxiety or depression scores when partners were compared, whereas there were substantial education-based differences between couples in all three outcome measures. Conclusions We found considerable clustering of education and health within couples, which highlighted the importance of the family environment. Our results support previous studies that report the mutual effects of spouses on education

  16. [Sources of information on suicide attempts in the Nord - Pas-de-Calais (France). Contributions and limitations].

    PubMed

    Plancke, L; Ducrocq, F; Clément, G; Chaud, P; Haeghebaert, S; Amariei, A; Chan-Chee, C; Goldstein, P; Vaiva, G

    2014-12-01

    There are very few permanent indicators of mental health in France; suicidal behavior is often only understood on the basis of deaths by suicide. The epidemiological interest and methodological limits of four medico-administrative databases from which data on suicide attempts can be extracted have been the subject of a study in the Nord - Pas-de-Calais Region of France: telephone calls for emergency medical assistance after suicide attempt (2009 to 2011), admissions in emergency services with a diagnosis of suicide attempt (2012), medical-surgical hospital admissions as a result of suicide attempt (2009 to 2011), and psychiatric admissions with a diagnosis of suicide attempt (2011). Usable data were provided by one of two emergency medical assistance units, five of thirty emergency departments and all medical-surgical and psychiatric units; in data from the latter two sources, a unique anonymous identifier gave individual statistics, while the first two covered only suicide attempts. In 2011, the number of suicide attempt calls per 100,000 inhabitants was 304, whereas the number of hospitalisations with this diagnosis was 275; rates are highest in men between 20 and 49 years of age, and in women below 20 years of age and between 40 and 49. Sources are seen to be very homogeneous with regards to the average age at which suicide took place (between 37.8 and 38.5 years, depending on the source), and to the sex (55.0% to 57.6% of women). In 2011, the number of patients with a diagnosis of suicide attempt treated in psychiatry is 2.6 times lower than the number hospitalised for suicide attempt in medical-surgical units (3563 vs 9327). Permanent gathering of data, and the large volume of data recorded, should encourage the use of these databases in the definition and assessment of mental health policy: an increased contribution from emergency call centers and emergency services, and the coding of the suicidal nature of intoxications by a few clearly under-declaring units

  17. NORD's Patient Assistance Programs

    MedlinePlus

    ... 486-8462 *learn more about this program* *aprender más sobre este programa* Chronic Non-Infectious Uveitis | Closed ... 486-8033 *learn more about this program* *aprender más sobre este programa* Cystinuria | Temporarily at Capacity Co- ...

  18. Privacy Laws and Biobanking in Germany.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Nils

    2016-03-01

    While the possibility of enacting a sui generis Biobank Act has been debated in Germany at great length, as of yet the country has not implemented any biobankspecific legislation. Instead, oversight is available via a network of research and privacy laws, including those of the European Union. The Nationale Kohorte, Germany's large-scale, population-based epidemiological research biobank, is funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, and there are currently 108 registered bio-banks throughout Germany. The current system, including the structure and study design of the Nationale Kohorte, privileges the protection of personal information even at the cost of socially desirable research; it remains to be seen if forthcoming legislation will shift this balance. © 2016 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics.

  19. [Pharmacological aspects of pain research in Germany].

    PubMed

    Niederberger, E; Kuner, R; Geißlinger, G

    2015-10-01

    In spite of several approved analgesics, the therapy of pain still constitutes a challenge due to the fact that the drugs do not exert sufficient efficacy or are associated with severe side effects. Therefore, the development of new and improved painkillers is still of great importance. A number of highly qualified scientists in Germany are investigating signal transduction pathways in pain, effectivity of new drugs and the so far incompletely investigated mechanisms of well-known analgesics in preclinical and clinical studies. The highlights of pharmacological pain research in Germany are summarized in this article.

  20. A consistent magnetic polarity stratigraphy of Plio-Pleistocene fluvial sediments from the Heidelberg Basin (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheidt, Stephanie; Hambach, Ulrich; Rolf, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Viernheim and Heidelberg. All things considered, the application of magnetic polarity stratigraphy on Pliocene and Pleistocene fluvial sediments from the Heidelberg Basin provides a consistent and independent chronology and opens the perspective for global correlations where other approaches hardly come to results. [1] GABRIEL, G., ELLWANGER, D., HOSELMANN, C. & WEIDENFELLER, M. 2008. Preface: The HeidelbergBasin Drilling Project. E & G (Quaternary Science Journal), 57, 253-260. [2] ELLWANGER, D. & WIELAND-SCHUSTER, U. 2012. Fotodokumentation und Schichtenverzeichnis der Forschungsbohrungen Heidelberg UniNord I und II. LGRB-Informationen, 26, 25-86. [3] KIRSCHVINK, J. L. 1980. The least-squares line and plane and the analysis of palaeomagnetic data. Geophysical Journal, Royal Astronomical Society, 62, 699-718. [4] ROLF, C., HAMBACH, U. & WEIDENFELLER, M. 2008. Rock and palaeomagnetic evidence for the Plio-/Pleistocene palaeoclimatic change recorded in Upper Rhine Graben sediments (Core Ludwigshafen-Parkinsel), Neth. J. Geosci., 87 (1), 41-50. [5] KNIPPING, M. 2008. Early and Middle Pleistocene pollen assemblages of deep core drillings in the northern Upper Rhine Graben, Germany, Neth. J. Geosci., 87(1), 51-65. [6] HEUMANN, G., pers. Comm. [7] HAHNE, J., pers. Comm.

  1. Past and current weight change and forearm bone loss in middle-aged women: the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, Norway.

    PubMed

    Forsmo, Siri; Langhammer, Arnulf; Schei, Berit

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between bone loss and weight change before and concurrently to the assessment of forearm bone loss over 4.6 years in a population-based cohort of middle-aged women followed for more than 15 years. Among 8,856 women aged 45 to 60 years attending the first Nord-Trøndelag Health Study study, Norway (1984-1986), a 35% random sample was invited for forearm densitometry at Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 2 (1995-1997), and 2,188 women (78%) attended. After an average period of 4.6 years, they were subsequently invited for follow-up densitometry in 2001, and 1,421 women (67.8%) met. Weight and height were measured on all three occasions. During the total period of observation since baseline (15.5 y), the mean weight had increased by 3.4 kg, mostly in the youngest women. Weight loss had an accelerating and weight gain a decelerating effect on bone loss, and this was observed both for weight change occurring before the bone mineral density follow-up and for concurrent weight change. The relationship between prior weight gain or loss and bone loss seemed to persist, independent of the weight change observed during the period of bone loss assessment. Despite no mechanical impact of body weight on the forearm, weight loss in midlife women seems to be associated with a long-lasting negative effect on bone and vice versa for weight gain. This is presumably explained by humoral factors.

  2. Potentially inappropriate medication prescribing is associated with socioeconomic factors: a spatial analysis in the French Nord-Pas-de-Calais Region.

    PubMed

    Beuscart, Jean-Baptiste; Genin, Michael; Dupont, Corrine; Verloop, David; Duhamel, Alain; Defebvre, Marguerite-Marie; Puisieux, François

    2017-07-01

    potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) prescribing is common in older people and leads to adverse events and hospital admissions. to determine whether prevalence of PIM prescribing varies according to healthcare supply and socioeconomic status. all prescriptions dispensed at community pharmacies for patients aged 75 and older between 1 January  and 31 March 2012 were retrieved from French Health Insurance Information System of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais Region for patients affiliated to the Social Security scheme. PIM was defined according to the French list of Laroche. The geographic distribution of PIM prescribing in this area was analysed using spatial scan statistics. overall, 65.6% (n = 207,979) of people aged 75 years and over living in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais Region were included. Among them, 32.6% (n = 67,863) received at least one PIM. The spatial analysis identified 16 and 10 clusters of municipalities with a high and a low prevalence of PIM prescribing, respectively. Municipalities with a low prevalence of PIM were characterised by a high socioeconomic status whereas those with a high prevalence of PIM were mainly characterised by a low socioeconomic status, such as a high unemployment rate and low household incomes. Markers of healthcare supply were weakly associated with high or low prevalence clusters. significant geographic variation in PIM prescribing was observed in the study territory and was mainly associated with socioeconomic factors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  3. Vocational Training in Germany: Modernisation and Responsiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This volume presents a report on recent developments and current policy objectives in vocational education and training in Germany. The study is based on a conceptual and analytical framework jointly elaborated by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development Secretariat and representatives of member countries. Part I is "The…

  4. Gifted Education and Talent Support in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Christian; Müller, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    While the focus in Germany was initially on disabled children only, the promotion of gifted and talented children has become increasingly important. Different organisations and institutions, ranging from parents' associations to foundations, offer a large variety of measures catering for the special demands of gifted and talented children,…

  5. Language Science and Orientalism in Imperial Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Judith R. H.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation addresses a significant gap in the historiography of science: the nature of the language sciences as "science." Focusing on disciplinary and intellectual developments in the context of Imperial Germany (1871-1918), the project anticipates, complicates, and helps to explain a widely recognized theoretical shift, namely,…

  6. Mapping Music Education Research in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruhn, Wilfried

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a very general survey of tracks and trends in music education research in Germany and its roots in the 19th century, where the beginning of empirical music psychology can be traced back to "Tonpsychologie" and perception research of scholars such as Helmholtz, Stumpf, Wundt, and Wellek. Focus areas that are…

  7. Novel lyssavirus in Natterer's bat, Germany.

    PubMed

    Freuling, Conrad M; Beer, Martin; Conraths, Franz J; Finke, Stefan; Hoffmann, Bernd; Keller, Barbara; Kliemt, Jeannette; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Mühlbach, Elke; Teifke, Jens P; Wohlsein, Peter; Müller, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    A virus isolated from a Natterer's bat (Myotis nattererii) in Germany was differentiated from other lyssaviruses on the basis of the reaction pattern of a panel of monoclonal antibodies. Phylogenetic analysis supported the assumption that the isolated virus, Bokeloh bat lyssavirus, may represent a new member of the genus Lyssavirus.

  8. Estimated burden of fungal infections in Germany.

    PubMed

    Ruhnke, Markus; Groll, Andreas H; Mayser, Peter; Ullmann, Andrew J; Mendling, Werner; Hof, Herbert; Denning, David W

    2015-10-01

    In the late 1980's, the incidence of invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) in Germany was estimated with 36.000 IFDs per year. The current number of fungal infections (FI) occurring each year in Germany is still not known. In the actual analysis, data on incidence of fungal infections in various patients groups at risk for FI were calculated and mostly estimated from various (mostly national) resources. According to the very heterogenous data resources robust data or statistics could not be obtained but preliminary estimations could be made and compared with data from other areas in the world using a deterministic model that has consistently been applied in many countries by the LIFE program ( www.LIFE-worldwide.org). In 2012, of the 80.52 million population (adults 64.47 million; 41.14 million female, 39.38 million male), 20% are children (0-14 years) and 16% of population are ≥65 years old. Using local data and literature estimates of the incidence or prevalence of fungal infections, about 9.6 million (12%) people in Germany suffer from a fungal infection each year. These figures are dominated (95%) by fungal skin disease and recurrent vulvo-vaginal candidosis. In general, considerable uncertainty surrounds the total numbers because IFDs do not belong to the list of reportable infectious diseases in Germany and most patients were not hospitalised because of the IFD but a distinct underlying disease. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. "Spiegeldorf": Nazi Appeals in Weimar Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprague, Gregory A.

    The paper discusses rationales for simulation gaming and describes "Spiegeldorf," a socio-historical game which simulates socioeconomic conditions in early 1930 Germany and Nazi party tactics used to gain mass support. Objectives are to identify characteristic Nazi tactics and points of political ideology, describe German social classes…

  10. Successful overwintering of Aedes albopictus in Germany.

    PubMed

    Pluskota, Björn; Jöst, Artur; Augsten, Xenia; Stelzner, Lilith; Ferstl, Ina; Becker, Norbert

    2016-08-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) is of great concern to public health authorities due to its vector competence and rapid spread across the globe. In 2015, two large local breeding populations of Ae. albopictus were discovered in southwest Germany. In spring 2016, we were able to demonstrate the first evidence of a successful overwintering in Germany of this originally tropical mosquito species in different research projects. Particularly noteworthy is the successful hatching of diapause eggs of an Italian strain (Calabria), which overwintered successfully in the field in St. Georgen im Schwarzwald (Baden-Wuerttemberg) at 820 m above sea level. Furthermore, within the scope of a larvae monitoring, the first larvae that hatched in the field were detected on the April 09, 2016 in a rain barrel within the Heidelberg population. Our first results show that self-extinction due to an unsuccessful overwintering cannot be assumed for populations of the Asian tiger mosquito which settled in Germany in previous years. The evidence of a successful overwintering of a large number of diapause eggs and the hatching of the first larvae in field conditions opens the control year against Ae. albopictus in southwest Germany.

  11. West Germany: Federal Structure, Political Influence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toogood, Alex

    1978-01-01

    Describes the organizational structure of the broadcasting industry in West Germany which is unique because of the federal, public, and political elements involved. Special problems that arise from this framework are discussed, including financing, programing, creative vs technical advances, concepts of production values, and political balance.…

  12. Education in Germany. Bulletin, 1938, No. 15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindegren, Alina M.

    1939-01-01

    While educational developments in Germany have always been of interest to the people of this country, educators and laymen in the United States have shown particular interest since 1933 because of the relationship which the school system there has had to the central government and its evolving political, economic, racial, and social doctrines. The…

  13. The Marketisation of Guidance Services in Germany, France and Britain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Teresa; Bartlett, Will; Watts, A. G.

    1999-01-01

    Compares developments in Britain, France, and Germany, focusing on the trends toward marketing adult career guidance services. Describes how Germany's centralized system and the quasi-market based system in France might apply in Britain. (JOW)

  14. [Pharmacovigilance in Germany : It is about time].

    PubMed

    Douros, A; Schaefer, C; Kreutz, R; Garbe, E

    2016-06-01

    Pharmacovigilance is defined as the activities relating to the detection, assessment, and prevention of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Although its beginnings in Germany date back more than 50 years, a stagnation in this field has been observed lately. Different tools of pharmacovigilance will be illustrated and the reasons for its stagnation in Germany will be elucidated. Spontaneous reporting systems are an important tool in pharmacovigilance and are based on reports of ADRs from treating physicians, other healthcare professionals, or patients. Due to several weaknesses of spontaneous reporting systems such as underreporting, media bias, confounding by comorbidity or comedication, and due to the limited quality of the reports, the development of electronic healthcare databases was publicly funded in recent years so that they can be used for pharmacovigilance research. In the US different electronic healthcare databases were merged in a project sponsored by public means resulting in more than 193 million individuals. In Germany the establishment of large longitudinal databases was never conceived as a public duty and has not been implemented so far. Further attempts to use administrative healthcare data for pharmacovigilance purposes are severely restricted by the Code of Social Law (Section 75, Book 10). This situation has led to a stagnation in pharmacovigilance research in Germany. Without publicly funded large longitudinal healthcare databases and an amendment of Section 75, Book 10, of the Code of Social Law, the use of healthcare data in pharmacovigilance research in Germany will remain a rarity. This could have negative effects on the medical care of the general population.

  15. Is Germany a model for managers?

    PubMed

    Wever, K S; Allen, C S

    1992-01-01

    Most American managers have a hard time making sense of Germany. The country has a fraction of the resources and less than one-third the population of the United States. Labor costs are substantially higher, paid vacations are at least three times as long, and strong unions are deeply involved at all levels of business, from the local plant to the corporate boardroom. Yet German companies manage to produce internationally competitive products in key manufacturing sectors, making Germany the greatest competitive threat to the United States after Japan. The seemingly paradoxical nature of the German economy typically evokes one of two diametrically opposed responses. The first is to celebrate the German economy as a "model" worth emulating--indeed, as the answer to declining U.S. competitiveness. The alternative, more skeptical response is to question Germany's staying power in a new, more competitive global economy. According to Kirsten Wever and Christopher Allen, the problem with both points of view is that they miss the forest for the trees. Observers are so preoccupied with praising--or blaming--individual components of the German economy that they fail to see the dynamic logic that ties these components together into a coherent system. In their review of recent research on the German business system, Wever and Allen argue that managers can learn an important lesson from Germany. In the global economy, competition isn't just between companies but between entire socioeconomic systems. Germany's ability to design a cohesive economic and social system that adapts continuously to changing requirements goes a long way toward explaining that country's competitive success.

  16. [Performance of in vitro fertilization in Germany].

    PubMed

    van der Ven, Hans; Montag, Markus; van der Ven, Katrin

    2002-07-01

    In Germany the application of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) is regulated by federal legislation. Compared with the international situation the "German Embryo Protection Law" is very "restrictive" and various methods of ART are prohibited, e.g. oocyte/embryo donation, embryo cryopreservation and Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD). Furthermore, in Germany only 1 to 3 fertilized oocytes may be cultured to embryo. All these embryos then have to be transferred into the uterus of a particular patient. Additional fertilized oocytes can only be cryopreserved in a pronuclear state. The success rate of ART has increased significantly over the past few years owing to the introduction of blastocyst cultures and the selection of 1 to 2 good quality blastocysts for embryo transfer. Furthermore, the transfer of only 1 to 2 blastocysts effectively reduces the risk of high rank multiple pregnancies. In Germany, however, the selection of only a few good quality blastocysts for transfer is prohibited by law. New laboratory techniques, e.g. pronuclear scoring and polar body biopsy screening for aneuploidy are in accordance with German law. The application of these methods provides a selection of "good quality oocytes" and seems to increase the overall success rate. Further studies are required, however. The success rate, quality and cost effectiveness of ART in Germany appears compromised when compared with many other countries. What is more, in contrast to the international situation research and development in ART in Germany has been decreasing constantly over the past few years, due to the inappropriate regulations of the German health care system and the insufficient support given to university-based centers.

  17. The Definition of Vocational Diplomas in Germany and France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobus, Martine; Verdier, Eric

    1997-01-01

    In both France and Germany, the government, employers' organizations, and unions all participate in defining vocational diplomas based on a national framework of procedures of elaborating and standardizing titles. Important differences between the diploma definition processes in France and Germany may be identified. In Germany, the issue is…

  18. Education in Germany: A Bibliography of English Language Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Max-Planck-Institut fuer Bildungsforschung, Berlin (West Germany).

    This bibliography cites bibliographies, journals, books, essays, journal articles, and monographs on education in Germany. All publications cited are in English. The three major sections of the bibliography are education in Germany up to 1945, education in the Federal Republic of Germany, and education in the German Democratic Republic. Topics…

  19. 48 CFR 252.229-7002 - Customs exemptions (Germany).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (Germany). 252.229-7002 Section 252.229-7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7002 Customs exemptions (Germany). As prescribed in 229.402-70(b), use the following clause: Customs Exemptions (Germany) (JUN 1997) Imported products required for the...

  20. 48 CFR 252.246-7002 - Warranty of construction (Germany).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (Germany). 252.246-7002 Section 252.246-7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.246-7002 Warranty of construction (Germany). As prescribed in 246.710(4), use the following clause: Warranty of Construction (Germany) (JUN 1997) (a) In addition to any other...

  1. 48 CFR 252.246-7002 - Warranty of construction (Germany).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (Germany). 252.246-7002 Section 252.246-7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.246-7002 Warranty of construction (Germany). As prescribed in 246.710(4), use the following clause: Warranty of Construction (Germany) (JUN 1997) (a) In addition to any other...

  2. 48 CFR 252.229-7002 - Customs exemptions (Germany).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (Germany). 252.229-7002 Section 252.229-7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7002 Customs exemptions (Germany). As prescribed in 229.402-70(b), use the following clause: Customs Exemptions (Germany) (JUN 1997) Imported products required for the...

  3. 48 CFR 252.246-7002 - Warranty of construction (Germany).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (Germany). 252.246-7002 Section 252.246-7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.246-7002 Warranty of construction (Germany). As prescribed in 246.710(4), use the following clause: Warranty of Construction (Germany) (JUN 1997) (a) In addition to any other...

  4. 48 CFR 252.246-7002 - Warranty of construction (Germany).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (Germany). 252.246-7002 Section 252.246-7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.246-7002 Warranty of construction (Germany). As prescribed in 246.710(2), use the following clause: Warranty of Construction (Germany) (JUN 1997) (a) In addition to any other...

  5. 48 CFR 252.246-7002 - Warranty of construction (Germany).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (Germany). 252.246-7002 Section 252.246-7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.246-7002 Warranty of construction (Germany). As prescribed in 246.710(4), use the following clause: Warranty of Construction (Germany) (JUN 1997) (a) In addition to any other...

  6. 48 CFR 252.229-7002 - Customs exemptions (Germany).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (Germany). 252.229-7002 Section 252.229-7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7002 Customs exemptions (Germany). As prescribed in 229.402-70(b), use the following clause: Customs Exemptions (Germany) (JUN 1997) Imported products required for the...

  7. 48 CFR 252.229-7002 - Customs exemptions (Germany).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (Germany). 252.229-7002 Section 252.229-7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7002 Customs exemptions (Germany). As prescribed in 229.402-70(b), use the following clause: Customs Exemptions (Germany) (JUN 1997) Imported products required for the...

  8. 48 CFR 252.229-7002 - Customs exemptions (Germany).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (Germany). 252.229-7002 Section 252.229-7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7002 Customs exemptions (Germany). As prescribed in 229.402-70(b), use the following clause: Customs Exemptions (Germany) (JUN 1997) Imported products required for the...

  9. [Future supply of tuberculin in Germany].

    PubMed

    Sagebiel, D; Hauer, B; Haas, W; Magdorf, K; Priwitzer, M; Loddenkemper, R

    2005-04-01

    The manufacturers of the only tuberculin available up to now in Germany for intradermal TB tests according to Mantoux, Chiron Vaccines Behring, in 2004 unexpectedly stopped the production of the tuberculin Behring GT (GT="gereinigtes Tuberkulin"-purified protein derivative tuberculin). Only residual stocks were sold during the preceding months. The stocks of GT 10 were already depleted at the beginning of 2005, while there are small supplies left of GT 100 and GT 1000. As a temporary solution, Chiron Vaccines Behring is offering to import the Italian tuberculin Biocine PPD 5 IE lyophil produced by Chiron S.r.l. in Siena. As this is not licensed for sale in Germany, it is necessary to obtain an exceptional prescription (Einzelverordnung) according to section sign 73 (3) of the Federal Law Relating to the Manufacture and Distribution of Medicine (Arzneimittelgesetz, AMG). In the long term, Chiron Vaccines Behring plan to secure the supply of tuberculin in Germany by importing, starting in the summer of 2006, the tuberculin produced by Chiron Vaccines Evans in the UK (PPD Evans). However, these plans involve changing over to a different type of tuberculin twice within a very short period of time. Another problem is the unresolved issue of bioequivalence. Besides the above-mentioned tuberculins produced by Chiron Vaccines, a further possibility would be the import of the tuberculin PPD RT23 SSI of the Statens Serums Institute (Copenhagen/Denmark), which is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as the standard tuberculin and which has already been introduced in several European countries, or of other tuberculins such as Tubersol (PPD CT68), which is used in the US. Together with the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) and the Paul Ehrlich Institute (PEI), the German Central Committee against Tuberculosis (DZK) is striving to find a solution, in view of the urgent need for an uninterrupted supply of tuberculin in Germany for diagnostic purposes and contact tracing

  10. Poverty, health, and nutrition in Germany.

    PubMed

    Helmert, U; Mielck, A; Shea, S

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the relation between poverty and several variables describing health and nutrition behavior in East Germany and West Germany. Data are from the third National Health Survey in West Germany and the first Health Survey for the new federal states of Germany (1991/92). Both health surveys included a self-administered questionnaire ascertaining sociodemographic variables, smoking history, nutritional behavior (using a food-frequency list), physical activity, and a medical examination comprising measurements of height, weight, blood pressure, and blood sampling for serum cholesterol determination. Participants included 4958 subjects in the West Survey and 2186 subjects in the East Survey aged 25-69 years, with a respective net response rate of 69.0% and 70.2%. Poverty was defined as a household equivalence income of 62.5% or less of the median income of the general population. The lowest income group (poverty or near poverty) comprised 11.6% of East German versus 15.9% of West German males and 14.8% of East German versus 19.3% of West German females. For most but not all health and nutrition parameters, less favorable results were obtained for subjects with an equivalence income below or near poverty. The most striking poverty-related differences regarding cardiovascular disease risk factors were found for lack of regular exercise for both genders and obesity in females. No poverty-related differences were found for the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, despite a much higher prevalence of obesity in persons with an income below the poverty line. Current nutritional behavior and changes in nutritional behavior during the last three years was strongly related to income status, with a more unhealthy status for low-income population groups in both East and West Germany. In Germany, poverty has strong effects on individual health status and nutritional behavior. Because of rising unemployment rates and reductions in social security payments for low

  11. [The reception of Heinz Kohut in Germany].

    PubMed

    Milch, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    First the discussion of Kohut's new ideas in the United States is sketched as a background. The response to these ideas was divided: on the one hand they were hailed as important innovations of psychoanalytic theory, and a circle of colleagues formed around their author; on the other hand they were violently rejected, and old friends distanced themselves from him. In Germany Kuhut's ideas were initially well received. His visits, lectures and supervisions resulted in a lively exchange and a number of friendships. When the differences between Kohutian and classical theory became evident this led increasingly to disillusionment and retreat. De-emphasizing drive and ego psychology had considerable consequences for psychoanalytic technique as well as for the analyst's Menschenbild, his relationship to the patient and his critical self-reflection. In Germany, too, a circle of colleagues emerged, following and elaborating the ideas of Kohut.

  12. Topographies of forensic practice in Imperial Germany.

    PubMed

    Engstrom, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the topography and "cultural machinery" of forensic jurisdictions in Imperial Germany. It locates the sites at which boundary disputes between psychiatric and legal professionals arose and explores the strategies and practices that governed the division of expert labor between them. It argues that the over-determined paradigms of 'medicalization' and 'biologization' have lost much of their explanatory force and that historians need to refocus their attention on the institutional and administrative configuration of forensic practices in Germany. After first sketching the statutory context of those practices, the article explores how contentious jurisdictional negotiations pitted various administrative, financial, public security, and scientific interests against one another. The article also assesses the contested status of psychiatric expertise in the courtroom, as well as post-graduate forensic psychiatric training courses and joint professional organizations, which drew the two professional communities closer together and mediated their jurisdictional disputes. © 2013.

  13. [Disaster Control and Civil Protection in Germany].

    PubMed

    Kippnich, Maximilian; Kowalzik, Barbara; Cermak, Rudolf; Kippnich, Uwe; Kranke, Peter; Wurmb, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    The train crash of Bad Aibling/Germany in February 2016 and the terrorist attacks of the recent years in Europe have demonstrated the urgent need to be prepared for such disastrous events. Disaster preparedness and disaster control are very important governmental duties, as are civil protection and civil defense. In Germany the responsibility for those tasks are divided between the 16 "Länder" and the Federation. While the Federation takes care of the civil protection and disaster assistance, the Länder are responsible for disaster control. The presented article focuses on these issues and gives valuable insights into the German system of disaster control and civil protection with a focus on health protection. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. [Telemedicine in Germany. Status, Barriers, Perspectives].

    PubMed

    Brauns, H-J; Loos, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    Telemedicine as a subject has reached politics, doctors and patients, but it has still not been able to make the leap from research, development, and testing into real practice. This is generally because of the great barriers to implementation, mainly the lack of telematics infrastructure and of payment regulations in Germany. Telemedicine projects are mainly isolated applications and it has not been possible to integrate them in to nationwide regular health services. Other challenges along the path to standard care include that research-based small-medium enterprise (SME) companies usually face high barriers hindering access to this market, because it is imposible for them to finance all the required evidence-based studies to verify the medical benefits and the econimic efficiency. Additionally, a high market nontransparency is noted. However, the signs of progress are visible, e.g., the E-health initiative of the German government or recent legislative initiatives. However, long processes are observed that do not facilitate the use of telemedicine. Although some federal states, e.g., North Rhine Westphalia, Bavaria, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, and Saxony, show exemplary activities, there are still many white areas on the telemedicine map of Germany. The road to standard care will be long, but is not unattainable. The reasons for supporting telemedicine are still strong. The future development of telemedicine applications will contribute to sustainable and high-quality patient care in Germany.

  15. Germany's expanding role in global health.

    PubMed

    Kickbusch, Ilona; Franz, Christian; Holzscheiter, Anna; Hunger, Iris; Jahn, Albrecht; Köhler, Carsten; Razum, Oliver; Schmidt, Jean-Olivier

    2017-08-26

    Germany has become a visible actor in global health in the past 10 years. In this Series paper, we describe how this development complements a broad change in perspective in German foreign policy. Catalysts for this shift have been strong governmental leadership, opportunities through G7 and G20 presidencies, and Germany's involvement in managing the Ebola virus disease outbreak. German global health engagement has four main characteristics that are congruent with the health agenda of the Sustainable Development Goals; it is rooted in human rights, multilateralism, the Bismarck model of social protection, and a link between development and investment on the basis of its own development trajectory after World War 2. The combination of momentum and specific characteristics makes Germany well equipped to become a leader in global health, yet the country needs to accept additional financial responsibility for global health, expand its domestic global health competencies, reduce fragmentation of global health policy making, and solve major incoherencies in its policies both nationally and internationally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [First ciguatera outbreak in Germany in 2012].

    PubMed

    Friedemann, Miriam

    2016-12-01

    In November 2012, 23 cases of ciguatera with typical combinations of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms occurred in Germany after consumption of imported tropical fish (Lutjanus spp.). A questionnaire was used to gather information on the disease course and fish consumption. All patients suffered from pathognomonic cold allodynia. Aside from two severe courses of illness, all other cases showed symptoms of moderate intensity. During a three-year follow-up, seven patients reported prolonged paresthesia for more than one year. Two of them reported further neuropathies over almost three years. This is the first time that long-term persistence of symptoms has been documented in detail. Outbreak cases were allocated to eight clusters in seven German cities. A further cluster was prevented by the successful recall of ciguatoxic fish. Three clusters were confirmed by the detection of ciguatoxin in samples of suspicious and recalled fish. An extrapolation on the basis of ciguatoxic samples revealed twenty prevented cases of ciguatera. Further officially unknown cases should be assumed. During the outbreak investigations, inadvertently falsely labelled fish species and fishing capture areas on import and retail level documents were observed. The ascertainment of cases and the outbreak investigations proved to be difficult due to inconsistent case reports to poisons centers, local health and veterinary authorities. In Germany, many physicians are unaware of the disease pattern of ciguatera and the risks caused by tropical fish. The occurrence of further outbreaks during the following years emphasizes the increasing significance of ciguatera in Germany.

  17. Etude de la qualité bactériologique de l’eau utilisée dans l’industrie agroalimentaire dans le Nord du Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Haijoubi, El Houcine; Benyahya, Fatiha; Bendahou, Abdrezzak; Essadqui, Faima Zahra; Behhari, Mohammed El; El Mamoune, Ahmed Fouad; Ghailani, Naima Nourouti; Mechita, Mohcine Bennani; Barakat, Amina

    2017-01-01

    Introduction L'eau est utilisée d'une façon primordiale dans tout le processus de la fabrication des produits alimentaires. Les industries agroalimentaires du Nord du Maroc utilisent différentes sources d'eaux mais l'eau de réseau public et l'eau de puits sont les principales sources d'eau utilisée. Cette eau peut s'avérer la source principale des éventuelles contaminations et altérations des aliments. Notre but est d'évaluer la qualité bactériologique de l'eau utilisée par les industries agroalimentaires dans la région du Nord du Maroc, d'identifier les différents germes responsables de la pollution de ces eaux et de définir les principales causes de cette pollution. Méthodes Des échantillons d'eau prélevés aux robinets ou des puits ont été analysés pour la recherche des germes indicateurs de la pollution (coliformes totaux (CT), coliformes fécaux (CF), entérocoques intestinaux (E), microorganismes revivifiables (MOR), anaérobies sulfitoréducteurs) et les germes pathogènes (Salmonelles, Staphylocoques, Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Le dénombrement des bactéries a été fait par la technique de filtration et par incorporation en milieu solide en surfusion. Résultats Les résultats ont montré que les eaux du réseau public ont été de qualité bactériologique satisfaisante tandis que 40% des eaux des puits ont été non conformes aux normes à cause de la présence des indicateurs de pollution CT, CF, E et MOR. En revanche, les germes pathogènes, en particulier les Salmonelles, ont été absents dans les eaux de tous les puits analysés. Conclusion La pollution de ces puits a été généralement liée au non-respect des conditions de puisage hygiéniques. La qualité bactériologique des eaux de ces puits peut être améliorée par une protection adéquate. PMID:28450992

  18. Alcohol consumption is associated with reduced risk of Type 2 diabetes and autoimmune diabetes in adults: results from the Nord-Trøndelag health study.

    PubMed

    Rasouli, B; Ahlbom, A; Andersson, T; Grill, V; Midthjell, K; Olsson, L; Carlsson, S

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the influence of different aspects of alcohol consumption on the risk of Type 2 diabetes and autoimmune diabetes in adults. We used data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey (HUNT) study, in which all adults aged ≥ 20 years from Nord-Trondelag County were invited to participate in three surveys in 1984-1986, 1995-1997 and 2006-2008. Patients with diabetes were identified using self-reports, and participants with onset age ≥ 35 years were classified as having Type 2 diabetes if they were negative for anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (n = 1841) and as having autoimmune diabetes if they were positive for anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (n = 140). Hazard ratios of amount and frequency of alcohol use, alcoholic beverage choice, and binge drinking and alcohol use disorders were estimated. Moderate alcohol consumption (adjusted for confounders) was associated with a reduced risk of Type 2 diabetes in men, but not in women (hazard ratio for men 10-15 g/day 0.48, 95% CI 0.28-0.77; hazard ratio for women ≥ 10 g/day 0.81, 95% CI 0.33-1.96). The reduced risk was primarily linked to consumption of wine [hazard ratio 0.93, 95% CI 0.87-0.99 (per g/day)]. No increased risk was seen in participants reporting binge drinking or in problem drinkers. The results were also compatible with a reduced risk of autoimmune diabetes associated with alcohol consumption [hazard ratio 0.70, 95% CI 0.45-1.08 (frequent consumption) and hazard ratio 0.36, 95% CI 0.13-0.97 (2-7 g/day)]. Moderate alcohol consumption associates with reduced risk of both Type 2 diabetes and autoimmune diabetes. A protective effect of alcohol intake may be limited to men. High alcohol consumption does not seem to carry an increased risk of diabetes. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.

  19. Source tracing of fluvial suspended sediments by magnetic and geochemical particle characterization: example of the Canche watershed (Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patault, Edouard; Alary, Claire; Franke, Christine; Gauthier, Arnaud; Abriak, Nor-Edine

    2016-04-01

    In France, erosion by water run-off is estimated to 1.5 t ha-1yr-1 and can exceed 10 t ha-1yr-1 in large growing areas, such as the North of France (Nord-Pas-de-Calais). In this region, the Canche watershed (1294 km2) sustains heavy loss of fertile soils. The land use is mainly dominated by arable lands (80%) and in 2013, 104 kt of suspended sediment transited to the estuary. As demonstrated in literature, agricultural soil erosion leads to the gradual disappearance and depletion of fertile soil, which constitute a non-renewable resource at human time scale. Additionally, water erosion can significantly damage the aquatic habitat and can be responsible for the input of nutrients, bacteria, pesticides, heavy metals and radionuclides into surface waters. Conscious of these effects, many programs have emerged in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais to reduce erosion. This study presents a combination of environmental magnetic proxy parameters and geochemical analyses on sediments and suspended particulate matter. The aim is to develop effective tools to trace erosion by water run-off and quantify this process. In order to identify the respective sediment sources in the Canche watershed, sediment trap samples of suspended particulate matter were recovered at key positions along the Canche watershed. The preliminary results show that magnetic concentration (Mrs) shows typical values for the agricultural soils in the region, but these variations in magnetic concentrations and total irons concentrations are not always correlated, which may be explained by the iron speciation. In calculating the so-called S-ratio for each sample we can distinguish changes in magneto-mineralogy (and thus iron speciation) from magnetite-dominated assemblages in the mainstream Canche (naturel background signal) to high-coercivity-dominated assemblages in the tributaries, typical for soil erosion material rich in hematite/goethite. In combination with the element concentrations from ICP analyses, this proxy

  20. The effectiveness of stuttering treatments in Germany.

    PubMed

    Euler, Harald A; Lange, Benjamin P; Schroeder, Sascha; Neumann, Katrin

    2014-03-01

    Persons who stutter (PWS) should be referred to the most effective treatments available, locally or regionally. A prospective comparison of the effects of the most common stuttering treatments in Germany is not available. Therefore, a retrospective evaluation by clients of stuttering treatments was carried out. The five most common German stuttering treatments (231 single treatment cases) were rated as to their perceived effectiveness, using a structured questionnaire, by 88 PWS recruited through various sources. The participants had received between 1 and 7 treatments for stuttering. Two stuttering treatments (stuttering modification, fluency shaping) showed favorable and three treatments (breathing therapy, hypnosis, unspecified logopedic treatment) showed unsatisfactory effectiveness ratings. The effectiveness ratings of stuttering modification and fluency shaping did not differ significantly. The three other treatments were equally ineffective. The differences between the effective and ineffective treatments were of large effect sizes. The typical therapy biography begins in childhood with an unspecified logopedic treatment administered extensively in single and individual sessions. Available comparisons showed intensive or interval treatments to be superior to extensive treatments, and group treatments to be superior to single client treatments. The stuttering treatment most often prescribed in Germany, namely a weekly session of individual treatment by a speech-language pathologist, usually with an assorted package of mostly unknown components, is of limited effectiveness. Better effectiveness can be expected from fluency shaping or stuttering modification approaches, preferably with an intensive time schedule and with group sessions. Readers will be able to: (a) discuss the five most prevalent stuttering treatments in Germany; (b) summarize the effectiveness of these treatments; and (c) describe structural treatment components that seem to be preferable

  1. Risk and protective factors for psychological distress among adolescents: a family study in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study.

    PubMed

    Myklestad, Ingri; Røysamb, Espen; Tambs, Kristian

    2012-05-01

    The study aimed to investigate potential adolescent and parental psychosocial risk and protective factors for psychological distress among adolescents and, in addition, to examine potential gender and age differences in the effects of risk factors on adolescent psychological distress. Data were collected among 8,984 Norwegian adolescents (13-19 years) and their parents in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT). The outcome measure was psychological distress (SCL-5). Bivariate regression analysis with generalized estimating equation (GEE) model showed that all parental self-reported variables (mental distress, substance use, social network, economic problems, unemployment and family structure) and adolescents' self-reported variables (leisure activities, social support from friends, school-related problems and substance use) were significantly associated with psychological distress among adolescents. Results revealed that in a multiple regression analysis with a GEE model, adolescent psychosocial variables, specifically academic-related problems and being bullied at school, emerged as the strongest predictors of psychological distress among adolescents after controlling for age, gender, and all parental and adolescent variables. The following psychosocial risk factors were significantly more important for girl's psychological distress compared to boys: problems with academic achievement, conduct problems in school, frequency of being drunk, smoking, dissatisfaction in school, living alone and seen parents being drunk. Academic achievement and being bullied at school were the psychosocial factors most strongly associated with psychological distress among adolescents. Parental factors had an indirect effect on adolescent psychological distress, through adolescents' psychosocial factors.

  2. Paternal and maternal alcohol abuse and offspring mental distress in the general population: the Nord-Trøndelag health study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The degree to which parental alcohol abuse is a risk factor for offspring mental distress is unclear, due to conflicting results of previous research. The inconsistencies in previous findings may be related to sample characteristics and lack of control of confounding or moderating factors. One such factor may be the gender of the abusing parent. Also, other factors, such as parental mental health, divorce, adolescent social network, school functioning or self-esteem, may impact the outcome. This study examines the impact of maternal and paternal alcohol abuse on adolescent mental distress, including potentially confounding, mediating or moderating effects of various variables. Methods Data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT), a Norwegian population based health survey, from 4012 offspring and their parents were analyzed. Parental alcohol abuse was measured by numerical consumption indicators and CAGE, whereas offspring mental distress was measured by SCL-5, an abbreviated instrument tapping symptoms of anxiety and depression. Statistical method was analysis of variance. Results Maternal alcohol abuse was related to offspring mental distress, whereas no effect could be shown of paternal alcohol abuse. Effects of maternal alcohol abuse was partly mediated by parental mental distress, offspring social network and school functioning. However, all effects were relatively small. Conclusions The results indicate graver consequences for offspring of alcohol abusing mothers compared to offspring of alcohol abusing fathers. However, small effect sizes suggest that adolescent offspring of alcohol abusing parents in general manage quite well. PMID:22708789

  3. Non-random mating and convergence over time for alcohol consumption, smoking, and exercise: the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study.

    PubMed

    Ask, Helga; Rognmo, Kamilla; Torvik, Fartein Ask; Røysamb, Espen; Tambs, Kristian

    2012-05-01

    Spouses tend to have similar lifestyles. We explored the degree to which spouse similarity in alcohol use, smoking, and physical exercise is caused by non-random mating or convergence. We used data collected for the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study from 1984 to 1986 and prospective registry information about when and with whom people entered marriage/cohabitation between 1970 and 2000. Our sample included 19,599 married/cohabitating couples and 1,551 future couples that were to marry/cohabitate in the 14-16 years following data collection. All couples were grouped according to the duration between data collection and entering into marriage/cohabitation. Age-adjusted polychoric spouse correlations were used as the dependent variables in non-linear segmented regression analysis; the independent variable was time. The results indicate that spouse concordance in lifestyle is due to both non-random mating and convergence. Non-random mating appeared to be strongest for smoking. Convergence in alcohol use and smoking was evident during the period prior to marriage/cohabitation, whereas convergence in exercise was evident throughout life. Reduced spouse similarity in smoking with relationship duration may reflect secular trends.

  4. Self-rated health and mortality in different occupational classes and income groups in Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway.

    PubMed

    Holseter, Christoffer; Dalen, Joakim Døving; Krokstad, Steinar; Eikemo, Terje Andreas

    2015-03-10

    People with a lower socioeconomic position have a higher the prevalence of most self-rated health problems. In this article we ask whether this may be attributed to self-rated health not reflecting actual health, understood as mortality, in different socioeconomic groups. For the study we used data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 1984-86 (HUNT1), in which the county's entire adult population aged 20 years and above were invited to participate. The association between self-rated health and mortality in different occupational classes and income groups was analysed. The analysis corrected for age, chronic disease, functional impairment and lifestyle factors. The association between self-rated health and mortality was of the same order of magnitude for the occupational classes and income groups, but persons without work/income and with poor self-rated health stood out. Compared with persons in the highest socioeconomic class, unemployed men had a hazard ratio for death that was three times higher in the follow-up period. For women with no income, the ratio was twice as high. INTERPRETATION Self-rated health and mortality largely conform to the different socioeconomic strata. This supports the perception that socioeconomic differences in health are a reality and represent a significant challenge nationally. Our results also increase the credibility of findings from other studies that use self-reported health in surveys to measure differences and identify the mechanisms that create them.

  5. Pollen-inferred quantitative reconstructions of Holocene land-cover in NW Europe for the evaluation of past climate-vegetation feedbacks - The Swedish LANDCLIM project and the NordForsk LANDCLIM network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillard, Marie-Jose; Sugita, Shinya; Rundgren, Mats; Smith, Benjamin; Mazier, Florence; Trondman, Anna-Kari; Fyfe, Ralph; Kokfelt, Ulla; Nielsen, Anne-Birgitte; Strandberg, Gustav

    2010-05-01

    Reliable predictive models are needed to describe potential future climate changes and their impacts. Land surface-atmosphere feedbacks and their impacts on climate are a current priority in the climate modelling community, but reliable records of long-term land use and vegetation change required for model evaluation are limited. Palaeoecological and palaeo-climatic data provide a unique record of the past changes in vegetation, land use and climate on time scales relevant to vegetation processes and global change projections. The application of a new technique (the REVEALS model (Sugita 2007) to landscape reconstruction using fossil pollen data makes robust comparisons with vegetation model output possible . The model corrects for biases caused by e.g. inter-taxonomic differences in pollen productivity and dispersal. Our results show that pollen percentages, a traditional indicator of land cover changes, generally underestimate the unforested areas and certain broad-leaved trees such as Corylus and Tilia, while they often overestimate Betula and Pinus (see Cui et al. BG 6.2). Climate models use simplified land-surface classifications (plant functional types (PFTs)), such as grass (i.e. open land), deciduous trees, and conifers. Therefore, the observed large discrepancies in past land cover between the REVEALS estimates and pollen percentages are expected to influence model outcomes of the Holocene regional climate in NW Europe. The LANDCLIM project and research network (sponsored by the Swedish [VR] and Nordic [NordForsk] Research Councils) aim to quantify human-induced changes in regional vegetation/land-cover in NW Europe during the Holocene, and to evaluate the effects of these changes on the regional climate through altered feedbacks. We use the REVEALS model, theoretically derived and empirically tested, to estimate the percentage cover of taxa and groups of taxa (PFTs) from fossil pollen data for selected time windows of the Holocene, at a spatial resolution

  6. Terminal Decline in Well-Being Differs between Residents in East Germany and West Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Nina; Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Goebel, Jan; Wagner, Gert G.

    2017-01-01

    Lifespan research has long been interested in how contexts shape individual development. Using the separation and later reunification of Germany as a kind of natural experiment we examine whether and how living and dying in the former East or West German context has differentially shaped late-life development of well-being. We apply multi-level…

  7. The Role of Western Germany in West European Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-04-08

    Ralph. Modern German History. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1964. (DD175 F5) 34. German Research Association. Germany: Franz Steiner Verlag Gmb...and Rudolf , Walter. This Germany. New York: New York Graphic Society Publishers, Ltd., 1954. (DD257 L42) 39. Heidenheimer, Arnold J. The Government...202-07, 243. 47. Lauder, K. H. A Brief Review of Science and Technoloc in Western Germany. London: HIISO, 1955. (Q18 G4G7) 48. Leonhardt, Rudolf Walter

  8. [Children-orientated tobacco advertising in Germany].

    PubMed

    Pumpe, K

    2002-04-01

    Since 1990 the percentage of smokers among the 12 to 17-year-olds in Germany has risen from 21 % to about 28 %. Most of them start between the age of 11 and 13. 85 % favour a certain brand by the age of 18. Despite the prohibition of tobacco commercials on radio and TV the cigarette industry has continually increased their budget for advertising aimed more and more at women and children. According to the author's knowledge, this report describes for the first time the strategies most frequently applied in Germany to incite children and teenagers to smoking. The publicity campaigns are not restricted to billboards and the printed press, but use the internet also. Indirect conditioning to a certain brand by music videos, movies and merchandising of attractive clothes and trips as well as the sponsoring of special music and sports events are also shown.The report analyses and evaluates examples of messages in printed advertisements aimed at children. With psychological skill interest in smoking is created with teenagers and a conditioning for smoking in certain situations is promoted.

  9. Maternal employment and childhood overweight in Germany.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Sophie-Charlotte

    2016-12-01

    A widespread finding among studies from the US and the UK is that maternal employment is correlated with an increased risk of child overweight, even in a causal manner, whereas studies from other countries obtain less conclusive results. As evidence for Germany is still scarce, the purpose of this study is to identify the effect of maternal employment on childhood overweight in Germany using two sets of representative micro data. We further explore potential underlying mechanisms that might explain this relationship. In order to address the selection into maternal full-time employment, we use an instrumental variable strategy exploiting the number of younger siblings in the household as an instrument. While the OLS models suggest that maternal full-time employment is related to a 5 percentage point higher probability of the child to be overweight, IV estimates indicate a 25 percentage points higher overweight probability due to maternal full-time employment. Exploring various possible pathways, we find that maternal full-time employment promotes unhealthy dietary and activity behavior which might explain the positive effect of maternal employment on child overweight to some extent. Although there are limitations to our IV approach, several sensitivity analyses confirm the robustness of our findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Thuringische builds large PET plant in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Alperowicz, N.

    1993-02-03

    East Germany fibers producer Thuringische Faser AG Schwarza (TFS; Rudolstadt) is entering the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) business. The company, owned by India's Dalmia Group (New Delhi), is building an 80,000-m.t./year PET granulate plant, one of the largest in Europe, for completion at the end of 1995. The product will be used to make PET bottles and film for food packaging. TFS will need to buy 70,000 m.t./year of purified terephthalic acid and 27,000 m.t./year of ethylene glycol to feed the new plant. When acquiring TFS, Dalmia's chairman, Sanjay Dalmia, pledged to invest DM150 million ($95.4 million) in the Germany firmmore » and keep 1,200 of the 3,000 workers. John Brown Deutsche Engineering (Essen) has been awarded a contract covering engineering, know-how, and turnkey supply of the complete plant, and will share of the complete plant, and will share the work with Austrian associate, Voest John Brown Industrieanlagenbau (Linz). The company, which completed against Zimmer (Frankfurt), will use its own technology. TFS, with 1992 sales of DM120 million, has capacities to produce 20,000 m.t/year of viscose staple fiber, 18,000 m.t./year of nylon-6 filament yarn, and 6,300 m.t./year of textile-grade polyester granulate, which will be converted to produce bottle-grade PET.« less

  11. The historiography of homoeopathy in Germany.

    PubMed

    Jütte, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Homoeopathy originated in Germany. The same applies, by the way, to many other branches of alternative medicine, e.g. mesmerism, homoeopathy, hydropathy, anthroposophical medicine. This historical fact provides more than just an excuse to start with a survey of the historiography of homeopathy in German-speaking countries. The first part of the paper focuses on 19th-century attempts at a history of homoeopathy, reflecting the wish to establish a corporate identity among the adherents of the new art of healing. Early examples are books by prominent homoeopathic doctors on the origins and recent history of homoeopathy in German lands. A look at their motives will give us a notion of the response of the fringe medicine to a wide ranger of attacks of orthodox physicians and medical historians who saw progress in the field of the new "scientific" medicine only and who shared the values and ideologies of the medical establishment. The second part of the paper - which covers the period from the turn of the century to the end of World War II - examines the first attempts by professional medical historians as well as amateurs to write about the rise and fall of homeopathy in Germany. The third part is then centred on recent medical historiography on this subject.

  12. Substitution treatment for opioid addicts in Germany.

    PubMed

    Michels, Ingo Ilja; Stöver, Heino; Gerlach, Ralf

    2007-02-02

    After a long and controversial debate methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) was first introduced in Germany in 1987. The number of patients in MMT--first low because of strict admission criteria--increased considerably since the 1990s up to some 65,000 at the end of 2006. In Germany each general practitioner (GP), who has completed an additional training in addiction medicine, is allowed to prescribe substitution drugs to opioid dependent patients. Currently 2,700 GPs prescribe substitution drugs. Psychosocial care should be made available to all MMT patients. The results of research studies and practical experiences clearly indicate that patients benefit substantially from MMT with improvements in physical and psychological health. MMT proves successful in attaining high retention rates (65% to 85% in the first years, up to 50% after more than seven years) and plays a major role in accessing and maintaining ongoing medical treatment for HIV and hepatitis. MMT is also seen as a vital factor in the process of social re-integration and it contributes to the reduction of drug related harms such as mortality and morbidity and to the prevention of infectious diseases. Some 10% of MMT patients become drug-free in the long run. Methadone is the most commonly prescribed substitution medication in Germany, although buprenorphine is attaining rising importance. Access to MMT in rural areas is very patchy and still constitutes a problem. There are only few employment opportunities for patients participating in MMT, although regular employment is considered unanimously as a positive factor of treatment success. Substitution treatment in German prisons is heterogeneous in access and treatment modalities. Access is very patchy and the number of inmates in treatment is limited. Nevertheless, substitution treatment plays a substantial part in the health care system provided to drug users in Germany. In Germany, a history of substitution treatment spanning 20 years has meanwhile

  13. The Great Drama: Germany and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Gerhard

    Revolution did not spread to Germany from France at the end of the 18th century, yet the German and other European states were forced to come to terms with the principles of the French Revolution such as political and legal freedoms and national unity. Germany was affected by the French Revolution particularly by the reactions of German…

  14. Racialised Norms in Apprenticeship Systems in England and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadderton, Charlotte; Wischmann, Anke

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the issue of the under-representation of young people from minority ethnic/migrant backgrounds in apprenticeships in England and Germany. Whilst there are many studies on apprenticeships in England and Germany, few focus on under-representation or discrimination, even fewer on ethnic under-representation, and there are…

  15. An Active Old Age--Senior Citizens in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzler, Birgit

    1998-01-01

    Life expectancies are rising all over the world, leading to higher proportions of older adults in the population. This is especially true in Japan and Germany. In Germany today, "old" no longer means necessarily "poor and frail." Through volunteer work, lifelong learning, study tours, and participation in sports, older Germans…

  16. The Search for Specialists and Managers. Staff Shortage in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Klaus, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Despite its high unemployment level, Germany is experiencing a shortage of specialists and managers. Germany's need for highly qualified information technology (IT) workers and engineers is particularly great. Approximately 10,000 posts for computer scientists and IT specialists remained vacant in 1998. Because of the shortage of such specialists,…

  17. Labor, Business, and Change in Germany and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wever, Kirsten S., Ed.

    This book explores how two nations with widely divergent political economies, Germany and the United States (U.S.), embraced change in four contemporary settings. "Mutual Learning with Trade-Offs" (Kirsten Wever) discusses mutual learning and the distinguishing characteristics of the political economies of Germany and the U.S.…

  18. Educational Systems and Rising Inequality: Eastern Germany after Unification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Below, Susanne; Powell, Justin J. W.; Roberts, Lance W.

    2013-01-01

    Educational systems considerably influence educational opportunities and the resulting social inequalities. Contrasting institutional regulations of both structures and contents, the authors present a typology of educational system types in Germany to analyze their effects on social inequality in eastern Germany after unification. After 1990, the…

  19. Bullying Involvement of Korean Children in Germany and in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Hwa-ok

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bullying involvement of Korean or Korean-German children living in Germany with children in Korea, and examined children's perceptions of school environment associated with bullying involvement of the children. This study included 105 Korean or Korean-German children living in the Bayern State of Germany as the study sample and…

  20. Concentrating Solar Power Projects in Germany | Concentrating Solar Power |

    Science.gov Websites

    ;alphabetical by project name. You can browse a project profile by clicking on the project name. Jülich Solar NREL Germany Concentrating solar power (CSP) projects in Germany are listed belowâ€"

  1. Self-Employment in the United Kingdom and Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meager, Nigel; And Others

    In a comparison of self-employment patterns in Germany and the United Kingdom, data from the Labour Force Survey (United Kingdom) and Mikrozensus (Germany) were analyzed to identify the personal characteristics of self-employed individuals in the two countries, the characteristics of their self-employed activity, and movement in and out of…

  2. Germany's Emerging Multiethnic Society: Old Problems and New.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedmin, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    Opinion polls do not indicate a growing neo-Nazism in Germany, but they do reveal substantial hostile attitudes toward Jews and significant bias against other ethnic minorities. Demographic trends suggest that Germany will have an increasingly multiracial society as well as a greater need for foreign labor in the future. (SLD)

  3. Training and Further Training in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakleppa, Hans

    The Federal Republic of Germany uses its development aid policy to support the growth of manpower resources in developing countries by means of a broad spectrum of training and further training programs of foreign specialists. In planning these programs and arranging scholarships, Germany tries to orient itself toward the educational policy…

  4. Special Education in East Germany under Communist Domination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sengstock, Wayne L.; Ruttgardt, Sieglind Ellger

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the development of special education in East Germany from the close of World War II through the cold war period, and examines the problems and challenges currently facing special education in a reunified Germany. These include a lack of infrastructure, economic needs, staffing problems, and needed curriculum changes. (DB)

  5. [The Senior Expert Service in West Germany].

    PubMed

    Fritz, G

    1983-01-01

    A Senior Expert Service (SES) has been established by the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany by the end of January 1983. Experts from the economy, public administration, agricultural and educational fields etc. are being sent by the SES as short-term advisors unremunerated into Third World countries. Their tasks are mainly to strengthen the economies there and to further industrial development, especially small and medium enterprise, but their activities will cover all areas of development aid. Head of the Senior Expert Service of the Federal Republic of Germany is Dr. Gerhard Fritz. 600 Senior Experts have been put on file by the end of July 1983 out of 2000 who initially showed interest in the Service Required are not only their skills and qualifications, but adequate abilities in foreign languages as well. the experts may guide positively social attitudes towards those retired from active professional life and encourage seniors in our own society. The projects concern clearly defined tasks. The activities of the Senior Experts are safeguarded by being taken into the circle of German representatives in the respective countries. board and lodging, as well as a modest pocket money are being provided by the foreign partner. 11 honorary missions have been completed successfully by August 1983. At present, ca. 90 possibilities for projects are being envisaged. Out of those, 20 are planned for 1983, about 50 for 1984 and possibly 100 for 1985. As a rule, a mission may last between two weeks and three months; in case of longer duration, it may be possible for wives to accompany their husbands.

  6. Systematic skin cancer screening in Northern Germany.

    PubMed

    Breitbart, Eckhard W; Waldmann, Annika; Nolte, Sandra; Capellaro, Marcus; Greinert, Ruediger; Volkmer, Beate; Katalinic, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    The incidence of skin cancer is increasing worldwide. For decades, opportunistic melanoma screening has been carried out to respond to this burden. However, despite potential positive effects such as reduced morbidity and mortality, there is still a lack of evidence for feasibility and effectiveness of organized skin cancer screening. The main aim of the project was to evaluate the feasibility of systematic skin cancer screening. In 2003, the Association of Dermatological Prevention was contracted to implement the population-based SCREEN project (Skin Cancer Research to Provide Evidence for Effectiveness of Screening in Northern Germany) in the German state of Schleswig-Holstein. A two-step program addressing malignant melanoma and nonmelanocytic skin cancer was implemented. Citizens (aged ≥ 20 years) with statutory health insurance were eligible for a standardized whole-body examination during the 12-month study period. Cancer registry and mortality data were used to assess first effects. Of 1.88 million eligible citizens, 360,288 participated in SCREEN. The overall population-based participation rate was 19%. A total of 3103 malignant skin tumors were found. On the population level, invasive melanoma incidence increased by 34% during SCREEN. Five years after SCREEN a substantial decrease in melanoma mortality was seen (men: observed 0.79/100,000 and expected 2.00/100,000; women: observed 0.66/100,000 and expected 1.30/100,000). Because of political reasons (resistance as well as lack of support from major German health care stakeholders), it was not possible to conduct a randomized controlled trial. The project showed that large-scale systematic skin cancer screening is feasible and has the potential to reduce skin cancer burden, including mortality. Based on the results of SCREEN, a national statutory skin cancer early detection program was implemented in Germany in 2008. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All

  7. [Child Soldiers as Refugees in Germany].

    PubMed

    Zito, Dima

    2016-12-01

    Child Soldiers as Refugees in Germany How do former child soldiers cope with their potentially traumatic experiences, and how do the living conditions as refugees influence these coping processes? A dissertation at the faculty of human and social sciences at the University of Wuppertal, based on biographical-narrative interviews with 15 young refugees from six African countries, describes the characteristics of the traumatic sequences in the countries of origin and in exile, and elaborates typical coping processes. In order to survive a situation of absolute subjection within armed groups, children develop forms of adequate adaptation to the context like regulation and detachment of emotions e.g. with the use of drugs, assimilation to an idea of "hard masculinity" etc. They become victims, witnesses and often perpetrators of extreme violence (man-made-disaster), respectively traumatic processes can be seen in all sequences. After leaving the armed groups there is no way back into the families and communities destroyed by armed conflict, so they become refugees. In Germany, they are subjected to a bureaucratic and excluding asylum system, in which decisions on all relevant areas of life (age determination, place and right of residence, form of accommodation, access to education, etc.) are imposed on them. Especially the insecure right of residence and the living conditions in refugee camps are severe risk factors, impeding stabilization. Social support, e. g. by competent professionals, access to trauma- and culture-sensitive psychotherapy, societal inclusion, but also personal resilience are essential for coping with trauma and developing new future perspectives.

  8. Hypertension in Pregnancy and Offspring Cardiovascular Risk in Young Adulthood: Prospective and Sibling Studies in the HUNT Study (Nord-Trøndelag Health Study) in Norway.

    PubMed

    Alsnes, Ingvild V; Vatten, Lars J; Fraser, Abigail; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Romundstad, Pål R; Åsvold, Bjørn O

    2017-04-01

    Women with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are at increased lifetime risk for cardiovascular disease. We examined the offspring's cardiovascular risk profile in young adulthood and their siblings' cardiovascular risk profile. From the HUNT study (Nord-Trøndelag Health Study) in Norway, 15 778 participants (mean age: 29 years), including 210 sibling groups, were linked to information from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Blood pressure, anthropometry, serum lipids, and C-reactive protein were assessed. Seven hundred and six participants were born after exposure to maternal hypertension in pregnancy: 336 mothers had gestational hypertension, 343 had term preeclampsia, and 27 had preterm preeclampsia. Offspring whose mothers had hypertension in pregnancy had 2.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.8-3.5) mm Hg higher systolic blood pressure, 1.5 (0.9-2.1) mm Hg higher diastolic blood pressure, 0.66 (0.31-1.01) kg/m 2 higher body mass index, and 1.49 (0.65-2.33) cm wider waist circumference, compared with offspring of normotensive pregnancies. Similar differences were observed for gestational hypertension and term preeclampsia. Term preeclampsia was also associated with higher concentrations of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (0.14 mmol/L, 0.03-0.25) and triglycerides (0.13 mmol/L, 0.06-0.21). Siblings born after a normotensive pregnancy had nearly identical risk factor levels as siblings born after maternal hypertension. Offspring born after maternal hypertension in pregnancy have a more adverse cardiovascular risk profile in young adulthood than offspring of normotensive pregnancies. Their siblings, born after a normotensive pregnancy, have a similar risk profile, suggesting that shared genes or lifestyle may account for the association, rather than an intrauterine effect. All children of mothers who have experienced hypertension in pregnancy may be at increased lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Gender differences in psychosocial functioning of adolescents with symptoms of anxiety and depression: longitudinal findings from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study.

    PubMed

    Derdikman-Eiron, Ruth; Indredavik, Marit S; Bakken, Inger Johanne; Bratberg, Grete H; Hjemdal, Odin; Colton, Matthew

    2012-11-01

    To explore longitudinally gender differences in the associations between psychosocial functioning, subjective well-being and self-esteem among adolescents with and without symptoms of anxiety and depression. Data were obtained from a major population-based Norwegian study, the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, in which 1,092 boys and 1,262 girls (86% of all invited) completed an extensive self-report questionnaire at baseline (mean age 14.4 years) and at follow-up (mean age 18.4 years). Gender was a moderator variable in the associations between symptoms of anxiety and depression and impairment, meaning that boys' functioning was impaired to a larger extent than girls' functioning. A statistically significant interaction effect between gender and symptoms of anxiety and depression was found at follow-up in terms of subjective well-being (p < 0.05), self-esteem (p < 0.05), academic problems (p < 0.01), behaviour problems (p < 0.01) and frequency of meeting friends (p < 0.001). Onset of symptoms between baseline and follow-up was associated with less frequent meetings with friends among boys, but not among girls. After remission of symptoms, boys still had more behaviour and academic problems, less frequently met friends and reported lower subjective well-being and self-esteem than boys who had no symptoms at both time points. No similar differences were found among the girls. Previous and ongoing symptoms of anxiety and depression had more negative consequences for boys than for girls. These findings may contribute to improved assessment and intervention methods tailored differently for each gender.

  10. Physical activity level at work and risk of chronic low back pain: A follow-up in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study.

    PubMed

    Heuch, Ingrid; Heuch, Ivar; Hagen, Knut; Zwart, John-Anker

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity in leisure time seems to reduce the risk of low back pain, but it is not known whether occupational activity, as recorded in a representative working population, produces a higher or lower risk. To study associations between physical activity level at work and risk of chronic low back pain. Associations were examined in a Norwegian prospective study using data from the HUNT2 and HUNT3 surveys carried out in the whole county of Nord-Trøndelag. Participants were 7580 women and 7335 men who supplied information about physical activity level at work. Levels considered were sedentary work, work involving walking but no heavy lifting, work involving walking and heavy lifting, and particularly strenuous physical work. Nobody in the cohort was affected by chronic low back pain at baseline. After 11 years, participants reported whether they suffered from chronic low back pain. Generalized linear modelling with adjustment for potential confounders was applied to assess associations with risk factors. In age-adjusted analyses both women and men showed statistically significant associations between physical activity at work and risk of chronic low back pain, suggesting positive relationships. For particularly strenuous physical work the relative risk of chronic low back pain was 1.30 (95% CI: 1.00-1.71) in women and 1.36 (95% CI 1.17-1.59) in men, compared to sedentary work. Women still showed a general association with activity level after adjustment for education, leisure time physical activity, BMI, smoking and occupational category. In men, the higher risk was only maintained for particularly strenuous work. In this cohort, women had a higher risk of chronic low back pain with work involving walking and heavy lifting or particularly strenuous work, compared to sedentary work. Men participating in particularly strenuous work also experienced a higher risk of chronic low back pain.

  11. Forecasts of health care utilization related to pandemic A(H1N1)2009 influenza in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region, France.

    PubMed

    Giovannelli, J; Loury, P; Lainé, M; Spaccaferri, G; Hubert, B; Chaud, P

    2015-05-01

    To describe and evaluate the forecasts of the load that pandemic A(H1N1)2009 influenza would have on the general practitioners (GP) and hospital care systems, especially during its peak, in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais (NPDC) region, France. Modelling study. The epidemic curve was modelled using an assumption of normal distribution of cases. The values for the forecast parameters were estimated from a literature review of observed data from the Southern hemisphere and French Overseas Territories, where the pandemic had already occurred. Two scenarios were considered, one realistic, the other pessimistic, enabling the authors to evaluate the 'reasonable worst case'. Forecasts were then assessed by comparing them with observed data in the NPDC region--of 4 million people. The realistic scenarios forecasts estimated 300,000 cases, 1500 hospitalizations, 225 intensive care units (ICU) admissions for the pandemic wave; 115 hospital beds and 45 ICU beds would be required per day during the peak. The pessimistic scenario's forecasts were 2-3 times higher than the realistic scenario's forecasts. Observed data were: 235,000 cases, 1585 hospitalizations, 58 ICU admissions; and a maximum of 11.6 ICU beds per day. The realistic scenario correctly estimated the temporal distribution of GP and hospitalized cases but overestimated the number of cases admitted to ICU. Obtaining more robust data for parameters estimation--particularly the rate of ICU admission among the population that the authors recommend to use--may provide better forecasts. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Educational inequalities in disability pensioning - the impact of illness and occupational, psychosocial, and behavioural factors: The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT).

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Sara Marie; Ernstsen, Linda; Krokstad, Steinar; Westin, Steinar

    2012-03-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in disability pensioning are well established, but we know little about the causes. The main aim of this study was to disentangle educational inequalities in disability pensioning in Norwegian women and men. The baseline data consisted of 32,948 participants in the Norwegian Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (1995-97), 25-66 years old, without disability pension, and in paid work. Additional analyses were made for housewives and unemployed/laid-off persons. Information on the occurrence of disability pension was obtained from the National Insurance Administration database up to 2008. Data analyses were performed using Cox regression. We found considerable educational inequalities in disability pensioning, and the incidence proportion by 2008 was higher in women (25-49 years 11%, 50-66 years 30%) than men (25-49 years 6%, 50-66 years 24%). Long-standing limiting illness and occupational, psychosocial, and behavioural factors were not sufficient to explain the educational inequalities: young men with primary education had a hazard ratio of 3.1 (95% CI 2.3-4.3) compared to young men with tertiary education. The corresponding numbers for young women were 2.7 (2.1-3.1). We found small educational inequalities in the oldest women in paid work and no inequalities in the oldest unemployed/laid-off women and housewives. Illness and occupational, psychosocial, and behavioural factors explained some of the educational inequalities in disability pensioning. However, considerable inequalities remain after accounting for these factors. The higher incidence of disability pensioning in women than men and the small or non-existing educational inequalities in the oldest women calls for a gender perspective in future research.

  13. Socioeconomic deprivation and cancer survival in Germany: an ecological analysis in 200 districts in Germany.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Lina; Eberle, Andrea; Emrich, Katharina; Gondos, Adam; Holleczek, Bernd; Kajüter, Hiltraud; Maier, Werner; Nennecke, Alice; Pritzkuleit, Ron; Brenner, Hermann

    2014-06-15

    Although socioeconomic inequalities in cancer survival have been demonstrated both within and between countries, evidence on the variation of the inequalities over time past diagnosis is sparse. Furthermore, no comprehensive analysis of socioeconomic differences in cancer survival in Germany has been conducted. Therefore, we analyzed variations in cancer survival for patients diagnosed with one of the 25 most common cancer sites in 1997-2006 in ten population-based cancer registries in Germany (covering 32 million inhabitants). Patients were assigned a socioeconomic status according to the district of residence at diagnosis. Period analysis was used to derive 3-month, 5-year and conditional 1-year and 5-year age-standardized relative survival for 2002-2006 for each deprivation quintile in Germany. Relative survival of patients living in the most deprived district was compared to survival of patients living in all other districts by model-based period analysis. For 21 of 25 cancer sites, 5-year relative survival was lower in the most deprived districts than in all other districts combined. The median relative excess risk of death over the 25 cancer sites decreased from 1.24 in the first 3 months to 1.16 in the following 9 months to 1.08 in the following 4 years. Inequalities persisted after adjustment for stage. These major regional socioeconomic inequalities indicate a potential for improving cancer care and survival in Germany. Studies on individual-level patient data with access to treatment information should be conducted to examine the reasons for these socioeconomic inequalities in cancer survival in more detail. © 2013 UICC.

  14. Interrelationships between mortality and fertility in Germany: rural and urban Prussia and modern Germany.

    PubMed

    Entorf, H; Zimmermann, K F

    1990-01-01

    "The paper investigates the interrelationship between fertility and infant mortality and its economic determinants by time-series methods for historical and modern Germany. It is studied whether the causal effects of infant mortality on fertility have to be considered as hoarding or replacement, and whether the costs of nutrition have an influence on family decision making about demographic variables. Results show that there are indications for replacement motives, and that economic factors matter." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND ITA) excerpt

  15. Declining male births in Germany before and after reunification.

    PubMed

    Grech, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Male births occur 3% in excess of female births in mammals in a ratio (M/F) of 0.515. Many factors have been shown to influence this, including socioeconomic deprivation. This paper reviews live birth data for Germany over the period 1946-2009, and identifies secular trends in M/F pre- and post-reunification. The null hypothesis is that there were no differences between East and West Germany, geographically or temporally, before and after reunification. Annual data on male and female live births were obtained from the Human Mortality Database and analyzed with contingency tables. These data were available separately for East and West Germany (1950-1989). There was a significant decline in M/F in both German Republics overall and before reunification (p<0.0001). No decline was present after. Pre-reunification, West Germany had a lower overall M/F than East Germany (p=0.001). In conclusion, a declining M/F has been shown in many countries over the past decades. The two German Republics' M/F fell prior to reunification and the economic collapse of East Germany. Contracting societies that offer poor socioeconomic conditions (such as the communist former East Germany) may result in a decrease in M/F, but this is not reflected in the data, which show that M/F in West Germany prior to reunification was lower than in East Germany. This is not explicable with the contracting economies hypothesis; other and as yet unknown influences may have modified M/F trends anticipated by known variables.

  16. [Home treatment: systematic review and implementation in Germany].

    PubMed

    Gühne, Uta; Weinmann, Stefan; Arnold, Katrin; Atav, Esra-Sultan; Becker, Thomas; Riedel-Heller, Steffi

    2011-04-01

    To report about existing evidence of effectiveness of home treatment for severely mentally ill adults and implementation in Germany. Systematic electronic and manual literature search. Compared to standard care, home treatment was equally or more efficacious with respect to general state of health and mental health. Home treatment was superior with regard to other outcomes. So far, implementation in Germany is limited. Home treatment can be seen as an effective addition to existing approaches of psychiatric care. It may be cost-effective also in Germany. Reasons for limited implementation in routine care are discussed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Ongoing outbreak of invasive listeriosis, Germany, 2012 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Ruppitsch, Werner; Prager, Rita; Halbedel, Sven; Hyden, Patrick; Pietzka, Ariane; Huhulescu, Steliana; Lohr, Dorothee; Schönberger, Katharina; Aichinger, Elisabeth; Hauri, Anja; Stark, Klaus; Vygen, Sabine; Tietze, Erhard; Allerberger, Franz; Wilking, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Listeriosis patient isolates in Germany have shown a new identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern since 2012 (n = 66). Almost all isolates (Listeria monocytogenes serotype 1/2a) belonged to cases living in southern Germany, indicating an outbreak with a so far unknown source. Case numbers in 2015 are high (n = 28). No outbreak cases outside Germany have been reported. Next generation sequencing revealed the unique cluster type CT1248 and confirmed the outbreak. Investigations into the source are ongoing.

  18. [Intoxications in Children and Adolescents in Germany].

    PubMed

    Geith, Stefanie; Ganzert, Martin; Schmoll, Sabrina; Acquarone, Daniela; Deters, Michael; Sauer, Oliver; Stürer, Andreas; Tutdibi, Erol; Wagner, Rafael; Eyer, Florian

    2018-06-18

    In Germany, intoxications cause the bulk of emergencies in children, to be prevented or attenuated by preventive measures. Therefore, knowledge about intoxications is essential for pediatricians. The present work provides general and epidemiologic data about intoxications and most frequent categories and single toxicants. Data of intoxications in children and adolescents from 6 German poison centers (2012-2016 and 2002-2016) were retrospectively analyzed. Categorical data are given as mean±standard deviation, most frequent toxicants as a score. Calls, especially from non-professionals, increased since 2002. Two third of intoxications occurred in small and pre-school children, more frequently in boys (50%) than girls (44%), in adolescents girls predominated (>60%).<14 years intoxications occur mainly at home, day care or school (>95%), in adolescents suicide attempts and abuse come to the fore (13%). 90% of the cases are asymptomatic or mild, with increasing symptoms at higher ages (adolescents 13% vs. small children 1%). Intoxications with drugs are predominantly in adolescents, surfactant containing cleaning agents and cosmetics, sanitary cleaner, tobacco, glow lights and solute descaler in children. Increasing incoming calls from professionals and non-professionals point out the importance of the poison centers. Although intoxications in children and adolescents mainly proceed without or mild symptoms, the relevance of preventive measures especially for children<7 should not be underestimated. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Blood parasites in reptiles imported to Germany.

    PubMed

    Halla, Ursula; Ursula, Halla; Korbel, Rüdiger; Rüdiger, Korbel; Mutschmann, Frank; Frank, Mutschmann; Rinder, Monika; Monika, Rinder

    2014-12-01

    Though international trade is increasing, the significance of imported reptiles as carriers of pathogens with relevance to animal and human health is largely unknown. Reptiles imported to Germany were therefore investigated for blood parasites using light microscopy, and the detected parasites were morphologically characterized. Four hundred ten reptiles belonging to 17 species originating from 11 Asian, South American and African countries were included. Parasites were detected in 117 (29%) of individual reptiles and in 12 species. Haemococcidea (Haemogregarina, Hepatozoon, Schellackia) were found in 84% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus), 20% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Kinyongia fischeri, Gekko gecko) and 50% of turtles (Pelusios castaneus). Infections with Hematozoea (Plasmodium, Sauroplasma) were detected in 14% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Furcifer pardalis, Xenagama batillifera, Acanthosaura capra, Physignathus cocincinus), while those with Kinetoplastea (Trypanosoma) were found in 9% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus) and 25 % of lizards (K. fischeri, Acanthosaura capra, G. gecko). Nematoda including filarial larvae parasitized in 10% of lizards (Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Fu. pardalis, Physignathus cocincinus). Light microscopy mostly allowed diagnosis of the parasites' genus, while species identification was not possible because of limited morphological characteristics available for parasitic developmental stages. The investigation revealed a high percentage of imported reptiles being carriers of parasites while possible vectors and pathogenicity are largely unknown so far. The spreading of haemoparasites thus represents an incalculable risk for pet reptiles, native herpetofauna and even human beings.

  20. [Psychotherapeutic treatment of traumatized refugees in Germany].

    PubMed

    Böttche, M; Stammel, N; Knaevelsrud, C

    2016-11-01

    Traumatic experiences resulting from war and violence can lead to a broad spectrum of psychological and somatic stress responses. The psychological strain of traumatized refugees is frequently aggravated by specific post-migration stressors. The current healthcare provision in Germany is characterized by many restrictions. The different residence permits are associated with a limited access to medical and psychotherapeutic services. In addition, there are several barriers limiting access of this group of patients to the healthcare system (e. g. low level of training of mental healthcare staff, language barriers and lack of financing for interpreters). Empirical studies have shown that traumatized refugees profit from existing trauma-focused and evidence-based interventions. Treatment is associated with particular challenges and issues (e. g. use of interpreters, migration and culture-specific as well as legal aspects). Specialized treatment centers for traumatized refugees use a multidisciplinary treatment approach, which includes psychotherapeutic, medical and social work interventions as well as assistance with the residential status and integration programs.

  1. Space Radar Image of Munich, Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image of Munich, Germany illustrates the capability of a multi-frequency radar system to highlight different land use patterns in the area surrounding Bavaria's largest city. Central Munich is the white area at the middle of the image, on the banks of the Isar River. Pink areas are forested, while green areas indicate clear-cut and agricultural terrain. The Munich region served as a primary 'supersite' for studies in ecology, hydrology and radar calibration during the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) missions. Scientists were able to use these data to map patterns of forest damage from storms and areas affected by bark beetle infestation. The image was acquired by SIR-C/X-SAR onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 18, 1994. The image is 37 kilometers by 32 kilometers (23 miles by 20 miles) and is centered at 48.2 degrees North latitude, 11.5 degrees East longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, vertically transmitted and horizontally received; green is C-band, vertically transmitted and horizontally received; and blue is C-band vertically transmitted and received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  2. Women in Physics in Germany, 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluge, Hanna

    2009-04-01

    The status of women in physics in Germany has not changed dramatically in the three years since the last IUPAP Women in Physics Conference was held in 2005. The salary of a woman remains approximately 25% lower than that of a man in a comparable professional position. The number of female professors is growing slowly. The number of young women beginning to study physics is around 20%. There is, however, a noticeable increase in organization and societal acceptance of female physicists, and an increasing amount of men taking part in this process. There is also increased acceptance and support of dual-career couples. The Helmholtz Alliance for "Physics at the Terascale" founded a dual-career option program. In 2008, the annual Conference of German Female Physicists (DPT) held in Muenster became an official conference of the DPG (German Physical Society). Various scientific groups working for equal opportunity have formed a "network of networks." At the DESY (German Electron Synchrotron), a group of women led by an equal opportunity officer is involved in the entire process of hiring new staff members in all positions, including directors.

  3. [The state of outpatient psychotherapy in Germany].

    PubMed

    Zepf, Siegfried; Mengele, Ute; Hartmann, Sebastian

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of the state of adult outpatient psychotherapy in Germany after the PTG came into force. 1042 psychotherapists were questioned on certain issues. One result was that patients have to wait 4.6 months for psychotherapy and that every second patient asking for a diagnostic interview and possible treatment was refused. Of those who were given a diagnostic interview 35 % were not taken into treatment, although disturbances were diagnosed--such as tinnitus, pain, organic disturbances with psychic complications, suicidal tendencies, anorexia nervosa, addiction, psychosomatic illnesses, personality disorders, psychotic disorders--would normally demand psychotherapeutic treatment. Furthermore only 56 % of those patients who Löcherbach et al. considered needing and wanting psychotherapeutic treatment were actually in a G IV psychotherapy. Apart from this the possibility of getting psychotherapy as well as the kind of psychotherapy proved to be dependent on the kind of medical insurance. Different payments by the insurance companies caused longer waiting times for patients and determined the choice of psychotherapy by the psychotherapists.

  4. [Continuing Medical Education in Germany - mandatory and voluntary obligations].

    PubMed

    Böthin, Elke

    2013-01-01

    After 1945 the common medical training infrastructure was broken up into two different political systems. While in the Federal Republic of Germany the structure was based on physicians' self-governance, in the German Democratic Republic medical professional structures were organised by the government. After the unification of the two German states, which took place on October 3, 1990, the centralistic structure was replaced by the system of physician self-governance. Before January 1, 2004, continuing medical education (CME) in West Germany relied on a system of voluntary obligations. In East Germany, though, professional CMEs were compulsory; they were called "obligatorische periphere Fortbildung." Based on 15 expert interviews on the topic of "CME in Germany", the different circumstances and conditions were analysed taking account of the historical background. Only selected professionals with experience in both German states (one with a federal, the other with a centralistic system), were chosen for the survey. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  5. Space Radar Image of Rhine River, France and Germany

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-04-15

    This spaceborne radar image shows a segment of the Rhine River where it forms the border between the Alsace region of northeastern France on the left and the Black Forest region of Germany on the right.

  6. Recruitment of Civil Engineering Students in Germany: Shortage or Overflow?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothert, Heinrich

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the recruitment and demand for civil engineering students in Germany. Described is the German engineering education system and the possibility of a joint-venture building industry between the two German states. (KR)

  7. The School-HE Interface in West Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmithals, F.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the concerns and problems associated with the secondary school-higher education interface in West Germany. Reviews reform efforts and attempts at problem resolution with specific emphasis on physics instruction. (ML)

  8. Germany in 'cash for PhDs' scandal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, Ned

    2009-10-01

    German prosecutors are continuing to investigate about 100 professors suspected of taking cash bribes to help students obtain doctoral degrees - a national academic scandal that research minister Annette Schavan has said could tarnish Germany's international reputation in science.

  9. Frankfurt, Germany: 1030/1090 MegaHertz Signal Analysis

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-07-01

    The Data Link Test Analysis System (DATAS) was used in the Frankfort, Germany : to collect data in the frequency band used by Air Traffic Control Radar : Beacon (ATCRBS), Mode Select (Mode S), and Traffic Alert and Collision : Avoidance (TCAS). Data ...

  10. Extraterrestrial research in the Federal Republic of Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This German program for basic extraterrestrial research is an essential, successful, and worldwide recognized part of the space program and has the same attributes for basic research in the Federal Republic of Germany. It covers all major scientific disciplines.

  11. Specified data for tonsil surgery in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Windfuhr, Jochen P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tonsillectomy rates vary considerably among different states, regions, and times. This study was conducted to identify the prevalence of “chronic” tonsillitis, peritonsillar abscess, hypertrophy of the tonsils with and without adenoids in absolute and relative numbers in an 80 million people nation. Moreover, the number and rates of different surgical procedures to resolve either “chronic” tonsillitis, peritonsillar abscess, or upper airway obstruction due to (adeno)tonsillar hypertrophy over several years was evaluated in this study (tonsillectomy, adenotonsillectomy, tonsillotomy, abscess tonsillectomy, transoral incision and drainage). Finally, the post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage rate was calculated and analyzed in relation to age and gender. Material and methods: Calculations were based on data as published by the Federal Institute of Statistics or on request, if needed. The latest data were provided for 2013. Results: The total number of the aforementioned diseases (stratified by ICD-10) decreased from 142,574 (in 2000) to 87,624 in 2013 (38.5%). Tonsillectomy, with or without adenoidectomy, was performed in a total of 833,896 patients between 2006 and 2013 in Germany. The yearly number decreased continually from 120,993 in 2006 to 84,332 procedures in 2013 (30.3%). The most significant decrease was registered in patients younger than 20 years of age for this time period: 70.92 per 10,000 in 2010 to 58.68 per 10,000 in 2013. If all age groups were included, the rate decreased from 13.34 per 10,000 to 10.90 per 10,000. In contrast, an increasing number of tonsillotomies was observed between 2007 (4,659 procedures) and 2013 (11,493). The cumulated number of procedures was 59,049. A constant number of 15,000 cases with peritonsillar abscess were diagnosed per year in Germany (19 patients per 100,000). The prevalence increased significantly at an age of 15 years and there was a preponderance of female patients below that age. Compared to the

  12. [A report on clinical PET activities in Germany].

    PubMed

    Tashiro, M; Kubota, K; Itoh, M; Sasaki, H; Moser, E

    1999-09-01

    Clinical diagnostic procedure using positron emission tomography (PET) requires high costs. To promote clinical use of PET, sociomedical evaluation is necessary. In this paper, sociomedical situations concerning clinical use of PET in Germany is reported. Some comparisons are made between Japan and this country putting emphases on several points such as 1) number of cyclotron and PET facilities, 2) social restriction to transportation of radioisotopes, 3) activities of satellite PET facilities, and 4) clinical indications for PET studies. Number of cyclotron was larger in Japan (29) than in Germany (17), but number of PET facilities was larger in Germany (47) than in Japan (29). The reason seems that in Germany transportation and buying of radioisotopes is less restricted. Hence, more than half of PET facilities in Germany are "satellite facilities" which do not have their own cyclotrons. Radioisotope distribution seems to serve as a backbone of "satellite concept." Additionally in Germany, list of clinical indications for PET study is almost completed and now is widely in applied to most cases. To promote clinical use of PET in Japan, the German system might serve as an important socioeconomic model in Europe instead of the United States.

  13. Gambling experiences, problems, research and policy: gambling in Germany.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Monika; Kräplin, Anja; Braun, Barbara; Kraus, Ludwig

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to present an overview of gambling in Germany, including historical development, legislative and economic changes as well as treatment options and their effectiveness. The available scientific literature and research reports on gambling in Germany were reviewed to obtain relevant information on history, commercialization, legislation, treatment and research agenda. Gambling in Germany is characterized by compromises between protective and economic efforts. At present, gambling is illegal in Germany, and provision is subject to the state monopoly. Mere gaming machines (specific slot machines) are not classified as gambling activity, permitting commercial providers. In recent years, implementing regulations for state gambling and gaming machines have been changed. Concerning the treatment of pathological gambling, various options exist; treatment costs have been covered by health and pension insurance since 2001. Information on the effectiveness of treatment in Germany is limited. Similarly, the number of peer-reviewed publications on gambling is small. German gambling legislation was subject to major changes in the past years. Based on the available body of research (longitudinal), studies on risk and protective factors and the aetiology of pathological gambling are needed. The effectiveness of pathological gambling treatment in Germany and the impact of gambling regulations on gambling behaviour also need to be investigated. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Economic viability of stapes surgery in Germany.

    PubMed

    Savvas, E; Maurer, J

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the economic viability of stapes surgery in Germany. We compared the cost of the operation to the retail value and average cost of a lifelong supply of hearing aids. Retrospective study. Tertiary referral centre. One hundred and sixty-four consecutive cases of primary stapedotomy performed on patients with otosclerosis at our institution served as the representative group for the calculation. The post-operative air-bone gap average at the frequencies 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz was less than 10 dB for 62 per cent of the patients, and less than 20 dB for 92 per cent of the patients. There was a post-operative sensorineural hearing loss in 1.2 per cent of the patients. Analysis showed that, even for an elderly patient aged 65 years with a life expectancy of 15 years, the cost of a lifelong supply of hearing aids was greater than that of a stapedotomy procedure. Based on our group of patients, the stapedotomy procedure proved to be euro 800,000 K cheaper than treatment with an averagely priced hearing aid. The economic benefit was still present when taking into account possible revision surgery in 5-10 per cent of cases, and also when, in addition to the surgery, a post-operative hearing aid was required, in for example 20 per cent of cases. Stapes surgery is economically beneficial for the individual patient as well as for the general patient cohort, irrespective of age. The stapedotomy procedure also prevents the known disadvantages of conventional hearing aids, thus improving the patient's quality of life.

  15. [Quality of surgical continuing education in Germany].

    PubMed

    Ansorg, J; Hassan, I; Fendrich, V; Polonius, M J; Rothmund, M; Langer, P

    2005-03-11

    One of the reasons for young doctors to leave the clinical work to go abroad or into non-clinical fields is insufficient quality of training under bad circumstances. Aim of the study was to evaluate the surgical training in Germany from the viewpoint of the residents. A questionnaire was prepared by residents and consultants and approved by the German surgical societies (Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Chirurgie und Berufsverband der Deutschen Chirurgen). It was sent to surgical residents between June 2003 and June 2004, published in "Der Chirurg BDC" and distributed among residents taking part in courses conducted by the BDC. It could be answered anonymously by email, mail or online. The questionnaire was sent back by 584 surgical residents (about 30 % of all). 58 % of the residents declared that they finished the training in the intended time (6 years). Rotation-systems as part of a structured residency program existed for 43 %. Standard surgical procedures were discussed or explained before the procedure in only 46 %. 61 % of the residents were not satisfied with the teaching assistance by their clinical teachers in the OR. Only 33 % had regular talks with the Chief about their progress in surgical training. 18 % of residents felt, that the hospital is interested in their progress in training. Indication-conferences took place in 52 % and mortality-conferences in only 20 % of programs. Regular seminars on recent issues took place in 62 %, and 61 % of residents did not get financial support to attend congresses. 36 % of residents had to use their holidays to attend congresses. Surgical training structures are not well established in about 50 % of the training hospitals from where we got answers to our survey. The training potential of daily surgical work is not used appropriately. It is therefore imperative to develop guidelines for surgical training, the use of log-books and rotation-programs.

  16. Germany's Option for a Moon Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quantius, Dominik

    The German non-profit amateur satellite organisation AMSAT-Deutschland successfully de-signed, built and launched four HEO satellites in the last three decades. Now they are going to build a satellite to leave the Earth orbit based on their flight-proven P3-D satellite design. Due to energetic constraints the most suitable launch date for the planned P5-A satellite to Mars will be in 2018. To efficiently use the relatively long time gap until launch a possible prior Moon mission came into mind. In co-operation with the DLR-Institute of Space Systems in Bremen, Germany, two studies on systems level for a first P5 satellite towards Moon and a following one towards Mars have been performed. By using the DLR's Concurrent Engineering Facility (CEF) two consistent satellite concepts were designed including mission analysis, configuration, propulsion, subsystem dimensioning, payload selection, budgeting and cost. The present paper gives an insight in the accomplished design process and the results of the performed study towards Moon. The developed Moon orbiter is designed to carry the following four main instruments besides flexible communication abilities: • slewable HDTV camera combined with a high gain antenna that allows receiving lunar television using a commercially available satellite TV dish on Earth • sensor imaging infrared spectrometer for mineralogy of lunar silicates and lunar surface temperature measurements • camera for detection and monitoring of impact flashes in visible light (VIS) on lunar night side caused by meteoroid impact events • camera technology test for interplanetary navigation and planetary approach navigation. This study presents a non-industrial satellite concept that could be launched as piggyback load on Ariane 5 into GTO. Due to the fact, that the satellite would be built by the private sector, the mission costs would remain low. Otherwise the scientific and public output would be high using that satellite bus for the instruments

  17. The Geography of Germany: Lessons for Teaching the Five Themes of Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Glen; Tinkler, D. William

    This activity guide contains five lessons. Lesson 1 deals with "Location of Germany on the Earth's Surface" with two activities: (1) "Germany's Location in the World"; and (2) "Germany's Location in Europe." Lesson 2 is on the "Physical and Human Characteristics of Germany" with four activities on: (1)…

  18. Sport in Germany. Basis-Info: Social Policy. In-Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beitz, Steffen

    This report describes sports in Germany, explaining that sport is part of Germany's culture. Popular sports are enjoyed by both the public and private sector. Germany has a well-developed club and association sector. One in three Germans belongs to a sports organization. A major feature of sport in Germany is its autonomy. Popular sports begin in…

  19. [The hospital at Hillersleben Germany, April 1945].

    PubMed

    Weisskopf, Varda

    2014-01-01

    On 6th April 1945, nine days before the liberation of the Bergen Belsen Concentration Camp, about 2,500 Jewish prisoners were ordered to prepare to leave the camp on the next day. On 7th April, the prisoners left through the gates of the camp and began to walk about 10 kilometers to the train station near the city of Celle. There they were ordered to board a train that would take them to the Theresienstadt Concentration Camp. After six days of travel, the train stopped near the village of Farsleben, Germany, where it was liberated by the 743rd Tank Battalion of the 30th Infantry Division, of the U.S. 9th Army, on 13th April 1945. The 105th Medical Battalion of the same Division was the primary care provider for the survivors, who were then taken in vehicles available from the 30th Infantry Division, and organized into a convoy by the Division's Liaison Officer, Lt. Frank W. Towers, to the town of Hillersleben. A former German Air Force Base was located at Hillersleben with a small hospital that could not provide medical attention to all the survivors. On 21st April, Company C of the 95th Medical Battalion, received an order to go to Hillersleben. Colonel Dr. William W. Hurteau, the Commanding Officer of this Battalion, determined that the biggest task given to the Battalion during World War II, was establishing another hospital in the town of Hillersleben and providing additional beds in the existing hospital, which was a structure that had served as a boarding school. Furthermore, they needed to acquire hospital equipment which was obtained from German equipment and supplies that had been captured by the U.S. MiLitary. Also, they took care of obtaining food supplies from German warehouses, and meat and milk from local dairy farms. The lives of the prisoners on this train were saved by the heroism and dedicated work of those brave soldiers of the 30th Infantry Division and the 95th Medical Battalion.

  20. Space Radar Image of North Sea, Germany

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    This is an X-band image of an oil slick experiment conducted in the North Sea, Germany. The image is centered at 54.58 degrees north latitude and 7.48 degrees east longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 6, 1994, during the second flight of the spaceborne radar. The experiment was designed to differentiate between petroleum oil spills and natural slicks floating on the sea surface. Two types of petroleum oil and six types of oils resembling natural sea surface slicks were poured on the sea surface from ships and a helicopter just before the space shuttle flew over the region. At the bottom of the image is the Sylt peninsula, a famous holiday resort. Twenty-six gallons (100 liters) of diesel oil was dissipated due to wave action before the shuttle reached the site. The oil spill seen at the uppermost part of the image is about 105 gallons (400 liters) of heavy heating oil and the largest spill is about 58 gallons (220 liters) of oleyl alcohol, resembling a "natural oil" like the remaining five spills used to imitate natural slicks that have occurred offshore from various states. The volume of these other oils spilled on the ocean surface during the five experimental spills varied from 16 gallons to 21 gallons (60 liters to 80 liters). The distance between neighboring spills was about half a mile (800 meters) at the most. The largest slick later thinned out to monomolecular sheets of about 10 microns, which is the dimension of a molecule. Oceanographers found that SIR-C/X-SAR was able to clearly distinguish the oil slicks from algae products dumped nearby. Preliminary indications are that various types of slicks may be distinguished, especially when other radar wavelengths are included in the analysis. Radar imaging of the world's oceans on a continuing basis may allow oceanographers in the future to detect and clean up oil spills much more

  1. Timing of metamorphism and exhumation in the Nordøyane ultra-high-pressure domain, Western Gneiss Region, Norway: New constraints from complementary CA-ID-TIMS and LA-MC-ICP-MS geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, J. P.; Jamieson, R. A.; Dunning, G. R.; Pecha, M. E.; Robinson, P.; Steenkamp, H. M.

    2018-06-01

    We present the results of a combined CA-ID-TIMS and LA-MC-ICP-MS U-Pb geochronology study of zircon and associated rutile and titanite from the Nordøyane ultra-high-pressure (UHP) domain in the Western Gneiss Region (WGR) of Norway. The dated samples include 4 eclogite bodies, 2 host-rock migmatites, and 2 cross-cutting pegmatites and leucosomes, all from the island of Harøya. Zircon from a coesite eclogite yielded an age of ca. 413 Ma, interpreted as the time of UHP metamorphism in this sample. Zircon data from the other eclogite bodies yielded metamorphic ages of ca. 413 Ma, 407 Ma, and 406 Ma; zircon trace-element data associated with 413 Ma and 407 Ma ages are consistent with eclogite-facies crystallization. In all of the eclogites, U-Pb dates from zircon cores, interpreted as the times of protolith crystallization, range from ca. 1680-1586 Ma, consistent with Gothian ages from orthogneisses in Nordøyane and elsewhere in the WGR. A zircon core age of ca. 943 Ma from one sample agrees with Sveconorwegian ages of felsic gneisses and pegmatites in the western part of the area. Migmatites hosting the eclogite bodies yielded zircon core ages of ca. 1657-1591 Ma and rim ages of ca. 395-392 Ma, interpreted as the times of Gothian protolith formation and Scandian partial melt crystallization, respectively. Pegmatite in an eclogite boudin neck yielded a crystallization age of ca. 388 Ma, interpreted as the time of melt crystallization. Rutile and titanite from 3 samples (an eclogite and two migmatites) yielded concordant ID-TIMS ages of 378-376 Ma. The results are similar to existing U-Pb data from other Nordøyane eclogites (415-405 Ma). In combination with previous pressure-temperature data from the coesite eclogite, these ages indicate that peak metamorphic conditions of 3 GPa/760 °C were reached ca. 413 Ma, followed by decompression to 1 GPa/810 °C by ca. 397 Ma and cooling below ca. 600 °C by ca. 375 Ma. The results are compatible with protracted UHP

  2. [Mosquitoes as vectors for exotic pathogens in Germany].

    PubMed

    Becker, N; Krüger, A; Kuhn, C; Plenge-Bönig, A; Thomas, S M; Schmidt-Chanasit, J; Tannich, E

    2014-05-01

    As a result of intensified globalization of international trade and of substantial travel activities, mosquito-borne exotic pathogens are becoming an increasing threat for Europe. In Germany some 50 different mosquito species are known, several of which have vector competence for pathogens. During the last few years a number of zoonotic arboviruses that are pathogenic for humans have been isolated from mosquitoes in Germany including Usutu, Sindbis and Batai viruses. In addition, filarial worms, such as Dirofilaria repens have been repeatedly detected in mosquitoes from the federal state of Brandenburg. Other pathogens, in particular West Nile virus, are expected to emerge sooner or later in Germany as the virus is already circulating in neighboring countries, e.g. France, Austria and the Czech Republic. In upcoming years the risk for arbovirus transmission might increase in Germany due to increased occurrence of new so-called "invasive" mosquito species, such as the Asian bush mosquito Ochlerotatus japonicus or the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus. These invasive species are characterized by high vector competence for a broad range of pathogens and a preference for human blood meals. For risk assessment, a number of mosquito and pathogen surveillance projects have been initiated in Germany during the last few years; however, mosquito control strategies and plans of action have to be developed and put into place to allow early and efficient action against possible vector-borne epidemics.

  3. Utilisation d'images aeroportees a tres haute resolution spatiale pour l'estimation de la vigueur des peuplements forestiers du nord-ouest du Nouveau-Brunswick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louis, Ognel Pierre

    Le but de cette etude est de developper un outil permettant d'estimer le niveau de risque de perte de vigueur des peuplements forestiers de la region de Gounamitz au nord-ouest du Nouveau-Brunswick via des donnees d'inventaires forestiers et des donnees de teledetection. Pour ce faire, un marteloscope de 100m x 100m et 20 parcelles d'echantillonnages ont ete delimites. A l'interieur de ces derniers, le niveau de risque de perte de vigueur des arbres ayant un DHP superieur ou egal a 9 cm a ete determine. Afin de caracteriser le risque de perte de vigueur des arbres, leurs positions spatiales ont ete repertoriees a partir d'un GPS en tenant compte des defauts au niveau des tiges. Pour mener a bien ce travail, les indices de vegetation et de textures et les bandes spectrales de l'image aeroportee ont ete extraits et consideres comme variables independantes. Le niveau de risque de perte de vigueur obtenu par espece d'arbre a travers les inventaires forestiers a ete considere comme variable dependante. En vue d'obtenir la superficie des peuplements forestiers de la region d'etude, une classification dirigee des images a partir de l'algorithme maximum de vraisemblance a ete effectuee. Le niveau de risque de perte de vigueur par type d'arbre a ensuite ete estime a l'aide des reseaux de neurones en utilisant un reseau dit perceptron multicouches. Il s'agit d'un modele de reseau de neurones compose de : 11 neurones sur la couche d'entree, correspondant aux variables independantes, 35 neurones sur la couche cachee et 4 neurones sur la couche de sortie. La prediction a partir des reseaux de neurones produit une matrice de confusion qui permet d'obtenir des mesures quantitatives d'estimation, notamment un pourcentage de classification globale de 91,7% pour la prediction du risque de perte de vigueur du peuplement de resineux et de 89,7% pour celui du peuplement de feuillus. L'evaluation de la performance des reseaux de neurones fournit une valeur de MSE globale de 0,04, et une

  4. Regional climate service in Southern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schipper, Janus; Hackenbruch, Julia

    2013-04-01

    Climate change challenges science, politics, business and society at the international, national and regional level. The South German Climate Office at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) is a contact for the structuring and dissemination of information on climate and climate change in the South German region. It provides scientifically based and user-oriented climate information. Thereby it builds a bridge between the climate sciences and society and provides scientific information on climate change in an understandable way. The expertise of KIT, in which several institutions operate on fundamental and applied climate research, and of partner institutions is the basis for the work in the climate office. The regional focus is on the south of Germany. Thematic focuses are e.g. regional climate modeling, trends in extreme weather events such as heavy rain and hail event, and issues for energy and water management. The South German Climate Office is one of four Regional Helmholtz Climate Offices, of which each has a regional and thematic focus. The users of the Climate Office can be summarized into three categories. First, there is the general public. This category consists mainly of non-professionals. Here, special attention is on an understandable translation of climate information. Attention is paid to application-related aspects, because each individual is affected in a different way by climate change. Typical examples of this category are school groups, citizens and the media. The second category consists of experts of other disciplines. Unlike the first category they are mainly interested in the exchange of results and data. It is important to the climate office to provide support for the use of climatological results. Typical representatives of this category are ministries, state offices, and companies. In the third and final category are scientists. In addition to the climatologists, this category also holds representatives from other scientific

  5. Space Radar Image of Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This is a false-color, three-frequency image of the Oberpfaffenhofen supersite, southwest of Munich in southern Germany, which shows the differences in what the three radar bands can see on the ground. The image covers a 27- by 36-kilometer (17- by 22-mile) area. The center of the site is 48.09 degrees north and 11.29 degrees east. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard space shuttle Endeavour on April 13, 1994, just after a heavy storm which covered the all area with 20 centimeters (8 inches) of snow. The dark area in the center of the image is Lake Ammersee. The two smaller lakes above the Ammersee are the Worthsee and the Pilsensee. On the right of the image is the tip of the Starnbergersee. The outskirt of the city of Munich can be seen at the top of the image. The Oberpfaffenhofen supersite is the major test site for X-SAR calibration and scientific experiments such as ecology, hydrology and geology. This color composite image is a three-frequency overlay. L-band total power was assigned red, the C-band total power is shown in green and the X-band VV polarization appears blue. The colors on the image stress the differences between the L-band, C-band and X-band images. If the three frequencies were seeing the same thing, the image will appear in black and white. For example, the blue areas corresponds to area for which the X-band backscatter is relatively higher than the backscatter at L-and C-band; this behavior is characteristic of clear cuts or shorter vegetation. Similarly, the forested areas have a reddish tint. Finally, the green areas seen at the southern tip of both the Ammersee and the Pilsensee lakes indicate a marshy area. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR

  6. Space Radar Image of North Sea, Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an X-band image of an oil slick experiment conducted in the North Sea, Germany. The image is centered at 54.58 degrees north latitude and 7.48 degrees east longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 6, 1994, during the second flight of the spaceborne radar. The experiment was designed to differentiate between petroleum oil spills and natural slicks floating on the sea surface. Two types of petroleum oil and six types of oils resembling natural sea surface slicks were poured on the sea surface from ships and a helicopter just before the space shuttle flew over the region. At the bottom of the image is the Sylt peninsula, a famous holiday resort. Twenty-six gallons (100 liters) of diesel oil was dissipated due to wave action before the shuttle reached the site. The oil spill seen at the uppermost part of the image is about 105 gallons (400 liters) of heavy heating oil and the largest spill is about 58 gallons (220 liters) of oleyl alcohol, resembling a 'natural oil' like the remaining five spills used to imitate natural slicks that have occurred offshore from various states. The volume of these other oils spilled on the ocean surface during the five experimental spills varied from 16 gallons to 21 gallons (60 liters to 80 liters). The distance between neighboring spills was about half a mile (800 meters) at the most. The largest slick later thinned out to monomolecular sheets of about 10 microns, which is the dimension of a molecule. Oceanographers found that SIR-C/X-SAR was able to clearly distinguish the oil slicks from algae products dumped nearby. Preliminary indications are that various types of slicks may be distinguished, especially when other radar wavelengths are included in the analysis. Radar imaging of the world's oceans on a continuing basis may allow oceanographers in the future to detect and clean up oil spills much more

  7. Tobacco Industry Influence on Science and Scientists in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Grüning, Thilo; Gilmore, Anna B.; McKee, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Using tobacco industry documents, we examined how and why the tobacco industry sought to influence science and scientists in Germany as a possible factor in explaining the German opposition to stricter tobacco regulation. Smoking and health research programs were organized both separately by individual tobacco companies and jointly through their German trade organization. An extensive network of scientists and scientific institutions with tobacco industry links was developed. Science was distorted in 5 ways: suppression, dilution, distraction, concealment, and manipulation. The extent of tobacco industry influence over the scientific establishment in Germany is profound. The industry introduced serious bias that probably influenced scientific and public opinion in Germany. This influence likely undermined efforts to control tobacco use. PMID:16317203

  8. The insertion of the non-heme FeB cofactor into nitric oxide reductase from P. denitrificans depends on NorQ and NorD accessory proteins.

    PubMed

    Kahle, Maximilian; Ter Beek, Josy; Hosler, Jonathan P; Ädelroth, Pia

    2018-06-03

    Bacterial NO reductases (NOR) catalyze the reduction of NO into N 2 O, either as a step in denitrification or as a detoxification mechanism. cNOR from Paracoccus (P.) denitrificans is expressed from the norCBQDEF operon, but only the NorB and NorC proteins are found in the purified NOR complex. Here, we established a new purification method for the P. denitrificans cNOR via a His-tag using heterologous expression in E. coli. The His-tagged enzyme is both structurally and functionally very similar to non-tagged cNOR. We were also able to express and purify cNOR from the structural genes norCB only, in absence of the accessory genes norQDEF. The produced protein is a stable NorCB complex containing all hemes and it can bind gaseous ligands (CO) to heme b 3 , but it is catalytically inactive. We show that this deficient cNOR lacks the non-heme iron cofactor Fe B . Mutational analysis of the nor gene cluster revealed that it is the norQ and norD genes that are essential to form functional cNOR. NorQ belongs to the family of MoxR P-loop AAA+ ATPases, which are in general considered to facilitate enzyme activation processes often involving metal insertion. Our data indicates that NorQ and NorD work together in order to facilitate non-heme Fe insertion. This is noteworthy since in many cases Fe cofactor binding occurs spontaneously. We further suggest a model for NorQ/D-facilitated metal insertion into cNOR. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Italian immigration into Imperial Germany up to World War I].

    PubMed

    Trincia, L

    1996-09-01

    "A rapid growth, both economic and industrial, of the German Empire during the last decade of the nineteenth century...produced a major switch in Germany's status from that of a country of emigration to a country of immigration.... The essay gives a concise description of the characteristics of Italian migration flows towards Germany, integration processes and chain migration patterns. The impact of immigration on the receiving country is...analyzed, both in terms of economic development and from a social, political and legal point of view." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) excerpt

  10. Geochemical characteristics of peat from two raised bogs of Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezhibor, A. M.

    2016-11-01

    Peat has a wide range of applications in different spheres of human activity, and this is a reason for a comprehensive study. This research represents the results of an ICP-MS study of moss and peat samples from two raised bogs of Germany. Because of the wide use of sphagnum moss and peat, determining their geochemical characteristics is an important issue. According to the results obtained, we can resume that the moss samples from Germany are rich in Cu, As, Y, Zr, Nb, and REE. The geochemical composition of the bogs reflects the regional environmental features and anthropogenic influence.

  11. Duty Rosters and Workloads of Obstetricians in Germany: Results of a Germany-wide Survey.

    PubMed

    Neimann, Johannes; Knabl, Julia; Puppe, Julian; Bayer, Christian Michael; Gass, Paul; Gabriel, Lena; Seelbach-Goebel, Birgit; Lermann, Johannes; Schott, Sarah

    2017-08-01

    Compiling a daily hospital roster which complies with existing laws and tariff regulations and meets the requirements for ongoing professional training while also taking the legal regulations on the health of employees into account makes planning the duty roster a challenge. The aim of this study was to obtain a realistic picture of existing duty roster systems and of the current workloads of obstetricians in Germany. This online survey was sent to 2770 physicians training to become obstetricians or specializing in specific areas of obstetric care. The survey consisted of an anonymized 95-item questionnaire which collected data on different types of duty roster systems and the workload of obstetricians in Germany for the period from 17.02.2015 to 16.05.2015. Out of a total of 2770 physicians who were contacted, 437 (16%) completed the questionnaire. Across all forms of care, the care provided outside normal working hours usually (75%) consisted of a combination of regular working times and on-call duty or even consisted entirely of standby duty. Level I perinatal centers were most likely 20% (n = 88) to have a shift system in place. Working a shift system was significantly more common in care facilities which had previously carried out a job analysis. The number of physicians in hospitals who are present during the night shift was higher in facilities with higher numbers of births and in facilities which offered higher levels of care. In addition to regularly working overtime and the fact that often not all the hours worked were recorded, it was notable that the systems used to compile duty rosters often did not comply with legal regulations or with collectively agreed working hours nor were they compatible with the staff planning requirements. The results of this study show that the conditions of work, the working times, and the organization of working times in obstetric departments are in need of improvement. Recording the actual times worked together with an

  12. A survey of environmental needs and innovative technologies in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, C.F.; Roberds, W.J.

    1995-05-01

    The International Technology Program (IT?), formerly the international Technology Exchange Program (ITEP), of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) is responsible for promoting: (1) the import of innovative technologies to better address EM`s needs; and (2) the export of US services into foreign markets to enhance US competitiveness. Under this program: (1) the environmental restoration market in Germany was evaluated, including the description of the general types of environmental problems, the environmental regulations, and specific selected contaminated sites; and (2) potentially innovative environmental restoration technologies, either commercially available or under development in Germany,more » were identified, described and evaluated. It was found that: (1) the environmental restoration market in Germany is very large, on the order of several billion US dollars per year, with a significant portion possibly available to US businesses; and (2) a large number (54) of innovative environmental restoration technologies, which are either commercially available or under development in Germany, may have some benefit to the DOE EM program and should be considered for transfer to the US.« less

  13. Germany plans 60m euro physics and medicine lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, Ned

    2017-09-01

    A new €60m medical-physics research lab is to be built in Erlangen, Germany, by the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light (MPL) together with the Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg and the University Hospital Erlangen.

  14. Does Distance Determine Who Attends a University in Germany?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiess, C. Katharina; Wrohlich, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the role of distance to the nearest university in the demand for higher education in Germany. Distance could matter due to transaction costs or due to neighborhood effects. We use data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) combined with a database on university postal codes to estimate a discrete choice model of the demand for…

  15. Comparing Empirically Historical Awareness in East and West Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borries, Bodo von; Lehmann, Rainer H.

    A study compared the historical awareness of 2,000 East and West German children in the sixth, ninth, and twelfth grades. Because of differing school systems and the general design of the study, researchers analyzed ninth grade data. The study was conducted during the disintegration and reunification of Germany. Students from the two regions…

  16. Vocational Training in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarz-Braun, Iris; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Reports on two studies about vocational training in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). Finds that there is no uniform system of vocational training, but there are distinct segments with different objectives and different quality. Predicts that the West German system of vocational training will experience a loss of effectiveness unless it…

  17. Space Research in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preuss, Karl-Heinz, Ed.; Simen, Rolf H., Ed.

    The Federal Republic of Germany's space policy is designed to promote basic research, contribute to the development of space technology, and apply the findings in the public and private sectors. It is also aimed at enhancing the competitiveness of the West German space industry and helping countries of the Third World to solve their development…

  18. Germany and the Future of Nuclear Deterrence in Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    OF GERMANY PRIOR TO REUNIFICATION ........................................ 10 A. INTRODUCTION .................................... 10 B . 1945-1960...Strategic Thinking and the Role of Franz Josef Strauss ..................................... 19 b . Domestic and International Opposition ............ 23 c...63 B . UNITED KINGDOM .................................. 63 1. Background of Deterrence ........................... 64 2

  19. Cultural Life in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inter Nationes, Bonn (West Germany).

    By the nature of the subject, it is impossible to do justice to the cultural developments of more than 40 years in a brief survey. The aim of this document is to explore the diverse cultural life of West Germany complete with photographs of past and present artists, art products, and other aspects of German culture. The subject areas treated are:…

  20. [Breastfeeding Rates and Duration in Germany - A Systematic Review].

    PubMed

    Weissenborn, A; Abou-Dakn, M; Bergmann, R; Both, D; Gresens, R; Hahn, B; Hecker, A; Koletzko, B; Krawinkel, M; Kroll, D; Rouw, E; Scheele, M; Schwegler, U; Sievers, E; Sporleder, E; Springer, S; Vetter, K; Wöckel, A; Kersting, M

    2016-11-01

    Aim: 20 years after establishment of the National Breastfeeding Committee, the present work, based on published data on breastfeeding, is aimed at providing insight into the development of breastfeeding behaviour in Germany. Methods: To identify relevant publications, a comprehensive literature search was conducted in PubMed and Web of Science using the search terms "breast feeding" or "breastfeeding" in combination with "Germany". The publication period was limited to the period 1995-2014. Results: A total of 35 studies with data on breastfeeding for the birth cohorts of 1990-2012 were identified. Most of the data had been collected in regional or local surveys, often retrospectively. About 60% of the studies had been conducted with the primary aim of collecting data on breastfeeding or infant nutrition. Over the past 2 decades, breastfeeding rates were always relatively high at the beginning (72-97%). However, they declined significantly within the first 2 months, and by the age of 6 months, only about 50% of infants were still breastfed. Conclusion: Breastfeeding support and early assistance should be offered to a greater extent in order to achieve sustainable improvement of breastfeeding frequency and duration in Germany. Regarding the quality of data collected on breastfeeding, it seems crucial to implement standardised approaches to monitor breastfeeding in Germany. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Right-Wing Extremist Violence among Adolescents in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitzer, Peter; Heitmeyer, Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    What are the preconditions for right-wing extremist violence among German youths? For several years, the rate of this violence has been increasing in Germany, and the same can be observed for right-wing extremist orientations characterized by the coming together of ideologies of unequal worth and the acceptance of violence as a mode of action. And…

  2. The Young Generation Takes Root--Foreigners in Germany II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Helga

    1998-01-01

    Although there is no single measure of the degree of integration of the children of immigrants, individual trends and indicators can be interpreted to depict the status and opportunities of young foreigners residing in Germany. Although the standard of school-leaving certificates rose, the number of young foreigners is still disproportionately…

  3. K-12 Education in Germany: Curriculum and PISA 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atmacasoy, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    Against the backdrop of PISA 2015 results, the aim of this study is to review basic structures of German education system by exploring curriculum development process, key features of each educational level and teacher education in order to grasp how Germany has amended her poor performance after PISA 2000 and persistently improved the quality of…

  4. Social Policy and Immigrant Joblessness in Britain, Germany and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesler, Christel

    2006-01-01

    I examine patterns of joblessness among immigrant men and women from 33 countries of origin now living in Britain, Germany and Sweden. Access to welfare, access to the labor market, job segregation and institutional support for women's employment define distinct policy configurations in these three destinations. Findings show that gaps in…

  5. Innovative energy technologies and climate policy in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, Katja; Sands, Ronald D.

    2006-12-01

    Due to the size and structure of its economy, Germany is one of the largest carbon emitters in the European Union. However, Germany is facing a major renewal and restructuring process in electricity generation. Within the next two decades, up to 50% of current electricity generation capacity may retire because of end-of-plant lifetime and the nuclear phase-out pact of 1998. Substantial opportunities therefore exist for deployment of advanced electricity generating technologies in both a projected baseline and in alternative carbon policy scenarios. We simulate the potential role of coal integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), natural gas combined cycle (NGCC), carbonmore » dioxide capture and storage (CCS), and wind power within a computable general equilibrium of Germany from the present through 2050. These advanced technologies and their role within a future German electricity system are the focus of this paper. We model the response of greenhouse gas emissions in Germany to various technology and carbon policy assumptions over the next few decades. In our baseline scenario, all of the advanced technologies except CCS provide substantial contributions to electricity generation. We also calculate the carbon price where each fossil technology, combined with CCS, becomes competitive. Constant carbon price experiments are used to characterize the model response to a carbon policy. This provides an estimate of the cost of meeting an emissions target, and the share of emissions reductions available from the electricity generation sector.« less

  6. Searching for Telecollaboration in Secondary Geography Education in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutscher, Jelena

    2016-01-01

    The majority of studies on telecollaboration for educational purposes focus on language-related aspects. Therefore, a qualitative explorative research project was set up at the RuhrUniversity Bochum, Germany, dealing with telecollaboration from the perspective of a non-language discipline; it is based on the approach of transferring…

  7. Variegated Squirrel Bornavirus 1 in Squirrels, Germany and the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Schlottau, Kore; Jenckel, Maria; van den Brand, Judith; Fast, Christine; Herden, Christiane; Höper, Dirk; Homeier-Bachmann, Timo; Thielebein, Jens; Mensing, Niels; Diender, Bert; Hoffmann, Donata; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.; Koopmans, Marion; Tappe, Dennis; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Reusken, Chantal B.E.M.; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    We screened squirrels in Germany and the Netherlands for the novel zoonotic variegated squirrel bornavirus 1 (VSBV-1). The detection of VSBV-1 in 11 squirrels indicates a considerable risk for transmission to humans handling those animals. Therefore, squirrels in contact with humans should routinely be tested for VSBV-1. PMID:28221112

  8. Prevalence of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Pulmonary Disease, Germany, 2009–2014

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Dirk; de Roux, Andrés; Diel, Roland; Hohmann, David; Hickstein, Lennart; Welte, Tobias; Rademacher, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed routine statutory health insurance claim data to determine prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease in Germany. Documented prevalence rates of this nonnotifiable disease increased from 2.3 to 3.3 cases/100,000 population from 2009 to 2014. Prevalence showed a strong association with advanced age and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:27191473

  9. Structuralization of Doctoral Education in Germany: An Interdisciplinary Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qin, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Taking the establishment of structured doctoral programmes in Germany as an example, this paper focuses on how knowledge production in certain academic fields reshapes their doctoral education in a widely changing policy context. Based on case studies of eight graduate schools in three research fields, namely economics, life sciences, and…

  10. Teacher Education in Italy, Germany, England, Sweden and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostinelli, Giorgio

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a brief analysis of teacher education in five European countries: Italy, Germany, England, Sweden and Finland. In the post-industrial world, the sense of teaching has profoundly changed, influenced by a rapidly evolving socio-economic context. The responses given by each country are different, but two tendencies emerge: on…

  11. The "Carbon-Neutral University"--A Study from Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udas, Erica; Wölk, Monique; Wilmking, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Nowadays, several higher education institutions around the world are integrating sustainability topics into their daily operations, functionality and education systems. This paper presents a case study from a pilot project implemented by the Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald (hereafter, Greifswald University), Germany on its way…

  12. The health status of Russian-speaking immigrants in Germany.

    PubMed

    Tselmin, S; Korenblum, W; Reimann, M; Bornstein, S R; Schwarz, P E H

    2007-12-01

    Germany developed today into a country of immigration, which creates an additional burden for the social security system and results in a new challenge for the healthcare. In the last 17 years more than two million "Russia Germans" have been repatriated and about two hundred thousand Jewish refugees have resettled in Germany from the former Soviet Union. Nevertheless relevant data concerning migration-related public health care are very scare. Search of PubMed and Journals extracts combined with the own researches, analysing the health status indices of the Russian-speaking immigrants in Germany. Both repatriates of German origin and Jewish refugees demonstrated higher prevalence of impaired lipid metabolism in comparison with native population. 42 % of the 503,040 HBsAg (hepatitis B s-Antigen) carriers in Germany were migrants. The Jewish refugees demonstrated the highest rates of depression and anxiety and the highest levels of awakening cortisol. On the other side German resettlers showed lower cardiovascular as well as all-cause death rates compared to the native Germans. The development of adequate health care programmes to address migratory aspects as well as the establishment of quality standards will realistically enhance the capability of responding rapidly to migrant health aspects and help to tackle inequalities in health.

  13. A Matter of Comparative Music Education? Community Music in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kertz-Welzel, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    In German music education, the term "community music" is almost unknown. There could be various reasons for this fact such as a lack of community music activities in Germany, terminological problems concerning the German translation, or an appropriate explanation of the term "community music." This paper will discuss some of…

  14. Library Research in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Hans-Albrecht

    1984-01-01

    Report on current state of research in academic and research librarianship in Federal Republic of Germany highlights projects concerning acquisition of books; work procedure investigations; personnel requirements; cost accounting; investigations of library use (user research, user education); public relations work; librarianship; and subject…

  15. The Acceptance of the Social Market Economy in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlösser, Hans Jürgen; Schuhen, Michael; Schürkmann, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Germany's economic order is labelled "Social Market Economy" in order to indicate that the economic system has both an economic and a social dimension. Its purpose is to reconcile efficiency goals and social responsibility. The concept of the Social Market Economy is based on central values such as freedom or justice. Under the label…

  16. Renewable Electricity Policy in Germany, 1974 to 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauber, Volkmar; Mez, Lutz

    2006-01-01

    Of the large industrial countries, Germany is clearly leading with regard to new renewable energy sources, occupying first rank in terms of installed capacity for wind energy and second for photovoltaics. This is not because of an exceptional natural resource base but because of public policy in this area, despite the fact that this policy was…

  17. Germany As We Saw It. Third Edition, 1963.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA.

    Closeup studies of German life in the Stuttgart area are reported here by 79 participants of Stanford University's 1963 National Defense Education Act Second-Level Institute for Elementary and Secondary School Teachers held at Bad Boll, Germany. Elementary and secondary education, work and family life, and housing and housing developments are…

  18. Sport in Germany. Basis-Info 3-1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beitz, Steffen

    This paper explores the importance and impact of sport in Germany from a variety of perspectives. Topics include: (1) the social function of sport; (2) popular sport, focusing on exercise and self-development rather than competition; (3) sport's role in the leisure activities of the handicapped; (4) top sport performers; (5) drugs and sport; (6)…

  19. Casting a University-Wide Net: Teaching "Sustainability in Germany"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducate, Lara

    2016-01-01

    Due to the connection between Germany and sustainability studies, German Programs are well poised to offer a course on German history, culture, and sustainability to meet the needs of the next generation of students. Interdisciplinary humanities courses that incorporate critical thinking, problem solving, and collaborative learning will help to…

  20. Governance and Funding of Higher Education in Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hufner, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    Describes the complex functioning of decision making in relation to legal, administrative, planning, and financial matters in Germany, examining the current increase of privatization of higher education and the ensuring legal and financial problem, and discussing the introduction of new funding schemes based on performance indicators which augur…

  1. [Basic research in ophthalmology in Germany and its international context].

    PubMed

    Schlötzer-Schrehardt, U; Cursiefen, C

    2017-09-01

    Experimental basic research provides the foundations for the elucidation of pathophysiological mechanisms of diseases and the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for ophthalmological diseases. The objective of this contribution is to provide an overview of the international interconnection of basic research in ophthalmology in Germany. The international context of ophthalmological research conducted in Germany is presented by means of personal experiences and data published by the German Ophthalmological Society (DOG), the German Research Foundation (DFG) and the European Union (EU). Due to the lack of organized databases this article lays no claim to completeness. Basic research in ophthalmology in Germany is mainly conducted in university eye departments and is mainly related to the etiology, pathophysiology and therapy development for various ophthalmic diseases. It is primarily funded by the DFG, the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the EU plays an increasingly important role. Thus, ophthalmological research is integrated into numerous European research networks and beyond that into many international interconnections and relationships. In Germany, both clinical and basic research in ophthalmology is integrated into many international networks and is only functionally viable in an international context; however, given the increasing impact of ophthalmological research in Asian countries, future strategies require a continued focus on career development, research infrastructure, working environment and international cooperation.

  2. Useless Eaters: Disability as Genocidal Marker in Nazi Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostert, Mark P.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes historical attitudes toward people with disabilities in Germany and how this context produced mass murder of people with disabilities prior to and during World War II. Key marker variables are examined, including the rise of Darwinism and eugenics. Resistance to disability as a genocidal marker is discussed. (Contains…

  3. The New Technology in Political Education in West Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Siegfried

    Debate in West Germany among technicians, economists, politicians, and educators about technological advancement and the use of computers focuses on the need to be informed about the consequences of the technological revolution. Some concerns are that computer use will lead to social isolation, a growing bureaucracy and authoritarian power…

  4. A Model for Intercultural Training for Study Abroad in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henze, Yvonne A.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an intercultural workshop designed for American students from the University of Rhode Island's International Engineering Program who are going to Germany to work and to study. The activities and goals of the workshop are explained. The outcomes and findings show that participation in the pre-departure intercultural workshop…

  5. International Workforce Development Perspectives: Germany and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaal, John

    2007-01-01

    Across the globe, it is no secret to people involved with career and technical education (CTE) that the German apprenticeship system is looked upon as the "gold standard" of workforce development training. In this article, the author compares the responses of subject matter experts (SMEs) in Germany and the United States, two of the…

  6. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection in Ixodes ricinus, Bavaria, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Gilles, Jérémie; Höhle, Michael; Fingerle, Volker; Just, Frank Thomas; Pfister, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA was detected by real-time PCR, which targeted the msp2 gene, in 2.9% of questing Ixodes ricinus ticks (adults and nymphs; n = 2,862), collected systematically from selected locations in Bavaria, Germany, in 2006. Prevalence was significantly higher in urban public parks in Munich than in natural forests. PMID:18507918

  7. Teaching the Holocaust in the Republic of Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Marsha

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to observe the approaches used by educators to facilitate learning about the Holocaust. The examples provided in this paper are one of various approaches that are used by educators teaching in the Federal Republic of Germany. Approaches will be different from country to country, from school to school, and from educator…

  8. Hammer and Compass: Introducing East Germany. An Anthology with Interpretations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Elizabeth M.

    This anthology introduces students of German to the life of the people of East Germany. The three-part text describes interrelated cultural and political activities which are characteristic of the republic. Part One explores basic communistic philosophy, "a new myth", particularly through commentary on Walter Ulbricht's "Universe,…

  9. School Psychology in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mietzel, Gerd; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reviews origins and evaluation of the present status of school psychology in the Federal Republic of Germany, emphasizing strict separation of school tracks. Notes that system has been evolving into more flexible organizational structure in recent years. Discusses roles and functions of school psychology, administration, training, relationships…

  10. Germany's ECEC Workforce: A Difficult Path to Professionalisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauschenbach, Thomas; Riedel, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    In a European comparison, the childcare profession in Germany has taken a distinct path of development which is closely interwoven with the history of early childhood education and care (ECEC) in general. Institutional choices critical to this path are the assignment of childcare as part of social welfare, the pursuit of a maternalist tradition in…

  11. Adult Education in Germany from the Middle Ages to 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Textor, Martin R.

    1986-01-01

    The history of adult education in Germany is examined, including the power of the Church during the Middle Ages, self-instruction in informal groups during the Renaissance, Lutheran influence during the Reformation, emphasis on reason and science during the Enlightenment period, industrialization, the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich, and post-war…

  12. Oak silviculture, management, and defoliation effects in France and Germany

    Treesearch

    Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1993-01-01

    A study tour of four areas of France and Germany (two in each country) was conducted to examine oak silvicultural and managerial practices and the influence of insect defoliators on the ecology and management of oak forests. The French and German situations may provide useful information for managing oak forests and gypsy moth in the United States, especially the...

  13. Epigenetics Europe conference. Munich, Germany, 8-9 September 2011.

    PubMed

    Jeltsch, Albert

    2011-12-01

    At the Epigenetics Europe conference in Munich, Germany, held on 8-9 September 2011, 19 speakers from different European countries were presenting novel data and concepts on molecular epigenetics. The talks were mainly focused on questions of the generation, maintenance, flexibility and erasure of DNA methylation patterns in context of other epigenetic signals like histone tail modifications and ncRNAs.

  14. Das Deutschlandspiegelvideo (The View-of-Germany-Videos).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pentecost, Gislind E.

    1993-01-01

    Describes View-of-Germany-Videos, published by the Goethe Institute. The videos are authentic, entertaining, and very versatile in usefulness. In addition they are short, thus easily incorporated into a lesson plan, and free of charge, making them accessible to any educational establishment. (AB)

  15. Germany: The Search for Unity. Guide for Workshop Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Glen

    This document is designed to support teachers in the use of instructional materials related to contemporary Germany. The materials in this guide provide the basis for a one-day, 5 hour inservice session. The workshop agenda begins the guide and sets out the schedule of times for different activities and instruction. The suggested format can be…

  16. "Who Photographs Us?" The Workers' Photography Movement in Weimar Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Karin B.; Hardt, Hanno

    In a discussion of the attempts of the organized workers' photography movement in Weimar Germany to redirect the use of photographs in everyday life, this paper analyzes photographs published in the "Arbeiter-Illustrierte-Zeitung," (AIZ) a large and successful picture magazine that emphasized a left-wing, humanitarian approach. The paper…

  17. Climate Change: A "Green" Approach to Teaching Contemporary Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melin, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a newly designed upper division German language course, "Contemporary Germany: Food, Energy Politics," and two sampling methods of assessment for measuring parallel gains in German skills and sustainable development (SD) thinking. Second Language Acquisition (SLA) informed course design, key assignments, and…

  18. The Idea of Inclusion: Conceptual and Empirical Diversities in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Stefan; Dedering, Kathrin

    2018-01-01

    In the mid-1990s, inclusion was introduced into discussions on education; today, we still do not have a precisely defined concept of inclusion. This article focuses its attention in this context on Germany, which in ratifying the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in 2009 embarked on the path towards realising an inclusive…

  19. Restructuring Schools for Democracy in the Former East Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumas, Wayne; Dumas, Alesia; Lee, William B.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the contentious relationship between educators within the former East Germany and their West German cohorts following reunification. The problems have stemmed from conflicting ideologies and traditions (Marxist versus Christian Democrat and Social Democrat) as well as differences concerning school organization and educational objectives.…

  20. [Gene therapy in Germany: from past to present].

    PubMed

    Kim, Young; Schmidt-Wolf, Ingo G H

    2015-04-01

    In 1994, the first clinical gene therapy trial was performed in Germany. Since then more than 2000 clinical gene therapy trials have been performed worldwide. After 20 years, a short résumé is drawn here. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Kids in Germany: Comparing Students from Different Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, William P.

    This unit of study, intended for intermediate grade students, focuses on comparing students from different cultures: Germany and the United States. The unit addresses National Social Studies Standards (NCSS) standards; presents an introduction, such as purpose/rationale; cites a recommended grade level; states objectives; provides a time…

  2. The Division of Household Labor in Germany and Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin-Epstein, Noah; Stier, Haya; Braun, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We compare the patterns of household division of labor in Germany and Israel--two countries that share key elements of the corporatist welfare regime but differ in their gender regimes--and evaluate several hypotheses using data from the 2002 International Social Survey Program. Although time constraints and relative resources affect the division…

  3. The Kolumbus-Kids Project in Germany for Gifted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegner, Claas; Minnaert, Lea; Strehlke, Friederike

    2013-01-01

    Since 2006, the Kolumbus-Kids project in Germany has been supporting gifted learners between the ages 9 and 12. Selected children from regional schools are invited to participate in courses dealing with biological problems and phenomena at university. In order to attend these sessions, they first have to pass a special performance test and a test…

  4. Dental hygiene education in Germany: Between economics and emotions.

    PubMed

    Offermanns, B; Petersilka, G J

    2017-08-30

    To date, there is still no IFDH approved dental hygienist (DH) education model in Germany. Nevertheless, opportunities to complete vocational DH education courses have substantially increased within the last two decades. However, the content and quality of these courses vary greatly and are difficult to survey. The purpose of this article therefore was to present an overview of the education programmes offered in Germany as of March 2017. A formal request was sent to all education establishments for details of such courses, and a systematic internet search was performed covering the DH education topic in Germany. Ten vocational education programmes were found, most of them organized by local dental chambers. One private provider offers a Bachelor Degree in Dental Hygiene on completion of a course which runs over 2 or 3 ys. Details of contents, objectives and concise ratings or comparisons of the various courses are scarce, although in principle all should meet the same quality standards. For dental hygiene students, patients and dentists, it is hard and unsatisfactory to get a clear overview of the types and the quality of DH education which can be achieved in Germany. A solution for this dilemma would appear to be essential. However, due to the peculiarities of German legislation as well as the complex sphere of vested interests, it is impossible to predict if or when the situation will change for the better. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Development and Prospects of Academic Entrepreneurship Education in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klandt, Heinz; Volkmann, Christine

    2006-01-01

    This contribution deals with the development of entrepreneurship education at university level in Germany. Starting with a definition of the concept, the article focuses on relevant issues of entrepreneurship education, such as target groups and teaching formats. With particular emphasis on empirical studies carried out by the German Association…

  6. Prevalence of weather sensitivity in Germany and Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackensen, Sylvia; Hoeppe, Peter; Maarouf, Abdel; Tourigny, Pierre; Nowak, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    Several studies have shown that atmospheric conditions can affect well-being or disease, and that some individuals seem to be more sensitive to weather than others. Since epidemiological data on the prevalence of weather-related health effects are lacking, two representative weather sensitivity (WS) surveys were conducted independently in Germany and Canada. The objectives of this paper are: (1) to identify the prevalence of WS in Germany and Canada, (2) to describe weather-related symptoms and the corresponding weather conditions, and (3) to compare the findings in the two countries. In Germany 1,064 citizens (age >16 years) were interviewed in January 2001, and in Canada 1,506 persons (age >18 years) were interviewed in January 1994. The results showed that 19.2% of the German population thought that weather affected their health “to a strong degree,” 35.3% that weather had “some influence on their health” (sum of both = 54.5% weather sensitive), whereas the remaining 45.5% did not consider that weather had an effect on their health status. In Canada 61% of the respondents considered themselves to be sensitive to the weather. The highest prevalence of WS (high + some influence) in Germans was found in the age group older than 60 years (68%), which was almost identical in the Canadian population (69%). The highest frequencies of weather-related symptoms were reported in Germany for stormy weather (30%) and when it became colder (29%). In Canada mainly cold weather (46%), dampness (21%) and rain (20%) were considered to affect health more than other weather types. The most frequent symptoms reported in Germany were headache/migraine (61%), lethargy (47%), sleep disturbances (46%), fatigue (42%), joint pain (40%), irritation (31%), depression (27%), vertigo (26%), concentration problems (26%) and scar pain (23%). Canadian weather-sensitive persons reported colds (29%), psychological effects (28%) and painful joints, muscles or arthritis (10%). In Germany 32

  7. Incidence of malignant mesothelioma in Germany 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Lehnert, Martin; Kraywinkel, Klaus; Heinze, Evelyn; Wiethege, Thorsten; Johnen, Georg; Fiebig, Julia; Brüning, Thomas; Taeger, Dirk

    2017-02-01

    The malignant mesothelioma is a rare malignancy and mainly caused by occupational exposure to asbestos. German cancer registries are providing a national database to investigate temporal and regional patterns of mesothelioma incidence. These may be of interest for healthcare planning and for surveillance programs aiming at the formerly exposed workforce. We analyzed population-based incidence data of malignant mesothelioma by site, type, sex, age, as well as district and state of patient's residence. Age-standardized incidence rates (AIRs40+) were calculated according to the European standard population truncated to the age of 40 years and older. We present rates at national, state, and district level and trends of incidence of northern states of Germany. In total, 7,547 malignant mesotheliomas were reported to German cancer registries diagnosed between 2009 and 2013-90% located to the pleura. On average, 1,198 men and 312 women were affected each year. We estimated AIR40+ of 4.77 in 100,000 German men and 0.98 in 100,000 German women. Regional clusters were predominantly located to the seaports of West Germany. The highest regional AIR40+ was 20 per 100,000 men. Corresponding rates in northeast Germany were between 2 and 4 per 100,000 men. Regional clusters of high incidence indicate districts with former shipyards and steel industry, but predominantly in the western part of Germany. The West-to-East difference corresponds to patterns of mortality. Twenty years after banning asbestos in Germany, Bremen and Hamburg are presenting the highest mesothelioma incidence but show steadily decreasing trends.

  8. A 13 km Long Paleoseismological Trench in Western Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grützner, C. H.; Reicherter, K.; Winandy, J.

    2012-04-01

    The expansion of an open pit lignite mine in this area makes it necessary to translocate one of Germany's most frequented, E-W trending highways for a length of 13 km during the next months and years. By this occasion, one of the largest faults of the Lower Rhine Embayment (LRE), the Rurrand Fault, was already cut in 2010. We applied geological mapping and surface-near geophysical techniques for investigating this possible candidate for the 1756 Düren earthquake (M>6; and considered as the strongest historical earthquake in Germany), and found clear hints for recent active faulting. The LRE in western Germany is one of the seismically most active areas in Central Europe. Earthquakes stronger than M6 have been documented by paleoseismological and archeoseismological investigations and written sources. Instrumental seismicity reached ML5.9 (Mw5.4; April 13th, 1992) in this densely populated area with alone nearby Cologne having more than one million inhabitants. Active faults trend NW-SE in a horst-graben system, parallel to the rivers Rhine and Rur. Recent studies reported that active faults in the study area are characterized by recurrence periods in the order of tens of ka. Those faults in western Germany are often not visible in the field due to relatively high erosion rates and therefore, the seismic hazard might be underestimated. The ongoing highway construction works will cut more (active) faults. We expect at least eight already mapped faults to be cut by the earth works, some of which capable of causing damaging earthquakes judging from their mere length. The construction work is a unique opportunity for paleoseismological investigations at already known, but yet unstudied faults. We hope to gather additional data for an improvement of seismic hazard estimations in Western Germany.

  9. [Surgical research in Germany. Organization, quality and international competitiveness].

    PubMed

    Menger, M D; Laschke, M W

    2012-04-01

    Surgical research in Germany is performed within surgical clinics by individual working groups or in surgical research divisions. Additionally, a few independent institutes and departments of surgical research have been established at medical faculties. The number of these institutions, however, is too small. To increase productivity in surgical research, structural changes are necessary, including additional establishment of further institutes and professorships. The quality of clinical research in surgery in Germany is critically discussed. International comparison shows that Germany has a low ranking with respect to the number of clinical studies published in leading surgical journals. However, there has been some improvement in the quality of clinical studies performed in surgical departments during the last 15 years. The establishment of the study center of the German Society of Surgery shows that excellent clinical studies with adequate numbers of patients can also be performed in Germany and can be published in leading journals. Accordingly, there is need to distribute the structures and the competence necessary to perform clinical studies in a standardized manner to all surgical departments involved in clinical research. The experimental surgical research in Germany is not adequately visible, although over the last 10 years the most relevant publications from institutions for surgical research have been placed in journals with a mean impact factor of 8. This may be due to the fact that 85% of these top publications are published in non-surgical journals. The aim for the future must therefore be to increase the impact factor and, thus, the attractiveness of surgical journals. This may be achieved by publishing the highest quality results from experimental surgical research not in non-surgical but in surgical journals.

  10. Germany Since Unification. Workshop Leader's Manual. An Introduction to Social Studies Instructional Resource Materials for Teaching about Germany Since Unification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Glen

    This manual is designed to offer support for the instructional resources guides on "Germany since Unification." It provides the basis for a full-day inservice training session on the use of those materials. The format can be modified to meet the needs of leaders, audiences, and time frames. Using the materials developed by teachers and…

  11. Disintegration and Violence among Migrants in Germany: Turkish and Russian Youths versus German Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baier, Dirk; Pfeiffer, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Turkish and Russian immigrants are the two largest groups of immigrants in Germany, but there are some important differences regarding their legal status. Although most of the Turkish adolescents were born in Germany, few of them have German citizenship. In contrast, most of the Russian youths were born outside Germany, but they mostly possess…

  12. 77 FR 23508 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ...)] Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan Determination On the basis of the record \\1... antidumping duty orders on brass sheet and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan would be likely to... from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-313, 314, 317, and 379 (Third Review...

  13. 75 FR 81308 - Stainless Steel Sheet And Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, And Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ...)] Stainless Steel Sheet And Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, And Taiwan AGENCY: United States... and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives... strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  14. 75 FR 59744 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ...)] Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan AGENCY: United States... duty orders on stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan... stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan would be likely to...

  15. 78 FR 9674 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... Thereof From Germany: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and Partial Rescission... antidumping duty order on ball bearings and parts thereof from Germany. The period of review (POR) is May 1... bearings and parts thereof from Germany as the conclusion of a sunset review. See Ball Bearings and Parts...

  16. 75 FR 3444 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... Thereof From Germany: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances Review AGENCY: Import... bearings and parts thereof from Germany with respect to myonic GmbH. DATES: Effective Date: January 21... Germany on May 15, 1989. See Antidumping Duty Orders: Ball Bearings, Cylindrical Roller Bearings, and...

  17. Germany's Persistent Balance-of-Payments Disequilibrium Revisited. German Studies Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindleberger, Charles P.

    This essay compares Germany's persistent financial disequilibrium with the balance of payments situation in the United States. Delivered at a Symposium on German Economic Growth and Stability, the author concentrates on Germany's balance of payments surplus and presents U.S. figures mainly as a point of comparison. The material on Germany has been…

  18. Germany's Armed Forces in the Second World War: Manpower, Armaments, and Supply.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsamo, Larry T.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the state of Germany's armed forces in World War II. Describes Germany's progress from inferior weaponry and unprepared military at the beginning of the war to superior weapons and fighting. Stresses heavy German dependence on horse drawn supply. Credits Germany's defeat to human attrition accelerated by Hitler's operational leadership.…

  19. Weight-of-evidence environmental risk assessment of dumped chemical weapons after WWII along the Nord-Stream gas pipeline in the Bornholm Deep.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik; Thomsen, Marianne; Larsen, Jørn Bo

    2012-05-15

    In connection with installation of two natural gas pipelines through the Baltic Sea between Russia and Germany, there has been concern regarding potential re-suspension of historically dumped chemical warfare agents (CWA) in a nearby dump site and the potential environmental risks associated. 192 sediment and 11 porewater samples were analyzed for CWA residues, both parent and metabolites in 2008 and 2010 along the pipeline corridor next to the dump site. Macrozoobenthos and background variables were also collected and compared to the observed CWA levels and predicted potential risks. Detection frequencies and levels of intact CWA found were low, whereas CWA metabolites were more frequently found. Re-suspension of CWA residue-containing sediment from installation of the pipelines contributes marginally to the overall background CWA residue exposure and risk along the pipeline route. The multivariate weight-of-evidence analysis showed that physical and background parameters of the sediment were of higher importance for the biota than observed CWA levels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydrogel research in Germany: the priority programme, Intelligent Hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallmersperger, Thomas; Sadowski, Gabriele

    2009-03-01

    The priority programme "Intelligent Hydrogels" was established by the German Research Foundation (DFG) in 2006 in order to strengthen the hydrogel-related research in Germany. The programme is being coordinated by Gabriele Sadowski, Technische Universität Dortmund. The aim of this priority programme is to develop new methods for the synthesis and characterization of smart hydrogels and to develop new modelling strategies in order to a) prepare the hydrogels for special applications and/or b) to develop and extend their capabilities for any desired use. In this programme, 73 scientists (36 professors and 37 scientific assistants/PhD students) from all over Germany are involved, working in 23 projects.

  1. [Research on migration in the Federal Republic of Germany].

    PubMed

    Hettlage, R

    1986-11-01

    The author reviews research on migration involving West Germany during the last 30 years. Following a discussion of concepts and terminology, the author outlines three phases of immigration to West Germany and cites selected works. The first phase is that of rapid economic growth from 1955 to 1972, when the flow of immigrant workers responded to production fluctuations. The second is the period from 1973 to 1979, when economic growth slackened and the socioeconomic burden of immigrants became more evident. The third covers the years since 1979, when formerly temporary migration has become permanent and integration of immigrants into society has become a primary concern. Suggestions are made for future research on the subject.

  2. [Culture sensitive analysis of psychosomatic complaints in migrants in Germany].

    PubMed

    Bermejo, Isaac; Nicolaus, Leonhard; Kriston, Levente; Hölzel, Lars; Härter, Martin

    2012-05-01

    To ensure an adequate health care of migrants, differentiated information on the association of cultural background and migration related factors and psychosomatic complaints are necessary. Cross-sectional questionnaire based survey regarding psychosomatic complaints of migrants from Turkey (n = 77), Italy (n = 95), and Spain (n = 67) and ethnic German resettled from the states of the former Soviet Union (n = 196). Questionnaires distributed by non-health specific counselling agencies of welfare associations. The cultural background was a relevant factor for psychosomatic complaints, showing higher complaints in Turkish and ethnic German resettled migrants, also compared to a sample of age corresponding Germans. In contrast, Spanish and Italian migrants showed a lower risk for psychosomatic complaints. Also gender, feeling unwell in Germany and fatalism showed a significant association with psychosomatic complaints. Migrants in Germany do not have per se a higher risk for psychosomatic complaints. A distinct differentiation by cultural background is necessary. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Psychology as science and as discipline: the case of Germany.

    PubMed

    Gundlach, Horst

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the history of psychology in Germany. It directs attention to the salient role played by examination regulations in the development of psychology. To highlight this, the term "discipline" is employed not as a synonym of "science" but according to its original meaning, as denoting a social entity consisting of teachers, disciples, more or less canonised subject matters, examinations, and resulting changes of the social status of the examinee. In the early nineteenth century a succession of state rescripts and regulations introduced to university curricula an examination subject named psychology, thereby making psychology an obligatory subject of university lectures, and creating a discipline of psychology next to the science of psychology. The two were far from being identical. This situation, thus far neglected in historiography, profoundly influenced the further development of psychology in Germany.

  4. Comparison of cardiothoracic surgery training in USA and Germany.

    PubMed

    Tchantchaleishvili, Vakhtang; Mokashi, Suyog A; Rajab, Taufiek K; Bolman, R Morton; Chen, Frederick Y; Schmitto, Jan D

    2010-11-26

    Training of cardiothoracic surgeons in Europe and the United States has expanded to incorporate new operative techniques and requirements. The purpose of this study was to compare the current structure of training programs in the United States and Germany. We thoroughly reviewed the existing literature with particular focus on the curriculum, salary, board certification and quality of life for cardiothoracic trainees. The United States of America and the Federal Republic of Germany each have different cardiothoracic surgery training programs with specific strengths and weaknesses which are compared and presented in this publication. The future of cardiothoracic surgery training will become affected by technological, demographic, economic and supply factors. Given current trends in training programs, creating an efficient training system would allow trainees to compete and grow in this constantly changing environment.

  5. Comparison of cardiothoracic surgery training in usa and germany

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Training of cardiothoracic surgeons in Europe and the United States has expanded to incorporate new operative techniques and requirements. The purpose of this study was to compare the current structure of training programs in the United States and Germany. Methods We thoroughly reviewed the existing literature with particular focus on the curriculum, salary, board certification and quality of life for cardiothoracic trainees. Results The United States of America and the Federal Republic of Germany each have different cardiothoracic surgery training programs with specific strengths and weaknesses which are compared and presented in this publication. Conclusions The future of cardiothoracic surgery training will become affected by technological, demographic, economic and supply factors. Given current trends in training programs, creating an efficient training system would allow trainees to compete and grow in this constantly changing environment. PMID:21108853

  6. A new neolithic circular enclosure in Central Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretzer, Olaf

    2015-08-01

    Today we know about 130 neolithic enclosures in Central Europe. About 20 of them are located in Germany. In the last years, there was a great discussion about the function of the openings: Are the openings aligned with points of the solstices? Or are the openings aligned with points of rising stars?Four years ago, a new neolithic circular enclosure was found in the northern part of Thuringia. With a diameter of about 50 meters it was not so large but it was the first evidence of a neolithic culture in Thuringia: the central part of Germany!7000 years ago, people with unknown identity built up three rings with three or four openings.With the help of various measurements we were able to determine in which directions the openings were aligned. We found a link between these directions and very interesting landmarks - an amazing connection between sky and landscape.

  7. [Pandemic without drama. Influenza vaccination and Asian flu in Germany].

    PubMed

    Witte, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    The history of the 1957/58 Asian flu in Germany is systematically presented for the first time. The focus is on flu vaccination, which is discussed as a yardstick of the perception of the pandemic. International expertise on influenza virology was predominantly based in Anglo-Saxon countries. German microbiologists issued no clear recommendation for preventative vaccination until 1960. Instead, quinine was relied upon as the traditional medicinal prophylaxis. Antibiotics were more frequently administered. In East Germany, little fuss was made over the Asian flu. In line with the authorities' social hygiene orientation, vaccination was accepted as a matter of principle. In the Federal Republic and West Berlin, the population rejected the vaccination largely. It was seen as a scandal that many employees were on sick leave because of the flu, thus adversely affecting the economy.

  8. Area Handbook Series: East Germany: A Country Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    annexation of Schleswig- Holstein , then used Austria’s rejection as a pretext for war. The Seven Weeks’ War, which was won by Prus- sia, resulted in the...northern Schleswig- Holstein , and all overseas colonies; and the Allied Reparations Commission was established and charged with 24 Historical Setting...lands under foreign administration. However, the Mos- cow and Warsaw treaties, signed by West Germany in 1970, for- mally confirmed the Oder.-Neisse line

  9. [Helgoland (Germany): hemogenetic study of an island population].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, H D; Scheil, H G; Winkelbauer, S

    2001-03-01

    24 haemogenetic markers (5 erythrocyte antigenes, 6 polymorphisms of serum proteins, 12 polymorphisms of red cell enzymes) had been studied in up to 80 individuals from the island of Helgoland (Germany). The cluster analysis separates clearly the Helgoland sample from the neighbouring populations as well as from European standard data. This special position is interpreted partly by genetic peculiarities developed in the course of time, partly as a consequence of genetic drift.

  10. Coercive Diplomacy: Otto von Bismarck and the Unification of Germany

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-24

    politician, he forged a German empire under Prussian leadership that was ultimately realized on January 18, 1871, when King William I was crowned Emperor...the same pressures. King Frederick William cowered in the face of conflict, ordered his military to cease fighting the revolutionaries, and agreed...parliamentary rule, and the dissolution of the Prussian state into Germany. “Bismarck made himself noteworthy by his 6 championship of Prussian superiority

  11. Solar technology in the Federal Republic of Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A series of papers dealing with the status of solar research and development in the Federal Republic of Germany are presented at a conference in Greece with the object of promoting international cooperation in solar energy utilization. The reports focus on solar collector designs, solar systems, heat pumps, solar homes, solar cooling and refrigeration, desalination and electric power generation. Numerous examples of systems produced by German manufacturers are illustrated and described, and performance data are presented.

  12. Passive surveillance of Leptospira infection in swine in Germany.

    PubMed

    Strutzberg-Minder, Katrin; Tschentscher, Astrid; Beyerbach, Martin; Homuth, Matthias; Kreienbrock, Lothar

    2018-01-01

    As no current data are available on the prevalence of leptospiral infection in swine in Germany, we analysed laboratory data from diagnostic examinations carried out on samples from swine all over Germany from January 2011 to September 2016. A total of 29,829 swine sera were tested by microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for antibodies against strains of eleven Leptospira serovars. Overall, 20.2% (6025) of the total sample collection tested positive for leptospiral infection. Seropositivity ranged between 16.3% (964) in 2011 and 30.9% (941) in 2016 (January to September only). Of all samples, 11.6% (57.3% of the positives) reacted with only one Leptospira serovar, and only 8.6% (42.7% of the positives) reacted simultaneously with two or more serovars. The most frequently detected serovar was Bratislava, which was found in 11.6% (3448) of all samples, followed by the serovars Australis in 7.3% (2185), Icterohaemorrhagiae in 4.0% (1191), Copenhageni in 4.0% (1182), Autumnalis in 3.7% (1054), Canicola in 2.0% (585), and Pomona in 1.2% (368). Modelling shows that both the year and the reason for testing at the laboratory had statistically strong effects on the test results; however, no interactions were determined between those factors. The results support the suggestion that the seropositivities found may be considered to indicate the state of leptospiral infections in the German swine population. Although data from passive surveillance are prone to selection bias, stratified analysis by initial reason for examination and analyses by model approaches may correct for biases. A prevalence of about 20% for a leptospiral infection is most probable for sows with reproductive problems in Germany, with an increasing trend. Swine in Germany are probably a reservoir host for serovar Bratislava, but in contrast to other studies not for Pomona and Tarassovi.

  13. Determinants of Regional Variation in Health Expenditures in Germany.

    PubMed

    Göpffarth, Dirk; Kopetsch, Thomas; Schmitz, Hendrik

    2016-07-01

    Health care expenditure in Germany shows clear regional differences. Such geographic variations are often seen as an indicator for inefficiency. With its homogeneous health care system, low co-payments and uniform prices, Germany is a particularly suited example to analyse regional variations. We use data for the year 2011 on expenditure, utilization of health services and state of health in Germany's statutory health insurance system. This data, which originate from a variety of administrative sources and cover about 90% of the population, are enriched with a wealth of socio-economic variables, data on pollutants, prices and individual preferences. State of health and demography explains 55% of the differences as measured by the standard deviation while all control variables account for a total of 72% of the differences at county level. With other measures of variation, we can account for an even greater proportion. A higher proportion of variation than usually supposed can thus be explained. Whilst this study cannot quantify inefficiencies, our results contradict the thesis that regional variations reflect inefficiency. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Germany wide seasonal flood risk analysis for agricultural crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, Stefan; Kreibich, Heidi; Kuhlmann, Bernd; Merz, Bruno; Schröter, Kai

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, large-scale flood risk analysis and mapping has gained attention. Regional to national risk assessments are needed, for example, for national risk policy developments, for large-scale disaster management planning and in the (re-)insurance industry. Despite increasing requests for comprehensive risk assessments some sectors have not received much scientific attention, one of these is the agricultural sector. In contrast to other sectors, agricultural crop losses depend strongly on the season. Also flood probability shows seasonal variation. Thus, the temporal superposition of high flood susceptibility of crops and high flood probability plays an important role for agricultural flood risk. To investigate this interrelation and provide a large-scale overview of agricultural flood risk in Germany, an agricultural crop loss model is used for crop susceptibility analyses and Germany wide seasonal flood-frequency analyses are undertaken to derive seasonal flood patterns. As a result, a Germany wide map of agricultural flood risk is shown as well as the crop type most at risk in a specific region. The risk maps may provide guidance for federal state-wide coordinated designation of retention areas.

  15. Vector-borne diseases in cats in Germany.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Michèle; Hartmann, Katrin

    2017-10-17

    Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) are caused by a wide range of pathogens, which are transmitted by a variety of vectors, such as ticks and fleas. As a result of climate changes, more vector-borne diseases are becoming endemic in Germany, not only in dogs, but also in cats. For some of the pathogens prevalence data still need to be investigated in Germany. However, natural infections with Bartonella, Anaplasma, haemotropic Mycoplasma and Borrelia species have already been described in German cats. Clinical relevance of these pathogens is not fully understood, and it is still unknown, why most infected cats stay asymptomatic and which predisposing factors contribute to the development of clinical signs in cats. Moreover, there is a risk of zoonotic transmission for some of the pathogens, e.  g., for some Bartonella spp. infections that are associated with cat scratch disease in humans. Due to the increasing number of VBDs in cats in Germany, preventive measures, such as the use of acaricides and insecticides, should be performed on a regular base in order to reduce the risk of these infections.

  16. Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome due to Puumala virus in Germany.

    PubMed

    Vollmar, Patrick; Lubnow, Matthias; Simon, Michaela; Müller, Thomas; Bergler, Tobias; Alois, Philipp; Thoma, Bryan R; Essbauer, Sandra

    2016-11-01

    In Germany Puumala virus (PUUV), known to cause mild forms of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), is the predominating endemic hantavirus. We herein describe an unusually severe case of a PUUV infection that occurred in summer 2015 in South Eastern Germany in a region known to be endemic for PUUV since over ten years. A 54-year-old female gardener was admitted to hospital with fever, cough and dyspnea. Within 48hours the patient developed a rapid progressive adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with circulatory failure and required ECMO (extracorporeal membrane oxygenation) treatment. Serological and molecular biological examinations of serum samples confirmed an infection with PUUV. Partial sequences of the S- and M-segment clustered to a strain previously described in South Eastern Germany. Our reported case highlights, that in rare incidents PUUV can cause hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome, a syndrome that is usually found after infections with New World hantaviruses, and neurological symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [German language psychiatry journals in Germany - a quantitative analysis].

    PubMed

    Heidenreich, Uta; Baethge, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Although English is medicine's lingua franca, practising physicians in Germany express the need for articles in German. This study aimed at surveying the number and characteristics of German-language psychiatric journals in Germany. Journals were identified by the standard handbook "Fachmedien Gesundheit" as well as by an online and library search, and divided into specialty journals and general psychiatry journals. Volume 2009 of all general psychiatry journals was analyzed regarding form and content. In 2009 74 journals addressed psychiatrists, albeit many not exclusively. Ten were general psychiatry journals publishing 391 review articles and 97 original papers. They differed with regard to focus (science, education, health politics) and formal characteristics, such as circulation (500-30  000), share of academia-affiliated authors (39-93 %), female first-authors (13-44 %), COI statements (0-98 % of articles), and international visibility. While much of German psychiatric science appears in English, there are still a substantial number of original articles published in German, and there is a diverse psychiatric journal scene in Germany. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Evidence for an independent third Usutu virus introduction into Germany.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Ute; Fast, Christine; Eiden, Martin; Bock, Sabine; Schulze, Christoph; Hoeper, Dirk; Ochs, Andreas; Schlieben, Patricia; Keller, Markus; Zielke, Dorothee E; Luehken, Renke; Cadar, Daniel; Walther, Doreen; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Groschup, Martin H

    2016-08-30

    Usutu virus (USUV) is an arbovirus within the genus flavivirus, which was first introduced to Southern Europe approximately twenty years ago causing epizootics among wild and captive birds. In Germany USUV was initially discovered in wild birds, mainly Common blackbirds (Turdus merula), in the Upper Rhine valley in southwest of the country in 2011 and has not spread much northwards since. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the still ongoing USUV epidemic is caused by two different USUV strains, USUV-Germany belonging to the USUV Europe 3 lineage and USUV-Bonn belonging to the USUV Africa 3 lineage. The two strains were introduced independently. In August 2015 a new USUV strain, named USUV-Berlin, was isolated in Vero cells from two carcasses of juvenile Great grey owls (Strix nebulosa) kept in the Zoological Garden Berlin, which had suffered from a hyperacute fatal systemic infection. Both owls carried high USUV genome loads. Full-length USUV genomes sequences were determined and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a close relationship with a Spanish mosquito-derived sequence from 2006. Immunohistochemical antigen detection in organ samples of the owls showed the typical USUV infection patterns. According to the phylogenetic analysis, USUV-Berlin belongs to the Africa 2 lineage, and can thus be distinguished from the other strains circulating in Germany. Repeated findings of different USUV strains suggest more frequent introductions into Central Europe and a higher mobility of this virus than assumed to date. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Population-based cancer registration in Germany. Essentials and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Katalinic, A

    2004-05-01

    Although cancer registration has a long tradition in Germany, wide areas remained blank spaces on the map concerning population-based cancer registration. The situation changed completely when a federal law on cancer registration (KRG, 1995-1999) took effect. Now all federal states have established population-based cancer registries on a legal basis. In spite of the uniform model of cancer registration anchored in the KRG, 16 different models have developed in Germany. Completeness of cancer registration was constantly improved over the last several years. In addition to the Saarland cancer registry, further registries can now provide a high grade of registration for all cancer sites. Essential tasks, such as public reporting and support of cancer research, can now be better fulfilled. Even taking the great developments in cancer registration in Germany into consideration, some deficits still continue to exist. These deficits are mostly caused by heterogeneity and missing compatibility of the cancer registry laws of the federal states. After the focus of cancer registration was on developing valid registries,now the focus has to be changed to the usability of cancer registry data. These data can be used e. g. for research on etiology and evaluation of programs on early cancer detection. Scientists in the field of cancer epidemiology, public health, and cancer care are invited to use data of cancer registries for research and evaluation projects intensively.

  20. Prevalence and geographical distribution of Usher syndrome in Germany.

    PubMed

    Spandau, Ulrich H M; Rohrschneider, Klaus

    2002-06-01

    To estimate the prevalence of Usher syndrome in Heidelberg and Mannheim and to map its geographical distribution in Germany. Usher syndrome patients were ascertained through the databases of the Low Vision Department at the University of Heidelberg, and of the patient support group Pro Retina. Ophthalmic and audiologic examinations and medical records were used to classify patients into one of the subtypes. The database of the University of Heidelberg contains 247 Usher syndrome patients, 63 with Usher syndrome type 1 (USH1) and 184 with Usher syndrome type 2 (USH2). The USH1:USH2 ratio in the Heidelberg database was 1:3. The Pro Retina database includes 248 Usher syndrome patients, 21 with USH1 and 227 with USH2. The total number of Usher syndrome patients was 424, with 75 USH1 and 349 USH2 patients; 71 patients were in both databases. The prevalence of Usher syndrome in Heidelberg and suburbs was calculated to be 6.2 per 100,000 inhabitants. There seems to be a homogeneous distribution in Germany for both subtypes. Knowledge of the high prevalence of Usher syndrome, with up to 5,000 patients in Germany, should lead to increased awareness and timely diagnosis by ophthalmologists and otologists. It should also ensure that these patients receive good support through hearing and vision aids.

  1. Epidemiology of trichinellosis in Germany, 1996-2006.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Andreas; Schöneberg, Irene; Stark, Klaus; Nöckler, Karsten

    2008-04-01

    The epidemiology of trichinellosis in Germany was investigated by analyzing national surveillance data from 1996-2006. During this period, 95 laboratory-confirmed infections and 12 outbreaks were reported. The highest mean annual incidence was found in immigrants from southeast European countries (0.3 cases/100,000 vs. 0.01 cases/100,000 in the German population) with an incidence rate ratio of 26.0 (95% confidence interval 11.6-51.8). The predominant clinical symptom was muscle pain in 79 patients (83%). Mean diagnostic delay was 49 days. Among patients with reported source of infection (85%; n = 81), the consumption of pork (mostly originating from endemic countries) represented the most frequent exposure (93%; n = 75). In addition, trichinellosis cases were associated with both indigenous (n = 1) and imported (n = 5) wild boar meat. Although domestic pigs in Germany are practically free from Trichinella spp., the parasite was found in German wild animals such as wild boars, foxes, and racoon dogs. We conclude that trichinellosis still remains a public health issue in Germany, especially among individuals with a migrational background. Immigrants from endemic countries need to be educated about the risks of consuming raw or inadequately cooked pork and wild boar products from their homeland. In addition, German healthcare providers need to be aware of trichinellosis, especially in areas with a large immigrant population.

  2. A framework for standardized calculation of weather indices in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Markus; Doms, Juliane; Gerstmann, Henning; Feike, Til

    2018-05-01

    Climate change has been recognized as a main driver in the increasing occurrence of extreme weather. Weather indices (WIs) are used to assess extreme weather conditions regarding its impact on crop yields. Designing WIs is challenging, since complex and dynamic crop-climate relationships have to be considered. As a consequence, geodata for WI calculations have to represent both the spatio-temporal dynamic of crop development and corresponding weather conditions. In this study, we introduce a WI design framework for Germany, which is based on public and open raster data of long-term spatio-temporal availability. The operational process chain enables the dynamic and automatic definition of relevant phenological phases for the main cultivated crops in Germany. Within the temporal bounds, WIs can be calculated for any year and test site in Germany in a reproducible and transparent manner. The workflow is demonstrated on the example of a simple cumulative rainfall index for the phenological phase shooting of winter wheat using 16 test sites and the period between 1994 and 2014. Compared to station-based approaches, the major advantage of our approach is the possibility to design spatial WIs based on raster data characterized by accuracy metrics. Raster data and WIs, which fulfill data quality standards, can contribute to an increased acceptance and farmers' trust in WI products for crop yield modeling or weather index-based insurances (WIIs).

  3. Epidemiology in Germany-general development and personal experience.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, Heinz-Erich

    2017-08-01

    Did you ever hear about epidemiology in Germany? Starting from an epidemiological desert the discipline has grown remarkably, especially during the last 10-15 years: research institutes have been established, research funding has improved, multiple curriculae in Epidemiology and Public Health are offered. This increase has been quite steep, and now the epidemiological infrastructure is much better. Several medium-sized and even big population cohorts are ongoing, and the number and quality of publications from German epidemiologists has reached a respectable level. My own career in epidemiology started in the field of environmental health. After German reunification I concentrated for many years on environmental problems in East Germany and observed the health benefits after improvement of the situation. Later, I concentrated on population-based cohorts in newborns (GINI/LISA) and adults (KORA, German National Cohort), and on biobanking. This Essay describes the development in Germany after worldwar 2, illustrated by examples of research results and build-up of epidemiological infractructures worth mentioning.

  4. Survival of Patients with Oral Cavity Cancer in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Listl, Stefan; Jansen, Lina; Stenzinger, Albrecht; Freier, Kolja; Emrich, Katharina; Holleczek, Bernd; Katalinic, Alexander; Gondos, Adam; Brenner, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe the survival of patients diagnosed with oral cavity cancer in Germany. The analyses relied on data from eleven population-based cancer registries in Germany covering a population of 33 million inhabitants. Patients with a diagnosis of oral cavity cancer (ICD-10: C00-06) between 1997 and 2006 are included. Period analysis for 2002–2006 was applied to estimate five-year age-standardized relative survival, taking into account patients' sex as well as grade and tumor stage. Overall five-year relative survival for oral cavity cancer patients was 54.6%. According to tumor localization, five-year survival was 86.5% for lip cancer, 48.1% for tongue cancer and 51.7% for other regions of the oral cavity. Differences in survival were identified with respect to age, sex, tumor grade and stage. The present study is the first to provide a comprehensive overview on survival of oral cavity cancer patients in Germany. PMID:23349710

  5. A short history of health technology assessment in Germany.

    PubMed

    Perleth, Matthias; Gibis, Bernhard; Göhlen, Britta

    2009-07-01

    To provide an overview of the development of health technology assessment (HTA) in Germany since the 1990s. Analysis of key documents (e.g. literature, laws, and other official documentation) and personal experiences. Health technology assessment (HTA) entered the political agenda in Germany only in the mid-1990s, basically as the result of a top-down approach toward more efficiency in health care, but with a strong impetus of an evidence-based medicine movement. Accordingly, HTA became part of several healthcare reform laws since 1997, which led to the establishment of the Federal Joint Committee (G-BA) and the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) in 2004. This tandem construction aims at using evidence in decision-making processes for coverage and other decisions. These developments have led to a considerable impact of HTA in Germany. In addition, a broad spectrum of activities at universities and in other organizations, such as the German Institute for Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI), can be observed that contribute to both teaching and research in HTA. German researchers in the field of HTA are actively involved in international projects, such as EUNetHTA, and contribute to scientific conferences and journals.

  6. Factors influencing uptake of HPV vaccination among girls in Germany.

    PubMed

    Schülein, Stefanie; Taylor, Katherine J; König, Jochem; Claus, Matthias; Blettner, Maria; Klug, Stefanie J

    2016-09-20

    Adequate coverage is key to the success of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programmes. There is currently no organised HPV vaccination programme in Germany. The aim of this analysis was to determine HPV vaccine uptake as well as factors associated with uptake in nine to 17 year-old girls in Germany during the first year of vaccine availability. This analysis is based on data from the Healthcare Access Panel, an established population-based household panel consisting of 55 000 representative households in Germany who were contacted between September and October 2007. A total of 4 747 households included at least one girl aged nine to 17 years. After reading a description of the HPV vaccine, these girls were asked, "Would you have yourself vaccinated against HPV?" Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate associations between vaccination status and socio-demographic characteristics of the girls and their mothers. Of the 4 747 girls in the households who received questionnaires, 2 224 (46.9 %) participated in the study and 1 906 (40.2 %) answered the vaccination question. A total of 17.4 % of the girls were already vaccinated, 61.5 % felt positively about doing so, 4.7 % said they would not be vaccinated, and 16.3 % were not sure. The probability of a girl being vaccinated increased with each additional year of age (Odds Ratio (OR): 1.6, 95 % Confidence Interval (CI) 1.5-1.7). Among the 17 year-old girls, 38.5 % (95 % CI 32.6-44.4 %) had been vaccinated. Having a mother with high education (OR: 1.5, 95 % CI 1.0-2.3) or medium education (OR: 1.5, 95 % CI 1.1-2.1) versus basic education was a significant predictor for having been vaccinated. Similarly, medium (OR: 1.5, 95 % CI 1.0-2.4) versus low SES was significantly associated with having been vaccinated. Our analysis showed that during the first year of HPV vaccine availability in Germany, vaccination uptake was low. Countries with organised HPV vaccination programmes showed

  7. Gender differences in subjective well-being, self-esteem and psychosocial functioning in adolescents with symptoms of anxiety and depression: findings from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study.

    PubMed

    Derdikman-Eiron, Ruth; Indredavik, Marit S; Bratberg, Grete H; Taraldsen, Gunnar; Bakken, Inger Johanne; Colton, Matthew

    2011-06-01

    Gender differences in the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression during adolescence are well documented. However, little attention has been given to differences in subjective well-being, self-esteem and psychosocial functioning between boys and girls with symptoms of anxiety and depression. The aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the associations between such symptoms and subjective well-being, self-esteem, school functioning and social relations in adolescents. Data were taken from a major population-based Norwegian study, the Nord-Trøndelag Health study (HUNT), in which 8984 (91% of all invited) adolescents, aged 13-19 years, completed an extensive self-report questionnaire. Although prevalence rates of symptoms of anxiety and depression were higher in girls than in boys, a significant interaction between gender and symptoms of anxiety and depression was found in respect of each of the following outcome variables: subjective well-being, self-esteem, academic problems, frequency of meeting friends and the feeling of not having enough friends. These interactions indicate that the associations between symptoms of anxiety and depression and lower subjective well-being and self-esteem, more academic problems in school and lower social functioning were stronger for boys than for girls. Our findings may contribute to an earlier assessment and more efficient treatment of male adolescent anxiety and depression. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  8. Characteristics of patients with fibromyalgia in France and Germany.

    PubMed

    Perrot, S; Winkelmann, A; Dukes, E; Xu, X; Schaefer, C; Ryan, K; Chandran, A; Sadosky, A; Zlateva, G

    2010-07-01

    Few studies have comprehensively assessed the burden associated with fibromyalgia (FM). This cross-sectional, observational study evaluates the impact of FM on patients in France and Germany. A total of 299 FM patients were recruited from 33 physician offices in France and Germany during routine visits. Patients completed a survey that included the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (BPI-sf), Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), EuroQol 5D (EQ-5D) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to describe their pain, FM and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). FM severity was defined using patients' FIQ total scores with 0 to < 39, 39 to < 59 and 59-100, representing mild, moderate and severe FM, respectively. Site staff completed case report forms using patients' medical records. Mean (standard deviation, SD) age was 54.2 (12.6); 81% of patients were women. The mean (SD) FIQ total score was 53.3 (19.6); 33% and 44% of patients reported moderate and severe FM, respectively. Most patients (91%) were receiving prescription medications for FM during the study. Patients reported a mean (SD) EQ-5D health state valuation of 0.44 (0.33) and a mean (SD) BPI-sf Pain Severity Index score of 4.9 (1.8). Forty-one percent of patients reported some level of disruption in their employment because of FM; employed patients missed a mean (SD) of 2.2 (4.6) workdays during the past 4 weeks. An increase in FM severity was significantly associated with increased pain severity, productivity loss, sleep disturbance and higher anxiety and depression (p < 0.0001). There is a substantial burden of illness including treatment limitations for FM patients in France and Germany.

  9. Prevalence, Trend and Determining Factors of Gestational Diabetes in Germany.

    PubMed

    Huy, C; Loerbroks, A; Hornemann, A; Röhrig, S; Schneider, S

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: The true prevalence of gestational diabetes in Germany is unknown. Thus, the study's purposes were to estimate the prevalence of gestational diabetes as well as to describe the temporal prevalence trend and to identify determinants. Material and Methods: We calculated prevalence estimates based on two datasets: the register-based German perinatal statistic (n = 650 232) and the maternal self-reports from the German children and youth health survey (KiGGS; n = 15 429). Differences between prevalence estimates were analysed using χ 2 and trend tests, and determinants were identified using logistic regression. Results: According to the perinatal statistic, gestational diabetes was present in 3.7 % of pregnant women in Germany in 2010. The prevalence across the years 2001 to 2006 was estimated at 1.9 % which differed significantly from the prevalence estimate derived from the KiGGS dataset for the same period of time (5.3 %; 95 % confidence interval: 4.6-6.1 %). Both datasets show an increasing trend of gestational diabetes (p < 0.001). The risk for gestational diabetes was mainly associated with age, BMI and social class of pregnant women as well as with multiple pregnancies. Conclusion: The lack of significant screening studies among representative samples hampers a sound estimation of the true prevalence of gestational diabetes in Germany. The increasing trend in gestational diabetes might continue due to the projected increase of important risk factors (e.g., maternal age, obesity). Our analyses support the current consensus recommendations regarding standardised gestational diabetes screening.

  10. Smoking restrictions and hospitalization for acute coronary events in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, James D.; Demidenko, Eugene; Malenka, David J.; Li, Zhongze; Gohlke, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Aims To study the effects of smoking restrictions in Germany on coronary syndromes and their associated costs. Methods and results All German states implemented laws partially restricting smoking in the public and hospitality sectors between August 2007 and July 2008. We conducted a before-and-after study to examine trends for the hospitalization rate for angina pectoris and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) for an insurance cohort of 3,700,384 individuals 30 years and older. Outcome measures were hospitalization rates for coronary syndromes, and hospitalization costs. Mean age of the cohort was 56 years, and two-thirds were female. Some 2.2 and 1.1% persons were hospitalized for angina pectoris and AMI, respectively, during the study period from January 2004 through December 2008. Law implementation was associated with a 13.3% (95% confidence interval 8.2, 18.4) decline in angina pectoris and an 8.6% (5.0, 12.2) decline in AMI after 1 year. Hospitalization costs also decreased significantly for the two conditions—9.6% (2.5, 16.6) for angina pectoris and 20.1% (16.0, 24.2) for AMI at 1 year following law implementation. Assuming the law caused the observed declines, it prevented 1,880 hospitalizations and saved 7.7 million Euros in costs for this cohort during the year following law implementation. Conclusions Partial smoking restrictions in Germany were followed by reductions in hospitalization for angina pectoris and AMI, declines that continued through 1 year following these laws and resulted in substantial cost savings. Strengthening the laws could further reduce morbidity and costs from acute coronary syndromes in Germany. PMID:22350716

  11. Patterns of orthopox virus wild rodent hosts in South Germany.

    PubMed

    Essbauer, Sandra; Hartnack, Sonja; Misztela, Krystian; Kiessling-Tsalos, Judith; Bäumler, Walter; Pfeffer, Martin

    2009-06-01

    Although cowpox virus (CPXV) infections in a variety of dead-end hosts have been investigated in Germany for more than 50 years, data on species and geographical distribution of CPXV in reservoir hosts are sparse. Here we present the first comprehensive study of 825 rodents that have been collected in Bavaria, Southern Germany. In summary, six different rodent species (Apodemus flavicollis, Myodes glareolus, Microtus arvalis, Apodemus sylvaticus, Microtus agrestis, and Arvicola amphibius) were trapped at three main trapping sites and investigated using a serum neutralization test (SNT). Prevalence of orthopox virus (OPV)-neutralizing antibodies was (with exception of one trapping site) highest in bank voles, ranging from 24.5% to 42.4%; often with SNT titers > or =96. Two up to 25% of yellow-necked mice were OPV sero-positive, but wood mice only at one site with 5.5%. Up to 7.7% of common voles were found to be OPV seroreactive, while M. agrestis and A. amphibius only sporadically showed seroreactivity. Further analyses of a subset of 450 bank voles and yellow-necked mice trapped at one site over a 18-month period revealed that male yellow-necked mice and female gravid yellow-necked mice had significantly more OPV-neutralizing antibodies. Mean body weight and OPV-seroreactivity were significantly negatively associated in male A. flavicollis. This was not due to shorter body length or smaller body mass index, but previously OPV-infected male A. flavicollis had dramatically reduced mean kidney weights. Seroreactivity in female bank voles was positively related to lung weights. We also found that both male yellow-necked mice and male bank voles with positive SNT titers had higher infestation rates with ectoparasites. We here show for the first time that A. flavicollis beside M. glareolus is a hypothetic host for CPXV, and that there are big geographical and spatial variations concerning the seroprevalence in rodent populations in South Germany.

  12. Down Syndrome: Gestational Age-Related Neonatal Anthropometrics for Germany.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Paul F; Jung, Anna-Maria; Stierkorb, Eva; Monz, Dominik; Gortner, Ludwig; Rohrer, Tilman R

    2016-01-01

    Neonates with Down syndrome (DS) weigh less, are smaller and have increased first-year mortality, especially if born small for gestational age (GA). DS-specific GA-related neonatal anthropometrics for Germany are lacking. To construct reference tables and centile curves for birth weight (g), crown-heel length (cm) and head circumference (cm) by sex and GA for German DS neonates. Retrospective anthropometric data from live-born singleton DS neonates born in Germany from January 1966 to June 2010 were collected using standardized questionnaires and patient records. Reference tables were created based on means and standard deviations. The 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th and 97th centile curves were constructed and smoothed using running medians and Cole's LMS method. Anthropometric measurements were obtained for 1,304 DS neonates [males/females: 713/591 (54.7%/45.3%)]. Reference tables and centile charts were constructed from 3,542 (males/females: 1,932/1,610) observations for GA 32-41 weeks. Compared with general-population newborns, prematurity was increased (21.1 vs. 6.3%) at GA 32-36 weeks. Term-born (GA 40 weeks) male and female DS neonates were 352.5 and 223.5 g lighter and 1.5 and 1.4 cm smaller than general-population neonates, and head circumference was also 1.4 and 1.5 cm smaller, respectively. This is the first study to report GA-related, sex-specific reference tables and centile charts of birth weight, length and head circumference for DS neonates born in Germany. Compared with the general German population, DS newborns are more frequently born prematurely, weigh less, are smaller and have a smaller head circumference at birth. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Antidepressant sales and regional variations of suicide mortality in Germany.

    PubMed

    Blüml, Victor; Helbich, Marco; Mayr, Michael; Turnwald, Roland; Vyssoki, Benjamin; Lewitzka, Ute; Hartung, Sebastian; Plener, Paul L; Fegert, Jörg M; Kapusta, Nestor D

    2017-04-01

    Suicides account for over one million deaths per year worldwide with depression among the most important risk factors. Epidemiological research into the relationship between antidepressant utilization and suicide mortality has shown heterogeneous and contradictory results. Different methodological approaches and limitations could at least partially explain varying results. This is the first study assessing the association of suicide mortality and antidepressant sales across Germany using complex statistical approaches in order to control for possible confounding factors including spatial dependency of data. German suicide counts were analyzed on a district level (n = 402) utilizing ecological Poisson regressions within a hierarchical Bayesian framework. Due to significant spatial effects between adjacent districts spatial models were calculated in addition to a baseline non-spatial model. Models were adjusted for several confounders including socioeconomic variables, quality of psychosocial care, and depression prevalence. Separate analyses were performed for Eastern and Western Germany and for different classes of antidepressants (SSRIs and TCAs). Overall antidepressant sales were significantly negatively associated with suicide mortality in the non-spatial baseline model, while after adjusting for spatially structured and unstructured effects the association turned out to be insignificant. In sub-analyses, analogue results were found for SSRIs and TCAs separately. Suicide risk shows a distinct heterogeneous pattern with a pronounced relative risk in Southeast Germany. In conclusion, the results reflect the heterogeneous findings of previous studies on the association between suicide mortality and antidepressant sales and point to the complexity of this hypothesized link. Furthermore, the findings support tailored suicide preventive efforts within high risk areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Smoking restrictions and hospitalization for acute coronary events in Germany.

    PubMed

    Sargent, James D; Demidenko, Eugene; Malenka, David J; Li, Zhongze; Gohlke, Helmut; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2012-03-01

    To study the effects of smoking restrictions in Germany on coronary syndromes and their associated costs. All German states implemented laws partially restricting smoking in the public and hospitality sectors between August 2007 and July 2008. We conducted a before-and-after study to examine trends for the hospitalization rate for angina pectoris and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) for an insurance cohort of 3,700,384 individuals 30 years and older. Outcome measures were hospitalization rates for coronary syndromes, and hospitalization costs. Mean age of the cohort was 56 years, and two-thirds were female. Some 2.2 and 1.1% persons were hospitalized for angina pectoris and AMI, respectively, during the study period from January 2004 through December 2008. Law implementation was associated with a 13.3% (95% confidence interval 8.2, 18.4) decline in angina pectoris and an 8.6% (5.0, 12.2) decline in AMI after 1 year. Hospitalization costs also decreased significantly for the two conditions-9.6% (2.5, 16.6) for angina pectoris and 20.1% (16.0, 24.2) for AMI at 1 year following law implementation. Assuming the law caused the observed declines, it prevented 1,880 hospitalizations and saved 7.7 million Euros in costs for this cohort during the year following law implementation. Partial smoking restrictions in Germany were followed by reductions in hospitalization for angina pectoris and AMI, declines that continued through 1 year following these laws and resulted in substantial cost savings. Strengthening the laws could further reduce morbidity and costs from acute coronary syndromes in Germany.

  15. Allergies in Germany -- prevalence and perception by the public.

    PubMed

    Augustin, Matthias; Franzke, Nadine; Beikert, Florian C; Stadler, Rudolf; Reusch, Michael; Schmitt, Jochen; Schäfer, Ines

    2013-06-01

    During the recent decades allergies have become more frequent all over the world. However, it is unclear how important the topic of allergies is for the general German population and how appropriately patients with allergies are treated. A telephone survey was performed on a representative random sample of n = 1,004 adults in Germany. The survey was performed by the Forsa Institute for Social Research and Statistical Analysis, Berlin, Germany, in the period from 31 January to 2 February 2012. Of the interviewees 52% responded that the topic of allergies concerned them; in 33% actually an allergy had been diagnosed by a physician. The proportion of allergies in the population correlated with the level of school education and was higher among people with a higher educational status. No differences in allergy rates were found between Eastern and Western Germany. Among allergic persons, 53% reported to be burdened by their allergy, 48% suffered from impaired performance because of their allergic symptoms. Among people suffering from pollen allergy, only 28% received sublingual immune therapy, with which 70% were satisfied. While 58% practiced self-medication, only 21% of the allergic persons were treated with anti-allergic drugs during their allergy flares. Allergic diseases are a common, often burdensome problem in the German population, but nevertheless the medical treatment of people affected is still insufficient. The proportion of patients receiving sublingual immune therapy as causal treatment is comparatively low. Active steps are needed to improve the utilization behavior of patients, e. g. to take advice of an allergy specialist. © The Authors • Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  16. The ecological niche of Dermacentor marginatus in Germany.

    PubMed

    Walter, Melanie; Brugger, Katharina; Rubel, Franz

    2016-06-01

    The ixodid tick Dermacentor marginatus (Sulzer, 1776) is endemic throughout southern Europe in the range of 33-51 (°) N latitude. In Germany, however, D. marginatus was exclusively reported in the Rhine valley and adjacent areas. Its northern distribution limit near Giessen is located at the coordinates 8.32 (°) E/50.65 (°) N. Particularly with regard to the causative agents of rickettsioses, tularemia, and Q fever, the observed locations as well as the potential distribution of the vector D. marginatus in Germany are of special interest. Applying a dataset of 118 georeferenced tick locations, the ecological niche for D. marginatus was calculated. It is described by six climate parameters based on temperature and relative humidity and another six environmental parameters including land cover classes and altitude. The final ecological niche is determined by the frequency distributions of these 12 parameters at the tick locations. Main parameters are the mean annual temperature (frequency distribution characterized by the minimum, median, and maximum of 6.1, 9.9, and 12.2 (°)C), the mean annual relative humidity (73.7, 76.7, and 80.9 %), as well as the altitude (87, 240, 1108 m). The climate and environmental niche is used to estimate the habitat suitability of D. marginatus in Germany by applying the BIOCLIM model. Finally, the potential spatial distribution of D. marginatus was calculated and mapped by determining an optimal threshold value of the suitability index, i.e., the maximum of sensitivity and specificity (Youden index). The model performance is expressed by AUC = 0.91.

  17. Electronic Cigarettes-Attitudes and Use in Germany.

    PubMed

    Rüther, Tobias; Wissen, Franziska; Linhardt, Andrea; Aichert, Désirée S; Pogarell, Oliver; de Vries, Hein

    2016-05-01

    Smoking is the leading preventable cause of death and disease. Previous studies on electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use have reported reduction and cessation of conventional cigarette smoking; however, health effects are still a matter of discussion. This cross-sectional study investigated the attitudes of adults in Germany towards using e-cigarettes instead of or in addition to cigarettes. Furthermore, it examined the extent to which e-cigarettes are used as a smoking cessation tool. In 2012, we recruited a sample of 319 participants comprising e-cigarette users (vapers, 33%), cigarette smokers (smokers, 37%) and smokers of both cigarette types (dual users, 30%). The Integrated Model for Change (I-Change Model) was used as a theoretical framework and a modified Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence was used to assess nicotine dependence. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire and smoking status was substantiated by measuring exhaled carbon monoxide. The vapers were more often men, were less addicted to nicotine and had a higher motivation to stop smoking than the smokers. In addition, vapers reported better health and had a lower carbon monoxide concentration than smokers. Furthermore, vapers had a more positive attitude towards e-cigarettes and higher self-efficacy in terms of abstaining from cigarettes in certain situations. This is the first study to report on the use of e-cigarettes in Germany. Our results support those of previous studies in other populations. Further research is still needed on the potential health effects of e-cigarettes and their efficacy as a smoking cessation aid. The study is the first description of attitudes and use of e-cigarettes in Germany. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. "Sports" medicine in Germany and its struggle for professional status.

    PubMed

    Pfister, Gertrud

    2011-01-01

    In Germany gymnastics and sport had formed alliances with medical "sciences" as early as the 18th century. At the end of the 19th century, the rise of sport provoked heated debates among physicians about the benefits and the dangers of sporting activities. After World War I, sport became a fashion and a mass movement that increasingly attracted the interest of the medical profession. Doctors organized congresses and founded a professional organization and journal. Using theoretical approaches to professionalization, the efforts of "sport physicians" to gain professional status (and the resources and power connected with it) will be analyzed and interpreted.

  19. Health utilities in gynecological oncology and mastology in Germany.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Thomas; Thiel, Falk C; Fasching, Peter A; Graf, Christiane; Bani, Mayada R; Loehberg, Christian R; Schrauder, Michael G; Jud, Sebastian M; Hack, Carolin C; Beckmann, Matthias W; Lux, Michael P

    2014-02-01

    Cost increases in the healthcare system are leading to a need to distribute financial resources in accordance with the value of each service performed. Health-economic decision-making models can support these decisions. Due to the previous unavailability of health utilities in Germany (scored states of health as a basis for calculating quality-adjusted life-years, QALYs) for women undergoing treatment, international data are often used for such models. However, these may widely deviate from the values for a woman actually living in Germany. It is, therefore, necessary to collect and analyze health utilities in Germany. In a questionnaire survey, health utilities were collected, along with data for a healthy control group, for 580 female patients receiving treatment in the fields of mastology and gynecological oncology using a German version of the EuroQol questionnaire (EQ-5D) and a visual analogue scale (VAS). Data were also collected for the patients' medical history, tumor disease, and treatment. Significant differences with regard to quality of life were measured in relation to the individual tumor entities and in comparison to the controls. Apart from the healthy control group, patients with breast or cervical carcinoma had the best quality of life. In patients with recurrent and metastatic disease, those with breast carcinoma experienced the greatest impairment of their quality of life. According to current treatment, the most important impairment of life quality occurred in patients under radiotherapy and after surgical treatment. There are significant differences from the health utilities recorded for other countries - for example, the state of health declines much more markedly in patients with metastatic disease among American women with breast carcinoma than among German women, in whom recurrent disease and a first diagnosis of metastasis were comparable. Overall, the VAS was able to distinguish more adequately than the EQ-5D questionnaire between the

  20. Challenges dealing with depleted uranium in Germany - Reuse or disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, Kai D.

    2007-07-01

    During enrichment large amounts of depleted Uranium are produced. In Germany every year 2.800 tons of depleted uranium are generated. In Germany depleted uranium is not classified as radioactive waste but a resource for further enrichment. Therefore since 1996 depleted Uranium is sent to ROSATOM in Russia. However it still has to be dealt with the second generation of depleted Uranium. To evaluate the alternative actions in case a solution has to be found in Germany, several studies have been initiated by the Federal Ministry of the Environment. The work that has been carried out evaluated various possibilities to dealmore » with depleted uranium. The international studies on this field and the situation in Germany have been analyzed. In case no further enrichment is planned the depleted uranium has to be stored. In the enrichment process UF{sub 6} is generated. It is an international consensus that for storage it should be converted to U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. The necessary technique is well established. If the depleted Uranium would have to be characterized as radioactive waste, a final disposal would become necessary. For the planned Konrad repository - a repository for non heat generating radioactive waste - the amount of Uranium is limited by the licensing authority. The existing license would not allow the final disposal of large amounts of depleted Uranium in the Konrad repository. The potential effect on the safety case has not been roughly analyzed. As a result it may be necessary to think about alternatives. Several possibilities for the use of depleted uranium in the industry have been identified. Studies indicate that the properties of Uranium would make it useful in some industrial fields. Nevertheless many practical and legal questions are open. One further option may be the use as shielding e.g. in casks for transport or disposal. Possible techniques for using depleted Uranium as shielding are the use of the metallic Uranium as well as the inclusion in

  1. Disease management programs in Germany's statutory health insurance system.

    PubMed

    Busse, Reinhard

    2004-01-01

    The introduction in 1996 of free choice among sickness funds in Germany was accompanied by a "risk structure compensation" (RSC) mechanism based on average spending by age and sex. Because chronically ill people were not adequately taken into account, competition for newly insured consumers concentrated on the healthy. The introduction in 2002 of disease management programs addresses this problem: Insured people in such programs are treated as a separate RSC category, making them a more "attractive" group that no longer generates a deficit. The degree of sickness fund activities and the fierce dispute with physicians are valid indicators that the incentives work.

  2. Food Safety Strategies in the Federal Republic of Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaus, Joachim

    Food regulation is essentially harmonised in the European Community (EC). National provisions exist only where Community law leaves regulatory gaps or where national specifications are required for the implementation of Community law. Community and national legal provisions provide for a high and, at the same time, non-discriminatory level of protection in the area of food safety. Only safe food may be marketed, irrespective of whether it comes from Germany, an EC Member State or from abroad - a so-called third country.

  3. Wartime nuclear weapons research in Germany and Japan.

    PubMed

    Grunden, Walter E; Walker, Mark; Yamnazaki, Masakatsu

    2005-01-01

    This article compares military research projects during the Second World War to develop nuclear weapons in Germany and Japan, two countries who lost the war and failed to create nuclear weapons. The performance and motivations of the scientists, as well as the institutional support given the work, is examined, explaining why, in each case, the project went as far as it did-but no further. The story is carried over into the postwar period, when the two cultures and their scientists had to deal with the buildup of nuclear weapons during the cold war and the new nuclear power industry.

  4. [Interaction of mental health and forced married migrants in Germany].

    PubMed

    Kizilhan, Jan

    2015-11-01

    The study examines the interaction of the forced married migrants and the frequency of the psychological illness. Forced-married and not forced-married migrants are compared concerning her psychological illness in psychosomatic clinics in Germany. Forced-married women reported significantly more about psychological illness and have undertaken on average at least four times a suicide attempt. Forced-married women suffer lifelong from this event and need, with taking into account cultural migration-specific aspects, special support in the psychosocial consultation and medical-therapeutic treatment. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. [Utilization of multimodal therapy concepts in stomach carcinoma in Germany].

    PubMed

    Bösing, N M; Heise, J W; Röher, H D

    2000-01-01

    In view of disappointing results after surgery alone multimodal therapeutic regimes are used to improve long-term prognosis in locally advanced gastric carcinomas. In presence of many reports about encouraging results ("down staging", improved R0-resection rates) but simultaneously missing evidence of efficiency of neoadjuvant therapies in respect to long-term survival (large randomized multicenter trials do not exist until today) and the herewith related uncertainties, we started an inquiry among many surgical units with the intention to evaluate the clinical practice of multimodal treatment for gastric cancer patients in Germany today. In a questionnaire (3/99) we asked among 97 surgical units (41 university hospitals, 56 big community hospitals) in Germany for the management of gastric cancer patients with special interest to practice and state of adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapeutic strategies. Further we analyzed all resected gastric cancer patients (1986-1995) without neoadjuvant treatment in advanced stage of disease (pT3/4NxMx; stage III/IV (UICC'92) in respect to R0-resection rate and long-term prognosis (Kaplan-Meier). Overall feedback amounted to 78% (76/97) and was higher in university hospitals (90%) than in big community hospitals (70%). Today, neoadjuvant therapies are of more interest than adjuvant therapeutic regimes. But also neoadjuvant therapy is only used in 32% as a rule (in 16% with, in 16% without study conditions). 25% of all surgical units do not employ any neoadjuvant therapy in locally advanced gastric cancer until today. In all other surgical units neoadjuvant treatment is performed more individually and sporadically (43%) only in some patients. Neoadjuvant therapies are practiced by haematooncologists in 50%, gastroenterologists in 32% and surgeons in 27%. The predominant neoadjuvant therapeutic strategy is chemotherapy alone (84%). Many surgical units in Germany are interested to participate in a multicenter trial with more interest

  6. [Surgical research in Germany--an international comparison].

    PubMed

    Fendrich, V; Rothmund, M

    2010-04-01

    Surgical research in Germany occupies a lower position in international ranking than expected. According to the size of the population, the economic impact, the gross domestic product and the research funding capacity, the impact of German surgical research should be much higher. Reasons are a more intensive commitment to patient care, structural differences and a changing lifestyle in younger doctors in comparison to many leading countries. If the situation is to be improved all factors have to be evaluated and, if possible, changed. Overall, German surgeons are underrepresented as readers and authors in the scientific market, which is mostly in the English language.

  7. [Socioeconomic Gradients in Dental Care Accessibility in Germany].

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, Konrad Alexander; Hirsch, Christian

    2017-03-17

    The aim of this study was to determine whether dental care accessibility in Germany from 2002 to 2009 was linked to socioeconomic status (SES) or household net income (HHN). Analysis was based upon a nation-wide cross-sectional survey of German adults from 18 to 79 years (mean 49.1 years; 55% females) which was conducted by the "Bertelsmann Gesundheitsmonitor" from 2002-2009. Patients in Germany visit the dentist 2.4 times per year independently of the SES. Patients with higher income paid per income group 34 € (95%- KI: 6 €-63 €) more for their denture. People from the middle class had 1.28 (95% CI: 1.02-1.22), and people from the upper class had 1.86 (95%-CI: 1.58-2.18) as much dental coinsurance coverage as people from the lower class. The ability to pay for denture and obtain dental insurance coverage rose with higher SES or HHN. The rise of additional payments for dental services leads to discrepancies in dental health care. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Gambling market and individual patterns of gambling in Germany.

    PubMed

    Albers, N; Hübl, L

    1997-01-01

    In this paper individual patterns of gambling in Germany are estimated for the first time. The probit technique is used to test the influence of a set of individual characteristics on the probability of participating in each of the various legal games. A sample size of 1,586 adults collected for the pool of German lotteries provides a reliable set of data. All disaggregated estimations of participation are statistically significant at least at the 5 percent level. The basic findings suggest that gambling is a widespread normal (superior) consumption good because gambling participation tends to rise with income. Moreover, no demand anomaly can be found to justify assessing gambling as a social demerit. Only the participation in gaming machines is higher for younger, unemployed and less educated adults. While a moral evaluation of gambling is beyond the scope of this paper, the legislator's preference for a highly taxed state monopoly in gambling markets is to be rejected, at least for Germany. Additional statistical findings suggest distinct consumer perceptions of the characteristics of the various games and may be used for market segmentation. The paper starts with a descriptive introduction to the German gambling market.

  9. Green energy products in the United Kingdom, Germany and Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hast, Aira; McDermott, Liisa; Järvelä, Marja; Syri, Sanna

    2014-12-01

    In liberalized electricity markets, suppliers are offering several kinds of voluntary green electricity products marketed as environmentally friendly. This paper focuses on the development of these voluntary markets at household level in the UK, Germany and Finland. Since there are already existing renewable energy policies regulating and encouraging the use of renewable energy, it is important to consider whether voluntary products offer real additional benefits above these policies. Problems such as double counting or re-marketing hydropower produced in existing plants are identified. According to our study, the demand varies between countries: in Germany the number of green electricity customers has increased and is also higher than in the UK or Finland. Typically the average additional cost to consumer from buying green electricity product instead of standard electricity product is in the range of 0-5% in all studied countries, although the level of price premium depends on several factors like electricity consumption. Case study of Finland and literature show that the impacts of green energy are not solely environmental. Renewable energy can benefit local public policy.

  10. [The demographic development in Germany : challenge and chances for urology].

    PubMed

    Schneider, A W; Fichtner, J

    2014-08-01

    Urology is affected by the demographic development in Germany more than any other medical discipline. Despite a relatively stable total population, by the year 2040 there will be an absolute and relevant increase in urological diseases caused only by the demographic development in the population. This is particularly true for the increase in oncological treatment just in the field of the discipline of urology. Even now the current numbers for tumor development in Germany (RKI 2014) in the urological oncology segment of all tumor diseases show an increasing trend with more than 23 %. This significant increase in performance is in contrast to the age development of the specialists in this discipline. In total but especially due to the significantly over-aged specialist medical profession in urology, this leads to a substantial bottleneck of specialists in the discipline of urology. This deficiency of personnel resources in urology is aggravated by the requirements of Generation Y for a well-adjusted work-life balance and the associated feminization of the medical profession. This requires intelligent strategies for.

  11. Key Aspects of a Sustainable Health Insurance System in Germany.

    PubMed

    Pelster, Matthias; Hagemann, Vera; Laporte Uribe, Franziska

    2016-06-01

    The main goals of health-care systems are to improve the health of the population they serve, respond to people's legitimate expectations, and offer fair financing. As a result, the health system in Germany is subject to continuous adaption as well as public and political discussions about its design. This paper analyzes the key challenges for the German health-care system and the underlying factors driving these challenges. We aim to identify possible solutions to put the German health-care system in a better position to face these challenges. We utilize a broad array of methods to answer these questions, including a review of the published and grey literature on health-care planning in Germany, semi-structured interviews with stakeholders in the system, and an online questionnaire. We find that the most urgent (and manageable) aspects that merit attention are holistic hospital planning, initiatives to increase (administrative) innovation in the health-care system, incentives to increase prevention, and approaches to increase analytical quality assurance. We found that hospital planning, innovation, quality control, and prevention, are considered to be the topics most in need of attention in the German health system.

  12. Spiritual care in the training of hospice volunteers in Germany.

    PubMed

    Gratz, Margit; Paal, Piret; Emmelmann, Moritz; Roser, Traugott

    2016-10-01

    Hospice volunteers often encounter questions related to spirituality. It is unknown whether spiritual care receives a corresponding level of attention in their training. Our survey investigated the current practice of spiritual care training in Germany. An online survey sent to 1,332 hospice homecare services for adults in Germany was conducted during the summer of 2012. We employed the SPSS 21 software package for statistical evaluation. All training programs included self-reflection on personal spirituality as obligatory. The definitions of spirituality used in programs differ considerably. The task of defining training objectives is randomly delegated to a supervisor, a trainer, or to the governing organization. More than half the institutions work in conjunction with an external trainer. These external trainers frequently have professional backgrounds in pastoral care/theology and/or in hospice/palliative care. While spiritual care receives great attention, the specific tasks it entails are rarely discussed. The response rate for our study was 25.0% (n = 332). A need exists to develop training concepts that outline distinct contents, methods, and objectives. A prospective curriculum would have to provide assistance in the development of training programs. Moreover, it would need to be adaptable to the various concepts of spiritual care employed by the respective institutions and their hospice volunteers.

  13. [Outpatient physiotherapy for patients with knee pain in northern Germany].

    PubMed

    Karstens, S; Froböse, I; Weiler, S W

    2014-10-01

    Physiotherapy, in comparison to occupational therapy and speech therapy, is the most frequently prescribed treatment in Germany. Nationally there is only scarce information available on indications, treatment approaches and development of health condition throughout therapy. Present work encompasses only small sample sizes and insufficient follow-up periods. To describe, how patients with knee complaints are treated based on a physiotherapy referral and how their health condition changes during therapy. A descriptive-exploratory secondary analysis of data from a prospective multicentre observational study was conducted. The Bother index of the Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Questionnaire (German, 16-Item version) and an 11-step box scale on pain intensity were utilised as outcome criteria. Data of 160 patients, age 47.4 (SD 10.8), 51% female, approximately 51% with previous arthroscopy, were analysed. The response rate 6 months after therapy approximately amounted to 50%. Main therapy approaches were strengthening, stretching and manual therapy, combined with home exercises. Impairment in daily life as well as pain improved substantially during therapy (SES range 0.6-1.75). The conducted study brought up insights for physiotherapy health service for pa-tients with cartilage or meniscal problems, based on a sample size not accessible for Germany before. After reviewing the international literature it may be assumed, that the clearly active character of the therapy and the combination of different treatment approaches are of relevance for the presented reduction of impairment in daily life. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. [Regionalisation of Germany by data of agricultural structures].

    PubMed

    Merle, Roswitha; Busse, Marc; Rechter, Galina; Meer, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    In order to simplify the design of representative studies in animal populations the structural differences of animal husbandry (cattle, pigs and laying hens) in Germany were characterised. Several regions were defined and thus districts identified which are typical for the respective region and can be regarded as representatives for the whole region. Data on animal husbandry as well as human population per district originated from the Federal Statistical Office and were linked to the geometric data of the Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy. By this, data of "livestock units/square kilometre area" and "farms/square kilometre area" per district were calculated using methods of the spatial statistics Global Moran's Index, Anselin Local Moran's Index and Getis-Ord Gi*. With the help of these analyses six clusters could be identified which resulted in four large (Middle, Northwest, East, and South) and one smaller region (Northern Upper-Rhine) respecting the federal state borders. These regions differed significantly regarding animal and farm densities. The selection of typical districts was carried out with the help of the respective animal and farm data of the species pigs, dairy cattle and laying hens. The means of the selected districts (three to six per region) were within the 60%- and the 80%-percentile of at least two of the analysed variables. Concerning the region Northern Upper-Rhine no representative district was selected. This presented regionalisation including representative districts can be used for the design of scientific studies that are associated with animal husbandry in Germany.

  15. Herbicide use on railway tracks for safety reasons in Germany?

    PubMed

    Schweinsberg, F; Abke, W; Rieth, K; Rohmann, U; Zullei-Seibert, N

    1999-06-30

    A short overview on the occurrence of herbicides in groundwater and drinking water located in the vicinity of railway tracks in Germany is presented. The study has been conducted using the experience of various water supply companies and includes a literature research on the subject. It has been documented that in Germany only 1% of the total area treated with pesticides was under management of the former Deutsche Bundesbahn before 1990. The specific amount applied on the railway tracks was, however, a factor of 6 higher than that used in agriculture, although it must be borne in mind that the retaining capacity of railway tracks for pesticides is much lower. The herbicides applied ranged from 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T, triazine derivatives, e.g. atrazine and urea derivatives such as diuron. Traces of almost all of the herbicides applied could be detected in samples of groundwater and drinking water in the vicinity of railway tracks. Since 1997 only glyphosate has been used.

  16. [Healthcare services research on pain in Germany. A survey].

    PubMed

    Häuser, W; Neugebauer, E; Petzke, F

    2015-10-01

    Within the last ten years healthcare services research has developed into an independent interdisciplinary field of research. A selective search of the literature was conducted in the database Google Scholar and the database on healthcare services research in Germany (http://versorgungsforschung-deutschland.de) for healthcare services research projects on pain in Germany. Healthcare services research projects were conducted by pharmaceutical companies, patient self-help organizations, scientific societies, statutory health insurance companies and university departments on acute and chronic pain. Valid data on the epidemiology, grading and treatment of chronic pain are available. There was an overuse of opioids and invasive procedures in patients with chronic low back pain, fibromyalgia syndrome and somatoform pain disorders. Databases for patients with chronic pain are currently constructed by pain societies. The fragmentation of data from health insurance companies, old age pension insurances, clinical institutions and population surveys and inconsistencies in diagnosing or encoding chronic pain impede the carrying out of significant longitudinal studies. Based on the data available, the needs of care for patients with chronic pain and the necessary care services cannot be derived. Important topics of future healthcare services research on pain are longitudinal studies on the cost efficacy and risks of inpatient and outpatient pain therapy based on routine data of health insurance companies, old age pension insurances and pain registries, longitudinal studies on "patient careers" (i.e. sequences of healthcare) and the identification of potential starting points for control of healthcare.

  17. Weather Effects on Crop Diseases in Eastern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conradt, Tobias

    2017-04-01

    Since the 1970s there are several long-term monitoring programmes for plant diseases and pests in Germany. Within the framework of a national research project, some otherwise confidential databases comprising 77 111 samples from numerous sites accross Eastern Germany could be accessed and analysed. The pest data covered leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis) in winter wheat, aphids (Aphididae, four genera) on wheat and other cereal crops, late blight (Phytophthora infestans) in potatoes, and pollen beetles (Brassicogethes aeneus) on rape. These data were complemented by daily weather observations from the German Weather Service (DWD). In a first step, Pearson correlations between weather variables and pest frequencies were calculated for seasonal time periods of different start months and durations and ordered into so-called correlograms. This revealed principal weather effects on disease spread - e. g. that wind is favourable for mildew throughout the year or that rape pollen beetles like it warm, but not during wintertime. Secondly, the pest frequency samples were found to resemble gamma distributions, and a generalised linear model was fitted to describe their parameter shift depending on end-of-winter temperatures for aphids on cereals. The method clearly shows potential for systematic pest risk assessments regarding climate change.

  18. Mental health of patients from different cultures in Germany.

    PubMed

    Wittig, U; Lindert, J; Merbach, M; Brähler, E

    2008-01-01

    Empirical studies on migration and mental health of migrants are still rare. In Germany they are often characterised by low sample sizes and are limited to certain diseases and geographical areas (old federal states). The comparability of their results is limited. Nonetheless, the assessment of migrants' health is necessary for adequate medical and psychosocial care for this target group. To provide data on mental health of migrants from Poland and from Vietnam in Germany. We have assessed a random sample of migrants from Poland (n=140) and from Vietnam (n=88) using the Giessen Subjective Complaints List - 24 (GSCL-24) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Additionally we asked migrants about their knowledge of health care institutions in case of psychosocial problems, their demands and the existing barriers to health care utilisation. Migrants from Poland and Vietnam have a higher general score of complaints of physical ill-health and higher anxiety and depression values than Germans. Psychosocial and medical institutions are visited less. Further analytical studies are needed to clarify health differences between these groups. Migrants are a heterogeneous group and only group-specific investigations will clarify associations between countries of origin, health status and use of health care institutions.

  19. High probability of comorbidities in bronchial asthma in Germany.

    PubMed

    Heck, S; Al-Shobash, S; Rapp, D; Le, D D; Omlor, A; Bekhit, A; Flaig, M; Al-Kadah, B; Herian, W; Bals, R; Wagenpfeil, S; Dinh, Q T

    2017-04-21

    Clinical experience has shown that allergic and non-allergic respiratory, metabolic, mental, and cardiovascular disorders sometimes coexist with bronchial asthma. However, no study has been carried out that calculates the chance of manifestation of these disorders with bronchial asthma in Saarland and Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. Using ICD10 diagnoses from health care institutions, the present study systematically analyzed the co-prevalence and odds ratios of comorbidities in the asthma population in Germany. The odds ratios were adjusted for age and sex for all comorbidities for patients with asthma vs. without asthma. Bronchial asthma was strongly associated with allergic and with a lesser extent to non-allergic comorbidities: OR 7.02 (95%CI:6.83-7.22) for allergic rhinitis; OR 4.98 (95%CI:4.67-5.32) allergic conjunctivitis; OR 2.41 (95%CI:2.33-2.52) atopic dermatitis; OR 2.47 (95%CI:2.16-2.82) food allergy, and OR 1.69 (95%CI:1.61-1.78) drug allergy. Interestingly, increased ORs were found for respiratory diseases: 2.06 (95%CI:1.64-2.58) vocal dysfunction; 1.83 (95%CI:1.74-1.92) pneumonia; 1.78 (95%CI:1.73-1.84) sinusitis; 1.71 (95%CI:1.65-1.78) rhinopharyngitis; 2.55 (95%CI:2.03-3.19) obstructive sleep apnea; 1.42 (95%CI:1.25-1.61) pulmonary embolism, and 3.75 (95%CI:1.64-8.53) bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Asthmatics also suffer from psychiatric, metabolic, cardiac or other comorbidities. Myocardial infarction (OR 0.86, 95%CI:0.79-0.94) did not coexist with asthma. Based on the calculated chances of manifestation for these comorbidities, especially allergic and respiratory, to a lesser extent also metabolic, cardiovascular, and mental disorders should be taken into consideration in the diagnostic and treatment strategy of bronchial asthma. PREVALENCE OF CO-EXISTING DISEASES IN GERMANY: Patients in Germany with bronchial asthma are highly likely to suffer from co-existing diseases and their treatments should reflect this. Quoc Thai Dinh at Saarland

  20. Implementation and Operational Research: Programmatic Feasibility of Dried Blood Spots for the Virological Follow-up of Patients on Antiretroviral Treatment in Nord Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Laetitia; Muwonga, Jeremie; Kabuayi, Jean Pierre; Kambale, Alain; Mutaka, Fidèle; Fujiwara, Paula I.; Decosas, Josef; Peeters, Martine; Delaporte, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background: As part of its policy to shift monitoring of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to primary health care (PHC) workers, the Ministry of Health of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) tested the feasibility of using dried blood spots (DBS) for viral load (VL) quantification and genotypic drug resistance testing in off-site high-throughput laboratories. Methods: DBS samples from adults on ART were collected in 13 decentralized PHC facilities in the Nord-Kivu province and shipped during program quarterly supervision to a reference laboratory 2000 km away, where VL was quantified with a commercial assay (m2000rt, Abbott). A second DBS was sent to a World Health Organization (WHO)-accredited laboratory for repeat VL quantification on a subset of samples with a generic assay (Biocentric) and genotypic drug resistance testing when VL >1000 copies per milliliter. Findings: Constraints arose because of an interruption in national laboratory funding rather than to technical or logistic problems. All samples were assessed by both VL assays to allow ART adjustment. Median DBS turnaround time was 37 days (interquartile range: 9–59). Assays performed unequally with DBS, impacting clinical decisions, quality assurance, and overall cost-effectiveness. Based on m2000rt or generic assay, 31.3% of patients were on virological failure (VF) and 14.8% presented resistance mutations versus 50.3% and 15.4%, respectively. Conclusion: This study confirms that current technologies involving DBS make virological monitoring of ART possible at PHC level, including in challenging environments, provided organizational issues are addressed. Adequate core funding of HIV laboratories and adapted choice of VL assays require urgent attention to control resistance to ART as coverage expands. PMID:26413848

  1. Climate protection in Germany`s bilateral development co-operation with the People`s Republic of China

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, A.

    1996-12-31

    For globally sustainable development to be achieved, three concerns are central: productive economic growth, social justice and ecological sustainability. Development co-operation supports the realisation of these three goals in partner countries by helping to alleviate poverty, promote economic growth through private-sector development and protect vital natural resources. The aim of globally sustainable development can only be achieved if industrial countries too implement necessary reforms and structural adjustments at every level. Co-operation efforts with partners must therefore be complemented by coherent policies at home. This is a matter of credibility, but also of developmental far-sightedness. Internal reforms in the industrial countriesmore » secure financial leeway for their providing foreign assistance in the longer term. Environmental and resource protection as a focal point of Germany`s development co-operation with the PRC aims to preserve vital natural resources, shape economic development in their partner countries in an ecologically sound manner and put China in a position to participate in global endeavours to protect the environment. Climate protection measures figure prominently in this area. This is justified given China`s share of global CO{sub 2} emissions and the potential for energy-saving measures and measures to increase power intensity. This potential is derived primarily from the possibility of using energy-efficient technologies, increasing the relatively low energy prices and making use of renewable sources of energy.« less

  2. Association of diabetic foot care and amputation rates in Germany.

    PubMed

    Kröger, Knut; Moysidis, Theodoros; Feghaly, Michel; Schäfer, Erika; Bufe, Alexander

    2016-10-01

    Podologists are nurses who care for the diabetic foot (orthotics, offloading devices, blisters, calluses, treatment of fungus infection and patient education). In contrast to podiatrists, they are not qualified to perform any surgical treatment or wound care. We analysed whether there is an association between the decrease in major amputations and the number of podologic foot care (PFC) visits prescribed in Germany. Detailed list of all major lower limb amputations (OPS 5-864) performed from 2007 to 2011 was provided by the Federal Statistical Office. Data were separated for the 16 federal states in Germany. Detailed lists of the number of PFC treatments for each of the 5 years were derived from the federal report of the statutory health insurance. The total numbers of hospitalised cases per year having diabetes mellitus documented as an additional diagnosis were used to adjust for the different rates of people with diabetes in each federal state. Within a 5-year time period, population-based major amputations per 100 000 people dropped from 21·7 in 2007 to 17·5 in 2011 (-18·5%); whereas the number of PFC treatments per 1000 insured increased from 22 in 2007 to 60 in 2011 (+172·7%). The total number of major amputations divided by the total number of hospitalised cases with the additional diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM) shows an inverse correlation with the number of PFC treatments per 1000 insured (Pearson's correlation factor is -0·52049). The five countries with the highest increase in PFC compared with the five countries with the lowest increase (35·6 versus 15·4 per 1000 insured) will have only small differences in the decrease in major amputation rates in this period (-5·1 versus -3·4 per 100.000). There is a strong association between increasing utilisation PFC and decreasing major amputations in Germany. Further study is required to document the cost-effectiveness of this service. © 2014 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2014

  3. Quantifying the impact of human activity on temperatures in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benz, Susanne A.; Bayer, Peter; Blum, Philipp

    2017-04-01

    Human activity directly influences ambient air, surface and groundwater temperatures. Alterations of surface cover and land use influence the ambient thermal regime causing spatial temperature anomalies, most commonly heat islands. These local temperature anomalies are primarily described within the bounds of large and densely populated urban settlements, where they form so-called urban heat islands (UHI). This study explores the anthropogenic impact not only for selected cities, but for the thermal regime on a countrywide scale, by analyzing mean annual temperature datasets in Germany in three different compartments: measured surface air temperature (SAT), measured groundwater temperature (GWT), and satellite-derived land surface temperature (LST). As a universal parameter to quantify anthropogenic heat anomalies, the anthropogenic heat intensity (AHI) is introduced. It is closely related to the urban heat island intensity, but determined for each pixel (for satellite-derived LST) or measurement point (for SAT and GWT) of a large, even global, dataset individually, regardless of land use and location. Hence, it provides the unique opportunity to a) compare the anthropogenic impact on temperatures in air, surface and subsurface, b) to find main instances of anthropogenic temperature anomalies within the study area, in this case Germany, and c) to study the impact of smaller settlements or industrial sites on temperatures. For all three analyzed temperature datasets, anthropogenic heat intensity grows with increasing nighttime lights and declines with increasing vegetation, whereas population density has only minor effects. While surface anthropogenic heat intensity cannot be linked to specific land cover types in the studied resolution (1 km × 1 km) and classification system, both air and groundwater show increased heat intensities for artificial surfaces. Overall, groundwater temperature appears most vulnerable to human activity; unlike land surface temperature

  4. Climatology of damage-causing hailstorms over Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz, M.; Puskeiler, M.; Schmidberger, M.

    2012-04-01

    In several regions of Central Europe, such as southern Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and northern Italy, hailstorms often cause substantial damage to buildings, crops, or automobiles on the order of several million EUR. In the federal state of Baden-Württemberg, for example, most of the insured damage to buildings is caused by large hailstones. Due to both their local-scale extent and insufficient direct monitoring systems, hail swaths are not captured accurately and uniquely by a single observation system. Remote-sensing systems such as radars are able to detect convection signals in a basic way, but they lack the ability to discern a clear relation between measured intensity and hail on the ground. These shortcomings hamper statistical analysis on the hail probability and intensity. Hail modelling thus is a big challenge for the insurance industry. Within the project HARIS-CC (Hail Risk and Climate Change), different meteorological observations are combined (3D / 2D radar, lightning, satellite and radiosounding data) to obtain a comprehensive picture of the hail climatology over Germany. The various approaches were tested and calibrated with loss data from different insurance companies between 2005 and 2011. Best results are obtained by considering the vertical distance between the 0°C level of the atmosphere and the echo top height estimated from 3D reflectivity data from the radar network of German Weather Service (DWD). Additionally, frequency, intensity, width, and length of hail swaths are determined by applying a cell tracking algorithm to the 3D radar data (TRACE3D; Handwerker, 2002). The hailstorm tracks identified are merged with loss data using a geographical information system (GIS) to verify damage-causing hail on the ground. Evaluating the hailstorm climatology revealed that hail probability exhibits high spatial variability even over short distances. An important issue is the spatial pattern of hail occurrence that is considered to be due to

  5. Shale Gas and Oil in Germany - Resources and Environmental Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladage, Stefan; Blumenberg, Martin; Houben, Georg; Pfunt, Helena; Gestermann, Nicolai; Franke, Dieter; Erbacher, Jochen

    2017-04-01

    In light of the controversial debate on "unconventional" oil and gas resources and the environmental impacts of "fracking", the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) conducted a comprehensive resource assessment of shale gas and light tight oil in Germany and studied the potential environmental impacts of shale gas development and hydraulic fracturing from a geoscientific perspective. Here, we present our final results (BGR 2016), incorporating the majority of potential shale source rock formations in Germany. Besides shale gas, light tight oil has been assessed. According to our set of criteria - i.e. thermal maturity 0.6-1.2 %vitrinite reflectance (VR; oil) and >1.2 % VR (gas) respectively, organic carbon content > 2%, depth between 500/1000 m and 5000 m as well as a net thickness >20 m - seven potentially generative shale formations were indentified, the most important of them being the Lower Jurassic (Toarcian) Posidonia shale with both shale gas and tight oil potential. The North German basin is by far the most prolific basin. The resource assessment was carried out using a volumetric in-place approach. Variability inherent in the input parameters was accounted for using Monte-Carlo simulations. Technically recoverable resources (TRR) were estimated using recent, production-based recovery factors of North American shale plays and also employing Monte-Carlo simulations. In total, shale gas TRR range between 320 and 2030 bcm and tight oil TRR between 13 and 164 Mio. t in Germany. Tight oil potential is therefore considered minor, whereas the shale gas potential exceeds that of conventional resources by far. Furthermore an overview of numerical transport modelling approaches concerning environmental impacts of the hydraulic fracturing is given. These simulations are based on a representative lithostratigraphy model of the North-German basin, where major shale plays can be expected. Numerical hydrogeological modelling of frac fluid

  6. [Diagnosis and therapy of cutaneous and mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis in Germany].

    PubMed

    Boecken, Gerhard; Sunderkötter, Cord; Bogdan, Christian; Weitzel, Thomas; Fischer, Marcellus; Müller, Andreas; Löbermann, Micha; Anders, Gerlind; von Stebut, Esther; Schunk, Mirjam; Burchard, Gerd; Grobusch, Martin; Bialek, Ralf; Harms-Zwingenberger, Gundel; Fleischer, Bernhard; Pietras, Mathias; Faulde, Michael; Erkens, Kay

    2011-11-01

    The incidence of cutaneous and mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL/MCL) is increasing globally, also in Germany, although the cases are imported and still low in number. The current evidence for the different therapies has many limitations due to lack of sufficient studies on the different Leishmania species with differing virulence. So far there is no international gold standard for the optimal management. The aim of the German joint working group on Leishmaniasis, formed by the societies of Tropical Medicine (DTG), Chemotherapy (PEG) and Dermatology (DDG), was to establish a guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of CL and MCL in Germany, based on evidence (Medline search yielded 400 articles) and, where lacking, on consensus of the experts. As the clinical features do not necessarily reflect the involved Leishmania species and, as different parasite species and even geographically distinct strains of the same species may require different treatments or varying dosages or durations of therapy, the guidelines suggest for Germany to identify the underlying parasite prior to treatment. Because of relevant differences in prognosis and ensuing therapy species should be identified in i) New World CL/MCL (NWCL/ MCL) to distinguish between L. mexicana-complex and subgenus Viannia, ii) in suspected infections with L. mexicana-complex to distinguish from L. amazonensis, and iii) in Old World CL (OWCL) to distinguish between L. infantum and L. major, L. tropica, or L. aethiopica. A state-of-the-art diagnostic algorithm is presented. For recommendations on localized and systemic drug treatment and physical procedures, data from the accessible literature were adjusted according to the involved parasite species and a clinical differentiation into uncomplicated or complex lesions. Systemic therapy was strictly recommended for i) complex lesions (e. g. > 3 infected lesions, infections in functionally or cosmetically critical areas such as face or hands, presence of lymphangitis

  7. Zur Soziolinguistik in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Sociolinguistics in the Federal Republic of Germany)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jachnow, Helmut

    1975-01-01

    Traces the history of sociolinguistic studies in West Germany from the early nineteenth century with Humboldt and reports on the state and purposes of sociolinguistic studies in present-day Federal Republic of Germany. Available from Liber Laeromedel, Box 1205, S-22105 Lund, Sweden (Text is in German.) (TL)

  8. Changing Traditions in Germany's Public Schools. International Studies in Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dichanz, Horst; Zahorik, John A.

    Understanding German elementary and secondary schools requires knowledge of political, geographic, economic, and social aspects of Germany. German schools have developed in accordance with the prevailing influences of their times. People and events, throughout the past 400 years, are discussed. The legal status of education in Germany is similar…

  9. The Role of Craft Industry in Germany's Social Market Economy. Social Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroder, Karsten

    1992-01-01

    Social market economy success in the Federal Republic of Germany is due to free competition, enterprise in the business community, and employees' social security. Craft industries play a major role in Germany's market economy. The craft industry is second only to the manufacturing industry, comprising 23 percent of German firms. There are seven…

  10. Europe '92: Consequences of the European Unification for Cultural Federalism in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berggreen, Ingeborg

    1990-01-01

    Discusses consequences of European unification in the Federal Republic of Germany. Focuses on the relationships between the European Community, the federal government of Germany, and the German states. Suggests that the German states are aware of their responsibility to give education and culture a European dimension. (NL)

  11. Prospects for Vocational Education in the United States: Lessons from Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanford, Michael; Maruco, Tattiya; Tierney, William G.

    2015-01-01

    Germany is one of a handful of Western European nations (including Austria and the Netherlands) that maintains a highly-differentiated educational system in which secondary level students are sorted into different schools on the basis on their perceived scholastic abilities. Despite the numerous political and cultural shifts in Germany over the…

  12. Children's Perspective on Learning: An International Study in Denmark, Estonia, Germany and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandberg, Anette; Broström, Stig; Johansson, Inge; Frøkjaer, Thorleif; Kieferle, Christa; Seifert, Anja; Roth, Angela; Tuul, Maire; Ugaste, Aino; Laan, Meeli

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how some children in Denmark, Estonia, Germany and Sweden describe their perspective on learning. The aim of the international study is to gain knowledge of how preschool children in Sweden, Denmark, Estonia and Germany reflect and perceive their learning in preschool and other surrounding social contexts. The results are…

  13. The Quality of School Life in Experimental and Traditional Schools in Western Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheerer, Hansjorg

    Student perceptions of educational opportunities in contrasting educational settings in West Germany are explored. Two types of schools predominate in the Federal Republic of Germany. One type, the traditional, is characterized by a high degree of state control of the curriculum, teacher training, years of schooling, and number and type of…

  14. Blood Versus Land: The Comparative Foundations for Citizenship and Voting Rights in Germany and Sweden

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    the political process. This thesis will examine how two major immigrant destination states within the European Union extend voting rights to...PAGES 77 14. SUBJECT TERMS Germany, Sweden, European Union , Voting rights, Franchise, Citizenship, Immigration, Immigrant, Migration, Nationalism 16...within the European Union extend voting rights to immigrants from outside the EU. These will be Germany and Sweden. The thesis concludes that the

  15. Effects of Globalisation on Higher Engineering Education in Germany--Current and Future Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morace, Christophe; May, Dominik; Terkowsky, Claudius; Reynet, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Germany is well known around the world for the strength of its economy, its industry and for the "German model" for higher engineering education based on developing technological skills at a very high level. In this article, we firstly describe the former and present model of engineering education in Germany in a context of the…

  16. Working Women in Contemporary Germany. Roles, Attitudes, and a Handful of Success Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Susan

    1997-01-01

    In 1977, when women in West Germany (the Fedeal Republic of Germany) got the legal right to be employed outside the family against their husband's will, paragraph 1356 of the Civil Code, defining housework as the woman's duty, was abolished. Until then, heavy social pressure kept women close to home; in most cases, the choice of an outside…

  17. Trends in Authoritarianism: A Study of Adolescents in West Germany and the United States Since 1945.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederer, Gerda

    1982-01-01

    Surveys carried out in the United States in 1966 and 1978 and in West Germany in 1945 and 1979 showed significant decreases in authoritarianism scale scores in adolescents over time. Although the degree of attitude change was greater in West Germany, American adolescents appear somewhat more authoritarian (in relation to school, family and…

  18. A Survey of Secondary Mathematics Teacher Training Practices in West Germany and the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansson, Lars C.

    The survey, conducted during 1979-80, focused on practices in the professional component of preservice teacher education in West Germany and the Netherlands. The report is divided into four major sections: (1) the structure of the questionnaire (included in the appendix), (2) the West Germany results, (3) the Dutch results, and (4) concluding…

  19. Arts Entrepreneurship Education in the UK and Germany: An Empirical Survey among Lecturers in Fine Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thom, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the current state of arts entrepreneurship education at higher educational institutions (HEIs) in the UK and Germany. It is based on findings from questionnaire surveys among 210 lecturers in fine art at 89 HEIs in the UK and Germany. Design/methodology/approach: This paper explores issues related…

  20. Communication Indicators. II. 100 Years of Mass Communication in Germany. Communication and Society 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galli, Anton; Vogler, Kurt

    This report summarizes the findings of a Unesco-sponsored study designed to identify quantitative relationships between mass communication and economic growth in the Federal Republic of Germany. The first and second sections of the report outline the most important economic and social lines of development in Germany from the end of the nineteenth…

  1. Democracy in Action: 40 Years, Federal Republic of Germany. A Practical Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeve, Ines; And Others

    This guide celebrates the 40th anniversary, in 1989, of the Federal Republic of Germany and is designed to provide an opportunity to review how firmly the principles of democracy have become established in the people and the government of West Germany today. Part 1 gives an overview of the West German democratic experience, covering such topics as…

  2. Blood Relatives: Language, Immigration, and Education of Ethnic Returnees in Germany and Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortloff, Debora Hinderliter; Frey, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1989, large numbers of "ethnic returnees" have settled in Germany and Japan. After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, 2.8 million "Aussiedler," or ethnic German returnees, came to Germany from the former Soviet Union. In Japan, immigration reform driven by low-skill labor shortages induced nearly 300,000…

  3. Welcome to the Land of the Ideas: The Goethe Institute Fellowship Tour of Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelson, Keith

    2007-01-01

    There are many valid reasons for participating in an educators' tour of Germany. It is a nation that has a legacy of literary and political thought that has had a profound impact on the evolution of Western civilization. Germany has offered the world artistic and scientific genius and been the source of devastating war and unprecedented genocide.…

  4. Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Australia and Germany. Australia Centre Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Gerald, Ed.; Reuling, Jochen, Ed.

    This document contains 17 papers on vocational training and lifelong learning in Australia and Germany. The following papers are included: "Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Australia and Germany: Background" (Gerald Burke); "Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Australia: Observations and Conclusions from a…

  5. Images of Germany: Past and Present. A Film Collection, Series II Instructional Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Glen; Hutcheson, Gwen

    This booklet offers classroom activities for use with 15 social studies-related films for teaching about Germany. The series of 25-minute films are made available by Deutsche Welle Television and Goethe House New York. Lessons in the booklet include: (1) "Germany Since 1945: A Focus on Berlin"; (2) "'I'll Get You All Out of Here!' A…

  6. Society and Social Justice: Problems of Political Education in West Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Siegfried

    1981-01-01

    Discusses social justice in West Germany within the context of the experience of Nazism, the economic disaster after World War II, and the successful development of the economy and welfare state since 1949. Refers to various textbooks and recent empirical studies on the political attitudes of students in West Germany. (Author/KC)

  7. Lymphogranuloma venereum in men screened for pharyngeal and rectal infection, Germany.

    PubMed

    Haar, Karin; Dudareva-Vizule, Sandra; Wisplinghoff, Hilmar; Wisplinghoff, Fabian; Sailer, Andrea; Jansen, Klaus; Henrich, Birgit; Marcus, Ulrich

    2013-03-01

    To determine prevalence of lymphogranuloma venereum among men who have sex with men in Germany, we conducted a multicenter study during 2009-2010 and found high rates of rectal and pharyngeal infection in men positive for the causative agent, Chlamydia trachomatis. Many infections were asymptomatic. An adjusted C. trachomatis screening policy is justified in Germany.

  8. Lymphogranuloma Venereum in Men Screened for Pharyngeal and Rectal Infection, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Dudareva-Vizule, Sandra; Wisplinghoff, Hilmar; Wisplinghoff, Fabian; Sailer, Andrea; Jansen, Klaus; Henrich, Birgit; Marcus, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    To determine prevalence of lymphogranuloma venereum among men who have sex with men in Germany, we conducted a multicenter study during 2009–2010 and found high rates of rectal and pharyngeal infection in men positive for the causative agent, Chlamydia trachomatis. Many infections were asymptomatic. An adjusted C. trachomatis screening policy is justified in Germany. PMID:23621949

  9. 78 FR 23220 - Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-428-840] Lightweight Thermal Paper... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on lightweight thermal paper from Germany.\\1\\ The period of... entitled ``Final Results of Review.'' \\1\\ See Lightweight Thermal Paper from Germany; Preliminary Results...

  10. Youth Organisations and Youth Service Institutions in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verlag, Juventa

    This reference book describes the many groups and organizations in Germany that are involved in youth work. Its purpose is to facilitate the development of international contacts and to contribute to the international education of German youth. Youth work in Germany is briefly described in the book's introduction. The annotated listing is…

  11. The Technology in the Programs of Life Sciences in Turkey and Sachunterricht in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keskin, Tuba

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the gains of the Life Sciences program in Turkey and the Life sciences program (Sachunterricht) used in the state of Niedersachsen in Germany. The study aiming to compare the technology-related acquisitions in Life sciences program in Turkey and Germany is a comparative education research that used…

  12. Much Ado about Something? James Bryant Conant, Harvard University, and Nazi Germany in the 1930s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban, Wayne J.; Smith, Marybeth

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the actions of noted Harvard University president James Bryant Conant, taken in regard to the Nazi government in Germany, from the time of Conant's becoming president of Harvard University in 1933 to the time of the widespread pogrom in Germany of 9-10 November 1938, known as Kristallnacht. Conant's attitudes and actions…

  13. 78 FR 15376 - Determinations: Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Germany and Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ...)] Determinations: Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Germany and Korea On the basis of the record... revocation of the countervailing duty order on corrosion-resistant carbon steel flat products from Korea and the antidumping duty orders on corrosion-resistant carbon steel flat products from Germany and Korea...

  14. Disease management programmes in Germany: a fundamental fault.

    PubMed

    Felder, Stefan

    2006-12-01

    In 2001 Germany introduced disease management programmes (DMPs) in order to give sick funds an incentive to improve the treatment of the chronically ill. By 1 March 2005, a total of 3275 programmes had been approved, 2760 for diabetes, 390 for breast cancer and 125 for coronary heart disease, covering roughly 1 million patients. German DMPs show a major fault regarding financial incentives. Sick funds increase their transfers from the risk adjustment scheme when their clients enroll in DMPs. Since this money is a lump sum, sick funds do not necessarily foster treatment of the chronically ill. Similarly, reimbursement of physicians is also not well targeted to the needs of DMPs. Preliminary evidence points to poor performance of German DMPs.

  15. Psychological problems of Turkish migrants in West Germany.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, P T

    1981-04-01

    The path of adjustment for Turkish migrants--young and old, male and female--to a highly industralized Western society is a difficult one fraught with parlous conditions over which they have little control, largely because of Germany attitudes toward and treatment of Gastarbeiter in general and Turks in particular. Holding other variables constant, the psychological problems discerned as unique to Turkish Gastarbeiter are on the rise. These problems are of such a dimension that they clearly show the urgent need for Germans, the German government and its agencies, the Turkish government, and mental health professionals to come to grips with the existing situation. A program should be devised that (1) prepares the Turks for their new life before emigration; (2) educate the host country to lessen prejudice and heighten appreciation of the alien culture.

  16. Large Scale Wind and Solar Integration in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, Bernhard; Schreirer, Uwe; Berster, Frank

    2010-02-28

    This report provides key information concerning the German experience with integrating of 25 gigawatts of wind and 7 gigawatts of solar power capacity and mitigating its impacts on the electric power system. The report has been prepared based on information provided by the Amprion GmbH and 50Hertz Transmission GmbH managers and engineers to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory representatives during their visit to Germany in October 2009. The trip and this report have been sponsored by the BPA Technology Innovation office. Learning from the German experience could help the Bonneville Power Administration engineers to comparemore » and evaluate potential new solutions for managing higher penetrations of wind energy resources in their control area. A broader dissemination of this experience will benefit wind and solar resource integration efforts in the United States.« less

  17. Upper Middle Pleistocene climate and landscape development of Northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, B.

    2009-04-01

    and the margin of a 286 m deep channel, subglacially eroded during the Elsterian, have recently been investigated by 9 counter flash or cored drillings (Stephan et al., in press). Studies focussed on the uppermost 50 m, made up of a series of approximately 9 m thick fluviatile sediments ("Leck-Folge") with intercalations of organic sand layers and a gyttja band, up to 1.5 m thick. This sequence is overlain by several metres of mainly decalcified groundmoraine, that, itself, is overlain by glaciofluvial and periglacial sediments. The palynological investigations of the gyttja reveal a floral development of interglacial character ("Leck-Thermomer"). Compared to other Middle Pleistocene warm periods in North Germany, correlations of the Leck-Thermomer with the Holsteinian and with the warm periods of the Reinsdorf and Wacken (Dömnitz) interglacials are precluded or appear rather implausible. The Leck-Thermomer is most likely a correlative of the marine oxigen isotope stage 7 c (MIS 7). Stephan, H.-J., Urban, B., Lüttig, G., Menke, B. und M. Sierralta: Palynologische, petrographische und geochronologische Untersuchungen der Leck-Warmzeit (spätes Mittelpleistozän) und ihrer begleitenden Sedimente.- [Palynological, petrographical, and geochronological investigations of deposits of the "Leck-Thermomer" and accompanying sediments].- Geologisches Jahrbuch, in press. Thieme, H., 1997. Lower Paleolithic hunting spears from Germany. Nature 385, 807-810. Urban, B. 1995. Palynological evidence of younger Middle Pleistocene Interglacials (Holsteinian, Reinsdorf, Schöningen) in the Schöningen open cast lignite mine (eastern Lower Saxony/Germany). Mededelingen Rijks Geologische Dienst 52, 175-186. Urban, B. 2006. Interglacial pollen records from Schöningen, north Germany.- In: THE CLIMATE OF PAST INTERGLACIALS. Sirocko, F., Litt, T., Claussen, M., Sanchez-Goni, M.F. (eds.), Springer Verlag; in press.

  18. Modeling nitrogen fluxes in Germany - where does the nitrogen go?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klement, Laura; Bach, Martin; Breuer, Lutz

    2016-04-01

    According to the latest inventory of the EU Water Framework Directive, 26.3% of German groundwater bodies are in a poor chemical state regarding nitrate. Additionally, the EU initiated infringement proceedings against Germany for not meeting the quality standards of the EU Nitrate Directive. Agriculture has been determined as the main source of nitrate pollution due to over-fertilization and regionally high density of livestock farming. The nitrogen balance surplus is commonly used as an indicator characterizing the potential of nitrate leaching into groundwater bodies and thus also serves as a foundation to introduce legislative restrictions or to monitor the success of mitigation measures. Currently, there is an ongoing discussion which measures are suitable for reducing the risk of nitrate leaching and also to what extent. However, there is still uncertainty about just how much the nitrogen surplus has to be reduced to meet the groundwater quality standards nationwide. Therefore, the aims of our study were firstly to determine the level of the nitrogen surplus that would be acceptable at the utmost and secondly whether the currently discussed target value of 30 kg N per hectare agricultural land for the soil surface nitrogen balance would be sufficient. The models MONERIS (Modeling Nutrient Emissions in River System) and MoRE (Modelling of Regionalized Emissions), the latter based on the first, are commonly used for estimating nitrogen loads into the river system in Germany at the mesoscale, as well as the effect of mitigation measures in the context of the EU directive 2008/105/EC (Environmental quality standards applicable to surface water). We used MoRE to calculate nitrate concentration for 2759 analytical units in Germany. Main factors are the surplus of the soil surface nitrogen balance, the percolation rate and an exponent representing the denitrification in the vadose zone. The modeled groundwater nitrate concentrations did not correspond to the regional

  19. JWST Full-Scale Model on Display in Germany

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-10

    JWST Full-Scale Model on Display. A full-scale model of the James Webb Space Telescope was built by the prime contractor, Northrop Grumman, to provide a better understanding of the size, scale and complexity of this satellite. The model is constructed mainly of aluminum and steel, weighs 12,000 lb., and is approximately 80 feet long, 40 feet wide and 40 feet tall. The model requires 2 trucks to ship it and assembly takes a crew of 12 approximately four days. This model has travelled to a few sites since 2005. The photographs below were taken at some of its destinations. The model is pictured here in Munich, Germany Credit: EADS Astrium

  20. JWST Full-Scale Model on Display in Germany

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    JWST Full-Scale Model on Display. A full-scale model of the James Webb Space Telescope was built by the prime contractor, Northrop Grumman, to provide a better understanding of the size, scale and complexity of this satellite. The model is constructed mainly of aluminum and steel, weighs 12,000 lb., and is approximately 80 feet long, 40 feet wide and 40 feet tall. The model requires 2 trucks to ship it and assembly takes a crew of 12 approximately four days. This model has travelled to a few sites since 2005. The photographs below were taken at some of its destinations. The model is pictured here in Munich, Germany Credit: EADS Astrium

  1. Seasonal extreme value statistics for precipitation in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Madlen; Rust, Henning W.; Ulbrich, Uwe

    2013-04-01

    Extreme precipitation has a strong influence on environment, society and economy. It leads to large damage due to floods, mudslides, increased erosion or hail. While standard annual return levels are important for hydrological structures, seasonaly resolved return levels provide additional information for risk managment, e.g., for the agricultural sector. For 1208 stations in Germany, we calculate monthly resolved return levels. Instead of estimating parameters separately for every month in the year, we use a non-stationary approach and benefit from smoothly varying return levels throughout the year. This natural approach is more suitable to characterise seasonal variability of extreme precipitation and leads to more accurate return level estimates. Harmonic functions of different orders are used to describe the seasonal variation of GEV parameters and crossvalidation is used to determine a suitable model forall stations. Finally particularly vulnerable regions and associated month are investigated in more detail.

  2. Influence of temperature changes on migraine occurrence in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheidt, Jörg; Koppe, Christina; Rill, Sven; Reinel, Dirk; Wogenstein, Florian; Drescher, Johannes

    2013-07-01

    Many factors trigger migraine attacks. Weather is often reported to be one of the most common migraine triggers. However, there is little scientific evidence about the underlying mechanisms and causes. In our pilot study, we used smartphone apps and a web form to collect around 4,700 migraine messages in Germany between June 2011 and February 2012. Taking interdiurnal temperature changes as an indicator for changes in the prevailing meteorological conditions, our analyses were focused on the relationship between temperature changes and the frequency of occurrence of migraine attacks. Linear trends were fitted to the total number of migraine messages with respect to temperature changes. Statistical and systematic errors were estimated. Both increases and decreases in temperature lead to a significant increase in the number of migraine messages. A temperature increase (decrease) of 5 °C resulted in an increase of 19 ± 7 % (24 ± 8 %) in the number of migraine messages.

  3. Optional deductibles in social health insurance systems: findings from Germany.

    PubMed

    Pütz, Claudia; Hagist, Christian

    2006-12-01

    A fundamental aspect of the German health insurance system is the principle of solidarity. At the same time, it is possible for certain socio-economic groups to opt out of the otherwise compulsory system. To determine whether rates incorporating deductibles are compatible with the principles of solidarity and have the ability to heighten the appeal of statutory health insurance (SHI) funds compared with private health insurance companies, Germany's third largest SHI fund, Techniker Krankenkasse, implemented a pilot scheme involving the use of deductibles. Preliminary scientific evaluations of the pilot scheme indicate three main results for these deductibles: Firstly, they are compatible with the principles of solidarity in the statutory health insurance system; secondly, they provide an effective means of preventing defection to private health insurance companies and thirdly, they reduced the volume of insurance claims (moral hazard).

  4. Cultivation and breeding of Chinese medicinal plants in Germany.

    PubMed

    Heuberger, Heidi; Bauer, Rudolf; Friedl, Fritz; Heubl, Günther; Hummelsberger, Josef; Nögel, Rainer; Seidenberger, Rebecca; Torres-Londoño, Paula

    2010-12-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is increasingly used in Germany and Europe. Due to the need for herbal drugs of consistent quality and reliable supply, methods for commercial field cultivation and post-harvest processing under south German conditions have been developed for selected plant species used in CHM since 1999. The project used an interdisciplinary approach covering all aspects from seed sourcing to medicinal application. This paper describes the outcome of the agricultural seed and field experiments, breeding program, botanical and chemical characterization of the experimental material, comparison of experimental and imported herbal material with respect to their pharmaceutical quality, transfer of production methods and plant material to specialized farmers, medicinal application and, finally, information for users along the chain of distribution about the benefits of the locally produced herbal material. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. [Evidence basis of psychotherapy for schizophrenia patients in Germany].

    PubMed

    Puschner, B; Vauth, R; Jacobi, F; Becker, T

    2006-11-01

    Little is known about the degree of implementation of evidence-based psychotherapy in routine care of people with schizophrenia in Germany. First, results of studies on the efficacy of psychotherapy in the treatment of schizophrenia are summarised. Second, the degree of implementation of psychotherapeutic practices in the routine care of schizophrenics is assessed through a systematic literature search and analyses of several data sets. There is substantial evidence for the efficacy of cognitive-behavioural interventions in the treatment of schizophrenia. The paucity of data on the degree of implementation suggests a wide gap between evidence and practice. Barriers to implementation are outlined and discussed. There is a need for more studies on epidemiological and long-term effectiveness of health care.

  6. [Sex education in practice and science in Germany].

    PubMed

    Sielert, Uwe

    2007-01-01

    Sex education in Germany has a history full of conflict and ideological change between emancipatory, reforming, and repressive tendencies. As a science, sex education has only recently gained independence from its mother disciplines theology, medicine, psychology, and sociology and at the same time has taken a critically constructive position towards sexual science. Its topics range from dissemination of knowledge about biological processes and contraception to relationship concerns, sexual orientation, gender issues, sexual transgression, moral, and ethical questions. Sexual socialization happens nearly everywhere. Sexual education takes place mainly in families, elementary education, and school, but increasingly also in all other areas of education, social work, and health service. Its clientèle are no longer exclusively children and adolescents but increasingly adults of every age group. Subjects such as AIDS, sexual abuse, and teenage pregnancy have contributed to governmental funding of projects and training in sex education. Thus, sex education still reaches from mere protection from dangers to fostering or maintaining psychological health.

  7. The neuropathology of morality: Germany 1930-1960.

    PubMed

    Schirmann, Felix

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes brain scientists' attempts to trace morality in the brain in Germany from 1930 to 1960. The debate around Karl Kleist's localization of the Gemeinschafts-Ich [community-I] in the 1930s is depicted in order to illustrate the central arguments for and against localizations of morality. The focus of this article is on the period 1936-1960 in which experts put forth specific ideas on morality's cerebral underpinnings that mirror the larger theoretical shift from strict localization doctrine to a more holistic understanding of the brain. As a result of this shift, experts avoided exact localizations of morality. Instead, they posited correlations between brain areas and morality. The analysis illustrates the dependence of neuropathological research on morality on general theories of brain functioning and marks a first contribution to the history of the neuroscience of morality for the time after 1930.

  8. Lyssavirus distribution in naturally infected bats from Germany.

    PubMed

    Schatz, J; Teifke, J P; Mettenleiter, T C; Aue, A; Stiefel, D; Müller, T; Freuling, C M

    2014-02-21

    In Germany, to date three different lyssavirus species are responsible for bat rabies in indigenous bats: the European Bat Lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1, EBLV-2) and the Bokeloh Bat Lyssavirus (BBLV) for which Eptesicus serotinus, Myotis daubentonii and Myotis nattereri, respectively, are primary hosts. Lyssavirus maintenance, evolution, and epidemiology are still insufficiently explored. Moreover, the small number of bats infected, the nocturnal habits of bats and the limited experimental data still hamper attempts to understand the distribution, prevalence, and in particular transmission of the virus. In an experimental study in E. serotinus a heterogeneous dissemination of EBLV-1 in tissues was detected. However, it is not clear whether the EBLV-1 distribution is similar in naturally infected animals. In an attempt to further analyze virus dissemination and viral loads within naturally infected hosts we investigated tissues of 57 EBLV-1 positive individuals of E. serotinus from Germany by RT-qPCR and compared the results with those obtained experimentally. Additionally, tissue samples were investigated with immunohistochemistry to detect lyssavirus antigen in defined structures. While in individual animals virus RNA was present only in the brain, in the majority of E. serotinus viral RNA was found in various tissues with highest relative viral loads detected in the brain. Interestingly, viral antigen was confirmed in various tissues in the tongue including deep intralingual glands, nerves, muscle cells and lingual papillae. So, the tongue appears to be a prominent site for virus replication and possibly shedding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Shale Gas potential of Lower Carboniferous Sediments in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerschke, D.; Mihailovic, A.; Schulz, H., -M.; Horsfield, B.

    2012-04-01

    Organic-rich Carboniferous sediments are proven source rocks for conventional gas systems in NW Europe and are likely gas shale candidates. Within the framework of GeoEnergie, an initiative to strengthen scientific excellence, funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), the influence of palaeogeography and basin dynamics on sedimentology and diagenesis is being investigated. Our aim is to unravel the evolution of shale gas-relevant properties which control gas prospectivity and production parameters like porosity, brittleness, etc. for the Lower Carboniferous in Germany. Northern Germany is underlain by thick, mudstone-bearing Carboniferous successions with a wide range of thermal maturities. Some of these mudstone horizons are rich in organic carbon which is either of marine and/or terrigenous origin. During the Carboniferous deposition of fine-grained, TOC-rich basinal sediments changed into shallow marine to paralic siliciclastic sediments (carbonates during the Lower Carboniferous) in the north, and grade into coarse-grained sediments close to the uprising Variscan mountains in the south. As a result different architectural elements including TOC-rich fine-grained sediments like basinal shales, fine-grained parts of turbidites, and shallow marine mudstones occur in both the Lower and the Upper Carboniferous section. A high shale gas potential occurs in basinal shales of Namurian age with marine organic material and TOC contents of up to 8 % (Rhenish Alum Shales). Such sediments with thermal maturities between 1.3 to 3.0 % vitrinite reflectance and sufficient quartz contents occur in wide areas of present-day Central European Basins System (CEBS), and are at favourable depth for shale gas exploration predominantly along the southern CEBS margin.

  10. [Travel times of patients to ambulatory care physicians in Germany].

    PubMed

    Schang, Laura; Kopetsch, Thomas; Sundmacher, Leonie

    2017-12-01

    The time needed by patients to get to a doctor's office represents an important indicator of realised access to care. In Germany, findings on travel times are only available from surveys or for some regions. For the first time, this study examines nationwide and physician group-specific travel times in the ambulatory care sector in Germany and describes demographic, supply-side and spatial determinants of variations. Using a full review of patient consultations in the statutory health insurance system from 2009/2010 for 14 physician groups (approximately 518 million cases), case-related travel times by car between patients' places of residence and physician's practices were estimated at the municipal level. Physicians were reached in less than 30 min in 90.8% of cases for primary care physicians and up to 63% of cases for radiologists. Patients between 18 and under 30 years of age travel longer to get to the doctor than other age groups. The average travel time at the county level systematically differs between urban and rural planning areas. In the case of gynecologists, dermatologists and ophthalmologists, the average journey time decreases with increasing physician density at the county level, but remains approximately constant from a recognisable point of inflection. There is no association between primary care physician density and travel time at the district level. Spatial analyses show physician group-specific patterns of regional concentrations with an increased proportion of cases with very long travel times. Patients' travel times are influenced by supply- and demand-side determinants. Interactions between influential determinants should be analysed in depth to examine the extent to which the time travelled is an expression of regional under- or over-supply rather than an expression of patient preferences.

  11. Warm-season severe wind events in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatzen, Christoph

    2013-04-01

    A 15-year data set of wind measurements was analyzed with regard to warm season severe wind gusts in Germany. For April to September of the years 1997 to 2011, 1035 wind measurements of 26 m/s or greater were found. These wind reports were associated with 268 wind events. In total, 252 convective wind events contributed to 837 (81%) of the wind reports, 16 non-convective synoptic-scale wind events contributed to 198 reports (19%). Severe wind events were found with synoptic situations characterized by rather strong mid-level flow and advancing mid-level troughs. Severe convective wind events were analyzed using radar images and classified with respect to the observed radar structure. The most important convective mode was squall lines that were associated with one third of all severe wind gusts, followed by groups, bow echo complexes, and bow echoes. Supercells and cells were not associated with many wind reports. The low contribution of isolated cells indicates that rather large-scale forcing by synoptic-scale features like fronts is important for German severe wind events. Bow echoes were found to be present for 58% of all wind reports. The movement speed of bow echoes indicated a large variation with a maximum speed of 33 m/s. Extreme wind events as well as events with more than 15 wind reports were found to be related to higher movement speeds. Concentrating on the most intense events, derechos seem to be very important to the warm season wind threat in Germany. Convective events with a path length of more than 400 km contributed to 36% of all warm-season wind gusts in this data set. Furthermore, eight of nine extreme gusts exceeding 40 m/s were recorded with derecho events.

  12. Risk for latent and active tuberculosis in Germany.

    PubMed

    Herzmann, Christian; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Bellinger, Oswald; Diel, Roland; Gerdes, Silke; Goetsch, Udo; Heykes-Uden, Helga; Schaberg, Tom; Lange, Christoph

    2017-06-01

    Few individuals that are latently infected with M. tuberculosis latent tuberculosis infection(LTBI) progress to active disease. We investigated risk factors for LTBI and active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Germany. Healthy household contacts (HHCs), health care workers (HCWs) exposed to M. tuberculosis and PTB patients were recruited at 18 German centres. Interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) testing was performed. LTBI risk factors were evaluated by comparing IGRA-positive with IGRA-negative contacts. Risk factors for tuberculosis were evaluated by comparing PTB patients with HHCs. From 2008-2014, 603 HHCs, 295 HCWs and 856 PTBs were recruited. LTBI was found in 34.5% of HHCs and in 38.9% of HCWs. In HCWs, care for coughing patients (p = 0.02) and longstanding nursing occupation (p = 0.04) were associated with LTBI. In HHCs, predictors for LTBI were a diseased partner (odds ratio 4.39), sexual contact to a diseased partner and substance dependency (all p < 0.001). PTB was associated with male sex, low body weight (p < 0.0001), alcoholism (15.0 vs 5.9%; p < 0.0001), glucocorticoid therapy (7.2 vs 2.0%; p = 0.004) and diabetes (7.8 vs. 4.0%; p = 0.04). No contact developed active tuberculosis within 2 years follow-up. Positive IGRA responses are frequent among exposed HHCs and HCWs in Germany and are poor predictors for the development of active tuberculosis.

  13. Prevalence of Vibrio spp. in Retail Seafood in Berlin, Germany.

    PubMed

    Vu, Thi Thu Tra; Alter, Thomas; Huehn, Stephan

    2018-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Vibrio spp. in retail seafood in Berlin, Germany. A total of 160 raw seafood samples from supermarkets and seafood shops, consisting of shrimp ( n = 80) and bivalves ( n = 80), were investigated for the presence of Vibrio spp. using the International Organization for Standardization ISO/TS 21872 method and a multiplex PCR. The overall prevalence of Vibrio spp. in retail seafood was 55% (95% CI: 47.2 to 62.8%). The prevalence of Vibrio spp. in shrimp was slightly higher than in bivalves (57.5 versus 52.5%); however, the difference was not statistically significant. Vibrio alginolyticus was the most prevalent species (35.6%), followed by Vibrio parahaemolyticus (27.5%), Vibrio cholerae (6.3%), and Vibrio vulnificus (0.6%). None of the V. parahaemolyticus ( n = 110) isolates encoded tdh/ trh genes, whereas all V. cholerae isolates ( n = 27) were lacking ctxA. Among the chilled samples ( n = 105), the prevalence of Vibrio spp. in unpacked samples was significantly higher than in packed samples ( P = 0.006). Among the packed samples ( n = 55), no significant difference in the prevalence of Vibrio spp. was observed between chilled or frozen products. The results of this study indicated a high prevalence of Vibrio spp. in retail seafood in Germany; positive samples were detected in all types of seafood investigated. The detection of tdh/ trh-negative V. parahaemolyticus isolates should not be neglected because of previous findings on pathogenic strains lacking these virulence markers. Even though thorough cooking might limit the risk of foodborne illness caused by Vibrio, potential cross-contamination during preparation or consumption of raw and undercooked seafood might represent a risk of Vibrio infections.

  14. High-resolution grids of hourly meteorological variables for Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krähenmann, S.; Walter, A.; Brienen, S.; Imbery, F.; Matzarakis, A.

    2018-02-01

    We present a 1-km2 gridded German dataset of hourly surface climate variables covering the period 1995 to 2012. The dataset comprises 12 variables including temperature, dew point, cloud cover, wind speed and direction, global and direct shortwave radiation, down- and up-welling longwave radiation, sea level pressure, relative humidity and vapour pressure. This dataset was constructed statistically from station data, satellite observations and model data. It is outstanding in terms of spatial and temporal resolution and in the number of climate variables. For each variable, we employed the most suitable gridding method and combined the best of several information sources, including station records, satellite-derived data and data from a regional climate model. A module to estimate urban heat island intensity was integrated for air and dew point temperature. Owing to the low density of available synop stations, the gridded dataset does not capture all variations that may occur at a resolution of 1 km2. This applies to areas of complex terrain (all the variables), and in particular to wind speed and the radiation parameters. To achieve maximum precision, we used all observational information when it was available. This, however, leads to inhomogeneities in station network density and affects the long-term consistency of the dataset. A first climate analysis for Germany was conducted. The Rhine River Valley, for example, exhibited more than 100 summer days in 2003, whereas in 1996, the number was low everywhere in Germany. The dataset is useful for applications in various climate-related studies, hazard management and for solar or wind energy applications and it is available via doi: 10.5676/DWD_CDC/TRY_Basis_v001.

  15. Direct nitrous oxide emissions from rapeseed in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuß, Roland; Andres, Monique; Hegewald, Hannes; Kesenheimer, Katharina; Köbke, Sarah; Räbiger, Thomas; Suarez, Teresa; Stichnothe, Heinz; Flessa, Heiner

    2014-05-01

    The production of first generation biofuels has increased over the last decade in Germany. However, there is a strong public and scientific debate concerning ecological impact and sustainability of biofuel production. The EU Renewables Directive requires biofuels to save 35 % of GHG emissions compared to fossil fuels. Starting in 2017, 50 % mitigation of GHG emissions must be achieved. This presents challenges for production of biofuels from rapeseed, which is one of the major renewable resources used for fuel production. Field emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and GHG emissions during production of fertilizers contribute strongest to the GHG balance of rapeseed biofuel. Thus, the most promising GHG mitigation option is the optimization of nitrogen fertilization. Since 2012, field trials are conducted on five German research farms to quantify direct GHG emissions. The sites were selected to represent the main rapeseed production regions in Germany as well as climatic regions and soil types. Randomized plot designs were established, which allow monitoring (using manual chambers) impact of fertilization intensity on direct emissions and yield of the typical crop sequence (winter rape - winter wheat - winter barley). The effect of substituting mineral fertilizer with biogas digestate with and without addition of a nitrification inhibitor is also studied. Here we present results from the first cropping season. In 2013, annual direct N2O emissions as well as yield normalized N2O emissions from rape were low. This can be explained with the weather conditions as 2013 was characterized by a cold and long winter with snow until mid spring. As a result, emissions were smaller than predicted by the IPCC emission factors or by the Global Nitrous Oxide Calculator (GNOC). However, emissions still depend on nitrogen input.

  16. Extemporaneous formulations in Germany - relevance for everyday clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Staubach, Petra; Salzmann, Stefan; Peveling-Oberhag, Adriane; Weyer, Veronika; Zimmer, Sebastian; Gradl, Gabriele; Lang, Berenice M

    2018-05-01

    Extemporaneous formulations broaden the spectrum of therapeutic options for topical treatment in particular and thus improve patient care. The latest amendment to the Regulation on the Operation of Pharmacies issued in 2012 brought about changes in prescribing and manufacturing practices. The aim of the present study was to assess the relevance of extemporaneous formulations in everyday clinical practice. We used data from the German Institute for Drug Use Evaluation (DAPI) to analyze the prescribing practice for compounded preparations in Germany between the fourth quarter of 2011 and the third quarter of 2014. In doing so, we determined the total cost associated with extemporaneous formulations covered by statutory health insurance funds in the outpatient setting. Approximately three out of ten prescriptions (30.54 %) by German dermatologists during the observation period were extemporaneous formulations. While dermatologists make up only 2.7 % of physicians working in the statutory health care system in Germany, they prescribe more than half of all compounded preparations (53.6 %). Each dermatologist prescribed an average of 270.4 formulations per quarter; that number was 13.5 (1.3 %) for all other medical specialties. On average, 1,983,687 extemporaneous formulations overall (1.3 % of all prescriptions) were prescribed per quarter, corresponding to a total cost of € 40,944,982 (0.55 %). Apart from finished medicinal products, extemporaneous formulations play a key role in outpatient care. Based on the principles of evidence-based and patient-oriented medicine, the quality of compounded preparations and the prescribing practice of physicians (standardized vs. individual formulations) should be further investigated to optimize the quality of these preparations. © 2018 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The emigration of Germany's Jewish dermatologists in the period of National Socialism.

    PubMed

    Eppinger, S; Meurer, M; Scholz, A

    2003-09-01

    In the context of our investigation, we found information on 432 (76%) of the 569 Jewish dermatologists in Germany. There is evidence that 57 (10%) of the Jewish dermatologists were murdered in concentration camps, 61 (10.7%) died a natural death, 13 (2%) committed suicide, and 25 (4%) survived the Third Reich in Germany. After 1933, 276 (49%) Jewish dermatologists were able to leave Germany; the United States of America was the main destination and 107 (or 41%) emigrated there. A total of 34 (13%) Jewish dermatologists emigrated from Germany to Palestine and 16 to Latin America. Regarding emigration to other European countries, 20 of the Jewish dermatologists from Germany went to Great Britain (including Walter Freudenthal, 1893-1952, and Ernst Sklarz, 1894-1975), and 24 emigrated to other European countries, such as France (Rudolf Mayer, 1895-1962), Sweden (Carl Lennhoff, 1883-1963), and the Netherlands (Otto Schlein, 1895-1944).

  18. From 40 to 35 Hours: Reduction and Flexibilisation of the Working Week in the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosch, Gerhard

    1990-01-01

    Reviews developments in the shortened work week in the Federal Republic of Germany. Discusses collective agreements and examines the methods used to implement the shorter working week at enterprise level and possible developments in the reunited Germany. (JOW)

  19. 76 FR 58299 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ...)] Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan; Scheduling of a Full Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan AGENCY... strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  20. 78 FR 73562 - Non-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Germany, Japan, Korea, Sweden, and Taiwan; Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... (Preliminary)] Non-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Germany, Japan, Korea, Sweden, and Taiwan... industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports from China, Germany, Japan, Korea... Taiwan and LTFV imports of non-oriented electrical steel from China, Germany, Japan, Korea, Sweden, and...

  1. 77 FR 32507 - Brass Sheet and Strip From Germany: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... Germany: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import Administration... and strip from Germany for the period of review (``POR''), March 1, 2011, through February 29, 2012.\\1... brass sheet and strip from Germany: Aurubis Stolberg GmbH & Co. KG (``Aurubis''), Carl Schreiber GmbH...

  2. 78 FR 52759 - Brass Sheet and Strip from Germany: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2012-2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... Germany: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2012-2013 AGENCY: Import Administration... from Germany for the period March 1, 2012, through February 28, 2013. DATES: Effective Date: August 26... 1, 2013, the Department initiated an administrative review of brass sheet and strip from Germany...

  3. 76 FR 36901 - Brass Sheet and Strip From Germany: Extension of Time Limits for Preliminary and Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... Germany: Extension of Time Limits for Preliminary and Final Results of Full Third Five-Year (``Sunset... a full sunset review of the antidumping duty order on brass sheet and strip from Germany. See... and Strip from Germany'' (June 7, 2011). Extension of Time Limits In accordance with section 751(c)(5...

  4. 76 FR 42681 - Brass Sheet and Strip From Germany: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... Germany: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import Administration... antidumping duty order on brass sheet and strip from Germany. The review covers one producer/exporter of brass sheet and strip from Germany, Wieland-Werke AG (``Wieland''). Based on a timely withdrawal of the...

  5. 76 FR 35910 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan; Notice of Commission Determinations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ...)] Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan; Notice of Commission Determinations To..., Germany, Italy, and Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... duty orders on brass sheet and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan would be likely to lead to...

  6. 75 FR 41439 - Lightweight Thermal Paper from Germany: Extension of Time Limits for the Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... from Germany: Extension of Time Limits for the Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative... paper from Germany (LTWP), covering the period November 20, 2008, to October 31, 2009. See Initiation of...'s sales were at prices less than the cost of production. See Lightweight Thermal Paper from Germany...

  7. 75 FR 27538 - Brass Sheet and Strip from Germany: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... Germany: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on brass sheet and strip from Germany covering one respondent... Sheet and Strip From Germany: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 18801...

  8. 78 FR 70574 - Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ...)] Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and Russia..., Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and Russia of grain-oriented electrical steel, provided for in subheadings... Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and Russia. Accordingly, effective September 18, 2013, the...

  9. Crisis, Conscience, and Choices: Weimar Germany and the Rise of Hitler. Choices for the 21st Century Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Don

    This unit is part of a series of curriculum materials that applies the choices approach to critical junctures in history. The focus is on Germany's defeat in World War I and conditions in Germany contributing to the rise of Nazism. Students are provided with background readings on the Weimar Republic, the reparations imposed on Germany with their…

  10. Young Adults' Knowledge and Understanding of Personal Finance in Germany: Interviews with Experts and Test-Takers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Happ, Roland; Förster, Manuel; Rüspeler, Ann-Katrin; Rothweiler, Jasmin

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, the financial education of young adults has gained importance in Germany; however, very few valid test instruments to assess the knowledge and understanding of personal finance are suitable for use in Germany. In this article, we describe results of a survey in which experts in Germany in areas related to personal finance judged…

  11. Host-feeding patterns of mosquito species in Germany.

    PubMed

    Börstler, Jessica; Jöst, Hanna; Garms, Rolf; Krüger, Andreas; Tannich, Egbert; Becker, Norbert; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Lühken, Renke

    2016-06-03

    Mosquito-borne pathogens are of growing importance in many countries of Europe including Germany. At the same time, the transmission cycles of most mosquito-borne pathogens (e.g. viruses or filarial parasites) are not completely understood. There is especially a lack of knowledge about the vector capacity of the different mosquito species, which is strongly influenced by their host-feeding patterns. While this kind of information is important to identify the relevant vector species, e.g. to direct efficient control measures, studies about the host-feeding patterns of mosquito species in Germany are scarce and outdated. Between 2012 and 2015, 775 blood-fed mosquito specimens were collected. Sampling was conducted with Heavy Duty Encephalitis Vector Survey traps, Biogents Sentinel traps, gravid traps, hand-held aspirators, sweep nets, and human-bait collection. The host species for each mosquito specimen was identified with polymerase chain reactions and subsequent Sanger sequencing of the cytochrome b gene. A total of 32 host species were identified for 23 mosquito species, covering 21 mammalian species (including humans) and eleven bird species. Three mosquito species accounted for nearly three quarters of all collected blood-fed mosquitoes: Aedes vexans (363 specimens, 46.8 % of all mosquito specimens), Culex pipiens pipiens form pipiens (100, 12.9 %) and Ochlerotatus cantans (99, 12.8 %). Non-human mammals dominated the host species (572 specimens, 73.8 % of all mosquito specimens), followed by humans (152, 19.6 %) and birds (51, 6.6 %). The most common host species were roe deer (Capreolus capreolus; 258 mosquito specimens, 33.3 % of all mosquito specimens, 65 % of all mosquito species), humans (Homo sapiens; 152, 19.6 %, 90 %), cattle (Bos taurus; 101, 13.0 %, 60 %), and wild boar (Sus scrofa; 116, 15.0 %, 50 %). There were no statistically significant differences in the spatial-temporal host-feeding patterns of the three most common mosquito

  12. Over-, under- and misuse of pain treatment in Germany.

    PubMed

    Dietl, Markus; Korczak, Dieter

    2011-04-19

    The HTA-report (Health Technology Assessment) deals with over- and undertreatment of pain therapy. Especially in Germany chronic pain is a common reason for the loss of working hours and early retirement. In addition to a reduction in quality of life for the affected persons, chronic pain is therefore also an enormous economic burden for society. Which diseases are in particular relevant regarding pain therapy?What is the social-medical care situation regarding pain facilities in Germany?What is the social-medical care situation in pain therapy when comparing on international level?Which effects, costs or cost-effects can be seen on the micro-, meso- and macro level with regard to pain therapy?Among which social-medical services in pain therapy is there is an over- or undertreatment with regard to the micro-, meso- and macro level?Which medical and organisational aspects that have an effect on the costs and/or cost-effectiveness have to be particularly taken into account with regard to pain treatment/chronic pain?What is the influence of the individual patient's needs (micro level) in different situations of pain (e. g. palliative situation) on the meso- and macro level?Which social-medical and ethical aspects for an adequate treatment of chronic pain on each level have to be specially taken into account?Is the consideration of these aspects appropriate to avoid over- or undertreatment?Are juridical questions included in every day care of chronic pain patients, mainly in palliative care?On which level can appropriate interventions prevent over- or undertreatment? A systematic literature research is done in 35 databases. In the HTA, reviews, epidemiological and clinical studies and economic evaluations are included which report about pain therapy and in particular palliative care in the years 2005 till 2010. 47 studies meet the inclusion criteria. An undertreatment of acupuncture, over- and misuse with regard to opiate prescription and an overuse regarding

  13. Modeling the habitat suitability for the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Germany.

    PubMed

    Koch, Lisa K; Cunze, Sarah; Werblow, Antje; Kochmann, Judith; Dörge, Dorian D; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Klimpel, Sven

    2016-03-01

    Climatic changes raise the risk of re-emergence of arthropod-borne virus outbreaks globally. These viruses are transmitted by arthropod vectors, often mosquitoes. Due to increasing worldwide trade and tourism, these vector species are often accidentally introduced into many countries beyond their former distribution range. Aedes albopictus, a well-known disease vector, was detected for the first time in Germany in 2007, but seems to have failed establishment until today. However, the species is known to occur in other temperate regions and a risk for establishment in Germany remains, especially in the face of predicted climate change. Thus, the goal of the study was to estimate the potential distribution of Ae. albopictus in Germany. We used ecological niche modeling in order to estimate the potential habitat suitability for this species under current and projected future climatic conditions. According to our model, there are already two areas in western and southern Germany that appear suitable for Ae. albopictus under current climatic conditions. One of these areas lies in Baden-Wuerttemberg, the other in North-Rhine Westphalia in the Ruhr region. Furthermore, projections under future climatic conditions show an increase of the modeled habitat suitability throughout Germany. Ae. albopictus is supposed to be better acclimated to colder temperatures than other tropical vectors and thus, might become, triggered by climate change, a serious threat to public health in Germany. Our modeling results can help optimizing the design of monitoring programs currently in place in Germany.

  14. Trends in absolute and relative educational inequalities in four modifiable ischaemic heart disease risk factors: repeated cross-sectional surveys from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT) 1984–2008

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There has been an overall decrease in incident ischaemic heart disease (IHD), but the reduction in IHD risk factors has been greater among those with higher social position. Increased social inequalities in IHD mortality in Scandinavian countries is often referred to as the Scandinavian “public health puzzle”. The objective of this study was to examine trends in absolute and relative educational inequalities in four modifiable ischaemic heart disease risk factors (smoking, diabetes, hypertension and high total cholesterol) over the last three decades among Norwegian middle-aged women and men. Methods Population-based, cross-sectional data from The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT): HUNT 1 (1984–1986), HUNT 2 (1995–1997) and HUNT 3 (2006–2008), women and men 40–59 years old. Educational inequalities were assessed using the Slope Index of Inequality (SII) and The Relative Index of Inequality (RII). Results Smoking prevalence increased for all education groups among women and decreased in men. Relative and absolute educational inequalities in smoking widened in both genders, with significantly higher absolute inequalities among women than men in the two last surveys. Diabetes prevalence increased in all groups. Relative inequalities in diabetes were stable, while absolute inequalities increased both among women (p = 0.05) and among men (p = 0.01). Hypertension prevalence decreased in all groups. Relative inequalities in hypertension widened over time in both genders. However, absolute inequalities in hypertension decreased among women (p = 0.05) and were stable among men (p = 0.33). For high total cholesterol relative and absolute inequalities remained stable in both genders. Conclusion Widening absolute educational inequalities in smoking and diabetes over the last three decades gives rise to concern. The mechanisms behind these results are less clear, and future studies are needed to assess if educational inequalities in

  15. Etude des connaissances, attitudes et pratiques en matière de réintégration sociale des femmes victimes de fistule obstétricale: région de l'Extrême-nord, Cameroun

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Sanou Sobze; Adogaye, Sali Ben Béchir; Rodrigue, Mabvouna Biguioh; Maurice, Douryang; Vivaldi, Teikeu Tessa Vladimir; Amede, Saah Fopa Michael; Marie, Ovaga Eyenga Landry; Meriam, Ausseil Sandra; Colizzi, Vittorio; Gianluca, Russo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction La fistule obstétricale est un orifice entre le vagin et la vessie ou le rectum, voire les deux. Ses impacts sont des conséquences anatomo-fonctionnelles et sociales. On estime à plus de 19 000 le nombre de femmes qui souffrent de fistule obstétricale au Cameroun. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale descriptive conduite dans trois districts de santé de la région de l'Extrême-nord. Vingt-huit femmes victimes de fistules obstétricales, quarante-deux membres de leur entourage et vingt-quatre agents de santé ont été interviewés entre Novembre et Décembre 2013. Trois types de questionnaires ont été utilisés. Les données ont été analysées dans Epi Info version 7.1.4.0. Les moyennes et les fréquences ont été calculées avec un intervalle de confiance à 95%. Résultats 46,4% des femmes victimes de fistule obstétricales interviewées avaient subi une intervention chirurgicale réparatrice parmi lesquelles, 61,5% bénéficiaient de la réintégration. Le fonds de commerce (62,5%) était l'aide la plus reçue. Vingt-deux membres de l'entourage savaient pourquoi on fait la réintégration. Selon eux, les considérations socioculturelles (68,2%), sont la principale barrière de la réintégration. D'après les agents de santé, le suivi psychosocial (58,3%) est la principale activité de la réintégration dans les centres de prise en charge de la fistule. Conclusion La prise en charge des fistules obstétricales au Cameroun souffre de manque de réintégration sociale. Ceci expliquerait en partie la persistance de cette pathologie. Un accent devrait être mis sur l'appui matériel, financier et sur le suivi psychosocial des femmes victimes de fistule obstétricale. PMID:26113915

  16. Analyzing 20 years of Black Carbon measurements in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutzner, R. D.; Quedenau, J.; Kuik, F.; von Schneidemesser, E.; Schmale, J.

    2016-12-01

    Black Carbon (BC) is an important short-lived climate-forcing pollutant contributing to global warming through absorption of sunlight. In addition, BC, as a component of particulate matter (PM) exerts adverse health effects. Anthropogenic emission sources of BC include residential heating, transport, and agricultural fires, and the dominant natural emission source is wildfires. Despite the adverse effects of BC, legislation that requires mandatory monitoring of BC concentrations does not currently exist in the European Union (EU). Instead, BC is only indirectly monitored as component of PM10 and PM2.5 (PM with a diameter smaller 10 µm and 2.5 µm, respectively). Before the introduction of mandatory PM10 and PM2.5 monitoring in the EU in 2005 and 2015, respectively, `black smoke' (BS), a surrogate for BC, was a required measurement in Germany from the early 1990s. The annual mean limit value was 14 µg/m3 from 1995 and 8 µg/m³ from 1998. In 2004, many measurements were stopped, with the repeal of the regulations. In most German federal states a limited number BC monitoring stations continued to operate. We present a synthesis of BC data from 213 stations across Germany covering the period between 1994 and 2014. Due to the lack of a standardized method and respective legislation, the data set is very heterogeneous relying on twelve different measurement methods including chemical, optical, and thermal-optical methods. Stations include, among others, urban background, traffic and rural. We highlight results from the year 2009, as it is the year with the largest measurement coverage based on the same measurement method, with 28 stations. Further, we calculated trends in BC concentrations for 13 stations with at least 10 years of data, for median concentrations, as well as 5th percentile (background) and 95th percentile (peak episodes). Preliminary results suggest that concentrations have generally declined, with a larger trend at traffic stations compared to urban

  17. Soil Moisture as an Estimator for Crop Yield in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peichl, Michael; Meyer, Volker; Samaniego, Luis; Thober, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Annual crop yield depends on various factors such as soil properties, management decisions, and meteorological conditions. Unfavorable weather conditions, e.g. droughts, have the potential to drastically diminish crop yield in rain-fed agriculture. For example, the drought in 2003 caused direct losses of 1.5 billion EUR only in Germany. Predicting crop yields allows to mitigate negative effects of weather extremes which are assumed to occur more often in the future due to climate change. A standard approach in economics is to predict the impact of climate change on agriculture as a function of temperature and precipitation. This approach has been developed further using concepts like growing degree days. Other econometric models use nonlinear functions of heat or vapor pressure deficit. However, none of these approaches uses soil moisture to predict crop yield. We hypothesize that soil moisture is a better indicator to explain stress on plant growth than estimations based on precipitation and temperature. This is the case because the latter variables do not explicitly account for the available water content in the root zone, which is the primary source of water supply for plant growth. In this study, a reduced form panel approach is applied to estimate a multivariate econometric production function for the years 1999 to 2010. Annual crop yield data of various crops on the administrative district level serve as depending variables. The explanatory variable of major interest is the Soil Moisture Index (SMI), which quantifies anomalies in root zone soil moisture. The SMI is computed by the mesoscale Hydrological Model (mHM, www.ufz.de/mhm). The index represents the monthly soil water quantile at a 4 km2 grid resolution covering entire Germany. A reduced model approach is suitable because the SMI is the result of a stochastic weather process and therefore can be considered exogenous. For the ease of interpretation a linear functionality is preferred. Meteorological

  18. Health-resource use and costs associated with fibromyalgia in France, Germany, and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Tyler; Schaefer, Caroline; Chandran, Arthi; Zlateva, Gergana; Winkelmann, Andreas; Perrot, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic disorder characterized by widespread, persistent pain. Prospective and retrospective studies have demonstrated substantial health-care costs associated with FM in a number of countries. This study evaluated and compared health-resource use (HRU) and associated costs related to FM in routine clinical practice across the US, France, and Germany. Methods Two separate, cross-sectional, observational studies of subjects with FM were conducted: one in the US and one in France and Germany. HRU related to prescription medication, physician office visits, diagnostic tests, and hospitalizations was abstracted from chart review; patient out-of-pocket costs and lost productivity were collected via subject self-report. Costs were assigned to HRU based on standard algorithms. Direct and indirect costs were evaluated and compared by simple linear regression. Results A total of 442 subjects (203 US, 70 France, 169 Germany) with FM were analyzed. The mean (standard deviation) age in the US, France, and Germany was 47.9 (10.9), 51.2 (9.5), and 49.2 (9.8), respectively (P = 0.085). Most subjects were female (95% US, 83% France, 80% Germany) (P < 0.001). Adjusted annual direct costs per subject for FM were significantly higher in the US ($7087) than in France ($481, P < 0.001) or Germany ($2417, P < 0.001). Adjusted mean annual indirect costs per subject for FM were lower in the US ($6431) than in France ($8718) or Germany ($10,001), but represented a significant proportion of total costs in all countries. Conclusion The significant HRU and costs associated with FM in the US, France, and Germany documented in this study highlight the substantial global economic burden of FM. Indirect costs represented a significant proportion of the total costs, particularly in Europe. Comparisons between the three countries show differences in HRU, with significantly higher direct costs in the US compared with France and Germany. PMID:23637545

  19. Data of a willingness to pay survey for national climate change mitigation policies in Germany.

    PubMed

    Uehleke, Reinhard

    2016-06-01

    The dataset includes responses from a contingent valuation study about the national climate change mitigation policies in Germany. The online survey was carried out in the spring of 2014. It assesses the willingness to pay for an increase of the national CO2 reduction target by 10 percentage points, which closely represents Germany׳s climate change mitigation strategy. Respondents were randomly allocated to one of the following three question formats: The dichotomous choice referendum, the dissonance minimizing referendum and the two-sided payment ladder. The data can be used to investigate the influence of alternative statistical approaches on the willingness to pay measures and their comparison across question formats.

  20. [Importance of epidemiology and control of the fox tapeworm, Echinococcus multilocularis, in Germany].

    PubMed

    Daugschies, A

    1995-08-01

    A review is given on the epidemiology and control of Echinococcus multilocularis with emphasis on the particular situation in Germany. Recent studies have demonstrated a comparatively frequent general occurrence of the parasite in fox populations in Germany apart from the traditional endemic areas in the Southwest. Final conclusions concerning a putative spread of the parasite from the highly endemic areas in the Southwest of Germany to the North and the East can not be drawn to date due to a lack of data. New and traditional diagnostic tools, as well as prophylactic and therapeutic measures are discussed.

  1. Survey of management of solitary thyroid nodules in Germany.

    PubMed

    Dietlein, M; Wegscheider, K; Vaupel, R; Schmidt, M; Schicha, H

    2008-01-01

    To compare the opinions of practitioners in primary care with those of thyroid specialists in Germany on the management of solitary thyroid nodules (Papillon 2005). Questionnaires were filled in by 2,191 practitioners and 297 thyroid specialists between June 1 and September 30, 2005. The test cases and their modifications described a solitary thyroid nodule of 2-3 cm with different levels of thyroid function and a hypoechogenic nodule of 1 cm in diameter. TSH determination and sonography were found to be standard procedures, followed by scintigraphy (selected by 84.7% of practitioners and 95.1% of specialists, p < 0.001) and fine needle aspiration cytology (54.5% of practitioners, 57.4% of specialists). For a hypoechogenic nodule calcitonin determination was advocated by 54.0% of endocrinologists and by 32.2% of nuclear medicine physicians (p < 0.001). A euthyroid solitary thyroid nodule would be treated medically by 77.8% of practitioners and by 85.7% of specialists, the combination of levothyroxine and iodine being clearly preferred (60.9% of practitioners and 67.1% of specialists). For a hyperfunctioning nodule the preference of radioiodine therapy was significantly higher in the specialist group (88.8%) than among the practitioners (52.2%). The main differences of opinion between practitioners and specialists focused on calcitonin screening and referral to radioiodine therapy.

  2. Blindness and low vision in Germany 1993-2009.

    PubMed

    Wolfram, Christian; Pfeiffer, Norbert

    2012-02-01

    To describe the development of the prevalence of blindness and low vision in the German population between 1993 and 2009 with respect to major demographic changes and to investigate how the prevalence of blindness would have developed without demographic aging. Investigation of the prevalence for blindness and low vision in the German population on the basis of the official German statistics for severely handicapped people and population statistics between 1993 and 2009. Age-specific prevalence rates and the prevalence based on a standardized population were calculated and the progression is demonstrated. The overall prevalence of blindness and low vision in Germany increased between 1993 and 2009 by 12.3% from 314,404 to 352,943 subjects. The absolute number of blind or visually impaired persons in the eldest group (75 years and above) has grown by 38.2% from 126,023 to 174,127 subjects. At the same time, both age-specific prevalence rates as well as the prevalence that was based on a standardized population decreased, matching more than 30,000 fewer cases of blindness in 2009 as compared to 1993. The increase in absolute prevalence numbers for blindness and low vision implies an increase in the ophthalmic workload. At the same time, the decrease in the age-specific and standardized prevalence indicates possible improvements in the overall eye health status of the population since 1993.

  3. Prevalence of BK virus subtype I in Germany.

    PubMed

    Krumbholz, Andi; Zell, Roland; Egerer, Renate; Sauerbrei, Andreas; Helming, Andrea; Gruhn, Bernd; Wutzler, Peter

    2006-12-01

    The primary infection with human polyomavirus BK (BKV) occurs in early childhood and leads to viral latency within the urogenital tract. Up to 90% of the adult population are seropositive. In immunosuppressed patients, the BKV may be reactivated resulting in typical disease patterns like hemorrhagic cystitis and tubulointerstitial nephritis. Based on serological and molecular methods, BKV isolates were classified into four subtypes previously. Sixty specimens obtained from German renal and bone marrow transplant recipients were analyzed to gain data on the prevalence of BKV subtypes in Germany. With 90.9%, BKV subtype I was found to be predominant in both patient groups. 6.1% of BKV strains were classified as subtype IV. This pattern of phylogenetic distribution is similar to that demonstrated previously in England, Tanzania, the United States and Japan. Remarkably, there was one German BKV virus with a sequence which clusters together with strain SB in subtype II. The BKV subtype I was found to consist of at least three subgroups designated as Ia, Ib, and Ic. While the majority of the German sequences represent subgroup Ic, most of the Japanese sequences are clearly distinct. These findings support the hypothesis of distinct geographical prevalence of BKV subgroups. For the genotyping region, a relationship of BKV subgroups to disease patterns like hemorrhagic cystitis or tubulointerstitial nephritis could not be demonstrated. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Family composition and children's dental health behavior: evidence from Germany.

    PubMed

    Listl, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    To assess whether children's dental health behavior differs between family compositions of either natural parents or birth mothers together with stepfathers. We use data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) public use file. This is the first nationally r ep resentative sample on child health in Germany and particularly contains variables for dental attendance, tooth care, and eating behavior of 13,904 children below 14 years of age. A series of zero-inflated Poisson, ordinary least squares, binary, and ordered logistic regression models was set up in order to identify whether family composition is a significant explanatory variable for children's dental health behavior. Family composition turned out as a significant parameter for some aspects of children's dental health behavior. Specifically, children who grow up in families with a birth mother and a stepfather have only half the probability to access dental services but, once seeking treatment, the number of visits is significantly higher in comparison with children raised by their natural parents. Moreover, children growing up in such a patchwork family setting consume a higher amount of sugary foods and drinks. This appears mainly attributable to differential consumption habits for juices, cookies, and chocolate. Children who grow up in settings other than the nuclear family may develop different dental health behaviors than children who grow up with both natural parents, albeit more research is needed to identify the extent to which such behavioral changes lead to variations in caries occurrence.

  5. [Bronchoscopy in Germany. Cross-sectional inquiry with 681 institutions].

    PubMed

    Markus, A; Häussinger, K; Kohlhäufl, M; Hauck, R W

    2000-11-01

    Bronchoscopy represents an integral part of the diagnostic tools in pulmonary medicine. Recently, it has also gained considerable attention for its therapeutic properties. To elucidate equipment, indications and procedural techniques of bronchoscopy units, a retrospective survey of 1232 hospitals and practices is conducted. 687 questionnaires are received back (response rate 56%). 681 of which are statistically evaluated. Two thirds of the physicians in charge are internists, one third are pulmonary care specialists. A total of 200,596 endoscopic procedures is included. The majority of procedures is done with an average of 3 bronchoscopists and in over 57% (388) of cases with an average number of 100 or less procedures per year. The five main indications are tumor, hemoptysis, infection or pneumonia, drainage of secretions and suspected interstitial disease. Overall complication rate amounts to 2.7% with an incidence of 4.6% minor and 0.7% major complications and a bronchoscopy-related mortality of 0.02%. The patterns seen in premedication, intra- and post-procedural monitoring, disinfection practices as well as documentation are quite heterogeneous. It is suggested to establish revised and updated standards for bronchoscopy, which should take the data collected into particular account. Those standards should provide the basis for a high level bronchological care throughout Germany.

  6. Strategic Environmental Assessment in Germany - Practice and open questions

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, Ulrike, E-mail: uweiland@uni-leipzig.d

    2010-04-15

    Eight years after the enactment of the EU Strategic Environmental Assessment Directive (2001/42/EC) () it is time to investigate where and how SEA are being implemented in Germany in order to find out open questions and research needs. In this study, we analysed in which planning types SEA are common practice, and where can deficits be identified, and to what extent differences occur between spatial and sectoral planning with respect to carrying out SEA. Pressing challenges in performing SEA as well as open questions are addressed such as the handling of cumulative effects and the interrelationships between the environmental factors,more » and how the monitoring of environmental effects is considered by the practitioners. The results show that SEA is well implemented in local land-use planning, regional planning, and in local landscape planning, while the implementation in sectoral planning varies widely. The SEA in clean air planning is looked at in more detail, because this is discussed controversially in the specialist field, and obstacles against SEA are identified in this field. Finally some new topics are addressed for which solutions in spatial and environmental planning including SEA must be found, e.g. the consideration of biological diversity and the potential role of SEA in climate change. A European study on the identified open questions and their handling in different contexts and countries may allow for a qualitative amendment in practice.« less

  7. [Tuberculous Otitis media - a rare differential diagnosis in Germany].

    PubMed

    Teschner, M; Kramer, S; Donnerstag, F; Länger, F; Lenarz, Th; Schwab, B

    2008-07-01

    A 28-year-old female patient with a migrant background presented for surgery with a suspected cholesteatoma in the left ear. The patient reported having had an aural discharge for several months; otoscopic examination revealed a runny ear, and discrete granulation tissue was seen. Pure-tone audiometry showed conduction hearing loss of 30-40 dB across all frequencies in the left ear; high-resolution computed tomography of the temporal bone revealed that the mastoid and tympanic cavity were completely obscured. The intraoperative finding showed a caseous space-occupying mass that completely filled the tympanic cavity. The suspected diagnosis of tuberculosis was corroborated by pathohistological, microbiological and molecular biological tests. Tuberculostatic therapy was initiated at a different location. Although tuberculosis of the middle ear is a rare condition in Germany, it should nevertheless be considered when making a differential diagnosis, especially in high-risk patients where cholesteatoma is suspected on clinical and radiological evidence or in patients with a chronic middle ear process.

  8. Rapid flood loss estimation for large scale floods in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröter, Kai; Kreibich, Heidi; Merz, Bruno

    2013-04-01

    Rapid evaluations of flood events are needed for efficient responses both in emergency management and financial appraisal. Beyond that, closely monitoring and documenting the formation and development of flood events and their impacts allows for an improved understanding and in depth analyses of the interplay between meteorological, hydrological, hydraulic and societal causes leading to flood damage. This contribution focuses on the development of a methodology for the rapid assessment of flood events. In the first place, the focus is on the prediction of damage to residential buildings caused by large scale floods in Germany. For this purpose an operational flood event analysis system is developed. This system has basic spatial thematic data available and supports data capturing about the current flood situation. This includes the retrieval of online gauge data and the integration of remote sensing data. Further, it provides functionalities to evaluate the current flood situation, to assess the hazard extent and intensity and to estimate the current flood impact using the flood loss estimation model FLEMOps+r. The operation of the flood event analysis system will be demonstrated for the past flood event from January 2011 with a focus on the Elbe/Saale region. On this grounds, further requirements and potential for improving the information basis as for instance by including hydrological and /or hydraulic model results as well as information from social sensors will be discussed.

  9. Stuttgart, Germany. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    4rREVISED UNIFORM SUMMARY OF SURFACE WEATHER OBSERVATIONS STUTTGART GERMANY MSC # 107380 N 48 41 K 009 13 ELEV 1300 FT EDOC PARTS A - F HOURS SUMMARIZED 0000...1 .. L. b I.E 725O0 14.2 24.A 26.4 32.3 32.1 33.6 34.2 36.7 37.7 9.2 39.c 39.5 39.7 𔄃.e 40. 1 I. . GE 6’ UC 1 14.4 25.3 27.0 30.6 32.8 34. 2 34*. 37.4...28.9 30.1 33.8 35.8 36.7 37.3 39.1 39.6 40.0 40.2 60.5 60.6 60.7 41.1 1.9 6E 8- uC l7.9 3L. b 31 .9 35.838 V.. 39. 139 . 7- 6’.6 - 42. 1-62. 7 42.9 4

  10. Partner, workplace, and stranger abuse during pregnancy in Germany.

    PubMed

    Stöckl, Heidi; Hertlein, Linda; Friese, Klaus; Stöckl, Doris

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the prevalence, perpetrators, sociodemographic correlates, and health impacts of psychological, physical, and sexual abuse during pregnancy among women attending a maternity ward in Germany. A written questionnaire was given to pregnant women in a maternity ward of a university hospital in Munich. Abuse during pregnancy was assessed using the Abuse Assessment Screen. Of 552 women, 401 completed the questionnaire for a response rate of 72.6%. The prevalence of psychological, physical, or sexual abuse during pregnancy by any perpetrator was 6.7% (n = 27); the main perpetrators were women's partners and work colleagues. After controlling for the effect of age, psychological, physical, or sexual abuse during pregnancy was significantly associated with a history of abuse, low education level of the woman and the father of her child, short relationship duration, unintended pregnancy, financial problems caused by the pregnancy, having more than 3 children, and insufficient social support. Women who reported abuse during pregnancy were significantly more likely to smoke and to have adverse maternal health outcomes. Psychological, physical, or sexual abuse during pregnancy was experienced by 1 in 15 women who attended a maternity ward in Munich and adversely affected maternal health outcomes. Copyright © 2010 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The costs of hazardous alcohol consumption in Germany.

    PubMed

    Effertz, Tobias; Verheyen, Frank; Linder, Roland

    2017-07-01

    Hazardous alcohol consumption in Germany is a main threat to health. By using insurance claim data from the German Statutory Health Insurance and a classification strategy based on ICD10 diagnoses-codes we analyzed a sample of 146,000 subjects with more than 19,000 hazardous alcohol consumers. Employing different regression models with a control function approach, we calculate life years lost due to alcohol consumption, annual direct and indirect health costs, and the burden of pain and suffering measured by the Charlson-Index and assessed pain diagnoses. Additionally, we simulate the net accumulated premium payments over expenses in the German Statutory Health Insurance and the Statutory Pension Fund for hazardous alcohol consumers from a lifecycle perspective. In total, €39.3 billion each year result from hazardous alcohol consumption with an average loss of 7 years in life expectancy. Hazardous alcohol consumers clearly do not "pay their way" in the two main German social security systems and also display a higher intangible burden according to our definitions of pain and suffering.

  12. Green politics in Germany: what is Green health care policy?

    PubMed

    Wörz, M; Wismar, M

    2001-01-01

    For the first time ever, a Green party has governed in Germany. From September 1998 to January 2001 the German Green party, Bündnis 90/Die Grünen, held the Federal Ministry of Health. Little has been said so far about Bündnis 90/Die Grünen and its relation to health policy. This article is intended to fill that void. An analysis of the health policy program of the Greens reveals that it centers around moving the health sector toward more comprehensiveness and decentralization, strengthened patients' rights, increased use of preventive and alternative medicine, and a critique of the German cost-containment debate and policy. The current health policy program of the Greens is closest to that of the Party of Democratic Socialism, and to a lesser extent it has affinities to the program of the Social Democratic Party. The health policy program of Bündnis 90/Die Grünen is furthest from those of the Christian Democratic Union and the Free Democratic Party. The health care reforms passed in 1998 and 1999 were not a shift toward a "Green paradigm" of health care policy, because they included no fundamental changes. In addition, cost-containment is still a major political goal in German health care policy.

  13. Thermoluminescence dating of a mikveh in Ichenhausen, Germany.

    PubMed

    Veronese, I; Göksu, H Y; Schwenk, P; Herzig, F

    2008-04-01

    A vaulted basement found at the rabbi's residential house which was oriented according to the requirements of a mikveh has created a controversy in the architectural history of the Ichenhausen Synagogue (Germany). The rabbi's residential house is known to have been built in 1781 during the replacement of the old Synagogue that had existed since 1687. However, the architectural documents concerning the residential house did not contain any information about either the presence or the construction of the mikveh in the basement. Three bricks collected from the northern, eastern and southern walls of the vaulted basement of the rabbi's residence were dated using the thermoluminescence method to find out if the mikveh belongs to the old Synagogue or was built during the construction of the residence. The archaeological dose was assessed using multi-aliquot regenerative and additive dose techniques using quartz extracted from bricks. The age calculations were based on the assessment of annual dose rate in quartz by taking into account the possible variations of water content in bricks. The TL dates of the bricks were found to vary between 1797+/-11 and 1772+/-16 for dry and water saturated environments, respectively. The TL results ruled out the possibility that the walls of the mikveh belong to the former Synagogue.

  14. Prison suicides in Germany from 2000 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Opitz-Welke, Annette; Bennefeld-Kersten, Katharina; Konrad, Norbert; Welke, Justus

    2013-01-01

    In many countries, suicide is the most frequent cause of prison deaths; moreover, the respective national penal suicide rates are consistently several times higher than the suicide rates in the general population. To assess the situation in German prisons, an assessment of all suicides in German prisons by means of a survey was carried out for the time from 2000 to 2011. The mean rate per year of prison suicides in Germany from 2000 to 2011 was 105.8 per 100,000 male inmates and 54.7 per 100,000 female inmates. Male prisoner suicide rates significantly declined during the period under investigation; no significant trend was evident for female prisoners in pre-trial detention but a noteworthy increase was apparent in the suicide rate of female sentenced prisoners. A significant positive relationship can be demonstrated between occupation density and the suicide rate for both men and women. These results should be taken as a challenge for further research on the reasons for the unexpected increase of suicide rate in female sentenced prisoners and as well on the effect of population density on prison suicide rate. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Distribution patterns of Saccharomyces species in cultural landscapes of Germany.

    PubMed

    Brysch-Herzberg, Michael; Seidel, Martin

    2017-08-01

    The distribution patterns of the three Saccharomyces species, Saccharomyces paradoxus, S. uvarum and S. cerevisiae, were investigated by a culture-dependent approach in order to understand better how these species propagate in the cultural landscape of Germany. Saccharomyces paradoxus, the closest relative of S. cerevisiae, is shown to be a true woodland species. It was frequently found in the soil under conifers indicating that S. paradoxus is an autochthonous member of the microbial community in this habitat. Physiological characteristics of the species like the Crabtree effect and high tolerance against ethanol suggest that the species is adapted to regular supply with considerable amounts of sugars. Additionally, a high proportion of the S. paradoxus strains isolated in this study are shown to have the rare ability to ferment melezitose. For these reasons, it is hypothesized that S. paradoxus may be closely associated with the honeydew system in forests. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was rare in most habitats and only exceeded the frequency of S. paradoxus in habitats characterized by modern agricultural mass production of fruit. Both the landscape structure and the agricultural system heavily influence the frequencies of Saccharomyces species. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Clostridium difficile Genotypes in Piglet Populations in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Neubauer, Heinrich; Schmoock, Gernot; Baier, Sylvia; Harlizius, Jürgen; Nienhoff, Hendrik; Brase, Katja; Zimmermann, Stefan; Seyboldt, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium difficile was isolated from 147 of 201 (73%) rectal swabs of piglets from 15 farms of Lower Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia. In 14 farms, 14 to 100% (mean, 78%) of the animals tested were culture positive. The rate of isolation was 68% postpartum, increased to 94% in animals 2 to 14 days of age, and declined to 0% for animals 49 days of age and older. There was no link between isolation and antibiotic treatment or diarrhea of piglets. Strains were assigned to 10 PCR ribotypes, and up to 4 PCR ribotypes were found to be present at the same time on a farm. The closely related PCR ribotypes 078 (55%) and 126 (20%) were most frequently recovered and were present in 13 of the 14 positive farms. The comparison of multilocus VNTR (variable number of tandem repeats) analysis (MLVA) data from this study and previously published data on human, porcine, and bovine PCR ribotype 078 isolates from 5 European countries revealed genetic differences between strains of different geographic origin and confirmed the relatedness of human and porcine C. difficile isolates. This study demonstrated that the human-pathogenic PCR ribotypes 078 and 126 are predominant in piglets in Germany. The results suggest that presence of C. difficile is correlated with animal age but not with antibiotic treatment or clinical disease. MLVA indicated that strains of the same geographical origin are often genetically related and corroborated the hypothesis of a close epidemiological connection between human and porcine C. difficile isolates. PMID:24025903

  17. [Imported tropical fish causes ciguatera fish poisoning in Germany].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Katharina; Eisenblätter, Anneka; Vetter, Irina; Ebbecke, Martin; Friedemann, Miriam; Desel, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Ciguatera is a seafood-borne illness caused by consumption of tropical fish contaminated with ciguatoxins, lipophilic polyethers that are produced in benthic dinoflagellates and accumulate through the marine food chain. Ciguatera cases in Europe usually occur in travellers returning from tropical and subtropical regions of the Pacific and Carribean, where ciguatera is endemic. In 2012, several cases of ciguatera occurred in Germany due to sale of contaminated fish products originating from the Indian Ocean. Although the symptomatology in these cases were typical of ciguatera, with patients reporting gastrointestinal discomfort including nausea, vomiting and diarrhea as well as neurological effects including widespread intense pruritus, paresthesias, hypothermia or altered temperature sensation and diffuse pain, correct diagnosis was delayed in all cases due to lack of awareness of the treating medical practitioners. In light of increasing global mobility, trade, and occurrence of ciguatoxic fish in previously non-endemic areas, ciguatera should be considered as a possible diagnosis if gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms occur shortly after consumption of fish. Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart.

  18. [Continuing medical education in Germany--the northrhenian experience].

    PubMed

    Griebenow, R; Lösche, P; Lehmacher, W; Schmülling, A; Chon, S; Christ, H; Stützer, H; Stosch, Ch

    2003-04-04

    For Germany there exist only very little data concerning the practice of continuous medical education (CME). The introduction of the CME certificate has made it possible to gather data about the CME activities and their evaluation which are presented here for the northrhenian chamber of physicians. In 2002 the northrhenian academy for CME has certified more than 5500 CME activities and more than 2000 maintenance-of-quality group activities. In addition the evaluation forms of the first 4486 consecutive participants have been evaluated,including those of the northrhenian CME congress on the isle of Norderney. 94 % of the participants had received their license between 1 and 30 years ago and 81 % attended > or = 1 CME activity per month. Currently there exist only very few digital media certified for CME, which is dominated by oral presentations of which 85 % have gained > or = 2 points for the certificate (150 points in 3 years). General practitioners and internists together represented nearly 40 % of the participants, the others represent a broad spectrum of specialties. Topics and presentation were rated as of high quality and clinical relevance, which was also true for sponsored CME. Certified CME is currently dominated by oral presentations which mostly take place outside the working hours and which are rated as of high quality and clinical relevance.

  19. "Think positively": Parkinson's disease, biomedicine, and hope in contemporary Germany.

    PubMed

    Metzler, Ingrid; Just, Paul

    2017-06-01

    Narratives of hope shape contemporary engagements with Parkinson's disease. On the one hand, a "biomedical narrative of hope" promises that biomedical research will help to transform this treatable but incurable disease into a curable one in the future. On the other hand, a more individual "illness narrative of hope" encourages patients to influence the course of Parkinson's disease by practicing self-care and positive thinking. This article asks how these two narratives of hope interact. It bases its argument on an analysis of data from 13 focus groups conducted in Germany in 2012 and 2014 with patients with Parkinson's disease and their relatives. Participants were asked to have their say on clinical trials for advanced therapies for Parkinson's disease and, while doing so, envisioned their biosocial selves in the present and the future. Three "modes of being" for patients were drawn from this body of data: a "users on stand-by" mode, an "unengaged" mode, and an "experimental pioneers" mode. Both narratives of hope were important to all three modes, yet they were mobilized at different frequencies and also had different statuses. While the biomedical narrative of hope was deemed an important "dream of the future" that participants passively supported without having to make it their own, the illness narrative of hope was a truth discourse that took an imperative form: having Parkinson's disease implied the need to maintain a positive attitude.

  20. Immigrants' initial steps in Germany and their later economic success.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Irena; Weißmann, Markus

    2013-09-01

    In line with the emerging research that acknowledges the importance of the process character of immigrants' labour market integration, this paper examines the existence of path dependencies of early employment trajectories on later labour market outcomes. Theoretically we are interested in establishing whether career trajectories provide a distinct signal, used by both employers and employees: a signal that operates apart and beyond the accumulation of host-country relevant resources, especially, host-country labour market experience or training. The analyses are performed with the help of a unique dataset comprised of recent immigrants from the former Soviet Union in Germany. Sequence analysis techniques and multivariate regressions are applied. Results show that starting in higher-status employment leaves a distinguishable imprint on immigrants' later occupational standings, even after the returns to the skills associated with early trajectories are taken into account. At the same time, initial career trajectories do not have any direct effect on wages, apart from the pay-off to relevant skills acquired while pursuing these careers. The findings are discussed in concurrence with the human capital and signalling theories. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Urban heat fluxes in the subsurface of Cologne, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, K.; Bayer, P.; Blum, P.

    2012-04-01

    Urbanization during the last hundred years has led to both environmental and thermal impacts on the subsurface. The urban heat island (UHI) effect is mostly described as an atmospheric phenomenon, where the measured aboveground temperatures in cities are elevated in comparison to undisturbed rural regions. However, UHIs can be found below, as well as above ground. A large amount of anthropogenic heat migrates into the urban subsurface, which also raises the ground temperature and permanently changes the thermal conditions in shallow aquifers. The main objective of our work is to study and determine the urban heat fluxes in Cologne, Germany, and to improve our understanding of the dynamics of subsurface energy fluxes in UHIs. Ideally, our findings will contribute to strategic and more sustainable geothermal use in cities. For a quantitative analysis of the energy fluxes within the subsurface and across the atmospheric boundary, two and three-dimensional coupled numerical flow and heat transport models were developed. The simulation results indicate that during the past hundred years, an average vertical urban heat flux that ranges between 80 and 375 mW m-2 can be deduced. Thermal anomalies have migrated into the local urban aquifer system and they reach a depth of about 150 m. In this context, the influence of the regional groundwater flow on the subsurface heat transport and temperature development is comprehensively discussed.

  2. [Education of medical students in urology in Germany: present status].

    PubMed

    Strunk, T; Mueller, S C

    2011-02-01

    There is a growing demand for doctors in Germany and diseases of the genitourinary tract have become more prevalent in recent years. Politicians plan to increase the number of students in an already heavily overloaded system but data on quality and structure of medical education in Urology are lacking. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent and quality of undergraduate medical education in urology. Departments of Urology at German University Hospitals were surveyed using a questionnaire. Questions covered four different fields of medical education and answers were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Of the teachers involved in medical education 97% are physicians and 4% of these have special didactic qualifications. On average 1 teacher is responsible for 13 students and 44% of departments also have to carry out medical duties during teaching lessons. More than half of the departments offer modern learning forms, such as e-learning, problem-oriented learning or skills laboratory training. Urology departments at German University Hospitals spend much time on medical education. Nearly all physicians are involved in medical education, whether they are experienced or not and in many cases teaching is carried out in parallel to patient care. In more than half of the cases modern education tools were employed which implies a good standard of quality but there are no data on outcome.

  3. The Improved Hydrological Gravity Model for Moxa Observatory, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weise, A.; Jahr, Th.

    2017-04-01

    The gravity variations observed by the superconducting gravimeter (SG) CD-034 at Moxa Geodynamic Observatory/Germany were compared with the GRACE results some years ago. The combination of a local hydrological model of a catchment area with a 3D-gravimetric model had been applied successfully for correcting the SG record of Moxa which is especially necessary due to the strong topography nearest to the SG location. Now, the models have been corrected and improved considerably by inserting several details in the very near surrounding. Mainly these are: the observatory building is inserted with the roof covered by a soil layer above the gravity sensor where humidity is varying, snow is placed on top of the roof and on topography (steep slope), and ground water is taken into account, additionally. The result is that the comparison of the corrected gravity residuals with gravity variations of the satellite mission GRACE, now using RL5 data, shows higher agreement, not only in amplitude but also the formerly apparent phase shift is obviously not realistic. The agreement between terrestrial gravity variations (SG) and the GRACE data is improved considerably which is discussed widely.

  4. A quarter of a century of job transitions in Germany.

    PubMed

    Kattenbach, Ralph; Schneidhofer, Thomas M; Lücke, Janine; Latzke, Markus; Loacker, Bernadette; Schramm, Florian; Mayrhofer, Wolfgang

    2014-02-01

    By examining trends in intra-organizational and inter-organizational job transition probabilities among professional and managerial employees in Germany, we test the applicability of mainstream career theory to a specific context and challenge its implied change assumption. Drawing on data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP), we apply linear probability models to show the influence of time, economic cycle and age on the probability of job transitions between 1984 and 2010. Results indicate a slight negative trend in the frequency of job transitions during the analyzed time span, owing to a pronounced decrease in intra-organizational transitions, which is only partly offset by a comparatively weaker positive trend towards increased inter-organizational transitions. The latter is strongly influenced by fluctuations in the economic cycle. Finally, the probability of job transitions keeps declining steadily through the course of one's working life. In contrast to inter-organizational transitions, however, this age effect for intra-organizational transitions has decreased over time.

  5. Setting Up a Veterinary Medicine Skills Lab in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Dilly, Marc; Tipold, Andrea; Schaper, Elisabeth; Ehlers, Jan P.

    2014-01-01

    The amendments introduced to the current Veterinary Licensing Ordinance (TAppV) by the Veterinary Licensing Regulation (TAppO) have brought a high degree of skills orientation to fill the gap between academic study and preparing for a wide range of professional skills. In order to improve the veterinary skills of students while conveying fundamental methods in a structured and reproducible way, the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, has set up the first central veterinary skills lab in Germany. Practical training is provided by means of a three-tier delivery approach. This involves around 40 simulators on an area of approx. 800 m² under the guidance of 6-8 staff members, along with supplementary resources such as posters, text instructions and YouTube videos. Since it opened in March 2013, there have been 769 visits to the skills lab and 30,734 hits on YouTube. Initial results show that the skills lab helps to maintain student motivation by teaching them practical skills at an early stage of the basic study-based acquisition of knowledge, whilst reinforcing skills acquisition per se in competence-based teaching. It enables veterinary students to prepare for their first examinations and treatments of live patients in a manner compliant with animal welfare. PMID:24872855

  6. The essence of alternative medicine. A dermatologist's view from Germany.

    PubMed

    Happle, R

    1998-11-01

    In Germany, alternative medicine is presently very popular and is supported by the federal government. When deliberating on the essence of alternative medicine we should simultaneously reflect on the intellectual and moral basis of regular medicine. To provide an epistemological demarcation of the 2 fields, the following 12 theses are advanced: (1) alternative and regular medicine are speaking different languages; (2) alternative medicine is not unconventional medicine; (3) the paradigm of regular medicine is rational thinking; (4) the paradigm of alternative medicine is irrational thinking; (5) the present popularity of alternative medicine can be explained by romanticism; (6) some concepts of alternative medicine are falsifiable and others are not; (7) alternative medicine and evidence-based medicine are mutually exclusive; (8) the placebo effect is an important factor in regular medicine and the exclusive therapeutic principle of alternative medicine; (9) regular and alternative medicine have different aims: coming of age vs faithfulness; (10) alternative medicine is not always safe; (11) alternative medicine is not economic; and (12) alternative medicine will always exist. The fact that alternative methods are presently an integral part of medicine as taught at German universities, as well as of the physician's fee schedule, represents a collective aberration of mind that hopefully will last for only a short time.

  7. The Improved Hydrological Gravity Model for Moxa Observatory, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weise, A.; Jahr, Th.

    2018-05-01

    The gravity variations observed by the superconducting gravimeter (SG) CD-034 at Moxa Geodynamic Observatory/Germany were compared with the GRACE results some years ago. The combination of a local hydrological model of a catchment area with a 3D-gravimetric model had been applied successfully for correcting the SG record of Moxa which is especially necessary due to the strong topography nearest to the SG location. Now, the models have been corrected and improved considerably by inserting several details in the very near surrounding. Mainly these are: the observatory building is inserted with the roof covered by a soil layer above the gravity sensor where humidity is varying, snow is placed on top of the roof and on topography (steep slope), and ground water is taken into account, additionally. The result is that the comparison of the corrected gravity residuals with gravity variations of the satellite mission GRACE, now using RL5 data, shows higher agreement, not only in amplitude but also the formerly apparent phase shift is obviously not realistic. The agreement between terrestrial gravity variations (SG) and the GRACE data is improved considerably which is discussed widely.

  8. Safety and integrity of pipeline systems - philosophy and experience in Germany

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-01-01

    The design, construction and operation of gas pipeline systems in Germany are subject to the Energy Act and associated regulations. This legal structure is based on a deterministic rather than a probabilistic safety philosophy, consisting of technica...

  9. Young People and Popular Music in East Germany: Focus on a Scene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicke, Peter

    1985-01-01

    Points out a great preference for Western-style rock music among young people (ages 14-25) in East Germany despite social, political, and cultural differences, suggesting the global nature of music as communication. (PD)

  10. The Desirability of Medieval Germany: Some Observations on an Introductory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jillings, Lewis G.; Murdoch, Brian O.

    1975-01-01

    This paper discusses the problems and advantages of a course in Medieval Germany, including history, culture and literature along with language. Attention is given to issues and texts to be studied. (CHK)

  11. Ulceroglandular tularemia in a toddler in Germany after a mosquito bite.

    PubMed

    Hanke, Christof A; Otten, Joerg-Elard; Berner, Reinhard; Serr, Annerose; Splettstoesser, Wolf; von Schnakenburg, Christian

    2009-08-01

    Although tularemia is a long-known disease, its significance had diminished over the last decades in Middle Europe. However, over the past years, there is new evidence suggesting that tularemia has re-emerged in Germany. In 2007, the highest number of human cases for almost 50 years has been notified. Beside typical vectors, new ways of transmission seem to gain significance. So far, mosquito bite-transmitted tularemia has only been known from Scandinavia but not from Middle Europe. We report the first case of a 1-year-old toddler from Southwestern Germany with mosquito bite-associated ulceroglandular tularaemia. The new and interesting features of this case are the young age of the patient and the unusual transmission route. The available data suggesting changes in the epidemiology for tularemia in Germany are reviewed. This is an interesting case of infantile tularemia with a very unusual transmission route, highlighting ongoing changes in the epidemiology of tularemia in Germany.

  12. 76 FR 42137 - Certain Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany; Remand Proceedings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-1127 (Final) (Remand)] Certain Lightweight Thermal Paper From Germany; Remand Proceedings AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The U.S. International Trade Commission (``Commission'') hereby gives...

  13. Improved Design of Tunnel Supports : Volume 4 : Tunneling Practices in Austria and Germany

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1980-06-01

    Volume 4 documents and evaluates extensive information gathered on tunnel construction practices in Austria and Germany, identifies differences compared to U.S. practices, and describes new developments. The objective was to assemble all available in...

  14. Analysis of physical activity and acculturation among Turkish migrants in Germany and England (.).

    PubMed

    Koca, Canan; Lapa, Tennur Yerlisu

    2014-12-01

    Recent literature shows that migrant populations in Western countries are generally less physically active than their host populations. The purpose of the present study was to expand research investigating associations between physical activity (PA) and acculturation and their relationship with several socio-demographic factors among Turkish migrants in Germany and England. The sample consisted of 521 Turkish migrants. Migrant generation, length of residence, and language proficiency were used as indicators of acculturation. Acculturation was not associated with PA among migrants in Germany and England. PA of migrants was significantly associated with migrant's host country, age, sex, marital status, and education. The total PA of migrants in Germany was higher than that of migrants in England; the large majority of females in both Germany and England had low PA, whereas most males had moderate PA. Seemingly, PA in Turkish migrant populations will not necessarily increase as a result of greater acculturation to the host society.

  15. Germany, the European Union, and the Euro: The Primacy of Politics in Treasure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    2 Brian Blackstone and Charles Forelle, “Germany, France Back Pledge to Save Euro,” The Wall Street Journal, July 27...member 114 Blackstone , “Germany, France Back Pledge to Save Euro.” 115 Liz Alderman, “Right-Wing...Pontusson, eds. Coping with Crisis: Government Reactions to the Great Recession. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2012. 76 Blackstone , Brian and

  16. Protest Movements and the Security Policy of the Federal Republic of Germany Since 1950.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    to rearmament. The state of mind that framed a majority of the members, however, remained one of 33 semi- abstentionism where German labor remained on...I 0D A132 201 PROTEST MOVEMENTS AND THE SECURI Y POLICY 0 THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY SINCE 1950( U) NAVAL\\ POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONEREY CA A N...1 THESIS PROTEST MOVEMENTS AND THE SECURITY POLICY OF THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY SINCE 1950 by Arthur Neil Black 0. December 1983 C-) LIJ Thesis

  17. Fatal Balamuthia mandrillaris infection in a gorilla - first case of balamuthiasis in Germany.

    PubMed

    Mätz-Rensing, Kerstin; Kunze, Marius; Zöller, Martina; Roos, Christian; Kiderlen, Albrecht F; Ludwig, Carsten; Kaup, Franz-Josef

    2011-12-01

    A 12-year-old female western lowland gorilla died in a zoological garden in Germany after exhibiting general neurological signs. Balamuthia mandrillaris was identified as causative agent by indirect immunofluorescent staining of brain sections and confirmed by PCR and respective sequencing. The animal suffered from a chronic progressive necrotizing amebic meningoencephalitis. This is the first case of Balamuthia amebic encephalitis in Germany. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. 20 years of Black Carbon measurements in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutzner, Rebecca; Quedenau, Jörn; Kuik, Friderike; von Schneidemesser, Erika; Schmale, Julia

    2016-04-01

    Black Carbon (BC) is an important short-lived climate-forcing pollutant contributing to global warming through absorption of sunlight. At the same time, BC, as a component of particulate matter (PM) exerts adverse health effects, like decreased lung function and exacerbated asthma. Globally, anthropogenic emission sources of BC include residential heating, transport, and agricultural fires, while the dominant natural emission sources are wildfires. Despite the various adverse effects of BC, legislation that requires mandatory monitoring of BC concentrations does not currently exist in the European Union. Instead, BC is only indirectly monitored as component of PM10 and PM2.5 (particulate matter with a diameter smaller 10 μm and 2.5 μm). Before the introduction of mandatory PM10 and PM2.5 monitoring in the European Union in 2005 and 2015, respectively, 'black smoke', a surrogate for BC, was a required measurement in Germany from the early 1990s. The annual mean limit value was 14 μg m-3 from 1995 and 8 μg m-3 from 1998 onwards. Many 'black smoke' measurements were stopped in 2004, with the repeal of the regulations obtaining at the time. However, in most German federal states a limited number BC monitoring stations continued to operate. Here we present a synthesis of BC data from 213 stations across Germany covering the period between 1994 and 2014. Due to the lack of a standardized method and respective legislation, the data set is very heterogeneous relying on twelve different measurement methods including chemical, optical, and thermal-optical methods. Stations include locations classified as background, urban-background, industrial and traffic among other types. Raw data in many different formats has been modelled and integrated in a relational database, allowing various options for further data analysis. We highlight results from the year 2009, as it is the year with the largest measurement coverage based on the same measurement method, with 30 stations. In

  19. Jung's evolving views of Nazi Germany: from 1936 to the end of World War II.

    PubMed

    Schoenl, William

    2014-04-01

    This article first shows Jung's evolving views of Nazi Germany from 1936 to the beginning of World War II. In a lecture at the Tavistock Clinic, London, in October 1936, he made his strongest and most negative statements to that date about Nazi Germany. While in Berlin in September 1937 for lectures to the Jung Gesellschaft, his observations of Hitler at a military parade led him to conclude that should the catastrophe of war come it would be far more and bloodier than he had previously supposed. After the Sudetenland Crisis in Fall 1938, Jung in interviews made stronger comments on Hitler and Nazi Germany. The article shows how strongly anti-Nazi Jung's views were in relation to events during World War II such as Nazi Germany's invasion of Poland, the fall of France, the bombings of Britain, the U.S. entry into the War, and Allied troops advancing into Germany. Schoenl and Peck, 'An Answer to the Question: Was Jung, for a Time, a "Nazi Sympathizer" or Not?' (2012) demonstrated how his views of Nazi Germany changed from 1933 to March 1936. The present article shows how his views evolved from 1936 to the War's end in 1945. © 2014, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  20. Elimination of terrestrial rabies in Germany using oral vaccination of foxes.

    PubMed

    Müller, Thomas; Bätza, Hans-Joachim; Freuling, Conrad; Kliemt, Anke; Kliemt, Jeannette; Heuser, Rolf; Schlüter, Hartmut; Selhorst, Thomas; Vos, Adriaan; Mettenleiter, Thomas C

    2012-01-01

    Oral rabies vaccination (ORV) has become the method of choice in fox rabies control in Europe. During the past three decades fox-mediated rabies virtually disappeared from Western and Central Europe. Following Switzerland, Germany was the second European country to launch ORV field trials on its territory in 1983. This paper provides a historical overview on the emergence of fox rabies in Germany; describing the basic principles and milestones of the German rabies eradication programme and presenting results of two decades of efforts to control the disease in foxes. Also, setbacks as well as country-specific differences and particularities on Germany's long way to rabies elimination in comparison to other European countries are addressed. Since the first field trials in Germany the number of rabies cases steadily decreased from 10 484 in 1983 to three cases recorded in 2006. On February 3rd 2006 the last case of terrestrial rabies in Germany was detected in a fox near the town of Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate. In 2008, ORV ceased after 25 years and Germany was officially declared as free from terrestrial rabies. The German rabies eradication programme did cost approximately 100 million euro of which 37 million euro were covered by the EU. For the future, efforts should focus on maintaining a rabies free status by implementing measures to prevent reintroduction of terrestrial rabies from endemic countries.

  1. Excess costs of social anxiety disorder in Germany.

    PubMed

    Dams, Judith; König, Hans-Helmut; Bleibler, Florian; Hoyer, Jürgen; Wiltink, Jörg; Beutel, Manfred E; Salzer, Simone; Herpertz, Stephan; Willutzki, Ulrike; Strauß, Bernhard; Leibing, Eric; Leichsenring, Falk; Konnopka, Alexander

    2017-04-15

    Social anxiety disorder is one of the most frequent mental disorders. It is often associated with mental comorbidities and causes a high economic burden. The aim of our analysis was to estimate the excess costs of patients with social anxiety disorder compared to persons without anxiety disorder in Germany. Excess costs of social anxiety disorder were determined by comparing two data sets. Patient data came from the SOPHO-NET study A1 (n=495), whereas data of persons without anxiety disorder originated from a representative phone survey (n=3213) of the general German population. Missing data were handled by "Multiple Imputation by Chained Equations". Both data sets were matched using "Entropy Balancing". Excess costs were calculated from a societal perspective for the year 2014 using general linear regression with a gamma distribution and log-link function. Analyses considered direct costs (in- and outpatient treatment, rehabilitation, and professional and informal care) and indirect costs due to absenteeism from work. Total six-month excess costs amounted to 451€ (95% CI: 199€-703€). Excess costs were mainly caused by indirect excess costs due to absenteeism from work of 317€ (95% CI: 172€-461€), whereas direct excess costs amounted to 134€ (95% CI: 110€-159€). Costs for medication, unemployment and disability pension was not evaluated. Social anxiety disorder was associated with statistically significant excess costs, in particular due to indirect costs. As patients in general are often unaware of their disorder or its severity, awareness should be strengthened. Prevention and early treatment might reduce long-term indirect costs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. High-energy laser activities at MBDA Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohring, Bernd; Dietrich, Stephan; Tassini, Leonardo; Protz, Rudolf; Geidek, Franz; Zoz, Jürgen

    2013-05-01

    At MBDA Germany a concept for a high-energy laser weapon system is investigated, which is based on existing industrial laser sources. Due to the enormous progress in the field of high-power fiber lasers, commercial industrial fiber lasers are now available delivering a nearly-diffraction limited beam quality with power levels of up to 10 kW. By using a geometric beam coupling scheme, a number of individual high-power fiber laser beams are combined together using one common beam director telescope. A total laser beam power of more than 100 kW can be achieved, which is sufficient for an operational laser weapon system. The individual beams from the different lasers are steered by servo-loops using fast tip-tilt mirrors. This principle enables the concentration of the total laser beam power at one common focal point on a distant target, also allowing fine tracking of target movements and first-order compensation of turbulence effects on laser beam propagation. The proposed beam combination concept was demonstrated by using different experimental set-ups. A number of experiments were performed successfully to investigate laser beam target interaction and target fine tracking, also at large distances and at moving targets. Content and results of these investigations are reported, which demonstrate the complete engagement sequence for a C-RAM scenario. This includes subsequent steps of target acquisition by radar and IR optics, followed by large angle coarse tracking, active fine tracking and destruction of the target by the laser system. This successful implementation of geometric beam combining is an important step for the realization of a laser weapon system in the near future.

  3. Properties of induced seismicity at the geothermal reservoir Insheim, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olbert, Kai; Küperkoch, Ludger; Thomas, Meier

    2017-04-01

    Within the framework of the German MAGS2 Project the processing of induced events at the geothermal power plant Insheim, Germany, has been reassessed and evaluated. The power plant is located close to the western rim of the Upper Rhine Graben in a region with a strongly heterogeneous subsurface. Therefore, the location of seismic events particularly the depth estimation is challenging. The seismic network consisting of up to 50 stations has an aperture of approximately 15 km around the power plant. Consequently, the manual processing is time consuming. Using a waveform similarity detection algorithm, the existing dataset from 2012 to 2016 has been reprocessed to complete the catalog of induced seismic events. Based on the waveform similarity clusters of similar events have been detected. Automated P- and S-arrival time determination using an improved multi-component autoregressive prediction algorithm yields approximately 14.000 P- and S-arrivals for 758 events. Applying a dataset of manual picks as reference the automated picking algorithm has been optimized resulting in a standard deviation of the residuals between automated and manual picks of about 0.02s. The automated locations show uncertainties comparable to locations of the manual reference dataset. 90 % of the automated relocations fall within the error ellipsoid of the manual locations. The remaining locations are either badly resolved due to low numbers of picks or so well resolved that the automatic location is outside the error ellipsoid although located close to the manual location. The developed automated processing scheme proved to be a useful tool to supplement real-time monitoring. The event clusters are located at small patches of faults known from reflection seismic studies. The clusters are observed close to both the injection as well as the production wells.

  4. Space Radar Image of Rhine River, France and Germany

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image shows a segment of the Rhine River where it forms the border between the Alsace region of northeastern France on the left and the Black Forest region of Germany on the right. The Rhine, one of the largest and most used waterways in central Europe, winds its way through five countries from the Swiss-Austrian Alps to the North Sea coast of the Netherlands. The river valley is densely populated, as seen in this image, which shows the French city of Strasbourg, the light blue and orange area in the upper left center; and the German cities of Kehl, across the river from Strasbourg and Offenburg, the bright area in right center. The fertile valley is famous for its wine production and most of the agricultural areas in the image, shown in purple patches, are vineyards. The light green areas are forest. Scientists can use radar images like this one to monitor the effects of urban and agricultural development on sensitive ecosystems such as the Rhine River valley. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 2, 1994. The image is 34.2 kilometers by 33.2 kilometers (21.2 miles by 20.6 miles) and is centered at 48.5 degrees north latitude, 7.7 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  5. Integrated primary care in Germany: the road ahead.

    PubMed

    Schlette, Sophia; Lisac, Melanie; Blum, Kerstin

    2009-04-20

    Health care delivery in Germany is highly fragmented, resulting in poor vertical and horizontal integration and a system that is focused on curing acute illness or single diseases instead of managing patients with more complex or chronic conditions, or managing the health of determined populations. While it is now widely accepted that a strong primary care system can help improve coordination and responsiveness in health care, primary care has so far not played this role in the German system. Primary care physicians traditionally do not have a gatekeeper function; patients can freely choose and directly access both primary and secondary care providers, making coordination and cooperation within and across sectors difficult. Since 2000, driven by the political leadership and initiative of the Federal Ministry of Health, the German Bundestag has passed several laws enabling new forms of care aimed to improve care coordination and to strengthen primary care as a key function in the German health care system. These include on the contractual side integrated care contracts, and on the delivery side disease management programmes, medical care centres, gatekeeping and 'community medicine nurses'. Recent policy reforms improved framework conditions for new forms of care. There is a clear commitment by the government and the introduction of selective contracting and financial incentives for stronger cooperation constitute major drivers for change. First evaluations, especially of disease management programmes, indicate that the new forms of care improve coordination and outcomes. Yet the process of strengthening primary care as a lever for better care coordination has only just begun. Future reforms need to address other structural barriers for change such as fragmented funding streams, inadequate payment systems, the lack of standardized IT systems and trans-sectoral education and training of providers.

  6. Characteristics of diabetic patients visiting a podiatry practice in Germany.

    PubMed

    Lauterbach, S; Kostev, K; Becker, R

    2010-04-01

    To describe the foot characteristics of diabetic patients attending a podiatry practice for their first consultation. The objective was to determine how effectively diabetic foot ulcers are being prevented in primary care. All diabetic patients who presented at a podiatry practice between 2006 and 2008 for their first consultation were analysed. Anonymous data were obtained from the standard patient anamnesis sheet completed by the podiatrist. These included results of patient interviews and examinations. A total of 230 diabetic patients (93.9% had type 2 diabetes mellitus and 6.1% had type 1) were analysed. The mean age was 67.7 years (+/- 10.8). Just under half (47.4%) were female. The mean duration of diabetes was 12.6 years (+/- 10.5) years. 70.4% of the patients had diabetic neuropathy (confidence intervals: 64.5-76.3), of whom 73.2% already had resting foot pain or strain foot pain while walking. 58.3% of the patients had toenail mycosis, and of these 38.1% had the infection in all 10 toenails. Most of the patients had at least one foot deformities (89.6% splayfoot and 37.0% flatfoot). 40.2% had no sensation to microfilament testing on either their right or left foot toes. The overall mean vibration sensation test threshold was 3.7 (+/- 2.3). While there is a structure and strategy for the primary and secondary prevention of the diabetic foot ulcers, its delivery is often ineffective. This audit shows that, in Germany, the detection and prevention of diabetic foot problems in podiatric practices happens far too late.

  7. [Lead intoxication in a group of workers in Germany].

    PubMed

    Willi, R F; Felgenhauer, N; Eyer, F; Buters, J T; Zilker, T

    2009-12-01

    Seventeen East-European workers with a suspected lead-intoxication presented themselves to the Department of Toxicology. All of them had worked on the renovation of pylons of a high-tension line. The old paint, known to contain lead was removed with needle descalers. The patients had blood lead concentrations between 325 and 1124 microg/l, but no specific symptoms. The workers neglected the protective measures at their working-place. 12 of 17 workers had lead-concentrations above 400 microg/l (Reference < 90 microg/l). 10 of 17 patients showed an increased level of free protoporphyrins and all workers showed a decreased activity of delta-aminolaevulinacid-dehydratase (ALAD). Patients with lead-concentration above 700 microg/l were treated with the chelating agent meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) 3 x 200 mg/d for nine days. The patients with lead concentrations between 400 and 700 microg/l were treated which DMSA 3 x 100 mg/d. After the DMSA-treatment the lead-concentrations had dropped (p < 0.001). During the DMSA-therapy one patient had to be treated in the hospital because of a generalised allergic exanthema. We report seventeen patients with high lead concentration in their blood due to occupational exposure. The high blood lead levels showed that the workers had not been protected adequately. This examplifies that occupational lead exposure still occurs, also in Germany. By patients with unspecific symptoms connected with lead exposure a biomonitoring for lead is necessary.

  8. Heavy Tail Behavior of Rainfall Extremes across Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellarin, A.; Kreibich, H.; Vorogushyn, S.; Merz, B.

    2017-12-01

    Distributions are termed heavy-tailed if extreme values are more likely than would be predicted by probability distributions that have exponential asymptotic behavior. Heavy-tail behavior often leads to surprise, because historical observations can be a poor guide for the future. Heavy-tail behavior seems to be widespread for hydro-meteorological extremes, such as extreme rainfall and flood events. To date there have been only vague hints to explain under which conditions these extremes show heavy-tail behavior. We use an observational data set consisting of 11 climate variables at 1440 stations across Germany. This homogenized, gap-free data set covers 110 years (1901-2010) at daily resolution. We estimate the upper tail behavior, including its uncertainty interval, of daily precipitation extremes for the 1,440 stations at the annual and seasonal time scales. Different tail indicators are tested, including the shape parameter of the Generalized Extreme Value distribution, the upper tail ratio and the obesity index. In a further step, we explore to which extent the tail behavior can be explained by geographical and climate factors. A large number of characteristics is derived, such as station elevation, degree of continentality, aridity, measures for quantifying the variability of humidity and wind velocity, or event-triggering large-scale atmospheric situation. The link between the upper tail behavior and these characteristics is investigated via data mining methods capable of detecting non-linear relationships in large data sets. This exceptionally rich observational data set, in terms of number of stations, length of time series and number of explaining variables, allows insights into the upper tail behavior which is rarely possible given the typical observational data sets available.

  9. Child maltreatment in Germany: prevalence rates in the general population.

    PubMed

    Witt, Andreas; Brown, Rebecca C; Plener, Paul L; Brähler, Elmar; Fegert, Jörg M

    2017-01-01

    Child maltreatment and its consequences are considered a major public health problem. So far, there is only one study from Germany reporting prevalence rates on different types of maltreatment. A representative sample of the German general population was examined for experiences of child maltreatment using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) between September and November 2016. A total of 2510 (53.3% female) participants between 14 and 94 years (M = 48.8 years) were enrolled. Besides the CTQ, a range of sociodemographic information was collected. The interrelatedness of different types of maltreatment was examined using configuration analysis and predictors for maltreatment were identified by performing binary logistic regression analyses. Overall, 2.6% (f: 3.9%, m: 1.2%) of all participants reported severe emotional abuse, 3.3% (f: 3.4%, m: 3.3%) severe physical abuse, 2.3% (f: 3.7%, m: 0.7%) severe sexual abuse, 7.1% (f: 8.1%, m: 5.9%) severe emotional neglect and 9% (f: 9.2%, m: 8.9%) severe physical neglect. Women were more likely to report at least moderate sexual and emotional abuse than men. The largest difference between age groups was reported for physical neglect, with participants aged over 70 years reporting the highest rates. Participants who reported childhood maltreatment were more likely to be unemployed or have lower educational outcomes. The most common combination of maltreatment types were physical and emotional neglect, all five types of maltreatment combined and physical and emotional neglect and physical abuse combined. Child maltreatment, especially physical neglect is common in the German population. Women seem to be at greater risk for sexual and emotional abuse than men. Knowledge about different types of maltreatment based on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) can help to put findings of future studies into an epidemiological and societal context.

  10. The hospital financing system of the Federal Republic of Germany.

    PubMed

    Leidl, R

    1983-10-01

    This paper deals with the present hospital financing system of the Federal Republic of Germany. The structure of the financing system is treated as well as the actual financing process, and, as far as possible, both are also quantitatively described. The first section contains a description of the structure, and is concerned with the major institutions participating in the hospital financing system:--the hospitals are described according to ownership, number of beds, specialization, personnel, regional distribution and utilization;--the health insurance system is illustrated by the two major institutions, i.e. statutory and private health insurance agencies, and its effect on hospital financing is explained;--the regulation of the hospital financing system by the federal political system is discussed;--finally, the major economic functions of the institutions involved are summarized; the interrelations of hospital care and the ambulatory sector are also mentioned. The second section contains a detailed description of the actual financing process, which can be classified according to the sections of financing:--the basic system of the German hospital financing law is introduced;--in the section on investment costs, public grants and their allocation, which are closely related to hospital planning, are discussed;--in the section on operating costs, full cost reimbursement as the basic principle, the structure of costs, the elements and the mechanism of operating cost financing, the actual prices, the financing of private patients' care and special services are described;--a short view of accounting balances, i.e. the differences between costs and financing of hospital services which result in profits or deficits, is given. A few considerations on the evaluation of the financing system conclude the paper.

  11. Permian scorpions from the Petrified Forest of Chemnitz, Germany.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Jason A; Legg, David A; Selden, Paul A; Fet, Victor; Schneider, Joerg W; Rößler, Ronny

    2016-04-07

    Paleozoic scorpions (Arachnida: Scorpiones) have been widely documented from the Carboniferous Period; which hosts a remarkable assemblage of more than sixty species including both putative stem- and crown-group fossils. By contrast the succeeding Permian Period is almost completely devoid of records, which are currently restricted to a trace fossil from the early Permian of New Mexico, USA and some limb fragments from the late Permian of the Vologda Region, Russia. ?Opsieobuthus tungeri sp. nov. from the Petrified Forest of Chemnitz, Germany represents the first complete body fossils of scorpions from the Permian. Explosive volcanism preserved these remarkable specimens in situ as part of the palaeosol horizon and bedrock of the Petrified Forest, immediately beneath the Zeisigwald tuff horizon. This dates to the early Permian (Sakmarian) or ca. 291 Ma. Intriguingly, the specimens were obtained from a palaeosol horizon with a compacted network of different-sized woody roots and thus have been preserved in situ in their likely life position, even within their original burrows. Differences in the structure of the comb-like pectines in the two fossils offer evidence for sexual dimorphism, and permit further inferences about the ecology and perhaps even the reproductive biology of these animals. As putative members of a Coal Measures genus, these fossils suggest that at least some Carboniferous scorpion lineages extended their range further into the Permian. This contributes towards a picture of scorpion evolution in which both basal and derived (orthostern) forms coexisted for quite some time; probably from the end of the Carboniferous through to at least the mid Triassic.

  12. [Physiotherapy Education in Germany: Ready for Direct Access?

    PubMed

    Konrad, R; Konrad, A; Geraedts, M

    2017-07-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate whether the curricula for physiotherapy education in Germany conform to standards recommended in the World Confederation for Physical Therapy (WCPT) guideline for physical therapist professional entry-level education, published by the WCPT. This Guideline specifies education standards for physical therapists that are able to act as independent practitioners, without referral from another health care professional. Methods: To assess the German curricula of physical therapist education, a list of assessment dimensions was derived from the WCPT-Guideline by means of content analysis. The content validity of this list was estimated by nine experts using Lawshe's method. The German Training and Examination Regulations for Physiotherapists (PhysTh-AprV) and all available regional curricula were studied. All documents were evaluated by 2 independent coders who rated the conformity of the documents with the assessment dimensions. Results: Based on the Lawshe procedure, the whole test content validity index of the 61 out of 67 examined assessment dimensions was 0,84. Cohen's kappa coefficient for intercoder reliability was 0,71-0,97. The German curricula showed high correlation with the WCPT Guideline on many theoretical basic subjects. Fulfillment of some of the requirements showed heterogeneous results. Autonomous practitioners largely lacked special competencies. Conclusions: None of the German educational standards meets the expectations of the WCPT Guideline in terms of direct access. Considering the deficits of the German educational standards and the release date of some of them, a continuous development of the German education does not appear to be adequate. This issue needs to be addressed in the current debate on health policy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Right-wing extremist violence among adolescents in Germany.

    PubMed

    Sitzer, Peter; Heitmeyer, Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    What are the preconditions for right-wing extremist violence among German youths? For several years, the rate of this violence has been increasing in Germany, and the same can be observed for right-wing extremist orientations characterized by the coming together of ideologies of unequal worth and the acceptance of violence as a mode of action. And although it is emphasized that approval of and willingness to use violence do not automatically lead to actual acts of violence, this article suggests that the existence of these convictions in society helps to legitimize attitudes that become expressed in violence, in particular among youths.This article presents a five-stage process model that portrays the underlying preconditions for acts of right-wing extremist violence, the contexts in which such violence takes place, and the factors that cause it to escalate. This structural model is used to outline central empirical findings of recent German quantitative and especially qualitative studies about right-wing extremist violent offenders. For analytical reasons, the basic elements of the process model (socialization, organization, legitimation, interaction, and escalation) are treated separately. The authors also examine right-wing extremist violence from a disintegrative perspective. Given that intersubjective recognition is an existential human need, right-wing extremist violence is understood as a "productive" way of dealing with individual recognition deficits. On the basis of the integration dimensions of social disintegration theory, three fundamental recognition needs are distinguished. Right-wing extremist violence can best be explained as a consequence of recognition deficits in all three central integration dimensions.

  14. Integrated primary care in Germany: the road ahead

    PubMed Central

    Schlette, Sophia; Lisac, Melanie; Blum, Kerstin

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement Health care delivery in Germany is highly fragmented, resulting in poor vertical and horizontal integration and a system that is focused on curing acute illness or single diseases instead of managing patients with more complex or chronic conditions, or managing the health of determined populations. While it is now widely accepted that a strong primary care system can help improve coordination and responsiveness in health care, primary care has so far not played this role in the German system. Primary care physicians traditionally do not have a gatekeeper function; patients can freely choose and directly access both primary and secondary care providers, making coordination and cooperation within and across sectors difficult. Description of policy development Since 2000, driven by the political leadership and initiative of the Federal Ministry of Health, the German Bundestag has passed several laws enabling new forms of care aimed to improve care coordination and to strengthen primary care as a key function in the German health care system. These include on the contractual side integrated care contracts, and on the delivery side disease management programmes, medical care centres, gatekeeping and ‘community medicine nurses’. Conclusion and discussion Recent policy reforms improved framework conditions for new forms of care. There is a clear commitment by the government and the introduction of selective contracting and financial incentives for stronger cooperation constitute major drivers for change. First evaluations, especially of disease management programmes, indicate that the new forms of care improve coordination and outcomes. Yet the process of strengthening primary care as a lever for better care coordination has only just begun. Future reforms need to address other structural barriers for change such as fragmented funding streams, inadequate payment systems, the lack of standardized IT systems and trans-sectoral education and training of

  15. [Disease management programs in Germany: Validity of the medical documentation].

    PubMed

    Linder, R; Horenkamp-Sonntag, D; Engel, S; Köppel, D; Heilmann, T; Verheyen, F

    2014-01-01

    The specific documentation for disease management programs (DMP) in Germany with respect to § 137 Social Code Book V is the basis for evaluating the DMP. DMP run up costs of the order of a billion euro without assessing evidence-based benefit so far. Aim of this study was to question if and to which extent this documentation may be suitable for reliable quality assurance in its present form. Data of nearly 300000 insured persons of a German Statutory Health Insurance (Techniker Krankenkasse, TK) which were continuously registered from July 1st 2009 until December 31st 2010 in a DMP were analyzed. We analyzed how items which were components of claims data and of DMP documentation were matched. With regard to prescriptions there were some considerable differences. Prescription of glibenclamid was documented twice as frequently in the DMP documentation compared to prescriptions filled in pharmacies. Only a fraction of emergency hospitalizations documented in the claims data were found in the DMP documentation. Investigations of the fundus oculi for diabetics are mentioned three times more frequently in the DMP documentation than they are accounted by ophthalmologists. There are considerable differences between claims data and DMP specific documentation. The latter shows a plainly reduced validity for investigated fields in the documentation forms. Reasons for this are manifold. Former evaluations of DM Ps carried out just on the basis of DMP documentation are thus highly questionable. Therefore, the DMPs themselves and their documentation have to be reformed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Acculturation and depressive symptoms among Turkish immigrants in Germany.

    PubMed

    Morawa, Eva; Erim, Yesim

    2014-09-12

    The present study explores the impact of acculturation on depressive symptoms among Turkish immigrants in Germany, taking into account different dimensions of cultural orientation. A total of 471 patients from two selected samples (254 primary care patients and 217 outpatients of a psychosomatic department) participated. Levels of acculturation were measured as orientation towards culture of origin (CO), and orientation towards the host culture (HC). Acculturation strategies (integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization) were also assessed as well as their association with depressive symptoms (BDI). Furthermore, gender- and migration-related differences in terms of acculturation and levels of depressive symptomatology were analyzed. Integration was the acculturation strategy associated with the lowest level of depressive symptoms (M = 14.6, SD = 11.9), while marginalization was associated with the highest (M = 23.5, SD = 14.7). Gender was not found to have a significant impact on acculturation but influenced depressive symptoms, with women (M = 21.8, SD = 13.3) reporting higher levels of depressive symptomatology than men (M = 15.1, SD = 14.0; p < 0.001). In first generation immigrants, significantly higher CO (M = 46.6, SD = 8.3; p < 0.001), lower HC (M = 31.0, SD = 9.6; p < 0.001), and higher levels of depressive symptoms (M = 20.2, SD = 14.1; p < 0.001) were found in comparison to second generation immigrants (CO: M = 41.3, SD = 7.4; HC: M = 36.2, SD = 8.8; depressive symptoms: M = 14.0, SD = 12.9). Our results suggest that orientation towards both the heritage and the host culture has a positive effect on the mental health status of immigrants. Future research needs to include representative samples of migrants from different cultures to further explore the association between acculturation and mental health.

  17. Acculturation and Depressive Symptoms among Turkish Immigrants in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Morawa, Eva; Erim, Yesim

    2014-01-01

    The present study explores the impact of acculturation on depressive symptoms among Turkish immigrants in Germany, taking into account different dimensions of cultural orientation. A total of 471 patients from two selected samples (254 primary care patients and 217 outpatients of a psychosomatic department) participated. Levels of acculturation were measured as orientation towards culture of origin (CO), and orientation towards the host culture (HC). Acculturation strategies (integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization) were also assessed as well as their association with depressive symptoms (BDI). Furthermore, gender- and migration-related differences in terms of acculturation and levels of depressive symptomatology were analyzed. Integration was the acculturation strategy associated with the lowest level of depressive symptoms (M = 14.6, SD = 11.9), while marginalization was associated with the highest (M = 23.5, SD = 14.7). Gender was not found to have a significant impact on acculturation but influenced depressive symptoms, with women (M = 21.8, SD = 13.3) reporting higher levels of depressive symptomatology than men (M = 15.1, SD = 14.0; p < 0.001). In first generation immigrants, significantly higher CO (M = 46.6, SD = 8.3; p < 0.001), lower HC (M = 31.0, SD = 9.6; p < 0.001), and higher levels of depressive symptoms (M = 20.2, SD = 14.1; p < 0.001) were found in comparison to second generation immigrants (CO: M = 41.3, SD = 7.4; HC: M = 36.2, SD = 8.8; depressive symptoms: M = 14.0, SD = 12.9). Our results suggest that orientation towards both the heritage and the host culture has a positive effect on the mental health status of immigrants. Future research needs to include representative samples of migrants from different cultures to further explore the association between acculturation and mental health. PMID:25222474

  18. 10 Years of Native Seed Certification in Germany - a Summary.

    PubMed

    Mainz, Ann Kareen; Wieden, Markus

    2018-06-21

    Many renaturation projects and compensation areas are based on the use of seeds from regional indigenous wild plants, in the following: native or regional seeds. Despite this, such seeds make up only a small proportion of the total number of seeds used for greening projects - in Germany, for example, it is only around 1% (= 200 t/yr). Although the market for regional seeds is small, it is highly competitive. High-priced native seeds compete with flower mixes of unspecified origin and can only be differentiated from them by reliable quality seals. A quality assurance system based on seed legislation (EU Directive 2010/60, preservation mixtures) has been developed in a few European countries. However, quality assurance ends with the sale of the seeds. Thus, seed use remains unmonitored and often unsuitable material, or material foreign to the region, is planted in restoration areas. Unfortunately, nature conservation has not made seed-based restoration one of its key issues, neither at the European, nor at the national level. Currently there are many different local and regional standards, methods and private certificates that are confusing for users and which provide little continuity and predictability for producers. We recommend the establishment of an EU directive or a broadly agreed recommendation to the EU member states, spearheaded by nature conservation, which would define the standards for producing and using native seeds (e.g. harmonized regions that cross national borders, quality regulations). At the same time, wild plant interest groups should combine existing structures in order to strengthen seed-based restoration through international cooperation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: research in Germany.

    PubMed

    Maschke, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Research on systematic noise effects started in Germany back in the fifties with basic experimental studies on humans. As a result, noise was classified as a non-specific stressor, which could cause an ergotropic activation of the complete organism. In the light of this background research a hypothesis was proposed that long-term noise exposure could have an adverse effect on health. This hypothesis was further supported by animal studies. Since the sixties, the adverse effects of chronic road traffic noise exposure were further examined in humans with the help of epidemiological studies. More epidemiological aircraft noise studies followed in the 1970s and thereafter. The sample size was increased, relevant confounding factors were taken into account, and the exposure and health outcomes were investigated objectively and with higher quality measures. To date, more than 20 German epidemiological traffic noise studies have focused on noise-induced health effects, mainly on the cardiovascular system. In particular, the newer German noise studies demonstrate a clear association between residential exposure to traffic noise (particularly night noise) and cardiovascular outcomes. Nevertheless, additional research is needed, particularly on vulnerable groups and multiple noise exposures. The epidemiological findings have still not been fully considered in German regulations, particularly for aircraft noise. The findings, however, were taken into account in national recommendations. The Federal Environment Agency recommends noise rating levels of 65 dB(A) for the day and 55 dB(A) for the night, as a short-term goal. In the medium term, noise rating levels of 60 / 50 (day, night) should be reached and noise rating levels of 55 / 45 in the long run.

  20. Cost per responder of TNF-α therapies in Germany.

    PubMed

    Gissel, Christian; Repp, Holger

    2013-12-01

    Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) inhibitors ranked highest in German pharmaceutical expenditure in 2011. Their most important application is the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our objective is to analyze cost per responder of TNF-α inhibitors for RA from the German Statutory Health Insurance funds' perspective. We aim to conduct the analysis based on randomized comparative effectiveness studies of the relevant treatments for the German setting. For inclusion of effectiveness studies, we require results in terms of response rates as defined by European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) or American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. We identify conventional triple therapy as the relevant comparator. We calculate cost per responder based on German direct medical costs. Direct clinical comparisons could be identified for both etanercept and infliximab compared to triple therapy. For infliximab, cost per responder was 216,392 euros for ACR50 and 432,784 euros for ACR70 responses. For etanercept, cost per ACR70 responder was 321,527 euros. Cost was lower for response defined by EULAR criteria, but data was only available for infliximab. Cost per responder is overestimated by 40% due to inclusion of taxes and mandatory rebates in German drugs' list prices. Our analysis shows specific requirements for cost-effectiveness analysis in Germany. Cost per responder for TNF-α treatment in the German setting is more than double the cost estimated in a similar analysis for the USA, which measured against placebo. The difference in results shows the critical role of the correct comparator for a specific setting.

  1. [Urogynaecological training situation in Germany : Gap between demand and reality].

    PubMed

    Kranz, J; Schneidewind, L; Barski, D; Tahbaz, R; Huppertz, N; Zerrenner, C; Grabbert, M; Mühlstädt, S; Queissert, F; Schott, S; Grundl, S; Boymanns, A; Steffens, J; Pelzer, A E

    2016-08-01

    With increasing life expectancy, progressive demographic change and decreasing societal stigmatization of incontinence urologists and gynaecologists are increasingly faced with urogynaecological challenges. To date however, urogynaecology is a poorly standardized area of expertise in both disciplines. Therefore, the urogynaecology training, especially in Germany, is very heterogeneous and requires evaluation as well as improvement. The GeSRU-Academics research group "Functional urology and LUTS" evaluated this subject nationwide among urological and gynecological trainees and their chief physicians by using a comprehensive questionnaire (34/38 multiple-choice items) between April 2015 and May 2016. 336 urological residents and 190 chief physicians as well as 171 gynaecological residents and 175 chief physicians participated in the survey. Of all trainees, 70.0 % stated a personal interest in urogynaecology, but 45.4 % (gynaecological residents) and 52.9 % (urological residents) mention not to receive a standardized training in their own department. The chief physicians' survey resulted in discrepancies concerning the same question, <10 % of all residents do not receive a standardized urogynaecological training from their point of view. However, standardized urogynaecological training is of importance for those chief physicians. There is a discrepancy between expectations and reality of urogynaecological education and training. To enable a well-structured and standardized urogynaecological education and training, it is compulsory to focus on an interdisciplinary cooperation and to promote multidisciplinary development. A broad-based, well-designed training network and curricula should be established and used consistently.

  2. Education et Developpement au Moyen-Nord.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charbonneau, Yvon

    Humans, not things, are of primary importance when talking of development. All over the world, two separate, contradictory types of development may be seen: the first, centered on man, the second, on wealth. One of the ways in which man can gain control over his own future is through the school. It is essential to find out which type of…

  3. Education after Auschwitz in a United Germany: A Comparative Analysis of the Teaching of the History of National Socialism in East and West Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meseth, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the teaching of the history of National Socialism in East and West Germany. Against the backdrop of the dual politics of memory that existed before reunification, the article examines how the divergent value systems of the two German nations came together to produce a single national conception of "Education after…

  4. Parasites of sheep herding dogs in central Germany.

    PubMed

    Rehbein, Steffen; Kaulfuß, Karl-heinz; Visser, Martin; Sommer, Maria Franziska; Grimm, Felix; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on endoparasite infections diagnosed in 2012 by standard coproscopical techniques and coproantigen Giardia ELISA in 165 dogs used for sheep herding in 36 farms in central Germany. The overall prevalence of dogs with evidence of endoparasite infections was 27.3% (95% CI 20.6-34.7). The most frequently identified faecal forms were those of ascarids (Toxocara, 6.7%; Toxascaris 3.6%), hookworms (5.5%) and taeniid cestodes (4.2%), followed by those of Trichuris whipworms (3.0%), Capillaria aerophila (1.8%), Angiostrongylus and Crenosoma lungworms (1.2% each) and Cystoisospora canis coccidians (0.6%). Molecular identification demonstrated the seven dogs shedding taeniid eggs positive for Taenia (T.) species tapeworms (five, T. hydatigena; one, T. ovis; one Taenia sp.). Screening of the faeces with the coproantigen ELISA revealed Giardia specific antigen in 5.5% of the samples. The majority of the dogs had evidence of single endoparasite infections (22.4%) while evidence for infection with two or three parasites concurrently was found in six (3.6%) and two (1.2%) of the dogs, respectively. Dogs ≤ 1 year (n = 19) were parasitized more frequently (p < 0.05) with overall gastrointestinal parasites (63.2% vs. 20.5%), ascarids (36.8% vs. 6.8%) and Giardia spp. (21.1% vs. 3.4%) than older dogs (n = 146). Dogs which had been wormed within six months of examination tested less frequently positive for gastrointestinal helminths compared to dogs not wormed (11.1% vs. 25.0%; p = 0.0567). In addition, ear swabs taken from 43 sheep dogs in 2012 were examined, and Otodectes cynotis mites were extracted from one dog. Identification of ectoparasites collected by full body search and combing from 113 sheep dogs in the years 2011 to 2013 revealed infestation of fleas and ticks (each up to five specimens per dog) on 13 and 108 dogs, respectively, with nine dogs carrying both fleas and ticks. Archaeopsylla erinacei, Ctenocephalides (C) canis, C. felis and Pulex irritans

  5. Influenza virus subtypes in aquatic birds of eastern Germany.

    PubMed

    Süss, J; Schäfer, J; Sinnecker, H; Webster, R G

    1994-01-01

    We report the findings of a 12-year surveillance study (1977-89) of avian influenza A viruses in eastern Germany. Viruses were isolated directly from feral ducks (n = 236) and other wild birds (n = 89); from domestic ducks (n = 735) living on a single farm; and from white Pekin ducks (n = 193) used as sentinels for populations of wild aquatic birds; mainly sea birds. The efficiency of virus isolation was 9.9% overall, with considerable variability noted among species: 8.7% in wild ducks, 0.9% in other feral birds and 38% in Pekin ducks. Use of sentinel ducks in wild pelagic bird colonies improved virus detection rates fivefold, suggesting that this approach is advantageous in ecological studies. Among the 40 different combinations of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) subtypes we identified, H6N1 predominated (23.6% for all avian species), followed by H4N6 (11%). Among individual species, the frequency profiles favored H2N3 (20.8%) and H4N6 (20.3%) in feral ducks; H7N7 (22.3%), H4N6 (24.4%) and H2N3 (10.4%) in Pekin ducks used as sentinels; and H6N1 (34.8%) and H6N6 (15.1%) in domestic ducks maintained on a single farm. By relying on sentinel birds for serological assays, it was possible to trace an "influenza season" in feral swan populations, beginning in August and continuing through the winter months. Comparison of subtype distribution of influenza viruses for Europe and North America showed significant differences. This supports the fact of two geographically distinct gene pools of influenza viruses in birds connected with their distinct flyways of each hemisphere. The high frequency of isolation of H2 influenza viruses is of considerable interest to those interested in the recycling of this subtype in humans. Similarly the frequent isolation of H7N7 influenza viruses raises concern about reservoirs of potentially pathogenic influenza virus for domestic poultry. Our results confirm the existence of a vast reservoir of influenza A viruses in European

  6. Benefit assessment in Germany: implications for price discounts.

    PubMed

    Theidel, Ulrike; von der Schulenburg, J-Matthias Graf

    2016-12-01

    The AMNOG regulation, introduced in 2011 in Germany, changed the game for new drugs. Now, the industry is required to submit a dossier to the GBA (the central decision body in the German sickness fund system) to show additional benefit. After granting the magnitude of the additional benefit by the GBA, the manufacturer is entitled to negotiate the reimbursement price with the GKV-SV (National Association of Statutory Health Insurance Funds). The reimbursement price is defined as a discount on the drug price at launch. As the price or discount negotiations between the manufacturers and the GKV-SV takes place behind closed doors, the factors influencing the results of the negotiation are not known. The aim of this evaluation is to identify factors influencing the results of the AMNOG price negotiation process. The analysis was based on a dataset containing detailed information on all assessments until the end of 2015. A descriptive analysis was followed by an econometric analysis of various potential factors (benefit rating, size of target population, deviating from appropriate comparative therapy and incorporation of HRQoL-data). Until December 2015, manufacturers and the GKV-SV finalized 96 negotiations in 193 therapeutic areas, based on assessment conducted by the GBA. The GBA has granted an additional benefit to 100/193 drug innovations. Negotiated discount was significantly higher for those drugs without additional benefit (p = 0.030) and non-orphan drugs (p = 0.015). Smaller population size, no deviation from recommended appropriate comparative therapy and the incorporation of HRQoL-data were associated with a lower discount on the price at launch. However, neither a uni- nor the multivariate linear regression showed enough power to predict the final discount. Although the AMNOG regulation implemented binding and strict rules for the benefit assessment itself, the outcome of the discount negotiations are still unpredictable. Obviously, negotiation

  7. Cost-effectiveness of childhood rotavirus vaccination in Germany.

    PubMed

    Aidelsburger, Pamela; Grabein, Kristin; Böhm, Katharina; Dietl, Markus; Wasem, Jürgen; Koch, Judith; Ultsch, Bernhard; Weidemann, Felix; Wichmann, Ole

    2014-04-07

    Rotavirus (RV) causes a highly contagious gastroenteritis especially in children under five years of age. Since 2006 two RV-vaccines are available in Europe (Rotarix(®) and RotaTeq(®)). To support informed decision-making within the German Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO) the cost-effectiveness of these two vaccines was evaluated for the German healthcare setting. A Markov model was developed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness from the statutory health insurance (SHI) and from the societal perspective. RV-cases prevented, RV-associated hospitalizations avoided, and quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained were considered as health outcomes. RV-incidences were calculated based on data from the national mandatory disease reporting system. RV-vaccine efficacy was determined as pooled estimates based on data from randomized controlled trials. Vaccine list prices and price catalogues were used for cost-assessment. Effects and costs were discounted with an annual discount rate of 3%. The base-case analysis (SHI-perspective) resulted in an incremental cost-effectiveness and cost-utility ratio for Rotarix(®) of € 184 per RV-case prevented, € 2457 per RV-associated hospitalization avoided, and € 116,973 per QALY gained. For RotaTeq(®), the results were € 234 per RV-case prevented, € 2622 per RV-associated hospitalization avoided, and € 142,732 per QALY gained. Variation of various parameters in sensitivity analyses showed effects on the ICERs without changing the overall trend of base-case results. When applying base-case results to the 2012 birthcohort in Germany with 80% vaccination coverage, an estimated 206,000-242,000 RV-cases and 18,000 RV-associated hospitalizations can be prevented in this birthcohort over five years for an incremental cost of 44.5-48.2 million €. Our analyses demonstrate that routine RV-vaccination could prevent a substantial number of RV-cases and hospitalizations in the German healthcare system, but the saved treatment

  8. U-Pb Geochronology of Hydrous Silica (Siebengebirge, Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomaschek, Frank; Nemchin, Alexander; Geisler, Thorsten; Heuser, Alexander; Merle, Renaud

    2015-04-01

    Low-temperature, hydrous weathering eventually leads to characteristic products such as silica indurations. Elevated U concentrations and the ability of silica to maintain a closed system permits silica to be dated by the U-Pb method, which, in turn, will potentially allow constraining the timing of near-surface processes. To test the feasibility of silica U-Pb geochronology, we sampled opal and chalcedony from the Siebengebirge, Germany. This study area is situated at the terminus of the Cenozoic Lower Rhine Basin on the Rhenish Massif. The investigated samples include silicified gravels from the Mittelbachtal locality, renowned for the embedded wood opal. Structural characterization of the silica phases (Raman spectroscopy) was combined with in situ isotopic analyses, using ion microprobe and LA-ICPMS techniques. In the Siebengebirge area fluviatile sediments of Upper Oligocene age were covered by an extended trachyte tuff at around 25 Ma. Silica is known to indurate some domains within the tuff and, in particular, certain horizons within the subjacent fluviatile sediments ('Tertiärquarzite'). Cementation of the gravels occurred during at least three successive growth stages: early paracrystalline silica (opal-CT), fibrous chalcedony, and late microcrystalline quartz. It has traditionally been assumed that this silica induration reflects intense weathering, more or less synchronous with the deposition of the volcanic ashes. Results from U-Pb geochronology returned a range of discrete 206Pb-238U ages, recording a protracted silicification history. For instance, we obtained 22 ± 1 Ma for opal-CT cement from a silicified tuff, 16.6 ± 0.5 Ma for silicified wood and opal-CT cement in the fluviatile gravels, as well as 11 ± 1 Ma for texturally late chalcedony. While silicification of the sampled tuff might be contemporaneous with late-stage basalts, opaline silicification of the subjacent sediments and their wood in the Mittelbachtal clearly postdates active

  9. Long-term monitoring of black carbon across Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutzner, Rebecca D.; von Schneidemesser, Erika; Kuik, Friderike; Quedenau, Jörn; Weatherhead, Elizabeth C.; Schmale, Julia

    2018-07-01

    Lately, black carbon (BC) has received significant attention due to its climate-warming properties and adverse health effects. Nevertheless, long-term observations in urban areas are scarce, most likely because BC monitoring is not required by environmental legislation. This, however, handicaps the evaluation of air quality models which can be used to assess the effectiveness of policy measures which aim to reduce BC concentrations. Here, we present a new dataset of atmospheric BC measurements from Germany constructed from over six million measurements at over 170 stations. Data covering the period between 1994 and 2014 were collected from twelve German Federal States and the Federal Environment Agency, quality checked and harmonized into a database with comprehensive metadata. The final data in original time resolution are available for download (https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.881173) Our analysis focuses on 2009, the year with the largest data coverage with one single methodology, as well as on the relative changes in long-term trends over ten years. For 2009, we find that BC concentrations at traffic sites were at least twice as high as at urban background, industrial and rural sites. Weekly cycles are most prominent at traffic stations, however, the presence of differences in concentrations during the week and on weekends at other station types suggests that traffic plays an important role throughout the full network. Generally higher concentrations and weaker weekly cycles during the winter months point towards the influence of other sources such as domestic heating. Regarding the long-term trends, advanced statistical techniques allow us to account for instrumentation changes and to separate seasonal and long-term changes in our dataset. Analysis shows a downward trend in BC at nearly all locations and in all conditions, with a high level of confidence for the period of 2005-2014. In depth analysis indicates that background BC is decreasing slowly, while the

  10. [High incidence of jaundice in young calves in Southern Germany].

    PubMed

    Metzner, M; Wieland, M; Rademacher, G; Weber, B K; Hafner-Marx, A; Langenmayer, M C; Ammer, H; Klee, W

    2012-10-17

    Between September, 2010, and August, 2011, a series of cases of jaundice of unknown origin in young calves was detected in a number of farms in Southern Germany. This paper describes the syndrome on the basis of 57 cases, and the approach taken to discover the cause. The clinical course of the disease is described in 19 patients. Using a case definition (calves aged 1-3 weeks, total serum bilirubin > 20 µmol/l and/or serum glutamate dehydrogenase [GLDH] activity >50U/l and/or autopsy findings with striking liver pathology [jaundice, liver dystrophy, cirrhosis]), 36 farms were included in an epidemiological survey. In a feeding trial, two batches of a dietary supplement feed, previously used in diseased calves on farms, were fed at the dosage recommendations of the manufacturer to four clinically healthy calves over 5days. Four other calves served as controls. The calves were clinically monitored daily, and blood samples were investigated using clinical chemistry and haematology. Clinical examination revealed behavioural alterations (weakness, tonic-clonic seizures and bawling just before death), recumbency, jaundice and discolouration of faeces. In less severe cases without clinical signs, there was an increase in serum bilirubin concentration and/or GLDH activity. In the epidemiological survey of affected farms, the feeding of a diet supplement feed was registered in 54 of 57 cases. The feeding of two batches of that diet supplement feed to four clinically healthy calves resulted in a significant (p<0.05) increase in bilirubin and lactate concentrations, as well as the GLDH activity in serum, but without serious impairment of the general condition, whereas in control calves, no comparable changes were observed. The results of the epidemiological survey and the feeding trial suggest a causal involvement of a dietary supplement feed. The toxic principle is unknown. Knowledge of the clinical picture and the probable feed-related context is important to detect this

  11. [Options for a future risc structure compensation in Germany].

    PubMed

    Greiner, W

    2006-07-01

    AIM OF THE ARTICLE: The risc structure compensation scheme within the German compulsory health insurance system is intended to enforce the principle of solidarity all over the statutory health insurance and not only within the different sickness funds. Differences in the contribution rates should not reflect different risc profiles, but the differences of the efficiency in social care. The criticism against the current adjustment system in Germany is multifarious and points e. g. on the missing orientation to morbidity. This article follows the question, whether this criticism is valid. The variables and methods, which are currently used to calculate the risc structure adjustment are discussed and compared to an alternative proposal for the future form of the risc structure adjustment, which includes both a higher orientation to riscs and incentives for social health insurance funds to decline the costs for the social care system on long-term. Currently, for the calculation of the risc structure adjustment the following variables are used: age, sex, income, number of family members who are exempted from contributions and persons who get occupational disability pension, and number of insured persons who are registered to an accredited Disease-Management-Program (DMP). Especially the last variable includes a high control effort, because the higher co-payments of the adjustment system are aligned to the voluntariness of participation and active collaboration of the patients in DMP. The argument, a further development to a morbidity-oriented risc structure adjustment leads to less cost management of the sickness funds is not totally correct, because not actual, but standardised costs are the basis for compensation. On the other hand the morbidity determined cost components should not totally be adjusted, as a proper distribution of savings to the risc structure adjustment and the single funds would still be an incentive for cost management and prevention. An ongoing

  12. Do television food commercials target children in Germany?

    PubMed

    Effertz, Tobias; Wilcke, Ann-Christin

    2012-08-01

    To examine whether the German food industry directs commercials for unhealthy products to children and whether self-administered voluntary restrictions on the promotion of less healthy foods (the EU Pledge) are effective to mitigate this exposure. By analysing German data from television (TV) channels, advertised products were categorized and food products classified as core foods (healthy) and non-core foods (less healthy). Marketing techniques were documented. Food commercials were furthermore compared with commercials for toy products, and comparisons were made between advertising patterns before and after the EU Pledge. Data for ten German TV channels were recorded for two weekdays and two weekend days from 06.00 to 22.00 hours in 2007 and 2008. A second sample containing one weekday and one weekend day of three German TV channels was recorded again in 2010 for comparison in the same time period. In total 16 062 advertisements from 2007-2008 and 2657 from 2010 were analysed. In 2007-2008 19·9 % of TV commercials were for food products, of which 73 % were for non-core foods, 21 % for core foods and 6 % not classified. In three specified channels widely viewed by children and youth, 14·5 % of commercials were for food products, of which 88·2 % were for non-core foods. Commercials for unhealthy foods were broadcast significantly more often during children's peak viewing and in children's programmes, with a higher use of promotional characters and premiums than found in commercials for non-food products. In 2010, analysis of the three specified channels found that 18·5 % of commercials were for food products, of which 98·2 % were for non-core foods. While the use of premiums decreased compared with other commercials, the use of promotional characters in non-core food commercials increased, especially during children's programmes. Children in Germany are exposed to large numbers of food commercials. The exposure to commercials for non-core foods and the use of

  13. [Minimal access surgery: A survey among surgeons in Central Germany].

    PubMed

    Weigt, A; Rauchfuss, F; Dittmar, Y; Settmacher, U; Scheuerlein, H

    2015-06-01

    A survey about perceptions concerning natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) and single port operations (SPO) was conducted among medical professionals at hospitals in Central Germany. The identity of the participants remained anonymous. The focus was on the subjective perception of medical colleagues and included a statement of preferred methods if the medical professional would need to undergo surgery. Within a radius of 120 km of the city of Erfurt, all 150 surgical departments were approached and asked to complete a series of questionnaires containing general and personal questions. The analysis was performed according to the professional rank, age and sex of the participants. The questionnaires contained questions on patient preferences, cosmetic aspects and other factors, such as marketing, industry-driven, playful approach of the surgeon and appeal of a new procedure. In total 83 surgical departments participated in the survey resulting in 432 eligible questionnaires. Of the participants 29 % were female, the average age was 44 years, 20 % were heads of departments, 37 % senior surgeons, 20 % specialist surgeons and 23 % residents. The proportion of conventional minimally invasive surgical procedures was on average 30 % of all surgical interventions. Two hospitals offered transvaginal hybrid NOTES (cholecystectomy), 45 % performed SPOs, 36 % of the participants agreed strongly or moderately with the concept of SPO and 34 % rejected NOTES. The factors industry-driven, promotion/marketing and appeal of a new procedure were evaluated as very important or relatively important by the majority of the participants (> 70 %). When evaluating the factor playful approach of the surgeon, the proportion was 55 %. The factor patient preferences was evaluated as very high or high by 25% of the participants while it had no impact on 8 % or only a minor impact on 36 %. In case of undergoing surgery themselves, conventional

  14. [Influenza, tetanus, and pertussis vaccination coverage among adults in Germany].

    PubMed

    Bödeker, Birte; Remschmidt, C; Müters, S; Wichmann, O

    2015-02-01

    In order to be adequately protected throughout life and to protect specific risk groups from particular diseases, regular booster or specific indicator vaccinations are also recommended during adulthood. Adults should be vaccinated against seasonal influenza (annually, e.g., persons with underlying chronic diseases and persons aged ≥ 60 years), tetanus (every 10 years), and pertussis (as a one-time vaccination with the next due tetanus vaccine and, e.g., when people have close contact to newborn babies). The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the current status of vaccination uptake among adults living in Germany, focusing on these three vaccines. In line with nationwide continuous health monitoring, the Robert Koch Institute conducted the representative study "German Health Update" (GEDA 2012) between 2012 and 2013. The survey is conducted regularly and adults are asked questions relating to their vaccination status through computer-assisted telephone interviews. Overall, 19,294 interviews were held. In 2010/2011 and 2011/2012, seasonal influenza uptake among persons aged ≥ 60 years was 54.3 and 52.6 % and among individuals with underlying chronic diseases 46.2 and 42.9 %. 7.6 and 75.6 % of participants reported up-to-date pertussis and tetanus vaccination, respectively. 22 % of people living with a baby in one household were vaccinated against pertussis. In general, vaccination rates against seasonal influenza, pertussis, and tetanus among adults are still low, but differ depending on the specific vaccination. The required aim of the European Commission to reach influenza vaccination coverage by the 2014/2015 winter season of 75 % of higher age groups has not yet been reached. The low pertussis vaccination coverage among persons in close household contact to infants poses a big challenge to the implementation of the cocooning strategy to protect the very vulnerable newborns. To emphasize the importance of a complete vaccination

  15. The herbicide Glyphosate affects nitrification in the Elbe estuary, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Tina; Lassen, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    The Elbe River is one of the biggest European rivers discharging into the North Sea. It also transports high amounts of nutrients and pollutants like pesticides. Important source regions of both nutrients and pollutants are located within the river catchment, which is dominated by agricultural land-use. From these agricultural soils, pesticides can be carried via the river and estuary into the North Sea. Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine) is the most commonly used herbicide worldwide and mainly used to regulate unwanted plant growth and for the expedition of crop ripening. In Germany, ~ 6000 tons of glyphosate are applied yearly in agriculture and private use. Glyphosate is degradable by microorganisms and has a half-life in water of 35 to 60 days. This herbicide specifically inhibits 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), an enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of essential aromatic amino acids in plants, fungi, and bacteria. Nitrifying bacteria, which play an important role in the internal nitrogen cycling in the Elbe estuary, also possess this enzyme. The aim of our study was to quantify the concentration of glyphosate in water and sediment samples of the Elbe to get an overview about relevant environmental levels and to assess the impact of glyphosate on inhibition of nitrifying activities. To quantify the effect of glyphosate on nitrification activity, natural samples as well as pure cultures of Nitrosomonas europea (strain Nm50) were incubated with different concentrations of glyphosate over a period of some weeks. The nitrifying activity was determined according to changes of the nitrite and nitrate concentration as well as the cell number. Glyphosate was detectable in water and sediment samples in the Elbe estuary with up to 5 ppb mainly in the Port of Hamburg region. In both incubation experiments an inhibiting effect of glyphosate on nitrification could be shown. The incubated natural water sample was affected by a glyphosate

  16. Incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder after traffic accidents in Germany.

    PubMed

    Brand, Stephan; Otte, Dietmar; Petri, Maximilian; Decker, Sebastian; Stübig, Timo; Krettek, Christian; Müller, Christian W

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is possibly an overlooked diagnosis of victims suffering from traffic accidents sustaining serious to severe injuries. This paper investigates the incidence of PTSD after traffic accidents in Germany. Data from an accident research unit were analyzed in regard to collision details, and preclinical and clinical data. Preclinical data included details on crash circumstances and estimated injury severity as well as data on victims' conditions (e.g. heart rate, blood pressure, consciousness, breath rate). Clinical data included initial assessment in the emergency department, radiographic diagnoses, and basic life parameters comparable to the preclinical data as well as follow-up data on the daily ward. Data were collected in the German-In-Depth Accident Research study, and included gender, type of accident (e.g. type of vehicle, road conditions, rural or urban area), mental disorder, and AIS (Abbreviated Injury Scale) head score. AIS represent a scoring system to measure the injury severity of traffic accident victims. A total 258 out of 32807 data sets were included in this analysis. Data on accident and victims was collected on scene by specialized teams following established algorithms. Besides higher AIS Head scores for male motorcyclists compared to all other subgroups, no significant correlation was found between the mean maximum AIS score and the occurrence of PTSD. Furthermore, there was no correlation between higher AIS head scores, gender, or involvement in road traffic accidents and PTSD. In our study the overall incidence of PTSD after road traffic accidents was very low (0.78% in a total of 32.807 collected data sets) when compared to other published studies. The reason for this very low incidence of PTSD in our patient sample could be seen in an underestimation of the psychophysiological impact of traffic accidents on patients. Patients suffering from direct experiences of traumatic events such as a traffic accident

  17. [Quality management in private practice. A nationwide survey in Germany].

    PubMed

    Obermann, K; Müller, P

    2007-08-01

    Quality management (QM) will soon become mandatory for private practice physicians in Germany. We aimed to assess the knowledge about and state of implementation of QM in German private practices. In cooperation with the Stiftung Gesundheit (Foundation for Health), Hamburg, a stratified sample of 15,383 physicians was requested via e-mail in 2006 to participate in the online survey. The survey covered sources of information and experiences with QM, cost of implementing QM, and general attitudes towards QM in private health care. A total of 787 doctors (5.1% response rate) rendered useful data sets; 16% of doctors had not yet familiarized themselves with QM. The DIN-ISO QM System is by far the best-known system, with 86% of doctors having heard about it. All other systems are known by only 30% or less of the physicians. Only about 20% of private practices have already implemented QM or are about to have it implemented. The cost of QM depends heavily on the system used with DIN-ISO (5600 euros) and EFQM (2800 euros) being the more expensive, while EPA (1800 euros) and QEP (850 euros) are much less costly. All QM systems require roughly the same amount of time from staff to be implemented and maintained. Two thirds of all doctors have not yet decided which QM system to use and contacts during seminars and recommendations from colleagues are most important when selecting a system. The level of satisfaction with QM service providers is generally high. In general, the study revealed a very heterogeneous picture. As with other new technologies or organizational changes there is a group of enthusiastic "early adopters," but we also found a substantial number of physicians (about 25%) who are highly skeptical about implementing QM. They posed a challenge for health policy and service providers alike and careful market segmentation will be needed to cater for the different needs of the different groups of doctors. Moreover, the still rather technical approach towards QM

  18. Analysis of perfluoroalkyl substances in waters from Germany and Spain.

    PubMed

    Llorca, Marta; Farré, Marinella; Picó, Yolanda; Müller, Jutta; Knepper, Thomas P; Barceló, Damià

    2012-08-01

    Water has been identified as one of the main routes of human exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). This work assessed the presence of 21 PFASs along the whole water cycle using a new fast and cost effective analytical method based on an online sample enrichment followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method was validated for different types of matrices (ultrapure water, tap water and treated wastewater). The quality parameters for the 21 selected compounds presented good limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) ranging, in general, from 0.83-10 ng/L to 2.8-50 ng/L, respectively. The method was applied to assess the occurrence of PFASs in 148 water samples of different steps along the whole water cycle, including: mineral bottled water, tap water, river water and treated effluent wastewater, from Germany to Spain. In addition, in order to prove the good performance of the online analytical method, the analysis of PFASs was carried out in parallel using a method based on offline anionic solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by LC-MS/MS. Consistent results were obtained using both approaches. The more frequently found compounds were perfluoroalkyl acids, such as the perfluorobutanoic acid which was in the 54% of the tap water samples investigated with concentrations in the range between 2.4 and 27 ng/L, the perfluoroheptanoic acid (0.23-53 ng/L) and perfluorooctanoic acid (0.16-35 ng/L), and the sulphonate perfluorooctanesulfonate (0.04-258 ng/L) which was the second more frequent compound and also the compound found in with the higher concentration. It should be remarked that the 88% of the samples analyzed presented at least one of the compounds at quantifiable concentrations. In addition, PFASs including short chain compounds were proved to be prevalent in drinking water, and the 50% of the drinking water samples showed quantifiable concentrations of PFASs. It should be said that the great majority of

  19. Weather types and strokes in the Augsburg region (Southern Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Christoph; Ertl, Michael; Giemsa, Esther; Jacobeit, Jucundus; Naumann, Markus; Seubert, Stefanie

    2017-04-01

    Strokes are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and the main reason for longterm care dependency in Germany. Concerning the economical impact on patients and healthcare systems it is of particular importance to prevent this disease as well as to improve the outcome of the affected persons. Beside the primary well-known risk factors like hypertension, cigarette smoking, physical inactivity and others, also weather seems to have pronounced influence on the occurrence and frequency of strokes. Previous studies most often focused on effects of singular meteorological variables like ambient air temperature, air pressure or humidity. An advanced approach is to link the entire suite of daily weather elements classified to air mass- or weather types to cerebrovascular morbidity or mortality. In a joint pilot study bringing together climatologists, environmental scientists and physicians from the University of Augsburg and the clinical centre Augsburg, we analysed relationships between singular meteorological parameters as well as combined weather effects (e.g. weather types) and strokes in the urban area of Augsburg and the surrounding rural region. A total of 17.501 stroke admissions to Neurological Clinic and Clinical Neurophysiology at Klinikum Augsburg between 2006 and 2015 are classified to either "ischaemic" (16.354) or "haemorrhagic" (1.147) subtype according to etiology (based on the International Classification of Diseases - 10th Revision). Spearman correlations between daily frequencies of ischaemic and haemorrhagic strokes and singular atmospheric parameters (T, Tmin, Tmax, air pressure, humidity etc.) measured at the DWD (German weather service) meteorological station at Augsburg Muehlhausen are rather low. However, higher correlations are achieved when considering sub-samples of "homogenous weather conditions" derived from synoptic circulation classifications: e.g. within almost all of 10 types arising from a classification of

  20. White Paper: Radiological Curriculum for Undergraduate Medical Education in Germany.

    PubMed

    Ertl-Wagner, B; Barkhausen, J; Mahnken, A H; Mentzel, H J; Uder, M; Weidemann, J; Stumpp, P

    2016-11-01

    : • Ertl-Wagner B, Barkhausen J, Mahnken AH et al. White Paper: Radiological Curriculum for Undergraduate Medical Education in Germany. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2016; 188: 1017 - 1023. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. [Publication performances of university clinics for anesthesiology: Germany, Austria and Switzerland from 2001 to 2010].

    PubMed

    Putzer, G; Ausserer, J; Wenzel, V; Pehböck, D; Widmann, T; Lindner, K; Hamm, P; Paal, P

    2014-04-01

    This study assessed the publication performance of university departments of anesthesiology in Austria, Germany and Switzerland. The number of publications, original articles, impact factors and citations were evaluated. A search was performed in PubMed to identify publications related to anesthesiology from 2001 to 2010. All articles from anesthesiology journals listed in the fields of anesthesia/pain therapy, critical care and emergency medicine by the "journal citation report 2013" in Thomson Reuters ISI web of knowledge were included. Articles from non-anaesthesiology journals, where the stem of the word anesthesia (anes*, anaes*, anäst*, anast*) appears in the affiliation field of PubMed, were included as well. The time periods 2001-2005 and 2006-2010 were compared. Articles were allocated to university departments in Austria, Germany and Switzerland via the affiliation field. A total of 45 university departments in Austria, Germany and Switzerland and 125,979 publications from 2,863 journals (65 anesthesiology journals, 2,798 non-anesthesiology journals) were analyzed. Of the publications 23 % could not be allocated to a given university department of anesthesiology. In the observation period the university department of anesthesiology in Berlin achieved most publications (n = 479) and impact points (1,384), whereas Vienna accumulated most original articles (n = 156). Austria had the most publications per million inhabitants in 2006-2010 (n=50) followed by Switzerland (n=49) and Germany (n=35). The number of publications during the observation period decreased in Germany (0.5 %), Austria (7 %) and Switzerland (8 %). Tables 2 and 4-8 of this article are available at Springer Link under Supplemental. The research performance varied among the university departments of anesthesiology in Germany, Austria and Switzerland whereby larger university departments, such as Berlin or Vienna published most. Publication output in Germany, Austria and

  2. Towards Incorporating Educational Development in the Educational System; An Evolving Model in the German Federal Republique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinst, Klaus

    The Center for Educational Technology (Bildungstechnologisches Zentrum -- BTZ) is a research, development, and implementation (R and D) organization set up by the State of Hesse, West Germany. It has the novel (for Germany) function of being a middleman between politics, research, and educational practice in developing curriculum for German pre-,…

  3. First approaches to the monetary impact of environmental health disturbances in Germany.

    PubMed

    Haucke, Florian; Brückner, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to describe essential conditions and starting-points for the monetary evaluation of environmentally attributable diseases. Furthermore, a cost calculation within a scenario analysis is conducted for Germany. To calculate the costs of environmental health effects we chose a disease-specific perspective. The national statistics of the Federal Statistical Office and the World Health Report burden of disease estimates were used to identify the most important disease categories for Germany. Based on an extensive literature research in computerized databases and the publications of national and international institutions, available costs of illness studies for Germany as well as environmental attributable fractions (EAFs) were identified. Based on these data environmental health costs were calculated with a top-down approach. Direct and indirect environmental costs of illness add up to 15-62 billion euro(2006) per year depending on the specific scenario. From our results a tentative scheme is deduced of how the monetary environmental burden of specific diseases is composed and how it can be assigned to major environmental exposures and economic sectors which can be used in setting intervention priorities and evaluating intervention efficiency. Within this article, we were able to calculate environmental health costs for Germany based on available, easy to access data and deduce implications for environmental policy decision-making. However, there are restrictions in data quality, as the aetiology of some diseases with respect to environmental impacts is not very well documented and data has not been collected particularly for Germany.

  4. Recent Trends in Survival of Patients With Pancreatic Cancer in Germany and the United States.

    PubMed

    Sirri, Eunice; Castro, Felipe Andres; Kieschke, Joachim; Jansen, Lina; Emrich, Katharina; Gondos, Adam; Holleczek, Bernd; Katalinic, Alexander; Urbschat, Iris; Vohmann, Claudia; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-07-01

    Survival improvement for pancreatic cancer has not been observed in the last 4 decades. We report the most up-to-date population-based relative survival (RS) estimates and recent trends in Germany and the United States. Data for patients diagnosed in 1997 to 2010 and followed up to 2010 were drawn from 12 population-based German cancer registries and the US SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results) 13 registries database. Using period analysis, 5-year RS for 2007 to 2010 was derived. Model-based period analysis was used to assess 5-year RS time trends, 2002-2010. In total 28,977 (Germany) and 34,793 (United States) patients aged 15 to 74 years were analyzed. Five-year RS was 10.7% and 10.3% in Germany and the United States, respectively, and strongly decreased with age and tumor spread. Prognosis slightly improved from the period 2002-2004 to 2008-2010 (overall age-adjusted RS: +2.5% units in Germany and +3.4% units in the United States); improvement was particularly strong for regional stage and head and body subsites in Germany and for localized and regional stages and tail subsite in the United States. Although pancreatic cancer survival continues to be poor for advanced-stage patients, our study disclosed encouraging indications of first improvements in 5-year RS after decades of stagnation.

  5. [Regulations of sickness certification as a factor for increased health care utilization in Germany].

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Wolfram J; Haarmann, Alexander; Bærheim, Anders

    2015-01-01

    In Germany, utilization of ambulatory health care is high compared to other countries. Classical models of health care utilization cannot sufficiently explain these differences. The aim of this study was to explore relevant factors which can explain the higher health care utilization in Germany. In this article, we focus on regulations regarding sickness certification as a potential factor. An explorative qualitative study design. We conducted episodic interviews with 20 patients in Germany and 20 patients in Norway and participant observation in four primary care practices each. Additionally, we conducted a context analysis of relevant health care system related factors which emerged during the study. Qualitative data analysis was done by thematic coding in the framework of grounded theory. The need for a sickness certificate was an important reason for encounter in Germany, especially regarding minor illnesses. Sickness certification is a societal topic. GPs play a double role regarding sickness certification, both as the patients' advocate and as an expert witness for social security services. In Norway, longer periods of self-administered sickness certification and more differentiated possibilities of sickness certification have been introduced successfully. Our results point to regulations regarding sickness certification as a relevant factor for higher health care utilization in Germany. In pilot studies, the effect of extended self-certification of sickness and part-time sickness certification should be further assessed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  6. Jung's views of Nazi Germany: the first year and Jung's transition.

    PubMed

    Schoenl, William; Schoenl, Linda

    2016-09-01

    This article first considers Jung's response to the coming to power of the Nazis in Germany. It brings forth evidence that, besides wanting to preserve psychotherapy in Germany and maintain the international connection between the German and other communities of psychotherapists, he wanted to advance Jungian psychology - his psychology - in Germany. It also presents evidence that, although he occasionally made some anti-Semitic statements during this early period, he was not anti-Semitic in the way the Nazis were. The paper then argues that after Gustav Bally's criticisms in the Neue Zuercher Zeitung in February 1934, Jung entered into a transitional period that spring during which he became warier both of the Nazis and of making any statements that could be construed as being anti-Semitic. Schoenl and Peck (2012) have shown how Jung's views of Nazi Germany changed from 1933 to March 1936. This present article demonstrates very significant changes in Jung's views during the important early part of this period, that is from January 1933 - when Hitler became Chancellor of Germany - through to the spring of 1934. It draws on evidence from archival and other primary sources. © 2016, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  7. Reconstruction of two colonisation pathways of Mantis religiosa (Mantodea) in Germany using four mitochondrial markers.

    PubMed

    Linn, Catherine Anne; Griebeler, Eva Maria

    2015-02-01

    Past and recent climatic changes induced shifts in species ranges. Mantis religiosa has also expanded its range across Germany within the past decades. To determine the ancestry of German M. religiosa we sequenced four mitochondrial genes (COI, COII, Cyt b, ND4) of European M. religiosa populations. We found an east, central and west European lineage of M. religiosa. These distinct lineages are consistent with genetic isolation by distance during glacial periods, and the re-colonization of northern parts of Europe by species from different refugia. Within Germany, we found haplotypes clustering to the central and west European lineage suggesting that M. religiosa immigrated from two directions into Germany. Mismatch distributions, and negative Tajima's D and Fu's Fs values indicate a current range expansion of the central and west European lineage. We hypothesise that ongoing global warming which increases the availability of thermally favourable areas in Germany for M. religiosa adds to its current range expansion. In conclusion, M. religiosa colonized Germany via two directions: west German populations descended from French populations and east German populations from Czech populations.

  8. Tobacco policies in Nazi Germany: not as simple as it seems

    PubMed Central

    Bachinger, Eleonore; McKee, Martin; Gilmore, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Summary Objective Reluctance to develop effective tobacco control measures in Germany has been attributed to the anti-smoking stance taken by the Nazis, which has encouraged pro-smoking groups to equate tobacco control advocacy with totalitarianism. This paper reassesses the scale and nature of tobacco control in Germany during the Third Reich. Design Analysis of documents and reports about the situation in Germany in the 1930s and 1940s supplemented by a review of Reich legal ordinances, party newspapers, health behaviour guidelines issued by Nazi party organizations, and interviews with expert informants. Results While there was considerable opposition to smoking in Nazi Germany, there was no consistent Nazi policy to combat smoking, and what did exist built on pre-existing policies. Although extreme measures were taken in isolated localities or by overzealous party members, there was a marked ambivalence to tobacco control at the highest levels. Many policies were contradictory; measures were often not enforced, and cigarettes were actively distributed to ‘deserving’ groups. Conclusion Policies on tobacco in Nazi Germany are much more complex than is often represented by those who invoke them to condemn those seeking to reduce the burden of disease caused by smoking. PMID:18222506

  9. [A Germany-wide survey on anaesthesia in thoracic surgery].

    PubMed

    Defosse, J; Schieren, M; Böhmer, A; von Dossow, V; Loop, T; Wappler, F; Gerbershagen, M U

    2016-06-01

    This study's objective was to evaluate current thoracic anaesthesia practice in Germany and to quantify potential differences depending on the hospital's level of care. A four-part online survey containing 28 questions was mailed to all anaesthesiology department chairs (n = 777) registered with the German Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine. The general response rate was 31.5 % (n = 245). High monthly volumes (>50 operations/month) of intrathoracic procedures, performed by specialized thoracic surgeons are mostly limited to hospitals of maximum care, university hospitals, and specialized thoracic clinics. In hospitals with a lower level of care, intrathoracic operations occur less frequently (1-5/month) and are commonly performed by general (69.3 %) rather than thoracic surgeons (15.4 %). Video-assisted thoracic surgeries are the most invasive intrathoracic procedures for most hospitals with a low level of care (61.5 %). Extended resections and pneumonectomies occur mainly in hospitals of maximum care and university hospitals. Thoracic anaesthesia is primarily performed by consultants or senior physicians (59.9 %). The double lumen tube (91.4 %) is the preferred method to enable one-lung ventilation (bronchial blockers: 2.7 %; missing answer: 5.9 %). A bronchoscopic confirmation of the correct placement of a double lumen tube is considered mandatory by 87.7 % of the respondents. Bronchial blockers are available in 64.7 % of all thoracic anaesthesia departments. While CPAP-valves for the deflated lung are commonly used (74.9 %), jet-ventilators are rarely accessible, especially in hospitals with a lower level of care (15.4 %). Although general algorithms for a difficult airway are widely available (87.7 %), specific recommendations for a difficult airway in thoracic anaesthesia are uncommon (4.8 %). Laryngeal mask airways (90.9 %) and videolaryngoscopy (88.8 %) are the primary adjuncts in store for a difficult

  10. Procedures and methods of benefit assessments for medicines in Germany.

    PubMed

    Bekkering, Geertruida E; Kleijnen, Jos

    2008-11-01

    in Health Care (IQWiG) in Germany invites comments on their protocol and preliminary report by posting them on their website, and comments are made public, the individual comments are not evaluated openly, and therefore it remains uncertain whether or not they lead to changes in the reports. The participation of relevant parties in the assessment process as implemented by NICE guarantees a process that is transparent to all relevant parties.Transparency of the whole process is assured by clear reporting of procedures and criteria in all phases undertaken in the benefit assessment. In a scoping process, a draft scope is commented on first in writing and subsequently in the form of a scoping workshop. In this way, all relevant aspects can be heard and included in the final scope. The protocol is then developed, followed by evidence assessment. The methods used should be completely reported to show readers that the assessment has been performed with scientific rigour and that bias has been prevented where possible. All relevant parties should have the opportunity to comment on the draft protocol and the draft preliminary report. Each comment should be evaluated as to whether or not it will lead to changes, and both the comments and the evaluation should be made public to ensure transparency of this process. The same procedure should be used for the peer-review phase. Based on the final report of the evidence assessment, the institute forms recommendations and the FJC appraises the evidence.During the writing of the final report, a separation between the evidence assessment and the evidence-appraisal phase should be implemented. Ideally, this separation should be legally enforced to prevent any confusion about conflict of interests.Such a process guarantees a feasible combination of the legal requirements for transparency and involvement of relevant parties with international standards of EBM to ensure that the benefit assessments of medicines in Germany are performed

  11. [Procedures and methods of benefit assessments for medicines in Germany].

    PubMed

    Bekkering, G E; Kleijnen, J

    2008-12-01

    Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) in Germany invites comments on their protocol and preliminary report by posting them on their website, and comments are made public, the individual comments are not evaluated openly, and therefore it remains uncertain whether or not they lead to changes in the reports. The participation of relevant parties in the assessment process as implemented by NICE guarantees a process that is transparent to all relevant parties. Transparency of the whole process is assured by clear reporting of procedures and criteria in all phases undertaken in the benefit assessment. In a scoping process, a draft scope is commented on first in writing and subsequently in the form of a scoping workshop. In this way, all relevant aspects can be heard and included in the final scope. The protocol is then developed, followed by evidence assessment. The methods used should be completely reported to show readers that the assessment has been performed with scientific rigour and that bias has been prevented where possible. All relevant parties should have the opportunity to comment on the draft protocol and the draft preliminary report. Each comment should be evaluated as to whether or not it will lead to changes, and both the comments and the evaluation should be made public to ensure transparency of this process. The same procedure should be used for the peer-review phase. Based on the final report of the evidence assessment, the institute forms recommendations and the FJC appraises the evidence. During the writing of the final report, a separation between the evidence assessment and the evidence appraisal phase should be implemented. Ideally, this separation should be legally enforced to prevent any confusion about conflict of interests. Such a process guarantees a feasible combination of the legal requirements for transparency and involvement of relevant parties with international standards of EBM to ensure that the benefit assessments of medicines in

  12. [Impact of Anthropologic Psychiatry on Psychiatrie-Enquete and Psychiatric Reform in West Germany].

    PubMed

    Söhner, Felicitas; Becker, Thomas; Fangerau, Heiner

    2017-07-01

    Objectives Analysis of the perception of effects of anthropological psychiatry on the Psychiatrie-Enquete and psychiatric reform in the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany). Methods Qualitative content analysis of expert interviews and systematic literature search. Results Literary sources and expert interviews point to the impact of the anthropologic concept on discourse on and approach to those suffering from mental illness. The attention focused on the visualisation of material-social and subjective living conditions of persons with mental illness. Reform approaches of anthropological psychiatrists were perceived as a basis for the development of social psychiatry. Academic departments of psychiatry in Frankfurt (Zutt, Kulenkampff) and Heidelberg (von Baeyer, Kisker, Häfner) were considered important centres of innovation and reform. Conclusion The thinking of phenomenological-anthropological psychiatry was understood as a facilitator of the Psychiatrie-Enquete and psychiatric reform in West Germany. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Different contexts, different effects? Work time and mental health in the United States and Germany.

    PubMed

    Kleiner, Sibyl; Schunck, Reinhard; Schömann, Klaus

    2015-03-01

    This paper takes a comparative approach to the topic of work time and health, asking whether weekly work hours matter for mental health. We hypothesize that these relationships differ within the United States and Germany, given the more regulated work time environments within Germany and the greater incentives to work long hours in the United States. We further hypothesize that German women will experience greatest penalties to long hours. We use data from the German Socioeconomic Panel and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine hours effects on mental health score at midlife. The results support our initial hypothesis. In Germany, longer work time is associated with worse mental health, while in the United States, as seen in previous research, the associations are more complex. Our results do not show greater mental health penalties for German women and suggest instead a selection effect into work hours operating by gender. © American Sociological Association 2015.

  14. Effects of globalisation on higher engineering education in Germany - current and future demands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morace, Christophe; May, Dominik; Terkowsky, Claudius; Reynet, Olivier

    2017-03-01

    Germany is well known around the world for the strength of its economy, its industry and for the 'German model' for higher engineering education based on developing technological skills at a very high level. In this article, we firstly describe the former and present model of engineering education in Germany in a context of the globalisation of the world economy and of higher education, in order to understand how it covers the current demand for engineering resources. Secondly, we analyse the impact of globalisation from a technological perspective. To this end, we describe initiatives for innovation driven by the German federal government and engineering societies, and summarise the first impacts on engineering education and on social competence for engineers. Thirdly, we explore to what extent engineering education in Germany trains engineers in social and intercultural competency to comply with the future demands of the challenge of globalisation.

  15. [Patient safety in education and training of healthcare professionals in Germany].

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Barbara; Siebert, H; Euteneier, A

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve patient safety, healthcare professionals who care for patients directly or indirectly are required to possess specific knowledge and skills. Patient safety education is not or only poorly represented in education and examination regulations of healthcare professionals in Germany; therefore, it is only practiced rarely and on a voluntary basis. Meanwhile, several training curricula and concepts have been developed in the past 10 years internationally and recently in Germany, too. Based on these concepts the German Coalition for Patient Safety developed a catalogue of core competencies required for safety in patient care. This catalogue will serve as an important orientation when patient safety is to be implemented as a subject of professional education in Germany in the future. Moreover, teaching staff has to be trained and educational and training activities have to be evaluated. Patient safety education and training for (undergraduate) healthcare professional will require capital investment.

  16. Global health education in Germany: an analysis of current capacity, needs and barriers.

    PubMed

    Kaffes, Ioannis; Moser, Fabian; Pham, Miriam; Oetjen, Aenne; Fehling, Maya

    2016-11-25

    In times of increasing global challenges to health, it is crucial to create a workforce capable of tackling these complex issues. Even though a lack of GHE in Germany is perceived by multiple stakeholders, no systematic analysis of the current landscape exists. The aim of this study is to provide an analysis of the global health education (GHE) capacity in Germany as well as to identify gaps, barriers and future strategies. An online search in combination with information provided by student representatives, course coordinators and lecturers was used to create an overview of the current GHE landscape in Germany. Additionally, a semi-structured questionnaire was sent to GHE educators and students engaged in global health (GH) to assess the capacity of German GHE, its barriers and suggested strategies for the future. A total of 33 GHE activities were identified at 18 German universities. Even though medical schools are the main provider of GHE (42%), out of 38 medical schools, only 13 (34%) offer any kind of GHE. Modules offered for students of other health-related professions constitute 27% of all activities. Most survey respondents (92%, n = 48) consider current GHE activities in Germany insufficient. Suggested formats were GHE as part of medical curricula (82%, n = 45) and dual degree MD/MPH or PhD programs. Most important barriers mentioned were low priority of GH at faculties and academic management levels (n = 41, 75%) as well as lack of necessary institutional structures (n = 33, 60%). Despite some innovative academic approaches, there is clearly a need for more systematic GHE in Germany. GHE educators and students can take an important role advocating for more awareness at university management level and suggesting ways to institutionalize GHE to overcome barriers. This study provides key evidence, relevant perceptions and suggestions to strengthen GHE in Germany.

  17. Survival of patients with gastric lymphoma in Germany and in the United States.

    PubMed

    Castro, Felipe A; Jansen, Lina; Krilaviciute, Agne; Katalinic, Alexander; Pulte, Dianne; Sirri, Eunice; Ressing, Meike; Holleczek, Bernd; Luttmann, Sabine; Brenner, Hermann

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to examine survival for gastric lymphomas and its main subtypes, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALT), and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), in Germany and in the United States. Data for patients diagnosed in 1997-2010 were used from 10 population-based German cancer registries and compared to the data from the US Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) 13 registries database. Patients age 15-74 diagnosed with gastric lymphomas were included in the analysis. Period analysis and modeled period analysis were used to estimate 5-year and 10-year relative survival (RS) in 2002-2010 and survival trends from 2002-2004 to 2008-2010. Overall, the database included 1534 and 2688 patients diagnosed with gastric lymphoma in 1997-2010 in Germany and in the United States, respectively. Survival was substantially higher for MALT (5-year and 10-year RS: 89.0% and 80.9% in Germany, 93.8% and 86.8% in the United States) than for DLBCL (67.5% and 59.2% in Germany, and 65.3% and 54.7% in the United States) in 2002-2010. Survival was slightly higher among female patients and decreased by age for gastric lymphomas combined and its main subtypes. A slight, nonsignificant, increase in the 5-year RS for gastric lymphomas combined was observed in Germany and the United States, with increases in 5-year RS between 2002-2004 and 2008-2010 from 77.1% to 81.0% and from 77.3% to 82.0%, respectively. Five-year RS of MALT exceeded 90% in 2008-2010 in both countries. Five-year RS of MALT meanwhile exceeds 90% in both Germany and the United States, but DLBCL has remained below 70% in both countries. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Care Management in Germany and the U.S.: An Expanded Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Pittman, Patricia M.; Arnold, Sharon B.; Schlette, Sophia

    2005-01-01

    Germany and the U.S. share a keen interest in exploring the potential of care management programs for the chronically ill. Despite obvious health system differences, in both countries there has been a proliferation of disease management models, initiated by a variety of actors, paid for in different ways, targeting different types of population groups, and encompassing a broad menu of interventions and services. Comparison of three case studies from the U.S. and four from Germany reveals greater differences among models within countries than between them. PMID:17288074

  19. How immigrants adapt their smoking behaviour: comparative analysis among Turkish immigrants in Germany and the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Katharina; Sauzet, Odile; Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Spallek, Jacob; Razum, Oliver

    2014-08-14

    Smoking behaviour among immigrants is assumed to converge to that of the host country's majority population with increasing duration of stay. We compared smoking prevalence among Turkish immigrants residing in two different countries (Germany (DE)/the Netherlands (NL)) between and within countries by time spent in Turkey and DE/NL. The German 2009 micro-census and the Dutch POLS database (national survey, 1997-2004) were analysed. An interaction variable with dichotomised length of stay (LOS) in Turkey (age: 0-17; 18+) and categorised LOS in the host country (immigration year: 1979 and earlier, 1980-1999, 2000-2009; the latter only for Germany) was generated. Age standardised smoking prevalences and sex-specific logistic regression models were calculated. 6,517 Turkish participants were identified in Germany, 2,106 in the Netherlands. Age-standardised smoking prevalences were higher among Turkish immigrants in the Netherlands compared to those in Germany: 62.3% vs. 53.1% (men/lower education); 30.6% vs. 23.0% (women/lower education). A similar trend was observed for the majority population of both countries. The chance of being a smoker was lower among Turkish men with short LOS in Turkey and middle LOS in Germany/the Netherlands compared to those with short LOS in Turkey and long LOS in Germany/the Netherlands (NL: OR = 0.57[95% CI = 0.36-0.89]; DE: OR = 0.73[95% CI = 0.56-0.95]). Contrary to that, the chance of being a smoker was higher among Turkish men with long LOS in Turkey and middle LOS in Germany/the Netherlands compared to those with long LOS in Turkey and long LOS in Germany/the Netherlands (NL: OR = 1.35[95% CI = 0.79-2.33]; DE: OR = 1.44[95% CI = 1.03-2.02]). The effects for Turkish women were similar, but smaller and often non-significant. Turkish immigrants adapt their smoking behaviour towards that of the Dutch/German majority population with increasing duration of stay. This was particularly obvious among those who left Turkey before the age of 18

  20. [Resilient or Risk Group? Psychological Burden at Unaccompanied Refugee Minors (URM) in Germany].

    PubMed

    Rücker, Stefan; Büttner, Peter; Lambertz, Birgit; Karpinski, Norbert; Petermann, Franz

    2017-04-01

    Resilient or Risk Group? Psychological Burden at Unaccompanied Refugee Minors (URM) in Germany Unaccompanied minors (umA in German) are considered as a risk group for psychological disorders. In international studies a high prevalence for trauma, anxiety, and depression were reported. A sample of N = 52 unaccompanied minors living in Germany was questioned on symptom severity as well as stress experience with the Refugee Health Screening-15. More than each second unaccompanied minor shows clinically relevant symptom severity and stress experience. In age-specific analyses the highest stress levels were found among the youngest unaccompanied minors. Therefore, specifically adapted settings for care should be applied for this high-risk group.