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Sample records for zeolita hzsm5 modificada

  1. Furan production from glycoaldehyde over HZSM-5

    SciT

    Kim, Seonah; Evans, Tabitha J.; Mukarakate, Calvin

    Catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass over zeolite catalysts results primarily in aromatic (e.g. benzene, toluene, xylene) and olefin products. However, furans are a higher value intermediate for their ability to be readily transformed into gasoline, diesel, and chemicals. Here we investigate possible mechanisms for the coupling of glycoaldehyde, a common product of cellulose pyrolysis, over HZSM-5 for the formation of furans. Experimental measurements of neat glycoaldehyde over a fixed bed of HZSM-5 confirm furans (e.g. furanone) are products of this reaction at temperatures below 300 degrees C with several aldol condensation products as co-products (e.g. benzoquinone). However, under typical catalyticmore » fast pyrolysis conditions (>400 degrees C), further reactions occur that lead to the usual aromatic product slate. ONIOM calculations were utilized to identify the pathway for glycoaldehyde coupling toward furanone and hydroxyfuranone products with dehydration reactions serving as the rate determining steps with typical intrinsic reaction barriers of 40 kcal mol-1. The reaction mechanisms for glycoaldehyde will likely be similar to that of other small oxygenates such as acetaldehyde, lactaldehyde, and hydroxyacetone and this study provides a generalizable mechanism of oxygenate coupling and furan formation over zeolite catalysts.« less

  2. Furan production from glycoaldehyde over HZSM-5

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Seonah; Evans, Tabitha J.; Mukarakate, Calvin; ...

    2016-04-03

    Catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass over zeolite catalysts results primarily in aromatic (e.g. benzene, toluene, xylene) and olefin products. However, furans are a higher value intermediate for their ability to be readily transformed into gasoline, diesel, and chemicals. Here we investigate possible mechanisms for the coupling of glycoaldehyde, a common product of cellulose pyrolysis, over HZSM-5 for the formation of furans. Experimental measurements of neat glycoaldehyde over a fixed bed of HZSM-5 confirm furans (e.g. furanone) are products of this reaction at temperatures below 300 degrees C with several aldol condensation products as co-products (e.g. benzoquinone). However, under typical catalyticmore » fast pyrolysis conditions (>400 degrees C), further reactions occur that lead to the usual aromatic product slate. ONIOM calculations were utilized to identify the pathway for glycoaldehyde coupling toward furanone and hydroxyfuranone products with dehydration reactions serving as the rate determining steps with typical intrinsic reaction barriers of 40 kcal mol-1. The reaction mechanisms for glycoaldehyde will likely be similar to that of other small oxygenates such as acetaldehyde, lactaldehyde, and hydroxyacetone and this study provides a generalizable mechanism of oxygenate coupling and furan formation over zeolite catalysts.« less

  3. Catalytic ozonation of aqueous phenol over metal-loaded HZSM-5.

    PubMed

    Amin, Nor Aishah Saidina; Akhtar, Javaid; Rai, H K

    2011-01-01

    The performances of HZSM-5 and transition metal-loaded HZSM-5 (Mn, Cu, Fe, Ti) catalysts during catalytic ozonation of phenol have been investigated. It was observed the performance order for removal of phenol and COD was Mn/HZSM-5 > Fe/HZSM-5 > Cu/HZSM-5 > Ti/HZSM-5 > HZSM-5. The presence of metals on HZSM-5 enhanced the phenol removal capability of HZSM-5. Mn loading on HZSM-5 was optimized due to its high phenol removal capability amongst metal-loaded HZSM-5 catalysts. Experimental results suggested that low amount of Mn loading on HZSM-5 was sufficient for HZSM-5 to act as catalyst and adsorbent. A maximum of 95.8 wt% phenols and 70.2 wt% COD were removed over 2 wt% Mn/HZSM-5 in 120 min. It was supposed that transition metals mainly acted as ozone decomposers due to their multiple oxidation states that enhanced the ozonation of phenol.

  4. Conversion of methanol to propylene over hierarchical HZSM-5: the effect of Al spatial distribution.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianwen; Ma, Hongfang; Chen, Yan; Xu, Zhiqiang; Li, Chunzhong; Ying, Weiyong

    2018-06-08

    Different silicon sources caused diverse Al spatial distribution in HZSM-5, and this affected the hierarchical structures and catalytic performance of desilicated zeolites. After being treated with 0.1 M NaOH, HZSM-5 zeolites synthesized with silica sol exhibited relatively widely distributed mesopores and channels, and possessed highly improved propylene selectivity and activity stability.

  5. Production of aromatic hydrocarbons via catalytic pyrolysis of biomass over fe-modified HZSM-5 zeolites

    Iron modified HZSM-5 catalysts were prepared by partial ion exchange of NH4ZSM-5 with Fe (II) at three different loadings (1.4, 2.8 and 4.2 wt%), and their effectiveness for producing aromatic hydrocarbons from cellulose, cellobiose, lignin and switchgrass by catalytic pyrolysis were screened using ...

  6. Catalytic co-pyrolysis of switchgrass and polyethylene over HZSM-5: catalyst deactivation and coke formation

    When conducted in the presence of a zeolite catalyst such as HZSM-5, fast pyrolysis of biomass can promote the rejection of oxygen and the formation of aromatic hydrocarbons in the organic liquid products. Unfortunately, this pathway removes hydrogen from the already hydrogen deficient biomass start...

  7. Diffusion of biomass pyrolysis products in H-ZSM-5 by molecular dynamics simulations

    DOE PAGES

    Bu, Lintao; Nimlos, Mark R.; Robichaud, David J.; ...

    2016-12-13

    Diffusion of biomass pyrolysis vapors and their upgraded products is an essential catalytic property of zeolites during catalytic fast pyrolysis and likely plays a critical role in the selectivity of these catalysts. Characterizing the diffusivities of representative biofuel molecules is critical to understand shape selectivity and interpret product distribution. Yet, experimental measurements on the diffusivities of oxygenated biofuel molecules at pyrolysis temperatures are very limited in the literature. As an alternative approach, we conducted MD simulations to measure the diffusion coefficients of several selected molecules that are representative of biomass pyrolysis vapors, namely water, methanol, glycolaldehyde, and toluene in H-ZSM-5more » zeolite. The results show the diffusion coefficients calculated via MD simulations are consistent with available NMR measurements at room temperature. The effect of molecular weight and molecular critical diameter on the diffusivity among the chosen model compounds is also examined. Furthermore, we have characterized the diffusivities of representative biofuel molecules, namely xylene isomers, in H-ZSM-5. Our calculations determined that the ratio of the diffusion coefficients for xylene isomers is p-xylene: o-xylene: m-xylene ≈ 83:3:1 at 700 K. Furthermore, our results also demonstrate the different diffusivity between p-xylene and toluene is due to the molecular orientations when the molecules diffuse along the channels in H-ZSM-5 and provide deep insight into the effect of molecular orientation on its diffusivity.« less

  8. n-Hexane hydro-isomerization over promoted Pd/HZSM-5 catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoa Dao, Thi Kim; Loc Luu, Cam

    2015-09-01

    A series of Pd/HZSM-5 catalysts modified by various metallic species, including Co, Ni, Fe, Re, and Cu, was prepared by sequential impregnation. Contents of Pd and second metals in modified catalysts were 0.8 and 1.0 wt%, respectively. Physico-chemical characteristics of catalysts were investigated by nitrogen physi-sorption (BET), x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ammonia temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD), temperature programmed reduction (TPR) and hydrogen pulse chemisorption (HPC). Coke formation was studied by the method of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The activities of catalysts in n-hexane isomerization were studied in a micro-flow reactor under atmospheric pressure at 250 °C, and molar ratio of H2: n-hexane of 5.92. It was found that Co, Ni, Fe, and Re additives exhibited geometric and electronic effects toward Pd/HZSM-5 catalyst, leading to an enhancement of its activity and stability. On the contrary, Cu additive caused Pd/HZSM-5 to become poorer in activity and stability.

  9. Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis of Cellulose by Integrating Dispersed Nickel Catalyst with HZSM-5 Zeolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Xiaojuan; Bi, Yadong; Zhou, Wei; Chen, Hui; Hu, Jianli

    2018-01-01

    The effect of integrating dispersed nickel catalyst with HZSM-5 zeolite on upgrading of vapors produced from pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass was investigated. The active component nickel nitrate was introduced onto the cellulose substrate by impregnation technique. Based on TGA experimental results, we discovered that nickel nitrate first released crystallization water, and then successively decomposed into nickel oxide which was reduced in-situ to metallic nickel through carbothermal reduction reaction. In-situ generated nickel nanoparticles were found highly dispersed over carbon substrate, which were responsible for catalyzing reforming and cracking of tars. In catalytic fast pyrolysis of cellulose, the addition of nickel nitrate caused more char formation at the expense of the yield of the condensable liquid products. In addition, the selectivity of linear oxygenates was increased whereas the yield of laevoglucose was reduced. Oxygen-containing compounds in pyrolysis vapors were deoxygenated into aromatics using HZSM-5. Moreover, the amount of condensable liquid products was decreased with the addition of HZSM-5.

  10. Coupling catalytic hydrolysis and oxidation of HCN over HZSM-5 modified by metal (Fe,Cu) oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yanan; Liu, Jiangping; Cheng, Jinhuan; Wang, Langlang; Tao, Lei; Wang, Qi; Wang, Xueqian; Ning, Ping

    2018-01-01

    In this work, a series of metal oxides (Fe,Cu) modified HZSM-5 catalysts were synthesized by incipient-wetness impregnation method and then characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption, H2-TPR, NH3-TPD, UV-vis, FT-IR and XPS measurements. The catalytic hydrolysis and oxidation behaviors toward HCN were investigated. The results indicated that the Fe-Cu/HZSM-5 catalysts exhibited more excellent performence on coupling catalytic hydrolysis and oxidation of HCN than HZSM-5, Fe/HZSM-5, Cu/HZSM-5, and both nearly 100% HCN conversion and 80% N2 selectivity were obtained at about 250 °C. The improved catalytic performance could be ascribed to the creation of highly dispersed iron and copper composites on the surface of the HZSM-5 support, the excellent redox and regulated acid properties of the active ingredients. Moreover, the highly N2 selectivity could be attributed to the good interaction between the Fe and Cu nanocomposites which was facilitated to the NH3-SCR (selective catalytic reduction of NO by NH3) reaction.

  11. Methanol and ethanol conversion into hydrocarbons over H-ZSM-5 catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamieh, S.; Canaff, C.; Tayeb, K. Ben; Tarighi, M.; Maury, S.; Vezin, H.; Pouilloux, Y.; Pinard, L.

    2015-07-01

    Ethanol and methanol are converted using H-ZSM-5 zeolite at 623 K and 3.0 MPa into identical hydrocarbons (paraffins, olefins and aromatics) and moreover with identical selectivities. The distribution of olefins as paraffins follows the Flory distribution with a growth probability of 0.53. Regardless of the alcohol, the catalyst lifetime and selectivity into hydrocarbons C3+ are high in spite of an important coke content. The coke that poisons the Brønsted acid sites without blocking their access is composed in part of radical polyalkylaromatics. The addition of hydroquinone, an inhibitor of radicals, to the feed, provokes an immediate catalyst deactivation.

  12. Investigating the effects of alkali metal Na addition on catalytic activity of HZSM-5 for methyl mercaptan elimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jie; He, Dedong; Chen, Dingkai; Liu, Jiangping; Lu, Jichang; Liu, Feng; Liu, Pan; Zhao, Yutong; Xu, Zhizhi; Luo, Yongming

    2017-10-01

    Na-modified HZSM-5 catalysts with different Na loading amounts were prepared by incipient-wetness impregnation method and their catalytic activities for methyl mercaptan catalytic elimination were analyzed. XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption, NH3-TPD, CO2-TPD and FT-IR measurements were carried out to investigate the effects of modification of alkali metal Na on the physicochemical properties of the HZSM-5 zeolite catalyst. Research results illustrated that the introduction of alkali metal Na can improve catalytic activity for CH3SH catalytic elimination. CH3SH can be almost completely converted over 3%-Na/HZSM-5 at 450 °C compared to pure HZSM-5 at 600 °C based on our experimental results and the results from previous research. The improved catalytic activity could be attributed to the regulated acid-base properties of the HZSM-5 catalysts by doping with alkali metal Na. High alkali concentration treatment, however, may destroy the framework structure of the catalyst sample, thus causing the poor stability performance of the obtained catalyst.

  13. Removal of gas phase low-concentration toluene over Mn, Ag and Ce modified HZSM-5 catalysts by periodical operation of adsorption and non-thermal plasma regeneration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenzheng; Wang, Honglei; Zhu, Tianle; Fan, Xing

    2015-07-15

    Ag/HZSM-5, Mn/HZSM-5, Ce/HZSM-5, Ag-Mn/HZSM-5 and Ce-Mn/HZSM-5 were prepared by impregnation method. Both their adsorption capacity and catalytic activity were investigated for the removal of gas phase low-concentration toluene by periodical operation of adsorption and non-thermal plasma regeneration. Results show that catalysts loaded with Ag (Ag/HZSM-5 and Ag-Mn/HZSM-5) had larger adsorption capacity for toluene than the other catalysts. And Ag-Mn/HZSM-5 displayed the best catalytic performance for both toluene oxidation by non-thermal plasma and byproducts suppression. On the other hand, the deactivated catalyst can be fully regenerated by calcining in air stream when its adsorption capacity and catalytic activity of the Ag-Mn/HZSM-5 catalyst was found to be decreased after 10 cycles of periodical adsorption and non-thermal regeneration. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Acid-catalyzed hydrogenation during kerosene hydrodewaxing over H/ZSM-5

    SciT

    Longstaff, D.C.; Hanson, F.V.

    1996-11-01

    Hydrogen addition to the products derived from cracking kerosene over H/ZSM-5 was observed at hydrogen pressures between 4.1-8.7 MPa and at 373-390{degrees}C. At low pressures, kerosene cracking over H/ZSM-5 yielded typical cracked products: aromatics, as well as low molecular weight saturates and olefins. Endothermic reactor temperature profiles were also observed, indicative of cracking reactions. At high hydrogen partial pressures product selectivity was altered in that kerosene cracking gave high yields of low molecular weight paraffins and low yields of olefins and aromatics. Reactor temperature profiles were exothermic, indicative of hydrocracking reactions. A mechanism for acid catalyzed hydrogenation is suggested. Althoughmore » hydrogenation was not observed at lower hydrogen pressures, hydrogen proved beneficial in maintaining catalyst activity at a stable level. Lost catalyst activity was restored by maintaining the catalyst under static hydrogen at 1.4 MPa and 370{degrees}C for 16h. 36 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  15. Diffusion of aromatic hydrocarbons in hierarchical mesoporous H-ZSM-5 zeolite

    DOE PAGES

    Bu, Lintao; Nimlos, Mark R.; Robichaud, David J.; ...

    2018-02-08

    Hierarchical mesoporous zeolites exhibit higher catalytic activities and longer lifetime compared to the traditional microporous zeolites due to improved diffusivity of substrate molecules and their enhanced access to the zeolite active sites. Understanding diffusion of biomass pyrolysis vapors and their upgraded products in such materials is fundamentally important during catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) of lignocellulosic biomass, since diffusion makes major contribution to determine shape selectivity and product distribution. However, diffusivities of biomass relevant species in hierarchical mesoporous zeolites are poorly characterized, primarily due to the limitations of the available experimental technology. In this work, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are utilizedmore » to investigate the diffusivities of several selected coke precursor molecules, benzene, naphthalene, and anthracene, in hierarchical mesoporous H-ZSM-5 zeolite. The effects of temperature and size of mesopores on the diffusivity of the chosen model compounds are examined. The simulation results demonstrate that diffusion within the microspores as well as on the external surface of mesoporous H-ZSM-5 dominates only at low temperature. At pyrolysis relevant temperatures, mass transfer is essentially conducted via diffusion along the mesopores. Additionally, the results illustrate the heuristic diffusion model, such as the extensively used Knudsen diffusion, overestimates the diffusion of bulky molecules in the mesopores, thus making MD simulation a powerful and compulsory approach to explore diffusion in zeolites.« less

  16. Comparison of Two Preparation Methods on Catalytic Activity and Selectivity of Ru-Mo/HZSM5 for Methane Dehydroaromatization

    DOE PAGES

    Petkovic, Lucia M.; Ginosar, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Catalytic performance of Mo/HZSM5 and Ru-Mo/HZSM5 catalysts prepared by vaporization-deposition of molybdenum trioxide and impregnation with ammonium heptamolybdate was analyzed in terms of catalyst activity and selectivity, nitrogen physisorption analyses, temperature-programmed oxidation of carbonaceous residues, and temperature-programmed reduction. Vaporization-deposition rendered the catalyst more selective to ethylene and coke than the catalyst prepared by impregnation. This result was assigned to lower interaction of molybdenum carbide with the zeolite acidic sites.

  17. Influence of Alumina Binder Content on Catalytic Performance of Ni/HZSM-5 for Hydrodeoxygenation of Cyclohexanone

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiangjin; Liu, Junhai

    2014-01-01

    The influence of the amount of alumina binders on the catalytic performance of Ni/HZSM-5 for hydrodeoxygenation of cyclohexanone was investigated in a fixed-bed reactor. N2 sorption, X-ray diffraction, H2-chemisorption and temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia were used to characterize the catalysts. It can be observed that the Ni/HZSM-5 catalyst bound with 30 wt.% alumina binder exhibited the best catalytic performance. The high catalytic performance may be due to relatively good Ni metal dispersion, moderate mesoporosity, and proper acidity of the catalyst. PMID:25009974

  18. Influence of alumina binder content on catalytic performance of Ni/HZSM-5 for hydrodeoxygenation of cyclohexanone.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangjin; Liu, Junhai

    2014-01-01

    The influence of the amount of alumina binders on the catalytic performance of Ni/HZSM-5 for hydrodeoxygenation of cyclohexanone was investigated in a fixed-bed reactor. N2 sorption, X-ray diffraction, H2-chemisorption and temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia were used to characterize the catalysts. It can be observed that the Ni/HZSM-5 catalyst bound with 30 wt.% alumina binder exhibited the best catalytic performance. The high catalytic performance may be due to relatively good Ni metal dispersion, moderate mesoporosity, and proper acidity of the catalyst.

  19. Mechanistic insights into aqueous phase propanol dehydration in H-ZSM-5 zeolite

    SciT

    Mei, Donghai; Lercher, Johannes A.

    Aqueous phase dehydration of 1-propanol over H-ZSM-5 zeolite was investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The water molecules in the zeolite pores prefer to aggregate via the hydrogen bonding network and be protonated at the Brønsted acidic sites (BAS). Two typical configurations, i.e., dispersed and clustered, of water molecules were identified by ab initio molecular dynamics simulation of the mimicking aqueous phase H-ZSM-5 zeolite unit cell with 20 water molecules per unit cell. DFT calculated Gibbs free energies suggest that the dimeric propanol-propanol, the propanol-water complex, and the trimeric propanol-propanol-water are formed at high propanol concentrations, which provide amore » kinetically feasible dehydration reaction channel of 1-propanol to propene. However, calculation results also indicate that the propanol dehydration via the unimolecular mechanism becomes kinetically discouraged due to the enhanced stability of the protonated dimeric propanol and the protonated water cluster acting as the BAS site for alcohol dehydration reaction. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. Computing time was granted by the grand challenge of computational catalysis of the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL). EMSL is a national scientific user facility located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and sponsored by DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research.« less

  20. Selective dehydration of bio-ethanol to ethylene catalyzed by lanthanum-phosphorous-modified HZSM-5: influence of the fusel.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yaochi; Zhan, Nina; Dou, Chang; Huang, He; Han, Yuwang; Yu, Dinghua; Hu, Yi

    2010-11-01

    Bio-ethanol dehydration to ethylene is an attractive alternative to oil-based ethylene. The influence of fusel, main byproducts in the fermentation process of bio-ethanol production, on the bio-ethanol dehydration should not be ignored. We studied the catalytic dehydration of bio-ethanol to ethylene over parent and modified HZSM-5 at 250°C, with weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) equal to 2.0/h. The influences of a series of fusel, such as isopropanol, isobutanol and isopentanol, on the ethanol dehydration over the catalysts were investigated. The 0.5%La-2%PHZSM-5 catalyst exhibited higher ethanol conversion (100%), ethylene selectivity (99%), and especially enhanced stability (more than 70 h) than the parent and other modified HZSM-5. We demonstrated that the introduction of lanthanum and phosphorous to HZSM-5 could weaken the negative influence of fusel on the formation of ethylene. The physicochemical properties of the catalysts were characterized by ammonia temperature-programmed desorption (NH(3)-TPD), nitrogen adsorption and thermogravimetry (TG)/differential thermogravimetry (DTG)/differential thermal analysis (DTA) (TG/DTG/DTA) techniques. The results indicated that the introduction of lanthanum and phosphorous to HZSM-5 could inhibit the formation of coking during the ethanol dehydration to ethylene in the presence of fusel. The development of an efficient catalyst is one of the key technologies for the industrialization of bio-ethylene.

  1. Ethanol dehydration in HZSM-5 studied by density functional theory: evidence for a concerted process.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seonah; Robichaud, David J; Beckham, Gregg T; Paton, Robert S; Nimlos, Mark R

    2015-04-16

    Dehydration over acidic zeolites is an important reaction class for the upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapors to hydrocarbon fuels or to precursors for myriad chemical products. Here, we examine the dehydration of ethanol at a Brønsted acid site, T12, found in HZSM-5 using density functional theory (DFT). The geometries of both cluster and mixed quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM:MM) models are prepared from the ZSM-5 crystal structure. Comparisons between these models and different DFT methods are conducted to show similar results among the models and methods used. Inclusion of the full catalyst cavity through a QM:MM approach is found to be important, since activation barriers are computed on average as 7 kcal mol(-1) lower than those obtained with a smaller cluster model. Two different pathways, concerted and stepwise, have been considered when examining dehydration and deprotonation steps. The current study shows that a concerted dehydration process is possible with a lower (4-5 kcal mol(-1)) activation barrier while previous literature studies have focused on a stepwise mechanism. Overall, this work demonstrates that fairly high activation energies (∼50 kcal mol(-1)) are required for ethanol dehydration. A concerted mechanism is favored over a stepwise mechanism because charge separation in the transition state is minimized. QM:MM approaches appear to provide superior results to cluster calculations due to a more accurate representation of charges on framework oxygen atoms.

  2. Catalytic cracking of model compounds of bio-oil over HZSM-5 and the catalyst deactivation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guanyi; Zhang, Ruixue; Ma, Wenchao; Liu, Bin; Li, Xiangping; Yan, Beibei; Cheng, Zhanjun; Wang, Tiejun

    2018-08-01

    The catalytic cracking upgrading reactions over HZSM-5 of different model compounds of bio-oil have been studied with a self-designed fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) equipment. Typical bio-oil model compounds, such as acetic acid, guaiacol, n-heptane, acetol and ethyl acetate, were chosen to study the products distribution, reaction pathway and deactivation of catalysts. The results showed: C 6 -C 8 aromatic hydrocarbons, C 2 -C 4 olefins, C 1 -C 5 alkanes, CO and CO 2 were the main products, and the selectivity of olefins was: ethylene>propylene>butylene. Catalyst characterization methods, such as FI-IR, TG-TPO and Raman, were used to study the deactivation mechanism of catalysts. According to the catalyst characterization results, a catalyst deactivation mechanism was proposed as follows: Firstly, the precursor which consisted of a large number of long chain saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons and a small amount CC of aromatics formed on the catalyst surface. Then the active sites of catalysts had been covered, the coke type changed from thermal coke to catalytic coke and gradually blocked the channels of the molecular sieve, which accelerated the deactivation of catalyst. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparative study of the methane and methanol mass transfer in the mesoporous H-ZSM-5/alumina extruded pellet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhokh, Alexey A.; Strizhak, Peter E.

    2018-07-01

    H-ZSM-5/alumina catalyst pellet was prepared using extrusion method. The as-prepared mesoporous material was characterized using nitrogen adsorption, IR, XRD, and TEM methods. Transport of methane and methanol in the obtained H-ZSM-5/alumina extruded grain was studied. We demonstrate that the methanol transport may be described by the time-fractional diffusion equation in a fairly good manner. The measured value of the fractional order of the time-fractional derivative reveals the fast super-diffusive regime of the methanol transport in the mesoporous solid. Contrary, the methane transport has been found to follow a standard diffusion and described by the second Fick's law. These findings show that mass transfer kinetics is characterized by the order of the temporal derivative. The latter is a unique property of the individual porous media and the diffusing agent.

  4. Comparative study of the methane and methanol mass transfer in the mesoporous H-ZSM-5/alumina extruded pellet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhokh, Alexey A.; Strizhak, Peter E.

    2018-01-01

    H-ZSM-5/alumina catalyst pellet was prepared using extrusion method. The as-prepared mesoporous material was characterized using nitrogen adsorption, IR, XRD, and TEM methods. Transport of methane and methanol in the obtained H-ZSM-5/alumina extruded grain was studied. We demonstrate that the methanol transport may be described by the time-fractional diffusion equation in a fairly good manner. The measured value of the fractional order of the time-fractional derivative reveals the fast super-diffusive regime of the methanol transport in the mesoporous solid. Contrary, the methane transport has been found to follow a standard diffusion and described by the second Fick's law. These findings show that mass transfer kinetics is characterized by the order of the temporal derivative. The latter is a unique property of the individual porous media and the diffusing agent.

  5. Intrinsic Kinetics of Dimethyl Ether Synthesis from Plasma Activation of CO2 Hydrogenation over Cu-Fe-Ce/HZSM-5.

    PubMed

    Su, Tongming; Zhou, Xinhui; Qin, Zuzeng; Ji, Hongbing

    2017-02-02

    CO 2 is activated in a plasma reactor followed by hydrogenation over a Cu-Fe-Ce/HZSM-5 catalyst, and the intrinsic kinetics of the plasma catalytic process are studied. Compared with CO 2 hydrogenation using Cu-Fe-Ce/HZSM-5 alone, the CO 2 conversion and the dimethyl ether selectivity for the plasma catalytic process are increased by 16.3 %, and 10.1 %, respectively, indicating that the CO 2 was activated by the plasma to promote hydrogenation. A study of the intrinsic kinetics shows that the activation energies of methanol formation, the reverse water-gas shift reaction, and methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether are 149.34, 75.47, and 73.18 kJ mol -1 , respectively, which are lower than if Cu-Fe-Ce/HZSM-5 is used without plasma, indicating that the activation of CO 2 in the plasma reduces the activation energy of the hydrogenation reaction and improves the yield of dimethyl ether. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. [Optimization of ethylene production from ethanol dehydration using Zn-Mn-Co/HZSM-5 by response surface methodology].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Cheng, Keke; Xue, Jianwei; Zhang, Jian'an

    2011-03-01

    The effects of reaction temperature, ethanol concentration and weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) on the ethylene production from ethanol dehydration using zinc, manganese and cobalt modified HZSM-5 catalyst were investigated by response surface methodology (RSM). The results showed that the most significant effect among factors was reaction temperature and the factors had interaction. The optimum conditions were found as 34.4% ethanol concentration, 261.3 0 degrees C of reaction temperature and 1.18 h(-1) of WHSV, under these conditions the yield of ethylene achieved 98.69%.

  7. Identification of tert-Butyl Cations in Zeolite H-ZSM-5: Evidence from NMR Spectroscopy and DFT Calculations.

    PubMed

    Dai, Weili; Wang, Chuanming; Yi, Xianfeng; Zheng, Anmin; Li, Landong; Wu, Guangjun; Guan, Naijia; Xie, Zaiku; Dyballa, Michael; Hunger, Michael

    2015-07-20

    Experimental evidence for the presence of tert-butyl cations, which are important intermediates in acid-catalyzed heterogeneous reactions, on solid acids has still not been provided to date. By combining density functional theory (DFT) calculations with (1)H/(13)C magic-angle-spinning NMR spectroscopy, the tert-butyl cation was successfully identified on zeolite H-ZSM-5 upon conversion of isobutene by capturing this intermediate with ammonia. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Adsorption and diffusion of fructose in zeolite HZSM-5: selection of models and methods for computational studies.

    SciT

    Cheng, L.; Curtiss, L. A.; Assary, R. S.

    The adsorption and protonation of fructose in HZSM-5 have been studied for the assessment of models for accurate reaction energy calculations and the evaluation of molecular diffusivity. The adsorption and protonation were calculated using 2T, 5T, and 46T clusters as well as a periodic model. The results indicate that the reaction thermodynamics cannot be predicted correctly using small cluster models, such as 2T or 5T, because these small cluster models fail to represent the electrostatic effect of a zeolite cage, which provides additional stabilization to the ion pair formed upon the protonation of fructose. Structural parameters optimized using the 46Tmore » cluster model agree well with those of the full periodic model; however, the calculated reaction energies are in significant error due to the poor account of dispersion effects by density functional theory. The dispersion effects contribute -30.5 kcal/mol to the binding energy of fructose in the zeolite pore based on periodic model calculations that include dispersion interactions. The protonation of the fructose ternary carbon hydroxyl group was calculated to be exothermic by 5.5 kcal/mol with a reaction barrier of 2.9 kcal/mol using the periodic model with dispersion effects. Our results suggest that the internal diffusion of fructose in HZSM-5 is very likely to be energetically limited and only occurs at high temperature due to the large size of the molecule.« less

  9. Adsorption and Diffusion of Fructose in Zeolite HZSM-5: Selection of Models and Methods for Computational Studies

    SciT

    Cheng, Lei; Curtiss, Larry A.; Assary, Rajeev S.

    The adsorption and protonation of fructose inHZSM-5 have been studied for the assessment of models for accurate reaction energy calculations and the evaluation of molecular diffusivity. The adsorption and protonation were calculated using 2T, 5T, and 46T clusters as well as a periodic model. The results indicate that the reaction thermodynamics cannot be predicted correctly using small cluster models, such as 2T or 5T, because these small cluster models fail to represent the electrostatic effect of a zeolite cage, which provides additional stabilization to the ion pair formed upon the protonation of fructose. Structural parameters optimized using the 46T clustermore » model agree well with those of the full periodic model; however, the calculated reaction energies are in significant error due to the poor account of dispersion effects by density functional theory. The dispersion effects contribute -30.5 kcal/mol to the binding energy of fructose in the zeolite pore based on periodic model calculations that include dispersion interactions. The protonation of the fructose ternary carbon hydroxyl group was calculated to be exothermic by 5.5 kcal/mol with a reaction barrier of 2.9 kcal/mol using the periodic model with dispersion effects. Our results suggest that the internal diffusion of fructose in HZSM-5 is very likely to be energetically limited and only occurs at high temperature due to the large size of the molecule.« less

  10. Oligomerization of Biomass-Derived Light Olefins to Liquid Fuel: Effect of Alkali Treatment of HZSM-5 Catalyst

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Xiaoxing; Hu, Xiaoyan; Song, Chunshan; ...

    2017-09-27

    As a part of a new approach to convert biomass to liquid fuels, we investigated the effects of alkali treatment on the property and performance of HZSM-5 for oligomerization of biomass-derived ethylene under atmospheric pressure. The characterization results showed that alkali treatment led to the increase in the total and mesopore volumes, but decrease in the surface area and micropore volume. Furthermore, when NaOH concentration was low (< 0.5 M), the ZSM-5 structure was largely preserved with the increase in the mesopores and acidity, while higher NaOH concentration can severely destroy the zeolite structure, resulting in a significant reduction inmore » the micropores and acidity. The ethylene oligomerization results showed that not only the ethylene conversion and the liquid yield increased, but also the catalyst stability was improved after proper NaOH treatment. Finally, we discussed the relationship between the structure and performance« less

  11. Oligomerization of Biomass-Derived Light Olefins to Liquid Fuel: Effect of Alkali Treatment of HZSM-5 Catalyst

    SciT

    Wang, Xiaoxing; Hu, Xiaoyan; Song, Chunshan

    As a part of a new approach to convert biomass to liquid fuels, we investigated the effects of alkali treatment on the property and performance of HZSM-5 for oligomerization of biomass-derived ethylene under atmospheric pressure. The characterization results showed that alkali treatment led to the increase in the total and mesopore volumes, but decrease in the surface area and micropore volume. Furthermore, when NaOH concentration was low (< 0.5 M), the ZSM-5 structure was largely preserved with the increase in the mesopores and acidity, while higher NaOH concentration can severely destroy the zeolite structure, resulting in a significant reduction inmore » the micropores and acidity. The ethylene oligomerization results showed that not only the ethylene conversion and the liquid yield increased, but also the catalyst stability was improved after proper NaOH treatment. Finally, we discussed the relationship between the structure and performance« less

  12. Combustion of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using bimetallic chromium-copper supported on modified H-ZSM-5 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Bakar, Mohamad Zailani Abu; Bhatia, Subhash

    2006-02-28

    The paper reports on the performance of chromium or/and copper supported on H-ZSM-5(Si/Al = 240) modified with silicon tetrachloride (Cr1.5/SiCl4-Z, Cu1.5/SiCl4-Z and Cr1.0Cu0.5/SiCl4-Z) as catalysts in the combustion of chlorinated VOCs (Cl-VOCs). A reactor operated at a gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) of 32,000 h(-1), a temperature between 100 and 500 degrees C with 2500 ppm of dichloromethane (DCM), trichloromethane (TCM) and trichloroethylene (TCE) is used for activity studies. The deactivation study is conducted at a GHSV of 3800 h(-1), at 400 degrees C for up to 12 h with a feed concentration of 35,000 ppm. Treatment with silicon tetrachloride improves the chemical resistance of H-ZSM-5 against hydrogen chloride. TCM is more reactive compared to DCM but it produces more by-products due to its high chlorine content. The stabilization of TCE is attributed to resonance effects. Water vapor increases the carbon dioxide yield through its role as hydrolysis agent forming reactive carbocations and acting as hydrogen-supplying agent to suppress chlorine-transfer reactions. The deactivation of Cr1.0Cu0.5/SiCl4-Z is mainly due to the chlorination of its metal species, especially with higher Cl/H feed. Coking is limited, particularly with DCM and TCM. In accordance with the Mars-van Krevelen model, the weakening of overall metal reducibility due to chlorination leads to a loss of catalytic activity.

  13. Origin of carbon in aromatic and olefin products derived from HZSM-5 catalyzed co-pyrolysis of cellulose and plastics via isotopic labeling

    Catalytic pyrolysis over HZSM-5 is an effective method for the conversion of biomass to aromatic hydrocarbons, albeit with low yield and short catalyst lifetimes. Addition of co-reactants rich in carbon and hydrogen can enhance yield and possibly increase catalyst lifetimes by reducing coke formati...

  14. Fast microwave-assisted catalytic co-pyrolysis of corn stover and scum for bio-oil production with CaO and HZSM-5 as the catalyst.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiyu; Xie, Qinglong; Zhang, Bo; Cheng, Yanling; Liu, Yuhuan; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated fast microwave-assisted catalytic co-pyrolysis of corn stover and scum for bio-oil production with CaO and HZSM-5 as the catalyst. Effects of reaction temperature, CaO/HZSM-5 ratio, and corn stover/scum ratio on co-pyrolysis product fractional yields and selectivity were investigated. Results showed that co-pyrolysis temperature was selected as 550°C, which provides the maximum bio-oil and aromatic yields. Mixed CaO and HZSM-5 catalyst with the weight ratio of 1:4 increased the aromatic yield to 35.77 wt.% of feedstock, which was 17% higher than that with HZSM-5 alone. Scum as the hydrogen donor, had a significant synergistic effect with corn stover to promote the production of bio-oil and aromatic hydrocarbons when the H/C(eff) value exceeded 1. The maximum yield of aromatic hydrocarbons (29.3 wt.%) were obtained when the optimal corn stover to scum ratio was 1:2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Catalytic Oxidation of Chlorobenzene over MnxCe1-xO2/HZSM-5 Catalysts: A Study with Practical Implications.

    PubMed

    Weng, Xiaole; Sun, Pengfei; Long, Yu; Meng, Qingjie; Wu, Zhongbiao

    2017-07-18

    Industrial-use catalysts usually encounter severe deactivation after long-term operation for catalytic oxidation of chlorinate volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), which becomes a "bottleneck" for large-scale application of catalytic combustion technology. In this work, typical acidic solid-supported catalysts of Mn x Ce 1-x O 2 /HZSM-5 were investigated for the catalytic oxidation of chlorobenzene (CB). The activation energy (E a ), Brønsted and Lewis acidities, CB adsorption and activation behaviors, long-term stabilities, and surficial accumulation compounds (after aging) were studied using a range of analytical techniques, including XPS, H 2 -TPR, pyridine-IR, DRIFT, and O 2 -TP-Ms. Experimental results revealed that the Brønsted/Lewis (B/L) ratio of Mn x Ce 1-x O 2 /HZSM-5 catalysts could be adjusted by ion exchange of H• (in HZSM-5) with Mn n+ (where the exchange with Ce 4+ did not distinctly affect the acidity); the long-term aged catalysts could accumulate ca. 14 organic compounds at surface, including highly toxic tetrachloromethane, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, o-dichlorobenzene, etc.; high humid operational environment could ensure a stable performance for Mn x Ce 1-x O 2 /HZSM-5 catalysts; this was due to the effective removal of Cl• and coke accumulations by H 2 O washing, and the distinct increase of Lewis acidity by the interaction of H 2 O with HZSM-5. This work gives an in-depth view into the CB oxidation over acidic solid-supported catalysts and could provide practical guidelines for the rational design of reliable catalysts for industrial applications.

  16. Anharmonicity and confinement in zeolites: Structure, spectroscopy, and adsorption free energy of ethanol in H-ZSM-5

    DOE PAGES

    Alexopoulos, Konstantinos; Lee, Mal -Soon; Liu, Yue; ...

    2016-03-21

    Here, to account for thermal and entropic effects caused by the dynamics of the motion of the reaction intermediates, ethanol adsorption on the Brønsted acid site of the H-ZSM-5 catalyst has been studied at different temperatures and ethanol loadings using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations, infrared (IR) spectroscopy and calorimetric measurements. At low temperatures (T ≤ 400 K) and ethanol loading, a single ethanol molecule adsorbed in H-ZSM-5 forms a Zundel-like structure where the proton is equally shared between the oxygen of the zeolite and the oxygen of the alcohol. At higher ethanol loading, a second ethanol molecule helpsmore » to stabilize the protonated ethanol at all temperatures by acting as a solvating agent. The vibrational density of states (VDOS), as calculated from the AIMD simulations, are in excellent agreement with measured IR spectra for C 2H 5OH, C 2H 5OD and C 2D 5OH isotopomers and support the existence of both monomers and dimers. A quasi-harmonic approximation (QHA), applied to the VDOS obtained from the AIMD simulations, provides estimates of adsorption free energy within ~10 kJ/mol of the experimentally determined quantities, whereas the traditional approach, employing harmonic frequencies from a single ground state minimum, strongly overestimates the adsorption free energy by at least ~30 kJ/mol. This discrepancy is traced back to the inability of the harmonic approximation to represent the contributions to the vibrational motions of the ethanol molecule upon confinement in the zeolite. KA, MFR, GBM were supported by the Long Term Structural Methusalem Funding by the Flemish Government – grant number BOF09/01M00409. MSL, VAG, RR and JAL were supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. PNNL is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. Computational resources were provided at W. R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research located at PNNL, the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Stevin Supercomputer Infrastructure at Ghent University.« less

  17. Molecular-beam, mass-spectrometric studies of wood vapor and model compounds over HZSM-5 catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Robert J.; Milne, Thomas A.

    1987-11-01

    The use of molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS) for the real time screening of wood pyrolysis product conversion over Mobil's HZSM-5 catalyst allows the evaluation of the performance of different catalysts, reaction conditions and feedstocks. This information can help guide more extensive testing at the bench scale level and provide insight into the chemistry of conversion. The following conclusions can be drawn from the work to date: (1) there can be no breakthrough of primary wood vapor organics until the weight of wood/weight of the catalyst is 1; (2) there are few intermediates from wood on the way to alkenes, light aromatics, and naphthalenes; (3) the light aromatics/alkenes ration is 1 for the nonoptimized conditions studied to date; (4) much of the oxygen is favorably rejected as CO and CO sub 2; (5) the coke yield is about 10 percent in these experiments; and (6) methanol is a poor model for wood because the mechanism of hydrocarbon formation is apparently different.

  18. Theoretical study on the nitration of methane by acyl nitrate catalyzed by H-ZSM5 zeolite.

    PubMed

    Silva, Alexander Martins; Nascimento, Marco Antonio Chaer

    2008-09-25

    A theoretical study on the nitration of methane by acyl nitrate catalyzed by HZSM-5 zeolite is reported. The zeolite was represented by a "double ring" 20T cluster. The calculations were performed at the DFT/X3LYP/6-31G** and MP2/6-31G** levels. The first step of the mechanism involves the protonation of the acyl nitrate by the zeolite and the formation of a nitronium-like ion. The reaction proceeds through a concerted step with the attack of the methane molecule by the nitronium-like ion and the simultaneous transfer of a proton from the methane molecule to the zeolite, thus reconstructing the acidic site. The activation energies for the first and second steps of this reaction are, respectively, 14.09 and 10.14 kcal/mol at X3LYP/6-31G** level and 16.68 and 13.85 kcal/mol at the MP2/6-31G**.

  19. Ethanol Conversion to Hydrocarbons on HZSM-5: Effect of Reaction Conditions and Si/Al Ratio on the Product Distributions

    SciT

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

    2014-11-17

    The Conversion of ethanol to hydrocarbon over HZSM-5 zeolite with different Si/Al ratios was investigated under various reaction conditions. The catalyst with a higher Si/Al ratio (low acid density) deactivated faster and generated more unsaturated compounds at a similar time-on-stream. Temperature affects the catalytic activity with respect to liquid hydrocarbon generation and the hydrocarbon product composition. At lower temperatures (~300°C), the catalyst deactivated faster with respect to the liquid hydrocarbon formation. Higher temperatures (~400°C) reduced the formation of liquid range hydrocarbons and formed more gaseous fractions. Weight hourly space velocity was also found to affect product selectivity with higher weightmore » hourly space velocity leading to a higher extent of ethylene formation. The experimental results were analyzed in terms of the product composition and the coke content with respect to catalyst time-on-stream and compared with the catalyst lifetime with respect to the variables tested on the conversion of ethanol to hydrocarbon.« less

  20. Adsorption Device Based on a Langatate Crystal Microbalance for High Temperature High Pressure Gas Adsorption in Zeolite H-ZSM-5.

    PubMed

    Ding, Wenjin; Baracchini, Giulia; Klumpp, Michael; Schwieger, Wilhelm; Dittmeyer, Roland

    2016-08-25

    We present a high-temperature and high-pressure gas adsorption measurement device based on a high-frequency oscillating microbalance (5 MHz langatate crystal microbalance, LCM) and its use for gas adsorption measurements in zeolite H-ZSM-5. Prior to the adsorption measurements, zeolite H-ZSM-5 crystals were synthesized on the gold electrode in the center of the LCM, without covering the connection points of the gold electrodes to the oscillator, by the steam-assisted crystallization (SAC) method, so that the zeolite crystals remain attached to the oscillating microbalance while keeping good electroconductivity of the LCM during the adsorption measurements. Compared to a conventional quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) which is limited to temperatures below 80 °C, the LCM can realize the adsorption measurements in principle at temperatures as high as 200-300 °C (i.e., at or close to the reaction temperature of the target application of one-stage DME synthesis from the synthesis gas), owing to the absence of crystalline-phase transitions up to its melting point (1,470 °C). The system was applied to investigate the adsorption of CO2, H2O, methanol and dimethyl ether (DME), each in the gas phase, on zeolite H-ZSM-5 in the temperature and pressure range of 50-150 °C and 0-18 bar, respectively. The results showed that the adsorption isotherms of these gases in H-ZSM-5 can be well fitted by Langmuir-type adsorption isotherms. Furthermore, the determined adsorption parameters, i.e., adsorption capacities, adsorption enthalpies, and adsorption entropies, compare well to literature data. In this work, the results for CO2 are shown as an example.

  1. Adsorption Device Based on a Langatate Crystal Microbalance for High Temperature High Pressure Gas Adsorption in Zeolite H-ZSM-5

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Wenjin; Baracchini, Giulia; Klumpp, Michael; Schwieger, Wilhelm; Dittmeyer, Roland

    2016-01-01

    We present a high-temperature and high-pressure gas adsorption measurement device based on a high-frequency oscillating microbalance (5 MHz langatate crystal microbalance, LCM) and its use for gas adsorption measurements in zeolite H-ZSM-5. Prior to the adsorption measurements, zeolite H-ZSM-5 crystals were synthesized on the gold electrode in the center of the LCM, without covering the connection points of the gold electrodes to the oscillator, by the steam-assisted crystallization (SAC) method, so that the zeolite crystals remain attached to the oscillating microbalance while keeping good electroconductivity of the LCM during the adsorption measurements. Compared to a conventional quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) which is limited to temperatures below 80 °C, the LCM can realize the adsorption measurements in principle at temperatures as high as 200-300 °C (i.e., at or close to the reaction temperature of the target application of one-stage DME synthesis from the synthesis gas), owing to the absence of crystalline-phase transitions up to its melting point (1,470 °C). The system was applied to investigate the adsorption of CO2, H2O, methanol and dimethyl ether (DME), each in the gas phase, on zeolite H-ZSM-5 in the temperature and pressure range of 50-150 °C and 0-18 bar, respectively. The results showed that the adsorption isotherms of these gases in H-ZSM-5 can be well fitted by Langmuir-type adsorption isotherms. Furthermore, the determined adsorption parameters, i.e., adsorption capacities, adsorption enthalpies, and adsorption entropies, compare well to literature data. In this work, the results for CO2 are shown as an example. PMID:27585356

  2. Multifaceted effects of HZSM-5 (Proton-exchanged Zeolite Socony Mobil-5) on catalytic cracking of pinewood pyrolysis vapor in a two-stage fixed bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yimeng; Wang, Jie

    2016-08-01

    The pinewood was pyrolyzed in the first reactor at a heating rate of 10°Cmin(-1) from room temperature to 700°C, and the vapor was allowed to be cracked through the second reactor in a temperature range of 450-750°C without and with HZSM-5. Attempts were made to determine a wide spectrum of gaseous and liquid products, as well as the mass and element partitions to gas, water, bio-oil, coke and char. HZSM-5 showed a preferential deoxygenation effect via the facilitated decarbonylation and decarboxylation with the inhibited dehydration at 550-600°C. This catalyst also displayed a high selectivity for the formations of aromatic hydrocarbons and olefins by the promoted hydrogen transfer to these products at 550-600°C. The bio-oil produced with HZSM-5 at 500-600°C had the yields of 14.5-16.8%, the high heat values of 39.1-42.4MJkg(-1), and the energy recoveries of 33-35% (all dry biomass basis). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Deactivation of Zeolite Catalyst H-ZSM-5 during Conversion of Methanol to Gasoline: Operando Time- and Space-Resolved X-ray Diffraction.

    PubMed

    Rojo-Gama, Daniel; Mentel, Lukasz; Kalantzopoulos, Georgios N; Pappas, Dimitrios K; Dovgaliuk, Iurii; Olsbye, Unni; Lillerud, Karl Petter; Beato, Pablo; Lundegaard, Lars F; Wragg, David S; Svelle, Stian

    2018-03-15

    The deactivation of zeolite catalyst H-ZSM-5 by coking during the conversion of methanol to hydrocarbons was monitored by high-energy space- and time-resolved operando X-ray diffraction (XRD) . Space resolution was achieved by continuous scanning along the axial length of a capillary fixed bed reactor with a time resolution of 10 s per scan. Using real structural parameters obtained from XRD, we can track the development of coke at different points in the reactor and link this to a kinetic model to correlate catalyst deactivation with structural changes occurring in the material. The "burning cigar" model of catalyst bed deactivation is directly observed in real time.

  4. Two-step fast microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass for bio-oil production using microwave absorbent and HZSM-5 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Zhong, Zhaoping; Xie, Qinglong; Liu, Shiyu; Ruan, Roger

    2016-07-01

    A novel technology of two-step fast microwave-assisted pyrolysis (fMAP) of corn stover for bio-oil production was investigated in the presence of microwave absorbent (SiC) and HZSM-5 catalyst. Effects of fMAP temperature and catalyst-to-biomass ratio on bio-oil yield and chemical components were examined. The results showed that this technology, employing microwave, microwave absorbent and HZSM-5 catalyst, was effective and promising for biomass fast pyrolysis. The fMAP temperature of 500°C was considered the optimum condition for maximum yield and best quality of bio-oil. Besides, the bio-oil yield decreased linearly and the chemical components in bio-oil were improved sequentially with the increase of catalyst-to-biomass ratio from 1:100 to 1:20. The elemental compositions of bio-char were also determined. Additionally, compared to one-step fMAP process, two-step fMAP could promote the bio-oil quality with a smaller catalyst-to-biomass ratio. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Catalytic Upgrading of Biomass-Derived Compounds via C-C Coupling Reactions. Computational and Experimental Studies of Acetaldehyde and Furan Reactions in HZSM-5

    SciT

    Liu, Cong; Evans, Tabitha J.; Cheng, Lei

    2015-10-02

    These catalytic C–C coupling and deoxygenation reactions are essential for upgrading of biomass-derived oxygenates to fuel-range hydrocarbons. Detailed understanding of mechanistic and energetic aspects of these reactions is crucial to enabling and improving the catalytic upgrading of small oxygenates to useful chemicals and fuels. Using periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we have investigated the reactions of furan and acetaldehyde in an HZSM-5 zeolite catalyst, a representative system associated with the catalytic upgrading of pyrolysis vapors. Comprehensive energy profiles were computed for self-reactions (i.e., acetaldehyde coupling and furan coupling) and cross-reactions (i.e., acetaldehyde + furan) of this representative mixture. Majormore » products proposed from the computations are further confirmed using temperature controlled mass spectra measurements. Moreover, the computational results show that furan interacts with acetaldehyde in HZSM-5 via an alkylation mechanism, which is more favorable than the self-reactions, indicating that mixing furans with aldehydes could be a promising approach to maximize effective C–C coupling and dehydration while reducing the catalyst deactivation (e.g., coke formation) from aldehyde condensation.« less

  6. Improving hydrocarbon yield from catalytic fast co-pyrolysis of hemicellulose and plastic in the dual-catalyst bed of CaO and HZSM-5.

    PubMed

    Ding, Kuan; Zhong, Zhaoping; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Bo; Fan, Liangliang; Liu, Shiyu; Wang, Yunpu; Liu, Yuhuan; Zhong, Daoxu; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2018-08-01

    The high concentration of oxygenated compounds in pyrolytic products prohibits the conversion of hemicellulose to important biofuels and chemicals via fast pyrolysis. Herein a dual-catalyst bed of CaO and HZSM-5 was developed to convert acids in the pyrolytic products of xylan to valuable hydrocarbons. Meanwhile, LLDPE was co-pyrolyzed with xylan to supplement hydrogen during the catalysis of HZSM-5. The results showed that CaO could effectively transform acids into ketones. A minimum yield of acids (2.74%) and a maximum yield of ketones (42.93%) were obtained at a catalyst to feedstock ratio of 2:1. The dual-catalyst bed dramatically increased the yield of aromatics. Moreover, hydrogen-rich fragments derived from LLDPE promoted the Diels-Alder reactions of furans and participated in the hydrocarbon pool reactions of non-furanic compounds. As a result, a higher yield of hydrocarbons was achieved. This study provides a fundamental for recovering energy and chemicals from pyrolysis of hemicellulose. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Coke Deposits on the Catalytic Performance of Large Zeolite H-ZSM-5 Crystals during Alcohol-to-Hydrocarbon Reactions as Investigated by a Combination of Optical Spectroscopy and Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nordvang, Emily C; Borodina, Elena; Ruiz-Martínez, Javier; Fehrmann, Rasmus; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2015-01-01

    The catalytic activity of large zeolite H-ZSM-5 crystals in methanol (MTO) and ethanol-to-olefins (ETO) conversions was investigated and, using operando UV/Vis measurements, the catalytic activity and deactivation was correlated with the formation of coke. These findings were related to in situ single crystal UV/Vis and confocal fluorescence micro-spectroscopy, allowing the observation of the spatiotemporal formation of intermediates and coke species during the MTO and ETO conversions. It was observed that rapid deactivation at elevated temperatures was due to the fast formation of aromatics at the periphery of the H-ZSM-5 crystals, which are transformed into more poly-aromatic coke species at the external surface, preventing the diffusion of reactants and products into and out of the H-ZSM-5 crystal. Furthermore, we were able to correlate the operando UV/Vis spectroscopy results observed during catalytic testing with the single crystal in situ results. PMID:26463581

  8. Formation of hydrocarbon compounds during the hydrocracking of non-edible vegetable oils with cobalt-nickel supported on hierarchical HZSM-5 catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marlinda, L.; Al-Muttaqii, M.; Roesyadi, A.; Prajitno, D. H.

    2017-05-01

    The hierarchical Co-Ni/HZSM-5 catalyst with hierarchical pore structure was prepared by desilication and incipient wetness impregnation. Hydrocracking of non-edible vegetable oils at temperature of 400 °C, 20±5 bar for 2 h was performed in the presence of this type of catalyst under hydrogen initial pressure in pressured batch reactor. Non-edible vegetable oils, such as Reutealis trisperma (Blanco) airy shaw (sunan candlenut) and Hevea brasiliensis (rubber seed) were chosen to study the effect of the degree of saturation and lateral chain length on hydrocarbon compounds obtained through hydrocracking. Cerbera manghas oil was also tested for comparison because the composition of fatty acid was different with the other oils The hydrocracking test indicated that liquid product produced has a similar hydrocarbon compounds with petroleum diesel. The most abundant hydrocarbon is pentadecane (n-C15) and heptadecane (n-C17). The high aromatic compounds were found in liquid product produced in hydrocracking of Sunan candlenut oil.

  9. One-step hydroprocessing of fatty acids into renewable aromatic hydrocarbons over Ni/HZSM-5: insights into the major reaction pathways.

    PubMed

    Xing, Shiyou; Lv, Pengmei; Wang, Jiayan; Fu, Junying; Fan, Pei; Yang, Lingmei; Yang, Gaixiu; Yuan, Zhenhong; Chen, Yong

    2017-01-25

    For high caloricity and stability in bio-aviation fuels, a certain content of aromatic hydrocarbons (AHCs, 8-25 wt%) is crucial. Fatty acids, obtained from waste or inedible oils, are a renewable and economic feedstock for AHC production. Considerable amounts of AHCs, up to 64.61 wt%, were produced through the one-step hydroprocessing of fatty acids over Ni/HZSM-5 catalysts. Hydrogenation, hydrocracking, and aromatization constituted the principal AHC formation processes. At a lower temperature, fatty acids were first hydrosaturated and then hydrodeoxygenated at metal sites to form long-chain hydrocarbons. Alternatively, the unsaturated fatty acids could be directly deoxygenated at acid sites without first being saturated. The long-chain hydrocarbons were cracked into gases such as ethane, propane, and C 6 -C 8 olefins over the catalysts' Brønsted acid sites; these underwent Diels-Alder reactions on the catalysts' Lewis acid sites to form AHCs. C 6 -C 8 olefins were determined as critical intermediates for AHC formation. As the Ni content in the catalyst increased, the Brønsted-acid site density was reduced due to coverage by the metal nanoparticles. Good performance was achieved with a loading of 10 wt% Ni, where the Ni nanoparticles exhibited a polyhedral morphology which exposed more active sites for aromatization.

  10. Ultrasound assisted co-precipitation of nanostructured CuO-ZnO-Al2O3 over HZSM-5: effect of precursor and irradiation power on nanocatalyst properties and catalytic performance for direct syngas to DME.

    PubMed

    Allahyari, Somaiyeh; Haghighi, Mohammad; Ebadi, Amanollah; Hosseinzadeh, Shahin

    2014-03-01

    Nanostructured CuO-ZnO-Al2O3/HZSM-5 was synthesized from nitrate and acetate precursors using ultrasound assisted co-precipitation method under different irradiation powers. The CuO-ZnO-Al2O3/HZSM-5 nanocatalysts were characterized using XRD, FESEM, BET, FTIR and EDX Dot-mapping analyses. The results indicated precursor type and irradiation power have significant influences on phase structure, morphology, surface area and functional groups. It was observed that the acetate formulated CuO-ZnO-Al2O3/HZSM-5 nanocatalyst have smaller CuO crystals with better dispersion and stronger interaction between components in comparison to nitrate based nanocatalysts. Ultrasound assisted co-precipitation synthesis method resulted in nanocatalyst with more uniform morphology compared to conventional method and increasing irradiation power yields smaller particles with better dispersion and higher surface area. Additionally the crystallinity of CuO is lower at high irradiation powers leading to stronger interaction between metal oxides. The nanocatalysts performance were tested at 200-300 °C, 10-40 bar and space velocity of 18,000-36,000 cm(3)/g h with the inlet gas composition of H2/CO = 2/1 in a stainless steel autoclave reactor. The acetate based nanocatalysts irradiated with higher levels of power exhibited better reactivity in terms of CO conversion and DME yield. While there is an optimal temperature for CO conversion and DME yield in direct synthesis of DME, CO conversion and DME yield both increase with the pressure increase. Furthermore ultrasound assisted co-precipitation method yields more stable CuO-ZnO-Al2O3/HZSM-5 nanocatalyst while conventional precipitated nanocatalyst lost their activity ca. 18% and 58% in terms of CO conversion and DME yield respectively in 24 h time on stream test.

  11. Fast microwave-assisted catalytic co-pyrolysis of lignin and low-density polyethylene with HZSM-5 and MgO for improved bio-oil yield and quality.

    PubMed

    Fan, Liangliang; Chen, Paul; Zhang, Yaning; Liu, Shiyu; Liu, Yuhuan; Wang, Yunpu; Dai, Leilei; Ruan, Roger

    2017-02-01

    Fast microwave-assisted catalytic co-pyrolysis of lignin and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) with HZSM-5 and MgO was investigated. Effects of pyrolysis temperature, lignin to LDPE ratio, MgO to HZSM-5 ratio, and feedstock to catalyst ratio on the products yields and chemical profiles were examined. 500°C was the optimal co-pyrolysis temperature in terms of the maximum bio-oil yield. The proportion of aromatics increased with increasing LDPE content. In addition, with the addition of LDPE (lignin/LDPE=1/2), methoxyl group in the phenols was completely removed. A synergistic effect was found between lignin and LDPE. The proportion of aromatics increased and alkylated phenols decreased with increasing HZSM-5 to MgO ratio. The bio-oil yield increased with the addition of appropriate amount of catalyst and the proportion of alkylated phenols increased with increasing catalyst to feedstock ratio. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mechanism studies of the conversion of 13C-labeled n-butane on zeolite H-ZSM-5 by using 13C magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy and GC-MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Luzgin, Mikhail V; Stepanov, Alexander G; Arzumanov, Sergei S; Rogov, Vladimir A; Parmon, Valentin N; Wang, Wei; Hunger, Michael; Freude, Dieter

    2005-12-23

    By using 13C MAS NMR spectroscopy (MAS = magic angle spinning), the conversion of selectively 13C-labeled n-butane on zeolite H-ZSM-5 at 430-470 K has been demonstrated to proceed through two pathways: 1) scrambling of the selective 13C-label in the n-butane molecule, and 2) oligomerization-cracking and conjunct polymerization. The latter processes (2) produce isobutane and propane simultaneously with alkyl-substituted cyclopentenyl cations and condensed aromatic compounds. In situ 13C MAS NMR and complementary ex situ GC-MS data provided evidence for a monomolecular mechanism of the 13C-label scrambling, whereas both isobutane and propane are formed through intermolecular pathways. According to 13C MAS NMR kinetic measurements, both pathways proceed with nearly the same activation energies (E(a) = 75 kJ mol(-1) for the scrambling and 71 kJ mol(-1) for isobutane and propane formation). This can be rationalized by considering the intermolecular hydride transfer between a primarily initiated carbenium ion and n-butane as being the rate-determining stage of the n-butane conversion on zeolite H-ZSM-5.

  13. Dehydration pathways of 1-propanol on HZSM-5 in the presence and absence of water

    SciT

    Zhi, Yuchun; Shi, Hui; Mu, Linyu

    The Brønsted acid-catalyzed gas-phase dehydration of 1-propanol (0.075-4 kPa) was studied on zeolite H-MFI (Si/Al = 26, containing minimal amounts of extraframework Al moieties) in the absence and presence of co-fed water (0-2.5 kPa) at 413-443 K. It is shown that propene can be formed from monomeric and dimeric adsorbed 1-propanol. The stronger adsorption of 1-propanol relative to water indicates that the reduced dehydration rates in the presence of water are not a consequence of the competitive adsorption between 1-propanol and water. Instead, the deleterious effect is related to the different extents of stabilization of adsorbed intermediates and the relevantmore » elimination/substitution transition states by water. Water stabilizes the adsorbed 1-propanol monomer significantly more than the elimination transition state, leading to a higher activation barrier and a greater entropy gain for the rate-limiting step, which eventually leads to propene. In a similar manner, an excess of 1-propanol stabilizes the adsorbed state of 1-propanol more than the elimination transition state. In comparison with the monomer-mediated pathway, adsorbed dimer and the relevant transition states for propene and ether formation are similarly, while less effectively, stabilized by intrazeolite water molecules. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences, and was performed in part using the Molecular Sciences Computing Facility (MSCF) in the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a DOE national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated by Battelle for DOE.« less

  14. Effect of torrefaction temperature on lignin macromolecule and product distribution from HZSM-5 catalytic pyrolysis

    SciT

    Mahadevan, Ravishankar; Adhikari, Sushil; Shakya, Rajdeep

    Torrefaction is a low-temperature process considered as an effective pretreatment technique to improve the grindability of biomass as well as enhance the production of aromatic hydrocarbons from Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis (CFP). For this paper, this study was performed to understand the effect of torrefaction temperature on structural changes in the lignin macromolecule and its subsequent influence on in-situ CFP process. Lignin extracted from southern pine and switchgrass (via organosolv treatment) was torrefied at four different temperatures (150, 175, 200 and 225 °C) in a tubular reactor. Between the two biomass types studied, lignin from pine appeared to have greater thermalmore » stability during torrefaction when compared with switchgrass lignin. The structural changes in lignin as a result of torrefaction were followed by using FTIR spectroscopy, solid state CP/MAS 13C NMR, 31P NMR spectroscopy and it was found that higher torrefaction temperature (200 and 225 °C) caused polycondensation and de-methoxylation of the aromatic units of lignin. Gel permeation chromatography analysis revealed that polycondensation during torrefaction resulted in an increase in the molecular weight and polydispersity of lignin. The torrefied lignin was subsequently used in CFP experiments using H +ZSM-5 catalyst in a micro-reactor (Py-GC/MS) to understand the effect of torrefaction on the product distribution from pyrolysis. It was observed that although the selectivity of benzene-toluene-xylene compounds from CFP of pine improved from 58.3% (torrefaction temp at 150 °C) to 69.0% (torrefaction temp at 225 °C), the severity of torrefaction resulted in a loss of overall aromatic hydrocarbon yield from 11.6% to 4.9% under same conditions. Torrefaction at higher temperatures also increased the yield of carbonaceous residues from 63.9% to 72.8%. Finally, overall, torrefying lignin caused structural transformations in both type of lignins (switchgrass and pine), which is ultimately detrimental to achieving a higher aromatic hydrocarbon yield from CFP.« less

  15. Effect of torrefaction temperature on lignin macromolecule and product distribution from HZSM-5 catalytic pyrolysis

    DOE PAGES

    Mahadevan, Ravishankar; Adhikari, Sushil; Shakya, Rajdeep; ...

    2016-10-27

    Torrefaction is a low-temperature process considered as an effective pretreatment technique to improve the grindability of biomass as well as enhance the production of aromatic hydrocarbons from Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis (CFP). For this paper, this study was performed to understand the effect of torrefaction temperature on structural changes in the lignin macromolecule and its subsequent influence on in-situ CFP process. Lignin extracted from southern pine and switchgrass (via organosolv treatment) was torrefied at four different temperatures (150, 175, 200 and 225 °C) in a tubular reactor. Between the two biomass types studied, lignin from pine appeared to have greater thermalmore » stability during torrefaction when compared with switchgrass lignin. The structural changes in lignin as a result of torrefaction were followed by using FTIR spectroscopy, solid state CP/MAS 13C NMR, 31P NMR spectroscopy and it was found that higher torrefaction temperature (200 and 225 °C) caused polycondensation and de-methoxylation of the aromatic units of lignin. Gel permeation chromatography analysis revealed that polycondensation during torrefaction resulted in an increase in the molecular weight and polydispersity of lignin. The torrefied lignin was subsequently used in CFP experiments using H +ZSM-5 catalyst in a micro-reactor (Py-GC/MS) to understand the effect of torrefaction on the product distribution from pyrolysis. It was observed that although the selectivity of benzene-toluene-xylene compounds from CFP of pine improved from 58.3% (torrefaction temp at 150 °C) to 69.0% (torrefaction temp at 225 °C), the severity of torrefaction resulted in a loss of overall aromatic hydrocarbon yield from 11.6% to 4.9% under same conditions. Torrefaction at higher temperatures also increased the yield of carbonaceous residues from 63.9% to 72.8%. Finally, overall, torrefying lignin caused structural transformations in both type of lignins (switchgrass and pine), which is ultimately detrimental to achieving a higher aromatic hydrocarbon yield from CFP.« less

  16. H-ZSM5 Catalyzed co-pyrolysis of biomass and plastics

    This study aims at addressing two important problems vital to agriculture, disposal of agricultural plastics and production of drop-in fuels from biomass via co-pyrolysis of both feedstocks. Mixtures of biomass (switchgrass, cellulose, xylan and lignin) and plastic (polyethylene terephthalate (PET),...

  17. Catalytic cracking of fast and tail gas reactive pyrolysis bio-oils over HZSM-5

    While hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of pyrolysis oil is well understood as an upgrading method, the high processing pressures associated with it alone justify the exploration of alternative upgrading solutions, especially those that could adapt pyrolysis oils into the existing refinery infrastructure. Ca...

  18. Investigation on the light alkanes aromatization over Zn and Ga modified HZSM-5 catalysts in the presence of methane

    SciT

    Li, Qingyin; Zhang, Fengqi; Jarvis, Jack

    The catalytic co-aromatization of methane and paraffin-rich raffinate oil was investigated along with hexane, heptane and octane as its model compounds over zinc and gallium modified ZSM-5 zeolite catalysts. The benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) components derived from light alkane aromatization were highly promoted with the assistance of methane. The co-existence of Zn and Ga metal species has a positive effect on the formation of BTX components, whereas the individual metal loaded catalyst resulted in the production of heavy aromatics, suggesting that zinc and gallium have a synergistic effect on the formation of BTX under the methane environment. When concernedmore » with gaseous analysis, the introduced methane might interact with smaller intermediates and then transform into larger hydrocarbons. From the DRIFT observation, it was witnessed that the interaction between light alkane and methane occurred on the surface of the charged Zn-Ga/ZSM-5 catalyst. According to the comprehensive catalyst characterizations, the excellent catalytic performance may be closely associated with greatly dispersed metal species on the zeolite support, improved microporous characteristic, moderate Bronsted and increased Lewis acidic sites during the paraffin-rich liquid feedstock aromatization under methane environment. This research provides a promising pathway for the highly effective and profitable utilization of petrochemical resources and natural gas.« less

  19. Fluidized bed catalytic pyrolysis of eucalyptus over hzsm-5: effect of acid density and gallium modification on catalyst deactivation

    Catalytic fast pyrolysis of eucalyptus wood was performed on a continuous laboratory scale fluidized bed fast pyrolysis system. Catalytic activity was monitored from use of fresh catalyst up to a cumulative biomass to catalyst ratio (B/C) of 4/1 over extruded pellets of three different ZSM-5 catalys...

  20. Investigation on the light alkanes aromatization over Zn and Ga modified HZSM-5 catalysts in the presence of methane

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Qingyin; Zhang, Fengqi; Jarvis, Jack; ...

    2018-03-16

    The catalytic co-aromatization of methane and paraffin-rich raffinate oil was investigated along with hexane, heptane and octane as its model compounds over zinc and gallium modified ZSM-5 zeolite catalysts. The benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) components derived from light alkane aromatization were highly promoted with the assistance of methane. The co-existence of Zn and Ga metal species has a positive effect on the formation of BTX components, whereas the individual metal loaded catalyst resulted in the production of heavy aromatics, suggesting that zinc and gallium have a synergistic effect on the formation of BTX under the methane environment. When concernedmore » with gaseous analysis, the introduced methane might interact with smaller intermediates and then transform into larger hydrocarbons. From the DRIFT observation, it was witnessed that the interaction between light alkane and methane occurred on the surface of the charged Zn-Ga/ZSM-5 catalyst. According to the comprehensive catalyst characterizations, the excellent catalytic performance may be closely associated with greatly dispersed metal species on the zeolite support, improved microporous characteristic, moderate Bronsted and increased Lewis acidic sites during the paraffin-rich liquid feedstock aromatization under methane environment. This research provides a promising pathway for the highly effective and profitable utilization of petrochemical resources and natural gas.« less

  1. Synthesis and application of different phthalocyanine molecular sieve catalyst for oxidative desulfurization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Na; Li, Siwen; Wang, Jinyi; Zhang, Ronglan; Gao, Ruimin; Zhao, Jianshe; Wang, Junlong

    2015-05-01

    M2(PcAN)2 (M=Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Mn) anchored onto W-HZSM-5 (M2(PcAN)2-W-HZSM-5) or the M2(PcTN)2 doping W-HZSM-5 (M2(PcTN)2/W-HZSM-5) were prepared and their catalytic performances were tested for oxidative desulfurization in the presence of oxygen. Thiophene (T), benzothiophene (BT), and dibenzothiophene (DBT) were considered as sulfur compounds. Among zeolite-based catalysts, the Cu2(PcAN)2-W-HZSM-5 and Cu2(PcTN)2/W-HZSM-5 showed superior desulfurization performance and the activity of selectivity followed the order: T>BT>DBT. The effects of phthalocyanine concentration were studied by UV-Vis and calcination temperature was obtained by TG-DSC for Cu2(PcTN)2/W-HZSM-5. Catalysts were characterized by EA, IR, XRD, SEM, TEM, ICP, and N2 adsorption. Reaction time, temperature and the amount of catalyst were investigated as the important parameters for optimization of the reaction. Furthermore, a possible process of oxidative desulfurization and the reaction products were proposed. The reaction process of ultra-deep desulfurization.

  2. Cresol Izomerization in the Presence of Acid Catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, A. L.; Dunaev, S. F.; Kustov, L. M.

    2018-02-01

    It is shown for toluene oxidation with nitrous oxide that modifying HZSM-5 zeolite with zinc oxide nanoparticles considerably improves the selectivity and yield of cresols. It is found that a 2% ZnO/HZSM-5 composite catalyst also exhibits enhanced and stable activity at high temperatures. For the o-cresol isomerization reaction, this modification of HZSM-5 zeolite greatly reduces the contribution from disproportionation and cracking reactions proceeding with formation of phenol, C6-C9 aromatic hydrocarbons, and xylenols. The regularities of their formation in the presence of the studied catalysts are determined using the results from thermodynamic calculations for the equilibrium concentrations of cresol isomers.

  3. Synthesis and application of different phthalocyanine molecular sieve catalyst for oxidative desulfurization

    SciT

    Zhao, Na; Li, Siwen; Wang, Jinyi

    2015-05-15

    M{sub 2}(PcAN){sub 2} (M=Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Mn) anchored onto W-HZSM-5 (M{sub 2}(PcAN){sub 2}–W-HZSM-5) or the M{sub 2}(PcTN){sub 2} doping W-HZSM-5 (M{sub 2}(PcTN){sub 2}/W-HZSM-5) were prepared and their catalytic performances were tested for oxidative desulfurization in the presence of oxygen. Thiophene (T), benzothiophene (BT), and dibenzothiophene (DBT) were considered as sulfur compounds. Among zeolite-based catalysts, the Cu{sub 2}(PcAN){sub 2}–W-HZSM-5 and Cu{sub 2}(PcTN){sub 2}/W-HZSM-5 showed superior desulfurization performance and the activity of selectivity followed the order: T>BT>DBT. The effects of phthalocyanine concentration were studied by UV–Vis and calcination temperature was obtained by TG-DSC for Cu{sub 2}(PcTN){sub 2}/W-HZSM-5. Catalysts weremore » characterized by EA, IR, XRD, SEM, TEM, ICP, and N{sub 2} adsorption. Reaction time, temperature and the amount of catalyst were investigated as the important parameters for optimization of the reaction. Furthermore, a possible process of oxidative desulfurization and the reaction products were proposed. - Graphical abstract: The ODS reaction schematic shows the reaction mechanism of ultra-deep desulfurization. The sulfur compounds are oxidized to their corresponding sulfoxides or sulfones through the use of oxygen and catalysts. The reaction process of ultra-deep desulfurization. - Highlights: • A kind of novel catalyst for deep desulfurization was synthesized. • Cu{sub 2}(PcAN){sub 2}–W-HZSM-5 exhibits excellent catalytic performance for desulfurization. • The reaction conditions that affect desulfurization efficiency are investigated. • The reaction process of model sulfur compounds is proposed.« less

  4. Role of Brønsted acid in selective production of furfural in biomass pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiyan; Liu, Xuejun; Lu, Meizhen; Hu, Xinyue; Lu, Leigang; Tian, Xiaoning; Ji, Jianbing

    2014-10-01

    In this work, the role of Brønsted acid for furfural production in biomass pyrolysis on supported sulfates catalysts was investigated. The introduction of Brønsted acid was shown to improve the degradation of polysaccharides to intermediates for furfural, which did not work well when only Lewis acids were used in the process. Experimental results showed that CuSO4/HZSM-5 catalyst exhibited the best performance for furfural (28% yield), which was much higher than individual HZSM-5 (5%) and CuSO4 (6%). The optimum reaction conditions called for the mass ratio of CuSO4/HZSM-5 to be 0.4 and the catalyst/biomass mass ratio to be 0.5. The recycled catalyst exhibited low productivity (9%). Analysis of the catalysts by Py-IR revealed that the CuSO4/HZSM-5 owned a stronger Brønsted acid intensity than HZSM-5 or the recycled CuSO4/HZSM-5. Therefore, the existence of Brønsted acid is necessary to achieve a more productive degradation of biomass for furfural. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimizing anti-coking abilities of zeolites by ethylene diamine tetraacetie acid modification on catalytic fast pyrolysis of corn stalk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Zhong, Zhaoping; Song, Zuwei; Ding, Kuan; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2015-12-01

    In order to minimize coke yield during biomass catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) process, ethylene diamine tetraacetie acid (EDTA) chemical modification method is carried out to selectively remove the external framework aluminum of HZSM-5 catalyst. X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen (N2)-adsorption and ammonia-temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD) techniques are employed to investigate the porosity and acidity characteristics of original and modified HZSM-5 samples. Py-GC/MS and thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA) experiments are further conducted to explore the catalytic effect of modified HZSM-5 samples on biomass CFP and to verify the positive effect on coke reduction. Results show that EDTA treatment does not damage the crystal structure of HZSM-5 zeolites, but leads to a slight increase of pore volume and pore size. Meanwhile, the elimination of the strong acid peak indicates the dealumination of outer surface of HZSM-5 zeolites. Treatment time of 2 h (labeled EDTA-2H) is optimal for acid removal and hydrocarbon formation. Among all modified catalysts, EDTA-2H performs the best for deacidification and can obviously increase the yields of positive chemical compositions in pyrolysis products. Besides, EDTA modification can improve the anti-coking properties of HZSM-5 zeolites, and EDTA-2H gives rise to the lowest coke yield.

  6. Invarianza de las ecuaciones de movimiento bajo transformaciones de escala espacio-temporales en la dinamica de Newton modificada (MOND)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, R.; Tuiran, E.; Molina Redondo, U.

    2015-02-01

    The basic principles that originated the Modified Newtonian Dynamics MOND, are shown, as well as a description of the fundamentals aspects of the theory: modification of gravity and modification of inertia. Also, it is considered the behaviour of the movement equations under space-temporal scale transformations of the movement equations, that is, transformations that have the form (t, r) --> (lambda*t, r). It was observed in this way that the MOND regime comes from the requirement of the invariance of the movement equations with respect to this transformations.

  7. Hydrodeoxygenation of phenolic compounds to cycloalkanes over supported nickel phosphides

    DOE PAGES

    Yu, Zhiquan; Wang, Anjie; Liu, Shan; ...

    2018-05-07

    SiO 2, HZSM-5 and Al 2O 3 were used to support nickel phosphides to prepare hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) catalysts. The nickel loading was kept at 20 wt% while the Ni/P molar ratio was varied among 3, 2, and 1 in the preparation by incipient wetness impregnation. XRD characterization revealed that Ni 3P, Ni 12P 5, and Ni 2P as the major crystal phases were obtained at Ni/P ratio of 3, 2, and 1, respectively, on SiO 2 and HZSM-5. When Al 2O 3 was used as the support, nickel metal rather than nickel phosphides was generated. Among SiO 2-supported nickel phosphides,more » Ni 3P exhibited highest hydrogenation activity and catalytic performance in phenol HDO. Ni 3P/HZSM-5 showed the high catalytic performance in HDO of phenol as well as catechol and o-cresol, with Ni 3P as the hydrogenation site and the acid sites in HZSM-5 zeolite as the dehydration site. In conclusion, the strong acidity in HZSM-5 also facilitated the isomerization of cycloalkanes at elevated temperatures.« less

  8. SciT

    Yu, Zhiquan; Wang, Anjie; Liu, Shan

    SiO 2, HZSM-5 and Al 2O 3 were used to support nickel phosphides to prepare hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) catalysts. The nickel loading was kept at 20 wt% while the Ni/P molar ratio was varied among 3, 2, and 1 in the preparation by incipient wetness impregnation. XRD characterization revealed that Ni 3P, Ni 12P 5, and Ni 2P as the major crystal phases were obtained at Ni/P ratio of 3, 2, and 1, respectively, on SiO 2 and HZSM-5. When Al 2O 3 was used as the support, nickel metal rather than nickel phosphides was generated. Among SiO 2-supported nickel phosphides,more » Ni 3P exhibited highest hydrogenation activity and catalytic performance in phenol HDO. Ni 3P/HZSM-5 showed the high catalytic performance in HDO of phenol as well as catechol and o-cresol, with Ni 3P as the hydrogenation site and the acid sites in HZSM-5 zeolite as the dehydration site. In conclusion, the strong acidity in HZSM-5 also facilitated the isomerization of cycloalkanes at elevated temperatures.« less

  9. Discerning the Location and Nature of Coke Deposition from Surface to Bulk of Spent Zeolite Catalysts

    SciT

    Devaraj, Arun; Vijayakumar, Murugesan; Bao, Jie

    The nanoscale compositional mapping of fresh HZSM-5 catalyst synthesized using hydrothermal process as well as after just steaming and after ethanol conversion reaction for 72 hours at realistic catalytic conditions was investigated using atom probe tomography. Atom probe tomography permitted direct atomic scale imaging of non-uniform distribution of Al within the HZSM-5 as well as for the first time image the hydrocarbon coking after ethanol reaction. Clear evidences for existence of multiple C-H molecular species which appear to aggregate as clusters within the pores of spent HZSM-5 catalyst materials is provided. These results provide evidence for the ability of atommore » probe tomography, a powerful 3D characterization tool in interrogating the atomic scale chemistry of zeolite catalyst materials at industrially relevant catalytic conditions.« less

  10. Catalytic copyrolysis of cork oak and bio-oil distillation residue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yejin; Oh, Daejun; Kim, Young-Min; Jae, Jungho; Jung, Sang-Chul; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Kim, Sang Chai; Park, Young-Kwon

    2018-01-01

    The atmospheric distillation residue (ADR) of cork oak (CO) pyrolysis oil was used as the co-feeding material for the catalytic pyrolysis of CO over HZSM-5 catalysts to improve the formation of aromatic hydrocarbons. Although the non-catalytic copyrolysis of CO and ADR did not improve the formation of aromatic hydrocarbons, the catalytic copyrolysis of CO and ADR promoted the synergistic formation of aromatic hydrocarbons. HZSM-5(30), having a lower SiO2/Al2O3(30), showed better performance for the formation of aromatic hydrocarbons than HZSM-5(80) because of its higher acidity. The catalytic copyrolysis of CO and ADR also decreased the formation of coke. The largest quantity of aromatic hydrocarbons was obtained from the catalytic copyrolysis of CO and ADR over HZSM-5 (30) at 600 °C, whereas the lowest coke yield was achieved at 700 °C. When the catalyst to sample ratio was increased from 2:1 to 5:1, the synergistic formation of aromatic hydrocarbons was limited, resulting in a lower experimental yield of aromatic hydrocarbons than the theoretical yield. A lower coke yield was also achieved at a high catalyst to sample ratio (5:1).

  11. Catalytic pyrolysis-GC/MS of lignin from several sources

    Lignin from four different sources extracted by various methods were pyrolyzed at 650 degree C using analytical pyrolysis methods, py-GC/MS. Pyrolysis was carried out in the absence and presence of two heterogeneous catalysts , an acidic zeolite (HZSM-5) catalyst and a mixed metal oxide catalyst (Co...

  12. Catalytic and non-catalytic pyrolysis of biomass in non-inert environments for production of deoxygenated bio-oil and chemicals

    Fast pyrolysis processes are among the most effective methods for liquefaction of lignocellulosic biomass. Catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) over HZSM-5 or other zeolites and/or utilization of reactive atmospheres such as in the non-catalytic Tail Gas Reactive Pyrolysis (TRGP) process, a recent patent...

  13. Liquid phase in situ hydrodeoxygenation of biomass-derived phenolic compounds to hydrocarbons over bifunctional catalysts

    Junfeng Feng; Chung-yun Hse; Zhongzhi Yang; Kui Wang; Jianchun Jiang; Junming Xu

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find an effective method for converting renewable biomass-derived phenolic compounds into hydrocarbons bio-fuel via in situ catalytic hydrodeoxygenation. The in situ hydrodeoxygenation of biomass-derived phenolic compounds was carried out in methanol-water solvent over bifunctional catalysts of Raney Ni and HZSM-5 or H-Beta. In the in...

  14. Aromatic hydrocarbon production via eucalyptus urophylla pyrolysis over several metal modified ZSM-5 catalysts – an analysis by py-GC/MS

    Metal modified HZSM-5 catalysts were prepared by ion exchange of NH4ZSM-5 (SIO2/Al2O3 = 23) using gallium, molybdenum, nickel and zinc, and their combinations thereof. The prepared catalysts were used to evaluate catalytic pyrolysis for the conversion of Eucalyptus urophylla to fuels and chemicals, ...

  15. Highly selective oxidation of styrene to benzaldehyde over a tailor-made cobalt oxide encapsulated zeolite catalyst.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiangyong; Wang, Zihao; Jian, Panming; Jian, Ruiqi

    2018-05-01

    A tailor-made catalyst with cobalt oxide particles encapsulated into ZSM-5 zeolites (Co 3 O 4 @HZSM-5) was prepared via a hydrothermal method with the conventional impregnated Co 3 O 4 /SiO 2 catalyst as the precursor and Si source. Various characterization results show that the Co 3 O 4 @HZSM-5 catalyst has well-organized structure with Co 3 O 4 particles compatibly encapsulated in the zeolite crystals. The Co 3 O 4 @HZSM-5 catalyst was employed as an efficient catalyst for the selective oxidation of styrene to benzaldehyde with hydrogen peroxide as a green and economic oxidant. The effect of various reaction conditions including reaction time, reaction temperature, different kinds of solvents, styrene/H 2 O 2 molar ratio and catalyst dosage on the catalytic performance were systematically investigated. Under the optimized reaction condition, the yield of benzaldehyde can achieve 78.9% with 96.8% styrene conversion and 81.5% benzaldehyde selectivity. Such an excellent catalytic performance can be attributed to the synergistic effect between the confined reaction environment and the proper acidic property. In addition, the reaction mechanism with Co 3 O 4 @HZSM-5 as the catalyst for the selective oxidation of styrene to benzaldehyde was reasonably proposed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. SciT

    Gerceker, Duygu; Motagamwala, Ali Hussain; Rivera-Dones, Keishla R.

    Pt and PtSn catalysts supported on SiO 2 and H-ZSM-5 were studied for methane conversion under nonoxidative conditions. Addition of Sn to Pt/SiO 2 increased the turnover frequency for production of ethylene by a factor of 3, and pretreatment of the catalyst at 1123 K reduced the extent of coke formation. Pt and PtSn catalysts supported on H-ZSM-5 zeolite were prepared to improve the activity and selectivity to non-coke products. Ethylene formation rates were 20 times faster over a PtSn(1:3)/H-ZSM-5 catalyst with SiO 2:Al 2O 3 = 280 in comparison to those over PtSn(3:1)/SiO 2. H-ZSM-5-supported catalysts were also activemore » for the formation of aromatics, and the rates of benzene and naphthalene formation were increased by using more acidic H-ZSM-5 supports. These catalysts operate through a bifunctional mechanism, in which ethylene is first produced on highly dispersed PtSn nanoparticles and then is subsequently converted to benzene and naphthalene on Brønsted acid sites within the zeolite support. The most active and stable PtSn catalyst forms carbon products at a rate, 2.5 mmol of C/((mol of Pt) s), which is comparable to that of state-of-the-art Mo/H-ZSM-5 catalysts with same metal loading operated under similar conditions (1.8 mmol of C/((mol of Mo) s)). Scanning transmission electron microscopy measurements suggest the presence of smaller Pt nanoparticles on H-ZSM-5-supported catalysts, in comparison to SiO 2-supported catalysts, as a possible source of their high activity. As a result, a microkinetic model of methane conversion on Pt and PtSn surfaces, built using results from density functional theory calculations, predicts higher coupling rates on bimetallic and stepped surfaces, supporting the experimental observations that relate the high catalytic activity to small PtSn particles.« less

  17. Methane Conversion to Ethylene and Aromatics on PtSn Catalysts

    DOE PAGES

    Gerceker, Duygu; Motagamwala, Ali Hussain; Rivera-Dones, Keishla R.; ...

    2017-02-03

    Pt and PtSn catalysts supported on SiO 2 and H-ZSM-5 were studied for methane conversion under nonoxidative conditions. Addition of Sn to Pt/SiO 2 increased the turnover frequency for production of ethylene by a factor of 3, and pretreatment of the catalyst at 1123 K reduced the extent of coke formation. Pt and PtSn catalysts supported on H-ZSM-5 zeolite were prepared to improve the activity and selectivity to non-coke products. Ethylene formation rates were 20 times faster over a PtSn(1:3)/H-ZSM-5 catalyst with SiO 2:Al 2O 3 = 280 in comparison to those over PtSn(3:1)/SiO 2. H-ZSM-5-supported catalysts were also activemore » for the formation of aromatics, and the rates of benzene and naphthalene formation were increased by using more acidic H-ZSM-5 supports. These catalysts operate through a bifunctional mechanism, in which ethylene is first produced on highly dispersed PtSn nanoparticles and then is subsequently converted to benzene and naphthalene on Brønsted acid sites within the zeolite support. The most active and stable PtSn catalyst forms carbon products at a rate, 2.5 mmol of C/((mol of Pt) s), which is comparable to that of state-of-the-art Mo/H-ZSM-5 catalysts with same metal loading operated under similar conditions (1.8 mmol of C/((mol of Mo) s)). Scanning transmission electron microscopy measurements suggest the presence of smaller Pt nanoparticles on H-ZSM-5-supported catalysts, in comparison to SiO 2-supported catalysts, as a possible source of their high activity. As a result, a microkinetic model of methane conversion on Pt and PtSn surfaces, built using results from density functional theory calculations, predicts higher coupling rates on bimetallic and stepped surfaces, supporting the experimental observations that relate the high catalytic activity to small PtSn particles.« less

  18. Acidic Mesoporous Zeolite ZSM-5 Supported Cu Catalyst with Good Catalytic Performance in the Hydroxysulfurization of Styrenes with Disulfides.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jun; Zhu, Chaojie; Xia, Feifei; Fang, Zhongxue; Yang, Fengli; Weng, Jushi; Yao, Pengfei; Zheng, Chunzhi; Dong, Hai; Fu, Wenqian

    2017-12-19

    Development of highly active heterogeneous catalysts is an effective strategy for modern organic synthesis chemistry. In this work, acidic mesoporous zeolite ZSM-5 (HZSM-5-M), acidic-free mesoporous zeolite TS-1 (TS-1-M), and basic ETS-10 zeolite supported metal Cu catalysts were prepared to investigate their catalytic performances in the hydroxysulfurization of styrenes with diaryl disulfides. The effect of pore size and acidities of the supports, as well as the Cu species electronic properties of the catalysts on reaction activity were investigated. The results show that Cu⁺ and Cu 2+ binded on HZSM-5-M show the highest activity and product selectivity for the desired β -hydroxysulfides compounds.

  19. Acidic Mesoporous Zeolite ZSM-5 Supported Cu Catalyst with Good Catalytic Performance in the Hydroxysulfurization of Styrenes with Disulfides

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jun; Zhu, Chaojie; Xia, Feifei; Fang, Zhongxue; Yang, Fengli; Weng, Jushi; Yao, Pengfei; Zheng, Chunzhi; Dong, Hai; Fu, Wenqian

    2017-01-01

    Development of highly active heterogeneous catalysts is an effective strategy for modern organic synthesis chemistry. In this work, acidic mesoporous zeolite ZSM-5 (HZSM-5-M), acidic-free mesoporous zeolite TS-1 (TS-1-M), and basic ETS-10 zeolite supported metal Cu catalysts were prepared to investigate their catalytic performances in the hydroxysulfurization of styrenes with diaryl disulfides. The effect of pore size and acidities of the supports, as well as the Cu species electronic properties of the catalysts on reaction activity were investigated. The results show that Cu+ and Cu2+ binded on HZSM-5-M show the highest activity and product selectivity for the desired β-hydroxysulfides compounds. PMID:29257075

  20. Directional synthesis of ethylbenzene through catalytic transformation of lignin.

    PubMed

    Fan, Minghui; Jiang, Peiwen; Bi, Peiyan; Deng, Shumei; Yan, Lifeng; Zhai, Qi; Wang, Tiejun; Li, Quanxin

    2013-09-01

    Transformation of lignin to ethylbenzene can provide an important bulk raw material for the petrochemical industry. This work explored the production of ethylbenzene from lignin through the directional catalytic depolymerization of lignin into the aromatic monomers followed by the selective alkylation of the aromatic monomers. For the first step, the aromatics selectivity of benzene derived from the catalytic depolymerization of lignin reached about 90.2 C-mol% over the composite catalyst of Re-Y/HZSM-5 (25). For the alkylation of the aromatic monomers in the second step, the highest selectivity of ethylbenzene was about 72.3 C-mol% over the HZSM-5 (25) catalyst. The reaction pathway for the transformation of lignin to ethylbenzene was also addressed. Present transformation potentially provides a useful approach for the production of the basic petrochemical material and development of high-end chemicals utilizing lignin as the abundant natural aromatic resource. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hydrodeoxygenation of Guaiacol Over Pt/Al-SBA-15 Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mi Jin; Park, Sung Hoon; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Ryu, Changkook; Sohn, Jung Min; Kim, Sang Chai; Park, Young-Kwon

    2015-01-01

    Upgrading of bio-oil through catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) reaction was investigated for guaiacol as a model compound. A batch reactor was used for the reaction condition of 40 bar and 250 degrees C. The target product was cyclohexane. Pt/Al-SBA-15 with the Si/Al ratios of 20, 40, and 80 and Pt/HZSM-5 were used as the catalyst. The SBA-15 catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction analysis, and temperature programmed desorption of ammonia. The order of cyclohexane yield was Pt/Al-SBA-15 (Si/Al = 20) > Pt/Al-SBA-15(40) > Pt/Al-SBA-15 (80), indicating that the quantity of acid sites plays an important role in the HDO reaction. On the other hand, Pt/HZSM-5 led to a very low cyclohexane yield, in spite of its abundant strong acid sites, due to its small pore size.

  2. Improving the hydrocarbon production via co-pyrolysis of bagasse with bio-plastic and dual-catalysts layout.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiyan; Likun, Peter Keliona Wani; Xiao, Rui

    2018-03-15

    Catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) of bagasse and bio-plastic (chicken feather keratin) and their mixtures were conducted to produce aromatic hydrocarbons over a HZSM-5, USY, and dual-catalysts layout. The effects of temperature, co-feeding ratios, feed-to-catalyst ratios and dual catalysts on hydrocarbon yields and selectivities were investigated. The results show a general improvement in the aromatic hydrocarbons yields in all cases compared to non-catalytic and pure biomass pyrolysis. The aromatic hydrocarbons increased by 10 fold with the increase of temperature from 400°C to 700°C. The aromatic yields increased 1.5 times at co-feeding, 2.0 greater at feed/HZSM-5 ratio of 1:6, 1.2 times at feed/USY ratio of 1:16, and 2.66 times at USY/HZSM-5 scenario. The selectivities towards benzene increased, at higher co-feeding ratios, while that of toluene shows an opposite trend. Xylenes selectivities were less sensitive to the changes of co-feeding ratios. In contrast, the USY catalyst only produced little amount of toluene and xylenes. The dual catalyst design (USY/HZSM-5) resulted in the highest aromatic yields, than other catalyst design scenarios. The pyrolysis temperature is a significant parameter for hydrocarbon production. Co-feeding bagasse and bio-plastic enhanced biomass conversion to aromatic compounds. For any type of zeolite catalyst, there was an optimum feed-to-catalyst ratio that generated maximum hydrocarbons. Dual catalyst layout shows a new opportunity for efficient conversion of biomass materials into hydrocarbons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Hierarchical Composites to Reduce N-Nitrosamines in Cigarette Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan Yan; Cao, Yi; Yue, Ming Bo; Yang, Jing; Zhu, Jian Hua

    2015-01-01

    In order to reduce the harmful constituents in cigarette smoke, two hierarchical composites were synthesized. Based on, zeolites HZSM-5 or NaY fragments were introduced into the synthetic system of mesoporous silica SBA-15 or MCM-41 and assembled with the mesoporous materials. These porous composites combine the advantages of micro- and mesoporous materials, and exhibit higher effects than activated carbon on reducing tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNA) and some vapor phase compounds in smoke. PMID:28788003

  4. Reactivity of propene, n-butene, and isobutene in the hydrogen transfer steps of n-hexane cracking over zeolites of different structure

    SciT

    Lukyanov, D.B.

    The reaction of n-hexane cracking over HZSM-5, HY zeolite and mordenite (HM) was studied in accordance with the procedure of the [beta]-test recently proposed for quantitative characterization of zeolite hydrogen transfer activity. It is shown that this procedure allows one to obtain quantitative data on propene, n-butene, and isobutene reactivities in the hydrogen transfer steps of the reaction. The results demonstrate that in the absence of steric constraints (large pore HY and HM zeolites) isobutene is approximately 5 times more reactive in hydrogen transfer than n-butene. The latter, in turn, is about 1.3 times more reactive than propene. With mediummore » pore HZSM-5, steric inhibition of the hydrogen transfer between n-hexane and isobutene is observed. This results in a sharp decrease in the isobutene reactivity: over HZSM-5 zeolites isobutene is only 1.2 times more reactive in hydrogen transfer than n-butene. On the basis of these data it is concluded that the [beta]-test measures the [open quotes]real[close quotes] hydrogen transfer activity of zeolites, i.e., the activity that summarizes the effects of the acidic and structural properties of zeolites. An attempt is made to estimate the [open quotes]ideal[close quotes] zeolite hydrogen transfer activity, i.e., the activity determined by the zeolite acidic properties only. The estimations obtained show that this activity is approximately 1.8 and 1.6 times higher for HM zeolite in comparison with HZSM-5 and HY zeolites, respectively. 16 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  5. Co-Aromatization of Methane with Olefins: The Role of Inner Pore and External Surface Catalytic Sites

    SciT

    Yung, Matthew M; He, Peng; Jarvis, Jack

    The co-aromatization of methane with olefins is investigated using Ag-Ga/HZSM-5 as the catalyst at 400 degrees C. The presence of methane has a pronounced effect on the product distribution in terms of increased average carbon number and substitution index and decreased aromatic carbon fraction compared with its N2 environment counterpart. The participation of methane during the co-aromatization over the Ag-Ga/HZSM-5 catalyst diminishes as the co-fed olefin feedstock molecule becomes larger, from 1-hexene to 1-octene and 1-decene, in diameter. The effect of suppressed methane participation with larger olefinic molecules is not as significant when Ag-Ga/HY is employed as the catalyst, whichmore » might be attributed to the larger pore size of HY that gives more room to hold olefin and methane molecules within the inner pores and reduces the diffusion limitation of olefin molecules. The effect of olefin feedstock on the methane participation during the co-aromatization over Ag-Ga/HZSM-5 is experimentally evidenced by 13C and 2D NMR. The incorporation of the methane carbon atoms into the phenyl ring of product molecules is reduced significantly with larger co-fed olefins, whereas its incorporation into the substitution groups of the formed aromatic molecules is not notably affected, suggesting that the methane participation in the phenyl ring formation might preferably occur within inner pores, while its incorporation into substitution groups may mainly take place on external catalytic sites. This hypothesis is well supported by the product selectivity obtained over Ag-Ga/HZSM-5 catalysts prepared using conventional ZSM-5, ZSM-5 with the external catalytic sites deactivated, nanosize ZSM-5, ZSM-5 with a micro/meso pore structure and ZSM-5 with the inner pores blocked, and further confirmed by the isotopic labeling studies.« less

  6. Discerning the Location and Nature of Coke Deposition from Surface to Bulk of Spent Zeolite Catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Devaraj, Arun; Vijayakumar, Murugesan; Bao, Jie; Guo, Mond F.; Derewinski, Miroslaw A.; Xu, Zhijie; Gray, Michel J.; Prodinger, Sebastian; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.

    2016-01-01

    The formation of carbonaceous deposits (coke) in zeolite pores during catalysis leads to temporary deactivation of catalyst, necessitating regeneration steps, affecting throughput, and resulting in partial permanent loss of catalytic efficiency. Yet, even to date, the coke molecule distribution is quite challenging to study with high spatial resolution from surface to bulk of the catalyst particles at a single particle level. To address this challenge we investigated the coke molecules in HZSM-5 catalyst after ethanol conversion treatment by a combination of C K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), 13C Cross polarization-magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (CP-MAS NMR) spectroscopy, and atom probe tomography (APT). XAS and NMR highlighted the aromatic character of coke molecules. APT permitted the imaging of the spatial distribution of hydrocarbon molecules located within the pores of spent HZSM-5 catalyst from surface to bulk at a single particle level. 27Al NMR results and APT results indicated association of coke molecules with Al enriched regions within the spent HZSM-5 catalyst particles. The experimental results were additionally validated by a level-set–based APT field evaporation model. These results provide a new approach to investigate catalytic deactivation due to hydrocarbon coking or poisoning of zeolites at an unprecedented spatial resolution. PMID:27876869

  7. Selective production of chemicals from biomass pyrolysis over metal chlorides supported on zeolite.

    PubMed

    Leng, Shuai; Wang, Xinde; Cai, Qiuxia; Ma, Fengyun; Liu, Yue'e; Wang, Jianguo

    2013-12-01

    Direct biomass conversion into chemicals remains a great challenge because of the complexity of the compounds; hence, this process has attracted less attention than conversion into fuel. In this study, we propose a simple one-step method for converting bagasse into furfural (FF) and acetic acid (AC). In this method, bagasse pyrolysis over ZnCl2/HZSM-5 achieved a high FF and AC yield (58.10%) and a 1.01 FF/AC ratio, but a very low yield of medium-boiling point components. However, bagasse pyrolysis using HZSM-5 alone or ZnCl2 alone still remained large amounts of medium-boiling point components or high-boiling point components. The synergistic effect of HZSM-5 and ZnCl2, which combines pyrolysis, zeolite cracking, and Lewis acid-selective catalysis results in highly efficient bagasse conversion into FF and AC. Therefore, our study provides a novel, simple method for directly converting biomass into high-yield useful chemical. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Deactivation of Multilayered MFI Nanosheet Zeolite during Upgrading of Biomass Pyrolysis Vapors

    SciT

    Xu, Mengze; Mukarakate, Calvin; Iisa, Kristiina

    Here, the catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) of biomass is a promising technology for producing renewable transportation fuels and chemicals. MFI-type catalysts have shown promise for CFP because they produce gasoline range hydrocarbons from oxygenated pyrolysis compounds; however, rapid catalyst deactivation due to coking is one of the major technical barriers inhibiting the commercialization of this technology. Coke deposited on the surface of the catalysts blocks access to active sites in the micropores leading to rapid catalyst deactivation. Our strategy is to minimize rapid catalyst deactivation by adding mesoporosity through forming MFI nanosheet materials. The synthesized MFI nanosheet catalysts were fullymore » characterized and evaluated for cellulose pyrolysis vapor upgrading to produce olefins and aromatic hydrocarbons. The data obtained from pyrolysis-GCMS (py-GCMS), showed that fresh MFI nanosheets produced similar aromatic hydrocarbon and olefin yields compared to conventional HZSM-5. However, MFI nanosheets demonstrated a longer lifetime than HZSM-5 even though coke contents were also higher than for HZSM-5 because the mesopores enabled better accessibility to active acid sites. This conclusion was supported by results from post-reaction analysis of various spent catalysts collected at different points during the deactivation experiments.« less

  9. Mechanisms of catalytic cleavage of benzyl phenyl ether in aqueous and apolar phases

    SciT

    He, Jiayue; Lu, Lu; Zhao, Chen

    2014-03-01

    Catalytic pathways for the cleavage of ether bonds in benzyl phenyl ether (BPE) in liquid phase using Ni- and zeolite-based catalysts are explored. In the absence of catalysts, the C-O bond is selectively cleaved in water by hydrolysis, forming phenol and benzyl alcohol as intermediates, followed by alkylation. The hydronium ions catalyzing the reactions are provided by the dissociation of water at 523 K. Upon addition of HZSM-5, rates of hydrolysis and alkylation are markedly increased in relation to proton concentrations. In the presence of Ni/SiO 2, the selective hydrogenolysis dominates for cleaving the C aliphatic-O bond. Catalyzed by themore » dual-functional Ni/HZSM-5, hydrogenolysis occurs as the major route rather than hydrolysis (minor route). In apolar undecane, the non-catalytic thermal pyrolysis route dominates. Hydrogenolysis of BPE appears to be the major reaction pathway in undecane in the presence of Ni/SiO 2 or Ni/HZSM-5, almost completely suppressing radical reactions. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations strongly support the proposed C-O bond cleavage mechanisms on BPE in aqueous and apolar phases. These calculations show that BPE is initially protonated and subsequently hydrolyzed in the aqueous phase. Finally, DFT calculations suggest that the radical reactions in non-polar solvents lead to primary benzyl and phenoxy radicals in undecane, which leads to heavier condensation products as long as metals are absent for providing dissociated hydrogen.« less

  10. The Influence of Zeolites on Radical Formation During Lignin Pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Bährle, Christian; Custodis, Victoria; Jeschke, Gunnar; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A; Vogel, Frédéric

    2016-09-08

    Lignin from lignocellulosic biomass is a promising source of energy, fuels, and chemicals. The conversion of the polymeric lignin to fuels and chemicals can be achieved by catalytic and noncatalytic pyrolysis. The influence of nonporous silica and zeolite catalysts, such as silicalite, HZSM5, and HUSY, on the radical and volatile product formation during lignin pyrolysis was studied by in situ high-temperature electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (HTEPR) as well as GC-MS. Higher radical concentrations were observed in the samples containing zeolite compared to the sample containing only lignin, which suggests that there is a stabilizing effect by the inorganic surfaces on the formed radical fragments. This effect was observed for nonporous silica as well as for HUSY, HZSM5, and silicalite zeolite catalysts. However, the effect is far larger for the zeolites owing to their higher specific surface area. The zeolites also showed an effect on the volatile product yield and the product distribution within the volatile phase. Although silicalite showed no effect on the product selectivity, the acidic zeolites such as HZSM5 or HUSY increased the formation of deoxygenated products such as benzene, toluene, xylene (BTX), and naphthalene. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Deactivation of Multilayered MFI Nanosheet Zeolite during Upgrading of Biomass Pyrolysis Vapors

    DOE PAGES

    Xu, Mengze; Mukarakate, Calvin; Iisa, Kristiina; ...

    2017-05-02

    Here, the catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) of biomass is a promising technology for producing renewable transportation fuels and chemicals. MFI-type catalysts have shown promise for CFP because they produce gasoline range hydrocarbons from oxygenated pyrolysis compounds; however, rapid catalyst deactivation due to coking is one of the major technical barriers inhibiting the commercialization of this technology. Coke deposited on the surface of the catalysts blocks access to active sites in the micropores leading to rapid catalyst deactivation. Our strategy is to minimize rapid catalyst deactivation by adding mesoporosity through forming MFI nanosheet materials. The synthesized MFI nanosheet catalysts were fullymore » characterized and evaluated for cellulose pyrolysis vapor upgrading to produce olefins and aromatic hydrocarbons. The data obtained from pyrolysis-GCMS (py-GCMS), showed that fresh MFI nanosheets produced similar aromatic hydrocarbon and olefin yields compared to conventional HZSM-5. However, MFI nanosheets demonstrated a longer lifetime than HZSM-5 even though coke contents were also higher than for HZSM-5 because the mesopores enabled better accessibility to active acid sites. This conclusion was supported by results from post-reaction analysis of various spent catalysts collected at different points during the deactivation experiments.« less

  12. Surface modification of ZSM-5 zeolite: effect of cation on selective conversion of biomass-derived oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widayatno, W. B.

    2017-04-01

    This paper reports the surface modification of high silica ZSM-5 zeolite, particularly emphasizing the effect of cation type on selective conversion of biomass-derived oil. XRD spectra of the NaOH-treated HZSM-5 showed notable crystallinity decrease at specific crystal plane orientation. The N2-physisorption tests confirmed mesoporosity evolution as NaOH concentration was increased. NH3-desorption tests revealed a significant change on surface acidity which involved realumination and cation replacement processes. The utilization of untreated HZSM-5 as well as hierarchical NaZSM-5 for catalytic conversion of bio-oil showed the effect of cation type and mesoporosity on chemicals distribution. The untreated HZSM-5 showed high selectivity to aromatics, which degraded gradually due to deactivation and poisoning of the acid sites. Meanwhile, hierarchical NaZSM-5 showed high selectivity to phenolic compound, which became more stable for 0.4M NaOH-treated zeolite (Na04). The current findings provide an additional insight on the potentials of NaZSM-5 for bio-oil valorization.

  13. Discerning the Location and Nature of Coke Deposition from Surface to Bulk of Spent Zeolite Catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devaraj, Arun; Vijayakumar, Murugesan; Bao, Jie; Guo, Mond F.; Derewinski, Miroslaw A.; Xu, Zhijie; Gray, Michel J.; Prodinger, Sebastian; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.

    2016-11-01

    The formation of carbonaceous deposits (coke) in zeolite pores during catalysis leads to temporary deactivation of catalyst, necessitating regeneration steps, affecting throughput, and resulting in partial permanent loss of catalytic efficiency. Yet, even to date, the coke molecule distribution is quite challenging to study with high spatial resolution from surface to bulk of the catalyst particles at a single particle level. To address this challenge we investigated the coke molecules in HZSM-5 catalyst after ethanol conversion treatment by a combination of C K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), 13C Cross polarization-magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (CP-MAS NMR) spectroscopy, and atom probe tomography (APT). XAS and NMR highlighted the aromatic character of coke molecules. APT permitted the imaging of the spatial distribution of hydrocarbon molecules located within the pores of spent HZSM-5 catalyst from surface to bulk at a single particle level. 27Al NMR results and APT results indicated association of coke molecules with Al enriched regions within the spent HZSM-5 catalyst particles. The experimental results were additionally validated by a level-set-based APT field evaporation model. These results provide a new approach to investigate catalytic deactivation due to hydrocarbon coking or poisoning of zeolites at an unprecedented spatial resolution.

  14. Catalytic upgrading of oil fractions separated from food waste leachate.

    PubMed

    Heo, Hyeon Su; Kim, Sang Guk; Jeong, Kwang-Eun; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Park, Sung Hoon; Kim, Ji Man; Kim, Seung-Soo; Park, Young-Kwon

    2011-02-01

    In this work, catalytic cracking of biomass waste oil fractions separated from food waste leachate was performed using microporous catalysts, such as HY, HZSM-5 and mesoporous Al-MCM-48. The experiments were carried out using pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) to allow the direct analysis of the pyrolytic products. Most acidic components, especially oleic acid, contained in the food waste oil fractions were converted to valuable products, such as oxygenates, hydrocarbons and aromatics. High yields of hydrocarbons within the gasoline-range were obtained when microporous catalysts were used; whereas, the use of Al-MCM-48, which exhibits relatively weak acidity, resulted in high yields of oxygenated and diesel-range hydrocarbons. The HZSM-5 catalyst produced a higher amount of valuable mono aromatics due to its strong acidity and shape selectivity. Especially, the addition of gallium (Ga) to HZSM-5 significantly increased the aromatics content. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Conventional and catalytic pyrolysis of pinyon juniper biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yathavan, Bhuvanesh Kumar

    Pinyon and juniper are invasive woody species in Western United States that occupy over 47 million acres of land. The US Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has embarked on harvesting these woody species to make room for range grasses for grazing. The major application of harvested pinyon-juniper (PJ) is low value firewood. Thus, there is a need to develop new high value products from this woody biomass to reduce the cost of harvesting. In this research PJ biomass was processed through pyrolysis technology to produce value added products. The first part of the thesis demonstrates the effect of PJ wood, bark and mixture biomass and temperature on the product yield and on the quality of the bio-oil produced. The second part focuses on the optimization of process parameters for maximum yield and the third part focuses on upgrading the bio-oil with an industrial catalyst (HZSM5) and an industrial waste product (red mud). The results obtained from the first part showed that PJ wood produced maximum bio-oil yield, followed by PJ mixture and bark. The bio-oil yield from PJ wood had low viscosity when compared to PJ mixture and PJ bark. The second part focused on studying the effect of process parameters (temperature, feed rate and the gas flow rate) on the total liquid, organic, water, char and gas yield. The results show that each response is affected by different factor level combinations, and maximum yield for each response was obtained at different factors level. The third part focused on catalytic pyrolysis of PJ biomass using both HZSM-5 catalyst and red mud. The mechanisms of catalysis by the two catalysts were quite different. Whereas the HZSM-5 rejected oxygen mostly as carbon monoxide and water and produced lower amounts of carbon dioxide, on the contrary the red mud produced more carbon dioxide and water and less carbon monoxide. The higher heating value of the red mud catalyzed oil (29.46 MJ/kg) was slightly higher than that catalyzed by HZSM-5 (28.55 MJ/kg). Thus

  16. State of Supported Nickel Nanoparticles during Catalysis in Aqueous Media

    SciT

    Chase, Zizwe; Kasakov, Stanislav; Shi, Hui

    2015-11-09

    The state of Ni supported on HZSM-5 zeolite, silica, and sulfonated carbon was determined during aqueous phase catalysis of phenol hydrodeoxygenation using in situ extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). On sulfonated carbon and HZSM-5 supports, the NiO and Ni(OH)2 were readily reduced to Ni(0) under reaction conditions (~35 bar H2 in aqueous phenol solutions containing up to 0.5 wt. % phosphoric acid at 473 K). On the silica support, less than 70% of the Ni was converted to Ni(0) under reaction conditions, which is attributed to the formation of Ni phyllosilicates. Over a broad range of reaction conditionsmore » there was no leaching of Ni from the supports. In contrast, rapid leaching of the Ni(II) from HZSM-5 was observed, when 15 wt. % aqueous acetic acid was substituted for the aqueous phenol solution. Once the metallic state of Ni was established there was no leaching in 15 wt. % acetic acid at 473 K and 35 bar H2. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. The STEM was supported under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program: Chemical Imaging Initiative at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), a multi-program national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830. STEM was performed at EMSL, a DOE Office of Science user facility sponsored by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at PNNL.« less

  17. Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of a mixture of plastics from small waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE).

    PubMed

    Santella, Chiara; Cafiero, Lorenzo; De Angelis, Doina; La Marca, Floriana; Tuffi, Riccardo; Vecchio Ciprioti, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    Pyrolysis seems a promising route for recycling of heterogeneous, contaminated and additives containing plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). This study deals with the thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of a synthetic mixture containing real waste plastics, representative of polymers contained in small WEEE. Two zeolite-based catalysts were used at 400°C: HUSY and HZSM-5 with a high silica content, while three different temperatures were adopted for the thermal cracking: 400, 600 and 800°C. The mass balance showed that the oil produced by pyrolysis is always the main product regardless the process conditions selected, with yields ranging from 83% to 93%. A higher yield was obtained when pyrolysis was carried out with HZSM-5 at 400°C and without catalysts, but at 600 and 800°C. Formation of a significant amount of solid residue (about 13%) is observed using HUSY. The oily liquid product of pyrolysis, analysed by GC-MS and GC-FID, as well as by elemental analysis and for energy content, appeared lighter, less viscous and with a higher concentration of monoaromatics under catalytic condition, if compared to the liquid product derived from thermal degradation at the same temperature. HZSM-5 led to the production of a high yield of styrene (17.5%), while HUSY favoured the formation of ethylbenzene (15%). Energy released by combustion of the oil was around 39MJ/kg, thus suggesting the possibility to exploit it as a fuel, if the recovery of chemical compounds could not be realised. Elemental and proximate analysis of char and GC-TCD analysis of the gas were also performed. Finally, it was estimated to what extent these two products, showing a relevant ability to release energy, could fulfil the energy demand requested in pyrolysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Deoxygenation of methyl laurate over Ni based catalysts: Influence of supports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Xiaoqiang; Chen, Hui; Bi, Yadong; Hu, Jianli

    2017-10-01

    The use of a series of nickel based catalysts supported over HZSM-5, Al2O3, C and ZrO2 in the deoxygenation of methyl laurate shows that the deoxygenation activity and deoxygenation pathway of nickel based catalysts can be affected by properties of catalysts. In the absence of H2, β-elimination of methyl laurate is the dominant reaction and a small amount of laurate acid is converted into undecane by direct decarboxylation. At the same time, the highly acidic support HZSM-5 gave higher conversion and C11 alkane selectivity. In the presence of H2, Ni/HZSM-5 catalyst showed a significantly high deoxygenation activity, producing 71% alkanes by methyl laurate conversion at 280 °C and 4MPa H2. While as on mildly acidic (Al2O3) and neutral (C) supports, a restricted hydrodeoxygenation activity was achieved but more oxygenate products were yielded. According to the analysis of intermediate product, the deoxygenation reaction of methyl laurate follows three distinct pathways: in the absence of H2, decarboxylation: C11H23COOCH3→C11H23COOH→C11H24; in the presence of H2, decarbonylation: C11H23COOCH3→C11H23COOH→C11H23CHO→C11H24; and hydrodeoxygenation: C11H23COOCH3 →C11H23COOH→C11H23CHO→C12H25OH→C12H26

  19. Mixed Alcohol Dehydration over Bronsted and Lewis Acidic Catalysts

    DOE PAGES

    Nash, Connor P.; Ramanathan, Anand; Ruddy, Daniel A.; ...

    2015-12-01

    Mixed alcohols are attractive oxygenated products of biomass-derived syngas because they may be catalytically converted to a range of hydrocarbon products, including liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Catalytic dehydration to form olefins is a potential first step in the conversion of C 2–C 4 alcohols into longer-chain hydrocarbons. Here, we describe the physical and chemical characterization along with catalytic activity and selectivity of 4 Brønsted and Lewis acidic catalysts for the dehydration of two mixed alcohol feed streams that are representative of products from syngas conversion over K-CoMoS type catalysts (i.e., ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-propanol). Specifically, a Lewis acidic Zr-incorporated mesoporousmore » silicate (Zr-KIT-6), a commercial Al-containing mesoporous silicate (Al-MCM-41), a commercial microporous aluminosilicate (HZSM-5), and a commercial microporous silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO-34) were tested for mixed alcohol dehydration at 250, 300 and 350 °C. The zeolite materials exhibited high activity (>98% ethanol conversion) at all temperatures while the mesoporous materials only displayed significant activity (>10% ethanol conversion) at or above 300 °C. The turnover frequencies for ethanol dehydration at 300 °C decreased in the following order: HZSM-5 > SAPO-34 > Al-MCM-41 > Zr-KIT-6, suggesting that Brønsted acidic sites are more active than Lewis acidic sites for alcohol dehydration. At 300 °C, SAPO-34 produced the highest yield of olefin products from both a water-free ethanol rich feed stream and a C 3+-alcohol rich feed stream containing water. Post-reaction characterization indicated changes in the Brønsted-to-Lewis acidic site ratios for Zr-KIT-6, Al-MCM-41 and HZSM-5. Ammonia temperature programmed desorption indicated that the acid sites of post-reaction samples could be regenerated following treatment in air. The post-reaction SAPO-34 catalyst contained more aromatic, methylated aromatic and polyaromatic

  20. Mixed Alcohol Dehydration over Bronsted and Lewis Acidic Catalysts

    SciT

    Nash, Connor P.; Ramanathan, Anand; Ruddy, Daniel A.

    Mixed alcohols are attractive oxygenated products of biomass-derived syngas because they may be catalytically converted to a range of hydrocarbon products, including liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Catalytic dehydration to form olefins is a potential first step in the conversion of C 2–C 4 alcohols into longer-chain hydrocarbons. Here, we describe the physical and chemical characterization along with catalytic activity and selectivity of 4 Brønsted and Lewis acidic catalysts for the dehydration of two mixed alcohol feed streams that are representative of products from syngas conversion over K-CoMoS type catalysts (i.e., ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-propanol). Specifically, a Lewis acidic Zr-incorporated mesoporousmore » silicate (Zr-KIT-6), a commercial Al-containing mesoporous silicate (Al-MCM-41), a commercial microporous aluminosilicate (HZSM-5), and a commercial microporous silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO-34) were tested for mixed alcohol dehydration at 250, 300 and 350 °C. The zeolite materials exhibited high activity (>98% ethanol conversion) at all temperatures while the mesoporous materials only displayed significant activity (>10% ethanol conversion) at or above 300 °C. The turnover frequencies for ethanol dehydration at 300 °C decreased in the following order: HZSM-5 > SAPO-34 > Al-MCM-41 > Zr-KIT-6, suggesting that Brønsted acidic sites are more active than Lewis acidic sites for alcohol dehydration. At 300 °C, SAPO-34 produced the highest yield of olefin products from both a water-free ethanol rich feed stream and a C 3+-alcohol rich feed stream containing water. Post-reaction characterization indicated changes in the Brønsted-to-Lewis acidic site ratios for Zr-KIT-6, Al-MCM-41 and HZSM-5. Ammonia temperature programmed desorption indicated that the acid sites of post-reaction samples could be regenerated following treatment in air. The post-reaction SAPO-34 catalyst contained more aromatic, methylated aromatic and polyaromatic

  1. Effects of catalyst pore structure and acid properties on the dehydration of glycerol.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youngbo; Park, Hongseok; Yun, Yang Sik; Yi, Jongheop

    2015-03-01

    Hierarchical porous catalysts have recently attracted increasing interest because of the enhanced accessibility to active sites on such materials. In this context, previously reported hierarchically mesoporous ASN and ASPN materials are evaluated by applying them to the dehydration of glycerol, and demonstrate excellent catalytic performance. In addition, a comprehensive understanding of the effects of pore structures and the acid properties on the reaction through comparative studies with microporous HZSM-5 and mesoporous AlMCM-41 is provided. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Photophysical properties and fluorescence quenching of 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene in zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pischel, Uwe; Galletero, Maria S.; García, Hermenegildo; Miranda, Miguel A.; Nau, Werner M.

    2002-06-01

    2,3-Diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene (DBO) was used as a long-lived fluorescent probe in zeolites (NaY, Na-mordenite, Na-ZSM-5, H-ZSM-5) and related oxide materials (all silica MCM-41, silica, silica-alumina, γ-alumina). The photophysical properties are dominated by a hydroxylic environment, caused by the inorganic framework and co-adsorbed water. The quenching of DBO by oxygen was strongly dependent on the type of zeolite. In ZSM-5 zeolites, the fluorescence decays were not monoexponential in the presence of oxygen (air).

  3. Optimizing catalysis conditions to decrease aromatic hydrocarbons and increase alkanes for improving jet biofuel quality.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jun; Li, Tao; Huang, Rui; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2014-04-01

    To produce quality jet biofuel with high amount of alkanes and low amount of aromatic hydrocarbons, two zeolites of HY and HZSM-5 supporting Ni and Mo were used as catalysts to convert soybean oil into jet fuel. Zeolite HY exhibited higher jet range alkane selectivity (40.3%) and lower jet range aromatic hydrocarbon selectivity (23.8%) than zeolite HZSM-5 (13.8% and 58.9%). When reaction temperature increased from 330 to 390°C, yield of jet fuel over Ni-Mo/HY catalyst at 4 MPa hydrogen pressure increased from 0% to 49.1% due to the shift of reaction pathway from oligomerization to cracking reaction. Further increase of reaction temperature from 390 to 410°C resulted in increased yield of jet range aromatic hydrocarbons from 18.7% to 30%, which decreased jet fuel quality. A high yield of jet fuel (48.2%) was obtained at 1 MPa low hydrogen pressure over Ni (8 wt.%)-Mo (12 wt.%)/HY catalyst. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of catalyst additives on the production of biofuels from palm oil cracking in a transport riser reactor.

    PubMed

    Chew, Thiam Leng; Bhatia, Subhash

    2009-05-01

    Catalytic cracking of crude palm oil (CPO) and used palm oil (UPO) were studied in a transport riser reactor for the production of biofuels at a reaction temperature of 450 degrees C, with residence time of 20s and catalyst-to-oil ratio (CTO) of 5 gg(-1). The effect of HZSM-5 (different Si/Al ratios), beta zeolite, SBA-15 and AlSBA-15 were studied as physically mixed additives with cracking catalyst Rare earth-Y (REY). REY catalyst alone gave 75.8 wt% conversion with 34.5 wt% of gasoline fraction yield using CPO, whereas with UPO, the conversion was 70.9 wt% with gasoline fraction yield of 33.0 wt%. HZSM-5, beta zeolite, SBA-15 and AlSBA-15 as additives with REY increased the conversion and the yield of organic liquid product. The transport riser reactor can be used for the continuous production of biofuels from cracking of CPO and UPO over REY catalyst.

  5. SciT

    Bu, Lintao; Nimlos, Mark R.; Robichaud, David J.

    Hierarchical mesoporous zeolites exhibit higher catalytic activities and longer lifetime compared to the traditional microporous zeolites due to improved diffusivity of substrate molecules and their enhanced access to the zeolite active sites. Understanding diffusion of biomass pyrolysis vapors and their upgraded products in such materials is fundamentally important during catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) of lignocellulosic biomass, since diffusion makes major contribution to determine shape selectivity and product distribution. However, diffusivities of biomass relevant species in hierarchical mesoporous zeolites are poorly characterized, primarily due to the limitations of the available experimental technology. In this work, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are utilizedmore » to investigate the diffusivities of several selected coke precursor molecules, benzene, naphthalene, and anthracene, in hierarchical mesoporous H-ZSM-5 zeolite. The effects of temperature and size of mesopores on the diffusivity of the chosen model compounds are examined. The simulation results demonstrate that diffusion within the microspores as well as on the external surface of mesoporous H-ZSM-5 dominates only at low temperature. At pyrolysis relevant temperatures, mass transfer is essentially conducted via diffusion along the mesopores. Additionally, the results illustrate the heuristic diffusion model, such as the extensively used Knudsen diffusion, overestimates the diffusion of bulky molecules in the mesopores, thus making MD simulation a powerful and compulsory approach to explore diffusion in zeolites.« less

  6. On two alternative mechanisms of ethane activation over ZSM-5 zeolite modified by Zn2+ and Ga1+ cations.

    PubMed

    Kazansky, V B; Subbotina, I R; Rane, N; van Santen, R A; Hensen, E J M

    2005-08-21

    The activation of ethane over zinc- and gallium-modified HZSM-5 dehydrogenation catalysts was studied by diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy. Hydrocarbon activation on HZSM-5 modified by bivalent Zn and univalent Ga cations proceeds via two distinctly different mechanisms. The stronger molecular adsorption of ethane by the acid-base pairs formed by distantly separated cationic Zn2+ and basic oxygen sites results already at room temperature in strong polarizability of adsorbed ethane and subsequent heterolytic dissociative adsorption at moderate temperatures. In contrast, molecular adsorption of ethane on Ga+ cations is weak. At high temperatures dissociative hydrocarbon adsorption takes place, resulting in the formation of ethyl and hydride fragments coordinating to the cationic gallium species. Whereas in the zinc case a Brønsted acid proton is formed upon ethane dissociation, decomposition of the ethyl fragment on gallium results in gallium dihydride species and does not lead to Brønsted acid protons. This difference in alkane activation has direct consequences for hydrocarbon conversions involving dehydrogenation.

  7. Aromatization of n-hexane over ZnO/H-ZSM-5 catalysts

    SciT

    Kanai, J.; Kawata, N.

    The mechanism of transformation of n-hexane into aromatics over ZnO/H-ZSM-5 catalyst has been investigated. The yields of aromatics in the transformation of n-hexane over H-ZSM-5 are enhanced by mechanical mixing of ZnO as well as by ion exchange or impregnation of zinc cation. It is concluded that aromatization of n-hexane over ZnO/H-ZSM-5 is a bifunctional reaction, and that ZnO as well as H-ZSM-5 takes part both in the activation of n-hexane and in the aromatization of lower olefins. By contrasting the conversion of n-hexane with that of 1-hexane, it is found that aromatization of n-hexane over ZnO/H-ZSM-5 involves both themore » dehydrogenation of n-hexane into hexene and that of the oligomerized products into aromatics. It is proposed that ZnO catalyzes the dehydrogenation of n-hexane into hexene and of the oligomerized products into aromatics.« less

  8. Comparison of non-catalytic and catalytic fast pyrolysis of corncob in a fluidized bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiyan; Xiao, Rui; Huang, He; Xiao, Gang

    2009-02-01

    Fast pyrolysis of corncob with and without catalyst was investigated in a fluidized bed to determine the effects of pyrolysis parameters (temperature, gas flow rate, static bed height and particle size) and a HZSM-5 zeolite catalyst on the product yields and the qualities of the liquid products. The result showed that the optimal conditions for liquid yield (56.8%) were a pyrolysis temperature of 550 degrees C, gas flow rate of 3.4 L/min, static bed height of 10 cm and particle size of 1.0-2.0mm. The presence of the catalyst increased the yields of non-condensable gas, water and coke, while decreased the liquid and char yields. The elemental analysis showed that more than 25% decrease in oxygen content of the collected liquid in the second condenser with HZSM-5 was observed compared with that without catalyst. The H/C, O/C molar ratios and the higher heating value of the oil fraction in the collected liquid with the catalyst were 1.511, 0.149 and 34.6 MJ/kg, respectively. It was indicated that the collected liquid in the second condenser had high qualities and might be used as transport oil.

  9. Direct liquefaction of plastics and coprocessing of coal with plastics

    SciT

    Huffman, G.P.; Feng, Z.; Mahajan, V.

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this work were to optimize reaction conditions for the direct liquefaction of waste plastics and the coprocessing of coal with waste plastics. In previous work, the direct liquefaction of medium and high density polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PPE), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and a mixed plastic waste, and the coliquefaction of these plastics with coals of three different ranks was studied. The results established that a solid acid catalyst (HZSM-5 zeolite) was highly active for the liquefaction of the plastics alone, typically giving oil yields of 80-95% and total conversions of 90-100% at temperatures of 430-450 {degrees}C. In themore » coliquefaction experiments, 50:50 mixtures of plastic and coal were used with a tetralin solvent (tetralin:solid = 3:2). Using approximately 1% of the HZSM-5 catalyst and a nanoscale iron catalyst, oil yields of 50-70% and total conversion of 80-90% were typical. In the current year, further investigations were conducted of the liquefaction of PE, PPE, and a commingled waste plastic obtained from the American Plastics Council (APC), and the coprocessing of PE, PPE and the APC plastic with Black Thunder subbituminous coal. Several different catalysts were used in these studies.« less

  10. Effect of torrefaction pretreatment and catalytic pyrolysis on the pyrolysis poly-generation of pine wood.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dengyu; Li, Yanjun; Deng, Minsi; Wang, Jiayang; Chen, Miao; Yan, Bei; Yuan, Qiqiang

    2016-08-01

    Torrefaction of pine wood was performed in a tube furnace at three temperatures (220, 250, and 280°C) for 30min. Then catalytic pyrolysis of raw and torrefied pine wood was performed using HZSM-5 catalyst in a fixed-bed pyrolysis reactor at 550°C for 15min. Torrefaction pretreatment and catalytic pyrolysis have an very important effect on the yield, property, and energy distribution of pyrolysis products. The results showed that the yield of biochar rapidly increased, while that of bio-oil decreased with increasing torrefaction temperature. The oxy-compound content of bio-oil, such as acids and aldehydes, sharply decreased. However, the aromatic hydrocarbon content not only increased but also further promoted by HZSM-5 catalyst. With highest mass yields and energy yields, biochar was also the very important product of pyrolysis. The oxygen content in biomass was mainly removed in the form of CO2 and H2O, leading to increasing CO2 content in non-condensable gas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Production and characterization of pyrolytic oils by pyrolysis of waste machinery oil.

    PubMed

    Sinağ, Ali; Gülbay, Selen; Uskan, Burçin; Uçar, Suat; Ozgürler, Sara Bilge

    2010-01-15

    The main objective of this work is to propose an alternative method for evaluation of the waste machinery oil which is an environmental problem in Turkey. For this purpose, pyrolysis of waste machinery oil was conducted in a tubular reactor. Effect of the experimental conditions (various temperatures, catalyst type) on the formation of pyrolytic oil, gas, and char was investigated. Nickel supported on silica and zeolite (HZSM-5) were used as catalysts. Properties of the pyrolytic oils were characterized by gas chromatograph equipped with a mass selective detector (GC-MS), gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID for boiling point range distribution), nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy, higher heating value measurement, and elemental analysis. The behavior of the metals in the waste machinery oil and the pyrolytic oil samples was also quantitatively detected by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis. As, Cd and Cr contents of the all pyrolytic oils were found as <0.05 ppm, while Cu content of the pyrolytic oils varied between 0.3 ppm and 0.61 ppm. Only Vanadium contents of the pyrolytic oils obtained at 800 degrees C (0.342 ppm) and in the presence of HZSM5 (0.57 ppm) increased compared to that obtained by waste machinery oil (0.1 ppm). Lower metal contents of the pyrolytic oils reveal that pyrolysis of the waste machinery oils leads to the formation of environmental friendly pyrolytic oils with higher heating values.

  12. Zeolite catalysis in the synthesis of isobutylene from hydrous ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Cory Bernard

    1999-11-01

    This work deals with the synthesis of isobutylene from a hydrous ethanol feedstock over zeolites. The synthesis is accomplished in three steps: (1) low-temperature direct ethanol conversion to ethylene on H-ZSM-5 zeolite, (2) ethylene conversion to butene products over metal-exchanged zeolites, and (3) butene skeletal rearrangement to isobutylene over FER zeolites. The key to understanding and optimizing each synthesis step lies in the ability to control and regulate the zeolite acidity (Bronsted and Lewis)---both strength and number. Therefore, the continuous temperature programmed amine desorption (CTPAD) technique was further developed to simultaneously count the Bronsted acid sites and quantitatively characterize their strength. The adsorption of ethanol, reaction products, amines, coke and ethanol-derived residue (EDR) were monitored gravimetrically using the highly sensitive, novel Tapered Element Oscillating Microreactor (TEOM) apparatus. The TEOM was also used also in conjunction with CTPAD to characterize Bronsted acidity which is a new application for the instrument. For the first synthesis step, a parallel reaction exists which simultaneously produces diethyl ether and ethylene directly over H-ZSM-5. The reaction rates for each pathway were measured directly using a differential reactor operating at low temperatures (<473 K). Water in the ethanol feed enhances the rate of ethylene formation. A mechanism and kinetic expression are proposed for this reaction over H-ZSM-5, with diethyl-ether desorption and ethylene formation as the rate limiting steps. Heat of adsorption values measured from the independent microcalorimetry work reported in the literature are incorporated into the kinetic analysis which reduces the number of regressed parameters. For the remaining synthesis steps, several zeolite structures (ZSM-5, Y, FER) partially exchanged with Pd, Ti, Ni and Au were prepared and tested. It was determined from this screening study that the zeolites containing Pd are the most efficient catalysts for the dimerization reaction. Characterization results from x-ray diffraction (XRD), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, and CTPAD suggest a stable, Pd species with a low oxidation state as part of the active site in Pd-exchanged zeolites. Isobutylene was present in the C4 fraction at reasonable quantities for most of the catalyst candidates, especially those containing an alkali metal co-cation.

  13. Comparison of real waste (MSW and MPW) pyrolysis in batch reactor over different catalysts. Part II: contaminants, char and pyrolysis oil properties.

    PubMed

    Miskolczi, Norbert; Ateş, Funda; Borsodi, Nikolett

    2013-09-01

    Pyrolysis of real wastes (MPW and MSW) has been investigated at 500°C, 550°C and 600°C using Y-zeolite, β-zeolite, equilibrium FCC, MoO3, Ni-Mo-catalyst, HZSM-5 and Al(OH)3 as catalysts. The viscosity of pyrolysis oils could be decreased by the using of catalysts, especially by β-zeolite and MoO3. Both carbon frame and double bound isomerization was found in case of thermo-catalytic pyrolysis. Char morphology and texture analysis showed more coke deposits on the catalyst surface using MSW raw material. Pyrolysis oils had K, S, P Cl, Ca, Zn, Fe, Cr, Br and Sb as contaminants; and the concentrations of K, S, P, Cl and Br could be decreased by the using of catalysts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis of Cellulose Using Nano Zeolite and Zeolite/Matrix Catalysts in a GC/Micro-Pyrolyzer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyong-Hwan

    2016-05-01

    Cellulose, as a model compound of biomass, was catalyzed over zeolite (HY,.HZSM-5) and zeolite/matrix (HY/Clay, HM/Clay) in a GC/micro-pyrolyzer at 500 degrees C, to produce the valuable products. The catalysts used were pure zeolite and zeolite/matrix including 20 wt% matrix content, which were prepared into different particle sizes (average size; 0.1 mm, 1.6 mm) to study the effect of the particle size of the catalyst for the distribution of product yields. Catalytic pyrolysis had much more volatile products as light components and less content of sugars than pyrolysis only. This phenomenon was strongly influenced by the particle size of the catalyst in catalytic fast pyrolysis. Also, in zeolite and zeolite/matrix catalysts the zeolite type gave the dominant impact on the distribution of product yields.

  15. Modeling methanol transfer in the mesoporous catalyst for the methanol-to-olefins reaction by the time-fractional diffusion equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhokh, Alexey A.; Strizhak, Peter E.

    2018-04-01

    The solutions of the time-fractional diffusion equation for the short and long times are obtained via an application of the asymptotic Green's functions. The derived solutions are applied to analysis of the methanol mass transfer through H-ZSM-5/alumina catalyst grain. It is demonstrated that the methanol transport in the catalysts pores may be described by the obtained solutions in a fairly good manner. The measured fractional exponent is equal to 1.20 ± 0.02 and reveals the super-diffusive regime of the methanol mass transfer. The presence of the anomalous transport may be caused by geometrical restrictions and the adsorption process on the internal surface of the catalyst grain's pores.

  16. Construction of Bifunctional Co/H-ZSM-5 Catalysts for the Hydrodeoxygenation of Stearic Acid to Diesel-range Alkanes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guangjun; Zhang, Nan; Dai, Weili; Guan, Naijia; Li, Landong

    2018-04-27

    Bifunctional Co/H-ZSM-5 zeolites were prepared by surface organometallic chemistry grafting route, namely by the stoichiometric reaction between cobaltocene and the Brønsted acid sites in zeolites, and applied to the model reaction of stearic acid catalytic hydrodeoxygenation. Cobalt species existed in the form of isolated Co2+ ions at exchange positions after grafting, transformed to CoO species on the surface of zeolite and stabilized inside zeolite channels upon calcination in air, and finally reduced to metallic cobalt species of homogeneous clusters of ca. 1.5 nm by hydrogen. During this process, the Brønsted acid sites of H-ZSM-5 zeolites could be preserved with acid strength slightly reduced. The as-prepared bifunctional catalyst exhibited a ~16 times higher activity in stearic acid hydrodeoxygenation (2.11 gSAgcat-1h-1) than the reference catalyst (0.13 gSAgcat-1h-1) prepared by solid-state ion exchange, and a high C18/C17 ratio of ~24 was achieved as well. The remarkable hydrodeoxygenation performance of bifunctional Co/H-ZSM-5 could be explained from the effective synergy between the uniformed metallic cobalt clusters and the Brønsted acid sites in H-ZSM-5 zeolite. The simplified reaction network and kinetics of stearic acid hydrodeoxygenation catalyzed by the as-prepared bifunctional Co/H-ZSM-5 zeolites were also investigated. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Catalytic co-aromatization of ethanol and methane

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Aiguo; He, Peng; Yung, Matthew; ...

    2016-06-06

    This study demonstrates the technical feasibility of simultaneously converting ethanol and methane into liquid hydrocarbons at mild reaction conditions (400 °C and 1 atm) over silver and/or zinc modified zeolite catalysts. After GC-MS analysis, it is worth noting that aromatics are the major compounds contained in the liquid product collected from the run when 1%Ag/ZSM-5, particularly after H 2 pretreatment, is charged. Compared to the performance exhibited from the run with pure HZSM-5 support engaged, Ag addition into the HZSM-5 framework favors aromatics formation, which might be closely associated with better Ag dispersion and more abundance of strong surface acidicmore » sites where aromatization might take place while Zn loading exerts a detrimental effect on the production of aromatics but promotes the ether generation possibly through dehydration reaction. Referred to that from its N 2 counterpart, the increased aromatics formation of the collected liquid product when methane is present indicates that methane existence might facilitate ethanol aromatization. Moreover, combined with the increased carbon number in the formed aromatics from CH 4 run when H 2 run is referred and zero liquid formation from CH 4-alone test as well as more prominent endothermic feature of methane run and more importantly the notably increased 13C signals in 13C NMR spectra of the liquid product collected during ethanol conversion under 13CH 4 environment, all the observations suggest that methane might be activated nonoxidatively and converted into higher hydrocarbons, preferentially into aromatics if suitable catalyst is charged under the assistance of co-existing oxygenated hydrocarbon. Lastly, the reported synergetic effect could potentially lead to the more economic utilization of abundant natural gas and cellulosic ethanol.« less

  18. Reforming Biomass Derived Pyrolysis Bio-oil Aqueous Phase to Fuels

    SciT

    Mukarakate, Calvin; Evans, Robert J.; Deutch, Steve

    Fast pyrolysis and catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) of biomass produce a liquid product stream comprised of various classes of organic compounds having different molecule size and polarity. This liquid, either spontaneously in the case of catalytic fast pyrolysis or by water addition for the non-catalytic process separates into a non-polar organic-rich fraction and a highly polar water-rich fraction. The organic fraction can be used as a blendstock or feedstock for further processing in a refinery while, in the CFP process design, the aqueous phase is currently sent to wastewater treatment, which results in a loss of residual biogenic carbon presentmore » in this stream. Our work focuses on the catalytic conversion of the biogenic carbon in pyrolysis aqueous phase streams to produce hydrocarbons using a vertical micro-reactor coupled to a molecular beam mass spectrometer (MBMS). Furthermore, the MBMS provides real-time analysis of products while also tracking catalyst deactivation. The catalyst used in this work was HZSM-5, which upgraded the oxygenated organics in the aqueous fraction to fuels comprising small olefins and aromatic hydrocarbons. During processing the aqueous bio-oil fraction the HZSM-5 catalyst exhibited higher activity and coke resistance than those observed in similar experiments using biomass or whole bio-oils. Reduced coking is likely due to ejection of coke precursors from the catalyst pores that was enhanced by excess process water available for steam stripping. The water reacted with coke precursors to form phenol, methylated phenols, naphthol, and methylated naphthols. Conversion data shows that up to 40 wt% of the carbon in the feed stream is recovered as hydrocarbons.« less

  19. Reforming Biomass Derived Pyrolysis Bio-oil Aqueous Phase to Fuels

    DOE PAGES

    Mukarakate, Calvin; Evans, Robert J.; Deutch, Steve; ...

    2017-01-07

    Fast pyrolysis and catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) of biomass produce a liquid product stream comprised of various classes of organic compounds having different molecule size and polarity. This liquid, either spontaneously in the case of catalytic fast pyrolysis or by water addition for the non-catalytic process separates into a non-polar organic-rich fraction and a highly polar water-rich fraction. The organic fraction can be used as a blendstock or feedstock for further processing in a refinery while, in the CFP process design, the aqueous phase is currently sent to wastewater treatment, which results in a loss of residual biogenic carbon presentmore » in this stream. Our work focuses on the catalytic conversion of the biogenic carbon in pyrolysis aqueous phase streams to produce hydrocarbons using a vertical micro-reactor coupled to a molecular beam mass spectrometer (MBMS). Furthermore, the MBMS provides real-time analysis of products while also tracking catalyst deactivation. The catalyst used in this work was HZSM-5, which upgraded the oxygenated organics in the aqueous fraction to fuels comprising small olefins and aromatic hydrocarbons. During processing the aqueous bio-oil fraction the HZSM-5 catalyst exhibited higher activity and coke resistance than those observed in similar experiments using biomass or whole bio-oils. Reduced coking is likely due to ejection of coke precursors from the catalyst pores that was enhanced by excess process water available for steam stripping. The water reacted with coke precursors to form phenol, methylated phenols, naphthol, and methylated naphthols. Conversion data shows that up to 40 wt% of the carbon in the feed stream is recovered as hydrocarbons.« less

  20. Characterization and Catalytic Upgrading of Aqueous Stream Carbon from Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass

    DOE PAGES

    Starace, Anne K.; Black, Brenna A.; Lee, David D.; ...

    2017-10-23

    Catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) of biomass produces a liquid product consisting of organic and aqueous streams. The organic stream is typically slated for hydrotreating to produce hydrocarbon biofuels, while the aqueous stream is considered a waste stream, resulting in the loss of residual biogenic carbon. Here, we report the detailed characterization and catalytic conversion of a CFP wastewater stream with the ultimate aim to improve overall biomass utilization within a thermochemical biorefinery. An aqueous stream derived from CFP of beech wood was comprehensively characterized, quantifying 53 organic compounds to a total of 17% organics. The most abundant classes of compoundsmore » are acids, aldehydes, and alcohols. The most abundant components identified in the aqueous stream were C1-C2 organics, comprising 6.40% acetic acid, 2.16% methanol, and 1.84% formaldehyde on wet basis. The CFP aqueous stream was catalytically upgraded to olefins and aromatic hydrocarbons using a Ga/HZSM-5 catalyst at 500 degrees C. When the conversion yield of the upgraded products was measured with fresh, active catalyst, 33% of the carbon in the aqueous stream was recovered as aromatic hydrocarbons and 29% as olefins. The majority of the experiments were conducted using a molecular beam mass spectrometer and separate GC-MS/FID experiments were used to confirm the assignments and quantification of products with fresh excess catalyst. The recovered 62% carbon in the form of olefins and aromatics can be used to make coproducts and/or fuels potentially improving biorefinery economics and sustainability. Spent catalysts were collected after exposure to varying amounts of the feed, and were characterized using multipoint-Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) adsorption, ammonia temperature programmed desorption (TPD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to monitor deactivation of Ga/HZSM-5. These characterization data revealed that deactivation was caused by coke deposits, which blocked access

  1. Characterization and Catalytic Upgrading of Aqueous Stream Carbon from Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass

    SciT

    Starace, Anne K.; Black, Brenna A.; Lee, David D.

    Catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) of biomass produces a liquid product consisting of organic and aqueous streams. The organic stream is typically slated for hydrotreating to produce hydrocarbon biofuels, while the aqueous stream is considered a waste stream, resulting in the loss of residual biogenic carbon. Here, we report the detailed characterization and catalytic conversion of a CFP wastewater stream with the ultimate aim to improve overall biomass utilization within a thermochemical biorefinery. An aqueous stream derived from CFP of beech wood was comprehensively characterized, quantifying 53 organic compounds to a total of 17% organics. The most abundant classes of compoundsmore » are acids, aldehydes, and alcohols. The most abundant components identified in the aqueous stream were C1-C2 organics, comprising 6.40% acetic acid, 2.16% methanol, and 1.84% formaldehyde on wet basis. The CFP aqueous stream was catalytically upgraded to olefins and aromatic hydrocarbons using a Ga/HZSM-5 catalyst at 500 degrees C. When the conversion yield of the upgraded products was measured with fresh, active catalyst, 33% of the carbon in the aqueous stream was recovered as aromatic hydrocarbons and 29% as olefins. The majority of the experiments were conducted using a molecular beam mass spectrometer and separate GC-MS/FID experiments were used to confirm the assignments and quantification of products with fresh excess catalyst. The recovered 62% carbon in the form of olefins and aromatics can be used to make coproducts and/or fuels potentially improving biorefinery economics and sustainability. Spent catalysts were collected after exposure to varying amounts of the feed, and were characterized using multipoint-Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) adsorption, ammonia temperature programmed desorption (TPD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to monitor deactivation of Ga/HZSM-5. These characterization data revealed that deactivation was caused by coke deposits, which blocked access

  2. A Laboratory Test Setup for in Situ Measurements of the Dielectric Properties of Catalyst Powder Samples under Reaction Conditions by Microwave Cavity Perturbation: Set up and Initial Tests

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Markus; Rauch, Dieter; Porch, Adrian; Moos, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic behavior of zeolite catalysts for the ammonia-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides (NOX) depends strongly on the type of zeolite material. An essential precondition for SCR is a previous ammonia gas adsorption that occurs on acidic sites of the zeolite. In order to understand and develop SCR active materials, it is crucial to know the amount of sorbed ammonia under reaction conditions. To support classical temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiments, a correlation of the dielectric properties with the catalytic properties and the ammonia sorption under reaction conditions appears promising. In this work, a laboratory test setup, which enables direct measurements of the dielectric properties of catalytic powder samples under a defined gas atmosphere and temperature by microwave cavity perturbation, has been developed. Based on previous investigations and computational simulations, a resonator cavity and a heating system were designed, installed and characterized. The resonator cavity is designed to operate in its TM010 mode at 1.2 GHz. The first measurement of the ammonia loading of an H-ZSM-5 zeolite confirmed the operating performance of the test setup at constant temperatures of up to 300 °C. It showed how both real and imaginary parts of the relative complex permittivity are strongly correlated with the mass of stored ammonia. PMID:25211199

  3. Heterobimetallic Zeolite, InV-ZSM-5, Enables Efficient Conversion of Biomass Derived Ethanol to Renewable Hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Narula, Chaitanya K; Li, Zhenglong; Casbeer, Erik M; Geiger, Robert A; Moses-Debusk, Melanie; Keller, Martin; Buchanan, Michelle V; Davison, Brian H

    2015-11-03

    Direct catalytic conversion of ethanol to hydrocarbon blend-stock can increase biofuels use in current vehicles beyond the ethanol blend-wall of 10-15%. Literature reports describe quantitative conversion of ethanol over zeolite catalysts but high C2 hydrocarbon formation renders this approach unsuitable for commercialization. Furthermore, the prior mechanistic studies suggested that ethanol conversion involves endothermic dehydration step. Here, we report the complete conversion of ethanol to hydrocarbons over InV-ZSM-5 without added hydrogen and which produces lower C2 (<13%) as compared to that over H-ZSM-5. Experiments with C2H5OD and in situ DRIFT suggest that most of the products come from the hydrocarbon pool type mechanism and dehydration step is not necessary. Thus, our method of direct conversion of ethanol offers a pathway to produce suitable hydrocarbon blend-stock that may be blended at a refinery to produce fuels such as gasoline, diesel, JP-8, and jet fuel, or produce commodity chemicals such as BTX.

  4. Ethanol dehydration to ethylene in a stratified autothermal millisecond reactor.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Michael J; Michor, Edward L; Fan, Wei; Tsapatsis, Michael; Bhan, Aditya; Schmidt, Lanny D

    2011-08-22

    The concurrent decomposition and deoxygenation of ethanol was accomplished in a stratified reactor with 50-80 ms contact times. The stratified reactor comprised an upstream oxidation zone that contained Pt-coated Al(2)O(3) beads and a downstream dehydration zone consisting of H-ZSM-5 zeolite films deposited on Al(2)O(3) monoliths. Ethanol conversion, product selectivity, and reactor temperature profiles were measured for a range of fuel:oxygen ratios for two autothermal reactor configurations using two different sacrificial fuel mixtures: a parallel hydrogen-ethanol feed system and a series methane-ethanol feed system. Increasing the amount of oxygen relative to the fuel resulted in a monotonic increase in ethanol conversion in both reaction zones. The majority of the converted carbon was in the form of ethylene, where the ethanol carbon-carbon bonds stayed intact while the oxygen was removed. Over 90% yield of ethylene was achieved by using methane as a sacrificial fuel. These results demonstrate that noble metals can be successfully paired with zeolites to create a stratified autothermal reactor capable of removing oxygen from biomass model compounds in a compact, continuous flow system that can be configured to have multiple feed inputs, depending on process restrictions. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Directly converting CO2 into a gasoline fuel.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jian; Ge, Qingjie; Yao, Ruwei; Wen, Zhiyong; Fang, Chuanyan; Guo, Lisheng; Xu, Hengyong; Sun, Jian

    2017-05-02

    The direct production of liquid fuels from CO 2 hydrogenation has attracted enormous interest for its significant roles in mitigating CO 2 emissions and reducing dependence on petrochemicals. Here we report a highly efficient, stable and multifunctional Na-Fe 3 O 4 /HZSM-5 catalyst, which can directly convert CO 2 to gasoline-range (C 5 -C 11 ) hydrocarbons with selectivity up to 78% of all hydrocarbons while only 4% methane at a CO 2 conversion of 22% under industrial relevant conditions. It is achieved by a multifunctional catalyst providing three types of active sites (Fe 3 O 4 , Fe 5 C 2 and acid sites), which cooperatively catalyse a tandem reaction. More significantly, the appropriate proximity of three types of active sites plays a crucial role in the successive and synergetic catalytic conversion of CO 2 to gasoline. The multifunctional catalyst, exhibiting a remarkable stability for 1,000 h on stream, definitely has the potential to be a promising industrial catalyst for CO 2 utilization to liquid fuels.

  6. Comparision of real waste (MSW and MPW) pyrolysis in batch reactor over different catalysts. Part I: product yields, gas and pyrolysis oil properties.

    PubMed

    Ateş, Funda; Miskolczi, Norbert; Borsodi, Nikolett

    2013-04-01

    Pyrolysis of municipal solid waste (MSW) and municipal plastic waste (MPW) have been investigated in batch reactor at 500, 550 and 600°C both in absence and presence of catalysts (Y-zeolite, β-zeolite, equilibrium FCC, MoO3, Ni-Mo-catalyst, HZSM-5 and Al(OH)3). The effect of the parameters on the product properties was investigated. Products were characterized using gas-chromatography, GC/MS, (13)C NMR. Yields of volatile fractions increased, while reaction time necessity for the total cracking decreased in the presence of catalysts. Catalysts have productivity and selectivity in converting aliphatic hydrocarbons to aromatic and cyclic compounds in oil products. Gases from MSW consisted of hydrogen CO, CO2, while exclusively hydrogen and hydrocarbons were detected from MPW. Catalyst efficiency was higher using MPW than MSW. Pyrolysis oils contained aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatics, cyclic compounds and less ketones, alcohols, acids or esters depending on the raw materials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fourier-transform i.r. gas chromatography—mass spectrometry study of varying light olefin reactivity on dealuminated ZSM-5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayed, Moein B.

    Olefin oligomerization and alkylation (by methanol) of ethene, propene, and isobutene on HZSM-5 have been studied in typical conditions of the catalytic Mobil methanol to gasoline (MTG) process. This has been to identify the most likely light olefin involved as a key intermediate and the most likely mechanism by which such a light olefin propagates to gasoline in the MTG process. Reactions involving bulky intermediates are restricted within the narrow channels of ZSM-5. The oligomerization of ethene and isobutene appears to be an example of such restricted reactions. Zeolite dealumination seems to assist in overcoming the steric barrier by increasing both the zeolite pore volume and the population of the site (silanol) hosting the adsorbate. Spectral i.r. evidence reveals a role of zeolite Lewis acidity as a precursor in initiating olefin protonation by the zeolite Brønsted acidity. Both i.r. and GC—MS data consistently reveal a product distribution similar to that obtained in the MTG process, which suggests a dominant oligomerization and/or alkylation to be the mechanism leading to gasoline in the MTG process. However, the higher reactivity detected for olefin alkylation indicates alkylation to be the favoured mechanism. Propene is more likely to be a key intermediate, whereas isobutene contributes with a role being increasingly dominant over the more dealuminated ZSM-5 surfaces. Ethene, in contrast, shows poor reactivity, which can be enhanced by the zeolite dealumination.

  8. Progress on Zeolite-membrane-aided Organic Acid Esterification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makertiharta, I. G. B. N.; Dharmawijaya, P. T.

    2017-07-01

    Esterification is a common route to produce carboxylic acid esters as important intermediates in chemical and pharmaceutical industries. However, the reaction is equilibrium limited and needs to be driven forward by selective removal one of the products. There have been some efforts to selectively remove water from reaction mixture via several separation processes (such as pervaporation and reactive distillation). Integrated pervaporation and esterification has gained increasing attention towards. Inorganic zeolite is the most popular material for pervaporation due to its high chemical resistant and separation performance towards water. Zeolite also has proven to be an effective material in removing water from organic compound. Zeolite can act not only as selective layer but also simultaneously act as a catalyst on promoting the reaction. Hence, there are many configurations in integrating zeolite membrane for esterification reaction. As a selective layer to remove water from reaction mixture, high Si/Al zeolite is preferred to enhance its hydrophilicity. However, low Si/Al zeolite is unstable in acid condition due to dealumination thus eliminate its advantages. As a catalyst, acid zeolites (e.g. H-ZSM-5) provide protons for autoprotolysis of the carboxylic acid similar to other catalyst for esterification (e.g. inorganic acid, and ion exchange resins). There are many studies related to zeolite membrane aided esterification. This paper will give brief information related to zeolite membrane role in esterification and also research trend towards it.

  9. Heterobimetallic Zeolite, InV-ZSM-5, Enables Efficient Conversion of Biomass Derived Ethanol to Renewable Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Li, Zhenglong; Casbeer, Erik M.; Geiger, Robert A.; Moses-Debusk, Melanie; Keller, Martin; Buchanan, Michelle V.; Davison, Brian H.

    2015-11-01

    Direct catalytic conversion of ethanol to hydrocarbon blend-stock can increase biofuels use in current vehicles beyond the ethanol blend-wall of 10-15%. Literature reports describe quantitative conversion of ethanol over zeolite catalysts but high C2 hydrocarbon formation renders this approach unsuitable for commercialization. Furthermore, the prior mechanistic studies suggested that ethanol conversion involves endothermic dehydration step. Here, we report the complete conversion of ethanol to hydrocarbons over InV-ZSM-5 without added hydrogen and which produces lower C2 (<13%) as compared to that over H-ZSM-5. Experiments with C2H5OD and in situ DRIFT suggest that most of the products come from the hydrocarbon pool type mechanism and dehydration step is not necessary. Thus, our method of direct conversion of ethanol offers a pathway to produce suitable hydrocarbon blend-stock that may be blended at a refinery to produce fuels such as gasoline, diesel, JP-8, and jet fuel, or produce commodity chemicals such as BTX.

  10. Low pressure catalytic co-conversion of biogenic waste (rapeseed cake) and vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Giannakopoulou, Kanellina; Lukas, Michael; Vasiliev, Aleksey; Brunner, Christoph; Schnitzer, Hans

    2010-05-01

    Zeolite catalysts of three types (H-ZSM-5, Fe-ZSM-5 and H-Beta) were tested in the catalytic co-conversion of rapeseed cake and safflower oil into bio-fuel. This low pressure process was carried out at the temperatures of 350 and 400 degrees Celsius. The yields and compositions of the product mixtures depended on the catalyst nature and the process temperatures. The produced organic phases consisted mainly of hydrocarbons, fatty acids and nitriles. This mixture possessed improved characteristics (e.g. heating value, water content, density, viscosity, pH) compared with the bio-oils, making possible its application as a bio-fuel. The most effective catalyst, providing the highest yield of organic liquid phase, was the highly acidic/wide-pore H-Beta zeolite. The products obtained on this catalyst demonstrated the highest degree of deoxygenation and the higher HHV (Higher Heating Value). The aqueous liquid phase contained water-soluble carboxylic acids, phenols and heterocyclic compounds. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Alkali Potassium Induced HCl/CO2 Selectivity Enhancement and Chlorination Reaction Inhibition for Catalytic Oxidation of Chloroaromatics.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pengfei; Wang, Wanglong; Weng, Xiaole; Dai, Xiaoxia; Wu, Zhongbiao

    2018-06-05

    Industrial combustion of chloroaromatics is likely to generate unintentional biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). This process involves a surface-mediated reaction and can be accelerated in the presence of a catalyst. In the past decade, the effect of surface nature of applied catalysts on the conversion of chloroaromatics to PCBs/PCDD/PCDF has been well explored. However, studies on how the flue gas interferent components affect such a conversion process remain insufficient. In this article, a critical flue gas interferent component, alkali potassium, was investigated to reveal its effect on the chloroaromatics oxidation at a typical solid acid-base catalyst, Mn x Ce 1- x O 2 /HZSM-5. The loading of alkali potassium was found to improve the Lewis acidity of the catalyst (by increasing the amounts of surface Mn 4+ after calcination), which thus promoted the CO 2 selectivity for catalytic chlorobenzene (CB) oxidation. The KOH with a high hydrophilicity has favored the adsorption/activation of H 2 O molecules that provided sufficient hydroxyl groups and possibly induced a hydrolysis process to promote the formation of HCl. The K ion also served as a potential sink for chorine ions immobilization (via forming KCl). Both of these inhibited the formation of phenyl polychloride byproducts, thereby blocking the conversion of CB to chlorophenol and then PCDDs/PCDFs, and potentially ensuring a durable operation and less secondary pollution for the catalytic chloroaromatics combustion in industry.

  12. Production of low-oxygen bio-oil via ex situ catalytic fast pyrolysis and hydrotreating

    SciT

    Iisa, Kristiina; French, Richard J.; Orton, Kellene A.

    Catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) bio-oils with different organic oxygen contents (4-18 wt%) were prepared in a bench-scale dual fluidized bed reactor system by ex situ CFP of southern pine over HZSM-5, and the oils were subsequently hydrotreated over a sulfided CoMo catalyst at 170 bar. The goal was to determine the impact of the CFP oil oxygen content on hydrotreating requirements. The CFP oils with higher oxygen contents included a variety of oxygenates (phenols, methoxyphenols, carbonyls, anhydrosugars) whereas oxygenates in the 4 wt% oxygen oil were almost exclusively phenols. Phenols were the most recalcitrant oxygenates during hydrotreating as well, andmore » the hydrotreated oils consisted mainly of aromatic and partially saturated ring hydrocarbons. The temperature required to produce oil with <1% oxygen was approximately 350 °C for the CFP oil with the lowest oxygen content whereas temperatures around 400 °C were required for the other CFP oils. The carbon efficiency during hydrotreating slightly decreased as the CFP oil oxygen content increased but remained above 90% in all cases, and the carbon efficiency for the integrated process was dominated by the efficiency of the CFP process. In conclusion, a preliminary technoeconomic evaluation suggested that with the current zeolite-based CFP catalysts, it is economically beneficial to preserve carbon during CFP, at the expense of higher oxygen contents in the CFP oil.« less

  13. Heterobimetallic Zeolite, InV-ZSM-5, Enables Efficient Conversion of Biomass Derived Ethanol to Renewable Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Li, Zhenglong; Casbeer, Erik M.; Geiger, Robert A.; Moses-Debusk, Melanie; Keller, Martin; Buchanan, Michelle V.; Davison, Brian H.

    2015-01-01

    Direct catalytic conversion of ethanol to hydrocarbon blend-stock can increase biofuels use in current vehicles beyond the ethanol blend-wall of 10–15%. Literature reports describe quantitative conversion of ethanol over zeolite catalysts but high C2 hydrocarbon formation renders this approach unsuitable for commercialization. Furthermore, the prior mechanistic studies suggested that ethanol conversion involves endothermic dehydration step. Here, we report the complete conversion of ethanol to hydrocarbons over InV-ZSM-5 without added hydrogen and which produces lower C2 (<13%) as compared to that over H-ZSM-5. Experiments with C2H5OD and in situ DRIFT suggest that most of the products come from the hydrocarbon pool type mechanism and dehydration step is not necessary. Thus, our method of direct conversion of ethanol offers a pathway to produce suitable hydrocarbon blend-stock that may be blended at a refinery to produce fuels such as gasoline, diesel, JP-8, and jet fuel, or produce commodity chemicals such as BTX. PMID:26526963

  14. Synthesis of Bio-aromatics from Black Liquors Using Catalytic Pyrolysis

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Bio-aromatics (benzene, toluene, xylenes, BTX) were prepared by the catalytic pyrolysis of six different black liquors using both in situ and ex situ approaches. A wide range of catalysts was screened and conditions were optimized in microscale reactors. Up to 7 wt % of BTX, based on the organic fraction of the black liquors, was obtained for both the in situ and ex situ pyrolysis (T = 500–600 °C) using a Ga-modified H-ZSM-5 catalyst. The in situ catalytic pyrolysis of black liquors from hardwood paper mills afforded slightly higher yields of aromatics/BTX than softwood black liquors, a trend that could be confirmed by the results obtained in the ex situ catalytic pyrolysis. An almost full deoxygenation of the lignin and carbohydrate fraction was achieved and both organic fractions were converted to a broad range of (substituted) aromatics. The zeolite catalyst used was remarkably stable and even after 100 experiments in batch mode with intermittent oxidative catalyst regeneration, the yields and selectivity toward BTX remained similar. The ex situ pyrolysis of black liquor has potential for large-scale implementation in a paper mill without disturbing the paper production process. PMID:29607268

  15. Conversion of Methanol, Ethanol and Propanol over Zeolites

    SciT

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

    2013-06-04

    Renewable fuel from lignocellulosic biomass has recently attracted more attention due to its environmental and the potential economic benefits over the crude oil [1]. In particular the production of fuel range hydrocarbon (HC) from alcohol generated lots of interest since the alcohol can be produced from biomass via thermochemical [2] (mixed alcohol from gasification derived synthesis gas) as well as the biochemical routes [3] (alcohol fermentation). Along with the development of ZSM5 synthesis and the discovery of methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process by Mobil in 1970’s triggered lots of interest in research and development arena to understand the reaction mechanisms of alcoholsmore » over zeolites in particular ZSM5 [4]. More detailed research on methanol conversion was extensively reported [5] and in recent times the research work can be found on ethanol [6] and other alcohols as well but comprehensive comparison of catalyst activity and the deactivation mechanism of the conversion of various alcohols over zeolites has not been reported. The experiments were conducted on smaller alcohols such as methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol over HZSM5. The experimental results on the catalyst activity and the catalyst deactivation mechanism will be discussed.« less

  16. Ethylene Formation by Catalytic Dehydration of Ethanol with Industrial Considerations.

    PubMed

    Fan, Denise; Dai, Der-Jong; Wu, Ho-Shing

    2012-12-28

    Ethylene is the primary component in most plastics, making it economically valuable. It is produced primarily by steam-cracking of hydrocarbons, but can alternatively be produced by the dehydration of ethanol, which can be produced from fermentation processes using renewable substrates such as glucose, starch and others. Due to rising oil prices, researchers now look at alternative reactions to produce green ethylene, but the process is far from being as economically competitive as using fossil fuels. Many studies have investigated catalysts and new reaction engineering technologies to increase ethylene yield and to lower reaction temperature, in an effort to make the reaction applicable in industry and most cost-efficient. This paper presents various lab synthesized catalysts, reaction conditions, and reactor technologies that achieved high ethylene yield at reasonable reaction temperatures, and evaluates their practicality in industrial application in comparison with steam-cracking plants. The most promising were found to be a nanoscale catalyst HZSM-5 with 99.7% ethylene selectivity at 240 °C and 630 h lifespan, using a microreactor technology with mechanical vapor recompression, and algae-produced ethanol to make ethylene.

  17. Directly converting CO2 into a gasoline fuel

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jian; Ge, Qingjie; Yao, Ruwei; Wen, Zhiyong; Fang, Chuanyan; Guo, Lisheng; Xu, Hengyong; Sun, Jian

    2017-01-01

    The direct production of liquid fuels from CO2 hydrogenation has attracted enormous interest for its significant roles in mitigating CO2 emissions and reducing dependence on petrochemicals. Here we report a highly efficient, stable and multifunctional Na–Fe3O4/HZSM-5 catalyst, which can directly convert CO2 to gasoline-range (C5–C11) hydrocarbons with selectivity up to 78% of all hydrocarbons while only 4% methane at a CO2 conversion of 22% under industrial relevant conditions. It is achieved by a multifunctional catalyst providing three types of active sites (Fe3O4, Fe5C2 and acid sites), which cooperatively catalyse a tandem reaction. More significantly, the appropriate proximity of three types of active sites plays a crucial role in the successive and synergetic catalytic conversion of CO2 to gasoline. The multifunctional catalyst, exhibiting a remarkable stability for 1,000 h on stream, definitely has the potential to be a promising industrial catalyst for CO2 utilization to liquid fuels. PMID:28462925

  18. Photocatalytic synthesis of urea from in situ generated ammonia and carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Basavaraju; Kumari, Valluri Durga; Sadanandam, Gullapelli; Hymavathi, Chilumula; Subrahmanyam, Machiraju; De, Bhudev Ranjan

    2012-01-01

    TiO(2) and Fe-titanate (different wt%) supported on zeolite were prepared by sol-gel and solid-state dispersion methods. The photocatalysts prepared were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and ultraviolet (UV)-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy techniques. Photocatalytic reduction of nitrate in water and isopropanol/oxalic acid as hole scavengers are investigated in a batch reactor under UV illumination. The yield of urea increased notably when the catalysts were supported on zeolite. The Fe-titanate supported catalyst promotes the charge separation that contributes to an increase in selective formation of urea. The product formation is because of the high adsorption of in situ generated CO(2) and NH(3) over shape-selective property of the zeolite in the composite photocatalyst. The maximum yield of urea is found to be 18 ppm while 1% isopropanol containing solution over 10 wt% Fe-titanate/HZSM-5 photocatalyst was used. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2011 The American Society of Photobiology.

  19. Production of low-oxygen bio-oil via ex situ catalytic fast pyrolysis and hydrotreating

    DOE PAGES

    Iisa, Kristiina; French, Richard J.; Orton, Kellene A.; ...

    2017-06-29

    Catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) bio-oils with different organic oxygen contents (4-18 wt%) were prepared in a bench-scale dual fluidized bed reactor system by ex situ CFP of southern pine over HZSM-5, and the oils were subsequently hydrotreated over a sulfided CoMo catalyst at 170 bar. The goal was to determine the impact of the CFP oil oxygen content on hydrotreating requirements. The CFP oils with higher oxygen contents included a variety of oxygenates (phenols, methoxyphenols, carbonyls, anhydrosugars) whereas oxygenates in the 4 wt% oxygen oil were almost exclusively phenols. Phenols were the most recalcitrant oxygenates during hydrotreating as well, andmore » the hydrotreated oils consisted mainly of aromatic and partially saturated ring hydrocarbons. The temperature required to produce oil with <1% oxygen was approximately 350 °C for the CFP oil with the lowest oxygen content whereas temperatures around 400 °C were required for the other CFP oils. The carbon efficiency during hydrotreating slightly decreased as the CFP oil oxygen content increased but remained above 90% in all cases, and the carbon efficiency for the integrated process was dominated by the efficiency of the CFP process. In conclusion, a preliminary technoeconomic evaluation suggested that with the current zeolite-based CFP catalysts, it is economically beneficial to preserve carbon during CFP, at the expense of higher oxygen contents in the CFP oil.« less

  20. Quantum chemical modeling of zeolite-catalyzed methylation reactions: toward chemical accuracy for barriers.

    PubMed

    Svelle, Stian; Tuma, Christian; Rozanska, Xavier; Kerber, Torsten; Sauer, Joachim

    2009-01-21

    The methylation of ethene, propene, and t-2-butene by methanol over the acidic microporous H-ZSM-5 catalyst has been investigated by a range of computational methods. Density functional theory (DFT) with periodic boundary conditions (PBE functional) fails to describe the experimentally determined decrease of apparent energy barriers with the alkene size due to inadequate description of dispersion forces. Adding a damped dispersion term expressed as a parametrized sum over atom pair C(6) contributions leads to uniformly underestimated barriers due to self-interaction errors. A hybrid MP2:DFT scheme is presented that combines MP2 energy calculations on a series of cluster models of increasing size with periodic DFT calculations, which allows extrapolation to the periodic MP2 limit. Additionally, errors caused by the use of finite basis sets, contributions of higher order correlation effects, zero-point vibrational energy, and thermal contributions to the enthalpy were evaluated and added to the "periodic" MP2 estimate. This multistep approach leads to enthalpy barriers at 623 K of 104, 77, and 48 kJ/mol for ethene, propene, and t-2-butene, respectively, which deviate from the experimentally measured values by 0, +13, and +8 kJ/mol. Hence, enthalpy barriers can be calculated with near chemical accuracy, which constitutes significant progress in the quantum chemical modeling of reactions in heterogeneous catalysis in general and microporous zeolites in particular.

  1. Catalytic dehydration of biomass derived 1-propanol to propene over M-ZSM-5 (M = H, V, Cu, or Zn)

    DOE PAGES

    Lepore, Andrew W.; Li, Zhenglong; Davison, Brian H.; ...

    2017-04-03

    Here, the impetus to explore biomass derived chemicals arises from a desire to enable renewable and sustainable commodity chemicals. To this end, we report catalytic production of propene, a building-block molecule, from 1-propanol. We found that zeolite catalysts are quite versatile and can produce propene at or below 230 C with high selectivity. Increasing the reaction temperature above 230 C shifted product selectivity towards C4+ hydrocarbons. Cu-ZSM-5 was found to exhibit a broader temperature window for high propene selectivity and could function at higher 1-propanol space velocities than H-ZSM-5. A series of experiments with 1-propan(ol-D) showed deuterium incorporation in themore » hydrocarbon product stream including propene suggesting that hydrocarbon pool type pathway might be operational concurrent with dehydration to produce C4+ hydrocarbons. Diffuse reflectance infra-red spectroscopy of 1-propanol and 1-propan(ol-D) over Cu-ZSM-5 in combination with deuterium labeling experiments suggest that deuterium incorporation occurs in two steps. Incorporation of deuterium occurs post dehydration via exchange with the partially deuterated catalyst surface.« less

  2. Recent advances in secondary ion mass spectrometry of solid acid catalysts: large zeolite crystals under bombardment.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Jan P; Rohnke, Marcus; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2014-03-28

    This Perspective aims to inform the heterogeneous catalysis and materials science community about the recent advances in Time-of-Flight-Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) to characterize catalytic solids by taking large model H-ZSM-5 zeolite crystals as a showcase system. SIMS-based techniques have been explored in the 1980-1990's to study porous catalyst materials but, due to their limited spectral and spatiotemporal resolution, there was no real major breakthrough at that time. The technical advancements in SIMS instruments, namely improved ion gun design and new mass analyser concepts, nowadays allow for a much more detailed analysis of surface species relevant to catalytic action. Imaging with high mass and lateral resolution, determination of fragment ion patterns, novel sputter ion concepts as well as new mass analysers (e.g. ToF, FTICR) are just a few novelties, which will lead to new fundamental insight from SIMS analysis of heterogeneous catalysts. The Perspective article ends with an outlook on instrumental innovations and their potential use for catalytic systems other than zeolite crystals.

  3. SciT

    Hintermeier, Peter H.; Eckstein, Sebastian; Mei, Donghai

    Hydronium ions in the pores of zeolite H-ZSM5 show high catalytic activity in the elimination of water from cyclohexanol in aqueous phase. Substitution induces subtle changes in rates and reaction pathways, which are concluded to be related to steric effects. Exploring the reaction pathways of 2-, 3-, and 4-methylcyclohexanol (2-McyOH, 3-McyOH, and 4-McyOH), 2- and 4-ethylcyclohexanol (2-EcyOH and 4-EcyOH), 2- n-propylcyclohexanol (2-PcyOH), and cyclohexanol (CyOH) it is shown that the E2 character increases with closer positioning of the alkyl and hydroxyl groups. Thus, 4-McyOH dehydration proceeds via an E1-type elimination, while cis-2-McyOH preferentially reacts via an E2 pathway. The entropymore » of activation decreased with increasing alkyl chain length (ca. 20 J mol -1 K -1 per CH 2 unit) for 2-substituted alcohols, which is concluded to result from constraints influencing the configurational entropy of the transition states.« less

  4. Ex-situ catalytic pyrolysis of wastewater sewage sludge - A micro-pyrolysis study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kaige; Zheng, Yan; Zhu, Xifeng; Brewer, Catherine E; Brown, Robert C

    2017-05-01

    Concerns over increasing amounts of sewage sludge and unsustainability of current disposal methods have led to development of alternative routes for sludge management. The large amount of organics in sewage sludge makes it potential feedstock for energy or fuel production via thermochemical pathways. In this study, ex-situ catalytic pyrolysis using HZSM-5 catalyst was explored for the production of olefinic and aromatic hydrocarbons and nutrient-rich char from sewage sludge. The optimal pyrolysis and catalysis temperatures were found to be 500°C and 600°C, respectively. Carbon yields of hydrocarbons from sewage sludge were higher than for lignocellulose; yield differences were attributed to the high extractives content in the sludge. Full recovery of most inorganic elements were found in the char, which suggests that catalyst deactivation maybe alleviated through ex-situ catalytic pyrolysis. Most of the nitrogen was retained in the char while 31.80% was released as ammonia, which suggests a potential for nitrogen recycling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Catalytic pyrolysis of olive mill wastewater sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdellaoui, Hamza

    From 2008 to 2013, an average of 2,821.4 kilotons/year of olive oil were produced around the world. The waste product of the olive mill industry consists of solid residue (pomace) and wastewater (OMW). Annually, around 30 million m3 of OMW are produced in the Mediterranean area, 700,000 m3 year?1 in Tunisia alone. OMW is an aqueous effluent characterized by an offensive smell and high organic matter content, including high molecular weight phenolic compounds and long-chain fatty acids. These compounds are highly toxic to micro-organisms and plants, which makes the OMW a serious threat to the environment if not managed properly. The OMW is disposed of in open air evaporation ponds. After evaporation of most of the water, OMWS is left in the bottom of the ponds. In this thesis, the effort has been made to evaluate the catalytic pyrolysis process as a technology to valorize the OMWS. The first section of this research showed that 41.12 wt. % of the OMWS is mostly lipids, which are a good source of energy. The second section proved that catalytic pyrolysis of the OMWS over red mud and HZSM-5 can produce green diesel, and 450 °C is the optimal reaction temperature to maximize the organic yields. The last section revealed that the HSF was behind the good fuel-like properties of the OMWS catalytic oils, whereas the SR hindered the bio-oil yields and quality.

  6. QENS study of methane diffusion in Mo/H-ZSM-5 used for the methane dehydroaromatisation reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverwood, Ian P.; Arán, Miren Agote; González, Ines Lezcano; Kroner, Anna; Beale, Andrew M.

    2018-05-01

    There is commercial interest in understanding the deactivation of Mo loaded H-ZSM-5 catalyst by coke fouling during the methane dehydroaromatization reaction (MDA). The effect of coke on methane diffusion inside the zeolite pores was studied by quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) measurements on Mo/H-ZSM-5 samples reacted with methane for 0, 7, 25 and 60 min. Catalytic activity of the samples followed by mass spectrometry indicate that the induction period in which Mo species are carburized lasts for ˜9 min; after this period the material shows selectivity to aromatics. Characterization by TGA and N2 physisorption suggest that practically no carbon is deposited during the induction period. The ˜2 wt % of coke formed after one hour of reaction has a negligible effect in the zeolite crystal structurebut a small effect on the micropore volume. The QENS studies show that the methane transport by jump diffusion is however not measurably affected by the accumulated coke in the samples.

  7. Catalytic dehydration of biomass derived 1-propanol to propene over M-ZSM-5 (M = H, V, Cu, or Zn)

    SciT

    Lepore, Andrew W.; Li, Zhenglong; Davison, Brian H.

    Here, the impetus to explore biomass derived chemicals arises from a desire to enable renewable and sustainable commodity chemicals. To this end, we report catalytic production of propene, a building-block molecule, from 1-propanol. We found that zeolite catalysts are quite versatile and can produce propene at or below 230 C with high selectivity. Increasing the reaction temperature above 230 C shifted product selectivity towards C4+ hydrocarbons. Cu-ZSM-5 was found to exhibit a broader temperature window for high propene selectivity and could function at higher 1-propanol space velocities than H-ZSM-5. A series of experiments with 1-propan(ol-D) showed deuterium incorporation in themore » hydrocarbon product stream including propene suggesting that hydrocarbon pool type pathway might be operational concurrent with dehydration to produce C4+ hydrocarbons. Diffuse reflectance infra-red spectroscopy of 1-propanol and 1-propan(ol-D) over Cu-ZSM-5 in combination with deuterium labeling experiments suggest that deuterium incorporation occurs in two steps. Incorporation of deuterium occurs post dehydration via exchange with the partially deuterated catalyst surface.« less

  8. A laboratory test setup for in situ measurements of the dielectric properties of catalyst powder samples under reaction conditions by microwave cavity perturbation: set up and initial tests.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Markus; Rauch, Dieter; Porch, Adrian; Moos, Ralf

    2014-09-10

    The catalytic behavior of zeolite catalysts for the ammonia-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides (NOX) depends strongly on the type of zeolite material. An essential precondition for SCR is a previous ammonia gas adsorption that occurs on acidic sites of the zeolite. In order to understand and develop SCR active materials, it is crucial to know the amount of sorbed ammonia under reaction conditions. To support classical temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiments, a correlation of the dielectric properties with the catalytic properties and the ammonia sorption under reaction conditions appears promising. In this work, a laboratory test setup, which enables direct measurements of the dielectric properties of catalytic powder samples under a defined gas atmosphere and temperature by microwave cavity perturbation, has been developed. Based on previous investigations and computational simulations, a resonator cavity and a heating system were designed, installed and characterized. The resonator cavity is designed to operate in its TM010 mode at 1.2 GHz. The first measurement of the ammonia loading of an H-ZSM-5 zeolite confirmed the operating performance of the test setup at constant temperatures of up to 300 °C. It showed how both real and imaginary parts of the relative complex permittivity are strongly correlated with the mass of stored ammonia.

  9. Catalytic upgrading of bio-products derived from pyrolysis of red macroalgae Gracilaria gracilis with a promising novel micro/mesoporous catalyst.

    PubMed

    Norouzi, Omid; Tavasoli, Ahmad; Jafarian, Sajedeh; Esmailpour, Sasan

    2017-11-01

    Conversion of Gracilaria gracilis (G. gracilis) into bio-products was carried out via pyrolysis at different temperatures to determine its potential for phenol-rich bio-oil. Co-Mo supported on zeolites (HZSM-5), mesoporous (HMS) catalysts and their composites (ZH) were investigated and compared to each other on catalytic pyrolysis processes. In non-catalytic tests, the maximum weight percentage of bio-oil was 42wt% at 500°C and had the maximum amount of phenol (6.28wt%). in the catalytic tests by ZH composites; the addition of zeolite content in the structure of composites significantly decreased total concentrations of acetic acid and formic acid from 9.56 to 8.12wt% and slightly decreased phenol and furfural concentrations from 6.65 and 6.98 to 5.88 and 5.49wt%, respectively. Furthermore, the best selectivity for hydrogen yield (6.08mmol/g macroalgae) and lowest amount of acetic acid (5.4wt%) was observed for CoMo/ZH-20 catalyst, that is synthesized by 20wt% of zeolite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. SciT

    Iisa, Kristiina; French, Richard J.; Orton, Kellene A.

    Catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) bio-oils with different organic oxygen contents (4-18 wt%) were prepared in a bench-scale dual fluidized bed reactor system by ex situ CFP of southern pine over HZSM-5, and the oils were subsequently hydrotreated over a sulfided CoMo catalyst at 170 bar. The goal was to determine the impact of the CFP oil oxygen content on hydrotreating requirements. The CFP oils with higher oxygen contents included a variety of oxygenates (phenols, methoxyphenols, carbonyls, anhydrosugars) whereas oxygenates in the 4 wt% oxygen oil were almost exclusively phenols. Phenols were the most recalcitrant oxygenates during hydrotreating as well, andmore » the hydrotreated oils consisted mainly of aromatic and partially saturated ring hydrocarbons. The temperature required to produce oil with <1% oxygen was approximately 350 °C for the CFP oil with the lowest oxygen content whereas temperatures around 400 °C were required for the other CFP oils. The carbon efficiency during hydrotreating slightly decreased as the CFP oil oxygen content increased but remained above 90% in all cases, and the carbon efficiency for the integrated process was dominated by the efficiency of the CFP process. In conclusion, a preliminary technoeconomic evaluation suggested that with the current zeolite-based CFP catalysts, it is economically beneficial to preserve carbon during CFP, at the expense of higher oxygen contents in the CFP oil.« less

  11. Ethylene Formation by Catalytic Dehydration of Ethanol with Industrial Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Denise; Dai, Der-Jong; Wu, Ho-Shing

    2012-01-01

    Ethylene is the primary component in most plastics, making it economically valuable. It is produced primarily by steam-cracking of hydrocarbons, but can alternatively be produced by the dehydration of ethanol, which can be produced from fermentation processes using renewable substrates such as glucose, starch and others. Due to rising oil prices, researchers now look at alternative reactions to produce green ethylene, but the process is far from being as economically competitive as using fossil fuels. Many studies have investigated catalysts and new reaction engineering technologies to increase ethylene yield and to lower reaction temperature, in an effort to make the reaction applicable in industry and most cost-efficient. This paper presents various lab synthesized catalysts, reaction conditions, and reactor technologies that achieved high ethylene yield at reasonable reaction temperatures, and evaluates their practicality in industrial application in comparison with steam-cracking plants. The most promising were found to be a nanoscale catalyst HZSM-5 with 99.7% ethylene selectivity at 240 °C and 630 h lifespan, using a microreactor technology with mechanical vapor recompression, and algae-produced ethanol to make ethylene. PMID:28809297

  12. Photoinduced catalytic synthesis of biologically important metabolites from formaldehyde and ammonia under plausible "prebiotic" conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delidovich, I. V.; Taran, O. P.; Simonov, A. N.; Matvienko, L. G.; Parmon, V. N.

    2011-08-01

    The article analyzes new and previously reported data on several catalytic and photochemical processes yielding biologically important molecules. UV-irradiation of formaldehyde aqueous solution yields acetaldehyde, glyoxal, glycolaldehyde and glyceraldehyde, which can serve as precursors of more complex biochemically relevant compounds. Photolysis of aqueous solution of acetaldehyde and ammonium nitrate results in formation of alanine and pyruvic acid. Dehydration of glyceraldehyde catalyzed by zeolite HZSM-5-17 yields pyruvaldehyde. Monosaccharides are formed in the course of the phosphate-catalyzed aldol condensation reactions of glycolaldehyde, glyceraldehyde and formaldehyde. The possibility of the direct synthesis of tetroses, keto- and aldo-pentoses from pure formaldehyde due to the combination of the photochemical production of glycolahyde and phosphate-catalyzed carbohydrate chain growth is demonstrated. Erythrulose and 3-pentulose are the main products of such combined synthesis with selectivity up to 10%. Biologically relevant aldotetroses, aldo- and ketopentoses are more resistant to the photochemical destruction owing to the stabilization in hemiacetal cyclic forms. They are formed as products of isomerization of erythrulose and 3-pentulose. The conjugation of the concerned reactions results in a plausible route to the formation of sugars, amino and organic acids from formaldehyde and ammonia under presumed 'prebiotic' conditions.

  13. Upgraded bio-oil production via catalytic fast co-pyrolysis of waste cooking oil and tea residual.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Zhong, Zhaoping; Zhang, Bo; Ding, Kuan; Xue, Zeyu; Deng, Aidong; Ruan, Roger

    2017-02-01

    Catalytic fast co-pyrolysis (co-CFP) offers a concise and effective process to achieve an upgraded bio-oil production. In this paper, co-CFP experiments of waste cooking oil (WCO) and tea residual (TR) with HZSM-5 zeolites were carried out. The influences of pyrolysis reaction temperature and H/C ratio on pyrolytic products distribution and selectivities of aromatics were performed. Furthermore, the prevailing synergetic effect of target products during co-CFP process was investigated. Experimental results indicated that H/C ratio played a pivotal role in carbon yields of aromatics and olefins, and with H/C ratio increasing, the synergetic coefficient tended to increase, thus led to a dramatic growth of aromatics and olefins yields. Besides, the pyrolysis temperature made a significant contribution to carbon yields, and the yields of aromatics and olefins increased at first and then decreased at the researched temperature region. Note that 600°C was an optimum temperature as the maximum yields of aromatics and olefins could be achieved. Concerning the transportation fuel dependence and security on fossil fuels, co-CFP of WCO and TR provides a novel way to improve the quality and quantity of pyrolysis bio-oil, and thus contributes bioenergy accepted as a cost-competitive and promising alternative energy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Heterobimetallic zeolite, InV-ZSM-5, enables efficient conversion of biomass derived ethanol to renewable hydrocarbons

    DOE PAGES

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Li, Zhenglong; Casbeer, Erik M.; ...

    2015-11-03

    Here, direct catalytic conversion of ethanol to hydrocarbon blend-stock can increase biofuels use in current vehicles beyond the ethanol blend-wall of 10–15%. Literature reports describe quantitative conversion of ethanol over zeolite catalysts but high C 2 hydrocarbon formation renders this approach unsuitable for commercialization. Furthermore, the prior mechanistic studies suggested that ethanol conversion involves endothermic dehydration step. Here, we report the complete conversion of ethanol to hydrocarbons over InV-ZSM-5 without added hydrogen and which produces lower C 2 (<13%) as compared to that over H-ZSM-5. Experiments with C 2H 5OD and in situ DRIFT suggest that most of the productsmore » come from the hydrocarbon pool type mechanism and dehydration step is not necessary. Thus, our method of direct conversion of ethanol offers a pathway to produce suitable hydrocarbon blend-stock that may be blended at a refinery to produce fuels such as gasoline, diesel, JP-8, and jet fuel, or produce commodity chemicals such as BTX.« less

  15. In Situ and ex Situ Catalytic Pyrolysis of Pine in a Bench-Scale Fluidized Bed Reactor System

    SciT

    Iisa, Kristiina; French, Richard J.; Orton, Kellene A.

    In situ and ex situ catalytic pyrolysis were compared in a system with two 2-in. bubbling fluidized bed reactors. Pine was pyrolyzed in the system with a catalyst, HZSM-5 with a silica-to-alumina ratio of 30, placed either in the first (pyrolysis) reactor or the second (upgrading) reactor. Both the pyrolysis and upgrading temperatures were 500 degrees C, and the weight hourly space velocity was 1.1 h -1. Five catalytic cycles were completed in each experiment. The catalytic cycles were continued until oxygenates in the vapors became dominant. The catalyst was then oxidized, after which a new catalytic cycle was begun.more » The in situ configuration gave slightly higher oil yield but also higher oxygen content than the ex situ configuration, which indicates that the catalyst deactivated faster in the in situ configuration than the ex situ configuration. Analysis of the spent catalysts confirmed higher accumulation of metals in the in situ experiment. In all experiments, the organic oil mass yields varied between 14 and 17% and the carbon efficiencies between 20 and 25%. The organic oxygen concentrations in the oils were 16-18%, which represented a 45% reduction compared to corresponding noncatalytic pyrolysis oils prepared in the same fluidized bed reactor system. GC/MS analysis showed the oils to contain one- to four-ring aromatic hydrocarbons and a variety of oxygenates (phenols, furans, benzofurans, methoxyphenols, naphthalenols, indenols). Lastly, high fractions of oxygen were rejected as water, CO, and CO 2, which indicates the importance of dehydration, decarbonylation, and decarboxylation reactions. Light gases were the major sources of carbon losses, followed by char and coke.« less

  16. Hydro-isomerization of n-hexane on bi-functional catalyst: Effect of total and hydrogen partial pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoa, Dao Thi Kim; Loc, Luu Cam

    2017-09-01

    The effect of both total pressure and hydrogen partial pressure during n-hexane hydro-isomerization over platinum impregnated on HZSM-5 was studied. n-Hexane hydro-isomerization was conducted at atmospheric pressure and 0.7 MPa to observe the influence of total pressure. In order to see the effect of hydrogen partial pressure, the reaction was taken place at different partial pressure of hydrogen varied from 307 hPa to 718 hPa by dilution with nitrogen to keep the total pressure at 0.1 MPa. Physico-chemical characteristics of catalyst were determined by the methods of nitrogen physi-sorption BET, SEM, XRD, TEM, NH3-TPD, TPR, and Hydrogen Pulse Chemi-sorption. Activity of catalyst in the hydro-isomerization of n-hexane was studied in a micro-flow reactor in the temperature range of 225-325 °C; the molar ratio H2/ hydrocarbon: 5.92, concentration of n-hexane: 9.2 mol.%, GHSV 2698 h-1. The obtained catalyst expressed high acid density, good reducing property, high metal dispersion, and good balance between metallic and acidic sites. It is excellent contact for n-hexane hydro-isomerization. At 250 °C, n-hexane conversion and selectivity were as high as 59-76 % and 85-99 %, respectively. It was found that catalytic activity was promoted either by total pressure or hydrogen partial pressure. At total pressure of 0.7 MPa while hydrogen partial pressure of 718 hPa, catalyst produced 63 RON liquid product containing friendly environmental iso-paraffins which is superior blending stock for green gasoline. Hydrogen did not only preserve catalyst actives by depressing hydrocracking and removing coke precursors but also facilitated hydride transfer step in the bi-functional bi-molecular mechanism.

  17. Supported molybdenum oxides as effective catalysts for the catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    DOE PAGES

    Murugappan, Karthick; Mukarakate, Calvin; Budhi, Sridhar; ...

    2016-07-12

    The catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) of pine was investigated over 10 wt% MoO 3/TiO 2 and MoO 3/ZrO 2 at 500 °C and H 2 pressures ≤ 0.75 bar. The product distributions were monitored in real time using a molecular beam mass spectrometer (MBMS). Both supported MoO 3 catalysts show different levels of deoxygenation based on the cumulative biomass to MoO 3 mass ratio exposed to the catalytic bed. For biomass to MoO 3 mass ratios <1.5, predominantly olefinic and aromatic hydrocarbons are produced with no detectable oxygen-containing species. For ratios ≥ 1.5, partially deoxygenated species comprised of furans andmore » phenols are observed, with a concomitant decrease of olefinic and aromatic hydrocarbons. For ratios ≥ 5, primary pyrolysis vapours break through the bed, indicating the onset of catalyst deactivation. Product quantification with a tandem micropyrolyzer-GCMS setup shows that fresh supported MoO 3 catalysts convert ca. 27 mol% of the original carbon into hydrocarbons comprised predominantly of aromatics (7 C%), olefins (18 C%) and paraffins (2 C%), comparable to the total hydrocarbon yield obtained with HZSM-5 operated under similar reaction conditions. In conclusion, post-reaction XPS analysis on supported MoO 3/ZrO 2 and MoO 3/TiO 2 catalysts reveal that ca. 50% of Mo surface species exist in their partially reduced forms (i.e., Mo 5+ and Mo 3+), and that catalyst deactivation is likely associated to coking.« less

  18. Phosphorus promotion and poisoning in zeolite-based materials: synthesis, characterisation and catalysis

    PubMed Central

    van der Bij, Hendrik E.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus and microporous aluminosilicates, better known as zeolites, have a unique but poorly understood relationship. For example, phosphatation of the industrially important zeolite H-ZSM-5 is a well-known, relatively inexpensive and seemingly straightforward post-synthetic modification applied by the chemical industry not only to alter its hydrothermal stability and acidity, but also to increase its selectivity towards light olefins in hydrocarbon catalysis. On the other hand, phosphorus poisoning of zeolite-based catalysts, which are used for removing nitrogen oxides from exhaust fuels, poses a problem for their use in diesel engine catalysts. Despite the wide impact of phosphorus–zeolite chemistry, the exact physicochemical processes that take place require a more profound understanding. This review article provides the reader with a comprehensive and state-of-the-art overview of the academic literature, from the first reports in the late 1970s until the most recent studies. In the first part an in-depth analysis is undertaken, which will reveal universal physicochemical and structural effects of phosphorus–zeolite chemistry on the framework structure, accessibility, and strength of acid sites. The second part discusses the hydrothermal stability of zeolites and clarifies the promotional role that phosphorus plays. The third part of the review paper links the structural and physicochemical effects of phosphorus on zeolite materials with their catalytic performance in a variety of catalytic processes, including alkylation of aromatics, catalytic cracking, methanol-to-hydrocarbon processing, dehydration of bioalcohol, and ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx. Based on these insights, we discuss potential applications and important directions for further research. PMID:26051875

  19. Phosphorus promotion and poisoning in zeolite-based materials: synthesis, characterisation and catalysis.

    PubMed

    van der Bij, Hendrik E; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2015-10-21

    Phosphorus and microporous aluminosilicates, better known as zeolites, have a unique but poorly understood relationship. For example, phosphatation of the industrially important zeolite H-ZSM-5 is a well-known, relatively inexpensive and seemingly straightforward post-synthetic modification applied by the chemical industry not only to alter its hydrothermal stability and acidity, but also to increase its selectivity towards light olefins in hydrocarbon catalysis. On the other hand, phosphorus poisoning of zeolite-based catalysts, which are used for removing nitrogen oxides from exhaust fuels, poses a problem for their use in diesel engine catalysts. Despite the wide impact of phosphorus-zeolite chemistry, the exact physicochemical processes that take place require a more profound understanding. This review article provides the reader with a comprehensive and state-of-the-art overview of the academic literature, from the first reports in the late 1970s until the most recent studies. In the first part an in-depth analysis is undertaken, which will reveal universal physicochemical and structural effects of phosphorus-zeolite chemistry on the framework structure, accessibility, and strength of acid sites. The second part discusses the hydrothermal stability of zeolites and clarifies the promotional role that phosphorus plays. The third part of the review paper links the structural and physicochemical effects of phosphorus on zeolite materials with their catalytic performance in a variety of catalytic processes, including alkylation of aromatics, catalytic cracking, methanol-to-hydrocarbon processing, dehydration of bioalcohol, and ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx. Based on these insights, we discuss potential applications and important directions for further research.

  20. Catalytic aromatization of methane.

    PubMed

    Spivey, James J; Hutchings, Graham

    2014-02-07

    Recent developments in natural gas production technology have led to lower prices for methane and renewed interest in converting methane to higher value products. Processes such as those based on syngas from methane reforming are being investigated. Another option is methane aromatization, which produces benzene and hydrogen: 6CH4(g) → C6H6(g) + 9H2(g) ΔG°(r) = +433 kJ mol(-1) ΔH°(r) = +531 kJ mol(-1). Thermodynamic calculations for this reaction show that benzene formation is insignificant below ∼600 °C, and that the formation of solid carbon [C(s)] is thermodynamically favored at temperatures above ∼300 °C. Benzene formation is insignificant at all temperatures up to 1000 °C when C(s) is included in the calculation of equilibrium composition. Interestingly, the thermodynamic limitation on benzene formation can be minimized by the addition of alkanes/alkenes to the methane feed. By far the most widely studied catalysts for this reaction are Mo/HZSM-5 and Mo/MCM-22. Benzene selectivities are generally between 60 and 80% at methane conversions of ∼10%, corresponding to net benzene yields of less than 10%. Major byproducts include lower molecular weight hydrocarbons and higher molecular weight substituted aromatics. However, carbon formation is inevitable, but the experimental findings show this can be kinetically limited by the use of H2 or oxidants in the feed, including CO2 or steam. A number of reactor configurations involving regeneration of the carbon-containing catalyst have been developed with the goal of minimizing the cost of regeneration of the catalyst once deactivated by carbon deposition. In this tutorial review we discuss the thermodynamics of this process, the catalysts used and the potential reactor configurations that can be applied.

  1. In Situ and ex Situ Catalytic Pyrolysis of Pine in a Bench-Scale Fluidized Bed Reactor System

    DOE PAGES

    Iisa, Kristiina; French, Richard J.; Orton, Kellene A.; ...

    2016-02-03

    In situ and ex situ catalytic pyrolysis were compared in a system with two 2-in. bubbling fluidized bed reactors. Pine was pyrolyzed in the system with a catalyst, HZSM-5 with a silica-to-alumina ratio of 30, placed either in the first (pyrolysis) reactor or the second (upgrading) reactor. Both the pyrolysis and upgrading temperatures were 500 degrees C, and the weight hourly space velocity was 1.1 h -1. Five catalytic cycles were completed in each experiment. The catalytic cycles were continued until oxygenates in the vapors became dominant. The catalyst was then oxidized, after which a new catalytic cycle was begun.more » The in situ configuration gave slightly higher oil yield but also higher oxygen content than the ex situ configuration, which indicates that the catalyst deactivated faster in the in situ configuration than the ex situ configuration. Analysis of the spent catalysts confirmed higher accumulation of metals in the in situ experiment. In all experiments, the organic oil mass yields varied between 14 and 17% and the carbon efficiencies between 20 and 25%. The organic oxygen concentrations in the oils were 16-18%, which represented a 45% reduction compared to corresponding noncatalytic pyrolysis oils prepared in the same fluidized bed reactor system. GC/MS analysis showed the oils to contain one- to four-ring aromatic hydrocarbons and a variety of oxygenates (phenols, furans, benzofurans, methoxyphenols, naphthalenols, indenols). Lastly, high fractions of oxygen were rejected as water, CO, and CO 2, which indicates the importance of dehydration, decarbonylation, and decarboxylation reactions. Light gases were the major sources of carbon losses, followed by char and coke.« less

  2. Reductive deconstruction of organosolv lignin catalyzed by zeolite supported nickel nanoparticles

    SciT

    Kasakov, Stanislav; Shi, Hui; Camaioni, Donald M.

    2015-11-01

    Mechanistic aspects of deconstruction and hydrodeoxygenation of organosolv lignin using supported Ni catalysts with (Ni/HZSM-5 and Ni/HBEA) and without Brønsted acid sites (Ni/SiO2) are reported. Lignin was deconstructed and converted to saturated cyclic hydrocarbons ranging from C5 to C14. In the one-stage reaction, full conversion with total yield of 70 ± 5 wt.% saturated hydrocarbons was achieved at 593 K and 20 bar H2. The organosolv lignin used consists of seven to eight monolignol subunits and has an average molecular weight of ca. 1200 g mol-1. The monolignols were mainly guaiacyl, syringyl and phenylcoumaran, randomly interconnected through β-O-4, 4-O-5, β-1,more » 5-5’ and β-β ether bonds. In situ IR spectroscopy was used to follow the changes in lignin constituents during reaction. The proposed reaction pathways for the catalytic transformation of this organosolv lignin to alkanes start with the hydrogenolysis of aryl alkyl ether bonds, followed by hydrogenation of the aromatic compounds on Ni to cyclic alcohols. Oxygen is removed from the alcohols via dehydration on Brønsted acid sites to yield cyclic alkenes that are further hydrogenated to alkanes. Formation of condensation products may occur via intermolecular recombination of aromatic monomers or alkylation of aromatic compounds by alkenes. The financial support from TUM-PNNL cooperation project “Development of new methods for in situ characterization in liquid phase reactions” (CN-177939) is highly appreciated. The work by S.K., H.S., and J.A.L was partially supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences.« less

  3. SciT

    Dagle, Robert A.; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC

    A composite Pd/ZnO/Al2O3-HZSM-5 (Si/Al=40) catalytic system was evaluated for the synthesis of gasoline-range hydrocarbons directly from synthesis gas. Bifunctional catalyst comprising PdZn metal and acid sites present the required catalytically active sites necessary for the methanol synthesis, methanol dehydration, and methanol-to-gasoline reactions. This system provides a unique catalytic pathway for the production of liquid hydrocarbons directly from syngas. However, selectivity control is difficult and poses many challenges. The composite catalytic system was evaluated under various process conditions. Investigated were the effects of temperature (310-375oC), pressure (300-1000 psig), time-on-stream (50 hrs), and gas-hour space velocity (740-2970 hr-1), using a H2/CO molarmore » syngas ratio of 2.0. By operating at the lower end of the temperature range investigated, liquid hydrocarbon formation was favored, as was decreased amounts of undesirable light hydrocarbons. However, lower operating temperatures also facilitated undesirable CO2 formation via the water-gas shift reaction. Higher operating pressures slightly favored liquid synthesis. Operating at relatively low pressures (e.g. 300 psig) was made possible, whereas for methanol synthesis alone higher pressure are usually required to achieve similar conversion levels (e.g. 1000 psig). Thermodynamic constraints on methanol synthesis are eased by pushing the equilibrium through hydrocarbon formation. Catalytic performance was also evaluated by altering Pd and Zn composition of the Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst. Of the catalysts and conditions tested, selectivity toward liquid hydrocarbon was highest when using a 5% Pd metal loading and Pd/Zn molar ratio of 0.25 and mixed with HZMS-5, operating at 310oC and 300 psig, CO conversion was 43 % and selectivity (carbon weight basis) to hydrocarbons was 49 wt. %. Of the hydrocarbon fraction, 44wt. % was in the C5-C12 liquid product range and consisted primarily of

  4. Syngas Conversion to Hydrocarbon Fuels through Mixed Alcohol Intermediates

    SciT

    Dagle, Robert A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa M.; Albrecht, Karl O.

    2013-05-13

    Synthesis gas (syngas) can be used to synthesize a variety of fuels and chemicals. Domestic transportation and military operational interests have driven continued focus on domestic syngas-based fuels production. Liquid transportation fuels may be made from syngas via four basic processes: 1) higher alcohols, 2) Fischer-Tropsch (FT), 3) methanol-to-gasoline (MTG), and 4) methanol-to-olefins (MTO) and olefins-to-gasoline/distillate (MOGD). Compared to FT and higher alcohols, MTG and MTO-MOGD have received less attention in recent years. Due to the high capital cost of these synthetic fuel plants, the production cost of the finished fuel cannot compete with petroleum-derived fuel. Pacific Northwest National Laboratorymore » has recently evaluated one way to potentially reduce capital cost and overall production cost for MTG by combining the methanol and MTG syntheses in a single reactor. The concept consists of mixing the conventional MTG catalyst (i.e. HZSM-5) with an alcohol synthesis catalyst. It was found that a methanol synthesis catalyst, stable at high temperature (i.e. Pd/ZnO/Al2O3) [1], when mixed with ZSM-5, was active for syngas conversion. Relatively high syngas conversion can be achieved as the equilibrium-driven conversion limitations for methanol and dimethyl ether are removed as they are intermediates to the final hydrocarbon product. However, selectivity control was difficult to achieve as formation of undesirable durene and light hydrocarbons was problematic [2]. The objective of the present study was thus to evaluate other potential composite catalyst systems and optimize the reactions conditions for the conversion of syngas to hydrocarbon fuels, through the use of mixed alcohol intermediates. Mixed alcohols are of interest as they have recently been reported to produce higher yields of gasoline compared to methanol [3]. 1. Lebarbier, V.M., Dagle, R.A., Kovarik, L., Lizarazo-Adarme, J.A., King, D.L., Palo, D.R., Catalyst Science & Technology

  5. Adsorption in zeolites using mechanically embedded ONIOM clusters

    DOE PAGES

    Patet, Ryan E.; Caratzoulas, Stavros; Vlachos, Dionisios G.

    2016-09-01

    Here, we have explored mechanically embedded three-layer QM/QM/MM ONIOM models for computational studies of binding in Al-substituted zeolites. In all the models considered, the high-level-theory layer consists of the adsorbate molecule and of the framework atoms within the first two coordination spheres of the Al atom and is treated at the M06-2X/6-311G(2df,p) level. For simplicity, flexibility and routine applicability, the outer, low-level-theory layer is treated with the UFF. We have modelled the intermediate-level layer quantum mechanically and investigated the performance of HF theory and of three DFT functionals, B3LYP, M06-2X and ωB97x-D, for different layer sizes and various basis sets,more » with and without BSSE corrections. We have studied the binding of sixteen probe molecules in H-MFI and compared the computed adsorption enthalpies with published experimental data. We have demonstrated that HF and B3LYP are inadequate for the description of the interactions between the probe molecules and the framework surrounding the metal site of the zeolite on account of their inability to capture dispersion forces. Both M06-2X and ωB97x-D on average converge within ca. 10% of the experimental values. We have further demonstrated transferability of the approach by computing the binding enthalpies of n-alkanes (C1–C8) in H-MFI, H-BEA and H-FAU, with very satisfactory agreement with experiment. The computed entropies of adsorption of n-alkanes in H-MFI are also found to be in good agreement with experimental data. Finally, we compare with published adsorption energies calculated by periodic-DFT for n-C3 to n-C6 alkanes, water and methanol in H-ZSM-5 and find very good agreement.« less

  6. Spectroscopic evidence of 3-hydroxyflavone sorption within MFI type zeolites: ESIPT and metal complexation.

    PubMed

    Moissette, A; Hureau, M; Kokaislova, A; Le Person, A; Cornard, J P; De Waele, I; Batonneau-Gener, I

    2015-10-21

    Due to its chemical and photochemical properties and potential applications in numerous domains as a molecular probe, 3-hydroxyflavone (3HF) is a molecule of high interest. In particular, the processes of intramolecular proton transfer in the excited state and metallic complexation are known to be dependent on the chemical environment. In this context, the particular properties of zeolites make these microporous materials an environment adapted to study the reactivity of isolated molecules adsorbed in their porous void space. Thus, this report investigates the incorporation without any solvent of 3HF into the internal volume of various channel-type MFI zeolites. Using complementary techniques (diffuse reflectance UV-vis absorption, Raman scattering, FTIR, fluorescence emission and molecular modelling), very different spectral behaviours are observed in totally dealuminated silicalite-1 and in Al rich MZSM-5 (M = H(+), Na(+), Zn(2+)). In silicalite-1, the non-polar and non-protic internal micro-environment does not induce any valuable interaction between 3HF and the channel walls. Therefore, the molecule shows easy tautomer formation upon excitation. Within HZSM-5, 3HF is adsorbed in close proximity of the acid proton of the zeolite which inhibits the intramolecular proton transfer and then, only the normal form is observed at the excited state. For NaZSM-5, the spectral data show an intermediary behaviour due to the aprotic but polar environment, in agreement with 3HF sorption in close proximity of the Na(+) extra framework cation. After mixing 3HF and ZnZSM-5, the spectral features clearly indicate metallic complexation of the guest molecule. The zeolite dependent reactivity reported here demonstrates the adsorption of the guest within the internal volume because the charge balancing cations which clearly control the reaction are principally located in the zeolite channels. The 3HF incorporation into the internal volume is proved by the decrease of the microporous

  7. Catalytic synthesis of biologically important metabolites from formaldehyde and ammonia as a putative way of their prebiotic emergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delidovich, Irina; Taran, Oxana; Simonov, Alexander; Parmon, Valentin

    The modern `RNA-world' theory considering the primary life as a system of self-replicating informational and catalytic oligomers is the most widespread hypothesis of life's origin. At the same time an alternative major theory antithetic to the genetic one exists. It is based on the primary formation of important metabolites and building blocks of biopolymers and appearance of the primordial autocatalytic cycles in geochemical environment. [1]. Encouraged by this theory, we suggest the putative emergence pathways to biologically relevant metabolites from simple precursors: formaldehyde (FA) and ammonia, which are known to be present in the interstellar space [2]. Based on our earlier [3, 4] and novel findings as well as on the literature data [5, 6] the scheme of conjugate autocatalytic processes including photochemical condensation of FA yielding C-C bond and catalytic formation of pyruvaldehyde, pyruvic acid, sugars, aminoacids catalyzed by minerals (aluminum silicate, phoshates) and by aminoacids themselves is proposed. Acetaldehyde, glyoxal, glycol-and glyceraldehydes (GA and GCA) were identified in this work as products of photolysis of FA aqueous solution with summary selectivity up to 20% and can serve as substrates for the synthesis of more complex organic compounds. In turn, alanine and pyruvic acid are formed during UV-irradiation of aqueous solution of acetaldehyde and ammonium nitrate [6]. Pyruvaldehyde formation from GCA and FA in presence of amino acids was observed by A. Weber [5]. Finally, we revealed the catalytic activity of zeolite HZSM-5-17 in acid form towards formation of pyruvaldehyde from GA and GCA in presence of alanine with the yield about 5%. This observation indicates that the assumption of catalytic activity of silica-alumina towards the synthesis of metabolites could be realistic. Prebiotic synthesis of sugars from lower monosacharides, as we showed earlier, could take place over phosphate catalysts [4]. The substrates and the products

  8. First Principles Simulations of Hydrocarbon Conversion Processes in Functionalized Zeolitic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazar, Mark Nickolaus

    With increasing demand for chemicals and fuels, and finite traditional crude oil resources, there is a growing need to invent, establish, or optimize chemical processes that convert gasifiable carbon-based feedstocks (e.g., coal, natural gas, oil sands, or biomass) into the needed final products. Catalysis is central to almost every industrial chemical process, including alkane metathesis (AM) and the methanol-to-hydrocarbons (MTH) process, which represent final steps in a sequence of hydrocarbon conversion reactions. An in depth understanding of AM and MTH is essential to the selective production of the desired end products. In this dissertation, ab initio density functional theory simulations provide unique mechanistic and thermodynamic insight of specific elementary steps involved in AM and MTH as performed on zeolite supports. Zeolites have been employed throughout the petroleum industry because of their ability to perform acid-catalyzed reactions (e.g., cracking or MTH). The crystalline structure of zeolites imparts regular microporous networks and, in turn, the selective passage of molecules based on shape and functionality. Many different elements can be grafted onto or substituted into zeolites, resulting in a broad range of catalytic behavior. However, due to the variety of competing and secondary reactions that occur at experimental conditions, it is often difficult to extract quantitative information regarding individual elementary steps. ab initio calculations can be particularly useful for this purpose. Alkane metathesis (i.e., the molecular redistribution or chain length averaging of alkanes) is typically performed by transition metal hydrides on amorphous alumina or silica supports. In Chapter 3, the feasibility of AM in zeolites is assessed by using a grafted Ta-hydride complex to explore the full catalytic cycle in the self-metathesis of ethane. The decomposition of a Ta-metallacyclobutane reaction intermediate that forms during olefin metathesis is responsible for the largest activation energy of the catalytic cycle. This assessment is similar to the findings of alkane metathesis studies on alumina/silica supports and indicates that the entire AM cycle can be performed in zeolites by isolated single-atom transition metal hydrides. Performed over acid form zeolites, MTH is used in the conversion of methanol into a broad range of hydrocarbons, including alkenes, alkanes, and aromatics. For reasons that are not yet rigorously quantified, product selectivities vary dramatically based on the choice of catalyst and reaction conditions. The methylation of species containing double bonds (i.e., co-catalysts) is central to the overall process. Distinct structure-function relationships were found with respect to the elementary steps in the methylation and beta-scission of olefins. In Chapter 4, the role of zeolite topology in the step-wise methylation of ethene by surface methoxides is investigated. Elementary steps are studied across multiple frameworks (i.e., BEA, CHA, FER, MFI, and MOR) constituting a wide variety of confinement environments. The reaction of surface methoxides with ethene is found to require a transition state containing a primary carbocation. The barrier height is found to decrease nearly monotonically with respect to the degree of dispersion interactions stabilizing the primary carbocationic species in the transition state. In addition, quantification of the ``local'' dispersion energy indicates that confinement effects can not be simply correlated to pore size. The beta-scission of olefins plays an important role in the product selectivities of many important chemical processes, including MTH. In Chapter 5, beta-scission modes involving C6 and C8 isomers are investigated at a single, isolated Bronsted acid site within H-ZSM-5. We find that the relative enthalpic barriers of beta-scission elementary steps can be rationalized by the substitution order of the two different carbocationic carbon atoms that are present in the reactant (C+) and transition states (betaC). In fact, the increase in charge required by the betaC atom to go from the physi/chemi-sorbed reactant state to the beta-scission transition state (+0.23e-0.33e) is found to correlate almost linearly with the intrinsic activation energy (89-233 kJ mol-1). The charge of the betaC atom depends, to a large extent, on the substitution order of both the C+ and betaC atoms and, therefore, each beta-scission mode is a sub-category onto itself. Isomerization reactions, which are fast with respect to beta-scission, enable reactant hydrocarbons to explore and find low barrier beta-scission pathways. Selectivities predicted on the basis of the relative barrier heights of beta-scission modes accessible to C6 and C8 species indicate general agreement with experimental observations.

  9. Validation of educational booklet for HIV/Aids prevention in older adults.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Luana Ibiapina; Lopes, Thais de Oliveira; Lira, Luciane Elise de Abreu; Feitoza, Sarah Maria de Sousa; Bessa, Maria Eliana Peixoto; Pereira, Maria Lúcia Duarte; Feitoza, Aline Rodrigues; Souza, Adriano Rodrigues de

    2017-01-01

    To describe the process of manufacturing and validation of an educational booklet for HIV/Aids prevention in older adults. Methodological study developed in two phases - manufacturing of the booklet and validation of the educational material by judges. The manufacturing process involved a situational diagnosis with older adults, and its result indicated gaps in the knowledge with respect to HIV/Aids. The validation process was performed by nine judges, selected by convenience. It was considered an agreement index of at least 0.80, analyzed through the content validity index. We opted for a dialogue between two older adults divided into three categories: myths and taboos; ignorance; and prevention and importance of diagnosis. The average of the items was 0.90. The suggestions made by the judges were observed and modified for the final version. The material had relevant content for the judges, in addition to being able to be used by health professionals in the education and clarification of issues on the subject. Descrever o processo de construção e validação de cartilha educativa para prevenção de HIV/Aids em idosos. Estudo metodológico desenvolvido em duas etapas - construção da cartilha e validação do material educativo por juízes. O processo de construção envolveu um diagnóstico situacional com idosos, cujo resultado apontou lacunas no conhecimento com relação ao HIV/Aids. Já o processo de validação foi realizado por nove juízes, selecionados por conveniência. Considerou-se uma concordância de no mínimo 0,80, analisado pelo índice de validade de conteúdo. Optou-se por um diálogo entre dois idosos dividido em três categorias: mitos e tabus; desconhecimento; e prevenção e importância do diagnóstico. A média dos itens foi de 0,90. As sugestões realizadas pelos juízes foram acatadas e modificadas para a versão final. O material apresentou conteúdo relevante para os juízes, além de poder ser utilizado pelos profissionais de sa

  10. Prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children aged 5-12 years.

    PubMed

    Moura, Louise Amália de; Dias, Iohanna Maria Guimarães; Pereira, Lilian Varanda

    2016-06-14

    to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children who wait for outpatient surgery. cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study that investigates the predictors of postoperative pain in children aged 5-12 years submitted to inguinal and umbilical hernia repair. It was selected 210 children, which were interviewed in the preoperative holding area of a general hospital. Anxiety was evaluated using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS). Sociodemographic and clinical variables were analyzed as exposure and anxiety (mYPAS final score>30) as outcome. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with preoperative anxiety. forty-two percent (42.0%) of children presented preoperative anxiety (CI95%: 35.7%-48.6%), with mean scores equal to 30.1 (SD=8.4). Factors associated with preoperative anxiety were: age group of 5-6 years (OR=2.28; p=0.007) and socioeconomic status classified as class C (OR=2.39; p=0.016). the evaluation of children who wait for outpatient surgery should be multidimensional and comprise information on age and socioeconomic status, in order to help in the identification and early treatment of preoperative anxiety. estimar a prevalência e os fatores associados à ansiedade pré-operatória em crianças que aguardam cirurgia ambulatorial. análise transversal de dados da linha de base de um estudo de coorte prospectiva que investiga os preditores de dor pós-operatória em crianças de 5 a 12 anos, submetidas à herniorrafia inguinal e umbilical. Foram selecionadas 210 crianças, entrevistadas na sala de espera de um hospital geral. Avaliou-se a ansiedade por meio da Escala de Ansiedade Pré-operatória de Yale Modificada (EAPY-m). Variáveis sociodemográficas e clínicas foram analisadas, como exposição e ansiedade (soma dos escores da EAPY-m>30) como desfecho. A regressão logística foi utilizada para identificar fatores associados à ansiedade pr

  11. Music listening for anxiety relief in children in the preoperative period: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Franzoi, Mariana André Honorato; Goulart, Cristina Bretas; Lara, Elizabete Oliveira; Martins, Gisele

    2016-12-19

    to investigate the effects of music listening, for 15 minutes, on the preoperative anxiety levels in children undergoing elective surgery in comparison with conventional pediatric surgical care. randomized controlled clinical trial pilot study with 52 children in the preoperative period, aged 3 to 12 years, undergoing elective surgery and randomly allocated in the experimental group (n = 26) and control group (n = 26). Anxiety was assessed in both groups by the application of the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale and measurement of the physiological variables, upon arrival and 15 minutes after the first measurement. there was a statistically significant difference in preoperative anxiety between the two groups only in relation to the physiological variable, since the respiratory rate of preschool children in the experimental group reduced in the second measurement compared to the control group (p = 0.0453). The experimental group showed a statistically significant reduction in anxiety levels after 15 minutes of music listening (p = 0.0441), specifically with regard to the behavioral domains of activity, vocalization, emotional expression and apparent awakening state. music listening emerges as a potential nursing intervention for relief of preoperative anxiety in children undergoing surgical procedures. RBR-7mcr59. investigar os efeitos da audição musical, por 15 minutos, nos níveis de ansiedade pré-operatória de crianças submetidas a cirurgias eletivas em comparação ao cuidado convencional de uma clínica cirúrgica pediátrica. estudo piloto do tipo ensaio clínico controlado randomizado realizado com 52 crianças no período pré-operatório, de 3 a 12 anos, submetidas a cirurgias eletivas e alocadas aleatoriamente para o grupo experimental (n = 26) e grupo controle (n = 26). A ansiedade foi avaliada em ambos os grupos, por meio da Escala de Ansiedade Pré-operatória de Yale modificada e pela mensuração das dimensões fisiológicas, na chegada

  12. Preparation and characterization of novel nanocomposites of inorganic/polysaccharide type =

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Fabiane Costa

    O uso de polimeros naturais no ambito da preparacao de nanocompositos nao tem sido tao amplamente estudado quando comparado com os polimeros sinteticos. Assim, esta tese tem como objectivo estudar metodologias para a preparacao de novos materiais nanocompositos sob a forma de dispersoes e filmes utilizando polissacarideos como matriz. A tese esta dividida em cinco capitulos sendo o ultimo capitulo dedicado as conclusoes gerais e a sugestoes para trabalhos futuros. Inicialmente e apresentada uma breve revisao bibliografica sobre os principais temas colocando esta tese em contexto. Consideracoes sobre o uso de polimeros naturais e a sua combinacao com a utilizacao de nanoparticulas inorganicas para a fabricacao de novos bionanocomposites sao descritas e os objectivos e outline da tese sao tambem apresentados. No segundo capitulo, a preparacao de particulas de silica puras ou modificadas bem como a sua caracterizacao por FTIR, SEM, TEM, TGA, DLS (tamanho e potencial zeta) e medicoes de angulo de contacto sao discutidas. De modo a melhorar a compatibilidade da silica com os polissacarideos, as particulas SiO2 foram modificados com dois compostos do tipo organosilano: 3- metacril-oxipropil-trimetoxissilano (MPS) e 3-aminopropil-trimetoxissilano (APS). As particulas SiO2 MPS foram posteriormente encapsuladas com de poli(metacrilato de glicidilo) utilizando a tecnica de polimerizacao em emulsao. A utilizacao dos nanocompositos resultantes na preparacao de dispersoes de bionanocompositos nao foi bem sucedida e por esse motivo nao os estudos nao foram prosseguidos. O uso de SiO2 APS na preparacao de dispersoes bionanocomposite foi eficiente. No terceiro capitulo e apresentada uma revisao sobre dispersoes bionanocompositas e respectiva caracterizacao destacando aspectos fundamentais sobre reologia e microestrutura. Em seguida, e discutido o estudo sistematico realizado sobre o comportamento reologico de dispersoes de SiO2 utilizando tres polissacarideos distintos no que

  13. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Chilean version of the Voice Symptom Scale - VoiSS.

    PubMed

    Ruston, Francisco Contreras; Moreti, Felipe; Vivero, Martín; Malebran, Celina; Behlau, Mara

    cinco fonoaudiólogos, que llegaron a un consenso de donde surgió la denominada Escala de Síntomas Vocales - ESV, compuesta de 30 preguntas y 5 respuestas: "Nunca", "Casi nunca", "A veces", "Casi siempre", "Siempre". Con el objetivo de lograr la equivalencia cultural, la ESV fue aplicada a 15 individuos con problemas vocales. A cada pregunta se le agregó la opción "No aplicable" en las elecciones de respuesta, con el fin de identificar preguntas incomprendidas o inapropiadas para la población en cuestión. Dos de los individuos tuvieron dificultades en el momento de contestar dos preguntas, haciéndose necesario adaptar solamente la traducción de una de ellas. La ESV modificada fue aplicada a tres personas más con problemas vocales, no encontrándose preguntas incomprendidas o inapropiadas para la cultura Chilena. La ESV refleja la versión original de inglés, tanto en la cantidad de preguntas como en la limitación de los dominios emocional y físico. Existe una equivalencia cultural del VoiSS para el Español Chileno, que recibe el nombre de ESV. La validación de la ESV para el Español Chileno está en proceso de conclusión.

  14. Synthesis of Pure Ca(OH)2 Nanoparticles and Superhydrophobic Suspensions: Consolidation and Waterproofing of Architectural Heritage Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madrid Mendoza, Juan Antonio

    El objetivo de esta tesis es investigar sobre la sintesis, propiedades y aplicaciones de las nanoparticulas de Ca(OH)2 para consolidar materiales patrimoniales arquitectonicos. Las nanoparticulas de Ca(OH)2 se han utilizado recientemente en la conservacion del patrimonio, aunque algunos aspectos de la sintesis no son completamente comprendidos. En el presente estudio, hemos desarrollado metodos optimizados para obtener nanoparticulas de alta pureza mediante sintesis de fase homogenea y heterogenea utilizando diferentes materiales de partida. Se han realizado del orden de cien sintesis en diferentes condiciones para comprobar la validez y fiabilidad del metodo sintetico. Los resultados confirman que la temperatura de reaccion tiene una gran influencia en el tamano y la morfologia de las nanoparticulas de Ca(OH)2. Ademas, se ha investigado la estabilidad de las nanoparticulas a lo largo del tiempo en mezclas de 2-propanol / agua, en las que se encontro que la ausencia de agua era critica para evitar la aglomeracion de Ca(OH)2. Una vez dispersas en 2-propanol, las nanoparticulas se han utilizado para consolidar sustratos reales (piedra, adobe y estuco) confirmando su alto rendimiento en terminos de consolidacion superficial y - cuando se mezcla con ciertos surfactantes - en reduccion de la absorcion de agua. Asimismo, se ha investigado el uso de nanoparticulas modificadas basadas en M(OH)2, donde M=Ca2+, Mg2+, con el objetivo de mejorar tanto la cohesion superficial como la durabilidad de los materiales patrimoniales (p. ej. piedra Tabaire). Finalmente, el tratamiento de consolidacion basado en nanoparticulas puras de Ca(OH)2 se utilizo en emplazamientos con valor patrimonial, como edificios historicos y yacimientos arqueologicos (Teatro Romano de Cartagena) obteniendo resultados satisfactorios. The aim of this thesis is to investigate on the synthesis, properties and applications of Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles to consolidate architectural heritage materials. Ca(OH)2

  15. Cultural adaptation and the Clavien-Dindo surgical complications classification translated to Brazilian Portuguese.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Luis Fernando; Pessôa, Marcelo Castro Marçal; Mattana, Diego Sachet; Schmitz, Fernando Fernandes; Volkweis, Bernardo Silveira; Antoniazzi, Jorge Luiz; Ribeiro, Liacyr

    2016-01-01

    to generate a translated and validated version of the Clavien-Dindo Classification of Surgical Complications (CDC) to Brazilian Portuguese (CDC-BR). the process of translation and adaptation followed the guideline of Beaton et al., 2000. We divided 76 participating surgeons, in different levels of experience, from the Department Surgery of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, into two groups: Group I applied the original version (CDC, n=36);r Group II used the modified version (CDC-BR, n=40). Each group classified 15 clinical cases of surgical complications. We compared performance between the groups (Mann-Whitney test) relating to the level of experience of the surgeon (Kruskal-Wallis test), considering p value <0.05 as significant. the performance of the Group II (CDC-BR) was higher, with 85% accuracy, compared with 79% of Group I (CDC), p-value =0.012. The performance of the groups as for surgeons experience displayed p=0.171 for Group I, p=0.528 for Group II, and p=0.135 for overall performance. we produced a translated and validated version of the CDC for Brazilian Portuguese. The instrument will be a useful tool in the production of evidence on surgical outcomes. gerar uma versão traduzida e validada da Classificação de Complicações Cirúrgicas de Clavien-Dindo (CCD) para o Português-Brasileiro (CCD-BR). o processo de tradução e adaptação seguiu a diretriz de Beaton et al., de 2000. Formaram-se dois grupos, Grupo I, que utilizou a versão original (CCD, n=36) testado em relação ao Grupo II, com a versão modificada (CCD-BR, n=40), com um total de 76 cirurgiões participantes em níveis de experiência distintos do Departamento de Cirurgia do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Quinze casos clínicos de complicações cirúrgicas foram classificados em cada grupo. Comparou-se o desempenho entre grupos (teste de Mann-Whitney) relacionando ao nível de experiência dos cirurgiões (teste de Kruskal-Wallis). Valor de p<0,05 como significativo

  16. Recharge areas and hydrochemistry of carbonate springs issuing from Semmering Massif, Austria, based on long-term oxygen-18 and hydrochemical data evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yehdegho, Beyene; Reichl, Peter

    2002-10-01

    altitud. Reflejando el cambio sistemático de la actividad biótica y de las condiciones de recarga en la cuenca, se obtiene una correlación negativa entre la altitud de la recarga y la PCO2, mientras que la concentración de bicarbonato no es modificada por términos fuente/sumidero, lo cual atribuye el cambio a la química de los carbonatos. La PCO2 y el bicarbonato disminuyen aproximadamente 0,22 unidades logarítimicas (en atmósferas) y 38,6 mg/l, respectivamente, por cada 100 m de incremento en la altitud de recarga.

  17. Groundwater recharge and chemical evolution in the southern High Plains of Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryar, Alan; Mullican, William; Macko, Stephen

    2001-11-01

    és dans les sols des hautes terres par évapotranspiration, avec le ruissellement et l'infiltration dans les playas et les fossés (modifiée localement par l'écoulement en retour des eaux usées et des laisses d'irrigation). Des réactions probables intervenant au cours de la recharge sont l'oxydation de la matière organique, la dissolution et le dégazage du CO2, la dissolution du CaCO3, l'altération des silicates et l'échange de cations. Les données concernant Si et 14C laissent penser qu'il existe une drainance descendante à partir d'aquifères perchés vers l'aquifère des Hautes Plaines. Des modèles vraisemblables de bilan de matière pour l'aquifère des Hautes Plaines prennent en compte des scénarios d'écoulement avec drainance mais sans réactions, des écoulements avec réactions mais sans drainance et des écoulements sans réactions ni drainance. Les mécanismes de recharge et d'évolution chimique déterminés dans cette étude sont en accord avec ceux mis en évidence dans d'autres aquifères du centre sud et du sud-ouest des états-Unis. Resumen. El acuífero libre de High Plains (Ogallala) es el mayor de los Estados Unidos y supone la fuente principal de abastecimiento en la región semiárida del sur de High Plains (Texas) y de Nuevo México. Los análisis de agua y suelos realizados al nordeste de Amarillo (Texas), junto con los datos de otros estudios regionales, indican que los procesos que tienen lugar durante la recarga del acuífero controlan la composición de las aguas subterráneas en la mitad septentrional de los High Plains del Sur. Los datos isotópicos y hidroquímicos son coherentes con una secuencia de episodios de precipitación, concentración de solutos en la parte superior del suelo por evapotranspiración, escorrentía, e infiltración a través de 'playas' y zanjas (modificadas localmente por los flujos de retorno de aguas residuales y de excedentes de riego).

  18. Novel materials based on chitosan, its derivatives and cellulose fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Susana Cristina de Matos

    revestimento de papel representa uma estrategia bastante interessante e sustentavel para o desenvolvimento de novos materiais funcionais ou na melhoria das propriedades finais dos papeis. Por fim, tendo como objectivo valorizar os residuos e fraccoes menos nobres da quitina e do quitosano provenientes da industria transformadora, estes polimeros foram convertidos em poliois viscosos atraves de uma reaccao simples de oxipropilacao. Este processo tem tambem conotacao "verde" uma vez que nao requer solvente, nao origina subprodutos e nao exige nenhuma operacao especifica (separacao, purificacao, etc) para isolar o produto da reaccao. As amostras de quitina e quitosano foram pre-activadas com KOH e depois modificadas com um excesso de oxido de propileno (PO) num reactor apropriado. Em todos os casos, o produto da reaccao foi um liquido viscoso composto por quitina ou quitosano oxipropilados e homopolimero de PO. Estas duas fraccoes foram separadas e caracterizadas.