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Sample records for zeolite siliceous ferrierite

  1. Diagnosing the Internal Architecture of Zeolite Ferrierite

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Joel E.; Hendriks, Frank C.; Lutz, Martin; Post, L. Christiaan; Fu, Donglong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Large crystals of zeolite ferrierite (FER) are important model systems for spatially resolved catalysis and diffusion studies, though there is considerable variation in crystal habit depending on the chemical composition and employed synthesis conditions. A synergistic combination of techniques has been applied, including single crystal X‐ray diffraction, high‐temperature in situ confocal fluorescence microscopy, fluorescent probe molecules, wide‐field microscopy and atomic force microscopy to unravel the internal architecture of three distinct FER zeolites. Pyrolyzed template species can be used as markers for the 8‐membered ring direction as they are trapped in the terraced roof of the FER crystals. This happens as the materials grow in a layer‐by‐layer, defect‐free manner normal to the large crystal surface, and leads to a facile method to diagnose the pore system orientation, which avoids tedious single crystal X‐ray diffraction experiments. PMID:28809081

  2. Adsorption of small molecules on the [Zn-Zn]2+ linkage in zeolite. A DFT study of ferrierite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benco, Lubomir

    2017-02-01

    In zeolites monovalent Zn(I) forms a sub-nano particles [Zn-Zn]2+ stabilized in rings of the zeolite framework, which exhibit interesting catalytic properties. This work reports on adsorption properties of [Zn-Zn]2+ particles in zeolite ferrierite investigated for a set of probing diatomic (N2, O2, H2, CO, NO) and triatomic (CO2, N2O, NO2, H2O) molecules using dispersion-corrected DFT. Three [Zn-Zn]2+ sites are compared differing in the location and stability. On all sites molecules form physisorbed clusters with the molecule connected on-top of the Zn-Zn linkage. In physisorbed clusters adsorption induces only slight change of bonding and the geometry of the Zn-Zn linkage. Some molecules can form stable chemisorbed clusters in which the molecule is integrated between two Zn+ cations. The sandwich-like chemisorption causes pronounced changes of bonding and can lead to the transfer of the electron density between two Zn+ cations and to a change of the oxidation state. The knowledge of bonding of small molecules can help understanding of the mechanism of conversion reactions catalyzed by sub-nano [Zn-Zn] particles.

  3. Lewis base additives improve the zeolite ferrierite-catalyzed synthesis of isostearic acid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Isostearic acid (IA) is of interest for industrial purposes especially in the area of biolubricants, such as cosmetics and slip additives for polyolefin and related copolymer films. This study was designed to develop a zeolitic catalysis process for IA production through isomerization of fatty aci...

  4. Formation of reactive oxygen by N2O decomposition over binuclear cationic sites of Fe-ferrierite zeolite: Periodic DFT + U study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdeev, Vasilii I.; Bedilo, Alexander F.

    2018-03-01

    The electronic nature of sites over Fe-ferrierite zeolite stabilizing active α-oxygen is analyzed by the periodic DFT + U approach. It is shown that two antiferromagnetically coupled Fe2+ cations with bridging OH-bonds form a stable bi-nuclear site of the [Fe2+<2OH>Fe2+] doped FER complex. Frontier orbitals of this complex populated by two electrons with minority spins are localized in the bandgap. As a result, [Fe2+<2OH>Fe2+] unit acquires the properties of a binuclear Lewis acid dipolarophile for 1,3-dipole N2O. First reaction step of N2O decomposition follows the Huisgen‧s concept of the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition concept followed by the formation of reactive oxygen species Fesbnd O.

  5. Multiple episodes of zeolite deposition in fractured silicic tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos, B.A.; Chipera, S.J.; Snow, M.G.

    Fractures in silicic tuffs above the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA contain two morphologies of heulandite with different compositions. Tabular heulandite is zoned, with Sr-rich cores and Mg-rich rims. Later prismatic heulandite is nearly the same composition as the more magnesian rims. Heulandite and stellerite may occur between layers of calcite, and calcite occurs locally between generations of heulandite. Thermodynamic modeling, using estimated thermodynamic data and observed chemical compositions for heulandite and stellerite, shows that stellerite is the favored zeolite unless Ca concentrations are reduced or Mg and/or Sr concentrations are significantly elevated above current Yucca Mountain waters.

  6. Ultrasmall Zeolite L Crystals Prepared from Highly-Interdispersed Alkali-Silicate Precursors.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Linares, Noemi; Sutjianto, James G; Chawla, Aseem; Garcia Martinez, Javier; Rimer, Jeffrey D

    2018-06-19

    The preparation of nanosized zeolites is critical for applications where mass transport limitations within microporous networks hinder their performance. Oftentimes the ability to generate ultrasmall zeolite crystals is dependent upon the use of expensive organics with limited commercial relevance. Here, we report the generation of zeolite L crystals with uniform sizes less than 30 nm using a facile, organic-free method. Time-resolved analysis of precursor assembly and evolution during nonclassical crystallization highlights key differences among silicon sources. Our findings reveal that a homogenous dispersion of potassium ions throughout silicate precursors is critical to enhancing the rate of nucleation and facilitating the formation of ultrasmall crystals. Intimate contact between the inorganic structure-directing agent and silica leads to the formation of a metastable nonporous phase, identified as KAlSi2O6, which undergoes an intercrystalline transformation to zeolite L. The presence of highly-interdispersed alkali-silicate precursors is seemingly integral to a reduced zeolite induction time and may facilitate the development of ultrasmall crystals. Given the general difficulty of achieving nanosized crystals in zeolite synthesis, it is likely that using well-dispersed precursors does not have the same effect on all framework types; however, in select cases it may provide an alternative strategy for optimizing zeolite synthesis. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Modification of ferrierite through post-synthesis treatments. Acidic and catalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brylewska, Kamila; Tarach, Karolina A.; Mozgawa, Włodzimierz; Olejniczak, Zbigniew; Filek, Urszula; Góra-Marek, Kinga

    2016-12-01

    The main emphasis of this work was placed on a detailed characterization of structural, textural and acidic properties of FER zeolites with different Si/Al ratios in terms of their activity in ethanol dehydration reaction. Subsequent dealumination and desilication procedures were found to be an efficient methods of a secondary system of mesopore generation in the ferrierite crystals with preservation of their microporous characteristics. Through ethanol dehydration both the acidic and the textural features have a significant influence on catalytic performance of hierarchical ferrierites. It was shown that higher catalytic activity and selectivity to ethylene is ensured by zeolites with highly preserved microporous characteristic, i.e. well-developed micropore area and intrinsic acidity.

  8. New approach for determination of the influence of long-range order and selected ring oscillations on IR spectra in zeolites.

    PubMed

    Mikuła, Andrzej; Król, Magdalena; Mozgawa, Włodzimierz; Koleżyński, Andrzej

    2018-04-15

    Vibrational spectroscopy can be considered as one of the most important methods used for structural characterization of various porous aluminosilicate materials, including zeolites. On the other hand, vibrational spectra of zeolites are still difficult to interpret, particularly in the pseudolattice region, where bands related to ring oscillations can be observed. Using combination of theoretical and computational approach, a detailed analysis of these regions of spectra is possible; such analysis should be, however, carried out employing models with different level of complexity and simultaneously the same theory level. In this work, an attempt was made to identify ring oscillations in vibrational spectra of selected zeolite structures. A series of ab initio calculations focused on S4R, S6R, and as a novelty, 5-1 isolated clusters, as well as periodic siliceous frameworks built from those building units (ferrierite (FER), mordenite (MOR) and heulandite (HEU) type) have been carried out. Due to the hierarchical structure of zeolite frameworks it can be expected that the total envelope of the zeolite spectra should be with good accuracy a sum of the spectra of structural elements that build each zeolite framework. Based on the results of HF calculations, normal vibrations have been visualized and detailed analysis of pseudolattice range of resulting theoretical spectra have been carried out. Obtained results have been applied for interpretation of experimental spectra of selected zeolites. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. New approach for determination of the influence of long-range order and selected ring oscillations on IR spectra in zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikuła, Andrzej; Król, Magdalena; Mozgawa, Włodzimierz; Koleżyński, Andrzej

    2018-04-01

    Vibrational spectroscopy can be considered as one of the most important methods used for structural characterization of various porous aluminosilicate materials, including zeolites. On the other hand, vibrational spectra of zeolites are still difficult to interpret, particularly in the pseudolattice region, where bands related to ring oscillations can be observed. Using combination of theoretical and computational approach, a detailed analysis of these regions of spectra is possible; such analysis should be, however, carried out employing models with different level of complexity and simultaneously the same theory level. In this work, an attempt was made to identify ring oscillations in vibrational spectra of selected zeolite structures. A series of ab initio calculations focused on S4R, S6R, and as a novelty, 5-1 isolated clusters, as well as periodic siliceous frameworks built from those building units (ferrierite (FER), mordenite (MOR) and heulandite (HEU) type) have been carried out. Due to the hierarchical structure of zeolite frameworks it can be expected that the total envelope of the zeolite spectra should be with good accuracy a sum of the spectra of structural elements that build each zeolite framework. Based on the results of HF calculations, normal vibrations have been visualized and detailed analysis of pseudolattice range of resulting theoretical spectra have been carried out. Obtained results have been applied for interpretation of experimental spectra of selected zeolites.

  10. Zeolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Zeolites are crystalline aluminosilicates that have complex framework structures. However, there are several features of zeolite crystals that make unequivocal structure determinations difficult. The acquisition of reliable structural information on zeolites is greatly facilitated by the availability of high-quality specimens. For structure determinations by conventional diffraction techniques, large single-crystal specimens are essential. Alternatively, structural determinations by powder profile refinement methods relax the constraints on crystal size, but still require materials with a high degree of crystalline perfection. Studies conducted at CAMMP (Center for Advanced Microgravity Materials Processing) have demonstrated that microgravity processing can produce larger crystal sizes and fewer structural defects relative to terrestrial crystal growth. Principal Investigator: Dr. Albert Sacco

  11. Improved zeolite regeneration processes for preparing saturated branched-chain fatty acids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ferrierite zeolite solid is an excellent catalyst for the skeletal isomerization of unsaturated linear-chain fatty acids (i.e., oleic acid) to unsaturated branched-chain fatty acids (i.e., iso-oleic acid) follow by hydrogenation to give saturated branched-chain fatty acids (i.e., isostearic acid). ...

  12. Self-repairing properties of OPC clinker/natural zeolite blend in water and alkali carbonate environments at 270°C

    DOE PAGES

    Pyatina, Tatiana; Sugama, Toshifumi; Ronne, Arthur; ...

    2018-01-01

    The 10 d recoveries of the mechanical properties and crack sealing of an ordinary Portland cement (OPC) clinker/natural zeolite (ferrierite (Fer)) blend modified or unmodified with silica were tested at 270°C in water and alkali carbonate environments. The recoveries of the samples depended on their modification with silica and the curing environment, but were more than 100% after repeated damage under some test conditions. The mechanical properties and phase compositions of recovered samples were evaluated by compressive strength measurements and x-ray diffraction, differential thermogravimetric analyses, Fourier transform infrared analyses and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Themore » sealing of 0·25 mm wide and ~2 mm deep cracks was visualised with a three-dimensional optical microscope. Fer decomposed under high-temperature alkaline conditions with the release of hydrolysates that, along with the hydrating clinker, participated in the formation of new phases contributing to strength recoveries. Here, these phases included crystalline magnesium and aluminium-containing silicates, calcium and carbonated calcium silicates and amorphous hydrates. Crack sealing was complete for the silica-modified samples and partial for unmodified ones cured in carbonate environments. The sealing was very poor for samples cured in water. Lastly, the main sealing phases included crystalline and amorphous silica, high-temperature-stable zeolites and talc mineral.« less

  13. Self-repairing properties of OPC clinker/natural zeolite blend in water and alkali carbonate environments at 270°C

    SciTech Connect

    Pyatina, Tatiana; Sugama, Toshifumi; Ronne, Arthur

    The 10 d recoveries of the mechanical properties and crack sealing of an ordinary Portland cement (OPC) clinker/natural zeolite (ferrierite (Fer)) blend modified or unmodified with silica were tested at 270°C in water and alkali carbonate environments. The recoveries of the samples depended on their modification with silica and the curing environment, but were more than 100% after repeated damage under some test conditions. The mechanical properties and phase compositions of recovered samples were evaluated by compressive strength measurements and x-ray diffraction, differential thermogravimetric analyses, Fourier transform infrared analyses and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Themore » sealing of 0·25 mm wide and ~2 mm deep cracks was visualised with a three-dimensional optical microscope. Fer decomposed under high-temperature alkaline conditions with the release of hydrolysates that, along with the hydrating clinker, participated in the formation of new phases contributing to strength recoveries. Here, these phases included crystalline magnesium and aluminium-containing silicates, calcium and carbonated calcium silicates and amorphous hydrates. Crack sealing was complete for the silica-modified samples and partial for unmodified ones cured in carbonate environments. The sealing was very poor for samples cured in water. Lastly, the main sealing phases included crystalline and amorphous silica, high-temperature-stable zeolites and talc mineral.« less

  14. Purification of metal finishing waste waters with zeolites and activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Leinonen, H; Lehto, J

    2001-02-01

    Sixteen zeolites and 5 activated carbons were tested for the removal of nickel, zinc, cadmium, copper, chromium, and cobalt from waste simulants mimicking effluents produced in metal plating plants. The best performances were obtained from 4 zeolites: A, X, L, and ferrierite types and from 2 carbon types made from lignite and peat. The distribution coefficients for these sorbents were in the range of 10,000-440,000 ml/g. Column experiments showed that the most effective zeolites for Zn, Ni, Cu, and Cd were A and X type zeolites. The activated carbons, Hydrodarco 3000 and Norit Row Supra, exhibited good sorption properties for metals in aqueous solutions containing complexing agents.

  15. Studies of anions sorption on natural zeolites.

    PubMed

    Barczyk, K; Mozgawa, W; Król, M

    2014-12-10

    This work presents results of FT-IR spectroscopic studies of anions-chromate, phosphate and arsenate - sorbed from aqueous solutions (different concentrations of anions) on zeolites. The sorption has been conducted on natural zeolites from different structural groups, i.e. chabazite, mordenite, ferrierite and clinoptilolite. The Na-forms of sorbents were exchanged with hexadecyltrimethylammonium cations (HDTMA(+)) and organo-zeolites were obtained. External cation exchange capacities (ECEC) of organo-zeolites were measured. Their values are 17mmol/100g for chabazite, 4mmol/100g for mordenite and ferrierite and 10mmol/100g for clinoptilolite. The used initial inputs of HDTMA correspond to 100% and 200% ECEC of the minerals. Organo-modificated sorbents were subsequently used for immobilization of mentioned anions. It was proven that aforementioned anions' sorption causes changes in IR spectra of the HDTMA-zeolites. These alterations are dependent on the kind of anions that were sorbed. In all cases, variations are due to bands corresponding to the characteristic Si-O(Si,Al) vibrations (occurring in alumino- and silicooxygen tetrahedra building spatial framework of zeolites). Alkylammonium surfactant vibrations have also been observed. Systematic changes in the spectra connected with the anion concentration in the initial solution have been revealed. The amounts of sorbed CrO4(2-), AsO4(3-) and PO4(3-) ions were calculated from the difference between their concentrations in solutions before (initial concentration) and after (equilibrium concentration) sorption experiments. Concentrations of anions were determined by spectrophotometric method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthesis of butenes through 2-butanol dehydration over mesoporous materials produced from ferrierite

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Soyeon; Kim, Hyeonjoo; Bae, Jung A.

    2012-05-20

    Mesoporous materials synthesized from commercial ferrierite (MMZ-FER) were applied to butanol dehydration. The MMZ-FER was produced by disassembling ferrierite into unit structures in the presence of an alkali solution, adding a surfactant as a templating material, followed by hydrothermal treatment. The effect of the alkali/(Si+Al) ratio in the disassembling step on the characteristics of the catalyst and butanol dehydration performance were investigated. The MMZ-FER materials, synthesized in a condition in which the NaOH/(Si + Al) mole ratio in the disassembling step was 0.67 and 1.0, demonstrated similar textural properties to those of MCM-41. Many weak acid sites developed on themore » MMZ-FER(0.67) and MMZ-FER(1.0) samples, which is attributed to the creation of ferrierite-induced acid sites. The MMZ-FER materials showed excellent catalytic activity, selectivity, and stability during the dehydration of 2-butanol.« less

  17. Microstructure, Porosity and Mechanical Property Relationships of Calcium-Silicate-Hydrate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-15

    feasibility of producing S ,,zeolite-cement composites . calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) structure, NAS NMR, C3S, pH, zeolites, aluminosilicate hydrate...3 S pH- Composition Plots......................................... 6 X-ray Diffraction...6 The System CaO-A1203-SiO 2 -H2 0................................. 8 pH- Composition Plots......................................... 8 MASNMR

  18. Recommended nomenclature for zeolite minerals: Report of the Subcommittee on Zeolites of the International Mineralogical Association, Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coombs, D.S.; Alberti, A.; Armbruster, T.; Artioli, G.; Colella, C.; Galli, E.; Grice, Joel D.; Liebau, F.; Mandarino, J.A.; Minato, H.; Nickel, E.H.; Passaglia, E.; Peacor, D.R.; Quartieri, S.; Rinaldi, R.; Ross, M.; Sheppard, R.A.; Tillmanns, E.; Vezzalini, G.

    1998-01-01

    This report embodies recommendations on zeolite nomenclature approved by the International Mineralogical Association Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names. In a working definition of a zeolite mineral used for this review, structures containing an interrupted containing an interrupted framework of tetrahedra are accepted where other zeolitic properties prevail, and complete substitution by elements other than Si and Al is alloowed. Separate species are recognized in topologically distinctive compositional series in which different extra-framework cations are the most abundant in atomic proportions. To name these, the appropriate chemical symbol is attached by a hyphen to the series name as a suffix, except for the names harmotome, pollucite and wairakite in the phillipsite and analcime series. Differences in space-group symmetry and in order-disorder relationships in zeolites having the same topologically distinctive framework do not in general provide adequate grounds for recognition of separate species. Zeolite species are not to be distinguished solely in Si:Al ratio except for heulandite (Si:Al < 4.0) and clinoptilolite (Si:Al ??? 4.0). Dehydration, partial hydration and over-hydration are not sufficient grounds for the recognition of separate species of zeolites. Use of the term 'ideal formula' should be avoided in referring to a simplified or averaged formula of zeolite. Newly recognized species in compositional series are as follows: brewsterite-Sr, -Ba; chabazite-Ca, -Na, -K; clinoptilolite-K, -Na, -Ca; dechiardite-Ca, -Na; erionite-Na, -K, -Ca,; faujasite-Na, -Ca, -Mg; ferrierite-Mg, -K, -Na; gmelinite-Na, -Ca, -K; heulandite-Ca, -Na, -K, -Sr; levyne-Ca, -Na; paulingite-K, -Ca; phillipsite-Na, -Ca, -K stilbite-Ca, -Na. Key references, type locality, origin of name, chemical data, IZA structure-type symbols, space-group symmetry, unit-cell dimensions, and comments on structure are listed for 13 compositional series, 82 accepted zeolite mineral

  19. Recommended nomenclature for zeolite minerals: report of the subcommittee on zeolites of the International Mineralogical Association, Commission on new Minerals and Mineral names

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coombs, D.S.; Alberti, A.; Armbruster, T.; Artioli, G.; Colella, C.; Galli, E.; Grice, Joel D.; Liebau, F.; Mandarino, J.A.; Minato, H.; Nickel, E.H.; Passaglia, E.; Peacor, D.R.; Quartieri, S.; Rinaldi, R.; Ross, M.; Sheppard, R.A.; Tillmanns, E.; Vezzalini, G.

    1997-01-01

    This report embodies recommendations on zeolite nomenclature approved by the International Mineralogical Association, Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names. In a working definition of a zeolite mineral used for this review, structures containing an interrupted framework of tetrahedra are accepted where other zeolitic properties prevail, and complete substitution by elements other than Si and Al is allowed. Separate species are recognized in topologically distinctive compositional series in which different extra-framework cations are the most abundant in atomic proportions. To name these, the appropriate chemicalsymbol is attached by a hyphen to the series name as a suffix, except for the names harmotome, pollucite and wairakite in the phillipsite and analcime series. Differences in space-group symmetry and in order-disorder relationships in zeolites having the same topologically distinctive framework do not in general provide adequate grounds for recognition of separate species. Zeolite species are not to be distinguished solely on the ratio Si:Al except for heulandite (Si:Al < 4.0) and clinoptilolite (Si:Al ??? 4.0). Dehydration, partial hydration, and overhydration are not sufficient grounds for the recognition of separate species of zeolites. Use of the term 'ideal formula' should be avoided in referring to a simplified or averaged formula of a zeolite. newly recognized species in compositional series are as follows: brewsterite-Sr, -Ba, chabazite-Ca, -Na, -K, clinoptilolite-K, -Na, -Ca, dachiardite-Ca, -Na, erionite-Na, erionite-Na, -K, -Ca, faujasite-Na, -Ca, -Mg, ferrierite-Mg, -K, -Na, gmelinite-Na, -Ca, -K, heulandite-Ca, -Na, -K, -Sr, levyne-Ca, -Na, paulingite-K, -Ca, phillipsite-Na, -Ca, -K, and stilbite-Ca, -Na. Key references, type locality, origin of name, chemical data, IZA structure-type symbols, space-group symmetry, unit-cell dimensions, and comments on structure are listed for 13 compositional series, 82 accepted zeolite mineral species

  20. Biological and therapeutic effects of ortho-silicic acid and some ortho-silicic acid-releasing compounds: New perspectives for therapy.

    PubMed

    Jurkić, Lela Munjas; Cepanec, Ivica; Pavelić, Sandra Kraljević; Pavelić, Krešimir

    2013-01-08

    Silicon (Si) is the most abundant element present in the Earth's crust besides oxygen. However, the exact biological roles of silicon remain unknown. Moreover, the ortho-silicic acid (H4SiO4), as a major form of bioavailable silicon for both humans and animals, has not been given adequate attention so far. Silicon has already been associated with bone mineralization, collagen synthesis, skin, hair and nails health atherosclerosis, Alzheimer disease, immune system enhancement, and with some other disorders or pharmacological effects. Beside the ortho-silicic acid and its stabilized formulations such as choline chloride-stabilized ortho-silicic acid and sodium or potassium silicates (e.g. M2SiO3; M= Na,K), the most important sources that release ortho-silicic acid as a bioavailable form of silicon are: colloidal silicic acid (hydrated silica gel), silica gel (amorphous silicon dioxide), and zeolites. Although all these compounds are characterized by substantial water insolubility, they release small, but significant, equilibrium concentration of ortho-silicic acid (H4SiO4) in contact with water and physiological fluids. Even though certain pharmacological effects of these compounds might be attributed to specific structural characteristics that result in profound adsorption and absorption properties, they all exhibit similar pharmacological profiles readily comparable to ortho-silicic acid effects. The most unusual ortho-silicic acid-releasing agents are certain types of zeolites, a class of aluminosilicates with well described ion(cation)-exchange properties. Numerous biological activities of some types of zeolites documented so far might probably be attributable to the ortho-silicic acid-releasing property. In this review, we therefore discuss biological and potential therapeutic effects of ortho-silicic acid and ortho-silicic acid -releasing silicon compounds as its major natural sources.

  1. ZEOLITES: EFFECTIVE WATER PURIFIERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zeolites are known for their adsorption, ion exchange and catalytic properties. Various natural zeolites are used as odor and moisture adsorbents and water softeners. Due to their acidic nature, synthetic zeolites are commonly employed as solid acid catalysts in petrochemical ind...

  2. Growth of large zeolite crystals in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacco, A., Jr.; Dixon, A.; Thompson, R.; Scott, G.; Ditr, J.

    1988-01-01

    Synthesis studies performed using close analogs of triethanolamine (TEA) have shown that all three hydroxyl groups and the amine group in this molecule are necessary to provide nucleation suppression. Studies using C-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) revealed that the hydroxyl ions and the amine group are involved in the formation of an aluminum complex. It was also shown that silicate species fo not interact this way with TEA in an alkaline solution. These results suggest that successful aluminum complexation leads to nucleation in zeolite-A crystallization.

  3. Antimicrobial properties of zeolite-X and zeolite-A ion-exchanged with silver, copper, and zinc against a broad range of microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Selami; Ustaoğlu, Zeynep; Yılmazer, Gonca Altın; Sahin, Fikrettin; Baç, Nurcan

    2014-02-01

    Zeolites are nanoporous alumina silicates composed of silicon, aluminum, and oxygen in a framework with cations, water within pores. Their cation contents can be exchanged with monovalent or divalent ions. In the present study, the antimicrobial (antibacterial, anticandidal, and antifungal) properties of zeolite type X and A, with different Al/Si ratio, ion exchanged with Ag(+), Zn(2+), and Cu(2+) ions were investigated individually. The study presents the synthesis and manufacture of four different zeolite types characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The ion loading capacity of the zeolites was examined and compared with the antimicrobial characteristics against a broad range of microorganisms including bacteria, yeast, and mold. It was observed that Ag(+) ion-loaded zeolites exhibited more antibacterial activity with respect to other metal ion-embedded zeolite samples. The results clearly support that various synthetic zeolites can be ion exchanged with Ag(+), Zn(2+), and Cu(2+) ions to acquire antimicrobial properties or ion-releasing characteristics to provide prolonged or stronger activity. The current study suggested that zeolite formulations could be combined with various materials used in manufacturing medical devices, surfaces, textiles, or household items where antimicrobial properties are required.

  4. Zeolites: Exploring Molecular Channels

    ScienceCinema

    Arslan, Ilke; Derewinski, Mirek

    2018-05-16

    Synthetic zeolites contain microscopic channels, sort of like a sponge. They have many uses, such as helping laundry detergent lather, absorbing liquid in kitty litter, and as catalysts to produce fuel. Of the hundreds of types of zeolites, only about 15 are used for catalysis. PNNL catalysis scientists Ilke Arslan and Mirek Derewinksi are studying these zeolites to understand what make them special. By exploring the mystery of these microscopic channels, their fundamental findings will help design better catalysts for applications such as biofuel production.

  5. Zeolites: Exploring Molecular Channels

    SciTech Connect

    Arslan, Ilke; Derewinski, Mirek

    2015-05-22

    Synthetic zeolites contain microscopic channels, sort of like a sponge. They have many uses, such as helping laundry detergent lather, absorbing liquid in kitty litter, and as catalysts to produce fuel. Of the hundreds of types of zeolites, only about 15 are used for catalysis. PNNL catalysis scientists Ilke Arslan and Mirek Derewinksi are studying these zeolites to understand what make them special. By exploring the mystery of these microscopic channels, their fundamental findings will help design better catalysts for applications such as biofuel production.

  6. Diagram of Zeolite Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Center for Advanced Microgravity Materials Processing (CAMMP) in Cambridge, MA, a NASA-sponsored Commercial Space Center, is working to improve zeolite materials for storing hydrogen fuel. CAMMP is also applying zeolites to detergents, optical cables, gas and vapor detection for environmental monitoring and control, and chemical production techniques that significantly reduce by-products that are hazardous to the environment. Depicted here is one of the many here complex geometric shapes which make them highly absorbent. Zeolite experiments have also been conducted aboard the International Space Station

  7. Recent Advances on Bioethanol Dehydration using Zeolite Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makertihartha, I. G. B. N.; Dharmawijaya, P. T.; Wenten, I. G.

    2017-07-01

    Renewable energy has gained increasing attention throughout the world. Bioethanol has the potential to replace existing fossil fuel usage without much modification in existing facilities. Bioethanol which generally produced from fermentation route produces low ethanol concentration. However, fuel grade ethanol requires low water content to avoid engine stall. Dehydration process has been increasingly important in fuel grade ethanol production. Among all dehydration processes, pervaporation is considered as the most promising technology. Zeolite possesses high potential in pervaporation of bioethanol into fuel grade ethanol. Zeolite membrane can either remove organic (ethanol) from aqueous mixture or water from the mixture, depending on the framework used. Hydrophilic zeolite membrane, e.g. LTA, can easily remove water from the mixture leaving high ethanol concentration. On the other hand, hydrophobic zeolite membrane, e.g. silicate-1, can remove ethanol from aqueous solution. This review presents the concept of bioethanol dehydration using zeolite membrane. Special attention is given to the performance of selected pathway related to framework selection.

  8. Composite zeolite membranes

    DOEpatents

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Thoma, Steven G.; Ashley, Carol S.; Reed, Scott T.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of composite zeolite membranes and synthesis techniques therefor has been invented. These membranes are essentially defect-free, and exhibit large levels of transmembrane flux and of chemical and isotopic selectivity.

  9. Bio-based phenolic-branched-chain fatty acid isomers synthesized from vegetable oils and natural monophenols using modified h+-ferrierite zeolite

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new group of phenolic branched-chain fatty acids (n-PBC-FA), hybrid molecules of natural monophenols (i.e., thymol, carvacrol and creosote) and mixed fatty acid (i.e., derived from soybean and safflower oils), were efficiently produced through a process known as arylation. The reaction involves a...

  10. Zeolite A imidazolate frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Hideki; Côté, Adrien P.; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; O'Keeffe, Michael; Yaghi, Omar M.

    2007-07-01

    Faujasite (FAU) and zeolite A (LTA) are technologically important porous zeolites (aluminosilicates) because of their extensive use in petroleum cracking and water softening. Introducing organic units and transition metals into the backbone of these types of zeolite allows us to expand their pore structures, enhance their functionality and access new applications. The invention of metal-organic frameworks and zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) has provided materials based on simple zeolite structures where only one type of cage is present. However, so far, no metal-organic analogues based on FAU or LTA topologies exist owing to the difficulty imposed by the presence of two types of large cage (super- and β-cages for FAU, α- and β-cages for LTA). Here, we have identified a strategy to produce an LTA imidazolate framework in which both the link geometry and link-link interactions play a decisive structure-directing role. We describe the synthesis and crystal structures of three porous ZIFs that are expanded analogues of zeolite A; their cage walls are functionalized, and their metal ions can be changed without changing the underlying LTA topology. Hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide and argon gas adsorption isotherms are reported and the selectivity of this material for carbon dioxide over methane is demonstrated.

  11. Zeolite A imidazolate frameworks.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Hideki; Côté, Adrien P; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; O'Keeffe, Michael; Yaghi, Omar M

    2007-07-01

    Faujasite (FAU) and zeolite A (LTA) are technologically important porous zeolites (aluminosilicates) because of their extensive use in petroleum cracking and water softening. Introducing organic units and transition metals into the backbone of these types of zeolite allows us to expand their pore structures, enhance their functionality and access new applications. The invention of metal-organic frameworks and zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) has provided materials based on simple zeolite structures where only one type of cage is present. However, so far, no metal-organic analogues based on FAU or LTA topologies exist owing to the difficulty imposed by the presence of two types of large cage (super- and beta-cages for FAU, alpha- and beta-cages for LTA). Here, we have identified a strategy to produce an LTA imidazolate framework in which both the link geometry and link-link interactions play a decisive structure-directing role. We describe the synthesis and crystal structures of three porous ZIFs that are expanded analogues of zeolite A; their cage walls are functionalized, and their metal ions can be changed without changing the underlying LTA topology. Hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide and argon gas adsorption isotherms are reported and the selectivity of this material for carbon dioxide over methane is demonstrated.

  12. Hydraulic conductivity of compacted zeolites.

    PubMed

    Oren, A Hakan; Ozdamar, Tuğçe

    2013-06-01

    Hydraulic conductivities of compacted zeolites were investigated as a function of compaction water content and zeolite particle size. Initially, the compaction characteristics of zeolites were determined. The compaction test results showed that maximum dry unit weight (γ(dmax)) of fine zeolite was greater than that of granular zeolites. The γ(dmax) of compacted zeolites was between 1.01 and 1.17 Mg m(-3) and optimum water content (w(opt)) was between 38% and 53%. Regardless of zeolite particle size, compacted zeolites had low γ(dmax) and high w(opt) when compared with compacted natural soils. Then, hydraulic conductivity tests were run on compacted zeolites. The hydraulic conductivity values were within the range of 2.0 × 10(-3) cm s(-1) to 1.1 × 10(-7) cm s(-1). Hydraulic conductivity of all compacted zeolites decreased almost 50 times as the water content increased. It is noteworthy that hydraulic conductivity of compacted zeolite was strongly dependent on the zeolite particle size. The hydraulic conductivity decreased almost three orders of magnitude up to 39% fine content; then, it remained almost unchanged beyond 39%. Only one report was found in the literature on the hydraulic conductivity of compacted zeolite, which is in agreement with the findings of this study.

  13. Preparation of functionalized zeolitic frameworks

    DOEpatents

    Yaghi, Omar M; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Wang, Bo

    2013-07-09

    The disclosure provides zeolitic frameworks for gas separation, gas storage, catalysis and sensors. More particularly the disclosure provides zeolitic frameworks (ZIFs). The ZIF of the disclosure comprises any number of transition metals or a homogenous transition metal composition.

  14. Preparation of functionalized zeolitic frameworks

    DOEpatents

    Yaghi, Omar M; Hayashi, Hideki; Banerjee, Rahul; Park, Kyo Sung; Wang, Bo; Cote, Adrien P

    2012-11-20

    The disclosure provides zeolitic frameworks for gas separation, gas storage, catalysis and sensors. More particularly the disclosure provides zeolitic frameworks (ZIFs). The ZIF of the disclosure comprises any number of transition metals or a homogenous transition metal composition.

  15. Preparation of functionalized zeolitic frameworks

    DOEpatents

    Yaghi, Omar M.; Hayashi, Hideki; Banerjee, Rahul; Park, Kyo Sung; Wang, Bo; Cote, Adrien P.

    2014-08-19

    The disclosure provides zeolitic frameworks for gas separation, gas storage, catalysis and sensors. More particularly the disclosure provides zeolitic frameworks (ZIFs). The ZIF of the disclosure comprises any number of transition metals or a homogenous transition metal composition.

  16. Rapid synthesis of beta zeolites

    DOEpatents

    Fan, Wei; Chang, Chun -Chih; Dornath, Paul; Wang, Zhuopeng

    2015-08-18

    The invention provides methods for rapidly synthesizing heteroatom containing zeolites including Sn-Beta, Si-Beta, Ti-Beta, Zr-Beta and Fe-Beta. The methods for synthesizing heteroatom zeolites include using well-crystalline zeolite crystals as seeds and using a fluoride-free, caustic medium in a seeded dry-gel conversion method. The Beta zeolite catalysts made by the methods of the invention catalyze both isomerization and dehydration reactions.

  17. Cesium titanium silicate and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Balmer, M.L.

    1997-01-07

    The invention is the new material, a ternary compound of cesium, silica, and titania, together with a method of making the ternary compound, cesium titanium silicate pollucite. More specifically, the invention is Cs{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}Si{sub 4}O{sub 13} pollucite which is a new crystalline phase representing a novel class of Ti-containing zeolites. Compositions contain relatively high Cs{sub 2}O and TiO{sub 2} loadings and are durable glass and ceramic materials. The amount of TiO{sub 2} and Cs{sub 2} that can be incorporated into these glasses and crystalline ceramics far exceeds the limits set for the borosilicate high level waste glass. 10 figs.

  18. Cesium titanium silicate and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Balmer, Mari L.

    1997-01-01

    The invention is the new material, a ternary compound of cesium, silica, and titania, together with a method of making the ternary compound, cesium titanium silicate pollucite. More specifically, the invention is Cs.sub.2 Ti.sub.2 Si.sub.4 O.sub.13 pollucite which is a new crystalline phase representing a novel class of Ti-containing zeolites. Compositions contain relatively high Cs.sub.2 O and TiO.sub.2 loadings and are durable glass and ceramic materials. The amount of TiO.sub.2 and Cs.sub.2 that can be incorporated into these glasses and crystalline ceramics far exceeds the limits set for the borosilicate high level waste glass.

  19. Advances in nanosized zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mintova, Svetlana; Gilson, Jean-Pierre; Valtchev, Valentin

    2013-07-01

    This review highlights recent developments in the synthesis of nanosized zeolites. The strategies available for their preparation (organic-template assisted, organic-template free, and alternative procedures) are discussed. Major breakthroughs achieved by the so-called zeolite crystal engineering and encompass items such as mastering and using the physicochemical properties of the precursor synthesis gel/suspension, optimizing the use of silicon and aluminium precursor sources, the rational use of organic templates and structure-directing inorganic cations, and careful adjustment of synthesis conditions (temperature, pressure, time, heating processes from conventional to microwave and sonication) are addressed. An on-going broad and deep fundamental understanding of the crystallization process, explaining the influence of all variables of this complex set of reactions, underpins an even more rational design of nanosized zeolites with exceptional properties. Finally, the advantages and limitations of these methods are addressed with particular attention to their industrial prospects and utilization in existing and advanced applications.

  20. A Review: Fundamental Aspects of Silicate Mesoporous Materials

    PubMed Central

    ALOthman, Zeid A.

    2012-01-01

    Silicate mesoporous materials have received widespread interest because of their potential applications as supports for catalysis, separation, selective adsorption, novel functional materials, and use as hosts to confine guest molecules, due to their extremely high surface areas combined with large and uniform pore sizes. Over time a constant demand has developed for larger pores with well-defined pore structures. Silicate materials, with well-defined pore sizes of about 2.0–10.0 nm, surpass the pore-size constraint (<2.0 nm) of microporous zeolites. They also possess extremely high surface areas (>700 m2 g−1) and narrow pore size distributions. Instead of using small organic molecules as templating compounds, as in the case of zeolites, long chain surfactant molecules were employed as the structure-directing agent during the synthesis of these highly ordered materials. The structure, composition, and pore size of these materials can be tailored during synthesis by variation of the reactant stoichiometry, the nature of the surfactant molecule, the auxiliary chemicals, the reaction conditions, or by post-synthesis functionalization techniques. This review focuses mainly on a concise overview of silicate mesoporous materials together with their applications. Perusal of the review will enable researchers to obtain succinct information about microporous and mesoporous materials.

  1. Constraints on cosmic silicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ossenkopf, V.; Henning, Th.; Mathis, J. S.

    1992-08-01

    Observational determinations of opacities of circumstellar silicates, relative to the peak value near 10 microns, are used to estimate the optical constants n and k, the real and imaginary parts of the index of refraction. Circumstellar dust is modified by processing within the interstellar medium. This leads to higher band strengths and a somewhat larger ratio of the opacities at the 18 and 10-micron peaks, compared with circumstellar silicates. By using an effective-medium theory, we calculate the effects of small spherical inclusions of various materials (various oxides, sulfides, carbides, amorphous carbon, and metallic iron) upon silicate opacities. Some of these can increase the absorption coefficient k in the 2-8 micron region appreciably, as is needed to reconcile laboratory silicate opacities with observations of both the interstellar medium and envelopes around late-type stars. We give tables of two sets of optical constants for warm oxygen-deficient and cool oxygen-rich silicates, representative for circumstellar and interstellar silicates. The required opacity in the 2-8 micron region is provided by iron and magnetite.

  2. Zeolite crystal growth in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacco, Albert, Jr.; Thompson, Robert W.; Dixon, Anthony G.

    1991-01-01

    The growth of large, uniform zeolite crystals in high yield in space can have a major impact on the chemical process industry. Large zeolite crystals will be used to improve basic understanding of adsorption and catalytic mechanisms, and to make zeolite membranes. To grow large zeolites in microgravity, it is necessary to control the nucleation event and fluid motion, and to enhance nutrient transfer. Data is presented that suggests nucleation can be controlled using chemical compounds (e.g., Triethanolamine, for zeolite A), while not adversely effecting growth rate. A three-zone furnace has been designed to perform multiple syntheses concurrently. The operating range of the furnace is 295 K to 473 K. Teflon-lined autoclaves (10 ml liquid volume) have been designed to minimize contamination, reduce wall nucleation, and control mixing of pre-gel solutions on orbit. Zeolite synthesis experiments will be performed on USML-1 in 1992.

  3. Hydrogen storage in Chabazite zeolite frameworks.

    PubMed

    Regli, Laura; Zecchina, Adriano; Vitillo, Jenny G; Cocina, Donato; Spoto, Giuseppe; Lamberti, Carlo; Lillerud, Karl P; Olsbye, Unni; Bordiga, Silvia

    2005-09-07

    We have recently highlighted that H-SSZ-13, a highly siliceous zeolite (Si/Al = 11.6) with a chabazitic framework, is the most efficient zeolitic material for hydrogen storage [A. Zecchina, S. Bordiga, J. G. Vitillo, G. Ricchiardi, C. Lamberti, G. Spoto, M. Bjørgen and K. P. Lillerud, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2005, 127, 6361]. The aim of this new study is thus to clarify both the role played by the acidic strength and by the density of the polarizing centers hosted in the same framework topology in the increase of the adsorptive capabilities of the chabazitic materials towards H2. To achieve this goal, the volumetric experiments of H2 uptake (performed at 77 K) and the transmission IR experiment of H2 adsorption at 15 K have been performed on H-SSZ-13, H-SAPO-34 (the isostructural silico-aluminophosphate material with the same Brønsted site density) and H-CHA (the standard chabazite zeolite: Si/Al = 2.1) materials. We have found that a H2 uptake improvement has been obtained by increasing the acidic strength of the Brønsted sites (moving from H-SAPO-34 to H-SSZ-13). Conversely, the important increase of the Brønsted sites density (moving from H-SSZ-13 to H-CHA) has played a negative role. This unexpected behavior has been explained as follows. The additional Brønsted sites are in mutual interaction via H-bonds inside the small cages of the chabazitic framework and for most of them the energetic cost needed to displace the adjacent OH ligand is higher than the adsorption enthalpy of the OH...H2 adduct. From our work it can be concluded that proton exchanged chabazitic frameworks represent, among zeolites, the most efficient materials for hydrogen storage. We have shown that a proper balance between available space (volume accessible to hydrogen), high contact surface, and specific interaction with strong and isolated polarizing centers are the necessary characteristics requested to design better materials for molecular H2 storage.

  4. Calcium silicate insulation structure

    DOEpatents

    Kollie, Thomas G.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    An insulative structure including a powder-filled evacuated casing utilizes a quantity of finely divided synthetic calcium silicate having a relatively high surface area. The resultant structure-provides superior thermal insulating characteristics over a broad temperature range and is particularly well-suited as a panel for a refrigerator or freezer or the insulative barrier for a cooler or a insulated bottle.

  5. European Microgravity Facilities for ZEOLITE Experiments on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletser, V.; Minster, O.; Kremer, S.; Kirschhock, C.; Martens, J.; Jacobs, P.

    2002-01-01

    Synthetic zeolites are complex porous silicates. Zeolites are applied as catalysts, adsorbents and sensors. Whereas the traditional applications are situated in the petrochemical area, zeolite catalysis and related zeolite-based technologies have a growing impact on the economics and sustainability of products and processes in a growing number of industrial sectors, including environmental protection and nanotechnology. A Sounding Rocket microgravity experiment led to significant insight in the physical aggregation patterns of zeolitic nanoscopic particles and the occurrence of self-organisation phenomena when undisturbed by convection. The opportunity of performing longer microgravity duration experiments on zeolite structures was recently offered in the frame of a Taxi-Flight to the ISS in November 2002 organized by Belgium and ESA. Two facilities are currently under development for this flight. One of them will use the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) in the US Lab. Destiny to achieve thermal induced self-organization of different types of Zeosil nanoslabs by heating and cooling. The other facility will be flown on the ISS Russian segment and will allow to form Zeogrids at ambient temperature. On the other hand, the European Space Agency (ESA) is studying the possibility of developing a dedicated insert for zeolite experiments to be used with the optical and diagnostic platform of the Protein Crystallisation Diagnostic Facility (PCDF), that will fly integrated in the European Drawer Rack on the Columbus Laboratory starting in 2004. This paper will present the approach followed by ESA to prepare and support zeolite investigations in microgravity and will present the design concept of these three facilities.

  6. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope geochemistry of zeolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlsson, Haraldur R.; Clayton, Robert N.

    1990-01-01

    Oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios for natural samples of the zeolites analcime, chabazite, clinoptilolite, laumontite, mordenite, and natrolite have been obtained. The zeolite samples were classified into sedimentary, hydrothermal, and igneous groups. The ratios for each species of zeolite are reported. The results are used to discuss the origin of channel water, the role of zeolites in water-rock interaction, and the possibility that a calibrated zeolite could be used as a low-temperature geothermometer.

  7. The safety of synthetic zeolites used in detergents.

    PubMed

    Fruijtier-Pölloth, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic zeolites are replacing phosphates as builders in laundry detergents; workers and consumers may, therefore, increasingly be exposed to these materials and it is important to assess their safety. This article puts mechanistic, toxicological and exposure data into context for a safety assessment. Zeolites are hygroscopic compounds with ion-exchanging properties. They may partially decompose under acidic conditions such as in the stomach releasing sodium ions, silicic acid and aluminum salts. The intact molecule is not bioavailable after oral intake or exposure through the dermal and inhalational routes. Under current conditions of manufacture and use, no systemic toxicity is to be expected from neither the intact molecule nor the degradation products; a significant effect on the bioavailability of other compounds is not likely. Zeolites may cause local irritation. It is, therefore, important to minimise occupational exposure. The co-operation of detergent manufacturers with the manufacturers of washing machines is necessary to find the right balance between environmental aspects such as energy and water savings and the occurrence of detergent residues on textiles due to insufficient rinsing.

  8. Silicates in Alien Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    This plot of data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescopes shows that asteroid dust around a dead 'white dwarf' star contains silicates a common mineral on Earth. The data were taken primarily by Spitzer's infrared spectrograph, an instrument that breaks light apart into its basic constituents. The yellow dots show averaged data from the spectrograph, while the orange triangles show older data from Spitzer's infrared array camera. The white dwarf is called GD 40.

  9. Water in silicate melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Paul; Stolper, Edward

    Water is one of the more important volatile species in magmas, both in terms of its abundance and its influence on the properties of a given magma. Many workers in the geological sciences have measured, modeled, and speculated on the interaction of water with silicate melts as a function of pressure. At the same time, glass and materials scientists have collected a considerable body of data on the effect of water on the properties of liquid and glassy silicates at 1 atmosphere (1.01325×105 N m-2) and below. A special session on “Solubility and Transport Properties of Water in Silicate Melts” was held during the 1983 AGU Spring Meeting, May 30-June 3, in Baltimore. The session had three main objectives: (1) review the present data base and discuss the status of current models in order to identify areas where further work is needed; (2) introduce interested geologists to the large body of work being carried out in the glass and materials sciences; and (3) consider static properties, such as thermodynamic relations, structure of hydrous melts, and dynamic properties including diffusion and viscosity. This report summarizes the major topics discussed. More detailed information may be found in the published abstracts (Eos, May 3, 1983, pp. 338-343).

  10. Thermochemistry of Silicates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costa, Gustavo; Jacobson, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of vapor and condensed phases of silicates are crucial in many fields of science. These quantities address fundamental questions on the formation, stability, transformation, and physical properties of silicate minerals and silicate coating compositions. Here the thermodynamic activities of silica and other species in solid solution have been measured by the analysis of the corresponding high temperature vapors using Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometry (KEMS). In first set of experiments KEMS has been used to examine the volatility sequence of species (Fe, SiO, Mg, O2 and O) present in the vapor phase during heating of fosterite-rich olivine (Fo93Fa7) up to 2400 C and to measure the Fe, SiO and Mg activities in its solid solution. The data of fosterite-rich olivine are essential for thermochemical equilibrium models to predict the atmospheric and surface composition of hot, rocky exoplanets (Lava Planets). In the second set of experiments the measured thermodynamic activities of the silica in Y2O3-SiO2 and Yb2O3-SiO2 systems are used to assess their reactivity and degradation recession as environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) in combustion environments (e.g. non-moveable parts of gas turbine engine).

  11. Properties and applications of zeolites.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    Zeolites are aluminosilicate solids bearing a negatively charged honeycomb framework of micropores into which molecules may be adsorbed for environmental decontamination, and to catalyse chemical reactions. They are central to green-chemistry since the necessity for organic solvents is minimised. Proton-exchanged (H) zeolites are extensively employed in the petrochemical industry for cracking crude oil fractions into fuels and chemical feedstocks for other industrial processes. Due to their ability to perform cation-exchange, in which the cations that are originally present to counterbalance the framework negative charge may be exchanged out of the zeolite by cations present in aqueous solution, zeolites are useful as industrial water-softeners, in the removal of radioactive Cs+ and Sr2+ cations from liquid nuclear waste and in the removal of toxic heavy metal cations from groundwaters and run-off waters. Surfactant-modified zeolites (SMZ) find particular application in the co-removal of both toxic anions and organic pollutants. Toxic anions such as arsenite, arsenate, chromate, cyanide and radioactive iodide can also be removed by adsorption into zeolites that have been previously loaded with co-precipitating metal cations such as Ag+ and Pb2+ which form practically insoluble complexes that are contained within the zeolite matrix.

  12. Copper-containing zeolite catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Price, G.L.; Kanazirev, V.

    1996-12-10

    A catalyst useful in the conversion of nitrogen oxides or in the synthesis of nitriles or imines from amines, is formed by preparing an intimate mechanical mixture of a copper (II)-containing species, such as CuO or CuCl{sub 2}, or elemental copper, with a zeolite having a pore mouth comprising 10 oxygen atoms, such as ZSM-5, converting the elemental copper or copper (II) to copper (I), and driving the copper (I) into the zeolite.

  13. Copper-containing zeolite catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Price, Geoffrey L.; Kanazirev, Vladislav

    1996-01-01

    A catalyst useful in the conversion of nitrogen oxides or in the synthesis of nitriles or imines from amines, formed by preparing an intimate mechanical mixture of a copper (II)-containing species, such as CuO or CuCl.sub.2, or elemental copper, with a zeolite having a pore mouth comprising 10 oxygen atoms, such as ZSM-5, converting the elemental copper or copper (II) to copper (I), and driving the copper (I) into the zeolite.

  14. Enzyme-like specificity in zeolites: a unique site position in mordenite for selective carbonylation of methanol and dimethyl ether with CO.

    PubMed

    Boronat, Mercedes; Martínez-Sánchez, Cristina; Law, David; Corma, Avelino

    2008-12-03

    The mechanism of methanol carbonylation at different positions of zeolite MOR is investigated by quantum-chemical methods in order to discover which are the active sites that can selectively catalyze the desired reaction. It is shown that when methanol carbonylation competes with hydrocarbon formation, the first reaction occurs preferentially within 8MR channels. However, the unique selectivity for the carbonylation of methanol and dimethyl ether in mordenite is not only due to the size of the 8MR channel: neither process occurs equally at the two T3-O31 and T3-O33 positions. We show that only the T3-O33 positions are selective and that this selectivity is due to the unusual orientation of the methoxy group in relation to the 8MR channel (parallel to the cylinder axis). Only in this situation does the transition state for the attack of CO fit perfectly in the 8MR channel, while the reaction with methanol or DME is sterically impeded. This result explains why T3-O31, while also located in the 8MR channel of mordenite, is not as selective as the T3-O33 position and why ferrierite, although it contains 8MR channels, is less selective than mordenite. The competing effect of water is explained at the molecular level, and the molecular microkinetic reaction model has been established.

  15. Removal of paraquat solution onto zeolite material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirival, Rujikarn; Patdhanagul, Nopbhasinthu; Preecharram, Sutthidech; Photharin, Somkuan

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the adsorption of paraquat herbicides onto zeolite Y materials by the batch method. Three adsorbents material: Zeolite-3, Zeolite-10, and Zeolite-100 were Si/Al ratio at 3.58, 8.57 and 154.37, respectively. The factors for adsorption of paraquat as follows, adsorption time, initial concentrations of paraquat, pH and adsorption isotherm were investigated. The results showed that zeolite-10 had higher adsorption capacity than zeolite-3 and zeolite-100. The appropriate conditions for adsorption were 24 h., Zeolite 0.1 g., Initial paraquat concentration 100 ppm at pH 6. The adsorption isotherm was found to correspond with Langmuir Isotherm and the maximum paraquat adsorption is 26.38 mg/g for zeolite-10, 21.41 mg/g and 9.60 mg/g for zeolite-3 and zeolite-100, respectively. The characterization of zeolite material with XRD, XRF and BET. Furthermore, the zeolite materials applied to remove other organic and inorganic wastewater.

  16. Polysilicate binding for silicate paints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanovna, Loganina Valentina; Nikolaevna, Kislitsyna Svetlana; Bisengalievich, Mazhitov Yerkebulan

    2018-06-01

    It was suggested, that the polysilicate solutions obtained by mixing liquid glass and silicic acid sol as a binder in the manufacture of silicate paints. Information is provided on the structure and a property of the sodium polysilicate binder is presented. It has been found that the addition of silica powder to a liquid glass causes gelling in the course of time. It has been established that the introduction of the sol (increasing the silicate module) contributes to an increase in the fraction of high-polymer fractions of silicic anion, with the increase in the sol content of the polymer form of silica increasing. The research results the structure of sols and polysilicate solutions by the method of violation of total internal reflection. By the method of IR spectroscopy, the molybdate method established the presence of silica in the polysilicate binder polymeric varieties, which provides an increase in the stability of silicate coatings.

  17. Dachiardite-K, (K2Ca)(Al4Si20O48) · 13H2O, a new zeolite from Eastern Rhodopes, Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukanov, N. V.; Encheva, S.; Petrov, P.; Pekov, I. V.; Belakovskiy, D. I.; Britvin, S. N.; Aksenov, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    Dachiardite-K (IMA No. 2015-041), a new zeolite, is a K-dominant member of the dachiardite series with the idealized formula (K2Ca)(Al4Si20O48) · 13H2O. It occurs in the walls of opal-chalcedony veinlets cutting hydrothermally altered effusive rocks of the Zvezdel paleovolcanic complex near the village of Austa, Momchilgrad Municipality, Eastern Rhodopes, Bulgaria. Chalcedony, opal, dachiardite-Ca, dachiardite-Na, ferrierite-Mg, ferrierite-K, clinoptilolite-Ca, clinoptilolite-K, mordenite, smectite, celadonite, calcite, and barite are associated minerals. The mineral forms radiated aggregates up to 8 mm in diameter consisting of split acicular individuals. Dachiardite-K is white to colorless. Perfect cleavage is observed on (100). D meas = 2.18(2), D calc = 2.169 g/cm3. The IR spectrum is given. Dachiardite-K is biaxial (+), α = 1.477 (calc), β = 1.478(2), γ = 1.481(2), 2 V meas = 65(10)°. The chemical composition (electron microprobe, mean of six point analyses, H2O determined by gravimetric method) is as follows, wt %: 4.51 K2O, 3.27 CaO, 0.41 BaO, 10.36 A12O3, 67.90 SiO2, 13.2 H2O, total is 99.65. The empirical formula is H26.23K1.71Ca1.04Ba0.05Al3.64Si20.24O61. The strongest reflections in the powder X-ray diffraction pattern [ d, Å (I, %) (hkl)] are: 9.76 (24) (001), 8.85 (58) (200), 4.870 (59) (002), 3.807 (16) (202), 3.768 (20) (112, 020), 3.457 (100) (220), 2.966 (17) (602). Dachiardite-K is monoclinic, space gr. C2/m, Cm or C2; the unit cell parameters refined from the powder X-ray diffraction data are: a = 18.670(8), b = 7.511(3), c = 10.231(4) Å, β = 107.79(3)°, V= 1366(1) Å3, Z = 1. The type specimen has been deposited in the Earth and Man National Museum, Sofia, Bulgaria, with the registration number 23927.

  18. Early stages of zeolite growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sandeep

    Zeolites are crystalline nonporous aluminosilicates with important applications in separation, purification, and adsorption of liquid and gaseous molecules. However, an ability to tailor the zeolite microstructure, such as particle size/shape and pore-size, to make it benign for specific application requires control over nucleation and particle growth processes. But, the nucleation and crystallization mechanisms of zeolites are not fully understood. In this context, the synthesis of an all-silica zeolite with MFI-type framework has been studied extensively as a model system. Throughout chapters 2, 4 and 5, MFI growth process has been investigated by small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Of fundamental importance is the role of nanoparticles (~5 nm), which are present in the precursor sol, in MFI nucleation and crystallization. Formation of amorphous aggregates and their internal restructuring are concluded as essential steps in MFI nucleation. Early stage zeolite particles have disordered and less crystalline regions within, which indicates the role of structurally distributed population of nanoparticles in growth. Faceting occurs after the depletion of nanoparticles. The chapter 6 presents growth studies in silica sols prepared by using a dimer of tertaprpylammonium (TPA) and reports that MFI nucleation and crystallization are delayed with a more pronounced delay in crystal growth.

  19. Synthesis of zeolites Na-A and Na-X from tablet compressed and calcinated coal fly ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Tao; Gao, Wenyan; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Yifu; Meng, Changgong

    2017-10-01

    Zeolites Na-A and Na-X are important synthetic zeolites widely used for separation and adsorption in industry. It is of great significance to develop energy-efficient routines that can synthesize zeolites Na-A and Na-X from low-cost raw materials. Coal fly ash (CFA) is the major residue from the combustion of coal and biomass containing more than 85% SiO2 and Al2O3, which can readily replace the conventionally used sodium silicate and aluminate for zeolite synthesis. We used Na2CO3 to replace the expensive NaOH used for the calcination of CFA and showed that tablet compression can enhance the contact with Na2CO3 for the activation of CFA through calcination for the synthesis of zeolites Na-A and Na-X under mild conditions. We optimized the control variables for zeolite synthesis and showed that phase-pure zeolite Na-A can be synthesized with CFA at reactant molar ratio, hydrothermal reaction temperature and reaction time of 1.3Na2O: 0.6Al2O3: 1SiO2: 38H2O at 80°C for 6 h, respectively, while phase-pure zeolite Na-X can be synthesized at 2.2Na2O: 0.2Al2O3: 1SiO2: 88H2O at 100°C for 8 h, respectively. The composition, morphology, specific surface area, vibration spectrum and thermogravimetry of synthesized Na-A and Na-X were further characterized.

  20. Zeolites with Continuously Tuneable Porosity**

    PubMed Central

    Wheatley, Paul S; Chlubná-Eliášová, Pavla; Greer, Heather; Zhou, Wuzong; Seymour, Valerie R; Dawson, Daniel M; Ashbrook, Sharon E; Pinar, Ana B; McCusker, Lynne B; Opanasenko, Maksym; Čejka, Jiří; Morris, Russell E

    2014-01-01

    Zeolites are important materials whose utility in industry depends on the nature of their porous structure. Control over microporosity is therefore a vitally important target. Unfortunately, traditional methods for controlling porosity, in particular the use of organic structure-directing agents, are relatively coarse and provide almost no opportunity to tune the porosity as required. Here we show how zeolites with a continuously tuneable surface area and micropore volume over a wide range can be prepared. This means that a particular surface area or micropore volume can be precisely tuned. The range of porosity we can target covers the whole range of useful zeolite porosity: from small pores consisting of 8-rings all the way to extra-large pores consisting of 14-rings. PMID:25284344

  1. Defining the flexibility window in ordered aluminosilicate zeolites

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Stephen A.; Leung, Ka Ming; Edwards, Peter P.; Tucker, Matt G.

    2017-01-01

    The flexibility window in zeolites was originally identified using geometric simulation as a hypothetical property of SiO2 systems. The existence of the flexibility window in hypothetical structures may help us to identify those we might be able to synthesize in the future. We have previously found that the flexibility window in silicates is connected to phase transitions under pressure, structure amorphization and other physical behaviours and phenomena. We here extend the concept to ordered aluminosilicate systems using softer ‘bar’ constraints that permit additional flexibility around aluminium centres. Our experimental investigation of pressure-induced amorphization in sodalites is consistent with the results of our modelling. The softer constraints allow us to identify a flexibility window in the anomalous case of goosecreekite. PMID:28989777

  2. Enhanced selectivity of zeolites by controlled carbon deposition

    DOEpatents

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Thoma, Steven G.; Kartin, Mutlu

    2006-05-09

    A method for carbonizing a zeolite comprises depositing a carbon coating on the zeolite pores by flowing an inert carrier gas stream containing isoprene through a regenerated zeolite at elevated temperature. The carbonized zeolite is useful for the separation of light hydrocarbon mixtures due to size exclusion and the differential adsorption properties of the carbonized zeolite.

  3. Analysis of a Sheet Silicate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, J. M.; Evans, S.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a student project in analytical chemistry using sheet silicates. Provides specific information regarding the use of phlogopite in an experiment to analyze samples for silicon, aluminum, magnesium, iron, potassium, and fluoride. (CS)

  4. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate, may be safely...

  5. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate, may be safely...

  6. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate, may be safely...

  7. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate, may be safely...

  8. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food and... PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate, may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  9. Positron spectroscopy studies of zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Ku-Jung

    The lineshapes of two-dimensional angular correlation of electron-positron annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR) in alumina and several zeolites were measured as a function of internal surface areas. In all cases, the lineshape parameter S from 2D-ACAR spectra were found to vary proportionally with internal surface area. In order to investigate the Bronsted acidity in NaHY zeolite, the lineshape parameter evaluation from 2D-ACAR measurements for varied acidity in NaHY zeolites by ion-exchange and thermal desorption were presented. The result from this investigation has demonstrated that the Bronsted acidity in NaHY zeolite was found to vary linearly with the lineshape parameter of the angular correlation spectrum of the sample. The lineshapes of 2D-ACAR spectra were determined for different base adsorbed HY-zeolite samples under a temperature controlled heating system in order to investigate, in-situ, the acid strength and number of Bronsted acid sites in the sample. Results have shown that the lineshape parameter of the angular correlation spectrum of the sample increases with the strength of adsorbed base and decreases with the number of Bronsted acid sites in the sample. This indicated that the lineshape parameter is sensitive to all of the strengths and concentrations of Bronsted acid sites in the HY-zeolite samples. The result from this study has also demonstrated that the large size base, pyridine, would reduce the possibility of positronium formation in the sample by filling the cage to eliminate the internal surface areas where the positroniums are likely to form. However, the small size base, ammonia, did not show any effect on the internal surface areas. Owing to the fact that this technique monitors only the Bronsted acid sites that situate on the surface which relates to the catalytic activity, there is little ambiguity about the location of the source of information obtained. The findings presented in this dissertation point out the fact that such lineshape

  10. UTILITY OF ZEOLITES IN HAZARDOUS METAL REMOVAL FROM WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zeolites are well known for their ion exchange, adsorption and acid catalysis properties. Different inorganic pollutants have been removed from water at room temperature by using synthetic zeolites. Zeolite Faujasite Y has been used to remove inorganic pollutants including arseni...

  11. Anionic silicate organic frameworks constructed from hexacoordinate silicon centres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roeser, Jérôme; Prill, Dragica; Bojdys, Michael J.; Fayon, Pierre; Trewin, Abbie; Fitch, Andrew N.; Schmidt, Martin U.; Thomas, Arne

    2017-10-01

    Crystalline frameworks composed of hexacoordinate silicon species have thus far only been observed in a few high pressure silicate phases. By implementing reversible Si-O chemistry for the crystallization of covalent organic frameworks, we demonstrate the simple one-pot synthesis of silicate organic frameworks based on octahedral dianionic SiO6 building units. Clear evidence of the hexacoordinate environment around the silicon atoms is given by 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. Characterization by high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction, density functional theory calculation and analysis of the pair-distribution function showed that those anionic frameworks—M2[Si(C16H10O4)1.5], where M = Li, Na, K and C16H10O4 is 9,10-dimethylanthracene-2,3,6,7-tetraolate—crystallize as two-dimensional hexagonal layers stabilized in a fully eclipsed stacking arrangement with pronounced disorder in the stacking direction. Permanent microporosity with high surface area (up to 1,276 m2 g-1) was evidenced by gas-sorption measurements. The negatively charged backbone balanced with extra-framework cations and the permanent microporosity are characteristics that are shared with zeolites.

  12. The elementary steps of the photodissociation and recombination reactions of iodine molecules enclosed in cages and channels of zeolite crystals: a femtosecond time-resolved study of the geometry effect.

    PubMed

    Flachenecker, G; Materny, A

    2004-03-22

    We present femtosecond time-resolved pump-probe experiments on iodine molecules enclosed into well-defined cages and channels of different crystalline SiO2 modifications of zeolites. The new experimental results obtained from iodine in TON (Silica-ZSM-22), FER (Silica-Ferrierit), and MFI (Silicalit-1) porosils are compared with data published earlier on the iodine/DDR (Decadodecasil 3R) porosil system [Flachenecker et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 5, 865 (2003)]. A summary of all findings is given. The processes analyzed by means of the ultrafast spectroscopy are the vibrational relaxation as well as the dissociation and recombination reactions, which are caused by the interaction of the photo-excited iodine molecules with the cavity walls of the porosils. A clear dependence of the observed dynamics on the geometry of the surrounding lattice structure can be seen. These measurements are supported by temperature-dependent experiments. Making use of a theoretical model which is based on the classical Langevin equation, an analysis of the geometry-reaction relation is performed. The Brownian dynamics simulations show that in contrast to the vibrational relaxation the predissociation dynamics are independent of the frequency of collisions with the surroundings. From the results obtained in the different surroundings, we conclude that mainly local fields are responsible for the crossing from the bound B state to the repulsive a/a' states of the iodine molecules.

  13. [What a physician should know about zeolites].

    PubMed

    Boranić, M

    2000-01-01

    Zeolites are natural and synthetic hydrated crystalline aluminosilicates endowed with absorptive and ion exchange properties. They have found numerous and multifarous applications--in industry as catalysts and absorbents, in water sanitation for the removal of ammonia and heavy metals, in agriculture as fertilizers, and in animal husbandry as the absorbents of excreted material and as food additives. Medical applications have included the use in filtration systems for anesthesia or dialysis and as the contrast materials in NMR imaging. Recently, zeolite powders for external use have found application as deodorants, antimycotic agents and wound dressings. Peroral use of encapsulated zeolite powders enriched with vitamins, oligoelements or other ingredients has been claimed to exert beneficial medical effects. Ingestion of zeolites may be considered analogous to the clay eating (geophagia), considered in traditional medicine as a remedy for various illnesses. Being amphoteric, zeolites are partly soluble in acid or alkaline media, but within the physiological pH range the solubility is generally low. Minimal amounts of free aluminium or silicium from the ingested zeolites are resorbed from the gut. The bulk of ingested zeolite probably remains undissolved in the gut. In view of the ion exchange properties, zeolites may be expected to change the ionic content, pH and buffering capacity of the gastrointestinal secretions and to affect the transport through the intestinal epithelium. In addition, zeolites could affect the bacterial flora and the resorption of bacterial products, vitamins and oligoelements. The contact of zeolite particles with gastrointestinal mucosa may elicit the secretion of cytokines with local and systemic actions. Reactive silicium ions might react with biomolecules of the intestinal epithelium, and if resorbed, do so in other cells. Mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of zeolite particles have been described, resembling such effects of asbestos

  14. Increased thermal conductivity monolithic zeolite structures

    DOEpatents

    Klett, James; Klett, Lynn; Kaufman, Jonathan

    2008-11-25

    A monolith comprises a zeolite, a thermally conductive carbon, and a binder. The zeolite is included in the form of beads, pellets, powders and mixtures thereof. The thermally conductive carbon can be carbon nano-fibers, diamond or graphite which provide thermal conductivities in excess of about 100 W/mK to more than 1,000 W/mK. A method of preparing a zeolite monolith includes the steps of mixing a zeolite dispersion in an aqueous colloidal silica binder with a dispersion of carbon nano-fibers in water followed by dehydration and curing of the binder is given.

  15. Synthesis and Properties of Nanoparticle Forms Saponite Clay, Cancrinite Zeolite and Phase Mixtures Thereof.

    PubMed

    Shao, Hua; Pinnavaia, Thomas J

    2010-09-01

    The low-temperature synthesis (90°C) of nanoparticle forms of a pure phase smectic clay (saponite) and zeolite (cancrinite) is reported, along with phase mixtures thereof. A synthesis gel corresponding to the Si:Al:Mg unit cell composition of saponite (3.6:0.40:3.0) and a NaOH/Si ratio of 1.39 affords the pure phase clay with disordered nanolayer stacking. Progressive increases in the NaOH/Si ratio up to a value of 8.33 results in the co-crystallization of first garronite and then cancrinite zeolites with nanolath morphology. The resulting phase mixtures exhibit a compound particulate structure of intertwined saponite nanolayers and cancrinite nanolaths that cannot be formed through physical mixing of the pure phase end members. Under magnesium-free conditions, pure phase cancrinite nanocrystals are formed. The Si/Al ratio of the reaction mixture affects the particle morphology as well as the chemical composition of the cancrinite zeolite. Ordinarily, cancrinite crystallizes with a Si/Al ratio of 1.0, but a silicon-rich form of the zeolite (Si/Al=1.25) is crystallized at low temperature from a silica rich synthesis gel, as evidenced by (29)Si NMR spectroscopy and XEDS-TEM. Owing to the exceptionally high external surface areas of the pure phase clay (875 m(2)/g) and zeolite end members (8.9 - 40 m(2)/g), as well as their unique mixed phase composites (124 - 329 m(2)/g), these synthetic derivatives are promising model nanoparticles for studies of the bioavailability of poly-aromatic hydrocarbons immobilized in silicate bearing sediments and soils.

  16. Zeolites Remove Sulfur From Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E.; Sharma, Pramod K.

    1991-01-01

    Zeolites remove substantial amounts of sulfur compounds from diesel fuel under relatively mild conditions - atmospheric pressure below 300 degrees C. Extracts up to 60 percent of sulfur content of high-sulfur fuel. Applicable to petroleum refineries, natural-gas processors, electric powerplants, and chemical-processing plants. Method simpler and uses considerably lower pressure than current industrial method, hydro-desulfurization. Yields cleaner emissions from combustion of petroleum fuels, and protects catalysts from poisoning by sulfur.

  17. Zeolite-like liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, Silvio; Lehmann, Anne; Scholte, Alexander; Prehm, Marko; Zeng, Xiangbing; Ungar, Goran; Tschierske, Carsten

    2015-10-01

    Zeolites represent inorganic solid-state materials with porous structures of fascinating complexity. Recently, significant progress was made by reticular synthesis of related organic solid-state materials, such as metal-organic or covalent organic frameworks. Herein we go a step further and report the first example of a fluid honeycomb mimicking a zeolitic framework. In this unique self-assembled liquid crystalline structure, transverse-lying π-conjugated rod-like molecules form pentagonal channels, encircling larger octagonal channels, a structural motif also found in some zeolites. Additional bundles of coaxial molecules penetrate the centres of the larger channels, unreachable by chains attached to the honeycomb framework. This creates a unique fluid hybrid structure combining positive and negative anisotropies, providing the potential for tuning the directionality of anisotropic optical, electrical and magnetic properties. This work also demonstrates a new approach to complex soft-matter self-assembly, by using frustration between space filling and the entropic penalty of chain extension.

  18. Battery components employing a silicate binder

    DOEpatents

    Delnick, Frank M [Albuquerque, NM; Reinhardt, Frederick W [Albuquerque, NM; Odinek, Judy G [Rio Rancho, NM

    2011-05-24

    A battery component structure employing inorganic-silicate binders. In some embodiments, casting or coating of components may be performed using aqueous slurries of silicates and electrode materials or separator materials.

  19. 21 CFR 182.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 182.2437 Section 182.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations, restrictions...

  20. 21 CFR 582.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 582.2437 Section 582.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations, restrictions...

  1. 21 CFR 582.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 582.2437 Section 582.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations, restrictions...

  2. 21 CFR 582.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 582.2437 Section 582.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations, restrictions...

  3. 21 CFR 182.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium silicate. 182.2437 Section 182.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations, restrictions...

  4. 21 CFR 582.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 582.2437 Section 582.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations, restrictions...

  5. 21 CFR 182.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 182.2437 Section 182.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations, restrictions...

  6. 21 CFR 582.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 582.2437 Section 582.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations, restrictions...

  7. 21 CFR 182.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 182.2437 Section 182.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations, restrictions...

  8. 21 CFR 182.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium silicate. 182.2227 Section 182.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c) Limitations...

  9. 21 CFR 182.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 182.2227 Section 182.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c) Limitations...

  10. 21 CFR 582.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 582.2227 Section 582.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c) Limitations...

  11. 21 CFR 582.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 582.2227 Section 582.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c) Limitations...

  12. 21 CFR 182.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 182.2227 Section 182.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c) Limitations...

  13. 21 CFR 582.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 582.2227 Section 582.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c) Limitations...

  14. 21 CFR 582.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 582.2227 Section 582.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c) Limitations...

  15. 21 CFR 182.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 182.2227 Section 182.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Anticaking Agents § 182.2227 Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate...

  16. 21 CFR 582.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 582.2227 Section 582.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c) Limitations...

  17. 21 CFR 182.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 182.2227 Section 182.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c) Limitations...

  18. UTILITY OF ZEOLITES IN ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zeolites are well known for their ion exchange and adsorption properties. So far the cation exchanger properties of zeolites have been extensively studied and utilized. The anion exchanger properties of zeolites are less studied. Zeolite Faujasite Y has been used to remove arseni...

  19. Phospho-silicate and silicate layers modified by hydroxyapatite particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokita, M.; Brożek, A.; Handke, M.

    2005-06-01

    Common used metal materials do not ensure good connection between an implant and biological neighbourhood. Covering implants by thin silicate or phosphate layers enable to improve biological properties of implants and create conditions for producing the non-concrete bonding between the implant and tissue. The project includes preparing silicate sols of different concentrations and proper (powder) fraction of synthetic as well as natural ox hydroxyapatite, depositing the sol mixed with hydroxyapatite onto the base material (metal, ceramic carbon) and heat treatment. Our work includes also preparation of phospho-silicate layers deposited onto different base materials using sol-gel method. Deposited sols were prepared regarding composition, concentration and layer heat treatment conditions. The prepared layers are examined to determine their phase composition (XRD, IR spectroscopy methods), density and continuity (scanning microscopy with EDX methods). Biological activity of layers was evaluated by means of estimation of their corrosive resistance in synthetic body fluids ('in vitro' method) and of bone cells growth on the layers surface. Introducing hydroxyapatite to the layer sol should improve connection between tissue and implant as well as limit the disadvantageous, corrosive influence of implant material (metal) on the tissue.

  20. Effects of zeolite supplementation on parameters of intestinal barrier integrity, inflammation, redoxbiology and performance in aerobically trained subjects.

    PubMed

    Lamprecht, Manfred; Bogner, Simon; Steinbauer, Kurt; Schuetz, Burkhard; Greilberger, Joachim F; Leber, Bettina; Wagner, Bernhard; Zinser, Erwin; Petek, Thomas; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra; Oberwinkler, Tanja; Bachl, Norbert; Schippinger, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Zeolites are crystalline compounds with microporous structures of Si-tetrahedrons. In the gut, these silicates could act as adsorbents, ion-exchangers, catalysts, detergents or anti-diarrheic agents. This study evaluated whether zeolite supplementation affects biomarkers of intestinal wall permeability and parameters of oxidation and inflammation in aerobically trained individuals, and whether it could improve their performance. In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled trial, 52 endurance trained men and women, similar in body fat, non-smokers, 20-50 years, received 1.85 g of zeolite per day for 12 weeks. Stool samples for determination of intestinal wall integrity biomarkers were collected. From blood, markers of redox biology, inflammation, and DNA damage were determined at the beginning and the end of the study. In addition, VO2max and maximum performance were evaluated at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. For statistical analyses a 2-factor ANOVA was used. At baseline both groups showed slightly increased stool zonulin concentrations above normal. After 12 weeks with zeolite zonulin was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in the supplemented group. IL-10 increased tendentially (p < 0.1) in the zeolite group. There were no significant changes observed in the other measured parameters. Twelve weeks of zeolite supplementation exerted beneficial effects on intestinal wall integrity as indicated via decreased concentrations of the tight junction modulator zonulin. This was accompanied by mild anti-inflammatory effects in this cohort of aerobically trained subjects. Further research is needed to explore mechanistic explanations for the observations in this study.

  1. Quantification of thickness and wrinkling of exfoliated two-dimensional zeolite nanosheets

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Prashant; Agrawal, Kumar Varoon; Tsapatsis, Michael

    Some two-dimensional (2D) exfoliated zeolites are single- or near single-unit cell thick silicates that can function as molecular sieves. Although they have already found uses as catalysts, adsorbents and membranes precise determination of their thickness and wrinkling is critical as these properties influence their functionality. Here we demonstrate a method to accurately determine the thickness and wrinkles of a 2D zeolite nanosheet by comprehensive 3D mapping of its reciprocal lattice. Since the intensity modulation of a diffraction spot on tilting is a fingerprint of the thickness, and changes in the spot shape are a measure of wrinkling, this mapping ismore » achieved using a large-angle tilt-series of electron diffraction patterns. As a result, application of the method to a 2D zeolite with MFI structure reveals that the exfoliated MFI nanosheet is 1.5 unit cells (3.0 nm) thick and wrinkled anisotropically with up to 0.8 nm average surface roughness.« less

  2. Quantification of thickness and wrinkling of exfoliated two-dimensional zeolite nanosheets

    DOE PAGES

    Kumar, Prashant; Agrawal, Kumar Varoon; Tsapatsis, Michael; ...

    2015-05-11

    Some two-dimensional (2D) exfoliated zeolites are single- or near single-unit cell thick silicates that can function as molecular sieves. Although they have already found uses as catalysts, adsorbents and membranes precise determination of their thickness and wrinkling is critical as these properties influence their functionality. Here we demonstrate a method to accurately determine the thickness and wrinkles of a 2D zeolite nanosheet by comprehensive 3D mapping of its reciprocal lattice. Since the intensity modulation of a diffraction spot on tilting is a fingerprint of the thickness, and changes in the spot shape are a measure of wrinkling, this mapping ismore » achieved using a large-angle tilt-series of electron diffraction patterns. As a result, application of the method to a 2D zeolite with MFI structure reveals that the exfoliated MFI nanosheet is 1.5 unit cells (3.0 nm) thick and wrinkled anisotropically with up to 0.8 nm average surface roughness.« less

  3. Modifying Silicates for Better Dispersion in Nanocomposites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Sandi

    2005-01-01

    An improved chemical modification has been developed to enhance the dispersion of layered silicate particles in the formulation of a polymer/silicate nanocomposite material. The modification involves, among other things, the co-exchange of an alkyl ammonium ion and a monoprotonated diamine with interlayer cations of the silicate. The net overall effects of the improved chemical modification are to improve processability of the nanocomposite and maximize the benefits of dispersing the silicate particles into the polymer. Some background discussion is necessary to give meaning to a description of this development. Polymer/silicate nanocomposites are also denoted polymer/clay composites because the silicate particles in them are typically derived from clay particles. Particles of clay comprise layers of silicate platelets separated by gaps called "galleries." The platelet thickness is 1 nm. The length varies from 30 nm to 1 m, depending on the silicate. In order to fully realize the benefits of polymer/silicate nanocomposites, it is necessary to ensure that the platelets become dispersed in the polymer matrices. Proper dispersion can impart physical and chemical properties that make nanocomposites attractive for a variety of applications. In order to achieve nanometer-level dispersion of a layered silicate into a polymer matrix, it is typically necessary to modify the interlayer silicate surfaces by attaching organic functional groups. This modification can be achieved easily by ion exchange between the interlayer metal cations found naturally in the silicate and protonated organic cations - typically protonated amines. Long-chain alkyl ammonium ions are commonly chosen as the ion-exchange materials because they effectively lower the surface energies of the silicates and ease the incorporation of organic monomers or polymers into the silicate galleries. This completes the background discussion. In the present improved modification of the interlayer silicate surfaces

  4. Properties of Tricalcium Silicate Sealers.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Issam; Naaman, Alfred; Camilleri, Josette

    2016-10-01

    Sealers based on tricalcium silicate cement aim at an interaction of the sealer with the root canal wall, alkalinity with potential antimicrobial activity, and the ability to set in a wet field. The aim of this study was to characterize and investigate the properties of a new tricalcium silicate-based sealer and verify its compliance to ISO 6876 (2012). A new tricalcium silicate-based sealer (Bio MM; St Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon), BioRoot RCS (Septodont, St Maure de Fosses, France), and AH Plus (Dentsply, DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany) were investigated. Characterization using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis was performed. Furthermore, sealer setting time, flow, film thickness, and radiopacity were performed following ISO specifications. pH and ion leaching in solution were assessed by pH analysis and inductively coupled plasma. Bio MM and BioRoot RCS were both composed of tricalcium silicate and tantalum oxide in Bio MM and zirconium oxide in BioRoot RCS. In addition, the Bio MM contained calcium carbonate and a phosphate phase. The inorganic components of AH Plus were calcium tungstate and zirconium oxide. AH Plus complied with the ISO norms for both flow and film thickness. BioRoot RCS and Bio MM exhibited a lower flow and a higher film thickness than that specified for sealer cements in ISO 6876. All test sealers exhibited adequate radiopacity. Bio MM interacted with physiologic solution, thus showing potential for bioactivity. Sealer properties were acceptable and comparable with other sealers available clinically. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Zeolites: Can they be synthesized by design

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.E.

    1994-09-01

    Zeolites and zeolite-like molecular sieves are crystalline oxides that have high surface-to-volume ratios and are able to recognize, discriminate, and organize molecules with differences of < 1 [angstrom]. The close connection between the atomic structure and macroscopic properties of these materials has led to uses in molecular recognition. For example, zeolites and zeolite-like molecular sieves can reveal marvelous molecular recognition specificity and sensitivity that can be applied to catalysis, separations technology, and chemical sensing. Additionally, they can serve as hosts to organize guest atoms and molecules that endow composite materials with optoelectric and electrochemical properties. Because of the high levelmore » of structural control necessary to create high-performance materials with zeolites or zeolite-like molecular sieves, the design and synthesis of these solids with specific architectures and properties are highly desired. Although this lofty goal is still elusive, advances have been made to allow the serious consideration of designing molecular sieves. Here, the author covers two aspects of this ongoing effort. First, he discusses the feasibility of designing pore architectures through the use of organic structure-directing agents. Second, he explores the possibility of creating zeolites through ''Lego chemistry.''« less

  6. Zeolite food supplementation reduces abundance of enterobacteria.

    PubMed

    Prasai, Tanka P; Walsh, Kerry B; Bhattarai, Surya P; Midmore, David J; Van, Thi T H; Moore, Robert J; Stanley, Dragana

    2017-01-01

    According to the World Health Organisation, antibiotics are rapidly losing potency in every country of the world. Poultry are currently perceived as a major source of pathogens and antimicrobial resistance. There is an urgent need for new and natural ways to control pathogens in poultry and humans alike. Porous, cation rich, aluminosilicate minerals, zeolites can be used as a feed additive in poultry rations, demonstrating multiple productivity benefits. Next generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA marker gene was used to phylogenetically characterize the fecal microbiota and thus investigate the ability and dose dependency of zeolite in terms of anti-pathogenic effects. A natural zeolite was used as a feed additive in laying hens at 1, 2, and 4% w/w for a 23 week period. At the end of this period cloacal swabs were collected to sample faecal microbial communities. A significant reduction in carriage of bacteria within the phylum Proteobacteria, especially in members of the pathogen-rich family Enterobacteriaceae, was noted across all three concentrations of zeolite. Zeolite supplementation of feed resulted in a reduction in the carriage of a number of poultry pathogens without disturbing beneficial bacteria. This effect was, in some phylotypes, correlated with the zeolite concentration. This result is relevant to zeolite feeding in other animal production systems, and for human pathogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Zeolites on Mars: Prospects for Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffney, E. S.; Singer, R. B.; Kunkle, T. D.

    1985-01-01

    The Martian surface composition measured by Viking can be represented by several combinations of minerals incorporating major fractions of zeolites known to occur in altered mafic rocks and polar soils on Earth. The abundant occurrence of zeolites on Mars is consistent with what is known about both the physical and chemical environment of that planet. The laboratory reflectance spectra (0.65 to 2.55 microns) of a number of relatively pure zeolite minerals and some naturally occurring zeolite-clay soils were measured. All of the spectra measured are dominated by strong absorption near 1.4 and 1.9 microns and a steep reflectance drop longward of about 2.2 microns, all of which are due to abundant H2O. Weaker water overtone bands are also apparent, and in most cases there is spectral evidence for minor Fe(3+). In these features the zeolite spectra are similar to spectra of smectite clays which have abundant interlayer water. The most diagnostic difference between clay and zeolite spectra is the total absence in the zeolites of the weak structural OH absorption.

  8. Copper-Exchanged Zeolite L Traps Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Pramod K.; Seshan, Panchalam K.

    1991-01-01

    Brief series of simple chemical treatments found to enhance ability of zeolite to remove oxygen from mixture of gases. Thermally stable up to 700 degrees C and has high specific surface area which provides high capacity for adsorption of gases. To increase ability to adsorb oxygen selectively, copper added by ion exchange, and copper-exchanged zeolite reduced with hydrogen. As result, copper dispersed atomically on inner surfaces of zeolite, making it highly reactive to oxygen, even at room temperature. Reactivity to oxygen even greater at higher temperatures.

  9. Photochemical charge separation in zeolites: Electron transfer dynamics, nanocrystals and zeolitic membranes. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Prabir K.

    2001-09-30

    Aluminosilicate zeolites provide an excellent host for photochemical charge separation. Because of the constraints provided by the zeolite, the back electron transfer from the reduced acceptor to the oxidized sensitizer is slowed down. This provides the opportunity to separate the charge and use it in a subsequent reaction for water oxidation and reduction. Zeolite-based ruthenium oxide catalysts have been found to be efficient for the water splitting process. This project has demonstrated the usefulness of zeolite hosts for photolytic splitting of water.

  10. Rapid screening of the antimicrobial efficacy of Ag zeolites.

    PubMed

    Tosheva, L; Belkhair, S; Gackowski, M; Malic, S; Al-Shanti, N; Verran, J

    2017-09-01

    A semi-quantitative screening method was used to compare the killing efficacy of Ag zeolites against bacteria and yeast as a function of the zeolite type, crystal size and concentration. The method, which substantially reduced labor, consumables and waste and provided an excellent preliminary screen, was further validated by quantitative plate count experiments. Two pairs of zeolite X and zeolite beta with different sizes (ca. 200nm and 2μm for zeolite X and ca. 250 and 500nm for zeolite beta) were tested against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Candida albicans (C. albicans) at concentrations in the range 0.05-0.5mgml -1 . Reduction of the zeolite crystal size resulted in a decrease in the killing efficacy against both microorganisms. The semi-quantitative tests allowed convenient optimization of the zeolite concentrations to achieve targeted killing times. Zeolite beta samples showed higher activity compared to zeolite X despite their lower Ag content, which was attributed to the higher concentration of silver released from zeolite beta samples. Cytotoxicity measurements using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) indicated that Ag zeolite X was more toxic than Ag zeolite beta. However, the trends for the dependence of cytotoxicity on zeolite crystal size at different zeolite concentrations were different for the two zeolites and no general conclusions about zeolite cytotoxicity could be drawn from these experiments. This result indicates a complex relationship, requiring the necessity for individual cytotoxicity measurements for all antimicrobial applications based on the use of zeolites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Ultra-selective high-flux membranes from directly synthesized zeolite nanosheets

    SciTech Connect

    Jeon, Mi Young; Kim, Donghun; Kumar, Prashant

    A zeolite with structure type MFI is an aluminosilicate or silicate material that has a three-dimensionally connected pore network, which enables molecular recognition in the size range 0.5-0.6 nm. These micropore dimensions are relevant for many valuable chemical intermediates, and therefore MFI-type zeolites are widely used in the chemical industry as selective catalysts or adsorbents. As with all zeolites, strategies to tailor them for specific applications include controlling their crystal size and shape. Nanometre-thick MFI crystals (nanosheets) have been introduced in pillared and self-pillared (intergrown) architectures, offering improved mass-transfer characteristics for certain adsorption and catalysis applications. Moreover, single (non-intergrown andmore » nonlayered) nanosheets have been used to prepare thin membranes that could be used to improve the energy efficiency of separation processes. However, until now, single MFI nanosheets have been prepared using a multi-step approach based on the exfoliation of layered MFI9,15, followed by centrifugation to remove non-exfoliated particles. This top-down method is time-consuming, costly and low-yield and it produces fragmented nanosheets with submicrometre lateral dimensions. Alternatively, direct (bottom-up) synthesis could produce high-aspect-ratio zeolite nanosheets, with improved yield and at lower cost. Here we use a nanocrystal-seeded growth method triggered by a single rotational intergrowth to synthesize high-aspect-ratio MFI nanosheets with a thickness of 5 nanometres (2.5 unit cells). These high-aspect-ratio nanosheets allow the fabrication of thin and defect-free coatings that effectively cover porous substrates. Finally, these coatings can be intergrown to produce high-flux and ultra-selective MFI membranes that compare favourably with other MFI membranes prepared from existing MFI materials (such as exfoliated nanosheets or nanocrystals).« less

  12. Ultra-selective high-flux membranes from directly synthesized zeolite nanosheets

    DOE PAGES

    Jeon, Mi Young; Kim, Donghun; Kumar, Prashant; ...

    2017-03-15

    A zeolite with structure type MFI is an aluminosilicate or silicate material that has a three-dimensionally connected pore network, which enables molecular recognition in the size range 0.5-0.6 nm. These micropore dimensions are relevant for many valuable chemical intermediates, and therefore MFI-type zeolites are widely used in the chemical industry as selective catalysts or adsorbents. As with all zeolites, strategies to tailor them for specific applications include controlling their crystal size and shape. Nanometre-thick MFI crystals (nanosheets) have been introduced in pillared and self-pillared (intergrown) architectures, offering improved mass-transfer characteristics for certain adsorption and catalysis applications. Moreover, single (non-intergrown andmore » nonlayered) nanosheets have been used to prepare thin membranes that could be used to improve the energy efficiency of separation processes. However, until now, single MFI nanosheets have been prepared using a multi-step approach based on the exfoliation of layered MFI9,15, followed by centrifugation to remove non-exfoliated particles. This top-down method is time-consuming, costly and low-yield and it produces fragmented nanosheets with submicrometre lateral dimensions. Alternatively, direct (bottom-up) synthesis could produce high-aspect-ratio zeolite nanosheets, with improved yield and at lower cost. Here we use a nanocrystal-seeded growth method triggered by a single rotational intergrowth to synthesize high-aspect-ratio MFI nanosheets with a thickness of 5 nanometres (2.5 unit cells). These high-aspect-ratio nanosheets allow the fabrication of thin and defect-free coatings that effectively cover porous substrates. Finally, these coatings can be intergrown to produce high-flux and ultra-selective MFI membranes that compare favourably with other MFI membranes prepared from existing MFI materials (such as exfoliated nanosheets or nanocrystals).« less

  13. Zeolitic catalytic conversion of alochols to hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2017-01-03

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon, the method comprising contacting said alcohol with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst at a temperature of at least 100.degree. C. and up to 550.degree. C., wherein said alcohol can be produced by a fermentation process, said metal is a positively-charged metal ion, and said metal-loaded zeolite catalyst is catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon.

  14. Zeolitic catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2018-04-10

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon, the method comprising contacting said alcohol with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst at a temperature of at least 100.degree. C. and up to 550.degree. C., wherein said alcohol can be produced by a fermentation process, said metal is a positively-charged metal ion, and said metal-loaded zeolite catalyst is catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon.

  15. Pulsed deposition of silicate films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, W.; Solanki, R.; Conley, J. F.; Ono, Y.

    2003-09-01

    A sequential pulsed process is utilized for deposition of nonstoichiometric silicate films without employing an oxidizing agent. The metal precursors were HfCl4, AlCl3, and ZrCl4, as well as Hf(NO3)4 and the silicon source was tris(tert-butoxy)silanol. Unlike atomic layer deposition, the growth per cycle was several monolayers thick, where the enhancement in growth was due to a catalytic reaction. The bulk and electrical properties of these films are similar to those of silicon dioxide. Silicon carbide devices coated with these films show good insulating characteristics.

  16. A review of bioactive silicate ceramics.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chengtie; Chang, Jiang

    2013-06-01

    Silicate bioceramics, as a new family of biomaterials, have received significant attention in their application to hard tissue regeneration. Some silicate bioceramics have shown excellent apatite mineralization in simulated body fluids and their ionic products have been shown to enhance the proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and gene expression of stem cells. In this paper, we review the advances in the research of silicate system bioceramics, including preparation methods, mechanical strength, apatite mineralization, dissolution and in vitro and in vivo biological properties. The biological properties and the corresponding mechanism have been highlighted. A look forward to the application of silicate bioceramics to bone regeneration is further suggested.

  17. Effect of silicate ions on electrode overvoltage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gras, J. M.; Seite, C.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of the addition of a silicate to a caustic solution (KOH) is studied in order to determine the degree to which silicates inhibit the corrosion of chrysotile under conditions of electrolysis at working temperatures of 100 C and above. In an alkaline solution containing various silicate concentrations, current density was increased and electrode overvoltage was measured. Results show that silicate ion concentrations in the electrolyte increase with temperature without effecting electrochemical performance up to 115 C at 700 MA/sqcm. At this point the concentration is about 0.5 g Si/100 g KOH. Beyond this limit, electrolytic performance rapidly degenerates due to severe oxidation of the electrodes.

  18. The zeolite deposits of Greece

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamatakis, M.G.; Hall, A.; Hein, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Zeolites are present in altered pyroclastic rocks at many localities in Greece, and large deposits of potential economic interest are present in three areas: (1) the Evros region of the province of Thrace in the north-eastern part of the Greek mainland; (2) the islands of Kimolos and Poliegos in the western Aegean; and (3) the island of Samos in the eastern Aegean Sea. The deposits in Thrace are of Eocene-Oligocene age and are rich in heulandite and/or clinoptilolite. Those of Kimolos and Poliegos are mainly Quaternary and are rich in mordenite. Those of Samos are Miocene, and are rich in clinoptilolite and/or analcime. The deposits in Thrace are believed to have formed in an open hydrological system by the action of meteoric water, and those of the western Aegean islands in a similar way but under conditions of high heat flow, whereas the deposits in Samos were formed in a saline-alkaline lake.

  19. Tailored zeolites for the removal of metal oxyanions: overcoming intrinsic limitations of zeolites.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Hugo; Quintelas, Cristina

    2014-06-15

    This review aims to present a global view of the efforts conducted to convert zeolites into efficient supports for the removal of heavy metal oxyanions. Despite lacking affinity for these species, due to inherent charge repulsion between zeolite framework and anionic species, zeolites have still received considerable attention from the scientific community, since their versatility allowed tailoring them to answer specific requirements. Different processes for the removal and recovery of toxic metals based on zeolites have been presented. These processes resort to modification of the zeolite surface to allow direct adsorption of oxyanions, or by combination with reducing agents for oxyanions that allow ion-exchange with the converted species by the zeolite itself. In order to testify zeolite versatility, as well as covering the wide array of physicochemical constraints that oxyanions offer, chromium and arsenic oxyanions were selected as model compounds for a review of treatment/remediation strategies, based on zeolite modification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Nanoscale zinc silicate from phytoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qadri, S. B.; Gorzkowski, E. P.; Rath, B. B.; Feng, C. R.; Amarasinghe, R.; Freitas, J. A.; Culbertson, J. C.; Wollmershauser, J. A.

    2017-10-01

    We report a faster, less expensive method of producing zinc silicate nanoparticles. Such particles are used in high volume to make phosphors and anti-corrosion coatings. The approach makes use of phytoliths (plant rocks), which are microscopic, amorphous, and largely silicate particles embedded in plants, that lend themselves to being easily broken down into nanoparticles. Nanoparticles of Zn2SiO4 were produced in a two stage process. In the refinement stage, plant residue, mixed with an appropriate amount of ZnO, was heated in an argon atmosphere to a temperature exceeding 1400 °C for four to six hours and then heated in air at 650 °C to remove excess carbon. TEM shows 50-100 nm nanoparticles. Raman scattering indicates that only the -Zn2SiO4 crystalline phase was present. X-ray analysis indicated pure rhombohedral R 3 bar phase results from using rice/wheat husks. Both samples luminesced predominantly at 523 nm when illuminated with X-rays or UV laser light.

  1. NO2 disproportionation for the IR characterisation of basic zeolites.

    PubMed

    Marie, Olivier; Malicki, Nicolas; Pommier, Catherine; Massiani, Pascale; Vos, Ann; Schoonheydt, Robert; Geerlings, Paul; Henriques, Carlos; Thibault-Starzyk, Fréderic

    2005-02-28

    NO2 disproportionation on alkaline zeolites is used to generate nitrosonium (NO+) and nitrate ions on the surface, and the infrared vibrations observed are very sensitive to the cation chemical hardness and to the basicity of zeolitic oxygen atoms.

  2. Sulfur tolerant zeolite supported platinum catalysts for aromatics hydrogenation

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-04-01

    An experimental study of sulfur tolerant zeolite platinum catalysts for aormatics hydrogenation. Platinum catalysts supported on Y-zeolite have been prepared and characterized in various ways, including the hydrogenation of toluene in a high pressure...

  3. 21 CFR 182.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 182.2437 Section 182.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Anticaking Agents § 182.2437 Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium...

  4. High Pressure Response of Siliceous Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    quartz, Starphire soda lime silicate glass, hydrated Starphire, BOROFLOAT borosilicate glass, an iron-containing soda lime silicate glass, opal (a hydrated... Opal (hydrated amorphous silica). .............................................................................. 10 2.7. ROBAX glass ceramic...spectrum as a function of stress for BOROFLOAT borosilicate glass. .......... 29 4.8. Raman spectrum as a function of stress for opal (hydrated

  5. High Pressure Response of Siliceous Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    iron-containing soda lime silicate glass, opal (a hydrated silicate glass), ROBAX glass ceramic, and others were single crystal (α-quartz) and...10 2.6. Opal (hydrated amorphous silica...Raman spectrum as a function of stress for opal (hydrated silica) glass. ................... 29 4.9. Raman spectrum as a function of stress for

  6. Calcium silicate-based drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying-Jie; Guo, Xiao-Xuan; Sham, Tsun-Kong

    2017-02-01

    Compared with other inorganic materials such as silica, metal oxides, noble metals and carbon, calcium silicate-based materials, especially nanostructured calcium silicate materials, have high biocompatibility, bioactivity and biodegradability, high specific surface area, nanoporous/hollow structure, high drug-loading capacity, pH-responsive drug release behavior and desirable drug release properties, and thus they are promising for the application in drug delivery. Calcium silicate-based drug delivery systems have a long drug-release time, which can significantly prolong the therapeutic effect of drugs. Another advantage of calcium silicate-based drug delivery systems is their pH-responsive drug release property, which can act as an ideal platform for targeted drug delivery. Areas covered: In recent years, studies have been carried out on calcium silicate-based drug delivery systems, and important results and insights have been documented. This article is not intended to offer a comprehensive review on the research on calcium silicate-based drug delivery systems, but presents some examples reported in the literature, and includes new insights obtained by tracking the interactions between drug molecules and calcium silicate carriers on the molecular level using the synchrotron-based X-ray spectroscopy. Expert opinion: Finally, our opinions on calcium silicate-based drug delivery systems are provided, and several research directions for the future studies are proposed.

  7. Design and fabrication of zeolite macro- and micromembranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, Lik Hang Joseph

    2001-07-01

    The chemical nature of the support surface influences zeolite nucleation, crystal growth and elm adhesion. It had been demonstrated that chemical modification of support surface can significantly alter the zeolite film and has a good potential for large-scale applications for zeolite membrane production. The incorporation of titanium and vanadium metal ions into the structural framework of MFI zeolite imparts the material with catalytic properties. The effects of silica and metal (i.e., Ti and V) content, template concentration and temperature on the zeolite membrane growth and morphology were investigated. Single-gas permeation experiments were conducted for noble gases (He and Ar), inorganic gases (H2, N2, SF6) and hydrocarbons (methane, n-C4, i-C4) to determine the separation performance of these membranes. Using a new fabrication method based on microelectronic fabrication and zeolite thin film technologies, complex microchannel geometry and network (<5 mum), as well as zeolite arrays (<10 mum) were successfully fabricated onto highly orientated supported zeolite films. The zeolite micropatterns were stable even after repeated thermal cycling between 303 K and 873 K for prolonged periods of time. This work also demonstrates that zeolites (i.e., Sil-1, ZSM-5 and TS-1) can be employed as catalyst, membrane or structural materials in miniature chemical devices. Traditional semiconductor fabrication technology was employed in micromachining the device architecture. Four strategies for the manufacture of zeolite catalytic microreactors were discussed: zeolite powder coating, uniform zeolite film growth, localized zeolite growth, and etching of zeolite-silicon composite film growth inhibitors. Silicalite-1 was also prepared as free-standing membrane for zeolite membrane microseparators.

  8. Molecular Simulation of Adsorption in Zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Peng

    Zeolites are a class of crystalline nanoporous materials that are widely used as catalysts, sorbents, and ion-exchangers. Zeolites have revolutionized the petroleum industry and have fueled the 20th-century automobile culture, by enabling numerous highly-efficient transformations and separations in oil refineries. They are also posed to play an important role in many processes of biomass conversion. One of the fundamental principles in the field of zeolites involves the understanding and tuning of the selectivity for different guest molecules that results from the wide variety of pore architectures. The primary goal of my dissertation research is to gain such understanding via computer simulations and eventually to reach the level of predictive modeling. The dissertation starts with a brief introduction of the applications of zeolites and computer modeling techniques useful for the study of zeolitic systems. Chapter 2 then describes an effort to improve simulation efficiency, which is essential for many challenging adsorption systems. Chapter 3 studies a model system to demonstrate the applicability and capability of the method used for the majority of this work, configurational-bias Monte Carlo simulations in the Gibbs ensemble (CBMC-GE). After these methodological developments, Chapter 4 and 5 report a systematic parametrization of a new transferable force field for all-silica zeolites, TraPPE-zeo, and a subsequent, relatively ad-hoc extension to cation-exchanged aluminosilicates. The CBMC-GE method and the TraPPE-zeo force field are then combined to investigate some complex adsorption systems, such as linear and branched C6-C 9 alkanes in a hierarchical microporous/mesoporous material (Chapter 6), the multi-component adsorption of aqueous alcohol solutions (Chapter 7) and glucose solutions (Chapter 8). Finally, Chapter 9 describes an endeavor to screen a large number of zeolites with the purpose of finding better materials for two energy-related applications

  9. Catalytic Oxidation by Transition Metal Ions in Zeolites.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-28

    exotic schemes were developed. It was previously demonstrated that MoCI5 may be reacted with a HYu (here Yu denotes a steam-stabilized or...34ultrastable" zeolite) to form a MoYu zeolite and HC1 which is removed from the system.1 In this study, MoYu zeolites have been prepared by reacting HYu with Mo

  10. Mesoporous Silicate Materials in Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Melde, Brian J.; Johnson, Brandy J.; Charles, Paul T.

    2008-01-01

    Mesoporous silicas, especially those exhibiting ordered pore systems and uniform pore diameters, have shown great potential for sensing applications in recent years. Morphological control grants them versatility in the method of deployment whether as bulk powders, monoliths, thin films, or embedded in coatings. High surface areas and pore sizes greater than 2 nm make them effective as adsorbent coatings for humidity sensors. The pore networks also provide the potential for immobilization of enzymes within the materials. Functionalization of materials by silane grafting or through co-condensation of silicate precursors can be used to provide mesoporous materials with a variety of fluorescent probes as well as surface properties that aid in selective detection of specific analytes. This review will illustrate how mesoporous silicas have been applied to sensing changes in relative humidity, changes in pH, metal cations, toxic industrial compounds, volatile organic compounds, small molecules and ions, nitroenergetic compounds, and biologically relevant molecules. PMID:27873810

  11. Molecular simulations and experimental studies of zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moloy, Eric C.

    Zeolites are microporous aluminosilicate tetrahedral framework materials that have symmetric cages and channels with open-diameters between 0.2 and 2.0 nm. Zeolites are used extensively in the petrochemical industries for both their microporosity and their catalytic properties. The role of water is paramount to the formation, structure, and stability of these materials. Zeolites frequently have extra-framework cations, and as a result, are important ion-exchange materials. Zeolites also play important roles as molecular sieves and catalysts. For all that is known about zeolites, much remains a mystery. How, for example, can the well established metastability of these structures be explained? What is the role of water with respect to the formation, stabilization, and dynamical properties? This dissertation addresses these questions mainly from a modeling perspective, but also with some experimental work as well. The first discussion addresses a special class of zeolites: pure-silica zeolites. Experimental enthalpy of formation data are combined with molecular modeling to address zeolitic metastability. Molecular modeling is used to calculate internal surface areas, and a linear relationship between formation enthalpy and internal surface areas is clearly established, producing an internal surface energy of approximately 93 mJ/m2. Nitrate bearing sodalite and cancrinite have formed under the caustic chemical conditions of some nuclear waste processing centers in the United States. These phases have fouled expensive process equipment, and are the primary constituents of the resilient heels in the bottom of storage tanks. Molecular modeling, including molecular mechanics, molecular dynamics, and density functional theory, is used to simulate these materials with respect to structure and dynamical properties. Some new, very interesting results are extracted from the simulation of anhydrous Na6[Si6Al 6O24] sodalite---most importantly, the identification of two distinct

  12. Synthesis of novel perfluoroalkylglucosides on zeolite and non-zeolite catalysts.

    PubMed

    Nowicki, Janusz; Mokrzycki, Łukasz; Sulikowski, Bogdan

    2015-04-08

    Perfluoroalkylglucosides comprise a very important class of fluorine-containing surfactants. These compounds can be synthesized by using the Fisher reaction, starting directly from glucose and the required perfluoroalcohols. We wish to report on the use of zeolite catalysts of different structure and composition for the synthesis of perfluoroalkylglucosides when using glucose and 1-octafluoropentanol as substrates. Zeolites of different pore architecture have been chosen (ZSM-5, ZSM-12, MCM-22 and Beta). Zeolites were characterized by XRD, nitrogen sorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and solid-state 27Al MAS NMR spectroscopy. The activity of the zeolite catalysts in the glycosidation reaction was studied in a batch reactor at 100 °C below atmospheric pressure. The performance of zeolites was compared to other catalysts, an ion-exchange resin (Purolite) and a montmorillonite-type layered aluminosilicate. The catalytic performance of zeolite Beta was the highest among the zeolites studied and the results were comparable to those obtained over Purolite and montmorillonite type catalysts.

  13. Characterization of Zeolite in Zeolite-Geopolymer Hybrid Bulk Materials Derived from Kaolinitic Clays

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Hayami; Hashimoto, Shinobu; Yokoyama, Hiroaki; Honda, Sawao; Iwamoto, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    Zeolite-geopolymer hybrid materials have been formed when kaolin was used as a starting material. Their characteristics are of interest because they can have a wide pore size distribution with micro- and meso-pores due to the zeolite and geopolymer, respectively. In this study, Zeolite-geopolymer hybrid bulk materials were fabricated using four kinds of kaolinitic clays (a halloysite and three kinds of kaolinite). The kaolinitic clays were first calcined at 700 °C for 3 h to transform into the amorphous aluminosilicate phases. Alkali-activation treatment of the metakaolin yielded bulk materials with different amounts and types of zeolite and different compressive strength. This study investigated the effects of the initial kaolinitic clays on the amount and types of zeolite in the resultant geopolymers as well as the strength of the bulk materials. The kaolinitic clays and their metakaolin were characterized by XRD analysis, chemical composition, crystallite size, 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR analysis, and specific surface area measurements. The correlation between the amount of zeolite formed and the compressive strength of the resultant hybrid bulk materials, previously reported by other researchers was not positively observed. In the studied systems, the effects of Si/Al and crystalline size were observed. When the atomic ratio of Si/Al in the starting kaolinitic clays increased, the compressive strength of the hybrid bulk materials increased. The crystallite size of the zeolite in the hybrid bulk materials increased with decreasing compressive strength of the hybrid bulk materials. PMID:28809241

  14. Synthesis of Engineered Zeolitic Materials: From Classical Zeolites to Hierarchical Core-Shell Materials.

    PubMed

    Masoumifard, Nima; Guillet-Nicolas, Rémy; Kleitz, Freddy

    2018-04-01

    The term "engineered zeolitic materials" refers to a class of materials with a rationally designed pore system and active-sites distribution. They are primarily made of crystalline microporous zeolites as the main building blocks, which can be accompanied by other secondary components to form composite materials. These materials are of potential importance in many industrial fields like catalysis or selective adsorption. Herein, critical aspects related to the synthesis and modification of such materials are discussed. The first section provides a short introduction on classical zeolite structures and properties, and their conventional synthesis methods. Then, the motivating rationale behind the growing demand for structural alteration of these zeolitic materials is discussed, with an emphasis on the ongoing struggles regarding mass-transfer issues. The state-of-the-art techniques that are currently available for overcoming these hurdles are reviewed. Following this, the focus is set on core-shell composites as one of the promising pathways toward the creation of a new generation of highly versatile and efficient engineered zeolitic substances. The synthesis approaches developed thus far to make zeolitic core-shell materials and their analogues, yolk-shell, and hollow materials, are also examined and summarized. Finally, the last section concisely reviews the performance of novel core-shell, yolk-shell, and hollow zeolitic materials for some important industrial applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Commercial silicate phosphate sequestration and desorption leads to a gradual decline of aquatic systems.

    PubMed

    Svatos, Karl B W

    2018-02-01

    Laboratory desorption behaviour, function and elemental composition of commercially marketed silicate minerals used to sequester phosphorus pollution as well as Zeolite, Smectite, and Kaolinite were determined to see whether their use by environmental scientists and water managers in eutrophic waterways has the potential to contribute to longer-term environmental impacts. As expected, lower phosphorus concentrations were observed, following treatment. However, data relating to desorption, environmental fate and bioavailability of phospho-silicate complexes (especially those containing rare earth elements) appear to be underrepresented in product testing and trial publications. Analysis of desorption of phosphate (P) was > 5 μg[P]/L for all three non-commercial samples and 0 > μg[P]/L > 5 for all commercial silicates for a range of concentrations from 0 to 300 μg[P]/L. Based on a review of bioaccumulation data specific to the endangered Cherax tenuimanus (Hairy Marron) and other endemic species, this is significant considering anything > 20 μg[La]/L is potentially lethal to the hairy marron, other crustaceans and even other phyla. Where prokaryotic and eukaryotic effects are underreported, this represents a significant challenge. Especially where product protocols recommend continual reapplication, this is significant because both the forward and reverse reactions are equally important. The users of silicate minerals in water columns should accept the dynamic nature of the process and pay equal attention to both adsorption and desorption because desorption behaviour is an inherent trait. Even if broader desorption experimentation is difficult, expensive and time-consuming, it is a critical consideration nonetheless.

  16. SILICATE COMPOSITION OF THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Fogerty, S.; Forrest, W.; Watson, D. M.

    2016-10-20

    The composition of silicate dust in the diffuse interstellar medium and in protoplanetary disks around young stars informs our understanding of the processing and evolution of the dust grains leading up to planet formation. An analysis of the well-known 9.7 μ m feature indicates that small amorphous silicate grains represent a significant fraction of interstellar dust and are also major components of protoplanetary disks. However, this feature is typically modeled assuming amorphous silicate dust of olivine and pyroxene stoichiometries. Here, we analyze interstellar dust with models of silicate dust that include non-stoichiometric amorphous silicate grains. Modeling the optical depth alongmore » lines of sight toward the extinguished objects Cyg OB2 No. 12 and ζ Ophiuchi, we find evidence for interstellar amorphous silicate dust with stoichiometry intermediate between olivine and pyroxene, which we simply refer to as “polivene.” Finally, we compare these results to models of silicate emission from the Trapezium and protoplanetary disks in Taurus.« less

  17. Growth of zeolite crystals in the microgravity environment of space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacco, A., Jr.; Sand, L. B.; Collette, D.; Dieselman, K.; Crowley, J.; Feitelberg, A.

    1986-01-01

    Zeolites are hydrated, crystalline aluminosilicates with alkali and alkaling earth metals substituted into cation vacancies. Typically zeolite crystals are 3 to 8 microns. Larger cyrstals are desirable. Large zeolite crystals were produced (100 to 200 microns); however, they have taken restrictively long times to grow. It was proposed if the rate of nucleation or in some other way the number of nuclei can be lowered, fewer, larger crystals will be formed. The microgravity environment of space may provide an ideal condition to achieve rapid growth of large zeolite crystals. The objective of the project is to establish if large zeolite crystals can be formed rapidly in space.

  18. Hydrogen Purification Using Natural Zeolite Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DelValle, William

    2003-01-01

    The School of Science at Universidad del Turabo (UT) have a long-lasting investigation plan to study the hydrogen cleaning and purification technologies. We proposed a research project for the synthesis, phase analysis and porosity characterization of zeolite based ceramic perm-selective membranes for hydrogen cleaning to support NASA's commitment to achieving a broad-based research capability focusing on aerospace-related issues. The present study will focus on technology transfer by utilizing inorganic membranes for production of ultra-clean hydrogen for application in combustion. We tested three different natural zeolite membranes (different particle size at different temperatures and time of exposure). Our results show that the membranes exposured at 900 C for 1Hr has the most higher permeation capacity, indicated that our zeolite membranes has the capacity to permeate hydrogen.

  19. Alkali Silicate Vehicle Forms Durable, Fireproof Paint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutt, John B.; Seindenberg, Benjamin

    1964-01-01

    The problem: To develop a paint for use on satellites or space vehicles that exhibits high resistance to cracking, peeling, or flaking when subjected to a wide range of temperatures. Organic coatings will partially meet the required specifications but have the inherent disadvantage of combustibility. Alkali-silicate binders, used in some industrial coatings and adhesives, show evidence of forming a fireproof paint, but the problem of high surface-tension, a characteristic of alkali silicates, has not been resolved. The solution: Use of a suitable non-ionic wetting agent combined with a paint incorporating alkali silicate as the binder.

  20. Natural zeolite reactivity towards ozone: the role of compensating cations.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Héctor; Alejandro, Serguei; Zaror, Claudio A

    2012-08-15

    Among indoor pollutants, ozone is recognised to pose a threat to human health. Recently, low cost natural zeolites have been applied as alternative materials for ozone abatement. In this work, the effect of compensating cation content of natural zeolite on ozone removal is studied. A Chilean natural zeolite is used here as starting material. The amount of compensating cations in the zeolite framework was modified by ion exchange using an ammonium sulphate solution (0.1 mol L(-1)). Characterisation of natural and modified zeolites were performed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption at 77K, elemental analysis, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectroscopy (TGA-MS), and temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia (NH(3)-TPD). Ozone adsorption and/or decomposition on natural and modified zeolites were studied by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). Results show that the zeolite compensating cation content affects ozone interaction with zeolite active sites. Ammonium ion-exchange treatments followed by thermal out-gassing at 823 K, reduces ozone diffusion resistance inside the zeolite framework, increasing ozone abatement on zeolite surface active sites. Weak and strong Lewis acid sites of zeolite surface are identified here as the main active sites responsible of ozone removal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Solvent-Free Synthesis of Zeolites: Mechanism and Utility.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qinming; Meng, Xiangju; Gao, Xionghou; Xiao, Feng-Shou

    2018-05-08

    Zeolites have been extensively studied for years in different areas of chemical industry, such as shape selective catalysis, ion-exchange, and gas adsorption and separation. Generally, zeolites are prepared from solvothermal synthesis in the presence of a large amounts of solvents such as water and alcohols in sealed autoclaves under autogenous pressure. Water has been regarded as essential to synthesize zeolites for fast mass transfer of reactants, but it occupies a large space in autoclaves, which greatly reduces the yield of zeolite products. Furthermore, polluted wastes and relatively high pressure due to the presence of water solvent in the synthesis also leads to environmental and safety issues. Recently, inspired by great benefits of solvent-free synthesis, including the environmental concerns, energy consumption, safety, and economic cost, researchers continually challenge the rationale of the solvent and reconsider the age-old question "Do we actually need solvents at all in zeolite synthesis?" In this Account, we briefly summarize our efforts to rationally synthesize zeolites via a solvent-free route. Our research demonstrates that a series of silica, aluminosilicate, and aluminophosphate-based zeolites can be successfully prepared by mixing, grinding, and heating starting solid materials under solvent-free conditions. Combining an organotemplate-free synthesis with a solvent-free approach maximizes the advantages resulting in a more sustainable synthetic route, which avoids using toxic and costly organic templates and the formation of harmful gases by calcination of organic templates at high temperature. Furthermore, new insights into the solvent-free crystallization process of zeolites have been provided by modern techniques such as NMR and UV-Raman spectroscopy, which should be helpful in designing new zeolite structures and developing novel routes for synthesis of zeolites. The role of water and the vital intermediates during the crystallization of

  2. Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis of Cellulose Using Nano Zeolite and Zeolite/Matrix Catalysts in a GC/Micro-Pyrolyzer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyong-Hwan

    2016-05-01

    Cellulose, as a model compound of biomass, was catalyzed over zeolite (HY,.HZSM-5) and zeolite/matrix (HY/Clay, HM/Clay) in a GC/micro-pyrolyzer at 500 degrees C, to produce the valuable products. The catalysts used were pure zeolite and zeolite/matrix including 20 wt% matrix content, which were prepared into different particle sizes (average size; 0.1 mm, 1.6 mm) to study the effect of the particle size of the catalyst for the distribution of product yields. Catalytic pyrolysis had much more volatile products as light components and less content of sugars than pyrolysis only. This phenomenon was strongly influenced by the particle size of the catalyst in catalytic fast pyrolysis. Also, in zeolite and zeolite/matrix catalysts the zeolite type gave the dominant impact on the distribution of product yields.

  3. Silicate-catalyzed chemical grouting compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1972-09-28

    Chemical grouting compositions for stabilizing earth, sand, and other porous particulate formations or agglomerates of solids are described. The composition for producing a chemically grouting structure consists of an aqueous base solution of: (1) vegetative polyphenolic material consisting of condensed type tannins, and an aqueous catalyst solution of (2) a water-soluble alkali metal silicate. The polyphenolic material is present in an amount from 5% to 40% based on the weight of the base solution, and the water- soluble alkali metal silicate is present in an amount to provide from 1% to 15% SiOD2U in the silicate compound based on themore » weight of the polyphenolic material. These grouting compositions are completely safe to operating personnel and to surrounding environment, since the potassium or sodium silicate catalysts are nontoxic. (15 claims)« less

  4. Prometheus Silicates/Sulfur dioxide/NIMS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-05-18

    The Prometheus region of Jupiter moon Io was imaged by NASA Galileo spacecraft in 1999. The maps made from spectrometer data show the interplay between hot silicates on the surface and sulfur dioxide frost.

  5. Silicate Emission in the TW Hydrae Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitko, Michael L.; Lynch, David K.; Russell, Ray W.

    2000-11-01

    The TW Hydrae association is the nearest young stellar association. Among its members are HD 98800, HR 4796A, and TW Hydrae itself, the nearest known classical T Tauri star. We have observed these three stars spectroscopically between 3 and 13 μm. In TW Hya, the spectrum shows a silicate emission feature that is similar to many other young stars' with protostellar disks. The 11.2 μm feature indicative of significant amounts of crystalline olivine is not as strong as in some young stars and solar system comets. In HR 4796A, the thermal emission in the silicate feature is very weak, suggesting little in the way of (small silicate) grains near the star. The silicate band of HD 98800 (observed by us, but also reported by Sylvester & Skinner) is intermediate in strength between TW Hya and HR 4796A.

  6. Biochemical evolution. I. Polymerization On internal, organophilic silica surfaces of dealuminated zeolites and feldspars.

    PubMed

    Smith, J V

    1998-03-31

    Catalysis at mineral surfaces might generate replicating biopolymers from simple chemicals supplied by meteorites, volcanic gases, and photochemical gas reactions. Many ideas are implausible in detail because the proposed mineral surfaces strongly prefer water and other ionic species to organic ones. The molecular sieve silicalite (Union Carbide; = Al-free Mobil ZSM-5 zeolite) has a three-dimensional, 10-ring channel system whose electrically neutral Si-O surface strongly adsorbs organic species over water. Three -O-Si tetrahedral bonds lie in the surface, and the fourth Si-O points inwards. In contrast, the outward Si-OH of simple quartz and feldspar crystals generates their ionic organophobicity. The ZSM-5-type zeolite mutinaite occurs in Antarctica with boggsite and tschernichite (Al-analog of Mobil Beta). Archean mutinaite might have become de-aluminated toward silicalite during hot/cold/wet/dry cycles. Catalytic activity of silicalite increases linearly with Al-OH substitution for Si, and Al atoms tend to avoid each other. Adjacent organophilic and catalytic Al-OH regions in nanometer channels might have scavenged organic species for catalytic assembly into specific polymers protected from prompt photochemical destruction. Polymer migration along weathered silicic surfaces of micrometer-wide channels of feldspars might have led to assembly of replicating catalytic biomolecules and perhaps primitive cellular organisms. Silica-rich volcanic glasses should have been abundant on the early Earth, ready for crystallization into zeolites and feldspars, as in present continental basins. Abundant chert from weakly metamorphosed Archaean rocks might retain microscopic clues to the proposed mineral adsorbent/catalysts. Other framework silicas are possible, including ones with laevo/dextro one-dimensional channels. Organic molecules, transition-metal ions, and P occur inside modern feldspars.

  7. IMPROVED CATALYSTS FOR HEAVY OIL UPGRADING BASED ON ZEOLITE Y NANOPARTICLES ENCAPSULATED IN STABLE NANOPOROUS HOST

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad Ingram; Mark Mitchell

    2005-11-15

    Composite materials of SBA-15/zeolite Y were synthesized from zeolite Y precursor and a synthesis mixture of mesoporous silicate SBA-15 via a hydrothermal process in the presence of a slightly acidic media of pH 4-6 with 2M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The SBA-15/ZY composites showed Type IV adsorption isotherms, narrow BJH average pore size distribution of 4.9 nm, surface areas up to 800 m{sup 2}2/g and pore volumes 1.03 cm{sup 3}, all comparable to pure SBA-15 synthesized under similar conditions. Chemical analysis revealed Si/Al ratio down to 8.5 in the most aluminated sample, and {sup 27}AlSS MAS NMR confirmed aluminum was inmore » tetrahedral coordination. This method of introduction of Al in pure T{sub d} coordination is effective in comparison to other direct and post synthesis alumination methods. Bronsted acid sites were evident from a pyridinium peak at 1544 cm-1 in the FTIR spectrum after pyridine adsorption, and from NH{sub 3} -TPD experiments. SBA-15/ZY composites showed significant catalytic activities for the dealkylation of isopropylbenzene to benzene and propene, similar to those of commercial zeolite Y. It was observed that higher conversion for catalysts synthesized with high amount of ZY precursor mixture added to the SBA-15. Over all the composites has shown good catalytic activity. Further studies will be focused on gaining a better understand the nature of the precursor, and to characterize and to locate the acid sites in the composite material. The composite will also be evaluated for heavy oil conversion to naphtha and middle distillates.« less

  8. Biochemical evolution. I. Polymerization on internal, organophilic silica surfaces of dealuminated zeolites and feldspars

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Joseph V.

    1998-01-01

    Catalysis at mineral surfaces might generate replicating biopolymers from simple chemicals supplied by meteorites, volcanic gases, and photochemical gas reactions. Many ideas are implausible in detail because the proposed mineral surfaces strongly prefer water and other ionic species to organic ones. The molecular sieve silicalite (Union Carbide; = Al-free Mobil ZSM-5 zeolite) has a three-dimensional, 10-ring channel system whose electrically neutral Si-O surface strongly adsorbs organic species over water. Three -O-Si tetrahedral bonds lie in the surface, and the fourth Si-O points inwards. In contrast, the outward Si-OH of simple quartz and feldspar crystals generates their ionic organophobicity. The ZSM-5-type zeolite mutinaite occurs in Antarctica with boggsite and tschernichite (Al-analog of Mobil Beta). Archean mutinaite might have become de-aluminated toward silicalite during hot/cold/wet/dry cycles. Catalytic activity of silicalite increases linearly with Al-OH substitution for Si, and Al atoms tend to avoid each other. Adjacent organophilic and catalytic Al-OH regions in nanometer channels might have scavenged organic species for catalytic assembly into specific polymers protected from prompt photochemical destruction. Polymer migration along weathered silicic surfaces of micrometer-wide channels of feldspars might have led to assembly of replicating catalytic biomolecules and perhaps primitive cellular organisms. Silica-rich volcanic glasses should have been abundant on the early Earth, ready for crystallization into zeolites and feldspars, as in present continental basins. Abundant chert from weakly metamorphosed Archaean rocks might retain microscopic clues to the proposed mineral adsorbent/catalysts. Other framework silicas are possible, including ones with laevo/dextro one-dimensional channels. Organic molecules, transition-metal ions, and P occur inside modern feldspars. PMID:9520372

  9. Influence of Silicate Melt Composition on Metal/Silicate Partitioning of W, Ge, Ga and Ni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singletary, S. J.; Domanik, K.; Drake, M. J.

    2005-01-01

    The depletion of the siderophile elements in the Earth's upper mantle relative to the chondritic meteorites is a geochemical imprint of core segregation. Therefore, metal/silicate partition coefficients (Dm/s) for siderophile elements are essential to investigations of core formation when used in conjunction with the pattern of elemental abundances in the Earth's mantle. The partitioning of siderophile elements is controlled by temperature, pressure, oxygen fugacity, and by the compositions of the metal and silicate phases. Several recent studies have shown the importance of silicate melt composition on the partitioning of siderophile elements between silicate and metallic liquids. It has been demonstrated that many elements display increased solubility in less polymerized (mafic) melts. However, the importance of silicate melt composition was believed to be minor compared to the influence of oxygen fugacity until studies showed that melt composition is an important factor at high pressures and temperatures. It was found that melt composition is also important for partitioning of high valency siderophile elements. Atmospheric experiments were conducted, varying only silicate melt composition, to assess the importance of silicate melt composition for the partitioning of W, Co and Ga and found that the valence of the dissolving species plays an important role in determining the effect of composition on solubility. In this study, we extend the data set to higher pressures and investigate the role of silicate melt composition on the partitioning of the siderophile elements W, Ge, Ga and Ni between metallic and silicate liquid.

  10. Zeolite based microconcentrators for volatile organic compounds sensing at trace-level: fabrication and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almazán, Fernando; Pellejero, Ismael; Morales, Alberto; Urbiztondo, Miguel A.; Sesé, Javier; Pina, M. Pilar; Santamaría, Jesús

    2016-08-01

    A novel 6-step microfabrication process is proposed in this work to prepare microfluidic devices with integrated zeolite layers. In particular, microfabricated preconcentrators designed for volatile organic compounds (VOC) sensing applications are fully described. The main novelty of this work is the integration of the pure siliceous MFI type zeolite (silicalite-1) polycrystalline layer, i.e. 4.0  ±  0.5 μm thick, as active phase, within the microfabrication process just before the anodic bonding step. Following this new procedure, Si microdevices with an excellent distribution of the adsorbent material, integrated resistive heaters and Pyrex caps have been obtained. Firstly, the microconcentrator performance has been assessed by means of the normal hexane breakthrough curves as a function of sampling and desorption flowrates, temperature and micropreconcentrator design. In a step further, the best preconcentrator device has been tested in combination with downstream Si based microcantilevers deployed as VOC detectors. Thus, a preliminar evaluation of the improvement on detection sensitivity by silicalite-1 based microconcentrators is presented.

  11. Silicate calculi, a rare cause of kidney stones in children.

    PubMed

    Taşdemir, Mehmet; Fuçucuoğlu, Dilara; Özman, Oktay; Sever, Lale; Önal, Bülent; Bilge, Ilmay

    2017-02-01

    Urinary silicate calculi in humans are extremely rare. Reported cases of silicate calculi are mostly documented in adults and are commonly related to an excessive intake of magnesium trisilicate in food or drugs. Published studies on the presence of silicate calculi in children are scarce. Three cases of silicate kidney stones without prior silicate intake are reported. Two patients underwent surgical treatment, and the third patient was treated using conservative methods. Urinalysis revealed no underlying metabolic abnormalities. Analyses revealed that silicate was the major component of the stones. Siliceous deposits in urinary stones may be more common than anticipated, and the underlying pathophysiology remains to be clarified.

  12. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Silicate Vaporization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Costa, Gustavo C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Silicates are a common class of materials that are often exposed to high temperatures. The behavior of these materials needs to be understood for applications as high temperature coatings in material science as well as the constituents of lava for geological considerations. The vaporization behavior of these materials is an important aspect of their high temperature behavior and it also provides fundamental thermodynamic data. The application of Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry (KEMS) to silicates is discussed. There are several special considerations for silicates. The first is selection of an appropriate cell material, which is either nearly inert or has well-understood interactions with the silicate. The second consideration is proper measurement of the low vapor pressures. This can be circumvented by using a reducing agent to boost the vapor pressure without changing the solid composition or by working at very high temperatures. The third consideration deals with kinetic barriers to vaporization. The measurement of these barriers, as encompassed in a vaporization coefficient, is discussed. Current measured data of rare earth silicates for high temperature coating applications are discussed. In addition, data on magnesium-iron-silicates (olivine) are presented and discussed.

  13. Interpreting the 10 micron Astronomical Silicate Feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowey, Janet E.

    1998-11-01

    10micron spectra of silicate dust in the diffuse medium towards Cyg OB2 no. 12 and towards field and embedded objects in the Taurus Molecular Cloud (TMC) were obtained with CGS3 at the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT). Cold molecular-cloud silicates are sampled in quiescent lines of sight towards the field stars Taurus-Elias 16 and Elias 13, whilst observations of the embedded young stellar objects HL Tau, Taurus-Elias 7 (Haro6-10) and Elias 18 also include emission from heated dust. To obtain the foreground silicate absorption profiles, featureless continua are estimated using smoothed astronomical and laboratory silicate emissivities. TMC field stars and Cyg OB2 no. 12 are modelled as photospheres reddened by foreground continuum and silicate extinction. Dust emission in the non-photospheric continua of HL Tau and Elias 7 (Haro6-10) is distinguished from foreground silicate absorption using a 10micron disk model, based on the IR-submm model of T Tauri stars by Adams, Lada & Shu (1988), with terms added to represent the foreground continuum and silicate extinction. The absorption profiles of HL Tau and Elias 7 are similar to that of the field star Elias 16. Fitted temperature indices of 0.43 (HL Tau) and 0.33 (Elias 7) agree with Boss' (1996) theoretical models of the 200-300K region, but are lower than those of IR-submm disks (0.5-0.61; Mannings & Emerson 1994); the modelled 10micron emission of HL Tau is optically thin, that of Elias 7 is optically thick. A preliminary arcsecond-resolution determination of the 10micron emissivity near θ1 Ori D in the Trapezium region of Orion and a range of emission temperatures (225-310K) are derived from observations by T. L. Hayward; this Ney-Allen emissivity is 0.6micron narrower than the Trapezium emissivity obtained by Forrest et al. (1975) with a large aperture. Published interstellar grain models, elemental abundances and laboratory studies of Solar System silicates (IDPs, GEMS and meteorites), the 10micron

  14. Iron oxide particles in large pore zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, J. L.; López, A.; Lázaro, F. J.; Martínez, C.; Corma, A.

    1996-05-01

    The magnetic properties of iron-containing ETS-10 zeolite and its calcined variety have been studied by magnetic measurements. The results are consistent with the presence of paramagnetic ions and superparamagnetic clusters. Calcination results in a shift of the blocking temperatures, although their frequency dependence cannot be ascribed to non-interacting clusters. The hypothesis of cluster-glass like behaviour is discussed.

  15. MERCURY SEPARATION FROM POLLUTANT WATER USING ZEOLITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic is known to be a hazardous contaminant in drinking water that causes arsenical dermatitis and skin cancer. In the present work, the potential use of a variety of synthetic zeolites for removal of arsenic from water has been examined at room temperature. Experiments have...

  16. Dispersion enhanced metal/zeolite catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Sachtler, W.M.H.; Tzou, M.S.; Jiang, H.J.

    1987-03-31

    Dispersion stabilized zeolite supported metal catalysts are provided as bimetallic catalyst combinations. The catalyst metal is in a reduced zero valent form while the dispersion stabilizer metal is in an unreduced ionic form. Representative catalysts are prepared from platinum or nickel as the catalyst metal and iron or chromium dispersion stabilizer.

  17. Zeolite 5A Catalyzed Etherification of Diphenylmethanol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Jason; Henderson, Eric J.; Lightbody, Owen C.

    2009-01-01

    An experiment for the synthetic undergraduate laboratory is described in which zeolite 5A catalyzes the room temperature dehydration of diphenylmethanol, (C[subscript 6]H[subscript 5])[subscript 2]CHOH, producing 1,1,1',1'-tetraphenyldimethyl ether, (C[subscript 6]H[subscript 5])[subscript 2]CHOCH(C[subscript 6]H[subscript 5])[subscript 2]. The…

  18. Dispersion enhanced metal/zeolite catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Sachtler, Wolfgang M. H.; Tzou, Ming-Shin; Jiang, Hui-Jong

    1987-01-01

    Dispersion stabilized zeolite supported metal catalysts are provided as bimetallic catalyst combinations. The catalyst metal is in a reduced zero valent form while the dispersion stabilizer metal is in an unreduced ionic form. Representative catalysts are prepared from platinum or nickel as the catalyst metal and iron or chromium dispersion stabilizer.

  19. ARSENIC SEPARATION FROM WATER USING ZEOLITES: SYMPOSIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-ADA-01134 Shevade, S, Ford*, R., and Puls*, R.W. "Arsenic Separation from Water Using Zeolites." In: 222nd ACS National Meeting, ACS Environmental Chemistry Division Symposia, Chicago, IL, 08/26-30/2001. 2001. 04/23/2001 This...

  20. Selective synthesis of FAU-type zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Gustavo; Cabrera, Saúl; Hedlund, Jonas; Mouzon, Johanne

    2018-05-01

    In the present work, parameters influencing the selectivity of the synthesis of FAU-zeolites from diatomite were studied. The final products after varying synthesis time were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and gas adsorption. It was found that high concentrations of NaCl could completely inhibit the formation of zeolite P, which otherwise usually forms as soon as maximum FAU crystallinity is reached. In the presence of NaCl, the FAU crystals were stable for extended time after completed crystallization of FAU before formation of sodalite. It was also found that addition of NaCl barely changed the crystallization kinetics of FAU zeolite and only reduced the final FAU particle size and SiO2/Al2O3 ratio slightly. Other salts containing either Na or Cl were also investigated. Our results suggest that there is a synergistic effect between Na+ and Cl-. This is attributed to the formation of (Na4Cl)3+ clusters that stabilize the sodalite cages. This new finding may be used to increase the selectivity of syntheses leading to FAU-zeolites and avoid the formation of undesirable by-products, especially if impure natural sources of aluminosilica are used.

  1. ARSENIC SEPARATION FROM WATER USING ZEOLITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic is known to be a hazardous contaminant in drinking water. The presence of arsenic in water supplies has been linked to arsenical dermatosis and skin cancer . Zeolites are well known for their ion exchange capacities. In the present work, the potential use of a variety of ...

  2. Zeolite Nanoparticles for Selective Sorption of Plasma Proteins.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, M; Ng, E-P; Bakhtiari, K; Vinciguerra, M; Ali Ahmad, H; Awala, H; Mintova, S; Daghighi, M; Bakhshandeh Rostami, F; de Vries, M; Motazacker, M M; Peppelenbosch, M P; Mahmoudi, M; Rezaee, F

    2015-11-30

    The affinity of zeolite nanoparticles (diameter of 8-12 nm) possessing high surface area and high pore volume towards human plasma proteins has been investigated. The protein composition (corona) of zeolite nanoparticles has been shown to be more dependent on the plasma protein concentrations and the type of zeolites than zeolite nanoparticles concentration. The number of proteins present in the corona of zeolite nanoparticles at 100% plasma (in vivo state) is less than with 10% plasma exposure. This could be due to a competition between the proteins to occupy the corona of the zeolite nanoparticles. Moreover, a high selective adsorption for apolipoprotein C-III (APOC-III) and fibrinogen on the zeolite nanoparticles at high plasma concentration (100%) was observed. While the zeolite nanoparticles exposed to low plasma concentration (10%) exhibited a high selective adsorption for immunoglobulin gamma (i.e. IGHG1, IGHG2 and IGHG4) proteins. The zeolite nanoparticles can potentially be used for selectively capture of APOC-III in order to reduce the activation of lipoprotein lipase inhibition during hypertriglyceridemia treatment. The zeolite nanoparticles can be adapted to hemophilic patients (hemophilia A (F-VIII deficient) and hemophilia B (F-IX deficient)) with a risk of bleeding, and thus might be potentially used in combination with the existing therapy.

  3. Zeolite Nanoparticles for Selective Sorption of Plasma Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, M.; Ng, E.-P.; Bakhtiari, K.; Vinciguerra, M.; Ahmad, H. Ali; Awala, H.; Mintova, S.; Daghighi, M.; Bakhshandeh Rostami, F.; de Vries, M.; Motazacker, M. M.; Peppelenbosch, M. P.; Mahmoudi, M.; Rezaee, F.

    2015-01-01

    The affinity of zeolite nanoparticles (diameter of 8–12 nm) possessing high surface area and high pore volume towards human plasma proteins has been investigated. The protein composition (corona) of zeolite nanoparticles has been shown to be more dependent on the plasma protein concentrations and the type of zeolites than zeolite nanoparticles concentration. The number of proteins present in the corona of zeolite nanoparticles at 100% plasma (in vivo state) is less than with 10% plasma exposure. This could be due to a competition between the proteins to occupy the corona of the zeolite nanoparticles. Moreover, a high selective adsorption for apolipoprotein C-III (APOC-III) and fibrinogen on the zeolite nanoparticles at high plasma concentration (100%) was observed. While the zeolite nanoparticles exposed to low plasma concentration (10%) exhibited a high selective adsorption for immunoglobulin gamma (i.e. IGHG1, IGHG2 and IGHG4) proteins. The zeolite nanoparticles can potentially be used for selectively capture of APOC-III in order to reduce the activation of lipoprotein lipase inhibition during hypertriglyceridemia treatment. The zeolite nanoparticles can be adapted to hemophilic patients (hemophilia A (F-VIII deficient) and hemophilia B (F-IX deficient)) with a risk of bleeding, and thus might be potentially used in combination with the existing therapy. PMID:26616161

  4. Energetics of sodium-calcium exchanged zeolite A.

    PubMed

    Sun, H; Wu, D; Guo, X; Shen, B; Navrotsky, A

    2015-05-07

    A series of calcium-exchanged zeolite A samples with different degrees of exchange were prepared. They were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). High temperature oxide melt drop solution calorimetry measured the formation enthalpies of hydrated zeolites CaNa-A from constituent oxides. The water content is a linear function of the degree of exchange, ranging from 20.54% for Na-A to 23.77% for 97.9% CaNa-A. The enthalpies of formation (from oxides) at 25 °C are -74.50 ± 1.21 kJ mol(-1) TO2 for hydrated zeolite Na-A and -30.79 ± 1.64 kJ mol(-1) TO2 for hydrated zeolite 97.9% CaNa-A. Dehydration enthalpies obtained from differential scanning calorimetry are 32.0 kJ mol(-1) H2O for hydrated zeolite Na-A and 20.5 kJ mol(-1) H2O for hydrated zeolite 97.9% CaNa-A. Enthalpies of formation of Ca-exchanged zeolites A are less exothermic than for zeolite Na-A. A linear relationship between the formation enthalpy and the extent of calcium substitution was observed. The energetic effect of Ca-exchange on zeolite A is discussed with an emphasis on the complex interactions between the zeolite framework, cations, and water.

  5. Zeolite Nanoparticles for Selective Sorption of Plasma Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, M.; Ng, E.-P.; Bakhtiari, K.; Vinciguerra, M.; Ahmad, H. Ali; Awala, H.; Mintova, S.; Daghighi, M.; Bakhshandeh Rostami, F.; de Vries, M.; Motazacker, M. M.; Peppelenbosch, M. P.; Mahmoudi, M.; Rezaee, F.

    2015-11-01

    The affinity of zeolite nanoparticles (diameter of 8-12 nm) possessing high surface area and high pore volume towards human plasma proteins has been investigated. The protein composition (corona) of zeolite nanoparticles has been shown to be more dependent on the plasma protein concentrations and the type of zeolites than zeolite nanoparticles concentration. The number of proteins present in the corona of zeolite nanoparticles at 100% plasma (in vivo state) is less than with 10% plasma exposure. This could be due to a competition between the proteins to occupy the corona of the zeolite nanoparticles. Moreover, a high selective adsorption for apolipoprotein C-III (APOC-III) and fibrinogen on the zeolite nanoparticles at high plasma concentration (100%) was observed. While the zeolite nanoparticles exposed to low plasma concentration (10%) exhibited a high selective adsorption for immunoglobulin gamma (i.e. IGHG1, IGHG2 and IGHG4) proteins. The zeolite nanoparticles can potentially be used for selectively capture of APOC-III in order to reduce the activation of lipoprotein lipase inhibition during hypertriglyceridemia treatment. The zeolite nanoparticles can be adapted to hemophilic patients (hemophilia A (F-VIII deficient) and hemophilia B (F-IX deficient)) with a risk of bleeding, and thus might be potentially used in combination with the existing therapy.

  6. Enhanced chromium adsorption capacity via plasma modification of natural zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagomoc, Charisse Marie D.; Vasquez, Magdaleno R., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    Natural zeolites such as mordenite are excellent adsorbents for heavy metals. To enhance the adsorption capacity of zeolite, sodium-exchanged samples were irradiated with 13.56 MHz capacitively coupled radio frequency (RF) argon gas discharge. Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] was used as the test heavy metal. Pristine and plasma-treated zeolite samples were soaked in 50 mg/L Cr solution and the amount of adsorbed Cr(VI) on the zeolites was calculated at predetermined time intervals. Compared with untreated zeolite samples, initial Cr(VI) uptake was 70% higher for plasma-treated zeolite granules (50 W 30 min) after 1 h of soaking. After 24 h, all plasma-treated zeolites showed increased Cr(VI) uptake. For a 2- to 4-month period, Cr(VI) uptake increased about 130% compared with untreated zeolite granules. X-ray diffraction analyses between untreated and treated zeolite samples revealed no major difference in terms of its crystal structure. However, for plasma-treated samples, an increase in the number of surface defects was observed from scanning electron microscopy images. This increase in the number of surface defects induced by plasma exposure played a crucial role in increasing the number of active sorption sites on the zeolite surface.

  7. UTILITY OF ZEOLITES IN REMOVAL OF INORGANIC AND ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zeolites are well known for their ion exchange, adsorption and acid catalysis properties. Different inorganic and organic pollutants have been removed from water at room temperature using various zeolites. Synthetic zeolite Faujasite Y has been used to remove inorganic pollutants...

  8. Efficiency of basalt zeolite and Cuban zeolite to adsorb ammonia released from poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Nuernberg, Giselle B; Moreira, Marcelo A; Ernani, Paulo R; Almeida, Jaime A; Maciel, Tais M

    2016-12-01

    Confined poultry production is an important livestock activity, which generates large amounts of waste associated with the potential for environmental pollution and ammonia (NH 3 ) emissions. The release of ammonia negatively affects poultry production and decreases the N content of wastes that could be used as soil fertilizers. The objective of this study was to evaluate a low-cost, simple and rapid method to simulate ammonia emissions from poultry litter as well as to quantify the reduction in the ammonia emissions to the environment employing two adsorbent zeolites, a commercial Cuban zeolite (CZ) and a ground basalt Brazilian rock containing zeolite (BZ). The experiments were conducted in a laboratory, in 2012-2013. The zeolites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), physical adsorption of N 2 (BET) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Ammonia released from poultry litter and its simulation from NH 4 OH solution presented similar capture rates of 7.99 × 10 -5 and 7.35 × 10 -5  mg/h, respectively. Both zeolites contain SiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 as major constituents, with contents of 84% and 12% in the CZ, and 51% and 12% in the BZ, respectively, besides heulandite groups. Their BET surface areas were 89.4 and 11.3 m 2  g -1 , respectively, and the two zeolites had similar surface morphologies. The zeolites successfully adsorbed the ammonia released, but CZ was more efficient than BZ, since to capture all of the ammonia 5 g of CZ and 20 g of BZ were required. This difference is due to higher values for the superficial area, porosity, CEC and acid site strength of CZ relatively to BZ. The proposed methodology was shown to be an efficient method to simulate and quantify the ammonia released from poultry litter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Zeolite and swine inoculum effect on poultry manure biomethanation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kougias, P. G.; Fotidis, I. A.; Zaganas, I. D.; Kotsopoulos, T. A.; Martzopoulos, G. G.

    2013-03-01

    Poultry manure is an ammonia-rich substrate that inhibits methanogenesis, causing severe problems to the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, the effect of different natural zeolite concentrations on the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of poultry waste inoculated with well-digested swine manure was investigated. A significant increase in methane production was observed in treatments where zeolite was added, compared to the treatment without zeolite.Methane production in the treatment with 10 g dm-3 of natural zeolite was found to be 109.75% higher compared to the treatment without zeolite addition. The results appear to be influenced by the addition of zeolite, which reduces ammonia toxicity in anaerobic digestion and by the ammonia-tolerant swine inoculum.

  10. Atomic sites and stability of Cs+ captured within zeolitic nanocavities

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Kaname; Toyoura, Kazuaki; Matsunaga, Katsuyuki; Nakahira, Atsushi; Kurata, Hiroki; Ikuhara, Yumi H.; Sasaki, Yukichi

    2013-01-01

    Zeolites have potential application as ion-exchangers, catalysts and molecular sieves. Zeolites are once again drawing attention in Japan as stable adsorbents and solidification materials of fission products, such as 137Cs+ from damaged nuclear-power plants. Although there is a long history of scientific studies on the crystal structures and ion-exchange properties of zeolites for practical application, there are still open questions, at the atomic-level, on the physical and chemical origins of selective ion-exchange abilities of different cations and detailed atomic structures of exchanged cations inside the nanoscale cavities of zeolites. Here, the precise locations of Cs+ ions captured within A-type zeolite were analyzed using high-resolution electron microscopy. Together with theoretical calculations, the stable positions of absorbed Cs+ ions in the nanocavities are identified, and the bonding environment within the zeolitic framework is revealed to be a key factor that influences the locations of absorbed cations. PMID:23949184

  11. Effect of SrO content on Zeolite Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiarti, N.; Sari, U. S.; Mahatmanti, F. W.; Harjito; Kurniawan, C.; Prasetyoko, D.; Suprapto

    2018-04-01

    The aims of current studies is to investigate the effect of strontium oxide content (SrO) on synthesized zeolite. Zeolite was synthesized from Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as precursors of SiO2 and aluminum isopropoxide (AIP) precursors. The mixture was aged for 3 days and hydrothermally treated for 6 days. The SrO content was added by impregnation method. The products were then characterized using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), and Surface Area Analyzer (SAA). The diffractogram confirmed the formation of Faujasite-like zeolite. However, after the addition of SrO, the crystallinity of zeolite was deformed. The diffractograms shows the amorphous phase of zeolite were decrease as the SrO content is increase. The structural changes was also observed from FTIR spectra which shows the shifting and peak formation. The surface area analysis showed that the increasing loading of SrO/Zeolites reduced the catalyst surface area.

  12. Phosphorus Equilibria Among Mafic Silicate Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berlin, Jana; Xirouchakis, Dimitris

    2002-01-01

    Phosphorus incorporation in major rock-forming silicate minerals has the following implications: (1) Reactions between phosphorus-hosting major silicates and accessory phosphates, which are also major trace element carriers, may control the stability of the latter and thus may affect the amount of phosphorus and other trace elements released to the coexisting melt or fluid phase. (2) Less of a phosphate mineral is needed to account for the bulk phosphorus of planetaty mantles. (3) During partial melting of mantle mineral assemblages or equilibrium fractional crystallization of basaltic magmas, and in the absence or prior to saturation with a phosphate mineral, silicate melts may become enriched in phosphorus, especially in the geochemically important low melt fraction regime, Although the small differences in the ionic radii of IVp5+, IVSi4+, and IV Al3+ makes phosphoms incorporation into crystalline silicates perhaps unsurprising, isostructural silicate and phosphate crystalline solids do not readily form solutions, e.g., (Fe, Mg)2SiO4 vs. LiMgPO4, SiO)2 VS. AlPO4. Nonetheless, there are reports of, poorly characterized silico-phosphate phases in angrites , 2-4 wt% P2O5 in olivine and pyroxene grains in pallasites and reduced terestrial basalts which are little understood but potentially useful, and up to 17 wt% P2O5 in olivine from ancient slags. However, such enrichments are rare and only underscore the likelihood of phosphoms incorporation in silicate minerals. The mechanisms that allow phosphorus to enter major rock-forming silicate minerals (e.g., Oliv, Px, Gt) remain little understood and the relevant data base is limited. Nonetheless, old and new high-pressure (5-10 GPa) experimental data suggest that P2O5 wt% decreases from silica-poor to silica-rich compositions or from orthosilicate to chain silicate structures (garnet > olivine > orthopyroxene) which implies that phosphorus incorporation in silicates is perhaps more structure-than site-specific. The

  13. Large zeolites - Why and how to grow in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacco, Albert, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The growth of zeolite crystals which are considered to be the most valuable catalytic and adsorbent materials of the chemical processing industry are discussed. It is proposed to use triethanolamine as a nucleation control agent to control the time release of Al in a zeolite A solution and to increase the average and maximum crystal size by 25-50 times. Large zeolites could be utilized to make membranes for reactors/separators which will substantially increase their efficiency.

  14. Progress on Zeolite-membrane-aided Organic Acid Esterification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makertiharta, I. G. B. N.; Dharmawijaya, P. T.

    2017-07-01

    Esterification is a common route to produce carboxylic acid esters as important intermediates in chemical and pharmaceutical industries. However, the reaction is equilibrium limited and needs to be driven forward by selective removal one of the products. There have been some efforts to selectively remove water from reaction mixture via several separation processes (such as pervaporation and reactive distillation). Integrated pervaporation and esterification has gained increasing attention towards. Inorganic zeolite is the most popular material for pervaporation due to its high chemical resistant and separation performance towards water. Zeolite also has proven to be an effective material in removing water from organic compound. Zeolite can act not only as selective layer but also simultaneously act as a catalyst on promoting the reaction. Hence, there are many configurations in integrating zeolite membrane for esterification reaction. As a selective layer to remove water from reaction mixture, high Si/Al zeolite is preferred to enhance its hydrophilicity. However, low Si/Al zeolite is unstable in acid condition due to dealumination thus eliminate its advantages. As a catalyst, acid zeolites (e.g. H-ZSM-5) provide protons for autoprotolysis of the carboxylic acid similar to other catalyst for esterification (e.g. inorganic acid, and ion exchange resins). There are many studies related to zeolite membrane aided esterification. This paper will give brief information related to zeolite membrane role in esterification and also research trend towards it.

  15. Method for the recovery of silver from silver zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, G.A.

    1985-03-05

    High purity silver is recovered from silver exchanged zeolite used to capture radioactive iodine from nuclear reactor and nuclear fuel reprocessing environments. The silver exchanged zeolite is heated with slag formers to melt and fluidize the zeolite and release the silver, the radioactivity removing with the slag. The silver containing metallic impurities is remelted and treated with oxygen and a flux to remove the metal impurities. About 98% of the silver in the silver exchanged zeolite having a purity of 99% or better is recoverable by the method.

  16. Hydrothermal synthesis of free-template zeolite T from kaolin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshad, Sazmal E.; Yusslee, Eddy F.; Rahman, Md. Lutfor; Sarkar, Shaheen M.; Patuwan, Siti Z.

    2017-12-01

    Free-template zeolite T crystals were synthesized via hydrothermal synthesis by utilizing the activated kaolin as silica and alumina source, with the molar composition of 1 SiO2: 0.04 Al2O3: 0.26 Na2O: 0.09 K2O: 14 H2O. Observation of the formation of free-template zeolite crystals were done at temperature 90°C, 100 °C and 110 °C respectively. It was therefore determined that during the 120 h of the synthesis at 90 °C, zeolite T nucleated and formed a first competitive phase with zeolite L. As temperature increases to 100 °C, zeolite T presented itself as a major phase in the system at time 168 h. Subsequently, development of Zeolite T with second competitive phase of zeolite W was observed at temperature 110 °C. In this study, XRD and SEM instruments were used to monitor the behavior of zeolite T crystals with respect of temperature and time. By using natural resource of kaolin clay as a starting material, this paper hence aims to provide new findings in synthesis of zeolite T using low energy consumption and low production cost.

  17. Natural zeolites in diet or litter of broilers.

    PubMed

    Schneider, A F; Almeida, D S De; Yuri, F M; Zimmermann, O F; Gerber, M W; Gewehr, C E

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to analyse the influence of adding natural zeolites (clinoptilolite) to the diet or litter of broilers and their effects on growth performance, carcass yield and litter quality. Three consecutive flocks of broilers were raised on the same sawdust litter, from d 1 to d 42 of age, and distributed in three treatments (control with no added zeolites, addition of 5 g/kg zeolite to diet and addition of 100 g/kg zeolites to litter). The addition of zeolites to the diet or litter did not affect growth performance or carcass yield. The addition of zeolites to the diet did not influence moisture content of the litter, ammonia volatilisation was reduced only in the first flock and pH of litter was reduced in the second and third flock. However, the addition of zeolites to the litter reduced moisture content, litter pH and ammonia volatilisation in all flocks analysed. The addition of 5 g/kg zeolite to the diet in three consecutive flocks was not effective in maintaining litter quality, whereas the addition of 100 g/kg natural zeolites to sawdust litter reduced litter moisture and ammonia volatilisation in three consecutive flocks raised on the same litter.

  18. Method for the recovery of silver from silver zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, George A.

    1986-01-01

    High purity silver is recovered from silver exchanged zeolite used to capture radioactive iodine from nuclear reactor and nuclear fuel reprocessing environments. The silver exchanged zeolite is heated with slag formers to melt and fluidize the zeolite and release the silver, the radioactivity removing with the slag. The silver containing metallic impurities is remelted and treated with oxygen and a flux to remove the metal impurities. About 98% of the silver in the silver exchanged zeolite having a purity of 99% or better is recoverable by the method.

  19. Mineral resource of the month: natural and synthetic zeolites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Volcanic rocks containing natural zeolites — hydrated aluminosilicate minerals that contain alkaline and alkaline-earth metals — have been mined worldwide for more than 1,000 years for use as cements and building stone. For centuries, people thought natural zeolites occurred only in small amounts inside cavities of volcanic rock. But in the 1950s and early 1960s, large zeolite deposits were discovered in volcanic tuffs in the western United States and in marine tuffs in Italy and Japan. And since then, similar deposits have been found around the world, from Hungary to Cuba to New Zealand. The discovery of these larger deposits made commercial mining of natural zeolite possible.

  20. Dry method for recycling iodine-loaded silver zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Thomas R.; Staples, Bruce A.; Murphy, Llewellyn P.

    1978-05-09

    Fission product iodine is removed from a waste gas stream and stored by passing the gas stream through a bed of silver-exchanged zeolite until the zeolite is loaded with iodine, passing dry hydrogen gas through the bed to remove the iodine and regenerate the bed, and passing the hydrogen stream containing the hydrogen iodide thus formed through a lead-exchanged zeolite which adsorbs the radioactive iodine from the gas stream and permanently storing the lead-exchanged zeolite loaded with radioactive iodine.

  1. Zeolite Crystal Growth in Microgravity and on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Center for Advanced Microgravity Materials Processing (CAMMP), a NASA-sponsored Research Partnership Center, is working to improve zeolite materials for storing hydrogen fuel. CAMMP is also applying zeolites to detergents, optical cables, gas and vapor detection for environmental monitoring and control, and chemical production techniques that significantly reduce by-products that are hazardous to the environment. Shown here are zeolite crystals (top) grown in a ground control experiment and grown in microgravity on the USML-2 mission (bottom). Zeolite experiments have also been conducted aboard the International Space Station.

  2. Molybdenum Valence in Basaltic Silicate Melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, L. R.; Righter, K.; Newville, M.; Sutton, S.; Pando, K.

    2010-01-01

    The moderately siderophile element molybdenum has been used as an indicator in planetary differentiation processes, and is particularly relevant to core formation [for example, 1-6]. However, models that apply experimental data to an equilibrium differentiation scenario infer the oxidation state of molybdenum from solubility data or from multivariable coefficients from metal-silicate partitioning data [1,3,7]. Partitioning behavior of molybdenum, a multivalent element with a transition near the J02 of interest for core formation (IW-2) will be sensitive to changes in JO2 of the system and silicate melt structure. In a silicate melt, Mo can occur in either 4+ or 6+ valence state, and Mo6+ can be either octahedrally or tetrahedrally coordinated. Here we present first XANES measurements of Mo valence in basaltic run products at a range of P, T, and JO2 and further quantify the valence transition of Mo.

  3. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Dicalcium Silicate Based Cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, N.; Chatterjee, A.

    2017-06-01

    It is imperative to develop low energy alternative binders considering the large amounts of energy consumed as well as carbon dioxide emissions involved in the manufacturing of ordinary Portland cement. This study is on the synthesis of a dicalcium silicate based binder using a low temperature hydrothermal route.The process consists of synthesizing an intermediate product consisting of a calcium silicate hydrate phase with a Ca:Si ratio of 2:1 and further thermal treatment to produce the β-Ca2SiO4 (C2S) phase.Effect of various synthesis parameters like water to solid ratio, dwell time and temperature on the formation of the desired calcium silicate hydrate phase is reported along with effect of heating conditions for formation of the β-C2S phase. Around 77.45% of β-C2S phase was synthesized by thermal treatment of the intermediate phase at 820°C.

  4. Thermal Properties of Zeolite-Containing Composites

    PubMed Central

    Shimonosono, Taro; Hirata, Yoshihiro; Nishikawa, Kyohei; Sameshima, Soichiro; Sodeyama, Kenichi; Masunaga, Takuro; Yoshimura, Yukio

    2018-01-01

    A zeolite (mordenite)–pore–phenol resin composite and a zeolite–pore–shirasu glass composite were fabricated by hot-pressing. Their thermal conductivities were measured by a laser flash method to determine the thermal conductivity of the monolithic zeolite with the proposed mixing rule. The analysis using composites is useful for a zeolite powder with no sinterability to clarify its thermal properties. At a low porosity <20%, the thermal conductivity of the composite was in excellent agreement with the calculated value for the structure with phenol resin or shirasu glass continuous phase. At a higher porosity above 40%, the measured value approached the calculated value for the structure with pore continuous phase. The thermal conductivity of the monolithic mordenite was evaluated to be 3.63 W/mK and 1.70–2.07 W/mK at room temperature for the zeolite–pore–phenol resin composite and the zeolite–pore–shirasu glass composite, respectively. The analyzed thermal conductivities of monolithic mordenite showed a minimum value of 1.23 W/mK at 400 °C and increased to 2.51 W/mK at 800 °C. PMID:29534034

  5. New antiaxillary odour deodorant made with antimicrobial Ag-zeolite (silver-exchanged zeolite).

    PubMed

    Nakane, T; Gomyo, H; Sasaki, I; Kimoto, Y; Hanzawa, N; Teshima, Y; Namba, T

    2006-08-01

    The causative substances for axillary osmidrosis, which are often found in apocrine sweat, are the decomposed/denatured products of short-chain fatty acid and other biological metabolite compounds produced by axillary-resident bacteria. Conventional underarm deodorants suppress the process of odour production mostly by the following mechanism: (1) suppression of perspiration, (2) reduction in numbers of resident bacteria, (3) deodorization and (4) masking. The most important and effective method to reduce odour is to suppress the growth of resident bacteria with antimicrobials, which have several drawbacks, especially in their safety aspect. To solve these problems, we focused on Ag-zeolite (silver-exchanged zeolite) that hold stable Ag, an inorganic bactericidal agent, in its structure, and therefore, poses less risk in safety. Its bactericidal effect on skin-resident bacteria was found to be excellent and comparable with that of triclosan, a most frequently used organic antimicrobial in this product category. The dose-response study of Ag-zeolite powder spray (0-40 w/w%) using 39 volunteers revealed that 5-40 w/w% Ag-zeolite could show a sufficient antimicrobial effect against skin-resident bacteria. The comparison study using 0.2 w/w% triclosan as the control and 10 w/w% Ag-zeolite indicated that: (1) one application of the powder spray containing 10 w/w% Ag-zeolite could show a sufficient antimicrobial effect against the resident bacteria and its effect continued for 24 h, (2) a powder spray containing 0.2 w/w% triclosan was unable to show a sufficient antimicrobial effect, and (3) no adverse event was observed. These studies show that Ag-zeolite has a superior antimicrobial ability that is rarely found in conventional antimicrobials used in deodorant products and a strong antiaxillary odour deodorant ability because of its long-lasting effect. During clinical study, patch tests with humans and other clinical studies of this product showed no adverse events

  6. Microfabrics in Siliceous Hotsprings: Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guidry, S. A.; Chafetz, H. S.; Westall, F.

    2001-01-01

    Microfabrics shed light on the mechanisms governing siliceous sinter precipitation, the profound effects of microorganisms, as well as a conventional facies model for siliceous hotsprings. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  7. Laser cutting of sodium silicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchanov, V. V.; Kazarian, M. A.; Kustov, M. E.; Mashir, Yu. I.; Murav'ev, E. N.; Revenko, V. I.; Solinov, E. F.

    2018-04-01

    The problems of through laser cutting of sodium silicate glasses by laser-controlled thermal cleavage are considered. A wide variety of obtained end face shapes is demonstrated. It is shown that the strength of glass samples cut by the laser is about two times higher than that of samples cut by a glass cutter.

  8. Chemically bonded phospho-silicate ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun S.; Jeong, Seung Y.; Lohan, Dirk; Elizabeth, Anne

    2003-01-01

    A chemically bonded phospho-silicate ceramic formed by chemically reacting a monovalent alkali metal phosphate (or ammonium hydrogen phosphate) and a sparsely soluble oxide, with a sparsely soluble silicate in an aqueous solution. The monovalent alkali metal phosphate (or ammonium hydrogen phosphate) and sparsely soluble oxide are both in powder form and combined in a stochiometric molar ratio range of (0.5-1.5):1 to form a binder powder. Similarly, the sparsely soluble silicate is also in powder form and mixed with the binder powder to form a mixture. Water is added to the mixture to form a slurry. The water comprises 50% by weight of the powder mixture in said slurry. The slurry is allowed to harden. The resulting chemically bonded phospho-silicate ceramic exhibits high flexural strength, high compression strength, low porosity and permeability to water, has a definable and bio-compatible chemical composition, and is readily and easily colored to almost any desired shade or hue.

  9. Dynamic Fatigue of a Titanium Silicate Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Nettles, Alan T.; Cagle, Holly A.; Smith, W. Scott (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A dynamic fatigue study was performed on a Titanium Silicate Glass in order to assess its susceptibility to delayed failure. Fracture mechanics techniques were used to analyze the results for the purpose of making lifetime predictions for optical elements made from this material. The material has reasonably good resistance (N=23 to stress corrosion in ambient conditions).

  10. Synthesis of non-siliceous mesoporous oxides.

    PubMed

    Gu, Dong; Schüth, Ferdi

    2014-01-07

    Mesoporous non-siliceous oxides have attracted great interest due to their unique properties and potential applications. Since the discovery of mesoporous silicates in 1990s, organic-inorganic assembly processes by using surfactants or block copolymers as soft templates have been considered as a feasible path for creating mesopores in metal oxides. However, the harsh sol-gel conditions and low thermal stabilities have limited the expansion of this method to various metal oxide species. Nanocasting, using ordered mesoporous silica or carbon as a hard template, has provided possibilities for preparing novel mesoporous materials with new structures, compositions and high thermal stabilities. This review concerns the synthesis, composition, and parameter control of mesoporous non-siliceous oxides. Four synthesis routes, i.e. soft-templating (surfactants or block copolymers as templates), hard-templating (mesoporous silicas or carbons as sacrificial templates), colloidal crystal templating (3-D ordered colloidal particles as a template), and super lattice routes, are summarized in this review. Mesoporous metal oxides with different compositions have different properties. Non-siliceous mesoporous oxides are comprehensively described, including a discussion of constituting elements, synthesis, and structures. General aspects concerning pore size control, atomic scale crystallinity, and phase control are also reviewed.

  11. 21 CFR 573.260 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 573.260 Section 573.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive...

  12. 21 CFR 573.260 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 573.260 Section 573.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive...

  13. 21 CFR 573.260 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 573.260 Section 573.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive...

  14. 21 CFR 573.260 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 573.260 Section 573.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive...

  15. 21 CFR 573.260 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 573.260 Section 573.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive...

  16. Characterization and antibacterial activity of silver exchanged regenerated NaY zeolite from surfactant-modified NaY zeolite.

    PubMed

    Salim, Mashitah Mad; Malek, Nik Ahmad Nizam Nik

    2016-02-01

    The antibacterial activity of regenerated NaY zeolite (thermal treatment from cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB)-modified NaY zeolite and pretreatment with Na ions) loaded with silver ions were examined using the broth dilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method against Escherichia coli (E. coli ATCC 11229) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus ATCC 6538). X-ray diffraction (XRD), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and chemical elemental analyses were used to characterize the regenerated NaY and AgY zeolites. The XRD patterns indicated that the calcination and addition of silver ions on regenerated NaY zeolite did not affect the structure of the regenerated NaY zeolite as the characteristic peaks of the NaY zeolite were retained, and no new peaks were observed. The regenerated AgY zeolite showed good antibacterial activity against both bacteria strains in distilled water, and the antibacterial activity of the samples increased with increasing Ag loaded on the regenerated AgY zeolite; the regenerated AgY zeolite was more effective against E. coli than S. aureus. However, the antibacterial activity of the regenerated AgY was not effective in saline solution for both bacteria. The study showed that CTAB-modified NaY zeolite materials could be regenerated to NaY zeolite using thermal treatment (550°C, 5h) and this material has excellent performance as an antibacterial agent after silver ions loading. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. FUNDAMENTALS AND APPLICATIONS OF PERVAPORATION THROUGH ZEOLITE MEMBRANES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zeolite membranes are well suited for separating liquid-phase mixtures by pervaporation because of their molecular-sized pores and their hydrophilic/hydrophobic nature, and the first commercial application of zeolite membranes has been for dehydrating organics [1]. Because of ...

  18. Selective thermal and photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOEpatents

    Frei, H.; Blatter, F.; Sun, H.

    1999-06-22

    A process is described for selective thermal oxidation or photooxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions or under irradiation with visible light. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts. 19 figs.

  19. Crewmember working on the mid deck Zeolite Crystal Growth experiment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    View showing Payload Specialist Bonnie Dunbar, in the mid deck, conducting the Zeolite Crystal Growth (ZCG) Experiment in the mid deck stowage locker work area. View shows assembly of zeolite sample in the metal autoclave cylinders prior to insertion into the furnace.

  20. Selective thermal oxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOEpatents

    Frei, Heinz; Blatter, Fritz; Sun, Hai

    2000-01-01

    A process for selective thermal oxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly selective thermal oxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls is carried out in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts.

  1. Selective thermal and photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOEpatents

    Frei, Heinz; Blatter, Fritz; Sun, Hai

    2001-01-01

    A process for a combined selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly combined selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions or under irradiation with visible light. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts.

  2. Selective thermal and photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOEpatents

    Frei, Heinz; Blatter, Fritz; Sun, Hai

    1999-01-01

    A process for selective thermal oxidation or photooxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions or under irradiation with visible light. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts.

  3. Zeolites in the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raymond, William H.; Bush, Alfred L.; Gude, Arthur J.

    1982-01-01

    Zeolites of possible commercial value occur in the Brule Formation of Oligocene age and the Sharps Formation (Harksen, 1961) of Miocene age which crop out in a wide area in the northern part of the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. The thickness of the zeolite-bearing Interval and the extent of areas within the Interval which contain significant amounts of zeolites are far greater than was expected prior to this investigation. The shape of the zeolite-bearing Interval is tabular and the dimensions of Its exposure are roughly 10 ml x 200 mi x 150 ft (16 km x 160 km x 45 m) thick. Within the study area, there are tracts in which the zeolite resource potential is significant (see pl. 2). This report is intended to inform the Oglala Sioux Tribe of some of the most promising zeolite occurrences. Initial steps can then be taken by the Tribe toward possible development of the resources, should they wish to do so. The data contained herein identify areas of high zeolite potential, but are not adequate to establish economic value for the deposits. If development is recommended by the tribal government, we suggest that the tribal government contact companies involved in research and production of natural zeolites and provide them with the data in this report.

  4. Structure modification of natural zeolite for waste removal application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widayatno, W. B.

    2018-03-01

    Tremendous industrialization in the last century has led to the generation of huge amount of waste. One of the recent hot research topics is utilizing any advance materials and methods for waste removal. Natural zeolite as an inexpensive porous material with a high abundance holds a key for efficient waste removal owing to its high surface area. However, the microporous structure of natural zeolite hinders the adsorption of waste with a bigger molecular size. In addition, the recovery of natural zeolite after waste adsorption into its pores should also be considered for continuous utilization of this material. In this study, the porosity of natural zeolite from Tasikmalaya, Indonesia, was hydrothermally-modified in a Teflon-lined autoclave filled with certain pore directing agent such as distilled water, KOH, and NH4OH to obtain hierarchical pore structure. After proper drying process, the as-treated natural zeolite is impregnated with iron cation and heat-treated at specified temperature to get Fe-embedded zeolite structure. XRD observation is carried out to ensure the formation of magnetic phase within the zeolite pores. The analysis results show the formation of maghemite phase (γ-Fe2O3) within the zeolite pore structure.

  5. Oxidation of cyclohexane catalyzed by metal-ion-exchanged zeolites.

    PubMed

    Sökmen, Ilkay; Sevin, Fatma

    2003-08-01

    The ion-exchange rates and capacities of the zeolite NaY for the Cu(II), Co(II), and Pb(II) metal ions were investigated. Ion-exchange equilibria were achieved in approximately 72 h for all the metal ions. The maximum ion exchange of metal ions into the zeolite was found to be 120 mg Pb(II), 110 mg Cu(II), and 100 mg Co(II) per gram of zeolite NaY. It is observed that the exchange capacity of a zeolite varies with the exchanged metal ion and the amount of metal ions exchanged into zeolite decreases in the sequence Pb(II) > Cu(II) > Co(II). Application of the metal-ion-exchanged zeolites in oxidation of cyclohexane in liquid phase with visible light was examined and it is observed that the order of reactivity of the zeolites for the conversion of cyclohexane to cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol is CuY > CoY > PbY. It is found that conversion increases by increase of the empty active sites of a zeolite and the formation of cyclohexanol is favored initially, but the cyclohexanol is subsequently converted to cyclohexanone.

  6. Building zeolites from pre-crystallized units: nanoscale architecture.

    PubMed

    Corma, Avelino; Li, Chengeng; Moliner, Manuel

    2018-01-24

    Since the earlier descriptions by Barrer in the 40's on converting natural minerals into synthetic zeolites, the use of pre-crystallized zeolites as crucial inorganic directing agents to synthesize other crystalline zeolites with improved physico-chemical properties, has become a very intense and relevant research field, allowing the design, particularly in the last years, of new industrial catalysts. In the present review, we will highlight how the presence of some crystalline fragments in the synthesis media, such as small secondary building units (SBUs) or layered substructures, not only favors the crystallization of other zeolites presenting similar SBUs or layers, but also permits mostly controlling important parameters affecting to their catalytic activity (i.e. chemical composition, crystal size, or porosity, among others). In this sense, the recent advances on the preparation of 3-D and 2-D related zeolites through seeding and zeolite-to-zeolite transformation processes will be extensively revised, including their preparation in presence or absence of organic structure directing agents (OSDAs), with the aim of introducing general guidelines for designing more efficient future synthesis approaches for target zeolites. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. High chloride content calcium silicate glasses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojing; Karpukhina, Natalia; Brauer, Delia S; Hill, Robert G

    2017-03-08

    Chloride is known to volatilize from silicate glass melts and until now, only a limited number of studies on oxychloride silicate glasses have been reported. In this paper we have synthesized silicate glasses that retain large amounts of CaCl 2 . The CaCl 2 has been added to the calcium metasilicate composition (CaO·SiO 2 ). Glasses were produced via a melt quench route and an average of 70% of the chloride was retained after melting. Up to 31.6 mol% CaCl 2 has been successfully incorporated into these silicate glasses without the occurrence of crystallization. 29 Si MAS-NMR spectra showed the silicon being present mainly as a Q 2 silicate species. This suggests that chloride formed Cl-Ca(n) species, rather than Si-Cl bonds. Upon increasing the CaCl 2 content, the T g reduced markedly from 782 °C to 370 °C. Glass density and glass crystallization temperature decreased linearly with an increase in the CaCl 2 content. However, both linear regressions revealed a breakpoint at a CaCl 2 content just below 20 mol%. This might be attributed to a significant change in the structure and is also correlated with the nature of the crystallizing phases formed upon heat treatment. The glasses with less than 19.2 mol% CaCl 2 crystallized to wollastonite, whilst the compositions with CaCl 2 content equal to or greater than 19.2 mol% are thought to crystallize to CaCl 2 . In practice, the crystallization of CaCl 2 could not occur until the crystallization temperature fell below the melting point of CaCl 2 . The implications of the results along with the high chloride retention are discussed.

  8. Grain Growth and Silicates in Dense Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendeleton, Yvonne J.; Chiar, J. E.; Ennico, K.; Boogert, A.; Greene, T.; Knez, C.; Lada, C.; Roellig, T.; Tielens, A.; Werner, M.; hide

    2006-01-01

    Interstellar silicates are likely to be a part of all grains responsible for visual extinction (Av) in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) and dense clouds. A correlation between Av and the depth of the 9.7 micron silicate feature (measured as optical depth, tau(9.7)) is expected if the dust species are well 'mixed. In the di&se ISM, such a correlation is observed for lines of sight in the solar neighborhood. A previous study of the silicate absorption feature in the Taurus dark cloud showed a tendency for the correlation to break down at high Av (Whittet et al. 1988, MNRAS, 233,321), but the scatter was large. We have acquired Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph data of several lines of sight in the IC 5 146, Barnard 68, Chameleon I and Serpens dense clouds. Our data set spans an Av range between 2 and 35 magnitudes. All lines of sight show the 9.7 micron silicate feature. The Serpens data appear to follow the diffuse ISM correlation line whereas the data for the other clouds show a non-linear correlation between the depth of the silicate feature relative to Av, much like the trend observed in the Taurus data. In fact, it appears that for visual extinctions greater than about 10 mag, tau(9.7) begins to level off. This decrease in the growth of the depth of the 9.7 micron feature with increasing Av could indicate the effects of grain growth in dense clouds. In this poster, we explore the possibility that grain growth causes an increase in opacity (Av) without causing a corresponding increase in tau(9.7).

  9. Silicate Dust in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yanxia; Li, Aigen; Hao, Lei

    2017-01-01

    The unification theory of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) hypothesizes that all AGNs are surrounded by an anisotropic dust torus and are essentially the same objects but viewed from different angles. However, little is known about the dust that plays a central role in the unification theory. There are suggestions that the AGN dust extinction law appreciably differs from that of the Galaxy. Also, the silicate emission features observed in type 1 AGNs appear anomalous (I.e., their peak wavelengths and widths differ considerably from that of the Galaxy). In this work, we explore the dust properties of 147 AGNs of various types at redshifts z≲ 0.5, with special attention paid to 93 AGNs that exhibit the 9.7 and 18 μm silicate emission features. We model their silicate emission spectra obtained with the Infrared Spectrograph aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. We find that 60/93 of the observed spectra can be well explained with “astronomical silicate,” while the remaining sources favor amorphous olivine or pyroxene. Most notably, all sources require the dust to be micron-sized (with a typical size of ˜1.5 ± 0.1 μm), much larger than submicron-sized Galactic interstellar grains, implying a flat or “gray” extinction law for AGNs. We also find that, while the 9.7 μm emission feature arises predominantly from warm silicate dust of temperature T ˜ 270 K, the ˜5-8 μm continuum emission is mostly from carbon dust of T ˜ 640 K. Finally, the correlations between the dust properties (e.g., mass, temperature) and the AGN properties (e.g., luminosity, black hole mass) have also been investigated.

  10. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  12. 21 CFR 182.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum calcium silicate. 182.2122 Section 182.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c...

  13. 21 CFR 182.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 182.2122 Section 182.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c...

  14. 21 CFR 582.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 582.2122 Section 582.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c...

  15. 21 CFR 582.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 582.2122 Section 582.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c...

  16. 21 CFR 582.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 582.2122 Section 582.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c...

  17. 21 CFR 182.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 182.2122 Section 182.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c...

  18. 21 CFR 582.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 582.2122 Section 582.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c...

  19. 21 CFR 582.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 582.2122 Section 582.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c...

  20. 21 CFR 182.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 182.2122 Section 182...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Anticaking Agents § 182.2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This...

  1. 21 CFR 182.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 182.2122 Section 182.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  3. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  4. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  5. Fly ash based zeolitic pigments for application in anticorrosive paints

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, Ruchi, E-mail: shawruchi1@gmail.com; Tiwari, Sangeeta, E-mail: stiwari2@amity.edu

    2016-04-13

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the utilization of waste fly ash in anticorrosive paints. Zeolite NaY was synthesized from waste fly ash and subsequently modified by exchanging its nominal cation Na{sup +} with Mg{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} ions. The metal ion exchanged zeolite was then used as anticorrosive zeolitic pigments in paints. The prepared zeolite NaY was characterized using X-Ray diffraction technique and Scanning electron microscopy. The size, shape and density of the prepared fly ash based pigments were determined by various techniques. The paints were prepared by using fly ash based zeolitic pigments in epoxymore » resin and the percentages of pigments used in paints were 2% and 5%. These paints were applied to the mild steel panels and the anticorrosive properties of the pigments were assessed by the electrochemical spectroscopy technique (EIS).« less

  6. Preparation of a Versatile Bifunctional Zeolite for Targeted Imaging Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ndiege, Nicholas; Raidoo, Renugan; Schultz, Michael K.; Larsen, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Bifunctional zeolite Y was prepared for use in targeted in vivo molecular imaging applications. The strategy involved functionalization of the external surface of zeolite Y with chloropropyltriethoxysilane followed by reaction with sodium azide to form azide-functionalized NaY, which is amenable to copper(1) catalyzed click chemistry. In this study, a model alkyne (4-pentyn-1-ol) was attached to the azide-terminated surface via click chemistry to demonstrate feasibility for attachment of molecular targeting vectors (e.g., peptides, aptamers) to the zeolite surface. The modified particle efficiently incorporates the imaging radioisotope gallium-68 (68Ga) into the pores of the azide-functionalized NaY zeolite to form a stable bifunctional molecular targeting vector. The result is a versatile “clickable” zeolite platform that can be tailored for future in vivo molecular targeting and imaging modalities. PMID:21306141

  7. Oxidative regeneration of toluene-saturated natural zeolite by gaseous ozone: the influence of zeolite chemical surface characteristics.

    PubMed

    Alejandro, Serguei; Valdés, Héctor; Manéro, Marie-Hélène; Zaror, Claudio A

    2014-06-15

    In this study, the effect of zeolite chemical surface characteristics on the oxidative regeneration of toluene saturated-zeolite samples is investigated. A Chilean natural zeolite (53% clinoptilolite, 40% mordenite and 7% quartz) was chemically modified by acid treatment with hydrochloric acid and by ion-exchange with ammonium sulphate. Thermal pre-treatments at 623 and 823K were applied and six zeolite samples with different chemical surface characteristics were generated. Chemical modification of natural zeolite followed by thermal out-gassing allows distinguishing the role of acidic surface sites on the regeneration of exhausted zeolites. An increase in Brønsted acid sites on zeolite surface is observed as a result of ammonium-exchange treatment followed by thermal treatment at 623K, thus increasing the adsorption capacity toward toluene. High ozone consumption could be associated to a high content of Lewis acid sites, since these could decompose ozone into atomic active oxygen species. Then, surface oxidation reactions could take part among adsorbed toluene at Brønsted acid sites and surface atomic oxygen species, reducing the amount of adsorbed toluene after the regenerative oxidation with ozone. Experimental results show that the presence of adsorbed oxidation by-products has a negative impact on the recovery of zeolite adsorption capacity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of Zeolite Na-Y and Its Conversion to the Solid Acid Zeolite H-Y

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Terence E.; Klokker, Mads Galsgaard; Nielsen, Ulla Gro

    2017-01-01

    Zeolite Y has an iconic crystal structure, but more importantly, the hydrogen modification zeolite H-Y is the classic example of a solid acid which is used extensively as a catalyst in the oil industry. This metastable compound cannot be synthesized directly, which creates an opportunity to discuss various preparative strategies with the students,…

  9. Applications of zeolites in biotechnology and medicine - a review.

    PubMed

    Bacakova, Lucie; Vandrovcova, Marta; Kopova, Ivana; Jirka, Ivan

    2018-05-01

    Zeolites are microporous tectosilicates of natural or synthetic origin, which have been extensively used in various technological applications, e.g. as catalysts and as molecular sieves, for separating and sorting various molecules, for water and air purification, including removal of radioactive contaminants, for harvesting waste heat and solar heat energy, for adsorption refrigeration, as detergents, etc. These applications of zeolites were typically related with their porous character, their high adsorption capacity, and their ion exchange properties. This review is focused on potential or already practically implemented applications of zeolites in biotechnology and medicine. Zeolites are promising for environment protection, detoxication of animal and human organisms, improvement of the nutrition status and immunity of farm animals, separation of various biomolecules and cells, construction of biosensors and detection of biomarkers of various diseases, controlled drug and gene delivery, radical scavenging, and particularly tissue engineering and biomaterial coating. As components of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering, zeolites can deliver oxygen to cells, can stimulate osteogenic cell differentiation, and can inhibit bone resorption. Zeolites can also act as oxygen reservoirs, and can improve cell performance in vascular and skin tissue engineering and wound healing. When deposited on metallic materials for bone implantation, zeolite films showed anticorrosion effects, and improved the osseointegration of these implants. In our studies, silicalite-1 films deposited on silicon or stainless steel substrates improved the adhesion, growth, viability and osteogenic differentiation of human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells. Zeolites have been clinically used as components of haemostatics, e.g. in the Advanced Clotting Sponge, as gastroprotective drugs, e.g. Absorbatox® 2.4D, or as antioxidative agents (Klinobind®). Some zeolites are highly cytotoxic and carcinogenic

  10. Synthesis and characterization of zeolite from coal fly ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong; Luo, Qiong; Wang, Guodong; Li, Xianlong; Na, Ping

    2018-05-01

    Fly ash (FA) from coal-based thermal power plant was used to synthesize zeolite in NaOH solution with hydrothermal method in this work. Firstly, the effects of calcination and acid treatment on the removal of impurities in fly ash were studied. Then based on the pretreated FA, the effects of alkali concentration, reaction temperature and Si/Al ratio on the synthesis of zeolite were studied in detail. The mineralogy, morphology, thermal behavior, infrared spectrum and specific surface for the synthetic sample were investigated. The results indicated that calcination at 750 °C for 1.5 h can basically remove unburned carbon from FA, and 4 M hydrochloric acid treatment of calcined FA at 90 °C for 2 h will reduce the quality of about 34.3%wt, which are mainly iron, calcium and sulfur elements. The concentration of NaOH, reaction temperature and Si/Al ratio have important effect on the synthesis of zeolite. In this study, 0.5 M NaOH cannot obtain any zeolite. High temperature is beneficial to zeolite synthesis from FA, but easily lead to a variety of zeolites. The synthetic sample contains three kinds of zeolites such as zeolite P, sodalite and zeolite X, when the reaction conditions are 2 M NaOH and 120 °C for 24 h. In this research, quartz always exists in the synthetic sample, but will reduce with the increase of temperature. The synthetic zeolite has the specific surface area of about 42 m2 g‑1 and better thermal stability.

  11. Thermal conductivity, bulk properties, and thermal stratigraphy of silicic tuffs from the upper portion of hole USW-G1, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Lappin, A.R.; VanBuskirk, R.G.; Enniss, D.O.

    1982-03-01

    Thermal-conductivity and bulk-property measurements were made on welded and nonwelded silicic tuffs from the upper portion of Hole USW-G1, located near the southwestern margin of the Nevada Test Site. Bulk-property measurements were made by standard techniques. Thermal conductivities were measured at temperatures as high as 280{sup 0}C, confining pressures to 10 MPa, and pore pressures to 1.5 MPa. Extrapolation of measured saturated conductivities to zero porosity suggests that matrix conductivity of both zeolitized and devitrified tuffs is independent of stratigraphic position, depth, and probably location. This fact allows development of a thermal-conductivity stratigraphy for the upper portion of Hole G1.more » Estimates of saturated conductivities of zeolitized nonwelded tuffs and devitrified tuffs below the water table appear most reliable. Estimated conductivities of saturated densely welded devitrified tuffs above the water table are less reliable, due to both internal complexity and limited data presently available. Estimation of conductivity of dewatered tuffs requires use of different air thermal conductivities in devitrified and zeolitized samples. Estimated effects of in-situ fracturing generally appear negligible.« less

  12. Equation of state of silicate liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Zhicheng

    Equation of state of silicate liquids is crucial to our understanding of melting processes such as the generation and differentiation of silicate melts in Earth and hence to explore the geophysical and geochemical consequences of melting. A comparison of compressional properties reveals fundamental differences in compressional mechanisms between silicate liquids and solids. Due to a liquid's ability to change structures, the compression of liquids is largely controlled by the entropic contribution to the free energy in addition to the internal energy contribution that is available to solids. In order to account for the entropic contribution, a new equation of state of silicate liquids is proposed based on the theory of hard-sphere mixtures. The equation of state is calibrated for SiO2-Al 2O3-FeO-MgO-CaO liquids and other systems. The new equation of state provides a unified explanation for the experimental observations on compressional properties of liquids including the bulk moduli of silicate liquids as well as the pressure dependence of Gruneisen parameter. The effect of chemical composition on melt density can be studied by the equation of state. Results show that FeO and H2O are the most important components in melts that control the melt density at high pressure due to their very different mean atomic masses from other melt components. Adding SiO2 can make a melt more compressible at high pressure due to its continuous change of coordination from 4-fold to 6-fold. The effect of 1-120 on melt density is further investigated by high-pressure experiments at the conditions of 9 to 15 GPa (corresponding to the depths of 300-500 km in the Earth) and 1900 °C to 2200 °C. The density of three dry melts and four hydrous melts with 2-7 wt% H2O was determined. Density data are analyzed by both the Birch-Mumaghan equation of state and the hard sphere equation of state. The partial molar volume of H2O is determined to be 8.8 cm3/mol at 14 GPa and 2173 K. The hypothesis

  13. Characterizing Amorphous Silicates in Extraterrestrial Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, X.; Wang, A.; Krawczynski, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Amorphous silicates are common in extraterrestrial materials. They are seen in the matrix of carbonaceous chondrites as well as in planetary materials. Tagish Lake is one of the most primitive carbonaceous meteorites in which TEM and XRD analyses found evidence for poorly crystalline phyllosilicate-like species; Raman spectra revealed amorphous silicates with variable degree of polymerization and low crystallinity. On Mars, CheMin discovered amorphous phases in all analyzed samples, and poorly crystalline smectite in mudstone samples. These discoveries pose questions on the crystallinity of phyllosilicates found by remote sensing on Mars, which is directly relevant to aqueous alteration during geologic history of Mars. Our goal is to use spectroscopy to better characterize amorphous silicates. We use three approaches: (1) using silicate glasses synthesized with controlled chemistry to study the effects of silicate polymerization and (2) using phyllosilicates synthesized with controlled hydrothermal treatment to study the effect of crystallinity on vibrational spectroscopy, finally (3) to use the developed correlations in above two steps to study amorphous phases in meteorites, and those found in future missions to Mars. In the 1st step, silicate glasses were synthesized from pure oxides in a range of NBO/T ratios (from 0 to 4). Depending on the targeted NBO/T and composition of mixed oxides, temperatures for each experiment fell in a range from 1260 to 1520 °C, run for ~ 4 hrs. The melt was quenched in liquid N2 or water. Homogeneity of glass was checked under optical microscopy. Raman spectra were taken over 100 spots on small chips free of bubbles and crystals. We have observed that accompanying an increase of NBO/T, there is a strengthening and a position shift of the Raman peak near 1000 cm-1 (Si-Onon-bridging stretching mode), and the weakening of broad Raman peaks near 500 cm-1 (ring breathing mode) and 700cm-1 (Si-Obridging-Si mode). We are building the

  14. Generation of subnanometric platinum with high stability during transformation of a 2D zeolite into 3D.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lichen; Díaz, Urbano; Arenal, Raul; Agostini, Giovanni; Concepción, Patricia; Corma, Avelino

    2017-01-01

    Single metal atoms and metal clusters have attracted much attention thanks to their advantageous capabilities as heterogeneous catalysts. However, the generation of stable single atoms and clusters on a solid support is still challenging. Herein, we report a new strategy for the generation of single Pt atoms and Pt clusters with exceptionally high thermal stability, formed within purely siliceous MCM-22 during the growth of a two-dimensional zeolite into three dimensions. These subnanometric Pt species are stabilized by MCM-22, even after treatment in air up to 540 °C. Furthermore, these stable Pt species confined within internal framework cavities show size-selective catalysis for the hydrogenation of alkenes. High-temperature oxidation-reduction treatments result in the growth of encapsulated Pt species to small nanoparticles in the approximate size range of 1 to 2 nm. The stability and catalytic activity of encapsulated Pt species is also reflected in the dehydrogenation of propane to propylene.

  15. Design and characterization of chitosan/zeolite composite films--Effect of zeolite type and zeolite dose on the film properties.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Gustavo P; Debone, Henrique S; Severino, Patrícia; Souto, Eliana B; da Silva, Classius F

    2016-03-01

    Chitosan films can be used as wound dressings for the treatment of chronic wounds and severe burns. The antimicrobial properties of these films may be enhanced by the addition of silver. Despite the antimicrobial activity of silver, several studies have reported the cytotoxicity as a factor limiting its biomedical applications. This problem may, however, be circumvented by the provision of sustained release of silver. Silver zeolites can be used as drug delivery platforms to extend the release of silver. The objective of this study was to evaluate the addition of clinoptilolite and A-type zeolites in chitosan films. Sodium zeolites were initially subjected to ion-exchange in a batch reactor. Films were prepared by casting technique using a 2% w/w chitosan solution and two zeolite doses (0.1 or 0.2% w/w). Films were characterized by thermal analysis, color analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and water vapor permeation. The results showed that films present potential for application as dressing. The water vapor permeability is one of the main properties in wound dressings, the best results were obtained for A-type zeolite/chitosan films, which presented a brief reduction of this property in relation to zeolite-free chitosan film. On the other hand, the films containing clinoptilolite showed lower water vapor permeation, which may be also explained by the best distribution of the particles into the polymer which also promoted greater thermal resistance.

  16. Epoxy Nanocomposites Containing Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-8.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cong; Mullins, Michael; Hawkins, Spencer; Kotaki, Masaya; Sue, Hung-Jue

    2018-01-10

    Zeolitic imidazole framework-8 (ZIF-8) is utilized as a functional filler and a curing agent in the preparation of epoxy nanocomposites. The imidazole group on the surface of the ZIF-8 initiates epoxy curing, resulting in covalent bonding between the ZIF-8 crystals and epoxy matrix. A substantial reduction in dielectric constant and increase in tensile modulus were observed. The implication of the present study for utilization of metal-organic framework to improve physical and mechanical properties of polymeric matrixes is discussed.

  17. Structural analysis of hierarchically organized zeolites

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Sharon; Pinar, Ana B.; Kenvin, Jeffrey; Crivelli, Paolo; Kärger, Jörg; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Advances in materials synthesis bring about many opportunities for technological applications, but are often accompanied by unprecedented complexity. This is clearly illustrated by the case of hierarchically organized zeolite catalysts, a class of crystalline microporous solids that has been revolutionized by the engineering of multilevel pore architectures, which combine unique chemical functionality with efficient molecular transport. Three key attributes, the crystal, the pore and the active site structure, can be expected to dominate the design process. This review examines the adequacy of the palette of techniques applied to characterize these distinguishing features and their catalytic impact. PMID:26482337

  18. Reactive oxygen species mediated DNA damage in human lung alveolar epithelial (A549) cells from exposure to non-cytotoxic MFI-type zeolite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Kunal; Naha, Pratap C; Naydenova, Izabela; Mintova, Svetlana; Byrne, Hugh J

    2012-12-17

    Increasing utilization of engineered nanoparticles in the field of electronics and biomedical applications demands an assessment of risk associated with deliberate or accidental exposure. Metal based nanoparticles are potentially most important of all the nanoparticles in terms of health risks. Microporous alumino-silicates and pure silicates named as zeolites and zeo-type materials with variety of structures, chemical compositions, particle sizes and morphologies have a significant number of industrial uses such as in catalysis, sorption and ion-exchange processes. In particular, the nanosized particles due to their unique properties are used in hybrid organic-inorganic materials for photography, photonics, electronics, labeling, imaging, and sensing. The aim of the current study is to investigate pure silica MFI-type zeolites nanoparticles with sizes of 50nm and 100nm (samples MFI-50 and MFI-100) under suspended conditions and their toxicological effects on human lung alveolar (A549) cells under in vitro conditions. Live cell imaging showed that the nanoparticles precipitated from the colloidal suspension of cell culture media as large agglomerates, coming in contact with the cell surface through sedimentation. A cellular proliferative capacity test showed the zeolite nanoparticles to exhibit no significant cytotoxicity below a concentration of 100μg/ml. However, both the MFI-50 and MFI-100 nanoparticles induced high intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and elevated mitochondrial membrane potential in the A549 cells over the measured time period of 12h and at concentrations up to ≤50μg/ml. DNA fragmentation analysis using the comet assay showed that the MFI-50 and MFI-100 nanoparticles cause genotoxicity in a concentration dependent manner. Furthermore, the rate at which maximum genomic damage was caused by MFI-100 nanoparticles in the A549 cells was found to be high as compared to the MFI-50 nanoparticles. However, the damage caused by the

  19. Final report on the safety assessment of potassium silicate, sodium metasilicate, and sodium silicate.

    PubMed

    Elmore, Amy R

    2005-01-01

    Potassium Silicate, Sodium Metasilicate, and Sodium Silicate combine metal cations with silica to form inorganic salts used as corrosion inhibitors in cosmetics. Sodium Metasilicate also functions as a chelating agent and Sodium Silicate as a buffering and pH adjuster. Sodium Metasilicate is currently used in 168 formulations at concentrations ranging from 13% to 18%. Sodium Silicate is currently used in 24 formulations at concentrations ranging from 0.3% to 55%. Potassium Silicate and Sodium Silicate have been reported as being used in industrial cleaners and detergents. Sodium Metasilicate is a GRAS (generally regarded as safe) food ingredient. Aqueous solutions of Sodium Silicate species are a part of a chemical continuum of silicates based on an equilibrium of alkali, water, and silica. pH determines the solubility of silica and, together with concentration, determines the degree of polymerization. Sodium Silicate administered orally is readily absorbed from the alimentary canal and excreted in the urine. The toxicity of these silicates has been related to the molar ratio of SiO2/Na2O and the concentration being used. The Sodium Metasilicate acute oral LD50 ranged from 847 mg/kg in male rats to 1349.3 mg/kg in female rats and from 770 mg/kg in female mice to 820 mg/kg in male mice. Gross lesions of variable severity were found in the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, larynx, lungs, and kidneys of dogs receiving 0.25 g/kg or more of a commercial detergent containing Sodium Metasilicate; similar lesions were also seen in pigs administered the same detergent and dose. Male rats orally administered 464 mg/kg of a 20% solution containing either 2.0 or 2.4 to 1.0 ratio of sodium oxide showed no signs of toxicity, whereas doses of 1000 and 2150 mg/kg produced gasping, dypsnea, and acute depression. Dogs fed 2.4 g/kg/day of Sodium Silicate for 4 weeks had gross renal lesions but no impairment of renal function. Dermal irritation of Potassium Silicate, Sodium

  20. Polymer Layered Silicate Nanocomposites: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Vikas

    2009-01-01

    This review aims to present recent advances in the synthesis and structure characterization as well as the properties of polymer layered silicate nanocomposites. The advent of polymer layered silicate nanocomposites has revolutionized research into polymer composite materials. Nanocomposites are organic-inorganic hybrid materials in which at least one dimension of the filler is less than 100 nm. A number of synthesis routes have been developed in the recent years to prepare these materials, which include intercalation of polymers or pre-polymers from solution, in-situ polymerization, melt intercalation etc. The nanocomposites where the filler platelets can be dispersed in the polymer at the nanometer scale owing to the specific filler surface modifications, exhibit significant improvement in the composite properties, which include enhanced mechanical strength, gas barrier, thermal stability, flame retardancy etc. Only a small amount of filler is generally required for the enhancement in the properties, which helps the composite materials retain transparency and low density.

  1. Conductimetric determination of decomposition of silicate melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroeger, C.; Lieck, K.

    1986-01-01

    A description of a procedure is given to detect decomposition of silicate systems in the liquid state by conductivity measurements. Onset of decomposition can be determined from the temperature curves of resistances measured on two pairs of electrodes, one above the other. Degree of decomposition can be estimated from temperature and concentration dependency of conductivity of phase boundaries. This procedure was tested with systems PbO-B2O3 and PbO-B2O3-SiO2.

  2. Zeolite-catalyzed hydrogenation of carbon dioxide and ethene.

    PubMed

    Chan, Bun; Radom, Leo

    2008-07-30

    Ab initio molecular orbital theory and density functional theory calculations have been used to study the three-stage zeolite-catalyzed hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol and the hydrogenation of C2H 4 to ethane, with the aim of designing an effective zeolite catalyst for these reactions. Both Brønsted acid (XH) and alkali metal (XM) sites in model zeolites (-X-Al-XH- or -X-Al-XM-) have been examined. It is found that appropriately designed zeolites can provide excellent catalysis for these reactions, particularly for the hydrogenation of CO2, HCO2H and CH2O, with uncatalyzed barriers of more than 300 kJ mol(-1) being reduced to as little as 17 kJ mol(-1) (in the case of CH2O). The reaction barrier depends on the acidity of the XH moiety or the nature of the metal cation M in the XM moiety, and the basicity of the adjacent X group in the catalyst. For a catalyst based on alkali metal zeolites (XM), the catalytic activity is relatively insensitive to the nature of X in the XM group. As a result, the catalytic activity for these types of zeolites increases as X becomes more basic. We propose that alkali metal zeolites with Ge and N incorporated into the framework could be very effective catalysts for hydrogenation processes.

  3. 'water splitting' by titanium exchanged zeolite A. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznicki, S.M.; Eyring, E.M.

    1978-09-01

    Visually detectable and chromatographically and mass spectrally identified hydrogen gas evolves from titanium (III) exchanged zeolite A immersed in water and illuminated with visible light. Titanium(III) exchanged zeolite X and zeolite Y do not produce this reaction. A photochemically produced, oxygenated titanium free radical (detected by electron spin resonance) not previously described is the species in the zeolite that reduces protons to molecular hydrogen. The other product of this reduction step is a nonradical, oxygenated titanium species of probable empirical formula TiO4. Heating the spent oxygenated titanium containing zeolite A under vacuum at 375 C restores over fifty percent ofmore » the free radical. Unlike previously reported systems, heating does not restore the original aquotitanium(III) species in the zeolite. Thus a means other than heating must be found to achieve a closed photochemical cycle that harnesses visible solar energy in the production of molecular hydrogen. The titanium exchanged zeolite A does, however, lend itself to a thermolysis of water previously described by Kasai and Bishop. (Author)« less

  4. Zeolite Crystal Growth (ZCG) Flight on USML-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacco, Albert, Jr.; Bac, Nurcan; Warzywoda, Juliusz; Guray, Ipek; Marceau, Michelle; Sacco, Teran L.; Whalen, Leah M.

    1997-01-01

    The extensive use of zeolites and their impact on the world's economy has resulted in many efforts to characterize their structure, and improve the knowledge base for nucleation and growth of these crystals. The zeolite crystal growth (ZCG) experiment on USML-2 aimed to enhance the understanding of nucleation and growth of zeolite crystals, while attempting to provide a means of controlling the defect concentration in microgravity. Zeolites A, X, Beta, and Silicalite were grown during the 16 day - USML-2 mission. The solutions where the nucleation event was controlled yielded larger and more uniform crystals of better morphology and purity than their terrestrial/control counterparts. The external surfaces of zeolite A, X, and Silicalite crystals grown in microgravity were smoother (lower surface roughness) than their terrestrial controls. Catalytic studies with zeolite Beta indicate that crystals grown in space exhibit a lower number of Lewis acid sites located in micropores. This suggests fewer structural defects for crystals grown in microgravity. Transmission electron micrographs (TEM) of zeolite Beta crystals also show that crystals grown in microgravity were free of line defects while terrestrial/controls had substantial defects.

  5. Fabrication of 6FDA-durene membrane incorporated with zeolite T and aminosilane grafted zeolite T for CO2/CH4 separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jusoh, Norwahyu; Fong Yeong, Yin; Keong Lau, Kok; Shariff, Azmi Mohd

    2017-08-01

    In the present work, zeolite T and aminosilane grafted zeolite T are embedded into 6FDA-durene polyimide phase for the fabrication of mixed matrix membranes (MMMs). FESEM images demonstrated that the improvement of interfacial adhesion between zeolite and polymer phases in MMM loaded with aminosilane grafted zeolite T was not significant as compared to zeolite T/6FDA-durene MMM. From the gas permeation test, CO2/CH4 selectivity up to 26.4 was achieved using MMM containing aminosilane grafted zeolite T, while MMM loaded with ungrafted zeolite T showed CO2/CH4 selectivity of 19.1. In addition, MMM incorporated with aminosilane grafted zeolite T particles successfully lies on Robeson upper bound 2008, which makes it an attractive candidate for CO2/CH4 separation.

  6. Premixed calcium silicate cement for endodontic applications

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Cecilia; Engqvist, Håkan

    2011-01-01

    Calcium silicate-based materials (also called MTA) are increasingly being used in endodontic applications. However, the handling properties of MTA are not optimal when it comes to injectability and cohesion. Premixing the cements using glycerol avoids these issues. However, there is a lack of data on the effect of common cement variables on important properties of premixed cements for endodontic applications. In this study, the effects of liquid-to-powder ratio, amount of radiopacifier and amount of calcium sulfate (added to control the setting time) were screened using a statistical model. In the second part of the study, the liquid-to-powder ratio was optimized for cements containing three different amounts of radiopacifier. Finally, the effect of using glycerol rather than water was evaluated in terms of radiopacity. The setting time was found to increase with the amount of radiopacifier when the liquid-to-powder ratio was fixed. This was likely due to the higher density of the radiopacifier in comparison to the calcium silicate, which gave a higher liquid-to-powder ratio in terms of volume. Using glycerol rather than water to mix the cements led to a decrease in radiopacity of the cement. In conclusion, we were able to produce premixed calcium silicate cements with acceptable properties for use in endodontic applications. PMID:23507729

  7. Multiscale understanding of tricalcium silicate hydration reactions.

    PubMed

    Cuesta, Ana; Zea-Garcia, Jesus D; Londono-Zuluaga, Diana; De la Torre, Angeles G; Santacruz, Isabel; Vallcorba, Oriol; Dapiaggi, Monica; Sanfélix, Susana G; Aranda, Miguel A G

    2018-06-04

    Tricalcium silicate, the main constituent of Portland cement, hydrates to produce crystalline calcium hydroxide and calcium-silicate-hydrates (C-S-H) nanocrystalline gel. This hydration reaction is poorly understood at the nanoscale. The understanding of atomic arrangement in nanocrystalline phases is intrinsically complicated and this challenge is exacerbated by the presence of additional crystalline phase(s). Here, we use calorimetry and synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction to quantitatively follow tricalcium silicate hydration process: i) its dissolution, ii) portlandite crystallization and iii) C-S-H gel precipitation. Chiefly, synchrotron pair distribution function (PDF) allows to identify a defective clinotobermorite, Ca 11 Si 9 O 28 (OH) 2 . 8.5H 2 O, as the nanocrystalline component of C-S-H. Furthermore, PDF analysis also indicates that C-S-H gel contains monolayer calcium hydroxide which is stretched as recently predicted by first principles calculations. These outcomes, plus additional laboratory characterization, yielded a multiscale picture for C-S-H nanocomposite gel which explains the observed densities and Ca/Si atomic ratios at the nano- and meso- scales.

  8. Scaling Relations for Acidity and Reactivity of Zeolites

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Zeolites are widely applied as solid acid catalysts in various technological processes. In this work we have computationally investigated how catalytic reactivity scales with acidity for a range of zeolites with different topologies and chemical compositions. We found that straightforward correlations are limited to zeolites with the same topology. The adsorption energies of bases such as carbon monoxide (CO), acetonitrile (CH3CN), ammonia (NH3), trimethylamine (N(CH3)3), and pyridine (C5H5N) give the same trend of acid strength for FAU zeolites with varying composition. Crystal orbital Hamilton populations (COHP) analysis provides a detailed molecular orbital picture of adsorbed base molecules on the Brønsted acid sites (BAS). Bonding is dominated by strong σ donation from guest molecules to the BAS for the adsorbed CO and CH3CN complexes. An electronic descriptor of acid strength is constructed based on the bond order calculations, which is an intrinsic parameter rather than adsorption energy that contains additional contributions due to secondary effects such as van der Waals interactions with the zeolite walls. The bond order parameter derived for the CH3CN adsorption complex represents a useful descriptor for the intrinsic acid strength of FAU zeolites. For FAU zeolites the activation energy for the conversion of π-adsorbed isobutene into alkoxy species correlates well with the acid strength determined by the NH3 adsorption energies. Other zeolites such as MFI and CHA do not follow the scaling relations obtained for FAU; we ascribe this to the different van der Waals interactions and steric effects induced by zeolite framework topology. PMID:29142616

  9. Hierarchical zeolites from class F coal fly ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitta, Pallavi

    Fly ash, a coal combustion byproduct is classified as types class C and class F. Class C fly ash is traditionally recycled for concrete applications and Class F fly ash often disposed in landfills. Class F poses an environmental hazard due to disposal and leaching of heavy metals into ground water and is important to be recycled in order to mitigate the environmental challenges. A major recycling option is to reuse the fly ash as a low-cost raw material for the production of crystalline zeolites, which serve as catalysts, detergents and adsorbents in the chemical industry. Most of the prior literature of fly ash conversion to zeolites does not focus on creating high zeolite surface area zeolites specifically with hierarchical pore structure, which are very important properties in developing a heterogeneous catalyst for catalysis applications. This research work aids in the development of an economical process for the synthesis of high surface area hierarchical zeolites from class F coal fly ash. In this work, synthesis of zeolites from fly ash using classic hydrothermal treatment approach and fusion pretreatment approach were examined. The fusion pretreatment method led to higher extent of dissolution of silica from quartz and mullite phases, which in turn led to higher surface area and pore size of the zeolite. A qualitative kinetic model developed here attributes the difference in silica content to Si/Al ratio of the beginning fraction of fly ash. At near ambient crystallization temperatures and longer crystallization times, the zeolite formed is a hierarchical faujasite with high surface area of at least 360 m2/g. This work enables the large scale recycling of class F coal fly ash to produce zeolites and mitigate environmental concerns. Design of experiments was used to predict surface area and pore sizes of zeolites - thus obviating the need for intense experimentation. The hierarchical zeolite catalyst supports tested for CO2 conversion, yielded hydrocarbons

  10. Engineering of Transition Metal Catalysts Confined in Zeolites

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Transition metal–zeolite composites are versatile catalytic materials for a wide range of industrial and lab-scale processes. Significant advances in fabrication and characterization of well-defined metal centers confined in zeolite matrixes have greatly expanded the library of available materials and, accordingly, their catalytic utility. In this review, we summarize recent developments in the field from the perspective of materials chemistry, focusing on synthesis, postsynthesis modification, (operando) spectroscopy characterization, and computational modeling of transition metal–zeolite catalysts. PMID:29861546

  11. Method of preparing sodalite from chloride salt occluded zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Michele A.; Pereira, Candido

    1997-01-01

    A method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal starting with a substantially dry zeolite and sufficient glass to form leach resistant sodalite with occluded radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material. The zeolite and glass are heated to a temperature up to about 1000.degree. K. to convert the zeolite to sodalite and thereafter maintained at a pressure and temperature sufficient to form a sodalite product near theoretical density. Pressure is used on the formed sodalite to produce the required density.

  12. Zeolite crystal growth in space - What has been learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacco, A., Jr.; Thompson, R. W.; Dixon, A. G.

    1993-01-01

    Three zeolite crystal growth experiments developed at WPI have been performed in space in last twelve months. One experiment, GAS-1, illustrated that to grow large, crystallographically uniform crystals in space, the precursor solutions should be mixed in microgravity. Another experiment evaluated the optimum mixing protocol for solutions that chemically interact ('gel') on contact. These results were utilized in setting the protocol for mixing nineteen zeolite solutions that were then processed and yielded zeolites A, X and mordenite. All solutions in which the nucleation event was influenced produced larger, more 'uniform' crystals than did identical solutions processed on earth.

  13. Method of preparing sodalite from chloride salt occluded zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, M.A.; Pereira, C.

    1997-03-18

    A method is described for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal starting with a substantially dry zeolite and sufficient glass to form leach resistant sodalite with occluded radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material. The zeolite and glass are heated to a temperature up to about 1000 K to convert the zeolite to sodalite and thereafter maintained at a pressure and temperature sufficient to form a sodalite product near theoretical density. Pressure is used on the formed sodalite to produce the required density.

  14. Performance Evaluations of Ion Exchanged Zeolite Membranes on Alumina Supports

    SciTech Connect

    Bhave, Ramesh R.; Jubin, Robert Thomas; Spencer, Barry B.

    2017-08-27

    This report describes the synthesis and evaluation of molecular sieve zeolite membranes to separate and concentrate tritiated water (HTO) from dilute HTO-bearing aqueous streams. In the first phase of this effort, several monovalent and divalent cation-exchanged silico alumino phosphate (SAPO-34) molecular sieve zeolite membranes were synthesized on disk supports and characterized with gas and vapor permeation measurements. In the second phase, Linde Type A (LTA) zeolite membranes were synthesized in disk and tubular supports. The pervaporation process performance was evaluated for the separation and concentration of tritiated water.

  15. Silicate release from glass for pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Bohrer, Denise; Bortoluzzi, Fabiana; Nascimento, Paulo Cícero; Carvalho, Leandro Machado; Ramirez, Adrian Gustavo

    2008-05-01

    Glass is made of polymeric silica and other minor components, which are necessary for turning the silica into a material more easily moldable and resistant to temperature changes. Glass containers for pharmaceutical usage are classified according to their resistance to a chemical attack, a test carried out in the presence of water and heat. The test is designed to show the released alkalinity, a variable dependent on the amount of sodium oxide, one of the minor components added to the glass mass. In this work, the release of silica from glass by action of constituents from pharmaceutical formulations was investigated. The study included products used in large volumes and usually stored in glass containers. Solutions of amino acids, electrolytes, glucose, oligoelements and others such as heparin and sodium bicarbonate were individually stored in glass containers and heated at 121 degrees C for 30min, as in the water attack test. The test was also carried out only with water, where the pH varied from 2 to 12. The released silicate was measured either by photometry or atomic absorption spectrometry, depending on the nature of the sample. The results showed that silicate is released during the heating cycle even if the contact is with pure water only. The pH exerts a considerable influence on the release, being that the higher the pH, the higher the silica dissolved. An elevated pH, however, is not the only factor responsible for silica dissolution. While in the solutions of NaCl, KCl, Mg Cl2 and ZnSO4 and in most of the amino acids, the concentration of silicate was as high as in pure water (0.1-1.0mg Si/L). In the solutions of sodium acetate, bicarbonate and gluconate, its concentration was much higher, over 30mg Si/L. These results were confirmed by the analysis of commercial products, where in solutions of amino acids the level of silicate ranged from 0.14 to 0.19mg Si/L. On the other hand, calcium gluconate, sodium bicarbonate and potassium phosphate presented

  16. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-44 aluminosilicate zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Nicholas, Christopher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2014-04-29

    A new family of aluminosilicate zeolites designated UZM-44 has been synthesized. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.k+T.sub.tAl.sub.1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.sub.z where "n" is the mole ratio of Na to (Al+E), M represents a metal or metals from zinc, Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 and or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, "m" is the mole ratio of M to (Al+E), "k" is the average charge of the metal or metals M, T is the organic structure directing agent or agents, and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-44 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hydrocarbons into hydrocarbons and removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  17. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-44 aluminosilicate zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Nicholas, Christopher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2013-12-17

    A new family of aluminosilicate zeolites designated UZM-44 has been synthesized. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.k+T.sub.tAl.sub.1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.sub.z where "n" is the mole ratio of Na to (Al+E), M represents a metal or metals from zinc, Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 and or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, "m" is the mole ratio of M to (Al+E), "k" is the average charge of the metal or metals M, T is the organic structure directing agent or agents, and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-44 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hydrocarbons into hydrocarbons and removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  18. Mixing of biogenic siliceous and terrigenous clastic sediments: South Belridge field and Beta field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, D.E.

    1990-05-01

    The intermixing and interbedding of biogenically derived siliceous sediment with terrigenous clastic sediment in reservoirs of upper Miocene age provides both reservoir rock and seal and influences productivity by affecting porosity and permeability. Miocene reservoirs commonly contain either biogenic-dominated cyclic diatomite, porcelanite, or chert (classic Monterey Formation) or clastic-dominated submarine fan sequences with interbedded or intermixed siliceous members of biogenic origin. Biogenic-clastic cycles, 30-180 ft thick, at South Belridge field were formed by episodic influx of clastic sediment from distant submarine fans mixing with slowly accumulating diatomaceous ooze. The cycles consist of basal silt and pelletized massive diatomaceous mudstone, overlainmore » by burrowed, faintly bedded clayey diatomite and topped by laminated diatomite. Cycle tops have higher porosity and permeability, lower grain density, and higher oil saturation than clay and silt-rich portions of the cycles. Submarine fan sediments forming reservoirs at the Beta field are comprised of interbedded sands and silts deposited in a channelized middle fan to outer fan setting. Individual turbidites display fining-upward sequences, with oil-bearing sands capped by wet micaceous silts. Average sands are moderately to poorly sorted, fine- to medium-grained arkosic arenites. Sands contain pore-filling carbonate and porcelaneous cements. Porcelaneous cement consists of a mixture of opal-A, opal-CT, and chert with montmorillonite and minor zeolite. This cement is an authigenic material precipitated in intergranular pore space. The origin of the opal is biogenic, with recrystallization of diatom frustules (opal-A) into opal-CT lepispheres and quartz crystals. Porcelaneous cement comprises 4-21% of the bulk volume of the rock. Seventy percent of the bulk volume of the cement is micropore space.« less

  19. Tableting properties of silica aerogel and other silicates.

    PubMed

    Hentzschel, C M; Alnaief, M; Smirnova, I; Sakmann, A; Leopold, C S

    2012-04-01

    In solid oral dosage forms silicates are commonly used as glidants in low concentration. However, due to their large specific surface area, silicates may also be used as carrier materials for drugs. Moreover, silicates allow amorphisation of drugs by co-grinding or processing with supercritical fluids. The aim of this study was to investigate the physical and the tableting properties of Silica Aerogel (special type of silica with an extremely large specific surface area), Neusilin(®) US2 (magnesium aluminometasilicate), Florite(®) (calcium silicate) and Aerosil(®) 200 (colloidal silica). Powder blends of Avicel(®) PH102 (microcrystalline cellulose) and different amounts of the respective silicate were compacted and analyzed for their tabletability (tensile strength vs. compaction pressure) as well as their Heckel plot. With Neusilin(®) the tabletability appeared to be independent of the silicate concentration, whereas with Florite(®) an increasing silicate concentration led to a higher tensile strength. In contrast, the addition of Silica Aerogel and Aerosil(®) resulted in a decrease of the tensile strength. With Aerosil(®) a maximum tolerable concentration of 20% [w/w] was determined. Plastic deformation of all powder blends decreased with increasing silicate concentration. This effect was most pronounced with Aerosil(®) and least with Florite(®). Tablets with acceptable tensile strength were obtained with all plain silicates except for Aerosil(®). Therefore, these silicates may be used in tablet formulations, e.g. as carrier materials for liquid or amorphous drugs.

  20. Alkaline hydrothermal conversion of fly ash filtrates into zeolites 2: utilization in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Somerset, Vernon; Petrik, Leslie; Iwuoha, Emmanuel

    2005-01-01

    Filtrates were collected using a codisposal reaction wherein fly ash was reacted with acid mine drainage. These codisposal filtrates were then analyzed by X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry for quantitative determination of the SiO2 and Al2O3 content. Alkaline hydrothermal zeolite synthesis was then applied to the filtrates to convert the fly ash material into zeolites. The zeolites formed under the experimental conditions were faujasite, sodalite, and zeolite A. The use of the fly ash-derived zeolites and a commercial zeolite was explored in wastewater decontamination experiments as it was applied to acid mine drainage in different dosages. The concentrations of Ni, Zn, Cd, As, and Pb metal ions in the treated wastewater were investigated. The results of the treatment of the acid mine drainage with the prepared fly ash zeolites showed that the concentrations of Ni, Zn, Cd, and Hg were decreased as the zeolite dosages of the fly ash zeolite (FAZ1) increased.

  1. Chemical vapor deposition on chabazite (CHA) zeolite membranes for effective post-combustion CO2 capture.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunjoo; Lee, Taehee; Kim, Hyungmin; Jung, Won-Jin; Han, Doug-Young; Baik, Hionsuck; Choi, Nakwon; Choi, Jungkyu

    2014-12-16

    Chabazite (CHA) zeolites with a pore size of 0.37 × 0.42 nm(2) are expected to separate CO2 (0.33 nm) from larger N2 (0.364 nm) in postcombustion flue gases by recognizing their minute size differences. Furthermore, the hydrophobic siliceous constituent in CHA membranes can allow for maintaining the CO2/N2 separation performance in the presence of H2O in contrast with the CO2 affinity-based membranes. In an attempt to increase the molecular sieving ability, the pore mouth size of all silica CHA (Si-CHA) particles was reduced via the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of a silica precursor (tetraethyl orthosilicate). Accordingly, an increase of the CVD treatment duration decreased the penetration rate of CO2 into the CVD-treated Si-CHA particles. Furthermore, the CVD process was applied to siliceous CHA membranes in order to improve their CO2/N2 separation performance. Compared to the intact CHA membranes, the CO2/N2 maximum separation factor (max SF) for CVD-treated CHA membranes was increased by ∼ 2 fold under dry conditions. More desirably, the CO2/N2 max SF was increased by ∼ 3 fold under wet conditions at ∼ 50 °C, a representative temperature of the flue gas stream. In fact, the presence of H2O in the feed disfavored the permeation of N2 more than that of CO2 through CVD-modified CHA membranes and thus, contributed to the increased CO2/N2 separation factor.

  2. A database of new zeolite-like materials.

    PubMed

    Pophale, Ramdas; Cheeseman, Phillip A; Deem, Michael W

    2011-07-21

    We here describe a database of computationally predicted zeolite-like materials. These crystals were discovered by a Monte Carlo search for zeolite-like materials. Positions of Si atoms as well as unit cell, space group, density, and number of crystallographically unique atoms were explored in the construction of this database. The database contains over 2.6 M unique structures. Roughly 15% of these are within +30 kJ mol(-1) Si of α-quartz, the band in which most of the known zeolites lie. These structures have topological, geometrical, and diffraction characteristics that are similar to those of known zeolites. The database is the result of refinement by two interatomic potentials that both satisfy the Pauli exclusion principle. The database has been deposited in the publicly available PCOD database and in www.hypotheticalzeolites.net/database/deem/. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  3. The stability of copper oxo species in zeolite frameworks

    DOE PAGES

    Vilella, Laia; Studt, Felix

    2016-03-07

    Cu-exchanged zeolites are promising heterogeneous catalysts, as they provide a confined environment to carry out highly selective reactions. Furthermore, the knowledge of how the zeolite framework and the location of Al atoms therein affect the adsorption of copper species is still not well understood. In this work, DFT was used to investigate the adsorption of potential Cu oxo active species suggested in the literature [Cu(η 2-O 2), Cu(µ-O)Cu, and Cu 2O 2] into zeolites with different pore sizes and shapes (AFI, CHA, TON, MOR, and MFI). The calculations revealed that both monomeric and dimeric Cu oxo species bind strongly tomore » the O atoms of the lattice. For the monometallic species similar adsorption energies are obtained with the different zeolite frameworks, whereas an optimum Al–Al distance is required for the dimeric species.« less

  4. Deposition of zeolite nanoparticles onto porous silica monolith

    SciTech Connect

    Gackowski, Mariusz; Bielanska, Elzbieta; Szczepanowicz, Krzysztof

    2016-06-01

    A facile and effective method of deposition of MFl zeolite nanoparticles (nanocrystals) onto macro-/mesoporous silica monolith was proposed. The electrostatic interaction between those two materials was induces by adsorption of cationic polyelectrolytes. That can be realized either by adsorption of polyelectrolyte onto silica monolith or on zeolite nanocrystals. The effect of time, concentration of zeolite nanocrystals, type of polyelectrolyte, and ultrasound treatment is scrutinized. Adsorption of polyelectrolyte onto silica monolith with subsequent deposition of nanocrystals resulted in a monolayer coverage assessed with SEM images. Infrared spectroscopy was applied as a useful method to determine the deposition effectiveness of zeolite nanocrystalsmore » onto silica. Modification of nanocrystals with polyelectrolyte resulted in a multilayer coverage due to agglomeration of particles. On the other hand, the excess of polyelectrolyte in the system resulted in a low coverage due to competition between polyelectrolyte and modified nanocrystals.« less

  5. Studying Zeolite Catalysts with a 2D Model System

    SciTech Connect

    Boscoboinik, Anibal

    2016-12-07

    Anibal Boscoboinik, a materials scientist at Brookhaven’s Center for Functional Nanomaterials, discusses the surface-science tools and 2D model system he uses to study catalysis in nanoporous zeolites, which catalyze reactions in many industrial processes.

  6. Regularities in Low-Temperature Phosphatization of Silicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savenko, A. V.

    2018-01-01

    The regularities in low-temperature phosphatization of silicates are defined from long-term experiments on the interaction between different silicate minerals and phosphate-bearing solutions in a wide range of medium acidity. It is shown that the parameters of the reaction of phosphatization of hornblende, orthoclase, and labradorite have the same values as for clayey minerals (kaolinite and montmorillonite). This effect may appear, if phosphotization proceeds, not after silicate minerals with a different structure and composition, but after a secondary silicate phase formed upon interaction between silicates and water and stable in a certain pH range. Variation in the parameters of the reaction of phosphatization at pH ≈ 1.8 is due to the stability of the silicate phase different from that at higher pH values.

  7. Commander Bowersox Tends to Zeolite Crystal Samples Aboard Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Expedition Six Commander Ken Bowersox spins Zeolite Crystal Growth sample tubes to eliminate bubbles that could affect crystal formation in preparation of a 15 day experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Zeolites are hard as rock, yet are able to absorb liquids and gases like a sponge. By using the ISS microgravity environment to grow better, larger crystals, NASA and its commercial partners hope to improve petroleum manufacturing and other processes.

  8. Metal Oxide/Zeolite Combination Absorbs H2S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E.; Sharma, Pramod K.

    1989-01-01

    Mixed copper and molybdenum oxides supported in pores of zeolite found to remove H2S from mixture of gases rich in hydrogen and steam, at temperatures from 256 to 538 degree C. Absorber of H2S needed to clean up gas streams from fuel processors that incorporate high-temperature steam reformers or hydrodesulfurizing units. Zeolites chosen as supporting materials because of their high porosity, rigidity, alumina content, and variety of both composition and form.

  9. Preparation of reactive beta-dicalcium silicate

    DOEpatents

    Shen, Ming-Shing; Chen, James M.; Yang, Ralph T.

    1982-01-01

    This invention relates to the preparation of fine particles of reactive beta-dicalcium silicate by means of a solid state process which comprises firing a mixture of calcium sulfate, silica and a reducing additive selected from the group consisting of calcium sulfide, carbon, carbon monoxide, methane and hydrogen, at a temperature of about 850.degree.-1000.degree. C. A carrier gas such as nitrogen or carbon dioxide may also be added, if desired. A high concentration of sulfur dioxide is a by-product of this process.

  10. Determination of chlorine in silicate rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peck, L.C.

    1959-01-01

    In a rapid accurate method for the determination of chlorine in silicate rocks, the rock powder is sintered with a sodium carbonate flux containing zinc oxide and magnesium carbonate. The sinter cake is leached with water, the resulting solution is filtered, and the filtrate is acidified with nitric acid. Chlorine is determined by titrating this solution with mercuric nitrate solution using sodium nitroprusside as the indicator. The titration is made in the dark with a beam of light shining through the solution. The end point of the titration is found by visually comparing the intensity of this beam of light with that of a similar beam of light in a reference solution.

  11. Preparation of reactive beta-dicalcium silicate

    DOEpatents

    Shen, M.S.; Chen, J.M.; Yang, R.T.

    1980-02-28

    This invention relates to the preparation of fine particles of reactive beta-dicalcium silicate by means of a solid state process which comprises firing a mixture of calcium sulfate, silica, and a reducing additive selected from the group consisting of calcium sulfide, carbon, carbon monoxide, methane, and hydrogen, at a temperature of about 850 to 1000/sup 0/C. A carrier gas such as nitrogen or carbon dioxide may also be added, if desired. A high concentration of sulfur dioxide is a by-product of this process.

  12. Inhibition of palm oil oxidation by zeolite nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kok-Hou; Awala, Hussein; Mukti, Rino R; Wong, Ka-Lun; Rigaud, Baptiste; Ling, Tau Chuan; Aleksandrov, Hristiyan A; Koleva, Iskra Z; Vayssilov, Georgi N; Mintova, Svetlana; Ng, Eng-Poh

    2015-05-13

    The efficiency of zeolite X nanocrystals (FAU-type framework structure) containing different extra-framework cations (Li(+), Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+)) in slowing the thermal oxidation of palm oil is reported. The oxidation study of palm oil is conducted in the presence of zeolite nanocrystals (0.5 wt %) at 150 °C. Several characterization techniques such as visual analysis, colorimetry, rheometry, total acid number (TAN), FT-IR spectroscopy, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and Karl Fischer analyses are applied to follow the oxidative evolution of the oil. It was found that zeolite nanocrystals decelerate the oxidation of palm oil through stabilization of hydroperoxides, which are the primary oxidation product, and concurrently via adsorption of the secondary oxidation products (alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and esters). In addition to the experimental results, periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed to elucidate further the oxidation process of the palm oil in the presence of zeolite nanocrystals. The DFT calculations show that the metal complexes formed with peroxides are more stable than the complexes with alkenes with the same ions. The peroxides captured in the zeolite X nanocrystals consequently decelerate further oxidation toward formation of acids. Unlike the monovalent alkali metal cations in the zeolite X nanocrystals (K(+), Na(+), and Li(+)), Ca(2+) reduced the acidity of the oil by neutralizing the acidic carboxylate compounds to COO(-)(Ca(2+))1/2 species.

  13. Nanosized zeolites as a perspective material for conductometric biosensors creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucherenko, Ivan; Soldatkin, Oleksandr; Kasap, Berna Ozansoy; Kirdeciler, Salih Kaan; Kurc, Burcu Akata; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole; Soldatkin, Alexei; Lagarde, Florence; Dzyadevych, Sergei

    2015-05-01

    In this work, the method of enzyme adsorption on different zeolites and mesoporous silica spheres (MSS) was investigated for the creation of conductometric biosensors. The conductometric transducers consisted of gold interdigitated electrodes were placed on the ceramic support. The transducers were modified with zeolites and MSS, and then the enzymes were adsorbed on the transducer surface. Different methods of zeolite attachment to the transducer surface were used; drop coating with heating to 200°C turned out to be the best one. Nanozeolites beta and L, zeolite L, MSS, and silicalite-1 (80 to 450 nm) were tested as the adsorbents for enzyme urease. The biosensors with all tested particles except zeolite L had good analytical characteristics. Silicalite-1 (450 nm) was also used for adsorption of glucose oxidase, acetylcholinesterase, and butyrylcholinesterase. The glucose and acetylcholine biosensors were successfully created, whereas butyrylcholinesterase was not adsorbed on silicalite-1. The enzyme adsorption on zeolites and MSS is simple, quick, well reproducible, does not require use of toxic compounds, and therefore can be recommended for the development of biosensors when these advantages are especially important.

  14. Applications of natural zeolites on agriculture and food production.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, Nazife; Emekci, Mevlut; Athanassiou, Christos G

    2017-08-01

    Zeolites are crystalline hydrated aluminosilicates with remarkable physical and chemical properties, which include losing and receiving water in a reverse way, adsorbing molecules that act as molecular sieves, and replacing their constituent cations without structural change. The commercial production of natural zeolites has accelerated during the last 50 years. The Structure Commission of the International Zeolite Association recorded more than 200 zeolites, which currently include more than 40 naturally occurring zeolites. Recent findings have supported their role in stored-pest management as inert dust applications, pesticide and fertilizer carriers, soil amendments, animal feed additives, mycotoxin binders and food packaging materials. There are many advantages of inert dust application, including low cost, non-neurotoxic action, low mammalian toxicity and safety for human consumption. The latest consumer trends and government protocols have shifted toward organic origin materials to replace synthetic chemical products. In the present review, we summarize most of the main uses of zeolites in food and agruculture, along with the with specific paradigms that illustrate their important role. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Nanocellulose-Zeolite Composite Films for Odor Elimination.

    PubMed

    Keshavarzi, Neda; Mashayekhy Rad, Farshid; Mace, Amber; Ansari, Farhan; Akhtar, Farid; Nilsson, Ulrika; Berglund, Lars; Bergström, Lennart

    2015-07-08

    Free standing and strong odor-removing composite films of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) with a high content of nanoporous zeolite adsorbents have been colloidally processed. Thermogravimetric desorption analysis (TGA) and infrared spectroscopy combined with computational simulations showed that commercially available silicalite-1 and ZSM-5 have a high affinity and uptake of volatile odors like ethanethiol and propanethiol, also in the presence of water. The simulations showed that propanethiol has a higher affinity, up to 16%, to the two zeolites compared with ethanethiol. Highly flexible and strong free-standing zeolite-CNF films with an adsorbent loading of 89 w/w% have been produced by Ca-induced gelation and vacuum filtration. The CNF-network controls the strength of the composite films and 100 μm thick zeolite-CNF films with a CNF content of less than 10 vol % displayed a tensile strength approaching 10 MPa. Headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis showed that the CNF-zeolite films can eliminate the volatile thiol-based odors to concentrations below the detection ability of the human olfactory system. Odor removing zeolite-cellulose nanofibril films could enable improved transport and storage of fruits and vegetables rich in odors, for example, onion and the tasty but foul-smelling South-East Asian Durian fruit.

  16. Removal of ammonium from municipal landfill leachate using natural zeolites.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhihong; Wang, Jiawen; Sun, Lingyu; Zhang, Daobin; Zhang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Ammonium ion-exchange performance of the natural zeolite was investigated in both batch and column studies. The effects of zeolite dosage, contact time, stirring speed and pH on ammonium removal were investigated in batch experiments. The result showed that ammonium removal efficiency increased with an increase in zeolite dosage from 25 to 150 g/L, and an increase in stirring speed from 200 to 250 r/min. But further increase in zeolite dosage and stirring speed would result in an unpronounced increase of ammonium removal. The optimal pH for the removal of ammonium was found as 7.1. In the column studies, the effect of flow rate was investigated, and the total ammonium removal percentage during 180 min operation time decreased with the flow rate though the ion-exchange capacity varied to a very small extent with the flow rate ranging from 4 to 9 mL/min. The spent zeolite was regenerated by sodium chloride solution and the ammonia removal capacity of zeolite changed little or even increased after three regeneration cycles.

  17. The Influence of Zeolites on Radical Formation During Lignin Pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Bährle, Christian; Custodis, Victoria; Jeschke, Gunnar; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A; Vogel, Frédéric

    2016-09-08

    Lignin from lignocellulosic biomass is a promising source of energy, fuels, and chemicals. The conversion of the polymeric lignin to fuels and chemicals can be achieved by catalytic and noncatalytic pyrolysis. The influence of nonporous silica and zeolite catalysts, such as silicalite, HZSM5, and HUSY, on the radical and volatile product formation during lignin pyrolysis was studied by in situ high-temperature electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (HTEPR) as well as GC-MS. Higher radical concentrations were observed in the samples containing zeolite compared to the sample containing only lignin, which suggests that there is a stabilizing effect by the inorganic surfaces on the formed radical fragments. This effect was observed for nonporous silica as well as for HUSY, HZSM5, and silicalite zeolite catalysts. However, the effect is far larger for the zeolites owing to their higher specific surface area. The zeolites also showed an effect on the volatile product yield and the product distribution within the volatile phase. Although silicalite showed no effect on the product selectivity, the acidic zeolites such as HZSM5 or HUSY increased the formation of deoxygenated products such as benzene, toluene, xylene (BTX), and naphthalene. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Moderate-temperature zeolitic alteration in a cooling pyroclastic deposit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levy, S.S.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The locally zeolitized Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff (13 Myr.), Yucca Mountain, Nevada, U.S.A., is part of a thick sequence of zeolitized pyroclastic units. Most of the zeolitized units are nonwelded tuffs that were altered during low-temperature diagenesis, but the distribution and textural setting of zeolite (heulandite-clinoptilolite) and smectite in the densely welded Topopah Spring tuff suggest that these hydrous minerals formed while the tuff was still cooling after pyroclastic emplacement and welding. The hydrous minerals are concentrated within a transition zone between devitrified tuff in the central part of the unit and underlying vitrophyre. Movement of liquid and convected heat along fractures from the devitrified tuff to the ritrophyre caused local devitrification and hydrous mineral crystallization. Oxygen isotope geothermometry of cogenetic quartz confirms the nondiagenetic moderate temperature origin of the hydrous minerals at temperatures of ??? 40-100??C, assuming a meteoric water source. The Topopah Spring tuff is under consideration for emplacement of a high-level nuclear waste repository. The natural rock alteration of the cooling pyroclastic deposit may be a good natural analog for repository-induced hydrothermal alteration. As a result of repository thermal loading, temperatures in the Topopah Spring vitrophyre may rise sufficiently to duplicate the inferred temperatures of natural zeolitic alteration. Heated water moving downward from the repository into the vitrophyre may contribute to new zeolitic alteration. ?? 1989.

  19. Xylenes transformation over zeolites ZSM-5 ruled by acidic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gołąbek, Kinga; Tarach, Karolina A.; Góra-Marek, Kinga

    2018-03-01

    The studies presented in this work offer an insight into xylene isomerization process, followed by 2D COS analysis, in the terms of different acidity of microporous zeolites ZSM-5. The isomerisation reaction proceeded effectively over zeolites ZSM-5 of Si/Al equal of 12 and 32. Among them, the Al-poorer zeolite (Si/Al = 32) was found to offer the highest conversion and selectivity to p-xylene with the lowest number of disproportionation products, both in ortho- and meta-xylene transformation. Further reduction of Brønsted acidity facilitated the disproportionation path (zeolites of Si/Al = 48 and 750). The formation of intermediate species induced by the diffusion constraints for m-xylene in 10-ring channels was rationalized in the terms of the methylbenzenium ions formation inside the rigid micropore environment. Finally, both microporous character of zeolite and the optimised acidity were found to be crucial for high selectivity to the most desired product i.e. p-xylene. The analysis of asynchronous maps allowed for concluding on the order of the appearance of the respective products on the zeolite surface.

  20. Activity of titania and zeolite samples dosed with triethylamine

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Caitlin; Gole, James L.; Brauer, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Certain properties of titania and the ammonium- and proton-form of Y zeolites (silica/alumina ratio of 5.2) were explored before and after treatment by triethylamine (TEA). The effect of the triethylamine upon the physical and chemical properties of both titania and the zeolite were characterized by physical and chemical adsorption methods. BET surface area data showed enhanced surface area of the TEA-treated nanotitania over the untreated nanotitania whereas the TEA-treated zeolite showed a considerable decrease in surface area compared to the untreated zeolite. TPD of the TEA-treated Y zeolite showed that weakly adsorbed TEA left the surface between 150 and 300more » oC; strongly adsorbed TEA decomposed to ethylene and ammonia at higher temperatures. XPS, IR, and Raman spectroscopies, powder XRD, and 27Al MAS-NMR spectroscopy were used to further characterize the changes introduced by in-situ nitridation. Pre-adsorbed triethylamine decorated acid sites so as to neutralize these sites for the reaction of methanol to dimethylether. Carbon monoxide and ormaldehyde, products of the methanol probe reaction, were observed-- suggesting that basic sites are present in this treated zeolite and titania.« less

  1. Effect of alkali-treatment on the characteristics of natural zeolites with different compositions.

    PubMed

    Ates, Ayten

    2018-08-01

    A series of natural zeolites with different compositions were modified by post-synthesis modification with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Natural and modified zeolites were characterized by XRD, SEM, nitrogen adsorption, FTIR, zeta potential and temperature programmed desorption of ammonia (NH 3 -TPD). The adsorption capacities of these samples were evaluated by the adsorption of manganese from aqueous solution. The treatment with NaOH led to a decrease in the surface area and microporosity of all natural zeolites as well as partly damage of the zeolite structure depending on zeolite composition. In addition, the amount of weak, medium and strong acid sites in the zeolites was changed significantly by NaOH treatment depending on zeolite composition. The NaOH treatment resulted in a four-fold improvement in adsorption capacity of natural zeolite originated from Bigadic and a twofold decrease in that of the natural zeolite originated from Manisa-Gordes. Although the improved adsorption capacity might be mainly due to modification of porosity in the zeolites and formation of hydroxysodalite, the reduced adsorption capacity of the zeolite might be mainly due to a significant deformation of the zeolite structure. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model for the adsorption of manganese on all natural and modified zeolites fits well. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Thermochemistry of dense hydrous magnesium silicates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, Kunal; Burnley, Pamela; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    1994-01-01

    Recent experimental investigations under mantle conditions have identified a suite of dense hydrous magnesium silicate (DHMS) phases that could be conduits to transport water to at least the 660 km discontinuity via mature, relatively cold, subducting slabs. Water released from successive dehydration of these phases during subduction could be responsible for deep focus earthquakes, mantle metasomatism and a host of other physico-chemical processes central to our understanding of the earth's deep interior. In order to construct a thermodynamic data base that can delineate and predict the stability ranges for DHMS phases, reliable thermochemical and thermophysical data are required. One of the major obstacles in calorimetric studies of phases synthesized under high pressure conditions has been limitation due to the small (less than 5 mg) sample mass. Our refinement of calorimeter techniques now allow precise determination of enthalpies of solution of less than 5 mg samples of hydrous magnesium silicates. For example, high temperature solution calorimetry of natural talc (Mg(0.99) Fe(0.01)Si4O10(OH)2), periclase (MgO) and quartz (SiO2) yield enthalpies of drop solution at 1044 K to be 592.2 (2.2), 52.01 (0.12) and 45.76 (0.4) kJ/mol respectively. The corresponding enthalpy of formation from oxides at 298 K for talc is minus 5908.2 kJ/mol agreeing within 0.1 percent to literature values.

  3. Evidence for seismogenic fracture of silicic magma.

    PubMed

    Tuffen, Hugh; Smith, Rosanna; Sammonds, Peter R

    2008-05-22

    It has long been assumed that seismogenic faulting is confined to cool, brittle rocks, with a temperature upper limit of approximately 600 degrees C (ref. 1). This thinking underpins our understanding of volcanic earthquakes, which are assumed to occur in cold rocks surrounding moving magma. However, the recent discovery of abundant brittle-ductile fault textures in silicic lavas has led to the counter-intuitive hypothesis that seismic events may be triggered by fracture and faulting within the erupting magma itself. This hypothesis is supported by recent observations of growing lava domes, where microearthquake swarms have coincided with the emplacement of gouge-covered lava spines, leading to models of seismogenic stick-slip along shallow shear zones in the magma. But can fracturing or faulting in high-temperature, eruptible magma really generate measurable seismic events? Here we deform high-temperature silica-rich magmas under simulated volcanic conditions in order to test the hypothesis that high-temperature magma fracture is seismogenic. The acoustic emissions recorded during experiments show that seismogenic rupture may occur in both crystal-rich and crystal-free silicic magmas at eruptive temperatures, extending the range of known conditions for seismogenic faulting.

  4. Tip-induced nanoreactor for silicate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ming; Ma, Liran; Liang, Yong; Gao, Yuan; Luo, Jianbin

    2015-09-01

    Nanoscale scientific issues have attracted an increasing amount of research interest due to their specific size-effect and novel structure-property. From macro to nano, materials present some unique chemical reactivity that bulk materials do not own. Here we introduce a facile method to generate silicate with nanoscale control based on the establishment of a confined space between a meso/nanoscale tungsten tip and a smooth silica/silicon substrate. During the process, local water-like droplets deposition can be obviously observed in the confinement between the Si/SiO2 surfaces and the KOH-modified tungsten tip. By the combination of in-situ optical microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, we were able to take a deep insight of both the product composition and the underlying mechanism of such phenomena. It was indicated that such nanoreactor for silicate could be quite efficient as a result of the local capillarity and electric field effect, with implications at both nano and meso scales.

  5. Tip-induced nanoreactor for silicate.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ming; Ma, Liran; Liang, Yong; Gao, Yuan; Luo, Jianbin

    2015-09-14

    Nanoscale scientific issues have attracted an increasing amount of research interest due to their specific size-effect and novel structure-property. From macro to nano, materials present some unique chemical reactivity that bulk materials do not own. Here we introduce a facile method to generate silicate with nanoscale control based on the establishment of a confined space between a meso/nanoscale tungsten tip and a smooth silica/silicon substrate. During the process, local water-like droplets deposition can be obviously observed in the confinement between the Si/SiO2 surfaces and the KOH-modified tungsten tip. By the combination of in-situ optical microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, we were able to take a deep insight of both the product composition and the underlying mechanism of such phenomena. It was indicated that such nanoreactor for silicate could be quite efficient as a result of the local capillarity and electric field effect, with implications at both nano and meso scales.

  6. Tip-induced nanoreactor for silicate

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ming; Ma, Liran; Liang, Yong; Gao, Yuan; Luo, Jianbin

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale scientific issues have attracted an increasing amount of research interest due to their specific size-effect and novel structure-property. From macro to nano, materials present some unique chemical reactivity that bulk materials do not own. Here we introduce a facile method to generate silicate with nanoscale control based on the establishment of a confined space between a meso/nanoscale tungsten tip and a smooth silica/silicon substrate. During the process, local water-like droplets deposition can be obviously observed in the confinement between the Si/SiO2 surfaces and the KOH-modified tungsten tip. By the combination of in-situ optical microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, we were able to take a deep insight of both the product composition and the underlying mechanism of such phenomena. It was indicated that such nanoreactor for silicate could be quite efficient as a result of the local capillarity and electric field effect, with implications at both nano and meso scales. PMID:26364882

  7. Carbon Mineralization Using Phosphate and Silicate Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokturk, H.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction from combustion of fossil fuels has become an urgent concern for the society due to marked increase in weather related natural disasters and other negative consequences of global warming. CO2 is a highly stable molecule which does not readily interact with other neutral molecules. However it is more responsive to ions due to charge versus quadrupole interaction [1-2]. Ions can be created by dissolving a salt in water and then aerosolizing the solution. This approach gives CO2 molecules a chance to interact with the hydrated salt ions over the large surface area of the aerosol. Ion containing aerosols exist in nature, an example being sea spray particles generated by breaking waves. Such particles contain singly and doubly charged salt ions including Na+, Cl-, Mg++ and SO4--. Depending on the proximity of CO2 to the ion, interaction energy can be significantly higher than the thermal energy of the aerosol. For example, an interaction energy of 0.6 eV is obtained with the sulfate (SO4--) ion when CO2 is the nearest neighbor [2]. In this research interaction between CO2 and ions which carry higher charges are investigated. The molecules selected for the study are triply charged phosphate (PO4---) ions and quadruply charged silicate (SiO4----) ions. Examples of salts which contain such molecules are potassium phosphate (K3PO4) and sodium orthosilicate (Na4SiO4). The research has been carried out with first principle quantum mechanical calculations using the Density Functional Theory method with B3LYP functional and Pople type basis sets augmented with polarization and diffuse functions. Atomic models consist of the selected ions surrounded by water and CO2 molecules. Similar to the results obtained with singly and doubly charged ions [1-2], phosphate and silicate ions attract CO2 molecules. Energy of interaction between the ion and CO2 is 1.6 eV for the phosphate ion and 3.3 eV for the silicate ion. Hence one can expect that the selected

  8. Effect of Annealing Temperature on Broad Luminescence of Silver-Exchanged Zeolites Y and A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui, Sa Chu Rong; Lin, H.; Bao, W.; Wang, W.

    2018-05-01

    The annealing temperature dependence of luminescence properties of silver (Ag)-exchanged zeolites Y and A was studied. It was found that the absorbance and excitation/emission bands are strongly affected by the thermal treatments. With increase in annealing temperature, the absorbance of Ag in zeolite Y increases at first and then decreases. However, the position of the excitation/emission band in zeolite Y was found to be insensitive to the annealing temperature. In contrast, the excitation/emission bands in zeolite A are particularly sensitive to the annealing temperature. The difference of such temperature dependence in zeolites Y and A may be due to the different microporous structure of the two minerals. Moreover, the fact that this dependence is not observed in Ag-exchanged zeolite Y is likely to be due to the difficulty in dehydration of zeolite Y in air or due to the weak Ag+-Ag+ interaction in zeolite Y.

  9. Antifungal activities against toxigenic Fusarium specie and deoxynivalenol adsorption capacity of ion-exchanged zeolites.

    PubMed

    Savi, Geovana D; Cardoso, William A; Furtado, Bianca G; Bortolotto, Tiago; Zanoni, Elton T; Scussel, Rahisa; Rezende, Lucas F; Machado-de-Ávila, Ricardo A; Montedo, Oscar R K; Angioletto, Elidio

    2018-03-04

    Zeolites are often used as adsorbents materials and their loaded cations can be exchanged with metal ions in order to add antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to use the 4A zeolite and its derived ion-exchanged forms with Zn 2+ , Li + , Cu 2+ and Co 2+ in order to evaluate their antifungal properties against Fusarium graminearum, including their capacity in terms of metal ions release, conidia germination and the deoxynivalenol (DON) adsorption. The zeolites ion-exchanged with Li + , Cu 2+ , and Co 2+ showed an excellent antifungal activity against F. graminearum, using an agar diffusion method, with a zone of inhibition observed around the samples of 45.3 ± 0.6 mm, 25.7 ± 1.5 mm, and 24.7 ± 0.6 mm, respectively. Similar results using agar dilution method were found showing significant growth inhibition of F. graminearum for ion-exchanged zeolites with Zn 2+ , Li + , Cu 2+ , and Co 2+ . The fungi growth inhibition decreased as zeolite-Cu 2+ >zeolite-Li + >zeolite-Co 2+ >zeolite-Zn 2+ . In addition, the conidia germination was strongly affected by ion-exchanged zeolites. With regard to adsorption capacity, results indicate that only zeolite-Li + were capable of DON adsorption significantly (P < 0.001) with 37% at 2 mg mL -1 concentration. The antifungal effects of the ion-exchanged zeolites can be ascribed to the interactions of the metal ions released from the zeolite structure, especially for zeolite-Li + , which showed to be a promising agent against F. graminearum and its toxin.

  10. Natural Weathering Rates of Silicate Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, A. F.

    2003-12-01

    Silicates constitute more than 90% of the rocks exposed at Earth's land surface (Garrels and Mackenzie, 1971). Most primary minerals comprising these rocks are thermodynamically unstable at surface pressure/temperature conditions and are therefore susceptible to chemical weathering. Such weathering has long been of interest in the natural sciences. Hartt (1853) correctly attributed chemical weathering to "the efficacy of water containing carbonic acid in promoting the decomposition of igneous rocks." Antecedent to the recent interest in the role of vegetation on chemical weathering, Belt (1874) observed that the most intense weathering of rocks in tropical Nicaragua was confined to forested regions. He attributed this effect to "the percolation through rocks of rain water charged with a little acid from decomposing vegetation." Chamberlin (1899) proposed that the enhanced rates of chemical weathering associated with major mountain building episodes in Earth's history resulted in a drawdown of atmospheric CO2 that led to periods of global cooling. Many of the major characteristics of chemical weathering had been described when Merrill (1906) published the groundbreaking volume Rocks, Rock Weathering, and Soils.The major advances since that time, particularly during the last several decades, have centered on understanding the fundamental chemical, hydrologic, and biologic processes that control weathering and in establishing quantitative weathering rates. This research has been driven by the importance of chemical weathering to a number environmentally and economically important issues. Undoubtedly, the most significant aspect of chemical weathering is the breakdown of rocks to form soils, a process that makes life possible on the surface of the Earth. The availability of many soil macronutrients such as magnesium, calcium, potassium, and PO4 is directly related to the rate at which primary minerals weather. Often such nutrient balances are upset by anthropogenic

  11. Molecular interactions of alcohols with zeolite BEA and MOR frameworks.

    PubMed

    Stückenschneider, Kai; Merz, Juliane; Schembecker, Gerhard

    2013-12-01

    Zeolites can adsorb small organic molecules such as alcohols from a fermentation broth. Also in the zeolite-catalyzed conversion of alcohols to biofuels, biochemicals, or gasoline, adsorption is the first step. Several studies have investigated the adsorption of alcohols in different zeolites experimentally, but computational investigations in this field have mostly been restricted to zeolite MFI. In this study, the adsorption of C1-C4 alcohols in BEA and MOR was investigated using density functional theory (DFT). Calculated adsorption geometries and the corresponding energies of the designed cluster models were comparable to periodic calculations, and the adsorption energies were in the same range as the corresponding computational and experimental values reported in the literature for zeolite MFI. Thus, BEA and MOR may be good adsorption materials for alcohols in the field of downstream processing and catalysis. Aside from the DFT calculations, adsorption isotherms were determined experimentally in this study from aqueous solutions. For BEA, the adsorption of significant amounts of alcohol from aqueous solution was observed experimentally. In contrast, MOR was loaded with only a very small amount of alcohol. Although differences were found between the affinities obtained from gas-phase DFT calculations and those observed experimentally in aqueous solution, the computational data presented here represent molecular level information on the geometries and energies of C1-C4 alcohols adsorbed in zeolites BEA and MOR. This knowledge should prove very useful in the design of zeolite materials intended for use in adsorption and catalytic processes, as it allows adsorption behavior to be predicted via judiciously designed computational models.

  12. Synthesis of mesoporous zeolite single crystals with cheap porogens

    SciTech Connect

    Tao Haixiang; Li Changlin; Ren Jiawen

    2011-07-15

    Mesoporous zeolite (silicalite-1, ZSM-5, TS-1) single crystals have been successfully synthesized by adding soluble starch or sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) to a conventional zeolite synthesis system. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen sorption analysis, {sup 27}Al magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 27}Al MAS NMR), temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia (NH{sub 3}-TPD) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis). The SEM images clearly show that all zeolite crystals possess the similar morphology with particle size of about 300 nm, the TEM images reveal that irregular intracrystalmore » pores are randomly distributed in the whole crystal. {sup 27}Al MAS NMR spectra indicate that nearly all of the Al atoms are in tetrahedral co-ordination in ZSM-5, UV-vis spectra confirm that nearly all of titanium atoms are incorporated into the framework of TS-1. The catalytic activity of meso-ZSM-5 in acetalization of cyclohexanone and meso-TS-1 in hydroxylation of phenol was also studied. The synthesis method reported in this paper is cost-effective and environmental friendly, can be easily expended to prepare other hierarchical structured zeolites. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous zeolite single crystals were synthesized by using cheap porogens as template. Highlights: > Mesoporous zeolite (silicalite-1, ZSM-5, TS-1) single crystals were synthesized. > Soluble starch or sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was used as porogens. > The mesoporous zeolites had connected mesopores although closed pores existed. > Higher catalytic activities were obtained.« less

  13. SILICATES FOR CORROSION CONTROL IN BUILDING POTABLE WATER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Silicates have been used to control the corrosion of drinking water distribution system materials. Previous work has shown that they are particularly useful in reducing the release of zinc from galvanized materials in hot water systems. Negatively charged silicate species were re...

  14. 77 FR 21676 - Silicic Acid, Sodium Salt etc.; Tolerance Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... Silicic acid, sodium salt, reaction products with chlorotrimethylsilane and iso-propyl alcohol, reaction..., reaction products with chlorotrimethylsilane and iso-propyl alcohol, reaction with poly(oxypropylene)-poly... from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of Silicic acid, sodium salt, reaction products with...

  15. Silicate Inclusions in the Kodaikanal IIE Iron Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurat, G.; Varela, M. E.; Zinner, E.

    2005-01-01

    Silicate inclusions in iron meteorites display an astonishing chemical and mineralogical variety, ranging from chondritic to highly fractionated, silica- and alkali-rich assemblages. In spite of this, their origin is commonly considered to be a simple one: mixing of silicates, fractionated or unfractionated, with metal. The latter had to be liquid in order to accommodate the former in a pore-free way which all models accomplish by assuming shock melting. II-E iron meteorites are particularly interesting because they contain an exotic zoo of silicate inclusions, including some chemically strongly fractionated ones. They also pose a formidable conundrum: young silicates are enclosed by very old metal. This and many other incompatibilities between models and reality forced the formulation of an alternative genetic model for irons. Here we present preliminary findings in our study of Kodaikanal silicate inclusions.

  16. Histamine-binding capacities of different natural zeolites: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Selvam, Thangaraj; Schwieger, Wilhelm; Dathe, Wilfried

    2018-06-07

    Two different natural zeolites from Cuba and Mexico, which are already being used as contemporaneous drugs or dietary supplements in Germany and Mexico, respectively, are applied in a comparative study of their histamine-binding capacities as a function of their particle sizes. The zeolites are characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and N 2 -sorption measurements (BET surface areas). The Cuban zeolite contains clinoptilolite and mordenite as major phases (78% zeolite), whereas the Mexican one contains only clinoptilolite (65% zeolite). Both zeolites are apparently free from fibrous materials according to SEM. Both zeolites adsorb significant amount of histamine under the experimental conditions. Nevertheless, the results showed that the histamine-binding capacity of the Cuban zeolite is higher than the Mexican one and the smaller the particle size of zeolite, the higher the histamine-binding capacity. This difference could be due to the variation in their mineralogical compositions resulting in varied BET surface areas. Thus, the high histamine-binding capacities of Cuban zeolites seem to be due at least partly to the presence of the large-pore zeolite mordenite, providing high total pore volumes, which will be discussed in detail. For the first time, we have shown that the mineralogical compositions of natural zeolites and their particle sizes play a key role in binding histamine, which is one of the most important regulators in human physiology.

  17. ZEOLITE PERFORMANCE AS AN ANION EXCHANGER FOR ARSENIC SEQUESTRATION IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zeolites are well known for their use in ion exchange and acid catalysis reactions. The use of zeolites in anion or ligand exchange reactions is less studied. The NH4+ form of zeolite Y (NY6, Faujasite) has been tested in this work to evaluate its performance for arsenic removal...

  18. Properties of Zeolite A Obtained from Powdered Laundry Detergent: An Undergraduate Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smoot, Alison L.; Lindquist, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Presents experiments that introduce students to the myriad properties of zeolites using the sodium form of zeolite A (Na-A) from laundry detergent. Experiments include extracting Na-A from detergent, water softening properties, desiccant properties, ion-exchange properties, and Zeolite HA as a dehydration catalyst. (JRH)

  19. Framework Stabilization of Si-Rich LTA Zeolite Prepared in Organic-Free Media

    SciTech Connect

    Conato, Marlon T.; Oleksiak, Matthew D.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2014-10-16

    Zeolite HOU-2 (LTA type) is prepared with the highest silica content (Si/Al = 2.1) reported for Na-LTA zeolites without the use of an organic structure-directing agent. The rational design of Si-rich zeolites has the potential to improve their thermal stability for applications in catalysis, gas storage, and selective separations.

  20. Bioactive calcium silicate ceramics and coatings.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuanyong; Morra, Marco; Carpi, Angelo; Li, Baoe

    2008-10-01

    CaO-SiO2 based ceramics have been regarded as potential candidates for artificial bone due to their excellent bone bioactivity and biocompatibility. However, they cannot be used as implants under a heavy load because of their poor mechanical properties, in particular low fracture toughness. Plasma spraying CaO-SiO2 based ceramic coatings onto titanium alloys can expand their application to the hard tissue replacement under a heavy load. Plasma sprayed wollastonite, dicalcium silicate and diopside coatings have excellent bone bioactivity and high bonding strength to titanium alloys. It is possible that these plasma sprayed CaO-SiO2 based ceramic coatings will be applied in clinic after they are widely and systematically researched.

  1. Dust silicate emission in FIR/submm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coupeaud, A.; Demyk, K.; Mény, C.; Nayral, C.

    2010-12-01

    The far-infrared to millimeter wavelength (FIR-mm) range in astronomical observations is dominated by the thermal emission from large (10-100 nm) and cold (10-20 K) dust grains, which are in thermal equilibrium with the interstellar radiation field. However, the physics of the FIR-mm emission from such cold matter is not well understood as shown by the observed dependence with the temperature of the spectral index of the dust emissivity β and by the observed far infrared excess. Interestingly, a similar behaviour is observed in experiments of characterization of the spectral properties of dust analogues. We present a study of the optical properties of analogues of interstellar silicate grains at low temperature in the FIR/submm range aiming to understand their peculiar behaviour. Such studies are essential for the interpretation of the Herschel and Planck data.

  2. Thermal Ablation Modeling for Silicate Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yih-Kanq

    2016-01-01

    A general thermal ablation model for silicates is proposed. The model includes the mass losses through the balance between evaporation and condensation, and through the moving molten layer driven by surface shear force and pressure gradient. This model can be applied in the ablation simulation of the meteoroid and the glassy ablator for spacecraft Thermal Protection Systems. Time-dependent axisymmetric computations are performed by coupling the fluid dynamics code, Data-Parallel Line Relaxation program, with the material response code, Two-dimensional Implicit Thermal Ablation simulation program, to predict the mass lost rates and shape change. The predicted mass loss rates will be compared with available data for model validation, and parametric studies will also be performed for meteoroid earth entry conditions.

  3. Thermal Ablation Modeling for Silicate Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yih-Kanq

    2016-01-01

    A thermal ablation model for silicates is proposed. The model includes the mass losses through the balance between evaporation and condensation, and through the moving molten layer driven by surface shear force and pressure gradient. This model can be applied in ablation simulations of the meteoroid or glassy Thermal Protection Systems for spacecraft. Time-dependent axi-symmetric computations are performed by coupling the fluid dynamics code, Data-Parallel Line Relaxation program, with the material response code, Two-dimensional Implicit Thermal Ablation simulation program, to predict the mass lost rates and shape change. For model validation, the surface recession of fused amorphous quartz rod is computed, and the recession predictions reasonably agree with available data. The present parametric studies for two groups of meteoroid earth entry conditions indicate that the mass loss through moving molten layer is negligibly small for heat-flux conditions at around 1 MW/cm(exp. 2).

  4. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of Zeolites Using Atom Probe Tomography.

    PubMed

    Weckhuysen, Bert Marc; Schmidt, Joel; Peng, Linqing; Poplawsky, Jonathan

    2018-05-02

    Understanding structure-composition-property relationships in zeolite-based materials is critical to engineering improved solid catalysts. However, this can be difficult to realize as even single zeolite crystals can exhibit heterogeneities spanning several orders of magnitude, with consequences for e.g. reactivity, diffusion as well as stability. Great progress has been made in characterizing these porous solids using tomographic techniques, though each method has an ultimate spatial resolution limitation. Atom Probe Tomography (APT) is the only technique so far capable of producing 3-D compositional reconstructions with sub-nm-scale resolution, and has only recently been applied to zeolite-based catalysts. Herein, we discuss the use of APT to study zeolites, including the critical aspects of sample preparation, data collection, assignment of mass spectral peaks including the predominant CO peak, the limitations of spatial resolution for the recovery of crystallographic information, and proper data analysis. All sections are illustrated with examples from recent literature, as well as previously unpublished data and analyses to demonstrate practical strategies to overcome potential pitfalls in applying APT to zeolites, thereby highlighting new insights gained from the APT method. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. [Adsorption of phenol chemicals by surfactant-modified zeolites].

    PubMed

    Xie, Jie; Wang, Zhe; Wu, De-Yi; Li, Chun-Jie

    2012-12-01

    Two kinds of zeolites were prepared from fly ash and modified by surfactant subsequently. Surfactant-modified zeolites were studied for adsorption of phenol chemicals (phenol, p-chlorphenol, bisphenol A). It showed that the adsorption affinity of zeolite to phenol chemicals was significantly improved after surfactant modification. The adsorption isotherms of phenol chemicals were well fitted by the Langmuir isotherm. For the two surfactant-surfactant modified zeolites, the maximum adsorption amounts of phenol, p-chlorphenol, and bisphenol A calculated from the Langmuir equation were 37.7, 52.36, 90.9 mg x g(-1) and 10.7, 22.83, 56.8 mg x g(-1), respectively. When pH values of solutions were higher than the pK(a) values of phenol chemicals, the removal efficiencies were getting higher with the increase of pH values. The octanol/water partition coefficient (K(ow)) was also found to be an important factor affecting adsorption of phenol chemicals by the modified zeolites. Higher K(ow) value, which means the greater hydrophobicity of the chemicals, resulted in a higher removal.

  6. Enhanced water transport and salt rejection through hydrophobic zeolite pores.

    PubMed

    Humplik, Thomas; Lee, Jongho; O'Hern, Sean; Laoui, Tahar; Karnik, Rohit; Wang, Evelyn N

    2017-12-15

    The potential of improvements to reverse osmosis (RO) desalination by incorporating porous nanostructured materials such as zeolites into the selective layer in the membrane has spurred substantial research efforts over the past decade. However, because of the lack of methods to probe transport across these materials, it is still unclear which pore size or internal surface chemistry is optimal for maximizing permeability and salt rejection. We developed a platform to measure the transport of water and salt across a single layer of zeolite crystals, elucidating the effects of internal wettability on water and salt transport through the ≈5.5 Å pores of MFI zeolites. MFI zeolites with a more hydrophobic (i.e., less attractive) internal surface chemistry facilitated an approximately order of magnitude increase in water permeability compared to more hydrophilic MFI zeolites, while simultaneously fully rejecting both potassium and chlorine ions. However, our results also demonstrated approximately two orders of magnitude lower permeability compared to molecular simulations. This decreased performance suggests that additional transport resistances (such as surface barriers, pore collapse or blockages due to contamination) may be limiting the performance of experimental nanostructured membranes. Nevertheless, the inclusion of hydrophobic sub-nanometer pores into the active layer of RO membranes should improve both the water permeability and salt rejection of future RO membranes (Fasano et al 2016 Nat. Commun. 7 12762).

  7. Enhanced water transport and salt rejection through hydrophobic zeolite pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humplik, Thomas; Lee, Jongho; O'Hern, Sean; Laoui, Tahar; Karnik, Rohit; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2017-12-01

    The potential of improvements to reverse osmosis (RO) desalination by incorporating porous nanostructured materials such as zeolites into the selective layer in the membrane has spurred substantial research efforts over the past decade. However, because of the lack of methods to probe transport across these materials, it is still unclear which pore size or internal surface chemistry is optimal for maximizing permeability and salt rejection. We developed a platform to measure the transport of water and salt across a single layer of zeolite crystals, elucidating the effects of internal wettability on water and salt transport through the ≈5.5 Å pores of MFI zeolites. MFI zeolites with a more hydrophobic (i.e., less attractive) internal surface chemistry facilitated an approximately order of magnitude increase in water permeability compared to more hydrophilic MFI zeolites, while simultaneously fully rejecting both potassium and chlorine ions. However, our results also demonstrated approximately two orders of magnitude lower permeability compared to molecular simulations. This decreased performance suggests that additional transport resistances (such as surface barriers, pore collapse or blockages due to contamination) may be limiting the performance of experimental nanostructured membranes. Nevertheless, the inclusion of hydrophobic sub-nanometer pores into the active layer of RO membranes should improve both the water permeability and salt rejection of future RO membranes (Fasano et al 2016 Nat. Commun. 7 12762).

  8. Ion exchangers in radioactive waste management: natural Iranian zeolites.

    PubMed

    Nilchi, A; Maalek, B; Khanchi, A; Ghanadi Maragheh, M; Bagheri, A; Savoji, K

    2006-01-01

    Five samples of natural zeolites from different parts of Iran were chosen for this study. In order to characterize and determine their structures, X-ray diffraction and infrared spectrometry were carried out for each sample. The selective absorption properties of each zeolite were found by calculating the distribution coefficient (K(d)) of various simulated wastes which were prepared by spiking the radionuclides with (131)I, (99)Mo, (153)Sm, (140)La and (147)Nd. All the zeolite samples used in this study had extremely high absorption value towards (140)La; clinoptolite from Mianeh and analsite from Ghalehkhargoshi showed good absorption for (147)Nd; clinoptolite from Semnan and clinoptolite from Firozkoh showed high absorption for (153)Sm; mesolite from Arababad Tabas showed good absorption for (99)Mo; and finally mesolite from Arababad Tabas, clinoptolite from Semnan and clinoptolite from Firozkoh could be used to selectively absorb (131)I from the stimulated waste which was prepared. The natural zeolites chosen for these studies show a similar pattern to those synthetic ion exchangers in the literature and in some cases an extremely high selectivity towards certain radioactive elements. Hence the binary separation of radioactive elements could easily be carried out. Furthermore, these zeolites, which are naturally occurring ion exchangers, are viable economically and extremely useful alternatives in this industry.

  9. Solubility of copper in silicate melts as function of oxygen and sulfur fugacities, temperature, and silicate composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzheid, A.; Lodders, K.

    2001-06-01

    The solubility of Cu in silicate melts coexisting with liquid Cu(Fe) metal and liquid Cu(Fe) sulfide was determined experimentally at oxygen fugacities ranging from 10 -9.1 to 10 -13.6 bar and sulfur fugacities ranging from 10 -2.5 to 10 -6.3 bar at 1300°C. An iron oxide-free silicate of anorthite-diopside eutectic composition and a synthetic MgO-rich basaltic silicate (FeO-bearing) were used in the partitioning experiments. In S-containing systems, some of the metal reacted to metal sulfide. The silicates in the four systems investigated (Fe-free and S-free; Fe-containing and S-free; Fe-free and S-containing; Fe-containing and S-containing) had different colors depending on the dissolved Cu species and the presence of iron and/or sulfur. Irrespective of the presence of sulfur, the solubility of Cu in the silicate increases with increasing oxygen fugacity and metal/silicate partition coefficients for Cu decrease. Increasing the temperature from 1300°C to 1514°C increases the Cu solubility (decreases the metal/silicate partition coefficient) at an oxygen fugacity 0.5 log units below the iron-wüstite (IW) equilibrium in the Fe-free, S-free and Fe-containing, S-free systems. We infer the presence of monovalent Cu + ("CuO 0.5") in the silicate melt on the basis of the solubility of Cu as function of oxygen fugacity. Experiments containing iron yield a formal valence of ˜0.5 for Cu at very low oxygen fugacities, which is not observed in Fe-free systems. The low formal valence is explained by redox reactions between iron and copper in the silicate melts. There is no evidence for sulfidic dissolution of Cu in the silicates but sulfur has indirect effects on Cu partitioning. Iron metal/silicate partition coefficients depend on oxygen fugacity and on sulfur fugacity. Sulfidic dissolution of iron and oxide-sulfide exchange reactions with Cu cause a small increase in Cu metal/silicate partition coefficients. We derive an activity coefficient (γ CuO 0.5) of 10 ± 1 for

  10. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-39 aluminosilicate zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Nicholas, Christpher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2013-12-17

    A new family of coherently grown composites of TUN and IMF zeotypes has been synthesized and show to be effective catalysts for catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.n+R.sub.rQ.sub.qAl.sub1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.s- ub.z where M represents zinc or a metal or metals from Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, R is an A,.OMEGA.-dihalosubstituted paraffin such as 1,4-dibromobutane, Q is a neutral amine containing 5 or fewer carbon atoms such as 1-methylpyrrolidine and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-39 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hyrdocarbons into hydrocarbons removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  11. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-39 aluminosilicate zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Nicholas, Christopher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2014-10-07

    A new family of coherently grown composites of TUN and IMF zeotypes has been synthesized and shown to be effective catalysts for catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.n+R.sub.rQ.sub.qAl.sub.1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.s- ub.z where M represents zinc or a metal or metals from Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, R is an A,.OMEGA.-dihalosubstituted paraffin such as 1,4-dibromobutane, Q is a neutral amine containing 5 or fewer carbon atoms such as 1-methylpyrrolidine and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-39 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hydrocarbons into hydrocarbons and removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  12. Reagentless and calibrationless silicate measurement in oceanic waters.

    PubMed

    Giraud, William; Lesven, Ludovic; Jońca, Justyna; Barus, Carole; Gourdal, Margaux; Thouron, Danièle; Garçon, Véronique; Comtat, Maurice

    2012-08-15

    Determination of silicate concentration in seawater without addition of liquid reagents was the key prerequisite for developing an autonomous in situ electrochemical silicate sensor (Lacombe et al., 2007) [11]. The present challenge is to address the issue of calibrationless determination. To achieve such an objective, we chose chronoamperometry performed successively on planar microelectrode (ME) and ultramicroelectrode (UME) among the various possibilities. This analytical method allows estimating simultaneously the diffusion coefficient and the concentration of the studied species. Results obtained with ferrocyanide are in excellent agreement with values of the imposed concentration and diffusion coefficient found in the literature. For the silicate reagentless method, successive chronoamperometric measurements have been performed using a pair of gold disk electrodes for both UME and ME. Our calibrationless method was tested with different concentrations of silicate in artificial seawater from 55 to 140×10(-6) mol L(-1). The average value obtained for the diffusion coefficient of the silicomolybdic complex is 2.2±0.4×10(-6) cm(2) s(-1), consistent with diffusion coefficient values of molecules in liquid media. Good results were observed when comparing known concentration of silicate with experimentally derived ones. Further work is underway to explore silicate determination within the lower range of oceanic silicate concentration, down to 0.1×10(-6) mol L(-1). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The removal of bacteria by modified natural zeolites.

    PubMed

    Milán, Z; de Las Pozas, C; Cruz, M; Borja, R; Sánchez, E; Ilangovan, K; Espinosa, Y; Luna, B

    2001-01-01

    The removal effect of natural and modified zeolites containing different heavy metals (Ni2+, Zn2+, Fe3+ and Cu2+) on pure cultures of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in a solid medium was evaluated in this work. These experiments were carried out in a continuous mode treating municipal wastewater. Faecal coliform species and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identified. The rate constants of heavy metal lixiviation were determined using a first order kinetic model. The removal effect of modified natural zeolites in both a solid medium and in continuous mode showed an increased elimination of the bacterial population. The results established a decreasing order of the removal effect as follows: Cu2+ > Fe3+ > Zn2+ > Ni2+. The best performance of columns was obtained for inlet bacterial concentrations below 10(6) cells/100 ml. Most of the identified bacterial species were affected by copper modified zeolites, although Serratia marcescens presented the highest sensitivity and Klebsiella pneumoniae the greatest resistance.

  14. Thermal transpiration in zeolites: A mechanism for motionless gas pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Naveen K.; Gianchandani, Yogesh B.

    2008-11-01

    We explore the use of a naturally occurring zeolite, clinoptilolite, for a chip-scale, thermal transpiration-based gas pump. The nanopores in clinoptilolite enable the required free-molecular flow, even at atmospheric pressure. The pump utilizes a foil heater located between zeolite disks in a plastic package. A 2.3mm thick zeolite disk generates a typical gas flow rate of 6.6×10-3 cc/min-cm2 with an input power of <300mW/cm2. The performance is constrained by imperfections in clinoptilolite, which provide estimated leakage apertures of 10.2-13.5μm/cm2 of flow cross section. The transient response of the pump is studied to quantify nonidealities.

  15. The energetics of mesopore formation in zeolites with surfactants.

    PubMed

    Linares, Noemi; Jardim, Erika de Oliveira; Sachse, Alexander; Serrano, Elena; Garcia-Martinez, Javier

    2018-05-02

    Mesoporosity can be conveniently introduced in zeolites by treating them in basic surfactant solutions. The apparent activation energy involved in the formation of mesopores in USY via surfactant-templating was obtained through the combination of in situ synchrotron XRD and ex situ gas adsorption. Additionally, techniques such as pH measurements and TG/DTA were employed to determine the OH- evolution and the CTA+ uptake during the development of mesoporosity, providing information about the different steps involved. By combining both in situ and ex situ techniques, we have been able, for the first time, to determine the apparent activation energies of the different processes involved in the mesostructuring of USY zeolites, which are in the same order of magnitude (30 - 65 kJ mol-1) of those involved in the crystallization of zeolites. Hence, important mechanistic insights on the surfactant-templating method were obtained. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Synthetic Zeolites and Other Microporous Oxide Molecular Sieves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, John D.

    1999-03-01

    Use of synthetic zeolites and other microporous oxides since 1950 has improved insulated windows, automobile air-conditioning, refrigerators, air brakes on trucks, laundry detergents, etc. Their large internal pore volumes, molecular-size pores, regularity of crystal structures, and the diverse framework chemical compositions allow "tailoring" of structure and properties. Thus, highly active and selective catalysts as well as adsorbents and ion exchangers with high capacities and selectivities were developed. In the petroleum refining and petrochemical industries, zeolites have made possible cheaper and lead-free gasoline, higher performance and lower-cost synthetic fibers and plastics, and many improvements in process efficiency and quality and in performance. Zeolites also help protect the environment by improving energy efficiency, reducing automobile exhaust and other emissions, cleaning up hazardous wastes (including the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant and other radioactive wastes), and, as specially tailored desiccants, facilitating the substitution of new refrigerants for the ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons banned by the Montreal Protocol.

  17. Lattice thermal conductivity of silicate glasses at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Y. Y.; Hsieh, W. P.

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of the thermodynamic and transport properties of magma holds the key to understanding the thermal evolution and chemical differentiation of Earth. The discovery of the remnant of a deep magma ocean above the core mantle boundary (CMB) from seismic observations suggest that the CMB heat flux would strongly depend on the thermal conductivity, including lattice (klat) and radiative (krad) components, of dense silicate melts and major constituent minerals around the region. Recent measurements on the krad of dense silicate glasses and lower-mantle minerals show that krad of dense silicate glasses could be significantly smaller than krad of the surrounding solid mantle phases, and therefore the dense silicate melts would act as a thermal insulator in deep lower mantle. This conclusion, however, remains uncertain due to the lack of direct measurements on the lattice thermal conductivity of silicate melts under relevant pressure-temperature conditions. Besides the CMB, magmas exist in different circumstances beneath the surface of the Earth. Chemical compositions of silicate melts vary with geological and geodynamic settings of the melts and have strong influences on their thermal properties. In order to have a better view of heat transport within the Earth, it is important to study compositional and pressure dependences of thermal properties of silicate melts. Here we report experimental results on lattice thermal conductivities of silicate glasses with basaltic and rhyolitic compositions up to Earth's lower mantle pressures using time-domain thermoreflectance coupled with diamond-anvil cell techniques. This study not only provides new data for the thermal conductivity of silicate melts in the Earth's deep interior, but is crucial for further understanding of the evolution of Earth's complex internal structure.

  18. Influence of Crystal Expansion/Contraction on Zeolite Membrane Permeation

    SciTech Connect

    Sorenson, Stephanie G; Payzant, E Andrew; Noble, Richard D

    X-ray diffraction was used to measure the unit cell parameters of B-ZSM-5, SAPO-34, and NaA zeolite powders as a function of adsorbate loading at 303 K, and in one case, at elevated temperatures. Most adsorbates expanded the zeolite crystals below saturation loading at 303 K: n-hexane and SF6 in B-ZSM-5, methanol and CO2 in SAPO-34, and methanol in NaA zeolite. As the loadings increased, the crystals expanded more. Changes in the unit cell volumes of B-ZSM-5 and SAPO-34 zeolite powders correlated with changes in permeation through zeolite membranes defects. When the zeolite crystals expanded or contracted upon adsorption, the defectmore » sizes decreased or increased. In B-ZSM-5 membranes, the fluxes through defects decreased dramatically when n-hexane or SF6 adsorbed. In contrast, i-butane adsorption at 303 K contracted B-ZSM-5 crystals at low loadings and expanded them at higher loadings. Correspondingly, the flux through B-ZSM-5 membrane defects increased at low i-butane loadings and decreased at high loading because the defects increased in size at low loading and decreased at high loadings. At 398 K and 473 K, n-hexane expanded the B-ZSM-5 unit cell more as the temperature increased from 303 to 473 K. The silicalite-1 and B-ZSM-5 unit cell volumes expanded similarly upon n-hexane adsorption at 303 K; boron substitution had little effect on volume expansion.« less

  19. Selective adsorption of thiophene and 1-benzothiophene on metal-ion-exchanged zeolites in organic medium.

    PubMed

    Xue, Mei; Chitrakar, Ramesh; Sakane, Kohji; Hirotsu, Takahiro; Ooi, Kenta; Yoshimura, Yuji; Feng, Qi; Sumida, Naoto

    2005-05-15

    Adsorption of the organic sulfur compounds thiophene (TP) and 1-benzothiophene (1-BTP) in an organic model solution of hydrodesulfurizated gasoline (heptane with 1 wt% toluene and 0.156 mM (5 ppmw as sulfur) TP or 1-BTP) was studied by a batch method at 80 degrees C using metal-ion-exchanged Y-zeolites. Although NaY-zeolite or its acid-treated material rarely adsorbed the organic sulfur compounds, NaY-zeolites exchanged with Ag+, Cu2+, and Ce3+ ions and NH(4)Y-zeolites exchanged with Ce3+ ions showed markedly high adsorptive capacities for TP and 1-BTP. The sulfur uptake increased in the order CuY-zeolite(Na)(Na) for both the organic sulfur compounds. The adsorption isotherms for TP and 1-BTP followed the Langmuir's relationship and the saturation capacities by CeY-zeolite(Na) were calculated as 0.022 and 0.033 mmol/g, respectively. The mole ratios of TP/Ce and 1-BTP/Ce were 0.031 and 0.047, respectively. CeY-zeolite(NH4) which was prepared from NH4Y-zeolite showed less uptake of TP and 1-BTP than CeY-zeolite(Na), probably due to its lower cerium content.

  20. Microstructures of Rare Silicate Stardust from Nova and Supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, A. N.; Keller, L. P.; Rahman, Z.; Messenger, S

    2011-01-01

    Most silicate stardust analyzed in the laboratory and observed around stellar environments derives from O-rich red giant and AGB stars [1,2]. Supernova (SN) silicates and oxides are comparatively rare, and fewer than 10 grains from no-va or binary star systems have been identified to date. Very little is known about dust formation in these stellar environments. Mineralogical studies of only three O-rich SN [3-5] and no nova grains have been performed. Here we report the microstructure and chemical makeup of two SN silicates and one nova grain.

  1. The Mineralogy of Circumstellar Silicates Preserved in Cometary Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, L. P.; Messenger, S.

    2010-01-01

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) contain a record of the building blocks of the solar system including presolar grains, molecular cloud material, and materials formed in the early solar nebula. Cometary IDPs have remained relatively unaltered since their accretion because of the lack of parent body thermal and aqueous alteration. We are using coordinated transmission electron microscope (TEM) and ion microprobe studies to establish the origins of the various components within cometary IDPs. Of particular interest is the nature and abundance of presolar silicates in these particles because astronomical observations suggest that crystalline and amorphous silicates are the dominant grain types produced in young main sequence stars and evolved O-rich stars. Five circumstellar grains have been identified including three amorphous silicate grains and two polycrystalline aggregates. All of these grains are between 0.2 and 0.5 micrometers in size. The isotopic compositions of all five presolar silicate grains fall within the range of presolar oxides and silicates, having large (17)O-enrichments and normal (18)O/(16)O ratios (Group 1 grains from AGB and RG stars). The amorphous silicates are chemically heterogeneous and contain nanophase FeNi metal and FeS grains in a Mg-silicate matrix. Two of the amorphous silicate grains are aggregates with subgrains showing variable Mg/Si ratios in chemical maps. The polycrystalline grains show annealed textures (equilibrium grains boundaries, uniform Mg/Fe ratios), and consist of 50-100 nm enstatite and pyrrhotite grains with lesser forsterite. One of the polycrystalline aggregates contains a subgrain of diopside. The polycrystalline aggregates form by subsolidus annealing of amorphous precursors. The bulk compositions of the five grains span a wide range in Mg/Si ratios from 0.4 to 1.2 (avg. 0.86). The average Fe/Si (0.40) and S/Si (0.21) ratios show a much narrower range of values and are approximately 50% of their solar

  2. Methods of using structures including catalytic materials disposed within porous zeolite materials to synthesize hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Rollins, Harry W [Idaho Falls, ID; Petkovic, Lucia M [Idaho Falls, ID; Ginosar, Daniel M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-02-01

    Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

  3. Systems including catalysts in porous zeolite materials within a reactor for use in synthesizing hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Rolllins, Harry W [Idaho Falls, ID; Petkovic, Lucia M [Idaho Falls, ID; Ginosar, Daniel M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-07-24

    Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

  4. Chemistry of the subalkalic silicic obsidians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacDonald, Ray; Smith, Robert L.; Thomas, John E.

    1992-01-01

    Nonhydrated obsidians are quenched magmatic liquids that record in their chemical compositions details of the tectonic environment of formation and of the differentiation mechanisms that affected their subsequent evolution. This study attempts to analyze, in terms of geologic processes, the compositional variations in the subalkalic silicic obsidians (Si02≥70 percent by weight, molecular (Na2O+K20)>Al2O3). New major- and trace-element determinations of 241 samples and a compilation of 130 published major-element analyses are reported and interpreted. Obsidians from five different tectonic settings are recognized: (1) primitive island arcs, (2) mature island arcs, (3) continental margins, (4) continental interiors, and (5) oceanic extensional zones. Tectonomagmatic discrimination between these groups is successfully made on Nb-Ta, Nb-FeOt and Th-Hf-Ta plots, and compositional ranges and averages for each group are presented. The chemical differences between groups are related to the type of crust in which magmas were generated. With increasingly sialic (continental type) crust, the obsidians show overall enrichment in F, Be, Li, Mo, Nb, Rb, Sn, Ta, U, W, Zn, and the rare-earth elements, and depletion in Mg, Ca, Ba, Co, Sc, Sr, and Zr. They become more potassic, have higher Fe/Mg and F/Cl ratios, and lower Zr/Hf, Nb/Ta, and Th/U ratios. Higher values of total rare-earth elements are accompanied by light rare-earth-element enrichment and pronounced negative Eu anomalies. An attempt is made to link obsidian chemistry to genetic mechanlism. Two broad groups of rocks are distinguished: one generated where crystal-liquid processes dominated (CLPD types), which are the products of crustal anatexis, possibly under conditions of low halogen fugacity, ± crystal fractionation ± magma mixing; and a second group represented by rocks formed in the upper parts of large magma chambers by interplays of crystal fractionation, volatile transfer, magma mixing, and possibly various

  5. Exploring Mass Transfer in Mesoporous Zeolites by NMR Diffusometry

    PubMed Central

    Mehlhorn, Dirk; Valiullin, Rustem; Kärger, Jörg; Cho, Kanghee; Ryoo, Ryong

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of mesoporous zeolites, the exploration of their transport properties has become a task of primary importance for the auspicious application of such materials in separation technology and heterogeneous catalysis. After reviewing the potential of the pulsed field gradient method of NMR (PFG NMR) for this purpose in general, in a case study using a specially prepared mesoporous zeolite NaCaA as a host system and propane as a guest molecule, examples of the attainable information are provided. PMID:28817004

  6. Method for encapsulating nanoparticles in a zeolite matrix

    DOEpatents

    Coker, Eric N.

    2007-12-11

    A method for preparing a metal nanocluster composite material. A porous zeolitic material is treated with an aqueous metal compound solution to form a metal ion-exchanged zeolitic material, heated at a temperature ramp rate of less than 2.degree. C./min to an elevated temperature, cooled, contacted with an organic monomer and heating to induce polymerization, and heating the composite material to greater than 350.degree. C. under non-oxidizing conditions to form a metal nanocluster-carbon composite material with nanocluster sizes between approximately 0.6 nm and 10 nm.

  7. Zeolites replacing plant fossils in the Denver formation, Lakewood, Colorado.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Modreski, P.J.; Verbeek, E.R.; Grout, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Well-developed crystals of heulandite and stilbite, within fossil wood, occur in sedimentary rocks in Lakewood, Jefferson County. The rocks belong to the Denver formation, a locally fossiliferous deposit of fluvial claystone, siltstone, sandstone and conglomerate, containing some volcanic mudflows (andesitic) of late Cretaceous to Palaeocene age. Altered volcanic glass released Na and Ca into the ground-water and subsequently zeolites were crystallized in the open spaces between grains and within fossil plant structures. Minor pyrite, quartz (jasper), calcite and apatite also occur as replacements of fossil wood. Similar zeolite occurrences in other areas are reviewed.-R.S.M.

  8. Zeolite catalysis in the synthesis of isobutylene from hydrous ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Cory Bernard

    1999-11-01

    This work deals with the synthesis of isobutylene from a hydrous ethanol feedstock over zeolites. The synthesis is accomplished in three steps: (1) low-temperature direct ethanol conversion to ethylene on H-ZSM-5 zeolite, (2) ethylene conversion to butene products over metal-exchanged zeolites, and (3) butene skeletal rearrangement to isobutylene over FER zeolites. The key to understanding and optimizing each synthesis step lies in the ability to control and regulate the zeolite acidity (Bronsted and Lewis)---both strength and number. Therefore, the continuous temperature programmed amine desorption (CTPAD) technique was further developed to simultaneously count the Bronsted acid sites and quantitatively characterize their strength. The adsorption of ethanol, reaction products, amines, coke and ethanol-derived residue (EDR) were monitored gravimetrically using the highly sensitive, novel Tapered Element Oscillating Microreactor (TEOM) apparatus. The TEOM was also used also in conjunction with CTPAD to characterize Bronsted acidity which is a new application for the instrument. For the first synthesis step, a parallel reaction exists which simultaneously produces diethyl ether and ethylene directly over H-ZSM-5. The reaction rates for each pathway were measured directly using a differential reactor operating at low temperatures (<473 K). Water in the ethanol feed enhances the rate of ethylene formation. A mechanism and kinetic expression are proposed for this reaction over H-ZSM-5, with diethyl-ether desorption and ethylene formation as the rate limiting steps. Heat of adsorption values measured from the independent microcalorimetry work reported in the literature are incorporated into the kinetic analysis which reduces the number of regressed parameters. For the remaining synthesis steps, several zeolite structures (ZSM-5, Y, FER) partially exchanged with Pd, Ti, Ni and Au were prepared and tested. It was determined from this screening study that the zeolites

  9. Regenerative Cu/La zeolite supported desulfurizing sorbents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor); Sharma, Pramod K. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Efficient, regenerable sorbents for removal of H2S from fluid hydrocarbons such as diesel fuel at moderate condition comprise a porous, high surface area aluminosilicate support, suitably a synthetic zeolite, and most preferably a zeolite having a free lattice opening of at least 6 Angstroms containing from 0.1 to 0.5 moles of copper ions, lanthanum ions or their mixtures. The sorbent removes sulfur from the hydrocarbon fuel in high efficiency and can be repetitively regenerated without loss of activity.

  10. Metal/Silicate Partitioning of W, Ge, Ga and Ni: Dependence on Silicate Melt Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singletary, S.; Drake, M. J.

    2004-12-01

    Metal/silicate partition coefficients (Dm/s) for siderophile elements are essential to investigations of core formation when used in conjunction with the pattern of elemental abundances in the Earth's mantle (Drake and Righter, 2002; Jones and Drake, 1986; Righter et al. 1997). The partitioning of siderophile elements is controlled by temperature, pressure, oxygen fugacity, and by the compositions of the metal and silicate phases. In this work, we investigate the role of silicate melt composition on the partitioning of the siderophile elements W, Ge, Ga and Ni between metallic and silicate liquid. Experiments were performed in the Experimental Geochemistry Laboratory at the University of Arizona utilizing a non-end loaded piston cylinder apparatus with a barium carbonate pressure medium. Starting materials were created by combining the mafic and silicic compositions of Jaeger and Drake (2000) with Fe powder (~25 wt% of the total mixture) to achieve metal saturation. Small amounts of W, Ge, Ga2O3 and NiO powder (less than 2 wt% each) were also added to the starting compositions. The experiments were contained in a graphite capsule and performed with temperature and pressure fixed at 1400ºC and 1.5 GPa. Experimental run products were analyzed with the University of Arizona Cameca SX50 electron microprobe with four wavelength dispersive spectrometers and a PAP ZAF correction program. All experiments in our set are saturated with metal and silicate liquid, indicating that oxygen fugacity is below IW. Several of the runs also contain a gallium-rich spinel as an additional saturating phase. Quench phases are also present in the silicate liquid in all runs. The experimentally produced liquids have nbo/t values (calculated using the method of Mills, 1993) that range from 1.10 to 2.97. These values are higher than those calculated for the liquids in the Jaeger and Drake (2000) study. The higher nbo/t values are due to uptake of Fe by the melt. The initial silicate

  11. Dioctahedral Phyllosilicates Versus Zeolites and Carbonates Versus Zeolites Competitions as Constraints to Understanding Early Mars Alteration Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viennet, Jean-Christophe; Bultel, Benjamin; Riu, Lucie; Werner, Stephanie C.

    2017-11-01

    Widespread occurrence of Fe,Mg-phyllosilicates has been observed on Noachian Martian terrains. Therefore, the study of Fe,Mg-phyllosilicate formation, in order to characterize early Martian environmental conditions, is of particular interest to the Martian community. Previous studies have shown that the investigation of Fe,Mg-smectite formation alone helps to describe early Mars environmental conditions, but there are still large uncertainties in terms of pH range, oxic/anoxic conditions, etc. Interestingly, carbonates and/or zeolites have also been observed on Noachian surfaces in association with the Fe,Mg-phyllosilicates. Consequently, the present study focuses on the dioctahedral/trioctahedral phyllosilicate/carbonate/zeolite formation as a function of various CO2 contents (100% N2, 10% CO2/90% N2, and 100% CO2), from a combined approach including closed system laboratory experiments for 3 weeks at 120°C and geochemical simulations. The experimental results show that as the CO2 content decreases, the amount of dioctahedral clay minerals decreases in favor of trioctahedral minerals. Carbonates and dioctahedral clay minerals are formed during the experiments with CO2. When Ca-zeolites are formed, no carbonates and dioctahedral minerals are observed. Geochemical simulation aided in establishing pH as a key parameter in determining mineral formation patterns. Indeed, under acidic conditions dioctahedral clay minerals and carbonate minerals are formed, while trioctahedral clay minerals are formed in basic conditions with a neutral pH value of 5.98 at 120°C. Zeolites are favored from pH ≳ 7.2. The results obtained shed new light on the importance of dioctahedral clay minerals versus zeolites and carbonates versus zeolites competitions to better define the aqueous alteration processes throughout early Mars history.

  12. Effects of Incorporating High-Volume Fly Ash into Tricalcium Silicate on the Degree of Silicate Polymerization and Aluminum Substitution for Silicon in Calcium Silicate Hydrate

    DOE PAGES

    Bae, Sungchul; Taylor, Rae; Kilcoyne, David; ...

    2017-02-04

    This study assesses the quantitative effects of incorporating high-volume fly ash (HVFA) into tricalcium silicate (C 3S) paste on the hydration, degree of silicate polymerization, and Al substitution for Si in calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H). Thermogravimetric analysis and isothermal conduction calorimetry showed that, although the induction period of C 3S hydration was significantly extended, the degree of hydration of C 3S after the deceleration period increased due to HVFA incorporation. Synchrotron-sourced soft X-ray spectromicroscopy further showed that most of the C 3S in the C 3S-HVFA paste was fully hydrated after 28 days of hydration, while that in the puremore » C 3S paste was not. The chemical shifts of the Si K edge peaks in the near-edge X-ray fine structure of C–S–H in the C 3S-HVFA paste directly indicate that Al substitutes for Si in C–S–H and that the additional silicate provided by the HVFA induces an enhanced degree of silicate polymerization. This new spectromicroscopic approach, supplemented with 27Al and 29Si magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, turned out to be a powerful characterization tool for studying a local atomic binding structure of C–S–H in C 3S-HVFA system and presented results consistent with previous literature.« less

  13. Effects of Incorporating High-Volume Fly Ash into Tricalcium Silicate on the Degree of Silicate Polymerization and Aluminum Substitution for Silicon in Calcium Silicate Hydrate

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Sungchul; Taylor, Rae; Kilcoyne, David

    This study assesses the quantitative effects of incorporating high-volume fly ash (HVFA) into tricalcium silicate (C 3S) paste on the hydration, degree of silicate polymerization, and Al substitution for Si in calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H). Thermogravimetric analysis and isothermal conduction calorimetry showed that, although the induction period of C 3S hydration was significantly extended, the degree of hydration of C 3S after the deceleration period increased due to HVFA incorporation. Synchrotron-sourced soft X-ray spectromicroscopy further showed that most of the C 3S in the C 3S-HVFA paste was fully hydrated after 28 days of hydration, while that in the puremore » C 3S paste was not. The chemical shifts of the Si K edge peaks in the near-edge X-ray fine structure of C–S–H in the C 3S-HVFA paste directly indicate that Al substitutes for Si in C–S–H and that the additional silicate provided by the HVFA induces an enhanced degree of silicate polymerization. This new spectromicroscopic approach, supplemented with 27Al and 29Si magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, turned out to be a powerful characterization tool for studying a local atomic binding structure of C–S–H in C 3S-HVFA system and presented results consistent with previous literature.« less

  14. Effects of Incorporating High-Volume Fly Ash into Tricalcium Silicate on the Degree of Silicate Polymerization and Aluminum Substitution for Silicon in Calcium Silicate Hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Sungchul; Taylor, Rae; Kilcoyne, David; Moon, Juhyuk; Monteiro, Paulo J. M.

    2017-01-01

    This study assesses the quantitative effects of incorporating high-volume fly ash (HVFA) into tricalcium silicate (C3S) paste on the hydration, degree of silicate polymerization, and Al substitution for Si in calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H). Thermogravimetric analysis and isothermal conduction calorimetry showed that, although the induction period of C3S hydration was significantly extended, the degree of hydration of C3S after the deceleration period increased due to HVFA incorporation. Synchrotron-sourced soft X-ray spectromicroscopy further showed that most of the C3S in the C3S-HVFA paste was fully hydrated after 28 days of hydration, while that in the pure C3S paste was not. The chemical shifts of the Si K edge peaks in the near-edge X-ray fine structure of C–S–H in the C3S-HVFA paste directly indicate that Al substitutes for Si in C–S–H and that the additional silicate provided by the HVFA induces an enhanced degree of silicate polymerization. This new spectromicroscopic approach, supplemented with 27Al and 29Si magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, turned out to be a powerful characterization tool for studying a local atomic binding structure of C–S–H in C3S-HVFA system and presented results consistent with previous literature. PMID:28772490

  15. The growth of zeolites A, X and mordenite in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacco, Albert, Jr.; Bac, N.; Coker, E. N.; Dixon, A. G.; Warzywoda, J.; Thompson, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    Zeolites are a class of crystalline aluminosilicate materials that form the backbone of the chemical process industry worldwide. They are used primarily as adsorbents and catalysts and support to a significant extent the positive balance of trade realized by the chemical industry in the United States (around $19 billion in 1991). The magnitude of their efforts can be appreciated when one realizes that since their introduction as 'cracking catalysts' in the early 1960's, they have saved the equivalent of 60 percent of the total oil production from Alaska's North Slope. Thus the performance of zeolite catalysts can have a profound effect on the U.S. economy. It is estimated that a 1 percent increase in yield of the gasoline fraction per barrel of oil would represent a savings of 22 million barrels of crude oil per year, representing a reduction of $400 million in the United States' balance of payments. Thus any activity that results in improvement in zeolite catalyst performance is of significant scientific and industrial interest. In addition, due to their 'stability,' uniformity, and, within limits, their 'engineerable' structures, zeolites are being tested as potential adsorbents to purify gases and liquids at the parts-per-billion levels needed in today's electronic, biomedical, and biotechnology industries and for the environment. Other exotic applications, such as host materials for quantum-confined semiconductor atomic arrays, are also being investigated. Because of the importance of this class of material, extensive efforts have been made to characterize their structures and to understand their nucleation and growth mechanisms, so as to be able to custom-make zeolites for a desired application. To date, both the nucleation mechanics and chemistry (such as what are the 'key' nutrients) are, as yet, still unknown for many, if not all, systems. The problem is compounded because there is usually a 'gel' phase present that is assumed to control the degree of

  16. Calcium Isotopic Composition of Bulk Silicate Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, J.; Ionov, D. A.; Liu, F.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, Z.; Huang, F.

    2016-12-01

    Ca isotopes are used to study the accretion history of the Earth and terrestrial planets, but, Ca isotopic composition of the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE) remains poorly constrained [1]. To better understand the Ca isotopic composition of BSE, we analyzed 22 well studied peridotite xenoliths from Tariat (Mongolia), Vitim (southern Siberia) and Udachnaya (Siberian Craton). These samples include both fertile and highly depleted garnet and spinel peridotites that show no or only minor post-melting metasomatism or alteration. Ca isotope measurements were done on a Triton-TIMS using double spike method at the Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, CAS. The data are reported as δ44/40Ca (relative to NIST SRM 915a). Results for geostandards are consistent with those from other laboratories. 2 standard deviations of SRM 915a analyses are 0.13‰ (n=48). δ44/40Ca of both and fertile and refractory peridotites range from 0.79 to 1.07‰ producing an average of 0.93±0.12‰ (2SD). This value defines the Ca isotopic composition of the BSE, which is consistent with the average δ44/40Ca of oceanic basalts ( 0.90‰)[2,3]. [1] Huang et al (2010) EPSL 292; [2] Valdes et al (2014) EPSL 394; [3]DePaolo (2004) RMG 55.

  17. Lithologic mapping of silicate rocks using TIMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillespie, A. R.

    1986-01-01

    Common rock-forming minerals have thermal infrared spectral features that are measured in the laboratory to infer composition. An airborne Daedalus scanner (TIMS) that collects six channels of thermal infrared radiance data (8 to 12 microns), may be used to measure these same features for rock identification. Previously, false-color composite pictures made from channels 1, 3, and 5 and emittance spectra for small areas on these images were used to make lithologic maps. Central wavelength, standard deviation, and amplitude of normal curves regressed on the emittance spectra are related to compositional information for crystalline igneous silicate rocks. As expected, the central wavelength varies systematically with silica content and with modal quartz content. Standard deviation is less sensitive to compositional changes, but large values may result from mixed admixture of vegetation. Compression of the six TIMS channels to three image channels made from the regressed parameters may be effective in improving geologic mapping from TIMS data, and these synthetic images may form a basis for the remote assessment of rock composition.

  18. Metal-Silicate Segregation in Asteroidal Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrin, Jason S.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.

    2006-01-01

    A fundamental process of planetary differentiation is the segregation of metal-sulfide and silicate phases, leading eventually to the formation of a metallic core. Asteroidal meteorites provide a glimpse of this process frozen in time from the early solar system. While chondrites represent starting materials, iron meteorites provide an end product where metal has been completely concentrated in a region of the parent asteroid. A complimentary end product is seen in metal-poor achondrites that have undergone significant igneous processing, such as angrites, HED's and the majority of aubrites. Metal-rich achondrites such as acapulcoite/lodranites, winonaites, ureilites, and metal-rich aubrites may represent intermediate stages in the metal segregation process. Among these, acapulcoite-lodranites and ureilites are examples of primary metal-bearing mantle restites, and therefore provide an opportunity to observe the metal segregation process that was captured in progress. In this study we use bulk trace element compositions of acapulcoites-lodranites and ureilites for this purpose.

  19. Hydrogen mobility in transition zone silicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caracas, R.; Panero, W. R.

    2016-12-01

    Hydrogen defects in mantle silicates adopt a variety of charge-balanced defects, including VMg''+2(H*), VSi''''+4(H*), and VSi'+(Mg+2H*). Constraining the defect mechanism experimentally can be quite difficult, as it relies almost entirely on vibrational spectroscopy whose interpretation can often be controversial. Here we use a computational alternative: we study the above-mentioned defect mechanisms using molecular dynamics simulations based on the density-functional theory, in the VASP implementation. We perform isokinetical NVT simulations over a 1500 - 2500K temperature range using supercells containing 16 equivalent formula units of Mg2SiO4. Our results show that temperature has a tremendous effect on mobility. H is significantly more mobile when incorporated as VMg''+2H* defects than as hydrogarnet defects and that VMg''+2H* defects are more mobile in wadsleyite than ringwoodite. This result is the opposite from the proton conductivity inferences of Yoshino et al. [2008] and Huang et al [2006], as well as the observed increase in electrical conductivity with depth through the transition zone [e.g. Kuvshinov et al, 2005; Olsen 1998]. Over the simulation time of several tens of picoseconds the H travel over several lattice sites. However, during its path it spends a considerable amount of time pinned in the defect sites. The lowest mobility is for the VSi''''+4(H*) defect, where the H atoms remain inside the octahedron from which they replaced the Si.

  20. Synthesis of ZSM-5 zeolite from coal fly ash and rice husk: characterization and application for partial oxidation of methane to methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krisnandi, Y. K.; Yanti, F. M.; Murti, S. D. S.

    2017-04-01

    Indonesian fly ash (SiO2/Al2O3 mole ratio = 3.59) was used together with rice husk (SiO2 92%) as raw material for mesoporous ZSM-5 zeolite synthesis. Prior being used, coal fly ash and rice husk were subjected to pre-treatment in order to extract silicate (SiO4 4-) and aluminate (AlO4 5-) and to remove the impurities. Then the ZSM-5 zeolite were synthesized through hydrothermal treatment using two types of templates (TPAOH and PDDA). The as-synthesized ZSM-5 was characterized using FTIR, XRD, SEM-EDX, and BET. The result of FTIR showed peaks at 1250-950 cm-1 (v asymetric T-O), 820-650 cm-1 (v symetric T-O), and at 650-500 cm-1 confirming the presence of the five number ring of the pentasil structure. The result of XRD showed the appearance of certain peaks in the position 2 theta between 7-9° and 22-25° indicative of ZSM-5 structure, but also showed the pattern of low intensity magnetite and hematite. The SEM image showed the rough surface of hexagonal crystals from ZSM-5 structure, indicative of mesoporosity in the structure. EDX result showed Si/Al ratio of 20, while surface area analysis gave SA of 43.16. The ZSM-5 zeolites then was modified with cobalt oxide through impregnation method. The catalytic activity as heterogeneous catalysts in partial oxidation of methane was tested. The result showed that hence the catalytic activity of ZSM-5 and Co/ZSM-5 from fly ash and rice husk were still inferior compared to the pro-analysis sourced-counterpart, they were potential to be used as catalyst in the partial oxidation of methane to methanol.

  1. Silicate versus carbonate weathering in Iceland: New insights from Ca isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Andrew D.; Grace Andrews, M.; Lehn, Gregory O.; Holmden, Chris

    2015-04-01

    Several studies have measured riverine fluxes of Ca and carbonate alkalinity in Iceland with the aim of quantifying the role of basalt weathering in the long-term carbon cycle. A major assumption is that all of the Ca and alkalinity originates from the dissolution of Ca-bearing silicate minerals, such as plagioclase and clinopyroxene. However, hydrothermal calcite occurs throughout Iceland, and even trace levels are expected to impact river geochemistry owing to the mineral's high solubility and fast dissolution rate. To test this hypothesis, we used a new, high-precision Ca isotope MC-TIMS method (δ44/40Ca; 2σSD = ± 0.04 ‰) to trace sources of Ca in Icelandic rivers. We report elemental and Ca isotope data for rivers, high- and low-temperature groundwater, basalt, hydrothermal calcite (including Iceland Spar), and stilbite and heulandite, which are two types of zeolites commonly formed during low-grade metamorphism of basalt. In agreement with previous research, we find that rivers have higher δ44/40Ca values than basalt, with a maximum difference of ∼0.40‰. This difference may reflect isotope fractionation in the weathering zone, i.e., preferential uptake of 40Ca during clay mineral formation, adsorption, and other geochemical processes that cycle Ca. However, calcite δ44/40Ca values are also up to ∼0.40‰ higher than bedrock values, and on a diagram of δ44/40Ca versus Sr/Ca, nearly all waters plot within a plausible mixing domain bounded by the measured compositions of basalt and calcite, with glacial rivers plotting closer to calcite than non-glacial rivers. Calcite and heulandite form during hydrothermal alteration of basalt in the deep lava pile and often occur together in metabasalts now exposed at the surface. Because heulandite δ44/40Ca values are ∼1-2‰ lower than basalt, we suggest that 40Ca uptake by heudlandite explains the relatively high δ44/40Ca values of calcite and that calcite weathering in turn elevates riverine δ44/40Ca

  2. Synthesis of the Tube Silicate Litidionite and Structural Relationships between It and Some Other Silicates.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-17

    CuSi4015 Others are agrellite, NaCa2Si4O0oF, 1 6 narsarsukite, Na2TiSi4O 1 7 miserite, KCa5 i2 07 Si601 5 (OH)F,18 and probably canasite , Na4K2Ca 5...and canasite are rare. Litidionite is apparently very rare, the only reported occurrence of it being in the crater of Mt. Vesuvius. Both litidionite1...narsarsukite, miserite, and probably canasite contain, like 13-19 lititionite, tube silicate ions. The first three contain ions that are the same as that in

  3. Porphyrin-Embedded Silicate Materials for Detection of Hydrocarbon Solvents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-14

    Sensors 2011, 11, 886-904; doi:10.3390/s110100886 sensors ISSN 1424-8220 www.mdpi.com/journal/ sensors Article Porphyrin-Embedded Silicate...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Sensors 2011, 11 887 1. Introduction Mesoporous silicates have been widely described in sensing...absorption spectroscopy, quartz crystal microbalance ( QCM ), and FTIR have been utilized for aromatic hydrocarbon sensing applications based on these

  4. History of Nebular Processing Traced by Silicate Stardust in IDPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messenger, Scott R.; Keller, L. P.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.

    2010-01-01

    Chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP-IDPs) may be the best preserved remnants of primordial solar system materials, in part because they were not affected by parent body hydrothermal alteration. Their primitive characteristics include fine grained, unequilibrated, anhydrous mineralogy, enrichment in volatile elements, and abundant molecular cloud material and silicate stardust. However, while the majority of CP-IDP materials likely derived from the Solar System, their formation processes and provenance are poorly constrained. Stardust abundances provide a relative measure of the extent of processing that the Solar System starting materials has undergone in primitive materials. For example, among primitive meteorites silicate stardust abundances vary by over two orders of magnitude (less than 10-200 ppm). This range of abundances is ascribed to varying extents of aqueous processing in the meteorite parent bodies. The higher average silicate stardust abundances among CP-IDPs (greater than 375 ppm) are thus attributable to the lack of aqueous processing of these materials. Yet, silicate stardust abundances in IDPs also vary considerably. While the silicate stardust abundance in IDPs having anomalous N isotopic compositions was reported to be 375 ppm, the abundance in IDPs lacking N anomalies is less than 10 ppm. Furthermore, these values are significantly eclipsed among some IDPs with abundances ranging from 2,000 ppm to 10,000 ppm. Given that CP-IDPs have not been significantly affected by parent body processes, the difference in silicate stardust abundances among these IDPs must reflect varying extents of nebular processing. Here we present recent results of a systematic coordinated mineralogical/isotopic study of large cluster IDPs aimed at (1) characterizing the mineralogy of presolar silicates and (2) delineating the mineralogical and petrographic characteristics of IDPs with differing silicate stardust abundances. One of the goals of this study is

  5. High Pressure/Temperature Metal Silicate Partitioning of Tungsten

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shofner, G. A.; Danielson, L.; Righter, K.; Campbell, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The behavior of chemical elements during metal/silicate segregation and their resulting distribution in Earth's mantle and core provide insight into core formation processes. Experimental determination of partition coefficients allows calculations of element distributions that can be compared to accepted values of element abundances in the silicate (mantle) and metallic (core) portions of the Earth. Tungsten (W) is a moderately siderophile element and thus preferentially partitions into metal versus silicate under many planetary conditions. The partitioning behavior has been shown to vary with temperature, silicate composition, oxygen fugacity, and pressure. Most of the previous work on W partitioning has been conducted at 1-bar conditions or at relatively low pressures, i.e. <10 GPa, and in two cases at or near 20 GPa. According to those data, the stronger influences on the distribution coefficient of W are temperature, composition, and oxygen fugacity with a relatively slight influence in pressure. Predictions based on extrapolation of existing data and parameterizations suggest an increased pressured dependence on metal/ silicate partitioning of W at higher pressures 5. However, the dependence on pressure is not as well constrained as T, fO2, and silicate composition. This poses a problem because proposed equilibration pressures for core formation range from 27 to 50 GPa, falling well outside the experimental range, therefore requiring exptrapolation of a parametereized model. Higher pressure data are needed to improve our understanding of W partitioning at these more extreme conditions.

  6. Cometary crystalline silicate before and after perihelion passage II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ootsubo, Takafumi

    2014-01-01

    Crystalline silicate is often observed in comets as an 11.3-micron resonant emission feature, and may be used for probing the early solar nebula. Because the formation of the crystalline silicate requires high temperature, they are thought to have been born from amorphous silicate at the inner region, and then transported toward the outer regions where comets were born. This transportation can produce the difference in the crystalline fraction in the cometary silicate dust between two dynamical types of comets, Oort-cloud comets (OCs) and Ecliptic comets (ECs), due to the different heliocentric distances of their birth places. The study of peak wavelengths in crystalline features is important to investigate the conditions of the crystalline silicate formation as well. Thus far, we don't have enough observational samples of OCs. Fortunately, we can observe comet C/2012 K1 (PanSTARRS) along with C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) in this semester. In particular, the comet C/2012 K1 (PanSTARRS) is a bright and good target for this silicate peak feature study. Observations at pre- and post-perihelion provide us precious information on the dust evolution of the comet.

  7. ADSORPTION AND CATALYTIC DESTRUCTION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN HYDROPHOBIC ZEOLITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several chromium exchanged ZSM-5 zeolites of varying SiO2/Al2O3 ratio were prepared and investigated for ambient (23 ?C) adsorption and subsequent oxidative destruction (250-400 ?C) of gaseous trichloroethylene (TCE, Cl2C=CHCl) in a humid air stream. With an increase in the SiO2...

  8. Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks for kinetic separation of propane and propene

    DOEpatents

    Li, Jing; Li, Kunhao; Olson, David H.

    2014-08-05

    Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks (ZIFs) characterized by organic ligands consisting of imidazole ligands that are either essentially all 2-chloroimidazole ligands or essentially all 2-bromoimidazole ligands are disclosed. Methods for separating propane and propene with the ZIFs of the present invention, as well as other ZIFs, are also disclosed.

  9. Development of electrochemical biosensors with various types of zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldatkina, O. V.; Kucherenko, I. S.; Soldatkin, O. O.; Pyeshkova, V. M.; Dudchenko, O. Y.; Akata Kurç, B.; Dzyadevych, S. V.

    2018-03-01

    In the work, different types of zeolites were used for the development of enzyme-based electrochemical biosensors. Zeolites were added to the biorecognition elements of the biosensors and served as additional components of the biomembranes or adsorbents for enzymes. Three types of biosensors (conductometric, amperometric and potentiometric) were studied. The developed biosensors were compared with the similar biosensors without zeolites. The biosensors contained the following enzymes: urease, glucose oxidase, glutamate oxidase, and acetylcholinesterase and were intended for the detection of urea, glucose, glutamate, and acetylcholine, respectively. Construction of the biosensors using the adsorption of enzymes on zeolites has several advantages: simplicity, good reproducibility, quickness, absence of toxic compounds. These benefits are particularly important for the standardization and further mass production of the biosensors. Furthermore, a biosensor for the sucrose determination contained a three-enzyme system (invertase/mutatorase/glucose oxidase), immobilized by a combination of adsorption on silicalite and cross-linking via glutaraldehyde; such combined immobilization demonstrated better results as compared with adsorption or cross-linking separately. The analysis of urea and sucrose concentrations in the real samples was carried out. The results, obtained with biosensors, had high correlation with the results of traditional analytical methods, thus the developed biosensors are promising for practical applications.

  10. Ethylene formation by dehydration of ethanol over medium pore zeolites.

    PubMed

    Gołąbek, Kinga; Tarach, Karolina A; Filek, Urszula; Góra-Marek, Kinga

    2018-03-05

    In this work, the role of pore arrangement of 10-ring zeolites ZSM-5, TNU-9 and IM-5 on their catalytic properties in ethanol transformation were investigated. Among all the studied catalysts, the zeolite IM-5, characterized by limited 3-dimensionality, presented the highest conversion of ethanol and the highest yields of diethyl ether (DEE) and ethylene. The least active and selective to ethylene and C 3+ products was zeolite TNU-9 with the largest cavities formed on the intersection of 10-ring channels. The catalysts varied, however, in lifetime, and their deactivation followed the order: IM-5>TNU-9>ZSM-5. The processes taking place in the microporous zeolite environment were tracked by IR spectroscopy and analysed by the 2D correlation analysis (2D COS) allowing for an insight into the nature of chemisorbed adducts and transition products of the reaction. The cage dimension was found as a decisive factor influencing the tendency for coke deposition, herein identified as polymethylated benzenes, mainly 1,2,4-trimethyl-benzene. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Conductivity in zeolite-polymer composite membranes for PEMFCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sancho, T.; Soler, J.; Pina, M. P.

    Structured materials, such as zeolites can be candidates to be used as electrolytes in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) to substitute polymeric membranes, taking advantage of their higher chemical and thermal stability and their specific adsorption properties. The possibility to work at temperatures of nearly 150 °C would make easy the selection of the fuel, decreasing the influence of CO in the catalyst poisoning, and it would also improve the kinetics of the electrochemical reactions involved. In this work, four zeolites and related materials have been studied: mordenite, NaA zeolite, umbite and ETS-10. In special, the influence of relative humidity and temperature have been carefully explored. A conductivity cell was designed and built to measure in cross direction, by using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The experimental system was validated using Nafion ® as a reference material by comparing the results with bibliography data. Samples were prepared by pressing the zeolite powders, with size of 1 μm on average, using polymer PVDF (10 wt.%) as a binder. The results here obtained, in spite of not reaching the absolute values of the Nafion ® ones, show a lower effect of the dehydration phenomenon on the conduction performance in the temperature range studied (from room temperature to 150 °C). This increase of the operation temperature range would give important advantages to the PEMFC. ETS-10 sample shows the best behaviour with respect to conductivity exhibiting an activation energy value comparable with reported for Nafion ® membrane.

  12. Simulation of Water Gas Shift Zeolite Membrane Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makertiharta, I. G. B. N.; Rizki, Z.; Zunita, Megawati; Dharmawijaya, P. T.

    2017-07-01

    The search of alternative energy sources keeps growing from time to time. Various alternatives have been introduced to reduce the use of fossil fuel, including hydrogen. Many pathways can be used to produce hydrogen. Among all of those, the Water Gas Shift (WGS) reaction is the most common pathway to produce high purity hydrogen. The WGS technique faces a downstream processing challenge due to the removal hydrogen from the product stream itself since it contains a mixture of hydrogen, carbon dioxide and also the excess reactants. An integrated process using zeolite membrane reactor has been introduced to improve the performance of the process by selectively separate the hydrogen whilst boosting the conversion. Furthermore, the zeolite membrane reactor can be further improved via optimizing the process condition. This paper discusses the simulation of Zeolite Membrane Water Gas Shift Reactor (ZMWGSR) with variation of process condition to achieve an optimum performance. The simulation can be simulated into two consecutive mechanisms, the reaction prior to the permeation of gases through the zeolite membrane. This paper is focused on the optimization of the process parameters (e.g. temperature, initial concentration) and also membrane properties (e.g. pore size) to achieve an optimum product specification (concentration, purity).

  13. Ethylene formation by dehydration of ethanol over medium pore zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gołąbek, Kinga; Tarach, Karolina A.; Filek, Urszula; Góra-Marek, Kinga

    2018-03-01

    In this work, the role of pore arrangement of 10-ring zeolites ZSM-5, TNU-9 and IM-5 on their catalytic properties in ethanol transformation were investigated. Among all the studied catalysts, the zeolite IM-5, characterized by limited 3-dimensionality, presented the highest conversion of ethanol and the highest yields of diethyl ether (DEE) and ethylene. The least active and selective to ethylene and C3 + products was zeolite TNU-9 with the largest cavities formed on the intersection of 10-ring channels. The catalysts varied, however, in lifetime, and their deactivation followed the order: IM-5 > TNU-9 > ZSM-5. The processes taking place in the microporous zeolite environment were tracked by IR spectroscopy and analysed by the 2D correlation analysis (2D COS) allowing for an insight into the nature of chemisorbed adducts and transition products of the reaction. The cage dimension was found as a decisive factor influencing the tendency for coke deposition, herein identified as polymethylated benzenes, mainly 1,2,4-trimethyl-benzene.

  14. USE OF SYNTHETIC ZEOLITES FOR ARSENATE REMOVAL FROM POLLUTANT WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic is known to be a hazardous contaminant in drinking water that causes arsenical dermatitis and skin cancer. In the present work, the potential use of a variety of synthetic zeolites for removal of arsenic from water below the current and proposed EPA MCL has been examined...

  15. Zeolite formation from coal fly ash and its adsorption potential

    SciTech Connect

    Duangkamol Ruen-ngam; Doungmanee Rungsuk; Ronbanchob Apiratikul

    The possibility in converting coal fly ash (CFA) to zeolite was evaluated. CFA samples from the local power plant in Prachinburi province, Thailand, were collected during a 3-month time span to account for the inconsistency of the CFA quality, and it was evident that the deviation of the quality of the raw material did not have significant effects on the synthesis. The zeolite product was found to be type X. The most suitable weight ratio of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to CFA was approximately 2.25, because this gave reasonably high zeolite yield with good cation exchange capacity (CEC). The silica (Si)-to-aluminummore » (Al) molar ratio of 4.06 yielded the highest crystallinity level for zeolite X at 79% with a CEC of 240 meq/100 g and a surface area of 325 m{sup 2}/g. Optimal crystallization temperature and time were 90{sup o}C and 4 hr, respectively, which gave the highest CEC of approximately 305 meq/100 g. Yields obtained from all experiments were in the range of 50-72%. 29 refs., 5 tabs., 7 figs.« less

  16. Mobil/Badger to market zeolite-based cumene technology

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D.

    1993-02-24

    Badger (Cambridge, MA) and Mobil (Fairfax, VA) are ready to jointly license a new cumene technology that they say achieves higher yields and product purity than existing processes. The zeolite-based technology is scheduled to be introduced at next month's DeWitt Petrochemical Review in Houston. The Mobil/Badger technology aims to challenge the dominant position of UOP's (Des Plaines, IL) solid phosphoric acid (SPA) catalyst process - which accounts for 80%-90% of the world's cumene production. In addition, Monsanto/Kellogg's aluminum chloride-based technology has gained significant momentum since its introduction in the 1980s. And late last year, ABB Lummus Crest (Bloomfield, NJ) alsomore » began marketing a zeolite-based cumene technology. While all the technologies make cumene via the alkylation of benzene with propylene, the Mobil/Badger process uses a zeolite-containing catalyst designed by Mobil to selectively catalyze the benzene/propylene reaction, avoiding unwanted propylene oligomerization. Because the olefin reactions are so fast, says Frank A. Demers, Badger's v.p./technology development and marketing, other zeolite technologies are forced to use complex reactor arrangements to stop the propylene-propylene reactions. However, he says, Mobil has designed a catalyst that wants to react benzene with propylene to make cumene.'« less

  17. Biogas cleaning and upgrading with natural zeolites from tuffs.

    PubMed

    Paolini, Valerio; Petracchini, Francesco; Guerriero, Ettore; Bencini, Alessandro; Drigo, Serena

    2016-01-01

    CO2 adsorption on synthetic zeolites has become a consolidated approach for biogas upgrading to biomethane. As an alternative to synthetic zeolites, tuff waste from building industry was investigated in this study: indeed, this material is available at a low price and contains a high fraction of natural zeolites. A selective adsorption of CO2 and H2S towards CH4 was confirmed, allowing to obtain a high-purity biomethane (CO2 <2 g m(-3), i.e. 0.1%; H2S <1.5 mg m(-3)), suitable for injection in national grids or as vehicle fuel. The loading capacity was found to be 45 g kg(-1) and 40 mg kg(-1), for CO2 and H2S, respectively. Synthetic gas mixtures and real biogas samples were used, and no significant effects due to biogas impurities (e.g. humidity, dust, moisture, etc.) were observed. Thermal and vacuum regenerations were also optimized and confirmed to be possible, without significant variations in efficiency. Hence, natural zeolites from tuffs may successfully be used in a pressure/vacuum swing adsorption process.

  18. Studying Zeolite Catalysts with a 2D Model System

    ScienceCinema

    Boscoboinik, Anibal

    2018-06-13

    Anibal Boscoboinik, a materials scientist at Brookhaven’s Center for Functional Nanomaterials, discusses the surface-science tools and 2D model system he uses to study catalysis in nanoporous zeolites, which catalyze reactions in many industrial processes.

  19. Microwave pyrolysis of multilayer plastic waste (LDPE) using zeolite catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juliastuti, Sri Rachmania; Hendrianie, Nuniek; Ramadhan, Pandu Jati; Satria, Dama Husin

    2017-05-01

    To overcome the problem of garbage, especially plastic waste, environmental experts and scholars from various disciplines have conducted various studies and actions. One way to degrade the multilayer packaging plastic waste LDPE (Low Density Poliethylene) with microwave pyrolysis process by using natural zeolite catalysts. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect of temperature and time of microwave pyrolysis process by using natural zeolite catalyst to degrade the plastic waste LDPE and compare them. Pyrolysis process was done by using a closed glass reactor with a capacity of 500 ml, operated at a pressure of 1 atm and flowed nitrogen 0.5 1 / min. Plastic waste was LDPE, and natural zeolite was used as its catalyst. Sample was heated at temperature 300, 400, 500 or 550 °C and was kept during time variables of 45, 60, 75 and 90 minutes. Liquid product was analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), raw material was analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), and solid product was analyzed by X-Ray Fluorescene (XRF). From the experimental resulted in the best yield products of pyrolisis using natural zeolite at 550 °C and 90 minutes was 2.88 % of solid yield, 28.12 % of liquid yield and the highest hydrocarbon concentration of 19.02 %.

  20. Selective photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOEpatents

    Frei, Heinz; Blatter, Fritz; Sun, Hai

    1998-01-01

    A selective photooxidation process for the conversion of hydrocarbon molecules to partially oxygenated derivatives, which comprises the steps of adsorbing a hydrocarbon and oxygen onto a dehydrated zeolite support matrix to form a hydrocarbon-oxygen contact pair, and subsequently exposing the hydrocarbon-oxygen contact pair to visible light, thereby forming a partially oxygenated derivative.

  1. DIFFUSION MEASUREMENTS DURING PERVAPORATION THROUGH A ZEOLITE MEMBRANE

    EPA Science Inventory


    An isotopic-transient technique was used to directly measure diffusion times of H2O, methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, and acetone in pure and binary mixture feeds transporting through a zeolite membrane under steady-state pervaporation conditions. Diffusivities can be determ...

  2. High-pressure alchemy on a small-pore zeolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y.

    2011-12-01

    While an ever-expanding variety of zeolites with a wide range of framework topology is available, it is desirable to have a way to tailor the chemistry of the zeolitic nanopores for a given framework topology via controlling both the coordination-inclusion chemistry and framework distortion/relaxation. This is, however, subjected to the ability of a zeolitic nanopore to allow the redistribution of cations-water assembly and/or insertion of foreign molecules into the pores and channels. Small-pore zeolites such as natrolite (Na16Al16Si24O80x16H2O), however, have been known to show very limited capacity for any changes in the confinement chemistry. We have recently shown that various cation-exchanged natrolites can be prepared under modest conditions from natural sodium natrolite and exhibit cation-dependent volume expansions by up to 18.5% via converting the elliptical channels into progressively circular ones. Here, we show that pressure can be used as a unique and clean tool to further manipulate the chemistry of the natrolite nanopores. Our recent crystallographic and spectroscopic studies of pressure-insertion of foreign molecules, trivalent-cation exchange under pressure, and pressure-induced inversion of cation-water coordination and pore geometry in various cation-exchanged natrolites will be presented.

  3. Pore Topology Effects in Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy of Zeolites.

    PubMed

    Zubiaga, Asier; Warringham, Robbie; Mitchell, Sharon; Gerchow, Lars; Cooke, David; Crivelli, Paolo; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

    2017-03-03

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is a powerful method to study the size and connectivity of pores in zeolites. The lifetime of positronium within the host material is commonly described by the Tao-Eldrup model. However, one of its largest limitations arises from the simple geometries considered for the shape of the pores, which cannot describe accurately the complex topologies in zeolites. Here, an atomic model that combines the Tao potential with the crystallographic structure is introduced to calculate the distribution and lifetime of Ps intrinsic to a given framework. A parametrization of the model is undertaken for a set of widely applied zeolite framework types (*BEA, FAU, FER, MFI, MOR, UTL), before extending the model to all known structures. The results are compared to structural and topological descriptors, and to the Tao-Eldrup model adapted for zeolites, demonstrating the intricate dependence of the lifetime on the pore architecture. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. [Denitrification water treatment with zeolite composite filter by intermittent operation].

    PubMed

    Qing, Cheng-Song; Bao, Tao; Chen, Tian-Hu; Chen, Dong; Xie, Jing-Jing

    2012-12-01

    The zeolite composite filters (ZCF) with the size of4-8 mm were prepared using raw zeolite (0.15-0.18 mm) as the main material and the cement as binder. After a combination of material characterizations, such as the void fraction, apparent density, compression strength and surface area, the optimal prepared conditions of composite filters were obtained as follow: weight ratio of m (zeolite): m (cement) = 7 : 3, curing for 15 d under the moisture condition and ambient temperature. Through upflow low-concentration ammonia nitrogen wastewater, ZCF filled in the experimental column was hung with the biological membrane. Thus, intermittent dynamic experiments were conducted, the intermittent operation cycle included adsorption, biological regeneration and drip washing. Until concentration of ammonia nitrogen was more than 2 mg x L(-1) of effluent standards, water in experiment column was firstly emptied, and then blast biological regeneration was conducted. After the filters were bathed with water, the zeolite adsorption-biological regeneration cycle was performed repeatedly. The experimental results show that under conditions of 24 h blast and 5 d of continuous operation period, ammonia nitrogen removal rate is up to 87.6% on average, total nitrogen removal rate reaches 51.2% on average.

  5. Thermal expansion of ceramic samples containing natural zeolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunitrová, Ivana; Trník, Anton

    2017-07-01

    In this study the thermal expansion of ceramic samples made from natural zeolite is investigated. Samples are prepared from the two most commonly used materials in ceramic industry (kaolin and illite). The first material is Sedlec kaolin from Czech Republic, which contains more than 90 mass% of mineral kaolinite. The second one is an illitic clay from Tokaj area in Hungary, which contains about 80 mass% of mineral illite. Varying amount of the clay (0 % - 50 %) by a natural zeolite from Nižný Hrabovec (Slovak Republic), containing clinoptilolite as major mineral phase is replaced. The measurements are performed on cylindrical samples with a diameter 14 mm and a length about 35 mm by a horizontal push - rod dilatometer. Samples made from pure kaolin, illite and zeolite are also subjected to this analysis. The temperature regime consists from linear heating rate of 5 °C/min from 30 °C to 1100 °C. The results show that the relative shrinkage of ceramic samples increases with amount of zeolite in samples.

  6. Metal/Silicate Partitioning of P, Ga, and W at High Pressures and Temperatures: Dependence on Silicate Melt Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Edward; Drake, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    The distinctive pattern of element concentrations in the upper mantle provides essential evidence in our attempts to understand the accretion and differentiation of the Earth (e.g., Drake and Righter, 2002; Jones and Drake, 1986; Righter et al., 1997; Wanke 1981). Core formation is best investigated through use of metal/silicate partition coefficients for siderophile elements. The variables influencing partition coefficients are temperature, pressure, the major element compositions of the silicate and metal phases, and oxygen fugacity. Examples of studies investigating the effects of these variables on partitioning behavior are: composition of the metal phase by Capobianco et al. (1999) and Righter et al. (1997); silicate melt composition by Watson (1976), Walter and Thibault (1995), Hillgren et al. (1996), Jana and Walker (1997), and Jaeger and Drake (2000); and oxygen fugacity by Capobianco et al. (1999), and Walter and Thibault (1995). Here we address the relative influences of silicate melt composition, pressure and temperature.

  7. Zeolite in horizontal permeable reactive barriers for artificial groundwater recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal, María; Martínez-Hernández, Virtudes; Lillo, Javier; Meffe, Raffaella; de Bustamante, Irene

    2013-04-01

    The Spanish Water Reuse Royal Decree 1620/2007 considers groundwater recharge as a feasible use of reclaimed water. To achieve the water quality established in the above-mentioned legislation, a tertiary wastewater treatment is required. In this context, the infiltration of effluents generated by secondary wastewater treatments through a Horizontal Permeable Reactive Barrier (HPRB) may represent a suitable regeneration technology. Some nutrients (phosphate and ammonium) and some Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) are not fully removed in conventional wastewater treatment plants. To avoid groundwater contamination when effluents of wastewater treatments plants are used in artificial recharge activities, these contaminants have to be removed. Due to its sorption capacities, zeolite is among the most used reactive materials in Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB). Therefore, the main goal of this study is to evaluate the zeolite retention effectiveness of nutrients and PPCPs occurring in treated wastewater. Batch sorption experiments using synthetic wastewater (SWW) and zeolite were performed. A 1:4 zeolite/SWW ratio was selected due to the high sorption capacity of the reactive material.The assays were carried out by triplicate. All the bottles containing the SWW-zeolite mixture were placed on a mechanical shaker during 24 hours at 140 rpm and 25 °C. Ammonium and phosphate, as main nutrients, and a group of PPCPs were selected as compounds to be tested during the experiments. Nutrients were analyzed by ion chromatography. For PPCPs determination, Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) was applied before their analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry time of flight (LC-MS/ TOF). The experimental data were fitted to linearized Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations to obtain sorption parameters. In general, Freundlich model shows a greater capability of reproducing experimental data. To our knowledge, sorption of the investigated compounds on zeolite

  8. Catalase-like activity studies of the manganese(II) adsorbed zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ćiçek, Ekrem; Dede, Bülent

    2013-12-01

    Preparation of manganese(II) adsorbed on zeolite 3A, 4A, 5A. AW-300, ammonium Y zeolite, organophilic, molecular sieve and catalase-like enzyme activity of manganese(II) adsorbed zeolites are reported herein. Firstly zeolites are activated at 873 K for two hours before contact manganese(II) ions. In order to observe amount of adsorption, filtration process applied for the solution. The pure zeolites and manganese(II) adsorbed zeolites were analysed by FT-IR. As a result according to the FT-IR spectra, the incorporation of manganese(II) cation into the zeolite structure causes changes in the spectra. These changes are expected particularly in the pseudolattice bands connected with the presence of alumino and silicooxygen tetrahedral rings in the zeolite structure. Furthermore, the catalytic activities of the Mn(II) adsorbed zeolites for the disproportionation of hydrogen peroxide were investigated in the presence of imidazole. The Mn(II) adsorbed zeolites display efficiency in the disproportion reactions of hydrogen peroxide, producing water and dioxygen in catalase-like activity.

  9. Cationic surfactants-modified natural zeolites: improvement of the excipients functionality.

    PubMed

    Krajisnik, Danina; Milojević, Maja; Malenović, Anđelija; Daković, Aleksandra; Ibrić, Svetlana; Savić, Snezana; Dondur, Vera; Matijasević, Srđan; Radulović, Aleksandra; Daniels, Rolf; Milić, Jela

    2010-10-01

    In this study an investigation of cationic surfactants-modified natural zeolites as drug formulation excipient was performed. The aim of this work was to carry out a study of the purified natural zeolitic tuff with high amount of clinoptilolite as a potential carrier for molecules of pharmaceutical interest. Two cationic surfactants (benzalkonium chloride and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide) were used for modification of the zeolitic surface in two levels (equal to and twice as external cation-exchange capacity of the zeolitic tuff). Prepared samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric, high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, and powder flow determination. Different surfactant/zeolite composites were used for additional investigation of three model drugs: diclofenac diethylamine, diclofenac sodium, and ibuprofen by means of adsorption isotherm measurements in aqueous solutions. The modified zeolites with two levels of surfactant coverage within the short activation time were prepared. Determination of flow properties showed that modification of zeolitic surface reflected on powder flow characteristics. Investigation of the model drugs adsorption on the obtained composites revealed that a variation between adsorption levels was influenced by the surfactant type and the amount present at the surface of the composites. In vitro release profiles of the drugs from the zeolite-surfactant-drug composites revealed that sustained drug release could be attained over a period of 8 hours. The presented results for drug uptake by surfactant-zeolite composites and the afterward drug release demonstrated the potential use of investigated modified natural zeolite as excipients for advanced excipients in drug formulations.

  10. Removal of calcium and magnesium ions from shale gas flowback water by chemically activated zeolite.

    PubMed

    Chang, Haiqing; Liu, Teng; He, Qiping; Li, Duo; Crittenden, John; Liu, Baicang

    2017-07-01

    Shale gas has become a new sweet spot of global oil and gas exploration, and the large amount of flowback water produced during shale gas extraction is attracting increased attention. Internal recycling of flowback water for future hydraulic fracturing is currently the most effective, and it is necessary to decrease the content of divalent cations for eliminating scaling and maintaining effectiveness of friction reducer. Zeolite has been widely used as a sorbent to remove cations from wastewater. This work was carried out to investigate the effects of zeolite type, zeolite form, activation chemical, activation condition, and sorption condition on removal of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ from shale gas flowback water. Results showed that low removal of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ was found for raw zeolite 4A and zeolite 13X, and the efficiency of the mixture of both zeolites was slightly higher. Compared with the raw zeolites, the zeolites after activation using NaOH and NaCl greatly improved the sorption performance, and there was no significant difference between dynamic activation and static activation. Dynamic sorption outperformed static sorption, the difference exceeding 40% and 7-70% for removal of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ , respectively. Moreover, powdered zeolites outperformed granulated zeolites in divalent cation removal.

  11. Exploitation of Unique Properties of Zeolites in the Development of Gas Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yangong; Li, Xiaogan; Dutta, Prabir K.

    2012-01-01

    The unique properties of microporous zeolites, including ion-exchange properties, adsorption, molecular sieving, catalysis, conductivity have been exploited in improving the performance of gas sensors. Zeolites have been employed as physical and chemical filters to improve the sensitivity and selectivity of gas sensors. In addition, direct interaction of gas molecules with the extraframework cations in the nanoconfined space of zeolites has been explored as a basis for developing new impedance-type gas/vapor sensors. In this review, we summarize how these properties of zeolites have been used to develop new sensing paradigms. There is a considerable breadth of transduction processes that have been used for zeolite incorporated sensors, including frequency measurements, optical and the entire gamut of electrochemical measurements. It is clear from the published literature that zeolites provide a route to enhance sensor performance, and it is expected that commercial manifestation of some of the approaches discussed here will take place. The future of zeolite-based sensors will continue to exploit its unique properties and use of other microporous frameworks, including metal organic frameworks. Zeolite composites with electronic materials, including metals will lead to new paradigms in sensing. Use of nano-sized zeolite crystals and zeolite membranes will enhance sensor properties and make possible new routes of miniaturized sensors. PMID:22666081

  12. Antimicrobial Activity of Silver Ions Released from Zeolites Immobilized on Cellulose Nanofiber Mats.

    PubMed

    Rieger, Katrina A; Cho, Hong Je; Yeung, Hiu Fai; Fan, Wei; Schiffman, Jessica D

    2016-02-10

    In this study, we exploit the high silver ion exchange capability of Linde Type A (LTA) zeolites and present, for the first time, electrospun nanofiber mats decorated with in-house synthesized silver (Ag(+)) ion exchanged zeolites that function as molecular delivery vehicles. LTA-Large zeolites with a particle size of 6.0 μm were grown on the surface of the cellulose nanofiber mats, whereas LTA-Small zeolites (0.2 μm) and three-dimensionally ordered mesoporous-imprinted (LTA-Meso) zeolites (0.5 μm) were attached to the surface of the cellulose nanofiber mats postsynthesis. After the three zeolite/nanofiber mat assemblies were ion-exchanged with Ag(+) ions, their ion release profiles and ability to inactivate Escherichia coli (E. coli) K12 were evaluated as a function of time. LTA-Large zeolites immobilized on the nanofiber mats displayed more than an 11 times greater E. coli K12 inactivation than the Ag-LTA-Large zeolites that were not immobilized on the nanofiber mats. This study demonstrates that by decorating nanometer to micrometer scale Ag(+) ion-exchanged zeolites on the surface of high porosity, hydrophilic cellulose nanofiber mats, we can achieve a tunable release of Ag(+) ions that inactivate bacteria faster and are more practical to use in applications over powder zeolites.

  13. Facile synthesis of hollow zeolite microspheres through dissolution–recrystallization procedure in the presence of organosilanes

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Haixiang; Ren, Jiawen; Liu, Xiaohui

    2013-04-15

    Hollow zeolite microspheres have been hydrothermally synthesized in the presence of organosilanes via a dissolution–recrystallization procedure. In the presence of organosilanes, zeolite particles with a core/shell structure formed at the first stage of hydrothermal treatment, then the core was consumed and recrystallized into zeolite framework to form the hollow structure during the second hydrothermal process. The influence of organosilanes was discussed, and a related dissolution–recrystallization mechanism was proposed. In addition, the hollow zeolite microspheres exhibited an obvious advantage in catalytic reactions compared to conventional ZSM-5 catalysts, such as in the alkylation of toluene with benzyl chloride. - Graphical abstract: Hollowmore » zeolite spheres with aggregated zeolite nanocrystals were synthesized via a dissolution–recrystallization procedure in the presence of organosiline. Highlights: ► Hollow zeolite spheres with aggregated zeolite nanocrystals were synthesized via a dissolution–recrystallization procedure. ► Organosilane influences both the morphology and hollow structure of zeolite spheres. ► Hollow zeolite spheres showed an excellent catalytic performance in alkylation of toluene with benzyl chloride.« less

  14. Using natural clinoptilolite zeolite as an amendment in vermicomposting of food waste.

    PubMed

    Zarrabi, Mansur; Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Al-Musawi, Tariq J; Najafi Saleh, Hossein

    2018-06-02

    The effect of adding different proportions of natural clinoptilolite zeolite (5 and 10%) to food waste vermicomposting was investigated by assessing the physicochemical characteristics, worms' growth, and maturation time of finished vermicompost in comparison with the vermicompost prepared with no amendment (control). Vermicomposting was performed in 18 plastic containers for 70 days. The experimental results showed that the carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratios were 15.85, 10.75, and 8.94 for 5 and 10% zeolite concentration and control after 70 days, respectively. The addition of zeolite could facilitate organic matter degradation and increase the total nitrogen content by adsorption of ammonium ions. Increasing the proportion of zeolite from 0% (control) to 10% decreased the ammonia escape by 25% in the final vermicompost. The natural zeolite significantly reduced the electrical conductivity (EC). At the end of the process, salinity uptake efficiency was 39.23% for 5% zeolite treatment and 45.23% for 10% zeolite treatment. The pH values at 5 and 10% zeolite-amended treatments were 7.31 and 7.57, respectively, in comparison to 7.10 in the control. The maturation time at the end of vermicomposting decreased with increasing zeolite concentration. The vermicompost containing 5 and 10% zeolite matured in 49 and 42 days, respectively, in comparison to 56 days for the control. With the use of an initial ten immature Eisenia fetida worms, the number of mature worms in the 10% zeolite treatment was 26 more than that in the 5% zeolite treatment (21 worms) and 9 more than that in the control treatment (17 worms). Significantly, natural zeolite showed a beneficial effect on the characteristics of the end-product when used in the vermicomposting of food waste.

  15. Modification of Natural Zeolite with Fe(III) and Its Application as Adsorbent Chloride and Carbonate ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhartana; Sukmasari, Emmanuella; Azmiyawati, Choiril

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the research is to natural zeolite with Fe(III) using anion exchange process to improve the anion exchange capacity. Natural zeolite was activated using HNO3 1 N and then mixed with FeCl3 solution and refluxed followed by oven and calcination at a temperature of 550°C. The influence of Fe(III) to zeolite was characterized by FTIR while presence of Fe in zeolite characterized by AAS. Zeolite and Zeolite-Fe adsorption capacity of chloride and carbonate anions were determined through adsorption test by variation of pH and contact time. In advanced, and then to determining the Fe adsorbed concentration at Zeolite using UV-Vis spectrophotometer. FTIR analysis result showed that the addition of Fe does not affect the zeolite’s structure but change the intensity of the zeolite spectra. The Fe concentration in Zeolite-Fe of 714 mg L-1, indicate that Fe was present in the zeolite. Both Zeolite and Zeolite-Fe adsorbtion results showed that optimum pH of Chloride anion is 2, with adsorption capacity 2,33 x 10-3 gg-1 and optimum contact time is 8 minutes. While Zeolite and Zeolite-Fe adsorbtion results showed that optimum pH of Carbonate anion is 5, with adsorption capacity 5,31 x 10-3 gg-1 and optimum contact time is 8 minutes.

  16. Genesis of IIICD Iron Meteorites: Evidence From Silicate Inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, T. J.; Keil, K.; Scott, E. R. D.; Haack, H.

    1992-07-01

    The IAB and IIICD iron meteorite groups exhibit much larger ranges in siderophile concentrations than other groups and commonly contain silicate inclusions. Extensive studies of metal in both groups and silicates in IAB irons have led to a variety of ideas to explain the genesis of these groups. Wasson et al. (1980) envision each meteorite forming in a separate impact melt pool. Kracher (1982, 1985) suggested that the siderophile trends might result from fractional crystallization of both metal and troilite in a S-saturated magma. A role for oxidation-reduction in these groups has been proposed by Scott and Bild (1974). Similarities in siderophile elemental trends indicate that IIICD metal has a similar origin, although data on silicate inclusions in IIICD irons are scarce (Ramdohr, 1973; Scott and Bild, 1974; Kracher and Kurat, 1977; Prinz et al., 1982; Clayton et al., 1983). We report the first detailed study of silicate inclusions in IIICD iron meteorites in an attempt to elucidate their history. We have studied the only silicate-bearing IIICD irons - Carlton, Dayton, and the recently reported Maltahohe. Silicate-graphite-phosphate inclusions comprise at most a few percent of the bulk meteorite, and silicates comprise <25 vol% of the inclusion. Silicate mineralogy and chemistry vary systematically with increasing M content of the metal. Maltahohe (10.7 wt% Ni) and Carlton (13.0%) contain olivine, pyroxene, and plagioclase, whereas Dayton (17.0%) contains pyroxene, plagioclase, and SiO2. Pyroxene becomes more FeO-rich from Maltahohe (FS(sub)7.8) to Carlton (Fs(sub)9.7) to Dayton (Fs(sub)11.6). Inverse FeO zoning in silicates and lower Fa than Fs indicate reduction in all three meteorites. Plagioclase compositions in IIICD (An(sub)1.1-4.9) are lower than IAB (An(sub)9.2-2l.5) and uncorrelated with Ni content. The abundances of associated phases also vary. Graphite comprises ~25 vol% of Maltahohe silicate inclusions, but only a few percent in Carlton, and is absent

  17. The Effect of Zeolite Composition and Grain Size on Gas Sensing Properties of SnO₂/Zeolite Sensor.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanhui; Wang, Jing; Li, Xiaogan; Du, Haiying; Huang, Qingpan; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2018-01-29

    In order to improve the sensing properties of tin dioxide gas sensor, four kinds of different SiO₂/Al₂O₃ ratio, different particle size of MFI type zeolites (ZSM-5) were coated on the SnO₂ to prepared zeolite modified gas sensors, and the gas sensing properties were tested. The measurement results showed that the response values of ZSM-5 zeolite (SiO₂/Al₂O₃ = 70, grain size 300 nm) coated SnO₂ gas sensors to formaldehyde vapor were increased, and the response to acetone decreased compared with that of SnO₂ gas sensor, indicating an improved selectivity property. The other three ZSM-5 zeolites with SiO₂/Al₂O₃ 70, 150 and 470, respectively, and grain sizes all around 1 μm coated SnO₂ sensors did not show much difference with SnO₂ sensor for the response properties to both formaldehyde and acetone. The sensing mechanism of ZSM-5 modified sensors was briefly analyzed.

  18. Multi-component lanthanide hybrids based on zeolite A/L and zeolite A/L-polymers for tunable luminescence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Yan, Bing

    2015-02-01

    Some multi-component hybrids based on zeolite L/A are prepared. Firstly, zeolite A/L is loaded with lanthanide complexes (Eu-DBM or Tb-AA (acetylacetone = AA, dibenzoylmethane = DBM)) into its channels. Secondly, 3-methacryloyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (γ-MPS) is used to covalently graft onto the surface of functionalized zeolite A/L (Si-[ZA/L⊃Eu-DBM(Tb-AA)]). Thirdly, lanthanide ions (Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)) are coordinated to the functionalized zeolite A/L and ligands (phen(1,10-phenanthroline) or bipy (2,2'-bipyridyl)) are introduced by a ship-in-bottle method. The inside-outside double modifications of ZA/L with lanthanide complexes afford the final hybrids and these are characterized by means of XRD, FT-IR, UV-vis DRS, SEM and luminescence spectroscopy, some of which display white or near-white light emission. Furthermore, selected above-mentioned hybrids are incorporated into PEMA/PMMA (poly ethyl methylacryate/poly methyl methacrylate) hosts to prepare luminescent polymer films. These results provide abundant data that these hybrid materials can be expected to have potential application in various practical fields.

  19. Thermochemistry of amorphous and crystalline zirconium and hafnium silicates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushakov, S.; Brown, C. E.; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Boatner, L. A.; Demkov, A. A.; Wang, C.; Nguyen, B.-Y.

    2003-03-01

    Calorimetric investigation of amorphous and crystalline zirconium and hafnium silicates was performed as part of a research program on thermochemistry of alternative gate dielectrics. Amorphous hafnium and zirconium silicates with varying SiO2 content were synthesized by a sol-gel process. Crystalline zirconium and hafnium silicates (zircon and hafnon) were synthesized by solid state reaction at 1450 °C from amorphous gels and grown as single crystals from flux. High temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry in lead borate (2PbO.B2O3) solvent at 800 oC was used to measure drop solution enthalpies for amorphous and crystalline zirconium and hafnium silicates and corresponding oxides. Applying appropriate thermochemical cycles, formation enthalpy of crystalline ZrSiO4 (zircon) from binary oxides (baddeleite and quartz) at 298 K was calculated as -23 +/-2 kJ/mol and enthalpy difference between amorphous and crystalline zirconium silicate (vitrification enthalpy) was found to be 61 +/-3 kJ/mol. Crystallization onset temperatures of amorphous zirconium and hafnium silicates, as measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), increased with silica content. The resulting crystalline phases, as characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), were tetragonal HfO2 and ZrO2. Critical crystallite size for tetragonal to monoclinic transformation of HfO2 in the gel was estimated as 6 +/-2 nm from XRD data Crystallization enthalpies per mole of hafnia and zirconia in gels decrease slightly together with crystallite size with increasing silica content, for example from -22 to -15 +/-1 kJ per mol of HfO2 crystallized at 740 and 1006 °C from silicates with 10 and 70 mol Applications of thermal analyses and solution calorimetry techniques together with first-principles density functional calculations to estimate interface and surface energies are discussed.

  20. Comment on "The shape and composition of interstellar silicate grains"

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, J P; Ishii, H

    2007-09-27

    In the paper entitled 'The shape and composition of interstellar silicate grains' (A & A, 462, 667-676 (2007)), Min et al. explore non-spherical grain shape and composition in modeling the interstellar 10 and 20 {micro}m extinction features. This progression towards more realistic models is vitally important to enabling valid comparisons between dust observations and laboratory measurements. Min et al. proceed to compare their model results with GEMS (glass with embedded metals and sulfides) from IDPs (interplanetary dust particles) and to discuss the nature and origin of GEMS. Specifically, they evaluate the hypothesis of Bradley (1994) that GEMS are interstellar (IS)more » amorphous silicates. From a comparison of the mineralogy, chemical compositions, and infrared (IR) spectral properties of GEMS with their modeling results, Min et al. conclude: 'GEMS are, in general, not unprocessed leftovers from the diffuse ISM'. This conclusion is based, however, on erroneous and incomplete GEMS data. It is important to clarify first that Bradley (1994) never proposed that GEMS are unprocessed leftovers from the diffuse ISM, nor did he suggest that individual subnanogram mass GEMS are a representative sampling of the enormous mass of silicates in the diffuse ISM. Bradley (1994) simply showed that GEMS properties are consistent with those of IS amorphous silicates. It is widely accepted that circumstellar outflows are important sources of IS silicates, and whether GEMS are processed or not, the circumstellar heritage of some has been rigorously confirmed through measurements of non-solar oxygen (O) isotope abundances (Messenger et al., 2003; Floss et al., 2006). Keller et al. (2000) assert that even GEMS without detectable O isotope anomalies are probably also extrasolar IS silicates because they are embedded in carbonaceous material with non-solar D/H isotopic composition. (Much of the silicate dust in the ISM may be isotopically homogenized (Zhukovska et al., 2007

  1. Dispersible Exfoliated Zeolite Nanosheets and Their Application as a Selective Membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Varoon, Kumar; Zhang, Xueyi; Elyassi, Bahman

    2011-10-06

    Thin zeolite films are attractive for a wide range of applications, including molecular sieve membranes, catalytic membrane reactors, permeation barriers, and low-dielectric-constant materials. Synthesis of thin zeolite films using high-aspect-ratio zeolite nanosheets is desirable because of the packing and processing advantages of the nanosheets over isotropic zeolite nanoparticles. Attempts to obtain a dispersed suspension of zeolite nanosheets via exfoliation of their lamellar precursors have been hampered because of their structure deterioration and morphological damage (fragmentation, curling, and aggregation). We demonstrated the synthesis and structure determination of highly crystalline nanosheets of zeolite frameworks MWW and MFI. The purity and morphological integritymore » of these nanosheets allow them to pack well on porous supports, facilitating the fabrication of molecular sieve membranes.« less

  2. Potential and challenges of zeolite chemistry in the catalytic conversion of biomass.

    PubMed

    Ennaert, Thijs; Van Aelst, Joost; Dijkmans, Jan; De Clercq, Rik; Schutyser, Wouter; Dusselier, Michiel; Verboekend, Danny; Sels, Bert F

    2016-02-07

    Increasing demand for sustainable chemicals and fuels has pushed academia and industry to search for alternative feedstocks replacing crude oil in traditional refineries. As a result, an immense academic attention has focused on the valorisation of biomass (components) and derived intermediates to generate valuable platform chemicals and fuels. Zeolite catalysis plays a distinct role in many of these biomass conversion routes. This contribution emphasizes the progress and potential in zeolite catalysed biomass conversions and relates these to concepts established in existing petrochemical processes. The application of zeolites, equipped with a variety of active sites, in Brønsted acid, Lewis acid, or multifunctional catalysed reactions is discussed and generalised to provide a comprehensive overview. In addition, the feedstock shift from crude oil to biomass involves new challenges in developing fields, like mesoporosity and pore interconnectivity of zeolites and stability of zeolites in liquid phase. Finally, the future challenges and perspectives of zeolites in the processing of biomass conversion are discussed.

  3. Halloysite nanotube-based electrospun ceramic nanofibre mat: a novel support for zeolite membranes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhuwen; Zeng, Jiaying; Lv, Dong; Gao, Jinqiang; Zhang, Jian; Bai, Shan; Li, Ruili; Wu, Jingshen

    2016-01-01

    Some key parameters of supports such as porosity, pore shape and size are of great importance for fabrication and performance of zeolite membranes. In this study, we fabricated millimetre-thick, self-standing electrospun ceramic nanofibre mats and employed them as a novel support for zeolite membranes. The nanofibre mats were prepared by electrospinning a halloysite nanotubes/polyvinyl pyrrolidone composite followed by a programmed sintering process. The interwoven nanofibre mats possess up to 80% porosity, narrow pore size distribution, low pore tortuosity and highly interconnected pore structure. Compared with the commercial α-Al2O3 supports prepared by powder compaction and sintering, the halloysite nanotube-based mats (HNMs) show higher flux, better adsorption of zeolite seeds, adhesion of zeolite membranes and lower Al leaching. Four types of zeolite membranes supported on HNMs have been successfully synthesized with either in situ crystallization or a secondary growth method, demonstrating good universality of HNMs for supporting zeolite membranes. PMID:28083098

  4. Elimination of Escherichia coli and Salmonella in Clam by Using Zeolite in a Station of Depuration.

    PubMed

    Gdoura, Morsi; Sellami, Hanen; Khannous, Lamia; Ketata, Najib; Neila, Idriss Ben; Traore, Al Ibrahim; Chekir, Zouhair; Gdoura, Radhouane

    2017-09-01

      The application of natural zeolite for water and wastewater treatment has been carried out and is still a promising technique in environmental cleaning processes. Natural zeolite can be used to improve the purification process of clams (Ruditapes decussatus). Thus, our study aimed at improving the clam purification system in order to reduce Escherichia coli and eliminate Salmonella in samples artificially contaminated with this bacterium using a natural zeolite to replace the biological filter. The results showed that zeolite used in a depuration system improved the clam purification process. Moreover, natural zeolite exhibited high performance in the adsorption of bacteria and allowed to reduce the Escherichia coli abundance in 24 h, thus ensuring purified clams conformity with the ISO 16649-3 standard. These results indicate the beneficial effects of using zeolite in the adsorption of bacteria and the reduction in the abundance of Escherichia coli and set the Salmonella from marine organisms.

  5. Halloysite nanotube-based electrospun ceramic nanofibre mat: a novel support for zeolite membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhuwen; Zeng, Jiaying; Lv, Dong; Gao, Jinqiang; Zhang, Jian; Bai, Shan; Li, Ruili; Hong, Mei; Wu, Jingshen

    2016-12-01

    Some key parameters of supports such as porosity, pore shape and size are of great importance for fabrication and performance of zeolite membranes. In this study, we fabricated millimetre-thick, self-standing electrospun ceramic nanofibre mats and employed them as a novel support for zeolite membranes. The nanofibre mats were prepared by electrospinning a halloysite nanotubes/polyvinyl pyrrolidone composite followed by a programmed sintering process. The interwoven nanofibre mats possess up to 80% porosity, narrow pore size distribution, low pore tortuosity and highly interconnected pore structure. Compared with the commercial α-Al2O3 supports prepared by powder compaction and sintering, the halloysite nanotube-based mats (HNMs) show higher flux, better adsorption of zeolite seeds, adhesion of zeolite membranes and lower Al leaching. Four types of zeolite membranes supported on HNMs have been successfully synthesized with either in situ crystallization or a secondary growth method, demonstrating good universality of HNMs for supporting zeolite membranes.

  6. Effects of ultrasonic treatment on zeolite NaA synthesized from by-product silica.

    PubMed

    Vaičiukynienė, Danutė; Kantautas, Aras; Vaitkevičius, Vitoldas; Jakevičius, Leonas; Rudžionis, Žymantas; Paškevičius, Mantas

    2015-11-01

    The synthesis of zeolite NaA from silica by-product was carried out in the presence of 20 kHz ultrasound at room temperature. Zeolites obtained in this type of synthesis were compared to zeolites obtained by performing conventional static syntheses under similar conditions. The sonication effects on zeolite NaA synthesis were characterized by phase identification, crystallinity etc. The effects of different parameters such as crystallization time and initial materials preparation methods on the crystallinity and morphology of the synthesized zeolites were investigated. The final products were characterized by XRD and FT-IR. It was possible to obtain crystalline zeolite NaA from by-product silica in the presence of ultrasound. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A subsurface Fe-silicate weathering microbiome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napieralski, S. A.; Buss, H. L.; Roden, E. E.

    2017-12-01

    Traditional models of microbially mediated weathering of primary Fe-bearing minerals often invoke organic ligands (e.g. siderophores) used for nutrient acquisition. However, it is well known that the oxidation of Fe(II) governs the overall rate of Fe-silicate mineral dissolution. Recent work has demonstrated the ability of lithtrophic iron oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) to grow via the oxidation of structural Fe(II) in biotite as a source of metabolic energy with evidence suggesting a direct enzymatic attack on the mineral surface. This process necessitates the involvement of dedicated outer membrane proteins that interact with insoluble mineral phases in a process known as extracellular electron transfer (EET). To investigate the potential role FeOB in a terrestrial subsurface weathering system, samples were obtained from the bedrock-saprolite interface (785 cm depth) within the Rio Icacos Watershed of the Luquillo Mountains in Puerto Rico. Prior geochemical evidence suggests the flux of Fe(II) from the weathering bedrock supports a robust lithotrophic microbial community at depth. Current work confirms the activity of microorganism in situ, with a marked increase in ATP near the bedrock-saprolite interface. Regolith recovered from the interface was used as inoculum to establish enrichment cultures with powderized Fe(II)-bearing minerals serving as the sole energy source. Monitoring of the Fe(II)/Fe(total) ratio and ATP generation suggests growth of microorganisms coupled to the oxidation of mineral bound Fe(II). Analysis of 16S rRNA gene and shotgun metagenomic libraries from in situ and enrichment culture samples lends further support to FeOB involvement in the weathering process. Multiple metagenomic bins related to known FeOB, including Betaproteobacteria genera, contain homologs to model EET systems, including Cyc2 and MtoAB. Our approach combining geochemistry and metagenomics with ongoing microbiological and genomic characterization of novel isolates obtained

  8. Effective solidification/stabilisation of mercury-contaminated wastes using zeolites and chemically bonded phosphate ceramics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaoqing; Zhang, Xinyan; Xiong, Ya; Wang, Guoping; Zheng, Na

    2015-02-01

    In this study, two kinds of zeolites materials (natural zeolite and thiol-functionalised zeolite) were added to the chemically bonded phosphate ceramic processes to treat mercury-contaminated wastes. Strong promotion effects of zeolites (natural zeolite and thiol-functionalised zeolite) on the stability of mercury in the wastes were obtained and these technologies showed promising advantages toward the traditional Portland cement process, i.e. using Portland cement as a solidification agent and natural or thiol-functionalised zeolite as a stabilisation agent. Not only is a high stabilisation efficiency (lowered the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure Hg by above 10%) obtained, but also a lower dosage of solidification (for thiol-functionalised zeolite as stabilisation agent, 0.5 g g(-1) and 0.7 g g(-1) for chemically bonded phosphate ceramic and Portland cement, respectively) and stabilisation agents (for natural zeolite as stabilisation agent, 0.35 g g(-1) and 0.4 g g(-1) for chemically bonded phosphate ceramic and Portland cement, respectively) were used compared with the Portland cement process. Treated by thiol-functionalised zeolite and chemically bonded phosphate ceramic under optimum parameters, the waste containing 1500 mg Hg kg(-1) passed the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure test. Moreover, stabilisation/solidification technology using natural zeolite and chemically bonded phosphate ceramic also passed the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure test (the mercury waste containing 625 mg Hg kg(-1)). Moreover, the presence of chloride and phosphate did not have a negative effect on the chemically bonded phosphate ceramic/thiol-functionalised zeolite treatment process; thus, showing potential for future application in treatment of 'difficult-to-manage' mercury-contaminated wastes or landfill disposal with high phosphate and chloride content. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Ammonium removal from high-strength aqueous solutions by Australian zeolite.

    PubMed

    Wijesinghe, D Thushari N; Dassanayake, Kithsiri B; Sommer, Sven G; Jayasinghe, Guttila Y; J Scales, Peter; Chen, Deli

    2016-07-02

    Removal of ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) particularly from sources which are highly rich in nitrogen is important for addressing environmental pollution. Zeolites, aluminosilicate minerals, are commonly used as commercial adsorbents and ion-exchange medium in number of commercial applications due to its high adsorption capacity of ammonium (NH4(+)). However, detailed investigations on NH4(+) adsorption and ion exchange capacities of Australian natural zeolites are rare, particularly under higher NH4(+) concentrations in the medium. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine NH4(+) adsorption characteristics of Australian natural zeolites at high NH4(+) concentrations with and without other chemical compounds in an aqueous solution. Results showed that initial NH4(+) concentration, temperature, reaction time, and pH of the solution had significant effects on NH4(+) adsorption capacity of zeolite. Increased retention time and temperature generally had a positive impact on adsorption. Freundlich model fitted well with adsorption process of Australian natural zeolites; however, Langmuir model had best fitted for the adsorption process of sodium (Na(+)) treated zeolites. NaCl treatment increased the NH4(+) adsorption capacity of Australian zeolites by 25% at 1000 mg-N, NH4(+) solution. The maximum adsorption capacity of both natural Australian zeolites and Na(+) treated zeolites were estimated as 9.48 and 11.83 mg-N/g, respectively, which is lower than many zeolites from other sources. Compared to the NH4(+) only medium, presence of other competitive ions and acetic acid in the medium (resembling composition in digested swine manure slurries) reduced NH4(+) removal of natural and Na(+) treated zeolites by 44% and 57%, respectively. This suggests detailed investigations are required to determine practically achievable NH4(+) -N removal potential of zeolites for applications in complex mediums such as animal manure slurries.

  10. Heterogeneous Nucleation of Protein Crystals on Fluorinated Layered Silicate

    PubMed Central

    Ino, Keita; Udagawa, Itsumi; Iwabata, Kazuki; Takakusagi, Yoichi; Kubota, Munehiro; Kurosaka, Keiichi; Arai, Kazuhito; Seki, Yasutaka; Nogawa, Masaya; Tsunoda, Tatsuo; Mizukami, Fujio; Taguchi, Hayao; Sakaguchi, Kengo

    2011-01-01

    Here, we describe an improved system for protein crystallization based on heterogeneous nucleation using fluorinated layered silicate. In addition, we also investigated the mechanism of nucleation on the silicate surface. Crystallization of lysozyme using silicates with different chemical compositions indicated that fluorosilicates promoted nucleation whereas the silicates without fluorine did not. The use of synthesized saponites for lysozyme crystallization confirmed that the substitution of hydroxyl groups contained in the lamellae structure for fluorine atoms is responsible for the nucleation-inducing property of the nucleant. Crystallization of twelve proteins with a wide range of pI values revealed that the nucleation promoting effect of the saponites tended to increase with increased substitution rate. Furthermore, the saponite with the highest fluorine content promoted nucleation in all the test proteins regardless of their overall net charge. Adsorption experiments of proteins on the saponites confirmed that the density of adsorbed molecules increased according to the substitution rate, thereby explaining the heterogeneous nucleation on the silicate surface. PMID:21818343

  11. Deep-Earth Equilibration between Molten Iron and Solid Silicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, M.; Zurkowski, C. C.; Chidester, B.; Campbell, A.

    2017-12-01

    Elemental partitioning between iron-rich metals and silicate minerals influences the properties of Earth's deep interior, and is ultimately responsible for the nature of the core-mantle boundary. These interactions between molten iron and solid silicates were influential during planetary accretion, and persist today between the mantle and liquid outer core. Here we report the results of diamond anvil cell experiments at lower mantle conditions (40 GPa, >2500 K) aimed at examining systems containing a mixture of metals (iron or Fe-16Si alloy) and silicates (peridotite). The experiments were conducted at pressure-temperature conditions above the metallic liquidus but below the silicate solidus, and the recovered samples were analyzed by FIB/SEM with EDS to record the compositions of the coexisting phases. Each sample formed a three-phase equilibrium between bridgmanite, Fe-rich metallic melt, and an oxide. In one experiment, using pure Fe, the quenched metal contained 6 weight percent O, and the coexisting oxide was ferropericlase. The second experiment, using Fe-Si alloy, was highly reducing; its metal contained 10 wt% Si, and the coexisting mineral was stishovite. The distinct mineralogies of the two experiments derived from their different starting metals. These results imply that metallic composition is an important factor in determining the products of mixed phase iron-silicate reactions. The properties of deep-Earth interfaces such as the core-mantle boundary could be strongly affected by their metallic components.

  12. Removal of Ca2+ and Zn2+ from aqueous solutions by zeolites NaP and KP.

    PubMed

    Yusof, Alias Mohd; Malek, Nik Ahmad Nizam Nik; Kamaruzaman, Nurul Asyikin; Adil, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    Zeolites P in sodium (NaP) and potassium (KP) forms were used as adsorbents for the removal of calcium (Ca2+) and zinc (Zn2+) cations from aqueous solutions. Zeolite KP was prepared by ion exchange of K+ with Na+ which neutralizes the negative charge of the zeolite P framework structure. The ion exchange capacity of K+ on zeolite NaP was determined through the Freundlich isotherm equilibrium study. Characterization of zeolite KP was determined using infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. From the characterization, the structure of zeolite KP was found to remain stable after the ion exchange process. Zeolites KP and NaP were used for the removal of Ca and Zn from solution. The amount of Ca2+ and Zn2+ in aqueous solution before and after the adsorption by zeolites was analysed using the flame atomic absorption spectroscopy method. The removal of Ca2+ and Zn2+ followed the Freundlich isotherm rather than the Langmuir isotherm model. This result also revealed that zeolite KP adsorbs Ca2+ and Zn2+ more than zeolite NaP and proved that modification of zeolite NaP with potassium leads to an increase in the adsorption efficiency of the zeolite. Therefore, the zeolites NaP and KP can be used for water softening (Ca removal) and reducing water pollution/toxicity (Zn removal).

  13. Synthesis and characterization of zeolites prepared from industrial fly ash.

    PubMed

    Franus, Wojciech; Wdowin, Magdalena; Franus, Małgorzata

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we present the possibility of using fly ash to produce synthetic zeolites. The synthesis class F fly ash from the Stalowa Wola SA heat and power plant was subjected to 24 h hydrothermal reaction with sodium hydroxide. Depending on the reaction conditions, three types of synthetic zeolites were formed: Na-X (20 g fly ash, 0.5 dm(3) of 3 mol · dm(-3) NaOH, 75 °C), Na-P1 (20 g fly ash, 0.5 dm(3) of 3 mol · dm(-3) NaOH, 95 °C), and sodalite (20 g fly ash, 0.8 dm(3) of 5 mol · dm(-3) NaOH + 0.4 dm(3) of 3 mol · dm(-3) NaCl, 95 °C). As synthesized materials were characterized to obtain mineral composition (X-ray diffractometry, Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrometry), adsorption properties (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, N2 isotherm adsorption/desorption), and ion exchange capacity. The most effective reaction for zeolite preparation was when sodalite was formed and the quantitative content of zeolite from X-ray diffractometry was 90 wt%, compared with 70 wt% for the Na-X and 75 wt% for the Na-P1. Residues from each synthesis reaction were the following: mullite, quartz, and the remains of amorphous aluminosilicate glass. The best zeolitic material as characterized by highest specific surface area was Na-X at almost 166 m(2) · g(-1), while for the Na-P1 and sodalite it was 71 and 33 m(2) · g(-1), respectively. The ion exchange capacity decreased in the following order: Na-X at 1.8 meq · g(-1), Na-P1 at 0.72 meq · g(-1), and sodalite at 0.56 meq · g(-1). The resulting zeolites are competitive for commercially available materials and are used as ion exchangers in industrial wastewater and soil decontamination.

  14. A Sensor Based on LiCl/NaA Zeolite Composites for Effective Humidity Sensing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Xiang, Hongyu; Sun, Liang; Xie, Qiuhong; Liu, Man; Chen, Yu; Ruan, Shengping

    2018-03-01

    LiCl/NaA zeolite composites were successfully prepared by doping 1 wt%, 2 wt%, 5 wt%, and 8 wt% of LiCl into NaA zeolite. The humidity sensing properties of LiCl/NaA composites were investigated among 11% 95% relative humidity (RH). The LiCl/NaA composites exhibited better humidity sensing properties than pure NaA zeolite. The sensor made by 2 wt% Li-doped NaA zeolite possesses the best linearly in the whole RH. These results demonstrate that the LiCl/NaA composites have the potential application in humidity sensing.

  15. Lithium modified zeolite synthesis for conversion of biodiesel-derived glycerol to polyglycerol

    SciTech Connect

    Ayoub, Muhammad, E-mail: muhammad.ayoub@petronas.com.my; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi, E-mail: chzuhairi@usm.my; Inayat, Abrar, E-mail: abrar.inayat@petronas.com.my

    Basic zeolite has received significant attention in the catalysis community. These zeolites modified with alkaline are the potential replacement for existing zeolite catalysts due to its unique features with added advantages. The present paper covers the preparation of lithium modified zeolite Y (Li-ZeY) and its activity for solvent free conversion of biodiesel-derived glycerol to polyglycerol via etherification process. The modified zeolite was well characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Nitrogen Adsorption. The SEM images showed that there was no change in morphology of modified zeolite structure after lithium modification. XRD patterns showed that the structure ofmore » zeolite was sustained after lithium modification. The surface properties of parent and modified zeolite was also observed N{sub 2} adsortion-desorption technique and found some changes in surface area and pore size. In addition, the basic strength of prepared materials was measured by Hammet indicators and found that basic strength of Li-ZeY was highly improved. This modified zeolite was found highly thermal stable and active heterogamous basic catalyst for conversion of solvent free glycerol to polyglycerol. This reaction was conducted at different temperatures and 260 °C was found most active temperature for this process for reaction time from 6 to 12 h over this basic catalyst in the absence of solvent.« less

  16. Fabrication of silver nanoparticles doped in the zeolite framework and antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Shameli, Kamyar; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Zargar, Mohsen; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa

    2011-01-01

    Using the chemical reduction method, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were effectively synthesized into the zeolite framework in the absence of any heat treatment. Zeolite, silver nitrate, and sodium borohydride were used as an inorganic solid support, a silver precursor, and a chemical reduction agent, respectively. Silver ions were introduced into the porous zeolite lattice by an ion-exchange path. After the reduction process, Ag NPs formed in the zeolite framework, with a mean diameter of about 2.12-3.11 nm. The most favorable experimental condition for the synthesis of Ag/zeolite nanocomposites (NCs) is described in terms of the initial concentration of AgNO(3). The Ag/zeolite NCs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, and Fourier transform infrared. The results show that Ag NPs form a spherical shape with uniform homogeneity in the particle size. The antibacterial activity of Ag NPs in zeolites was investigated against Gram-negative bacteria (ie, Escherichia coli and Shigella dysentriae) and Gram-positive bacteria (ie, Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) by disk diffusion method using Mueller-Hinton agar at different sizes of Ag NPs. All of the synthesized Ag/zeolite NCs were found to have antibacterial activity. These results show that Ag NPs in the zeolite framework can be useful in different biological research and biomedical applications.

  17. Utilization of Natural Zeolite from Ponorogo and Purworejo for Naphthol Substance Adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imandiani, Sundus; Indira, Christine; Johan, Anthony; Budiyono

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia has many zeolite producing areas yet untapped. Researchers developed the utilization of natural zeolites useful for the adsorption of naphthol dyes commonly found in batik waste. In this study researchers used natural zeolites from Purworejo and Ponorogo that are activated using hydrochloric acid that is used for adsorption. The purpose of this research is to know the effect of natural zeolite activation from Ponorogo and Purworejo on the effectiveness of adsorption of naphthol dyes widely used in batik industry. Natural zeolite was activated using HCl concentration of 1.3N; 1.8N; 3.2N; and 3.9N for 60 minutes. The methods are preparation of natural zeolite from Purworejo and Ponorogo, dealumination using hydrochloric acid, adsorption process of naphthol dyes using activated zeolite, and test of adsorption result with uv-vis spectrophotometry. The test results showed that the higher HCl concentration will increase adsorption capacity. This can be known from the concentration of naphthol dye which decreased both using natural zeolite Ponorogo and Purworejo. While the effectiveness of adsorption shows natural zeolite Purworejo has a greater adsorption capacity than Ponorogo with optimum conditions of dealumination using concentration HCl 3,9N.

  18. Isomerization of glucose into fructose by environmentally friendly Fe/β zeolite catalysts.

    PubMed

    Xu, Siquan; Zhang, Lei; Xiao, Kehao; Xia, Haian

    2017-06-29

    Herein, the environmentally friendly Fe/β zeolite for glucose isomerization to fructose in aqueous media was reported for the first time. The effects of various reaction conditions including reaction temperature, reaction time, catalyst dosage, etc. on the isomerization reaction over Fe/β zeolite were studied in detail. Under the optimized conditions, yield of fructose higher than 20% were obtained. Moreover, the Fe/β zeolite catalysts were stable and remained constant catalytic activity after five consecutive runs. The possible active Fe species for isomerization of glucose in Fe/β zeolite is also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fabrication of silver nanoparticles doped in the zeolite framework and antibacterial activity

    PubMed Central

    Shameli, Kamyar; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Zargar, Mohsen; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa

    2011-01-01

    Using the chemical reduction method, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were effectively synthesized into the zeolite framework in the absence of any heat treatment. Zeolite, silver nitrate, and sodium borohydride were used as an inorganic solid support, a silver precursor, and a chemical reduction agent, respectively. Silver ions were introduced into the porous zeolite lattice by an ion-exchange path. After the reduction process, Ag NPs formed in the zeolite framework, with a mean diameter of about 2.12–3.11 nm. The most favorable experimental condition for the synthesis of Ag/zeolite nanocomposites (NCs) is described in terms of the initial concentration of AgNO3. The Ag/zeolite NCs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, and Fourier transform infrared. The results show that Ag NPs form a spherical shape with uniform homogeneity in the particle size. The antibacterial activity of Ag NPs in zeolites was investigated against Gram-negative bacteria (ie, Escherichia coli and Shigella dysentriae) and Gram-positive bacteria (ie, Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) by disk diffusion method using Mueller–Hinton agar at different sizes of Ag NPs. All of the synthesized Ag/zeolite NCs were found to have antibacterial activity. These results show that Ag NPs in the zeolite framework can be useful in different biological research and biomedical applications. PMID:21383858

  20. Steam based conversion coating on AA6060 alloy: Effect of sodium silicate chemistry and corrosion performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Bordo, Kirill; Tabrizian, Naja; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2017-11-01

    Surface treatment of aluminium alloy AA6060 using an industrially applicable pilot steam jet system with and without silicate chemistry has been investigated. Treatment using steam alone and steam with silicate, resulted in an oxide layer formation with thickness ∼425 nm and ∼160 nm, respectively. Moreover, the use of sodium silicate resulted in the formation of distinct microstructure and incorporation of silicate into the oxide film. These oxide films reduced the anodic activity 4 times, while the corrosion protection by silicate containing oxide was the function of its concentration. Further, in acid salt spray and filiform corrosion tests, oxide layer containing silicate exhibited two times higher corrosion resistance.

  1. Redox equilibria of multivalent ions in silicate glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, H. V., Jr.; Morris, R. V.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental studies were made on the compositional dependence of the redox equilibrium of Eu in synthetic silicate liquids, together with an empirical model describing the observed compositional dependence. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) was used to measure the concentration ratio of Eu(2+) to Eu(3+) in various glasses formed by rapidly quenching silicate liquids. The compositional field studied comprised mixtures of SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, CaO, MgO, and Na2O. The proposed model describes the Eu(2+)/Eu(3+) ratio over the entire compositional field in terms of parameters easily related to each glass composition. The general applicability and utility of the model is further demonstrated by its application to the Fe(2+)-Fe(3+), Ce(3+)-Ce(4+), and Cr(3+)-Cr(6+) redox reactions in binary alkali oxide silicate glasses of Li, Na, and K.

  2. Evolution of trees and mycorrhizal fungi intensifies silicate mineral weathering

    PubMed Central

    Quirk, Joe; Beerling, David J.; Banwart, Steve A.; Kakonyi, Gabriella; Romero-Gonzalez, Maria E.; Leake, Jonathan R.

    2012-01-01

    Forested ecosystems diversified more than 350 Ma to become major engines of continental silicate weathering, regulating the Earth's atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration by driving calcium export into ocean carbonates. Our field experiments with mature trees demonstrate intensification of this weathering engine as tree lineages diversified in concert with their symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi. Preferential hyphal colonization of the calcium silicate-bearing rock, basalt, progressively increased with advancement from arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) to later, independently evolved ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi, and from gymnosperm to angiosperm hosts with both fungal groups. This led to ‘trenching’ of silicate mineral surfaces by AM and EM fungi, with EM gymnosperms and angiosperms releasing calcium from basalt at twice the rate of AM gymnosperms. Our findings indicate mycorrhiza-driven weathering may have originated hundreds of millions of years earlier than previously recognized and subsequently intensified with the evolution of trees and mycorrhizas to affect the Earth's long-term CO2 and climate history. PMID:22859556

  3. Synthesis and characterization of Fe(III)-silicate precipitation tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Parmar, K.; Pramanik, A.K.; Bandyopadhya, N.R.

    2010-09-15

    Fe(III)-silicate precipitation tubes synthesized through 'silica garden' route have been characterized using a number of analytical techniques including X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. These tubes are brittle and amorphous and are hierarchically built from smaller tubes of 5-10 nm diameters. They remain amorphous at least up to 650 {sup o}C. Crystobalite and hematite are the major phases present in Fe(III)-silicate tubes heated at 850 {sup o}C. Morphology and chemical compositions at the external and internal walls of these tubes are remarkably different. These tubes are porous with high BET surface area of 291.2more » m{sup 2}/g. Fe(III)-silicate tubes contain significant amount of physically and chemically bound moisture. They show promise as an adsorbent for Pb(II), Zn(II), and Cr(III) in aqueous medium.« less

  4. Evolution of trees and mycorrhizal fungi intensifies silicate mineral weathering.

    PubMed

    Quirk, Joe; Beerling, David J; Banwart, Steve A; Kakonyi, Gabriella; Romero-Gonzalez, Maria E; Leake, Jonathan R

    2012-12-23

    Forested ecosystems diversified more than 350 Ma to become major engines of continental silicate weathering, regulating the Earth's atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration by driving calcium export into ocean carbonates. Our field experiments with mature trees demonstrate intensification of this weathering engine as tree lineages diversified in concert with their symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi. Preferential hyphal colonization of the calcium silicate-bearing rock, basalt, progressively increased with advancement from arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) to later, independently evolved ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi, and from gymnosperm to angiosperm hosts with both fungal groups. This led to 'trenching' of silicate mineral surfaces by AM and EM fungi, with EM gymnosperms and angiosperms releasing calcium from basalt at twice the rate of AM gymnosperms. Our findings indicate mycorrhiza-driven weathering may have originated hundreds of millions of years earlier than previously recognized and subsequently intensified with the evolution of trees and mycorrhizas to affect the Earth's long-term CO(2) and climate history.

  5. Petrogenesis of Western Cascades Silicic Volcanics Near Sweet Home, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, G. W.; White, C. M.

    2002-12-01

    Silicic lavas in the Menagerie Wilderness east of Sweet Home, Oregon are Oligocene to Miocene in age and range in composition from dacite (low K) to trachydacite (high K) and rhyolite (medium K). Three distinct silicic centers have been distinguished through a combination of field observation, chemistry and petrography. Phenocryst assemblages in rocks of the centers are plagioclase-hornblende-magnetite (Rooster Rock rhyolite), plagioclase-quartz-magnetite (Soda Fork rhyolite) and quartz-plagioclase-biotite-hornblende-magnetite (Moose Mt. rhyolite). The silicic volcanics in the study area are similar in terms of mineral content and overall chemical composition. Despite this, chemical evidence suggests that the three centers are petrologically unrelated. REE variations and least squares modeling of major element compositions are consistent with fractionation of plagioclase and hornblende. The rhyolites have moderate Eu anomalies and have flat MREE and HREE signatures. Least squares models and bivariate plots of major and trace elements also suggest fractionation of the aforementioned phases for both the andesite to dacite, and dacite to rhyolite steps. Comparisons with similar silicic centers show the Menagerie rocks share affinities with High Cascades rocks thought to have been derived through fractional crystallization (Crater Lake and South Sister). Plots of ratios of incompatible trace elements were utilized to determine if assimilation played some role alongside fractional crystallization in differentiation. Plots of Ba/La vs. Ba, Rb/Zr vs. Rb and Rb/Th vs. Rb show systematic positive increases in the ratios between a plausible parent magma (icelandite) and the rhyolites. These increases are not easily explained by fractional crystallization but can be modeled by assimilation of silicic crust. Overall, it seems likely that the three centers evolved independently through similar petrogenetic processes from an andesitic parent. The most plausible petrogenetic

  6. Water diffusion in silicate glasses: the effect of glass structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, M.; Tachibana, S.

    2016-12-01

    Water diffusion in silicate melts (glasses) is one of the main controlling factors of magmatism in a volcanic system. Water diffusivity in silicate glasses depends on its own concentration. However, the mechanism causing those dependences has not been fully understood yet. In order to construct a general model for water diffusion in various silicate glasses, we performed water diffusion experiments in silica glass and proposed a new water diffusion model [Kuroda et al., 2015]. In the model, water diffusivity is controlled by the concentration of both main diffusion species (i.e. molecular water) and diffusion pathways, which are determined by the concentrations of hydroxyl groups and network modifier cations. The model well explains the water diffusivity in various silicate glasses from silica glass to basalt glass. However, pre-exponential factors of water diffusivity in various glasses show five orders of magnitude variations although the pre-exponential factor should ideally represent the jump frequency and the jump distance of molecular water and show a much smaller variation. Here, we attribute the large variation of pre-exponential factors to a glass structure dependence of activation energy for molecular water diffusion. It has been known that the activation energy depends on the water concentration [Nowak and Behrens, 1997]. The concentration of hydroxyls, which cut Si-O-Si network in the glass structure, increases with water concentration, resulting in lowering the activation energy for water diffusion probably due to more fragmented structure. Network modifier cations are likely to play the same role as water. With taking the effect of glass structure into account, we found that the variation of pre-exponential factors of water diffusivity in silicate glasses can be much smaller than the five orders of magnitude, implying that the diffusion of molecular water in silicate glasses is controlled by the same atomic process.

  7. MG Isotopic Measurement of FIB-Isolated Presolar Silicate Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messenger, Scott R.; Nguyen, A.; Ito, M.; Rahman, Z.

    2010-01-01

    The majority of presolar oxide and silicate grains are ascribed to origins in low-mass red giant and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars based on their O isotopic ratios. However, a minor population of these grains (< 10%) has O isotopic ratios incompatible with these sources. Two principle alternative sources are higher-than-solar metallicity (Z) stars or, more likely, supernovae (SN) [1-3]. These rare (Group 4) grains [3] are characterized by enrichments in O-18, and typically also enrichments in O-17. An even rarer subset of grains with extremely large enrichments in O-17 and smaller depletions in O-18 were suggested to come from binary star systems [2]. To establish the origins of these isotopically unusual grains, it is necessary to examine isotopic systems in addition to O. Presolar silicates offer several elements diagnostic of their stellar sources and nuclear processes, including O, Si, Mg, Fe and Ca. However, the database for minor element isotopic compositions in silicates is seriously lacking. To date only two silicate grains have been analyzed for Mg [4] or Fe [5]. One major complicating factor is their small size (average 230 nm), which greatly limits the number of measurements that can be performed on any one grain and makes it more difficult to obtain statistically relevant data. This problem is compounded because the grains are identified among isotopically solar silicates, which contribute a diluting signal in isotopic measurements [1]. Thus, relatively small isotopic anomalies are missed due to this dilution effect. By applying focused ion beam (FIB) milling, we obtain undiluted Mg isotopic ratios of isolated rare presolar silicate grains to investigate their sources.

  8. GREEN CHEMISTRY. Shape-selective zeolite catalysis for bioplastics production.

    PubMed

    Dusselier, Michiel; Van Wouwe, Pieter; Dewaele, Annelies; Jacobs, Pierre A; Sels, Bert F

    2015-07-03

    Biodegradable and renewable polymers, such as polylactic acid, are benign alternatives for petrochemical-based plastics. Current production of polylactic acid via its key building block lactide, the cyclic dimer of lactic acid, is inefficient in terms of energy, time, and feedstock use. We present a direct zeolite-based catalytic process, which converts lactic acid into lactide. The shape-selective properties of zeolites are essential to attain record lactide yields, outperforming those of the current multistep process by avoiding both racemization and side-product formation. The highly productive process is strengthened by facile recovery and practical reactivation of the catalyst, which remains structurally fit during at least six consecutive reactions, and by the ease of solvent and side-product recycling. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Interrogating ultrafast dynamics of a salicylideneaniline derivative within faujasite zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alarcos, Noemí; Sánchez, Félix; Douhal, Abderrazzak

    2017-09-01

    We report on femtosecond (fs) studies of (E)-2-(2-hydroxybenzyliden) amino-4-nitrophenol (HBA-4NP) in dichloromethane (DCM) and triacetin (TAC) solutions, and within NaX and NaY zeolites. In solution, an ultrafast (≤80 fs) excited-state intramolecular proton-transfer (ESIPT) reaction produces a keto (K) tautomer, which undergoes a rotational process in ∼4 (DCM) and ∼7 ps (TAC) toward the formation of non-emitting structures. Within NaX and NaY, where monomers and aggregates are formed, host-guest and guest-guest interactions play an important role in the ultrafast behaviour of these complexes. These results clearly reflect how nanoconfinement and zeolite composition affect the encapsulated dye photodynamics.

  10. Zeolite-templated carbons - three-dimensional microporous graphene frameworks.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, H; Kyotani, T

    2018-05-31

    Zeolite-templated carbons (ZTCs) are ordered microporous carbons synthesized by using zeolite as a sacrificial template. Unlike well-known ordered mesoporous carbons obtained by using mesoporous silica templates, ZTCs consist of curved and single-layer graphene frameworks, thereby affording uniform micropore size (ca. 1.2 nm), developed microporosity (∼1.7 cm3 g-1), very high surface area (∼4000 m2 g-1), good compatibility with chemical modification, and remarkable softness/elasticity. Thus, ZTCs have been used in many applications such as hydrogen storage, methane storage, CO2 capture, liquid-phase adsorption, catalysts, electrochemical capacitors, batteries, and fuel cells. Herein, the relevant research studies are summarized, and the properties as well as the performances of ZTCs are compared with those of other materials including metal-organic frameworks, to elucidate the intrinsic advantages of ZTCs and their future development.

  11. Mantle Mineral/Silicate Melt Partitioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarlane, E. A.; Drake, M. J.

    1992-07-01

    Introduction: The partitioning of elements among mantle phases and silicate melts is of interest in unraveling the early thermal history of the Earth. It has been proposed that the elevated Mg/Si ratio of the upper mantle of the Earth is a consequence of the flotation of olivine into the upper mantle (Agee and Walker, 1988). Agee and Walker (1988) have generated a model via mass balance by assuming average mineral compositions to generate upper mantle peridotite. This model determines that upper mantle peridotite could result from the addition of 32.7% olivine and 0.9% majorite garnet into the upper mantle, and subtraction of 27.6% perovskite from the upper mantle (Agee and Walker, 1988). The present contribution uses experimental data to examine the consequences of such multiple phase fractionations enabling an independent evaluation of the above mentioned model. Here we use Mg-perovskite/melt partition coefficients from both a synthetic and a natural system (KLB-1) obtained from this laboratory. Also used are partition coefficient values for majorite garnet/melt, beta spinel/melt and olivine/melt partitioning (McFarlane et al., 1991b; McFarlane et al., 1992). Multiple phase fractionations are examined using the equilibrium crystallization equation and partition coefficient values. The mineral proportions determined by Agee and Walker (1988) are converted into weight fractions and used to compute a bulk partition coefficient value. Discussion: There has been a significant debate concerning whether measured values of trace element partition coefficients permit large-scale fractionation of liquidus phases from an early terrestrial magma ocean (Kato et al., 1988a,b; Walker and Agee, 1989; Drake, 1989; Drake et al., 1991; McFarlane et al., 1990, 1991). It should be noted that it is unclear which, if any, numerical values of partition coefficients are appropriate for examining this question, and certainly the assumptions for the current model must be more fully

  12. [Flotation and extraction spectrophotometric determination of trace silicate in water].

    PubMed

    Di, J; Liu, Q; Li, W

    2000-12-01

    In HCl solution, silicate reacted with molybdate ammonium to produce silicomolibdic, then a yellow compound which was produced from the oxidation of TMB was simultaneously isolated to benzene phase by flotation and then isolated to dimethylsulfoxideformic acid by extraction. The compound gives a high absorption at 458 nm. The apparent molar absorptivity is 1.26 x 10(5) L.mol-1.cm-1. In the range of 0.02-1 mg.L-1 Si obeys Beer's law. The proposed method which combines with enrichment and measurement is simple, rapid, selective and convenient to determine silicate in water with satisfied results.

  13. Silicate dust in a Vega-excess system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, C. J.; Barlow, M. J.; Justtanont, K.

    1992-01-01

    The 10-micron spectrum of the K5V star SAO 179815 (= HD 98800) is presented, and conclusively demonstrates the presence of small silicate dust grains around this star. The 9.7-micron silicate dust feature is unusually broad and shallow in this system. This, together with the slow fall-off of flux at longer wavelengths, constrains the size and density distributions of dust grains in models of the disk. It is found that there must be a significant population of small grains, as well as a population of large grains in order to explain all the observed properties of the disk.

  14. Thermal Expansion and Thermal Conductivity of Rare Earth Silicates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Lee, Kang N.; Bansal, Narottam P.

    2006-01-01

    Rare earth silicates are considered promising candidate materials for environmental barrier coatings applications at elevated temperature for ceramic matrix composites. High temperature thermophysical properties are of great importance for coating system design and development. In this study, the thermal expansion and thermal conductivity of hot-pressed rare earth silicate materials were characterized at temperatures up to 1400 C. The effects of specimen porosity, composition and microstructure on the properties were also investigated. The materials processing and testing issues affecting the measurements will also be discussed.

  15. Impact of steel slag on the ammonium adsorption by zeolite and a new configuration of zeolite-steel slag substrate for constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Shi, Pengbo; Jiang, Yingbo; Zhu, Hongtao; Sun, Dezhi

    2017-07-01

    The CaO dissolution from slag, as well as the effects of influencing parameters (i.e. pH and Ca 2+ concentration) on the ammonium adsorption onto zeolite, was systematically studied in this paper. Modeling results of Ca 2+ and OH - release from slag indicated that pseudo-second-order reaction had a better fitness than pseudo-first-order reaction. Changing pH value from 7 to 12 resulted in a drastic reduction of the ammonium adsorption capacity on zeolite, from the peak adsorption capacity at pH 7. High Ca 2+ concentration in solution also inhibited the adsorption of ammonium onto zeolite. There are two proposed mechanisms for steel slag inhibiting the ammonium adsorption capacity of zeolite. On the one hand, OH - released from steel slag can react with ammonium ions to produce the molecular form of ammonia (NH 3 ·H 2 O), which would cause the dissociation of NH 4 + from zeolite. On the other hand, Ca 2+ could replace the NH 4 + ions to adhere onto the surface of zeolite. An innovative substrate filling configuration with zeolite placed upstream of the steel slag was then proposed to eliminate the disadvantageous effects of steel slag. Experimental results showed that this novel filling configuration was superior to two other filling configurations in terms of ammonium removal.

  16. Use of zeolite to neutralise nickel in a soil environment.

    PubMed

    Boros-Lajszner, Edyta; Wyszkowska, Jadwiga; Kucharski, Jan

    2017-12-30

    Nickel is a heavy metal which is a stable soil pollutant which is difficult to remediate. An attempt to reduce its impact on the environment can be made by changing its solubility. The right level of hydrogen ions and the content of mineral and organic colloids are crucial in this regard. Therefore, methods to neutralise heavy metals in soil are sought. There are no reports in the literature on the possibility of using minerals in the detoxication of a soil environment contaminated with metals. It is important to fill the gap in research on the effect of zeolites on the microbiological, biochemical and physicochemical properties of soils under pressure from heavy metals. Therefore, a pot experiment was conducted on two soils which examined the effect of various levels of contamination of soil with nickel on the activity of soil enzymes, physical and chemical properties and growth and development of plants. An alleviating effect of zeolite Bio.Zeo.S.01 on the negative impact of nickel on the soil and a plant (oats) was examined. The enzyme activity and the oat yield were found to be significantly and negatively affected by an excess of nickel in the soil, regardless of the soil type. The metal was accumulated more in the oat roots than in the above-ground parts. An addition of zeolite decreased the level of accumulation of nickel in oats grown only on sandy-silty loam. Zeolite Bio.Zeo.S.01 used in the study only slightly alleviated the negative effect of nickel on the biochemical properties of soil. Therefore, its usability in the remediation of soil contaminated with nickel is small.

  17. CIT-9: A Fault-Free Gmelinite Zeolite.

    PubMed

    Dusselier, Michiel; Kang, Jong Hun; Xie, Dan; Davis, Mark E

    2017-10-16

    A synthetic, fault-free gmelinite (GME) zeolite is prepared using a specific organic structure-directing agent (OSDA), cis-3,5-dimethylpiperidinium. The cis-isomers align in the main 12-membered ring (MR) channel of GME. Trans-isomer OSDA leads to the small-pore zeolite SSZ-39 with the OSDA in its cages. Data from N 2 -physisorption and rotation electron diffraction provide evidence for the openness of the 12 MR channel in the GME 12×8×8 pore architecture and the absence of stacking faults, respectively. CIT-9 is hydrothermally stable when K + -exchanged, while in the absence of exchange, the material transforms into an aluminous AFI-zeolite. The process of this phase-change was followed by in situ variable temperature powder X-ray diffraction. CIT-9 has the highest Si/Al ratio reported for GME, and along with its good porosity, opens the possibility of using GME in a variety of applications including catalysis. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Synthetic zeolites and other microporous oxide molecular sieves

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, John D.

    1999-01-01

    Use of synthetic zeolites and other microporous oxides since 1950 has improved insulated windows, automobile air-conditioning, refrigerators, air brakes on trucks, laundry detergents, etc. Their large internal pore volumes, molecular-size pores, regularity of crystal structures, and the diverse framework chemical compositions allow “tailoring” of structure and properties. Thus, highly active and selective catalysts as well as adsorbents and ion exchangers with high capacities and selectivities were developed. In the petroleum refining and petrochemical industries, zeolites have made possible cheaper and lead-free gasoline, higher performance and lower-cost synthetic fibers and plastics, and many improvements in process efficiency and quality and in performance. Zeolites also help protect the environment by improving energy efficiency, reducing automobile exhaust and other emissions, cleaning up hazardous wastes (including the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant and other radioactive wastes), and, as specially tailored desiccants, facilitating the substitution of new refrigerants for the ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons banned by the Montreal Protocol. PMID:10097059

  19. Zeolites on Mars: Possible environmental indicators in soils and sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ming, D. W.; Gooding, J. L.

    1988-01-01

    Weathering products should serve as indicators of weathering environments and may provide the best evidence of the nature of climate change on Mars. No direct mineralogical measurements of Martian regolith were performed by the Viking missions, but the biology and X-ray fluorescence experiments provided some information on the physiochemical properties of Martian regolith. Most post-Viking studies of candidate weathering products have emphasized phyllosilicates and Fe-oxides; zeolites are potentially important, but overlooked, candidate Martian minerals. Zeolites would be important on Mars for three different reasons. First, they are major sinks of atmospheric gases and, per unit mass, are stronger and more efficient sorbents than are phyllosilicates. Secondly, they can be virtually unique sorbents and shelters for organic compounds and possible catalysts for organic-based reactions. Finally, their exchangeable ions are good indicators of the chemical properties of solutions with which they have communicated. Accordingly, the search for information on past compositions of the Martian atmosphere and hydrosphere should find zeolites to be rich repositories.

  20. Mesopore quality determines the lifetime of hierarchically structured zeolite catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milina, Maria; Mitchell, Sharon; Crivelli, Paolo; Cooke, David; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

    2014-05-01

    Deactivation due to coking limits the lifetime of zeolite catalysts in the production of chemicals and fuels. Superior performance can be achieved through hierarchically structuring the zeolite porosity, yet no relation has been established between the mesopore architecture and the catalyst lifetime. Here we introduce a top-down demetallation strategy to locate mesopores in different regions of MFI-type crystals with identical bulk porous and acidic properties. In contrast, well-established bottom-up strategies as carbon templating and seed silanization fail to yield materials with matching characteristics. Advanced characterization tools capable of accurately discriminating the mesopore size, distribution and connectivity are applied to corroborate the concept of mesopore quality. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy proves powerful to quantify the global connectivity of the intracrystalline pore network, which, as demonstrated in the conversions of methanol or of propanal to hydrocarbons, is closely linked to the lifetime of zeolite catalysts. The findings emphasize the need to aptly tailor hierarchical materials for maximal catalytic advantage.

  1. Competitive adsorption of dyes and heavy metals on zeolitic structures.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Montoya, V; Pérez-Cruz, M A; Mendoza-Castillo, D I; Moreno-Virgen, M R; Bonilla-Petriciolet, A

    2013-02-15

    The adsorption of Acid blue 25, basic blue 9, basic violet 3, Pb(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) ions has been studied in single and dye-metal binary solutions using two mineral materials: Clinoptilolite (CL) and ER (Erionite). These zeolites were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy; potentiometric titration and nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77 K to obtain their textural parameters. Results indicated that ER has an acidic character and a high specific surface (401 m(2) g(-1)) in contrast with the zeolite CL (21 m(2) g(-1)). Surprisingly, the removal of dyes was very similar for the two zeolites and they showed a considerable selectivity by the basic dyes in comparison with the acid dyes. In the case of heavy metals, ER was more effective in the adsorption process showing a selectivity of: Pb(2+) > Ni(2+) > Zn(2+) > Cd(2+). In the multicomponent adsorption experiments an antagonistic effect was observed in the removal of basic dyes and heavy metals. Particularly, the adsorbed amount of basic violet 3 decreased more significantly when the heavy metals are presents in contrast with the basic blue 9. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Zeolite inorganic scaffolds for novel biomedical application: Effect of physicochemical characteristic of zeolite membranes on cell adhesion and viability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavolaro, Palmira; Catalano, Silvia; Martino, Guglielmo; Tavolaro, Adalgisa

    2016-09-01

    The design, preparation and selection of inorganic materials useful as functional scaffolds for cell adhesion is a complex question based both on the understanding of the chemical behavior of the materials and individual cells, and on their interactions. Pure zeolite membranes formed from synthetic crystals offer chemically-capable being modulated silanolic surfaces that are amenable to adhesion and growth of fibroblasts. We report the facile preparation of reusable, very longlasting, biocompatible, easily sterilized synthetic scaffolds in a zeolite membrane configuration, which are very stable in aqueous media (apart from ionic strength and pH values), able to adsorb pollutant species and to confine undesired toxic ions (present in culture media). This may ultimately lead to the development of cell supports for economic antibiotic-free culture media.

  3. Reducing adverse effects from UV sunscreens by zeolite encapsulation: comparison of oxybenzone in solution and in zeolites.

    PubMed

    Chrétien, Michelle N; Heafey, Eve; Scaiano, Juan C

    2010-01-01

    Oxybenzone (OXB) is one of the most widely employed sunscreen ingredients, yet its allowed load is limited to a maximum of 6% reflecting the frequency with which adverse effects are reported. From a spectroscopic point of view, OXB has excellent absorption properties in both the UVB and UVA regions. We propose that zeolite encapsulation can lead to a sunscreen composite ingredient, that we describe as a supramolecular sunscreen, that will retain the excellent spectroscopic properties of OXB, while preventing contact between the skin and the active ingredient. OXB is very photostable, with the only photodegradative pathway observed being the monophotonic photoejection of electrons that leads to trace yields of phenoxyl radicals; this trace reaction is so minor that it cannot be detected from the recovery of unreacted OXB following UV exposure. Solution, as well as powder and in vitro studies of the supramolecular sunscreen, demonstrate that the protective properties of OXB are totally preserved when encapsulated in zeolite NaY.

  4. New ion-exchanged zeolite derivatives: antifungal and antimycotoxin properties against Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin B1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savi, Geovana D.; Cardoso, Willian A.; Furtado, Bianca G.; Bortolotto, Tiago; Da Agostin, Luciana O. V.; Nones, Janaína; Torres Zanoni, Elton; Montedo, Oscar R. K.; Angioletto, Elidio

    2017-08-01

    Zeolites are microporous crystalline hydrated aluminosilicates with absorbent and catalytic properties. This material can be used in many applications in stored-pest management such as: pesticide and fertilizer carriers, animal feed additives, mycotoxin binders and food packaging materials. Herein, four 4A zeolite forms were prepared by ion-exchange and their antifungal effect against Aspergillus flavus was highlighted. Additionally, the antimycotoxin activity and the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) adsorption capacity of these zeolites as well as their toxic effects on Artemia sp. were investigated. The ion-exchanged zeolites with Li+ and Cu2+ showed the best antifungal activity against A. flavus, including effects on conidia germination and hyphae morphological alterations. Regarding to antimycotoxin activity, all zeolite samples efficiently inhibited the AFB1 production by A. flavus. However, the ion-exchanged zeolites exhibited better results than the 4A zeolite. On the other hand, the AFB1 adsorption capacity was only observed by the 4A zeolite and zeolite-Li+. Lastly, our data showed that all zeolites samples used at effective concentrations for antifungal and antimycotoxin assays (2 mg ml-1) showed no toxic effects towards Artemia sp. Results suggest that some these ion-exchanged zeolites have great potential as an effective fungicide and antimycotoxin agent for agricultural and food safety applications.

  5. SILICATE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION'S SOLIDIFICATION/ STABILIZATION TECHNOLOGY FOR ORGANIC AND INORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN SOILS - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Applications Analysis Report evaluates the solidification/stabilization treatment process of Silicate Technology Corporation (STC) for the on-site treatment of hazardous waste. The STC immobilization technology utilizes a proprietary product (FMS Silicate) to chemically stab...

  6. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION OF ORGANIC/INORGANIC CONTAMINANTS - SILICATE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Silicate Technology Corporation's (STC's) technology for treating hazardous waste utilizes silicate compounds to stabilize organic and inorganic constituents in contaminated soils and sludges. STC has developed two groups of reagents: SOILSORB HM for treating wastes with inorgan...

  7. Wind-Eroded Silicate as a Source of Hydrogen Peroxide on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, E. N.; Merrison, J. P.; Jensen, S. K.; Nørnberg, P.; Finster, K.

    2014-07-01

    Laboratory simulations show that wind-eroded silicate can be a source of hydrogen peroxide. The ubiquitous, fine-grained silicate dust might thus explain the oxidizing properties of the martian soil and affect the preservation of organic compounds.

  8. Low-temperature crystallization of silicate dust in circumstellar disks.

    PubMed

    Molster, F J; Yamamura, I; Waters, L B; Tielens, A G; de Graauw, T; de Jong, T; de Koter, A; Malfait, K; van den Ancker, M E; van Winckel, H; Voors, R H; Waelkens, C

    1999-10-07

    Silicate dust in the interstellar medium is observed to be amorphous, yet silicate dust in comets and interplanetary dust particles is sometimes partially crystalline. The dust in disks that are thought to be forming planets around some young stars also appears to be partially crystalline. These observations suggest that as the dust goes from the precursor clouds to a planetary system, it must undergo some processing, but the nature and extent of this processing remain unknown. Here we report observations of highly crystalline silicate dust in the disks surrounding binary red-giant stars. The dust was created in amorphous form in the outer atmospheres of the red giants, and therefore must be processed in the disks to become crystalline. The temperatures in these disks are too low for the grains to anneal; therefore, some low-temperature process must be responsible. As the physical properties of the disks around young stars and red giants are similar, our results suggest that low-temperature crystallization of silicate grains also can occur in protoplanetary systems.

  9. Annealing of Silicate Dust by Nebular Shocks at 10 AU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harker, David E.; Desch, Steven J.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Silicate dust grains in the interstellar medium are known to be mostly amorphous, yet crystalline silicate grains have been observed in many long-period comets and in protoplanetary disks. Annealing of amorphous silicate grains into crystalline grains requires temperatures greater than or approximately equal to 1000 K, but exposure of dust grains in comets to such high temperatures is apparently incompatible with the generally low temperatures experienced by comets. This has led to the proposal of models in which dust grains were thermally processed near the protoSun, then underwent considerable radial transport until they reached the gas giant planet region where the long-period comets originated. We hypothesize instead that silicate dust grains were annealed in situ, by shock waves triggered by gravitational instabilities. We assume a shock speed of 5 km/s, a plausible value for shocks driven by gravitational instabilities. We calculate the peak temperatures of pyroxene grains under conditions typical in protoplanetary disks at 5-10 AU. We show that in situ annealing of micron-sized dust grains can occur, obviating the need for large-scale radial transport.

  10. Iron and boron removal from sodium silicate using complexation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahyuningsih, S.; Suharty, N. S.; Pramono, E.; Ramelan, A. H.; Sasongko, B.; Dewi, A. O. T.; Hidayat, R.; Sulistyono, E.; Handayani, M.; Firdiyono, F.

    2018-05-01

    Silica purification of other materials is needed to improve the purity of silica that suitable for solar cells requirement. The silica is obtained from roasting of sand minerals in sodium silicate form. Iron (Fe) and boron (B) are an impurity that must be separated to obtain high pure silica. Separation of Fe and B used complexation methods. Chitosan-EDTA is used to remove Fe component and curcumin is used to remove B component. The elemental analysis with Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) showed the amount of Fe in sodium silicate decreased after binding to Chitosan EDTA. The contact duration between sodium silicate and chitosan-EDTA at baseline did not affect the results. Then the removal of B from sodium silicate using curcumin was done under basic conditions. B-Curcumin complexes were known from the wavelength number shifts of O-H, C-O, and C = O vibrational in the IR spectrum. The results showed that the optimum concentration of curcumin for removal B was 2 × 10-7 M.

  11. Oxygen from the lunar soil by molten silicate electrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colson, Russell O.; Haskin, Larry A.

    1992-01-01

    Accepting that oxygen, rather than gigantic gems or gold, is likely to make the Moon's Klondike, the extraction of oxygen from the lunar soil by molten silicate electrolysis has chosen to be investigated. Process theory and proposed lunar factory are addressed.

  12. Silicon K-edge XANES spectra of silicate minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dien; Bancroft, G. M.; Fleet, M. E.; Feng, X. H.

    1995-03-01

    Silicon K-edge x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra of a selection of silicate and aluminosilicate minerals have been measured using synchrotron radiation (SR). The spectra are qualitatively interpreted based on MO calculation of the tetrahedral SiO{4/4-}cluster. The Si K-edge generally shifts to higher energy with increased polymerization of silicates by about 1.3 eV, but with considerable overlap for silicates of different polymerization types. The substitution of Al for Si shifts the Si K-edge to lower energy. The chemical shift of Si K-edge is also sensitive to cations in more distant atom shells; for example, the Si K-edge shifts to lower energy with the substitution of Al for Mg in octahedral sites. The shifts of the Si K-edge show weak correlation with average Si-O bond distance (dSi-O), Si-O bond valence (sSi-O) and distortion of SiO4 tetrahedra, due to the crystal structure complexity of silicate minerals and multiple factors effecting the x-ray absorption processes.

  13. Modeling Nanomechanical Behavior of Calcium-Silicate-Hydrate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    applicability to hardened pastes of tricalcium silicate, Portland cement, and blends of Portland cement with blast-furnace slag , metakaolin, or silica...Hydrated Nanocomposites: Concrete, Bone, and Shale. J. Am. Ceram . Soc., 90(9): 2677-2692. Wu, Jianzhong. and John M. Prausnitz. 2002. Generalizations for

  14. Characterization of iron-phosphate-silicate chemical garden structures.

    PubMed

    Barge, Laura M; Doloboff, Ivria J; White, Lauren M; Stucky, Galen D; Russell, Michael J; Kanik, Isik

    2012-02-28

    Chemical gardens form when ferrous chloride hydrate seed crystals are added or concentrated solutions are injected into solutions of sodium silicate and potassium phosphate. Various precipitation morphologies are observed depending on silicate and phosphate concentrations, including hollow plumes, bulbs, and tubes. The growth of precipitates is controlled by the internal osmotic pressure, fluid buoyancy, and membrane strength. Additionally, rapid bubble-led growth is observed when silicate concentrations are high. ESEM/EDX analysis confirms compositional gradients within the membranes, and voltage measurements across the membranes during growth show a final potential of around 150-200 mV, indicating that electrochemical gradients are maintained across the membranes as growth proceeds. The characterization of chemical gardens formed with iron, silicate, and phosphate, three important components of an early earth prebiotic hydrothermal system, can help us understand the properties of analogous structures that likely formed at submarine alkaline hydrothermal vents in the Hadean-structures offering themselves as the hatchery of life. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  15. Decreased water flowing from a forest amended with calcium silicate

    Treesearch

    Mark B. Green; Amey S. Bailey; Scott W. Bailey; John J. Battles; John L. Campbell; Charles T. Driscoll; Timothy J. Fahey; Lucie C. Lepine; Gene E. Likens; Scott V. Ollinger; Paul G. Schaberg

    2013-01-01

    Acid deposition during the 20th century caused widespread depletion of available soil calcium (Ca) throughout much of the industrialized world. To better understand how forest ecosystems respond to changes in a component of acidification stress, an 11.8-ha watershed was amended with wollastonite, a calcium silicate mineral, to restore available soil Ca to preindustrial...

  16. SINTERING AND SULFATION OF CALCIUM SILICATE-ALUMINATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of sintering on the reactivity of solids at high temperature was studied. The nature of the interaction was studied with calcium silicate-aluminate reacting with SO2 between 665 and 800 C. The kinetics of the sintering and sulfation processes were measured independentl...

  17. Nanodispersed Suspensions of Zeolite Catalysts for Converting Dimethyl Ether into Olefins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnichenko, N. V.; Yashina, O. V.; Ezhova, N. N.; Bondarenko, G. N.; Khadzhiev, S. N.

    2018-01-01

    Nanodispersed suspensions that are effective in DME conversion and stable in the reaction zone in a three-phase system (slurry reactor) are obtained from MFI zeolite commercial samples (TsVM, IK-17-1, and CBV) in liquid media via ultrasonic treatment (UST). It is found that the dispersion medium, in which ultrasound affects zeolite commercial sample, has a large influence on particle size in the suspension. UST in the aqueous medium produces zeolite nanoparticles smaller than 50 nm, while larger particles of MFI zeolite samples form in silicone or hydrocarbon oils. Spectral and adsorption data show that when zeolites undergo UST in an aqueous medium, the acid sites are redistributed on the zeolite surface and the specific surface area of the mesopores increases. Preliminary UST in aqueous media of zeolite commercial samples (TsVM, IK-17-1, and CBV) affects the catalytic properties of MFI zeolite nanodispersed suspensions. The selectivity of samples when paraffins and olefins form is largely due to superacid sites consisting of OH groups of hydroxonium ion H3O+.

  18. A mesostructured Y zeolite as a superior FCC catalyst--lab to refinery.

    PubMed

    García-Martínez, Javier; Li, Kunhao; Krishnaiah, Gautham

    2012-12-18

    A mesostructured Y zeolite was prepared by a surfactant-templated process at the commercial scale and tested in a refinery, showing superior hydrothermal stability and catalytic cracking selectivity, which demonstrates, for the first time, the promising future of mesoporous zeolites in large scale industrial applications.

  19. Experiments for the Undergraduate Laboratory that Illustrate the Size-Exclusion Properties of Zeolite Molecular Sieves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Jason; Henderson, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    Experiments are presented that demonstrate the size-exclusion properties of zeolites and reveal the reason for naming zeolites "molecular sieves". If an IR spectrometer is available, the adsorption or exclusion of alcohols of varying sizes from dichloromethane or chloroform solutions can be readily demonstrated by monitoring changes in the…

  20. One-step synthesis of mesoporous pentasil zeolite with single-unit-cell lamellar structural features

    DOEpatents

    Tsapstsis, Michael; Zhang, Xueyi

    2015-11-17

    A method for making a pentasil zeolite material includes forming an aqueous solution that includes a structure directing agent and a silica precursor; and heating the solution at a sufficient temperature and for sufficient time to form a pentasil zeolite material from the silica precursor, wherein the structure directing agent includes a quaternary phosphonium ion.

  1. Study of Molecular-Shape Selectivity of Zeolites by Gas Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Pei-Yu; Chuang, Yao-Yuan; Ho, Grace Hsiuying; Chuang, Shiow-Huey; Tsai, Tseng-Chang; Lee, Chi-Young; Tsai, Shang-Tien; Huang, Jun-Fu

    2008-01-01

    A sorption experiment using a gas chromatograph is described that can help students understand the "molecular-shape selectivity" behavior of zeolites in the subnano regime. Hexane isomers are used as probe molecules to demonstrate the sorption phenomena. In the experiment, a zeolite adsorbs certain hexane isomers with molecular sizes smaller than…

  2. Synthesis of Zeolites Using the ADOR (Assembly-Disassembly-Organization-Reassembly) Route

    PubMed Central

    Wheatley, Paul S.; Čejka, Jiří; Morris, Russell E.

    2016-01-01

    Zeolites are an important class of materials that have wide ranging applications such as heterogeneous catalysts and adsorbents which are dependent on their framework topology. For new applications or improvements to existing ones, new zeolites with novel pore systems are desirable. We demonstrate a method for the synthesis of novel zeolites using the ADOR route. ADOR is an acronym for Assembly, Disassembly, Organization and Reassembly. This synthetic route takes advantage of the assembly of a relatively poorly stable that which can be selectively disassembled into a layered material. The resulting layered intermediate can then be organized in different manners by careful chemical manipulation and then reassembled into zeolites with new topologies. By carefully controlling the organization step of the synthetic pathway, new zeolites with never before seen topologies are capable of being synthesized. The structures of these new zeolites are confirmed using powder X-ray diffraction and further characterized by nitrogen adsorption and scanning electron microscopy. This new synthetic pathway for zeolites demonstrates its capability to produce novel frameworks that have never been prepared by traditional zeolite synthesis techniques. PMID:27078165

  3. Carbon dioxide capture utilizing zeolites synthesized with paper sludge and scrap-glass.

    PubMed

    Espejel-Ayala, F; Corella, R Chora; Pérez, A Morales; Pérez-Hernández, R; Ramírez-Zamora, R M

    2014-12-01

    The present work introduces the study of the CO2 capture process by zeolites synthesized from paper sludge and scrap glass. Zeolites ZSM-5, analcime and wairakite were produced by means of two types of Structure Directing Agents (SDA): tetrapropilamonium (TPA) and ethanol. On the one hand, zeolite ZSM-5 was synthesized using TPA; on the other hand, analcime and wairakite were produced with ethanol. The temperature programmed desorption (TPD) technique was performed for determining the CO2 sorption capacity of these zeolites at two sorption temperatures: 50 and 100 °C. CO2 sorption capacity of zeolite ZSM-5 synthesized at 50 °C was 0.683 mmol/g representing 38.2% of the value measured for a zeolite ZSM-5 commercial. Zeolite analcime showed a higher CO2 sorption capacity (1.698 mmol/g) at 50 °C and its regeneration temperature was relatively low. Zeolites synthesized in this study can be used in the purification of biogas and this will produce energy without increasing the atmospheric CO2 concentrations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Synthetic Zeolites as Controlled-Release Delivery Systems for Anti-Inflammatory Drugs.

    PubMed

    Khodaverdi, Elham; Soleimani, Hossein Ali; Mohammadpour, Fatemeh; Hadizadeh, Farzin

    2016-06-01

    Scientists have always been trying to use artificial zeolites to make modified-release drug delivery systems in the gastrointestinal tract. An ideal carrier should have the capability to release the drug in the intestine, which is the main area of absorption. Zeolites are mineral aluminosilicate compounds with regular structure and huge porosity, which are available in natural and artificial forms. In this study, soaking, filtration and solvent evaporation methods were used to load the drugs after activation of the zeolites. Weight measurement, spectroscopy FTIR, thermogravimetry and scanning electronic microscope were used to determine drug loading on the systems. Finally, consideration of drug release was made in a simulated gastric fluid and a simulated intestinal fluid for all matrixes (zeolites containing drugs) and drugs without zeolites. Diclofenac sodium (D) and piroxicam (P) were used as the drug models, and zeolites X and Y as the carriers. Drug loading percentage showed that over 90% of drugs were loaded on zeolites. Dissolution tests in stomach pH environment showed that the control samples (drug without zeolite) released considerable amount of drugs (about 90%) within first 15 min when it was about 10-20% for the matrixes. These results are favorable as NSAIDs irritate the stomach wall and it is ideal not to release much drugs in the stomach. Furthermore, release rate of drugs from matrixes has shown slower rate in comparison with control samples in intestine pH environment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. An innovative zinc oxide-coated zeolite adsorbent for removal of humic acid

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zinc oxide (ZnO)-coated zeolite adsorbents were developed by both nitric acid modification and Zn(NO3)2•6H2O functionalization of zeolite. The developed adsorbents were used for the removal of humic acid (HA) from aqueous solutions. The adsorption capacity of the adsorbents at 21...

  6. Synthesis of Zeolites Using the ADOR (Assembly-Disassembly-Organization-Reassembly) Route.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, Paul S; Čejka, Jiří; Morris, Russell E

    2016-04-03

    Zeolites are an important class of materials that have wide ranging applications such as heterogeneous catalysts and adsorbents which are dependent on their framework topology. For new applications or improvements to existing ones, new zeolites with novel pore systems are desirable. We demonstrate a method for the synthesis of novel zeolites using the ADOR route. ADOR is an acronym for Assembly, Disassembly, Organization and Reassembly. This synthetic route takes advantage of the assembly of a relatively poorly stable that which can be selectively disassembled into a layered material. The resulting layered intermediate can then be organized in different manners by careful chemical manipulation and then reassembled into zeolites with new topologies. By carefully controlling the organization step of the synthetic pathway, new zeolites with never before seen topologies are capable of being synthesized. The structures of these new zeolites are confirmed using powder X-ray diffraction and further characterized by nitrogen adsorption and scanning electron microscopy. This new synthetic pathway for zeolites demonstrates its capability to produce novel frameworks that have never been prepared by traditional zeolite synthesis techniques.

  7. Zeolites in Eocene basaltic pillow lavas of the Siletz River Volcanics, Central Coast Range, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keith, Terry E.C.; Staplese, Lloyd W.

    1985-01-01

    Zeolites and associated minerals occur in a tholeiitic basaltic pillow lava sequence that makes up part of the Eocene Siletz River Volcanics in the central Coast Range, Oregon. Regional zoning of zeolite assemblages is not apparent; the zeolites formed in joints, fractures, and interstices, although most occur in central cavities of basalt pillows. The zeolites and associated minerals identified, in general order of paragenetic sequence, are smectite, pyrite, calcite (small spheres), thomsonite, natrolite, analcime, scolecite, mesolite, stilbite, heulandite, apophyllite, chahazite, mordenite, calcite (scalenohedra and twinned rhombohedra), laumontite, and amethystine quartz. Common three-mineral assemblages are: natrolite-analcime-sfilbite, stilbite-heulandite-chabazite, stilbite-apophyllie-chabazite, and natrolite-mesolite-laumontite.Alteration of basaltic glass, which was initially abundant, appears to have been an important factor in formation of the zeolites. Isotopic data suggest that zeolitization occurred during a low-temperature (60 ~ 70°C submarine hydrothermal event, or by reactions of cold (~ 10°C meteoric water with basalt over a long time. The occurrence of different mineral assemblages in cavities of adjacent basalt pillows indicates that these minerals crystallized in dosed systems that were isolated as fractures and joints were sealed by deposition of smectite and early zeolites. Although the total chemical composition of the mineral assemblages in cavities is similar, different mineral species formed because of the sensitivity of zeolite minerals to slight variations in physical and chemical conditions within individual cavities.

  8. PREFACE: 5th Baltic Conference on Silicate Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezinskis, G.; Bragina, L.; Colombo, P.; Frischat, G. H.; Grabis, J.; Greil, P.; Deja, J.; Kaminskas, R.; Kliava, J.; Medvids, A.; Nowak, I.; Siauciunas, R.; Valancius, Z.; Zalite, I.

    2011-12-01

    Logo This Volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering presents a selection of the contributions to the 5th Baltic Conference on Silicate Materials (BaltSilica2011) held at Riga Technical University, Riga, Latvia from 23-25 May 2011. The conference was organized by Riga Technical University (Latvia) and Kaunas University of Technology (Lithuania). The series of Baltic conferences on silicate materials was started since 2004: the first conference was held in Riga, Latvia, 2004; the second conference was held in Kaunas, Lithuania 2005; the third was held again in Riga, Latvia, 2007, and the fourth was held in Kaunas, Lithuania 2009. BaltSilica 2011 was attended by around 50 participants from Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Germany, Poland, Italy, France, Ukraine and Russia. In comparison with previous silicate materials conferences, the broadening of participating countries is an indication of the interest of scientists, engineers and students to exchange research ideas, latest results, and to find new research topics for cooperation in the fields of silicate, high temperature materials, and inorganic nanomaterials. The scientific programme included 8 invited plenary lectures 23 oral presentations and 25 posters [1]. Scientific themes covered in the conference and in this special issue: Natural and Artificial Stone Materials; Traditional and New Ceramic and Glass-Like Materials; Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials. This volume consists of 23 selected proceeding papers. The Editor of this special issue is grateful to all the contributors to BaltSilica 2011. I am also very grateful to the scientific committee, the local organizing committee, the session chairs, the referees who refereed the submitted articles to this issue, and to students from the Department of Silicate, High Temperature and Inorganic Nanomaterials Technology of the Riga Technical University who ensured the smooth running of the conference. Particular thanks goes to eight plenary

  9. [Effect of Nano Zeolite on Chemical Fractions of Cd in Soil and Its Uptake by Cabbage].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Shi-juan; Xu, Wei-hong; Xie, Wen-wen; Chen, Rong; Chen, Yong-qin; Chi, Sun-lin; Chen, Xu- gen; Zhang, Jin-zhong; Xiong, Zhi-ting; Wang, Zheng-yin; Xie, De-ti

    2015-12-01

    Incubation experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of different nano zeolite (NZ) and ordinary zeolite (OZ) levels(0, 5, 10 and 20 g · kg⁻¹) on the change trends in fraction distribution coefficient (FDC) of Cd when exposed to different Cadmium (Cd) levels (1, 5, 10 and 15 mg · kg⁻¹), and pot experiments were carried out to investigate their influence on soil Cd fraction and Cd uptake by cabbage. The results in incubation experiments showed that the application of nano zeolite as well as ordinary zeolite effectively decreased the FDC of exchangeable Cd and increased the FDC of Fe-Mn oxide fraction. The FDC of soil Cd from 0 d to 28 d was deceased at first, then increased and tended to be stable, and finally increased. At the end of incubation, the FDC of soil exchangeable Cd decreased from 72.0%-88.0% to 30.0%-66.4%. Exchangeable fraction Cd was the most dominant Cd fraction in soil during the whole incubation. The results in pot experiment indicated that the application of nano zeolite and ordinary zeolite decreased the concentration and FDC of soil exchangeable Cd, and concurrently the concentration and FDC of Cd in carbonate, Fe-Mn oxide, organic matter and residual fraction were increased. The lowest EX-Cd was observed in the treatment with high dose of nano zeolite (20 g · kg⁻¹). The FDC of exchangeable Cd showed significant negative relationship with the soil pH (P < 0.05), and was concurrently extremely positively correlated with Cd concentration in shoot and root of cabbage (P < 0.01). Soil pH increased by 1.8%-45.5% and 6.1%-54.3% in the presence of zeolite when exposed to 5 mg · kg⁻¹ 1 and Cd, respectively; FDC of exchangeable Cd decreased by 16.3%-47.7% and 16.2%-46.7%; Cd concentration in each tissues of cabbage decreased by 1.0%-75.0% and 3.8%-53.2%, respectively. Moreover, the reduction effect of nano zeolite on soil and plant Cd was better than that of ordinary zeolite. The growth of cabbage was stimulated by low and

  10. Metal/Silicate Partitioning at High Pressures and Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shofner, G.; Campbell, A.; Danielson, L.; Righter, K.; Rahman, Z.

    2010-01-01

    The behavior of siderophile elements during metal-silicate segregation, and their resulting distributions provide insight into core formation processes. Determination of partition coefficients allows the calculation of element distributions that can be compared to established values of element abundances in the silicate (mantle) and metallic (core) portions of the Earth. Moderately siderophile elements, including W, are particularly useful in constraining core formation conditions because they are sensitive to variations in T, P, oxygen fugacity (fO2), and silicate composition. To constrain the effect of pressure on W metal/silicate partitioning, we performed experiments at high pressures and temperatures using a multi anvil press (MAP) at NASA Johnson Space Center and laser-heated diamond anvil cells (LHDAC) at the University of Maryland. Starting materials consisted of natural peridotite mixed with Fe and W metals. Pressure conditions in the MAP experiments ranged from 10 to 16 GPa at 2400 K. Pressures in the LHDAC experiments ranged from 26 to 58 GPa, and peak temperatures ranged up to 5000 K. LHDAC experimental run products were sectioned by focused ion beam (FIB) at NASA JSC. Run products were analyzed by electron microprobe using wavelength dispersive spectroscopy. Liquid metal/liquid silicate partition coefficients for W were calculated from element abundances determined by microprobe analyses, and corrected to a common fO2 condition of IW-2 assuming +4 valence for W. Within analytical uncertainties, W partitioning shows a flat trend with increasing pressure from 10 to 16 GPa. At higher pressures, W becomes more siderophile, with an increase in partition coefficient of approximately 0.5 log units.

  11. Silicate Phases on the Surfaces of Trojan Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Audrey; Emery, Joshua P.; Lindsay, Sean S.

    2017-10-01

    Determining the origin of asteroids provides an effective means of constraining the solar system’s dynamic past. Jupiter Trojan asteroids (hereafter Trojans) may help in determining the amount of radial mixing that occurred during giant planet migration. Previous studies aimed at characterizing surface composition show that Trojans have low albedo surfaces and are spectrally featureless in the near infrared. The thermal infrared (TIR) wavelength range has advantages for detecting silicates on low albedo asteroids such as Trojans. The 10 μm region exhibits strong features due to the Si-O fundamental molecular vibrations. Silicates that formed in the inner solar system likely underwent thermal annealing, and thus are crystalline, whereas silicates that accreted in the outer solar system experienced less thermal processing, and therefore are more likely to have remained in an amorphous phase. We hypothesize that the Trojans formed in the outer solar system (i.e., the Kuiper Belt), and therefore will have a more dominant amorphous spectral silicate component. With TIR spectra from the Spitzer Space Telescope, we identify mineralogical features from the surface of 11 Trojan asteroids. Fine-grain mixtures of crystalline pyroxene and olivine exhibit a 10 μm feature with sharp cutoffs between about 9 μm and 12 μm, which create a broad flat plateau. Amorphous phases, when present, smooth the sharp emission features, resulting in a dome-like shape. Preliminary results indicate that the surfaces of analyzed Trojans contain primarily amorphous silicates. Emissivity spectra of asteroids 1986 WD and 4709 Ennomos include small peaks in the 10 μm region, diagnostic of small amounts of crystalline olivine. One explanation is that Trojans formed in the same region as Kuiper Belt objects, and when giant planet migration ensued, they were swept into Jupiter’s stable Lagrange points where they are found today. As such, it is possible that an ancestral group of Kuiper Belt

  12. Laboratory Analysis of Silicate Stardust Grains of Diverse Stellar Origins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Ann N.; Keller, Lindsay P.; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko

    2016-01-01

    Silicate dust is ubiquitous in a multitude of environments across the cosmos, including evolved oxygen-rich stars, interstellar space, protoplanetary disks, comets, and asteroids. The identification of bona fide silicate stardust grains in meteorites, interplanetary dust particles, micrometeorites, and dust returned from comet Wild 2 by the Stardust spacecraft has revolutionized the study of stars, interstellar space, and the history of dust in the Galaxy. These stardust grains have exotic isotopic compositions that are records of nucleosynthetic processes that occurred in the depths of their now extinct parent stars. Moreover, the chemical compositions and mineralogies of silicate stardust are consequences of the physical and chemical nature of the stellar condensation environment, as well as secondary alteration processes that can occur in interstellar space, the solar nebula, and on the asteroid or comet parent body in which they were incorporated. In this talk I will discuss our use of advanced nano-scale instrumentation in the laboratory to conduct coordinated isotopic, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of silicate stardust grains from AGB stars, supernovae, and novae. By analyzing the isotopic compositions of multiple elements in individual grains, we have been able to constrain their stellar sources, explore stellar nucleosynthetic and mixing processes, and Galactic chemical evolution. Through our mineralogical studies, we have found these presolar silicate grains to have wide-ranging chemical and mineral characteristics. This diversity is the result of primary condensation characteristics and in some cases secondary features imparted by alteration in space and in our Solar System. The laboratory analysis of actual samples of stars directly complements astronomical observations and astrophysical models and offers an unprecedented level of detail into the lifecycles of dust in the Galaxy.

  13. Wastewater reuse in liquid sodium silicate manufacturing in alexandria, egypt.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Gaber A; Abd El-Salam, Magda M; Arafa, Anwar K

    2009-01-01

    Soluble sodium silicates (waterglass) are liquids containing dissolved glass which have some water like properties. They are widely used in industry as sealants, binders, deflocculants, emulsifiers and buffers. Their most common applications in Egypt are in the pulp and paper industry (where they improve the brightness and efficiency of peroxide bleaching) and the detergent industry, in which they improve the action of the detergent and lower the viscosity of liquid soaps. The survey results showed that the production was carried out batch-wise, in an autoclave (dissolver). Sodium silicate in the state of crushed glass was charged in an autoclave (dissolver) with sodium hydroxide and water. The product is filtered through a press. The left over sludge (mud and silicates impurities) is emptied into the local sewer system. Also, sludge (silica gel) was discharged from the neutralization process of the generated alkaline wastewater and consequently clogging the sewerage system. So this study was carried out to modify the current wastewater management system which eliminates sludge formation, the discharge of higher pH wastewater to the sewer system, and to assess its environmental and economic benefits. To assess the characteristics of wastewater to be reused, physico-chemical parameters of 12 samples were tested using standard methods. The survey results showed that a total capacity of the selected enterprise was 540 tons of liquid sodium silicates monthly. The total amount of wastewater being discharged was 335 m3/month. Reusing of wastewater as feed autoclave water reduced water consumption of 32.1% and reduced wastewater discharge/month that constitutes 89.6% as well as saving in final product of 6 ton/month. It was concluded that reusing of wastewater generated from liquid sodium silicate manufacturing process resulted in cheaper and environmental-friendly product.

  14. 40 CFR 180.1268 - Potassium silicate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Potassium silicate; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1268 Potassium silicate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Potassium silicate is exempt from the requirement of a tolerance in or on all food commodities so long as...

  15. 40 CFR 180.1268 - Potassium silicate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Potassium silicate; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1268 Potassium silicate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Potassium silicate is exempt from the requirement of a tolerance in or on all food commodities so long as...

  16. 40 CFR 180.1268 - Potassium silicate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Potassium silicate; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1268 Potassium silicate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Potassium silicate is exempt from the requirement of a tolerance in or on all food commodities so long as...

  17. 40 CFR 180.1268 - Potassium silicate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Potassium silicate; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1268 Potassium silicate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Potassium silicate is exempt from the requirement of a tolerance in or on all food commodities so long as...

  18. 40 CFR 180.1268 - Potassium silicate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Potassium silicate; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1268 Potassium silicate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Potassium silicate is exempt from the requirement of a tolerance in or on all food commodities so long as...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ethyl silicate, reaction products with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethyl silicate, reaction products with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified...

  1. Biodiesel synthesis via transesterification of lipid Chlorophyta cultivated in walne rich carbon medium using KOH/Zeolite catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dianursanti, Hayati, Siti Zahrotul; Putri, Dwini Normayulisa

    2017-11-01

    Microalgae from the Chlorophyta division such as Nannochloropsis oculata and Chlorella vulgaris are highly potential to be developed as biodiesel feedstocks because they have a high oil content up to 58%. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of triglycerides and alcohols with the aid of homogeneous catalysts such as KOH. However, the use of KOH catalysts produces soaps in the biodiesel synthesis. Heterogeneous catalysts are known to solve this problem. One of them is natural zeolite. Zeolite can be used as a catalyst and as a support catalyst. Loading KOH on the zeolite surface is expected to increase alkalinity in KOH/Zeolite catalysts so as to increase the activity of KOH/Zeolite catalyst in transesterification of triglyceride with methanol. In this experimental lipid of microalgae will be used for produced biodiesel via transesterification reaction with methanol and KOH/Zeolite as a catalyst heterogeneous at 60 °C for 3h and utilized catalyst modificated KOH/Zeolite with variation 0.5 M, 1 M and 1.5 M KOH. The modified zeolite was then analyzed by XRF, XRD and BET. The result showed that the yield of biodiesel from lipid N.oculata was 81,09% by 0.5KOH/Zeolite catalyst, 86,53% by 1KOH/Zeolite catalyst, 1,5KOH/Zeolite and 88,13% by 1.5KOH/Zeolit, while the biodiesel produced from lipid C.vulgaris was 59.29% by 0.5KOH/Zeolite, 82.27% by 1KOH/Zeolite and 83.72% by 1.5KOH/Zeolite.

  2. Discovery of optimal zeolites for challenging separations and chemical transformations using predictive materials modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Peng; Jeon, Mi Young; Ren, Limin; Knight, Chris; Deem, Michael W.; Tsapatsis, Michael; Siepmann, J. Ilja

    2015-01-01

    Zeolites play numerous important roles in modern petroleum refineries and have the potential to advance the production of fuels and chemical feedstocks from renewable resources. The performance of a zeolite as separation medium and catalyst depends on its framework structure. To date, 213 framework types have been synthesized and >330,000 thermodynamically accessible zeolite structures have been predicted. Hence, identification of optimal zeolites for a given application from the large pool of candidate structures is attractive for accelerating the pace of materials discovery. Here we identify, through a large-scale, multi-step computational screening process, promising zeolite structures for two energy-related applications: the purification of ethanol from fermentation broths and the hydroisomerization of alkanes with 18-30 carbon atoms encountered in petroleum refining. These results demonstrate that predictive modelling and data-driven science can now be applied to solve some of the most challenging separation problems involving highly non-ideal mixtures and highly articulated compounds.

  3. Synthesis of Zeolite-X from Bottom Ash for H2 Adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurniawan, R. Y.; Romadiansyah, T. Q.; Tsamarah, A. D.; Widiastuti, N.

    2018-01-01

    Zeolite-X was synthesized from bottom ash power plant waste using fusion method on air atmosphere. The fused product dissolved in demineralized water and aluminate solution was added to adjust the SiO2/Al2O3 molar ratio gel prior hydrothermal process. The synthesis results were characterized using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). The results showed that the zeolite-X has a high crystallinity with octahedral particle. The pure-form zeolite-X then was characterized and tested for H2 gas adsorption by gravimetric method to determine the H2 gas adsorption capacity of zeolite-X from bottom ash and it was compared to synthetic zeolite-X.

  4. Molecular simulation of water removal from simple gases with zeolite NaA.

    PubMed

    Csányi, Eva; Ható, Zoltán; Kristóf, Tamás

    2012-06-01

    Water vapor removal from some simple gases using zeolite NaA was studied by molecular simulation. The equilibrium adsorption properties of H(2)O, CO, H(2), CH(4) and their mixtures in dehydrated zeolite NaA were computed by grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations. The simulations employed Lennard-Jones + Coulomb type effective pair potential models, which are suitable for the reproduction of thermodynamic properties of pure substances. Based on the comparison of the simulation results with experimental data for single-component adsorption at different temperatures and pressures, a modified interaction potential model for the zeolite is proposed. In the adsorption simulations with mixtures presented here, zeolite exhibits extremely high selectivity of water to the investigated weakly polar/non-polar gases demonstrating the excellent dehydration ability of zeolite NaA in engineering applications.

  5. Measurement of cation exchange capacity (CEC) on natural zeolite by percolation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiyantoko, Bayu; Rahmah, Nafisa

    2017-12-01

    The cation exchange capacity (CEC)measurement has been carried out in natural zeolite by percolation method. The natural zeolite samples used for cation exchange capacity measurement were activated beforehand with physical activation and chemical activation. The physically activated zeolite was done by calcination process at 600 °C for 4 hours. The natural zeolite was activated chemically by using sodium hydroxide by refluxing process at 60-80 °C for 3 hours. In summary, cation exchange capacity (CEC) determination was performed by percolation, distillation and titration processes. Based on the measurement that has been done, the exchange rate results from physical activated and chemical activated of natural zeolite were 181.90cmol (+)/kg and 901.49cmol (+)/kg respectively.

  6. Bionanocomposites of regenerated cellulose/zeolite prepared using environmentally benign ionic liquid solvent.

    PubMed

    Soheilmoghaddam, Mohammad; Wahit, Mat Uzir; Tuck Whye, Wong; Ibrahim Akos, Noel; Heidar Pour, Raheleh; Ali Yussuf, Abdirahman

    2014-06-15

    Bionanocomposite films based on regenerated cellulose (RC) and incorporated with zeolite at different concentrations were fabricated by dissolving cellulose in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMIMCl) ionic liquid using a simple green method. The interactions between the zeolite and the cellulose matrix were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectra. Mechanical properties of the nanocomposite films significantly improved as compared with the pure regenerated cellulose film, without the loss of extensibility. Zeolite incorporation enhanced the thermal stability and char yield of the nanocomposites. The scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that zeolite was uniformly dispersed in the regenerated cellulose matrix. In vitro cytotoxicity test demonstrated that both RC and RC/zeolite nanocomposite films are cytocompatible. These results indicate that the prepared nanocomposites have potential applications in biodegradable packaging, membranes and biomedical areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Changing of Sumatra backswamp peat properties by seawater and zeolite application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarifuddin; Nasution, Z.; Rauf, A.; Mulyanto, B.

    2018-02-01

    This research attempts to improve the properties of backswamp peatsoil originated from Asahan District, North Sumatra Indonesia by adding sea water and zeolite using factorial randomized block design with volume of sea water as first factor, consisting of without seawater, 500 ml, 1000 ml and 1500 ml and second factor are dosages of zeolite consisting of without zeolite, 100 g, 200 g each 10 kgs of wet peat soil. at green house in faculty of agriculture University of Sumatra Utara (USU) Medan, Indonesia. The result showed that the application of seawater decreased pH, C/N and Cation Exchange Capacity and increased of base saturation of peat soil. Adding of zeolite minerals can buffered the increasing of acidity and Electric Conductivity caused by sea water application. Interaction seawater + zeolite decreased of C/N and increased of percent of base saturation.

  8. Effect of zeolite catalyst on sugar dehydration for 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostapha, Marhaini; Jahar, Noorhasmiera Abu; Chin, Siew Xian; Jaafar, Sharifah Nabihah Syed; Zakaria, Sarani; Aizat, Wan M.; Azizan, Kamalrul Azlan

    2016-11-01

    The effectiveness in the dehydration of sugars into 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural is related to the catalyst existence. A comprehensive synthesis of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural from fructose, glucose and sucrose (3.73 mmol) with and without addition zeolite catalyst was performed in this study. The reactions were carried out in water-methanol solvent system for 3 hours reaction time at 180°C temperature. The catalytic results from HPLC showed that the reaction with zeolite increases the yield of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural with 51.72 %, 34.01% and 50.10% for fructose, glucose and sucrose respectively. The study suggests that zeolites promote the isomerization of glucose into fructose to occur and simultaneously catalyze the dehydration of fructose into 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural. Only slight changes on FT-IR spectra of use zeolite after the reaction was observed. Thus suggest that zeolite was a potential catalyst for catalytic reaction for the conversion of sugar into 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural.

  9. An Introduction to Zeolite Synthesis Using Imidazolium-Based Cations as Organic Structure-Directing Agents.

    PubMed

    Vinaches, Paloma; Bernardo-Gusmão, Katia; Pergher, Sibele B C

    2017-08-06

    Zeolite synthesis is a wide area of study with increasing popularity. Several general reviews have already been published, but they did not summarize the study of imidazolium species in zeolite synthesis. Imidazolium derivatives are promising compounds in the search for new zeolites and can be used to help understand the structure-directing role. Nearly 50 different imidazolium cations have already been used, resulting in a variety of zeolitic types, but there are still many derivatives to be studied. In this context, the purpose of this short review is to help researchers starting in this area by summarizing the most important concepts related to imidazolium-based zeolite studies and by presenting a table of recent imidazolium derivatives that have been recently studied to facilitate filling in the knowledge gaps.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of mesoporous NaY zeolite from natural Blitar’s kaolin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalifah, S. N.; aini, Z. N.; Hayati, E. K.; Aini, N.; Prasetyo, A.

    2018-03-01

    Mesoporous NaY Zeolite has been synthesized from calcined natural Blitar’s kaolin with the addition of NaOH and CTABr surfactant as mesoporous template by hydrothermal method. Natural kaolin was calcinated with different time and temperature to change kaolin to metakaolin. X-ray diffraction data showed that mesoporous NaY zeolite was formed with impurities compound of sodalite, kaolin and quartz phases. The BET analysis resulted that the pore of NaY Zeolite belongs to mesoporous type with pore size 9,421 nm. Characterization from FTIR confirmed about the functional group of zeolites (988, 776, 663, 464 cm-1). Scanning electron microscopy characterization showed that the morphological of mesoporous NaY zeolites have uniform and crystalline particles formed.

  11. Applicability of Zeolite Based Systems for Ammonia Removal and Recovery From Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Das, Pallabi; Prasad, Bably; Singh, Krishna Kant Kumar

    2017-09-01

      Ammonia discharged in industrial effluents bears deleterious effects and necessitates remediation. Integrated systems devoted to recovery of ammonia in a useful form and remediation of the same addresses the challenges of waste management and its utilization. A comparative performance evaluation study was undertaken to access the suitability of different zeolite based systems (commercial zeolites and zeolites synthesized from fly ash) for removal of ammonia followed by its subsequent release. Four main parameters which were studied to evaluate the applicability of such systems for large scale usage are cost-effectiveness, ammonia removal efficiency, performance on regeneration, and ammonia release percentage. The results indicated that synthetic zeolites outperformed zeolites synthesized from fly ash, although the later proved to be more efficient in terms of total cost incurred. Process technology development in this direction will be a trade-of between cost and ammonia removal and release efficiencies.

  12. Palladium-Zeolite nanofiber as an effective recyclable catalyst membrane for water treatment.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jungsu; Chan, Sophia; Yip, Garriott; Joo, Hyunjong; Yang, Heejae; Ko, Frank K

    2016-09-15

    Zeolite is an exciting natural material due to its unique capability of ammonium nitrogen (NH3N) adsorption in water. In this study, multifunctional hybrid composites of zeolite/palladium (Ze/Pd) on polymer nanofiber membranes were fabricated and explored for sustainable contaminant removal. SEM and XRD demonstrated that zeolite and palladium nanoparticles were uniformly distributed and deposited on the nanofibers. NH3N recovery rate was increased from 23 to 92% when palladium coated zeolite was embedded on the nanofiber. Multifunctional nanofibers of Ze/Pd membranes were able to adsorb NH3N on the zeolites placed on the surface of fibers and palladium catalysts were capable of selective oxidation of NH3N to N2 gas. The cycling of NH3N adsorption-oxidation, high flux, hydrophilicity, and flexibility of the membrane makes it a strong candidate for water treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Microwave-assisted regeneration of synthetic zeolite used in tritium removal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, M.; Takayama, S.; Sano, S.

    The regeneration process using synthetic honeycomb type 5A zeolite under microwave irradiation was experimentally investigated using a single-mode cavity at 2.46 GHz. In order to investigate the effect of electromagnetic fields, inductive heating by a magnetic field was applied to synthetic zeolite containing water. Because the microwave energy absorbed in the sample was less than 15 W, the zeolite sample was only heated to a temperature of 71 C. degrees. Water desorption was observed based on the increased temperature of the zeolite sample and the thermogravimetric curve that indicated a single step phenomenon. As a result, the regeneration process ofmore » zeolite was not complete over a period of 6000 s. A comparison of dielectric heating by an electric field with inductive heating by a magnetic field showed that the regeneration process by microwave irradiation was particularly beneficial in dielectric heating. (authors)« less

  14. Effect of silicate module of water glass on rheological parameters of poly(sodium acrylate)/sodium silicate hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastalska-Popiawska, J.; Izak, P.

    2017-01-01

    The poly(sodium acrylate)/sodium silicate hydrogels were synthesized in the presence of sodium thiosulphate and potassium persulphate as the redox initiators and N,N’-methylene-bisacrylamide as the cross-linking monomer. 20 wt% aqueous solution of sodium acrylate was polymerized together with water glass with different silicate modules (M) from 1.74 to 2.29, in three mass ratio of the monomer solution to the water glass 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2. Such obtained hybrid composites were rheologically tested using the oscillation method. It allowed to designate the crossover point during polymerization, as well as to define the viscoelastic properties of the casted hydrogel samples one week after the reaction. The obtained results of the oscillation measurements showed that cross-linking reaction proceeds very quickly and the lower the silicate module is, the process starts faster. After the completion of the reaction the silicate-polymer hydrogels are strongly elastic materials and the highest elasticity characterizes systems with the mass ratio 1:2, i.e. with the highest water glass content.

  15. Separation of BSA through FAU-type zeolite ceramic composite membrane formed on tubular ceramic support: Optimization of process parameters by hybrid response surface methodology and biobjective genetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Vinoth Kumar, R; Ganesh Moorthy, I; Pugazhenthi, G

    2017-08-09

    In this study, Faujasite (FAU) zeolite was coated on low-cost tubular ceramic support as a separating layer through hydrothermal route. The mixture of silicate and aluminate solutions was used to create a zeolitic separation layer on the support. The prepared zeolite ceramic composite membrane was characterized using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), particle size distribution (PSD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and zeta potential measurements. The porosity of ceramic support (53%) was reduced by the deposition of FAU (43%) zeolite layer. The pore size and water permeability of the membrane were evaluated as 0.179 µm and 1.62 × 10 -7  m 3 /m 2  s kPa, respectively, which are lower than that of the support (pore size of 0.309 µm and water permeability of 5.93 × 10 -7  m 3 /m 2  s kPa). The permeate flux and rejection potential of the prepared membrane were evaluated by microfiltration of bovine serum albumin (BSA). To study the influences of three independent variables such as operating pressure (68.94-275.79 kPa), concentration of BSA (100-500 ppm), and solution pH (2-4) on permeate flux and percentage of rejection, the response surface methodology (RSM) was used. The predicted models for permeate flux and rejection were further subjected to biobjective genetic algorithm (GA). The hybrid RSM-GA approach resulted in a maximum permeate flux of 2.66 × 10 -5  m 3 /m 2  s and BSA rejection of 88.02%, at which the optimum conditions were attained as 100 ppm BSA concentration, 2 pH solution, and 275.79 kPa applied pressure. In addition, the separation efficiency was compared with other membranes applied for BSA separation to know the potential of the fabricated FAU zeolite ceramic composite membrane.

  16. Electrochemical water splitting using nano-zeolite Y supported tungsten oxide electrocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anis, Shaheen Fatima; Hashaikeh, Raed

    2018-02-01

    Zeolites are often used as supports for metals and metal oxides because of their well-defined microporous structure and high surface area. In this study, nano-zeolite Y (50-150 nm range) and micro-zeolite Y (500-800 nm range) were loaded with WO3, by impregnating the zeolite support with ammonium metatungstate and thermally decomposing the salt thereafter. Two different loadings of WO3 were studied, 3 wt.% and 5 wt.% with respect to the overall catalyst. The prepared catalysts were characterized for their morphology, structure, and surface areas through scanning electron microscope (SEM), XRD, and BET. They were further compared for their electrocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in 0.5 M H2SO4. On comparing the bare micro-zeolite particles with the nano-form, the nano-zeolite Y showed higher currents with comparable overpotentials and lower Tafel slope of 62.36 mV/dec. WO3 loading brought about a change in the electrocatalytic properties of the catalyst. The overpotentials and Tafel slopes were observed to decrease with zeolite-3 wt.% WO3. The smallest overpotential of 60 mV and Tafel slope of 31.9 mV/dec was registered for nano-zeolite with 3 wt.% WO3, while the micro-zeolite gave an overpotential of 370 mV and a Tafel slope of 98.1 mV/dec. It was concluded that even with the same metal oxide loading, nano-zeolite showed superior performance, which is attributed to its size and hence easier escape of hydrogen bubbles from the catalyst.

  17. Optimization for zeolite regeneration and nitrogen removal performance of a hypochlorite-chloride regenerant.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Zhen; An, Ying; Du, Silu; Ruan, Danian; Zhao, Chengyue; Ren, Ning; Tian, Xiaoce

    2017-07-01

    Simultaneous zeolites regeneration and nitrogen removal were investigated by using a mixed solution of NaClO and NaCl (NaClO-NaCl solution), and effects of the regenerant on ammonium removal performance and textural properties of zeolites were analyzed by long-term adsorption and regeneration operations. Mixed NaClO-NaCl solution removed more NH 4 + exchanged on zeolites and converted more of them to nitrogen than using NaClO or NaCl solution alone. Response surface methodological analysis indicated that molar ratio of hypochlorite and nitrogen (ClO - /N), NaCl concentration and pH value all had significant effects on zeolites regeneration and NH 4 + conversion to nitrogen, and the optimum condition was obtained at ClO - /N of 1.75, NaCl concentration of 20 g/L and pH of 10.0. Zeolites regenerated by mixed NaClO-NaCl solution showed higher ammonium adsorption rate and lower capacity than unused zeolites. Zeolites and the regeneration solution were both effective even after 20 cycles of use. Composition and morphological analysis revealed that the main mineral species and surface morphology of zeolites before and after NaClO-NaCl regeneration were unchanged. Textural analysis indicated that NaClO-NaCl regeneration leads to an increased surface area of zeolites, especially the microporosity. The results indicated that NaClO-NaCl regeneration is an attractive method to achieve sustainable removal of nitrogen from wastewater through zeolite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Removal of excess nutrients by Australian zeolite during anaerobic digestion of swine manure.

    PubMed

    Wijesinghe, D Thushari N; Dassanayake, Kithsiri B; Scales, Peter; Sommer, Sven G; Chen, Deli

    2018-03-21

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using natural and NaCl-treated Australian zeolites to simultaneously remove excess nutrients from anaerobically digested swine manure. Ion adsorption and desorption properties of Australian zeolite during the anaerobic digestion of swine manure were investigated. Two experiments were conducted: the first was an adsorption experiment with multi-component solutions that corresponded with the ionic composition of swine manure digestates. The second experiment determined the effects of zeolite dose rates during anaerobic digestion of swine manure on the removal of N, P and K from solution. Adsorption isotherms confirmed selectivity for K + over NH 4 + by Australian natural and sodium zeolites. Therefore, NH 4 + removal was considerably reduced when there was simultaneous K + uptake. Natural zeolite desorbed more Ca 2+ during K + and NH 4 + adsorption than sodium zeolite. The ion exchange reaction was independent of the presence of P. P removal was very dependent on the pH of the medium. Natural Australian zeolite was shown to be a potential sorbent for the removal of NH 4 + , K + and P during the anaerobic digestion of swine manure. However, the application of high concentrations of zeolite at higher pH values (> 7.5) might not be appropriate for anaerobic digestion, because zeolite desorbed more Ca 2+ ions into the solution at the higher doses of zeolite and then availability of P for microbial growth might be reduced as a result of PO 4 3- precipitation with Ca 2+ at the higher pH.

  19. On the reactive occlusion of the (uranium trichloride + lithium chloride + potassium chloride) eutectic salt in zeolite 4A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lexa, Dusan; Leibowitz, Leonard; Kropf, Jeremy

    2000-03-01

    The interaction between the (uranium trichloride + lithium chloride + potassium chloride) eutectic salt and zeolite 4A has been studied by temperature-resolved synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction, evolved gas analysis and differential scanning calorimetry, between 300 and 900 K. The onset of salt occlusion by the zeolite has been detected at 450 K. Evidence of a reaction between zeolitic water and uranium trichloride, leading to the formation of uranium dioxide, has appeared at 600 K. The uranium dioxide particle size increases from 2 nm at 600 K to 25 nm at 900 K - an indication of their extra-zeolitic location. No appreciable degradation of the zeolite structure has been observed.

  20. Recommended nomenclature for zeolite minerals: report of the subcommittee on zeolites of the International Mineralogical Association, Commission of New Minerals and Mineral Names

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coombs, D.S.; Alberti, A.; Armbruster, T.; Artioli, G.; Colella, C.; Galli, E.; Grice, Joel D.; Liebau, F.; Mandarino, J.A.; Minato, H.; Nickel, E.H.; Passaglia, E.; Peacor, D.R.; Quartieri, S.; Rinaldi, R.; Ross, M.; Sheppard, R.A.; Tillmanns, E.; Vezzalini, G.

    1998-01-01

    This report embodies recommendations on zeolite nomenclature approved by the International Mineralogical Association Commission of New Minerals and Mineral Names. In a working definition of a zeolite mineral used for review, interrupted tetrahedral framework structures are accepted where other zeolitic properties prevail, and complete substitution by elements other than Si and Al is allowed. Separate species are recognized in topologically distinctive compositional series in which different extra-framework cations are the most abundance in atomic proportions. To name these, the appropriate chemical symbol is attached by a hyphen to the series name as a suffix except for the names harmotome, pollucite and wairakite in the phillipsite and analcime series. Differences in space-group symmetry and in order-disorder relationships in zeolites having the same topologically distinctive framework do not in general provide adequate grounds for recognition of separate species. Zeolite species are not to be distinguished solely on Si:Al ratio except for heulandite (Si:Al < 4.0) and clinoptilolite (Si:Al ??? 4.0). Dehydration, partial hydration, and over-hydration are not sufficient grounds for the recognition of separate species of zeolites. Use of the term 'ideal formula' should be avoided in referring to a simplified or averaged formula of a zeolite. Newly recognized species in compositional series are as follows: brewsterite-Sr.-Ba: chabazite-Ca.-Na.-K; clinoptilolite-K, -Na, -Ca: dachiardite-Ca, -Na; erionite-K, -Ca: faujasite-Na, -Ca, -Na: paulingite-K. -Ca; phillipsite-Na, -Ca, -Ka; stilbite-Ca, -Na. Key references, type locality, origin of name, chemical data. IZA structure-type symbols, space-group symmetry; unit-cell dimensions, and comments on structure are listed for 13 compositional series, 82 accepted zeolite mineral species, and three of doubtful status. Herschelite, leonhardite, svetlozarite, and wellsite are discredited as mineral species names. Obsolete and

  1. Effects of zeolites on cultures of marine micro-algae: A brief review.

    PubMed

    Fachini, Adriano; Vasconcelos, Maria Teresa S D

    2006-10-01

    The cation-exchange capacity of zeolites is well known and has been increasingly explored in different fields with both economic and environmental successes. In aquatic medium with low salinity, zeolites have found multiple applications. However, a review of the literature on the applications of zeolites in salt waters found relatively few articles, including some recently published papers. The purpose of this review is to present the state-of-the-art on applications of using zeolites for amending the trace elemental contents of salt water as well as the implications of this property for promoting marine micro-algal growth. This paper deals with the following features: Sorption capacity of zeolites including 1. application of zeolites in saltwater, 2. the role of silicon and zeolites on cultures of micro-algae, and 3. the role of organically chelated trace metals. The following competing factors have been identified as effects of zeolites on algal growth in salt water: (i) ammonia decrease: growth inhibition reduced; (ii) macro-nutrients increase, mainly silicon: stimulation of silicon-dependent algae; (iii) trace metals increase (desorption from zeolites) or decrease (adsorption): inhibition or stimulation, depending on the nature of the element and its concentration; and, (iv) changes in the chelating organics exudation: inhibition or stimulation of growth, depending on the (a) nature of the complexed element; (b) bioavailability of the complex; and (c) concentration of the elements simultaneously present in inorganic forms. Zeolites have been capable of stimulating the growth of the silicon-demanding marine micro-algae, like diatoms, mainly because they can act as a silicon buffer in seawater. Zeolites can also influence the yield of non-silicon-demanding algae, because the changes they can cause (liberation and adsorption of trace elements) in the composition of the medium. Zeolites have been capable of stimulating the growth of the marine micro-algae. However

  2. Study of zeolite influence on analytical characteristics of urea biosensor based on ion-selective field-effect transistors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A possibility of the creation of potentiometric biosensor by adsorption of enzyme urease on zeolite was investigated. Several variants of zeolites (nano beta, calcinated nano beta, silicalite, and nano L) were chosen for experiments. The surface of pH-sensitive field-effect transistors was modified with particles of zeolites, and then the enzyme was adsorbed. As a control, we used the method of enzyme immobilization in glutaraldehyde vapour (without zeolites). It was shown that all used zeolites can serve as adsorbents (with different effectiveness). The biosensors obtained by urease adsorption on zeolites were characterized by good analytical parameters (signal reproducibility, linear range, detection limit and the minimal drift factor of a baseline). In this work, it was shown that modification of the surface of pH-sensitive field-effect transistors with zeolites can improve some characteristics of biosensors. PMID:24636423

  3. Preparation and characterization of polysulfone/zeolite mixed matrix membranes for removal of low-concentration ammonia from aquaculture wastewater.

    PubMed

    Moradihamedani, Pourya; Abdullah, Abdul Halim

    2018-01-01

    Removal of low-concentration ammonia (1-10 ppm) from aquaculture wastewater was investigated via polysulfone (PSf)/zeolite mixed matrix membrane. PSf/zeolite mixed matrix membranes with different weight ratios (90/10, 80/20, 70/30 and 60/40 wt.%) were prepared and characterized. Results indicate that PSf/zeolite (80/20) was the most efficient membrane for removal of low-concentration ammonia. The ammonia elimination by PSf/zeolite (80/20) from aqueous solution for 10, 7, 5, 3 and 1 ppm of ammonia was 100%, 99%, 98.8%, 96% and 95% respectively. The recorded results revealed that pure water flux declined in higher loading of zeolite in the membrane matrix due to surface pore blockage caused by zeolite particles. On the other hand, ammonia elimination from water was decreased in higher contents of zeolite because of formation of cavities and macrovoids in the membrane substructure.

  4. The effect of thermal and organic additive in morphology of ceramic based silicate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginting, J.; Bangun, N.; Sembiring, H. Br; Putri, N. K.

    2017-04-01

    M-Silicate (M = Mg, Ca) has been prepared by exchange metal reaction from M-Chloride salts and sodium silicate. The resulting white solid of chloride salts then heated at 700, 800, 900 and 1000 °C. Due to increase the porosity of M-Silicate, 1,2-propanediol, oleic acid and glycerol were added, then formed M-silicates were heated at 800 °C. Then, obtained white solid M-Silicates were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). SEM images show the variance of surface morphology when the temperature increases. The addition of organic compounds is involved in surface modification.

  5. Barrier Properties of Layered-Silicate Reinforced Ethylenepropylenediene Monomer/Chloroprene Rubber Nanorubbers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chang Mou; Hsieh, Wen Yen; Cheng, Kuo Bin; Lai, Chiu-Chun; Lee, Kuei Chi

    2018-05-09

    The triacetin and nitroglycerin barrier properties of layered-silicate reinforced ethylenepropylenediene monomer/chloroprene rubber (EPDM/CR) nanorubbers were investigated as rocket-propellant inhibitors. EPDM/CR nanorubbers with intercalated structures were formulated and prepared by the melt-compounding method. The triacetin permeability and nitroglycerin absorption were observed to decrease with increasing layered-silicate content. The layered silicates also improved the flame retardancies of the nanorubbers by forming silicate reinforced carbonaceous chars. Layered-silicate reinforced EPDM/CR nanorubbers are potentially effective rocket propellant-inhibiting materials.

  6. Barrier Properties of Layered-Silicate Reinforced Ethylenepropylenediene Monomer/Chloroprene Rubber Nanorubbers

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Wen Yen; Cheng, Kuo Bin; Lai, Chiu-Chun; Lee, Kuei Chi

    2018-01-01

    The triacetin and nitroglycerin barrier properties of layered-silicate reinforced ethylenepropylenediene monomer/chloroprene rubber (EPDM/CR) nanorubbers were investigated as rocket-propellant inhibitors. EPDM/CR nanorubbers with intercalated structures were formulated and prepared by the melt-compounding method. The triacetin permeability and nitroglycerin absorption were observed to decrease with increasing layered-silicate content. The layered silicates also improved the flame retardancies of the nanorubbers by forming silicate reinforced carbonaceous chars. Layered-silicate reinforced EPDM/CR nanorubbers are potentially effective rocket propellant-inhibiting materials. PMID:29747427

  7. Nanocomposites of zeolite-titanium(IV) oxides: Preparation, characterization, adsorption, photocatalytic and bactericidal properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domoroshchina, Elena; Kravchenko, Galina; Kuz'micheva, Galina

    2017-06-01

    NT/zeolite nanocomposites (NT - nanosized titanium(IV) oxides: η-phase and Hombifine N with anatase; zeolite: Beta(25), ZSM-5 with different modules Si/Al, MOR, or Y) have been obtained by two methods: modified cold-impregnation method (method 1) and in situ method of introduction of zeolites into the reaction mixture during the synthesis of NT by hydrolysis of TiOSO4×xH2SO4×yH2O or TiOSO4×2H2O aqueous solutions (method 2), performed for the first time. According to the X-ray data, the following differences in the NT:zeolite systems under investigation have been revealed: the mixture of zeolites and NT in nanocrystalline (Hombifine N/zeolite) or amorphous states (η-phase/zeolite, except for η-phase/MOR, where NT peaks are absent) (method 1), and the mixture of Y-zeolite and amorphous NT or only Y-zeolite without NT (method 2), which indicates the different levels of interaction between NT and zeolites in the systems studied. The best characteristics of properties (photocatalytic, adsorption, and antibacterial) have been revealed in the nanocomposites synthesized by the method 2. The correlation between the photoreaction rate constant (the k value) under UV irradiation in the presence of nanocomposites (kmax for NT/ZSM-5(12)) and the type of precursor, its pH, synthesis duration, NT:zeolite ratio, organic dye composition (methyl orange or Rhodamine G) has been established. The highest degree of extraction of P(V) ions from model aqueous systems has been observed in the presence of nanocomposites with the largest total surface area of all particles (Rmax = 99.48% for NT/MOR). The correlation between the sorption degree of P(V) ions and the modulus of zeolite is possible. Antibacterial activity in the dark towards Escherichia coli has been found for Y and Beta(25) zeolites and nanocomposites on their basis (methods 1 and 2) with the maximum diameter of bacterial growth inhibition (18 mm) obtained for NT/Beta(25) (method 2) synthesized only from TiOSO4×xH2SO4

  8. Fission product ion exchange between zeolite and a molten salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gougar, Mary Lou D.

    The electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and has been demonstrated through processing the sodium-bonded SNF from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II in Idaho. In this process, components of the SNF, including U and species more chemically active than U, are oxidized into a bath of lithium-potassium chloride (LiCl-KCl) eutectic molten salt. Uranium is removed from the salt solution by electrochemical reduction. The noble metals and inactive fission products from the SNF remain as solids and are melted into a metal waste form after removal from the molten salt bath. The remaining salt solution contains most of the fission products and transuranic elements from the SNF. One technique that has been identified for removing these fission products and extending the usable life of the molten salt is ion exchange with zeolite A. A model has been developed and tested for its ability to describe the ion exchange of fission product species between zeolite A and a molten salt bath used for pyroprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The model assumes (1) a system at equilibrium, (2) immobilization of species from the process salt solution via both ion exchange and occlusion in the zeolite cage structure, and (3) chemical independence of the process salt species. The first assumption simplifies the description of this physical system by eliminating the complications of including time-dependent variables. An equilibrium state between species concentrations in the two exchange phases is a common basis for ion exchange models found in the literature. Assumption two is non-simplifying with respect to the mathematical expression of the model. Two Langmuir-like fractional terms (one for each mode of immobilization) compose each equation describing each salt species. The third assumption offers great simplification over more traditional ion exchange modeling, in which interaction of solvent species with each other

  9. Evaluation of the adsorptive behavior of cesium and strontium on hydroxyapatite and zeolite for decontamination of radioactive substances.

    PubMed

    Ozeki, K; Aoki, H

    2016-08-12

    Removal of radioactive substances, such as cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr), has become an emerging issue after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster. To assess the possibility that hydroxyapatite (HA) and zeolites can be used for removal of radioactive substances, the adsorption capacities of Cs and Sr on the HA and a zeolite were investigated. The influence of Fe ions on Cs and Sr adsorption on the HA and the zeolite was also evaluated, because Fe ions are the most effective inhibitor of Cs adsorption on the zeolite.In the Cs adsorption process on the HA and the zeolite, the zeolite showed a higher adsorption ratio than the HA, and the maximum sorption capacity of the zeolite was calculated as 196 mg/g, whereas the HA showed a higher Sr adsorption ratio than the zeolite. The maximum sorption capacity of Sr on the HA was 123 mg/g. Under coexistence with Fe, Cs adsorption on the zeolite decreased with increasing Fe concentration, reaching 2.0 ± 0.8% at 0.1 M Fe concentration. In contrast, Cs adsorption on the zeolite was improved by adding the HA. In the case of coexistence of the HA, the Cs adsorption on the mixture of the HA and the zeolite was 52.4% ± 3.6 % at 0.1 M Fe concentration, although Cs adsorption on the HA alone was quite low. In the Fe adsorption processes of the HA and the zeolite, the HA exhibited a maximum sorption capacity of 256 mg/g, which was much higher than that of the zeolite (111 mg/g). The high affinity of Fe on the HA contributes to the improvement of the deteriorated Cs adsorption on the zeolite due to Fe ions.

  10. Sunlight assisted synthesis of silver nanoparticles in zeolite matrix and study of its application on electrochemical detection of dopamine and uric acid in urine samples.

    PubMed

    Meenakshi, S; Devi, S; Pandian, K; Devendiran, R; Selvaraj, M

    2016-12-01

    Sunlight assisted reduction of silver ions were accomplished for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles incorporated within the mesoporous silicate framework of zeolite Y. The zeolite-Y and AgNP/Zeo-Y were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption BET isotherm and X-ray diffraction techniques. The incorporation of silver nanoparticles within the porous framework was further confirmed by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. An enhanced electrocatalytic oxidation of biologically important molecules like dopamine and uric acid using AgNP/Zeo-Y modified glassy carbon electrode has been developed. A simultaneous oxidation of DA and UA peaks were obtained at +0.31V and +0.43V (vs. Ag/AgCl) using AgNP/Zeo-Y/GCE under the optimum experimental condition. A well-resolved peak potential window (~120mV) for the oxidation of both DA and UA were observed at AgNP/Zeo-Y/GCE system. The calibration curves for DA and UA were obtained within the dynamic linear range of 0.02×10(-6) to 0.18×10(-6)M (R(2)=0.9899) and 0.05×10(-6) to 0.7×10(-6)M (R(2)=0.9996) and the detection limits were found to be 1.6×10(-8)M and 2.51×10(-8)M by using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) method. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of both DA and UA in human urine samples with a related standard deviation was <3%, and n=5 using the standard addition method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Calc-silicate mineralization in active geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, D.K.; Schiffman, P.; Elders, W.A.

    The detailed study of calc-silicate mineral zones and coexisting phase relations in the Cerro Prieto geothermal system were used as examples for thermodynamic evaluation of phase relations among minerals of variable composition and to calculate the chemical characteristics of hydrothermal solutions compatible with the observed calc-silicate assemblages. In general there is a close correlation between calculated and observed fluid compositions. Calculated fugacities of O{sub 2} at about 320{degrees}C in the Cerro Prieto geothermal system are about five orders of magnitude less than that at the nearby Salton Sea geothermal system. This observation is consistent with the occurrence of Fe{sup 3+}more » rich epidotes in the latter system and the presence of prehnite at Cerro Prieto.« less

  12. Reprobing the mechanism of negative thermal expansion in siliceous faujasite

    DOE PAGES

    Attfield, Martin P.; Feygenson, Mikhail; Neuefeind, Joerg C.; ...

    2016-02-11

    A combination of Rietveld refinement and PDF analysis of total neutron scattering data are used to provide further insight into the negative thermal expansion mechanism of siliceous faujasite. The negative thermal expansion mechanism of siliceous faujasite is attributed to the transverse vibrations of bridging oxygen atoms resulting in the coupled librations of the SiO 4 tetrahedra. The constituent SiO 4 tetrahedra are revealed to expand in size with temperature which is a behaviour that has not been determined directly previously and they are also shown to undergo some distortion as temperature is increased. However, these distortions are not distinct enoughmore » in any geometric manner for the average behaviour of the SiO 4 tetrahedra not to be considered as that of a rigid units. The work further displays the benefits of using total scattering experiments to unveil the finer details of dynamic thermomechanical processes within crystalline materials.« less

  13. The solubility of gold in silicate melts: First results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borisov, A.; Palme, H.; Spettel, B.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of oxygen fugacity and temperature on the solubility of Au in silicate melts were determined. Pd-Au alloys were equilibrated with silicate of anorthite-diopside eutectic composition at different T-fO2 conditions. The behavior of Au was found to be similar to that of Pd reported recently. Au solubilities for alloys with 30 to 40 at. percent Au decrease at 1400 C from 12 ppm in air to 160 ppb at a log fO2 = -8.7. The slope of the log(Me-solubility) vs. log(fO2) curve is close to 1/4 for Au and the simultaneously determined Pd suggesting a formal valence of Au and Pd of 1+. Near the IW buffer Pd and Au solubilities become even less dependent on fO2 perhaps reflecting the presence of some metallic Au and Pd.

  14. The viscosity of magmatic silicate liquids: A model for calculation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bottinga, Y.; Weill, D. F.

    1971-01-01

    A simple model has been designed to allow reasonably accurate calculations of viscosity as a function of temperature and composition. The problem of predicting viscosities of anhydrous silicate liquids has been investigated since such viscosity numbers are applicable to many extrusive melts and to nearly dry magmatic liquids in general. The fluidizing action of water dissolved in silicate melts is well recognized and it is now possible to predict the effect of water content on viscosity in a semiquantitative way. Water was not incorporated directly into the model. Viscosities of anhydrous compositions were calculated, and, where necessary, the effect of added water and estimated. The model can be easily modified to incorporate the effect of water whenever sufficient additional data are accumulated.

  15. Metal silicate mixtures - Spectral properties and applications to asteroid taxonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cloutis, Edward A.; Smith, Dorian G. W.; Lambert, Richard St. J.; Gaffey, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    The reflectance spectra of combinations of olivine, orthopyroxene, and iron meteorite metal are experimentally studied, and the obtained variations in spectral properties are used to constrain the physical and chemical properties of the assemblages. The presence of metal most noticeably affects band area ratios, peak-to-peak and peak-to-minimum reflectance ratios, and band widths. Band width and band areas are useful for determining metal abundance in olivine and metal and orthopyroxene and metal assemblages, respectively. Mafic silicate grain size variations are best determined using band depth criteria. Band centers are most useful for determining mafic silicate composition. An application of these parameters to the S-class asteroid Flora is presented.

  16. LOW VELOCITY SHPERE IMPACT OF SODA LIME SILICATE GLASS

    SciTech Connect

    Morrissey, Timothy G; Fox, Ethan E; Wereszczak, Andrew A

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes TARDEC-sponsored work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the FY11 involving low velocity ( 30 m/s or 65 mph) ball impact testing of Starphire soda lime silicate glass. The intent was to better understand low velocity impact response in the Starphire for sphere densities that bracketed that of rock. Five sphere materials were used: borosilicate glass, soda-lime silicate glass, steel, silicon nitride, and alumina. A gas gun was fabricated to produce controlled velocity delivery of the spheres against Starphire tile targets. Minimum impact velocities to initiate fracture in the Starphire were measured and interpreted in contextmore » to the kinetic energy of impact and the elastic property mismatch between the any of the five sphere-Starphire-target combinations.« less

  17. Loss of halogens from crystallized and glassy silicic volcanic rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, D.C.; Smith, V.C.; Peck, L.C.

    1967-01-01

    One hundred and sixty-four F and Cl analyses of silicic welded tuffs and lavas and glass separates are presented. Comparison of the F and Cl contents of crystallized rocks with those of nonhydrated glass and hydrated glassy rocks from the same rock units shows that most of the halogens originally present were lost on crystallization. An average of about half of the F and four-fifths of the Cl originally present was lost. Analyses of hydrated natural glasses and of glassy rocks indicate that in some cases significant amounts of halogens may be removed from or added to hydrated glass through prolonged contact with ground water. The data show that the original halogen contents of the groundmass of a silicic volcanic rock can be reliably determined only from nonhydrated glass. ?? 1967.

  18. Analysis of the Barrier Properties of Polyimide-Silicate Nanocomposites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Sandi; Johnston, J. Chris; Inghram, Linda; McCorkle, Linda; Silverman, Edward

    2003-01-01

    Montmorillonite clay was organically modified and dispersed into a thermoplastic (BPADA-BAPP) and a thermosetting (PMR-15) polyimide matrix. The barrier properties of the neat resins and the nanocomposites were evaluated. Reductions in gas permeability and water absorption were observed in thermoplastic polyimide nanocomposites. The thermosetting polyimide showed a reduction in weight loss during isothermal aging at 288 C. Carbon fabric (T650-35, 8 HS, 8 ply) composites were prepared using both the BPADE-BAPP and PMR-15 based nanocomposites. Dispersion of the layered silicate in the BPADA-BAPP matrix reduced helium permeability by up to 70 percent. The PMR-15/ silicate nanocomposite matrix had an increase in thermal oxidative stability of up to 25 percent.

  19. Thermochemistry of Rare Earth Silicates for Environmental Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costa, Gustavo; Jacobson, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth silicates are promising candidates as environmental protective coatings (EBCs) for silica-forming ceramics and composites in combustion environments since they are predicted to have lower reactivity with the water vapor combustion products. The reactivity of rare earth silicates is assessed by the thermodynamic activity of the silica component which is best measured by Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry (KEMS). Here, we discuss a novel method based on a reducing agent to increase the partial pressure of SiO(g) which is then used to calculate thermodynamic activity of silica in Y2O3-SiO2 and Yb2O3-SiO2 systems. After the KEMS measurements, samples were probed by X-ray diffraction and their phase content was calculated from Rietveld refinement.

  20. Influence of different natural zeolite concentrations on the anaerobic digestion of piggery waste.

    PubMed

    Milán, Z; Sánchez, E; Weiland, P; Borja, R; Martín, A; Ilangovan, K

    2001-10-01

    The effect of different natural zeolite concentrations on the anaerobic digestion of piggery waste was studied. Natural zeolite doses in the range 0.2-10 g/l of wastewater were used in batch experiments, which were carried out at temperatures between 27 degrees C and 30 degrees C. Total chemical oxygen demand (COD), total and volatile solids, ammonia and organic nitrogen, pH, total volatile fatty acids (TVFA), alkalinity (Alk) and accumulative methane production were determined during 30 days of digestion. The anaerobic digestion process was favored by the addition of natural zeolite at doses between 2 and 4 g/l and increasingly inhibited at doses beyond 6 g/l. A first-order kinetic model of COD removal was used to determine the apparent kinetic constants of the process. The kinetic constant values increased with the zeolite amount up to a concentration of 4 g/l. The values of the maximum accumulative methane production (Gm) increased until zeolite concentrations of 2-4 g/l. The addition of zeolite reduced the values of the TVFA/ Alk ratio while increasing the pH values, and these facts could contribute to the process failure at zeolite doses of 10 g/l.