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Sample records for zeolite-silicone rubber mixed

  1. Factors affecting alcohol-water pervaporation performance of hydrophobic zeolite-silicone rubber mixed matrix membranes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) consisting of ZSM-5 zeolite particles dispersed in silicone rubber exhibited ethanol-water pervaporation permselectivities up to 5 times that of silicone rubber alone and 3 times higher than simple vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE). A number of conditi...

  2. HYDROPHOBIC ZEOLITE-SILICONE RUBBER MIXED MATRIX MEMBRANES FOR ETHANOL-WATER SEPARATION: EFFECT OF ZEOLITE AND SILICONE COMPONENT SELECTION ON PERVAPORATION PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    High-silica ZSM 5 zeolites were incorporated into poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) polymers to form mixed matrix membranes for ethanol removal from water via pervaporation. Membrane formulation and preparation parameters were varied to determine the effect on pervaporation perform...

  3. Rubber modified asphalt mix.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes the design and field installation of an asphalt mix containing up to 3.0% closed cell rubber by weight of the mix. The performance is discussed as well as possible reasons for the early failure of the mix. Suggestions are made ...

  4. Effect of Fermentation Broths on Performance of Hydrophobic Zeolite-Silicone Rubber Mixed Matrix Pervaporation Membranes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fermentative organisms produce a range of compounds in addition to the desired product. For example, in addition to ethanol, standard yeast produce longer straight-chained and branched alcohols and organic acids. Additionally, biomass pretreatment process, particularly acid-bas...

  5. SELECTIVE RECOVERY OF ETHANOL FROM WATER BY PERVAPORATION: ZEOLITE-SILICONE RUBBER MIXED MATRIX MEMBRANES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The production of fuel-grade ethanol from renewable resources, such as biomass, is gaining attention due to the phase out of methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) as a fuel oxygenate, national security issues related to non-domestic sources of fuels, and the effect of fossil fuel combustio...

  6. ZEOLITE-SILICONE RUBBER MIXED MATRIX MEMBRANES: EFFECT OF SILICONE COMPONENT SELECTION ON ETHANOL-WATER PERVAPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Production of fuel-grade ethanol from renewable resources, such as biomass, is gaining attention due to the phase out of methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) as a fuel oxygenate, national security issues related to non-domestic sources of fuels, and the effect of fossil fuel combustion on...

  7. Installation report : rubber modified asphalt mix.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1983-01-01

    This report describes the design of an asphalt mix containing up to 3.0% closed cell waste rubber and a field installation of the mix. The Marshall design procedure was used to determine the asphalt content for the mix containing 3.0% rubber as well ...

  8. Mix design procedure for crumb rubber modified hot mix asphalt.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-06-01

    To improve the performance of hot-mix asphalt concrete at high temperatures, crumb-rubber is typically used. Although hot-mix asphalt concrete consisting of crumb-rubber has been successfully placed and have performed well over the years, the laborat...

  9. Evaluation of crumb rubber in hot mix asphalt.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2004-07-01

    An asphalt-rubber hot mix asphalt (AR-HMA) design was created using a Superpave 12.5mm gradation and a #30 (-) mesh : crumb rubber at 20% total weight of the asphalt binder. At this point in time, asphalt rubber has only been used with HMA : that con...

  10. Field trials of asphalt rubber hot mix in Virginia.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-01-01

    Four test sections using asphalt rubber hot mix were placed in Virginia during the period of 1990 through 1993. The purpose of these installations was to familiarize both contractors and Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) personnel with the...

  11. Comprehensive evaluation of the long-term performance of rubberized pavement, phase I : laboratory study of rubberized asphalt mix performance.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-12-01

    Crumb rubber, made from scrap tires, has been introduced into the production of different types of hot : mix asphalt (HMA) in either a wet or dry process. In the wet process, the crumb rubber and binder are : completely mixed to form asphalt rubber (...

  12. Effects of simulant mixed waste on EPDM and butyl rubber

    SciT

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1997-11-01

    The authors have developed a Chemical Compatibility Testing Program for the evaluation of plastic packaging components which may be used in transporting mixed waste forms. In this program, they have screened 10 plastic materials in four liquid mixed waste simulants. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer (Nitrile) rubber, cross-linked polyethylene, epichlorohydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene (EPDM) rubber, fluorocarbons (Viton and Kel-F{trademark}), polytetrafluoro-ethylene (Teflon), high-density polyethylene, isobutylene-isoprene copolymer (Butyl) rubber, polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene (SBR) rubber. The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; andmore » (4) a mixture of ketones. The screening testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to approximately 3 kGy of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste simulants at 60 C. The rubber materials or elastomers were tested using Vapor Transport Rate measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. The authors have developed a chemical compatibility program for the evaluation of plastic packaging components which may be incorporated in packaging for transporting mixed waste forms. From the data analyses performed to date, they have identified the thermoplastic, polychlorotrifluoroethylene, as having the greatest chemical compatibility after having been exposed to gamma radiation followed by exposure to the Hanford Tank simulant mixed waste. The most striking observation from this study was the poor performance of polytetrafluoroethylene under these conditions. In the evaluation of the two elastomeric materials they have concluded that while both materials exhibit remarkable resistance to these environmental conditions, EPDM has a greater resistance to this corrosive simulant mixed waste.« less

  13. Rubber.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishen, Anoop

    1989-01-01

    This review covers methods for identification, characterization, and determination of rubber and materials in rubber. Topics include: general information, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, thermal methods, gel permeation chromatography, size exclusion chromatography, analysis related to safety and health, and…

  14. Comparative performance of rubber modified hot mix asphalt under ALF loading : technical summary.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2004-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the overall performance under accelerated loading of hot mix asphalt mixtures containing powdered rubber modifier (PRM) as compared to similar mixes with conventional HMA and to optimize the use of these ...

  15. Rubber gloves biodegradation by a consortium, mixed culture and pure culture isolated from soil samples.

    PubMed

    Nawong, Chairat; Umsakul, Kamontam; Sermwittayawong, Natthawan

    2018-02-03

    An increasing production of natural rubber (NR) products has led to major challenges in waste management. In this study, the degradation of rubber latex gloves in a mineral salt medium (MSM) using a bacterial consortium, a mixed culture of the selected bacteria and a pure culture were studied. The highest 18% weight loss of the rubber gloves were detected after incubated with the mixed culture. The increased viable cell counts over incubation time indicated that cells used rubber gloves as sole carbon source leading to the degradation of the polymer. The growth behavior of NR-degrading bacteria on the latex gloves surface was investigated using the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The occurrence of the aldehyde groups in the degradation products was observed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis. Rhodococcus pyridinivorans strain F5 gave the highest weight loss of rubber gloves among the isolated strain and posses latex clearing protein encoded by lcp gene. The mixed culture of the selected strains showed the potential in degrading rubber within 30 days and is considered to be used efficiently for rubber product degradation. This is the first report to demonstrate a strong ability to degrade rubber by Rhodococcus pyridinivorans. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  16. Evaluation of mix ingredients on the performance of rubber-modified asphalt mixtures

    SciT

    Takallou, H.B.

    1987-01-01

    In rubber-modified asphalt pavements ground recycled tire particles are added to a gap-graded aggregate and then mixed with hot asphalt cement. In view of the significant reductions in wintertime stopping distances under icy or frosty road surface conditions, the use of coarse rubber in asphalt pavements should be seriously considered. This research project consisted of a laboratory study of mix properties as a function of variables such as rubber gradation and content, void content, aggregate graduation, mix process, temperature, and asphalt content. Twenty different mix combinations were evaluated for diametral modulus and fatigue at two different temperatures. Also, five differentmore » mix combinations were evaluated for static creep and permanent deformation. The findings of the laboratory study indicate that the rubber gradation and content, aggregate gradation, and use of surcharge during sample preparation have considerable effect on modulus and fatigue life of the mix. The results of static creep and permanent deformation tests indicate that the rubber asphalt mixes had low stability and high elasticity. Also, due to greater allowable tensile strain in rubber-modified mixtures, the thickness of the modified mixture can be reduced, using a layer equivalency of 1.4 to 1.0« less

  17. Construction and testing of crumb rubber modified hot mix asphalt pavement.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-12-01

    This research project was structured toward addressing that portion of ISTEA which directs the individual states to conduct studies on the recyclability of crumb rubber modified : (CRM) hot mix asphalt (HMA) and the technical performance of CRMHMA pa...

  18. Rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, D. F.

    The word "rubber" immediately brings to mind materials that are highly flexible and will snap back to their original shape after being stretched. In this chapter a variety of materials are discussed that possess this odd characteristics. There will also be a discussion on the mechanism of this "elastic retractive force." Originally, rubber meant the gum collected from a tree growing in Brazil. The term "rubber" was coined for this material by the English chemist Joseph Priestley, who noted that it was effective for removing pencil marks from paper. Today, in addition to Priestley's natural product, many synthetic materials are made that possess these characteristics and many other properties. The common features of these materials are that they are made up of long-chain molecules that are amorphous (not crystalline), and the chains are above their glass transition temperature at room temperature.

  19. Comparative performance of rubber modified hot mix asphalt under ALF loading.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-08-01

    Experiment 2 at the Louisiana ALF site involved determining the engineering benefits of using powdered rubber (PRM) in hot mix asphalt mixes. Three full scale test sections were constructed and subjected to increasing loads from the ALF. Lane 2-1 inc...

  20. Soft sensor development for Mooney viscosity prediction in rubber mixing process based on GMMDJITGPR algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kai; Chen, Xiangguang; Wang, Li; Jin, Huaiping

    2017-01-01

    In rubber mixing process, the key parameter (Mooney viscosity), which is used to evaluate the property of the product, can only be obtained with 4-6h delay offline. It is quite helpful for the industry, if the parameter can be estimate on line. Various data driven soft sensors have been used to prediction in the rubber mixing. However, it always not functions well due to the phase and nonlinear property in the process. The purpose of this paper is to develop an efficient soft sensing algorithm to solve the problem. Based on the proposed GMMD local sample selecting criterion, the phase information is extracted in the local modeling. Using the Gaussian local modeling method within Just-in-time (JIT) learning framework, nonlinearity of the process is well handled. Efficiency of the new method is verified by comparing the performance with various mainstream soft sensors, using the samples from real industrial rubber mixing process.

  1. Development of mix design procedures for gap-graded asphalt-rubber asphalt concrete

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-11-01

    A research project was conducted to identify and document current modifications to ARIZONA 815c (75-blow Marshall method) used to develop gap-graded asphalt rubber asphalt concrete (GG AR AC) mix designs, and to develop and test improvements to provi...

  2. Performance testing of asphalt concrete containing crumb rubber modifier and warm mix additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikpugha, Omo John

    Utilisation of scrap tire has been achieved through the production of crumb rubber modified binders and rubberised asphalt concrete. Terminal and field blended asphalt rubbers have been developed through the wet process to incorporate crumb rubber into the asphalt binder. Warm mix asphalt technologies have been developed to curb the problem associated with the processing and production of such crumb rubber modified binders. Also the lowered production and compaction temperatures associated with warm mix additives suggests the possibility of moisture retention in the mix, which can lead to moisture damage. Conventional moisture sensitivity tests have not effectively discriminated good and poor mixes, due to the difficulty of simulating field moisture damage mechanisms. This study was carried out to investigate performance properties of crumb rubber modified asphalt concrete, using commercial warm mix asphalt technology. Commonly utilised asphalt mixtures in North America such as dense graded and stone mastic asphalt were used in this study. Uniaxial Cyclic Compression Testing (UCCT) was used to measure permanent deformation at high temperatures. Indirect Tensile Testing (IDT) was used to investigate low temperature performance. Moisture Induced Sensitivity Testing (MiST) was proposed to be an effective method for detecting the susceptibility of asphalt mixtures to moisture damage, as it incorporates major field stripping mechanisms. Sonnewarm(TM), Sasobit(TM) and Evotherm(TM) additives improved the resistance to permanent deformation of dense graded mixes at a loading rate of 0.5 percent by weight of the binder. Polymer modified mixtures showed superior resistance to permanent deformation compared to asphalt rubber in all mix types. Rediset(TM) WMX improves low temperature properties of dense graded mixes at 0.5 percent loading on the asphalt cement. Rediset LQ and Rediset WMX showed good anti stripping properties at 0.5 percent loading on the asphalt cement. The

  3. Moisture Sensitivity of Crumb Rubber Modified Modifier Warm Mix Asphalt Additive for Two Different Compaction Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilema, Munder A.; Aman, Mohamad Y.; Hassan, Norhidayah A.; Ahmad, Kabiru A.; Elghatas, Hamza M.; Radwan, Ashraf A.; Shyaa, Ahmed S.

    2018-04-01

    Crumb rubber obtained from scrap tires has been incorporated with asphalt binder to improve the performance of asphalt mixtures in the past decades. Pavements containing crumb-rubber modified (CRM) binders present one major drawback: larger amounts of greenhouse gas emissions are produced as there is rise in the energy consumption at the asphalt plant due to the higher viscosity of these type of binders compared with a conventional mixture. The objective of this paper is to calculate the optimum bitumen content for each percentage and evaluate the moisture sensitivity of crumb rubber modified asphalt at two different compacting temperatures. In this study, crumb rubber modified percentages was 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% from the binder weight, with adding 1.5% warm mix asphalt additive (Sasobit) and crush granite aggregate of 9.5mm Nominal maximum size was used after assessing its properties. Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) used by 2% from fine aggregate. The wet method was using to mix the CRM with bitumen, the CRM conducted at 177°C for 30 min with 700rpm and Sasobit conducted at 120°C for 10 min with 1000rpm. As a result, from this study the optimum bitumen content (OBC) was increased with increased crumb rubber content. For performance test, it was conducted using the AASHTO T283 (2007): Resistance of Compacted Bituminous Mixture to Moisture-Induced Damage. The result was as expected and it was within the specification of the test, the result show that the moisture damage increased with increased the crumb rubber content but it is not exceeding the limit of specification 80% for indirect tension strength ratio (ITSR). For the temperature was with lowing the temperature the moisture damage increased.

  4. Phase Morphology and Mechanical Properties of Cyclic Butylene Terephthalate Oligomer-Containing Rubbers: Effect of Mixing Temperature.

    PubMed

    Halász, István Zoltán; Bárány, Tamás

    2016-08-24

    In this work, the effect of mixing temperature (T mix ) on the mechanical, rheological, and morphological properties of rubber/cyclic butylene terephthalate (CBT) oligomer compounds was studied. Apolar (styrene butadiene rubber, SBR) and polar (acrylonitrile butadiene rubber, NBR) rubbers were modified by CBT (20 phr) for reinforcement and viscosity reduction. The mechanical properties were determined in tensile, tear, and dynamical mechanical analysis (DMTA) tests. The CBT-caused viscosity changes were assessed by parallel-plate rheometry. The morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). CBT became better dispersed in the rubber matrices with elevated mixing temperatures (at which CBT was in partially molten state), which resulted in improved tensile properties. With increasing mixing temperature the size of the CBT particles in the compounds decreased significantly, from few hundred microns to 5-10 microns. Compounding at temperatures above 120 °C and 140 °C for NBR and SBR, respectively, yielded reduced tensile mechanical properties most likely due to the degradation of the base rubber. The viscosity reduction by CBT was more pronounced in mixes with coarser CBT dispersions prepared at lower mixing temperatures.

  5. Phase Morphology and Mechanical Properties of Cyclic Butylene Terephthalate Oligomer-Containing Rubbers: Effect of Mixing Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Halász, István Zoltán; Bárány, Tamás

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the effect of mixing temperature (Tmix) on the mechanical, rheological, and morphological properties of rubber/cyclic butylene terephthalate (CBT) oligomer compounds was studied. Apolar (styrene butadiene rubber, SBR) and polar (acrylonitrile butadiene rubber, NBR) rubbers were modified by CBT (20 phr) for reinforcement and viscosity reduction. The mechanical properties were determined in tensile, tear, and dynamical mechanical analysis (DMTA) tests. The CBT-caused viscosity changes were assessed by parallel-plate rheometry. The morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). CBT became better dispersed in the rubber matrices with elevated mixing temperatures (at which CBT was in partially molten state), which resulted in improved tensile properties. With increasing mixing temperature the size of the CBT particles in the compounds decreased significantly, from few hundred microns to 5–10 microns. Compounding at temperatures above 120 °C and 140 °C for NBR and SBR, respectively, yielded reduced tensile mechanical properties most likely due to the degradation of the base rubber. The viscosity reduction by CBT was more pronounced in mixes with coarser CBT dispersions prepared at lower mixing temperatures. PMID:28773841

  6. Evaluation of permanent deformation and durability of epoxidized natural rubber modified asphalt mix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Mansob, Ramez A.; Ismail, Amiruddin; Rahmat, Riza Atiq O. K.; Nazri Borhan, Muhamad; Alsharef, Jamal M. A.; Albrka, Shaban Ismael; Rehan Karim, Mohamed

    2017-09-01

    The road distresses have caused too much in maintenance cost. However, better understandings of the behaviours and properties of asphalt, couples with greater development in technology, have allowed paving technologists to examine the benefits of introducing additives and modifiers. As a result, modifiers such as polymers are the most popular modifiers used to improve the performance of asphalt mix. This study was conducted to investigate the use of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) to be mixed with asphalt mix. Tests were conducted to investigate the performance characteristics of ENR-asphalt mixes, where the mixes were prepared according to the wet process. Mechanical testing on the ENR-asphalt mixes have demonstrated that the asphalt mix permanent deformation performance at high temperature was found to be improved compared to the base mixes. However, the durability studies have indicated that ENR-asphalt mixes are slightly susceptible with the presence of moisture. The durability of the ENR-asphalt mixes were found to be enhanced in term of permanent deformation at high and intermediate temperatures compared to the base asphalt mixes. As conclusion, asphalt pavement performance can be enhanced by using ENR as modifier to face the major road distresses.

  7. Morphology and thermal stability of nano titanium dioxide filled natural rubber prepared by latex mixing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayeemasae, N.; Surya, I.; Ismail, H.

    2018-02-01

    This paper deals with the morphology and thermal stability of nano Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) filled natural rubber composites. This study also suggests a new method of incorporating TiO2. Aqueous dispersions of nano TiO2at the loadings of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 phr were dispersed in natural rubber latex, the resulting compounds were then dried prior to mixing it with other ingredients on a two-roll mill. By applying this technique, the homogeneity of the compound is significantly improved. This can be clearly seen from the morphology observed. Adding TiO2 results in shifting the decomposition temperature and char residue irrespective of the loadings of nano TiO2.

  8. Engineering characterisation of epoxidized natural rubber-modified hot-mix asphalt

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mansob, Ramez A.; Ismail, Amiruddin; Yusoff, Nur Izzi Md.; Rahmat, Riza Atiq O. K.; Borhan, Muhamad Nazri; Albrka, Shaban Ismael; Azhari, Che Husna; Karim, Mohamed Rehan

    2017-01-01

    Road distress results in high maintenance costs. However, increased understandings of asphalt behaviour and properties coupled with technological developments have allowed paving technologists to examine the benefits of introducing additives and modifiers. As a result, polymers have become extremely popular as modifiers to improve the performance of the asphalt mix. This study investigates the performance characteristics of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR)-modified hot-mix asphalt. Tests were conducted using ENR–asphalt mixes prepared using the wet process. Mechanical testing on the ENR–asphalt mixes showed that the resilient modulus of the mixes was greatly affected by testing temperature and frequency. On the other hand, although rutting performance decreased at high temperatures because of the increased elasticity of the ENR–asphalt mixes, fatigue performance improved at intermediate temperatures as compared to the base mix. However, durability tests indicated that the ENR–asphalt mixes were slightly susceptible to the presence of moisture. In conclusion, the performance of asphalt pavement can be enhanced by incorporating ENR as a modifier to counter major road distress. PMID:28182724

  9. Engineering characterisation of epoxidized natural rubber-modified hot-mix asphalt.

    PubMed

    Al-Mansob, Ramez A; Ismail, Amiruddin; Yusoff, Nur Izzi Md; Rahmat, Riza Atiq O K; Borhan, Muhamad Nazri; Albrka, Shaban Ismael; Azhari, Che Husna; Karim, Mohamed Rehan

    2017-01-01

    Road distress results in high maintenance costs. However, increased understandings of asphalt behaviour and properties coupled with technological developments have allowed paving technologists to examine the benefits of introducing additives and modifiers. As a result, polymers have become extremely popular as modifiers to improve the performance of the asphalt mix. This study investigates the performance characteristics of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR)-modified hot-mix asphalt. Tests were conducted using ENR-asphalt mixes prepared using the wet process. Mechanical testing on the ENR-asphalt mixes showed that the resilient modulus of the mixes was greatly affected by testing temperature and frequency. On the other hand, although rutting performance decreased at high temperatures because of the increased elasticity of the ENR-asphalt mixes, fatigue performance improved at intermediate temperatures as compared to the base mix. However, durability tests indicated that the ENR-asphalt mixes were slightly susceptible to the presence of moisture. In conclusion, the performance of asphalt pavement can be enhanced by incorporating ENR as a modifier to counter major road distress.

  10. Effect of Crumb Rubber and Warm Mix Additives on Asphalt Aging, Rheological, and Failure Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Prashant

    Asphalt-rubber mixtures have been shown to have useful properties with respect to distresses observed in asphalt concrete pavements. The most notable change in properties is a large increase in viscosity and improved low-temperature cracking resistance. Warm mix additives can lower production and compaction temperatures. Lower temperatures reduce harmful emissions and lower energy consumption, and thus provide environmental benefits and cut costs. In this study, the effects of crumb rubber modification on various asphalts such as California Valley, Boscan, Alaska North Slope, Laguna and Cold Lake were also studied. The materials used for warm mix modification were obtained from various commercial sources. The RAF binder was produced by Imperial Oil in their Nanticoke, Ontario, refinery on Lake Erie. A second commercial PG 52-34 (hereafter denoted as NER) was obtained/sampled during the construction of a northern Ontario MTO contract. Some regular tests such as Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) and Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR), Multiple Stress Creep Recovery (MSCR) and some modified new protocols such as the extended BBR test (LS-308) and the Double-Edge Notched Tension (DENT) test (LS-299) are used to study, the effect of warm mix and a host of other additives on rheological, aging and failure properties. A comparison in the properties of RAF and NER asphalts has also been made as RAF is good quality asphalt and NER is bad quality asphalt. From the studies the effect of additives on chemical and physical hardening tendencies was found to be significant. The asphalt samples tested in this study showed a range of tendencies for chemical and physical hardening.

  11. Analysis of the usage of rubberized asphalt in hot mix asphalt using Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwidarma Nataadmadja, Adelia; Prahara, Eduardi; Sumbung, Pierre Christian

    2017-12-01

    There has been an increasing demand in using more environmentally friendly materials in pavement construction. One of the alternative materials that have been widely used is the Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) aggregates. The RAP aggregates are derived from the crushed and screened pavement materials that contain asphalt and aggregates. This material is usually combined with natural aggregates and virgin asphalt binder to construct a new pavement. There have been numerous positive feedbacks in using this material although RAP aggregates also have certain weaknesses, such as questionable interaction between virgin and recycled materials and increased stiffness of RAP binder. Moreover, there has been a push on using rubber as an additive to asphalt binder to improve the welfare of rubber farmers. This research combines the usage of both latex and RAP as the ingredients to design hot mix asphalt (HMA) as latex could help in improving the flexibility of HMA and the interaction between the virgin and recycled materials. The main objective of this research is to find a suitable percentage of RAP aggregates to be used in HMA with certain percentage of latex as the binder additive.

  12. Performance of warm mix asphalt with Buton natural asphalt-rubber and zeolite as an additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahjuningsih, N.; Hadiwardoyo, S. P.; Sumabrata, R. J.; Anis, M.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research is improving of asphalt industry to decrease the fuel consumption by lowering the temperature of mixing and compacting of asphalt mixture. This technology known as Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA). Buton Natural Asphalt Rubber (BNA-R) as a function of the additive has been able to improve the performance of HMA. Zeolit has a function as an additive to lowering the mixing temperature. Aggregate composition using the composition of aggregate grading specifications for airport pavement, with the composition of BNA-R 5% and 10% and Zeolite content of 2%. The mixture have produced Resilient Modulus value by using the Universal Material Testing Apparatus (UMATTA) on optimum bitumen content each of which has been obtained from the Marshall test. Furthermore, the value of permanent deformation of asphalt mixtures tested using Wheel Tracking Machine (WTM). The result shows that BNA-R modified binder for WMA can decrease the rutting potential. The additive of local materials has improved the performance of the WMA for airport pavement with certain restrictions. From this research it is known there have been changes in the characteristics of resilient modulus and permanent deformation due to the addition of BNA-R for type of aggregate composition.

  13. Buildup factor and mechanical properties of high-density cement mixed with crumb rubber and prompt gamma ray study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aim-O, P.; Wongsawaeng, D.; Tancharakorn, S.; Sophon, M.

    2017-09-01

    High-density cement mixed with crumb rubber has been studied to be a gamma ray and neutron shielding material, especially for photonuclear reactions that may occur from accelerators where both types of radiation exist. The Buildup factors from gamma ray scattering, prompt and secondary gamma ray emissions from neutron capture and mechanical properties were evaluated. For buildup factor studies, two different geometries were used: narrow beam and broad beam. Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) was carried out to determine the prompt and secondary gamma ray emissions. The compressive strength of samples was evaluated by using compression testing machine which was central point loading crushing test. The results revealed that addition of crumb rubber increased the buildup factor. Gamma ray spectra following PGNAA revealed no prompt or secondary gamma ray emission. Mechanical testing indicated that the compressive strength of the shielding material decreased with increasing volume percentage of crumb rubber.

  14. Analysis of Cement-Based Pastes Mixed with Waste Tire Rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sola, O. C.; Ozyazgan, C.; Sayin, B.

    2017-03-01

    Using the methods of thermal gravimetry, differential thermal analysis, Furier transform infrared analysis, and capillary absorption, the properties of a cement composite produced by introducing waste tyre rubber into a cement mixture were investigated. It was found that the composite filled with the rubber had a much lower water absorption ability than the unfilled one.

  15. Transdermal nicotine mixed natural rubber-hydroxypropylmethylcellulose film forming systems for smoking cessation: in vitro evaluations.

    PubMed

    Pichayakorn, Wiwat; Suksaeree, Jirapornchai; Boonme, Prapaporn; Taweepreda, Wirach; Amnuaikit, Thanaporn; Ritthidej, Garnpimol C

    2014-08-27

    Abstract Novel film forming polymeric dispersions for transdermal nicotine delivery were prepared from deproteinized natural rubber latex (DNRL) blended with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) or glycerin (GLY) as plasticizer. The preliminary molecular compatibility of ingredients was observed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry characterizations. All film forming polymeric dispersions were elegant in appearance and smooth in texture without agglomeration. Their pH was 7-8. In addition, their viscosity and spreadability showed good characteristics depended on HPMC and plasticizers blended. The transparent in situ dry films with good strength and elasticity were also confirmed by peeling-off. The nicotine release from them revealed an initial fast release that was similar to the release from a concentrated nicotine solution, and followed by slow release pattern from the in situ films. GLY blended formulation produced a higher amount of nicotine permeation through the in vitro pig skin than DBP blends. Ethanol mixing also enhanced nicotine permeation, but it affected the integrity of in situ films. The nicotine release and skin permeation kinetics were by a diffusion mechanism that was confirmed by the Higuchi's model. These formulations were safe without producing any severe skin irritation. However, for the stability they needed to be stored at 4 °C in tightly sealed containers.

  16. Swelling and tribological properties of melt-mixed fluoroelastomer/nitrile rubber blends under crude oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagelsir, Yasin; Li, San-Xi; Lv, Xiaoren; Wang, Shijie; Wang, Song; Osman, Zeinab

    2018-01-01

    The melt-mixed fluoroelastomer (FKM)/ nitrile rubber (NBR) blends of (90/10, 80/20, 70/30, 60/40 and 50/50) ratios with same hardness were prepared, and their swelling and tribological properties under crude oil were investigated for the purpose of developing high performance cost-effective elastomers meeting requirement of oil extraction progressive cavity pump stator. Differential scanning calorimetry confirmed compatible blend system for all blends. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) showed co-continuous morphology of 200-400 nm phase size for all blends, expect FKM/NBR (90/10) which exhibited partially continuous phase morphology of 100-250 nm phase size. The results of swelling and linear wear tests under crude oil indicated that swelling percentage, coefficient of friction and specific wear rate of FKM/NBR blends were much better than NBR, with FKM/NBR (90/10 and 80/20) showing swelling percentage and specific wear rate very close to FKM. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy disclosed that fracture of macromolecular chains was the main mechanochemical effect of unswollen and swollen worn surfaces, in addition to oxygenated degradation detected with increasing NBR ratio in the blends. The fracture of macromolecular chains resulted in slight fatigue wear mechanism, which was also confirmed by FE-SEM of the worn surfaces.

  17. Increasing M 2(dobdc) Loading in Selective Mixed-Matrix Membranes: A Rubber Toughening Approach

    SciT

    Smith, Zachary P.; Bachman, Jonathan E.; Li, Tao

    Mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) were formed by incorporating M 2(dobdc) (M = Mg, Ni; dobdc 4– = 2,5-dioxido-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) metal–organic framework (MOF) nanoparticles in a series of poly(ether-imide) copolymers. Addition of the MOF nanoparticles improved the permeability of H 2, N 2, CH 4, and CO 2 relative to the pure copolymer by increasing gas solubility and, in most cases, diffusivity. More limited improvements in diffusivity were observed for the more strongly adsorbing gases. Because of such transport considerations, improvements in permeability and selectivity were most pronounced for H 2/CH 4 and H 2/N 2 separations. Incorporation of a greater ether contentmore » within the copolymers led to the formation of defect-free MMMs by physically sealing polymer–MOF interfacial defects, allowing higher MOF loadings to be achieved. For Mg 2(dobdc), selective, defect-free films could be formed with loadings of up to 51 wt %. However, at these high loadings, films became weak and brittle. The mechanical properties of the composite materials were therefore quantified by tensile tests and compared to those of the neat polymers used commercially for membrane film formation. High contents of flexible ether units and small MOF nanoparticle sizes were found to be necessary to form strong and ductile MMMs, although clear trade-offs exist between transport performance, MOF loading, and mechanical properties. In conclusion, these trade-offs are critically examined to evaluate the current limitations and potential benefits to forming M 2(dobdc) MMMs using this rubber toughening approach.« less

  18. Increasing M 2(dobdc) Loading in Selective Mixed-Matrix Membranes: A Rubber Toughening Approach

    DOE PAGES

    Smith, Zachary P.; Bachman, Jonathan E.; Li, Tao; ...

    2018-01-30

    Mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) were formed by incorporating M 2(dobdc) (M = Mg, Ni; dobdc 4– = 2,5-dioxido-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) metal–organic framework (MOF) nanoparticles in a series of poly(ether-imide) copolymers. Addition of the MOF nanoparticles improved the permeability of H 2, N 2, CH 4, and CO 2 relative to the pure copolymer by increasing gas solubility and, in most cases, diffusivity. More limited improvements in diffusivity were observed for the more strongly adsorbing gases. Because of such transport considerations, improvements in permeability and selectivity were most pronounced for H 2/CH 4 and H 2/N 2 separations. Incorporation of a greater ether contentmore » within the copolymers led to the formation of defect-free MMMs by physically sealing polymer–MOF interfacial defects, allowing higher MOF loadings to be achieved. For Mg 2(dobdc), selective, defect-free films could be formed with loadings of up to 51 wt %. However, at these high loadings, films became weak and brittle. The mechanical properties of the composite materials were therefore quantified by tensile tests and compared to those of the neat polymers used commercially for membrane film formation. High contents of flexible ether units and small MOF nanoparticle sizes were found to be necessary to form strong and ductile MMMs, although clear trade-offs exist between transport performance, MOF loading, and mechanical properties. In conclusion, these trade-offs are critically examined to evaluate the current limitations and potential benefits to forming M 2(dobdc) MMMs using this rubber toughening approach.« less

  19. Investigation and Evaluation of Ground Tire Rubber in Hot Mix Asphalt

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1989-08-01

    The purpose of this study, which is published in five volumes, was to identify and verify using all available state-of-the-art sources, how ground tire rubber can be utilized in asphalt concrete mixtures for pavement construction meeting standard qua...

  20. Tough Rubber.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Sue

    1994-01-01

    Describes the benefits of using rubber floor coverings in a gym's free-weight and cardiovascular equipment areas. Tips on purchasing a rubber floor are highlighted as is an annotated list of suppliers and their rubber flooring products. (GR)

  1. PREPARATION AND APPLICATION OF HIGH PERFORMANCE SILICONE RUBBER MIXED MATRIX MEMBRANES FOR ETHANOL-WATER PERVAPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) and zeolite incorporated mixed matrix materials are gaining importance in a variety of applications including membrane separation. PDMS based membranes are used in pervaporation (PV), a membrane technology, for the selective removal of organics such ...

  2. Rubber industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staszak, Maciej

    2018-03-01

    Following chapter presents short introductory description of rubber and rubber industry. The main problem of rubber industry is the way of the usage of spent tires. Furthermore very important group of problems arise considering the metal and nonmetal additives which are significant component of the vulcanized rubber. The key attention is dedicated to typical ways of rubber usage in utilization and recovery of metals from spent rubber materials concentrating specifically on used tires processing. The method of recovery of rare metals from rubber tires was described. The rubber debris finds widest use in the field of waste metal solutions processing. The environmental pollution caused by metals poses serious threat to humans. Several applications of the use of waste rubber debris to remove metals from environmental waters were described. Moreover, the agriculture usage of waste tire rubber debris is described, presenting systems where the rubber material can be useful as a soil replacement.

  3. Electrospinning of PVC with natural rubber

    SciT

    Othman, Muhammad Hariz; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Mohamed, Mahathir

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was mixed with natural rubbers which are liquid natural rubber (LNR), liquid epoxidised natural rubber (LENR) and liquid epoxidised natural rubber acrylate (LENRA) for a preparation of a fine non-woven fiber’s mat. PVC and each natural rubbers(PVC:LENR, PVC:LNR and PVC:LENRA) were mixed based on ratio of 70:30. Electrospinning method was used to prepare the fiber. The results show that the spinnable concentration of PVC/ natural rubber/THF solution is 16 wt%. The morphology, diameter, structure and degradation temperature of electrospun fibers were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). SEM photos showed that the morphologymore » and diameter of the fibers were mainly affected by the addition of natural rubber. TGA results suggested that PVC electrospun fiber has higher degradation temperature than those electrospun fibers that contain natural rubber.« less

  4. Electrospinning of PVC with natural rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, Muhammad Hariz; Mohamed, Mahathir; Abdullah, Ibrahim

    2013-11-01

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was mixed with natural rubbers which are liquid natural rubber (LNR), liquid epoxidised natural rubber (LENR) and liquid epoxidised natural rubber acrylate (LENRA) for a preparation of a fine non-woven fiber's mat. PVC and each natural rubbers(PVC:LENR, PVC:LNR and PVC:LENRA) were mixed based on ratio of 70:30. Electrospinning method was used to prepare the fiber. The results show that the spinnable concentration of PVC/ natural rubber/THF solution is 16 wt%. The morphology, diameter, structure and degradation temperature of electrospun fibers were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). SEM photos showed that the morphology and diameter of the fibers were mainly affected by the addition of natural rubber. TGA results suggested that PVC electrospun fiber has higher degradation temperature than those electrospun fibers that contain natural rubber.

  5. Rubber Reclamation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Kathryn R.

    2007-01-01

    The safety and health hazards related to recycling of used rubber, due to the scarcity and high price of virgin rubber are reported. Various threats like stagnant water pools trapped in tires leading to diseases and ignited tires, which become very difficult to extinguish and generating smoke that is extremely detrimental to the environment, have…

  6. Advances in rubber/halloysite nanotubes nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhixin; Guo, Baochun; Jia, Demin

    2014-02-01

    The research advances in rubber/halloysite nanotubes (rubber/HNTs) nanocomposites are reviewed. HNTs are environmentally-friendly natural nanomaterials, which could be used to prepare the rubber-based nanocomposites with high performance and low cost. Unmodified HNTs could be adopted to prepare the rubber/HNTs composites with improved mechanical properties, however, the rubber/HNTs nanocomposites with fine morphology and excellent properties were chiefly prepared with various modifiers by in situ mixing method. A series of rubber/HNTs nanocomposites containing several rubbers (SBR, NR, xSBR, NBR, PU) and different modifiers (ENR, RH, Si69, SA, MAA, ILs) have been investigated. The results showed that all the rubber/HNTs nanocomposites achieved strong interfacial interaction via interfacial covalent bonds, hydrogen bonds or multiple interactions, realized significantly improved dispersion of HNTs at nanoscale and exhibited excellent mechanical performances and other properties.

  7. Adding crumb rubber into exterior wall materials.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Han; Thong-On, Norasit; Zhang, Xiong

    2002-10-01

    In Arizona US, most houses are built with walls covered by stuccos/coatings/mortars. This paper presents an explorative investigation of adding crumb rubber into stuccos/coatings/mortars. A series of experiments are conducted to examine the thermal and mechanical performance of the crumb rubber mixes. The results show that, the mixes with crumb rubber do exhibit more desirable performances like being high in crack-resistance and thermal insulation, and low in thermal expansion/contraction. The drawback for the crumb rubber mixes is the reduction in compressive strength, but which can be compensated by other means. As a site experiment, an area of 100 square-feet of crumb rubber coatings for two mix designs is sprayed on a tire-adobe wall. After being sprayed more than 14 months, the coatings apparently are in good condition. Significance of this study is that this practice, if accepted, will yield improved products that consume large quantities of crumb rubber.

  8. Chrome-tanned leather shavings as a filler of butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber.

    PubMed

    Przepiórkowska, A; Chrońska, K; Zaborski, M

    2007-03-06

    The noxious wastes from the tanning industry such as chrome-tanned leather shavings were used as the only filler of rubber mixes containing carboxylated butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber (XNBR) or butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber (NBR), and a dispersing agent Limanol PEV (Schill & Seilacher). The best form addition of leather powder to the rubber mixes is mixed the waste protein with zinc oxide. The leather powder added to the rubber mixes improves the mechanical properties: tensile strength (T(s)), elongation at break (epsilon(b)) and increase the cross-linking density of carboxylated XNBR and NBR rubber mixes. Satisfactory results of these studies are presented in this work.

  9. Characteristics Buton Natural Asphalt-Rubber (BNA-R) on the Performance Improvement of Warm Mix Asphalt Using Natural Zeolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahjuningsih, Nurul; Pranowo Hadiwardoyo, Sigit; Jachrizal Sumabrata, R.

    2018-03-01

    The decrease in the ability of service of pavement can be caused by the durability factor in the pavement layer in receiving heavy traffic load and the temperature of the pavement. Permanent deformation is one of the criteria of failure of asphalt mixture. Performance assessment of the asphalt mixture can be observed from the rheological properties of asphalt binder. The use of BNA-R in this study is intended to modify the characteristics of bitumen penetration grade 60 / 70 used in warm mix asphalt. Warm mix asphalt with lower temperatures of mixing and compaction than conventional asphalt mixtures was chosen because it is more environmentally friendly. To reduce the temperature in this warm asphalt technology is achieved by using natural zeolite. Both of these materials are local materials that are widely available in Indonesia. The rheology of asphalt 60/70 modified with BNA-R indicates that the addition of BNA-R in the base asphalt increase the complex modulus value and decrease the phase angle value. These values were related to the performance of mixture in the permanent deformation criteria. Reducing the temperature of mixing and compaction should be balanced with modifying the asphalt binder used. Rutting due to permanent deformation can resulted in inconvenience to the passengers and can lead to high costs of road maintenance. To determine the permanent deformation of asphalt mix with material combinations was performed through the wheel tracking test machine with 3,780 cycles for 3 hours. The results shows that after test track over 7 thousand passes have seen permanent deformation characteristics of asphalt concrete mixture with a variation of the characteristics of bitumen.

  10. Characterizing Tire Crumb Rubber for Exposure Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tire crumb rubber derived from recycled tires is widely used as infill material in synthetic turf fields in the United States. An estimated 95% of the over 12,000 installed fields in the U.S. use tire crumb rubber infill alone or mixed with sand or alternative materials. Concerns...

  11. The effect of antioxidant concentration of N-isopropyl-N-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine, and 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline and mixing time of physical properties, thermal properties, mechanical properties and microstructure on natural rubber compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budiarto

    2017-03-01

    Study the influence of high concentrations of antioxidants N-isopropyl-N-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine (IPPD) and 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline (TMQ) and the mixing time of the vulcanization physical properties, thermal properties, mechanical properties and structure micro on natural rubber compound has been done. The purpose of this study is to compare the effect of anti-oxidants types IPPD and TMQ and mixing time of vulcanization of the physical properties, mechanical properties, microstructure and elemental composition of the synthesis of natural rubber compound. Processes of vulcanization with variations in the concentration of antioxidant IPPD and TMQ: 2, 3, and 4 grams and mixing time: 20, 30, and 40 minutes. Analysis characterization of physical properties and mechanical properties of natural rubber compound showed that the maturity value 0,499Nm (TMQ) and 0.489 Nm (IPPD), Mooney viscosity value of 26.7 (TMQ) and 20.8 (IPPD), the value of the elongation at break 583.75 % (IPPD), and 552.63% (TMQ) as well as the value of tensile strength of 28.108 M.Pa (TMQ), and 27.986 M.Pa (IPPD). Analysis of thermal properties of natural rubber compound antioxidant IPPD with DTA shows there are three endothermic peak on the curve that is temperature 405°C, 550°C and 660°C and tested by TGA showed that the curve of the total reduction in the sample are 81.745% and compound rubber antioxidant TMQ with the analysis of DTA also contained 3 endothermic peak at a temperature 397,21°C, 514,02°C, and 610,27°C and TGA analysis shows the curve of the total sample of 82.356% reduction. Gsi fun group analysis rubber-antioxidant compound IPPD / TMQ with FTIR spectrophotometer shows some typical infrared absorption peak at the wave number (1 / λ) 833-895 cm-1 for cluster / CH bonds, 1,313 cm-1 for group / single bond Si-O, 1368 cm-1 to g ugus / single bond CC, 1507 cm-1, for cluster / bond C = C, 1665 cm-1For cluster / bond-C = O, 2128 cm-1 is the group / bond CN single, 3371

  12. Use of recycled chunk rubber asphalt concrete (CRAC) on low volume roads and use of recycled crumb rubber modifier in asphalt pavements. Final report, June 1993-June 1995

    SciT

    Hossain, M.; Funk, L.P.; Sadeq, M.A.

    1995-06-01

    The major objective of this project was to formulate a Chunk Rubber Asphalt Concrete (CRAC) mix for use on low volume roads. CRAC is a rubber modified asphalt concrete product produced by the `dry process` where rubber chunks of 1/2 inch size are used as aggregate in a cold mix with a type C fly ash. The second objective of this project was to develop guidelines concerning the use of rubber modified asphalt concrete hot mix to include: (1) Design methods for use of asphalt-rubber mix for new construction and overlay, (2) Mix design method for asphalt-rubber, and (3) Testmore » method for determining the amount of rubber in an asphalt-rubber concrete for quality control purposes.« less

  13. Asphalt rubber usage guide.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-01-01

    This Asphalt Rubber Usage Guide is intended for use by California Department of Transportation : (Caltrans) design, construction, and maintenance managers and engineers, as well as by field personnel : involved in placement of asphalt rubber paving m...

  14. Ground tire rubber as a stabilizer for subgrade soils : [summary].

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-05-01

    Over 250 million scrap tires are generated : annually in the U.S. Historically, a significant : portion of these tires have been processed into : finely ground tire rubber (GTR), or crumb rubber, : for use as an additive in hot mix asphalt (HMA) : pa...

  15. Ground tire rubber as a stabilizer for subgrade soils.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-05-01

    Over 250 million scrap tires are generated annually in the U.S. Historically, a significant portion of these tires : have been processed into finely ground tire rubber (GTR), or crumb rubber, for use as an additive in hot mix asphalt : (HMA) pavement...

  16. Exposure to rubber fume and rubber process dust in the general rubber goods, tyre manufacturing and retread industries.

    PubMed

    Dost, A A; Redman, D; Cox, G

    2000-08-01

    This study assesses the current patterns and levels of exposure to rubber fume and rubber process dust in the British rubber industry and compares and contrasts the data obtained from the general rubber goods (GRG), retread tire (RT) and new tire (NT) sectors. A total of 179 rubber companies were visited and data were obtained from 52 general rubber goods, 29 retread tire and 7 new tire manufacturers. The survey was conducted using a questionnaire and included a walk-through inspection of the workplace to assess the extent of use of control measures and the nature of work practices being employed. The most recent (predominantly 1995-97) exposure monitoring data for rubber fume and rubber process dust were obtained from these companies; no additional sampling was conducted for the purpose of this study. In addition to the assessment of exposure data, evaluation of occupational hygiene reports for the quality of information and advice was also carried out.A comparison of the median exposures for processes showed that the order of exposure to rubber fume (E, in mg m(-3)) is: E(moulding) (0.40) approximately E(extrusion) (0.33)>E(milling) (0.18) for GRG; E(press) (0. 32)>E(extrusion) (0.19)>E(autoclave) (0.10) for RT; and E(press) (0. 22) approximately E(all other) (0.22) for NT. The order of exposure to rubber fume between sectors was E(GRG) (0.40)>E(RT) (0.32)>E(NT) (0.22). Median exposures to rubber process dust in the GRG was E(weighing) (4.2)>E(mixing) (1.2) approximately E(milling) (0.8) approximately E(extrusion) (0.8) and no significant difference (P=0. 31) between GRG and NT sectors. The findings compare well with the study carried out in the Netherlands [Kromhout et al. (1994), Annals of Occupational Hygiene 38(1), 3-22], and it is suggested that the factors governing the significant differences noted between the three sectors relate principally to the production and task functions and also to the extent of controls employed. Evaluation of occupational

  17. Criteria for asphalt-rubber concrete in civil airport pavements: Mixture design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, F. L.; Lytton, R. L.; Hoyt, D.

    1986-07-01

    A mixture design procedure is developed to allow the use of asphalt-rubber binders in concrete for flexible airport pavement. The asphalt-rubber is produced by reacting asphalt with ground, scrap tire rubber to produce the binder for the asphalt-rubber concrete. Procedures for laboratory preparation of alsphalt-rubber binders using an equipment setup that was found by researchers to produce laboratory binders with similar properties to field processes are included. The rubber-asphalt concrete mixture design procedure includes adjustments to the aggregate gradation to permit space for the rubber particles in the asphalt-rubber binder as well as suggested mixing and compaction temperatures, and compaction efforts. While the procedure was used in the laboratory to successfully produce asphalt-rubber concrete mixtures, it should be evaluated in the field to ensure that consistent results can be achieved in a production environment.

  18. Properties of concrete with tire derived aggregate and crumb rubber as a lighthweight substitute for mineral aggregates in the concrete mix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siringi, Gideon Momanyi

    Scrap tires continue to be a nuisance to the environment and this research proposes one way of recycling them as a lightweight aggregate which can substitute for mineral aggregates in concrete. Aggregates derived from scrap tires are often referred to as Tire Derived Aggregate (TDA). First, the focus is how much mineral aggregate can be replaced by these waste tires and how the properties of concrete are affected with the introduction of rubber. This is being mindful of the fact that for a new material to be acceptable as an engineering material, its properties and behavior has to be well understood, the materials must perform properly and be acceptable to the regulating agencies. The role played by the quantity of TDA and Crumb Rubber replacing coarse aggregate and fine aggregate respectively as well as different treatment and additives in concrete on its properties are examined. Conventional concrete (without TDA) and concrete containing TDA are compared by examining their compressive strength based on ASTM C39, workability based on ASTM C143, Splitting Tensile Strength based on ASTM C496, Modulus of Rupture (flexural strength) based on ASTM C78 and Bond strength of concrete developed with reinforcing steel based on ASTM C234.Through stress-strain plots, the rubberized concrete is compared in terms of change in ductility, toughness and Elastic Modulus. Results indicate that while replacement of mineral aggregates with TDA results in reduction in compressive strength, this may be mitigated by addition of silica fume or using a smaller size of TDA to obtain the desired strength. The greatest benefit of using TDA is in the development of a higher ductile product with lower density while utilizing recycled TDA. From the results, it is observed that 7-10% of weight of mineral aggregates can be replaced by an equal volume of TDA to produce concrete with compressive strength of up to 4000 psi (27.5 MPa). Rubberized concrete would have higher ductility and toughness with

  19. Nonaqueous ozonation of vulcanized rubber

    DOEpatents

    Serkiz, Steven M.

    1999-01-01

    A process and resulting product is provided in which a solid particulate, such as vulcanized crumb rubber, has the surface functional groups oxidized by ozonation using a nonpolar solvent. The ozonation process renders the treated crumb rubber more suitable for use in new rubber formulations. As a result, larger loading levels of the treated crumb rubber can be used in new rubber mixtures.

  20. Rubber friction directional asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, A.; Dorogin, L.; Steenwyk, B.; Warhadpande, A.; Motamedi, M.; Fortunato, G.; Ciaravola, V.; Persson, B. N. J.

    2016-12-01

    In rubber friction studies it is usually assumed that the friction force does not depend on the sliding direction, unless the substrate has anisotropic properties, like a steel surface grinded in one direction. Here we will present experimental results for rubber friction, where we observe a strong asymmetry between forward and backward sliding, where forward and backward refer to the run-in direction of the rubber block. The observed effect could be very important in tire applications, where directional properties of the rubber friction could be induced during braking.

  1. Influence of Rubber Size on Properties of Crumb Rubber Mortars

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yong; Zhu, Han

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the properties and applications of rubber cement-based materials are well documented. The sizes of rubbers used in these materials varied. However, information about the effects of rubber size on the properties of rubber cement-based materials, especially pore structure, mechanical strengths, and drying shrinkage properties, remains limited. Three groups of rubber with major particle sizes of 2–4 mm, 1–3 mm, and 0–2 mm were selected in this study. This paper presents experimental studies on the effects of rubber size on the consistency, fresh density, pore structure, mechanical properties, and drying shrinkage properties of crumb rubber mortars (CRMs). Results demonstrated that the consistency and fresh density of CRMs decreased with the rubber size. As to the pore structure, the total pore volume increased with the decrease of the rubber size. By contrast, the influence of the rubber size on the mesopore (<50 nm) volume is not as significant as that of the rubber content. The mechanical properties of CRMs decreased with the rubber size. Low rubber stiffness and large pore volumes, especially those of small sized rubbers, contribute to the reduction of CRMs strength. The drying shrinkage of CRM increases as the rubber size decreases. The influences of rubber size on capillary tension are not significant. Thus, the shrinkage increases with the decrease of rubber size mainly because of its function in the deformation modulus reduction of CRMs. PMID:28773649

  2. Dermatitis in a rubber tyre factory.

    PubMed

    Zina, A M; Bedello, P G; Cane, D; Bundino, S; Benedetto, A

    1987-07-01

    An outbreak of occupational dermatitis in a rubber tyre factory is reported. An unusual clinical picture was recognized. Patch tests revealed a high sensitization rate to the MBT derivative used: 2-(2'-4'dinitrophenylthio)benzothiazole. Since tests with MBT mix and dinitrophenol were negative; sensitization to a contaminant was suspected. DNCB was traced as the substance responsible.

  3. Crumb Rubber Recycling in Enhancing Damping Properties of Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugapriya, P.; Ramkrishnan, R.

    2018-02-01

    Damping plays a major role in the design of roadside structures that gets affected due to vibrations transmitted from moving traffic. In this study, fine aggregates were partially replaced with crumb rubber in concrete, at varying percentages of 5, 10, 15 and 20% by weight. Three different sets of concrete, mixed with crumb rubber were prepared using raw rubber, treated rubber and treated rubber with partial replacement of cement. Cement was partially replaced with Ultra-Fine Ground Granulated Blast furnace Slag (UFGGBS) for this study. Samples were cast, cured and tested for various properties on the 7th and 28th day. The damping ratio and frequency of the peak value from a number of waves in rubber incorporated beams were found out using a FFT Analyser along with its Strength, Damping and Sorptivity characteristics. SEM analysis was conducted to analyse the micro structural bonding between rubber and concrete. The mode shapes of pavement slabs were modelled and analysed using a FEM tool, ANSYS. From the results, the behaviour of the three sets of rubberized concrete were compared and analysed, and an optimum percentage for crumb rubber and UFGGBS was proposed to achieve best possible damping without compromising the strength properties.

  4. Evaluation of warm mix technologies for use in asphalt rubber - asphaltic concrete friction courses (AR\\0x2010ACFC) : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this research project was to determine whether warm mix asphalt (WMA) technologies can be : used by the Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) for the production of an asphalt rubberasphaltic : concrete friction course (AR...

  5. Multilayer graphene rubber nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schartel, Bernhard; Frasca, Daniele; Schulze, Dietmar; Wachtendorf, Volker; Krafft, Bernd; Morys, Michael; Böhning, Martin; Rybak, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Multilayer Graphene (MLG), a nanoparticle with a specific surface of BET = 250 m2/g and thus made of only approximately 10 graphene sheets, is proposed as a nanofiller for rubbers. When homogenously dispersed, it works at low loadings enabling the replacement of carbon black (CB), increase in efficiency, or reduction in filler concentration. Actually the appropriate preparation yielded nanocomposites in which just 3 phr are sufficient to significantly improve the rheological, curing and mechanical properties of different rubbers, as shown for Chlorine-Isobutylene-Isoprene Rubber (CIIR), Nitrile-Butadiene Rubber (NBR), Natural Rubber (NR), and Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR). A mere 3 phr of MLG tripled the Young's modulus of CIIR, an effect equivalent to 20 phr of carbon black. Similar equivalents are observed for MLG/CB mixtures. MLG reduces gas permeability, increases thermal and electrical conductivities, and retards fire behavior. The later shown by the reduction in heat release rate in the cone calorimeter. The higher the nanofiller concentration is (3 phr, 5 phr, and 10 phr was investigated), the greater the improvement in the properties of the nanocomposites. Moreover, the MLG nanocomposites improve stability of mechanical properties against weathering. An increase in UV-absorption as well as a pronounced radical scavenging are proposed and were proved experimentally. To sum up, MLG is interesting as a multifunctional nanofiller and seems to be quite ready for rubber development.

  6. Rubberized, Brominated Epoxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilwee, W.; Kourtides, D.; Parker, J.; Nir, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Graphite/epoxy composite materials made with resins containing bromine and rubber additives. New composites tougher and more resistant to fire. Flame resistance increased by introducing bromine via commercial brominated flame-retartant polymeric additives.

  7. Microwave treatment of vulcanized rubber

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, George G [Aiken, SC; Schulz, Rebecca L [Aiken, SC; Clark, David E [Gainesville, FL; Folz, Diane C [Gainesville, FL

    2002-07-16

    A process and resulting product is provided in which a vulcanized solid particulate, such as vulcanized crumb rubber, has select chemical bonds broken by microwave radiation. The direct application of microwaves in combination with uniform heating of the crumb rubber renders the treated crumb rubber more suitable for use in new rubber formulations. As a result, larger particle sizes and/or loading levels of the treated crumb rubber can be used in new rubber mixtures to produce recycled composite products with good properties.

  8. Buffing dust as a filler of carboxylated butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber and butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber.

    PubMed

    Chronska, K; Przepiorkowska, A

    2008-03-01

    Buffing dust from chrome tanned leather is one of the difficult tannery wastes to manage. It is also hazardous to both human health and the environment. The scientific literature rarely reports studies on dust management, especially on its utilization as a filler for elastomers. In this connection we have made an attempt to use this leather waste as a filler for rubbers such as XNBR and NBR. The addition of the buffing dust to rubber mixes brought improvement in mechanical properties, and increase in resistance to thermal ageing as well as in electric conductivity and crosslink density of vulcalizates.

  9. Interaggregate Interaction in Filled Rubber

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    from a black masterbatch (Carbomix 1848 from the Copolymer Rubber and Chemical Corporation). The masterbatch was unmilled (SBR-83-0), passed 5 times...Vanderbilt Company) 3 97% 1,2-polybutadiene (Firestone Tire and Rubber Company) 4 Carbomix 1848 Masterbatch (Copolymer Rubber and Chemical Corporation) 14

  10. Comprehensive evaluation of the long-term performance of rubberized pavement, phase II : the influence of rubber and asphalt interaction on mixture durability.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-12-01

    This project investigated the long-term performance of hot asphalt mixes containing crumb rubber : modifiers (CRM) added in dry or wet processes. A total of eight asphalt mixturesfour Porous : European Mixtures (PEMs) and four Stone Matrix Asphalt...

  11. Reinforcing Natural Rubber with Cellulose Nanofibrils Extracted from Bleached Eucalyptus Kraft Pulp

    Chunmei Zhang; Tianliang Zhai; Ronald Sabo; Craig Clemons; Yi Dan; Lih-Sheng Turng

    2014-01-01

    Reinforced natural rubber (NR) nanocomposites were prepared by solution mixing, casting, and evaporation of pre-vulcanized natural rubber latex and an aqueous suspension of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) extracted from bleached eucalyptus kraft pulp. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that there were no micro-scaled aggregates observed in the nanocomposites...

  12. Cross-reactions between xanthates and rubber additives.

    PubMed

    Sasseville, Denis; Al-Sowaidi, Mowza; Moreau, Linda

    2007-09-01

    We previously described allergic contact dermatitis from xanthates used in the recovery of metals from mining ores. We observed cross-reactions with carbamates, believed to be due to the common "dithio" nucleus shared by both groups. The present study was undertaken to establish the rate of cross-reactions between xanthates and rubber additives. Between November 2002 and December 2005, 1,220 consecutive patients were patch-tested with sodium isopropyl xanthate 10% in petrolatum (pet) and with potassium amyl xanthate 10% pet and later 5% pet, in addition to the North American Contact Dermatitis Group standard series and other series as required by their conditions. Fifty-one patients reacted to xanthates, carbamates, or thiurams; 26 reacted to xanthates only, and these reactions were felt to be irritant. Twenty-five patients reacted to xanthates and/or to one or more of the rubber additives, 12 had positive reactions to xanthates and to either carba mix or thiuram mix, 10 reacted to xanthates and carba mix, 9 reacted to xanthates and thiuram mix, and 8 showed positive reactions to xanthates and both mixes. However, 13 patients had positive reactions to carba mix and thiuram mix but did not react to xanthates. Six patients reacted to other rubber additives such as mercaptobenzothiazole, black rubber mix, and mixed dialkyl thioureas. Five of these patients also reacted to xanthates, 4 reacted to xanthates and carba mix, and 3 reacted to xanthates, carba mix, and thiuram mix. Of patients sensitized to carbamates, thiurams, or mercaptobenzothiazole, 50% exhibit cross-reactions with xanthates. Xanthates are irritants, and their patch-test concentrations should be lowered to 5% or less.

  13. A review on the suitability of rubberized concrete for concrete bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syamir Senin, Mohamad; Shahidan, Shahiron; Radziah Abdullah, Siti; Anting Guntor, Nickholas; Syazani Leman, Alif

    2017-11-01

    Road authorities manage a large population of ageing bridges, a substantial number of which fail to meet the current requirements either due to deterioration and other structural deficiencies or as a result of the escalating demands imposed by increased traffic. This problem is related to the dynamic load from vehicles. This problem can be solved by producing a type of concrete that can reduce the amplitude of oscillation or vibration such as rubberized concrete. Green construction has been a very important aspect in concrete production field in the last decade. One of the most problematic waste materials is scrap tires. The use of scrap tires in civil engineering is increasing by producing rubberized concrete. Rubberized concrete is a type of concrete that is mixed with rubber. The purpose of this review is to justify the suitability of rubberized concrete for concrete bridge decks. Several parameters named physical, chemical and mechanical properties were measured to ensure the suitability of rubberized concrete for concrete bridge decks. Rubberized concrete has similar workability to normal concrete. The rubber reduced the density and compressive strength of the concrete while increased the flexural strength, water absorption and damping ratio. The used of rubber in concrete beyond 20% is not recommended due to decreasing in compressive strength. Rubberized concrete recommended to be used in circumstances where vibration damping was required such as in bridge construction as shock-wave absorber.

  14. Possibility of using waste tire rubber and fly ash with Portland cement as construction materials.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Arin; Degirmenci, Nurhayat

    2009-05-01

    The growing amount of waste rubber produced from used tires has resulted in an environmental problem. Recycling waste tires has been widely studied for the last 20 years in applications such as asphalt pavement, waterproofing systems and membrane liners. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing fly ash and rubber waste with Portland cement as a composite material for masonry applications. Class C fly ash and waste automobile tires in three different sizes were used with Portland cement. Compressive and flexural strength, dry unit weight and water absorption tests were performed on the composite specimens containing waste tire rubber. The compressive strength decreased by increasing the rubber content while increased by increasing the fly ash content for all curing periods. This trend is slightly influenced by particle size. For flexural strength, the specimens with waste tire rubber showed higher values than the control mix probably due to the effect of rubber fibers. The dry unit weight of all specimens decreased with increasing rubber content, which can be explained by the low specific gravity of rubber particles. Water absorption decreased slightly with the increase in rubber particles size. These composite materials containing 10% Portland cement, 70% and 60% fly ash and 20% and 30% tire rubber particles have sufficient strength for masonry applications.

  15. Elastic instabilities in rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gent, Alan

    2009-03-01

    Materials that undergo large elastic deformations can exhibit novel instabilities. Several examples are described: development of an aneurysm on inflating a rubber tube; non-uniform stretching on inflating a spherical balloon; formation of internal cracks in rubber blocks at a critical level of triaxial tension or when supersaturated with a dissolved gas; surface wrinkling of a block at a critical amount of compression; debonding or fracture of constrained films on swelling, and formation of ``knots'' on twisting stretched cylindrical rods. These various deformations are analyzed in terms of a simple strain energy function, using Rivlin's theory of large elastic deformations, and the results are compared with experimental measurements of the onset of unstable states. Such comparisons provide new tests of Rivlin's theory and, at least in principle, critical tests of proposed strain energy functions for rubber. Moreover the onset of highly non-uniform deformations has serious implications for the fatigue life and fracture resistance of rubber components. [4pt] References: [0pt] R. S. Rivlin, Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. Ser. A241 (1948) 379--397. [0pt] A. Mallock, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. 49 (1890--1891) 458--463. [0pt] M. A. Biot, ``Mechanics of Incremental Deformations'', Wiley, New York, 1965. [0pt] A. N. Gent and P. B. Lindley, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A 249 (1958) 195--205. [0pt] A. N. Gent, W. J. Hung and M. F. Tse, Rubb. Chem. Technol. 74 (2001) 89--99. [0pt] A. N. Gent, Internatl. J. Non-Linear Mech. 40 (2005) 165--175.

  16. Effect of concentrated epoxidised natural rubber and silica masterbatch for tyre application

    SciT

    Azira, A. A., E-mail: azira@lgm.gov.my; Kamal, M. M., E-mail: mazlina@lgm.gov.my; Verasamy, D., E-mail: devaraj@lgm.gov.my

    The availability of concentrated epoxidised natural rubber (ENR-LC) has provided a better opportunity for using epoxidised natural rubber (ENR) with silica to reinforce natural rubber for tyre application. ENR-LC mixed directly with silica to rubber by high speed stirrer without using any coupling agent. Some rubber compounds were prepared by mixing a large amount of precipitated amorphous white silica with natural rubber. The silica was prepared in aqueous dispersion and the filler was perfectly dispersed in the ENR-LC. The performance of the composites was evaluated in this work for the viability of ENR-LC/Si in tyre compounding. Compounding was carried outmore » on a two roll mill, where the additives and curing agents was later mixed. Characterization of these composites was performed by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) for dispersion as well as mechanical testing. C-ENR/Si showed efficient as primary reinforcing filler in ENR with regard to modulus and tensile strength, resulting on an increase in the stiffness of the rubbers compared to ENR latex. Overall improvement in the mechanical properties for the ENR-LC over the control crosslinked rubber sample was probably due to synergisms of silica reinforcement and crosslinking of the polymeric matrix phase.« less

  17. Effect of concentrated epoxidised natural rubber and silica masterbatch for tyre application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azira, A. A.; Verasamy, D.; Kamal, M. M.

    2016-07-01

    The availability of concentrated epoxidised natural rubber (ENR-LC) has provided a better opportunity for using epoxidised natural rubber (ENR) with silica to reinforce natural rubber for tyre application. ENR-LC mixed directly with silica to rubber by high speed stirrer without using any coupling agent. Some rubber compounds were prepared by mixing a large amount of precipitated amorphous white silica with natural rubber. The silica was prepared in aqueous dispersion and the filler was perfectly dispersed in the ENR-LC. The performance of the composites was evaluated in this work for the viability of ENR-LC/Si in tyre compounding. Compounding was carried out on a two roll mill, where the additives and curing agents was later mixed. Characterization of these composites was performed by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) for dispersion as well as mechanical testing. C-ENR/Si showed efficient as primary reinforcing filler in ENR with regard to modulus and tensile strength, resulting on an increase in the stiffness of the rubbers compared to ENR latex. Overall improvement in the mechanical properties for the ENR-LC over the control crosslinked rubber sample was probably due to synergisms of silica reinforcement and crosslinking of the polymeric matrix phase.

  18. Waste tyre rubberized concrete: properties at fresh and hardened state.

    PubMed

    Aiello, M A; Leuzzi, F

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to investigate the properties of various concrete mixtures at fresh and hardened state, obtained by a partial substitution of coarse and fine aggregate with different volume percentages of waste tyres rubber particles, having the same dimensions of the replaced aggregate. Workability, unit weight, compressive and flexural strength and post-cracking behaviour were evaluated and a comparison of the results for the different rubcrete mixtures were proposed in order to define the better mix proportions in terms of mechanical properties of the rubberized concrete. Results showed in this paper were also compared to data reported in literature. Moreover, a preliminary geometrical, physical and mechanical characterization on scrap tyre rubber shreds was made. The rubberized concrete mixtures showed lower unit weight compared to plain concrete and good workability. The results of compressive and flexural tests indicated a larger reduction of mechanical properties of rubcrete when replacing coarse aggregate rather than fine aggregate. On the other hand, the post-cracking behaviour of rubberized concrete was positively affected by the substitution of coarse aggregate with rubber shreds, showing a good energy absorption and ductility indexes in the range observed for fibrous concrete, as suggested by standard (ASTM C1018-97, 1997). 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fabrication of Wood-Rubber Composites Using Rubber Compound as a Bonding Agent Instead of Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Dongwei; Xu, Min; Cai, Liping; Shi, Sheldon Q.

    2016-01-01

    Differing from the hot-pressing method in the manufacturing of traditional wood-rubber composites (WRCs), this study was aimed at fabricating WRCs using rubber processing to improve water resistance and mechanical properties. Three steps were used to make WRCs, namely, fiber-rubber mixing, tabletting, and the vulcanization molding process. Ninety-six WRC panels were made with wood fiber contents of 0%–50% at rotor rotational speeds of 15–45 rpm and filled coefficients of 0.55–0.75. Four regression equations, i.e., the tensile strength (Ts), elongation at break (Eb), hardness (Ha) and rebound resilience (Rr) as functions of fiber contents, rotational speed and filled coefficient, were derived and a nonlinear programming model were developed to obtain the optimum composite properties. Although the Ts, Eb and Rr of the panels were reduced, Ha was considerably increased by 17%–58% because of the wood fiber addition. Scanning electron microscope images indicated that fibers were well embedded in rubber matrix. The 24 h water absorption was only 1%–3%, which was much lower than commercial wood-based composites. PMID:28773591

  20. Fabrication of Wood-Rubber Composites Using Rubber Compound as a Bonding Agent Instead of Adhesives.

    PubMed

    Shao, Dongwei; Xu, Min; Cai, Liping; Shi, Sheldon Q

    2016-06-14

    Differing from the hot-pressing method in the manufacturing of traditional wood-rubber composites (WRCs), this study was aimed at fabricating WRCs using rubber processing to improve water resistance and mechanical properties. Three steps were used to make WRCs, namely, fiber-rubber mixing, tabletting, and the vulcanization molding process. Ninety-six WRC panels were made with wood fiber contents of 0%-50% at rotor rotational speeds of 15-45 rpm and filled coefficients of 0.55-0.75. Four regression equations, i.e. , the tensile strength ( T s), elongation at break ( E b), hardness ( H a) and rebound resilience ( R r) as functions of fiber contents, rotational speed and filled coefficient, were derived and a nonlinear programming model were developed to obtain the optimum composite properties. Although the T s, E b and R r of the panels were reduced, H a was considerably increased by 17%-58% because of the wood fiber addition. Scanning electron microscope images indicated that fibers were well embedded in rubber matrix. The 24 h water absorption was only 1%-3%, which was much lower than commercial wood-based composites.

  1. QENS investigation of filled rubbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triolo, A.; Lo Celso, F.; Negroni, F.; Arrighi, V.; Qian, H.; Lechner, R. E.; Desmedt, A.; Pieper, J.; Frick, B.; Triolo, R.

    The polymer segmental dynamics is investigated in a series of silica-filled rubbers. The presence of inert fillers in polymers greatly affects the mechanical and physical performance of the final materials. For example, silica has been proposed as a reinforcing agent of elastomers in tire production. Results from quasielastic neutron scattering and Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA) measurements are presented on styrene-ran-butadiene rubber filled with silica. A clear indication is obtained of the existence of a bimodal dynamics, which can be rationalized in terms of the relaxation of bulk rubber and the much slower relaxation of the rubber adsorbed on the filler surface.

  2. Effect of type and content of tackifier on adhesion of natural rubber and reclaimed natural rubber based sealant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raethong, P.; Boonkerd, K.

    2017-07-01

    Adhesion property of natural rubber (NR) and reclaimed natural rubber (RNR) based sealant with concrete was studied here. The effect of tackifier type and loading on the tensile properties of the rubber based sealant sandwished between two flat cements was evaluated. There are three different tackifiers including Coumarone-indene resin (CI), petro resin (PE) and gum rosin (GR). The result initially showed that at the 20 phr of tackifier both NR and RNR sealant mixed with CI consumed the highest force to separate the rubber based sealant from the concrete. This might be due to the highest compatiblility between CI and rubber. Regardless of the tackifier type, all NR based sealants showed the cohesive failure while all RNR based sealants only showed the adhesive failure. Moreover, the NR based sealant seemed to be stronger than the RNR based one. When considering the effect of CI loading on the adhesion, it was shown that for both NR and RNR based sealents, the highest stress was observed when the rubber based sealant loaded with the 20 phr of CI.

  3. Sustainable stabilization of sulfate-bearing soils with expansive soil-rubber technology.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-03-01

    The beneficial use of scrap tire rubber mixed with expansive soils is of interest to civil engineering : applications since the swell percent and the swell pressure can be potentially reduced with no deleterious : effect to the shear strength of the ...

  4. High Performance Graphene Oxide Based Rubber Composites

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yingyan; Wen, Shipeng; Chen, Yulong; Zhang, Fazhong; Panine, Pierre; Chan, Tung W.; Zhang, Liqun; Liang, Yongri; Liu, Li

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, graphene oxide/styrene-butadiene rubber (GO/SBR) composites with complete exfoliation of GO sheets were prepared by aqueous-phase mixing of GO colloid with SBR latex and a small loading of butadiene-styrene-vinyl-pyridine rubber (VPR) latex, followed by their co-coagulation. During co-coagulation, VPR not only plays a key role in the prevention of aggregation of GO sheets but also acts as an interface-bridge between GO and SBR. The results demonstrated that the mechanical properties of the GO/SBR composite with 2.0 vol.% GO is comparable with those of the SBR composite reinforced with 13.1 vol.% of carbon black (CB), with a low mass density and a good gas barrier ability to boot. The present work also showed that GO-silica/SBR composite exhibited outstanding wear resistance and low-rolling resistance which make GO-silica/SBR very competitive for the green tire application, opening up enormous opportunities to prepare high performance rubber composites for future engineering applications. PMID:23974435

  5. High performance graphene oxide based rubber composites.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yingyan; Wen, Shipeng; Chen, Yulong; Zhang, Fazhong; Panine, Pierre; Chan, Tung W; Zhang, Liqun; Liang, Yongri; Liu, Li

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, graphene oxide/styrene-butadiene rubber (GO/SBR) composites with complete exfoliation of GO sheets were prepared by aqueous-phase mixing of GO colloid with SBR latex and a small loading of butadiene-styrene-vinyl-pyridine rubber (VPR) latex, followed by their co-coagulation. During co-coagulation, VPR not only plays a key role in the prevention of aggregation of GO sheets but also acts as an interface-bridge between GO and SBR. The results demonstrated that the mechanical properties of the GO/SBR composite with 2.0 vol.% GO is comparable with those of the SBR composite reinforced with 13.1 vol.% of carbon black (CB), with a low mass density and a good gas barrier ability to boot. The present work also showed that GO-silica/SBR composite exhibited outstanding wear resistance and low-rolling resistance which make GO-silica/SBR very competitive for the green tire application, opening up enormous opportunities to prepare high performance rubber composites for future engineering applications.

  6. Crack Velocities in Natural Rubber.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    vulcanized natural rubber (3). The surprisingly low value for natural rubber was attributed to highly anisotropic elastic behavior at high strains...Dr. R.L. Rabie Hercules Incorporated WX-2, MS-952 Alleghany Ballistic Lab Los Alamos National Lab. P.O. Box 210 P.O. Box 1663 Washington, D.C. 21502

  7. Down-Regulation of Small Rubber Particle Protein Expression Affects Integrity of Rubber Particles and Rubber Content in Taraxacum brevicorniculatum

    PubMed Central

    Hillebrand, Andrea; Post, Janina J.; Wurbs, David; Wahler, Daniela; Lenders, Malte; Krzyzanek, Vladislav; Prüfer, Dirk; Gronover, Christian Schulze

    2012-01-01

    The biosynthesis of rubber is thought to take place on the surface of rubber particles in laticifers, highly specialized cells that are present in more than 40 plant families. The small rubber particle protein (SRPP) has been supposed to be involved in rubber biosynthesis, and recently five SRPPs (TbSRPP1–5) were identified in the rubber-producing dandelion species Taraxacum brevicorniculatum. Here, we demonstrate by immunogold labeling that TbSRPPs are localized to rubber particles, and that rubber particles mainly consist of TbSRPP3, 4 and 5 as shown by high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometric analysis. We also carried out an RNA-interference approach in transgenic plants to address the function of TbSRPPs in rubber biosynthesis as well as rubber particle morphology and stability. TbSRPP-RNAi transgenic T. brevicorniculatum plants showed a 40–50% reduction in the dry rubber content, but neither the rubber weight average molecular mass nor the polydispersity of the rubber were affected. Although no phenotypical differences to wild-type particles could be observed in vivo, rubber particles from the TbSRPP-RNAi transgenic lines were less stable and tend to rapidly aggregate in expelling latex after wounding of laticifers. Our results prove that TbSRPPs are very crucial for rubber production in T. brevicorniculatum, probably by contributing to a most favourable and stable rubber particle architecture for efficient rubber biosynthesis and eventually storage. PMID:22911861

  8. Mixed Matrix Silicone and Fluorosilicone/Zeolite 4A Membranes for Ethanol Dehydration by Pervaporation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability of homogeneous and mixed matrix membranes prepared using standard silicone rubber, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), and fluorosilicone rubber, poly(trifluoropropylmethylsiloxane) (PTFPMS), to dehydrate ethanol by pervaporation was evaluated. Although PDMS is generally c...

  9. Radiation crosslinking of styrene-butadiene rubber containing waste tire rubber and polyfunctional monomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasin, Tariq; Khan, Sara; Shafiq, Muhammad; Gill, Rohama

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of polyfunctional monomers (PFMs) and absorbed dose on the final characteristics of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) mixed with waste tire rubber (WTR). A series of SBR/WTR blends were prepared by varying the ratios of WTR in the presence of PFMs, namely trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) and trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) and crosslinked using gamma rays. The physicochemical characteristics of the prepared blends were investigated. It was observed that tensile strength, hardness and gel content of the blends increased with absorbed dose while the blends containing TMPTA showed higher tensile strength, gel content and thermal stability as compared to the blends containing TMPTMA. Higher thermal stability was observed in the blends which were crosslinked by radiation as compared to the blends crosslinked by sulfur. These blends exhibited higher rate of swelling in organic solvents, whereas negligible swelling was observed in acidic and basic environment.

  10. Chlorinolysis reclaims rubber of waste tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufresne, E. R.; Tervet, J. H.; Hull, G. G.

    1981-01-01

    Process reclaims rubber and reduces sulfur content by using chlorine gas to oxidize sulfur bonds in preference to other bonds. Rubber does not have poor hysteresis and abrasion resistance like conventionally reclaimed rubber and is suitable for premium radial tires. Chlorinated rubber is less susceptible to swelling by oils and may be used as paint ingredient.

  11. Reinforcement of natural rubber latex by nanosize montmorillonite clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tantatherdtam, Rattana

    Based on the unique character of montmorillonite namely its layer structure and the ability of silicate particles to separate into nanometer-size platelets, natural rubber (polyisoprene)/clay composites were obtained by mixing rubber latex with clay-water dispersion and coagulating the mixture. The resulting film had greatly improved mechanical properties compared with films using micron-sized fillers. Further, both modulus and toughness were improved; in many composite system an improvement in modulus leads to a loss of toughness. X-ray diffraction results indicated that clay platelets dispersed in the rubber matrix on the nanoscale level with some macromolecules intercalated into the clay gallery. The observed considerable improvement in mechanical properties, coupled with a theoretical model of composite modulus suggests a dispersed structure of clay in the composite. While not all clay particles are exfoliated, data suggest that a reasonable fraction of exfoliated materials is required to explain the experimental results.

  12. A review on using crumb rubber in reinforcement of asphalt pavement.

    PubMed

    Mashaan, Nuha Salim; Ali, Asim Hassan; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Abdelaziz, Mahrez

    2014-01-01

    An immense problem affecting environmental pollution is the increase of waste tyre vehicles. In an attempt to decrease the magnitude of this issue, crumb rubber modifier (CRM) obtained from waste tyre rubber has gained interest in asphalt reinforcement. The use of crumb rubber in the reinforcement of asphalt is considered as a smart solution for sustainable development by reusing waste materials, and it is believed that crumb rubber modifier (CRM) could be an alternative polymer material in improving hot mix asphalt performance properties. In this paper, a critical review on the use of crumb rubber in reinforcement of asphalt pavement will be presented and discussed. It will also include a review on the effects of CRM on the stiffness, rutting, and fatigue resistance of road pavement construction.

  13. A Review on Using Crumb Rubber in Reinforcement of Asphalt Pavement

    PubMed Central

    Mashaan, Nuha Salim; Ali, Asim Hassan; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Abdelaziz, Mahrez

    2014-01-01

    An immense problem affecting environmental pollution is the increase of waste tyre vehicles. In an attempt to decrease the magnitude of this issue, crumb rubber modifier (CRM) obtained from waste tyre rubber has gained interest in asphalt reinforcement. The use of crumb rubber in the reinforcement of asphalt is considered as a smart solution for sustainable development by reusing waste materials, and it is believed that crumb rubber modifier (CRM) could be an alternative polymer material in improving hot mix asphalt performance properties. In this paper, a critical review on the use of crumb rubber in reinforcement of asphalt pavement will be presented and discussed. It will also include a review on the effects of CRM on the stiffness, rutting, and fatigue resistance of road pavement construction. PMID:24688369

  14. 'Rubber Duck' on Ceres

    2017-10-12

    This image from NASA's Dawn spacecraft shows a group of craters, left of center, that resembles a rubber duck. Halki Crater, the "head," is 12 miles (20 kilometers) in diameter, while Telepinu Crater, the "body," is 19 miles (31 kilometers) across. They can be found in the global map of Ceres' names. The "beak" crater is unnamed. Halki and Telepinu have both been recently added to the list of official names for Ceres' geological features. They are both named after Hittite (Asia Minor) deities: the goddess of grain and the god of fertility and vegetation, respectively. Dawn acquired this picture on August 20, 2015, from its high-altitude mapping orbit at about 915 miles (1,470 kilometers) above the surface. The center coordinates of this image are 26 degrees north latitude, 339 degrees east longitude. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21909

  15. Rubber stopper remover

    SciT

    Stitt, Robert R.

    1994-01-01

    A device for removing a rubber stopper from a test tube is mountable to an upright wall, has a generally horizontal splash guard, and a lower plate spaced parallel to and below the splash guard. A slot in the lower plate has spaced-apart opposing edges that converge towards each other from the plate outer edge to a narrowed portion, the opposing edges shaped to make engagement between the bottom of the stopper flange and the top edge of the test tube to wedge therebetween and to grasp the stopper in the slot narrowed portion to hold the stopper as themore » test tube is manipulated downwardly and pulled from the stopper. The opposing edges extend inwardly to adjoin an opening having a diameter significantly larger than that of the stopper flange.« less

  16. Identification of a Taraxacum brevicorniculatum rubber elongation factor protein that is localized on rubber particles and promotes rubber biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Laibach, Natalie; Hillebrand, Andrea; Twyman, Richard M; Prüfer, Dirk; Schulze Gronover, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Two protein families required for rubber biosynthesis in Taraxacum brevicorniculatum have recently been characterized, namely the cis-prenyltransferases (TbCPTs) and the small rubber particle proteins (TbSRPPs). The latter were shown to be the most abundant proteins on rubber particles, where rubber biosynthesis takes place. Here we identified a protein designated T. brevicorniculatum rubber elongation factor (TbREF) by using mass spectrometry to analyze rubber particle proteins. TbREF is homologous to the TbSRPPs but has a molecular mass that is atypical for the family. The promoter was shown to be active in laticifers, and the protein itself was localized on the rubber particle surface. In TbREF-silenced plants generated by RNA interference, the rubber content was significantly reduced, correlating with lower TbCPT protein levels and less TbCPT activity in the latex. However, the molecular mass of the rubber was not affected by TbREF silencing. The colloidal stability of rubber particles isolated from TbREF-silenced plants was also unchanged. This was not surprising because TbREF depletion did not affect the abundance of TbSRPPs, which are required for rubber particle stability. Our findings suggest that TbREF is an important component of the rubber biosynthesis machinery in T. brevicorniculatum, and may play a role in rubber particle biogenesis and influence rubber production. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Interfacial interaction between the epoxidized natural rubber and silica in natural rubber/silica composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tiwen; Jia, Zhixin; Luo, Yuanfang; Jia, Demin; Peng, Zheng

    2015-02-01

    The epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) as an interfacial modifier was used to improve the mechanical and dynamical mechanical properties of NR/silica composites. In order to reveal the interaction mechanism between ENR and silica, the ENR/Silica model compound was prepared by using an open mill and the interfacial interaction of ENR with silica was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and stress-strain testing. The results indicated that the ring-opening reaction occurs between the epoxy groups of ENR chains and Si-OH groups on the silica surfaces and the covalent bonds are formed between two phases, which can improve the dispersion of silica in the rubber matrix and enhance the interfacial combination between rubber and silica. The ring-opening reaction occurs not only in vulcanization process but also in mixing process, meanwhile, the latter seems to be more important due to the simultaneous effects of mechanical force and temperature.

  18. Locating a silane coupling agent in silica-filled rubber composites by EFTEM.

    PubMed

    Dohi, Hidehiko; Horiuchi, Shin

    2007-11-20

    A silane coupling agent (SA) was added to silica/rubber composites at different mixing temperatures and the formation of a coupling layer at the silica/rubber interface was investigated by energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy. Bis(triethoxysilypropyl)tetrasulfane (TESPT), which was used as the SA, reacted with the silanol groups on the silica surface and with styrene-butadiene rubber to form an interfacial coupling layer. The silicon and sulfur elemental distributions were analyzed by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and elemental mapping. The amount of TESPT trapped in the rubber matrix could be qualitatively estimated by EELS, and the in situ formed coupling layer could be characterized by elemental mapping. The result indicated that the formation of the coupling layer was affected by the mixing temperature. The technique described here will contribute to the study of interface-property relationships and the evaluation of the role of SAs in polymeric composites.

  19. Occupational peri-ocular contact dermatitis due to sensitization against black rubber components of a microscope.

    PubMed

    Kuijpers, D I M; Hillen, F; Frank, J A

    2006-08-01

    A 24-year-old female working in the Department of Pathology of a University Hospital developed an acute peri-ocular eczema clearly being related to her daily work at the microscope. Patch testing revealed delayed type hypersensitivity against the black rubber mix, N-isopropyl-N'-phenyl paraphenylenediamine, N-cyclohexyl-N'-phenyl paraphenylenediamine and the rubber ring situated on the ocular of the respective microscope. This is the first report, to our knowledge, on peri-orbital allergic contact eczema because of sensitization with rubber components of a microscope.

  20. Sensitization to Rubber Accelerators in Northeastern Italy: The Triveneto Patch Test Database.

    PubMed

    Buttazzo, Silvia; Prodi, Andrea; Fortina, Anna Belloni; Corradin, Maria Teresa; Larese Filon, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Natural and synthetic rubbers containing rubber accelerators are well-known causes of occupational skin disease. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by rubber gloves is frequent and has almost exclusively been attributed to contact sensitization to accelerators. This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of rubber accelerators sensitization in the population living in northeastern Italy, to find time trend and a correlation with occupations, and to investigate co-sensitization between rubber accelerators. A population of 23,774 subjects was patch tested in 6 cities in northeastern Italy in the years 1996 to 2012 using carba mix 3%, thiuram mix 1%, benzothiazole (MBT) mix 1%, and isopropyl phenyl paraphenylamine diamine (IPPD) mix 0.6%. The overall frequency of carbamates, MBT, thiurams, and IPPD mix sensitization was 3.4%, 0.65%, 1.75%, and 0.83%, respectively. On a logistic regression analysis (control group: white-collar workers), we found a statistically significant association to carbamates (odds ratio [OR], 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.7) and thiurams (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.3) for health care workers. Thiuram sensitivity was also significantly associated with dermatitis in maids and restaurant workers (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.4-3.6), hairdressers (OR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.8-7.1), shop assistants (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.2-6.8), construction workers (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.7-4.1), mechanics (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.3-3.4), and professional drivers (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.2-5.9). In conclusion, our results demonstrated that rubber accelerators have an important role in allergic contact dermatitis in the northeast of Italy and their sensitization is associated significantly with occupations that wear gloves or use chemical substances. Between rubber accelerators tested, carbamates sensitization is prevalent and increasing during considered years.

  1. Rubber friction and tire dynamics.

    PubMed

    Persson, B N J

    2011-01-12

    We propose a simple rubber friction law, which can be used, for example, in models of tire (and vehicle) dynamics. The friction law is tested by comparing numerical results to the full rubber friction theory (Persson 2006 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18 7789). Good agreement is found between the two theories. We describe a two-dimensional (2D) tire model which combines the rubber friction model with a simple mass-spring description of the tire body. The tire model is very flexible and can be used to accurately calculate μ-slip curves (and the self-aligning torque) for braking and cornering or combined motion (e.g. braking during cornering). We present numerical results which illustrate the theory. Simulations of anti-blocking system (ABS) braking are performed using two simple control algorithms.

  2. 75 FR 38119 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan. SUMMARY: The... on polychloroprene rubber from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  3. Cellulose nanocrystals reinforced foamed nitrile rubber nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yukun; Zhang, Yuanbing; Xu, Chuanhui; Cao, Xiaodong

    2015-10-05

    Research on foamed nitrile rubber (NBR)/cellulose nanocrystals (CNs) nanocomposites is rarely found in the literatures. In this paper, CNs suspension and NBR latex was mixed to prepared the foamed NBR/CNs nanocomposites. We found that the CNs mainly located in the cell walls, effectively reinforcing the foamed NBR. The strong interaction between the CNs and NBR matrix restricted the mobility of NBR chains surrounding the CNs, hence increasing the crosslink density of the NBR matrix. CNs exhibited excellent reinforcement on the foamed NBR: a remarkable increase nearly 76% in the tensile strength of the foamed nanocomposites was achieved with a load of only 15 phr CNs. Enhanced mechanical properties make the foamed NBR/CNs nanocomposites a promising damping material for industrial applications with a potential to reduce the petroleum consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Improved rubber nanofillers

    SciT

    Boyle, T. J.

    2012-03-01

    During this task, Silane functionalized TiO2 and HK3Ti4O4(SiO4)3 were sent to Goodyear (GY) for testing. These materials were characterized based on their interaction with the model elastomer, squalene. The Van der Waals interactions and Hamaker Constants for ZnO particles in squalene and rubber materials were characterized and it was determined that a 10-20 nm spacing was necessary between primary filler particles to maintain a stable nanocomposite. Contact angle measurements on the ZnO and ZnO-silane materials indicated that the solvent should wet the particles, and solvophobic attractions should not be present. These studies showed that the surface modification with sulfosilane couplingmore » agents was successful, and high levels of dispersion of the particles remained possible. Further, a novel surface charging phenomenon where negative surface charging is developed in the squalene environment was observed and corroborated by measurements of particle size and of the surface modified materials in squalene. This impacts the dispersion of the particles according to the traditional colloidal interpretation of electrostatic repulsive forces between particles. Additionally, thin nanocomposite fibers were developed using electrospinning. The size and shape of the oxides did not change during the electrospinning process, although the shape of the fiber and the distribution of the particles, particularly for ZnO, was not ideal. There was an obvious increase in elastic modulus and hardness from the addition of the oxides, but differentiating the oxides, and particularly the surfactants, was difficult. The A-1289 lead to the greatest dispersion of the filler particles, while the A-1589 and the NXT produced clustered particle aggregates. This agrees with previous study of these materials in low molecular weight squalene solvent studies reported earlier. The behavior of the nanoparticle ZnO and the microparticle silica is different as well, with the ZnO being contained

  5. Use of rubber crumbs in cement concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longvinenko, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    Rubber crumb obtained from worn out tires has been increasingly used over the last 15-20 years, especially in manufacture of asphalt and cement concrete mixtures. This review pays principal attention to application of the rubber crumb to cement concrete mixtures. Use of the rubber crumb in cement concrete is not as successful as in asphalt concrete mixtures, due to incompatibility problems linked to chemical composition and a significant difference in rigidity between the rubber crumb and concrete mixture aggregates. Different methods are proposed and studied to mitigate the adverse influence and increase the beneficial effects of the rubber crumb when added to cement concrete.

  6. CHEMICAL RECLAMATION OF SCRAP RUBBER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A conceptual, commercial-scale plant design was formulated for processing 22,500 t/yr of scrap rubber tires to hydrocarbon fuel gases, oils, petrochemicals (principally ethylene and aromatic liquids), and carbon black. The process is based upon molten salt (zinc chloride) pyrolys...

  7. Soft matter: rubber and networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, Gregory B.

    2018-06-01

    Rubber networks are important and form the basis for materials with properties ranging from rubber tires to super absorbents and contact lenses. The development of the entropy ideas of rubber deformation thermodynamics provides a powerful framework from which to understand and to use these materials. In addition, swelling of the rubber in the presence of small molecule liquids or solvents leads to materials that are very soft and ‘gel’ like in nature. The review covers the thermodynamics of polymer networks and gels from the perspective of the thermodynamics and mechanics of the strain energy density function. Important relationships are presented and experimental results show that the continuum ideas contained in the phenomenological thermodynamics are valid, but that the molecular bases for some of them remain to be fully elucidated. This is particularly so in the case of the entropic gels or swollen networks. The review is concluded with some perspectives on other networks, ranging from entropic polymer networks such as thermoplastic elastomers to physical gels in which cross-link points are formed by glassy or crystalline domains. A discussion is provided for other physical gels in which the network forms a spinodal-like decomposition, both in thermoplastic polymers that form a glassy network upon phase separation and for colloidal gels that seem to have a similar behavior.

  8. Higher modulus compositions incorporating particulate rubber

    DOEpatents

    Bauman, B.D.; Williams, M.A.; Bagheri, R.

    1997-12-02

    Rubber particles, to be used as fillers or extenders for various composite polymer systems, are chlorinated by a gas-solid phase reaction with a chlorine-containing gas. A composite polymer containing the chlorinated rubber fillers or extenders exhibits a higher flexural modulus than if prepared using an unchlorinated rubber filler or extender. Chlorination of the rubber particles is carried out by contacting the finely divided rubber particles with a chlorine-containing gas comprising at least about 5 volume percent chlorine. Advantageously, the chlorine can be diluted with air, nitrogen or other essentially inert gases and may contain minor amounts of fluorine. Improved performance is obtained with nitrogen dilution of the chlorine gas over air dilution. Improved polymer composite systems having higher flexural modulus result from the use of the chlorinated rubber particles as fillers instead of unchlorinated rubber particles. 2 figs.

  9. Higher modulus compositions incorporating particulate rubber

    DOEpatents

    McInnis, E.L.; Scharff, R.P.; Bauman, B.D.; Williams, M.A.

    1995-01-17

    Rubber particles, to be used as fillers or extenders for various composite polymer systems, are chlorinated by a gas-solid phase reaction with a chlorine-containing gas. A composite polymer containing the chlorinated rubber fillers or extenders exhibits a higher flexural modulus than if prepared using an unchlorinated rubber filler or extender. Chlorination of the rubber particles is carried out by contacting the finely divided rubber particles with a chlorine-containing gas comprising at least about 5 volume percent chlorine. Advantageously, the chlorine can be diluted with air, nitrogen or other essentially inert gases and may contain minor amounts of fluorine. Improved performance is obtained with nitrogen dilution of the chlorine gas over air dilution. Improved polymer composite systems having higher flexural modulus result from the use of the chlorinated rubber particles as fillers instead of unchlorinated rubber particles. 2 figures.

  10. Higher modulus compositions incorporating particulate rubber

    DOEpatents

    McInnis, E.L.; Bauman, B.D.; Williams, M.A.

    1996-04-09

    Rubber particles, to be used as fillers or extenders for various composite polymer systems, are chlorinated by a gas-solid phase reaction with a chlorine-containing gas. A composite polymer containing the chlorinated rubber fillers or extenders exhibits a higher flexural modulus than if prepared using an unchlorinated rubber filler or extender. Chlorination of the rubber particles is carried out by contacting the finely divided rubber particles with a chlorine-containing gas comprising at least about 5 volume percent chlorine. Advantageously, the chlorine can be diluted with air, nitrogen or other essentially inert gases and may contain minor amounts of fluorine. Improved performance is obtained with nitrogen dilution of the chlorine gas over air dilution. Improved polymer composite systems having higher flexural modulus result from the use of the chlorinated rubber particles as fillers instead of unchlorinated rubber particles. 2 figs.

  11. Promoting the use of crumb rubber concrete in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Batayneh, Malek K; Marie, Iqbal; Asi, Ibrahim

    2008-11-01

    The use of accumulated waste materials in third world countries is still in its early phases. It will take courage for contractors and others in the construction industry to recycle selected types of waste materials in the concrete mixes. This paper addresses the recycling of rubber tires accumulated every year in Jordan to be used in concrete mixes. The main objectives of this research were to provide more scientific evidence to support the use of legislation or incentive-based schemes to promote the reuse of accumulated waste tires. This research focused on using crumb tires as a replacement for a percentage of the local fine aggregates used in the concrete mixes in Jordan. Different concrete specimens were prepared and tested in terms of uniaxial compression and splitting tension. The main variable in the mixture was the volumetric percentage of crumb tires used in the mix. The test results showed that even though the compressive strength is reduced when using the crumb tires, it can meet the strength requirements of light weight concrete. In addition, test results and observations indicated that the addition of crumb rubber to the mix has a limited effect toward reducing the workability of the mixtures. The mechanical test results demonstrated that the tested specimens of the crumb rubber concrete remained relatively intact after failure compared to the conventional concrete specimens. It is also concluded that modified concrete would contribute to the disposal of the non-decaying scrap tires, since the amount being accumulated in third world countries is creating a challenge for proper disposal. Thus, obliging authorities to invest in facilitating the use of waste tires in concrete, a fundamental material to the booming construction industry in theses countries, serves two purposes.

  12. DESI-MS imaging and NMR spectroscopy to investigate the influence of biodiesel in the structure of commercial rubbers.

    PubMed

    Silva, Lorena M A; Alves Filho, Elenilson G; Simpson, André J; Monteiro, Marcos R; Cabral, Elaine; Ifa, Demian; Venâncio, Tiago

    2017-10-01

    Biodiesel has been introduced as an energetic matrix in several countries around the world. However, the affinity of biodiesel with the components of petrodiesel engines is a growing concern. In order to obtain information regarding the effect of biodiesel on the rubber structure, nuclear magnetic resonance technics under a new technology named as comprehensive multiphase (CMP NMR) and the imaging through desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS imaging) were used. The 1 H CMP-DOSY NMR showed the entrapped fuel into the rubber cavities, which the higher constraint caused by the rubber structure is related to the smaller diffusion coefficient. The less affected type of rubber by biodiesel was ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM), and the most affected was synthetic rubber nitrile (NBR). The 13 C CMP MAS-SPE experiments also confirmed that the internal region of EPDM was less accessible to the biodiesel molecules (no fuels detected) while other rubbers were more susceptible to the penetration of the fuel. DESI-MS imaging revealed for the first time the topography of the rubbers exposed to fuels. The biodiesel molecules entrapped at the EPDM and NBR pores were in oxidized form, which might degrade the rubber structure at long exposure time. The employed technics enabled the study of dynamic and molecular structure of the mixing complex multiphase. The DOSY under CMP used in this study could prove helpful in assessing the interactions throughout all physical phases (liquid, solid, and gel or semi-solid) by observing swellability caused by the fuel in the rubber. In addition, the DESI-MS was especially valuable to detect the degradation products of biodiesel entangled at the rubber structure. In our knowledge, this was the first report in which chemical changes of commercial rubbers induced by biodiesel and petrodiesel were investigated by means of DESI-MS and DOSY NMR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Nonlinear Conductive Behaviour of Silver Nanowires/Silicone Rubber Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Pin; Qu, Zhaoming; Wang, Qingguo; Bai, Liyun; Zhao, Shiyang

    2018-01-01

    Silver nanowires with an average length of 10 μm and diameter of about 90 nm have been synthesized by polyol reduction of silver nitrate in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone(PVP). Silver nanowires (AgNWs)/silicone rubber (SR) composites have been made by mixing silver nanowires into silicone rubber. The nonlinear response of AgNWs/SR composites under high electric field is investigated. The nonlinear Conductive behavior of composites is considered as a competitive process of several effects. From the perspective of the microstructure of composites, the conductive path is established by the quantum tunnel effect between silver nanowires. The influence factors on the conductivity of composites are discussed and analyzed. The results show that the AgNWs/SR composites with nonlinear conductive properties are of great potential application in electromagnetic protection of electron device and system.

  14. In-depth proteome analysis of the rubber particle of Hevea brasiliensis (para rubber tree).

    PubMed

    Dai, Longjun; Kang, Guijuan; Li, Yu; Nie, Zhiyi; Duan, Cuifang; Zeng, Rizhong

    2013-05-01

    The rubber particle is a special organelle in which natural rubber is synthesised and stored in the laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis. To better understand the biological functions of rubber particles and to identify the candidate rubber biosynthesis-related proteins, a comprehensive proteome analysis was performed on H. brasiliensis rubber particles using shotgun tandem mass spectrometry profiling approaches-resulting in a thorough report on the rubber particle proteins. A total of 186 rubber particle proteins were identified, with a range in relative molecular mass of 3.9-194.2 kDa and in isoelectric point values of 4.0-11.2. The rubber particle proteins were analysed for gene ontology and could be categorised into eight major groups according to their functions: including rubber biosynthesis, stress- or defence-related responses, protein processing and folding, signal transduction and cellular transport. In addition to well-known rubber biosynthesis-related proteins such as rubber elongation factor (REF), small rubber particle protein (SRPP) and cis-prenyl transferase (CPT), many proteins were firstly identified to be on the rubber particles, including cyclophilin, phospholipase D, cytochrome P450, small GTP-binding protein, clathrin, eukaryotic translation initiation factor, annexin, ABC transporter, translationally controlled tumour protein, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, and several homologues of REF, SRPP and CPT. A procedure of multiple reaction monitoring was established for further protein validation. This comprehensive proteome data of rubber particles would facilitate investigation into molecular mechanisms of biogenesis, self-homeostasis and rubber biosynthesis of the rubber particle, and might serve as valuable biomarkers in molecular breeding studies of H. brasiliensis and other alternative rubber-producing species.

  15. Capability of Integrated MODIS Imagery and ALOS for Oil Palm, Rubber and Forest Areas Mapping in Tropical Forest Regions

    PubMed Central

    Razali, Sheriza Mohd; Marin, Arnaldo; Nuruddin, Ahmad Ainuddin; Shafri, Helmi Zulhaidi Mohd; Hamid, Hazandy Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Various classification methods have been applied for low resolution of the entire Earth's surface from recorded satellite images, but insufficient study has determined which method, for which satellite data, is economically viable for tropical forest land use mapping. This study employed Iterative Self Organizing Data Analysis Techniques (ISODATA) and K-Means classification techniques to classified Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Surface Reflectance satellite image into forests, oil palm groves, rubber plantations, mixed horticulture, mixed oil palm and rubber and mixed forest and rubber. Even though frequent cloud cover has been a challenge for mapping tropical forests, our MODIS land use classification map found that 2008 ISODATA-1 performed well with overall accuracy of 94%, with the highest Producer's Accuracy of Forest with 86%, and were consistent with MODIS Land Cover 2008 (MOD12Q1), respectively. The MODIS land use classification was able to distinguish young oil palm groves from open areas, rubber and mature oil palm plantations, on the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) map, whereas rubber was more easily distinguished from an open area than from mixed rubber and forest. This study provides insight on the potential for integrating regional databases and temporal MODIS data, in order to map land use in tropical forest regions. PMID:24811079

  16. Capability of integrated MODIS imagery and ALOS for oil palm, rubber and forest areas mapping in tropical forest regions.

    PubMed

    Razali, Sheriza Mohd; Marin, Arnaldo; Nuruddin, Ahmad Ainuddin; Shafri, Helmi Zulhaidi Mohd; Hamid, Hazandy Abdul

    2014-05-07

    Various classification methods have been applied for low resolution of the entire Earth's surface from recorded satellite images, but insufficient study has determined which method, for which satellite data, is economically viable for tropical forest land use mapping. This study employed Iterative Self Organizing Data Analysis Techniques (ISODATA) and K-Means classification techniques to classified Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Surface Reflectance satellite image into forests, oil palm groves, rubber plantations, mixed horticulture, mixed oil palm and rubber and mixed forest and rubber. Even though frequent cloud cover has been a challenge for mapping tropical forests, our MODIS land use classification map found that 2008 ISODATA-1 performed well with overall accuracy of 94%, with the highest Producer's Accuracy of Forest with 86%, and were consistent with MODIS Land Cover 2008 (MOD12Q1), respectively. The MODIS land use classification was able to distinguish young oil palm groves from open areas, rubber and mature oil palm plantations, on the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) map, whereas rubber was more easily distinguished from an open area than from mixed rubber and forest. This study provides insight on the potential for integrating regional databases and temporal MODIS data, in order to map land use in tropical forest regions.

  17. [Blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome].

    PubMed

    Akutko, Katarzyna; Krzesiek, Elzbieta; Iwańczak, Barbara

    2012-10-01

    Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (Bean syndrome) is a rare disease characterized by the presence of multiple vascular malformation of rubber-like consistence. This disease is of a genetic origin and most often is caused by sporadic mutation, however, exist reports on autosomal dominant type of heritance. Nevi are most frequently met in the skin and alimentary tract but may be present in all organs and tissues. The most frequent symptom of Bean syndrome is anaemia due to ferrum deficiency, which is a result of chronic hemorrhagia from vascular malformations in the alimentary tract. Vascular anomalies on the skin are usually asymptomatic. Other symptoms are less frequent and depend on the localisation of vascular changes and therefore patients with Bean syndrome require meticulous analysis of reported multiple - specialistic medical care.

  18. Pins and Rubbers Traction System.

    PubMed

    de Soras, X; de Mourgues, P; Guinard, D; Moutet, F

    1997-12-01

    The Pins and Rubbers Traction System (PRTS) is a mobile frame created with wires to support elastic traction, which produces a ligamentotaxis effect in the same direction and of the same intensity whatever the position of the joint. This technique has been used in 11 cases of complex PIP joint fractures with eight excellent results. The advantages are simplicity, adaptability, the possibility of immediate mobilization, reasonable cost and relatively small bulk.

  19. Identification of natural rubber and characterization of rubber biosynthetic activity in fig tree.

    PubMed

    Kang, H; Kang, M Y; Han, K H

    2000-07-01

    Natural rubber was extracted from the fig tree (Ficus carica) cultivated in Korea as part of a survey of rubber producing plants. Fourier transform infrared and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of samples prepared by successive extraction with acetone and benzene confirmed that the benzene-soluble residues are natural rubber, cis-1,4-polyisoprene. The rubber content in the latex of fig tree was about 4%, whereas the rubber content in the bark, leaf, and fruit was 0.3%, 0.1%, and 0.1%, respectively. Gel-permeation chromatography revealed that the molecular size of the natural rubber from fig tree is about 190 kD. Similar to rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) and guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray), rubber biosynthesis in fig tree is tightly associated with rubber particles. The rubber transferase in rubber particles exhibited a higher affinity for farnesyl pyrophosphate than for isopentenyl pyrophosphate, with apparent K(m) values of 2.8 and 228 microM, respectively. Examination of latex serum from fig tree by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed major proteins of 25 and 48 kD in size, and several proteins with molecular mass below 20 and above 100 kD. Partial N-terminal amino acid sequencing and immunochemical analyses revealed that the 25- and 48-kD proteins were novel and not related to any other suggested rubber transferases. The effect of EDTA and Mg(2+) ion on in vitro rubber biosynthesis in fig tree and rubber tree suggested that divalent metal ion present in the latex serum is an important factor in determining the different rubber biosynthetic activities in fig tree and rubber tree.

  20. Identification of Natural Rubber and Characterization of Rubber Biosynthetic Activity in Fig Tree1

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hunseung; Kang, Min Young; Han, Kyung-Hwan

    2000-01-01

    Natural rubber was extracted from the fig tree (Ficus carica) cultivated in Korea as part of a survey of rubber producing plants. Fourier transform infrared and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of samples prepared by successive extraction with acetone and benzene confirmed that the benzene-soluble residues are natural rubber, cis-1,4-polyisoprene. The rubber content in the latex of fig tree was about 4%, whereas the rubber content in the bark, leaf, and fruit was 0.3%, 0.1%, and 0.1%, respectively. Gel-permeation chromatography revealed that the molecular size of the natural rubber from fig tree is about 190 kD. Similar to rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) and guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray), rubber biosynthesis in fig tree is tightly associated with rubber particles. The rubber transferase in rubber particles exhibited a higher affinity for farnesyl pyrophosphate than for isopentenyl pyrophosphate, with apparent Km values of 2.8 and 228 μm, respectively. Examination of latex serum from fig tree by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed major proteins of 25 and 48 kD in size, and several proteins with molecular mass below 20 and above 100 kD. Partial N-terminal amino acid sequencing and immunochemical analyses revealed that the 25- and 48-kD proteins were novel and not related to any other suggested rubber transferases. The effect of EDTA and Mg2+ ion on in vitro rubber biosynthesis in fig tree and rubber tree suggested that divalent metal ion present in the latex serum is an important factor in determining the different rubber biosynthetic activities in fig tree and rubber tree. PMID:10889262

  1. The effect of filler on the protein content and interferences in rubber latices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhida, A. R.; Hassan, Aziz

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that the application of commercial fillers like calcium carbonate has widely been used in natural rubber latex (NRL) gloves as well as other dipped products such as balloons, condom and catheters. The main reason of adding the fillers into the rubber compound was as cheapening aid and to improve the end-product properties. Due to its functional benefit, many studies have been conducted on the application and beneficial usage of fillers in natural rubber (NR) compounds and natural rubber latex (NRL) dipped goods namely gloves. However most of the studies were basically emphasizing on the effect of fillers on the physical properties and surface morphology of rubber. Not many studies have been conducted to investigate the effect of filler on the protein content in NRL products. Earlier work by other workers has only been concentrating on the effect of nano-sized calcium carbonate fillers in NR latex gloves. Because of the concern on the issue of latex protein allergy; it is thus important to study the effect of filler on protein content and its interferences in the rubber lattices. This paper will seek to elaborate on the effect of filler content on the total protein and extractable protein (EP) content of NR latex films at various filler loadings before and after ageing. The effect of interferences by filler that was mixed into the NR latex on the total nitrogen and EP content were also measured and shown.

  2. Method for the addition of vulcanized waste rubber to virgin rubber products

    DOEpatents

    Romine, R.A.; Snowden-Swan, L.J.

    1997-01-28

    The invention is a method of using enzymes from thiophyllic microbes for selectively breaking the sulfur rubber cross-link bonds in vulcanized rubber. The process is halted at the sulfoxide or sulfone step so that a devulcanized layer is reactive with virgin rubber. 8 figs.

  3. Method for the addition of vulcanized waste rubber to virgin rubber products

    DOEpatents

    Romine, Robert A.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.

    1997-01-01

    The invention is a method of using enzymes from thiophyllic microbes for selectively breaking the sulfur rubber cross-link bonds in vulcanized rubber. The process is halted at the sulfoxide or sulfone step so that a devulcanized layer is reactive with virgin rubber.

  4. The functional analyses of the cis-prenyltransferase and the rubber elongation factor in rubber biosynthesis

    Natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene) is an essential plant derived commodity required for the manufacture of numerous industrial, medical and household items. Rubber is synthesized and sequestered on cytsolic vesicles known as rubber particles. When provided with farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) and is...

  5. Effect of non-rubber constituents on Guayule and Hevea rubber intrinsic properties

    To meet the increasing demand for natural rubber (NR), currently sourced from the tropical rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis, and address price volatility and steadily increasing labor costs, alternate rubber-producing species are in commercial development. One of these, guayule (Parthenium argentatum)...

  6. Chemical modifications of liquid natural rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhar, Nur Hanis Adila; Rasid, Hamizah Md; Yusoff, Siti Fairus M.

    2016-11-01

    Liquid natural rubber (LNR) was synthesized via photosentisized degradation of natural rubber (NR). LNR was modified into epoxidized liquid natural rubber (LENR) and hydroxylated liquid natural rubber (LNR-OH) using Na2WO4/CH3COOH/H2O2 catalytic system. Chemical structures of LNR and modified LNRs were characterized using Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) and 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopies. Integration of 1H NMR was used to calculate the epoxy content (%) of LENR. 1H NMR detected the formation of LNR-OH after prolonged heating and increased of catalyst in oxidation reaction.

  7. Mechanical Performance Test of Rubber-Powder Modified Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan Cong; Gao, Ling Ling

    2018-06-01

    A number of rubber cement concrete specimens that rubber powder dosage different were obtained using same cement, water and fine aggregates, by adjusting the dosage of rubber powder. Then it was used to research the influence of rubber powder dosage on performance of cement concrete by measuring its liquidity, strength and toughness. The results show that: when water-cement ratio was equal and rubber powder replacing the same volume sand, the fluidity of cement concrete almost linear increased with rubber powder dosage increasing. With dosage of rubber powder increasing, compressive strength and flexural strength reduced, but toughness linear growth trend when dosage of rubber powder less 30%.

  8. A Study on the Rheological Properties of Recycled Rubber-Modified Asphalt Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Karacasu, Murat; Er, Arzu

    2015-01-01

    Using waste rubber in asphalt mixes has become a common practice in road construction. This paper presents the results of a study on the rheological characteristics of rubber-modified asphalt (RMA) concrete under static and dynamic loading conditions. A number of static and dynamic creep tests were conducted on RMA mix specimens with different rubber sizes and contents, and a series of resonant column tests were conducted to evaluate the shear modulus and damping values. To simulate the stress-strain response of traffic-induced loading, the measurements were taken for different confining pressures and strain levels. The results of the study indicated that rubber modification increases stiffness and damping ratio, making it a very attractive material for use in road construction. However the grain size of the rubber is very important. Although RMA may cost up to 100% more than regular asphalt, the advantages it brings, such as an increased service life of the road and proper waste utilization contributing to a more sustainable infrastructure, may justify the added cost. PMID:25695096

  9. Closure of large wounds using rubber bands in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Maria Angélica Baron; Petroianu, Andy; Martins, Silmar Grey de Oliveira; Resende, Vivian; Alberti, Luiz Ronaldo; Barbosa, Alfredo José Afonso; Vasconcellos, Leonardo de Souza; Tavares Junior, Wilson Campos

    2015-01-01

    to verify the effectiveness of the rubber elastic band in the treatment of large wounds of the body wall of rabbits by means of traction of its edges. we studied 30 New Zealand rabbits, divided into three groups (n=10): Group 1- healing by secondary intention; Group 2- removal and eutopic repositioning of skin as full thickness skin graft; Group 3- Approximation of wound edges with elastic rubber band. In all animals, we removed a segment of the back skin and subcutaneous tissue down to the fascia, in accordance with an acrylic mold of 8 cm long by 12 cm wide. All animals were observed for 21 days. two animals of groups 1 and 2 had wound abscess. In Group 2, there was partial or total graft loss in 90% of animals. The complete closure of the wounds was observed in four animals of Group 1, six of Group 2 and eight of Group 3. There was no difference between the scar resistance values of groups 2 and 3, which were higher than those in Group 1. The scars of the three groups were characterized by the presence of mature connective tissue mixed with blood vessels and inflammatory infiltration, predominantly polymorphonuclear. the tensile strength of the wound edges with rubber elastic band is as efficient as the skin graft to treat rabbits' large body wounds.

  10. Characterization of linear viscoelastic anti-vibration rubber mounts

    SciT

    Lodhia, B.B.; Esat, I.I.

    1996-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify the dynamic characteristics that are evident in linear viscoelastic rubber mountings. The characteristics under consideration included the static and dynamic stiffnesses with the variation of amplitude and frequency of the sinusoidal excitation. Test samples of various rubber mix were tested and compared to reflect magnitude of dependency on composition. In the light of the results, the validity and effectiveness of a mathematical model was investigated and a suitable technique based on the Tschoegl and Emri Algorithm, was utilized to fit the model to the experimental data. The model which was chosen, wasmore » an extension of the basic Maxwell model, which is based on linear spring and dashpot elements in series and parallel called the Wiechert model. It was found that the extent to which the filler and vulcanisate was present in the rubber sample, did have a great effect on the static stiffness characteristics, and the storage and loss moduli. The Tschoegl and Emri Algorithm was successfully utilized in modelling the frequency response of the samples.« less

  11. Development of criteria for the use of asphalt-rubber as a Stress-Absorbing Membrane Interlayer (SAMI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newcomb, D. E.; McKeen, R. G.

    1983-12-01

    This report documents over 2 years of research efforts to characterize asphalt-rubber mixtures to be used in Stress-Absorbing Membrane Interlayers (SAMI). The purpose of these SAMIs is to retard or prevent reflection cracking in asphalt-concrete overlays. Several laboratory experiments and one field trial were conducted to define significant test methods and parameters for incorporation into construction design and specification documents. Test methods used in this study included a modified softening point test, force-ductility, and Schweyer viscosity. Variables investigated included (1) Laboratory-mixing temperature; (2) Rubber type; (3) Laboratory storage time; (4) Laboratory storage condition; (5) Laboratory batch replication; (6) Laboratory mixing time; (7) Field mixing time; (8) Laboratory test temperature; (9) Force-Ductility elongation rates; and (10) Asphalt grade. It was found that mixing temperature, mixing time, rubber type, and asphalt grade all have significant effects upon the behavior of asphalt-rubber mixtures. Significant variability was also noticed in different laboratory batch replications. Varying laboratory test temperature and force-ductility elongation rate revealed further differences in asphalt-rubber mixtures.

  12. 75 FR 57980 - Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. AA1921-129 (Third Review)] Polychloroprene Rubber From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Termination of five-year... of the antidumping duty finding on polychloroprene rubber from Japan would be likely to lead to...

  13. Amino acid modifiers in guayule rubber compounds

    Tire producers are increasingly interested in biobased materials, including rubber but also as compounding chemicals. An alternative natural rubber for tire use is produced by guayule, a woody desert shrub native to North America. Alternative compounding chemicals include naturally-occurring amino a...

  14. Roughness Perception during the Rubber Hand Illusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutz-Bosbach, Simone; Tausche, Peggy; Weiss, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    Watching a rubber hand being stroked by a paintbrush while feeling identical stroking of one's own occluded hand can create a compelling illusion that the seen hand becomes part of one's own body. It has been suggested that this so-called rubber hand illusion (RHI) does not simply reflect a bottom-up multisensory integration process but that the…

  15. Cotton-Fiber-Filled Rubber Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Floyd A.

    1987-01-01

    Carbonization of fibers at high temperatures improves strength and erosion resistance. Cotton linters tested as replacement for asbestos filler currently used in rubber insulation in solid rocket motors. Cotton-filled rubber insulation has industrial uses; in some kinds of chemical- or metal-processing equipment, hoses, and protective clothing.

  16. Photoinduced orientation in natural rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Nara C.; Cavalheri, Adriana S.; Brito, Jackeline B.; Job, Aldo E.; Oliveira, Osvaldo N.; Giacometti, José A.; Silva, Josmary R.

    2012-04-01

    Azobenzene molecules and their derivatives have been widely investigated for their potential applications in optical and electrooptical devices. We have prepared a new guest-host system from natural rubber (NR) impregnated with azobenzene derivative Sudan Red B (SRB). The effects of stretching and immersion time on photoinduced orientation were investigated by birefringence signal measurements. We have found that the molecular orientation increase when the samples are stretched and decrease with the increase of immersion time. The first behavior was explained by using the random coil model and the latter was attributed to increase of the aggregation of SRB into NR matrix.

  17. Coal Producer's Rubber Waste Processing Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarevich, Evgeniya; Papin, Andrey; Nevedrov, Alexander; Cherkasova, Tatyana; Ignatova, Alla

    2017-11-01

    A large amount of rubber-containing waste, the bulk of which are worn automobile tires and conveyor belts, is produced at coal mining and coal processing enterprises using automobile tires, conveyor belts, etc. The volume of waste generated increases every year and reaches enormous proportions. The methods for processing rubber waste can be divided into three categories: grinding, pyrolysis (high and low temperature), and decomposition by means of chemical solvents. One of the known techniques of processing the worn-out tires is their regeneration, aimed at producing the new rubber substitute used in the production of rubber goods. However, the number of worn tires used for the production of regenerate does not exceed 20% of their total quantity. The new method for processing rubber waste through the pyrolysis process is considered in this article. Experimental data on the upgrading of the carbon residue of pyrolysis by the methods of heavy media separation, magnetic and vibroseparation, and thermal processing are presented.

  18. Influence of matching solubility parameter of polymer matrix and CNT on electrical conductivity of CNT/rubber composite

    PubMed Central

    Ata, Seisuke; Mizuno, Takaaki; Nishizawa, Ayumi; Subramaniam, Chandramouli; Futaba, Don N.; Hata, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    We report a general approach to fabricate elastomeric composites possessing high electrical conductivity for applications ranging from wireless charging interfaces to stretchable electronics. By using arbitrary nine kinds of rubbers as matrices, we experimentally demonstrate that the matching the solubility parameter of CNTs and the rubber matrix is important to achieve higher electrical conductivity in CNT/rubber composite, resulting in continuous conductive pathways leading to electrical conductivities as high as 15 S/cm with 10 vol% CNT in fluorinated rubber. Further, using thermodynamic considerations, we demonstrate an approach to mix CNTs to arbitrary rubber matrices regardless of solubility parameter of matrices by adding small amounts of fluorinated rubber as a polymeric-compatibilizer of CNTs. We thereby achieved electrical conductivities ranging from 1.2 to 13.8 S/cm (10 vol% CNTs) using nine varieties of rubber matrices differing in chemical structures and physical properties. Finally, we investigated the components of solubility parameter of CNT by using Hansen solubility parameters, these findings may useful for controlling solubility parameter of CNTs. PMID:25434701

  19. Switching to the Rubber Hand

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Su-Ling; Lane, Timothy Joseph; Chang, An-Yi; Chien, Sung-En

    2017-01-01

    Inducing the rubber hand illusion (RHI) requires that participants look at an imitation hand while it is stroked in synchrony with their occluded biological hand. Previous explanations of the RHI have emphasized multisensory integration, and excluded higher cognitive functions. We investigated the relationship between the RHI and higher cognitive functions by experimentally testing task switch (as measured by switch cost) and mind wandering (as measured by SART score); we also included a questionnaire for attentional control that comprises two subscales, attention-shift and attention-focus. To assess experience of RHI, the Botvinick and Cohen (1998) questionnaire was used and illusion onset time was recorded. Our results indicate that rapidity of onset reliably indicates illusion strength. Regression analysis revealed that participants evincing less switch cost and higher attention-shift scores had faster RHI onset times, and that those with higher attention-shift scores experienced the RHI more vividly. These results suggest that the multi-sensory hypothesis is not sufficient to explain the illusion: higher cognitive functions should be taken into account when explaining variation in the experience of ownership for the rubber hand. PMID:29312048

  20. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... center intended to isolate a tooth from fluids in the mouth during dental procedures, such as filling a... center. The device includes the rubber dam, rubber dam clamp, rubber dam frame, and forceps for a rubber... sexually transmitted diseases through oral sex; those devices are classified as condoms in § 884.5300 of...

  1. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... center intended to isolate a tooth from fluids in the mouth during dental procedures, such as filling a... center. The device includes the rubber dam, rubber dam clamp, rubber dam frame, and forceps for a rubber... sexually transmitted diseases through oral sex; those devices are classified as condoms in § 884.5300 of...

  2. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... center intended to isolate a tooth from fluids in the mouth during dental procedures, such as filling a... center. The device includes the rubber dam, rubber dam clamp, rubber dam frame, and forceps for a rubber... sexually transmitted diseases through oral sex; those devices are classified as condoms in § 884.5300 of...

  3. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... center intended to isolate a tooth from fluids in the mouth during dental procedures, such as filling a... center. The device includes the rubber dam, rubber dam clamp, rubber dam frame, and forceps for a rubber... sexually transmitted diseases through oral sex; those devices are classified as condoms in § 884.5300 of...

  4. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... center intended to isolate a tooth from fluids in the mouth during dental procedures, such as filling a... center. The device includes the rubber dam, rubber dam clamp, rubber dam frame, and forceps for a rubber... sexually transmitted diseases through oral sex; those devices are classified as condoms in § 884.5300 of...

  5. The effect of crumb rubber particle size to the optimum binder content for open graded friction course.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohd Rasdan; Katman, Herda Yati; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Koting, Suhana; Mashaan, Nuha S

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to investigate the relations of rubber size, rubber content, and binder content in determination of optimum binder content for open graded friction course (OGFC). Mix gradation type B as specified in Specification for Porous Asphalt produced by the Road Engineering Association of Malaysia (REAM) was used in this study. Marshall specimens were prepared with four different sizes of rubber, namely, 20 mesh size [0.841 mm], 40 mesh [0.42 mm], 80 mesh [0.177 mm], and 100 mesh [0.149 mm] with different concentrations of rubberised bitumen (4%, 8%, and 12%) and different percentages of binder content (4%-7%). The appropriate optimum binder content is then selected according to the results of the air voids, binder draindown, and abrasion loss test. Test results found that crumb rubber particle size can affect the optimum binder content for OGFC.

  6. A silicone rubber based composites using n-octadecane/poly (styrene-methyl methacrylate) microcapsules as energy storage particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, W. L.; Chen, Z.

    A phase-change energy-storage material, silicone rubber (SR) coated n-octadecane/poly (styrene-methyl methacrylate) (SR/OD/P(St-MMA)) microcapsule composites, was prepared by mixing SR and OD/P(St-MMA) microcapsules. The microcapsule content and silicone rubber coated method were investigated. The morphology and thermal properties of the composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and heat storage properties. The results showed that the thermal and mechanical properties of SR/OD/P(St-MMA) composites were excellent when the microcapsules were coated with room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber (RTVSR), of which content was 2 phr (per hundred rubber). The enthalpy value of the composites was 67.6 J g-1 and the composites were found to have good energy storage function.

  7. Potential of scrap tire rubber as lightweight aggregate in flowable fill.

    PubMed

    Pierce, C E; Blackwell, M C

    2003-01-01

    Flowable fill is a self-leveling and self-compacting material that is rapidly gaining acceptance and application in construction, particularly in transportation and utility earthworks. When mixed with concrete sand, standard flowable fill produces a mass density ranging from 1.8 to 2.3 g/cm(3) (115-145 pcf). Scrap tires can be granulated to produce crumb rubber, which has a granular texture and ranges in size from very fine powder to coarse sand-sized particles. Due to its low specific gravity, crumb rubber can be considered a lightweight aggregate. This paper describes an experimental study on replacing sand with crumb rubber in flowable fill to produce a lightweight material. To assess the technical feasibility of using crumb rubber, the fluid- and hardened-state properties of nine flowable fill mixtures were measured. Mixture proportions were varied to investigate the effects of water-to-cement ratio and crumb rubber content on fill properties. Experimental results indicate that crumb rubber can be successfully used to produce a lightweight flowable fill (1.2-1.6 g/cm(3) [73-98 pcf]) with excavatable 28-day compressive strengths ranging from 269 to 1194 kPa (39-173 psi). Using a lightweight fill reduces the applied stress on underlying soils, thereby reducing the potential for bearing capacity failure and minimizing soil settlement. Based on these results, a crumb rubber-based flowable fill can be used in a substantial number of construction applications, such as bridge abutment fills, trench fills, and foundation support fills.

  8. Rubber friction: role of the flash temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, B. N. J.

    2006-08-01

    When a rubber block is sliding on a hard rough substrate, the substrate asperities will exert time-dependent deformations of the rubber surface resulting in viscoelastic energy dissipation in the rubber, which gives a contribution to the sliding friction. Most surfaces of solids have roughness on many different length scales, and when calculating the friction force it is necessary to include the viscoelastic deformations on all length scales. The energy dissipation will result in local heating of the rubber. Since the viscoelastic properties of rubber-like materials are extremely strongly temperature dependent, it is necessary to include the local temperature increase in the analysis. At very low sliding velocity the temperature increase is negligible because of heat diffusion, but already for velocities of order 10-2 m s-1 the local heating may be very important. Here I study the influence of the local heating on the rubber friction, and I show that in a typical case the temperature increase results in a decrease in rubber friction with increasing sliding velocity for v>0.01 m s-1. This may result in stick-slip instabilities, and is of crucial importance in many practical applications, e.g. for tyre-road friction and in particular for ABS braking systems.

  9. Rubber friction: role of the flash temperature.

    PubMed

    Persson, B N J

    2006-08-16

    When a rubber block is sliding on a hard rough substrate, the substrate asperities will exert time-dependent deformations of the rubber surface resulting in viscoelastic energy dissipation in the rubber, which gives a contribution to the sliding friction. Most surfaces of solids have roughness on many different length scales, and when calculating the friction force it is necessary to include the viscoelastic deformations on all length scales. The energy dissipation will result in local heating of the rubber. Since the viscoelastic properties of rubber-like materials are extremely strongly temperature dependent, it is necessary to include the local temperature increase in the analysis. At very low sliding velocity the temperature increase is negligible because of heat diffusion, but already for velocities of order 10(-2) m s(-1) the local heating may be very important. Here I study the influence of the local heating on the rubber friction, and I show that in a typical case the temperature increase results in a decrease in rubber friction with increasing sliding velocity for v>0.01 m s(-1). This may result in stick-slip instabilities, and is of crucial importance in many practical applications, e.g. for tyre-road friction and in particular for ABS braking systems.

  10. Cream concentrated latex for foam rubber products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suksup, R.; Imkaew, C.; Smitthipong, W.

    2017-12-01

    Fresh natural latex (around 40% rubber and 60% water) can be transformed to concentrated natural latex (around 60% rubber and 40% water) in order to realise economical transportation and easier latex product’s preparation. The concentrated natural latex is an extremely valuable material. It can be applied for many types of products, for example, foam rubber as pillow and mattress, elastic band, etc. Industrially, the concentrated natural latex can be prepared by centrifugation which requires an enormous expensive machine. From the eco-friendly products point of view, most of rubber entrepreneurs in the world try to develop a green rubber product. So, the main objective of this study is to prepare the cream concentrated latex without any sophisticated machine. Thus, we work on a simple, cheap and green method that does not use any expensive machine but uses water-based chemical as sodium alginate to prepare the cream concentrated latex. The optimal amount of sodium alginate in the latex was studied. The main characteristics of the cream concentrated latex were tested by various technics, such as alkalinity, total solid content (TSC), dry rubber content (DRC), etc. We found that there are no significant differences of results between fresh natural latex and cream concentrated latex, except for the TSC and DRC. The TSC and DRC of cream latex are higher than those of fresh natural latex. Finally, we propose a model of natural rubber particle and sodium alginate to form the cream concentrated latex.

  11. Zinc Leaching from Tire Crumb Rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, E. P.; Ren, J.; Mays, D. C.

    2010-12-01

    Recent estimates indicate that more than 2 billion scrap tires are currently stockpiled in the United States and approximately 280 million more tires are added annually. Various engineering applications utilize recycled tires in the form of shredded tire crumb rubber. However, the use of tire crumb rubber may have negative environmental impacts, especially when the rubber comes into contact with water. A review of the literature indicates that leaching of zinc from tire crumb rubber is the most significant water quality concern associated with using this material. Zinc is generally used in tire manufacturing, representing approximately 1.3% of the final product by mass. This study will report results from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure, batch leaching tests, and column leaching tests performed to quantify the process by which zinc leaches from tire crumb rubber into water. Results are interpreted with a first-order kinetic attachment/detachment model, implemented with the U.S. Agricultural Research Service software HYDRUS-1D, in order to determine the circumstances when zinc leaching from tire crumb rubber would be expected to comply with the applicable discharge limits. One potential application for recycled tires is replacing sand with tire crumb rubber in granular media filters used for stormwater pollution control. For this to be a viable application, the total zinc in the stormwater discharge must be below the EPA’s benchmark value of 0.117 mg/L.

  12. Contact allergy to rubber accelerators remains prevalent: retrospective results from a tertiary clinic suggesting an association with facial dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Schwensen, J F; Menné, T; Johansen, J D; Thyssen, J P

    2016-10-01

    Chemicals used for the manufacturing of rubber are known causes of allergic contact dermatitis on the hands. Recent European studies have suggested a decrease in thiuram contact allergy. Moreover, while an association with hand dermatitis is well established, we have recently observed several clinical cases with allergic facial dermatitis to rubber. To evaluate temporal trends of contact allergy to rubber accelerators from the European baseline series in a tertiary patch test clinic in Denmark, and examine associations with anatomical locations of dermatitis. Patch test and clinical data collected in a Danish tertiary dermatology clinic in Gentofte, Herlev, Copenhagen between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2014 were analysed. The following rubber accelerators or mixtures in petrolatum from the European baseline patch test series were included: thiuram mix 1.0%, mercaptobenzothiazole 2.0% and mercapto mix 1.0%. The overall prevalence of contact allergy to rubber accelerators was 3.1% with no significant change during the study period (P trend = 0.667). Contact allergy to thiuram mix was the most prevalent and was significantly associated with occupational contact dermatitis, hand dermatitis, age >40 years and facial dermatitis in adjusted binary logistic regression analysis. Current clinical relevance of contact allergy to thiuram mix was 59.3%. Patients with contact allergy to mercapto mix and mercaptobenzothiazole had a concomitant reaction to thiuram mix in 35.2% (19/54) and 35.4% (17/48) of the cases respectively. Contact allergy to rubber accelerators remains prevalent. Clinicians should be aware of the hitherto unexplored clinical association with facial dermatitis. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  13. Investigating effects of nano cerium oxide reinforcement on mechanical properties of composite based on natural rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Le Quoc; Phan, Vu Hoang Giang; Khuyen, Nguyen Quang

    2018-04-01

    Polymer nanocomposites that based on combination of nanomaterials (such as nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanorods, nanofibers, and nanosheets) and polymeric matrices are receiving great attention in research and application. However, separate and homogenous dispersion rather than aggregates of nanoparticles into matrices meet big difficulty due to large interaction between nanoparticles. The poor dispersion leads to low properties of nanocomposites. In this study, we find out the appropriate method to separately disperse cerium oxides (CeO2) nanoparticles into natural rubber, aiming to increase mechanical properties of natural rubber. The SEM images were used to evaluate the dispersion of nano CeO2 in natural rubber matrix. The mechanical properties of nanocomposites were measured after vulcanization to investigate effects of nano CeO2 amount on prepared composite. The findings exhibited that the addition of CeO2 by dispersion of nano CeO2 in water via ultrasonication before mixing with rubber latex, significantly increase modulus, tear and wear resistance of natural rubber.

  14. Structural characterization of rubber from jackfruit and euphorbia as a model of natural rubber.

    PubMed

    Mekkriengkrai, Dararat; Ute, Koiichi; Swiezewska, Ewa; Chojnacki, Tadeusz; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Sakdapipanich, Jitladda T

    2004-01-01

    A structural study of low molecular weight rubbers from Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) and Painted spurge (Euphorbia heterophylla) was carried out as model compounds of natural rubber from Hevea brasiliensis. The rubber content of latex from Jackfruit was 0.4-0.7%, which is very low compared with that of 30-35% in the latex from Hevea tree. The rubber from Jackfruit latex was low molecular weight with narrow unimodal molecular weight distribution (MWD), whereas that obtained from E. heterophylla showed very broad MWD. The 1H and 13C NMR analyses showed that Jackfruit rubber consists of a dimethylallyl group and two trans-isoprene units connected to a long sequence of cis-isoprene units. The alpha-terminal group of Jackfruit rubber was presumed to be composed of a phosphate group based on the presence of 1H NMR signal at 4.08 ppm corresponding to the terminal =CH-CH2OP group.

  15. Thermal properties of hydrogenated liquid natural rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamaluddin, Naharullah; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Yusoff, Siti Fairus M.

    2015-09-01

    Natural rubber (NR) was modified to form liquid natural rubber (LNR) via photooxidative degradation. Hydrogenated liquid natural rubber (HLNR) was synthesized by using diimide as source of hydrogen which the diimide is produced by thermolysis of p-toluenesulfonyl hydrazide (TSH). The structure of HLNR was characterized by determining the changes of main peaks in Fourier Transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra after hydrogenation. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the HLNR had higher decomposition temperature compared to LNR and the decomposition temperature is directly proportional to the percentage of conversion.

  16. Analysis of rubber supply in Sri Lanka

    SciT

    Hartley, M.J.; Nerlove, M.; Peters, R.K. Jr.

    1987-11-01

    An analysis of the supply response for perennial crops is undertaken for rubber in Sir Lanka, focusing on the uprooting-replanting decision and disaggregating the typical reduced-form supply response equation into several structural relationships. This approach is compared and contrasted with Dowling's analysis of supply response for rubber in Thailand, which is based upon a sophisticated reduced-form supply function developed by Wickens and Greenfield for Brazilian coffee. Because the uprooting-replanting decision is central to understanding rubber supply response in Sri Lanka and for other perennial crops where replanting activities dominate new planting, the standard approaches do not adequately capture supply response.

  17. Thermal properties of hydrogenated liquid natural rubber

    SciT

    Jamaluddin, Naharullah; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Yusoff, Siti Fairus M.

    Natural rubber (NR) was modified to form liquid natural rubber (LNR) via photooxidative degradation. Hydrogenated liquid natural rubber (HLNR) was synthesized by using diimide as source of hydrogen which the diimide is produced by thermolysis of p-toluenesulfonyl hydrazide (TSH). The structure of HLNR was characterized by determining the changes of main peaks in Fourier Transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra after hydrogenation. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the HLNR had higher decomposition temperature compared to LNR and the decomposition temperature is directly proportional to the percentage of conversion.

  18. Chemistry of rubber processing and disposal.

    PubMed Central

    Bebb, R L

    1976-01-01

    The major chemical changes during the processing of rubber occur with the breakdown in mastication and during vulcanization of the molded tire. There is little chemical change during the compounding, calendering, extrusion, and molding steps. Reclaiming is the process of converting scrap rubber into an unsaturated, processible product that can be vulcanized with sulfur. Pyrolysis of scrap rubber yields a complex mixture of liquids, gas, and residue in varying ratios dependent on the nature of the scrap and the conditions of pyrolysis. PMID:799964

  19. Comparative studies on the mechanical properties of natural rubber and natural rubber filled with multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, R.; Ibrahim, A.; Rusop, M.; Adnan, A.

    2018-05-01

    The present article compares the mechanical properties of natural rubber (NR) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) filled natural rubber composites. Four types of nanocomposite specimens are fabricated with different MWCNT loadings: 0 wt% (pure natural rubber), 1 wt%, 3 wt%, and 5 wt%. The specimens are tested for their mechanical properties. It is observed that the tensile strength, hardness and elongation break of CNTs filled rubber composites are remarkably higher than that of raw rubber indicating the inherent reinforcing potential of CNTs. Percentage of the elongation at break of rubber CNTs composites is lower than that of raw rubber.

  20. Construction of Pará rubber tree genome and multi-transcriptome database accelerates rubber researches.

    PubMed

    Makita, Yuko; Kawashima, Mika; Lau, Nyok Sean; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman; Matsui, Minami

    2018-01-19

    Natural rubber is an economically important material. Currently the Pará rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis is the main commercial source. Little is known about rubber biosynthesis at the molecular level. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies brought draft genomes of three rubber cultivars and a variety of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data. However, no current genome or transcriptome databases (DB) are organized by gene. A gene-oriented database is a valuable support for rubber research. Based on our original draft genome sequence of H. brasiliensis RRIM600, we constructed a rubber tree genome and transcriptome DB. Our DB provides genome information including gene functional annotations and multi-transcriptome data of RNA-seq, full-length cDNAs including PacBio Isoform sequencing (Iso-Seq), ESTs and genome wide transcription start sites (TSSs) derived from CAGE technology. Using our original and publically available RNA-seq data, we calculated co-expressed genes for identifying functionally related gene sets and/or genes regulated by the same transcription factor (TF). Users can access multi-transcriptome data through both a gene-oriented web page and a genome browser. For the gene searching system, we provide keyword search, sequence homology search and gene expression search; users can also select their expression threshold easily. The rubber genome and transcriptome DB provides rubber tree genome sequence and multi-transcriptomics data. This DB is useful for comprehensive understanding of the rubber transcriptome. This will assist both industrial and academic researchers for rubber and economically important close relatives such as R. communis, M. esculenta and J. curcas. The Rubber Transcriptome DB release 2017.03 is accessible at http://matsui-lab.riken.jp/rubber/ .

  1. The rubber tree genome reveals new insights into rubber production and species adaptation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chaorong; Yang, Meng; Fang, Yongjun; Luo, Yingfeng; Gao, Shenghan; Xiao, Xiaohu; An, Zewei; Zhou, Binhui; Zhang, Bing; Tan, Xinyu; Yeang, Hoong-Yeet; Qin, Yunxia; Yang, Jianghua; Lin, Qiang; Mei, Hailiang; Montoro, Pascal; Long, Xiangyu; Qi, Jiyan; Hua, Yuwei; He, Zilong; Sun, Min; Li, Wenjie; Zeng, Xia; Cheng, Han; Liu, Ying; Yang, Jin; Tian, Weimin; Zhuang, Nansheng; Zeng, Rizhong; Li, Dejun; He, Peng; Li, Zhe; Zou, Zhi; Li, Shuangli; Li, Chenji; Wang, Jixiang; Wei, Dong; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Luo, Wei; Yu, Jun; Hu, Songnian; Huang, Huasun

    2016-05-23

    The Para rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) is an economically important tropical tree species that produces natural rubber, an essential industrial raw material. Here we present a high-quality genome assembly of this species (1.37 Gb, scaffold N50 = 1.28 Mb) that covers 93.8% of the genome (1.47 Gb) and harbours 43,792 predicted protein-coding genes. A striking expansion of the REF/SRPP (rubber elongation factor/small rubber particle protein) gene family and its divergence into several laticifer-specific isoforms seem crucial for rubber biosynthesis. The REF/SRPP family has isoforms with sizes similar to or larger than SRPP1 (204 amino acids) in 17 other plants examined, but no isoforms with similar sizes to REF1 (138 amino acids), the predominant molecular variant. A pivotal point in Hevea evolution was the emergence of REF1, which is located on the surface of large rubber particles that account for 93% of rubber in the latex (despite constituting only 6% of total rubber particles, large and small). The stringent control of ethylene synthesis under active ethylene signalling and response in laticifers resolves a longstanding mystery of ethylene stimulation in rubber production. Our study, which includes the re-sequencing of five other Hevea cultivars and extensive RNA-seq data, provides a valuable resource for functional genomics and tools for breeding elite Hevea cultivars.

  2. Characterization of rubber particles and rubber chain elongation in Taraxacum koksaghyz

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Natural rubber is a biopolymer with exceptional qualities that cannot be completely replaced using synthetic alternatives. Although several key enzymes in the rubber biosynthetic pathway have been isolated, mainly from plants such as Hevea brasiliensis, Ficus spec. and the desert shrub Parthenium argentatum, there have been no in planta functional studies, e.g. by RNA interference, due to the absence of efficient and reproducible protocols for genetic engineering. In contrast, the Russian dandelion Taraxacum koksaghyz, which has long been considered as a potential alternative source of low-cost natural rubber, has a rapid life cycle and can be genetically transformed using a simple and reliable procedure. However, there is very little molecular data available for either the rubber polymer itself or its biosynthesis in T. koksaghyz. Results We established a method for the purification of rubber particles - the active sites of rubber biosynthesis - from T. koksaghyz latex. Photon correlation spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed an average particle size of 320 nm, and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy confirmed that isolated rubber particles contain poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) with a purity >95%. Size exclusion chromatography indicated that the weight average molecular mass (w) of T. koksaghyz natural rubber is 4,000-5,000 kDa. Rubber particles showed rubber transferase activity of 0.2 pmol min-1 mg-1. Ex vivo rubber biosynthesis experiments resulted in a skewed unimodal distribution of [1-14C]isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) incorporation at a w of 2,500 kDa. Characterization of recently isolated cis-prenyltransferases (CPTs) from T. koksaghyz revealed that these enzymes are associated with rubber particles and are able to produce long-chain polyprenols in yeast. Conclusions T. koksaghyz rubber particles are similar to those described for H. brasiliensis. They contain very pure, high molecular mass poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) and

  3. Applicability of Landsat TM data for inventorying and monitoring of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations in Selangor, Malaysia: Linkages to policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suratman, Mohd Nazip

    2003-06-01

    , thus helping to understand the dynamics of the rubber tree resource. The decrease in the area of rubber plantations and the increase in the area of mixed crops from 1989--1993 in south of KL were partly attributed to the adoption of a crop diversification policy which was driven by relatively poor natural rubber prices during that time. The decrease in the areas of rubber plantations from 1993--1999 in this area was primarily due to rapid urbanization and infrastructure development driven by demographic expansion in the area south of KL. This thesis makes a practical contribution to the development of methods for inventory of forest plantations by linking ground information with model projections based on satellite data. Additionally, the thesis demonstrates the development of monitoring tools to assess resource availability and variability over time, and establish its linkages to policies. The inventory information, models, and monitoring protocols are needed for effective resource management planning aimed at maximizing the potential benefits of rubber tree crops for wood and natural rubber supply in Malaysia.

  4. High frequency testing of rubber mounts.

    PubMed

    Vahdati, Nader; Saunders, L Ken Lauderbaugh

    2002-04-01

    Rubber and fluid-filled rubber engine mounts are commonly used in automotive and aerospace applications to provide reduced cabin noise and vibration, and/or motion accommodations. In certain applications, the rubber mount may operate at frequencies as high as 5000 Hz. Therefore, dynamic stiffness of the mount needs to be known in this frequency range. Commercial high frequency test machines are practically nonexistent, and the best high frequency test machine on the market is only capable of frequencies as high as 1000 Hz. In this paper, a high frequency test machine is described that allows test engineers to study the high frequency performance of rubber mounts at frequencies up to 5000 Hz.

  5. [Total analysis of organic rubber additives].

    PubMed

    He, Wen-Xuan; Robert, Shanks; You, Ye-Ming

    2010-03-01

    In the present paper, after middle pressure chromatograph separation using both positive phase and reversed-phase conditions, the organic additives in ethylene-propylene rubber were identified by infrared spectrometer. At the same time, by using solid phase extraction column to maintain the main component-fuel oil in organic additves to avoid its interfering with minor compounds, other organic additves were separated and analysed by GC/Ms. In addition, the remaining active compound such as benzoyl peroxide was identified by CC/Ms, through analyzing acetone extract directly. Using the above mentioned techniques, soften agents (fuel oil, plant oil and phthalte), curing agent (benzoylperoxide), vulcanizing accelerators (2-mercaptobenzothiazole, ethyl thiuram and butyl thiuram), and antiagers (2, 6-Di-tert-butyl-4-methyl phenol and styrenated phenol) in ethylene-propylene rubber were identified. Although the technique was established in ethylene-propylene rubber system, it can be used in other rubber system.

  6. Oils and rubber from arid land plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. D.; Hinman, C. W.

    1980-05-01

    In this article the economic development potentials of Cucurbita species (buffalo gourd and others), Simmondsia chinensis (jojoba), Euphorbia lathyris (gopher plant), and Parthenium argentatum (guayule) are discussed. All of these plants may become important sources of oils or rubber.

  7. Rubberized asphalt concrete warranty pilot projects.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-11-01

    Between 2002 and 2004 Caltrans built five pilot projects through its rehabilitation program that contain : specifications for rubberized asphalt concrete (RAC) overlay and include a 5-year warranty on the RAC : materials and workmanship. The overall ...

  8. Plastics and Rubber Products Manufacturing (NAICS 326)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory and compliance information for plastics and rubber products manufacturing (which includes the manufacture of cellulose and other fibers) including information about NESHAPs and effluent guidelines for wastewater discharges

  9. Evaluation of Reclaimed Rubber in Bituminous Pavements

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-06-01

    Section 1038 of the 1991 Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) mandated use of crumb rubber from scrap tires in asphalt pavement starting in FY 94. To gain some experience, the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) construct...

  10. Strength of mortar containing rubber tire particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jusoh, M. A.; Abdullah, S. R.; Adnan, S. H.

    2018-04-01

    The main focus in this investigation is to determine the strength consist compressive and tensile strength of mortar containing rubber tire particle. In fact, from the previous study, the strength of mortar containing waste rubber tire in mortar has a slightly decreases compare to normal mortar. In this study, rubber tire particle was replacing on volume of fine aggregate with 6%. 9% and 12%. The sample were indicated M0 (0%), M6 (6%), M9 (9%) and M12 (12%). In this study, two different size of sample used with cube 100mm x 100mm x 100mm for compressive strength and 40mm x 40mm x 160mm for flexural strength. Morphology test was conducted by using Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) were done after testing compressive strength test. The concrete sample were cured for day 3, 7 and 28 before testing. Results compressive strength and flexural strength of rubber mortar shown improved compare to normal mortar.

  11. Wear Resistant Rubber Tank Track Pads

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-10-01

    began to de- crease significantly during the winter months of 1973-1974. The December 1973 issie of Rubber Age carried the statement that the ready...to tear or abrasion. Because EPDM vulcanizates are inherently ozone resistant and have excellent age resistance, even at temperatures as high as...attempts to improve the tear resistance of this blend would be worthwhile. In an article1--’ appearing in the May 1973 issue of Rubber Age , the intro

  12. Mechanical Parameters of Rubber-Sand Mixtures for Numerical Analysis of a Road Embankment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalska, Magdalena; Chmielewski, Maciej

    2017-10-01

    Waste production is one of the greatest problems of the modern world. It is inevitably related to the increase of industrialization. One of the most difficult, and growing in amounts, waste is scrap tyres. The most common method of utilization of end-of-life tyres by their incineration raises much concern in terms of air pollution. More sustainable seems to reuse the tyre derived products - rubber in particular - in civil engineering, where the interesting properties of this material may be effectively utilized. This paper presents results of direct shear strength tests on sand-rubber mixtures, which were next applied to a numerical FEM (finite element method) model of a road embankment built on soft ground. The laboratory tests, conducted for two types of scrap tyre rubber granulates (0.5 - 2 mm and 1 - 5 mm in size) mixed with medium fluvial sand in various proportions (5, 10, 30 and 50% by weight), proved that the unit weight of the mixtures is distinctly smaller that the unit weight of sand alone and at 50% rubber content it drops by half. The internal angle of friction stays almost unchanged for the mixtures with up to 10% of rubber (33 - 37°), but decreases by about 10° when the rubber content increases to 50%. In most of the cases analysed, the cohesion intercept is higher in case of sand-rubber mixtures when compared to sand alone. The numerical model simulated a 4.5 m high embankment with a 3 m thick layer made of sand-rubber mixtures, containing 0%, 10% or 30% of the waste product, founded on a weak subsoil (with a 3 m layer of organic soil). The results showed that stability factor of the structure built with the layer containing 30% of the coarser rubber granulate has increased from 1.60 - for sand only, to 2.15. The embankment was also able to carry load increased from 32 kPa to 45.5 kPa and its base showed much smaller settlement. The results prove that the use of tyre derived aggregates in embankment construction is not only an effective way of

  13. Combination biological and microwave treatments of used rubber products

    DOEpatents

    Fliermans, Carl B.; Wicks, George G.

    2002-01-01

    A process and resulting product is provided in which a vulcanized solid particulate, such as vulcanized crumb rubber, has select chemical bonds altered by biotreatment with thermophillic microorganisms selected from natural isolates from hot sulfur springs. Following the biotreatment, microwave radiation is used to further treat the surface and to treat the bulk interior of the crumb rubber. The resulting combined treatments render the treated crumb rubber more suitable for use in new rubber formulations. As a result, larger loading levels and sizes of the treated crumb rubber can be used in new rubber mixtures and good properties obtained from the new recycled products.

  14. Comprehensive testing to measure the response of butyl rubber to Hanford tank waste simulant

    SciT

    NIGREY,PAUL J.

    This report presents the findings of the Chemical Compatibility Program developed to evaluate plastic packaging components that may be incorporated in packaging mixed-waste forms for transportation. Consistent with the methodology outlined in this report, the authors performed the second phase of this experimental program to determine the effects of simulant Hanford tank mixed wastes on packaging seal materials. That effort involved the comprehensive testing of five plastic liner materials in an aqueous mixed-waste simulant. The testing protocol involved exposing the materials to {approximately}143, 286, 571, and 3,670 krad of gamma radiation and was followed by 7-, 14-, 28-, 180-day exposuresmore » to the waste simulant at 18, 50, and 60 C. Butyl rubber samples subjected to the same protocol were then evaluated by measuring seven material properties: specific gravity, dimensional changes, mass changes, hardness, compression set, vapor transport rates, and tensile properties. From the analyses, they determined that butyl rubber has relatively good resistance to radiation, this simulant, and a combination of these factors. These results suggest that butyl rubber is a relatively good seal material to withstand aqueous mixed wastes having similar composition to the one used in this study.« less

  15. Rubber particle proteins, HbREF and HbSRPP, show different interactions with model membranes.

    PubMed

    Berthelot, Karine; Lecomte, Sophie; Estevez, Yannick; Zhendre, Vanessa; Henry, Sarah; Thévenot, Julie; Dufourc, Erick J; Alves, Isabel D; Peruch, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    The biomembrane surrounding rubber particles from the hevea latex is well known for its content of numerous allergen proteins. HbREF (Hevb1) and HbSRPP (Hevb3) are major components, linked on rubber particles, and they have been shown to be involved in rubber synthesis or quality (mass regulation), but their exact function is still to be determined. In this study we highlighted the different modes of interactions of both recombinant proteins with various membrane models (lipid monolayers, liposomes or supported bilayers, and multilamellar vesicles) to mimic the latex particle membrane. We combined various biophysical methods (polarization-modulation-infrared reflection-adsorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS)/ellipsometry, attenuated-total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), plasmon waveguide resonance (PWR), fluorescence spectroscopy) to elucidate their interactions. Small rubber particle protein (SRPP) shows less affinity than rubber elongation factor (REF) for the membranes but displays a kind of "covering" effect on the lipid headgroups without disturbing the membrane integrity. Its structure is conserved in the presence of lipids. Contrarily, REF demonstrates higher membrane affinity with changes in its aggregation properties, the amyloid nature of REF, which we previously reported, is not favored in the presence of lipids. REF binds and inserts into membranes. The membrane integrity is highly perturbed, and we suspect that REF is even able to remove lipids from the membrane leading to the formation of mixed micelles. These two homologous proteins show affinity to all membrane models tested but neatly differ in their interacting features. This could imply differential roles on the surface of rubber particles. © 2013.

  16. Emissions into the Air from Bitumen and Rubber Bitumen-Implications for Asphalt Workers' Exposure.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Patrik T; Bergendorf, Ulf; Tinnerberg, Håkan; Nordin, Erik; Gustavsson, Mats; Strandberg, Bo; Albin, Maria; Gudmundsson, Anders

    2018-06-21

    The risk among asphalt workers of developing adverse health effects may increase due to their occupational exposure. One area of special concern arises when rubber granules are mixed into bitumen to enhance asphalt properties. This research characterizes and compares bitumen and rubber bitumen regarding the emissions of and workers' exposure to particulates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and benzothiazole. A laboratory and a field study were carried out. In the laboratory, two types of bitumen, one with and one without rubber, were heated up to two temperatures (140°C and 160°C). The concentrations and chemical compositions of the emissions were determined. In the field at asphalt work sites, both emissions and worker exposure measurements were performed. The methods applied included direct-reading sampling techniques next to the asphalt work area and personal sampling techniques on asphalt workers. The exposure measurements on asphalt workers for respirable dust, total dust, particle number and mass, and total PAH concentrations showed similar concentrations when both standard and rubber bitumen were used. The asphalt-surfacing machine operators were the workers with the highest observed exposure followed by the screed operators and roller drivers. Both laboratory and field measurements showed higher concentrations of benzothiazole when rubber bitumen was used, up to 7.5 times higher in the laboratory. The levels of naphthalene, benzo(a)pyrene, and total particles were lower for both types compared with the Swedish occupational exposure limits, 8-h time weighted average concentrations. Benzo(a)pyrene exceeded however the health-based guideline value given by the WHO for both types of bitumen. The study concludes that several air pollutants such as benzothiazole and PAHs are emitted into the air during asphalt work, but it is not evident if exposure to rubber bitumen possesses a higher risk than exposure to standard bitumen in terms of asphalt worker

  17. Mechanochromic behavior of a luminescent silicone rubber under tensile deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeon Ju; Lee, Sang Hwan; Jeong, Kwang-Un; Nah, Changwoon

    2016-09-01

    A novel mechanochromic elastomer based on silicone rubber and coumarin 6 dye have been prepared with various concentrations of the dye ranges from 2wt.% to a maximum of 5wt.% by solution mixing technique. After evaporating the solvent, cured samples were prepared as thin films using compression molding at 170° C. The optimum composition of the dye in rubber composites was determined based on the mechanochromic performance characterized with ultraviolet/visible (UV/Vis) spectrometer, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and spectrofluorometer (FL). The UV/Vis spectrometer monitors the dye aggregation in polymer film during the tensile deformation. The XRD monitors the change in size of dye aggregates. The FL monitors the optical response during tensile deformation due to the re-arrangement of dyes. As increasing a mechanical deformation to the polymeric composite film, UV/Vis absorption intensity was decreased and the FL emission wavelength was moved to decrease wavelength because of breaking dye aggregations. Also, XRD intensity peak was decreased, which dye aggregations were broken after mechanical deformation.

  18. Laboratory Investigation on the Effects of Natural Fine Aggregates and Recycled Waste Tire Rubber in Pervious Concrete to Develop More Sustainable Pavement Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonicelli, Alessandra; Fuentes, Luis G.; Khalil Dawd Bermejo, Ibrahim

    2017-10-01

    Pervious concrete pavement is a recognized sustainable solution for urban roads. To enhance mechanical properties of pervious concrete material, in order to allow wider use of this technology, a lot of studies are going on all over the world. The use of a little percentage of fine aggregates is proven to increase the material resistance without an excessive reduction of permeability. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of replacing the fine virgin aggregates with r cycled tire rubber. 14 different mixes were analysed in terms of indirect tensile strength resistance, void content and density. Two different dimensions of crumb rubber were studied, as well as two different dosages, which were applied to different no-fine control mixes. All results were compared with the same control mixes containing natural fine aggregate. The mixes had a fixed granulometric curve but varied in water/cement ratio; this in order to evaluate the effect of recycled rubber depending to w/c ratio of the mix. An image analysis was also conducted to verify the rubber distribution in the mixture and the cracking surfaces. The experimental analysis showed that a correct proportioning of fine sand significantly increased the strength of the material. Moreover, the use of recycled waste tire rubber, gave interesting improvements respect to the no-fine control mixes, even though the developed resistance was lower respect to mixes containing mineral sand. This result was expected because of the cementing property of mineral sand. Although, the important result was that it was possible to use waste tire rubber in pervious concrete, with an appropriate dosage and granular dimension, for increasing the performance of traditional mix design, in order to achieve pavement materials more and more sustainable.

  19. New rubber qualification for the igniter adapter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humpherys, Mark A.

    1994-01-01

    Kirkhill Rubber Company (KRC) has informed Thiokol Corporation that two raw materials used in the asbestos and silica filled acrylonitrile butadience rubber (NBR) formulation per STW 2621 are no longer available from their vendors. Agerite White (Di-beta-naphthyl-paraphenylene diamine), manufactured by B. F. Goodrich, is an antioxidant used in NBR. This raw material makes up roughly 1-2 percent of the finished product. KRC proposed that this raw material be replaced by Agerite Stalite S (mixture of octylated diphenylamines) distributed by R. T. Vanderbilt Co. Protox-166 zinc oxide, manufactured by Zinc Corporation of America, is an activator currently used in NBR. This material also makes up about 1-2 percent of the finished material. Protox-166 is an American process grade zinc oxide. It is proposed by KRC to replace Protox-166 with Kadox-930C, a French process grade zinc oxide. American process grades have an ASTM minimum purity of 99.0 percent; the French process grades have a minimum purity of 99.5 percent. Previous testing per WTP-0270 has demonstrated that the mechanical and thermal properties of the rubber with the new ingredients are comparable to the 'old' rubber. The test results are reported in TWR-61790. One igniter adapter, Part no. 7U77562-02 serial no. 2 was insulated per ETP-1206 using the new rubber formulation and a modified lay up and cure method to demonstrate that there is no impact on this process. The results of this demonstration are reported.

  20. Stimuli-responsive cement-reinforced rubber.

    PubMed

    Musso, Simone; Robisson, Agathe; Maheshwar, Sudeep; Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2014-05-14

    In this work, we report the successful development of a cement-rubber reactive composite with reversible mechanical properties. Initially, the composite behaves like rubber containing inert filler, but when exposed to water, it increases in volume and reaches a stiffness that is intermediate between that of hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR) and hydrated cement, while maintaining a relatively large ductility characteristic of rubber. After drying, the modulus increases even further up to 400 MPa. Wet/drying cycles prove that the elastic modulus can reversibly change between 150 and 400 MPa. Utilizing attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), we demonstrate that the high pH produced by the hydration of cement triggers the hydrolysis of the rubber nitrile groups into carboxylate anions. Thus, the salt bridges, generated between the carboxylate anions of the elastomer and the cations of the filler, are responsible for the reversible variations in volume and elastic modulus of the composite as a consequence of environmental moisture exposure. These results reveal that cement nanoparticles can successfully be used to accomplish a twofold task: (a) achieve an original postpolymerization modification that allows one to work with carboxylate HNBR (HXNBR) not obtained by direct copolymerization of carboxylate monomers with butadiene, and (b) synthesize a stimuli-responsive polymeric composite. This new type of material, having an ideal behavior for sealing application, could be used as an alternative to cement for oil field zonal isolation applications.

  1. Radiation degradation of spent butyl rubbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telnov, A. V.; Zavyalov, N. V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Sitnikov, N. P.; Smetanin, M. L.; Tarantasov, V. P.; Shadrin, D. N.; Shorikov, I. V.; Liakumovich, A. L.; Miryasova, F. K.

    2002-03-01

    Radiation methods of materials modification applied in technological chains can have significant economical and ecological advantages as compared to the established chemical, thermal and mechanical methods. Each year the problems of nature resources economy through the use of production and consumption wastes acquire a more significant value, as it allows to solve also ecological issues along with economical ones. This is mostly acute in relation to polymeric systems based on saturated rubbers, for example butyl rubber (BR) used in the tyre industry, as due to their high resistance to the action of oxygen, ozone, solar radiation and bacteria, they contaminate the environment for rather a long period. At VNIIEF and KSPU experiments were carried out on application of electron beams with energy from 6 to 10 MeV for radiation destruction of spent rubber based on BR. The radiation-degraded material was tested for re-use in the formulation of initial diaphragm mixture, rubber mixture for producing rubberized fabric and roofing.

  2. On Optimizing an Archibald Rubber-Band Heat Engine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, J. G.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the criteria and procedure for optimizing the performance of Archibald rubber-band heat engines by using the appropriate choice of dimensions, minimizing frictional torque, maximizing torque and balancing the rubber band system. (GA)

  3. Effects of preparation process on performance of rubber modified asphalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hanbing; Luo, Guobao; Wang, Xianqiang; Jiao, Yubo

    2015-06-01

    The rational utilization of waste rubber tire is essential for the environmental protection. Utilizing rubber particles to modify asphalt can not only improve asphalt performance, but also help the recycling of waste materials. Considering the effect of different preparation process parameters on the performance of rubber modified asphalt, this paper analyzes the effects of the shear temperature, shear time and shear rate on the performance of rubber modified asphalt, and provided a reference for its preparation.

  4. Mechanical Properties of Graphene-Rubber Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anhar, N. A. M.; Ramli, M. M.; Hambali, N. A. M. A.; Aziz, A. A.; Mat Isa, S. S.; Danial, N. S.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.

    2017-11-01

    This research focused on development of wearable sensor device by using Prevulcanized Natural Rubber (PV) and Epoxidized Natural Rubber (ENR 50) latex incorporated with graphene oxide (GO), graphene paste, graphene powder and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) powder. The compounding formulation and calculation were based on phr (parts per hundred rubber) and all the samples were then tested for mechanical properties using Instron 5565 machine. It was found that the sonication effects on tensile strength may have better quality of tensile strength compared to non-sonicated GO. For PV incorporate GO, the optimum loading was best determined at loading 1.5 phr with or without sonication and similar result was recorded for PV/G. For ENR 50 incorporate graphene paste and rGO powder nanocomposite shows the best optimum was at 3.0 phr with 24 hours’ sonication.

  5. [Contemporary state of work conditions and occupational morbidity of workers engaged into rubber, mechanical rubber and tire industries].

    PubMed

    Stepanov, E G; Galiullina, É F; Samsonov, V M; Kudriavtsev, V P; Davletgareeva, G R; Shakirova, É D; Khasanov, B G; Buliakov, R T; Kamilov, R F; Shakirov, D F

    2014-01-01

    Based on analysis of materials provided by occupational safety department PC "UZEMiK" and JSC "Kauchuk", the authors evaluate contemporary work conditions and occupational morbidity in workers engaged into rubber, mechanical rubber and tyre industries.

  6. Contact Dermatitis from Penetration of Rubber Gloves by Acrylic Monomer

    PubMed Central

    Pegum, J. S.; Medhurst, F. A.

    1971-01-01

    An orthopaedic surgeon developed dermatitis from acrylic materials. The acrylic monomer was found to penetrate surgical rubber gloves readily. Cases of “rubber glove dermatitis” with negative patch tests may have a similar explanation. Laboratory tests suggest that monomer does not damage rubber sufficiently to allow bacteria to penetrate gloves, but it remains possible that this would happen under theatre conditions. PMID:5581492

  7. Modified Silicone-Rubber Tooling For Molding Composite Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baucom, Robert M.; Snoha, John J.; Weiser, Erik S.

    1995-01-01

    Reduced-thermal-expansion, reduced-bulk-modulus silicone rubber for use in mold tooling made by incorporating silica powder into silicone rubber. Pressure exerted by thermal expansion reduced even further by allowing air bubbles to remain in silicone rubber instead of deaerating it. Bubbles reduce bulk modulus of material.

  8. 27 CFR 21.125 - Rubber hydrocarbon solvent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubber hydrocarbon solvent. 21.125 Section 21.125 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....125 Rubber hydrocarbon solvent. (a) Rubber hydrocarbon solvent is a petroleum derivative. (b...

  9. 27 CFR 21.125 - Rubber hydrocarbon solvent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rubber hydrocarbon solvent. 21.125 Section 21.125 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....125 Rubber hydrocarbon solvent. (a) Rubber hydrocarbon solvent is a petroleum derivative. (b...

  10. A sustainability review of domestic rubber from the guayule plant

    Guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray) is an arid-adapted, low-input perennial shrub native to Mexico and southern Texas that has received considerable attention as an alternative source of natural rubber. It has potential to replace the most common types of rubbers, including synthetic rubber derived...

  11. Fluorination of silicone rubber by plasma polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielding, Jennifer Chase

    Plasma polymerized fluorocarbon (PPFC) films were deposited onto various silicone rubber substrates, including O-rings, to decrease oil uptake. Depositions were performed using a radio frequency (rf)-powered plasma reactor and various fluorocarbon monomers, such as C2F6, C2F 5H, C3F6, and 1H,1H,2H-perfluoro-1-dodecene. PPFC films which were most promising for inhibiting oil uptake were deposited with 1H,1H,2H-perfluoro-1-dodecene, and were composed predominantly of perfluoromethylene (CF2) species. These films displayed low critical surface energies (as low as 2.7 mJ/m2), and high contact angles with oil (84°), which were correlated with the amount of CF2 species present in the film. For the films with the highest degree of CF2 (up to 67%), CF2 chains may have been oriented slightly perpendicular to the substrate and terminated by CF3 species. Adhesion of the PPFC films directly to silicone rubber was found to be poor. However, when a plasma polymerized hydrocarbon interlayer was deposited on the silicone rubber prior to the fluorocarbon films, adhesion was excellent. O-rings coated with multilayer fluorocarbon films showed 2.6% oil uptake after soaking in oil for 100 hrs at 100°C. Due to variability in data, and the low quality of the industrial grade silicone rubber, the oil uptake mechanism was determined to be from oil flowing through flaws in the film due to defects within the substrate, not from generalized diffusion through the film. This mechanism was confirmed using higher quality silicone rubber, which showed little or no oil diffusion. Therefore, this film may perform well as an oil-repelling barrier when deposited on a high quality silicone rubber.

  12. Biobased, self-healable, high strength rubber with tunicate cellulose nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Cao, Liming; Yuan, Daosheng; Xu, Chuanhui; Chen, Yukun

    2017-10-19

    Cellulose nanocrystals represent a promising and environmentally friendly reinforcing nanofiller for polymers, especially for rubbers and elastomers. Here, a simple approach via latex mixing is used to fabricate biobased, healable rubber with high strength based on epoxidized natural rubber (ENR). Tunicate cellulose nanocrystals (t-CNs) isolated from marine biomass with a high aspect ratio are used to improve both mechanical properties and self-healing behavior of the material. By introducing dynamic hydrogen bond supramolecular networks between oxygenous groups of ENR and hydroxyl groups on the t-CN surface, together with chain interdiffusion in permanently but slightly cross-linked rubber, self-healing and mechanical properties are facilitated significantly in the resulting materials. Macroscopic tensile healing behavior and microscopic morphology analyses are carried out to evaluate the performance of the materials. Both t-CN content and healing time have significant influence on healing behavior. The results indicate that a synergistic effect between molecular interdiffusion and dynamic hydrogen bond supramolecular networks leads to the improved self-healing behavior.

  13. Features and characterization needs of rubber composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabaddor, Farhad

    1989-01-01

    Some of the major unique features of rubber composite structures are outlined. The features covered are those related to the material properties, but the analytical features are also briefly discussed. It is essential to recognize these features at the planning stage of any long-range analytical, experimental, or application program. The development of a general and comprehensive program which fully accounts for all the important characteristics of tires, under all the relevant modes of operation, may present a prohibitively expensive and impractical task at the near future. There is therefore a need to develop application methodologies which can utilize the less general models, beyond their theoretical limitations and yet with reasonable reliability, by proper mix of analytical, experimental, and testing activities.

  14. [Health risk among workers employed in rubber footwear plant].

    PubMed

    Szubert, Z; Wilczyńska, U; Sobala, W

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the health risk of workers performing specific jobs in the process of the rubber footwear production by defining the cause and length of temporary work disability, as well as mortality causes and level. The analysis was carried out in the groups of workers performing the following jobs: mixing, mill operation, pressing and vulcanizing (A); semi-product preparation and calendaring (B); finishing and sorting (C); production of polyvinyl chloride footwear (D); and auxiliary works (E). The sickness absence study covered all workers (208 men and 315 women) employed in a large rubber footwear company and performing all above-listed jobs in 1995. Standardized sick days ratio was used to analyze the risk of temporary work disability. Mortality rate was estimated on the basis of the results of the cohort study performed in the same company among workers who had worked at least three months during the years 1945-1985. The follow-up continued until 31 December 1997. The present study included sub-cohorts composed of 5628 men and 7197 women, performing jobs listed above. The results of both studies indicated the enhanced risk of cardiovascular diseases among workers employed in the basic phases of the production process. The increased risk of the diseases of the digestive system was observed in men and women employed in: finishing, sorting and packing of the products (group C); in men involved in mixing, pressing and vulcanizing (group A); and in women engaged in auxiliary works (group E). In addition, the enhanced risk of sickness absence due to the diseases of the respiratory, digestive, or genitourinary systems was related to the enhanced risk of death from malignant neoplasms in a given site. The analysis showed that the temporary work disability may be regarded as a parameter useful in early assessment of health effects of the work environmental hazards.

  15. Kinetics of zinc release from ground tire rubber and rubber ash in a calcareous soil as alternatives to Zn fertilizers

    Ground rubber contains 15-20 g Zn/kg but very low levels of Cd and could serve as an inexpensive byproduct Zn fertilizer. The aim of this investigation was to test the kinetics of Zn release in a soil treated with ground tire rubber and rubber ash compared with commercial Zn fertilizer and a labora...

  16. Degradation of blending vulcanized natural rubber and nitril rubber (NR/NBR) by dimethyl ether through variation of elastomer ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saputra, A. H.; Juneva, S.; Sari, T. I.; Cifriadi, A.

    2018-04-01

    Dimethyl ether can cause degradation of the rubber material seal in some applications. In order to use of natural rubber in industry, research about a blending of natural rubber (NR) and nitrile rubber (NBR) to produce rubber to meet the standard seal material application were conducted. This study will observe the degradation mechanisms that occur in the blending natural rubber and nitrile rubber (NR/NBR) by dimethyl ether. Nitrile rubber types used in this study is medium quality nitrile rubber with 33% of acrylonitrile content (NBR33). The observed parameters are percent change in mass, mechanical properties and surface morphology. This study is limited to see the effect of variation vulcanized blending ratio (NR/NBR33) against to swelling. The increase of nitrile rubber (NBR33) ratio of blending rubber vulcanized can reduce the tensile strength and elongation. The best elastomer variation was obtained after comparing with the standard feasibility material of seal is rubber vulcanized blending (NR/NBR33) with ratio 40:60 NR: NBR.

  17. The role of the small rubber particle protein in determining rubber yields and polymer length in Russian dandelion

    Several proteins have been identified and implicated in natural rubber biosynthesis, one of which, the small rubber particle protein (SRPP), was originally identified in Hevea brasiliensis as an abundant protein associated with cytosolic vesicles known as rubber particles. While previous in vitro s...

  18. Investigation of surface halide modification of nitrile butadiene rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhareva, K. V.; Mikhailov, I. A.; Andriasyan, Yu O.; Mastalygina, E. E.; Popov, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    The investigation is devoted to the novel technology of surface halide modification of rubber samples based on nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR). 1,1,2-trifluoro-1,2,2-trichlorethane was used as halide modifier. The developed technology is characterized by production stages reduction to one by means of treating the rubber compound with a halide modifier. The surface halide modification of compounds based on nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) was determined to result in increase of resistance to thermal oxidation and aggressive media. The conducted research revealed the influence of modification time on chemical resistance and physical-mechanical properties of rubbers under investigation.

  19. Acute and chronic pain in calves after different methods of rubber-ring castration.

    PubMed

    Becker, Johanna; Doherr, Marcus G; Bruckmaier, Rupert M; Bodmer, Michèle; Zanolari, Patrik; Steiner, Adrian

    2012-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different methods of rubber-ring castration on acute and chronic pain in calves. Sixty-three 4-6 week-old calves were randomly and sequentially allocated to one of five groups: Group RR (traditional rubber ring castration); group BRR (combination of one rubber ring with Burdizzo); group Rcut (one rubber ring applied with the scrotal tissue and rubber ring removed on day 9); group 3RR (three rubber rings placed one above the other around the scrotal neck); and group CO (controls; sham-castrated). All calves received 0.2 mL/kg bodyweight lidocaine 2%, injected into the spermatic cords and around the scrotal neck 15 min before castration. The presence of acute and chronic pain was assessed using plasma cortisol concentrations, response to palpation of scrotal area, time from castration until complete wound healing, and behavioural signs. Calves of group 3RR showed severe swelling and inflammation, and licking of the scrotal area occurred significantly more often than in groups Rcut and CO. Technique 3RR was discontinued for welfare reasons before the end of the study. All castration groups had significantly more pain upon palpation than calves of group CO, but palpation elicited markedly less pain in group Rcut than in the other castration groups. The most rapid healing time and shortest duration of chronic pain after castration was achieved in group Rcut. For welfare reasons, the Rcut technique should be considered as a valuable alternative to traditional rubber ring castration of calves at 4-6 weeks of age. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. High performance light-colored nitrile-butadiene rubber nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yanda; Guo, Baochun; Chen, Feng; Zhu, Lixin; Zhou, Wenyou; Jia, Demin

    2011-12-01

    High mechanical performance nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) with light color was fabricated by the method of in situ formation of zinc disorbate (ZDS) or magnesium disorbate (MDS). The in situ formed ZDS and its polymerization via internal mixing was confirmed by X-ray diffaraction. The mechanical properties, ageing resistance, morphology and the dynamic mechanical analysis were fully studied. It was found that with increasing loading of metallic disorbate both the curing rate and the ionic crosslink density was largely increased. The modulus, tensile strength and tear strength were largely increased. With a comparison between internal mixing and opening mixing, the mechanical performance for the former one was obviously better than the latter one. The high performance was ascribed to the finely dispersion nano domains with irregular shape and obscure interfacial structures. Except for the NBR vulcanizate with a high loading of MDS, the others' ageing resistance with incorporation of these two metallic disorbate was found to be good. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) showed that, with increasing loading of metallic disorbate, the highly increased storage modulus above -20 degrees C, the up-shifted glass transition temperature (Tg) and the reduced mechanical loss were ascribed to strengthened interfacial interactions.

  1. Preparation of sulfonic acid-containing rubbers from natural rubber vulcanizates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poonsawat, Worapong; Poompradub, Sirilux; Ngamcharussrivichai, Chawalit

    2014-06-01

    In this work, a series of sulfonic acid-containing rubbers were prepared by aqueous phase oxidation of natural rubber vulcanizates in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and formic acid (HCOOH). The starting vulcanizates were neatly prepared via an efficient vulcanization (EV) system by varying mass ratio of N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazole sulfonamide (CBS), as an accelerator, to sulfur. The oxidation conditions were controlled at the molar ratio of H2O2: HCOOH = 1:1, the concentration of H2O2 = 15 wt.%, the temperature = 50 °C, and the reaction time = 3 h. The rubber materials before and after the oxidation were characterized for their physicochemical properties by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, bomb calorimetry, acid-base titration and swelling measurements. The results indicated the presence of sulfonic acid group in the oxidized rubbers, generated by the oxidative cleaves of sulfide crosslinks in the rubber vulcanizates. The oxidation decreased the sulfur content of the rubber in which the level of sulfur loss was determined by the CBS/sulfur ratio. Moreover, the acidity of the oxidized products was correlated with the amount of sulfur remaining.

  2. Hardness and compression resistance of natural rubber and synthetic rubber mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arguello, J. M.; Santos, A.

    2016-02-01

    This project aims to mechanically characterize through compression resistance and shore hardness tests, the mixture of hevea brasiliensis natural rubber with butadiene synthetic rubber (BR), styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and ethylene-propylene-diene monomer rubber (EPDM). For each of the studied mixtures were performed 10 tests, each of which increased by 10% the content of synthetic rubber in the mixture; each test consisted of carrying out five tests of compression resistance and five tests of shore hardness. The specimens were vulcanized on a temperature of 160°C, during an approximate time of 15 minutes, and the equipment used in the performance of the mechanical tests were a Shimadzu universal machine and a digital durometer. The results show that the A shore hardness increases directly proportional, with a linear trend, with the content of synthetic BR, SBR or EPDM rubber present in the mixture, being the EPDM the most influential. With respect to the compression resistance is observed that the content of BR or SBR increase this property directly proportional through a linear trend; while the EPDM content also increases but with a polynomial trend.

  3. The rubber tree genome shows expansion of gene family associated with rubber biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Nyok-Sean; Makita, Yuko; Kawashima, Mika; Taylor, Todd D.; Kondo, Shinji; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman; Shu-Chien, Alexander Chong; Matsui, Minami

    2016-01-01

    Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg, a member of the family Euphorbiaceae, is the sole natural resource exploited for commercial production of high-quality natural rubber. The properties of natural rubber latex are almost irreplaceable by synthetic counterparts for many industrial applications. A paucity of knowledge on the molecular mechanisms of rubber biosynthesis in high yield traits still persists. Here we report the comprehensive genome-wide analysis of the widely planted H. brasiliensis clone, RRIM 600. The genome was assembled based on ~155-fold combined coverage with Illumina and PacBio sequence data and has a total length of 1.55 Gb with 72.5% comprising repetitive DNA sequences. A total of 84,440 high-confidence protein-coding genes were predicted. Comparative genomic analysis revealed strong synteny between H. brasiliensis and other Euphorbiaceae genomes. Our data suggest that H. brasiliensis’s capacity to produce high levels of latex can be attributed to the expansion of rubber biosynthesis-related genes in its genome and the high expression of these genes in latex. Using cap analysis gene expression data, we illustrate the tissue-specific transcription profiles of rubber biosynthesis-related genes, revealing alternative means of transcriptional regulation. Our study adds to the understanding of H. brasiliensis biology and provides valuable genomic resources for future agronomic-related improvement of the rubber tree. PMID:27339202

  4. The rubber tree genome shows expansion of gene family associated with rubber biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Lau, Nyok-Sean; Makita, Yuko; Kawashima, Mika; Taylor, Todd D; Kondo, Shinji; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman; Shu-Chien, Alexander Chong; Matsui, Minami

    2016-06-24

    Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg, a member of the family Euphorbiaceae, is the sole natural resource exploited for commercial production of high-quality natural rubber. The properties of natural rubber latex are almost irreplaceable by synthetic counterparts for many industrial applications. A paucity of knowledge on the molecular mechanisms of rubber biosynthesis in high yield traits still persists. Here we report the comprehensive genome-wide analysis of the widely planted H. brasiliensis clone, RRIM 600. The genome was assembled based on ~155-fold combined coverage with Illumina and PacBio sequence data and has a total length of 1.55 Gb with 72.5% comprising repetitive DNA sequences. A total of 84,440 high-confidence protein-coding genes were predicted. Comparative genomic analysis revealed strong synteny between H. brasiliensis and other Euphorbiaceae genomes. Our data suggest that H. brasiliensis's capacity to produce high levels of latex can be attributed to the expansion of rubber biosynthesis-related genes in its genome and the high expression of these genes in latex. Using cap analysis gene expression data, we illustrate the tissue-specific transcription profiles of rubber biosynthesis-related genes, revealing alternative means of transcriptional regulation. Our study adds to the understanding of H. brasiliensis biology and provides valuable genomic resources for future agronomic-related improvement of the rubber tree.

  5. Rubber Impact on 3D Textile Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimbs, Sebastian; Van Den Broucke, Björn; Duplessis Kergomard, Yann; Dau, Frederic; Malherbe, Benoit

    2012-06-01

    A low velocity impact study of aircraft tire rubber on 3D textile-reinforced composite plates was performed experimentally and numerically. In contrast to regular unidirectional composite laminates, no delaminations occur in such a 3D textile composite. Yarn decohesions, matrix cracks and yarn ruptures have been identified as the major damage mechanisms under impact load. An increase in the number of 3D warp yarns is proposed to improve the impact damage resistance. The characteristic of a rubber impact is the high amount of elastic energy stored in the impactor during impact, which was more than 90% of the initial kinetic energy. This large geometrical deformation of the rubber during impact leads to a less localised loading of the target structure and poses great challenges for the numerical modelling. A hyperelastic Mooney-Rivlin constitutive law was used in Abaqus/Explicit based on a step-by-step validation with static rubber compression tests and low velocity impact tests on aluminium plates. Simulation models of the textile weave were developed on the meso- and macro-scale. The final correlation between impact simulation results on 3D textile-reinforced composite plates and impact test data was promising, highlighting the potential of such numerical simulation tools.

  6. Why Do Calculators Have Rubber Feet?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heavers, Richard M.

    2007-01-01

    Our students like using the covers of their TI graphing calculators in an inquiry-based extension of a traditional exercise that challenges their preconceived ideas about friction. Biology major Fiona McGraw (Fig. 1) is obviously excited about the large coefficient of static friction ([mu][subscript s] = 1.3) for the four little rubber feet on her…

  7. Natural rubber (NR) biosynthesis: perspectives from polymer chemistry

    SciT

    Barkakaty, Balaka

    Natural rubber is an important strategic raw material for manufacturing a wide variety of industrial products. There are at least 2,500 different latex-producing plant species; however, only Hevea brasiliensis (the Brazilian rubber tree) is a commercial source. The chemical structure of natural rubber is cis-1,4-polyisoprene, but the exact structure of the head and end groups remains unknown. Since synthetic cis-1,4-polyisoprenes cannot match the superior properties of natural rubber, understanding the chemistry behind the biosynthetic process is key to finding a possible replacement. T his chapter summarizes our current understandings from the perspective of a polymer scientist by comparing synthetic polyisoprenesmore » to natural rubber. The chapter also highlights biomimetic polymerization, research towards a synthetic match of natural rubber and the role of natural rubber in health care.« less

  8. Chlorinated rubbers with advanced properties for tire industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhaylov, I. A.; Sukhareva, K. V.; Andriasyan, Yu. O.; Popov, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    The paper investigates the production and processing of halide-modified chlorinated rubbers, such as isobutylene isoprene rubber and ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer rubber (IIR and EPDM), which are perspective in terms of application in rubber industry. Prospects for their production and application are determined by the specific properties of these rubbers (low gas permeability of IIR, high heat and ozone resistance of EPDM). These properties are governed by the structure of both initial IIR and EPDM and chlorinated rubbers (ChIIR and ChEPDM). A new alternative technology of obtaining chlorinated elastomers based on solid-phase mechanochemical halide modification is proposed. Novel chlorinated polyolefin rubbers obtained by the developed technology show good technological properties under industrial production conditions due to enhanced covulcanization.

  9. Economic status, smoking, occupational exposure to rubber, and lung cancer: a case-cohort study.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Yu, Shunzhang

    2002-05-01

    Recent studies tend consistently to confirm the presence of a moderate excess risk of lung cancer in the rubber industry. However, the agent responsible for the excess of lung cancer is still obscure. Also, analyses without regard to the modifying effects of sex, economic status, and smoking habit are less than satisfactory. To explore these questions, we have conducted a case-cohort study using the data of 51 lung cancer deaths in 1973-1997 and a random sample (sub-cohort) of 188 from among 1598 subjects in a rubber factory in Shanghai, China. We computed the risks of lung cancer by economic status, smoking habit, coal fumes in home, and year of first employment. We assessed lung cancer risks for occupational exposures, unadjusted and adjusted for economic status and smoking. After confounding effects of smoking and economic status were controlled, we found that rate ratios were 1.43 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.43-4.69), 1.79 (95% CI 0.64-5.03), and 3.76 (95% CI 1.44-9.86) for 1-14, 15-29, and 30-45 exposure-years in curing department, respectively. The data showed significant trends in increased risk of lung cancer with duration of exposure in tire-curing department (score test for trend:, P = 0.004). However, in front rubber processing (weighing and mixing, calendering, extruding, and milling), no significant excess risk of lung cancer was found. If it can be confirmed that nitrosamines are mainly generated in back rubber processing (curing and vulcanizing), it would be reasonable to conclude that excess risk of lung cancer in rubber industry is attributable, at least partially, to exposure to nitrosamines.

  10. SIMS depth profiling of rubber-tyre cord bonding layers prepared using 64Zn depleted ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulton, W. S.; Sykes, D. E.; Smith, G. C.

    2006-07-01

    Zinc oxide and copper/zinc sulphide layers are formed during vulcanisation and moulding of rubber to brass-coated steel tyre reinforcing cords. Previous studies have described how zinc diffuses through the rubber-brass interface to form zinc sulphide, and combines with oxygen to create zinc oxide during dezincification. The zinc is usually assumed to originate in the brass of the tyre cord, however, zinc oxide is also present in the rubber formulation. We reveal how zinc from these sources is distributed within the interfacial bonding layers, before and after heat and humidity ageing. Zinc oxide produced using 64Zn-isotope depleted zinc was mixed in the rubber formulation in place of the natural ZnO and the zinc isotope ratios within the interfacial layers were followed by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) depth profiling. Variations in the relative ratios of the zinc isotopes during depth profiling were measured for unaged, heat-aged and humidity-aged wire samples and in each case a relatively large proportion of the zinc incorporated into the interfacial layer as zinc sulphide was shown to have originated from ZnO in the rubber compound.

  11. Enhancing mechanical and thermal properties of styrene-butadiene rubber/carboxylated acrylonitrile butadiene rubber blend by the usage of graphene oxide with diverse oxidation degrees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Xiaodong; Yin, Qing; Jia, Hongbing; Zhang, Xuming; Wen, Yanwei; Ji, Qingmin; Xu, Zhaodong

    2017-11-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) with various oxidation degrees were prepared through a modified Hummer's method by varying the dosage of oxidizing agent. Styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)/carboxylated acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (XNBR)/GO nanocomposites were fabricated by aqueous-phase mixing of GO colloidal dispersion with SBR latex and a small loading of XNBR latex, followed by co-coagulation. Effects of GO oxidation degree on the morphology, structure, mechanical and thermal properties of nanocomposites were thoroughly investigated. The results showed that the mechanical strength of nanocomposites were enhanced with the increase of oxidation degree of GO. Especially, when the weight ratio of KMnO4 to graphite was 15/5, the tensile strength, tear strength and thermal conductivity of SBR/XNBR/GO filled with 3 phr (parts per hundred rubber) GO increased by 255.3%, 141.5% and 22.8%, respectively, compared to those of neat SBR/XNBR blend. In addition, the thermal stability and the solvent resistance of the nanocomposites were also improved significantly. This work suggested that GO with higher oxidation degree could effectively improve the properties of SBR/XNBR blend.

  12. Silencing the lettuce homologs of small rubber particle protein does not influence natural rubber biosynthesis in lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, Romit; Qu, Yang; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2015-05-01

    Natural rubber, cis-1,4-polyisoprene, is an important raw material in chemical industries, but its biosynthetic mechanism remains elusive. Natural rubber is known to be synthesized in rubber particles suspended in laticifer cells in the Brazilian rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). In the rubber tree, rubber elongation factor (REF) and its homolog, small rubber particle protein (SRPP), were found to be the most abundant proteins in rubber particles, and they have been implicated in natural rubber biosynthesis. As lettuce (Lactuca sativa) can synthesize natural rubber, we utilized this annual, transformable plant to examine in planta roles of the lettuce REF/SRPP homologs by RNA interference. Among eight lettuce REF/SRPP homologs identified, transcripts of two genes (LsSRPP4 and LsSRPP8) accounted for more than 90% of total transcripts of REF/SRPP homologs in lettuce latex. LsSRPP4 displays a typical primary protein sequence as other REF/SRPP, while LsSRPP8 is twice as long as LsSRPP4. These two major LsSRPP transcripts were individually and simultaneously silenced by RNA interference, and relative abundance, polymer molecular weight, and polydispersity of natural rubber were analyzed from the LsSRPP4- and LsSRPP8-silenced transgenic lettuce. Despite previous data suggesting the implications of REF/SRPP in natural rubber biosynthesis, qualitative and quantitative alterations of natural rubber could not be observed in transgenic lettuce lines. It is concluded that lettuce REF/SRPP homologs are not critically important proteins in natural rubber biosynthesis in lettuce. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Epoxidized natural rubber toughened aqueous resole type liquefied EFB resin: Physical and chemical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amran, Umar Adli; Zakaria, Sarani; Chia, Chin Hua

    2013-11-01

    A preliminary study on the reaction between aqueous resole type resinified liquefied palm oil empty fruit bunches fibres (RLEFB) with epoxidized natural rubber (ENR). Liquefaction of empty fruit bunches (EFB) is carried out at different ratio of phenol to EFB (P:EFB). Resole type phenolic resin is prepared using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as the catalyst with the ratio of liquefied EFB (LEFB) to formaldehyde (LEFB:F) of 1:1.8. 50% epoxidation of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR-50) is used to react with resole resin by mixing with ENR with aqueous resole resin. The cured resin is characterized with FT-IR and SEM. Aqueous system have been found to be unsuitable medium in the reaction between resin and ENR. This system produced a highly porous product when RLEFB/ENR resin is cured.

  14. 40 CFR 428.20 - Applicability; description of the emulsion crumb rubber subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... emulsion crumb rubber subcategory. 428.20 Section 428.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Emulsion Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.20 Applicability; description of the emulsion crumb rubber... manufacture of emulsion crumb rubber, other than acrylonitrilebutadiene rubber. [40 FR 18173, Apr. 25, 1975] ...

  15. 40 CFR 428.20 - Applicability; description of the emulsion crumb rubber subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... emulsion crumb rubber subcategory. 428.20 Section 428.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Emulsion Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.20 Applicability; description of the emulsion crumb rubber... manufacture of emulsion crumb rubber, other than acrylonitrilebutadiene rubber. [40 FR 18173, Apr. 25, 1975] ...

  16. 40 CFR 428.20 - Applicability; description of the emulsion crumb rubber subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... emulsion crumb rubber subcategory. 428.20 Section 428.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Emulsion Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.20 Applicability; description of the emulsion crumb rubber... manufacture of emulsion crumb rubber, other than acrylonitrilebutadiene rubber. [40 FR 18173, Apr. 25, 1975] ...

  17. Nanocomposites of nitrile (NBR) rubber with multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warasitthinon, Nuthathai

    Nanotechnology offers the promise of creating new materials with enhanced performance. There are different kinds of fillers used in rubber nanocomposites, such as carbon black, silica, carbon fibers, and organoclays. Carbon nanotube reinforced elastomers have potential for improved rubber properties in aggressive environments. The first chapter is an introduction to the literature. The second chapter investigated the incorporation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) into rubber matrix for potential use in high temperature applications. The vulcanization kinetics of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) reinforced with multi-walled carbon nanotubes was investigated. The vulcanized NBR rubber with different loading percentages of MWCNTs was also compared to NBR reinforced with carbon black N330. The optimum curing time at 170°C (T90) was found to decrease with increasing content of MWCNTs. Increased filler loading of both carbon black and MWCNTs gave higher modulus and strength. The MWCNTs filled materials gave better retention of modulus and tensile strength at high temperatures, but lower strength as compared to the carbon black filled samples. In the third chapter, carbon black (CB, 50phr) content in nitrile rubber (NBR) nanocomposites was partially replaced by multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). NBR/CB/CNTs nanocomposites with varying ratio of CB/CNTs (50/0 phr to 40/10 phr) were formulated via the melt-mixing method using an internal mixer. The reinforcing effect of single filler (CB) and mixture of fillers (CB and CNTs) on the properties of NBR nanocomposites was investigated. The cure kinetics and bound rubber content were analyzed using rheometry and solvent swelling method. In addition, mechanical behavior at both room temperature and high temperature (350°F/ 121°C) were examined. The scorch time and curing time values showed that there was no significant effect on the curing behavior of NBR nanocomposites after the partial replacement of CB with

  18. Identification and reconstitution of the rubber biosynthetic machinery on rubber particles from Hevea brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Haruhiko; Waki, Toshiyuki; Aoki, Yuichi; Mizuno, Makie; Yanbe, Fumihiro; Ishii, Tomoki; Funaki, Ayuta; Tozawa, Yuzuru; Miyagi-Inoue, Yukino; Fushihara, Kazuhisa; Nakayama, Toru; Takahashi, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Natural rubber (NR) is stored in latex as rubber particles (RPs), rubber molecules surrounded by a lipid monolayer. Rubber transferase (RTase), the enzyme responsible for NR biosynthesis, is believed to be a member of the cis-prenyltransferase (cPT) family. However, none of the recombinant cPTs have shown RTase activity independently. We show that HRT1, a cPT from Heveabrasiliensis, exhibits distinct RTase activity in vitro only when it is introduced on detergent-washed HeveaRPs (WRPs) by a cell-free translation-coupled system. Using this system, a heterologous cPT from Lactucasativa also exhibited RTase activity, indicating proper introduction of cPT on RP is the key to reconstitute active RTase. RP proteomics and interaction network analyses revealed the formation of the protein complex consisting of HRT1, rubber elongation factor (REF) and HRT1-REF BRIDGING PROTEIN. The RTase activity enhancement observed for the complex assembled on WRPs indicates the HRT1-containing complex functions as the NR biosynthetic machinery. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19022.001 PMID:27790974

  19. Marshall properties of asphalt concrete using crumb rubber modified of motorcycle tire waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siswanto, Henri; Supriyanto, Bambang; Pranoto, Chandra, Pria Rizky; Hakim, Arief Rahman

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to explain the effect of Crumb Rubber Modified (CRM) of motorcycle tire waste on Marshall properties of asphalt mix. Two types of aggregate gradation, asphalt concrete wearing course (ACWC) and asphalt concrete base (ACB), and CRM passing #50 sieve size were used. Seven levels of CRM content were investigated in this study, namely 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 3%, 4.5%, and 6% by weight of aggregate. Marshall test is conducted on Marshall specimens. The specimens are tested in their optimum binder content (OBC). The results indicate that CRM addition of motorcycle tire waste increases the Marshall stability of the both mix, ACWC and ACB. In addition, 1% CRM addition of motorcycle tire waste of the total mix weight is the best mix.

  20. Trapped rubber processing for advanced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marra, P. J.

    1976-01-01

    Trapped rubber processing is a molding technique for composites in which precast silicone rubber is placed within a closed cavity where it thermally expands against the composite's surface supported by the vessel walls. The method has been applied by the Douglas Aircraft Company, under contract to NASA-Langley, to the design and fabrication of 10 DC-10 graphite/epoxy upper aft rudder assemblies. A three-bay development tool form mold die has been designed and manufactured, and tooling parameters have been established. Fabrication procedures include graphite layup, assembly of details in the tool, and a cure cycle. The technique has made it possible for the cocured fabrication of complex primary box structures otherwise impracticable via standard composite material processes.

  1. Silicone rubber band for laparoscopic tubal sterilization.

    PubMed

    Ansari, A H; Sealey, R M; Gay, J W; Kang, I

    1977-12-01

    In 1974, Yoon and associates (Am J Obstet Gynecol 120:132, 1974) described a new approach in which laparoscopic tubal occlusion was accomplished by utilizing the silicone rubber band technique. Recognizing the great advantages of the new technique in eliminating potential thermal injury associated with electrocoagulation, the authors have utilized the Yoon silicone rubber band technique in these institutions over the past 20 months. Thus far the procedure has been performed in 304 patients without any major complications. In the hope of eliminating and/or reducing possible pregnancy-failure rates, in 110 cases. In addition to application of the silicone band, the tube within the band was transected with non-electrical Seigler biopsy forceps. This, we believe, should provide an interesting long-term comparative study.

  2. Quantitative Electron Tomography of Rubber Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staniewicz, Lech; Vaudey, Thomas; Degrandcourt, Christophe; Couty, Marc; Gaboriaud, Fabien; Midgley, Paul

    2014-06-01

    Rubber composite materials have many applications, one example being tyre manufacture. The presence of a filler material in the composite (such as carbon black or silica) causes its mechanical properties to differ in several ways when compared to pure rubber such as viscoelastic behaviour (the Payne effect), increased tensile strength and improved wear resistance. To fully understand these properties, it is necessary to characterise how the filler material is organised on the nanoscale. Using composite materials representative of those found in tyres, this work illustrates the use of electron tomography and machine learning methods as tools to describe the percolation behaviour of the filler; in this case, we focus on the largest proportion of particles absorbed into one single object as a function of particle spacing.

  3. Research on a haptic sensor made using MCF conductive rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yaoyang; Shimada, Kunio

    2008-05-01

    To provide a new composite material having a high electrical sensitivity in the fields of robotics and sensing, a magnetic rubber having network-like magnetic clusters was developed by utilizing a magnetic compound fluid (MCF). MCF rubber with small deformations can provide an effective sensor. In this paper, we report many experiments in which changes of the MCF rubber's resistance were observed when the rubber was compressed and a deformation was generated; we then made a trial haptic sensor using the MCF conductive rubber and performed many experiments to observe changes of the electrical resistance of the sensor. The results of experiments showed that the proposed sensor made with MCF conductive rubber is useful for sensing small amounts of pressure or small deformations.

  4. Research on a haptic sensor made using MCF conductive rubber.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yaoyang; Shimada, Kunio

    2008-05-21

    To provide a new composite material having a high electrical sensitivity in the fields of robotics and sensing, a magnetic rubber having network-like magnetic clusters was developed by utilizing a magnetic compound fluid (MCF). MCF rubber with small deformations can provide an effective sensor. In this paper, we report many experiments in which changes of the MCF rubber's resistance were observed when the rubber was compressed and a deformation was generated; we then made a trial haptic sensor using the MCF conductive rubber and performed many experiments to observe changes of the electrical resistance of the sensor. The results of experiments showed that the proposed sensor made with MCF conductive rubber is useful for sensing small amounts of pressure or small deformations.

  5. Silicone rubber band treatment of rectal prolapse.

    PubMed

    Jackaman, F R; Francis, J N; Hopkinson, B R

    1980-09-01

    Fifty-two patients with rectal prolapse have been treated by the silicone rubber band perianal suture technique and satisfactory results have been obtained in 46 (89%). Eleven patients required reoperation to achieve this result. The procedure is a minor one, with little morbidity and no mortality. Provided that faecal impaction can be avoided in patients having this operation a successful outcome, can be expected. It is recommended especially for the frail and elderly with rectal prolapse.

  6. Rubber-Modified Epoxies: Transitions and Morphology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    Hill. New Jersey 07974 i .i -2- INTRODUCTION Low levels of carboxyl-terminated reactive liquid rubber copolymers of butadiene and acrylonitrile ( CTBN ...parts per hundred parts resin (phr) of CTBN , and 5 phr piperidine is homo- geneous at the start of cure if the cure temperature is above some critical...solubility temperature (which is designated Tso). In the presence of piperidine there is a rapid reaction of the carboxyl end groups of the CTBN with

  7. Silicone rubber band treatment of rectal prolapse.

    PubMed Central

    Jackaman, F. R.; Francis, J. N.; Hopkinson, B. R.

    1980-01-01

    Fifty-two patients with rectal prolapse have been treated by the silicone rubber band perianal suture technique and satisfactory results have been obtained in 46 (89%). Eleven patients required reoperation to achieve this result. The procedure is a minor one, with little morbidity and no mortality. Provided that faecal impaction can be avoided in patients having this operation a successful outcome, can be expected. It is recommended especially for the frail and elderly with rectal prolapse. PMID:7002011

  8. Cancer mortality in the British rubber industry.

    PubMed

    Parkes, H G; Veys, C A; Waterhouse, J A; Peters, A

    1982-08-01

    Although it is over 30 years since an excess of bladder cancer was first identified in British rubber workers, the fear has persisted that this hazard could still be affecting men working in the industry today. Furthermore, suspicions have also arisen that other and hitherto unsuspected excesses of cancer might be occurring. For these reasons 33 815 men, who first started work in the industry between 1 January 1946 and 31 December 1960, have been followed up to 31 December 1975 to ascertain the number of deaths attributable to malignant disease and to compare these with the expected number calculated from the published mortality rates applicable to the male population of England and Wales and Scotland. The findings confirm the absence of any excess mortality from bladder cancer among men entering the industry after 1 January 1951 (the presumed bladder carcinogens were withdrawn from production processes in July 1949), but they confirm also a statistically significant excess of both lung and stomach cancer mortality. A small excess of oesophageal cancer was also observed in both the tyre and general rubber goods manufacturing sectors. American reports of an excess of leukaemia among rubber workers receive only limited support from the present study, where a small numerical excess of deaths from leukaemia is not statistically significant. A special feature of the study is the adoption of an analytical method that permits taking into account the long latent period of induction of occupational cancer.

  9. Cancer mortality in the British rubber industry.

    PubMed Central

    Parkes, H G; Veys, C A; Waterhouse, J A; Peters, A

    1982-01-01

    Although it is over 30 years since an excess of bladder cancer was first identified in British rubber workers, the fear has persisted that this hazard could still be affecting men working in the industry today. Furthermore, suspicions have also arisen that other and hitherto unsuspected excesses of cancer might be occurring. For these reasons 33 815 men, who first started work in the industry between 1 January 1946 and 31 December 1960, have been followed up to 31 December 1975 to ascertain the number of deaths attributable to malignant disease and to compare these with the expected number calculated from the published mortality rates applicable to the male population of England and Wales and Scotland. The findings confirm the absence of any excess mortality from bladder cancer among men entering the industry after 1 January 1951 (the presumed bladder carcinogens were withdrawn from production processes in July 1949), but they confirm also a statistically significant excess of both lung and stomach cancer mortality. A small excess of oesophageal cancer was also observed in both the tyre and general rubber goods manufacturing sectors. American reports of an excess of leukaemia among rubber workers receive only limited support from the present study, where a small numerical excess of deaths from leukaemia is not statistically significant. A special feature of the study is the adoption of an analytical method that permits taking into account the long latent period of induction of occupational cancer. PMID:7093147

  10. 40 CFR 428.50 - Applicability; description of the small-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Small-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber..., foam rubber backing, rubber cement-dipped goods, and retreaded tires by small-sized plants...

  11. 40 CFR 428.70 - Applicability; description of the large-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Large-Sized General Molded, Extruded, and Fabricated Rubber..., foam rubber backing, rubber cement-dipped goods, and retreaded tires by large-sized plants...

  12. Response of ethylene propylene diene monomer rubber (EPDM) to simulant Hanford tank waste

    SciT

    NIGREY,PAUL J.

    2000-02-01

    This report presents the findings of the Chemical Compatibility Program developed to evaluate plastic packaging components that may be incorporated in packaging mixed-waste forms for transportation. Consistent with the methodology outlined in this report, the author performed the second phase of this experimental program to determine the effects of simulant Hanford tank mixed wastes on packaging seal materials. That effort involved the comprehensive testing of five plastic liner materials in an aqueous mixed-waste simulant. The testing protocol involved exposing the materials to {approximately}143, 286, 571, and 3,670 krad of gamma radiation and was followed by 7-, 14-, 28-, 180-day exposuresmore » to the waste simulant at 18, 50, and 60 C. Ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubber samples subjected to the same protocol were then evaluated by measuring seven material properties: specific gravity, dimensional changes, mass changes, hardness, compression set, vapor transport rates, and tensile properties. The author has determined that EPDM rubber has excellent resistance to radiation, this simulant, and a combination of these factors. These results suggest that EPDM is an excellent seal material to withstand aqueous mixed wastes having similar composition to the one used in this study.« less

  13. Characterization of interaction between natural rubber and silica by FTIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarnthong, Methakarn; Liao, Lusheng; Zhang, Fuquan; Wang, Yueqiong; Li, Puwang; Peng, Zheng; Malawet, Chutarat; Intharapat, Punyanich

    2017-05-01

    Blending of natural rubber (NR) and nanosilica (SiO2) was performed in latex state. The mechanical properties of NR/SiO2 nanocomposites at various filler contents were investigated. The interactions of unvulcanized natural rubber and nanosilica filler were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR)-Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) spectroscopy. The relationship between mechanical properties and rubber-filler interaction was discussed.

  14. Development of Improved Rubber Compounds for Use in Weapon Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-08-01

    temperature properties, oil resistance or resistance to aging were noted for the Japanese elastomers. Rubber For Use In Liquid Propellants Results of a...gun systems. However. EPDM . Hydrln. Butyl EPRVxton an3 Nitroso rubbers were indicated as likely choices. Vulc.nlzates based on the last three of... rubber already in use. An EPDM vulcanizate, Nordel 1070, could be used in liquid propeliant gun systans in which hydrazine is used as an oxidizer

  15. Characterization of asphalt cements modified with crumbed rubber from discarded tires : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1994-11-01

    The potential legislative requirement for incorporation of scrap rubber into asphalt blends mandated a thorough evaluation of the influence of scrap rubber additives on the physical properties and aging characteristics of rubber/asphalt blends. Blend...

  16. Magnesium affects rubber biosynthesis and particle stability in Ficus elastica, Hevea brasiliensis and Parthenium argentatum

    Natural rubber biosynthesis occurs in laticifers of Ficus elastica and Hevea brasiliensis, and in parenchyma cells of Parthenium argentatum. Natural rubber is synthesized by rubber transferase using allylic pyrophosphates as initiators, isopentenyl pyrophosphate as monomeric substrate and magnesium ...

  17. Use of scrap tire rubber : state of the technology and best practices.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-02-01

    The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) has been using scrap tire rubber (called crumb : rubber modifier (CRM)) in asphalt pavements since the 1970s in chip seals and the 1980s in rubberized : asphalt concrete (RAC). The performance of...

  18. Asphalt concrete modified by rubber crumbs in transport construction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duhovny, G. S.; Karpenko, AV

    2018-03-01

    High-temperature and low-temperature characteristics of the rubber-bitumen binder and rubber asphalt concrete based on it are researched. The determination method of binder’s low-temperature characteristics is offered. The estimation of binder’s and pavement’s stability against technological and operational aging is evaluated. Estimation of environmental and economic aspects of using rubber crumbs is made. The possibility of using rubber crumbs as modifier of organic binder for production of asphalt concrete on its base is justified.

  19. Amphiphilic semi-interpenetrating polymer networks using pulverized rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahidi, Nima

    Scrap rubber materials provide a significant challenge to either reuse or safe disposal. Every year, millions of tires are discarded to landfills in the United States, consuming a staggering amount of land space, creating a high risk for large fires, breeding mosquitoes that spread diseases, and wasting the planet's natural resources. This situation cannot be sustained. The challenge of reusing scrap rubber materials is mainly due to the crosslinked structure of vulcanized rubber that prevent them from melting and further processing for reuse. The most feasible recycling approach is believed to be a process in which the vulcanized rubber is first pulverized into a fine powder and then incorporated into new products. The production of fine rubber particles is generally accomplished through the use of a cryogenic process that is costly. Therefore, development of a cost effective technology that utilizes a large quantity of the scrap rubber materials to produce high value added materials is an essential element in maintaining a sustainable solution to rubber recycling. In this research, a cost effective pulverization process, solid state shear extrusion (SSSE), was modified and used for continuous pulverization of the rubber into fine particles. In the modified SSSE process, pulverization takes place at high compressive shear forces and a controlled temperature. Furthermore, an innovative particle modification process was developed to enhance the chemical structure and surface properties of the rubber particles for manufacturing of high value added products. Modification of rubber particles was accomplished through the polymerization of a hydrophilic monomer mixture within the intermolecular structure of the hydrophobic rubber particles. The resulting composite particles are considered as amphiphilic particulate phase semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (PPSIPNs). The modified rubber particles are water dispersible and suitable for use in a variety of aqueous media

  20. Characterization of some selected vulcanized and raw silicon rubber materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasikala, A.; Kala, A.

    2017-06-01

    Silicone Rubber is a high need of importance of Medical devices, Implants, Aviation and Aerospace wiring applications. Silicone rubbers are widely used in industry, and there are in multiple formulations. A raw and vulcanized silicone rubber Chemical and Physical structures of particles was confirmed and mechanical strength has been analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy. Thermal properties studied from Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analysis. Activation energy of the rubber materials were calculated using Broido method, Piloyon-Novikova relation and coats-Red fern methods.

  1. Biodiesel production methods of rubber seed oil: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulfah, M.; Mulyazmi; Burmawi; Praputri, E.; Sundari, E.; Firdaus

    2018-03-01

    The utilization of rubber seed as raw material of biodiesel production is seen highly potential in Indonesia. The availability of rubber seeds in Indonesia is estimated about 5 million tons per annum, which can yield rubber seed oil about 2 million tons per year. Due to the demand of edible oils as a food source is tremendous and the edible oil feedstock costs are far expensive to be used as fuel, production of biodiesel from non-edible oils such as rubber seed is an effective way to overcome all the associated problems with edible oils. Various methods for producing biodiesel from rubber seed oil have been reported. This paper introduces an optimum condition of biodiesel production methods from rubber seed oil. This article was written to be a reference in the selection of methods and the further development of biodiesel production from rubber seed oil. Biodiesel production methods for rubber seed oils has been developed by means of homogeneous catalysts, heterogeneous catalysts, supercritical method, ultrasound, in-situ and enzymatic processes. Production of biodiesel from rubber seed oil using clinker loaded sodium methoxide as catalyst is very interesting to be studied and developed further.

  2. Coupled Thermo-Mechanical Analyses of Dynamically Loaded Rubber Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Arthur R.; Chen, Tzi-Kang

    2000-01-01

    A procedure that models coupled thermo-mechanical deformations of viscoelastic rubber cylinders by employing the ABAQUS finite element code is described. Computational simulations of hysteretic heating are presented for several tall and short rubber cylinders both with and without a steel disk at their centers. The cylinders are compressed axially and are then cyclically loaded about the compressed state. The non-uniform hysteretic heating of the rubber cylinders containing a steel disk is presented. The analyses performed suggest that the coupling procedure should be considered for further development as a design tool for rubber degradation studies.

  3. The comparison of properties and cost of material use of natural rubber and sand in manufacturing cement mortar for construction sub-base layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, R.; Nemmang, M. S.; Hazurina, Nor; Shahidan, S.; Khairul Tajuddin Jemain, Raden; Abdullah, M. E.; Hassan, M. F.

    2017-11-01

    The main issue related to this research was to examine the feasibility of natural rubber SMR 20 in the manufacturing of cement mortar for sub-base layer construction. Subbase layers have certain functions that need to be fulfilled in order to assure strong and adequate permeability of pavement performance. In a pavement structure, sub-base is below the base and serves as the foundation for the overall pavement structure, transmitting traffic loads to the sub-grade and providing drainage. Based on this research, the natural rubber, SMR 20 was with the percentages of 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% to mix with sand in the manufacture of the cement mortar. This research describes some of the properties and cost of the materials for the natural rubber and sand in cement mortar manufacturing by laboratory testing. Effects of the natural rubber replacement on mechanical properties of mortar were investigated by laboratory testing such as compressive strength test and density. This study obtained the 5% of natural rubber replaced in sand can achieved the strength of normal mortar after 7 days and 28 days. The strength of cement mortar depends on the density of cement mortar. According to the cost of both materials, sand shows the lower cost in material for the cement mortar manufacturing than the uses of natural rubber. Thus, the convectional cement mortar which used sand need lower cost than the modified rubber cement mortar and the most economical to apply in industrial. As conclusion, the percentage of 5% natural rubber in the cement mortar would have the same with normal cement mortar in terms of the strength. However, in terms of the cost of the construction, it will increase higher than cost of normal cement mortar production. So that, this modified cement mortar is not economical for the road sub-base construction.

  4. Investigations on the properties of NH4HCO3 filled natural rubber based magnetorheological elastomers (MREs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Lili; Wang, Guoping; Wang, Wenju; Shi, Guanxin; Yang, Fufeng; Rui, Xiaoting

    2018-04-01

    Various anisotropic magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) were synthesized using the rubber mixing technique. Magnetic and temperature distributions of the experimental equipment and test instruments were analyzed by the ANSYS. NH4HCO3 was filled in the natural rubber matrix to modify properties of MREs. Microstructures and compositions of samples were studied by the scanning electron microscope (SEM), the energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) analysis and x-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Via vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and density functional theory (DFT) method, the magnetic property of carbonyl iron (CI) was illuminated. The shear storage modulus and MR effect of MREs were investigated by the dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA). It indicated that distributions of magnetic and temperature in the experimental and testing devices were uniform. Before vulcanization, CI particles were uniformly distributed in the matrix, while a CI chain structure was formed and embedded in the matrix after the vulcanization process. Moderate addition of NH4HCO3 accelerated the rubber vulcanization and enhanced the MR effect.

  5. Microflora on explanted silicone rubber voice prostheses: taxonomy, hydrophobicity and electrophoretic mobility.

    PubMed

    Neu, T R; Verkerke, G J; Herrmann, I F; Schutte, H K; Van der Mei, H C; Busscher, H J

    1994-05-01

    Silicone rubber voice prostheses are implants which are inserted in a non-sterile environment and therefore become quickly colonized by micro-organisms. The micro-organisms exist on the medical grade silicone rubber as mixed biofilms of bacteria and yeasts. A total of 79 bacterial and 39 yeast strains were isolated from these biofilms by soft ultrasonic treatment. Gram-positive/catalase-negative and Gram-positive/catalase-positive cocci represented the dominant bacterial strains. The yeasts were mainly Candida species. Further characterization of cell surface properties such as hydrophobicity by microbial adhesion to hexadecane and electrophoretic mobility showed a distinct difference when the bacterial strains were compared with the yeasts. The bacterial hydrophobicities ranged from 0 to 100% adhesion to hexadecane, whereas the yeast strains, especially the Candida albicans strains, all had markedly hydrophilic cell surfaces. A comparison of the electrophoretic mobilities showed also differences between bacteria and yeast. The values for the bacteria were found to be between -2.5 to -0.5 (10(-8) m2 V-1 s-1), whereas for the yeasts electrophoretic mobilities were more positive. Based on the adhesive properties of the isolated micro-organisms, strategies can now be developed to modify the properties of the silicone rubber to reduce biofilm formation on such prostheses.

  6. Study of tribological properties of natural rubber containing carbon nanotubes and carbon black as hybrid fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harea, Evghenii; Stoček, Radek; Storozhuk, Liudmyla; Sementsov, Yurii; Kartel, Nikolai

    2018-04-01

    Dry friction and wear properties of natural rubber (NR), containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and carbon black (CB), were investigated. Natural rubber (NR)-based composites containing all common additives and curatives, and a fixed amount (30 phr—parts per 100 rubber by weight) of hybrid fillers (MWCNT x + CB30-x ) were prepared by simple mixing procedure and tested. The main goal was to study the behaviours of composites at different tribological testing conditions, such as friction speed and normal load. It was found that with an increase of concentration of MWCNT from x = 0 phr to x = 5 phr in studied composites, there was a decrease in the coefficient of friction (COF) with no significant change in wear in the framework of each used combination of testing parameters. Generally, higher friction speed at certain normal force led to the increase of COF of all the samples and wear reflected deliberate value fluctuation. Also, it was established that considerable growth of wear and unexpected reducing of friction coefficient ensued from increasing of applied load for every fixed sliding speed.

  7. Surface characterisation of ethylene propylene diene rubber upon exposure to aqueous acidic solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Susanta; Ghanbari-Siahkali, Afshin; Kingshott, Peter; Hvilsted, Søren; Almdal, Kristoffer

    2006-07-01

    Two types of pure ethylene propylene diene rubbers were exposed to two different acids for varying period of time. Surface characterisation was carried out using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Two EPDM rubbers selected for this study were comparable in co-monomer compositions but significantly different with respect to molar mass and the presence of long chain branching. Both rubbers contained 5-ethylidene-2-norbornene (ENB) as diene. Solution cast films of pure EPDM samples were exposed in two different acidic solutions, viz. chromosulphuric (Cr (VI)/H 2SO 4) and sulphuric acid (H 2SO 4) (20%, v/v) at ambient temperature from 1 to 12 weeks. XPS analysis indicated that several oxygenated species were formed on the surface of both rubbers after exposure. It was postulated from the XPS analyses that both aqueous acidic solutions attacked the olefinic double bonds (C dbnd C) of ENB. Furthermore, 20% Cr (VI)/H 2SO 4 also attacked the allylic carbon-hydrogen (C sbnd H) bonds of ENB resulting in more oxygenated species on the surface compared to 20% H 2SO 4 under identical conditions. Cr (VI) in the 20% Cr (VI)/H 2SO 4 was found to play an important role in alteration of surface chemistry. Studies using a model system consisting of EPDM mixed with Cr (VI) and Cr (III) salts revealed that the change of oxidation state from Cr (VI) to Cr (III) as a consequence of direct involvement of Cr (VI) in the chemical alteration of EPDM surfaces. Interestingly, the presence of long chain branching and molar mass did not significantly influence the chemical processes owing to the acid treatment.

  8. A study of amino acid modifiers in guayule natural rubber

    Natural rubber from the Hevea tree is a critical agricultural material vital to United States industry, medicine, and defense, yet the country is dependent on imports to meet domestic needs. Guayule, a desert shrub indigenous to the US, is under development as an alternative source of natural rubber...

  9. Blends of guayule natural rubber latex with commercial latex polymers

    Guayule (Parthenium argentatum) is a woody desert shrub that produces natural rubber, cis-1,4 polyisoprene, by biosynthesis. It is currently cultivated in the southwestern United States as a source of latex and rubber for commercial development. Guayule latex is similar to Hevea latex in polymer mo...

  10. Guayule resin detection and influence on guayule rubber

    Guayule (Parthenium argentatum) is a natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene) producing crop, native to North America. Guayule also produces organic resins, complex mixtures of terpenes, triglycerides, guayulins, triterpenoids and other components. During natural rubber extraction, guayule resins can b...

  11. 30 CFR 77.606-1 - Rubber gloves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.606-1 Rubber gloves; minimum requirements. (a) Rubber gloves (lineman's gloves) worn while handling high-voltage trailing cables shall be rated at least 20,000 volts and shall... gloves (wireman's gloves) worn while handling trailing cables energized by 660 to 1,000 volts shall be...

  12. Biotechnological possibilities for waste tyre-rubber treatment.

    PubMed

    Holst, O; Stenberg, B; Christiansson, M

    1998-01-01

    Every year large amounts of spent rubber material, mainly from rubber tyres, are discarded. Of the annual total global production of rubber material, which amounts to 16-17 million tonnes, approximately 65% is used for the production of tyres. About 250 millions spent car tyres are generated yearly in USA only. This huge amount of waste rubber material is an environmental problem of great concern. Various ways to remediate the problem have been proposed. Among these are road fillings and combustion in kilns. Spent tyres, however, comprise valuable material that could be recycled if a proper technique can be developed. One way of recycling old tyres is to blend ground spent rubber with virgin material followed by vulcanization. The main obstacle to this recycling is bad adhesion between the crumb and matrix of virgin rubber material due to little formation of interfacial sulphur crosslinks. Micro-organisms able to break sulphur-sulphur and sulphur-carbon bonds can be used to devulcanize waste rubber in order to make polymer chains on the surface more flexible and facilitate increased binding upon vulcanization. Several species belonging to both Bacteria and Archaea have this ability. Mainly sulphur oxidizing species, such as different species of the genus Thiobacillus and thermoacidophiles of the order of Sulfolobales, have been studied in this context. The present paper will give a background to the problem and an overview of the biotechnological possibilities for solutions of waste rubber as an environmental problem, focusing on microbial desulphurization.

  13. Attitudes of Operative Dentistry Faculty toward Rubber Dam Isolation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brackett, William W.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Dental faculty responses (N=332) to a survey concerning use of rubber dams for excluding fluids from the working field in operative dentistry procedures indicated students receive adequate instruction in rubber dam use and are proficient at graduation, though motivating students to its use is problematic and patient resistance a factor. (MSE)

  14. Leaching of nitroso rubber material removes uncured polymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bratfisch, W. A.; Gonzalez, R.

    1972-01-01

    New leaching process removes uncured polymer from nitroso rubber, elastomer used in presence of nitrogen tetroxide. Uncured portion is removed by controlled soaking of polymer slab in Freon TF. Leaching with Freon TF prevents nitroso rubber from adhering to adjoining surfaces and limiting its usefulness in either static or dynamic applications.

  15. Natural Rubber Quantification in Sunflower Using an Automated Solvent Extractor

    Leaves of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) produce a small amount of low molecular weight natural rubber (NR) and this species has potential as a rubber-producing crop plant. Quantifying NR in plant tissue has traditionally been accomplished using Soxhlet or gravimetric methodologies. Accelerated solve...

  16. Rubber Flooring Impact on Production and Herdlife of Dairy Cows

    Use of rubber flooring in dairies has become popular because of perceived cow comfort. The overall objective of this longitudinal study was to evaluate production, reproduction, and retention of first and second lactations of cows assigned to either rubber (RUB) or concrete (CON) flooring at the fe...

  17. Reinforcement of latex rubber by the incorporation of amphiphilic particles

    Latex rubbers are fabricated from latex suspensions. During the fabrication process, latex particles are bound together while water is removed from the suspension. This report shows that the mechanical properties of latex rubbers can be improved by incorporating a small amount of amphiphilic submicr...

  18. Charcoal byproducts as potential styrene-butadiene rubber composte filler

    Carbon black, a byproduct of the petroleum industry, is the world's most predominant filler for rubber composites. In this study, various renewable charcoals in the form of pyrolyzed agricultural byproducts were evaluted as potential carbon-based filler for rubber composites made with carboxylated s...

  19. Evaluating Waste Charcoal as Potential Rubber Composite Filler

    Carbon black, a byproduct of the petroleum industry, is the world's most predominant filler for rubber composites. In this study, charcoal in the form of pyrolyzed agricultural products was evaluated as potential carbon-based filler for rubber composites made with carboxylated styrene-butadiene lat...

  20. Microflora associated with the internal surfaces of rubber and stainless steel milk transfer pipeline.

    PubMed

    Lewis, S J; Gilmour, A

    1987-04-01

    Sterile sections of rubber and stainless steel milk transfer pipeline were inserted sequentially into a milking installation and soiled with fresh raw milk over a period of 5 d. The resultant adherent microbial population was removed and the generic composition of mesophilic and psychotropic types was determined. In all cases Acinetobacter spp. were found to predominate (59.5-75.6%). The generic composition of the raw milk used to soil the milking unit (with inserted pipe section) was determined once during each 5-d soiling period. In general the milk was found to contain a mixed flora in which Gram-positive organisms predominated.

  1. Processing and Properties of Fire Resistant EPDM Rubber-Based Ceramifiable Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anyszka, Rafał; Bieliński, Dariusz M.; Pędzich, Zbigniew; Zarzecka-Napierała, Magdalena; Imiela, Mateusz; Rybiński, Przemysław

    2017-10-01

    Low softening point temperature glassy frit, reinforcing silica, wollastonite and dicumyl peroxide were incorporated into ethylene-propylene-diene (EPDM) rubber matrix in different amounts in order to obtain ceramifiable composites. Kinetics of vulcanization of the mixes was measured. Mechanical properties, micromorphology, thermal properties and combustibility of the vulcanizates were studied as well as compression strength of the ceramic residue obtained after heat treatment. Studies show that optimal amount of glassy frit from the point of view of ceramification effectiveness in dispersed mineral phase is 40 % wt.

  2. Foam-rubber stents for skin grafts.

    PubMed

    Larson, P O

    1990-09-01

    A variety of stents are used to immobilize skin grafts and to hold them firmly to the recipient site. Tie-down stents, the most common type, are constructed from bulky, sterile dressing and are overtied with suture material. These stents are often cumbersome to apply. As an alternative, stents made from foam-rubber pads (Reston, 3M Company, St. Paul, MN) were stapled over skin grafts. These stents could be applied quickly, and they maintain continuous, uniform pressure on the immobilized grafts.

  3. Characterization of Hexsyn, a polyolefin rubber.

    PubMed

    McMillin, C R

    1987-07-01

    Hexsyn is the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company tradename for a polyolefin rubber synthesized from 1-hexene with 3-5% methylhexadiene as the source of residual double bonds for vulcanization. Under license from Goodyear, this same polymer has been manufactured by Lord Corporation for the hinge portion of finger joint prostheses using the tradename Bion. This rubber is currently licensed to the University of Akron and to the Cleveland Clinic Foundation for use in biomedical applications, and is being used primarily for biocompatible and highly fatigue resistant rubber components in ventricular assist and artificial heart systems. Results are presented from the physical, mechanical, and biological characterization of Hexsyn. Procedures are described for the synthesis, compounding, and post-molding extraction for Hexsyn. The physical testing of Hexsyn reported includes determinations of its density at 23 and 37 degrees C, initial hardness and hardness after aging in oxygen, blood, pseudoextracellular fluid and polyethylene glycol 600, typical molecular weights determined by gel permeation chromatography/low angle laser light scattering and intrinsic viscosity, thermal analyses by differential scanning calorimetry of Hexsyn gum, and vulcanized Hexsyn after exposure to blood and blood/fatigue conditions. Also reported are results of differential thermal analyses, thermomechanical analyses of virgin and annealed samples, and thermogravimetric analyses conducted in helium and in air. Dynamic mechanical analyses of Hexsyn include Clash-Berg and Rheovibron tests. Swelling was conducted to determine lot-to-lot and sheet-to-sheet variation for quality control and also a number of solvents were used so that the polymer-solvent interaction parameters could be determined. The permeability of Hexsyn to water, water vapor, and a variety of gases is reported. The permeability by contact angle measurements, refractive index, residual solvent analyses, migration of blood components

  4. The Effect of Crumb Rubber Particle Size to the Optimum Binder Content for Open Graded Friction Course

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohd Rasdan; Katman, Herda Yati; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Koting, Suhana; Mashaan, Nuha S.

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to investigate the relations of rubber size, rubber content, and binder content in determination of optimum binder content for open graded friction course (OGFC). Mix gradation type B as specified in Specification for Porous Asphalt produced by the Road Engineering Association of Malaysia (REAM) was used in this study. Marshall specimens were prepared with four different sizes of rubber, namely, 20 mesh size [0.841 mm], 40 mesh [0.42 mm], 80 mesh [0.177 mm], and 100 mesh [0.149 mm] with different concentrations of rubberised bitumen (4%, 8%, and 12%) and different percentages of binder content (4%–7%). The appropriate optimum binder content is then selected according to the results of the air voids, binder draindown, and abrasion loss test. Test results found that crumb rubber particle size can affect the optimum binder content for OGFC. PMID:24574875

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging properties of multimodality anthropomorphic silicone rubber phantoms for validating surgical robots and image guided therapy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Carling L.; Looi, Thomas; Drake, James; Kim, Peter C. W.

    2012-02-01

    The development of image guided robotic and mechatronic platforms for medical applications requires a phantom model for initial testing. Finding an appropriate phantom becomes challenging when the targeted patient population is pediatrics, particularly infants, neonates or fetuses. Our group is currently developing a pediatricsized surgical robot that operates under fused MRI and laparoscopic video guidance. To support this work, we describe a method for designing and manufacturing silicone rubber organ phantoms for the purpose of testing the robotics and the image fusion system. A surface model of the organ is obtained and converted into a mold that is then rapid-prototyped using a 3D printer. The mold is filled with a solution containing a particular ratio of silicone rubber to slacker additive to achieve a specific set of tactile and imaging characteristics in the phantom. The expected MRI relaxation times of different ratios of silicone rubber to slacker additive are experimentally quantified so that the imaging properties of the phantom can be matched to those of the organ that it represents. Samples of silicone rubber and slacker additive mixed in ratios ranging from 1:0 to 1:1.5 were prepared and scanned using inversion recovery and spin echo sequences with varying TI and TE, respectively, in order to fit curves to calculate the expected T1 and T2 relaxation times of each ratio. A set of infantsized abdominal organs was prepared, which were successfully sutured by the robot and imaged using different modalities.

  6. 3D silicone rubber interfaces for individually tailored implants.

    PubMed

    Stieghorst, Jan; Bondarenkova, Alexandra; Burblies, Niklas; Behrens, Peter; Doll, Theodor

    2015-01-01

    For the fabrication of customized silicone rubber based implants, e.g. cochlear implants or electrocortical grid arrays, it is required to develop high speed curing systems, which vulcanize the silicone rubber before it runs due to a heating related viscosity drop. Therefore, we present an infrared radiation based cross-linking approach for the 3D-printing of silicone rubber bulk and carbon nanotube based silicone rubber electrode materials. Composite materials were cured in less than 120 s and material interfaces were evaluated with scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, curing related changes in the mechanical and cell-biological behaviour were investigated with tensile and WST-1 cell biocompatibility tests. The infrared absorption properties of the silicone rubber materials were analysed with fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in transmission and attenuated total reflection mode. The heat flux was calculated by using the FTIR data, emissivity data from the infrared source manufacturer and the geometrical view factor of the system.

  7. New type of liquid rubber and compositions based on it.

    PubMed

    Semikolenov, S V; Nartova, A V; Voronchikhin, V D; Dubkov, K A

    2014-11-01

    The new method for producing the functionalized polymers and oligomers containing carbonyl C=O groups is developed. The method is based on the noncatalytic oxidation of unsaturated rubbers by nitrous oxide (N2O) at 180-230 °С. The proposed method allows obtaining the new type of functionalized rubbers-liquid unsaturated polyketones with regulated molecular weight and concentration of C=O groups. The influence of the liquid polyketone addition on properties of rubber-based composites is investigated. The study indicates good prospects of using the liquid polyketones for the improvement of properties and operating characteristics of the various types of rubbers and the rubber-cord systems.

  8. Method for co-processing waste rubber and carbonaceous material

    DOEpatents

    Farcasiu, Malvina; Smith, Charlene M.

    1991-01-01

    In a process for the co-processing of waste rubber and carbonaceous material to form a useful liquid product, the rubber and the carbonaceous material are combined and heated to the depolymerization temperature of the rubber in the presence of a source of hydrogen. The depolymerized rubber acts as a liquefying solvent for the carbonaceous material while a beneficial catalytic effect is obtained from the carbon black released on depolymerization the reinforced rubber. The reaction is carried out at liquefaction conditions of 380.degree.-600.degree. C. and 70-280 atmospheres hydrogen pressure. The resulting liquid is separated from residual solids and further processed such as by distillation or solvent extraction to provide a carbonaceous liquid useful for fuels and other purposes.

  9. Crumb rubber filtration: a potential technology for ballast water treatment.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhijian; Butkus, Michael A; Xie, Yuefeng F

    2006-05-01

    The removal of turbidity, particles, phytoplankton and zooplankton in water by crumb rubber filtration was investigated. A substantial reduction was achieved. Of the three variables, filter depth, media size and filtration rate, media size had the most significant influence. Smaller media size favored higher removal efficiency of all targeted matter. There was no apparent relationship between removal efficiency and filter depth. Higher filtration rate resulted in lower removal efficiency and higher head loss. Compared with conventional granular media filters, crumb rubber filters required less backwash, and developed lower head loss. Consequently crumb rubber filters could be run for a longer time or allow a higher filtration rate. The results also indicate that the crumb rubber filtration alone did not achieve the target removal of invasive species. However, crumb rubber filtration could potentially be used as a primary treatment technology to enhance the efficiency of a secondary treatment process (e.g., disinfection).

  10. Pilot study of contact sensitization to rubber allergens and bisphenol A amongst dental students.

    PubMed

    Lyapina, Maya Grigorievna; Krasteva, Assya; Dencheva, Maria; Tzekova, Mariana; Nikolov, Georgy; Yaneva-Deliverska, Mariela; Kisselova-Yaneva, Angelina

    2017-05-08

    The aim of this study has been to evaluate the rate of contact sensitization to some rubber allergens and to bisphenol A (BPA) amongst students of dental medicine and dental patients. A total of 50 participants were included in the study: 40 students of dental medicine exposed to the studied rubber allergens and BPA-based dental materials during the course of their education; 10 dental patients without occupational exposure to the latter substances served as a control group. All of them were patch-tested with the studied rubber allergens and bisphenol A. Highest was the sensitizing action of carba mix, followed by benzoyl peroxide and mercapto mix. The sensitization rate for carba mix was significantly higher for dental students as well as for the whole studied population, if compared to the one for thiuram mix (Chi2 = 12.9, p < 0.001; Chi2 = 13.9, p < 0.001), bisphenol A (Chi2 = 8.9, p < 0.001; Chi2 = 11.9, p < 0.001), toluenesulfonamide formaldehyde resin (Chi2 = 10.7, p < 0.001; Chi2 = 13.9, p < 0.001) and benzoyl peroxide (Chi2 = 4.7, p = 0.03; Chi2 = 5.8, p = 0.016), and for dental patients, if compared to the one for mercapto mix (Chi2 = 7.07, p = 0.008). Concomitant positive skin patch-test reactions to carba mix and to benzoyl peroxide, and to all the studied allergens were established. Carba mix could be outlined as a sensitizer of paramount importance for dental students as well as for dental patients. Benzoyl peroxide was the second ranked sensitizer for dental students. Positive skin patch-test reactions to bisphenol A and toluenesulfonamide formaldehyde resin were established only among the group of dental students. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(3):397-405. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  11. Radiation graft modification of EPDM rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katbab, A. A.; Burford, R. P.; Garnett, J. L.

    N-Vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP), 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) and acrylamide (AAm) have been grafted to the surface of rubber vulcanizates based on ethylene-propylene-terpolymer (EPDM) using the simultaneous radiation method to alter surface properties such as wettability and therefore biocompatibility. The effect of monomer concentration, solvent and EPDM structural factors on the grafting behavior have been investigated. The inhibitory effect upon homopolymerization of various salts has also been evaluated for the three monomers. NVP and HEMA could be grafted onto EPDM rubber in the presence of aqueous solutions of cupric nitrate at 0.005 M and 1.0 M concentrations respectively. Aqueous solutions of Mohr's salt (ammonium ferrous sulphate) at 0.05 M not only suppressed the homopolymerization of AAm but also increased grafting yield. The percentage grafting also increased with increasing AAm concentration. A mechanism has been proposed to explain the behaviour of these monomers. The inclusion of multifunctional acrylates in additive amounts (1.0 vol%) enhanced the graft degree. Modified samples were able to be efficiently stained, allowing the depth of the graft copolymerization to be determined by light microscopy. Water was found to have an accelerating effect on the polymerization of these monomers, but methanol prevented their polymerization completely. The effect of EPDM structural factors upon degree of grafting was found to vary, depending upon the monomer type.

  12. Synthesis biolubricant from rubber seed oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Nguyen Tran Dong; Tuyen, Dang Thi Hong; Viet, Tran Tan

    2017-09-01

    The objective was biolubricant preparation from rubber seed oil (RSO) using polymerization reactor with/without catalyst in batch reactor. Before become reactant in polymerization reaction, a non-edible rubber seed oil was converted into methyl ester by esterification/tranesterification reaction with methanol and acid/base catalyst. The polymerization reaction parameters investigated were reaction time, temperature and weight ratio (catalyst with feed), and their effect on the bio lubricant formation. The result show significant conversion of methyl ester to bio lubricant in the temperature reaction of 160°C, reaction time of 2h min and ratio of super acid catalyst (tetrafluoroboric acid-sHBF4) of 3 %w/w. The resulting products were confirmed by GC-MS, FTIR spectroscopy and also analyzed for the viscosity. The best viscosity value of RSOFAME polymer was 110.6 cSt when the condition polymerization reaction were 160 °C, reaction time 3h, 6 wt% mass ratio of oil:catalyst.

  13. Chronic diseases in the rubber industry

    PubMed Central

    Tyroler, H. A.; Andjelkovic, Dragana; Harris, Robert; Lednar, Wayne; McMichael, Anthony; Symons, Mike

    1976-01-01

    An overview is presented of epidemiologic studies of chronic diseases in the rubber industry. Analyses of the mortality experience during the period 1964-1972 of workers age 40–64 and retirees age 65–84 of two large rubber and tire manufacturing companies consistently disclosed excesses of deaths attributed to leukemia and lymphosarcoma, and for cancers of the stomach, large intestine, and prostate. The relation of site-specific malignancies to work histories and grouped occupational titles as surrogate measures of work-related exposures to possible carcinogens is described. There was no evidence of company-wide, sizable, consistent excess for the other major chronic diseases causes of death. Although a total cohort deficit in the mortality rate for lung cancer was found, there was a history of increased frequency of exposure to certain work areas among lung cancer decedents. Morbidity studies, including analysis of disability retirements, and ad hoc questionnaire and health testing surveys, disclosed excesses of chronic pulmonary diseases. There was evidence of an interactive effect in the association of work and smoking histories with pulmonary disability retirement. PMID:1026398

  14. Performance characteristics of rubber seed oil biodiesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, P.; Qin, M.; Wu, J.; Chen, B. S.

    2018-01-01

    The lubricity, ignition quality, oxidative stability, low temperature flow property and elastomeric compatibility of rubber seed oil biodiesel(RSM) were evaluated and compared with conventional petro-diesel. The results indicated that RSM and its blends with petro-diesel possessed outstanding lubricity manifested by sharp decrease in wear scar diameters in the high-frequency reciprocating rig(HFRR) testing. They also provided acceptable flammability and cold flow property,although the cetane numbers (CN) and cold filter plugging points(CFPP) of biodiesel blends slightly decreased with increasing contents of petro-diesel. However, RSM proved to be very susceptible to oxidation at elevated temperatures during prolonged oxidation durations, characterized by increased peroxide values, viscosity, acid values and isooctane insolubles. The oxidation stability of RSM could be significantly improved by antioxidants such as BD100, a phenol antioxidant produced by Ciba corporation. Furthermore, RSM provided poor compatibility with some elastomeric rubbers such as polyacrylate, nitrile-butadiene and chloroprene, but was well compatible with the hydrogenated nitrile-butadiene elastomer.

  15. Rubber Hand Illusion Affects Joint Angle Perception

    PubMed Central

    Butz, Martin V.; Kutter, Esther F.; Lorenz, Corinna

    2014-01-01

    The Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI) is a well-established experimental paradigm. It has been shown that the RHI can affect hand location estimates, arm and hand motion towards goals, the subjective visual appearance of the own hand, and the feeling of body ownership. Several studies also indicate that the peri-hand space is partially remapped around the rubber hand. Nonetheless, the question remains if and to what extent the RHI can affect the perception of other body parts. In this study we ask if the RHI can alter the perception of the elbow joint. Participants had to adjust an angular representation on a screen according to their proprioceptive perception of their own elbow joint angle. The results show that the RHI does indeed alter the elbow joint estimation, increasing the agreement with the position and orientation of the artificial hand. Thus, the results show that the brain does not only adjust the perception of the hand in body-relative space, but it also modifies the perception of other body parts. In conclusion, we propose that the brain continuously strives to maintain a consistent internal body image and that this image can be influenced by the available sensory information sources, which are mediated and mapped onto each other by means of a postural, kinematic body model. PMID:24671172

  16. Multiscale physics of rubber-ice friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuononen, Ari J.; Kriston, András; Persson, Bo

    2016-09-01

    Ice friction plays an important role in many engineering applications, e.g., tires on icy roads, ice breaker ship motion, or winter sports equipment. Although numerous experiments have already been performed to understand the effect of various conditions on ice friction, to reveal the fundamental frictional mechanisms is still a challenging task. This study uses in situ white light interferometry to analyze ice surface topography during linear friction testing with a rubber slider. The method helps to provide an understanding of the link between changes in the surface topography and the friction coefficient through direct visualization and quantitative measurement of the morphologies of the ice surface at different length scales. Besides surface polishing and scratching, it was found that ice melts locally even after one sweep showing the refrozen droplets. A multi-scale rubber friction theory was also applied to study the contribution of viscoelasticity to the total friction coefficient, which showed a significant level with respect to the smoothness of the ice; furthermore, the theory also confirmed the possibility of local ice melting.

  17. Hot air vulcanization of rubber profiles

    SciT

    Gerlach, J.

    1995-07-01

    Elastomer profiles are deployed in quantity by the automobile industry as seals and wateproofing in coachwork. The high standards demanded by the industry; improvement in weather prediction, noise reduction, restriction of tolerances, together with powerful demand for EPDM force the rubber processing industry into development, particularly of elastomers. Complex proofing systems must also be achieved with extremely complicated profile forms. All too often such profiles have an extremely large surface together with a low cross-section density. They frequently consist of two or three rubber compounds and are steel reinforced. Sometimes they are flocked and coated with a low friction finish.more » Such high-tech seals require an adjustment of the vulcanization method. The consistent trend in the nineties towards lower quantities of elastomer per sealing unit and the dielectric factor, especially with EPDM, has brought an old fashioned vulcanization method once more to the fore, a method developed over the past years to an extremely high standard, namely the hot-air method. This paper describes various vulcanization and curing methods and their relative merits and disadvantages, the Gerlach hot-air concept, the hot air installation concept, and energy saving and efficiency afforded by this technique. 4 figs.« less

  18. Reinforcement effect of soy protein nanoparticles in amine-modified natural rubber latex

    Mechanical properties of natural rubber reinforced with soy protein nanoparticles are useful for various rubber applications. However, the properties is further improved by improving interactions between soy protein and rubber. A novel method is used to modify particle surface of natural rubber late...

  19. Particle reinforced composites from acrylamide modified blend of styrene-butadiene and natural rubber

    Blends of styrene-butadiene rubber and natural rubber that provide balanced properties were modified with acrylamide and reinforced with soy protein particles. The rubber composites show improved mechanical properties. Both modified rubber and composites showed a faster curing rate. The crosslinking...

  20. 40 CFR 428.20 - Applicability; description of the emulsion crumb rubber subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... emulsion crumb rubber subcategory. 428.20 Section 428.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Emulsion Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.20 Applicability; description of the emulsion crumb rubber subcategory...

  1. 40 CFR 428.20 - Applicability; description of the emulsion crumb rubber subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... emulsion crumb rubber subcategory. 428.20 Section 428.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS RUBBER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Emulsion Crumb Rubber Subcategory § 428.20 Applicability; description of the emulsion crumb rubber subcategory...

  2. 21 CFR 177.1480 - Nitrile rubber modified acrylonitrile-methyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Nitrile rubber modified acrylonitrile-methyl... Nitrile rubber modified acrylonitrile-methyl acrylate copolymers. Nitrile rubber modified acrylonitrile... rubber modified acrylonitrile-methyl acrylate copolymers consist of basic copolymers produced by the...

  3. Thermal behavior of crumb-rubber modified asphalt concrete mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epps, Amy Louise

    Thermal cracking is one of the primary forms of distress in asphalt concrete pavements, resulting from either a single drop in temperature to an extreme low or from multiple temperature cycles above the fracture temperature of the asphalt-aggregate mixture. The first mode described is low temperature cracking; the second is thermal fatigue. The addition of crumb-rubber, manufactured from scrap tires, to the binder in asphalt concrete pavements has been suggested to minimize both types of thermal cracking. Four experiments were designed and completed to evaluate the thermal behavior of crumb-rubber modified (CRM) asphalt-aggregate mixtures. Modified and unmodified mixture response to thermal stresses was measured in four laboratory tests. The Thermal Stress Restrained Specimen Test (TSRST) and the Indirect Tensile Test (IDT) were used to compare mixture resistance to low temperature cracking. Modified mixtures showed improved performance, and cooling rate did not affect mixture resistance according to the statistical analysis. Therefore results from tests with faster rates can predict performance under slower field rates. In comparison, predicted fracture temperatures and stresses (IDT) were generally higher than measured values (TSRST). In addition, predicted fracture temperatures from binder test results demonstrated that binder testing alone is not sufficient to evaluate CRM mixtures. Thermal fatigue was explored in the third experiment using conventional load-induced fatigue tests with conditions selected to simulate daily temperature fluctuations. Test results indicated that thermal fatigue may contribute to transverse cracking in asphalt pavements. Both unmodified and modified mixtures had a finite capacity to withstand daily temperature fluctuations coupled with cold temperatures. Modified mixtures again exhibited improved performance. The fourth experiment examined fracture properties of modified and unmodified mixtures using a common fracture toughness test

  4. Comparative studies on crosslinked and uncrosslinked natural rubber biodegradation by Pseudomonas sp.

    PubMed

    Roy, Ram Vinod; Das, Mithu; Banerjee, Rintu; Bhowmick, Anil K

    2006-12-01

    A comparative study on biodegradation of di-cumyl peroxide (DCP) crosslinked and uncrosslinked natural rubber by Pseudomonas sp. was carried out. Decrease in organic carbon content along with the changes in tensile strength of the treated rubber, both DCP crosslinked and uncrosslinked natural rubber, indicated rubber hydrocarbon utilization by the Pseudomonas sp. A decrease in 60.88% MPa and 41.66% MPa was observed after five month's old treated uncrosslinked natural rubber and DCP crosslinked rubber, respectively. Biodegradation was more pronounced in natural uncrosslinked rubber, which was further confirmed by the formation of aldehydic compounds with decrease in CH2 stretching frequencies.

  5. Effect of superhydrophobicity on surface damage of silicone rubber under AC voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yufeng; Jin, Haiyun; Nie, Shichao; Tong, Cheng; Gao, Naikui

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the influence of superhydrophobicity on the surface damage of silicone rubber is studied. On a common silicone rubber surface, a droplet can become elongated, and arc discharge induced by the droplet can cause tracking on the silicone rubber surface. However, for a superhydrophobic silicone rubber surface, a droplet can leave the silicone rubber due to the low adhesion of the superhydrophobic surface. Accordingly, arc discharge caused by the droplet does not occur, and the surface of the silicone rubber is not affected. Results demonstrate that using a superhydrophobic surface has a significant effect on limiting the surface damage of silicone rubber.

  6. Improving rubber concrete by waste organic sulfur compounds.

    PubMed

    Chou, Liang-Hisng; Lin, Chun-Nan; Lu, Chun-Ku; Lee, Cheng-Haw; Lee, Maw-Tien

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the use of crumb tyres as additives to concrete was investigated. For some time, researchers have been studying the physical properties of concrete to determine why the inclusion of rubber particles causes the concrete to degrade. Several methods have been developed to improve the bonding between rubber particles and cement hydration products (C-S-H) with the hope of creating a product with an improvement in mechanical strength. In this study, the crumb tyres were treated with waste organic sulfur compounds from a petroleum refining factory in order to modify their surface properties. Organic sulfur compounds with amphiphilic properties can enhance the hydrophilic properties of the rubber and increase the intermolecular interaction forces between rubber and C-S-H. In the present study, a colloid probe of C-S-H was prepared to measure these intermolecular interaction forces by utilizing an atomic force microscope. Experimental results showed that rubber particles treated with waste organic sulfur compounds became more hydrophilic. In addition, the intermolecular interaction forces increased with the adsorption of waste organic sulfur compounds on the surface of the rubber particles. The compressive, tensile and flexural strengths of concrete samples that included rubber particles treated with organic sulfur compound also increased significantly.

  7. Preparation of vinyl acetate grafted natural rubber by irradiation method

    SciT

    Porntrairat, A.; Pattamaprom, C.

    Improvement in properties of natural rubber could be done by several methods. In this research, gamma radiation technique, which is simple, accurate, easy to control and clean, was applied to enhance the properties of natural rubber (NR) in latex state. The purpose of this research is to study the appropriate condition for preparing grafted natural rubber latex by using irradiation method. Vinyl acetate monomers (VAc) were grafted onto natural rubber latex (NR-g-PVAc) at 0-10 kGys by gamma radiation from Cobalt-60 source at room temperature. Physical properties of grafted natural rubber such as chloroform number, swelling ratio and gel content weremore » measured. The VAc content of NR-g-PVAc was investigated by titration and visualized by FTIR spectroscopy. The FTIR spectra of NR-g-PVAc prepared at 0-10 kGys showed characteristic peaks of the vinyl acetate confirming that VAc could be grafted onto natural rubber molecular chains effectively under appropriate irradiation conditions. From the result, radiation grafting was found to be a useful technique for grafting of vinyl acetate onto natural rubber.« less

  8. Rubber friction: The contribution from the area of real contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, A.; Miyashita, N.; Espallargas, N.; Persson, B. N. J.

    2018-06-01

    There are two contributions to the friction force when a rubber block is sliding on a hard and rough substrate surface, namely, a contribution Fad = τf A from the area of real contact A and a viscoelastic contribution Fvisc from the pulsating forces exerted by the substrate asperities on the rubber block. Here we present experimental results obtained at different sliding speeds and temperatures, and we show that the temperature dependency of the shear stress τf, for temperatures above the rubber glass transition temperature Tg, is weaker than that of the bulk viscoelastic modulus. The physical origin of τf for T > Tg is discussed, and we propose that its temperature dependency is determined by the rubber molecule segment mobility at the sliding interface, which is higher than in the bulk because of increased free-volume effect due to the short-wavelength surface roughness. This is consistent with the often observed reduction in the glass transition temperature in nanometer-thick surface layers of glassy polymers. For temperatures T < Tg, the shear stress τf is nearly velocity independent and of similar magnitude as observed for glassy polymers such as PMMA or polyethylene. In this case, the rubber undergoes plastic deformations in the asperity contact regions and the contact area is determined by the rubber penetration hardness. For this case, we propose that the frictional shear stress is due to slip at the interface between the rubber and a transfer film adsorbed on the concrete surface.

  9. Mechanical properties and durability of crumb rubber concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chylík, Roman; Trtík, Tomáš; Fládr, Josef; Bílý, Petr

    2017-09-01

    This paper is focused on concrete with admixture of rubber powder, generally called crumb rubber concrete (CRC). The inspiration was found in Arizona, where one of the first CRCs has been created. However, Arizona has completely different climates than Central Europe. Could we use the crumb rubber concrete on construction applications in the Central European climate too? The paper evaluates the influence of the rubber powder on material characteristics and durability of CRC. CRCs with various contents of fine and coarse crumb powder were compared. The tested parameters were slump, air content, permeability, resistance of concrete to water with deicing chemicals, compressive and splitting tensile strength. The tests showed that workability, compressive strength and permeability decreased as the amount of rubber increased, but the air content increased as the rubber content increased. Photos of air voids in cement matrix from electron microscope were captured. The results of laboratory tests showed that admixture of rubber powder in concrete could have a positive impact on durability of concrete and concurrently contribute to sustainable development. Considering the lower compressive strength, CRC is recommended for use in applications where the high strength of concrete is not required.

  10. Rubber friction: The contribution from the area of real contact.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, A; Miyashita, N; Espallargas, N; Persson, B N J

    2018-06-14

    There are two contributions to the friction force when a rubber block is sliding on a hard and rough substrate surface, namely, a contribution F ad = τ f A from the area of real contact A and a viscoelastic contribution F visc from the pulsating forces exerted by the substrate asperities on the rubber block. Here we present experimental results obtained at different sliding speeds and temperatures, and we show that the temperature dependency of the shear stress τ f , for temperatures above the rubber glass transition temperature T g , is weaker than that of the bulk viscoelastic modulus. The physical origin of τ f for T > T g is discussed, and we propose that its temperature dependency is determined by the rubber molecule segment mobility at the sliding interface, which is higher than in the bulk because of increased free-volume effect due to the short-wavelength surface roughness. This is consistent with the often observed reduction in the glass transition temperature in nanometer-thick surface layers of glassy polymers. For temperatures T < T g , the shear stress τ f is nearly velocity independent and of similar magnitude as observed for glassy polymers such as PMMA or polyethylene. In this case, the rubber undergoes plastic deformations in the asperity contact regions and the contact area is determined by the rubber penetration hardness. For this case, we propose that the frictional shear stress is due to slip at the interface between the rubber and a transfer film adsorbed on the concrete surface.

  11. Utilization of waste tire rubber in manufacture of oriented strandboard.

    PubMed

    Ayrilmis, Nadir; Buyuksari, Umit; Avci, Erkan

    2009-09-01

    Some physical and mechanical properties of oriented strandboards (OSBs) containing waste tire rubber at various addition levels based on the oven-dry strand weight, using the same method as that used in the manufacture of OSB. Two resin types, phenol-formaldehyde (PF) and polyisocyanate, were used in the experiments. The manufacturing parameters were: a specific gravity of 0.65 and waste tire rubber content (10/90, 20/80 and 30/70 by wt.% of waste tire rubber/wood strand). Average internal bond values of PF-bonded OSB panels with rubber chips were between 17.6% and 48.5% lower than the average of the control samples while polyisocyanate bonded OSBs were 16.5-50.6%. However, water resistance and mechanical properties of OSBs made using polyisocyanate resin were found to comply with general-purpose OSB minimum property requirements of EN 300 Type 1 (1997) values for use in dry conditions at the lowest tire rubber loading level (10%) based on the oven-dry panel weight. The tire rubber improved water resistance of the OSB panel due to its almost hydrophobic property. Based on the findings obtained from this study, we concluded that waste tire rubber could be used for general-purpose OSB manufacturing up to 10% ratio based on the oven-dry panel weight.

  12. The optimum content of rubber ash in concrete: flexural strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senin, M. S.; Shahidan, S.; Shamsuddin, S. M.; Ariffin, S. F. A.; Othman, N. H.; Rahman, R.; Khalid, F. S.; Nazri, F. M.

    2017-11-01

    Discarded scrap tyres have become one of the major environmental problems nowadays. Several studies have been carried out to reuse waste tires as an additive or sand replacement in concrete with appropriate percentages of tire rubber, called as rubberized concrete to solve this problem. The main objectives of this study are to investigate the flexural strength performance of concrete when adding the rubber ash and also to analyse the optimum content of rubber ash in concrete prisms. The performance total of 30 number of concrete prisms in size of 100mm x 100mm x 500 mm were investigated, by partially replacement of rubber ash with percentage of 0%, 3%, 5%, 7% and 9% from the volume of the sand. The flexural strength is increased when percentage of rubber ash is added 3% from control concrete prism, RA 0 for both concrete prism age, 7 days and 28 days with value 1.21% and 0.976% respectively. However, for RA 5, RA 7 and RA 9, the flexural strength was decreased compared to the control for both age, 7 days and 28 days. In conclusion, 3% is the optimum content of rubber ash in concrete prism for both concrete age

  13. Practical application of thermoreversibly Cross-linked rubber products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polgar, L. M.; Picchioni, F.; de Ruiter, E.; van Duin, M.

    2017-07-01

    Currently, rubber products cannot simply be reprocessed after their product life, due to the irreversible cross-linking methods traditionally applied. The purpose of this work is to investigate how thermoreversible cross-linking of rubbers via Diels Alder chemistry can be used for the development of recyclable rubber products. Unfortunately, the applicability of the thermoreversible EPM-g-furan/BM system appears to be limited to room temperature applications, because of the rapid deterioration of the compression set at elevated temperatures compared to irreversibly cross-linked EPM. However, the use of EPM rubber modified with thiophene or cyclopentadiene moieties may extend the temperature application range and results in rubber products with acceptable properties. Finally, rubber products generally comprise fillers such as silica, carbon black or fibers. In this context, the reinforcing effect of short cut aramid fibers on the material properties of the newly developed thermoreversibly cross-linked EPM rubbers was also studied. The material properties of the resulting products were found to be comparable to those of a fiber reinforced, peroxide cured reference sample.

  14. Circuit racing, track texture, temperature and rubber friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, R. S.; Gruber, P.; Fina, E.

    2016-04-01

    Some general observations relating to tyre shear forces and road surfaces are followed by more specific considerations from circuit racing. The discussion then focuses on the mechanics of rubber friction. The classical experiments of Grosch are outlined and the interpretations that can be put on them are discussed. The interpretations involve rubber viscoelasticity, so that the vibration properties of rubber need to be considered. Adhesion and deformation mechanisms for energy dissipation at the interface between rubber and road and in the rubber itself are highlighted. The enquiry is concentrated on energy loss by deformation or hysteresis subsequently. Persson's deformation theory is outlined and the material properties necessary to apply the theory to Grosch's experiments are discussed. Predictions of the friction coefficient relating to one particular rubber compound and a rough surface are made using the theory and these are compared with the appropriate results from Grosch. Predictions from Persson's theory of the influence of nominal contact pressure on the friction coefficient are also examined. The extent of the agreement between theory and experiment is discussed. It is concluded that there is value in the theory but that it is far from complete. There is considerable scope for further research on the mechanics of rubber friction.

  15. Forecasting Natural Rubber Price In Malaysia Using Arima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahari, Fatin Z.; Khalid, Kamil; Roslan, Rozaini; Sufahani, Suliadi; Mohamad, Mahathir; Saifullah Rusiman, Mohd; Ali, Maselan

    2018-04-01

    This paper contains introduction, materials and methods, results and discussions, conclusions and references. Based on the title mentioned, high volatility of the price of natural rubber nowadays will give the significant risk to the producers, traders, consumers, and others parties involved in the production of natural rubber. To help them in making decisions, forecasting is needed to predict the price of natural rubber. The main objective of the research is to forecast the upcoming price of natural rubber by using the reliable statistical method. The data are gathered from Malaysia Rubber Board which the data are from January 2000 until December 2015. In this research, average monthly price of Standard Malaysia Rubber 20 (SMR20) will be forecast by using Box-Jenkins approach. Time series plot is used to determine the pattern of the data. The data have trend pattern which indicates the data is non-stationary data and the data need to be transformed. By using the Box-Jenkins method, the best fit model for the time series data is ARIMA (1, 1, 0) which this model satisfy all the criteria needed. Hence, ARIMA (1, 1, 0) is the best fitted model and the model will be used to forecast the average monthly price of Standard Malaysia Rubber 20 (SMR20) for twelve months ahead.

  16. Monte carlo simulation of innovative neutron and photon shielding material composing of high density concrete, waste rubber, lead and boron carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aim-O, P.; Wongsawaeng, D.; Phruksarojanakun, P.; Tancharakorn, S.

    2017-06-01

    High-density concrete exhibits high strength and can perform an important role of gamma ray attenuation. In order to upgrade this material’s radiation-shielding performance, hydrogen-rich material can be incorporated. Waste rubber from vehicles has high hydrogen content which is the prominent characteristic to attenuate neutron. The objective of this work was to evaluate the radiation-shielding properties of this composite material against neutron and photon radiations. Monte Carlo transport simulation was conducted to simulate radiation through the composite material. Am-241/Be was utilized for neutron source and Co-60 for photon source. Parameters of the study included volume percentages of waste rubber, lead and boron carbide and thickness of the shielding material. These designs were also fabricated and the radiation shielding properties were experimentally evaluated. The best neutron and gamma ray shielding material was determined to be high-density concrete mixed with 5 vol% crumb rubber and 5 vol% lead powder. This shielding material increased the neutron attenuation by 64% and photon attenuation by 68% compared to ordinary concrete. Also, increasing the waste rubber content to greater than 5% resulted in a decrease in the radiation attenuation. This innovative composite radiation shielding material not only benefits nuclear science and engineering applications, but also helps solve the environmental issue of waste rubber.

  17. Incorporation of Rubber Powder as Filler in a New Dry-Hybrid Technology: Rheological and 3D DEM Mastic Performances Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Vignali, Valeria; Mazzotta, Francesco; Sangiorgi, Cesare; Simone, Andrea; Lantieri, Claudio; Dondi, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the use of crumb rubber as modifier or additive within asphalt concretes has allowed obtaining mixtures able to bind high performances to recovery and reuse of discarded tires. To date, the common technologies that permit the reuse of rubber powder are the wet and dry ones. In this paper, a dry-hybrid technology for the production of Stone Mastic Asphalt mixtures is proposed. It allows the use of the rubber powder as filler, replacing part of the limestone one. Fillers are added and mixed with a high workability bitumen, modified with SBS (styrene-butadiene-styrene) polymer and paraffinic wax. The role of rubber powder and limestone filler within the bituminous mastic has been investigated through two different approaches. The first one is a rheological approach, which comprises a macro-scale laboratory analysis and a micro-scale DEM simulation. The second, instead, is a performance approach at high temperatures, which includes Multiple Stress Creep Recovery tests. The obtained results show that the rubber works as filler and it improves rheological characteristics of the polymer modified bitumen. In particular, it increases stiffness and elasticity at high temperatures and it reduces complex modulus at low temperatures. PMID:28773965

  18. The relation of bifurations in a biaxially loaded rubber sheet and the constitutive modeling of rubber

    SciT

    Haslach, H.W. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    Treloar`s experiments on a thin rubber sheet under in-plane biaxial tensile loads produced asymmetric as well as equal in-plane stretches. At two loads, the two stretches differed by 7.5% and 12.4% respectively. At an intermediate load, there was a stable equal stretches state. Treloar later said that relaxation was negligible since the results were reproducible and independent of the order of force application. Specimen anisotropy and lack of strain uniformity were also eliminated as a cause. Kearsely first pointed out the significance of these experiments to studies of elastic stability of rubber models. The predictability of this result is amore » test for the validity of the various constitutive models for rubber. First, Ogden`s plane stress stability and bifurcation criteria are reviewed. A coordinate transformation of a generalized energy function for the biaxially loaded sheet makes it possible to describe the Mooney-Rivlin bifurcation as a cusp catastrophe and to verify that the neo-Hookean and other classical models have no bifurcations. The Mooney-Rivlin model predicts unstable equal stretch states above the bifurcation value, but Treloar`s experiments contradict this. These models cannot, then, be the correct constitutive models for rubber. Preliminary ideas on the conditions that an isothermal constitutive model must satisfy to reproduce Treloar`s experiments are proposed. A thermoelastic generalization of the Mooney-Rivlin model, developed with N. N. Zeng, predicts that raising the temperature slightly lowers the value of the bifurcation load. Nonequilibrium processes such as relaxation or sinusoidal loading are modeled using a generalized energy function in place of classical viscoelastic constitutive relations.« less

  19. Shear modulus and damping ratio of natural rubber containing carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, R.; Ibrahim, A.; Rusop, M.; Adnan, A.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation into the potential application of Natural rubber (NR) containing Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) by measuring its shear modulus and damping ratio. Four different types of rubber specimens which fabricated with different MWCNT loadings: 0 wt% (pure natural rubber), 1 wt%, 3 wt%, and 5 wt%. It is observed that the shear modulus and damping ratio of CNTs filled rubber composites are remarkably higher than that of raw rubber indicating the inherent reinforcing potential of CNTs.

  20. Mechanical Behavior and Fatigue Studies of Rubber Components Used in Tracked Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-17

    durability to this elastomers and polybutadiene is rubber , which gives rubber -like properties. SBR has good abrasion resistance and good aging ...SIMULATION, TESTING AND VALIDATION (MSTV) MINI-SYMPOSIUM AUGUST 17-19 DEARBORN, MICHIGAN MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR AND FATIGUE STUDIES OF RUBBER COMPONENTS USED...Analytics Group US Army TARDEC Warren, MI ABSTRACT In this study, a styrene butadiene rubber , which is similar to the rubber used in road wheel

  1. Durability Testing of Tank Track Rubber Compounds under Cyclic Loading

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-15

    depiction of time-to-failure vs applied ( engineering ) stress for 15TP-14AX rubber compounds in creep experiments at 23"C. (After McKenna (1...behavior of the 15TP-14AX rubber was carried out at 23, 75, 125 and 175 OC. The logarithm of the time to failure vs. the applied ( engineering ) stress is...4 3I. I I 5 10 15 a/MPa Figure 3-7 Semilogarith±ic depiction of time-to--failure vs applied ( engineering ) stress for 15TP-14AX rubber compounds in

  2. Runway Rubber Removal Specification Development: Field Evaluation Procedures Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    removal was sufficient enough to restore full pave- ment skid resistance (based on tests with a DBV). With regard to high-pressure water rubber ...over a test surface, the rubber slider resists motion-. The force, parallel to the test surface, which acts on the slider registers an output on a dial...PROCEDURE 1. Check rubber shoe for wear . Replace when the edge is worn by more than 3/16 in as measured with a rule laid flat across the slider width. 2

  3. Application of mathematical planning in production of filled emulsion rubbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugacheva, I. N.; Molokanova, L. V.; Popova, L. V.; Repin, P. S.

    2018-05-01

    The applicability of mathematical planning of experiment in the field of chemistry and chemical engineering, in particular in the industrial production of synthetic rubbers, is considered in the article. Possibility of using secondary material resources, which are waste products of light industry, in the production of elastomeric compositions is studied. The method of obtaining a powdered cellulose additive from wastes containing cellulose fiber is described. The best way of introducing the obtained additive into elastomeric compositions based on the emulsion rubber is established. Optimal conditions for obtaining filled emulsion rubber with the help of a powdered cellulose additive were established basing on the mathematical planning of experiment.

  4. EPDM Rubber Modified by Nitrogen Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation.

    PubMed

    Kondyurin, Alexey

    2018-04-24

    Ethylene-propylene diene monomer rubber (EPDM) was treated by plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) with nitrogen ions of 20 keV energy and fluence from 10 13 to 10 16 ions/cm². The Fourier-transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectra, atomic force microscopy and optical microscopy showed significant structure changes of the surface. The analysis of an interface of PIII treated EPDM rubber with polyurethane binder showed a cohesive character of the adhesion joint fracture at the presence of solvent and interpreted as covalent bond network formation between the PIII treated rubber and the adhesive.

  5. EPDM Rubber Modified by Nitrogen Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Ethylene-propylene diene monomer rubber (EPDM) was treated by plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) with nitrogen ions of 20 keV energy and fluence from 1013 to 1016 ions/cm2. The Fourier-transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectra, atomic force microscopy and optical microscopy showed significant structure changes of the surface. The analysis of an interface of PIII treated EPDM rubber with polyurethane binder showed a cohesive character of the adhesion joint fracture at the presence of solvent and interpreted as covalent bond network formation between the PIII treated rubber and the adhesive. PMID:29695109

  6. The Influence of Chemical Structure on the Strength of Rubber.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    sticky, as if covered with an oily or tarry film. The debris from carbon-black-filled natural rubber vulcanizates is even more highly degraded , so...RD-RI66 355 THE INFLUENCE OF CHEMICAL STRUCTURE ON THE STRENGTH OF 1 1) RS 5355 RUBBER (U) KRON UNJY OH INST OF POLYMER SCIENCE UNCLSSIFEIDA N GENT...85-K-0222 .- Project NR 092-555 UTechnical Report No. 4 THE INFLUENCE OF CHEMICAL STRUCTURE ON THE * 4: STRENGTH OF RUBBER by S 2LECTE by A P R 0 9 I

  7. Contact dermatitis caused by a new rubber compound detected in canvas shoes.

    PubMed

    Hulstaert, Eva; Bergendorff, Ola; Persson, Christina; Goossens, An; Gilissen, Liesbeth; Engfeldt, Malin; Bruze, Magnus; Schuttelaar, Marie L; Meijer, Joost M; Lapeere, Hilde

    2018-01-01

    In 2015 and 2016, female patients in Flanders consulted a dermatologist because they developed skin lesions after wearing a specific brand of canvas shoes. To identify the culprit allergen in the shoes. Eighteen young females aged 14-22 years presented with itching and erythematous to purple-coloured eczematous lesions on both feet. They were patch tested by 10 dermatologists with the European baseline series. Some patients underwent testing with additional series. Pieces of the shoe fabrics were tested in 11 of 18 patients. Chemical analysis of the shoe materials was performed. Finally, patients were tested with a thin-layer chromatogram of the shoe extracts and dilutions of the suspected rubber compound. All 18 patients showed positive reactions to thiuram mix. Ten of 11 patients reacted to a piece of shoe fabric. Chemical analysis showed the presence of dimethylthiocarbamylbenzothiazole sulfide (DMTBS). No thiurams were detected. Four patients tested with the chromatogram developed positive reactions to DMTBS. Positive reactions to low concentrations were observed in the 4 patients tested with a DMTBS dilution series; one patient reacted to 0.00001% in acetone. DMTBS, the culprit allergen, is a component formed during rubber vulcanization that probably cross-reacts with the thiuram mix. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Laterality and body ownership: Effect of handedness on experience of the rubber hand illusion.

    PubMed

    Smit, M; Kooistra, D I; van der Ham, I J M; Dijkerman, H C

    2017-11-01

    Body ownership has mainly been linked to the right hemisphere and larger interhemispheric connectivity has been shown to be associated with greater right hemispheric activation. Mixed-handed participants tend to have more interhemispheric connectivity compared to extreme handed participants. The aim of this study was to examine whether feelings of ownership as assessed with the rubber hand illusion (RHI) are differentiated by handedness and differed between the left and right hand. Sinistrals-, dextrals-, and mixed-handed individuals (n = 63) were subjected to the RHI. Stroking was synchronously and asynchronously performed on both the participant's hand and a rubber hand. Outcome measures were an embodiment questionnaire and proprioceptive drift. In contrast to our hypotheses we show a similar experience of ownership for all groups, which may indicate no hemispheric specialization for the illusion. In addition, plasticity of ownership and body ownership are similar for the left hand and right hand in all participants, which suggests similar representations for both hands in the brain. This might be useful to maintain a coherent sense of the body in space.

  9. Morphology and vulcanizate properties of ethylene-propylene-diene rubber/ styrene-butadiene rubber blends.

    PubMed

    Park, Gayoung; Kim, Yun Hee; Kim, Dong Soo; Ko, Young Chun

    2010-05-01

    Morphology and vulcanizate properties of EPDM/SBR blends were investigated. AAHR (a mixture of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon resins) was used as a compatibilizer and bis(3-triethoxysilylpropyl)tetrasulfide (TESPT) was used as a coupling agent. The vulcanizate properties and the morphological studies revealed that EPDM and SBR were incompatible, and the addition of AAHR was very effective to enhance the compatibility between EPDM and SBR. The weight percent of bound rubbers was increased with increasing SBR contents. The addition of an AAHR increased the amounts of bound rubbers, and hence the vulcanizate properties such as tear strength and fatigue resistance of the EPDM/SBR blends were improved. The dynamic mechanical analysis and the morphological studies revealed that the addition of TESPT increased the weight of bound rubbers and provided better dispersion of carbon black, resulting in good mechanical properties such as tear strength and fatigue resistance of the vulcanized EPDM/SBR blends. The smaller particle of zinc oxide (i.e., 50 nm > 100 nm > 1000 nm) yielded to the better blending properties of the polymer blend.

  10. Presence of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Rubber Packaging Materials and in Parenteral Formulations Stored in Bottles With Rubber Stoppers.

    PubMed

    Bohrer, Denise; Viana, Carine; Barichello, Marcia M; de Moura, Juliane F; de Carvalho, Leandro M; Nascimento, Paulo C

    2017-08-01

    Rubber closures are the primary packaging material for sterile preparations intended for repeated use. Important features of rubber closures are achieved after additives are added to the elastomeric material that compounds the rubber. Among these additives is carbon black. Because of its origin, carbon black may contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has identified 16 priority PAHs on the basis of concerns that they cause or might cause cancer in animals and humans. Regulatory agencies impose carbon black purity specifications based on limits for total PAHs (0.5 mg/kg) and benzo[a]pyrene (5 μg/kg) or benzo[a]pyrene only (250 μg/kg). PAHs in rubber packaging used for pharmaceutical formulations and in parenteral products stored in containers with rubber stoppers were investigated. To this end, the method proposed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health-based on high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and fluorescence detection-was adapted to determine the levels of PAHs in rubber stoppers (gray and red) and in lipid emulsions and amino acid solutions stored in bottles with rubber stoppers. The rubber materials were shown to contain 12 PAHs, in concentrations ranging from 0.25-3.31 µg/g. Only 1 of 18 samples (11 amino acid solutions and 7 lipid emulsions) was uncontaminated. The most prevalent contaminants were pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, and fluoranthene. The total PAH concentrations in the samples ranged from 0.11-5.96 µg/mL. Components of parenteral nutrition may be contaminated with PAHs, and rubber stoppers represent a potential source of these contaminants.

  11. Evapotranspiration of rubber ( Hevea brasiliensis ) cultivated at two plantation sites in Southeast Asia: RUBBER EVAPOTRANSPIRATION IN SE ASIA

    SciT

    Giambelluca, Thomas W.; Mudd, Ryan G.; Liu, Wen

    The expansion of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) cultivation to higher latitudes and higher elevations in southeast Asia is part of a dramatic shift in the direction of rural land cover change in the region toward more tree covered landscapes. To investigate the possible effects of increasing rubber cultivation in the region on ecosystem services including water cycling, eddy covariance towers were established to measure ecosystem fluxes within two rubber plantations, one each in Bueng Kan, northeastern Thailand, and Kampong Cham, central Cambodia. The results show that evapotranspiration (ET) at both sites is strongly related to variations in available energy and leafmore » area, and moderately controlled by soil moisture. Measured mean annual ET was 1128 and 1272 mm for the Thailand and Cambodia sites, respectively. After adjustment for energy closure, mean annual was estimated to be 1211 and 1459 mm yr at the Thailand and Cambodia sites, respectively. Based on these estimates and that of another site in Xishuangbanna, southwestern China, it appears that of rubber is higher than that of other tree dominated land covers in the region, including forest. While measurements by others in non rubber tropical ecosystems indicate that at high net radiation sites is at most only slightly higher than for sites with lower net radiation, mean annual rubber increases strongl with increasing net radiation across the three available rubber plantation observation sites. With the continued expansion of tree dominated land covers, including rubber cultivation, in southeast Asia, the possible association between commercially viable, fast growing tree crop species Giambelluca et al. Evapotranspiration of rubber (Havea brasiliensis) cultivated at two sites in southeast Asia and their relatively high water use raises concerns about potential effects on water and food security.« less

  12. Silicone-Rubber Microvalves Actuated by Paraffin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svelha, Danielle; Feldman, Sabrina; Barsic, David

    2004-01-01

    Microvalves containing silicone-rubber seals actuated by heating and cooling of paraffin have been proposed for development as integral components of microfluidic systems. In comparison with other microvalves actuated by various means (electrostatic, electromagnetic, piezoelectric, pneumatic, and others), the proposed valves (1) would contain simpler structures that could be fabricated at lower cost and (2) could be actuated by simpler (and thus less expensive) control systems. Each valve according to the proposal would include a flow channel bounded on one side by a flat surface and on the other side by a curved surface defined by an arched-cross-section, elastic seal made of silicone rubber [polydimethylsilane (PDMS)]. The seal would be sized and shaped so that the elasticity of the PDMS would hold the channel open except when the seal was pressed down onto the flat surface to close the channel. The principle of actuation would exploit the fact that upon melting or freezing, the volume of a typical paraffin increases or decreases, respectively, by about 15 percent. In a valve according to the proposal, the seal face opposite that of the channel would be in contact with a piston-like plug of paraffin. In the case of a valve designed to be normally open at ambient temperature, one would use a paraffin having a melting temperature above ambient. The seal would be pushed against the flat surface to close the channel by heating the paraffin above its melting temperature. In the case of a valve designed to be normally closed at ambient temperature, one would use a paraffin having a melting temperature below ambient. The seal would be allowed to spring away from the flat surface to open the channel by cooling the paraffin below its melting temperature. The availability of paraffins that have melting temperatures from 70 to +80 C should make it possible to develop a variety of normally closed and normally open valves. The figure depicts examples of prototype normally

  13. Natural rubber latex allergy and asthma.

    PubMed

    Tarlo, S M

    2001-01-01

    Allergic responses to natural rubber latex (NRL) continue to be reported. In adults, the major exposure is in the occupational setting, especially in relation to NRL glove use by health care workers. Issues addressed over the past year include improving diagnostic methods for NRL allergy and characterization of NRL allergens relevant to various exposure groups and evaluating strategies for prevention and early detection of NRL allergy. Assessment of in vitro tests show good intertest correlation but lower sensitivity compared with skin test responses. NRL allergens have been further characterized as reported in the past year. Development of recombinant Hev b 3, a major NRL allergen relevant to children with spina bifida, enhances the likelihood for improved diagnostic reagents. Preliminary reports of primary preventive strategies suggest that avoidance of high-protein, powdered gloves in health care facilities can be cost-effective and is associated with a decline in sensitized workers.

  14. Polybenzoxazole-filled nitrile butadiene rubber compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gajiwala, Himansu M. (Inventor); Guillot, David G. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An insulation composition that comprises at least one nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) having an acrylonitrile content that ranges from approximately 26% by weight to approximately 35% by weight and polybenzoxazole (PBO) fibers. The NBR may be a copolymer of acrylonitrile and butadiene and may be present in the insulation composition in a range of from approximately 45% by weight to approximately 56% by weight of a total weight of the insulation composition. The PBO fibers may be present in a range of from approximately 3% by weight to approximately 10% by weight of a total weight of the insulation composition. A rocket motor including the insulation composition and a method of insulating a rocket motor are also disclosed.

  15. A silicone rubber mould of the heart.

    PubMed

    Torrent-Guasp, F F; Whimster, W F; Redmann, K

    1997-04-01

    The macroscopical structure of the ventricular myocardium has been an unsolved problem since the XVIth century, when Anatomy started as an authentic science. Since then the spatial organization of the myocardial fibres has represented, as Pettigrew says, "an arrangement so unusual and perplexing, that it has long been considered as forming a kind of Gordian knot in Anatomy. Of the complexity of the arrangement I need not speak further than to say that Vesalius, Albinus, Haller and De Blainville, all confessed their-inability to unravel it". What is shown in the present paper is the result of an anatomical work, developed over 43 years, by means of which it has been shown that the ventricular myocardial mass consists of a band, curled in a helical way, which extends from the pulmonary artery to the aorta. This is illustrated by a silicone rubber model cast from an actual unrolled myocardial band.

  16. Allergenic proteins of natural rubber latex.

    PubMed

    Yeang, H Y; Arif, Siti Arija M; Yusof, Faridah; Sunderasan, E

    2002-05-01

    As the living cytoplasm of laticiferous cells, Hevea brasiliensis latex is a rich blend of organic substances that include a mélange of proteins. A small number of these proteins have given rise to the problem of latex allergy. The salient characteristics of H. brasiliensis latex allergens that are recognized by the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) are reviewed. These are the proteins associated with the rubber particles, the cytosolic C-serum proteins and the B-serum proteins that originate mainly from the lutoids. Procedures for the isolation and purification of latex allergens are discussed, from latex collection in the field to various preparative approaches adopted in the laboratory. As interest in recombinant latex allergens increases, there is a need to validate recombinant proteins to ascertain equivalence with their native counterparts when used in immunological studies, diagnostics, and immunotherapy. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  17. Deuterium permeation through EPDM rubber compounds

    SciT

    Zapp, P.E.

    1988-01-01

    The permeation of deuterium through a specially formulated compound of ethylene propylene diene rubber was measured in the temperature range of 26/degree/C to 120/degree/C. The results were similar to permeation through two commercial compounds of this elastomer. Permeation was reduced after gamma irradiation (in the presence of hydrogen gas to simulate a tritium exposure). However the reduction was smaller than that experienced by the two commercial compounds. Radiation damage is apparently less severe in the special compound. It is possible that mechanical properties such as compression set may be influenced less by ionizing radiation in this compound as compared withmore » the commercial compounds. 4 figs., 1 tab.« less

  18. Unraveling the mystery of natural rubber biosythesis part I: investigation of the composition and growth of in vitro natural rubber using high resolution size exclusion chromatography

    Monitoring the growth of in vitro natural rubberwas accomplished by high resolution size exclusion chromatography, SEC.Washed rubber particles isolated from H. brasiliensis latex, containing the rubber transferase enzyme, were used to catalyze the polymerization of synthetic isopentenyl pyrophosphat...

  19. Performance of asphaltic concrete incorporating styrene butadiene rubber subjected to varying aging condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salah, Faisal Mohammed; Jaya, Ramadhansyah Putra; Mohamed, Azman; Hassan, Norhidayah Abdul; Rosni, Nurul Najihah Mad; Mohamed, Abdullahi Ali; Agussabti

    2017-12-01

    The influence of styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) on asphaltic concrete properties at different aging conditions was presented in this study. These aging conditions were named as un-aged, short-term, and long-term aging. The conventional asphalt binder of penetration grade 60/70 was used in this work. Four different levels of SBR addition were employed (i.e., 0 %, 1 %, 3 %, and 5 % by binder weight). Asphalt concrete mixes were prepared at selected optimum asphalt content (5 %). The performance was evaluated based on Marshall Stability, resilient modulus, and dynamic creep tests. Results indicated the improving stability and permanent deformation characteristics that the mixes modified with SBR polymer have under aging conditions. The result also showed that the stability, resilient modulus, and dynamic creep tests have the highest rates compared to the short-term aging and un-aged samples. Thus, the use of 5 % SBR can produce more durable asphalt concrete mixtures with better serviceability.

  20. Method for Molding Structural Parts Utilizing Modified Silicone Rubber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); Baucom, Robert M. (Inventor); Snoha, John J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    This invention improves upon a method for molding structural parts from preform material. Preform material to be used for the part is provided. A silicone rubber composition containing entrained air voids is prepared. The silicone rubber and preform material assembly is situated within a rigid mold cavity used to shape the preform material to die desired shape. The entire assembly is heated in a standard heating device so that the thermal expansion of the silicone rubber exerts the pressure necessary to force the preform material into contact with the mold container. The introduction of discrete air voids into the silicone rubber allows for accurately controlled pressure application on the preform material at the cure temperature.

  1. Polyacrylamide brush coatings preventing microbial adhesion to silicone rubber.

    PubMed

    Fundeanu, Irina; van der Mei, Henny C; Schouten, Arend J; Busscher, Henk J

    2008-07-15

    Silicone rubber is a frequently used biomaterial in biomedical devices and implants, yet highly prone to microbial adhesion and the development of a biomaterial-centered infection. Effective coating of silicone rubber to discourage microbial adhesion has thus far been impossible due to the hydrophobic character of its surface, surface deterioration upon treatment and instability of coatings under physiological conditions. Here we present a method to successfully grow polyacrylamide (PAAm) brushes from silicone rubber surfaces after removal of low molecular weight organic molecules (LMWOM), such as silane oligomers. PAAm brush coating did not cause any surface deterioration and discouraged microbial adhesion, even after 1-month exposure to physiological fluids. The method presented opens many new avenues for the use of silicone rubber as a biomaterial, without the risk of developing a biomaterial-centered infection.

  2. Study on the Secant Segmentation Algorithm of Rubber Tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shute; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Jian; Sun, Liang; Liu, Yongna

    2018-04-01

    Natural rubber is one of the most important materials in the national defense and industry, and the tapping panel dryness (TPD) of the rubber tree is one of the most serious diseases that affect the production of rubber. Although considerable progress has been made in the more than 100 years of research on the TPD, there are still many areas to be improved. At present, the method of artificial observation is widely used to identify TPD, but the diversity of rubber tree secant symptoms leads to the inaccurate judgement of the level of TPD. In this paper, image processing technology is used to separate the secant and latex, so that we can get rid of the interference factors, get the exact secant and latex binary image. By calculating the area ratio of the corresponding binary images, the grade of TPD can be classified accurately. and can also provide an objective basis for the accurate identification of the tapping panel dryness (TPD) level.

  3. Thermo-Mechanical Analyses of Dynamically Loaded Rubber Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Arthur R.; Chen, Tzi-Kang

    2002-01-01

    Thick rubber components are employed by the Army to carry large loads. In tanks, rubber covers road wheels and track systems to protect roadways. It is difficult for design engineers to simulate the details of the hysteretic heating for large strain viscoelastic deformations. In this study, an approximation to the viscoelastic energy dissipated per unit time is investigated for use in estimating mechanically induced viscoelastic heating. Coupled thermo-mechanical simulations of large cyclic deformations of rubber cylinders are presented. The cylinders are first compressed axially and then cyclically loaded about the compressed state. Details of the algorithm and some computational issues are discussed. The coupled analyses are conducted for tall and short rubber cylinders both with and without imbedded metal disks.

  4. Crumb rubber modified asphalt concrete in Oregon : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-03-01

    Since 1993, the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) has been monitoring performance of seventeen rubber modified : asphalt and asphalt concrete sections constructed on Oregon highways. The study originated in response to the Intermodal Surface...

  5. Crumb rubber modified asphalt concrete in Oregon : summary report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-07-01

    Over the last nine years, the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) has constructed 13 projects using crumb rubber modifiers (CRMs) in asphalt concrete pavements using both the wet and dry process. Three of the projects included more than one ty...

  6. An Illustration of the Bernoulli Effect With a Rubber Tube

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, M. J.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a simple method of demonstrating the Bernoulli effect, by spinning a length of rubber tubing around one's head. A manometer attached to the stationary end of the tube indicates a reduction in pressure. (JR)

  7. Evaluation of field projects using crumb rubber modified asphaltic concrete.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-03-01

    In 1994, the Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development (LADOTD) initiated a research project to evaluate different crumb-rubber modified (CRM) applications in which the long-term pavement performance of the CRM asphalt pavements was comp...

  8. Enhanced performance of crumb rubber filtration for ballast water treatment.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhijian; Butkus, Michael A; Xie, Yuefeng F

    2009-03-01

    Waste-tire-derived crumb rubber was utilized as filter media to develop an efficient filter for ballast water treatment. In this study, the effects of coagulation, pressure filtration and dual-media (gravity) filtration on the performance of the crumb rubber filtration were investigated. The removal efficiencies of turbidity, phytoplankton and zooplankton, and head loss development were monitored during the filtration process. The addition of a coagulant enhanced the removal efficiencies of all targeted matter, but resulted in substantial increase of head loss. Pressure filtration increased filtration rates to 220 m(3)h(-1)m(-2) for 8-h operation and improved the zooplankton removal. Dual-media (crumb rubber/sand) gravity filtration also improved the removal efficiencies of phytoplankton and zooplankton over mono-media gravity crumb rubber filtration. However, these filtration techniques alone did not meet the criteria for removing indigenous organisms from ballast water. A combination of filtration and disinfection is suggested for future studies.

  9. Thermodynamics of a Simple Rubber-Band Heat Engine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, J. G.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Outlines the basic engine design and nomenclature, develops some relations between the state parameters of the rubber-band system, defines engine efficiency, and compares the Archibald engine with the Carnot engine. (GS)

  10. Piezoelectric ribbons printed onto rubber for flexible energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yi; Jafferis, Noah T; Lyons, Kenneth; Lee, Christine M; Ahmad, Habib; McAlpine, Michael C

    2010-02-10

    The development of a method for integrating highly efficient energy conversion materials onto stretchable, biocompatible rubbers could yield breakthroughs in implantable or wearable energy harvesting systems. Being electromechanically coupled, piezoelectric crystals represent a particularly interesting subset of smart materials that function as sensors/actuators, bioMEMS devices, and energy converters. Yet, the crystallization of these materials generally requires high temperatures for maximally efficient performance, rendering them incompatible with temperature-sensitive plastics and rubbers. Here, we overcome these limitations by presenting a scalable and parallel process for transferring crystalline piezoelectric nanothick ribbons of lead zirconate titanate from host substrates onto flexible rubbers over macroscopic areas. Fundamental characterization of the ribbons by piezo-force microscopy indicates that their electromechanical energy conversion metrics are among the highest reported on a flexible medium. The excellent performance of the piezo-ribbon assemblies coupled with stretchable, biocompatible rubber may enable a host of exciting avenues in fundamental research and novel applications.

  11. Smoking, occupational exposure to rubber, and lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Z F; Yu, S Z; Li, W X; Choi, B C

    1989-01-01

    A cohort of 1624 employees (957 men, 667 women) in a rubber factory in Shanghai have been followed up since 1972 and their 12 year mortality experience is presented. The relative risk of lung cancer for smokers was 8.5 for men and 11.4 for women and for rubber workers exposed to curing agents or talc powder 3.2 for men and 4.6 for women. PMID:2920138

  12. Neutron absorbing room temperature vulcanizable silicone rubber compositions

    DOEpatents

    Zoch, Harold L.

    1979-11-27

    A neutron absorbing composition comprising a one-component room temperature vulcanizable silicone rubber composition or a two-component room temperature vulcanizable silicone rubber composition in which the composition contains from 25 to 300 parts by weight based on the base silanol or vinyl containing diorganopolysiloxane polymer of a boron compound or boron powder as the neutron absorbing ingredient. An especially useful boron compound in this application is boron carbide.

  13. Association of contact urticaria and allergic contact dermatitis to rubber.

    PubMed

    Fernadez, Ohalis Luanda; Canosa, Juliana Macedo; Lazzarini, Rosana; Duarte, Ida

    2009-01-01

    We present a case of a healthcare professional that developed type I and IV hypersensitivity reactions to rubber. During the clinical examination the patient showed eczematous dermatitis of the hands. The patch test was positive for thiuram group and an open test with a piece of glove was positive after 20 minutes of exposure. Allergen-specific IgE test (RAST) was relevant. Reactions to rubber allergens are frequent among healthcare professionals due to constant contact with this material.

  14. Mechanistic study of the rubber-brass adhesion interphase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashirgade, Akshay

    Brass-plated steel tire cords form an essential strengthening component of a radial automobile tire. Adhesion between rubber compound and brass-plated steel tire cord is crucial in governing the overall performance of tires. The rubber-brass interfacial adhesion is influenced by the chemical composition and thickness of the interfacial layer. It has been shown that the interfacial layer consists mainly of sulfides and oxides of copper and zinc. This thesis discusses the effect of changes in the chemical composition and the structure of the interfacial layers due to addition of adhesion promoter resins. Grazing incidence X-Ray Diffraction (GIXRD) experiments were run on sulfidized polished brass coupons previously bonded to six experimental rubber compounds. It was confirmed that heat and humidity conditions lead to physical and chemical changes of the rubber-steel tire cord interfacial layer, closely related to the degree of rubber-brass adhesion. Morphological transformation of the interfacial layer led to loss of adhesion after aging. The adhesion promoter resins inhibit unfavorable morphological changes in the interfacial layer thus stabilizing it during aging and prolonging failure. Tire cord adhesion tests illustrated that the one-component resins improved adhesion after aging using a rubber compound with lower cobalt loading. Based on the acquired diffraction profiles, these resins were also found to impede crystallization of the sulfide layer after aging leading to improved adhesion. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) depth profiles, SEM micrographs and AFM images strongly corroborated the findings from GIXRD. FTIR was utilized in a novel way to understand the degradation mechanism due to aging. A model for rubber and interfacial layer degradation is proposed to illustrate the effect of aging and the one-component resins. This interfacial analysis adds valuable new information to our understanding of the complex nature of the rubber-brass bonding

  15. Altered levels of the Taraxacum kok-saghyz (Russian dandelion) small rubber particle protein, TkSRPP3, result in qualitative and quantitative changes in rubber metabolism.

    PubMed

    Collins-Silva, Jillian; Nural, Aise Taban; Skaggs, Amanda; Scott, Deborah; Hathwaik, Upul; Woolsey, Rebekah; Schegg, Kathleen; McMahan, Colleen; Whalen, Maureen; Cornish, Katrina; Shintani, David

    2012-07-01

    Several proteins have been identified and implicated in natural rubber biosynthesis, one of which, the small rubber particle protein (SRPP), was originally identified in Hevea brasiliensis as an abundant protein associated with cytosolic vesicles known as rubber particles. While previous in vitro studies suggest that SRPP plays a role in rubber biosynthesis, in vivo evidence is lacking to support this hypothesis. To address this issue, a transgene approach was taken in Taraxacum kok-saghyz (Russian dandelion or Tk) to determine if altered SRPP levels would influence rubber biosynthesis. Three dandelion SRPPs were found to be highly abundant on dandelion rubber particles. The most abundant particle associated SRPP, TkSRPP3, showed temporal and spatial patterns of expression consistent with patterns of natural rubber accumulation in dandelion. To confirm its role in rubber biosynthesis, TkSRPP3 expression was altered in Russian dandelion using over-expression and RNAi methods. While TkSRPP3 over-expressing lines had slightly higher levels of rubber in their roots, relative to the control, TkSRPP3 RNAi lines showed significant decreases in root rubber content and produced dramatically lower molecular weight rubber than the control line. Not only do results here provide in vivo evidence of TkSRPP proteins affecting the amount of rubber in dandelion root, but they also suggest a function in regulating the molecular weight of the cis-1, 4-polyisoprene polymer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Alexithymia modulates the experience of the rubber hand illusion

    PubMed Central

    Grynberg, Delphine; Pollatos, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Alexithymia is associated with lower awareness of emotional and non-emotional internal bodily signals. However, evidence suggesting that alexithymia modulates body awareness at an external level is scarce. This study aimed to investigate whether alexithymia is associated with disrupted multisensory integration by using the rubber hand illusion task. Fifty healthy individuals completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale and underwent the rubber hand illusion measure. In this measure, one watches a rubber hand being stroked synchronously or asynchronously with one’s own hand, which is hidden from view. Compared to the asynchronous stimulation, the synchronous stimulation results in the illusion that the rubber hand and the participant’s hand are closer together than they really are and that the rubber hand belongs to them. Results revealed that higher levels of alexithymia are associated with a lower ownership illusion over the rubber hand. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that high alexithymia scorers integrate two simultaneous sensory and proprioceptive events into a single experience (lower multisensory integration) to a lesser extent than low alexithymia scorers. Higher susceptibility to the illusion in high alexithymia scorers may indicate that alexithymia is associated with an abnormal focus of one’s own body. PMID:26150779

  17. General theory of frictional heating with application to rubber friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortunato, G.; Ciaravola, V.; Furno, A.; Lorenz, B.; Persson, B. N. J.

    2015-05-01

    The energy dissipation in the contact regions between solids in sliding contact can result in high local temperatures which may strongly effect friction and wear. This is the case for rubber sliding on road surfaces at speeds above 1 mm s-1. We derive equations which describe the frictional heating for solids with arbitrary thermal properties. The theory is applied to rubber friction on road surfaces and we take into account that the frictional energy is partly produced inside the rubber due to the internal friction of rubber and in a thin (nanometer) interfacial layer at the rubber-road contact region. The heat transfer between the rubber and the road surface is described by a heat transfer coefficient which depends on the sliding speed. Numerical results are presented and compared to experimental data. We find that frictional heating results in a kinetic friction force which depends on the orientation of the sliding block, thus violating one of the two basic Leonardo da Vinci ‘laws’ of friction.

  18. Optical and Thermal Stability of Oligofluorene/Rubber Luminescent Blend.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Camila G; Faez, Roselena; Péres, Laura O

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes to obtain homogeneous and stable blends of oligo(9,9-dioctylfluorene)-co-phenylene (OF), a conjugated oligomer with strong tendency of formation of excimers in the solid state, and nitrile rubber (NBR). This rubber protection reduces the formation of polymer excimers in the films. The fluorene oligomer was synthesized via Suzuki reaction and incorporated in the nitrile rubber. The films were formed by spin coating and casting techniques on the proportions of 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 % (w/w) of OF in the nitrile rubber (NBR). The structural, optical and thermal properties of the films were evaluated with infrared, UV-Vis, fluorescence and thermogravimetry, respectively. The nitrile rubber proved to be essential for the preparation of homogeneous and stable films, since it was not possible to obtain films with only fluorene using the above-mentioned techniques. Furthermore, luminescent properties of OF are unchanged and the excimers formation in the solid state decrease suggesting the efficiency of nitrile rubber as the matrix for making films.

  19. The water-food nexus of natural rubber production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiarelli, D. D.; Rosa, L.; Rulli, M. C.; D'Odorico, P.

    2017-12-01

    The increasing global demand for natural rubber (100% increase in the last 15 years) is for most part met by Malaysia and Indonesia, and - to a lesser extent - other countries in south-east Asia and Africa. The consequent expansion of rubber plantation has often occurred at the expenses of agricultural land for staple food, particularly in southeast Asia, where most of the land suitable for agriculture is already harvested for food crops or other uses. Here we investigate the extent to which the ongoing increase in rubber production is competing with the food system and affecting the livelihoods of rural communities in the areas of production and their appropriation of natural resources, such as water. We also investigate to what extent the expansion of rubber plantations is taking place through large scale land acquisitions (LSLAs) and evaluate the impacts on rural communities. Our results show how rubber production has strong environmental, social and economic impacts. Despite their ability to bring employment and increase the average income of economically disadvantaged areas, rubber plantations may threaten the local water and food security and induce a loss of rural livelihoods, particularly when the new plantations result from LSLAs that displace semi-subsistence forms of production thereby forcing the local populations to depend on global markets.

  20. On the response of rubbers at high strain rates.

    SciT

    Niemczura, Johnathan Greenberg

    In this report, we examine the propagation of tensile waves of finite deformation in rubbers through experiments and analysis. Attention is focused on the propagation of one-dimensional dispersive and shock waves in strips of latex and nitrile rubber. Tensile wave propagation experiments were conducted at high strain-rates by holding one end fixed and displacing the other end at a constant velocity. A high-speed video camera was used to monitor the motion and to determine the evolution of strain and particle velocity in the rubber strips. Analysis of the response through the theory of finite waves and quantitative matching between themore » experimental observations and analytical predictions was used to determine an appropriate instantaneous elastic response for the rubbers. This analysis also yields the tensile shock adiabat for rubber. Dispersive waves as well as shock waves are also observed in free-retraction experiments; these are used to quantify hysteretic effects in rubber.« less

  1. General theory of frictional heating with application to rubber friction.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, G; Ciaravola, V; Furno, A; Lorenz, B; Persson, B N J

    2015-05-08

    The energy dissipation in the contact regions between solids in sliding contact can result in high local temperatures which may strongly effect friction and wear. This is the case for rubber sliding on road surfaces at speeds above 1 mm s(-1). We derive equations which describe the frictional heating for solids with arbitrary thermal properties. The theory is applied to rubber friction on road surfaces and we take into account that the frictional energy is partly produced inside the rubber due to the internal friction of rubber and in a thin (nanometer) interfacial layer at the rubber-road contact region. The heat transfer between the rubber and the road surface is described by a heat transfer coefficient which depends on the sliding speed. Numerical results are presented and compared to experimental data. We find that frictional heating results in a kinetic friction force which depends on the orientation of the sliding block, thus violating one of the two basic Leonardo da Vinci 'laws' of friction.

  2. Exposure to aged crumb rubber reduces survival time during a stress test in earthworms (Eisenia fetida).

    PubMed

    Pochron, Sharon; Nikakis, Jacqueline; Illuzzi, Kyra; Baatz, Andrea; Demirciyan, Loriana; Dhillon, Amritjot; Gaylor, Thomas; Manganaro, Alexa; Maritato, Nicholas; Moawad, Michael; Singh, Rajwinder; Tucker, Clara; Vaughan, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    Solid waste management struggles with the sustainable disposal of used tires. One solution involves shredding used tires into crumb rubber and using the material as infill for artificial turf. However, crumb rubber contains hydrocarbons, organic compounds, and heavy metals, and it travels into the environment. Earthworms living in soil contaminated with virgin crumb rubber gained 14% less body weight than did earthworms living in uncontaminated soil, but the impact of aged crumb rubber on the earthworms is unknown. Since many athletic fields contain aged crumb rubber, we compared the body weight, survivorship, and longevity in heat and light stress for earthworms living in clean topsoil to those living in topsoil contaminated with aged crumb rubber. We also characterized levels of metals, nutrients, and micronutrients of both soil treatments and compared those to published values for soil contaminated with virgin crumb rubber. Consistent with earlier research, we found that contaminated soil did not inhibit microbial respiration rates. Aged crumb rubber, like new crumb rubber, had high levels of zinc. However, while exposure to aged crumb rubber did not reduce earthworm body weight as did exposure to new crumb rubber, exposure to aged crumb rubber reduced earthworm survival time during a stress test by a statistically significant 38 min (16.2%) relative to the survival time for worms that had lived in clean soil. Aged crumb rubber and new crumb rubber appear to pose similar toxic risks to earthworms. This study suggests an environmental cost associated with the current tire-recycling solution.

  3. Subcellular proteome profiles of different latex fractions revealed washed solutions from rubber particles contain crucial enzymes for natural rubber biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Sun, Yong; Chang, Lili; Tong, Zheng; Xie, Quanliang; Jin, Xiang; Zhu, Liping; He, Peng; Li, Hongbin; Wang, Xuchu

    2018-06-30

    Rubber particle (RP) is a specific organelle for natural rubber biosynthesis (NRB) and storage in rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis. NRB is processed by RP membrane-localized proteins, which were traditionally purified by repeated washing. However, we noticed many proteins in the discarded washing solutions (WS) from RP. Here, we compared the proteome profiles of WS, C-serum (CS) and RP by 2-DE, and identified 233 abundant proteins from WS by mass spectrometry. Many spots on 2-DE gels were identified as different protein species. We further performed shotgun analysis of CS, WS and RP and identified 1837, 1799 and 1020 unique proteins, respectively. Together with 2-DE, we finally identified 1825 proteins from WS, 246 were WS-specific. These WS-specific proteins were annotated in Gene Ontology, indicating most abundant pathways are organic substance metabolic process, protein degradation, primary metabolic process, and energy metabolism. Protein-protein interaction analysis revealed these WS-specific proteins are mainly involved in ribosomal metabolism, proteasome system, vacuolar protein sorting and endocytosis. Label free and Western blotting revealed many WS-specific proteins and protein complexes are crucial for NRB initiation. These findings not only deepen our understanding of WS proteome, but also provide new evidences on the roles of RP membrane proteins in NRB. Natural rubber is stored in rubber particle from the rubber tree. Rubber particles were traditionally purified by repeated washing, but many proteins were identified from the washing solutions (WS). We obtained the first visualization proteome profiles with 1825 proteins from WS, including 246 WS-specific ones. These WS proteins contain almost all enzymes for polyisoprene initiation and may play important roles in rubber biosynthesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of pressure in rubber elasticity.

    PubMed

    Bower, A F; Weiner, J H

    2004-06-22

    We describe a series of molecular dynamics computations that reveal an intimate connection at the atomic scale between difference stress (which resists stretches) and pressure (which resists volume changes) in an idealized elastomer, in contrast to the classical theory of rubber elasticity. Our simulations idealize the elastomer as a "pearl necklace," in which the covalent bonds are stiff linear springs, while nonbonded atoms interact through a Lennard-Jones potential with energy epsilon(LJ) and radius sigma(LJ). We calculate the difference stress t(11)-(t(22)+t(33))/2 and mean stress (t(11)+t(22)+t(33))/3 induced by a constant volume extension in the x(1) direction, as a function of temperature T and reduced density rho(*)=Nsigma(IJ) (3)/nu. Here, N is the number of atoms in the simulation cell and nu is the cell volume. Results show that for rho(*)<1, the difference stress is purely entropic and is in good agreement with the classical affine network model of rubber elasticity, which neglects nonbonded interactions. However, data presented by van Krevelen [Properties of Polymers, 3rd ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1990), p. 79] indicate that rubber at standard conditions corresponds to rho(*)=1.2. For rho(*)>1, the system is entropic for kT/epsilon(LJ)>2, but at lower temperatures the difference stress contains an additional energy component, which increases as rho(*) increases and temperature decreases. Finally, the model exhibits a glass transition for rho(*)=1.2 and kT/epsilon(LJ) approximately 2. The atomic-scale processes responsible for generating stress are explored in detail. Simulations demonstrate that the repulsive portion of the Lennard-Jones potential provides a contribution sigma(nbr)>0 to the difference stress, the attractive portion provides sigma(nba) approximately 0, while the covalent bonds provide sigma(b)<0. In contrast, their respective contributions to the mean stress satisfy Pi(nbr)<0, Pi(nba)>0, and Pi(b)<0. Analytical calculations, together

  5. The role of pressure in rubber elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, A. F.; Weiner, J. H.

    2004-06-01

    We describe a series of molecular dynamics computations that reveal an intimate connection at the atomic scale between difference stress (which resists stretches) and pressure (which resists volume changes) in an idealized elastomer, in contrast to the classical theory of rubber elasticity. Our simulations idealize the elastomer as a "pearl necklace," in which the covalent bonds are stiff linear springs, while nonbonded atoms interact through a Lennard-Jones potential with energy εLJ and radius σLJ. We calculate the difference stress t11-(t22+t33)/2 and mean stress (t11+t22+t33)/3 induced by a constant volume extension in the x1 direction, as a function of temperature T and reduced density ρ*=NσIJ3/ν. Here, N is the number of atoms in the simulation cell and ν is the cell volume. Results show that for ρ*<1, the difference stress is purely entropic and is in good agreement with the classical affine network model of rubber elasticity, which neglects nonbonded interactions. However, data presented by van Krevelen [Properties of Polymers, 3rd ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1990), p. 79] indicate that rubber at standard conditions corresponds to ρ*=1.2. For ρ*>1, the system is entropic for kT/εLJ>2, but at lower temperatures the difference stress contains an additional energy component, which increases as ρ* increases and temperature decreases. Finally, the model exhibits a glass transition for ρ*=1.2 and kT/εLJ≈2. The atomic-scale processes responsible for generating stress are explored in detail. Simulations demonstrate that the repulsive portion of the Lennard-Jones potential provides a contribution σnbr>0 to the difference stress, the attractive portion provides σnba≈0, while the covalent bonds provide σb<0. In contrast, their respective contributions to the mean stress satisfy Πnbr<0, Πnba>0, and Πb<0. Analytical calculations, together with simulations, demonstrate that mean and difference stresses are related by σnbr=-AΠnbr,

  6. Investigation of the Influence of Acoustic Oscillation Parameters on the Mechanism of Waste Rubber Products Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakurov, R. F.; Sitnikov, O. R.; Galimova, A. I.; Sabitova, A. F.

    2018-03-01

    The article presents an analysis of the used methods of recycling of waste rubber products. The worn out tires are exposed to natural decomposition only after 50 - 100 years, and toxic organic compounds used in the manufacture constitute a danger to the environment. It contemplates a method of recycling waste rubber products in devices where pulsating combustion is realized. The dependence of the influence of acoustic pulsation parameters on the combustion mechanism of waste rubber products and on the composition of combustion products was experimentally investigated and established. For this purpose, the setup scheme based on the Rijke effect is optimized. The resonance pipe is coaxially embedded in the shaft. The known mathematical model of finding the combustion zones in the Rijke pipe, corresponding to the gas flow oscillations with the maximum amplitude, is applied to the chosen scheme. Investigations were carried out for three positions of the grate relative to the lower section of the experimental pipe, in which 1st, 2nd, 3rd modes of oscillation are formed. There are favorable conditions arise for the secondary combustion of mechanical particles entrained in the gas flow in the tube. The favorable conditions for afterburning also include the fact that through the upper section of the resonant pipe, the ambient air, caused by the features of the standing wave, is mixed into the gas stream. A comparative analysis of the change of gas concentration composition along the length of the resonance tube is carried out. It is established that the basic mode of oscillations contributes to the reduction of nitrogen oxides, in comparison with the oscillations occurring simultaneously at several harmonics, considering the main one. The results of research for the three positions of the grate in relation to the lower section of the installation are presented in tabular form, in which 1, 2, 3 modes of oscillation are formed. The analysis of experimental results confirms

  7. Characterization of associated proteins and phospholipids in natural rubber latex.

    PubMed

    Sansatsadeekul, Jitlada; Sakdapipanich, Jitladda; Rojruthai, Porntip

    2011-06-01

    Non-rubber components present in natural rubber (NR) latex, such as proteins and phospholipids, are presumed to be distributed in the serum fraction as well as surrounding the rubber particle surface. The phospholipid-protein layers covering the rubber particle surface are especially interesting due to their ability to enhance the colloidal stability of NR latex. In this study, we have characterized the components surrounding the NR particle surface and investigated their role in the colloidal stability of NR particles. Proteins from the cream fraction were proteolytically removed from the NR latex and compare to those from the serum fractions using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealing that both fractions contained similar proteins in certain molecular weights such as 14.5, 25 and 27 kDa. Phospholipids removed from latex by treatment with NaOH were analyzed using (1)H-NMR spectroscopy and several major signals were assignable to -(CH(2))(n)-, -CH(2)OP, -CH(2)OC═O and -OCH(2)CH(2)NH-. These signals are important evidence that indicates phospholipids associate with the rubber chain. The colloidal behavior of rubber lattices before and after removal of protein-lipid membrane was evaluated by zeta potential analysis and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The lowest zeta potential value of NR particles was observed at pH 10, consequently leading to the highest stability of rubber particles. Additionally, SEM micrographs clearly displayed a gray ring near the particle surface corresponding to the protein-lipid membrane layer. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Rubber band ligation in treatment of hemorrhoids: our experience].

    PubMed

    Gaj, F; Biviano, I; Sportelli, G; Candeloro, L

    2015-01-01

    Hemorrhoids are a very common condition. The treatment depends upon persistence and severity of symptoms. For hemorrhoids of II and III grade the rubber band ligation may be therapeutic. Our aim is to report the outcomes of rubber band ligation of hemorrhoids, with a follow up of 6 months. A total of 50 patients underwent rubber band ligation for symptomatic hemorrhoids (grade II and III) without prolapse, between June 2012 and June 2014. All patients underwent plug test to rule out presence of rectal mucosal prolapse and were classified according to PATE classification (1). Each hemorrhoid was ligated with one rubber band through a ligator. All patients were evaluated immediately at the end of the procedure, after ten days and six months after the treatment. Patient's demographic and operative data were collected and analyzed. The mean patients age was 47.6±12.3 years (range 24-72). All procedures were performed without complications. Before rubber band ligation, 42 patients had rectal bleeding, 38 had perineal discomfort and 27 had itching. Ten days after the treatment, 12 patients presented self-limited rectal bleeding, but 10 of these had more hemorrhoids and underwent a second rubber band ligation. No patients complained perineal discomfort, and 8 patients had itching; 78% and 16% of patients respectively, experienced feeling of a foreign body inside the canal anal and anal pain. After 6 months, only 13 patients were occasionally symptomatic: 4 patients had rectal bleeding, 2 had perineal discomfort and 4 had itching. Three more patients presented both perineal discomfort and hitching. None had the feeling of a foreign body in anal canal or anal pain. Rubber band ligation is an efficacious, cost-effective and simple treatment for the second and third degree hemorrhoids without rectal mucosal prolapsed. In our hands, no severe complications developed and minor complications could be handled with ease.

  9. Studies on gamma irradiated rubber materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lungu, I. B.; Stelescu, M. D.; Cutrubinis, M.

    2018-01-01

    Due to the increase in use and production of polymer materials, there is a constant pressure of finding a solution to more environmental friendly composites. Beside the constant effort of recycling used materials, it seems more appropriate to manufacture and use biodegradable and renewable row materials. Natural polymers like starch, cellulose, lignin etc are ideal for preparing biodegradable composites. Some of the dynamic markets that use polymer materials are the food and pharmaceutical industries. Because of their desinfastation and sometimes sterility requirements, different treatment processes are applied, one of it being radiation treatment. The scope of this paper is to analyze the mechanical behaviour of rubber based materials irradiated with gamma rays at four medium doses, 30.1 kGy, 60.6 kGy, 91 kGy and 121.8 kGy. The objectives are the following: to identify the optimum radiation dose in order to obtain a good mechanical behaviour and to identify the mechanical behaviour of the material when adding different quantities of natural filler (20 phr, 60 phr and 100 phr).

  10. Optimal placement of water-lubricated rubber bearings for vibration reduction of flexible multistage rotor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shibing; Yang, Bingen

    2017-10-01

    Flexible multistage rotor systems with water-lubricated rubber bearings (WLRBs) have a variety of engineering applications. Filling a technical gap in the literature, this effort proposes a method of optimal bearing placement that minimizes the vibration amplitude of a WLRB-supported flexible rotor system with a minimum number of bearings. In the development, a new model of WLRBs and a distributed transfer function formulation are used to define a mixed continuous-and-discrete optimization problem. To deal with the case of uncertain number of WLRBs in rotor design, a virtual bearing method is devised. Solution of the optimization problem by a real-coded genetic algorithm yields the locations and lengths of water-lubricated rubber bearings, by which the prescribed operational requirements for the rotor system are satisfied. The proposed method is applicable either to preliminary design of a new rotor system with the number of bearings unforeknown or to redesign of an existing rotor system with a given number of bearings. Numerical examples show that the proposed optimal bearing placement is efficient, accurate and versatile in different design cases.

  11. Improvement of silicone rubber properties by addition of nano-SiO2 particles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lianfeng; Wang, Xianming; Ning, Liang; Han, Jianjun; Wan, Zhong; Lu, Min

    2016-07-04

    To improve the comprehensive performances of a one-part room temperature vulcanized silicone rubber(RTV-1 SiR), Nano-SiO2 particles are employed as the reinforcing agent. The SiO2/RTV-1 SiR composite is prepared using PDMS, ND42, D-60 and HMDS-modified SiO2 particles by mixing method. And then, the mechanical and electrical properties, including shear strength, tensile strength, hardness Shore A and volume resistivity, are investigated using experimental method. The addition of nano-SiO2 particles can improve the properties of the SiO2/RTV-1 SiR composite in different degrees. And, the incorporation of 25~30 phr nano-SiO2 particles is found to be reasonable for silicone rubber composite with the best comprehensive performances. The significant improvement of mechanical properties and electrical insulation of SiO2 may be contributed to the addition of modified nano-SiO2 particles. Additionally, the excellent comprehensive performances of SiO2/RTV-1 SiR composite guarantee a potential applications as electrical-insulating adhesives.

  12. The improvement in functional characteristics of eco-friendly composites made of natural rubber and cellulose

    SciT

    Araki, Kunihiro; Kaneko, Shonosuke; Matsumoto, Koki

    We investigated the efficient use of cellulose to resolve the problem of the depletion of fossil resources. In this study, as the biomass material, the green composite based on natural rubber (NR) and the flake-shaped cellulose particles (FSCP) was produced. In order to further improvement of functional characteristics, epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) was also used instead of NR. The FSCP were produced by mechanical milling in a planetary ball mill with a grinding aid as a cellulose aggregation inhibitor. Moreover, talc and mica particles were used to compare with FSCP. NR and ENR was mixed with vulcanizing agents and thenmore » each filler was added to NR compound in an internal mixer. The vulcanizing agents are as follows: stearic acid, zinc oxide, sulfur, and vulcanization accelerator. The functionalities of the composites were evaluated by a vibration-damping experiment and a gas permeability experiment. As a result, we found that FSCP filler has effects similar to (or more than) inorganic filler in vibration-damping and O{sub 2} barrier properties. And then, vibration- damping and O{sub 2} barrier properties of the composite including FSCP was increased with use of ENR. In particular, we found that ENR-50 composite containing 50 phr FSCP has three times as high vibration-damping property as ENR-50 without FSCP.« less

  13. Performance of sand and shredded rubber tire mixture as a natural base isolator for earthquake protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Srijit; Sengupta, Aniruddha; Reddy, G. R.

    2015-12-01

    The performance of a well-designed layer of sand, and composites like layer of sand mixed with shredded rubber tire (RSM) as low cost base isolators, is studied in shake table tests in the laboratory. The building foundation is modeled by a 200 mm by 200 mm and 40 mm thick rigid plexi-glass block. The block is placed in the middle of a 1m by 1m tank filled with sand. The selected base isolator is placed between the block and the sand foundation. Accelerometers are placed on top of the footing and foundation sand layer. The displacement of the footing is also measured by LVDT. The whole setup is mounted on a shake table and subjected to sinusoidal motions with varying amplitude and frequency. Sand is found to be effective only at very high amplitude (> 0.65 g) of motions. The performance of a composite consisting of sand and 50% shredded rubber tire placed under the footing is found to be most promising as a low-cost effective base isolator.

  14. Cropping system diversification for food production in Mindanao rubber plantations: a rice cultivar mixture and rice intercropped with mungbean

    PubMed Central

    Elazegui, Francisco; Duque, Jo-Anne Lynne Joy E.; Mundt, Christopher C.; Vera Cruz, Casiana M.

    2017-01-01

    Including food production in non-food systems, such as rubber plantations and biofuel or bioenergy crops, may contribute to household food security. We evaluated the potential for planting rice, mungbean, rice cultivar mixtures, and rice intercropped with mungbean in young rubber plantations in experiments in the Arakan Valley of Mindanao in the Philippines. Rice mixtures consisted of two- or three-row strips of cultivar Dinorado, a cultivar with higher value but lower yield, and high-yielding cultivar UPL Ri-5. Rice and mungbean intercropping treatments consisted of different combinations of two- or three-row strips of rice and mungbean. We used generalized linear mixed models to evaluate the yield of each crop alone and in the mixture or intercropping treatments. We also evaluated a land equivalent ratio for yield, along with weed biomass (where Ageratum conyzoides was particularly abundant), the severity of disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae and Cochliobolus miyabeanus, and rice bug (Leptocorisa acuta) abundance. We analyzed the yield ranking of each cropping system across site-year combinations to determine mean relative performance and yield stability. When weighted by their relative economic value, UPL Ri-5 had the highest mean performance, but with decreasing performance in low-yielding environments. A rice and mungbean intercropping system had the second highest performance, tied with high-value Dinorado but without decreasing relative performance in low-yielding environments. Rice and mungbean intercropped with rubber have been adopted by farmers in the Arakan Valley. PMID:28194318

  15. Degradation of Root Community Traits as Indicator for Transformation of Tropical Lowland Rain Forests into Oil Palm and Rubber Plantations

    PubMed Central

    Edy, Nur; Meyer, Marike; Corre, Marife D.; Polle, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Conversion of tropical forests into intensely managed plantations is a threat to ecosystem functions. On Sumatra, Indonesia, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantations are rapidly expanding, displacing rain forests and extensively used rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) agro-forests. Here, we tested the influence of land use systems on root traits including chemical traits (carbon, nitrogen, mineral nutrients, potentially toxic elements [aluminium, iron] and performance traits (root mass, vitality, mycorrhizal colonization). Traits were measured as root community-weighed traits (RCWTs) in lowland rain forests, in rubber agro-forests mixed with rain forest trees, in rubber and oil palm plantations in two landscapes (Bukit Duabelas and Harapan, Sumatra). We hypothesized that RCWTs vary with land use system indicating increasing transformation intensity and loss of ecosystem functions. The main factors found to be related to increasing transformation intensity were declining root vitality and root sulfur, nitrogen, carbon, manganese concentrations and increasing root aluminium and iron concentrations as well as increasing spore densities of arbuscular mycorrhizas. Mycorrhizal abundance was high for arbuscular and low for ectomycorrhizas and unrelated to changes in RCWTs. The decline in RCWTs showed significant correlations with soil nitrogen, soil pH and litter carbon. Thus, our study uncovered a relationship between deteriorating root community traits and loss of ecosystem functionality and showed that increasing transformation intensity resulted in decreasing root nutrition and health. Based on these results we suggest that land management that improves root vitality may enhance the ecological functions of intense tropical production systems. PMID:26366576

  16. Degradation of Root Community Traits as Indicator for Transformation of Tropical Lowland Rain Forests into Oil Palm and Rubber Plantations.

    PubMed

    Sahner, Josephine; Budi, Sri Wilarso; Barus, Henry; Edy, Nur; Meyer, Marike; Corre, Marife D; Polle, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Conversion of tropical forests into intensely managed plantations is a threat to ecosystem functions. On Sumatra, Indonesia, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantations are rapidly expanding, displacing rain forests and extensively used rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) agro-forests. Here, we tested the influence of land use systems on root traits including chemical traits (carbon, nitrogen, mineral nutrients, potentially toxic elements [aluminium, iron] and performance traits (root mass, vitality, mycorrhizal colonization). Traits were measured as root community-weighed traits (RCWTs) in lowland rain forests, in rubber agro-forests mixed with rain forest trees, in rubber and oil palm plantations in two landscapes (Bukit Duabelas and Harapan, Sumatra). We hypothesized that RCWTs vary with land use system indicating increasing transformation intensity and loss of ecosystem functions. The main factors found to be related to increasing transformation intensity were declining root vitality and root sulfur, nitrogen, carbon, manganese concentrations and increasing root aluminium and iron concentrations as well as increasing spore densities of arbuscular mycorrhizas. Mycorrhizal abundance was high for arbuscular and low for ectomycorrhizas and unrelated to changes in RCWTs. The decline in RCWTs showed significant correlations with soil nitrogen, soil pH and litter carbon. Thus, our study uncovered a relationship between deteriorating root community traits and loss of ecosystem functionality and showed that increasing transformation intensity resulted in decreasing root nutrition and health. Based on these results we suggest that land management that improves root vitality may enhance the ecological functions of intense tropical production systems.

  17. The phenology pattern of rubber trees in plantation and its impacts on rubber tree structure, water and carbon cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.; Giambelluca, T. W.; Mudd, R. G.

    2012-12-01

    Commercial rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis) is originally native to the Amazon rainforest and it has become one of the important commercial crops in Mainland Southeast Asia. Similarly to some trees species in Amazon but quite distinctly from other native forests in Southeast Asia, rubber tree sheds its leaves in the middle of dry season and flushes new leaves before the onset of the wet season. Moreover, the mountane mainland Southeast Asia is heavily influenced by the monsoon climate which has most the precipitation in the wet season while almost no rainfall in the dry season. It is believed that the phenology pattern of rubber interacted with local climate would not only regulate the seasonal rubber plantation structures but also further alter the local energy and water budget. However, it is still lack of solid understandings of how the phenology patterns in terms of the leaf area index (LAI) changes of the rubber tree response to environmental drivers. The study tries to shed lights on the issue from analyses of a various types of in-situ field data combined with 3 years' tower flux measurements collected within the rubber plantations. It concludes that: 1) Both the monthly tree height increment and the monthly biomass accumulation are highly correlated with the LAI changes, which have the low rate of changes in the dry season versus the relative high rate of changes in the wet season; 2) the daily evapotranspiration (ET) of the rubber tree is very sensitive to the daily LAI changes in the dry season (R2 > 0.9); 3) the LAI changes, especially the leaf drops, are majorly determined by the accumulated precipitation in the past three months.

  18. Taxonomic revision and phylogenetic analyses of rubber powdery mildew fungi.

    PubMed

    Liyanage, K K; Khan, Sehroon; Brooks, Siraprapa; Mortimer, Peter E; Karunarathna, Samantha C; Xu, Jianchu; Hyde, Kevin D

    2017-04-01

    Powdery mildew is a fungal disease that infects a wide range of plants, including rubber trees, which results in a reduction of latex yields of up to 45%. The causal agent of powdery mildew of rubber was first described as Oidium heveae, but later morpho-molecular research suggested that in the past, O. heveae has been confused with Erysiphe quercicola. However, it is still under debate whether the causal agent should be classified as a species of the genus Erysiphe emend. or Golovinomyces and Podosphaera, respectively. Therefore, the aim of this study was to undertake the morpho-molecular characterization of powdery mildew species associated with rubber trees, thus resolving these taxonomic issues. Morphological observation under light and scanning electron microscopes (SEM) clearly identified two morphotypes of the rubber powdery mildew. With the support of morphological and phylogenetic data, one of the two morphotypes was identified as the asexual morph of E. quercicola, while the second morphotype is still insufficiently known and according to the morphological results obtained we assume that it might belong to the genus Golovinomyces. More collections and additional molecular data are required for final conclusions regarding the exact taxonomic position of the second morphotype of rubber powdery mildew and its relation to the name O. heveae. The haplotype analysis identified eight haplotype groups of E. quercicola indicating the high genetic diversity of the species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Thermoreversibly Cross-Linked EPM Rubber Nanocomposites with Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Criscitiello, Francesco; van Essen, Machiel; Araya-Hermosilla, Rodrigo; Migliore, Nicola; Lenti, Mattia; Raffa, Patrizio

    2018-01-01

    Conductive rubber nanocomposites were prepared by dispersing conductive nanotubes (CNT) in thermoreversibly cross-linked ethylene propylene rubbers grafted with furan groups (EPM-g-furan) rubbers. Their features were studied with a strong focus on conductive and mechanical properties relevant for strain-sensor applications. The Diels-Alder chemistry used for thermoreversible cross-linking allows for the preparation of fully recyclable, homogeneous, and conductive nanocomposites. CNT modified with compatible furan groups provided nanocomposites with a relatively large tensile strength and small elongation at break. High and low sensitivity deformation experiments of nanocomposites with 5 wt % CNT (at the percolation threshold) displayed an initially linear sensitivity to deformation. Notably, only fresh samples displayed a linear response of their electrical resistivity to deformations as the resistance variation collapsed already after one cycle of elongation. Notwithstanding this mediocre performance as a strain sensor, the advantages of using thermoreversible chemistry in a conductive rubber nanocomposite were highlighted by demonstrating crack-healing by welding due to the joule effect on the surface and the bulk of the material. This will open up new technological opportunities for the design of novel strain-sensors based on recyclable rubbers. PMID:29360772

  20. Occupational nitrosamine exposure. 1. Rubber and tyre industry.

    PubMed

    Spiegelhalder, B; Preussmann, R

    1983-09-01

    To determine the role of N-nitrosamines in the known increased cancer risk of rubber workers, air concentrations of such carcinogens were measured by area sampling or personal monitoring in 19 factories. N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) were found regularly, the air concentrations varying between 0.1 and 380 micrograms/m3 personal monitoring. The mean concentration was usually in the range of 1-10 micrograms/m3. Several other nitrosamines could be detected in certain production branches. In retail shops and storage rooms of tyres NDMA and NMOR were found. Most rubber chemicals based on amines are contaminated with N-nitrosamines, but this contamination cannot explain the air concentrations of nitrosamines found. The occurrence of nitrosamines mainly depends upon their formation during production of rubber and rubber products from used vulcanisation accelerators based on amines and the presence of nitrosating agents, such as diphenylnitrosamine (retarder A) and of nitrous gases, in products or production areas. Elimination of one or both precursors for nitrosamine formation resulted in significant reduction of airial contamination of nitrosamines. The results are discussed in regard to the mechanisms of nitrosamine formation during rubber production, as basis for future epidemiological studies and their potential for exposure prevention.

  1. Surface improvement of EPDM rubber by plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes, J. H.; da Silva Sobrinho, A. S.; Maciel, H. S.; Dutra, J. C. N.; Massi, M.; Mello, S. A. C.; Schreiner, W. H.

    2007-12-01

    The surface of ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM) rubber was treated in N2/Ar and N2/H2/Ar RF plasmas in order to achieve similar or better adhesion properties than NBR (acrylonitrile-butadiene) rubber, nowadays used as thermal protection of rocket chambers. The surface properties were studied by contact angle measurements and by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The treated surfaces of the EPDM samples show a significant reduction in the contact angle measurement, indicating an increase in the surface energy. XPS analyses show the incorporation of polar nitrogen- and oxygen-containing groups on the rubber surface. After plasma treatment the presence of oxygen is observed due to surface oxidation which occurs when the samples are exposed to the air. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy analyses indicate a decrease in the EPDM rubber surface roughness, promoted by surface etching during the plasma treatment. Strength tests indicate improvement of about 30% and 110% in the adhesion strength for the plasma treated EPDM/polyurethane liner interface and for the EPDM/epoxy adhesive interface, respectively. The adhesion strength of the EPDM/liner is similar to that obtained for the NBR/liner, which indicates that EPDM rubber can safely be used as thermal protection of the solid propellant rocket chamber.

  2. Behaviour of Steel Fibre Reinforced Rubberized Continuous Deep Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandeep, MS; Nagarajan, Praveen; Shashikala, A. P.

    2018-03-01

    Transfer girders and pier caps, which are in fact deep beams, are critical structural elements present in high-rise buildings and bridges respectively. During an earthquake, failure of lifeline structures like bridges and critical structural members like transfer girders will result in severe catastrophes. Ductility is the key factor that influences the resistance of any structural member against seismic action. Structural members cast using materials having higher ductility will possess higher seismic resistance. Previous research shows that concrete having rubber particles (rubcrete) possess better ductility and low density in comparison to ordinary concrete. The main hindrance to the use of rubcrete is the reduction in compressive and tensile strength of concrete due to the presence of rubber. If these undesirable properties of rubcrete can be controlled, a new cementitious composite with better ductility, seismic performance and economy can be developed. A combination of rubber particles and steel fibre has the potential to reduce the undesirable effect of rubcrete. In this paper, the effect of rubber particles and steel fibre in the behaviour of two-span continuous deep beams is studied experimentally. Based on the results, optimum proportions of steel fibre and rubber particles for getting good ductile behaviour with less reduction in collapse load is found out.

  3. Natural Rubber Nanocomposite with Human-Tissue-Like Mechanical Characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murniati, Riri; Novita, Nanda; Sutisna; Wibowo, Edy; Iskandar, Ferry; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin

    2017-07-01

    The blends of synthetic rubber and natural rubber with nanosilica were prepared using a blending technique in presence of different filler volume fraction. The effect of filler on morphological and mechanical characteristics was studied. Utilization of human cadaver in means of medical study has been commonly used primarily as tools of medical teaching and training such as surgery. Nonetheless, human cadaver brought inevitable problems. So it is necessary to find a substitute material that can be used to replace cadavers. In orthopaedics, the materials that resemble in mechanical properties to biological tissues are elastomers such as natural rubber (latex) and synthetic rubber (polyurethanes, silicones). This substitution material needs to consider the potential of Indonesia to help the development of the nation. Indonesia is the second largest country producer of natural rubber in the world. This paper aims to contribute to adjusting the mechanical properties of tissue-mimicking materials (TMMs) to the recommended range of biological tissue value and thus allow the development of phantoms with greater stability and similarity to human tissues. Repeatability for the phantom fabrication process was also explored. Characteristics were then compared to the control and mechanical characteristics of different human body part tissue. Nanosilica is the best filler to produce the best nanocomposite similarities with human tissue. We produced composites that approaching the properties of human internal tissues.

  4. Autonomic self-healing in epoxidized natural rubber.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Arifur; Sartore, Luciana; Bignotti, Fabio; Di Landro, Luca

    2013-02-01

    The development of polymers that can repair damage autonomously would be useful to improve the lifetime of polymeric materials. To date, limited attention has been dedicated to developing elastomers with autonomic self-healing ability, which can recover damages without need for an external or internal source of healing agents. This work investigates the self-healing behavior of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) with two different epoxidation levels (25 and 50 mol % epoxidation) and of the corresponding unfunctionalized rubber, cis-1,4-polyisoprene (PISP). A self-adhesion assisted self-healing behavior was revealed by T-peel tests on slightly vulcanized rubbers. A higher epoxidation level was found to enhance self-healing. Self-healing of rubbers following ballistic damages was also investigated. A pressurized air flow test setup was used to evaluate the self-healing of ballistic damages in rubbers. Microscope (OM, SEM, and TEM) analyses were carried out to provide further evidence of healing in the impact zones. Self-healing of ballistic damages was observed only in ENR with 50 mol % epoxidation and it was found to be influenced significantly by the cross-link density. Finally, self-healing of ballistic damages was also observed in ENR50/PISP blends only when the content of the healing component (i.e., ENR50) was at least 25 wt %. From an analysis of the results, it was concluded that a synergistic effect between interdiffusion and interaction among polar groups leads to self-healing in ENR.

  5. Liquefaction of ground tire rubber at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiangyun; Song, Pan; Zhao, Xinyu; Peng, Zonglin; Wang, Shifeng

    2018-01-01

    Low-temperature liquefaction has been investigated as a novel method for recycling ground tire rubber (GTR) into liquid using an environmentally benign process. The liquefaction was carried out at different temperatures (140, 160 and 180 °C) over variable time ranges (2-24 h) by blending the GTR with aromatic oil in a range from 0 to 100 parts per hundred rubber (phr). The liquefied GTR was separated into sol (the soluble fraction of rubber which can be extracted with toluene) and gel fractions (the solid fraction obtained after extraction) to evaluate the reclaiming efficiency. It was discovered that the percentage of the sol fraction increased with time, swelling ratio and temperature. Liquefied rubber was obtained with a high sol fraction (68.34 wt%) at 140 °C. Simultaneously, separation of nano-sized carbon black from the rubber networks occurred. The separation of carbon black from the network is the result of significant damage to the cross-linked-network that occurs throughout the liquefaction process. During liquefaction, a competitive reaction between main chain scission and cross-link bond breakage takes place. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Butyl Rubber Stoppers Increase the Shelf Life of Prereduced, Anaerobically Sterilized Media

    PubMed Central

    Fulghum, Robert S.; Worthington, John M.

    1977-01-01

    Butyl rubber stoppers as compared with neoprene or black rubber stoppers significantly increased the shelf life of prereduced, anaerobically sterilized media for growth of obligately anaerobic bacteria. PMID:879778

  7. Nanolipoprotein particles comprising a natural rubber biosynthetic enzyme complex and related products, methods and systems

    DOEpatents

    Hoeprich, Paul D.; Whalen, Maureen

    2016-04-05

    Provided herein are nanolipoprotein particles that comprise a biosynthetic enzyme more particularly an enzyme capable of catalyzing rubber or other rubbers polymerization, and related assemblies, devices, methods and systems.

  8. Microbial detoxification of waste rubber material by wood-rotting fungi.

    PubMed

    Bredberg, Katarina; Andersson, B Erik; Landfors, Eva; Holst, Olle

    2002-07-01

    The extensive use of rubber products, mainly tires, and the difficulties to recycle those products, has resulted in world wide environmental problems. Microbial devulcanisation is a promising way to increase the recycling of rubber materials. One obstacle is that several microorganisms tested for devulcanisation are sensitive to rubber additives. A way to overcome this might be to detoxify the rubber material with fungi prior to the devulcanisation. In this study, 15 species of white-rot and brown-rot fungi have been screened with regard to their capacity to degrade an aromatic model compound in the presence of ground waste tire rubber. The most effective fungus, Resinicium bicolor, was used for detoxification of rubber material. Increase in growth of the desulfurising bacterium Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in presence of the rubber treated with Resinicium bicolor compared to untreated rubber demonstrated that detoxification with fungi is possible.

  9. A laboratory evaluation of rubber-asphalt paving mixtures : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1974-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate rubber additive asphalt and its aggregate mixtures in the laboratory with respect to their physical characteristics. : Results obtained on the physical properties of the rubberized asphalt binder we...

  10. Installation and early performance of a field test section of asphalt rubber concrete.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1991-01-01

    Asphalt rubber, which is produced by reacting asphalt cement and crumb rubber, is claimed to increase fatigue life and reduce rutting of asphalt concrete; however, the service life must be increased significantly to offset the additional coast of add...

  11. Effect of electron beam irradiation on the properties of crosslinked rubbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banik, Indranil; Bhowmick, Anil K.

    2000-05-01

    Influence of electron beam (EB) irradiation on the mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties of crosslinked fluorocarbon (FKM) rubber, natural rubber (NR), ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubber and nitrile rubber (NBR) has been investigated. The modulus, gel fraction, glass transition temperature ( Tg) and storage modulus increased, while the elongation at the break and the loss tangent (tan δ) Tg decreased. FKM and NBR vulcanizates have been shown to have EB radiation resistance up to 1500 kGy.

  12. Strength and microstructure characteristics of the recycled rubber tire-sand mixtures as lightweight backfill.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Cai, Guojun; Duan, Weihong

    2018-02-01

    The disposal of scrap rubber tires has induced critical environmental issue worldwide due to the rapid increase in the number of vehicles. Recycled scrap tires as a construction material in civil engineering have significant environmental benefits from a waste management perspective. A systematic study that deals with strength and microstructure characteristics of the rubber-sand mixtures is initiated, and mechanical response of the mixtures is discussed in this investigation. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of rubber fraction on the basic properties including mass density (ρ), stress-strain characteristics, shear strength, and unconfined compression strength (q u ) of the rubber-sand mixtures. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was carried out to reveal the microstructure characteristics of the mixtures with various rubber fractions. A discussion on the micromechanics of the mixtures also was conducted. This study demonstrates that the ρ, friction angle, and q u decrease linearly with an increase in rubber fraction, whereas shear strain at peak increases. The stress-strain characteristics of the rubber-sand mixtures shift from brittle to ductile as the rubber fraction increase. These changes are attributed to remarkably lower stiffness and higher compressibility of the rubber particle compared with those of the conventional mineral aggregates. With an increase in the rubber fraction, the mechanical response of rubber-sand mixtures exhibits two types: sand-like material and rubber-like material. Rubber particle possesses the capacity to prevent the contacted sand particles from sliding at lower rubber fraction, whereas it transmits the applied loadings as the rubber fraction increased. This outcome reinforces the practicability of using recycled rubber tire-sand mixtures as a lightweight backfill in subbase/base applications.

  13. Diffusion of progestogens through Silastic rubber implants.

    PubMed

    Lifchez, A S; Scommegna, A

    1970-05-01

    Silastic rubber capsules in 2 thicknesses (.42 mm and .80 mm) and 3 lengths (9, 14, and 19 mm) were filled with progesterone, Provera, Norgestrel, or chlormadinone acetate and implanted under the skin of rats, and the amount of steroid released was measured after 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks. The amount of steroid released was also measured from progesterone-filled capsules .42 mm thick and varying from 19-32 mm long inserted in the uterus of 16 women volunteers for 1-7 days. The rate of release of each steroid in the rats was found to be proportionate to the length of the capsule and related, but not proportional to the thickness of the capsule. The release rate of progesterone was 3-20 times greater than that of the other steroids, while Norgestrel diffused at the lowest rate. The influence of thickness of capsule was greater for the steroids with the highest diffusion rate, progesterone and chlormadinone acetate. The release rates of all except chlormadinone acetate were higher in the 1st week. The release rates of the synthetic progestins, unlike that of progesterone, were relatively constant after the 1st week. The release rate of progesterone tended to be related to the amount remaining in the capsule when the amount became small. The measured amount of progesterone released each day from each intrauterine capsule was also proportional to its length. It appears that Norgestrel, Provera, and chlormadinone acetate are all released slowly enough and have enough biologic activity at low concentrations to have a contraceptive effect for well over 1 year when administered in a 30 mm intrauterine capsule.

  14. NR/EPDM elastomeric rubber blend miscibility evaluation by two-level fractional factorial design of experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razak, Jeefferie Abd; Ahmad, Sahrim Haji; Ratnam, Chantara Thevy; Mahamood, Mazlin Aida; Yaakub, Juliana; Mohamad, Noraiham

    2014-09-01

    Fractional 25 two-level factorial design of experiment (DOE) was applied to systematically prepare the NR/EPDM blend using Haake internal mixer set-up. The process model of rubber blend preparation that correlates the relationships between the mixer process input parameters and the output response of blend compatibility was developed. Model analysis of variance (ANOVA) and model fitting through curve evaluation finalized the R2 of 99.60% with proposed parametric combination of A = 30/70 NR/EPDM blend ratio; B = 70°C mixing temperature; C = 70 rpm of rotor speed; D = 5 minutes of mixing period and E = 1.30 phr EPDM-g-MAH compatibilizer addition, with overall 0.966 desirability. Model validation with small deviation at +2.09% confirmed the repeatability of the mixing strategy with valid maximum tensile strength output representing the blend miscibility. Theoretical calculation of NR/EPDM blend compatibility is also included and compared. In short, this study provides a brief insight on the utilization of DOE for experimental simplification and parameter inter-correlation studies, especially when dealing with multiple variables during elastomeric rubber blend preparation.

  15. Preparation, characterization and conductivity study of nitro-mercurated styrene butadiene rubber/silver doped zinc oxide nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anilkumar, T.; Naik, Adarsh Ajith; Ramesan, M. T.

    2017-06-01

    Here we report the preparation of nitromercurated styrene butadiene rubber (NMSBR)/silver doped zinc oxide nanocomposite by inexpensive and ecofriendly two roll mill mixing. The composites were characterized by UV, FTIR, XRD, SEM, TGA and conductivity measurements. UV and FTIR spectrum indicated the interfacial interaction between the polymer and nanoparticles.XRD and SEM images showed the uniform arrangement of nanoparticles within the macromolecular chain. TGA study indicated the better thermal resistance of the composite. The dielectric properties and AC conductivity ofnanocomposites were much greater than nitromercurated SBR and they may be used as multifunctional materials for nanoelectronic devices.

  16. Design of Self-Healing Supramolecular Rubbers by Introducing Ionic Cross-Links into Natural Rubber via a Controlled Vulcanization.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chuanhui; Cao, Liming; Lin, Baofeng; Liang, Xingquan; Chen, Yukun

    2016-07-13

    Introducing ionic associations is one of the most effective approaches to realize a self-healing behavior for rubbers. However, most of commercial rubbers are nonpolar rubbers without now available functional groups to be converted into ionic groups. In this paper, our strategy was based on a controlled peroxide-induced vulcanization to generate massive ionic cross-links via polymerization of zinc dimethacrylate (ZDMA) in natural rubber (NR) and exploited it as a potential self-healable material. We controlled vulcanization process to retard the formation of covalent cross-link network, and successfully generated a reversible supramolecular network mainly constructed by ionic cross-links. Without the restriction of covalent cross-linkings, the NR chains in ionic supramolecular network had good flexibility and mobility. The nature that the ionic cross-links was easily reconstructed and rearranged facilitating the self-healing behavior, thereby enabling a fully cut sample to rejoin and retain to its original properties after a suitable self-healing process at ambient temperature. This study thus demonstrates a feasible approach to impart an ionic association induced self-healing function to commercial rubbers without ionic functional groups.

  17. Biopurification of industrial waste gas from rubber regeneration.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peishi; Yang, Xianwan; Huang, Ruohua; Bin, Huang; Zheng, Sunsheng; Wei, Zaishan; Xu, Xiaoyi; Lu, Jilai; Sun, Xing; Chen, Liuxin

    2004-12-01

    By using the biopurifying technology, the organic waste gas in low concentrations emitted from the rubber-regeneration process was purified in this research. The result of the 100-day continuous running test of the industrial test device indicated that the purification efficiency of toluene in the rubber-regeneration waste gas could be maintained at about 90% for a long period of time and the treated waste gas could meet the China National Emission Standard. The cost of waste gas biotreatment was about 0.12-0.14% of rubber-regeneration production value of the factory. The biopurifying technology of waste gas displayed its excellent technical advancement and economic rationale. The following industrialized device was run continuously and passed the examination and acceptance by the local EPA.

  18. [The spectral study of the surface modified medical rubber].

    PubMed

    Luo, C; Liu, Y; Yang, J; Weng, J

    1999-08-01

    In this article ,the drug-resistance of two kinds of medical rubber whose surfaces have been modified were investigated by ATR-FTIR and XPS. The experimental results show that the compositions of the two samples'surface and body are different. The surface is fluorinated rubber although the body is butyl rubber. The ratio of fluorine to carbon atom in sample Ii -1 is higher than that in sample I -1. The principal join between F and C is the form--CF2--in sample II -1,but in sample I -1 it is the form--CF2-- and--CHF--. The change for F/C of the different depth in sample II- 1 was relatively less than that in sample I -1 when they were etched by argon ion bundle in the same conditions.

  19. Ethylene-Propylene Terpolymer Rubber Processing by Electron Beam Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manaila, Elena N.; Zuga, Maria Daniela T.; Martin, Diana I.; Craciun, Gabriela D.; Ighigeanu, Daniel I.; Matei, Constantin I.

    2007-04-01

    The investigations on the cross-linking by accelerated electrons of 6.23 MeV in lowly unsaturated elastomers of EPDM (ethylene-propylene terpolymer rubber) type are presented. Two rubber blends based EPDM were prepared and irradiated at different doses up to 250kGy: blend A - based on EPDM maleinized with polyethylene, zinc oxide, plasticizers, filler, and blend B - based on EPDM / PE (50 % EPDM and 50% polyethylene). Blends were prepared on a laboratory electrically heated rubber mill at temperatures of 150-160°C to enable the polyethylene (PE) melting to be reached. Plates of 150 × 150 × 2 mm were obtained in a laboratory electrical press at 170°C.

  20. EB-promoted recycling of waste tire rubber with polyolefins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mészáros, László; Bárány, Tamás; Czvikovszky, Tibor

    2012-09-01

    Despite the fact that more and more methods and solutions are used in the recycling of polymers, there are still some problems, especially in the recycling of cross-linked materials such as rubber. Usually the biggest problem is the lack of compatibility between the cross-linked rubber and the thermoplastic matrix. In this study we applied ground tire rubber (GTR) as recycled material. The GTR was embedded into polyethylene (PE) and polyethylene/ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (PE/EVA) matrices. In order to increase the compatibility of the components electron beam (EB) irradiation was applied. The results showed that the irradiation has a beneficial effect on the polymer-GTR interfacial connection. The EB treatment increased not only the tensile strength but also the elongation at break. The irradiation had also positive effect on the impact strength properties.

  1. Direct molding of pavement tiles made of ground tire rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quadrini, Fabrizio; Gagliardi, Donatella; Tedde, Giovanni Matteo; Santo, Loredana; Musacchi, Ettore

    2016-10-01

    Large rubber products can be molded by using only ground tire rubber (GTR) without any additive or binder due to a new technology called "direct molding". Rubber granules and powders from tire recycling are compression molded at elevated temperatures and pressures. The feasibility of this process was clearly shown in laboratory but the step to the industrial scale was missing. Thanks to an European Project (SMART "Sustainable Molding of Articles from Recycled Tires") this step has been made and some results are reported in this study. The press used for compression molding is described. Some tests were made to measure the energy consumption so as to evaluate costs for production in comparison with conventional technologies for GTR molding (by using binders). Results show that 1 m2 tiles can be easily molded with several thicknesses in a reasonable low time. Energy consumption is higher than conventional technologies but it is lower than the cost for binders.

  2. Draft genome sequence of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Ahmad Yamin Abdul; Usharraj, Abhilash O; Misra, Biswapriya B; Thottathil, Gincy P; Jayasekaran, Kandakumar; Feng, Yun; Hou, Shaobin; Ong, Su Yean; Ng, Fui Ling; Lee, Ling Sze; Tan, Hock Siew; Sakaff, Muhd Khairul Luqman Muhd; Teh, Beng Soon; Khoo, Bee Feong; Badai, Siti Suriawati; Aziz, Nurohaida Ab; Yuryev, Anton; Knudsen, Bjarne; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Mchunu, Nokuthula P; Yu, Qingyi; Langston, Brennick J; Freitas, Tracey Allen K; Young, Aaron G; Chen, Rui; Wang, Lei; Najimudin, Nazalan; Saito, Jennifer A; Alam, Maqsudul

    2013-02-02

    Hevea brasiliensis, a member of the Euphorbiaceae family, is the major commercial source of natural rubber (NR). NR is a latex polymer with high elasticity, flexibility, and resilience that has played a critical role in the world economy since 1876. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of H. brasiliensis. The assembly spans ~1.1 Gb of the estimated 2.15 Gb haploid genome. Overall, ~78% of the genome was identified as repetitive DNA. Gene prediction shows 68,955 gene models, of which 12.7% are unique to Hevea. Most of the key genes associated with rubber biosynthesis, rubberwood formation, disease resistance, and allergenicity have been identified. The knowledge gained from this genome sequence will aid in the future development of high-yielding clones to keep up with the ever increasing need for natural rubber.

  3. Draft genome sequence of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hevea brasiliensis, a member of the Euphorbiaceae family, is the major commercial source of natural rubber (NR). NR is a latex polymer with high elasticity, flexibility, and resilience that has played a critical role in the world economy since 1876. Results Here, we report the draft genome sequence of H. brasiliensis. The assembly spans ~1.1 Gb of the estimated 2.15 Gb haploid genome. Overall, ~78% of the genome was identified as repetitive DNA. Gene prediction shows 68,955 gene models, of which 12.7% are unique to Hevea. Most of the key genes associated with rubber biosynthesis, rubberwood formation, disease resistance, and allergenicity have been identified. Conclusions The knowledge gained from this genome sequence will aid in the future development of high-yielding clones to keep up with the ever increasing need for natural rubber. PMID:23375136

  4. Nonlinear Viscoelastic Mechanics of Cross-linked Rubbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Alan D.; Leonov, Arkady I.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The paper develops a general theory for finite rubber viscoelasticity, and specifies it in the form, convenient for solving problems important for rubber, tire and space industries. Based on the quasi-linear approach of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, a general nonlinear theory has been developed for arbitrary nonisothermal deformations of viscoelastic solids. In this theory, the constitutive equations are presented as the sum of known equilibrium (rubber elastic) and non-equilibrium (liquid polymer viscoelastic) terms. These equations are then simplified using several modeling arguments. Stability constraints for the proposed constitutive equations are also discussed. It is shown that only strong ellipticity criteria are applicable for assessing stability of the equations governing viscoelastic solids.

  5. Rubber Oxygenase and Latex Clearing Protein Cleave Rubber to Different Products and Use Different Cleavage Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Birke, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Two types of enzyme for oxidative cleavage of poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) are known. One is rubber oxygenase (RoxA) that is secreted by Xanthomonas sp. strain 35Y and a few other Gram-negative rubber-degrading bacteria during growth on polyisoprene. RoxA was studied in the past, and the recently solved structure showed a structural relationship to bacterial cytochrome c peroxidases (J. Seidel et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 110:13833–13838, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1305560110). The other enzyme is latex-clearing protein (Lcp) that is secreted by rubber-degrading actinomycetes, but Lcp has not yet been purified. Here, we expressed Lcp of Streptomyces sp. strain K30 in a ΔroxA background of Xanthomonas sp. strain 35Y and purified native (untagged) Lcp. The specific activities of Lcp and RoxA were 0.70 and 0.48 U/mg, respectively. Lcp differed from RoxA in the absence of heme groups and other characteristics. Notably, Lcp degraded polyisoprene via endo-type cleavage to tetra-C20 and higher oligo-isoprenoids with aldehyde and keto end groups, whereas RoxA used an exo-type cleavage mechanism to give the main end product 12-oxo-4,8-dimethyltrideca-4,8-diene-1-al (ODTD). RoxA was able to cleave isolated Lcp-derived oligo-isoprenoid molecules to ODTD. Inhibitor studies, spectroscopic investigations and metal analysis gave no indication for the presence of iron, other metals, or cofactors in Lcp. Our results suggest that Lcp could be a member of the growing group of cofactor-independent oxygenases and differs in the cleavage mechanism from heme-dependent RoxA. In conclusion, RoxA and Lcp represent two different answers to the same biochemical problem, the cleavage of polyisoprene, a polymer that has carbon-carbon double bonds as the only functional groups for enzymatic attack. PMID:24907333

  6. 40 CFR 428.80 - Applicability; description of the wet digestion reclaimed rubber subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... digestion reclaimed rubber subcategory. 428.80 Section 428.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Wet Digestion Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.80 Applicability; description of the wet digestion reclaimed rubber subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to process waste water...

  7. 40 CFR 428.80 - Applicability; description of the wet digestion reclaimed rubber subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... digestion reclaimed rubber subcategory. 428.80 Section 428.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Wet Digestion Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.80 Applicability; description of the wet digestion... discharges resulting from the production of reclaimed rubber by use of the wet digestion process. ...

  8. 40 CFR 428.80 - Applicability; description of the wet digestion reclaimed rubber subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... digestion reclaimed rubber subcategory. 428.80 Section 428.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Wet Digestion Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.80 Applicability; description of the wet digestion reclaimed rubber subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to process waste water...

  9. 40 CFR 428.80 - Applicability; description of the wet digestion reclaimed rubber subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... digestion reclaimed rubber subcategory. 428.80 Section 428.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Wet Digestion Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.80 Applicability; description of the wet digestion... discharges resulting from the production of reclaimed rubber by use of the wet digestion process. ...

  10. 40 CFR 428.80 - Applicability; description of the wet digestion reclaimed rubber subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... digestion reclaimed rubber subcategory. 428.80 Section 428.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Wet Digestion Reclaimed Rubber Subcategory § 428.80 Applicability; description of the wet digestion reclaimed rubber subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to process waste water...

  11. Experimental Investigation of the Mechanical and Durability Properties of Crumb Rubber Concrete

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hanbing; Wang, Xianqiang; Jiao, Yubo; Sha, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Recycling waste tire rubber by incorporating it into concrete has become the preferred solution to dispose of waste tires. In this study, the effect of the volume content of crumb rubber and pretreatment methods on the performances of concrete was evaluated. Firstly, the fine aggregate and mixture were partly replaced by crumb rubber to produce crumb rubber concrete. Secondly, the mechanical and durability properties of crumb rubber concrete with different replacement forms and volume contents had been investigated. Finally, the crumb rubber after pretreatment by six modifiers was introduced into the concrete mixture. Corresponding tests were conducted to verify the effectiveness of pretreatment methods as compared to the concrete containing untreated crumb rubber. It was observed that the mechanical strength of crumb rubber concrete was reduced, while durability was improved with the increasing of crumb rubber content. 20% replacement of fine aggregate and 5% replacement of the total mixture exhibited acceptable properties for practical applications. In addition, the results indicated that the modifiers had a positive impact on the mechanical and durability properties of crumb rubber concrete. It avoided the disadvantage of crumb rubber concrete having lower strength and provides a reference for the production of modified crumb rubber concrete. PMID:28773298

  12. Evaluation of the use of rubber-tire rollers on asphalt concrete.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1989-01-01

    The addition of a rubber-tire roller was required on two projects on maintenance schedules and on two construction projects in 1988. The rubber-tire roller was used as an addition to the conventional rollers on one-half of each project. The rubber-ti...

  13. Transcriptome and gene expression analysis in cold-acclimated guayule (Parthenium argentatum)rubber-producing tissue

    Natural rubber biosynthesis in guayule (Parthenium argentatum) is associated with moderately cold night temperatures. To begin to dissect the molecular events triggered by cold temperatures that govern rubber synthesis induction in guayule, the transcriptome of bark tissue, where rubber is produced...

  14. Experimental Investigation of the Mechanical and Durability Properties of Crumb Rubber Concrete.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hanbing; Wang, Xianqiang; Jiao, Yubo; Sha, Tao

    2016-03-07

    Recycling waste tire rubber by incorporating it into concrete has become the preferred solution to dispose of waste tires. In this study, the effect of the volume content of crumb rubber and pretreatment methods on the performances of concrete was evaluated. Firstly, the fine aggregate and mixture were partly replaced by crumb rubber to produce crumb rubber concrete. Secondly, the mechanical and durability properties of crumb rubber concrete with different replacement forms and volume contents had been investigated. Finally, the crumb rubber after pretreatment by six modifiers was introduced into the concrete mixture. Corresponding tests were conducted to verify the effectiveness of pretreatment methods as compared to the concrete containing untreated crumb rubber. It was observed that the mechanical strength of crumb rubber concrete was reduced, while durability was improved with the increasing of crumb rubber content. 20% replacement of fine aggregate and 5% replacement of the total mixture exhibited acceptable properties for practical applications. In addition, the results indicated that the modifiers had a positive impact on the mechanical and durability properties of crumb rubber concrete. It avoided the disadvantage of crumb rubber concrete having lower strength and provides a reference for the production of modified crumb rubber concrete.

  15. Enhancing and standardizing interaction of rubber particles with asphalt : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-11-01

    Addition of ground rubber particles to asphalt can enhance several fold the stiffness of the blend as reflected by G*/sin of the rubber-asphalt cements (RACs). Pretreatment of rubber particles with as little as 5% aromatic oil (AO) enhances the ap...

  16. Data for effects of lanthanum complex on the thermo-oxidative aging of natural rubber.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei; Liu, Li; Zhao, Xiuying; He, Jingwei; Wang, Ao; Chan, Tung W; Wu, Sizhu

    2015-12-01

    Novel mixed antioxidants composed of antioxidant IPPD and lanthanum (La) complex were added as a filler to form natural rubber (NR) composites. By mechanical testing, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), a string of data, including the mechanical properties, the variation of internal groups and the thermal and thermo-oxidative decompositions of NR, was presented in this data article. The data accompanying its research article [1] studied the thermo-oxidative aging properties of NR in detail. The density function theoretical (DFT) calculations were also used as an assistant to study the thermo-oxidative aging mechanism of NR. The data revealed that this new rare-earth antioxidant could indeed enhance the thermo-oxidative aging resistance of NR, which is associated with its different function mechanism from that of the pure antioxidant IPPD.

  17. Data for effects of lanthanum complex on the thermo-oxidative aging of natural rubber

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wei; Liu, Li; Zhao, Xiuying; He, Jingwei; Wang, Ao; Chan, Tung W.; Wu, Sizhu

    2015-01-01

    Novel mixed antioxidants composed of antioxidant IPPD and lanthanum (La) complex were added as a filler to form natural rubber (NR) composites. By mechanical testing, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), a string of data, including the mechanical properties, the variation of internal groups and the thermal and thermo-oxidative decompositions of NR, was presented in this data article. The data accompanying its research article [1] studied the thermo-oxidative aging properties of NR in detail. The density function theoretical (DFT) calculations were also used as an assistant to study the thermo-oxidative aging mechanism of NR. The data revealed that this new rare-earth antioxidant could indeed enhance the thermo-oxidative aging resistance of NR, which is associated with its different function mechanism from that of the pure antioxidant IPPD. PMID:26693513

  18. Preparation of Self-Assembled Chitin Nanofiber-Natural Rubber Composite Sheets and Porous Materials

    PubMed Central

    Kawano, Akito; Yamamoto, Kazuya

    2017-01-01

    We previously reported the preparation of a self-assembled chitin nanofiber (CNF) film via regeneration from an ion gel with an ionic liquid, followed by sonication and filtration. Based on the finding that CNFs were redispersed in a mixture of the film with ammonia aqueous solution (aq.), in this study, CNF-natural rubber (NR) composite sheets were fabricated by mixing redispersed CNF with NR latex stabilized by ammonia, followed by drying under reduced pressure. Tensile testing of the sheets indicated the reinforcing effect of CNFs. Further, CNF-NR composite porous materials were fabricated by evaporating ammonia from the CNF-NR dispersion, followed by lyophilization. The mechanism for the formation of porous structures was evaluated. PMID:28671578

  19. Mutagenicity studies in a tyre plant: in-vitro activity of urine concentrates and rubber chemicals.

    PubMed

    Crebelli, R; Falcone, E; Aquilina, G; Carere, A; Paoletti, A; Fabri, G

    1984-01-01

    A possible occupational contribution to urinary mutagenicity was studied in a tyre plant, by assaying concentrates of urine from 72 workmen and 23 controls for their activity in the Ames test and microtitre fluctuation test. The results show that smoking habits but not occupation are related to the appearance of a detectable urinary mutagenicity in strain TA98. A possible synergistic effect of occupation was, however, observed among tyre builders who were smokers. Mutagenicity screening of 25 rubber chemicals, of major technological relevance and used in high volume in the workplace investigated, showed that three of them are weakly active in TA98 and TA100 (tetramethylthiuram disulfide) or TA98 alone (poly-p-dinitrosobenzene and mixed diaryl-p-phenylendiamines).

  20. Properties of natural rubber/attapulgite composites prepared by latex compounding method: Effect of filler loading

    SciT

    Muttalib, Siti Nadzirah Abdul, E-mail: sitinadzirah.amn@gmail.com; Othman, Nadras, E-mail: srnadras@usm.my; Ismail, Hanafi, E-mail: ihanafi@usm.my

    This paper reports on the effect of filler loading on properties of natural rubber (NR)/attapulgite (ATP) composites. The NR/ATP composites were prepared by latex compounding method. It is called as masterbatch. The masterbatch was subsequently added to the NR through melt mixing process. The vulcanized NR/ATP composites were subjected to mechanical, swelling and morphological tests. All the results were compared with NR/ATP composites prepared by conventional system. The composites from masterbatch method showed better results compared to composites prepared by conventional method. They have higher tensile properties, elongation at break and tear strength. The images captured through scanning electron microscopymore » test revealed the improvement of tensile strength in masterbatch NR/ATP composites. It can be seen clearly that masterbatch NR/ATP have better filler dispersion compared to conventional method NR/ATP composites.« less

  1. Numerical modeling of the strain of elastic rubber elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskvichev, E. N.; Porokhin, A. V.; Shcherbakov, I. V.

    2017-11-01

    A comparative analysis of the results of experimental investigation of mechanical behavior of the rubber sample during biaxial compression testing and numerical simulation results obtained by the finite element method was carried out to determine the correctness of the model applied in the engineering calculations of elastic structural elements made of the rubber. The governing equation represents the five-parameter Mooney-Rivlin model with the constants determined from experimental data. The investigation results showed that these constants reliably describe the mechanical behavior of the material under consideration. The divergence of experimental and numerical results does not exceed 15%.

  2. Red rubber bulb, cheap and effective vacuum drainage.

    PubMed

    Vatanasapt, V; Areemit, S; Jeeravipoolvarn, P; Kuyyakanond, T; Kuptarnond, C

    1989-04-01

    Red rubber bulbs have been used for vacuum drainage in head, neck, breast and several other operations by the authors since 1975 quite effectively without any major problems. The vacuum pressure of the red rubber bulbs was found to be higher than the expensive commercially available vacuum wound drainage device. The question of remaining old blood and infective microorganisms inside the reservoir for the reused ones were tested by the manual cleaning process and the standard sterile technique using steam under increased pressure (autoclave). The result is quite satisfactory. We encourage the use of this cheap and effective (made in Thailand) vacuum wound drainage in Thai hospitals and Thai medical schools.

  3. Shape Optimization of Rubber Bushing Using Differential Evolution Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to design rubber bushing at desired level of stiffness characteristics in order to achieve the ride quality of the vehicle. A differential evolution algorithm based approach is developed to optimize the rubber bushing through integrating a finite element code running in batch mode to compute the objective function values for each generation. Two case studies were given to illustrate the application of proposed approach. Optimum shape parameters of 2D bushing model were determined by shape optimization using differential evolution algorithm. PMID:25276848

  4. Rubber-Modified Epoxies: Morphology and Mechanical Properties.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    matrix and enhances ductility. The elastomers used in the present study are carboxyl-terminated copolymers of butadiene and acrylonitrile ( CTBN ). The...marketed under the trade name Hycar CTBN . The structure of Hycar CTBN is HO - C(CH2CH = CHCH2)x--(CH2-CH) ) -C-OH o CN 0 where x : 5, y = I and z = 10...for a typical copolymer. (Properties of CTBN rubbers are found in ref. 8.) Two rubber modifiers, CTBN (X]3) and CTBN (X8), with 27 and 17 wt

  5. Fast-Acting Rubber-To-Coated-Aluminum Adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comer, Dawn A.; Novak, Howard; Vazquez, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Cyanoacrylate adhesive used to join rubber to coated aluminum easier to apply and more effective. One-part material applied in single coat to aluminum treated previously with epoxy primer and top coat. Parts mated as soon as adhesive applied; no drying necessary. Sets in 5 minutes. Optionally, accelerator brushed onto aluminum to reduce setting time to 30 seconds. Clamping parts together unnecessary. Adhesive comes in four formulations, all based on ethyl cyanoacrylate with various amounts of ethylene copolymer rubber, poly(methyl methacrylate), silicon dioxide, hydroquinone, and phthalic anhydride.

  6. Improvement of Mechanical Properties in Natural Rubber with Organic Fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzales-Fernandes, M.; Bastos, Andrade C. G.; Esper, F. J.; Valenzuela-Diaz, F. R.; Wiebeck, H.

    When added to polymeric matrices, organophilic clay transforms the performance of the resulting composites. A natural rubber matrix with different loads was prepared as bentonite chocolate B modified by sodification and treated with ammonium quaternary salt with cellulose charge, cardboard and palm fiber. After the mixture of natural rubber in a roller mill with the additives and subsequent addition of loads individually, plates were vulcanized for fabricating specimens. We measured the mechanical properties of traction and the interlayer distances analyzed by XRD. The aim of the paper is to show that the composite obtained improved in mechanical properties as compared to plates without the addition of loads.

  7. Microbial communities in natural rubber coagula during maturation: impacts on technological properties of dry natural rubber.

    PubMed

    Salomez, M; Subileau, M; Vallaeys, T; Santoni, S; Bonfils, F; Sainte-Beuve, J; Intapun, J; Granet, F; Vaysse, L; Dubreucq, É

    2018-02-01

    To characterize microbial communities present in natural rubber (NR) coagula from Hevea brasiliensis latex during maturation and identify microbial taxa (bacteria and fungi) having an impact on dry NR properties. Microbial community dynamics in NR coagula maturated under controlled conditions were compared and related with the evolution of dry NR properties. The pyrosequencing of 16S (119 837 effective reads) and 18S (131 879 effective reads) rRNA gene regions was performed on 21 samples covering different maturation times and two aeration conditions. Results showed a relatively high bacterial richness (Chao1 estimates of 200-1000) associated with significant bacterial dynamics. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were dominant in the first days of maturation. Then, in aerobic conditions, development of Actinobacteria represented by the family Microbacteriaceae was associated with alkalinization of the samples and a higher sensitivity of NR to thermo-oxidation as evaluated by its plasticity retention index (PRI). In anaerobiosis, the reduced development of bacteria, mostly LAB present, was associated with improved NR properties (higher initial plasticity P 0 and PRI). The involvement of micro-organisms in the evolution of dry NR properties during the maturation of NR coagula was confirmed. The importance of the structure and dynamics of microbial communities is specifically highlighted. Natural rubber is a key elastomer for the tyre industry and for a variety of other applications. The majority of raw NR is obtained by natural coagulation of H. brasiliensis latex under the activity of micro-organisms. An improved understanding of the microbial communities involved in the maturation of NR coagula may lead to an improvement in the production process of raw NR to provide a better consistency in NR quality. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. The use of smoke acid as an alternative coagulating agent for natural rubber sheets' production.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Vanda S; Rêgo, Ione N C; Pastore, Floriano; Mandai, Mariana M; Mendes, Leonardo S; Santos, Karin A M; Rubim, Joel C; Suarez, Paulo A Z

    2005-03-01

    A comparative study of rubber sheets obtained using formic, acetic, and smoke acid as coagulants is shown for latex obtained from native Amazonian trees and also from commercial cultivated trees. The evaluation of both processes of coagulation was carried out by spectroscopic and physical-chemical analysis, showing no differences in the rubber sheets obtained. This new method of rubber sheet preparation was introduced into Amazonian rainforest rubber tapper communities, which are actually producing in large scale. The physical-mechanical properties were similar among a large sheets made by different rubber tapper communities using this new method.

  9. [Biological monitoring in the molding of plastics and rubbers].

    PubMed

    Fustinoni, S; Campo, L; Cirla, A M; Cirla, P E; Cutugno, V; Lionetti, C; Martinotti, I; Mossini, E; Foà, V

    2007-01-01

    This survey was carried out in the molding of plastics and rubbers, in the "Professional Cancer Prevention Project" sponsored by the Lombardy region with the objective of developing and implementing protocols for evaluating exposure to carcinogens through the biological monitoring. The realities of molding the thermoplastic polymer ABS, rubber, and thermosetting plastics containing formaldehyde were examined. The carcinogenic substances identified in these processes were: 1,3-butadiene, acrylonitrile and styrene in molding ABS, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in molding rubber, and formaldehyde in molding the thermosetting plastics. Only for some of these substances biological indicators are available. The limited exposure to airborne chemicals in molding ABS and the intrinsic characteristics of biological indicators available for 1-3 butadiene have determined the non applicability of biological monitoring to this situation. The absence of a biological indicator of exposure to formaldehyde has made this situation not investigable. Exposure in the rubber molding was studied in 19 subjects applying the determination not metabolized PAH in urine. The levels of these indicators were similar to those measured in other groups of subjects without occupational exposure to PAH, confirming a low airborne contamination in this workplace.

  10. Rubber dam use less stressful for children and dentists.

    PubMed

    Innes, Nicola

    2012-06-01

    Randomised controlled trial, single centre and operator. 72 patients (6-16 years) assessed as compliant, with no allergies, not on significant medication were divided into two groups by 'drawing sealed lots'. 234 fully erupted teeth were sealed. Molars and/or premolars were sealed dependant on age. Teeth were pre-cleaned with prophy paste. In the controls, teeth were isolated with buccal and lingual cotton rolls and salivary ejector in the intervention group a rubber dam was used. The same etching, rinsing and placement protocol was used in both arms. Outcomes were: patients' subjective measures of pain using a visual analogue scale; blood pressure (before and after treatment), breath rate, pulse rate and skin resistance at five time points. The operator's pulse rate was measured and they completed a questionnaire on subjective mental and physical stress following treatment. Treatment times were recorded. The breath rate was significantly (P < 0.05) lower and the skin resistance level was significantly higher during treatment with rubber dam compared to the control group. Subjective pain perception was significantly lower for the test group. The treatment time needed for the fissure sealing procedure was 12.4% less in the test group. The authors state; '... in the hands of an experienced dentist, isolation with rubber dam is less stressful for children and adolescents than isolation with cotton rolls, and can save valuable treatment time.' The operator's stress measures were lower with rubber dam and treatment time was reduced.

  11. Linear motion feed through with thin wall rubber sealing element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, V. P.; Deulin, E. A.

    2017-07-01

    The patented linear motion feedthrough is based on elastic thin rubber walls usage being reinforced with analeptic string fixed in the middle part of the walls. The pneumatic or hydro actuators create linear movement of stock. The length of this movement is two times more the rubber wall length. This flexible wall is a sealing element of feedthrough. The main advantage of device is negligible resistance force that is less then mentioned one in sealing bellows that leads to positioning error decreasing. Nevertheless, the thin wall rubber sealing element (TRE) of the feedthrough is the main unreliable element that was the reason of this element longevity research. The theory and experimental results help to create equation for TRE longevity calculation under vacuum or extra high pressure difference action. The equation was used for TRE longevity determination for hydraulic or vacuum equipment realization also as it helps for gas flow being leaking through the cracks in thin walls of rubber sealing element of linear motion feedthrough calculation.

  12. Nanostructured magnesium oxide as cure activator for polychloroprene rubber.

    PubMed

    Kar, Sritama; Bhowmick, Anil K

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this research was to synthesize magnesium oxide nanoparticles and to use them as cure activator for polychloroprene rubber (CR). The effects of counterions of magnesium salts on the homogeneous phase precipitation reaction to control size, monodispersity, crystallinity, and morphology of Mg(OH)2 nanoparticles were also investigated. Magnesium oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by optimizing the calcination temperature of Mg(OH)2 nanoparticles. Finally, the MgO nanoparticles were dispersed in polychloroprene rubber (CR) solution along with zinc oxide (ZnO) powder. The influence of MgO nanoparticles on the mechanical, dynamic mechanical and thermal properties of the resulting nanocomposites was quantified. The modulus and strength of ZnO-cured polychloroprene rubber with 4% MgO nanoparticles appeared to be superior to those with ZnO particles or ZnO with rubber grade MgO particles. These composites were further characterized by transmission electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy in order to understand the morphology of the resulting system and the load transfer mechanism.

  13. Reduced adherence of Candida to silane-treated silicone rubber.

    PubMed

    Price, C L; Williams, D W; Waters, M G J; Coulthwaite, L; Verran, J; Taylor, R L; Stickler, D; Lewis, M A O

    2005-07-01

    Silicone rubber is widely used in the construction of medical devices that can provide an essential role in the treatment of human illness. However, subsequent microbial colonization of silicone rubber can result in clinical infection or device failure. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a novel silane-treated silicone rubber in inhibiting microbial adherence and material penetration. Test material was prepared by a combination of argon plasma discharge treatment and fluorinated silane coupling. Chemicophysical changes were then confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact-angle measurement, and atomic force microscopy. Two separate adherence assays and a material penetration assay assessed the performance of the new material against four strains of Candida species. Results showed a significant reduction (p < 0.01) of Candida albicans GDH 2346 adherence to silane-treated silicone compared with untreated controls. This reduction was still evident after the incorporation of saliva into the assay. Adherence inhibition also occurred with Candida tropicalis MMU and Candida krusei NCYC, although this was assay dependent. Reduced penetration of silane-treated silicone by Candida was evident when compared to untreated controls, plaster-processed silicone, and acrylic-processed silicone. To summarize, a novel silicone rubber material is described that inhibits both candidal adherence and material penetration. The clinical benefit and performance of this material remains to be determined. Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Simple Excitation of Standing Waves in Rubber Bands and Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortel, Adolf

    2004-04-01

    Many methods to excite standing waves in strings, plates, membranes, rods, tubes, and soap bubbles have been described. Usually a loudspeaker or a vibrating reed is driven by the amplified output of an audio oscillator. A novel and simple method consists of using a tuning fork or a singing rod to excite transversal standing waves in stretched rubber membranes sprinkled with fine sand.

  15. Use of waste tires (crumb rubber) on Colorado highways.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of using waste tires (crumb rubber) in the : construction of asphalt pavements in Colorado. Two pilot test sections and one control section were constructed : and observed over a five-year ...

  16. Another Demo of the Unusual Thermal Properties of Rubber

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liff, Mark I.

    2010-01-01

    The unusual thermal behavior of rubbers, though discovered a long time ago, can still be mind-boggling for students and teachers who encounter this class of polymeric systems. Unlike other solids, stretched elastic polymers shrink upon heating. This is a manifestation of the Gough-Joule (G-J) effect. Joule in the 1850s studied the thermal behavior…

  17. Rubber Tire Dozer Operator. Open Pit Mining Job Training Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This training outline for rubber tire dozer operators, one in a series of eight outlines, is designed primarily for company training foremen or supervisors and for trainers to use as an industry-wide guideline for heavy equipment operator training in open pit mining in British Columbia. Intended as a guide for preparation of lesson plans both for…

  18. In vitro biocompatibility of EPM and EPDM rubbers.

    PubMed

    Mast, F; Hoschtitzky, J A; Van Blitterswijk, C A; Huysmans, H A

    1997-01-01

    The in vitro toxicity of two EPDM rubbers (K 778 and K 4802) and one EPM rubber (K 740) was tested using human fibroblasts. The modulus of elasticity of each rubber was varied by exposure to different amounts of electron-beam radiation (0, 5 and 10 Mrad). The short-term in vitro toxicity was tested by culturing cells on polymer films. The long-term effect of ageing was simulated by growing fibroblasts in nutrient media prepared from extracts of heat-exposed materials. Cell cultures were studied both quantitatively and (ultra) structurally. Growth curves obtained in the toxicity test did not differ significantly from control values at any day of observation, and also showed that electron-beam radiation did not alter the biocompatibility. The same results were found for all but one material in the artificial ageing test. The number of cells in the K4802/10 Mrad extraction medium was decreased. Ultrastructurally no gross deviations from normal morphology were observed, either in the direct contact test or in the artificial ageing test. The most characteristic feature was a somewhat dilated endoplasmic reticulum. In summary, the in vitro biocompatibility of EPDM-rubbers as observed in this study is satisfactory and motivates further investigation of their biocompatibility in animal experiments.

  19. Rubber contact mechanics: adhesion, friction and leakage of seals.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, A; Dorogin, L; Tahir, M; Stöckelhuber, K W; Heinrich, G; Espallargas, N; Persson, B N J

    2017-12-13

    We study the adhesion, friction and leak rate of seals for four different elastomers: Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR), Ethylene Propylene Diene (EPDM), Polyepichlorohydrin (GECO) and Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Adhesion between smooth clean glass balls and all the elastomers is studied both in the dry state and in water. In water, adhesion is observed for the NBR and PDMS elastomers, but not for the EPDM and GECO elastomers, which we attribute to the differences in surface energy and dewetting. The leakage of water is studied with rubber square-ring seals squeezed against sandblasted glass surfaces. Here we observe a strongly non-linear dependence of the leak rate on the water pressure ΔP for the elastomers exhibiting adhesion in water, while the leak rate depends nearly linearly on ΔP for the other elastomers. We attribute the non-linearity to some adhesion-related phenomena, such as dewetting or the (time-dependent) formation of gas bubbles, which blocks fluid flow channels. Finally, rubber friction is studied at low sliding speeds using smooth glass and sandblasted glass as substrates, both in the dry state and in water. The measured friction coefficients are compared to theory, and the origin of the frictional shear stress acting in the area of real contact is discussed. The NBR rubber, which exhibits the strongest adhesion both in the dry state and in water, also shows the highest friction both in the dry state and in water.

  20. On the radiation induced degradation of NBR-EPDM rubbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipara, M. D.; Grecu, V. V.; Chipara, M. I.; Ponta, C.; Reyes Romero, J.

    1999-05-01

    The modification of the elongation at break for NBR-EPDM rubbers subjected to gamma irradiation at various integral doses ranging from 10 to 200 kGy, at different dose rates (0.14, 0.47, 1, 3, 4.7 kGy/h) are reported. The presence of the dose rate effect is noticed.

  1. Tissue-Culture Method of Cloning Rubber Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, E. A.

    1983-01-01

    Guayule plant, a high-yield rubber plant cloned by tissue-culture method to produce multiple new plants that mature quickly. By adjusting culture medium, excised shoot tip produces up to 50 identical guayule plants. Varying concentration of cytokinin, single excised tip produces either 1 or several (up to 50) new plants.

  2. Rubber-coated bellows improves vibration damping in vacuum lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hegland, D. E.; Smith, R. J.

    1966-01-01

    Compact-vibration damping systems, consisting of rubber-coated metal bellows with a sliding O-ring connector, are used in vacuum lines. The device presents a metallic surface to the vacuum system and combines flexibility with the necessary stiffness. It protects against physical damage, reduces fatigue failure, and provides easy mating of nonparallel lines.

  3. Feasibility study of a soil-based rubberized CLSM.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jason Y; Tsai, Mufan

    2009-02-01

    The development of beneficial uses of recycled scrap tires is always in great demand around the world. The disposal of on-site surplus excavated soil and the production of standard engineering aggregates have also been facing increasing environmental and ecological challenges in congested islands, such as Taiwan. This paper presents an experimental study using recycled crumb rubber and native silty sand to produce a lightweight, soil-based, rubberized controlled low strength material (CLSM) for a bridge approach repair. To assess the technical feasibility of this material, the effects of weight ratios of cement-to-water (C/W) and water-to-solid (W/S), and of rubber content on the engineering properties for different mixtures were investigated. The presented test results include flowability, unit weight, strength, settlement potential, and bearing capacity. Based on the findings, we conclude that a soil-based rubberized CLSM with 40% sand by weight and an optimal design ratio of 0.7 for C/W and 0.35 for W/S can be used for the proposed bridge approach repair. Such a mixture has demonstrated acceptable flowability, strength, and bearing capacity. Its lower unit weight, negligible compressibility, and hydrocollapse potential also help ensure that detrimental settlement is unlikely to occur. The results illustrate a novel scheme of CLSM production, and suggest a beneficial alternative for the reduction of scrap tires as well as conservation of resources and environment.

  4. Hazardous organic chemicals in rubber recycled tire playgrounds and pavers.

    PubMed

    Llompart, Maria; Sanchez-Prado, Lucia; Pablo Lamas, J; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Roca, Enrique; Dagnac, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the presence of hazardous organic chemicals in surfaces containing recycled rubber tires is investigated. Direct material analyses using solvent extraction, as well as SPME analysis of the vapour phase above the sample, were carried out. Twenty-one rubber mulch samples were collected from nine different playgrounds. In addition, seven commercial samples of recycled rubber pavers were acquired in a local store of a multinational company. All samples were extracted by ultrasound energy, followed by analysis of the extract by GC-MS. The analysis confirmed the presence of a large number of hazardous substances including PAHs, phthalates, antioxidants (e.g. BHT, phenols), benzothiazole and derivatives, among other chemicals. The study evidences the high content of toxic chemicals in these recycled materials. The concentration of PAHs in the commercial pavers was extremely high, reaching values up to 1%. In addition, SPME studies of the vapour phase above the samples confirm the volatilisation of many of those organic compounds. Uses of recycled rubber tires, especially those targeting play areas and other facilities for children, should be a matter of regulatory concern. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of asphalt rubber stress-absorbing membrane.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the construction and evaluation of a stress-absorbing membrane (SAM) using a liquid asphalt binder containing ground tire rubber. Approximately 10 lane-km of SAM and 4 lane-km of control surface treatment for comparison were con...

  6. Rapid Field Measurement of Rubber Content in Russian Dandelion

    Natural rubber is a critical and strategic raw material for industrial manufacturing and national defense. In 2008, 10 million tons of NR were produced for commercial use, most of it from Hevea brasiliensis in tropical countries. The annual US import deficit for NR is approximately $1 billion. Devel...

  7. Rubber Flooring Impact on Health of Dairy Cows

    Use of rubber flooring in dairies has become popular because of perceived cow comfort. The objective of this longitudinal study was to evaluate locomotion, health, production, and immunity over the first 180d of each of the 1st and 2nd lactations of cows assigned to free-stall housing with either r...

  8. Rubber Bands as Model Polymers in Couette Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunstan, Dave E.

    2008-01-01

    We present a simple device for demonstrating the essential aspects of polymers in flow in the classroom. Rubber bands are used as a macroscopic model of polymers to allow direct visual observation of the flow-induced changes in orientation and conformation. A transparent Perspex Couette cell, constructed from two sections of a tube, is used to…

  9. Nanocomposites of natural rubber and polyaniline-modified cellulose nanofibrils

    Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) were isolated from cotton microfibrils (CM) by acid hydrolysis and coated with polyaniline (PANI) by in situ polymerization of aniline onto CNF in the presence of hydrochloride acid and ammonium peroxydisulfate to produce CNF/PANI. Nanocomposites of natural rubber (NR) re...

  10. Temperature dependence of the dielectric properties of rubber wood

    Mohammed Firoz Kabir; Wan M. Daud; Kaida B. Khalid; Haji A.A. Sidek

    2001-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the dielectric properties of rubber wood was investigated in three anisotropic directions—longitudinal, radial, and tangential, and at different measurement frequencies. Low frequency measurements were conducted with a dielectric spectrometer, and high frequencies used microwave applied with open-ended coaxial probe sensors. Dielectric...

  11. Study on a Haptic Sensor Using MCF (Magnetic Compound Fluid) Electric Conductive Rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yaoyang; Shimada, Kunio

    To provide a new composite material having a high degree of sensitivity regarding both electrical conduction and temperature for the field of robotics or sensing, we have developed magnetic rubber that contains a network-like magnetic cluster. We compared the temperature response of MCF rubber with others rubbers made under various experimental conditions, allowing us to find an optimum condition for making MCF rubber. The temperature response was obtained by an experimental equation. We also compared the electric conductivity of MCF rubber with that of ordinary electric conductive rubber and found that its electric sensitivity was lower at a small deformation, but increased at larger deformations. Therefore, MCF rubber has proven itself effective as a switching sensor when a small deformation is applied.

  12. Rubber friction on road surfaces: Experiment and theory for low sliding speeds

    SciT

    Lorenz, B.; Persson, B. N. J.; Oh, Y. R.

    We study rubber friction for tire tread compounds on asphalt road surfaces. The road surface topographies are measured using a stylus instrument and atomic force microscopy, and the surface roughness power spectra are calculated. The rubber viscoelastic modulus mastercurves are obtained from dynamic mechanical analysis measurements and the large-strain effective modulus is obtained from strain sweep data. The rubber friction is measured at different temperatures and sliding velocities, and is compared to the calculated data obtained using the Persson contact mechanics theory. We conclude that in addition to the viscoelastic deformations of the rubber surface by the road asperities, theremore » is an important contribution to the rubber friction from shear processes in the area of contact. The analysis shows that the latter contribution may arise from rubber molecules (or patches of rubber) undergoing bonding-stretching-debonding cycles as discussed in a classic paper by Schallamach.« less

  13. Drug interactions with potential rubber closure extractables. Identification of thiol-disulfide exchange reaction products of captopril and thiurams.

    PubMed

    Corredor, Claudia; Tomasella, Frank P; Young, Joel

    2009-01-02

    Mixtures of thiuram disulfides are frequently used as accelerators in rubber stoppers for injectables and sterilized powders for injection. Rapid reactions of thiuram disulfides between themselves and with thiols yield mixed disulfides due to thiol-disulfide exchange. The possibility of exchange reactions of thiuram disulfides extracted from rubber stoppers and drug products containing pendant thiol groups have not been reported in the analysis of potential stopper extractables. In this paper we report the formation and identification of mixed thiuram disulfides of N,N,N',N'-dimethylthiuram disulfide (TMTD), N,N,N',N'-dibutylthiuram disulfide (TBTD), and captopril (a thiol-containing drug). A reversed-phase HPLC method was developed for the determination of TMTD, TBTD, captopril and their disulfides in aqueous vehicles, using a YMC ODS AQ column at 35 degrees C and mobile phases A and B consisting of acetonitrile:water:trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) (20:80:0.1) and acetonitrile:TFA (100:0.1), respectively. The captopril-TBTD and captopril-TMTD disulfides were identified by MS, with molecular ions at m/z 420.9 and m/z of 337.1, respectively. Possible structures for the fragment ions in the spectra are provided. Mixed captopril-thiuram formation was studied as a function of pH. Captopril-TMTD formation was enhanced at pH 6.0, reaching a maximum of 31.3% in 4.1h. At pH 4.0 and 2.2, the mixed captopril adduct product was still detected in solution after 20h. The impact of the formation of mixed disulfide products of thiol-containing drugs with thiurams in the HPLC profile of extractables and leachables studies is discussed.

  14. Investigating Low Temperature Properties of Rubber Seals - 13020

    SciT

    Jaunich, M.; Wolff, D.; Stark, W.

    To achieve the required tightness levels of containers for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes rubbers are widely applied as main sealing materials. The save encapsulation of the radioactive container contents has to be guaranteed according to legislation and appropriate guidelines for long storage periods as well as down to temperatures of -40 deg. C during transportation. Therefore the understanding of failure mechanisms that lead to leakage at low temperatures is of high importance. It is known that the material properties of rubbers are strongly influenced by temperature. At low temperatures this is caused by the rubber-glass transition (abbr. glassmore » transition). During continuous cooling the material changes from rubber-like entropy-elastic to stiff energy-elastic behaviour, that allows nearly no strain or retraction. Therefore, rubbers are normally used above their glass transition but the minimum working temperature limit is not defined precisely, what can cause problems during application. The temperature range where full functionality is possible is strongly dependent on the application conditions and the material. For this investigation mainly ethylene propylene diene (EPDM) and fluorocarbon rubbers (FKM) were selected as they are often used for radioactive waste containers. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) are typically used for the determination of the temperature range of the glass transition process. The standardized compression set measurement according to ISO 815 is common for investigation of rubber sealing materials as the test simulates the seal behaviour after release. To reduce the test time of the standard tests a faster technique giving the same information was developed. Additionally, the breakdown temperature of the sealing function of complete O-ring seals is measured in a component test setup to compare it with the results of the other tests. The experimental setup is capable

  15. Rubber dam may increase the survival time of dental restorations.

    PubMed

    Keys, William; Carson, Susan J

    2017-03-01

    Data sourcesCochrane Oral Health's Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, LILACS, SciELO, Chinese BioMedical Literature Database, VIP, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, ClinicalTrials.gov, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, OpenGrey and Sciencepaper Online databases. Handsearches in a number of journals.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials, including split-mouth studies assessing the effects of rubber dam isolation for restorative treatments in dental patients.Data extraction and synthesisTwo review authors independently screened the results of the electronic searches, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies.ResultsFour studies involving a total of 1,270 patients were included. The studies were at high risk of bias. One trial was excluded from the analysis due to inconsistencies in the presented data. Restorations had a significantly higher survival rate in the rubber dam isolation group compared to the cotton roll isolation group at six months in participants receiving composite restorative treatment of non-carious cervical lesions (risk ratio (RR) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04 to 1.37, very low-quality evidence). The rubber dam group had a lower risk of failure at two years in children undergoing proximal atraumatic restorative treatment in primary molars (hazard ratio (HR) 0.80, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.97, very low-quality evidence). One trial reported limited data showing that rubber dam usage during fissure sealing might shorten the treatment time. None of the included studies mentioned adverse effects or reported the direct cost of the treatment, or the level of patient acceptance/satisfaction. There was also no evidence evaluating the effects of rubber dam usage on the quality of the restorations.ConclusionsWe found some very low-quality evidence, from single studies, suggesting that rubber dam usage in dental direct

  16. Rubber dam isolation for restorative treatment in dental patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Li, Chunjie; Yuan, He; Wong, May Cm; Zou, Jing; Shi, Zongdao; Zhou, Xuedong

    2016-09-20

    Successful restorations in dental patients depend largely on the effective control of moisture and microbes during the procedure. The rubber dam technique has been one of the most widely used isolation methods in dental restorative treatments. The evidence on the effects of rubber dam usage on the longevity of dental restorations is conflicting. Therefore, it is important to summarise the available evidence to determine the effects of this method. To assess the effects of rubber dam isolation compared with other types of isolation used for direct and indirect restorative treatments in dental patients. We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (searched 17 August 2016), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 7) in the Cochrane Library (searched 17 August 2016), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 17 August 2016), Embase Ovid (1980 to 17 August 2016), LILACS BIREME Virtual Health Library (Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Information database; 1982 to 17 August 2016), SciELO BIREME Virtual Health Library (1998 to 17 August 2016), Chinese BioMedical Literature Database (CBM, in Chinese) (1978 to 30 August 2016), VIP (in Chinese) (1989 to 30 August 2016), and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, in Chinese) (1994 to 30 August 2016). We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, OpenGrey and Sciencepaper Online (in Chinese) for ongoing trials. There were no restrictions on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. We included randomised controlled trials (including split-mouth trials) assessing the effects of rubber dam isolation for restorative treatments in dental patients. Two review authors independently screened the results of the electronic searches, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. We resolved disagreement by discussion. We included four studies

  17. A Study of a Super-Cooling Technique for Removal of Rubber from Solid-Rubber Tires.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    environmental pollution . In answering these questions, an experiment is conducted to validate the concept and to determine liquid...is performed to compare the costs of the super-cooling technique with those of the brake drum lathe method of rubber removal. Safety and environmental pollution factors are also investigated and

  18. De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of the Rubber Tree (Hevea brasiliensis) and SNP Markers Development for Rubber Biosynthesis Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Mantello, Camila Campos; Cardoso-Silva, Claudio Benicio; da Silva, Carla Cristina; de Souza, Livia Moura; Scaloppi Junior, Erivaldo José; de Souza Gonçalves, Paulo; Vicentini, Renato; de Souza, Anete Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. Ex Adr. Juss.) Muell.-Arg. is the primary source of natural rubber that is native to the Amazon rainforest. The singular properties of natural rubber make it superior to and competitive with synthetic rubber for use in several applications. Here, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of H. brasiliensis bark on the Illumina GAIIx platform, which generated 179,326,804 raw reads on the Illumina GAIIx platform. A total of 50,384 contigs that were over 400 bp in size were obtained and subjected to further analyses. A similarity search against the non-redundant (nr) protein database returned 32,018 (63%) positive BLASTx hits. The transcriptome analysis was annotated using the clusters of orthologous groups (COG), gene ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), and Pfam databases. A search for putative molecular marker was performed to identify simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In total, 17,927 SSRs and 404,114 SNPs were detected. Finally, we selected sequences that were identified as belonging to the mevalonate (MVA) and 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathways, which are involved in rubber biosynthesis, to validate the SNP markers. A total of 78 SNPs were validated in 36 genotypes of H. brasiliensis. This new dataset represents a powerful information source for rubber tree bark genes and will be an important tool for the development of microsatellites and SNP markers for use in future genetic analyses such as genetic linkage mapping, quantitative trait loci identification, investigations of linkage disequilibrium and marker-assisted selection. PMID:25048025

  19. De novo assembly and transcriptome analysis of the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) and SNP markers development for rubber biosynthesis pathways.

    PubMed

    Mantello, Camila Campos; Cardoso-Silva, Claudio Benicio; da Silva, Carla Cristina; de Souza, Livia Moura; Scaloppi Junior, Erivaldo José; de Souza Gonçalves, Paulo; Vicentini, Renato; de Souza, Anete Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. Ex Adr. Juss.) Muell.-Arg. is the primary source of natural rubber that is native to the Amazon rainforest. The singular properties of natural rubber make it superior to and competitive with synthetic rubber for use in several applications. Here, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of H. brasiliensis bark on the Illumina GAIIx platform, which generated 179,326,804 raw reads on the Illumina GAIIx platform. A total of 50,384 contigs that were over 400 bp in size were obtained and subjected to further analyses. A similarity search against the non-redundant (nr) protein database returned 32,018 (63%) positive BLASTx hits. The transcriptome analysis was annotated using the clusters of orthologous groups (COG), gene ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), and Pfam databases. A search for putative molecular marker was performed to identify simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In total, 17,927 SSRs and 404,114 SNPs were detected. Finally, we selected sequences that were identified as belonging to the mevalonate (MVA) and 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathways, which are involved in rubber biosynthesis, to validate the SNP markers. A total of 78 SNPs were validated in 36 genotypes of H. brasiliensis. This new dataset represents a powerful information source for rubber tree bark genes and will be an important tool for the development of microsatellites and SNP markers for use in future genetic analyses such as genetic linkage mapping, quantitative trait loci identification, investigations of linkage disequilibrium and marker-assisted selection.

  20. Pressure load on specific body areas of gestating sows lying on rubber mats with different softness.

    PubMed

    Schubbert, A; Hartung, E; Schrader, L

    2014-08-01

    Rubber mats offer a possibility to increase lying comfort for sows with positive effects on sow lying behavior and health. However, until now, no information has been reported about the relationship between the softness of rubber mats and the pressure load on certain body areas of sows. We used a total of 68 (40 multiparous, 28 primiparous) German Landrace × German Landrace sows with a BW within the range of 90 to 330 kg (divided in 3 weight classes) to measure peak force and distribution of pressure during lying in the sternal and half recumbent position. Measures were done in an experimental pen that was equipped with a pressure sensor map system (5400 NTL; Tekscan Inc., Boston, MA). Three rubber mats differing in softness (penetration depth: hard mat, 4.0 mm [HM]; soft mat, 14.6 mm [SM]; very soft mat, 43.0 mm [VSM]) were tested and compared to concrete floor (CF) as a reference. Pressure load was analyzed in the sternal position for the sternum, belly, and ham body regions and also in the half recumbent position for the shoulder. For each lying position we determined the body region with the highest pressure load and analyzed the peak force (PF) and the contact area (CA) using a mixed model ANOVA (MIXED procedure of SAS Enterprise, version 4.3., SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC) with floor type, weight class of sows, and their interaction as fixed factors. Overall, the highest values for PF in the sternal position were found on the sternum (median: 1.62 N/cm(2)) and in the half recumbent position on the shoulder (median: 2.72 N/cm(2)). In the sternal position PF on the sternum was lower on VSM compared to CF (P = 0.001). In the half-recumbent position PF on the shoulder was lower on VSM compared to CF (P = 0.013) and compared to HM (P = 0.011). The weight of the sows affected PF on the sternum in the sternal position, with lower values in weight class 1 compared to weight class 2 (P = 0.001) and weight class 3 (P = 0.002). Contact area under the sternum was larger on

  1. Stabilization Of Marine Clay Using Biomass Silica-Rubber Chips Mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marto, Aminaton; Ridzuan Jahidin, Mohammed; Aziz, Norazirah Abdul; Kasim, Fauziah; Zurairahetty Mohd. Yunus, Nor

    2016-11-01

    Marine clay is found widely along the coastal area and had caused expensive solutions in the construction of coastal highways. Hence, soil stabilization was suggested by some consultant to increase the strength of this soil in order to meet the highway construction requirement and also to achieve the specification for the development. Biomass Silica (BS), particularly the SH85 as a non-traditional stabilisation method, has been gaining more interest from the engineers recently. Rubber chips (RC), derived from waste rubber tyres, are considered ‘green’ element and had been used previously in some geotechnical engineering works. This paper presents the effect of using BS and RC as a mixture (BS-RC mixture), to increase the strength of marine clay for highway construction. Samples of marine clay, obtained from the West Coast Expressway project at Teluk Intan, Perak, were oven dried and grind to fine-grained sized. The marine clay was mixed with 9 % by weight proportion of BS- RC; that were 8%-l% and 7%-2%, respectively. For comparison purposes the result of BS-RC was compared to the result of stabilization by using 9% BS only. Laboratory tests were then carried out to determine the Atterberg limits and compaction characteristics of the untreated and treated marine clay. The Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) of the untreated and treated marine clays, compacted at the optimum moisture content was later obtained. The treated marine clay was tested at 0, 3 and 7 days curing periods. The results show that the Plasticity Index of BS-RC treated marine clay was lower than the untreated marine clay. From the UCS test results, it is shown that BS-RC mixtures had significantly improved the strength of marine clay. With the same percentage of 9% BS-RC, the increased of BS from 7% to 8% increased the UCS further to about six times more than untreated marine clay soils in 7 days curing period. The strength gained by using BS-RC at 8%-1% is slightly below the strength by

  2. Responses of rubber leaf phenology to climatic variations in Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, De-Li; Yu, Haiying; Chen, Si-Chong; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Xu, Jianchu

    2017-11-01

    The phenology of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis) could be influenced by meteorological factors and exhibits significant changes under different geoclimates. In the sub-optimal environment in Xishuangbanna, rubber trees undergo lengthy periods of defoliation and refoliation. The timing of refoliation from budburst to leaf aging could be affected by powdery mildew disease (Oidium heveae), which negatively impacts seed and latex production. Rubber trees are most susceptible to powdery mildew disease at the copper and leaf changing stages. Understanding and predicting leaf phenology of rubber trees are helpful to develop effective means of controlling the disease. This research investigated the effect of several meteorological factors on different leaf phenological stages in a sub-optimal environment for rubber cultivation in Jinghong, Yunnan in Southwest China. Partial least square regression was used to quantify the relationship between meteorological factors and recorded rubber phenologies from 2003 to 2011. Minimum temperature in December was found to be the critical factor for the leaf phenology development of rubber trees. Comparing the delayed effects of minimum temperature, the maximum temperature, diurnal temperature range, and sunshine hours were found to advancing leaf phenologies. A comparatively lower minimum temperature in December would facilitate the advancing of leaf phenologies of rubber trees. Higher levels of precipitation in February delayed the light green and the entire process of leaf aging. Delayed leaf phenology was found to be related to severe rubber powdery mildew disease. These results were used to build predictive models that could be applied to early warning systems of rubber powdery mildew disease.

  3. Effects of forests, roads and mistletoe on bird diversity in monoculture rubber plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreekar, Rachakonda; Huang, Guohualing; Yasuda, Mika; Quan, Rui-Chang; Goodale, Eben; Corlett, Richard T.; Tomlinson, Kyle W.

    2016-02-01

    Rising global demand for natural rubber is expanding monoculture rubber (Hevea brasilensis) at the expense of natural forests in the Old World tropics. Conversion of forests into rubber plantations has a devastating impact on biodiversity and we have yet to identify management strategies that can mitigate this. We determined the life-history traits that best predict bird species occurrence in rubber plantations in SW China and investigated the effects of surrounding forest cover and distance to roads on bird diversity. Mistletoes provide nectar and fruit resources in rubber so we examined mistletoe densities and the relationship with forest cover and rubber tree diameter. In rubber plantations, we recorded less than half of all bird species extant in the surrounding area. Birds with wider habitat breadths and low conservation value had a higher probability of occurrence. Species richness and diversity increased logarithmically with surrounding forest cover, but roads had little effect. Mistletoe density increased exponentially with rubber tree diameters, but was unrelated to forest cover. To maximize bird diversity in rubber-dominated landscapes it is therefore necessary to preserve as much forest as possible, construct roads through plantations and not forest, and retain some large rubber trees with mistletoes during crop rotations.

  4. Effects of forests, roads and mistletoe on bird diversity in monoculture rubber plantations.

    PubMed

    Sreekar, Rachakonda; Huang, Guohualing; Yasuda, Mika; Quan, Rui-Chang; Goodale, Eben; Corlett, Richard T; Tomlinson, Kyle W

    2016-02-23

    Rising global demand for natural rubber is expanding monoculture rubber (Hevea brasilensis) at the expense of natural forests in the Old World tropics. Conversion of forests into rubber plantations has a devastating impact on biodiversity and we have yet to identify management strategies that can mitigate this. We determined the life-history traits that best predict bird species occurrence in rubber plantations in SW China and investigated the effects of surrounding forest cover and distance to roads on bird diversity. Mistletoes provide nectar and fruit resources in rubber so we examined mistletoe densities and the relationship with forest cover and rubber tree diameter. In rubber plantations, we recorded less than half of all bird species extant in the surrounding area. Birds with wider habitat breadths and low conservation value had a higher probability of occurrence. Species richness and diversity increased logarithmically with surrounding forest cover, but roads had little effect. Mistletoe density increased exponentially with rubber tree diameters, but was unrelated to forest cover. To maximize bird diversity in rubber-dominated landscapes it is therefore necessary to preserve as much forest as possible, construct roads through plantations and not forest, and retain some large rubber trees with mistletoes during crop rotations.

  5. Effects of forests, roads and mistletoe on bird diversity in monoculture rubber plantations

    PubMed Central

    Sreekar, Rachakonda; Huang, Guohualing; Yasuda, Mika; Quan, Rui-Chang; Goodale, Eben; Corlett, Richard T.; Tomlinson, Kyle W.

    2016-01-01

    Rising global demand for natural rubber is expanding monoculture rubber (Hevea brasilensis) at the expense of natural forests in the Old World tropics. Conversion of forests into rubber plantations has a devastating impact on biodiversity and we have yet to identify management strategies that can mitigate this. We determined the life-history traits that best predict bird species occurrence in rubber plantations in SW China and investigated the effects of surrounding forest cover and distance to roads on bird diversity. Mistletoes provide nectar and fruit resources in rubber so we examined mistletoe densities and the relationship with forest cover and rubber tree diameter. In rubber plantations, we recorded less than half of all bird species extant in the surrounding area. Birds with wider habitat breadths and low conservation value had a higher probability of occurrence. Species richness and diversity increased logarithmically with surrounding forest cover, but roads had little effect. Mistletoe density increased exponentially with rubber tree diameters, but was unrelated to forest cover. To maximize bird diversity in rubber-dominated landscapes it is therefore necessary to preserve as much forest as possible, construct roads through plantations and not forest, and retain some large rubber trees with mistletoes during crop rotations. PMID:26903032

  6. Mechanical properties of concrete containing a high volume of tire-rubber particles.

    PubMed

    Khaloo, Ali R; Dehestani, M; Rahmatabadi, P

    2008-12-01

    Due to the increasingly serious environmental problems presented by waste tires, the feasibility of using elastic and flexible tire-rubber particles as aggregate in concrete is investigated in this study. Tire-rubber particles composed of tire chips, crumb rubber, and a combination of tire chips and crumb rubber, were used to replace mineral aggregates in concrete. These particles were used to replace 12.5%, 25%, 37.5%, and 50% of the total mineral aggregate's volume in concrete. Cylindrical shape concrete specimens 15 cm in diameter and 30 cm in height were fabricated and cured. The fresh rubberized concrete exhibited lower unit weight and acceptable workability compared to plain concrete. The results of a uniaxial compressive strain control test conducted on hardened concrete specimens indicate large reductions in the strength and tangential modulus of elasticity. A significant decrease in the brittle behavior of concrete with increasing rubber content is also demonstrated using nonlinearity indices. The maximum toughness index, indicating the post failure strength of concrete, occurs in concretes with 25% rubber content. Unlike plain concrete, the failure state in rubberized concrete occurs gently and uniformly, and does not cause any separation in the specimen. Crack width and its propagation velocity in rubberized concrete are lower than those of plain concrete. Ultrasonic analysis reveals large reductions in the ultrasonic modulus and high sound absorption for tire-rubber concrete.

  7. Thermomyces lanuginosus STm: a source of thermostable hydrolytic enzymes for novel application in extraction of high-quality natural rubber from Taraxacum kok-saghyz (rubber dandelion)

    Hydrolytic enzymes from a newly isolated strain of the thermophilic fungus Thermomyces lanuginosus were used to extract rubber from Taraxacum kok-saghyz commonly known as rubber (or Russian or Kazak(h)) dandelion. The fungus was isolated from garden soil and identified as Thermomyces lanuginosus STm...

  8. Transpiration characteristics of a rubber plantation in central Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Nakako; Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Tateishi, Makiko; Lim, Tiva K; Mudd, Ryan G; Ziegler, Alan D; Giambelluca, Thomas W; Yin, Song

    2014-03-01

    The rapid and widespread expansion of rubber plantations in Southeast Asia necessitates a greater understanding of tree physiology and the impacts of water consumption on local hydrology. Sap flow measurements were used to study the intra- and inter-annual variations in transpiration rate (Et) in a rubber stand in the low-elevation plain of central Cambodia. Mean stand sap flux density (JS) indicates that rubber trees actively transpire in the rainy season, but become inactive in the dry season. A sharp, brief drop in JS occurred simultaneously with leaf shedding in the middle of the dry season in January. Although the annual maxima of JS were approximately the same in the two study years, the maximum daily stand Et of ∼2.0 mm day(-1) in 2010 increased to ∼2.4 mm day(-1) in 2011. Canopy-level stomatal response was well explained by changes in solar radiation, vapor pressure deficit, soil moisture availability, leaf area, and stem diameter. Rubber trees had a relatively small potential to transpire at the beginning of the study period, compared with average diffuse-porous species. After 2 years of growth in stem diameter, transpiration potential was comparable to other species. The sensitivity of canopy conductance (gc) to atmospheric drought indicates isohydric behavior of rubber trees. Modeling also predicted a relatively small sensitivity of gc to the soil moisture deficit and a rapid decrease in gc under extreme drought conditions. However, annual observations suggest the possibility of a change in leaf characteristics with tree maturity and/or initiation of latex tapping. The estimated annual stand Et was 469 mm year(-1) in 2010, increasing to 658 mm year(-1) in 2011. Diagnostic analysis using the derived gc model showed that inter-annual change in stand Et in the rapidly growing young rubber stand was determined mainly by tree growth rate, not by differences in air and soil variables in the surrounding environment. Future research should focus on the

  9. Determination of Hydrophobic Contact Angle of Epoxy Resin Compound Silicon Rubber and Silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syakur, Abdul; Hermawan; Sutanto, Heri

    2017-04-01

    Epoxy resin is a thermosetting polymeric material which is very good for application of high voltage outdoor insulator in electrical power system. This material has several advantages, i.e. high dielectric strength, light weight, high mechanical strength, easy to blend with additive, and easy maintenance if compared to that of porcelain and glass outdoor insulators which are commonly used. However, this material also has several disadvantages, i.e. hydrophilic property, very sensitive to aging and easily degraded when there is a flow of contaminants on its surface. The research towards improving the performance of epoxy resin insulation materials were carried out to obtain epoxy resin insulating material with high water repellent properties and high surface tracking to aging. In this work, insulating material was made at room temperature vulcanization, with material composition: Diglycidyl Ether Bisphenol A (DGEBA), Metaphenylene Diamine (MPDA) as hardener with stoichiometric value of unity, and nanosilica mixed with Silicon Rubber (SiR) with 10% (RTV21), 20% (RTV22), 30% (RTV23), 40% (RTV24) and 50% (RTV25) variation. The usage of nanosilica and Silicon Rubber (SIR) as filler was expected to provide hydrophobic properties and was able to increase the value of surface tracking of materials. The performance of the insulator observed were contact angle of hydrophobic surface materials. Tests carried out using Inclined Plane Tracking procedure according to IEC 60-587: 1984 with Ammonium Chloride (NH4Cl) as contaminants flowed using peristaltic pumps. The results show that hydrophobic contact angle can be determined from each sample, and RTV25 has maximum contact angle among others.

  10. Micro-organisms in latex and natural rubber coagula of Hevea brasiliensis and their impact on rubber composition, structure and properties.

    PubMed

    Salomez, M; Subileau, M; Intapun, J; Bonfils, F; Sainte-Beuve, J; Vaysse, L; Dubreucq, E

    2014-10-01

    Natural rubber, produced by coagulation of the latex from the tree Hevea brasiliensis, is an important biopolymer used in many applications for its outstanding properties. Besides polyisoprene, latex is rich in many nonisoprene components such as carbohydrates, proteins and lipids and thereby constitutes a favourable medium for the development of micro-organisms. The fresh rubber coagula obtained by latex coagulation are not immediately processed, allowing the development of various microbial communities. The time period between tree tapping and coagula processing is called maturation, during which an evolution of the properties of the corresponding dry natural rubber occurs. This evolution is partly related to the activity of micro-organisms and to the modification of the biochemical composition. This review synthesizes the current knowledge on microbial populations in latex and natural rubber coagula of H. brasiliensis and the changes they induce on the biochemistry and technical properties of natural rubber during maturation. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Natural rubber latex skin testing reagents: safety and diagnostic accuracy of nonammoniated latex, ammoniated latex, and latex rubber glove extracts.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, R G; Adkinson, N F

    1996-11-01

    Nonammoniated latex, ammoniated latex, and rubber glove extracts are the only sources of natural rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) latex that have potential for use as skin testing reagents in the diagnosis of latex allergy. Their diagnostic sensitivity and specificity as skin test reagents are unknown. We conducted a phase 1/2 clinical study to examine the safety and diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) of nonammoniated latex, ammoniated latex, and rubber glove extracts as skin test extracts to identify the most efficacious source material for future skin test reagent development. Twenty-four adults not allergic to latex, 19 adults with hand dermatitis or pruritus, and 59 adults with a latex allergy were identified by clinical history. All provided blood and then received puncture skin tests and intradermal skin tests with nonammoniated latex, ammoniated latex, and rubber glove extracts from Malaysian H. brasiliensis latex by use of sequential titration. A glove provocation test and IgE anti-latex RAST were used to clarify positive history-negative skin test response and negative history-positive skin test response mismatches. All three extracts were biologically safe and sterile. After normalization to 1 mg/ml of total protein, all three extracts produced equivalent diagnostic sensitivity and specificity in puncture skin tests and intradermal skin tests at various extract concentrations. Optimal diagnostic accuracy was safely achieved at 100 micrograms/ml for intradermal skin tests (e.g., nonammoniated latex: puncture skin test sensitivity 96%, specificity 100%; intradermal skin test sensitivity 93%, specificity 96%). The presence of IgE antibody in skin was highly correlated with IgE anti-latex in serum (nonammoniated latex: r = 0.98, p < 0.001; ammoniated latex: r = 0.94, p < 0.001; rubber glove extract: r = 0.96, p < 0.001). All five available subjects with a positive history, negative skin test response, and absence of IgE antibody in serum had a

  12. Health aspects of the curing of synthetic rubbers.

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, D A; Rappaport, S

    1976-01-01

    A commonly used tread rubber formulation was cured in the laboratory under conditions simulating vulcanization in the Bag-O-Matic press. Volatile emissions were collected on charcoal and analyzed by combined GC-mass spectrometry. The compounds identified were either contaminants present in the raw material or reaction products. Some of these compounds were also identified in charcoal tube samples collected in the atmosphere of the industrial operations. Estimates based on the loss of weight of rubber during curing were used to predict airborne concentrations and compared to the concentrations actually found. The literature of the toxicity of raw materials and effluents was reviewed, and no acute or chronic toxicological effects would be anticipated. Information concerning potential carcinogenicity was not available and could not be evaluated. PMID:1026417

  13. Study on cord/rubber interface at elevated temperatures by H-pull test method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamshidi, M.; Afshar, F.; Mohammadi, N.; Pourmahdian, S.

    2005-08-01

    Cords are used as reinforcing materials in rubber compounds. To increase cord/rubber interfacial adhesion, they are coated by an adhesive (usually based on resorcinol-formaldehyde-latex). These composites are used in many sectors such as tire and belt industries. Cord/rubber adhesion strength is an important aspect to determine the durability of system. Due to temperature increase during running tires, the adhesion energy becomes different from initial one. To study cord/rubber interface at elevated temperatures, H-adhesion test method was used. H-pull test is a simple method for adhesion evaluation at ambient temperature, so it is usually used for material quality control. In this research, cord/rubber systems were vulcanized at different temperatures and H-adhesion of samples were evaluated at elevated temperatures. Also cord/rubber interface was studied by ATR analyze to determine interfacial interactions kind.

  14. Chemicals used in the rubber industry. An overview.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, L

    1983-01-01

    Hundreds of chemicals illustrative of many structural and use categories are employed in the rubber industry. The present overview has centered on the structural features of a number of compounds representative of several select use categories, eg, vulcanizing agents, accelerators, antioxidants, antiozonants, and blowing agents, with focus on the nature of their impurities, their chemical degradation, and by-products, as well as on those chemicals that can be converted to N-nitrosamines.

  15. Weed control in a native rubber crop (Parthenium argentatum gray)

    SciT

    Whitworth, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    There is a renewed interest in the production of rubber from guayule (Parthenium argentatum). Excellent control of several weed species in guayule has been obtained with Varsol (a naphtha oil) at 30-40 gal/acre applied at the cotyledon stage. At this stage, guayule survival averaged 86-63% according to dose, but plants up to 10 days old at the time of treatment showed increasing tolerance. Paraffin was somewhat more selective that Varsol.

  16. NMR investigation of gaseous SF6 confinement into EPDM rubber.

    PubMed

    Neutzler, Sven; Terekhov, Maxim; Hoepfel, Dieter; Oellrich, Lothar Rainer

    2005-02-01

    The confinement process of gaseous sulphurhexafluoride (SF6) in ethylene-propylene-diene (EPDM) rubber was investigated by spectroscopic and spatially resolved NMR techniques. A strong elongation of T1 relaxation time of SF6 and a decrease of the diffusion coefficient were found. A possible explanation may be the strong restriction of molecular mobility due to interactions between SF6 and active centers of the EPDM.

  17. Crumb Rubber-Concrete Panels Under Blast Loads

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    and the samples were labeled. Samples were picked up with an overhead crane and a form spreader connected to two points on the sample, each outside...uniform loading. Shortly after test started 8 to 9 cracks developed within quarter points and 2 cracks developed through pick points where form spreader ...dynamic behaviour of recycled tyre rubber-filled concrete.” Cem. Concr. Res., 32, 1587–1596. Huang, B., Li, G., Pang, S. S., and Eggers, J. (2004

  18. Rubber-Modified Epoxies. I. Cure, Transitions, and Morphology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    thermosetting systems has been developed. An aromatic tetrafunctional diamine-cured diglycidyl ether of bis- phenol A epoxy resin [maximum glass transition...systems has been developed. An aromatic tetrafunctional diamine-cured digly- cidyl ether of bisphenol A epoxy resin [maximum glass transition...epoxy resins are brittle materials. The crack resistance can be improved by the addition of reactive liquid rubber to uncured neat epoxy systems (1-3

  19. Productivity of rubber-tired skidders in southern pine forests

    R. Kluender; D. Lortz; W. McCoy; B. Stokes; J. Klepac

    1997-01-01

    Sixteen stands were harvested at intensities (proportion of basal area removed) ranging from 0.27 to 1.00. Logging contractors used one or two rubber-tired cable and/or grapple skidders. Harvested sites were similar in slope, tree size, and stand composition. Thirteen of the stands had even-aged structures while the other three were uneven-aged. Skidding time per cycle...

  20. Flexible strain sensor based on carbon nanotube rubber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Ho; Kim, Young-Ju; Baek, Woon Kyung; Lim, Kwon Taek; Kang, Inpil

    2010-04-01

    Electrically conducting rubber composites (CRC) with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) filler have received much attention as potential materials for sensors. In this work, Ethylene propylene diene M-class rubber (EPDM)/CNT composites as a novel nano sensory material were prepared to develop flexible strain sensors that can measure large deformation of flexible structures. The EPDM/CNT composites were prepared by using a Brabender mixer with multi-walled CNTs and organo-clay. A strain sensor made of EPDM/CNT composite was attached to the surface of a flexible beam and change of resistance of the strain sensor was measured with respect to the beam deflection. Resistance of the sensor was change quite linearly under the bending and compressive large beam deflection. Upon external forces, CRC deformation takes place with the micro scale change of inter-electrical condition in rubber matrix due to the change of contact resistance, and CRC reveals macro scale piezoresistivity. It is anticipated that the CNT/EPDM fibrous strain sensor can be eligible to develop a biomimetic artificial neuron that can continuously sense deformation, pressure and shear force.

  1. Quantitative rubber sheet models of gravitation wells using Spandex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Gary

    2008-04-01

    Long a staple of introductory treatments of general relativity, the rubber sheet model exhibits Wheeler's concise summary---``Matter tells space-time how to curve and space-time tells matter how to move''---very nicely. But what of the quantitative aspects of the rubber sheet model: how far can the analogy be pushed? We show^1 that when a mass M is suspended from the center of an otherwise unstretched elastic sheet affixed to a circular boundary it exhibits a distortion far from the center given by h = A*(M*r^2)^1/3 . Here, as might be expected, h and r are the vertical and axial distances from the center, but this result is not the expected logarithmic form of 2-D solutions to LaPlace's equation (the stretched drumhead). This surprise has a natural explanation and is confirmed experimentally with Spandex as the medium, and its consequences for general rubber sheet models are pursued. ^1``The shape of `the Spandex' and orbits upon its surface'', American Journal of Physics, 70, 48-52 (2002), G. D. White and M. Walker. See also the comment by Don S. Lemons and T. C. Lipscombe, also in AJP, 70, 1056-1058 (2002).

  2. Functional buckling behavior of silicone rubber shells for biomedical use.

    PubMed

    van der Houwen, E B; Kuiper, L H; Burgerhof, J G M; van der Laan, B F A M; Verkerke, G J

    2013-12-01

    The use of soft elastic biomaterials in medical devices enables substantial function integration. The consequent increased simplification in design can improve reliability at a lower cost in comparison to traditional (hard) biomaterials. Functional bi-stable buckling is one of the many new mechanisms made possible by soft materials. The buckling behavior of shells, however, is typically described from a structural failure point of view: the collapse of arches or rupture of steam vessels, for example. There is little or no literature about the functional elastic buckling of small-sized silicone rubber shells, and it is unknown whether or not theory can predict their behavior. Is functional buckling possible within the scale, material and pressure normally associated with physiological applications? An automatic speech valve is used as an example application. Silicone rubber spherical shells (diameter 30mm) with hinged and double-hinged boundaries were subjected to air pressure loading. Twelve different geometrical configurations were tested for buckling and reverse buckling pressures. Data were compared with the theory. Buckling pressure increases linearly with shell thickness and shell height. Reverse buckling shows these same relations, with pressures always below normal buckling pressure. Secondary hinges change normal/reverse buckling pressure ratios and promote symmetrical buckling. All tested configurations buckled within or closely around physiological pressures. Functional bi-stable buckling of silicone rubber shells is possible with adjustable properties in the physiological pressure range. Results can be predicted using the proposed relations and equations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cultivation of aerobic granular sludge for rubber wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Rosman, Noor Hasyimah; Nor Anuar, Aznah; Othman, Inawati; Harun, Hasnida; Sulong Abdul Razak, Muhammad Zuhdi; Elias, Siti Hanna; Mat Hassan, Mohd Arif Hakimi; Chelliapan, Shreesivadass; Ujang, Zaini

    2013-02-01

    Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) was successfully cultivated at 27±1 °C and pH 7.0±1 during the treatment of rubber wastewater using a sequential batch reactor system mode with complete cycle time of 3 h. Results showed aerobic granular sludge had an excellent settling ability and exhibited exceptional performance in the organics and nutrients removal from rubber wastewater. Regular, dense and fast settling granule (average diameter, 1.5 mm; settling velocity, 33 m h(-1); and sludge volume index, 22.3 mL g(-1)) were developed in a single reactor. In addition, 96.5% COD removal efficiency was observed in the system at the end of the granulation period, while its ammonia and total nitrogen removal efficiencies were up to 94.7% and 89.4%, respectively. The study demonstrated the capabilities of AGS development in a single, high and slender column type-bioreactor for the treatment of rubber wastewater. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Para rubber seed oil: new promising unconventional oil for cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Lourith, Nattaya; Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree; Sucontphunt, Apirada; Ondee, Thunnicha

    2014-01-01

    Para rubber seed was macerated in petroleum ether and n-hexane, individually, for 30 min. The extraction was additionally performed by reflux and soxhlet for 6 h with the same solvent and proportion. Soxhlet extraction by petroleum ether afforded the greatest extractive yield (22.90 ± 0.92%). Although antioxidant activity by means of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was insignificantly differed in soxhleted (8.90 ± 1.15%) and refluxed (9.02 ± 0.71%) by n-hexane, soxhlet extraction by n-hexane was significantly (p < 0.05) potent scavenged 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothaiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid) or ABTS radical with trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of 66.54 ± 6.88 mg/100 g oil. This extract was non cytotoxic towards normal human fibroblast cells. In addition, oleic acid and palmitic acid were determined at a greater content than in the seed of para rubber cultivated in Malaysia, although linoleic and stearic acid contents were not differed. This bright yellow extract was further evaluated on other physicochemical characters. The determined specific gravity, refractive index, iodine value, peroxide value and saponification value were in the range of commercialized vegetable oils used as cosmetic raw material. Therefore, Para rubber seed oil is highlighted as the promising ecological ingredient appraisal for cosmetics. Transforming of the seed that is by-product of the important industrial crop of Thailand into cosmetics is encouraged accordingly.

  5. Self-healing and thermoreversible rubber from supramolecular assembly.

    PubMed

    Cordier, Philippe; Tournilhac, François; Soulié-Ziakovic, Corinne; Leibler, Ludwik

    2008-02-21

    Rubbers exhibit enormous extensibility up to several hundred per cent, compared with a few per cent for ordinary solids, and have the ability to recover their original shape and dimensions on release of stress. Rubber elasticity is a property of macromolecules that are either covalently cross-linked or connected in a network by physical associations such as small glassy or crystalline domains, ionic aggregates or multiple hydrogen bonds. Covalent cross-links or strong physical associations prevent flow and creep. Here we design and synthesize molecules that associate together to form both chains and cross-links via hydrogen bonds. The system shows recoverable extensibility up to several hundred per cent and little creep under load. In striking contrast to conventional cross-linked or thermoreversible rubbers made of macromolecules, these systems, when broken or cut, can be simply repaired by bringing together fractured surfaces to self-heal at room temperature. Repaired samples recuperate their enormous extensibility. The process of breaking and healing can be repeated many times. These materials can be easily processed, re-used and recycled. Their unique self-repairing properties, the simplicity of their synthesis, their availability from renewable resources and the low cost of raw ingredients (fatty acids and urea) bode well for future applications.

  6. Mechanical and biological comparison of latex and silicone rubber bands.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Chung-Ju; Cha, Jung-Yul

    2003-10-01

    Latex rubber bands are routinely used to supply orthodontic force. However, because the incidence of allergic reactions to latex is rising, the use of nonlatex alternatives is increasing, and assessing the mechanical properties of the replacement products is becoming more important. The purposes of this study were to compare the mechanical properties of latex and silicone orthodontic rubber bands through static testing under dry and wet conditions, and to compare their biologic (cytotoxic) properties. Three brands of latex and 1 brand of silicone rubber bands were tested. When extended to 300% of the lumen diameter, the silicone group had an initial force equal to 83% of the product specifications; this was the lowest of the 4 groups. All 4 brands showed notable amounts of force degradation at the 300% extension when subjected to saliva immersion; this approximated a 30% force decay over 2 days. The latex bands all followed a similar pattern of force degradation, whereas the silicone bands showed a greater increase in force decay as the extension length increased. The silicone bands were less cytotoxic than 2 of the 3 types of latex. Although the silicone bands showed the least discrepancy of force degradation between air and saliva conditions, the amount of the force decay was the greatest. Therefore, great improvements in the physical properties of the silicone band are required before they can be considered an acceptable replacement for latex.

  7. Slipping through the Cracks: Rubber Plantation Is Unsuitable Breeding Habitat for Frogs in Xishuangbanna, China

    PubMed Central

    Behm, Jocelyn E.; Yang, Xiaodong; Chen, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Conversion of tropical forests into agriculture may present a serious risk to amphibian diversity if amphibians are not able to use agricultural areas as habitat. Recently, in Xishuangbanna Prefecture, Yunnan Province – a hotspot of frog diversity within China – two-thirds of the native tropical rainforests have been converted into rubber plantation agriculture. We conducted surveys and experiments to quantify habitat use for breeding and non-breeding life history activities of the native frog species in rainforest, rubber plantation and other human impacted sites. Rubber plantation sites had the lowest species richness in our non-breeding habitat surveys and no species used rubber plantation sites as breeding habitat. The absence of breeding was likely not due to intrinsic properties of the rubber plantation pools, as our experiments indicated that rubber plantation pools were suitable for tadpole growth and development. Rather, the absence of breeding in the rubber plantation was likely due to a misalignment of breeding and non-breeding habitat preferences. Analyses of our breeding surveys showed that percent canopy cover over pools was the strongest environmental variable influencing breeding site selection, with species exhibiting preferences for pools under both high and low canopy cover. Although rubber plantation pools had high canopy cover, the only species that bred in high canopy cover sites used the rainforest for both non-breeding and breeding activities, completing their entire life cycle in the rainforest. Conversely, the species that did use the rubber plantation for non-breeding habitat preferred to breed in low canopy sites, also avoiding breeding in the rubber plantation. Rubber plantations are likely an intermediate habitat type that ‘slips through the cracks’ of species habitat preferences and is thus avoided for breeding. In summary, unlike the rainforests they replaced, rubber plantations alone may not be able to support frog

  8. Environmental Exposure and Accelerated Testing of Rubber-to-Metal Vulcanized-Bonded Assemblies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-08-01

    such bonds are those of rubber coatings on the aluminum M60 machinq gun components, shock isolator and recoil adapter on the GAU 2B/A Minigun, rubber...accelerated humidity test data can be compared to show that both have the same effect on vulcanized bonded assemblies. Butadlene/styrene rubber-to-metal...distribution unlimited. 17. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of the abstract enterd In 8!ock 20. It different frore Rel , V " - ’O" ) " 18. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES

  9. Fabrication of T142 Tank Track Pads for Evaluation of a Rubber-Kevlar Composite Compound

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    fully developed with highly saturated rubbers such as butyl or ROYALENE® ( EPDM ) A-3 ...PERIOD COVERED Fabrication of T142 Tank Track Pads for Evaluation of a Rubber -Kevlar Composite FINAL Compound S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR...developed for evaluation in T142 tank track pads. Bonding of the rubber to the fiber was achieved by addition of bonding agents to the compound. 175, T142

  10. Cleaning Aged EPDM Rubber Roofing Membrane Material for Patching: Laboratory Investigations and Recommendations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    Cleaning Aged EPDM Rubber Roofing Membrane Material for Patching: Laboratory Investigations and Recommendations Walter J. Rossiter, Jr. T N n-’T ic...condition of the aged EPDM rubber before bonding. This study assessed the effectiveness of different cleaning methods for preparing aged EPDM membranes for...REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED August 1992 Final 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Cleaning Aged EPDM Rubber Roofing Membrane

  11. Silver nanoprisms/silicone hybrid rubber materials and their optical limiting property to femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunfang; Liu, Miao; Jiang, Nengkai; Wang, Chunlei; Lin, Weihong; Li, Dongxiang

    2017-08-01

    Optical limiters against femtosecond laser are essential for eye and sensor protection in optical processing system with femtosecond laser as light source. Anisotropic Ag nanoparticles are expected to develop into optical limiting materials for femtosecond laser pulses. Herein, silver nanoprisms are prepared and coated by silica layer, which are then doped into silicone rubber to obtain hybrid rubber sheets. The silver nanoprisms/silicone hybrid rubber sheets exhibit good optical limiting property to femtosecond laser mainly due to nonlinear optical absorption.

  12. Rubber band as external assist device to provide simple grip for quadriplegic patients.

    PubMed

    Pham, H N; Noble, C N; Hentz, V R

    1988-08-01

    The rubber band as an external assist device provides an effective grip for the hand of high spinal cord injury quadriplegic patients. This technique can also be useful for preoperative patients who are undergoing physical and occupational therapy or to assess patients' needs for surgery. The rubber band as an adaptive device is preferred because of its availability, low visibility, and ease of application. We attempt to provide a more standardized method of the rubber band technique and to popularize it.

  13. Hardness and swelling behaviour of epoxidized natural rubber/recycled acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (ENR 50/NBRr) blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Hazwani Syaza; Ismail, Hanafi; Rashid, Azura A.

    2017-07-01

    This recent work is to investigate the hardness and swelling behaviour of epoxidized natural rubber/recycled acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (ENR 50/NBRr) blends. ENR 50/NBRr blends were prepared by two-roll mills with five different loading of NBRr from 5 to 35 phr. Results indicated that the hardness of ENR 50/NBRr blends increased as recycled NBR increased due to the improvement in crosslink density of the blends. Increasing NBRr content gives ENR 50/NBRr blends better resistance towards swelling. Higher degree of crosslinking will increase the swelling resistance and reduce the penetration of toluene into the blends. The presence of polar group in ENR 50 and NBRr give better hardness properties and swelling behaviour of the ENR 50/NBRr blends compared to the NR/NBRr blends.

  14. Development of optical laser balloon and drainage from radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimamura, Yoshiyuki

    Rubber film made of radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex (RVNRL) has better transparency and lower toxicity compared with sulfur-vulcanized latex film. Optical laser balloon (optical endoscopical balloon) and drainage were developed by using RVNRL. An endoscope was equipped with a saline-filled latex rubber balloon at its tip to displace contaminating blood, bile, or gastric contents during operative portoscopy, biliary endoscopy, or upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The transmission of Nd-Yag laser through the balloon is 98%, higher than the sulfur-vulcanized latex rubber (75%). High transparency of the drainage bag facilitated easy observation of discharged fluids without detaching the bag from the tube.

  15. The outgassing characteristic research of the silicone rubber in high power laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qipeng; Lv, Haibing; Dong, Meng; Fu, Zhaohui

    2016-11-01

    The outgassing characteristic of the silicone rubber which is the main material of non-metallic materials in high power laser system was studied outgassing rates of the silicone rubber and the baked-out silicone rubber which was performed at 80°C4 hours were measured by the constant volume process method and outgassing properties of them were analyzed by the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The results show that the outgassing rate of the silicone rubber and the baked-out silicone rubber is 2.69×10-7 Pa·m3s-1cm-2 and 6.47×10-8 Pa·m3s-1cm-2 respectively. All of them give out condensable volatile matter in vacuum. The outgassing rate and condensable volatile matter of the baked-out silicone rubber are less an order of magnitude compared with the silicone rubber, and the outgassing rate of the silicone rubber is less than 1×10-7 Pa·m3s-1cm-2, which is fit for non-metallic material of the high power laser system. This paper also discusses the method of reducing the outgassing rate and condensable volatile matter of the silicone rubber in high power laser system.

  16. The Long-Term Effectiveness of Chemical vs. Polymeric Antiozonants in Rubber

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-02-01

    August 1954. 2. Lerner, M.E., Rubber Age . 105, 57, December 1973. 3. Buist, J., British Patent 939, 359 (Application made in Canada, No. 802, 137...J.M., Kindle, R.W., and Mazzeo, R.A., Rubber World. 98. 67, 1966 (Abstract only). 6 Samuels, M.E., and Wirth, K.H., Rubber Age . 99. 73, 1967. 7... Age . 101. 47, 1969. 12 ASTM Standards on Rubber Products, March 1968, American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race St., Philadelphia, Pa

  17. Genomic validation of PB 260 clone of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) at Cikumpay Plantation by SSR marker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royani, J. I.; Safarrida, A.; Rachmawati, I.; Khairiyah, H.; Mustika, I. P.; Suyono, A.; Rudiyana, Y.; Kubil; Nurjaya; Arianto, A.

    2017-05-01

    Rubber from Hevea brasiliensis is the only commercial natural rubber in the world. Propagation of rubber trees usually done by grafting and seed germination. BPPT had been producing rubber tree by in vitro technique with embryo somatic methods. Validation of mother plant for in vitro propagation is important to compare between mother plant and propagated plants. The aim for this research was to validation of PB 260 clone that planted at Cikumpay Plantation by SSR marker. Sampling of 10 rubber leaves were done at Cikumpay Plantation based on GPS position from the area of PB 260 clone. Rubber leaves were isolated with CTAB modification method to obtained DNA. Four of SSR primers from rubber, i.e.: hmac 4, hmac 5, hmct 1, and hmct 5, were used as primers to amplification of rubber DNA. The result showed that no band that different from 10 rubber of PB 260 clone at Cikumpay Plantation. This research will continue to compare genomic validation between mother plant and propagated plants that had been produced from BPPT.

  18. FTIR spectra and mechanical strength analysis of some selected rubber derivatives.

    PubMed

    Gunasekaran, S; Natarajan, R K; Kala, A

    2007-10-01

    Rubber materials have wide range of commercial applications such as, infant diapers, famine hygiene products, drug delivery devices and incontinency products such as rubber tubes, tyres, etc. In the present work, studies on mechanical properties of some selected rubber materials viz., natural rubber (NR), styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) and ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) have been carried out in three states viz., raw, vulcanized and reinforced. To enhance the quality of rubber elastomers, an attempt is made to prepare new elastomers called polyblends. In the present study an attempt is made to blend NR with NBR and with EPDM. We here report, a novel approach for the evaluation of various physico-mechanical properties such as mechanical strength, tensile strength, elongation and hardness. The method is simple, direct and fast and involves infrared spectral measurements for the evaluation of these properties. With the applications of modern infrared spectroscopy, the mechanical strength of these rubber materials have been analyzed by calculating the internal standards among the methyl and methylene group vibrational frequencies obtained from FTIR spectroscopy. Also the tensile strength measurements carried out by universal testing machine. The results pertaining physico-mechanical properties of the rubber derivatives undertaken in the present study obtained by IR-based method are in good agreement with data resulted from the standard methods.

  19. FTIR spectra and mechanical strength analysis of some selected rubber derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunasekaran, S.; Natarajan, R. K.; Kala, A.

    2007-10-01

    Rubber materials have wide range of commercial applications such as, infant diapers, famine hygiene products, drug delivery devices and incontinency products such as rubber tubes, tyres, etc. In the present work, studies on mechanical properties of some selected rubber materials viz., natural rubber (NR), styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) and ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) have been carried out in three states viz., raw, vulcanized and reinforced. To enhance the quality of rubber elastomers, an attempt is made to prepare new elastomers called polyblends. In the present study an attempt is made to blend NR with NBR and with EPDM. We here report, a novel approach for the evaluation of various physico-mechanical properties such as mechanical strength, tensile strength, elongation and hardness. The method is simple, direct and fast and involves infrared spectral measurements for the evaluation of these properties. With the applications of modern infrared spectroscopy, the mechanical strength of these rubber materials have been analyzed by calculating the internal standards among the methyl and methylene group vibrational frequencies obtained from FTIR spectroscopy. Also the tensile strength measurements carried out by universal testing machine. The results pertaining physico-mechanical properties of the rubber derivatives undertaken in the present study obtained by IR-based method are in good agreement with data resulted from the standard methods.

  20. Subcellular localization and interactions among rubber particle proteins from Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Daniel; Feeney, Mistianne; Ahmadi, Mathin; Lonoce, Chiara; Sajari, Roslinda; Di Cola, Alessandra; Frigerio, Lorenzo

    2017-11-02

    Natural rubber (polyisoprene) from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis is synthesized by specialized cells called laticifers. It is not clear how rubber particles arise, although one hypothesis is that they derive from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. Here we cloned the genes encoding four key proteins found in association with rubber particles and studied their intracellular localization by transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. We show that, while the cis-prenyltransferase (CPT), responsible for the synthesis of long polyisoprene chains, is a soluble, cytosolic protein, other rubber particle proteins such as rubber elongation factor (REF), small rubber particle protein (SRPP) and Hevea rubber transferase 1-REF bridging protein (HRBP) are associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We also show that SRPP can recruit CPT to the ER and that interaction of CPT with HRBP leads to both proteins relocating to the plasma membrane. We discuss these results in the context of the biogenesis of rubber particles. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  1. Historical and Recent Achievements in the Field of Microbial Degradation of Natural and Synthetic Rubber

    PubMed Central

    Yikmis, Meral

    2012-01-01

    This review intends to provide an overview of historical and recent achievements in studies of microbial degradation of natural and synthetic rubber. The main scientific focus is on the key enzymes latex-clearing protein (Lcp) from the Gram-positive Streptomyces sp. strain K30 and rubber oxygenase A (RoxA) from the Gram-negative Xanthomonas sp. strain 35Y, which has been hitherto the only known rubber-degrading bacterium that does not belong to the actinomycetes. We also emphasize the importance of knowledge of biodegradation in industrial and environmental biotechnology for waste natural rubber disposal. PMID:22504822

  2. Comprehensive Proteomics Analysis of Laticifer Latex Reveals New Insights into Ethylene Stimulation of Natural Rubber Production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuchu; Wang, Dan; Sun, Yong; Yang, Qian; Chang, Lili; Wang, Limin; Meng, Xueru; Huang, Qixing; Jin, Xiang; Tong, Zheng

    2015-09-08

    Ethylene is a stimulant to increase natural rubber latex. After ethylene application, both fresh yield and dry matter of latex are substantially improved. Moreover, we found that ethylene improves the generation of small rubber particles. However, most genes involved in rubber biosynthesis are inhibited by exogenous ethylene. Therefore, we conducted a proteomics analysis of ethylene-stimulated rubber latex, and identified 287 abundant proteins as well as 143 ethylene responsive latex proteins (ERLPs) with mass spectrometry from the 2-DE and DIGE gels, respectively. In addition, more than 1,600 proteins, including 404 ERLPs, were identified by iTRAQ. Functional classification of ERLPs revealed that enzymes involved in post-translational modification, carbohydrate metabolism, hydrolase activity, and kinase activity were overrepresented. Some enzymes for rubber particle aggregation were inhibited to prolong latex flow, and thus finally improved latex production. Phosphoproteomics analysis identified 59 differential phosphoproteins; notably, specific isoforms of rubber elongation factor and small rubber particle protein that were phosphorylated mainly at serine residues. This post-translational modification and isoform-specific phosphorylation might be important for ethylene-stimulated latex production. These results not only deepen our understanding of the rubber latex proteome but also provide new insights into the use of ethylene to stimulate rubber latex production.

  3. Chirp mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaneja, Navin

    2018-07-01

    In this paper, we develop the theory of chirp mixing in NMR spectroscopy. The working principle is simple, given coupled homonuclear spins with offsets in range [ - B, B ] , we adiabatically sweep through the resonances. This achieves cross polarization between the z magnetization of the coupled spins. We repeat this basic operation many times with a supercycle to achieve appropriate mixing time. When we sweep through the resonances, midway between the resonances of the coupled spin I and S, the effective field seen by two spins is the same and hence they precess at same frequency around their effective fields. This means the coupling, which normally gets averaged out due to the chemical shift difference is no more averaged out for a short time and we get mixing. In this paper, we develop these basic ideas. By virtue of its design, the chirp mixing is much more broadband compared to state of the art methods. The proposed methodology is demonstrated on 13 C mixing in a sample of Alanine.

  4. A new paradigm for the molecular basis of rubber elasticity

    DOE PAGES

    Hanson, David E.; Barber, John L.

    2015-02-19

    The molecular basis for rubber elasticity is arguably the oldest and one of the most important questions in the field of polymer physics. The theoretical investigation of rubber elasticity began in earnest almost a century ago with the development of analytic thermodynamic models, based on simple, highly-symmetric configurations of so-called Gaussian chains, i.e. polymer chains that obey Markov statistics. Numerous theories have been proposed over the past 90 years based on the ansatz that the elastic force for individual network chains arises from the entropy change associated with the distribution of end-to-end distances of a free polymer chain. There aremore » serious philosophical objections to this assumption and others, such as the assumption that all network nodes undergo affine motion and that all of the network chains have the same length. Recently, a new paradigm for elasticity in rubber networks has been proposed that is based on mechanisms that originate at the molecular level. Using conventional statistical mechanics analyses, quantum chemistry, and molecular dynamics simulations, the fundamental entropic and enthalpic chain extension forces for polyisoprene (natural rubber) have been determined, along with estimates for the basic force constants. Concurrently, the complex morphology of natural rubber networks (the joint probability density distributions that relate the chain end-to-end distance to its contour length) has also been captured in a numerical model. When molecular chain forces are merged with the network structure in this model, it is possible to study the mechanical response to tensile and compressive strains of a representative volume element of a polymer network. As strain is imposed on a network, pathways of connected taut chains, that completely span the network along strain axis, emerge. Although these chains represent only a few percent of the total, they account for nearly all of the elastic stress at high strain. Here we provide

  5. A new paradigm for the molecular basis of rubber elasticity

    SciT

    Hanson, David E.; Barber, John L.

    The molecular basis for rubber elasticity is arguably the oldest and one of the most important questions in the field of polymer physics. The theoretical investigation of rubber elasticity began in earnest almost a century ago with the development of analytic thermodynamic models, based on simple, highly-symmetric configurations of so-called Gaussian chains, i.e. polymer chains that obey Markov statistics. Numerous theories have been proposed over the past 90 years based on the ansatz that the elastic force for individual network chains arises from the entropy change associated with the distribution of end-to-end distances of a free polymer chain. There aremore » serious philosophical objections to this assumption and others, such as the assumption that all network nodes undergo affine motion and that all of the network chains have the same length. Recently, a new paradigm for elasticity in rubber networks has been proposed that is based on mechanisms that originate at the molecular level. Using conventional statistical mechanics analyses, quantum chemistry, and molecular dynamics simulations, the fundamental entropic and enthalpic chain extension forces for polyisoprene (natural rubber) have been determined, along with estimates for the basic force constants. Concurrently, the complex morphology of natural rubber networks (the joint probability density distributions that relate the chain end-to-end distance to its contour length) has also been captured in a numerical model. When molecular chain forces are merged with the network structure in this model, it is possible to study the mechanical response to tensile and compressive strains of a representative volume element of a polymer network. As strain is imposed on a network, pathways of connected taut chains, that completely span the network along strain axis, emerge. Although these chains represent only a few percent of the total, they account for nearly all of the elastic stress at high strain. Here we provide

  6. Effects of Natural Rubber on Microwave Absorption Characteristics of Some Li-Ni-Zn Ferrite-Thermoplastic Natural Rubber Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul Hamid, Siti Atkah; Abdullah, Mustaffa Hj.; Ahmad, Sahrim Hj.; Mansor, Abdul Aziz; Yusoff, Ahmad Nazlim

    2002-09-01

    A microwave (Li0.5Fe0.5)0.4Ni0.3Zn0.3Fe2O4 (LNZ) ferrite was prepared by a conventional sintering method in air. Thermoplastic natural rubber (TPNR) was prepared from polypropylene (PP) and natural rubber (NR) in the ratios of 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50 and 40:60 with liquid natural rubber as a compatibilizer by a melt blending technique. LNZ ferrite-TPNR composites with 20 wt% ferrite filler were prepared using a Brabender plasticorder internal mixer. The microwave electromagnetic properties of the composites were studied in the frequency range of 0.3-13.5 GHz using a microwave vector network analyzer (MVNA). The real and imaginary components of the relative complex dielectric permittivity (\\varepsilonr*=\\varepsilonr\\prime-j\\varepsilonr\\prime\\prime) and magnetic permeability (μr*=μr\\prime-jμr\\prime\\prime) were calculated from the measured complex scattering parameters (S11* and S12*) using the Nicolson-Ross model. The dielectric and magnetic properties were found to depend on the NR and PP content in the composites. The minimum reflection loss (RL) under the matching conditions increases with increasing NR content.

  7. Occupational exposure to rubber vulcanization products during repair of rubber conveyor belts in a brown coal mine.

    PubMed

    Gromiec, Jan P; Wesołowski, Wiktor; Brzeźnicki, Sławomir; Wróblewska-Jakubowska, Krystyna; Kucharska, Małgorzata

    2002-12-01

    Several hundred chemical compounds were found in workroom environments in the rubber industry, but most of the published exposure data relate to the production of tyres; information from the "non-tyre" sections are very limited, if any. This study was carried out to identify chemical substances and measure their air concentrations in the repair shop of a brown coal mine in which damaged rubber conveyor belts were repaired. GC-MS and HPLC analysis of stationary air samples resulted in identification of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons to C12, PAHs, alcohols, phenols, ketones, heterocyclic nitrogen and sulfur compounds. Quantitative evaluation of occupational exposure included determination of organic compound vapours collected on charcoal (GC-MSD), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HPLC), N-nitrosoamines and other amines (GC-NPD) and DNPH derivatives of aldehydes (HPLC) in the breathing zone of workers representing all job titles. The concentrations of investigated compounds were very low. Carcinogenic substances: N-nitrosoamines, benzene, PAHs were not present in workroom air in concentrations exceeding limits of detection of the analytical methods being applied; concentrations of methylisobutylketone, tetrachloroethylene, naphtha, aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates and aldehydes were much lower than the respective occupational exposure limit values. The results indicate much lower exposure than that reported in the production of tyres and other fabricated rubber products.

  8. Fracture behavior of nano-scale rubber-modified epoxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacigalupo, Lauren N.

    The primary focus of the first portion of this study is to compare physical and mechanical properties of a model epoxy that has been toughened with one of three different types of rubber-based modifier: a traditional telechelic oligomer (phase separates into micro-size particles), a core-shell latex particle (preformed nano-scale particles) and a triblock copolymer (self-assembles into nano-scale particles). The effect of modifier content on the physical properties of the matrix was determined using several thermal analysis methods, which provided insight into any inherent alterations of the epoxy matrix. Although the primary objective is to study the role of particle size on the fracture toughness, stiffness and strength were also determined since these properties are often reduced in rubber-toughened epoxies. It was found that since the CSR- and SBM-modified epoxies are composed of less rubber, thermal and mechanical properties of the epoxy were better maintained. In order to better understand the fracture behavior and mechanisms of the three types of rubber particles utilized in this study, extensive microscopy analysis was conducted. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) was used to quantify the volume fraction of particles, transmission optical microscopy (TOM) was used to determine plastic damage zone size, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to assess void growth in the plastic zone after fracture. By quantifying these characteristics, it was then possible to model the plastic damage zone size as well as the fracture toughness to elucidate the behavior of the rubber-modified epoxies. It was found that localized shear yielding and matrix void growth are the active toughening mechanisms in all rubber-modified epoxies in this study, however, matrix void growth was more prevalent. The second portion of this study investigated the use of three acrylate-based triblocks and four acrylate-based diblocks to modify a model epoxy system. By

  9. The reclaiming of butyl rubber and in-situ compatibilization of thermoplastic elastomer by power ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Wenlai

    This is a study of the continuous ultrasound aided extrusion process for the in-situ compatibilization of isotactic polypropylene (iPP)/ethylene-propylene diene rubber (EPDM) thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) using a newly developed ultrasonic treatment reactor. The rheological, mechanical properties and morphology of the TPE with and without ultrasonic treatment were studied. In-situ compatibilization in the ultrasonically treated blends was observed as evident by their more stable morphology after annealing, improved mechanical properties and IR spectra. The obtained results indicated that ultrasonic treatment induced the thermo-mechanical degradations and led to the possibility of enhanced molecular transport and chemical reactions at the interfaces. Processing conditions were established for enhanced in situ compatibilization of the PP/EPDM TPE. The ultrasonic treatments of butyl rubber gum and ultrasonic devulcanization of butyl rubber, tire-curing bladder during extrusion using a grooved barrel ultrasonic reactor were carried out. The ultrasonic treatment of gum caused degradation of the polymer main chain leading to lower molecular weight, broader molecular weight distribution, less unsaturation and changes in physical properties. The devulcanization of butyl rubber was successfully accomplished only at severe conditions of ultrasonic treatment. The mechanical properties of vulcanizates prepared from devulcanized butyl rubber are comparable to that of the virgin vulcanizate. The molecular characterization of sol fraction of devulcanized butyl rubber showed the devulcanization and degradation of butyl rubber occurred simultaneously. 1H NMR transverse relaxation was also used to study butyl rubber gum before and after ultrasonic treatment, and ultrasonically devulcanized unfilled butyl rubber. The T2 relaxation decays were successfully described using a two-component model. The recyclability of tire-curing bladder was also investigated. Gel fraction, crosslink

  10. Addition of Rubber to soil damages the functional diversity of soil.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Madhurankhi; Bhattacharyya, Purnita; Tribedi, Prosun

    2017-07-01

    Rubber is a polymer of isoprene, consisting mainly of cis-1,4-polyisoprene units. The unmanageable production and its irresponsible disposal pose severe threats to environmental ecology. Therefore, the current study focuses extensively on the ill-effects of Rubber disposal on soil microbial functional diversity as it reflects the health of ecosystem by acting as a key component in ecosystem productivity. To investigate the effect of Rubber on soil microbial functional diversity, soil samples were collected from landfill sites and three different soil microcosms (Rubber treated, untreated, and sterile soil) were prepared. The soil enzymatic activity was determined by fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis followed by the determination of the microbial metabolic potential and functional diversity by average well color development and Shannon-Weaver index (H), respectively. BiOLOG ECO plates were used for determining the microbial functional diversity of the soil microcosms. Higher heterotrophic microbial count as well as higher soil microbial activity was observed in Rubber untreated soil than Rubber treated soil microcosm. The result indicated that the addition of Rubber to soil reduced soil heterotrophic microbial count and soil microbial activity considerably. Similarly, soil microbial metabolic potential as well as microbial functional diversity of soil had been decreased by the addition of Rubber gloves in it. Variation in soil microbial metabolic spectrum between Rubber treated and untreated microcosm was confirmed by multivariate analysis. Collectively, all the results demonstrated that the addition of Rubber to soil reduced the soil microbial functional diversity considerably. Therefore, it is necessary for the commission of serious steps regarding Rubber disposal and protection of the environment from serious environmental issues.

  11. Monitoring rubber plantation expansion using Landsat data time series and a Shapelet-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Su; Rogan, John; Sangermano, Florencia

    2018-02-01

    The expansion of tree plantations in tropical forests for commercial rubber cultivation threatens biodiversity which may affect ecosystem services, and hinders ecosystem productivity, causing net carbon emission. Numerous studies refer to the challenge of reliably distinguishing rubber plantations from natural forest, using satellite data, due to their similar spectral signatures, even when phenology is incorporated into an analysis. This study presents a novel approach for monitoring the establishment and expansion of rubber plantations in Seima Protection Forest (SPF), Cambodia (1995-2015), by detecting and analyzing the 'shapelet' structure in a Landsat-NDVI time series. This paper introduces a new classification procedure consisting of two steps: (1) an exhaustive-searching algorithm to detect shapelets that represent a period for relatively low NDVI values within an image time series; and (2) a t-test used to determine if NDVI values of detected shapelets are significantly different than their non-shapelet trend, thereby indicating the presence of rubber plantations. Using this approach, historical rubber plantation events were mapped over the twenty-year timespan. The shapelet algorithm produced two types of information: (1) year of rubber plantation establishment; and (2) pre-conversion land-cover type (i.e., agriculture, or natural forest). The overall accuracy of the rubber plantation map for the year of 2015 was 89%. The multi-temporal map products reveal that more than half of the rubber planting activity (57%) took place in 2010 and 2011, following the granting of numerous rubber concessions two years prior. Seventy-three percent of the rubber plantations were converted from natural forest and twenty-three percent were established on non-forest land-cover. The shapelet approach developed here can be used reliably to improve our understanding of the expansion of rubber production beyond Seima Protection Forest of Cambodia, and likely elsewhere in the

  12. Lateral Mixing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    negative (right panel c) and the kinetic energy dissipation is larger than that expected from meterological forcing alone (right panel a). This is...10.1002/grl.50919. Shcherbina, A. et al., 2014, The LatMix Summer Campaign: Submesoscale Stirring in the Upper Ocean., Bull. American Meterological

  13. Evaluation of asphalt rubber membrane interlayer (ARMI) using the University of Florida's composite system interface cracking (CSIC) test.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-05-01

    Since the late 1970s, FDOT : has applied an interlayer : of Asphalt Rubber : Membrane Interlayer : (ARMI) to asphalt roadway : surfaces. ARMI layers are : constructed by spraying : asphalt rubber binder onto : the asphalt, covering the : layer with n...

  14. Evaluation of asphalt rubber membrane interlayer (ARMI) using the University of Florida's composite system interface cracking (CSIC) test [summary].

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-01-01

    Since the late 1970s, FDOT : has applied an interlayer : of Asphalt Rubber : Membrane Interlayer : (ARMI) to asphalt roadway : surfaces. ARMI layers are : constructed by spraying : asphalt rubber binder onto : the asphalt, covering the : layer with n...

  15. A testing program to evaluate the effects of simulant mixed wastes on plastic transportation packaging components

    SciT

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.; Dickman, P.T.

    1997-08-01

    Based on regulatory requirements for Type A and B radioactive material packaging, a Testing Program was developed to evaluate the effects of mixed wastes on plastic materials which could be used as liners and seals in transportation containers. The plastics evaluated in this program were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer (Nitrile rubber), cross-linked polyethylene, epichlorohydrin, ethylene-propylene rubber (EPDM), fluorocarbons, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), butyl rubber, polypropylene, polytetrafluoroethylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). These plastics were first screened in four simulant mixed wastes. The liner materials were screened using specific gravity measurements and seal materials by vapor transport rate (VTR) measurements. For the screening of linermore » materials, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE were found to offer the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals. The tests also indicated that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only Viton passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. Those materials which passed the screening tests were subjected to further comprehensive testing in each of the simulant wastes. The materials were exposed to four different radiation doses followed by exposure to a simulant mixed waste at three temperatures and four different exposure times (7, 14, 28, 180 days). Materials were tested by measuring specific gravity, dimensional, hardness, stress cracking, VTR, compression set, and tensile properties. The second phase of this Testing Program involving the comprehensive testing of plastic liner has been completed and for seal materials is currently in progress.« less

  16. Improved natural rubber composites reinforced with a complex filler network of biobased nanoparticles and ionomer

    Biobased rubber composites are renewable and sustainable. Significant improvement in modulus of rubber composite reinforced with hydrophilic filler was achieved with the inclusion of ionomers. Soy particles aided with ionomer, carboxylated styrene-butadiene (CSB), formed a strong complex filler netw...

  17. Effect of vulcanization temperature and humidity on the properties of RTV silicone rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xutao; Li, Xiuguang; Hao, Lu; Wen, Xishan; Lan, Lei; Yuan, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Qingping

    2017-06-01

    In order to study the difference in performance of room temperature vulcanized (RTV) silicone rubber in vulcanization environment with different temperature and humidity, static contact angle method, FTIR and TG is utilized to depict the properties of hydrophobicity, transfer of hydrophobicity, functional groups and thermal stability of RTV silicone rubber. It is found that different vulcanization conditions have effects on the characteristics of RTV silicone rubber, which shows that the hydrophobicity of RTV silicone rubber changes little with the vulcanization temperature but a slight increase with the vulcanization humidity. Temperature and humidity have obvious effects on the hydrophobicity transfer ability of RTV silicone rubber, which is better when vulcanization temperature is 5°C or vulcanization humidity is 95%. From the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, it can be concluded that humidity and temperature of vulcanization conditions have great effect on the functional groups of silicone rubber, and vulcanization conditions also have effect on thermal stability of RTV silicone rubber. When vulcanization temperature is 5°C or vulcanization humidity is 15% or 95%, the thermal stability of silicone rubber becomes worse.

  18. 21 CFR 177.1640 - Polystyrene and rubber-modified polystyrene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... polystyrene and rubber-modified polystyrene used in food-packaging adhesives complying with § 175.105 of this... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polystyrene and rubber-modified polystyrene. 177.1640 Section 177.1640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  19. 21 CFR 177.1640 - Polystyrene and rubber-modified polystyrene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... polystyrene and rubber-modified polystyrene used in food-packaging adhesives complying with § 175.105 of this... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polystyrene and rubber-modified polystyrene. 177.1640 Section 177.1640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  20. THERMOOXIDATIVE STUDY OF RAW NATURAL RUBBER FROM BRAZILIAN IAC 300 SERIES CLONES

    The improvement of rubber tree species is of key importance due to the worldwide market demand of this renewable material essential for several types of industries. The thermal performance of natural rubber produced from new clones of IAC 300 series, and the Malaysian RRIM 600 clone (used as control...