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Sample records for zeolite-supported ru catalysts

  1. Sulfur tolerant zeolite supported platinum catalysts for aromatics hydrogenation

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-04-01

    An experimental study of sulfur tolerant zeolite platinum catalysts for aormatics hydrogenation. Platinum catalysts supported on Y-zeolite have been prepared and characterized in various ways, including the hydrogenation of toluene in a high pressure...

  2. Hydrodeoxygenation and coupling of aqueous phenolics over bifunctional zeolite-supported metal catalysts.

    PubMed

    Hong, Do-Young; Miller, Stephen J; Agrawal, Pradeep K; Jones, Christopher W

    2010-02-21

    Pt supported on HY zeolite is successfully used as a bifunctional catalyst for phenol hydrodeoxygenation in a fixed-bed configuration at elevated hydrogen pressures, leading to hydrogenation-hydrogenolysis ring-coupling reactions producing hydrocarbons, some with enhanced molecular weight.

  3. Natrolite zeolite supported copper nanoparticles as an efficient heterogeneous catalyst for the 1,3-diploar cycloaddition and cyanation of aryl iodides under ligand-free conditions.

    PubMed

    Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Sajadi, S Mohammad; Rostami-Vartooni, Akbar; Khalaj, Mehdi

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we report the preparation of Natrolite zeolite supported copper nanoparticles as a heterogeneous catalyst for 1,3-diploar cycloaddition and synthesis aryl nitriles from aryl iodides under ligand-free conditions. The catalyst was characterized using XRD, SEM, TEM, EDS and TG-DTA. The experimental procedure is simple, the products are formed in high yields and the catalyst can be recycled and reused several times without any significant loss of catalytic activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. NO oxidation on Zeolite Supported Cu Catalysts: Formation and Reactivity of Surface Nitrates

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hai-Ying; Wei, Zhehao; Kollar, Marton

    2016-04-18

    The comparative activities of a small-pore Cu-CHA and a large-pore Cu-BEA catalyst for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with NH3, and for the oxidation of NO to NO2 and the subsequent formation of surface nitrates were investigated. Although both catalysts are highly active in SCR reactions, they exhibit very low NO oxidation activity. Furthermore, Cu-CHA is even less active than Cu-BEA in catalyzing NO oxidation but is clearly more active for SCR reactions. Temperature-programed desorption (TPD) experiments following the adsorption of (NO2 + NO + O2) with different NO2:NO ratios reveal that the poor NO oxidation activity ofmore » the two catalysts is not due to the formation of stable surface nitrates. On the contrary, NO is found to reduce and decompose the surface nitrates on both catalysts. To monitor the reaction pathways, isotope exchange experiments were conducted by using 15NO to react with 14N-nitrate covered catalyst surfaces. The evolution of FTIR spectra during the isotope exchange process demonstrates that 14N-nitrates are simply displaced with no formation of 15N-nitrates on the Cu-CHA sample, which is clearly different from that observed on the Cu-BEA sample where formation of 15N-nitrates is apparent. The results suggest that the formal oxidation state of N during the NO oxidation on Cu-CHA mainly proceeds from its original +2 to a +3 oxidation state, whereas reaching a higher oxidation state for N, such as +4 or +5, is possible on Cu-BEA. The authors at PNNL gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office for the support of this work. The research described in this paper was performed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated for the US DOE by Battelle.« less

  5. I. Synthesis, characterization, and base catalysis of novel zeolite supported super-basic materials II. Oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane over reduced heteropolyanion catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galownia, Jonathan M.

    reliable precursor for the formation of zeolite supported super-basic materials. The second part of this thesis describes the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane over partially reduced heteropolyanions. Niobium and pyridine exchanged salts of phosphomolybdic (NbPMo12Pyr) and phosphovanadomolybdic (NbPMo11VPyr) acids are investigated as catalyst precursors to prepare materials for catalyzing the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane to ethylene and acetic acid at atmospheric pressure. The effects of feed composition, steam flow, temperature, and precursor composition on catalytic activity and selectivity are presented for both ethane and ethylene oxidation. Production of ethylene and acetic acid from ethane using the catalytic materials exceeds that reported in the literature for Mo-V-Nb-Ox systems under atmospheric or elevated pressure. Production of acetic acid from ethylene is also greater than that observed for Mo-V-Nb-Ox systems. Addition of vanadium reduces catalytic activity and selectivity to both ethylene and acetic acid while niobium is essential for the formation of acetic acid from ethane. Other metals such as antimony, iron, and gallium do not provide the same beneficial effect as niobium. Molybdenum in close proximity to niobium is the active site for ethane activation while niobium is directly involved in the transformation of ethylene to acetic acid. A balance of niobium and protonated pyridine is required to produce an active catalyst. Water is found to aid in desorption of acetic acid, thereby limiting deep oxidation to carbon oxides. A reaction scheme is proposed for the production of acetic acid from ethane over the catalytic materials.

  6. NOVEL RU-NI-S ELECTRODE CATALYST FOR PEMFC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The expected results from this project include:

    • a new formula and preparation procedures for Ru-Ni-S catalyst;>
    • demonstration of CO and S tolerance of the new catalyst;>
    • a small size PEMFC with Ru-Ni-S catalyst and good performance; an...

    • Microcalorimetric, {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopic, and reaction kinetic studies of silica- and L-zeolite-supported platinum catalysts for n-hexane conversion

      SciTech Connect

      Sharma, S.B.; Ouraipryvan, P.; Nair, H.A.

      Reaction kinetics measurement of n-hexane conversion over 4% Pt/SiO{sub 2} and 1% Pt/SiO{sub 2} and 1% Pt/K(Ba)-L catalysts were made at a pressure of 3 atm and temperatures from 698 to 750 K. The rates of benzene and methylcyclopentane formation decrease with time during reaction over Pt/SiO{sub 2}, while 1% Pt/K(Ba)-L does not deactivate significantly. Microcalorimetric measurements at 353 K show that the heat of carbon monoxide adsorption is the same on freshly reduced Pt/SiO{sub 2} and Pt/K(Ba)-L catalysts; however, carbonaceous species that accumulate on Pt/SiO{sub 2} during n-hexane conversion decrease the total number of adsorption sites and the numbermore » of sites that adsorb carbon monoxide strongly. The 1% Pt/K(Ba)-L catalyst retains the adsorptive properties of the freshly reduced catalyst. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of {sup 13}CO adsorption show that cluster-sized platinum particles are more resistant to deactivation by self-poisoning reactions than larger platinum particles. The greater catalyst stability and higher steady-state activity of L-zeolite-supported platinum catalysts may be attributed to the ability of L-zeolite to stabilize cluster-sized particles under reaction conditions. Differences in dehydrocyclization activity between catalysts may be related to differences in the number of strong adsorption sites that are present under reaction conditions. 31 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.« less

    • A Comparative Study of N2O Formation during the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx with NH3 on Zeolite Supported Cu Catalysts

      SciTech Connect

      Chen, Hai-Ying; Wei, Zhehao; Kollar, Marton

      A comparative study was carried out on a small-pore CHA.Cu and a large-pore BEA.Cu zeolite catalyst to understand the lower N2O formation on small-pore zeolite supported Cu catalysts in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with NH3. On both catalysts, the N2O yield increases with an increase in the NO2/NOx ratios of the feed gas, suggesting N2O formation via the decomposition of NH4NO3. Temperature-programmed desorption experiments reveal that NH4NO3 is more stable on CHA.Cu than on BEA.Cu. In situ FTIR spectra following stepwise (NO2 + O2) and (15NO + NH3 + O2) adsorption and reaction, and product distribution analysismore » using isotope-labelled reactants, unambiguously prove that surface nitrate groups are essential for the formation of NH4NO3. Furthermore, CHA.Cu is shown to be considerably less active than BEA.Cu in catalyzing NO oxidation and the subsequent formation of surface nitrate groups. Both factors, i.e., (1) the higher thermal stability of NH4NO3 on CHA.Cu, and (2) the lower activity for this catalyst to catalyze NO oxidation and the subsequent formation of surface nitrates, likely contribute to the higher SCR selectivity with less N2O formation on this catalyst as compared to BEA.Cu. The latter is determined as the primary reason since surface nitrates are the source that leads to the formation of NH4NO3 on the catalysts.« less

    • Electrochemical oxidation of methanol using dppm-bridged Ru/Pd, Ru/Pt and Ru/Au catalysts.

      PubMed

      Yang, Ying; McElwee-White, Lisa

      2004-08-07

      The electrochemical oxidation of methanol was carried out using a series of dppm-bridged Ru/Pd, Ru/Pt and Ru/Au heterobimetallic complexes as catalysts. The major oxidation products were formaldehyde dimethyl acetal (dimethoxymethane, DMM) and methyl formate (MF). The Ru/Pd and Ru/Pt bimetallic catalysts generally afforded lower product ratios of DMM/MF and higher current efficiencies than the Ru/Au catalysts. The Ru/Au bimetallics exhibited product ratios and current efficiencies similar to those obtained from the Ru mononuclear compound CpRu(PPh(3))(2)Cl. Increasing the methanol concentration afforded higher current efficiencies, while the addition of water to the samples shifted the product distribution toward the more highly oxidized product, MF.

    • AuRu/AC as an effective catalyst for hydrogenation reactions

      DOE PAGES

      Villa, Alberto; Chan-Thaw, Carine E.; Campisi, Sebastiano; ...

      2015-03-23

      AuRu bimetallic catalysts have been prepared by sequential deposition of Au on Ru or vice versa obtaining different nanostructures: when Ru has been deposited on Au, a Au core–Ru shell has been observed, whereas the deposition of Au on Ru leads to a bimetallic phase with Ru enrichment on the surface. In the latter case, the unexpected Ru enrichment could be attributed to the weak adhesion of Ru on the carbon support, thus allowing Ru particles to diffuse on Au particles. Both structures result very active in catalysing the liquid phase hydrogenolysis of glycerol and levulinic acid but the activity,more » the selectivity and the stability depend on the structure of the bimetallic nanoparticles. Ru@Au/AC core–shell structure mostly behaved as the monometallic Ru, whereas the presence of bimetallic AuRu phase in Au@Ru/AC provides a great beneficial effect on both activity and stability.« less

    • Supramolecular water oxidation with Ru-bda-based catalysts.

      PubMed

      Richmond, Craig J; Matheu, Roc; Poater, Albert; Falivene, Laura; Benet-Buchholz, Jordi; Sala, Xavier; Cavallo, Luigi; Llobet, Antoni

      2014-12-22

      Extremely slow and extremely fast new water oxidation catalysts based on the Ru-bda (bda=2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylate) systems are reported with turnover frequencies in the range of 1 and 900 cycles s(-1) , respectively. Detailed analyses of the main factors involved in the water oxidation reaction have been carried out and are based on a combination of reactivity tests, electrochemical experiments, and DFT calculations. These analyses give a convergent interpretation that generates a solid understanding of the main factors involved in the water oxidation reaction, which in turn allows the design of catalysts with very low energy barriers in all the steps involved in the water oxidation catalytic cycle. We show that for this type of system π-stacking interactions are the key factors that influence reactivity and by adequately controlling them we can generate exceptionally fast water oxidation catalysts. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

    • Pt and Ru X-ray absorption spectroscopy of PtRu anode catalysts in operating direct methanol fuel cells.

      PubMed

      Stoupin, Stanislav; Chung, Eun-Hyuk; Chattopadhyay, Soma; Segre, Carlo U; Smotkin, Eugene S

      2006-05-25

      In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy, ex situ X-ray fluorescence, and X-ray powder diffraction enabled detailed core analysis of phase segregated nanostructured PtRu anode catalysts in an operating direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). No change in the core structures of the phase segregated catalyst was observed as the potential traversed the current onset potential of the DMFC. The methodology was exemplified using a Johnson Matthey unsupported PtRu (1:1) anode catalyst incorporated into a DMFC membrane electrode assembly. During DMFC operation the catalyst is essentially metallic with half of the Ru incorporated into a face-centered cubic (FCC) Pt alloy lattice and the remaining half in an amorphous phase. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis suggests that the FCC lattice is not fully disordered. The EXAFS indicates that the Ru-O bond lengths were significantly shorter than those reported for Ru-O of ruthenium oxides, suggesting that the phases in which the Ru resides in the catalysts are not similar to oxides.

    • The effect of the surface composition of Ru-Pt bimetallic catalysts for methanol oxidation

      DOE PAGES

      Garrick, Taylor R.; Diao, Weijian; Tengco, John M.; ...

      2016-02-23

      Here, a series of Ru-Pt bimetallic catalysts prepared by the electroless deposition of controlled and variable amounts of Ru on the Pt surface of a commercially-available 20 wt% Pt/C catalyst has been characterized and evaluated for the oxidation of methanol. The activity of each Ru-Pt catalyst was determined as a function of surface composition via cyclic voltammetry. For the Ru-Pt bimetallic catalysts, activity passed through a maximum at approximately 50% monodisperse Ru surface coverage. However, due to the monolayer coverage of Ru on Pt, the amount of metal in the catalyst is minimized compared to a bulk 1:1 atomic ratiomore » of Ru:Pt seen in commercial bimetallic catalysts. Chemisorption and temperature programmed reduction experiments confirmed that the surface had characteristics of a true bimetallic catalyst. On a mass of Pt basis, the activity of this composition for methanol oxidation was 7 times higher than pure Pt and 3.5 times higher than a commercial catalyst with a 1:1 Pt:Ru bulk atomic ratio.« less

    • Aqueous-Phase Hydrogenolysis of Glycerol over Re Promoted Ru Catalysts Encapuslated in Porous Silica Nanoparticles

      PubMed Central

      Li, Kuo-Tseng; Yen, Ruey-Hsiang

      2018-01-01

      Activity improvement of Ru-based catalysts is needed for efficient production of valuable chemicals from glycerol hydrogenolysis. In this work, a series of Re promoted Ru catalysts encapuslated in porous silica nanoparticles (denoted as Re-Ru@SiO2) were prepared by coating silica onto the surface of chemically reduced Ru-polyvinylpyrrolidone colloids, and were used to catalyze the conversion of glycerol to diols and alcohols in water. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen adsorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) were used to characterize these nanoparticles. Effects of Ru/Si atomic ratio, Re addition, glycerol and catalyst concentrations, reaction time, temperature, and hydrogen pressure were investigated. Re addition retarded the reduction of ruthenium oxide, but increased the catalyst reactivity for glycerol hydrogenolysis. Due to its greater Ru content, Re-Ru@ SiO2 showed much better activity (reacted at much lower temperature) and more yields of 1,2-propanediol and overall liquid-phase products than Re-Ru/SiO2 (prepared by conventional impregnation method) reported before. The rate of glycerol disappearance exhibited first-order dependence on glycerol concentration and hydrogen pressure, with an activation energy of 107.8 kJ/mol. The rate constant increased linearly with increasing Ru/Si atomic ratio and catalyst amount. The yield of overall liquid-phase products correlated well with glycerol conversion. PMID:29522432

    • Novel 2D RuPt core-edge nanocluster catalyst for CO electro-oxidation

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Grabow, Lars C.; Yuan, Qiuyi; Doan, Hieu A.; Brankovic, Stanko R.

      2015-10-01

      A single layer, bi-metallic RuPt catalyst on Au(111) is synthesized using surface limited red-ox replacement of underpotentially deposited Cu and Pb monolayers though a two-step process. The resulting 2D RuPt monolayer nanoclusters have a unique core-edge structure with a Ru core and Pt at the edge along the perimeter. The activity of this catalyst is evaluated using CO monolayer oxidation as the probe reaction. Cyclic voltammetry demonstrates that the 2D RuPt core-edge catalyst morphology is significantly more active than either Pt or Ru monolayer catalysts. Density functional theory calculations in combination with infra-red spectroscopy data point towards oscillating variations (ripples) in the adsorption energy landscape along the radial direction of the Ru core as the origin of the observed behavior. Both, CO and OH experience a thermodynamic driving force for surface migration towards the Ru-Pt interface, where they adsorb most strongly and react rapidly. We propose that the complex interplay between epitaxial strain, ligand and finite size effects is responsible for the formation of the rippled RuPt monolayer cluster, which provides optimal conditions for a quasi-ideal bi-functional mechanism for CO oxidation, in which CO is adsorbed mainly on Pt, and Ru provides OH to the active Pt-Ru interface.

    • Semiconductor-metal transition of Se in Ru-Se Catalyst Nanoparticles

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Babu, P. K.; Lewera, Adam; Oldfield, Eric; Wieckowski, Andrzej

      2009-03-01

      Ru-Se composite nanoparticles are promising catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells. Though the role of Se in enhancing the chemical stability of Ru nanoparticles is well established, the microscopic nature of Ru-Se interaction was not clearly understood. We carried out a combined investigation of ^77Se NMR and XPS on Ru-Se nanoparticles and our results indicate that Se, a semiconductor in elemental form, becomes metallic when interacting with Ru. ^77Se spin-lattice relaxation rates are found to be proportional to T, the well-known Korringa behavior characteristic of metals. The NMR results are supported by the XPS binding energy shifts which suggest that a possible Ru->Se charge transfer could be responsible for the semiconductor->metal transition of Se which also makes Ru less susceptible to oxidation during ORR.

    • Effect of the structural characteristics of binary Pt-Ru and ternary Pt-Ru-M fuel cell catalysts on the activity of ethanol electrooxidation in acid medium.

      PubMed

      Antolini, Ermete

      2013-06-01

      In view of their possible use as anode materials in acid direct ethanol fuel cells, the electrocatalytic activity of Pt-Ru and Pt-Ru-M catalysts for ethanol oxidation has been investigated. This minireview examines the effects of the structural characteristics of Pt-Ru, such as the degree of alloying and Ru oxidation state, on the electrocatalytic activity for ethanol oxidation. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

    • Particle size dependence of CO tolerance of anode PtRu catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Yamanaka, Toshiro; Takeguchi, Tatsuya; Wang, Guoxiong; Muhamad, Ernee Noryana; Ueda, Wataru

      An anode catalyst for a polymer electrolyte fuel cell must be CO-tolerant, that is, it must have the function of hydrogen oxidation in the presence of CO, because hydrogen fuel gas generated by the steam reforming process of natural gas contains a small amount of CO. In the present study, PtRu/C catalysts were prepared with control of the degree of Pt-Ru alloying and the size of PtRu particles. This control has become possible by a new method of heat treatment at the final step in the preparation of catalysts. The CO tolerances of PtRu/C catalysts with the same degree of Pt-Ru alloying and with different average sizes of PtRu particles were thus compared. Polarization curves were obtained with pure H 2 and CO/H 2 (CO concentrations of 500-2040 ppm). It was found that the CO tolerance of highly dispersed PtRu/C (high dispersion (HD)) with small PtRu particles was much higher than that of poorly dispersed PtRu/C (low dispersion (LD)) with large metal particles. The CO tolerance of PtRu/C (HD) was higher than that of any commercial PtRu/C. The high CO tolerance of PtRu/C (HD) is thought to be due to efficient concerted functions of Pt, Ru, and their alloy.

    • Liquid-Phase Catalytic Transfer Hydrogenation of Furfural over Homogeneous Lewis Acid-Ru/C Catalysts.

      PubMed

      Panagiotopoulou, Paraskevi; Martin, Nickolas; Vlachos, Dionisios G

      2015-06-22

      The catalytic performance of homogeneous Lewis acid catalysts and their interaction with Ru/C catalyst are studied in the catalytic transfer hydrogenation of furfural by using 2-propanol as a solvent and hydrogen donor. We find that Lewis acid catalysts hydrogenate the furfural to furfuryl alcohol, which is then etherified with 2-propanol. The catalytic activity is correlated with an empirical scale of Lewis acid strength and exhibits a volcano behavior. Lanthanides are the most active, with DyCl3 giving complete furfural conversion and a 97 % yield of furfuryl alcohol at 180 °C after 3 h. The combination of Lewis acid and Ru/C catalysts results in synergy for the stronger Lewis acid catalysts, with a significant increase in the furfural conversion and methyl furan yield. Optimum results are obtained by using Ru/C combined with VCl3 , AlCl3 , SnCl4 , YbCl3 , and RuCl3 . Our results indicate that the combination of Lewis acid/metal catalysts is a general strategy for performing tandem reactions in the upgrade of furans. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

    • PdRu/C catalysts for ethanol oxidation in anion-exchange membrane direct ethanol fuel cells

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Ma, Liang; He, Hui; Hsu, Andrew; Chen, Rongrong

      2013-11-01

      Carbon supported PdRu catalysts with various Pd:Ru atomic ratios were synthesized by impregnation method, and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electrochemical half-cell tests, and the anion-exchange membrane direct ethanol fuel cell (AEM-DEFC) tests. XRD results suggest that the PdRu metal exists on carbon support in an alloy form. TEM study shows that the bimetallic PdRu/C catalysts have slightly smaller average particle size than the single metal Pd/C catalyst. Lower onset potential and peak potential and much higher steady state current for ethanol oxidation in alkaline media were observed on the bimetallic catalysts (PdxRuy/C) than on the Pd/C, while the activity for ethanol oxidation on the pure Ru/C was not noticeable. By using Pd/C anode catalysts and MnO2 cathode catalysts, AEM-DEFCs free from the expensive Pt catalyst were assembled. The AEM DEFC using the bimetallic Pd3Ru/C anode catalyst showed a peak power density as high as 176 mW cm-2 at 80 °C, about 1.8 times higher than that using the single metal Pd/C catalyst. The role of Ru for enhancing the EOR activity of Pd/C catalysts is discussed.

  1. High-activity PtRuPd/C catalyst for direct dimethyl ether fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Wen, Xiaodong; Wu, Gang; Chung, Hoon T; Gao, Rui; Zelenay, Piotr

    2015-06-22

    Dimethyl ether (DME) has been considered as a promising alternative fuel for direct-feed fuel cells but lack of an efficient DME oxidation electrocatalyst has remained the challenge for the commercialization of the direct DME fuel cell. The commonly studied binary PtRu catalyst shows much lower activity in DME than methanol oxidation. In this work, guided by density functional theory (DFT) calculation, a ternary carbon-supported PtRuPd catalyst was designed and synthesized for DME electrooxidation. DFT calculations indicated that Pd in the ternary PtRuPd catalyst is capable of significantly decreasing the activation energy of the CO and CH bond scission during the oxidation process. As evidenced by both electrochemical measurements in an aqueous electrolyte and polymer-electrolyte fuel cell testing, the ternary catalyst shows much higher activity (two-fold enhancement at 0.5 V in fuel cells) than the state-of-the-art binary Pt50 Ru50 /C catalyst (HiSPEC 12100). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Preparation of Ru-doped SnO2-supported Pt catalysts and their electrocatalytic properties for methanol oxidation.

    PubMed

    Pang, H L; Zhang, X H; Zhong, X X; Liu, B; Wei, X G; Kuang, Y F; Chen, J H

    2008-03-01

    Ru-doped SnO2 nanoparticles were prepared by chemical precipitation and calcinations at 823 K. Due to high stability in diluted acidic solution, Ru-doped SnO2 nanoparticles were selected as the catalyst support and second catalyst for methanol electrooxidation. The micrograph, elemental composition, and structure of the Ru-doped SnO2 nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The electrocatalytic properties of the Ru-doped SnO2-supported Pt catalyst (Pt/Ru-doped SnO2) for methanol oxidation have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry. Under the same loading mass of Pt, the Pt/Ru-doped SnO2 catalyst shows better electrocatalytic performance than the Pt/SnO2 catalyst and the best atomic ratio of Ru to Sn in Ru-doped SnO2 is 1/75. Additionally, the Pt/Ru-doped SnO2 catalyst possesses good long-term cycle stability.

  3. A durable PtRu/C catalyst with a thin protective layer for direct methanol fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Shimazaki, Yuzuru; Hayasaka, Sho; Koyama, Tsubasa; Nagao, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Konno, Mikio

    2010-11-15

    A methanol oxidation catalyst with improved durability in acidic environments is reported. The catalyst consists of PtRu alloy nanoparticles on a carbon support that were stabilized with a silane-coupling agent. The catalyst was prepared by reducing ions of Pt and Ru in the presence of a carbon support and the silane-coupling agent. The careful choice of preparatory conditions such as the concentration of the silane-coupling agent and solution pH resulted in the preparation of catalyst in which the PtRu nanoparticles were dispersively adsorbed onto the carbon support. The catalytic activity was similar to that of a commercial catalyst and was unchanged after immersion in sulfuric acid solution for 1000 h, suggesting the high durability of the PtRu catalyst for the anode of direct methanol fuel cells. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Highly efficient bioinspired molecular Ru water oxidation catalysts with negatively charged backbone ligands.

    PubMed

    Duan, Lele; Wang, Lei; Li, Fusheng; Li, Fei; Sun, Licheng

    2015-07-21

    The oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of the natural photosynthesis system II (PSII) oxidizes water to produce oxygen and reducing equivalents (protons and electrons). The oxygen released from PSII provides the oxygen source of our atmosphere; the reducing equivalents are used to reduce carbon dioxide to organic products, which support almost all organisms on the Earth planet. The first photosynthetic organisms able to split water were proposed to be cyanobacteria-like ones appearing ca. 2.5 billion years ago. Since then, nature has chosen a sustainable way by using solar energy to develop itself. Inspired by nature, human beings started to mimic the functions of the natural photosynthesis system and proposed the concept of artificial photosynthesis (AP) with the view to creating energy-sustainable societies and reducing the impact on the Earth environments. Water oxidation is a highly energy demanding reaction and essential to produce reducing equivalents for fuel production, and thereby effective water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) are required to catalyze water oxidation and reduce the energy loss. X-ray crystallographic studies on PSII have revealed that the OEC consists of a Mn4CaO5 cluster surrounded by oxygen rich ligands, such as oxyl, oxo, and carboxylate ligands. These negatively charged, oxygen rich ligands strongly stabilize the high valent states of the Mn cluster and play vital roles in effective water oxidation catalysis with low overpotential. This Account describes our endeavors to design effective Ru WOCs with low overpotential, large turnover number, and high turnover frequency by introducing negatively charged ligands, such as carboxylate. Negatively charged ligands stabilized the high valent states of Ru catalysts, as evidenced by the low oxidation potentials. Meanwhile, the oxygen production rates of our Ru catalysts were improved dramatically as well. Thanks to the strong electron donation ability of carboxylate containing ligands, a seven

  5. Diethyl Ether Production during Catalytic Dehydration of Ethanol over Ru- and Pt- modified H-beta Zeolite Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Kamsuwan, Tanutporn; Praserthdam, Piyasan; Jongsomjit, Bunjerd

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the catalytic dehydration of ethanol over H-beta zeolite (HBZ) catalyst with ruthenium (Ru-HBZ) and platinum (Pt-HBZ) modification was investigated. Upon the reaction temperature between 200 and 400°C, it revealed that ethanol conversion and ethylene selectivity increased with increasing temperature for both Ru and Pt modification. At lower temperature (200 to 250°C), diethyl ether (DEE) was the major product. It was found that Ru and Pt modification on HBZ catalyst can result in increased DEE yield at low reaction temperature due to increased ethanol conversion without a significant change in DEE selectivity. By comparing the DEE yield of all catalysts in this study, the Ru-HBZ catalyst apparently exhibited the highest DEE yield (ca. 47%) at 250°C. However, at temperature from 350 to 400°C, the effect of Ru and Pt was less pronounced on ethylene yield. With various characterization techniques, the effects of Ru and Pt modification on HBZ catalyst were elucidated. It revealed that Ru and Pt were present in the highly dispersed forms and well distributed in the catalyst granules. It appeared that the weak acid sites measured by NH 3 temperature-programmed desorption technique also decreased with Ru and Pt promotion. Thus, the increased DEE yields with the Ru and Pt modification can be attributed to the presence of optimal weak acid sites leading to increased intrinsic activity of the catalysts. It can be concluded that the modification of Ru and Pt on HBZ catalyst can improve the DEE yields by ca. 10%.

  6. Catalyst comprising Ir or Ir and Ru for hydrazine decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Warren E. (Inventor); Voge, Hervey H. (Inventor); Ryland, Lloyd B. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A catalyst for hydrazine decomposition consisting essentially of a carrier having a pore volume of at least 0.1 cubic centimeters per gram and a specific surface area, measured in square meters per gram, equal to 195 (C.sub.p + 0.013 + 0.736 V.sub.p) where C.sub.p is the specific heat capacity of the carrier at about 25.degree. C in calories per gram per degree and V.sub.p is the pore volume of the carrier in cubic centimeters per gram and metal of the group consisting of iridium, and mixtures consisting of iridium and ruthenium deposited on said carrier in an amount between 20% and about 40% by weight of the catalyst and distributed through the pores thereof in discrete particles sufficiently separated from each other so that they do not sinter or fuse together when the catalyst is at hydrazine decomposition temperature.

  7. Ni2P Makes Application of the PtRu Catalyst Much Stronger in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jinfa; Feng, Ligang; Liu, Changpeng; Xing, Wei

    2015-10-12

    PtRu is regarded as the best catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells, but the performance decay resulting from the loss of Ru seriously hinders commercial applications. Herein, we demonstrated that the presence of Ni2 P largely reduces Ru loss, which thus makes the application of PtRu much stronger in direct methanol fuel cells. Outstanding catalytic activity and stability were observed by cyclic voltammetry. Upon integrating the catalyst material into a practical direct methanol fuel cell, the highest maximum power density was achieved on the PtRu-Ni2P/C catalyst among the reference catalysts at different temperatures. A maximum power density of 69.9 mW cm(-2) at 30 °C was obtained on PtRu-Ni2P/C, which is even higher than the power density of the state-of-the-art commercial PtRu catalyst at 70 °C (63.1 mW cm(-2)). Moreover, decay in the performance resulting from Ru loss was greatly reduced owing to the presence of Ni2 P, which is indicative of very promising applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Pt and PtRu catalyst bilayers increase efficiencies for ethanol oxidation in proton exchange membrane electrolysis and fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altarawneh, Rakan M.; Pickup, Peter G.

    2017-10-01

    Polarization curves, product distributions, and reaction stoichiometries have been measured for the oxidation of ethanol at anodes consisting of Pt and PtRu bilayers and a homogeneous mixture of the two catalysts. These anode structures all show synergies between the two catalysts that can be attributed to the oxidation of acetaldehyde produced at the PtRu catalyst by the Pt catalyst. The use of a PtRu layer over a Pt layer produces the strongest effect, with higher currents than a Pt on PtRu bilayer, mixed layer, or either catalyst alone, except for Pt at high potentials. Reaction stoichiometries (average number of electrons transferred per ethanol molecule) were closer to the values for Pt alone for both of the bilayer configurations but much lower for PtRu and mixed anodes. Although Pt alone would provide the highest overall fuel cell efficiency at low power densities, the PtRu on Pt bilayer would provide higher power densities without a significant loss of efficiency. The origin of the synergy between the Pt and PtRu catalysts was elucidated by separation of the total current into the individual components for generation of carbon dioxide and the acetaldehyde and acetic acid byproducts.

  9. PtRu catalysts supported on heteropolyacid and chitosan functionalized carbon nanotubes for methanol oxidation reaction of fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhiming; Li, Chang Ming; Jiang, San Ping

    2011-09-28

    A simple self-assembly approach has been developed to functionalize carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with chitosan (CS) and heteropolyacids (HPAs) of phosphomolybdic acid (H(3)PMo(12)O(40), HPMo) and phosphotungstic acid (H(3)PW(12)O(40), HPW). The non-covalent functionalization method, which introduces homogenous surface functional groups with no detrimental effect on graphene structures of CNTs, can be carried out at room temperature without the use of corrosive acids. The PtRu nanoparticles supported on HPAs-CS-CNTs have a uniform distribution and much smaller size as compared to those of the PtRu nanoparticles supported on conventional acid treated CNTs (PtRu/AO-CNTs). The onset and peak potentials for CO(ad) oxidation on PtRu/HPAs-CS-CNTs catalysts are more negative than those on PtRu/AO-CNTs, indicating that HPAs facilitate the electro-oxidation of CO. The PtRu/HPMo-CS-CNTs catalyst has a higher electrocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation and higher tolerance toward CO poisoning than PtRu/HPW-CS-CNTs. The better electrocatalytic enhancement of HPMo on the PtRu/HPAs-CS-CNTs catalyst is most likely related to the fact that molybdenum-containing HPAs such as HPMo have more labile terminal oxygen to provide additional active oxygen sites while accelerating the CO and methanol oxidation in a similar way to that of Ru in the PtRu binary alloy system.

  10. Selective hydrogenation of amides to alcohols in water solvent over a heterogeneous CeO2-supported Ru catalyst.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Masazumi; Ishikawa, Susumu; Betchaku, Mii; Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2018-06-20

    CeO2-supported Ru (Ru/CeO2) worked as an effective and reusable heterogeneous catalyst for the selective dissociation of the C-N bond in amides, particularly primary amides, with H2 in water solvent at low reaction temperature of 333 K, and high yields of the corresponding alcohols were obtained from primary amides.

  11. A smart strategy to fabricate Ru nanoparticle inserted porous carbon nanofibers as highly efficient levulinic acid hydrogenation catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ying; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Brown, Dennis E.

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we first put forward a smart strategy to in situ fabricate Ru nanoparticle (NP) inserted porous carbon nanofibers by one-pot conversion of Ru-functionalized metal organic framework fibers. Such fiber precursors are skillfully constructed by cooperative assembly of different proportional RuCl3 and Zn(Ac)2·2H2O along with trimesic acid (H3BTC) in the presence of N,N-dimethylformamide. The following high-temperature pyrolysis affords uniform and evenly dispersed Ru NPs (ca. 12-16 nm), which are firmly inserted into the hierarchically porous carbon nanofibers formed simultaneously. The resulting Ru-carbon nanofiber (Ru-CNF) catalysts prove to be active towards the liquid-phase hydrogenation of levulinic acid (LA) to γ-valerolactone (GVL),more » a biomass-derived platform molecule with wide applications in the preparation of renewable chemicals and liquid transportation fuels. The optimal GVL yield of 96.0% is obtained, corresponding to a high activity of 9.23 molLAh–1gRu–1, 17 times of that using the commercial Ru/C catalyst. Moreover, the Ru-CNF catalyst is extremely stable, and can be cycled up to 7 times without significant loss of reactivity. Our strategy demonstrated here reveals new possibilities to make proficient metal catalysts, and provides a general way to fabricate metal-carbon nanofiber composites available for other applications.« less

  12. Effects of Activated Carbon Surface Property on Structure and Activity of Ru/AC Catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, S. K.; Li, L. M.; Guo, N. N.

    2018-05-01

    The activated carbon (AC) was modified by supercritical (SC) methanol, HNO3 oxidation, or HNO3 oxidation plus SC methanol, respectively. Then, the original and the modified AC were used as supports for Ru/AC catalysts prepared via the impregnation method. The results showed that the SC methanol modification decreased the content of surface acidic groups of AC. While HNO3 oxidation displayed the opposite behavior. Furthermore, the dispersion of ruthenium and the activity of catalysts were highly dependent on the content of surface acidic groups, and the SC methanol modified sample exhibited the highest activity for hydrogenation of glucose.

  13. Behavior of the Ru-bda water oxidation catalyst covalently anchored on glassy carbon electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Matheu, Roc; Francàs, Laia; Chernev, Petko

    Electrochemical reduction of the dizaonium complex, [Ru II(bda)(NO)(N–N 2) 2] 3+, 2 3+ (N–N 2 2+ is 4-(pyridin-4-yl) benzenediazonium and bda 2– is [2,2'-bipyridine]-6,6'-dicarboxylate), in acetone produces the covalent grafting of this molecular complex onto glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. Multiple cycling voltammetric experiments on the GC electrode generates hybrid materials labeled as GC-4, with the corresponding Ru-aqua complex anchored on the graphite surface. GC-4 has been characterized at pH = 7.0 by electrochemical techniques and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and has been shown to act as an active catalyst for the oxidation of water to dioxygen. This new hybrid materialmore » has a lower catalytic performance than its counterpart in homogeneous phase and progressively decomposes to form RuO 2 at the electrode surface. The resulting metal oxide attached at the GC electrode surface, GC-RuO 2, is a very fast and rugged heterogeneous water oxidation catalyst with TOF is of 300 s –1 and TONs >45000. The observed performance is comparable to the best electrocatalysts reported so far, at neutral pH.« less

  14. Behavior of the Ru-bda water oxidation catalyst covalently anchored on glassy carbon electrodes

    DOE PAGES

    Matheu, Roc; Francàs, Laia; Chernev, Petko; ...

    2015-05-07

    Electrochemical reduction of the dizaonium complex, [Ru II(bda)(NO)(N–N 2) 2] 3+, 2 3+ (N–N 2 2+ is 4-(pyridin-4-yl) benzenediazonium and bda 2– is [2,2'-bipyridine]-6,6'-dicarboxylate), in acetone produces the covalent grafting of this molecular complex onto glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. Multiple cycling voltammetric experiments on the GC electrode generates hybrid materials labeled as GC-4, with the corresponding Ru-aqua complex anchored on the graphite surface. GC-4 has been characterized at pH = 7.0 by electrochemical techniques and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and has been shown to act as an active catalyst for the oxidation of water to dioxygen. This new hybrid materialmore » has a lower catalytic performance than its counterpart in homogeneous phase and progressively decomposes to form RuO 2 at the electrode surface. The resulting metal oxide attached at the GC electrode surface, GC-RuO 2, is a very fast and rugged heterogeneous water oxidation catalyst with TOF is of 300 s –1 and TONs >45000. The observed performance is comparable to the best electrocatalysts reported so far, at neutral pH.« less

  15. Characterization by 27Al NMR, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and density functional theory techniques of the species responsible for benzene hydrogenation in Y zeolite-supported carburized molybdenum catalysts.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Angela S; da Silva, Victor Teixeira; Eon, Jean G; de Menezes, Sônia M C; Faro, Arnaldo C; Rocha, Alexandre B

    2006-08-17

    Carburized molybdenum catalysts supported on a dealuminated NaH-Y zeolite were prepared by carburization under a 20% methane in hydrogen flow of two precursors obtained by adsorption of molybdenum hexacarbonyl, one containing 5 wt % and the other 10 wt % Mo, and a third one was prepared by impregnation with aqueous ammonium heptamolybdate, containing 5 wt % Mo. The three catalysts displayed very distinct behaviors in the benzene hydrogenation reaction at atmospheric pressure and 363 K. By using XANES spectroscopy at the molybdenum L edge, EXAFS and XANES spectroscopy at the molybdenum K edge, and 27Al solid-state NMR spectroscopy, it was shown that different carburized molybdenum species exist in each sample. In the catalyst containing 10 wt % Mo, formation of molybdenum carbide nanoparticles was observed, with an estimated diameter of 1.8 nm. In the catalyst containing 5 wt % Mo and prepared by carburization of adsorbed molybdenum hexacarbonyl, formation of molybdenum oxycarbide dimers is proposed. In the latter case, density functional theory calculations have led to a dimer structure which is compatible with EXAFS results. In the catalyst prepared by impregnation with ammonium heptamolybdate solution followed by carburization, the molybdenum seems to interact with extraframework alumina to produce highly disordered mixed molybdenum-aluminum oxycarbides.

  16. RuO2 supported NaY zeolite catalysts: Effect of preparation methods on catalytic performance during aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Dasom; Lee, Sunwoo; Na, Kyungsu

    2017-10-01

    The effects of preparation method for RuO2 supported zeolite catalysts on the catalytic consequences during the aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde were investigated. Three preparation methods, i.e., (i) simultaneous crystallization of the zeolite framework in the presence of RuCl3 (Ru(SC)/NaY), (ii) post ion-exchange with RuCl3 on the zeolite framework (Ru(IE)/NaY), and (iii) post support of preformed Ru metal nanoparticles on the zeolite surface (Ru(PS)/NaY), were used to construct three different RuO2 supported NaY zeolite catalysts. The catalyst performance was investigated as functions of the reaction time and temperature, in correlation with the structural changes of the catalysts, as analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results revealed that the catalytic consequences were dramatically affected by the preparation methods. Although similar conversion was achieved with all three catalysts, the turnover frequency (TOF) differed. The Ru(PS)/NaY catalyst exhibited the highest TOF (33-48 h-1), whereas the other catalysts produced much lower TOFs (9-12 h-1). The Ru(PS)/NaY catalyst also had the highest activation energy (Ea) of 48.39 kJ mol-1, whereas the Ru(SC)/NaY and Ru(IE)/NaY catalysts had Ea values of 18.58 and 24.11 kJ mol-1, respectively. Notably, the Ru(PS)/NaY catalyst yielded a significantly higher pre-exponential factor of 5.22 × 105 h-1, which is about 5 orders of magnitude larger than that of the Ru(SC)/NaY catalyst (7.15 × 100 h-1). This suggests that collision between benzyl alcohol and molecular oxygen was very intensive on the Ru(PS)/NaY catalyst, which explains the higher TOF of the Ru(PS)/NaY catalyst relative to the others in spite of the higher Ea value of the former. In terms of recyclability, the pristine crystallinity of the zeolite framework was maintained in the Ru(SC)/NaY catalyst and the RuO2 phase exhibited an insignificant loss of the initial activity up to three catalytic cycles, whereas Ru(PS)/NaY showed slight

  17. Asymmetric catalytic hydrogenation. Design of new Ru catalysts and chiral ligands: from laboratory to industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Genet, Jean-Pierre

    2003-12-01

    This Account covers the design of Ru catalysts and ligands. Two classes of chiral phosphine ligands are prepared: the electron-rich trans-2,4-substituted phosphetanes, readily available from optically pure 1,3-diol cyclic sulfates, and atropoisomeric ligands (SYNPHOS, MeO-NAPhePHOS, bearing heterotopic biaryl moieties, and a chiral water-soluble diguanidinium binaphthyl diphosphine, Digm-BINAP). Applications of these ligands to rhodium- and ruthenium-mediated hydrogenation of ketones and olefins have been reported with high enantioselectivities. The recognition abilities of Ru-SYNPHOS for a wide range of ketones is superior to those observed with BINAP, MeO-NAPhePHOS, and MeO-BIPHEP. Several biologically active compounds have been prepared through dynamic kinetic resolution. This work gives access to a number of highly active catalysts of the type [Ru(biphosphane)(H)(eta(6)-cot)]BF(4). These catalysts have demonstrated their utility in the enantioselective hydrogenation of the tetrasubstituted cyclopentenone "dehydrodione", which leads to the commercially important perfume component Paradisone (Firmenich).

  18. Methanol decomposition reactions over a boron-doped graphene supported Ru-Pt catalyst.

    PubMed

    Damte, Jemal Yimer; Lyu, Shang-Lin; Leggesse, Ermias Girma; Jiang, Jyh Chiang

    2018-04-04

    The decomposition of methanol is currently attracting research attention due to the potential widespread applications of its end products. In this work, density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed to investigate the adsorption and decomposition of methanol on a Ru-Pt/boron doped graphene surface. We find that the most favorable reaction pathway is methanol (CH3OH) decomposition through O-H bond breaking to form methoxide (CH3O) as the initial step, followed by further dehydrogenation steps which generate formaldehyde (CH2O), formyl (CHO), and carbon monoxide (CO). The calculations illustrate that CH3OH and CO groups prefer to adsorb at the Ru-top sites, while CH2OH, CH3O, CH2O, CHO, and H2 groups favor the Ru-Pt bridge sites, indicating the preference of Ru atoms to adsorb the active intermediates or species having lone-pair electrons. Based on the results, it is found that the energy barrier for CH3OH decomposition through the initial O-H bond breaking is less than its desorption energy of 0.95 eV, showing that CH3OH prefers to undergo decomposition to CH3O rather than direct desorption. The study provides in-depth theoretical insights into the potentially enhanced catalytic activity of Ru-Pt/boron doped graphene surfaces for methanol decomposition reactions, thereby contributing to the understanding and designing of an efficient catalyst under optimum conditions.

  19. Conversion of biomass-derived sorbitol to glycols over carbon-materials supported Ru-based catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xingcui; Guan, Jing; Li, Bin; Wang, Xicheng; Mu, Xindong; Liu, Huizhou

    2015-01-01

    Ruthenium (Ru) supported on activated carbon (AC) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was carried out in the hydrogenolysis of sorbitol to ethylene glycol (EG) and 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD) under the promotion of tungsten (WOx) species and different bases. Their catalytic activities and glycols selectivities strongly depended on the support properties and location of Ru on CNTs, owning to the altered metal-support interactions and electronic state of ruthenium. Ru located outside of the tubes showed excellent catalytic performance than those encapsulated inside the nanotubes. Additionally, the introduction of WOx into Ru/CNTs significantly improved the hydrogenolysis activities, and a complete conversion of sorbitol with up to 60.2% 1,2-PD and EG yields was obtained on RuWOx/CNTs catalyst upon addition of Ca(OH)2. Stability study showed that this catalyst was highly stable against leaching and poisoning and could be recycled several times. PMID:26578426

  20. Conversion of biomass-derived sorbitol to glycols over carbon-materials supported Ru-based catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xingcui; Guan, Jing; Li, Bin; Wang, Xicheng; Mu, Xindong; Liu, Huizhou

    2015-11-01

    Ruthenium (Ru) supported on activated carbon (AC) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was carried out in the hydrogenolysis of sorbitol to ethylene glycol (EG) and 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD) under the promotion of tungsten (WOx) species and different bases. Their catalytic activities and glycols selectivities strongly depended on the support properties and location of Ru on CNTs, owning to the altered metal-support interactions and electronic state of ruthenium. Ru located outside of the tubes showed excellent catalytic performance than those encapsulated inside the nanotubes. Additionally, the introduction of WOx into Ru/CNTs significantly improved the hydrogenolysis activities, and a complete conversion of sorbitol with up to 60.2% 1,2-PD and EG yields was obtained on RuWOx/CNTs catalyst upon addition of Ca(OH)2. Stability study showed that this catalyst was highly stable against leaching and poisoning and could be recycled several times.

  1. Compositional effects in Ru, Pd, Pt, and Rh-doped mesoporous tantalum oxide catalysts for ammonia synthesis.

    PubMed

    Yue, Chaoyang; Qiu, Longhui; Trudeau, Michel; Antonelli, David

    2007-06-11

    A series of early metal-promoted Ru-, Pd-, Pt-, and Rh-doped mesoporous tantalum oxide catalysts were synthesized using a variety of dopant ratios and dopant precursors, and the effects of these parameters on the catalytic activity of NH3 synthesis from H2 and N2 were explored. Previous studies on this system supported an unprecedented mechanism in which N-N cleavage occurred at the Ta sites rather than on Ru. The results of the present study showed, for all systems, that Ba is a better promoter than Cs or La and that the nitrate is a superior precursor for Ba than the isopropoxide or the hydroxide. 15N-labeling studies showed that residual nitrate functions as the major ammonia source in the first hour but that it does not account for the ammonia produced after the nitrate is completely consumed. Ru3(CO)12 proved to be a better Ru precursor than RuCl(3).3H2O, and an almost linear increase in activity with increasing Ru loading level was observed at 350 degrees C (623 K). However, at 175 degrees C (448 K), the increase in Ru had no effect on the reaction rate. Pd functioned with comparable rates to Ru, while Pt and Rh functioned far less efficiently. The surprising activities for the Pd-doped catalysts, coupled with XPS evidence for low-valent Ta in this catalyst system, support a mechanism in which cleavage of the N-N triple bond occurs on Ta rather than the precious metal because the Ea value for N-N cleavage on Pd is 2.5 times greater than that for Ru, and the 9.3 kJ mol-1 Ea value measured previously for the Ru system suggests that N-N cleavage cannot occur at the Ru surface.

  2. High-Performance Ru1 /CeO2 Single-Atom Catalyst for CO Oxidation: A Computational Exploration.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengyu; Li, Lei; Liu, Xinying; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Chen, Zhongfang

    2016-10-18

    By means of density functional theory computations, we examine the stability and CO oxidation activity of single Ru on CeO 2 (111), TiO 2 (110) and Al 2 O 3 (001) surfaces. The heterogeneous system Ru 1 /CeO 2 has very high stability, as indicated by the strong binding energies and high diffusion barriers of a single Ru atom on the ceria support, while the Ru atom is rather mobile on TiO 2 (110) and Al 2 O 3 (001) surfaces and tends to form clusters, excluding these systems from having a high efficiency per Ru atom. The Ru 1 /CeO 2 exhibits good catalytic activity for CO oxidation via the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism, thus is a promising single-atom catalyst. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. An Efficient and Reusable Embedded Ru Catalyst for the Hydrogenolysis of Levulinic Acid to γ-Valerolactone.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zuojun; Lou, Jiongtao; Su, Chuanmin; Guo, Dechao; Liu, Yingxin; Deng, Shuguang

    2017-04-22

    To achieve a higher activity and reusability of a Ru-based catalyst, Ru nanoparticles were embedded in N-doped mesoporous carbon through a hard-template method. The catalyst showed excellent catalytic performance (314 h -1 turnover frequency) and recyclability (reusable five times with 3 % activity loss) for the hydrogenolysis of levulinic acid to γ-valerolactone. Compared with the mesoporous carbon without N-doping and conventional activated carbon, the introduction of N-dopant effectively improved the dispersion of Ru nanoparticles, decreased the average size of Ru nanoparticles to as small as 1.32 nm, and improved the adsorption of levulinic acid, which contributed to the increase in the activity of the catalyst. Additionally, the embedding method increased the interaction between Ru nanoparticles and carbon support in contrast with the conventional impregnation method, thus preventing the Ru nanoparticles from migration, aggregation, and leaching from the carbon surface and therefore increasing the reusability of the catalyst. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Engineering Ru@Pt Core-Shell Catalysts for Enhanced Electrochemical Oxygen Reduction Mass Activity and Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Ariel; Strickler, Alaina; Higgins, Drew

    Improving the performance of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalysts is essential for the commercial efficacy of many renewable energy technologies, including low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). Herein, we report highly active and stable carbon-supported Ru@Pt core-shell nanoparticles (Ru@Pt/C) prepared by a wet chemical synthesis technique. Through rotating disc electrode testing, the Ru@Pt/C achieves an ORR Pt mass-based activity of 0.50 A mg Pt -1 at 0.9 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), which exceeds the activity of the state-of-the-art commercial Pt/C catalyst as well as the Department of Energy 2020 PEFC electrocatalyst activity targets for transportation applications.more » The impact of various synthetic parameters, including Pt to Ru ratios and catalyst pretreatments (i.e., annealing) are thoroughly explored. Pt-based mass activity of all prepared Ru@Pt/C catalysts was found to exceed 0.4 mg Pt -1 across the range of compositions investigated, with the maximum activity catalyst having a Ru:Pt ratio of 1:1. This optimized composition of Ru@Pt/C catalyst demonstrated remarkable stability after 30,000 accelerated durability cycles (0.6 to 1.0 V vs. RHE at 125 mV s -1), maintaining 85% of its initial mass activity. Scanning transmission electron microscopy energy dispersive spectroscopy (STEM-EDS) analysis at various stages of electrochemical testing demonstrated that the Pt shell can provide sufficient protection against the dissolution of the otherwise unstable Ru core.« less

  5. Engineering Ru@Pt Core-Shell Catalysts for Enhanced Electrochemical Oxygen Reduction Mass Activity and Stability

    DOE PAGES

    Jackson, Ariel; Strickler, Alaina; Higgins, Drew; ...

    2018-01-12

    Improving the performance of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalysts is essential for the commercial efficacy of many renewable energy technologies, including low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). Herein, we report highly active and stable carbon-supported Ru@Pt core-shell nanoparticles (Ru@Pt/C) prepared by a wet chemical synthesis technique. Through rotating disc electrode testing, the Ru@Pt/C achieves an ORR Pt mass-based activity of 0.50 A mg Pt -1 at 0.9 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), which exceeds the activity of the state-of-the-art commercial Pt/C catalyst as well as the Department of Energy 2020 PEFC electrocatalyst activity targets for transportation applications.more » The impact of various synthetic parameters, including Pt to Ru ratios and catalyst pretreatments (i.e., annealing) are thoroughly explored. Pt-based mass activity of all prepared Ru@Pt/C catalysts was found to exceed 0.4 mg Pt -1 across the range of compositions investigated, with the maximum activity catalyst having a Ru:Pt ratio of 1:1. This optimized composition of Ru@Pt/C catalyst demonstrated remarkable stability after 30,000 accelerated durability cycles (0.6 to 1.0 V vs. RHE at 125 mV s -1), maintaining 85% of its initial mass activity. Scanning transmission electron microscopy energy dispersive spectroscopy (STEM-EDS) analysis at various stages of electrochemical testing demonstrated that the Pt shell can provide sufficient protection against the dissolution of the otherwise unstable Ru core.« less

  6. Engineering Ru@Pt Core-Shell Catalysts for Enhanced Electrochemical Oxygen Reduction Mass Activity and Stability.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Ariel; Strickler, Alaina; Higgins, Drew; Jaramillo, Thomas Francisco

    2018-01-12

    Improving the performance of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalysts is essential for the commercial efficacy of many renewable energy technologies, including low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). Herein, we report highly active and stable carbon-supported Ru@Pt core-shell nanoparticles (Ru@Pt/C) prepared by a wet chemical synthesis technique. Through rotating disc electrode testing, the Ru@Pt/C achieves an ORR Pt mass-based activity of 0.50 A mg Pt -1 at 0.9 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), which exceeds the activity of the state-of-the-art commercial Pt/C catalyst as well as the Department of Energy 2020 PEFC electrocatalyst activity targets for transportation applications. The impact of various synthetic parameters, including Pt to Ru ratios and catalyst pretreatments (i.e., annealing) are thoroughly explored. Pt-based mass activity of all prepared Ru@Pt/C catalysts was found to exceed 0.4 mg Pt -1 across the range of compositions investigated, with the maximum activity catalyst having a Ru:Pt ratio of 1:1. This optimized composition of Ru@Pt/C catalyst demonstrated remarkable stability after 30,000 accelerated durability cycles (0.6 to 1.0 V vs. RHE at 125 mV s -1 ), maintaining 85% of its initial mass activity. Scanning transmission electron microscopy energy dispersive spectroscopy (STEM-EDS) analysis at various stages of electrochemical testing demonstrated that the Pt shell can provide sufficient protection against the dissolution of the otherwise unstable Ru core.

  7. Mechanistic analysis of water oxidation catalyst cis-[Ru(bpy) 2(H 2O) 2] 2+: Effect of dimerization

    SciTech Connect

    Erdman, Darren; Pineda-Galvan, Yuliana; Pushkar, Yulia

    While the catalytic activity of some Ru-based polypyridine complexes in water oxidation is well established, the relationship between their chemical structure and activity is less known. In this work, the single site Ru complex [Ru(bpy) 2(H 2O) 2] 2+ (bpy = 2,20-bipyridine)—which can exist as either a cis isomer or a trans isomer—is investigated. While a difference in the catalytic activity of these two isomers is well established, with cis-[Ru(bpy) 2(H 2O) 2] 2+ being much more active, no mechanistic explanation of this fact has been presented. The oxygen evolving capability of both isomers at multiple concentrations has been investigated,more » with cis-[Ru(bpy) 2(H 2O) 2] 2+ showing a second-order dependence of O2 evolution activity with increased catalyst concentration. Measurement of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum of cis-[Ru(bpy) 2(H 2O) 2] 2+, shortly after oxidation with CeIV, showed the presence of a signal matching that of cis,cis-[Ru III(bpy) 2(H 2O)ORu IV(bpy) 2(OH)] 4+, also known as “blue dimer”. The formation of dimers is a concentration-dependent process, which could serve to explain the greater than first order increase in catalytic activity. The trans isomer showed a first-order dependence of O 2 evolution on catalyst concentration. As a result, behavior of [Ru(bpy) 2(H 2O) 2] 2+ isomers is compared with other Ru-based catalysts, in particular [Ru(tpy)(bpy)(H 2O)] 2+ (tpy = 2,20;6,20 0-terpyridine).« less

  8. Mechanistic analysis of water oxidation catalyst cis-[Ru(bpy) 2(H 2O) 2] 2+: Effect of dimerization

    DOE PAGES

    Erdman, Darren; Pineda-Galvan, Yuliana; Pushkar, Yulia

    2017-01-25

    While the catalytic activity of some Ru-based polypyridine complexes in water oxidation is well established, the relationship between their chemical structure and activity is less known. In this work, the single site Ru complex [Ru(bpy) 2(H 2O) 2] 2+ (bpy = 2,20-bipyridine)—which can exist as either a cis isomer or a trans isomer—is investigated. While a difference in the catalytic activity of these two isomers is well established, with cis-[Ru(bpy) 2(H 2O) 2] 2+ being much more active, no mechanistic explanation of this fact has been presented. The oxygen evolving capability of both isomers at multiple concentrations has been investigated,more » with cis-[Ru(bpy) 2(H 2O) 2] 2+ showing a second-order dependence of O2 evolution activity with increased catalyst concentration. Measurement of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum of cis-[Ru(bpy) 2(H 2O) 2] 2+, shortly after oxidation with CeIV, showed the presence of a signal matching that of cis,cis-[Ru III(bpy) 2(H 2O)ORu IV(bpy) 2(OH)] 4+, also known as “blue dimer”. The formation of dimers is a concentration-dependent process, which could serve to explain the greater than first order increase in catalytic activity. The trans isomer showed a first-order dependence of O 2 evolution on catalyst concentration. As a result, behavior of [Ru(bpy) 2(H 2O) 2] 2+ isomers is compared with other Ru-based catalysts, in particular [Ru(tpy)(bpy)(H 2O)] 2+ (tpy = 2,20;6,20 0-terpyridine).« less

  9. Electrical enhancement of direct methanol fuel cells by metal-plasma ion implantation Pt-Ru/C multilayer catalysts.

    PubMed

    Weng, Ko-Wei; Chen, Yung-Lin; Chen, Ya-Chi; Lin, Tai-Nan

    2009-02-01

    Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) have been widely studied owing to their simple cell configuration, high volume energy density, short start-up time, high operational reliability and other favorable characteristics. However, major limitations include high production cost, poisoning of the catalyst and methanol crossover. This study adopts a simple technique for preparing Pt-Ru/C multilayer catalysts, including magnetron sputtering (MS) and metal-plasma ion implantation (MPII). The Pt catalysts were sputtered onto the gas diffusion layer (GDL), followed by the implantation of Ru catalysts using MPII (at an accelerating voltage of 20 kV and an implantation dose of 1 x 10(16) ions/cm2). Pt-Ru is repeatedly processed to prepare Pt-Ru/C multilayer catalysts. The catalyst film structure and microstructure were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), respectively. The cell performance was tested using a potential stat/galvano-stat. The results reveal that the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) of four multilayer structures enhances the cell performance of DMFC. The measured power density is 2.2 mW/cm2 at a methanol concentration of 2 M, with an OCV of 0.493 V.

  10. Kinetic modeling and transient DRIFTS–MS studies of CO 2 methanation over Ru/Al 2O 3 catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiang; Hong, Yongchun; Shi, Hui

    CO 2 methanation was investigated on 5% and 0.5% Ru/Al 2O 3 catalysts (Ru dispersions: ~18% and ~40%, respectively) by steady-state kinetic measurements and transient DRIFTS–MS. Methanation rates were higher over 5% Ru/Al 2O 3 than over 0.5% Ru/Al 2O 3. The measured activation energies, however, were lower on 0.5% Ru/Al 2O 3 than on 5% Ru/Al 2O 3. Transient DRIFTS–MS results demonstrated that direct CO 2 dissociation was negligible over Ru. CO 2 has to first react with surface hydroxyls on Al 2O 3 to form bicarbonates, which, in turn, react with adsorbed H on Ru to produce adsorbed formate species. Formates, most likely at the metal/oxide interface, can react rapidly with adsorbed H forming adsorbed CO, only a portion of which is reactive toward adsorbed H, ultimately leading to CH4 formation. The measured kinetics are fully consistent with a Langmuir–Hinshelwood type mechanism in which the H-assisted dissociation of the reactive CO* is the rate-determining step (RDS). The similar empirical rate expressions (r CH4 = kPmore » $$0.1\\atop{CO2}$$P$$0.3-0.5\\atop{H2}$$) and DRIFTS–MS results on the two catalysts under both transient and steady-state conditions suggest that the mechanism for CO 2 methanation does not change with Ru particle size under the studied experimental conditions. Kinetic modeling results further indicate that the intrinsic activation barrier for the RDS is slightly lower on 0.5% Ru/Al 2O 3 than on 5% Ru/Al 2O 3. Due to the presence of unreactive adsorbed CO under reaction conditions, the larger fraction of such surface sites that bind CO too strongly on 0.5% Ru/Al 2O 3 than on 5% Ru/Al 2O 3, as revealed by FTIR measurements, is regarded as the main reason for the lower rates for CO 2 methanation on 0.5% Ru/Al 2O 3. The catalyst preparation and catalytic measurements were supported by a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project. The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of this work by the US Department

  11. Ultrasonically treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as PtRu catalyst supports for methanol electrooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chunwei; Hu, Xinguo; Wang, Dianlong; Dai, Changsong; Zhang, Liang; Jin, Haibo; Agathopoulos, Simeon

    In the quest of fabricating supported catalysts, experimental results of transmission electron microscopy, Raman and infrared spectroscopy indicate that ultrasonic treatment effectively functionalizes multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), endowing them with groups that can act as nucleation sites which can favor well-dispersed depositions of PtRu clusters on their surface. Ultrasonic treatment seems to be superior than functionalization via regular refluxing. This is confirmed by the determination of the electrochemistry active surface area (ECA) and the CO-tolerance performance of the PtRu catalysts, measured by adsorbed CO-stripping voltammetry in 0.5 M sulfuric acid solution, and the real surface area of the PtRu catalysts, evaluated by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements. Finally, the effectiveness for methanol oxidation is assessed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in a sulfuric acid and methanol electrolyte.

  12. Electrochemical characterization of Pt-Ru-Pd catalysts for methanol oxidation reaction in direct methanol fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, M; Han, C; Kim, I T; An, J C; Lee, J J; Lee, H K; Shim, J

    2011-01-01

    PtRuPd nanoparticles on carbon black were prepared and characterized as electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation reaction in direct methanol fuel cells. Nano-sized Pd (2-4 nm) particles were deposited on Pt/C and PtRu/C (commercial products) by a simple chemical reduction process. The structural and physical information of the PtRuPd/C were confirmed by TEM and XRD, and their electrocatalytic activities were measured by cyclic voltammetry and linear sweep voltammetry. The catalysts containing Pd showed higher electrocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation reaction than the other catalysts. This might be attributed to an increase in the electrochemical surface area of Pt, which is caused by the addition of Pd; this results in increased catalyst utilization.

  13. Hydrogen Bonding Rescues Overpotential in Seven-Coordinated Ru Water Oxidation Catalysts

    DOE PAGES

    Matheu, Roc; Ertem, Mehmed Z.; Gimbert-Surinach, Carolina; ...

    2017-08-15

    In this paper, we describe the synthesis, structural characterization, and redox properties of two new Ru complexes containing the dianionic potentially pentadentate [2,2':6',2"-terpyridine]-6,6"-dicarboxylate (tda 2–) ligand that coordinates Ru at the equatorial plane and with additional pyridine or dmso acting as monondentate ligand in the axial positions: [Ru II(tda-κ-N 3O)(py)(dmso)], 1 II and [Ru III(tda-κ-N 3O 2)(py)(H 2O) ax] +, 2 III(H 2O) +. Complex 1 II has been characterized by single-crystal XRD in the solid state and in solution by NMR spectroscopy. The redox properties of 1 II and 2 III(H 2O) + have been thoroughly investigated by meansmore » of cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. Complex 2 II(H 2O) displays poor catalytic activity with regard to the oxidation of water to dioxygen, and its properties have been analyzed on the basis of foot of the wave analysis and catalytic Tafel plots. The activity of 2 II(H 2O) has been compared with related water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) previously described in the literature. Despite its moderate activity, 2 II(H 2O) constitutes the cornerstone that has triggered the rationalization of the different factors that govern overpotentials as well as efficiencies in molecular WOCs. The present work uncovers the interplay between different parameters, namely, coordination number, number of anionic groups bonded to the first-coordination sphere of the metal center, water oxidation catalysis overpotential, p K a and hydrogen bonding, and the performance of a given WOC. It thus establishes the basic principles for the design of efficient WOCs operating at low overpotentials.« less

  14. Sol-Gel Process for Making Pt-Ru Fuel-Cell Catalysts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Valdez, Thomas; Kumta, Prashant; Kim, Y.

    2005-01-01

    A sol-gel process has been developed as a superior alternative to a prior process for making platinum-ruthenium alloy catalysts for electro-oxidation of methanol in fuel cells. The starting materials in the prior process are chloride salts of platinum and ruthenium. The process involves multiple steps, is time-consuming, and yields a Pt-Ru product that has relatively low specific surface area and contains some chloride residue. Low specific surface area translates to incomplete utilization of the catalytic activity that might otherwise be available, while chloride residue further reduces catalytic activity ("poisons" the catalyst). In contrast, the sol-gel process involves fewer steps and less time, does not leave chloride residue, and yields a product of greater specific area and, hence, greater catalytic activity. In this sol-gel process (see figure), the starting materials are platinum(II) acetylacetonate [Pt(C5H7O2)2, also denoted Pt-acac] and ruthenium(III) acetylacetonate [Ru(C5H7O2)3, also denoted Ru-acac]. First, Pt-acac and Ru-acac are dissolved in acetone at the desired concentrations (typically, 0.00338 moles of each salt per 100 mL of acetone) at a temperature of 50 C. A solution of 25 percent tetramethylammonium hydroxide [(CH3)4NOH, also denoted TMAH] in methanol is added to the Pt-acac/Ruacac/ acetone solution to act as a high-molecular-weight hydrolyzing agent. The addition of the TMAH counteracts the undesired tendency of Pt-acac and Ru-acac to precipitate as separate phases during the subsequent evaporation of the solvent, thereby helping to yield a desired homogeneous amorphous gel. The solution is stirred for 10 minutes, then the solvent is evaporated until the solution becomes viscous, eventually transforming into a gel. The viscous gel is dried in air at a temperature of 170 C for about 10 hours. The dried gel is crushed to make a powder that is the immediate precursor of the final catalytic product. The precursor powder is converted to the

  15. Effect of alkaline earth metals on the liquid-phase hydrogenation of hydroquinone over Ru-based catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongwei; Ji, Dong; Li, Yu; Liang, Yalan; Li, Gui Xian

    2015-12-01

    A series of Ru-based catalysts modified by alkaline earth metals were prepared by the impregnation-precipitation method and characterized using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, ICP optical emission spectroscopy, Infrared Spectroscopy of adsorbed pyridine analysis and surface area analysis. The performance of the catalysts was measured via liquid-phase hydroquinone hydrogenation reaction. Results show that the Ru-Sr/NaY catalyst has the best activity and selectivity among those Ru-based catalysts. The conversion of hydroquinone and the selectivity to 1,4-cyclohexanediol reached up to 99.6% and 89.6% at optimum reaction condition (700 r/min, 423 K and 5 MPa pressure of H2 in 3 h). This may be attributed to the fact that the right amount of Strontium is beneficial to the good dispersion of the ruthenium nanoclusters on the surface of NaY and modify the acidic properties of the catalyst. Moreover, IR of adsorbed pyridine analysis suggested the proper ratio of L/B acid of the catalysts played an important role in the performance of the hydroquinone hydrogenation reaction.

  16. Impact of IrRu Oxygen Evolution Reaction Catalysts on Pt Nanostructured Thin Films under Start-Up/Shutdown Cycling

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, David A; More, Karren Leslie; Atanasoska, Liliana

    Electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) methods have been utilized to study the role of oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalysts in mitigating degradation arising from start-up/shutdown events. Pt nanostructured thin films (NSTF) were coated with a Ru0.1Ir0.9 OER catalyst at loadings ranging from 1 to 10 g/cm2 and submitted to 5,000 potential cycles within a membrane electrode assembly. Analysis of the as-deposited catalyst showed that Ir and Ru coating is primarily metallic, and further evidence is provided to support the previously reported interaction between Ru and the perylene-red support. Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopymore » were used to observe the impact of the OER catalysts on Pt dissolution and migration through the membrane. Elemental mapping showed a high percentage of the Ir catalyst was maintained on the NSTF whisker surfaces following testing. The presence of the OER catalysts greatly reduced the smoothing of the Pt NSTF whiskers, which has been correlated with Pt dissolution and losses in electrochemically active surface area. The dissolution of both Ir and Pt led to the formation of IrPt nanoparticle clusters in the membrane close to the cathode, as well as the formation of a Pt band deeper in the membrane.« less

  17. Spectroscopic Characterization of the Water Oxidation Intermediates in the Blue Dimer Ru-Based Catalyst for Artificial Photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moonshiram, Dooshaye; Pushkar, Yulia; Jurss, Jonah; Concepcion, Javier; Meyer, Thomas; Zakharova, Taisiya; Alperovich, Igor

    2012-02-01

    Utilization of sunlight requires solar capture, light-to-energy conversion and storage. One effective way to store energy is to convert it into chemical energy by fuel-forming reactions, such as water splitting into hydrogen and oxygen. Ruthenium complexes are among few molecular-defined catalysts capable of water splitting. Mechanistic insights about such catalysts can be acquired by spectroscopic analysis of short-lived intermediates of catalytic water oxidation. Use of techniques such as EPR and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) are used to determine electronic requirements of catalytic water oxidation. About 30 years ago Meyer and coworkers reported first ruthenium-based catalyst for water oxidation, the ``blue dimer''. We performed EPR studies and characterized structures and electronic configurations of intermediates of water oxidation by the ``blue dimer''. Intermediates were prepared chemically by oxidation of Ru-complexes with defined number of Ce (IV) equivalents and freeze-quenched at controlled times. Changes in oxidation state of Ru atom were detected by XANES at Ru K-edges. K-edges are sensitive to changes in Ru oxidation state for Blue Dimer [3,3]^4+, [3,4]^4+, [3,4]'^4+ and [4,5]^3+ allowing a clear assignment of Ru oxidation state in intermediates. EXAFS demonstrated structural changes.

  18. Insight into the role of the promoters Pt, Ru and B in inhibiting the deactivation of Co catalysts in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Riguang; Liu, Hongxia; Li, Qiaohong; Wang, Baojun; Ling, Lixia; Li, Debao

    2018-09-01

    In order to probe into the roles of the promoters Pt, Ru and B in inhibiting the deactivation of Co catalysts in FTS reactions, the adsorption ability of neighboring surface C and subsurface C atom around the promoters (Pt, Ru and B), and the mechanisms of surface C diffusion, accumulation, hydrogenation and penetration are examined by density functional theory calculations over the promoters Pt, Ru and B-modified Co catalysts, as well as the pure Co catalysts. Our results clearly show that compared to Co catalysts, both PtCo and RuCo bimetallic catalysts promote surface C hydrogenation, and inhibit surface C diffusion, accumulation and penetration, and therefore the ability of resistance toward deactivation and the stability of Co-based catalysts are enhanced; the promoter B cannot effectively improve the ability of resistance toward deactivation. Thus, the sequence for resistance toward deactivation of Co-based catalyst is BCo < Co < PtCo < RuCo. Moreover, the activation free energy of surface C accumulation to C2 species increases with the increasing of surface C adsorption free energy, namely, the adsorption characteristic of surface C species well represent the surface carbon deposition. Our results not only give an explanation for reported experiment that the Pt, Ru and B-modified Co catalysts exhibit ability of resistance toward deactivation in FTS at a molecular level, but also provide a clue for the design of efficient Co-based catalysts in FTS reactions.

  19. Novel RuCoSe as non-platinum catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction in microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozenfeld, Shmuel; Schechter, Michal; Teller, Hanan; Cahan, Rivka; Schechter, Alex

    2017-09-01

    Microbial electrochemical cells (MECs) are explored for the conversion of acetate directly to electrical energy. This device utilizes a Geobacter sulfurreducens anode and a novel RuCoSe air cathode. RuCoSe synthesized in selected compositions by a borohydride reduction method produces amorphous structures of powdered agglomerates. Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was measured in a phosphate buffer solution pH 7 using a rotating disc electrode (RDE), from which the kinetic current (ik) was measured as a function of potential and composition. The results show that ik of RuxCoySe catalysts increases in the range of XRu = 0.25 > x > 0.7 and y < 0.15 for all tested potentials. A poisoning study of RuCoSe and Pt catalysts in a high concentration acetate solution shows improved tolerance of RuCoSe to this fuel at acetate concentration ≥500 mM. MEC discharge plots under physiological conditions show that ∼ RuCo2Se (sample S3) has a peak power density of 750 mW cm-2 which is comparable with Pt 900 mW cm-2.

  20. Correction: A binary catalyst system of a cationic Ru-CNC pincer complex with an alkali metal salt for selective hydroboration of carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Ng, Chee Koon; Wu, Jie; Hor, T S Andy; Luo, He-Kuan

    2016-12-22

    Correction for 'A binary catalyst system of a cationic Ru-CNC pincer complex with an alkali metal salt for selective hydroboration of carbon dioxide' by Chee Koon Ng et al., Chem. Commun., 2016, 52, 11842-11845.

  1. One-Pot Process for Hydrodeoxygenation of Lignin to Alkanes Using Ru-Based Bimetallic and Bifunctional Catalysts Supported on Zeolite Y

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hongliang; Ruan, Hao; Feng, Maoqi

    2017-03-16

    The synthesis of high-efficiency and low-cost multifunctional catalysts for hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of waste lignin into advanced biofuels is crucial for enhancing current biorefinery processes. Inexpensive transition metals, including Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, were severally co-loaded with Ru on HY zeolite to form bimetallic and bifunctional catalysts. These catalysts were subsequently tested for HDO conversion of softwood lignin and several lignin model compounds. Results indicated that the inexpensive earth abundant metals could modulate the hydrogenolysis activity of Ru and decrease the yield of low molecular weight gaseous side-products. Among all the prepared catalysts, Ru-Cu/HY showed the best HDO performance, giving themore » highest selectivity to hydrocarbon products. The improved catalytic performance of Ru-Cu/HY was probably due to the following three factors: (1) high total and strong acid sites, (2) good dispersion of metal species and limited segregation, (3) high adsorption capacity for polar fractions, including hydroxyl groups and ether bonds. Moreover, all the bifunctional catalysts were proven to be superior over the combination catalysts of Ru/Al2O3 and HY zeolite, and this could be attributed to the “intimacy criterion”. The practical use of the designed catalysts would be promising in lignin valorization.« less

  2. One-pot process for hydrodeoxygenation of lignin to alkanes using Ru-based bimetallic and bifunctional catalysts supported on zeolite Y

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hongliang; Ruan, Hao; Feng, Maoqi

    2017-02-22

    Here, the synthesis of high-efficiency and low-cost catalysts for hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of waste lignin to advanced biofuels is crucial for enhancing current biorefinery processes. Inexpensive transition metals, including Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn, were severally co-loaded with Ru on HY zeolite to form bimetallic and bifunctional catalysts. These catalysts were subsequently tested for HDO conversion of softwood lignin and several lignin model compounds. Results indicated that the inexpensive earth-abundant metals could modulate the hydrogenolysis activity of Ru and decrease the yield of low-molecular-weight gaseous products. Among these catalysts, Ru-Cu/HY showed the best HDO performance, affording the highest selectivity to hydrocarbonmore » products. The improved catalytic performance of Ru-Cu/HY was probably a result of the following three factors: (1) high total and strong acid sites, (2) good dispersion of metal species and limited segregation, and (3) high adsorption capacity for polar fractions, including hydroxyl groups and ether bonds. Moreover, all bifunctional catalysts proved to be superior over the combination catalysts of Ru/Al 2O 3 and HY zeolite.« less

  3. One-Pot Process for Hydrodeoxygenation of Lignin to Alkanes Using Ru-Based Bimetallic and Bifunctional Catalysts Supported on Zeolite Y.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongliang; Ruan, Hao; Feng, Maoqi; Qin, Yuling; Job, Heather; Luo, Langli; Wang, Chongmin; Engelhard, Mark H; Kuhn, Erik; Chen, Xiaowen; Tucker, Melvin P; Yang, Bin

    2017-04-22

    The synthesis of high-efficiency and low-cost catalysts for hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of waste lignin to advanced biofuels is crucial for enhancing current biorefinery processes. Inexpensive transition metals, including Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn, were severally co-loaded with Ru on HY zeolite to form bimetallic and bifunctional catalysts. These catalysts were subsequently tested for HDO conversion of softwood lignin and several lignin model compounds. Results indicated that the inexpensive earth-abundant metals could modulate the hydrogenolysis activity of Ru and decrease the yield of low-molecular-weight gaseous products. Among these catalysts, Ru-Cu/HY showed the best HDO performance, affording the highest selectivity to hydrocarbon products. The improved catalytic performance of Ru-Cu/HY was probably a result of the following three factors: (1) high total and strong acid sites, (2) good dispersion of metal species and limited segregation, and (3) high adsorption capacity for polar fractions, including hydroxyl groups and ether bonds. Moreover, all bifunctional catalysts proved to be superior over the combination catalysts of Ru/Al 2 O 3 and HY zeolite. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Enhanced photocatalytic CO2 reduction to CH4 over separated dual co-catalysts Au and RuO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Chunyang; Hu, Songchang; Xing, Mingyang; Zhang, Jinlong

    2018-04-01

    A spatially separated, dual co-catalyst photocatalytic system was constructed by the stepwise introduction of RuO2 and Au nanoparticles (NPs) at the internal and external surfaces of a three dimensional, hierarchically ordered TiO2-SiO2 (HTSO) framework (the final photocatalyst was denoted as Au/HRTSO). Characterization by HR-TEM, EDS-mapping, XRD and XPS confirmed the existence and spatially separated locations of Au and RuO2. In CO2 photocatalytic reduction (CO2PR), Au/HRTSO (0.8%) shows the optimal performance in both the activity and selectivity towards CH4; the CH4 yield is almost twice that of the singular Au/HTSO or HRTSO (0.8%, weight percentage of RuO2) counterparts. Generally, Au NPs at the external surface act as electron trapping agents and RuO2 NPs at the inner surface act as hole collectors. This advanced spatial configuration could promote charge separation and transfer efficiency, leading to enhanced CO2PR performance in both the yield and selectivity toward CH4 under simulated solar light irradiation.

  5. Ternary PtRuPd/C catalyst for high-performance, low-temperature direct dimethyl ether fuel cells

    DOE PAGES

    Dumont, Joseph Henry; Martinez, Ulises; Chung, Hoon T.; ...

    2016-08-19

    Here, dimethyl ether (DME) is a promising alternative fuel option for direct-feed low-temperature fuel cells. Until recently, DME had not received the same attention as alcohol fuels, such as methanol or ethanol, despite its notable advantages. These advantages include a high theoretical open-cell voltage (1.18 V at 25 °C) that is similar to that of methanol (1.21 V), much lower toxicity than methanol, and no need for the carbon–carbon bond scission that is needed in ethanol oxidation. DME is biodegradable, has a higher energy content than methanol (8.2 vs. 6.1 kWh kg –1), and, like methanol, can be synthesized frommore » recycled carbon dioxide. Although the performance of direct DME fuel cells (DDMEFCs) has progressed over the past few years, DDMEFCs have not been viewed as fully viable. In this work, we report much improved performance from the ternary Pt 55Ru 35Pd 10/C anode catalyst, allowing DDMEFCs to compete directly with direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). We also report results involving binary Pt alloys as reference catalysts and an in situ infrared electrochemical study to better understand the mechanism of DME electro-oxidation on ternary PtRuPd/C catalysts.« less

  6. Continuous Flow Aerobic Alcohol Oxidation Reactions Using a Heterogeneous Ru(OH)x/Al2O3 Catalyst

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ru(OH)x/Al2O3 is among the more versatile catalysts for aerobic alcohol oxidation and dehydrogenation of nitrogen heterocycles. Here, we describe the translation of batch reactions to a continuous-flow method that enables high steady-state conversion and single-pass yields in the oxidation of benzylic alcohols and dehydrogenation of indoline. A dilute source of O2 (8% in N2) was used to ensure that the reaction mixture, which employs toluene as the solvent, is nonflammable throughout the process. A packed bed reactor was operated isothermally in an up-flow orientation, allowing good liquid–solid contact. Deactivation of the catalyst during the reaction was modeled empirically, and this model was used to achieve high conversion and yield during extended operation in the aerobic oxidation of 2-thiophene methanol (99+% continuous yield over 72 h). PMID:25620869

  7. A binary catalyst system of a cationic Ru-CNC pincer complex with an alkali metal salt for selective hydroboration of carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Ng, Chee Koon; Wu, Jie; Hor, T S Andy; Luo, He-Kuan

    2016-09-27

    Binary catalyst systems comprising a cationic Ru-CNC pincer complex and an alkali metal salt were developed for selective hydroboration of CO 2 utilizing pinacolborane at r.t. and 1 atm CO 2 , with the combination of [Ru(CNC Bn )(CO) 2 (H)][PF 6 ] and KOCO 2 t Bu producing formoxyborane in 76% yield. A bicyclic catalytic mechanism was proposed and discussed.

  8. Dispersion enhanced metal/zeolite catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Sachtler, W.M.H.; Tzou, M.S.; Jiang, H.J.

    1987-03-31

    Dispersion stabilized zeolite supported metal catalysts are provided as bimetallic catalyst combinations. The catalyst metal is in a reduced zero valent form while the dispersion stabilizer metal is in an unreduced ionic form. Representative catalysts are prepared from platinum or nickel as the catalyst metal and iron or chromium dispersion stabilizer.

  9. Dispersion enhanced metal/zeolite catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Sachtler, Wolfgang M. H.; Tzou, Ming-Shin; Jiang, Hui-Jong

    1987-01-01

    Dispersion stabilized zeolite supported metal catalysts are provided as bimetallic catalyst combinations. The catalyst metal is in a reduced zero valent form while the dispersion stabilizer metal is in an unreduced ionic form. Representative catalysts are prepared from platinum or nickel as the catalyst metal and iron or chromium dispersion stabilizer.

  10. Understanding the Electronic Structure of 4d Metal Complexes: From Molecular Spinors to L-Edge Spectra of a di-Ru Catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Alperovich, Igor; Smolentsev, Grigory; Moonshiram, Dooshaye

    2015-09-17

    L{sub 2,3}-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has demonstrated unique capabilities for the analysis of the electronic structure of di-Ru complexes such as the blue dimer cis,cis-[Ru{sub 2}{sup III}O(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(bpy){sub 4}]{sup 4+} water oxidation catalyst. Spectra of the blue dimer and the monomeric [Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}]{sup 3+} model complex show considerably different splitting of the Ru L{sub 2,3} absorption edge, which reflects changes in the relative energies of the Ru 4d orbitals caused by hybridization with a bridging ligand and spin-orbit coupling effects. To aid the interpretation of spectroscopic data, we developed a new approach, which computes L{sub 2,3}-edges XASmore » spectra as dipole transitions between molecular spinors of 4d transition metal complexes. This allows for careful inclusion of the spin-orbit coupling effects and the hybridization of the Ru 4d and ligand orbitals. The obtained theoretical Ru L{sub 2,3}-edge spectra are in close agreement with experiment. Critically, existing single-electron methods (FEFF, FDMNES) broadly used to simulate XAS could not reproduce the experimental Ru L-edge spectra for the [Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6}]{sup 3+} model complex nor for the blue dimer, while charge transfer multiplet (CTM) calculations were not applicable due to the complexity and low symmetry of the blue dimer water oxidation catalyst. We demonstrated that L-edge spectroscopy is informative for analysis of bridging metal complexes. The developed computational approach enhances L-edge spectroscopy as a tool for analysis of the electronic structures of complexes, materials, catalysts, and reactive intermediates with 4d transition metals.« less

  11. Highly branched RuO2 Nanorods on Electrospun TiO2 Nanofibers toward Electrochemical Catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Yukyung; Kim, Su-Jin; Lee, Nam-Suk; Kim, Myung Hwa; Lee, Youngmi

    2014-03-01

    We report a facile growth route to synthesize hierarchically grown single crystalline metallic RuO2 nanorods on electrospun TiO2 nanofibers via a combination of a simple vapour phase transport process with an electrospinning process. This synthetic strategy could be very useful to design a variety of highly branched network architectures of the functional hetero-nanostructures for electrochemical applications. Particularly, Ruthenium oxide (RuO2) 1-dimensional nanostructures can be used as the effective catalysts or electrochemical electrode materials. Thus, we first synthesize TiO2 nanofibers from mixture of titanium isopropoxide precursor and polymer and then ruthenium hydroxide precursor on TiO2 nanofibers are transformed into RuO2 nanorods by thermal treatment at 250oC in air. The crystalline structures of products are confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum, Raman spectroscopy, and high resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM). The fundamental electrochemical performances are examined using cyclic voltammetry (CV).

  12. Polyvinylpyrrolidone stabilized-Ru nanoclusters loaded onto reduced graphene oxide as high active catalyst for hydrogen evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiao; Hao, Jinghao; Ma, Qianli; Li, Chuanqi; Liu, Yushan; Li, Baojun; Liu, Zhongyi

    2017-06-01

    Ruthenium/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites (Ru/rGO NCs) were synthesized via an electrostatic self-assembly approach. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) stabilized and positively charged metallic ruthenium nanoclusters about 1.2 nm were synthesized and uniformly loaded onto negatively charged graphene oxide (GO) sheets via strong electrostatic interactions. The as-prepared Ru/rGO NCs exhibited superior performance in catalytic hydrolysis of sodium borohydride (NaBH4) to generate H2. The hydrogen generation rate was up to 14.87 L H2 min-1 gcat -1 at 318 K with relatively low activation energy of 38.12 kJ mol-1. Kinetics study confirmed that the hydrolysis of NaBH4 was first order with respect to concentration of catalysts. Besides, the conversion of NaBH4 remained at 97% and catalytic activity retained more than 70% after 5 reaction cycles at room temperature. These results suggested that the Ru/rGO NCs have a promising prospect in the field of clean energy.

  13. In Silico Olefin Metathesis with Ru-Based Catalysts Containing N-Heterocyclic Carbenes Bearing C60 Fullerenes.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Juan Pablo; Vummaleti, Sai Vikrama Chaitanya; Falivene, Laura; Nolan, Steven P; Cavallo, Luigi; Solà, Miquel; Poater, Albert

    2016-05-04

    Density functional theory calculations have been used to explore the potential of Ru-based complexes with 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazolin-2-ylidene (SIMes) ligand backbone (A) being modified in silico by the insertion of a C60 molecule (B and C), as olefin metathesis catalysts. To this end, we investigated the olefin metathesis reaction catalyzed by complexes A, B, and C using ethylene as the substrate, focusing mainly on the thermodynamic stability of all possible reaction intermediates. Our results suggest that complex B bearing an electron-withdrawing N-heterocyclic carbene improves the performance of unannulated complex A. The efficiency of complex B is only surpassed by complex A when the backbone of the N-heterocyclic carbene of complex A is substituted by two amino groups. The particular performance of complexes B and C has to be attributed to electronic factors, that is, the electronic-donating capacity of modified SIMes ligand rather than steric effects, because the latter are predicted to be almost identical for complexes B and C when compared to those of A. Overall, this study indicates that such Ru-based complexes B and C might have the potential to be effective olefin metathesis catalysts. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. The Behavior of the Ru-bda Water Oxidation Catalysts at Low Oxidation States.

    PubMed

    Matheu, Roc; Ghaderian, Abolfazl; Francas, Laia; Chernev, Petko; Ertem, Mehmed; Benet-Buchholz, Jordi; Batista, Victor; Haumann, Michael; Gimbert-Suriñach, Carolina; Sala, Xavier; Llobet, Antoni

    2018-06-13

    The Ru complex [RuII(bda-κ-N2O2)(N-NH2)2], 1, (bda2- = (2,2'-bipyridine)-6,6'-dicarboxylate; N-NH2 = 4-(pyridin-4-yl)aniline) is used as a synthetic intermediate to prepare Ru-bda complexes that contain the NO+, acetonitrile (MeCN) or H2O ligands at oxidation states II and III. Complex 1 reacts with excess NO+ to form a Ru complex where the aryl amine ligands N-NH2 in 1 are transformed into diazonium salts (N-N2+ = 4-(pyridin-4-yl)benzenediazonium)) together with the formation of a new Ru-NO group at the equatorial zone, to generate [RuII(bda-κ-N2O)(NO)(N-N2)2]3+, 23+. Similarly, complex 1 can also react with a coordinating solvent, such as MeCN, at room temperature leading to complex [RuII(bda-κ-N2O)(MeCN)(N-NH2)2], 3. Finally in acidic aqueous solutions solvent water coordinates the Ru center forming {[RuII(bda-κ-(NO)3)(H2O)(N-NH3)2](H2O)n}2+, 42+, that is strongly hydrogen bonded with additional water molecules at the second coordination sphere. We have additionally characterized the one electron oxidized complex {[RuIII(bda-κ-(NO)3.5)(H2O)(N-NH3)2](H2O)n}3+, 53+. The coordination mode of the complexes has been studied both in the solid state and in solution through single-crystal XRD, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, variable-temperature NMR and DFT calculations. While the κ-N2O is the main coordination mode for 23+ and 3, an equilibrium that involves isomers with κ-N2O and κ-NO2 coordination modes and neighboring hydrogen bonded water molecules is observed for 42+ and 53+. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Ultra-high-performance core–shell structured Ru@Pt/C catalyst prepared by a facile pulse electrochemical deposition method

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Dan; Li, Yuexia; Liao, Shijun; ...

    2015-08-03

    Core–shell structured catalysts, made by placing either a monolayer or a thin layer of a noble metal on relatively cheap core-metal nanoparticles, are fascinating and promising fuel cell catalysts due to their high utilization of noble metals. Here, we report our development of a core–shell structured catalyst, Ru@Pt/C, generated by a novel and facile pulse electrochemical deposition (PED) approach. We demonstrate that compared with a commercial Pt/C catalyst, this novel catalyst achieves over four times higher mass activity towards the anodic oxidation of methanol, and 3.6 times higher mass activity towards the cathodic reduction of oxygen. Importantly, we find thatmore » the intrinsic activity of Pt in this Ru@Pt/C catalyst is doubled due to the formation of the core–shell structure. The catalyst also shows superior stability: even after 2000 scans, it still retains up to 90% of the peak current. As a result, our findings demonstrate that this novel PED approach is a promising method for preparing high-performance core–shell catalysts for fuel cell applications.« less

  16. One-Dimensional RuO2/Mn2O3 Hollow Architectures as Efficient Bifunctional Catalysts for Lithium-Oxygen Batteries.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ki Ro; Lee, Gil Yong; Jung, Ji-Won; Kim, Nam-Hoon; Kim, Sang Ouk; Kim, Il-Doo

    2016-03-09

    Rational design and massive production of bifunctional catalysts with fast oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) kinetics are critical to the realization of highly efficient lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries. Here, we first exploit two types of double-walled RuO2 and Mn2O3 composite fibers, i.e., (i) phase separated RuO2/Mn2O3 fiber-in-tube (RM-FIT) and (ii) multicomposite RuO2/Mn2O3 tube-in-tube (RM-TIT), by controlling ramping rate during electrospinning process. Both RM-FIT and RM-TIT exhibited excellent bifunctional electrocatalytic activities in alkaline media. The air electrodes using RM-FIT and RM-TIT showed enhanced overpotential characteristics and stable cyclability over 100 cycles in the Li-O2 cells, demonstrating high potential as efficient OER and ORR catalysts.

  17. Capturing the Role of Explicit Solvent in the Dimerization of RuV (bda) Water Oxidation Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Shaoqi; Mårtensson, Daniel; Purg, Miha; Kamerlin, Shina C L; Ahlquist, Mårten S G

    2017-06-06

    A ground-breaking empirical valence bond study for a soluble transition-metal complex is presented. The full reaction of catalyst monomers approaching and reacting in the Ru V oxidation state were studied. Analysis of the solvation shell in the reactant and along the reaction coordinate revealed that the oxo itself is hydrophobic, which adds a significant driving force to form the dimer. The effect of the solvent on the reaction between the prereactive dimer and the product was small. The solvent seems to lower the barrier for the isoquinoline (isoq) complex while it is increased for pyridines. By comparing the reaction in the gas phase and solution, the proposed π-stacking interaction of the isoq ligands is found to be entirely driven by the water medium. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Enhanced electrochemical degradation of ibuprofen in aqueous solution by PtRu alloy catalyst.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chiung-Fen; Chen, Tsan-Yao; Chin, Ching-Ju Monica; Kuo, Yu-Tsun

    2017-05-01

    Electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs) regarded as a green technology for aqueous ibuprofen treatment was investigated in this study. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), Pt nanoparticles (Pt NPs), and PtRu alloy, of which physicochemical properties were characterized by XRD and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, were used to synthesize three types of cheap and effective anodes based on commercial conductive glass. Furthermore, the operating parameters, such as the current densities, initial concentrations, and solution pH were also investigated. The intermediates determined by a UPLC-Q-TOF/MS system were used to evaluate the possible reaction pathway of ibuprofen (IBU). The results revealed that the usage of MWCNTs and PtRu alloy can effectively reduce the grain size of electrocatalysts and increase the surface activity from the XRD and XANES analysis. The results of CV analysis, degradation and mineralization efficiencies revealed that the EAOPs with PtRu-FTO anode were very effective due to advantages of the higher capacitance, CO tolerance, catalytic ability at less positive voltage and stability. The concentration trend of intermediates indicated that the potential cytotoxic to human caused by 1-(1-hydroxyenthyl)-4-isobutylbenzene was completely eliminated as the reaction time reaches 60 min. Therefore, EAOPs combined with synthesized anodes can be feasibly applied on the electrochemical degradation of ibuprofen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Carbon-free H2 production from ammonia triggered at room temperature with an acidic RuO2/γ-Al2O3 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Nagaoka, Katsutoshi; Eboshi, Takaaki; Takeishi, Yuma; Tasaki, Ryo; Honda, Kyoko; Imamura, Kazuya; Sato, Katsutoshi

    2017-04-01

    Ammonia has been suggested as a carbon-free hydrogen source, but a convenient method for producing hydrogen from ammonia with rapid initiation has not been developed. Ideally, this method would require no external energy input. We demonstrate hydrogen production by exposing ammonia and O 2 at room temperature to an acidic RuO 2 /γ-Al 2 O 3 catalyst. Because adsorption of ammonia onto the catalyst is exothermic, the catalyst bed is rapidly heated to the catalytic ammonia autoignition temperature, and subsequent oxidative decomposition of ammonia produces hydrogen. A differential calorimeter combined with a volumetric gas adsorption analyzer revealed a large quantity of heat evolved both with chemisorption of ammonia onto RuO 2 and acidic sites on the γ-Al 2 O 3 and with physisorption of multiple ammonia molecules.

  20. Carbon-free H2 production from ammonia triggered at room temperature with an acidic RuO2/γ-Al2O3 catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Nagaoka, Katsutoshi; Eboshi, Takaaki; Takeishi, Yuma; Tasaki, Ryo; Honda, Kyoko; Imamura, Kazuya; Sato, Katsutoshi

    2017-01-01

    Ammonia has been suggested as a carbon-free hydrogen source, but a convenient method for producing hydrogen from ammonia with rapid initiation has not been developed. Ideally, this method would require no external energy input. We demonstrate hydrogen production by exposing ammonia and O2 at room temperature to an acidic RuO2/γ-Al2O3 catalyst. Because adsorption of ammonia onto the catalyst is exothermic, the catalyst bed is rapidly heated to the catalytic ammonia autoignition temperature, and subsequent oxidative decomposition of ammonia produces hydrogen. A differential calorimeter combined with a volumetric gas adsorption analyzer revealed a large quantity of heat evolved both with chemisorption of ammonia onto RuO2 and acidic sites on the γ-Al2O3 and with physisorption of multiple ammonia molecules. PMID:28508046

  1. Heterophase-structured nanocrystals as superior supports for Ru-based catalysts in selective hydrogenation of benzene

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zhikun; Liu, Xu; Li, Shuaihui; Li, Zhongjun; Li, Baojun; Liu, Zhongyi; Liu, Shouchang

    2017-01-01

    ZrO2 heterophase structure nanocrystals (HSNCs) were synthesized with tunable ratios of monoclinic ZrO2 (m-ZrO2) to tetragonal ZrO2 (t-ZrO2). The phase mole ratio of m-ZrO2 versus t-ZrO2 in ZrO2 HSNCs was tuned from 40% to 100%. The concentration of the surface hydroxyl groups on m-ZrO2 is higher than that on t-ZrO2. ZrO2 HSNCs have different surface hydroxyl groups on two crystalline phases. This creates more intimate synergistic effects than their single-phase counterparts. The ZrO2 HSNCs were used as effective supports to fabricate heterophase-structured Ru/ZrO2 catalysts for benzene-selective hydrogenation. The excellent catalytic performance including high activity and selectivity is attributed to the heterogeneous strong/weak hydrophilic interface and water layer formed at the m-ZrO2/t-ZrO2 catalyst junction. PMID:28057914

  2. Diamond nanoparticles as a support for Pt and PtRu catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells.

    PubMed

    La-Torre-Riveros, Lyda; Guzman-Blas, Rolando; Méndez-Torres, Adrián E; Prelas, Mark; Tryk, Donald A; Cabrera, Carlos R

    2012-02-01

    Diamond in nanoparticle form is a promising material that can be used as a robust and chemically stable catalyst support in fuel cells. It has been studied and characterized physically and electrochemically, in its thin film and powder forms, as reported in the literature. In the present work, the electrochemical properties of undoped and boron-doped diamond nanoparticle electrodes, fabricated using the ink-paste method, were investigated. Methanol oxidation experiments were carried out in both half-cell and full fuel cell modes. Platinum and ruthenium nanoparticles were chemically deposited on undoped and boron doped diamond nanoparticles through the use of NaBH(4) as reducing agent and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as a surfactant. Before and after the reduction process, samples were characterized by electron microscopy and spectroscopic techniques. The ink-paste method was also used to prepare the membrane electrode assembly with Pt and Pt-Ru modified undoped and boron-doped diamond nanoparticle catalytic systems, to perform the electrochemical experiments in a direct methanol fuel cell system. The results obtained demonstrate that diamond supported catalyst nanomaterials are promising for methanol fuel cells.

  3. Concerto catalysis--harmonising [NiFe]hydrogenase and NiRu model catalysts.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Koji; Nonaka, Kyoshiro; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Kure, Bunsho; Yoon, Ki-Seok; Higuchi, Yoshiki; Yagi, Tatsuhiko; Ogo, Seiji

    2010-03-28

    This communication reports the successful merging of the chemical properties of a natural [NiFe]hydrogenase (Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F) and our previously reported [NiRu] hydrogenase-mimic. The catalytic activity of both the natural enzyme and the mimic is almost identical, with the exception of working pH ranges, and this allows us to use them simultaneously in the same reaction flask. In such a manner, isotope exchange between D(2) and H(2)O could be conducted over an extended pH range (about 2-10) in one pot under mild conditions at ambient temperature and pressure.

  4. Hydrothermal synthesis of highly crystalline RuS{sub 2} nanoparticles as cathodic catalysts in the methanol fuel cell and hydrochloric acid electrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yanjuan; College of Material Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials of Ministry of Education, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012; Li, Nan, E-mail: lin@jlu.edu.cn

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Highly crystalline RuS{sub 2} nanoparticles have been first synthesized by a “one-step” hydrothermal method. • The product presents a pure cubic phase of stoichiometric ratio RuS{sub 2} with average particle size of 14.8 nm. • RuS{sub 2} nanoparticles were used as cathodic catalysts in methanol fuel cell and hydrochloric acid electrolysis. • The catalyst outperforms commercial Pt/C in methanol tolerance and stability towards Cl{sup −}. - Abstract: Highly crystalline ruthenium sulfide (RuS{sub 2}) nanoparticles have been first synthesized by a “one-step” hydrothermal method at 400 °C, using ruthenium chloride and thiourea as reactants. The products were characterized bymore » powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy/energy disperse spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), thermo gravimetric-differential thermal analyze (TG-DTA), transmission electron microscopy equipped with selected area electron diffraction (TEM/SAED). Fourier transform infrared spectra (IR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XRD result illustrates that the highly crystalline product presents a pure cubic phase of stoichiometric ratio RuS{sub 2} and the average particle size is 14.8 nm. SEM and TEM images display the products have irregular shape of 6–25 nm. XPS analyst indicates that the sulfur exists in the form of S{sub 2}{sup 2−}. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), rotating disk electrode (RDE), chronoamperometry (CA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements are conducted to evaluate the electrocatalytic activity and stability of the highly crystalline RuS{sub 2} nanoparticles in oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) for methanol fuel cell and hydrochloric acid electrolysis. The results illustrate that RuS{sub 2} is active towards oxygen reduction reaction. Although the activity of RuS{sub 2} is lower than that of Pt/C, the RuS{sub 2} catalyst outperforms commercial Pt/C in methanol tolerance and stability towards Cl{sup −}.« less

  5. Transition metal sulfide loaded catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Maroni, Victor A.; Iton, Lennox E.; Pasterczyk, James W.; Winterer, Markus; Krause, Theodore R.

    1994-01-01

    A zeolite based catalyst for activation and conversion of methane. A zeolite support includes a transition metal (Mo, Cr or W) sulfide disposed within the micropores of the zeolite. The catalyst allows activation and conversion of methane to C.sub.2 + hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere, thereby avoiding formation of oxides of carbon.

  6. Transition metal sulfide loaded catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Maroni, V.A.; Iton, L.E.; Pasterczyk, J.W.; Winterer, M.; Krause, T.R.

    1994-04-26

    A zeolite-based catalyst is described for activation and conversion of methane. A zeolite support includes a transition metal (Mo, Cr or W) sulfide disposed within the micropores of the zeolite. The catalyst allows activation and conversion of methane to C[sub 2]+ hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere, thereby avoiding formation of oxides of carbon.

  7. Synthesis of PtRu/Ru heterostructure for efficient methanol electrooxidation: The role of extra Ru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Lei

    2018-03-01

    Platinum-ruthenium (PtRu) nanocubes and PtRu/Ru heterostructure via epitaxial growth were synthesized by varying the amount of Ru precursor. As model catalysts, the PtRu/Ru heterostructure demonstrated the highest catalytic performance in electrooxidation of methanol, which was possibly due to the more hydroxyl species produced from the extra Ru nanoparticles as well as enhanced adsorption of methanol of PtRu alloys in the PtRu/Ru heterostructure. The catalytic performance of the catalysts was closely related with the structure, which was well characterized by a series of methods. It was expected that the present work could provide a new insight for the synthesis of PtRu based nanocatalysts.

  8. Ceria nanoclusters on graphene/Ru(0001): A new model catalyst system

    DOE PAGES

    Novotny, Z.; Netzer, F. P.; Dohnalek, Z.

    2016-03-22

    In this study, the growth of ceria nanoclusters on single-layer graphene on Ru(0001) has been examined, with a view towards fabricating a stable system for model catalysis studies. The surface morphology and cluster distribution as a function of oxide coverage and substrate temperature has been monitored by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), whereas the chemical composition of the cluster deposits has been determined by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The ceria nanoparticles are of the CeO 2(111)-type and are anchored at the intrinsic defects of the graphene surface, resulting in a variation of the cluster densities across the macroscopic sample surface. Themore » ceria clusters on graphene display a remarkable stability against reduction in ultrahigh vacuum up to 900 K, but some sintering of clusters is observed for temperatures > 450 K. The evolution of the cluster size distribution suggests that the sintering proceeds via a Smoluchowski ripening mechanism, i.e. diffusion and aggregation of entire clusters.« less

  9. AuRu/meso-Mn2O3: A Highly Active and Stable Catalyst for Methane Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Z.; Fang, J. Y.; Xie, S. H.; Deng, J. G.; Liu, Y. X.; Dai, H. X.

    2018-05-01

    Three-dimensionally ordered mesoporous Mn2O3 (meso-Mn2O3) and its supported Au, Ru, and AuRu alloy (0.49 wt% Au/meso-Mn2O3, 0.48 wt% Ru/meso-Mn2O3, and 0.97 wt% AuRu/meso-Mn2O3 (Au/Ru molar ratio = 0.98)) nanocatalysts were prepared using the KIT-6-templating and polyvinyl alcohol-protected reduction methods, respectively. Physicochemical properties of the samples were characterized by means of numerous techniques, and their catalytic activities were evaluated for the combustion of methane. It is found that among all of the samples, 0.48 wt% Ru/meso-Mn 2O3 and 0.97 wt% AuRu/meso-Mn2O3 performed the best (the reaction temperature (T90% ) at 90% methane conversion was 530-540°C), but the latter showed a better thermal stability than the former. The partial deactivation of 0.97 wt% AuRu/meso-Mn2O3 due to H2O or CO2 introduction was reversible. It is concluded that the good catalytic activity and thermal stability of 0.97 wt% AuRu/meso-Mn2O3 was associated with the high dispersion of AuRu alloy NPs (2-5 nm) on the surface of meso-Mn2O3 and good low-temperature reducibility.

  10. Electrochemical oxidation of hydrolyzed poly oxymethylene-dimethyl ether by PtRu catalysts on Nb-doped SnO(2-δ) supports for direct oxidation fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Kakinuma, Katsuyoshi; Kim, In-Tae; Senoo, Yuichi; Yano, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Uchida, Makoto

    2014-12-24

    We synthesized Pt and PtRu catalysts supported on Nb-doped SnO(2-δ) (Pt/Sn0.99Nb0.01O(2-δ), PtRu/Sn0.99Nb0.01O(2-δ)) for direct oxidation fuel cells (DOFCs) using poly oxymethylene-dimethyl ether (POMMn, n = 2, 3) as a fuel. The onset potential for the oxidation of simulated fuels of POMMn (methanol-formaldehyde mixtures; n = 2, 3) for Pt/Sn0.99Nb0.01O(2-δ) and PtRu/Sn0.99Nb0.01O(2-δ) was less than 0.3 V vs RHE, which was much lower than those of two commercial catalysts (PtRu black and Pt2Ru3/carbon black). In particular, the onset potential of the oxidation reaction of simulated fuels of POMMn (n = 2, 3) for PtRu/Sn0.99Nb0.01O(2-δ) sintered at 800 °C in nitrogen atmosphere was less than 0.1 V vs RHE and is thus considered to be a promising anode catalyst for DOFCs. The mass activity (MA) of PtRu/Sn0.99Nb0.01O(2-δ) sintered at 800 °C was more than five times larger than those of the commercial catalysts in the measurement temperature range from 25 to 80 °C. Even though the MA for the methanol oxidation reaction was of the same order as those of the commercial catalysts, the MA for the formaldehyde oxidation reaction was more than five times larger than those of the commercial catalysts. Sn from the Sn0.99Nb0.01O(2-δ) support was found to have diffused into the Pt catalyst during the sintering process. The Sn on the top surface of the Pt catalyst accelerated the oxidation of carbon monoxide by a bifunctional mechanism, similar to that for Pt-Ru catalysts.

  11. Synthesis-atomic structure-properties relationships in metallic nanoparticles by total scattering experiments and 3D computer simulations: case of Pt-Ru nanoalloy catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasai, Binay; Ren, Yang; Shan, Shiyao; Zhao, Yinguang; Cronk, Hannah; Luo, Jin; Zhong, Chuan-Jian; Petkov, Valeri

    2015-04-01

    An approach to determining the 3D atomic structure of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) in fine detail and using the unique knowledge obtained for rationalizing their synthesis and properties targeted for optimization is described and exemplified on Pt-Ru alloy NPs of importance to the development of devices for clean energy conversion such as fuel cells. In particular, PtxRu100-x alloy NPs, where x = 31, 49 and 75, are synthesized by wet chemistry and activated catalytically by a post-synthesis treatment involving heating under controlled N2-H2 atmosphere. So-activated NPs are evaluated as catalysts for gas-phase CO oxidation and ethanol electro-oxidation reactions taking place in fuel cells. Both as-synthesized and activated NPs are characterized structurally by total scattering experiments involving high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction coupled to atomic pair distribution functions (PDFs) analysis. 3D structure models both for as-synthesized and activated NPs are built by molecular dynamics simulations based on the archetypal for current theoretical modelling Sutton-Chen method. Models are refined against the experimental PDF data by reverse Monte Carlo simulations and analysed in terms of prime structural characteristics such as metal-to-metal bond lengths, bond angles and first coordination numbers for Pt and Ru atoms. Analysis indicates that, though of a similar type, the atomic structure of as-synthesized and respective activated NPs differ in several details of importance to NP catalytic properties. Structural characteristics of activated NPs and data for their catalytic activity are compared side by side and strong evidence found that electronic effects, indicated by significant changes in Pt-Pt and Ru-Ru metal bond lengths at NP surface, and practically unrecognized so far atomic ensemble effects, indicated by distinct stacking of atomic layers near NP surface and prevalence of particular configurations of Pt and Ru atoms in these layers, contribute to the

  12. XANES study of elemental mercury oxidation over RuO 2/TiO 2 and selective catalytic reduction catalysts for mercury emissions control

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Zhouyang; Li, Can; Sriram, Vishnu; ...

    2016-07-25

    Linear combination fitting of the X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES) was used to quantify oxidized mercury species over RuO 2/TiO 2 and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts under different simulated flue gas conditions. Halogen gases play a major role in mercury oxidation. In the absence of halogen gas, elemental mercury can react with sulfur that is contained in both the RuO2/TiO2 and SCR catalysts to form HgS and HgSO 4. In the presence of HCl or HBr gas, HgCl 2 or HgBr 2 is the main oxidized mercury species. When both HCl and HBr gases are present, HgBr2 ismore » the preferred oxidation product and no HgCl 2 can be found. The formation of HgO and HgS cannot be neglected with or without halogen gas. Other simulated flue gas components such as NO, NH 3, SO 2 and CO 2 do not have significant effect on oxidized mercury speciation when halogen gas is present.« less

  13. From a Decomposition Product to an Efficient and Versatile Catalyst: The [Ru(η5-indenyl)(PPh3)2Cl] Story

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Conspectus One of the most important challenges in catalyst design is the synthesis of stable promoters without compromising their activity. For this reason, it is important to understand the factors leading to decomposition of such catalysts, especially if side-products negatively affect the activity and selectivity of the starting complex. In this context, the understanding of termination and decomposition processes in olefin metathesis is receiving significant attention from the scientific community. For example, the decomposition of ruthenium olefin metathesis precatalysts in alcohol solutions can occur during either the catalyst synthesis or the metathesis process, and such decomposition has been found to be common for Grubbs-type precatalysts. These decomposition products are usually hydridocarbonyl complexes, which are well-known to be active in several transformations such as hydrogenation, terminal alkene isomerization, and C–H activation chemistry. The reactivity of these side products can be unwanted, and it is therefore important to understand how to avoid them and maybe also important to keep an open mind and think of ways to use these in other catalytic reactions. A showcase of these decomposition studies is reported in this Account. These reports analyze the stability of ruthenium phenylindenylidene complexes, highly active olefin metathesis precatalysts, in basic alcohol solutions. Several different decomposition processes can occur under these conditions depending on the starting complex and the alcohol used. These indenylidene-bearing metathesis complexes display a completely different behavior compared with that of other metathesis precatalysts and show an alternative competitive alcoholysis pathway, where rather than forming the expected hydrido carbonyl complexes, the indenylidene fragment is transformed into a η1-indenyl, which then rearranges to its η5-indenyl form. In particular, [RuCl(η5-(3-phenylindenylidene)(PPh3)2] has been found to

  14. Computational studies of the geometry and electronic structure of an all-inorganic and homogeneous tetra-Ru-polyoxotungstate catalyst for water oxidation and its four subsequent one-electron oxidized forms.

    PubMed

    Quiñonero, David; Kaledin, Alexey L; Kuznetsov, Aleksey E; Geletii, Yurii V; Besson, Claire; Hill, Craig L; Musaev, Djamaladdin G

    2010-01-14

    Geometry and electronic structure of five species [{Ru(4)O(4)(OH)(2)(H(2)O)(4)}(gamma-SiW(10)O(36))(2)](10-) (1), [{Ru(4)O(4)(OH)(2)(H(2)O)(4)}(gamma-SiW(10)O(36))(2)](9-) (2), [{Ru(4)O(4)(OH)(2)(H(2)O)(4)}(gamma-SiW(10)O(36))(2)](8-) (3), [{Ru(4)O(4)(OH)(2)(H(2)O)(4)}(gamma-SiW(10)O(36))(2)](7-) (4), and [{Ru(4)O(4)(OH)(2)(H(2)O)(4)}(gamma-SiW(10)O(36))(2)](6-) (5) with different oxidation states of Ru centers were studied at the density functional and COSMO levels of theory. These species are expected to be among the possible intermediates of the recently reported 1-catalyzed water oxidation (Geletii, Y. V.; Botar, B.; Kogerler, P.; Hillesheim, D. A.; Musaev, D. G.; Hill, C. L. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2008, 47, 3896-3899 and Sartorel, A.; Carraro, M.; Scorrano, G.; Zorzi, R. D.; Geremia, S.; McDaniel, N. D.; Bernhard, S.; Bonchio, M. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 5006-5007). It was shown that RI-BP86 correctly describes the geometry and energy of the low-lying electronic states of compound 1, whereas the widely used B3LYP approach overestimates the energy of its high-spin states. Including the solvent and/or countercation effects into calculations improves the agreement between the calculated and experimental data. It was found that the several HOMOs and LUMOs of the studied complexes are bonding and antibonding orbitals of the [Ru(4)O(4)(OH)(2)(H(2)O)(4)](6+) core, and four subsequent one-electron oxidations of 1, leading to formation of 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively, involve only {Ru(4)} core orbitals. In other words, catalyst instability due to ligand oxidation in the widely studied Ru-blue dimer, [(bpy)(2)(O)Ru(V)-(mu-O)-Ru(V)(O)(bpy)(2)](4+), is not operable for 1: the latter all-inorganic catalyst is predicted to be stable under water oxidation turnover conditions. The calculated HOMOs and LUMOs of all the studied species are very close in energy and exhibit a "quasi-continuum" or "nanoparticle-type" electronic structure similar to that of nanosized transition

  15. Unexpected effect of catalyst concentration on photochemical CO2 reduction by trans(Cl)–Ru(bpy)(CO)2Cl2: new mechanistic insight into the CO/HCOO– selectivity† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc00199d Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Kuramochi, Yusuke; Itabashi, Jun; Fukaya, Kyohei; Enomoto, Akito; Yoshida, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Photochemical CO2 reduction catalysed by trans(Cl)–Ru(bpy)(CO)2Cl2 (bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine) efficiently produces carbon monoxide (CO) and formate (HCOO–) in N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA)/water containing [Ru(bpy)3]2+ as a photosensitizer and 1-benzyl-1,4-dihydronicotinamide (BNAH) as an electron donor. We have unexpectedly found catalyst concentration dependence of the product ratio (CO/HCOO–) in the photochemical CO2 reduction: the ratio of CO/HCOO– decreases with increasing catalyst concentration. The result has led us to propose a new mechanism in which HCOO– is selectively produced by the formation of a Ru(i)–Ru(i) dimer as the catalyst intermediate. This reaction mechanism predicts that the Ru–Ru bond dissociates in the reaction of the dimer with CO2, and that the insufficient electron supply to the catalyst results in the dominant formation of HCOO–. The proposed mechanism is supported by the result that the time-course profiles of CO and HCOO– in the photochemical CO2 reduction catalysed by [Ru(bpy)(CO)2Cl]2 (0.05 mM) are very similar to those of the reduction catalysed by trans(Cl)–Ru(bpy)(CO)2Cl2 (0.10 mM), and that HCOO– formation becomes dominant under low-intensity light. The kinetic analyses based on the proposed mechanism could excellently reproduce the unusual catalyst concentration effect on the product ratio. The catalyst concentration effect observed in the photochemical CO2 reduction using [Ru(4dmbpy)3]2+ (4dmbpy = 4,4′-dimethyl-2,2′-bipyridine) instead of [Ru(bpy)3]2+ as the photosensitizer is also explained with the kinetic analyses, reflecting the smaller quenching rate constant of excited [Ru(4dmbpy)3]2+ by BNAH than that of excited [Ru(bpy)3]2+. We have further synthesized trans(Cl)–Ru(6Mes-bpy)(CO)2Cl2 (6Mes-bpy = 6,6′-dimesityl-2,2′-bipyridine), which bears bulky substituents at the 6,6′-positions in the 2,2′-bipyridyl ligand, so that the ruthenium complex cannot form the dimer due to the steric hindrance

  16. Multiple Pathways for Benzyl Alcohol Oxidation by Ru V =O 3+ and Ru IV =O 2+

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Amit; Hull, Jonathan F.; Norris, Michael R.

    2011-02-21

    Significant rate enhancements are found for benzyl alcohol oxidation by the RuV=O3+ form of the water oxidation catalyst [Ru(Mebimpy)(bpy)(OH2)]2+ [Mebimpy = 2,6-bis(1-methylbenzimidazol-2-yl)pyridine; bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine] compared to RuIV=O2+ and for the RuIV=O2+ form with added bases due to a new pathway, concerted hydride proton transfer (HPT).

  17. Selective hydrodesulfurization of 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene in the dominant presence of naphthalene over hybrid CoMo/A{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Ru/Al{sub 2}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Isoda, T.; Nagao, S.; Ma, X.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrodesulfurization of 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT) in decane containing significant amount of naphthalene was examined over a hybrid of CoMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Ru/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to design the selective hydrogenation and successive desulfurization of 4,6-DMDBT in aromatic moiety, and its activity was compared to those of CoMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Ru/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in their single use. HDS activity of 4,6-DMDBT over NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was inferior to CoMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, although that of highest hydrogenation activity for naphthalene. The hybrid showed the highest activity for HDS of 4,6-DMDBT among these catalysts without excess hydrogenation of nahthalene.

  18. Skeletal Ru/Cu catalysts prepared from crystalline and quasicrystalline ternary alloy precursors: characterization by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and CO oxidation.

    PubMed

    Highfield, James; Liu, Tao; Loo, Yook Si; Grushko, Benjamin; Borgna, Armando

    2009-02-28

    The Ru/Cu system is of historical significance in catalysis. The early development and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) led to the original 'bimetallic cluster" concept for highly-immiscible systems. This work explores alkali leaching of Al-based ternary crystalline and quasicrystalline precursors as a potential route to bulk Ru/Cu alloys. Single-phase ternary alloys at 3 trial compositions; Al(71)Ru(22)Cu(7), Al(70.5)Ru(17)Cu(12.5), and Al(70)Ru(10)Cu(20), were prepared by arc melting of the pure metal components. After leaching, the bimetallic residues were characterized principally by transmission XAS, "as-leached" and after annealing in H(2) (and passivation) in a thermobalance. XRD and BET revealed a nanocrystalline product with a native structure of hexagonal Ru. XPS surface analysis of Ru(22)Cu(7) and Ru(17)Cu(12.5) found only slight enrichment by Cu in the as-leached forms, with little change upon annealing. Ru(10)Cu(20) was highly segregated as-leached. XANES data showed preferential oxidation of Cu in Ru(22)Cu(7), implying that it exists as an encapsulating layer. TG data supports this view since it does not show the distinct two-stage O(2) uptake characteristic of skeletal Ru. Cu K-edge EXAFS data for Ru(22)Cu(7) were unique in showing a high proportion of Ru neighbours. The spacing, d(CuRu) = 2.65 A, was that expected from a hypothetical (ideal) solid solution at this composition, but this is unlikely in such a bulk-immiscible system and Ru K-edge EXAFS failed to confirm bulk alloying. Furthermore its invariance under annealing was more indicative of an interfacial bond between bulk components, although partial alloying with retention of local order cannot entirely be ruled out. The XAS and XPS data were reconciled in a model involving surface and bulk segregation, Cu being present at both the grain exterior and in ultra-fine internal pores. This structure can be considered as the 3-dimensional analogue of the classical type

  19. Highly Stable and Active Catalyst for Sabatier Reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Jianli; Brooks, Kriston P.

    2012-01-01

    Highly active Ru/TiO2 catalysts for Sabatier reaction have been developed. The catalysts have shown to be stable under repeated shutting down/startup conditions. When the Ru/TiO2 catalyst is coated on the engineered substrate Fe-CrAlY felt, activity enhancement is more than doubled when compared with an identically prepared engineered catalyst made from commercial Degussa catalyst. Also, bimetallic Ru-Rh/TiO2 catalysts show high activity at high throughput.

  20. Ru-bis(pyridine)pyrazolate (bpp)-Based Water-Oxidation Catalysts Anchored on TiO2: The Importance of the Nature and Position of the Anchoring Group.

    PubMed

    Francàs, Laia; Richmond, Craig; Garrido-Barros, Pablo; Planas, Nora; Roeser, Stephan; Benet-Buchholz, Jordi; Escriche, Lluís; Sala, Xavier; Llobet, Antoni

    2016-04-04

    Three distinct functionalisation strategies have been applied to the in,in-[{Ru(II)(trpy)}2(μ-bpp)(H2O)2](3+) (trpy=2,2':6',2''-terpyridine, bpp=bis(pyridine)pyrazolate) water-oxidation catalyst framework to form new derivatives that can adsorb onto titania substrates. Modifications included the addition of sulfonate, carboxylate, and phosphonate anchoring groups to the terpyridine and bis(pyridyl)pyrazolate ligands. The complexes were characterised in solution by using 1D NMR, 2D NMR, and UV/Vis spectroscopic analysis and electrochemical techniques. The complexes were then anchored on TiO2-coated fluorinated tin oxide (FTO) films, and the reactivity of these new materials as water-oxidation catalysts was tested electrochemically through controlled-potential electrolysis (CPE) with oxygen evolution detected by headspace analysis with a Clark electrode. The results obtained highlight the importance of the catalyst orientation with respect to the titania surface in regard to its capacity to catalytically oxidize water to dioxygen. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Multiple Pathways for Benzyl Alcohol Oxidation by Ru V=O 3+ and Ru IV=O 2+

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Amit; Hull, Jonathan F.; Norris, Michael R.

    2011-01-20

    Significant rate enhancements are found for benzyl alcohol oxidation by the Ru V=O 3+ form of the water oxidation catalyst [Ru(Mebimpy)(bpy)(OH 2)] 2+ [Mebimpy = 2,6-bis(1-methylbenzimidazol-2-yl)pyridine; bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine] compared to Ru IV=O 2+ and for the Ru IV=O 2+ form with added bases due to a new pathway, concerted hydride proton transfer (HPT).

  2. Multiple Pathways for Benzyl Alcohol Oxidation by Ru V=O 3+ and Ru IV=O 2+

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Amit; Hull, Jonathan F.; Norris, Michael R.

    2011-01-20

    Significant rate enhancements are found for benzyl alcohol oxidation by the Ru V=O 3+ form of the water oxidation catalyst [Ru(Mebimpy)(bpy)(OH 2)] 2+ [Mebimpy = 2,6-bis(1-methylbenzimidazol-2-yl)pyridine; bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine] compared to Ru IV=O 2+ and for the Ru IV=O 2+ form with added bases due to a new pathway involving concerted hydride proton transfer (HPT).

  3. Optimization of sodium loading on zeolite support for catalyzed transesterification of triolein with methanol.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Yuan; Chou, Hsin-Yu; Chen, Bing-Hung; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2013-10-01

    Optimization of sodium loading on zeolite HY for catalyzed transesterification of triolein in excess methanol to biodiesel was studied. Zeolite HY catalyst was activated by loading sodium ions to their surface via an ion-exchange method. The effects of ion-exchange process parameters, including the temperature, the process time, the pH value, as well as concentrations and sources of Na(+) cations (NaOH, NaCl and Na2SO4), on the conversion yield of triolein to biodiesel were investigated. Most of these Na(+)-activated zeolite HY catalysts could really facilitate the catalyzed transesterification reaction of triolein to biodiesel at a lower temperature near 65°C. Consequently, a high conversion yield of triglycerides to biodiesel at 97.3% was obtained at 65°C. Moreover, the durability of zeolite catalysts was examined as well. Catalytic performance tests of these zeolite catalysts in transesterification did not show a significant decrease in catalysis at least for three batch cycles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Direct methanol fuel cell with extended reaction zone anode: PtRu and PtRuMo supported on graphite felt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Alex; Gyenge, Előd L.; Oloman, Colin W.

    Pressed graphite felt (thickness ∼350 μm) with electrodeposited PtRu (43 g m -2, 1.4:1 atomic ratio) or PtRuMo (52 g m -2, 1:1:0.3 atomic ratio) nanoparticle catalysts was investigated as an anode for direct methanol fuel cells. At temperatures above 333 K the fuel cell performance of the PtRuMo catalyst was superior compared to PtRu. The power density was 2200 W m -2 with PtRuMo at 5500 A m -2 and 353 K while under the same conditions PtRu yielded 1925 W m -2. However, the degradation rate of the Mo containing catalyst formulation was higher. Compared to conventional gas diffusion electrodes with comparable PtRu catalyst composition and load, the graphite felt anodes gave higher power densities mainly due to the extended reaction zone for methanol oxidation.

  5. Synthesis and Hydrodeoxygenation Properties of Ruthenium Phosphide Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Bowker, Richard H.; Smith, Mica C.; Pease, Melissa

    2011-07-01

    Ru2P/SiO2 and RuP/SiO2 catalysts were prepared by the temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) of uncalcined precursors containing hypophosphite ion (H2PO2-) as the phosphorus source. The Ru2P/SiO2 and RuP/SiO2 catalysts had small average particle sizes (~4 nm) and high CO chemisorption capacities (90-110 umol/g). The Ru phosphide catalysts exhibited similar or higher furan (C4H4O) hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) activities than did a Ru/SiO2 catalyst, and the phosphide catalysts favored C4 hydrocarbon products while the Ru metal catalyst produced primarily C3 hydrocarbons.

  6. Ru-assisted synthesis of Pd/Ru nanodendrites with high activity for ethanol electrooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ke; Bin, Duan; Yang, Beibei; Wang, Caiqin; Ren, Fangfang; Du, Yukou

    2015-07-01

    Due to the specific physical and chemical properties of a highly branched noble metal, the controllable synthesis has attracted much attention. This article reports the synthesis of Pd/Ru nanodendrites by a facile method using an oil bath in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone, potassium bromide and ascorbic acid. The morphology, structure, and composition of the as-prepared catalysts were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In the electrochemical measurement, the as-prepared Pd7/Ru1 bimetallic nanodendrites provide a large electrochemically active surface area and exhibit high peak current density in the forward scan toward ethanol electrooxidation, which is nearly four times higher than those of a pure Pd catalyst. The as-prepared Pd7/Ru1 catalysts also exhibit significantly enhanced cycling stability toward ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium, which are mainly ascribed to the synergetic effect between Pd and Ru. This indicates that the Pd7/Ru1 catalysts should have great potential applications in direct ethanol fuel cells.Due to the specific physical and chemical properties of a highly branched noble metal, the controllable synthesis has attracted much attention. This article reports the synthesis of Pd/Ru nanodendrites by a facile method using an oil bath in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone, potassium bromide and ascorbic acid. The morphology, structure, and composition of the as-prepared catalysts were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In the electrochemical measurement, the as-prepared Pd7/Ru1 bimetallic nanodendrites provide a large electrochemically active surface area and exhibit high peak current density in the forward scan toward ethanol electrooxidation, which is nearly four times higher than those of a pure Pd catalyst. The as-prepared Pd7/Ru1 catalysts also exhibit significantly

  7. Reductive deconstruction of organosolv lignin catalyzed by zeolite supported nickel nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Kasakov, Stanislav; Shi, Hui; Camaioni, Donald M.

    2015-11-01

    Mechanistic aspects of deconstruction and hydrodeoxygenation of organosolv lignin using supported Ni catalysts with (Ni/HZSM-5 and Ni/HBEA) and without Brønsted acid sites (Ni/SiO2) are reported. Lignin was deconstructed and converted to saturated cyclic hydrocarbons ranging from C5 to C14. In the one-stage reaction, full conversion with total yield of 70 ± 5 wt.% saturated hydrocarbons was achieved at 593 K and 20 bar H2. The organosolv lignin used consists of seven to eight monolignol subunits and has an average molecular weight of ca. 1200 g mol-1. The monolignols were mainly guaiacyl, syringyl and phenylcoumaran, randomly interconnected through β-O-4, 4-O-5, β-1,more » 5-5’ and β-β ether bonds. In situ IR spectroscopy was used to follow the changes in lignin constituents during reaction. The proposed reaction pathways for the catalytic transformation of this organosolv lignin to alkanes start with the hydrogenolysis of aryl alkyl ether bonds, followed by hydrogenation of the aromatic compounds on Ni to cyclic alcohols. Oxygen is removed from the alcohols via dehydration on Brønsted acid sites to yield cyclic alkenes that are further hydrogenated to alkanes. Formation of condensation products may occur via intermolecular recombination of aromatic monomers or alkylation of aromatic compounds by alkenes. The financial support from TUM-PNNL cooperation project “Development of new methods for in situ characterization in liquid phase reactions” (CN-177939) is highly appreciated. The work by S.K., H.S., and J.A.L was partially supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences.« less

  8. Ru-assisted synthesis of Pd/Ru nanodendrites with high activity for ethanol electrooxidation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ke; Bin, Duan; Yang, Beibei; Wang, Caiqin; Ren, Fangfang; Du, Yukou

    2015-08-07

    Due to the specific physical and chemical properties of a highly branched noble metal, the controllable synthesis has attracted much attention. This article reports the synthesis of Pd/Ru nanodendrites by a facile method using an oil bath in the presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone, potassium bromide and ascorbic acid. The morphology, structure, and composition of the as-prepared catalysts were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In the electrochemical measurement, the as-prepared Pd7/Ru1 bimetallic nanodendrites provide a large electrochemically active surface area and exhibit high peak current density in the forward scan toward ethanol electrooxidation, which is nearly four times higher than those of a pure Pd catalyst. The as-prepared Pd7/Ru1 catalysts also exhibit significantly enhanced cycling stability toward ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium, which are mainly ascribed to the synergetic effect between Pd and Ru. This indicates that the Pd7/Ru1 catalysts should have great potential applications in direct ethanol fuel cells.

  9. Efficient ammonia synthesis over a Ru/La0.5Ce0.5O1.75 catalyst pre-reduced at high temperature† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed procedures for each method, catalytic performance, STEM-EDX images, and detailed characterizations. See DOI: 10.1039/c7sc05343f

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, Yuta; Sato, Katsutoshi; Miyahara, Shin-ichiro; Kawano, Yukiko; Toriyama, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Tomokazu; Matsumura, Syo; Hosokawa, Saburo

    2018-01-01

    Ammonia is an important feedstock for producing fertiliser and is also a potential energy carrier. However, the process currently used for ammonia synthesis, the Haber–Bosch process, consumes a huge amount of energy; therefore the development of new catalysts for synthesising ammonia at a high rate under mild conditions (low temperature and low pressure) is necessary. Here, we show that Ru/La0.5Ce0.5O1.75 pre-reduced at an unusually high temperature (650 °C) catalysed ammonia synthesis at extremely high rates under mild conditions; specifically, at a reaction temperature of 350 °C, the rates were 13.4, 31.3, and 44.4 mmol g–1 h–1 at 0.1, 1.0, and 3.0 MPa, respectively. Kinetic analysis revealed that this catalyst is free of hydrogen poisoning under the conditions tested. Electron energy loss spectroscopy combined with O2 absorption capacity measurements revealed that the reduced catalyst consisted of fine Ru particles (mean diameter < 2.0 nm) that were partially covered with partially reduced La0.5Ce0.5O1.75 and were dispersed on a thermostable support. Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared spectra measured after N2 addition to the catalyst revealed that N2 adsorption on Ru atoms that interacted directly with the reduced La0.5Ce0.5O1.75 weakened the N 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000

  10. Molybdenum sulfide/carbide catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Alonso, Gabriel [Chihuahua, MX; Chianelli, Russell R [El Paso, TX; Fuentes, Sergio [Ensenada, MX; Torres, Brenda [El Paso, TX

    2007-05-29

    The present invention provides methods of synthesizing molybdenum disulfide (MoS.sub.2) and carbon-containing molybdenum disulfide (MoS.sub.2-xC.sub.x) catalysts that exhibit improved catalytic activity for hydrotreating reactions involving hydrodesulfurization, hydrodenitrogenation, and hydrogenation. The present invention also concerns the resulting catalysts. Furthermore, the invention concerns the promotion of these catalysts with Co, Ni, Fe, and/or Ru sulfides to create catalysts with greater activity, for hydrotreating reactions, than conventional catalysts such as cobalt molybdate on alumina support.

  11. Bio-oil hydrodeoxygenation catalysts produced using strong electrostatic adsorption

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We synthesized hydrothermally stable metal catalysts with controlled particle size and distribution, with the goal of determining which catalyst(s) can selectively catalyze the production of aromatics from bio-oil (from pyrolysis of biomass). Both precious and base transition metal catalysts (Ru, Pt...

  12. Tandem isomerization-decarboxylation of unsaturated fatty acids to olefins via ruthenium metal-as-ligand catalysts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new facile Ru-catalyzed route to bio-olefins3 from unsaturated fatty acids via readily accessible metal-as-ligand type catalyst precursors, [Ru(CO)2RCO2]n and Ru3(CO)12, will be described. The catalyst apparently functions in a tandem mode by dynamically isomerizing the positions of double bonds i...

  13. Characterization of a trinuclear ruthenium species in catalytic water oxidation by Ru(bda)(pic)2 in neutral media.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Biaobiao; Li, Fei; Zhang, Rong; Ma, Chengbing; Chen, Lin; Sun, Licheng

    2016-06-30

    A Ru(III)-O-Ru(IV)-O-Ru(III) type trinuclear species was crystallographically characterized in water oxidation by Ru(bda)(pic)2 (H2bda = 2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylic acid; pic = 4-picoline) under neutral conditions. The formation of a ruthenium trimer due to the reaction of Ru(IV)[double bond, length as m-dash]O with Ru(II)-OH2 was fully confirmed by chemical, electrochemical and photochemical methods. Since the oxidation of the trimer was proposed to lead to catalyst decomposition, the photocatalytic water oxidation activity was rationally improved by the suppression of the formation of the trimer.

  14. Ru-N-C Hybrid Nanocomposite for Ammonia Dehydrogenation: Influence of N-doping on Catalytic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hien, Nguyen Thi Bich; Kim, Hyo Young; Jeon, Mina; Lee, Jin Hee; Ridwan, Muhammad; Tamarany, Rizcky; Yoon, Chang Won

    2015-01-01

    For application to ammonia dehydrogenation, novel Ru-based heterogeneous catalysts, Ru-N-C and Ru-C, were synthesized via simple pyrolysis of a mixture of RuCl3·6H2O and carbon black with or without dicyandiamide as a nitrogen-containing precursor at 550 °C. Characterization of the prepared Ru-N-C and Ru-C catalysts via scanning transmission electron microscopy, in conjunction with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, indicated the formation of hollow nanocomposites in which the average sizes of the Ru nanoparticles were 1.3 nm and 5.1 nm, respectively. Compared to Ru-C, the Ru-N-C nanocomposites not only proved to be highly active for ammonia dehydrogenation, giving rise to a NH3 conversion of >99% at 550 °C, but also exhibited high durability. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the Ru active sites in Ru-N-C were electronically perturbed by the incorporated nitrogen atoms, which increased the Ru electron density and ultimately enhanced the catalyst activity.

  15. Electrocatalytic properties of graphite nanofibers-supported platinum catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Jin; Park, Jeong-Min; Seo, Min-Kang

    2009-09-01

    Graphite nanofibers (GNFs) treated at various temperatures were used as carbon supports to improve the efficiency of PtRu catalysts. The electrochemical properties of the PtRu/GNFs catalysts were then investigated to evaluate their potential for application in DMFCs. The results indicated that the particle size and dispersibility of PtRu in the catalysts were changed by heat treatment, and the electrochemical activity of the catalysts was improved. Consequently, it was found that heat treatments could have an influence on the surface and structural properties of GNFs, resulting in enhancing an electrocatalytic activity of the catalysts for DMFCs.

  16. Tetra- and Heptametallic Ru(II),Rh(III) Supramolecular Hydrogen Production Photocatalysts

    DOE PAGES

    Manbeck, Gerald F.; Fujita, Etsuko; Brewer, Karen J.

    2017-06-01

    Supramolecular mixed metal complexes combining the trimetallic chromophore [{(bpy) 2Ru(dpp)} 2Ru(dpp)] 6+ (Ru 3) with [Rh(bpy)Cl 2] + or [RhCl 2] + catalytic fragments to form [{(bpy) 2Ru(dpp)} 2Ru(dpp)RhCl 2(bpy)](PF 6) 7 (Ru 3Rh) or [{(bpy) 2Ru(dpp)} 2Ru(dpp)] 2RhCl 2(PF 6) 13 (Ru 3RhRu 3) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine and dpp = 2,3-bis(2-pyridyl)pyrazine) catalyze the photochemical reduction of protons to H 2. This first example of a heptametallic Ru,Rh photocatalyst produces over 300 turnovers of H 2 upon photolysis of a solution of acetonitrile, water, triflic acid, and N,N-dimethylaniline as an electron donor. Conversely, the tetrametallic Ru 3Rh produces only 40more » turnovers of H 2 due to differences in the excited state properties and nature of the catalysts upon reduction as ascertained from electrochemical data, transient absorption spectroscopy, and flash-quench experiments. And while the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of Ru 3Rh is localized on a bridging ligand, it is Rh-centered in Ru 3RhRu 3 facilitating electron collection at Rh in the excited state and reductively quenched state. The Ru → Rh charge separated state of Ru 3RhRu 3 is endergonic with respect to the emissive Ru → dpp 3MLCT excited and cannot be formed by static electron transfer quenching of the 3MLCT state. Instead, a mechanism of subnanosecond charge separation from high lying states is proposed. Multiple reductions of Ru 3 and Ru 3Rh using sodium amalgam were carried out to compare UV–vis absorption spectra of reduced species and to evaluate the stability of highly reduced complexes. Furthermore, the Ru 3 and Ru 3Rh can be reduced by 10 and 13 electrons, respectively, to final states with all bridging ligands doubly reduced and all bpy ligands singly reduced.« less

  17. The control of Pt and Ru nanoparticle size on high surface area supports.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiuli; Joshi, Upendra A; Über, Kevin; Regalbuto, John R

    2014-12-28

    Supported Ru and Pt nanoparticles are synthesized by the method of strong electrostatic adsorption and subsequently treated under different steaming-reduction conditions to achieve a series of catalysts with controlled particle sizes, ranging from 1 to 8 nm. While in the case of oxidation-reduction conditions, only Pt yielded particles ranging from 2.5 to 8 nm in size and a loss of Ru was observed. Both Ru and Pt sinter faster in air than in hydrogen. This methodology allows the control of particle size using a "production-scalable" catalyst synthesis method which can be applied to high surface area supports with common metal precursors.

  18. Preparation and characterization of Pt/C and Pt sbnd Ru/C electrocatalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhaolin; Ling, Xing Yi; Su, Xiaodi; Lee, Jim Yang; Gan, Leong Ming

    Nano-sized Pt and Pt sbnd Ru colloids are prepared by a microwave-assisted polyol process, and transferred to a toluene solution of decanthiol. Vulcan XC-72 is then added to the toluene solution to adsorb the thiolated Pt and Pt sbnd Ru colloids. Transmission electron microscopy examinations show nearly spherical particles and narrow size distributions for both supported and unsupported metals. The carbon-supported Pt and Pt sbnd Ru nanoparticles are activated by thermal treatment to remove the thiol stabilizing shell. All Pt and Pt sbnd Ru catalysts (except Pt 23sbnd Ru 77) give the X-ray diffraction pattern of a face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure, whereas the Pt 23sbnd Ru 77 alloy is more typical of the hexagonal close packed (hcp) structure. The electro-oxidation of liquid ethanol on these catalysts is investigated at room temperature by cyclic voltammetry. The results demonstrate that the alloy catalyst is catalytically more active than pure platinum. Preliminary tests on a single cell of a direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) indicate that a Pt 52sbnd Ru 48/C anode catalyst gives the best electrocatalytic performance among all the carbon-supported Pt and Pt sbnd Ru catalysts.

  19. Formation and nitrile hydrogenation performance of Ru nanoparticles on a K-doped Al2O3 surface.

    PubMed

    Muratsugu, Satoshi; Kityakarn, Sutasinee; Wang, Fei; Ishiguro, Nozomu; Kamachi, Takashi; Yoshizawa, Kazunari; Sekizawa, Oki; Uruga, Tomoya; Tada, Mizuki

    2015-10-14

    Decarbonylation-promoted Ru nanoparticle formation from Ru3(CO)12 on a basic K-doped Al2O3 surface was investigated by in situ FT-IR and in situ XAFS. Supported Ru3(CO)12 clusters on K-doped Al2O3 were converted stepwise to Ru nanoparticles, which catalyzed the selective hydrogenation of nitriles to the corresponding primary amines via initial decarbonylation, the nucleation of the Ru cluster core, and the growth of metallic Ru nanoparticles on the surface. As a result, small Ru nanoparticles, with an average diameter of less than 2 nm, were formed on the support and acted as efficient catalysts for nitrile hydrogenation at 343 K under hydrogen at atmospheric pressure. The structure and catalytic performance of Ru catalysts depended strongly on the type of oxide support, and the K-doped Al2O3 support acted as a good oxide for the selective nitrile hydrogenation without basic additives like ammonia. The activation of nitriles on the modelled Ru catalyst was also investigated by DFT calculations, and the adsorption structure of a nitrene-like intermediate, which was favourable for high primary amine selectivity, was the most stable structure on Ru compared with other intermediate structures.

  20. Ni@Ru and NiCo@Ru Core-Shell Hexagonal Nanosandwiches with a Compositionally Tunable Core and a Regioselectively Grown Shell.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyeyoun; Kwon, Taehyun; Kim, Ho Young; Park, Jongsik; Oh, Aram; Kim, Byeongyoon; Baik, Hionsuck; Joo, Sang Hoon; Lee, Kwangyeol

    2018-01-01

    The development of highly active electrocatalysts is crucial for the advancement of renewable energy conversion devices. The design of core-shell nanoparticle catalysts represents a promising approach to boost catalytic activity as well as save the use of expensive precious metals. Here, a simple, one-step synthetic route is reported to prepare hexagonal nanosandwich-shaped Ni@Ru core-shell nanoparticles (Ni@Ru HNS), in which Ru shell layers are overgrown in a regioselective manner on the top and bottom, and around the center section of a hexagonal Ni nanoplate core. Notably, the synthesis can be extended to NiCo@Ru core-shell nanoparticles with tunable core compositions (Ni 3 Co x @Ru HNS). Core-shell HNS structures show superior electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) to a commercial RuO 2 black catalyst, with their OER activity being dependent on their core compositions. The observed trend in OER activity is correlated to the population of Ru oxide (Ru 4+ ) species, which can be modulated by the core compositions. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. The Effect of PtRuIr Nanoparticle Crystallinity in Electrocatalytic Methanol Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yanjiao; Wang, Rongfang; Wang, Hui; Liao, Shijun; Key, Julian; Linkov, Vladimir; Ji, Shan

    2013-01-01

    Two structural forms of a ternary alloy PtRuIr/C catalyst, one amorphous and one highly crystalline, were synthesized and compared to determine the effect of their respective structures on their activity and stability as anodic catalysts in methanol oxidation. Characterization techniques included TEM, XRD, and EDX. Electrochemical analysis using a glassy carbon disk electrode for cyclic voltammogram and chronoamperometry were tested in a solution of 0.5 mol L−1 CH3OH and 0.5 mol L−1 H2SO4. Amorphous PtRuIr/C catalyst was found to have a larger electrochemical surface area, while the crystalline PtRuIr/C catalyst had both a higher activity in methanol oxidation and increased CO poisoning rate. Crystallinity of the active alloy nanoparticles has a big impact on both methanol oxidation activity and in the CO poisoning rate. PMID:28809233

  2. Highly active catalytic Ru/TiO2 nanomaterials for continuous flow production of γ-valerolactone.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Weiyi; Munoz-Batista, Mario; Fernandez-Garcia, Marcos; Luque, Rafael

    2018-05-29

    Green energy production from renewable sources is an attractive but challenging topic to face the likely energy crisis scenario in the future. In the current work, a series of versatile Ru/TiO2 catalysts were simply synthesized and employed in continuous flow catalytic transfer hydrogenation of industrially derived methyl levulinate biowaste (from Avantium Chemicals B.V.) to γ-valerolactone. Different analytical techniques were applied in the characterization of the as-synthesized catalysts, including XRD, SEM, EDX, TEM and XPS etc. The effects of various reaction conditions (e.g. temperature, concentration and flow rate) were investigated. Results suggested that optimum dispersion and distribution of Ru on the TiO2 surface could efficiently promote production of γ-valerolactone, with 5% Ru/TiO2 catalyst providing excelling catalytic performance and stability as compared to commercial Ru catalysts. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Hydrogen production from bio-fuels using precious metal catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasel, Joachim; Wohlrab, Sebastian; Rotov, Mikhail; Löhken, Katrin; Peters, Ralf; Stolten, Detlef

    2017-11-01

    Fuel cell systems with integrated autothermal reforming unit require active and robust catalysts for H2 production. Thus, an experimental screening of catalysts for autothermal reforming of commercial biodiesel fuel was performed. Catalysts consisted of a monolithic cordierite substrate, an oxide support (γ-Al2O3) and Pt, Ru, Ni, PtRh and PtRu as active phase. Experiments were run by widely varying the O2/C and H2O/C molar ratios at different gas hourly space velocities. Fresh and aged catalysts were characterized by temperature programmed methods and thermogravimetry to find correlations with catalytic activity and stability.

  4. Novel anode catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Basri, S; Kamarudin, S K; Daud, W R W; Yaakob, Z; Kadhum, A A H

    2014-01-01

    PtRu catalyst is a promising anodic catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) but the slow reaction kinetics reduce the performance of DMFCs. Therefore, this study attempts to improve the performance of PtRu catalysts by adding nickel (Ni) and iron (Fe). Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are used to increase the active area of the catalyst and to improve the catalyst performance. Electrochemical analysis techniques, such as energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), are used to characterize the kinetic parameters of the hybrid catalyst. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) is used to investigate the effects of adding Fe and Ni to the catalyst on the reaction kinetics. Additionally, chronoamperometry (CA) tests were conducted to study the long-term performance of the catalyst for catalyzing the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). The binding energies of the reactants and products are compared to determine the kinetics and potential surface energy for methanol oxidation. The FESEM analysis results indicate that well-dispersed nanoscale (2-5 nm) PtRu particles are formed on the MWCNTs. Finally, PtRuFeNi/MWCNT improves the reaction kinetics of anode catalysts for DMFCs and obtains a mass current of 31 A g(-1) catalyst.

  5. Novel Anode Catalyst for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    Basri, S.; Kamarudin, S. K.; Daud, W. R. W.; Yaakob, Z.; Kadhum, A. A. H.

    2014-01-01

    PtRu catalyst is a promising anodic catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) but the slow reaction kinetics reduce the performance of DMFCs. Therefore, this study attempts to improve the performance of PtRu catalysts by adding nickel (Ni) and iron (Fe). Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are used to increase the active area of the catalyst and to improve the catalyst performance. Electrochemical analysis techniques, such as energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), are used to characterize the kinetic parameters of the hybrid catalyst. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) is used to investigate the effects of adding Fe and Ni to the catalyst on the reaction kinetics. Additionally, chronoamperometry (CA) tests were conducted to study the long-term performance of the catalyst for catalyzing the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). The binding energies of the reactants and products are compared to determine the kinetics and potential surface energy for methanol oxidation. The FESEM analysis results indicate that well-dispersed nanoscale (2–5 nm) PtRu particles are formed on the MWCNTs. Finally, PtRuFeNi/MWCNT improves the reaction kinetics of anode catalysts for DMFCs and obtains a mass current of 31 A g−1 catalyst. PMID:24883406

  6. Formal water oxidation turnover frequencies from MIL-101(Cr) anchored Ru(bda) depend on oxidant concentration.

    PubMed

    Bhunia, Asamanjoy; Johnson, Ben A; Czapla-Masztafiak, Joanna; Sá, Jacinto; Ott, Sascha

    2018-06-21

    The molecular water oxidation catalyst [Ru(bda)(L)2] has been incorporated into pyridine-decorated MIL-101(Cr) metal-organic frameworks. The resulting MIL-101@Ru materials exhibit turnover frequencies (TOFs) up to ten times higher compared to the homogenous reference. An unusual dependence of the formal TOFs on oxidant concentration is observed that ultimately arises from differing amounts of catalysts in the MOF crystals being active.

  7. Selective hydrodesulfurization of 4,6-dimethyl-dibenzothiophene in the dominant presence of naphthalene over hybrid CoMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Ru/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Isoda, Takaaki; Nagao, Shinichi; Ma, Xiaoliang

    1995-12-31

    It has been revealed that significant desulfurization of refractory 4-methyldibenzothiophene and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT) is very essential to achive the low sulfur level of gas oil requested by the current regulation. Their direct desulfurization through the interaction of their sulfur atom with the catalyst surface is sterically hindered by its neighbouring methyl groups. The substrate is found kinetically to be hydrogenated at one of its phenyl rings prior to the desulfurization in order to reduce the steric hindrance through non-planaring configuration (2-4). NiMo / Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was reported to be superior to CoMo / Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the deepmore » desulufurization, because of its higher hydrogenation activity. However, such a hydrogenation route suffers severe inhibition by aromatic species in their dominant presence, because 4,6-DMDBT must compete with the aromatic species to the hydrogenation sites on the catalysts. The aromatic species up to 30 wt % in the gas oil was that completely stop the desulfurization of the particular substrate. The catalyst for the selective hydrogenation of 4,6-DMDBT in the dominant aromatic partners is most wanted to achive its extensive desulfurization in the gas oil, although there have been reported activities of various transition metal sulfides for HDS of dibenzothiophene, and hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons.« less

  8. Synthesis of zeolite-supported microscale zero-valent iron for the removal of Cr(6+) and Cd(2+) from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangke; Han, Zhantao; Zhang, Wei; Song, Le; Li, Hui

    2016-03-15

    Zeolite-supported microscale zero-valent iron (Z-mZVI) was synthesized and used to remove heavy metal cation (Cd(2+)) and anion (Cr(6+)) from aqueous solution. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) confirmed that mZVI (100-200 nm) has been successfully loaded and efficiently dispersed on zeolite. Atomic absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) revealed the amount of stabilized mZVI was about 1.3 wt.%. The synthesized Z-mZVI has much higher reduction ability and adsorption capacity for Cr(6+) and Cd(2+) compared to bare nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) and zeolite. Above 77% Cr(6+) and 99% Cd(2+) were removed by Z-mZVI, while only 45% Cr(6+) and 9% Cd(2+) were removed by the same amount iron of nZVI, and 1% Cr(6+) and 39% Cd(2+) were removed by zeolite alone with an initial concentration of 20 mg/L Cr(6+) and 200 mg/L Cd(2+). The removal of Cr(6+) by Z-mZVI follows the pseudo first-order kinetics model, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis confirmed that Cr(6+) was reduced to Cr(3+) and immobilized on the surface of Z-mZVI. The removal mechanisms for Cr(6+) include reduction, adsorption of Cr(3+) hydroxides and/or mixed Fe(3+)/Cr(3+) (oxy)hydroxides. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model indicated that chemical sorption might be rate-limiting in the sorption of Cd(2+) by Z-mZVI. This synthesized Z-mZVI has shown the potential as an efficient and promising reactive material for removing various heavy metals from wastewater or polluted groundwater. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Reaction mechanism for oxygen evolution on RuO 2, IrO 2, and RuO 2@IrO 2 core-shell nanocatalysts

    DOE PAGES

    Ma, Zhong; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Shizhong; ...

    2017-10-28

    Iridium dioxide, IrO 2, is second to the most active RuO 2 catalyst for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in acid, and is used in proton exchange membrane water electrolyzers due to its high durability. In order to improve the activity of IrO 2-based catalysts, we prepared RuO 2@IrO 2 core-shell nanocatalysts using carbon-supported Ru as the template. At 1.48 V, the OER specific activity of RuO 2@IrO 2 is threefold that of IrO 2. While the activity volcano plots over wide range of materials have been reported, zooming into the top region to clarify the rate limiting steps ofmore » most active catalysts is important for further activity enhancement. Here, we verified theory-proposed sequential water dissociation pathway in which the O—O bond forms on a single metal site, not via coupling of two adsorbed intermediates, by fitting measured polarization curves using a kinetic equation with the free energies of adsorption and activation as the parameters. Consistent with theoretical calculations, we show that the OER activities of IrO 2 and RuO 2@IrO 2 are limited by the formation of O adsorbed phase, while the OOH formation on the adsorbed O limits the reaction rate on RuO 2.« less

  10. Reaction mechanism for oxygen evolution on RuO 2, IrO 2, and RuO 2@IrO 2 core-shell nanocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Zhong; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Shizhong

    Iridium dioxide, IrO 2, is second to the most active RuO 2 catalyst for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in acid, and is used in proton exchange membrane water electrolyzers due to its high durability. In order to improve the activity of IrO 2-based catalysts, we prepared RuO 2@IrO 2 core-shell nanocatalysts using carbon-supported Ru as the template. At 1.48 V, the OER specific activity of RuO 2@IrO 2 is threefold that of IrO 2. While the activity volcano plots over wide range of materials have been reported, zooming into the top region to clarify the rate limiting steps ofmore » most active catalysts is important for further activity enhancement. Here, we verified theory-proposed sequential water dissociation pathway in which the O—O bond forms on a single metal site, not via coupling of two adsorbed intermediates, by fitting measured polarization curves using a kinetic equation with the free energies of adsorption and activation as the parameters. Consistent with theoretical calculations, we show that the OER activities of IrO 2 and RuO 2@IrO 2 are limited by the formation of O adsorbed phase, while the OOH formation on the adsorbed O limits the reaction rate on RuO 2.« less

  11. Electrode-Modified Zeolites - Electrode Microstructures Contained in and on a Heterogeneous Catalyst

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-15

    zeolite Type Y and Pt supported on gamma-alumina. The electrolytic response of zeolite-supported Pt in the absence of added electrolyte salt for water or...character of metals at sizes where’ bulk metallic properties may not be exhibited. Furthermore, electrolyses are now allowed using loadings of catalysts which...in water until the filtrate tested negatively for Cl with AgNO 3; PtY was then dried a- 135 C. Equilibrium exchnge occurs at these low weight

  12. Influence of Binders and Solvents on Stability of Ru/RuOx Nanoparticles on ITO Nanocrystals as Li-O2 Battery Cathodes.

    PubMed

    Vankova, Svetoslava; Francia, Carlotta; Amici, Julia; Zeng, Juqin; Bodoardo, Silvia; Penazzi, Nerino; Collins, Gillian; Geaney, Hugh; O'Dwyer, Colm

    2017-02-08

    Fundamental research on Li-O 2 batteries remains critical, and the nature of the reactions and stability are paramount for realising the promise of the Li-O 2 system. We report that indium tin oxide (ITO) nanocrystals with supported 1-2 nm oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalyst Ru/RuO x nanoparticles (NPs) demonstrate efficient OER processes, reduce the recharge overpotential of the cell significantly and maintain catalytic activity to promote a consistent cycling discharge potential in Li-O 2 cells even when the ITO support nanocrystals deteriorate from the very first cycle. The Ru/RuO x nanoparticles lower the charge overpotential compared with those for ITO and carbon-only cathodes and have the greatest effect in DMSO electrolytes with a solution-processable F-free carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) binder (<3.5 V) instead of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). The Ru/RuO x /ITO nanocrystalline materials in DMSO provide efficient Li 2 O 2 decomposition from within the cathode during cycling. We demonstrate that the ITO is actually unstable from the first cycle and is modified by chemical etching, but the Ru/RuO x NPs remain effective OER catalysts for Li 2 O 2 during cycling. The CMC binders avoid PVDF-based side-reactions and improve the cyclability. The deterioration of the ITO nanocrystals is mitigated significantly in cathodes with a CMC binder, and the cells show good cycle life. In mixed DMSO-EMITFSI [EMITFSI=1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide] ionic liquid electrolytes, the Ru/RuO x /ITO materials in Li-O 2 cells cycle very well and maintain a consistently very low charge overpotential of 0.5-0.8 V. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Oxidation catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Ceyer, Sylvia T.; Lahr, David L.

    2010-11-09

    The present invention generally relates to catalyst systems and methods for oxidation of carbon monoxide. The invention involves catalyst compositions which may be advantageously altered by, for example, modification of the catalyst surface to enhance catalyst performance. Catalyst systems of the present invention may be capable of performing the oxidation of carbon monoxide at relatively lower temperatures (e.g., 200 K and below) and at relatively higher reaction rates than known catalysts. Additionally, catalyst systems disclosed herein may be substantially lower in cost than current commercial catalysts. Such catalyst systems may be useful in, for example, catalytic converters, fuel cells, sensors, and the like.

  14. Catalytic wet air oxidation of coke-plant wastewater on ruthenium-based eggshell catalysts in a bubbling bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Yang, M; Sun, Y; Xu, A H; Lu, X Y; Du, H Z; Sun, C L; Li, C

    2007-07-01

    Catalytic wet air of coke-plant wastewater was studied in a bubbling bed reactor. Two types of supported Ru-based catalysts, eggshell and uniform catalysts, were employed. Compared with the results in the wet air oxidation of coke-plant wastewater, supported Ru uniform catalysts showed high activity for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia/ammonium compounds (NH3-N) removal at temperature of 250 degrees C and pressure of 4.8 MPa, and it has been demonstrated that the catalytic activity of uniform catalyst depended strongly on the distribution of active sites of Ru on catalyst. Compared to the corresponding uniform catalysts with the same Ru loading (0.25 wt.% and 0.1 wt.%, respectively), the eggshell catalysts showed higher activities for CODcr removal and much higher activities for NH3-N degradation. The high activity of eggshell catalyst for treatment of coke-plant wastewater can be attributed to the higher density of active Ru sites in the shell layer than that of the corresponding uniform catalyst with the same Ru loading. It has been also evidenced that the active Ru sites in the internal core of uniform catalyst have very little or no contribution to CODcr and NH3-N removal in the total oxidation of coke-plant wastewater.

  15. Effect of the nanostructure and the surface composition of bimetallic Ni-Ru nanoparticles on the performance of CO methanation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Yuan, Changkun; Yao, Nan; Li, Xiaonian

    2018-05-01

    The Ni/SiO2 catalysts with trace Ru promoter were prepared by either polyethylene glycol (PEG)-assisted or PEG-free impregnation method and were used in CO methanation reaction. The presence of PEG molecules was beneficial to form bimetallic Ni-Ru particles with smaller size, better anti-sintering property and low-temperature reducibility on SiO2 support than the conventional PEG-free derived NiRu/SiO2 catalyst. Moreover, it was found that the low-temperature reduction at 573 K was favorable to form bimetallic Ni-Ru particles with more surface Ru atoms. This nanostructure not only allowed the electron transfer happening from Ru0 to Ni0 which led to its higher electron cloud density, but also could reduce the deposition of less reactive carbon on the catalyst. Therefore, the low-temperature reduction enhanced the reaction stability of NiRu/SiO2 catalyst. The increase of reduction temperature from 573 K to 693 K did not change the size of metallic particles, but decreased the amount of surface Ru atoms. It deactivated the catalyst due to the deposition of more less reactive carbon. Although the higher reduction temperature (e.g. 693 and 793 K) was unfavorable to the reaction stability, it created more surface defects. The amount of defects showed a volcano-shaped correlation with the reduction temperature which was consistent with the variation tendency of turnover frequency of CO conversion. Consequently, it evidenced that the amount of surface Ru atoms and defects on the bimetallic Ni-Ru particle played the critical roles on the stability and the intrinsic activity of methanation, respectively.

  16. Degradation of chlorinated organic solvents in aqueous percarbonate system using zeolite supported nano zero valent iron (Z-nZVI) composite.

    PubMed

    Danish, Muhammad; Gu, Xiaogang; Lu, Shuguang; Naqvi, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    Chlorinated organic solvents (COSs) are extensively detected in contaminated soil and groundwater that pose long-term threats to human life and environment. In order to degrade COSs effectively, a novel catalytic composite of natural zeolite-supported nano zero valent iron (Z-nZVI) was synthesized in this study. The performance of Z-nZVI-catalyzed sodium percarbonate (SPC) in a heterogeneous Fenton-like system was investigated for the degradation of COSs such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA) and trichloroethylene (TCE). The surface characteristics and morphology of the Z-nZVI composite were tested using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Total pore volume, specific surface area, and pore size of the natural zeolite and the Z-nZVI composite were measured using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method. SEM and TEM analysis showed significant elimination of aggregation and well dispersion of iron nano particles on the framework of natural zeolite. The BET N2 measurement analysis indicated that the surface area of the Z-nZVI composite was 72.3 m(2)/g, much larger than that of the natural zeolite (0.61 m(2)/g). For the contaminant analysis, the samples were extracted with n-hexane and analyzed through gas chromatograph. The degradation of 1,1,1-TCA and TCE in the Z-nZVI-catalyzed percarbonate system were 48 and 39 % respectively, while strong augmentation was observed up to 83 and 99 %, respectively, by adding the reducing agent (RA), hydroxyl amine (NH2OH•HCl). Probe tests validated the presence of OH(●) and O2 (●-) which were responsible for 1,1,1-TCA and TCE degradation, whereas both free radicals were strengthened with the addition of RA. In conclusion, the Z-nZVI/SPC oxidation with reducing agent shows potential technique for degradation of groundwater contaminated by 1,1,1-TCA and TCE.

  17. Recent progress in the structure control of Pd–Ru bimetallic nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dongshuang; Kusada, Kohei; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pd and Ru are two key elements of the platinum-group metals that are invaluable to areas such as catalysis and energy storage/transfer. To maximize the potential of the Pd and Ru elements, significant effort has been devoted to synthesizing Pd–Ru bimetallic materials. However, most of the reports dealing with this subject describe phase-separated structures such as near-surface alloys and physical mixtures of monometallic nanoparticles (NPs). Pd–Ru alloys with homogenous structure and arbitrary metallic ratio are highly desired for basic scientific research and commercial material design. In the past several years, with the development of nanoscience, Pd–Ru bimetallic alloys with different architectures including heterostructure, core-shell structure and solid-solution alloy were successfully synthesized. In particular, we have now reached the stage of being able to obtain Pd–Ru solid-solution alloy NPs over the whole composition range. These Pd–Ru bimetallic alloys are better catalysts than their parent metal NPs in many catalytic reactions, because the electronic structures of Pd and Ru are modified by alloying. In this review, we describe the recent development in the structure control of Pd–Ru bimetallic nanomaterials. Aiming for a better understanding of the synthesis strategies, some fundamental details including fabrication methods and formation mechanisms are discussed. We stress that the modification of electronic structure, originating from different nanoscale geometry and chemical composition, profoundly affects material properties. Finally, we discuss open issues in this field. PMID:27877905

  18. Immobilized heterobimetallic Ru/Co nanoparticle-catalyzed Pauson-Khand-type reactions in the presence of pyridylmethyl formate.

    PubMed

    Park, Kang Hyun; Son, Seung Uk; Chung, Young Keun

    2003-08-07

    Heterobimetallic Ru/Co nanoparticles, immobilized on charcoal, were synthesized and used as catalysts in the Pauson-Khand-type reaction in the presence of pyridylmethyl formate instead of carbon monoxide; the catalysts were effective for intra- and intermolecular reactions and easily reused without loss of catalytic activity.

  19. Preparation of zeolite supported TiO{sub 2}, ZnO and ZrO{sub 2} and the study on their catalytic activity in NO{sub x} reduction and 1-pentanol dehydration

    SciTech Connect

    Fatimah, Is

    Preparation of zeolite supported TiO{sub 2}, ZnO and ZrO{sub 2} and their catalytic activity was studied. Activated natural zeolite from Indonesia was utilized for the preparation and catalytic activity test on NO{sub x} reduction by NH{sub 3} and also 1-pentanol dehydration were examined. Physicochemical characterization of materials was studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement, scanning electron microscope, solid acidity determination and also gas sorption analysis. The results confirmed that the preparation gives some improvements on physicochemical characters suitable for catalysis mechanism in those reactions. Solid acidity and specific surface area contributed significantly to the activity.

  20. Asymmetric synthesis of diacceptor cyclopropylphosphonates catalyzed by chiral Ru(II)-Pheox complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Le Thi Loan; Chanthamath, Soda; Shibatomi, Kazutaka; Iwasa, Seiji

    2018-04-01

    The first Ru(II)-catalyzed asymmetric cyclopropanation of diacceptor diazophosphonates with olefins is reported. The Ru(II)-Pheox complex 7e was found to be an efficient catalyst for the asymmetric cyclopropanation of α-cyano diazophosp honate with styrene under mild conditions to give the corresponding chiral diacceptor cyclopropylphosphonate products in high yields (up to 99%) with excellent diastereoselectivities (up to 99/1 dr). However, the enantioselectivity was difficult to control by the C1-symmetric catalyst (up to 68% ee).

  1. The influence of metal-support interactions on the accurate determination of Ru dispersion for Ru/TiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Komaya, Takashi; Bell, A.T.; Weng-Sieh, Zara

    1994-09-01

    Titania-supported Ru catalysts have been characterized by TEM, {sup 1}H NMR, and H{sub 2} chemisorption to determine the metal particle size, the fraction of the metal surface available for H{sub 2} chemisorption, and the H{sub 2} adsorption capacity of the catalyst, as functions of the reduction temperature. TEM micrographs show that as the reduction temperature rises from 573 to 773K, the average particle size of Ru remains the same but the surface of the particles is covered to an increasing extent by an amorphous layer of titania. Quantitative estimates of the fraction of the Ru particle surface available for H{submore » 2} chemisorption were obtained by {sup 1}H NMR. The NMR spectra also show that a fraction of the adsorbed H{sub 2} spills over onto the support and that as a consequence measurements of total H{sub 2} chemisorption overestimate the number of Ru sites available for H{sub 2} adsorption. The implications of these results for the correct calculation of Ru dispersion and the determination of turnover frequencies for reactions carried out over Ru/TiO{sub 2} are discussed. 16 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.« less

  2. Easy To Synthesize, Robust Organo‐osmium Asymmetric Transfer Hydrogenation Catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Coverdale, James P. C.; Sanchez‐Cano, Carlos; Clarkson, Guy J.; Soni, Rina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Asymmetric transfer hydrogenation (ATH) is an important process in organic synthesis for which the Noyori‐type RuII catalysts [(arene)Ru(Tsdiamine)] are now well established and widely used. We now demonstrate for the first time the catalytic activity of the osmium analogues. X‐ray crystal structures of the 16‐electron OsII catalysts are almost identical to those of RuII. Intriguingly the precursor complex was isolated as a dichlorido complex with a monodentate amine ligand. The OsII catalysts are readily synthesised (within 1 h) and exhibit excellent enantioselectivity in ATH reactions of ketones. PMID:25853228

  3. Bimolecular Coupling as a Vector for Decomposition of Fast-Initiating Olefin Metathesis Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Gwendolyn A; Foscato, Marco; Higman, Carolyn S; Day, Craig S; Jensen, Vidar R; Fogg, Deryn E

    2018-06-06

    The correlation between rapid initiation and rapid decomposition in olefin metathesis is probed for a series of fast-initiating, phosphine-free Ru catalysts: the Hoveyda catalyst HII, RuCl 2 (L)(═CHC 6 H 4 - o-O i Pr); the Grela catalyst nG (a derivative of HII with a nitro group para to O i Pr); the Piers catalyst PII, [RuCl 2 (L)(═CHPCy 3 )]OTf; the third-generation Grubbs catalyst GIII, RuCl 2 (L)(py) 2 (═CHPh); and dianiline catalyst DA, RuCl 2 (L)( o-dianiline)(═CHPh), in all of which L = H 2 IMes = N,N'-bis(mesityl)imidazolin-2-ylidene. Prior studies of ethylene metathesis have established that various Ru metathesis catalysts can decompose by β-elimination of propene from the metallacyclobutane intermediate RuCl 2 (H 2 IMes)(κ 2 -C 3 H 6 ), Ru-2. The present work demonstrates that in metathesis of terminal olefins, β-elimination yields only ca. 25-40% propenes for HII, nG, PII, or DA, and none for GIII. The discrepancy is attributed to competing decomposition via bimolecular coupling of methylidene intermediate RuCl 2 (H 2 IMes)(═CH 2 ), Ru-1. Direct evidence for methylidene coupling is presented, via the controlled decomposition of transiently stabilized adducts of Ru-1, RuCl 2 (H 2 IMes)L n (═CH 2 ) (L n = py n' ; n' = 1, 2, or o-dianiline). These adducts were synthesized by treating in situ-generated metallacyclobutane Ru-2 with pyridine or o-dianiline, and were isolated by precipitating at low temperature (-116 or -78 °C, respectively). On warming, both undergo methylidene coupling, liberating ethylene and forming RuCl 2 (H 2 IMes)L n . A mechanism is proposed based on kinetic studies and molecular-level computational analysis. Bimolecular coupling emerges as an important contributor to the instability of Ru-1, and a potentially major pathway for decomposition of fast-initiating, phosphine-free metathesis catalysts.

  4. Ru(III) catalyzed permanganate oxidation of aniline at environmentally relevant pH.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Hui; Guan, Xiaohong

    2014-07-01

    Ru(III) was employed as catalyst for aniline oxidation by permanganate at environmentally relevant pH for the first time. Ru(III) could significantly improve the oxidation rate of aniline by 5-24 times with its concentration increasing from 2.5 to 15 μmol/L. The reaction of Ru(III) catalyzed permanganate oxidation of aniline was first-order with respect to aniline, permanganate and Ru(III), respectively. Thus the oxidation kinetics can be described by a third-order rate law. Aniline degradation by Ru(III) catalyzed permanganate oxidation was markedly influenced by pH, and the second-order rate constant (ktapp) decreased from 643.20 to 2.67 (mol/L)⁻¹sec⁻¹ with increasing pH from 4.0 to 9.0, which was possibly due to the decrease of permanganate oxidation potential with increasing pH. In both the uncatalytic and catalytic permanganate oxidation, six byproducts of aniline were identified in UPLC-MS/MS analysis. Ru(III), as an electron shuttle, was oxidized by permanganate to Ru(VI) and Ru(VII), which acted the co-oxidants for decomposition of aniline. Although Ru(III) could catalyze permanganate oxidation of aniline effectively, dosing homogeneous Ru(III) into water would lead to a second pollution. Therefore, efforts would be made to investigate the catalytic performance of supported Ru(III) toward permanganate oxidation in our future study. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Acidic Mesoporous Zeolite ZSM-5 Supported Cu Catalyst with Good Catalytic Performance in the Hydroxysulfurization of Styrenes with Disulfides.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jun; Zhu, Chaojie; Xia, Feifei; Fang, Zhongxue; Yang, Fengli; Weng, Jushi; Yao, Pengfei; Zheng, Chunzhi; Dong, Hai; Fu, Wenqian

    2017-12-19

    Development of highly active heterogeneous catalysts is an effective strategy for modern organic synthesis chemistry. In this work, acidic mesoporous zeolite ZSM-5 (HZSM-5-M), acidic-free mesoporous zeolite TS-1 (TS-1-M), and basic ETS-10 zeolite supported metal Cu catalysts were prepared to investigate their catalytic performances in the hydroxysulfurization of styrenes with diaryl disulfides. The effect of pore size and acidities of the supports, as well as the Cu species electronic properties of the catalysts on reaction activity were investigated. The results show that Cu⁺ and Cu 2+ binded on HZSM-5-M show the highest activity and product selectivity for the desired β -hydroxysulfides compounds.

  6. Acidic Mesoporous Zeolite ZSM-5 Supported Cu Catalyst with Good Catalytic Performance in the Hydroxysulfurization of Styrenes with Disulfides

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jun; Zhu, Chaojie; Xia, Feifei; Fang, Zhongxue; Yang, Fengli; Weng, Jushi; Yao, Pengfei; Zheng, Chunzhi; Dong, Hai; Fu, Wenqian

    2017-01-01

    Development of highly active heterogeneous catalysts is an effective strategy for modern organic synthesis chemistry. In this work, acidic mesoporous zeolite ZSM-5 (HZSM-5-M), acidic-free mesoporous zeolite TS-1 (TS-1-M), and basic ETS-10 zeolite supported metal Cu catalysts were prepared to investigate their catalytic performances in the hydroxysulfurization of styrenes with diaryl disulfides. The effect of pore size and acidities of the supports, as well as the Cu species electronic properties of the catalysts on reaction activity were investigated. The results show that Cu+ and Cu2+ binded on HZSM-5-M show the highest activity and product selectivity for the desired β-hydroxysulfides compounds. PMID:29257075

  7. Catalytic ozonation of dimethyl phthalate and chlorination disinfection by-product precursors over Ru/AC.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianbing; Zhou, Yunrui; Zhu, Wanpeng; He, Xuwen

    2009-07-15

    Catalytic ozonation of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) in aqueous solution (5mg/L) under various reactions was performed to examine the effect of catalyst dosage, catalyst particle size, ozone dosage, and gas flow rate on the mineralization of DMP. The mineralization of DMP can be achieved via ozonation and the presence of Ru/AC could greatly accelerate the mineralization rate of DMP in ozonation process. In the continuous experiment of the Ru/AC catalyzed ozonation of DMP, total organic carbon (TOC) removals were kept stable around 75% during 42 h reaction. No leaching of ruthenium was observed in the treated water samples. The treatment of natural water using Ru/AC+O(3), Ru/AC+O(2) and ozonation alone was studied. In the Ru/AC+O(3) process, TOC removals, the reductions of the haloacetic acid formation potentials (HAAFPs), and the reductions of the trihalomethane formation potentials (THMFPs) of 11 water samples were 22-44%, 39-61% and 50-65%, respectively. Ru/AC+O(3) process was much more effective than ozonation alone for TOC removal and the reduction of disinfection by-product formation potential (DBPFP) in the treatment of natural water. It is a promising water treatment technology.

  8. Isomerization of 7-oxabenzonorbornadienes into naphthols catalyzed by [RuCl(2)(CO)(3)](2).

    PubMed

    Ballantine, Melissa; Menard, Michelle L; Tam, William

    2009-10-02

    Ruthenium-catalyzed isomerization of 7-oxanorbornadienes into naphthols was investigated. Among the various ruthenium catalysts tested, [RuCl(2)(CO)(3)](2) gave the highest yields in the isomerization, and various substituted naphthols were synthesized in moderate to excellent yields. Both symmetrical and unsymmetrical 7-oxanorbornadienes were employed in the study, and moderate to excellent regioselectivities were observed.

  9. A rechargeable hydrogen battery based on Ru catalysis.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shih-Fan; Rommel, Susanne; Eversfield, Philipp; Muller, Keven; Klemm, Elias; Thiel, Werner R; Plietker, Bernd

    2014-07-01

    Apart from energy generation, the storage and liberation of energy are among the major problems in establishing a sustainable energy supply chain. Herein we report the development of a rechargeable H2 battery which is based on the principle of the Ru-catalyzed hydrogenation of CO2 to formic acid (charging process) and the Ru-catalyzed decomposition of formic acid to CO2 and H2 (discharging process). Both processes are driven by the same catalyst at elevated temperature either under pressure (charging process) or pressure-free conditions (discharging process). Up to five charging-discharging cycles were performed without decrease of storage capacity. The resulting CO2/H2 mixture is free of CO and can be employed directly in fuel-cell technology. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Synthesis of borasiloxanes by oxidative hydrolysis of silanes and pinacolborane using Cu3(BTC)2 as a solid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Dhakshinamoorthy, Amarajothi; Asiri, Abdullah M; Concepcion, Patricia; Garcia, Hermenegildo

    2017-09-05

    A convenient method for the synthesis of borasiloxanes from silanes and pinacolboranes using Cu 3 (BTC) 2 as a heterogeneous catalyst in acetonitrile at 70 °C is reported. This procedure is more convenient than Ru and Pd based homogeneous catalysts because it avoids the use of noble metals, easy handling of starting materials and the catalyst can be reused.

  11. Ru(II)-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of Cyclopropenes with Diazo Compounds: Formation of Olefins from Two Different Carbene Precursors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Yi, Heng; Zhang, Hang; Sun, Tong; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jianbo

    2018-01-19

    Formal carbene dimerization is a convergent method for the synthesis of alkenes. Herein, we report a Ru(II)-catalyzed carbene dimerization of cyclopropenes and diazo compounds. The yields are up to 97% and the stereoselectivity are up to >20:1. Mechanistically, it has been experimentally demonstrated that the catalyst reacts with cyclopropene first to generate a Ru(II)-carbene species, which is attacked by nucleophilic diazo substrate, followed by dinitrogen extrusion to form the double bond.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Platinum-Ruthenium-Tin Catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uffalussy, Karen

    Magnesia-supported trimetallic Pt-Ru-Sn catalysts prepared through a cluster and a conventional synthetic route have been investigated in terms of their structural properties and their catalytic activity for the hydrogenation of citral and crotonaldehyde. FTIR results indicate that the majority of the stabilizing ligands remain attached to the PtRu5(μ-SnPh 2)(C)(CO)15 cluster used following impregnation onto the MgO support. Under H2 reduction conditions, partial and full ligand removal are both observed at 473 and 573 K, respectively. HRSTEM analysis shows that cluster-derived samples exhibit significantly smaller average metal particle sizes, as well as narrower particle size distributions than the corresponding conventionally prepared ones. EDX measurements show that in the cluster-derived catalysts, the majority of the metal particles present are trimetallic in nature, with metal compositions similar to those of the original cluster. In contrast, the conventionally prepared materials contain mostly bimetallic and monometallic particles with variable compositions. XPS was used to determine how the variation in method of Sn addition to bimetallic Pt-Ru affects the electronic state for the trimetallic Pt-Ru-Sn/MgO system prepared by impregnation using multimetallic clusters, metal-salts, and the combination of both precursor types. Results show that the PtRu5Sn/MgO material has a significantly higher percentage of Sn0 in comparison to Pt-Ru-Sn/MgO and PtRu5-Sn/MgO, and a corresponding shift in both Pt and Ru peaks can be correlated to this relative change in Sn oxidation state. The formation of smaller metal particles and electronic modification of Pt and Ru by Sn in the cluster-derived catalysts and the presence of the three metals in these particles in close proximity result in higher activity and selectivity to the unsaturated alcohols for the hydrogenation of both citral and crotonaldehyde.

  13. Nanoporous Ru as a carbon- and binder-free cathode for Li-O2 batteries.

    PubMed

    Liao, Kaiming; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Yongqing; Li, Fujun; Jian, Zelang; Yu, Haijun; Zhou, Haoshen

    2015-04-24

    Porous carbon-free cathodes are critical to achieve a high discharge capacity and efficient cycling for rechargeable Li-O2 battery. Herein, we present a very simple method to directly grow nanoporous Ru (composed of polycrystalline particles of ∼5 nm) on one side of a current collector of Ni foam via a galvanic replacement reaction. The resulting Ru@Ni can be employed as a carbon- and binder-free cathode for Li-O2 batteries and delivers a specific capacity of 3720 mAh gRu (-1) at a current density of 200 mA gRu (-1) . 100 cycles of continuous discharge and charge are obtained at a very narrow terminal voltage window of 2.75∼3.75 V with a limited capacity of 1000 mAh gRu (-1) . The good performance of the nanoporous Ru@Ni cathode can be mainly attributed to the effective suppression of the by-products related to carbon or binder, the good adhesion of the catalyst to the current collector, and the good permeation of O2 and electrolyte into the active sites of the nanoporous Ru with the open pore system. This new type electrode provides a snapshot toward developing high-performance carbon- and binder-free Li-O2 batteries. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Pt-Ru/CeO2/carbon nanotube nanocomposites: an efficient electrocatalyst for direct methanol fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhenyu; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Zhimin; Zhang, Hongye; Yu, Ping; Mao, Lanqun

    2010-07-20

    Pt-Ru/CeO(2)/multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) electrocatalysts were prepared using a rapid sonication-facilitated deposition method and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and voltammetry. Morphological characterization by TEM revealed that CeO(2) nanoparticles (NPs) were in intimate contact with Pt-Ru NPs, and both were highly dispersed on the exteriors of nanotubes with a small size and a very narrow size distribution. Compared with the Pt-Ru/MWNT and Pt/MWNT electrocatalysts, the as-prepared Pt-Ru/CeO(2)/MWNT exhibited a significantly improved electrochemically active surface area (ECSA) and a remarkably enhanced activity toward methanol oxidation. The effects of the Pt-Ru loading and the Pt-to-Ru molar ratio on the electrocatalytic activity of Pt-Ru/CeO(2)/MWNT for methanol oxidation were investigated. We found that a maximum activity toward methanol oxidation reached at the 10 wt % of Pt-Ru loading and 1:1 of Pt-to-Ru ratio. Moreover, the role of CeO(2) in the catalysts for the enhancement of methanol oxidation was discussed in terms of both bifunctional mechanism and electronic effects.

  15. Electrocatalytic CO2 reduction near the theoretical potential in water using Ru complex supported on carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Shunsuke; Arai, Takeo; Morikawa, Takeshi

    2018-01-01

    We successfully developed a highly efficient electrode for CO2 reduction using a Ru-complex catalyst ([Ru]) supported on carbon paper coated with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CPCNT/[Ru]). The CPCNT/[Ru] electrode promoted the CO2 reduction reaction in aqueous solution near the theoretical potential, and produced formate linearly with a current density of greater than 0.9 mA cm-2 at -0.15 V (versus RHE) for at least 24 h. Due to the outstandingly low overpotential, a monolithic tablet-shaped photo-device was realized by coupling the CPCNT/[Ru] catalyst with amorphous SiGe-jn as a light absorber and IrO x as a water oxidation catalyst, and the device produced formate from CO2 and water in a single-compartment reactor. The nanotubes enhanced the rate for CO2 reduction at [Ru], and accordingly a solar-to-chemical conversion efficiency of 4.3% for formate production was achieved when the CO2 reduction and H2O oxidation sites had the same area.

  16. Theoretical study on the mechanism of aqueous synthesis of formic acid catalyzed by [Ru3+]-EDTA complex.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe-Ning; Chan, Kwong-Yu; Pulleri, Jayasree K; Kong, Jing; Hu, Hao

    2015-02-16

    Because formic acid can be effectively decomposed by catalysis into very pure hydrogen gas, the synthesis of formic acid, especially using CO and H2O as an intermediate of the water gas shift reaction (WGSR), bears important application significance in industrial hydrogen gas production. Here we report a theoretical study on the mechanism of efficient preparation of formic acid using CO and H2O catalyzed by a water-soluble [Ru(3+)]-EDTA complex. To determine the feasibility of using the [Ru(3+)]-EDTA catalyst to produce CO-free hydrogen gas in WGSR, two probable reaction paths have been examined: one synthesizes formic acid, while the other converts the reactants directly into CO2 and H2, the final products of WGSR. Our calculation results provide a detailed mechanistic rationalization for the experimentally observed selective synthesis of HCOOH by the [Ru(3+)]-EDTA catalyst. The results support the applicability of using the [Ru(3+)]-EDTA catalyst to efficiently synthesize formic acid for hydrogen production. Careful analyses of the electronic structure and interactions of different reaction complexes suggest that the selectivity of the reaction processes is achieved through the proper charge/valence state of the metal center of the [Ru(3+)]-EDTA complex. With the catalytic roles of the ruthenium center and the EDTA ligand being carefully understood, the detailed mechanistic information obtained in this study will help to design more efficient catalysts for the preparation of formic acid and further to produce CO-free H2 at ambient temperature.

  17. [Ru/AC catalyzed ozonation of recalcitrant organic compounds].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Bing; Hou, Shao-Pei; Zhou, Yun-Rui; Zhu, Wan-Peng; He, Xu-Wen

    2009-09-15

    Ozonation and Ru/AC catalyzed ozonation of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), phenols and disinfection by-products precursors were studied. It shows that Ru/AC catalyst can obviously enhance the mineralization of organic compounds. In the degradation of DMP, TOC removal was 28.84% by ozonation alone while it was 66.13% by catalytic ozonation. In the oxidation of 23 kinds of phenols, TOC removals were 9.57%-56.08% by ozonation alone while they were 41.81%-82.32% by catalytic ozonation. Compared to ozonation alone, Ru/AC catalyzed ozonation was more effective for the reduction of disinfection by-products formation potentials in source water. The reduction of haloacetic acids formation potentials was more obvious than thichlomethane formation potentials. After the treatment by catalytic ozonation, the haloacetic acids formation potentials decreased from 144.02 microg/L to 58.50 microg/L, which was below the standard value of EPA. However ozonation alone could not make it reach the standard. The treatments of source water by BAC, O3 + BAC, O3/AC + BAC and Ru/AC + O3 + BAC were also studied. In the four processes, TOC removal was 3.80%, 20.14%, 27.45% and 48.30% respectively, COD removal was 4.37%, 27.22%, 39.91% and 50.00% respectively, UV254 removal was 8.16%, 62.24%, 67.03% and 84.95% respectively. Ru/AC + O3 + BAC process is more effective than the other processes for the removal of TOC, COD and UV254 and no ruthenium leaching observed in the solution. It is a promising process for the treatment of micro polluted source water.

  18. Ru-Sn/AC for the Aqueous-Phase Reduction of Succinic Acid to 1,4-Butanediol under Continuous Process Conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Vardon, Derek R.; Settle, Amy E.; Vorotnikov, Vassili; ...

    2017-08-18

    Succinic acid is a biomass-derived platform chemical that can be catalytically converted in the aqueous phase to 1,4-butanediol (BDO), a prevalent building block used in the polymer and chemical industries. Despite significant interest, limited work has been reported regarding sustained catalyst performance and stability under continuous aqueous-phase process conditions. As such, this work examines Ru-Sn on activated carbon (AC) for the aqueous-phase conversion of succinic acid to BDO under batch and flow reactor conditions. Initially, powder Ru-Sn catalysts were screened to determine the most effective bimetallic ratio and provide a comparison to other monometallic (Pd, Pt, Ru) and bimetallic (Pt-Sn,more » Pd-Re) catalysts. Batch reactor tests determined that a ~1:1 metal weight ratio of Ru to Sn was effective for producing BDO in high yields, with complete conversion resulting in 82% molar yield. Characterization of the fresh Ru-Sn catalyst suggests that the sequential loading method results in Ru sites that are colocated and surface-enriched with Sn. Postbatch reaction characterization confirmed stable Ru-Sn material properties; however, upon a transition to continuous conditions, significant Ru-Sn/AC deactivation occurred due to stainless steel leaching of Ni that resulted in Ru-Sn metal crystallite restructuring to form discrete Ni-Sn sites. Computational modeling confirmed favorable energetics for Ru-Sn segregation and Ni-Sn formation at submonolayer Sn incorporation. To address stainless steel leaching, reactor walls were treated with an inert silica coating by chemical vapor deposition. With leaching reduced, stable Ru-Sn/AC performance was observed that resulted in a molar yield of 71% BDO and 15% tetrahydrofuran for 96 h of time on stream. Postreaction catalyst characterization confirmed low levels of Ni and Cr deposition, although early-stage islanding of Ni-Sn will likely be problematic for industrially relevant time scales (i.e., thousands of hours

  19. Comparison of Two Preparation Methods on Catalytic Activity and Selectivity of Ru-Mo/HZSM5 for Methane Dehydroaromatization

    DOE PAGES

    Petkovic, Lucia M.; Ginosar, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Catalytic performance of Mo/HZSM5 and Ru-Mo/HZSM5 catalysts prepared by vaporization-deposition of molybdenum trioxide and impregnation with ammonium heptamolybdate was analyzed in terms of catalyst activity and selectivity, nitrogen physisorption analyses, temperature-programmed oxidation of carbonaceous residues, and temperature-programmed reduction. Vaporization-deposition rendered the catalyst more selective to ethylene and coke than the catalyst prepared by impregnation. This result was assigned to lower interaction of molybdenum carbide with the zeolite acidic sites.

  20. Revisiting RuBisCO.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Akiho

    2017-11-01

    Since the discovery of its role in the CO 2 fixation reaction in photosynthesis, RuBisCO has been one of the most extensively researched enzymes in the fields of biochemistry, molecular biology, and molecular genetics as well as conventional plant physiology, agricultural chemistry, and crop science. In addition, the RuBisCO and RuBisCO-like genes of more than 2000 organisms have been sequenced during the past 20 years. During the course of those studies, the origin of the RuBisCO gene began to be discussed. Recent studies have reported that the RuBisCO gene emerged in methanogenic bacteria long before photosynthetic organisms appeared. The origin of similar early genes might have allowed this gene to overcome changes in global environments during ancient and recent eras and to participate in the fixation of 200 GT of CO 2 annually. In this review, I focus on several points that have not been discussed at length in the literature thus far.

  1. Attrition resistant fluidizable reforming catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Parent, Yves O [Golden, CO; Magrini, Kim [Golden, CO; Landin, Steven M [Conifer, CO; Ritland, Marcus A [Palm Beach Shores, FL

    2011-03-29

    A method of preparing a steam reforming catalyst characterized by improved resistance to attrition loss when used for cracking, reforming, water gas shift and gasification reactions on feedstock in a fluidized bed reactor, comprising: fabricating the ceramic support particle, coating a ceramic support by adding an aqueous solution of a precursor salt of a metal selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pt, Pd, Ru, Rh, Cr, Co, Mn, Mg, K, La and Fe and mixtures thereof to the ceramic support and calcining the coated ceramic in air to convert the metal salts to metal oxides.

  2. Energy level shifts at the silica/Ru(0001) heterojunction driven by surface and interface dipoles

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Mengen; Zhong, Jian -Qiang; Kestell, John; ...

    2016-09-12

    Charge redistribution at heterogeneous interfaces is a fundamental aspect of surface chemistry. Manipulating the amount of charges and the magnitude of dipole moments at the interface in a controlled way has attracted tremendous attention for its potential to modify the activity of heterogeneous catalysts in catalyst design. Two-dimensional ultrathin silica films with well-defined atomic structures have been recently synthesized and proposed as model systems for heterogeneous catalysts studies. R. Wlodarczyk et al. (Phys. Rev. B, 85, 085403 (2012)) have demonstrated that the electronic structure of silica/Ru(0001) can be reversibly tuned by changing the amount of interfacial chemisorbed oxygen. Here wemore » carried out systematic investigations to understand the underlying mechanism through which the electronic structure at the silica/Ru(0001) interface can be tuned. As corroborated by both in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations, the observed interface energy level alignments strongly depend on the surface and interfacial charge transfer induced dipoles at the silica/Ru(0001) heterojunction. These observations may help to understand variations in catalytic performance of the model system from the viewpoint of the electronic properties at the confined space between the silica bilayer and the Ru(0001) surface. As a result, the same behavior is observed for the aluminosilicate bilayer, which has been previously proposed as a model system for zeolites.« less

  3. Round table on RU486.

    PubMed

    Shallat, L

    1993-01-01

    As a non-invasive means of early abortion, RU-486 has the potential to increase women's reproductive options; at the same time, the "abortion pill" has stimulated debate about the ethics and safety of new medical technologies. When combined with a prostaglandin (PG), the success rate for RU-486 is 96% for pregnancies of up to 9 weeks' gestation. In France, over 120,000 women have used RU-486/PG to terminate pregnancy, and this regimen is now used in about 25% of abortions. Clinical trials of RU-486 are underway in Cuba, China, India, Singapore, and Zambia. The Program for Appropriate Technology has identified four considerations for introducing RU-486 to developing countries: whether abortion or menstrual regulation is legal; whether women find the method acceptable and can comply with the multiple visit treatment regimen; whether the health infrastructure can support safe method use, including prevention of misuse and provision of appropriate medical backup personnel and facilities; and whether the cost of the regimen is affordable to individuals and/or programs --conditions unlikely to be met in most such countries. Ideal would be development of a medical abortifacient that is single dose and the lowest possible dose of each drug, provokes miscarriage within a more predictable time frame with less acute and prolonged bleeding, is safe and effective beyond two months, has minimal side effects, and maximizes short-term safety and minimizes long-term effects. Technological advances are being undermined, however, by political and religious attacks on the method. Even some feminists have expressed concerns about potential long-term effects of RU-486 use.

  4. Bimetallic Catalysts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinfelt, John H.

    1985-01-01

    Chemical reaction rates can be controlled by varying composition of miniscule clusters of metal atoms. These bimetallic catalysts have had major impact on petroleum refining, where work has involved heterogeneous catalysis (reacting molecules in a phase separate from catalyst.) Experimentation involving hydrocarbon reactions, catalytic…

  5. Carbene Catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Jennifer L.; Rovis, Tomislav

    The use of N-heterocyclic carbenes as catalysts for organic transformations has received increased attention in the past 10 years. A discussion of catalyst development and nucleophilic characteristics precedes a description of recent advancements and new reactions using N-heterocyclic carbenes in catalysis.

  6. Communicating catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2018-06-01

    The beauty and activity of enzymes inspire chemists to tailor new and better non-biological catalysts. Now, a study reveals that the active sites within heterogeneous catalysts actively cooperate in a fashion phenomenologically similar to, but mechanistically distinct, from enzymes.

  7. Infrared spectra of RuTPP, RuCOTPP, and Ru(CO)2TPP isolated in solid argon.

    PubMed

    Krim, Lahouari; Sorgues, Sébastien; Soep, Benoit; Shafizadeh, Niloufar

    2005-09-22

    Infrared spectra of unstable species such as CO-free ruthenium tetraphenylporphyrin RuTPP and RuCOTPP (species with vacant coordination sites) isolated in solid argon at 8 K have been recorded. Selective deposition conditions allow the isolation of either RuTPP and RuCOTPP or RuCOTPP and Ru(CO)2TPP. This depends on the preparation conditions of the sample. A specific Ru-CO bending mode has been characterized at 590.1 cm(-1) for Ru(CO)2TPP. The behavior of each vibrational mode of RuTPP, RuCOTPP, and Ru(CO)2TPP has been analyzed. Modes such as gamma8 at 721.3 cm(-1) (out-of-plane stretching mode gamma(Cbeta-H)sym) and nu41 at 1342.8 cm(-1) (nuCalpha-N coupled with deltaCalpha-Cm) reflect the charge transfer in the porphyrin. Indeed, the addition of one or two CO ligands to RuTPP reduces the charge transfer between the metal center and the porphyrin, which appears as an increase in the frequency of the nu41 mode and in a decrease in that of the gamma8 mode.

  8. Platinum-ruthenium nanotubes and platinum-ruthenium coated copper nanowires as efficient catalysts for electro-oxidation of methanol

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Jie; Cullen, David A.; Forest, Robert V.

    2015-01-15

    The sluggish kinetics of methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) is a major barrier to the commercialization of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). In this study, we report a facile synthesis of platinum–ruthenium nanotubes (PtRuNTs) and platinum–ruthenium-coated copper nanowires (PtRu/CuNWs) by galvanic displacement reaction using copper nanowires as a template. The PtRu compositional effect on MOR is investigated; the optimum Pt/Ru bulk atomic ratio is about 4 and surface atomic ratio about 1 for both PtRuNTs and PtRu/CuNWs. Enhanced specific MOR activities are observed on both PtRuNTs and PtRu/CuNWs compared with the benchmark commercial carbon-supported PtRu catalyst (PtRu/C, Hispec 12100). Finally, x-raymore » photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveals a larger extent of electron transfer from Ru to Pt on PtRu/CuNWs, which may lead to a modification of the d-band center of Pt and consequently a weaker bonding of CO (the poisoning intermediate) on Pt and a higher MOR activity on PtRu/CuNWs.« less

  9. Oxyhydrochlorination catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, Charles E.; Noceti, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    An improved catalyst and method for the oxyhydrochlorination of methane is disclosed. The catalyst includes a pyrogenic porous support on which is layered as active material, cobalt chloride in major proportion, and minor proportions of an alkali metal chloride and of a rare earth chloride. On contact of the catalyst with a gas flow of methane, HCl and oxygen, more than 60% of the methane is converted and of that converted more than 40% occurs as monochloromethane. Advantageously, the monochloromethane can be used to produce gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons with the recycle of HCl for further reaction. This catalyst is also of value for the production of formic acid as are analogous catalysts with lead, silver or nickel chlorides substituted for the cobalt chloride.

  10. A delafossite-based copper catalyst for sustainable Cl2 production by HCl oxidation.

    PubMed

    Mondelli, Cecilia; Amrute, Amol P; Schmidt, Timm; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

    2011-07-07

    A copper catalyst based on a delafossite precursor (CuAlO(2)) displays high activity and extraordinary lifetime in the gas-phase oxidation of HCl to Cl(2), representing a cost-effective alternative to RuO(2)-based catalysts for chlorine recycling. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  11. Photochemical preparation of olefin addition catalysts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Harry B. (Inventor); Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Gupta, Amitava (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Novel polymer supported catalysts are prepared by photo-irradiation of low valent transition metal compounds such as Co.sub.2 (CO).sub.8, Rh.sub.4 (CO).sub.12 or Ru.sub.3 (CO).sub.12 in the presence of solid polymers containing amine ligands such as polyvinyl pyridine. Hydroformylation of olefins to aldehydes at ambient conditions has been demonstrated.

  12. Effect of Ru thickness on spin pumping in Ru/Py bilayer

    SciTech Connect

    Behera, Nilamani; Singh, M. Sanjoy; Chaudhary, Sujeet

    2015-05-07

    We report the effect of Ru thickness (t{sub Ru}) on ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) line-width of Ru(t{sub Ru})/Py(23 nm) bilayer samples grown on Si(100)/SiO{sub 2} substrates at room temperature by magnetron sputtering. The FMR line-width is found to vary linearly with frequency for all thicknesses of Ru, indicating intrinsic origin of damping. For Ru thicknesses below 15 nm, Gilbert-damping parameter, α is almost constant. We ascribe this behavior to spin back flow that is operative for Ru thicknesses lower than the spin diffusion length in Ru, λ{sub sd}. For thicknesses >15 nm (>λ{sub sd}), the damping constant increases with Ru thickness, indicating spin pumpingmore » from Py into Ru.« less

  13. Effect of Ni and noble metals (Ru, Pd and Pt) on performance of bifunctional MoP/SiO2 for hydroconversion of methyl laurate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Ziyang; Zhang, Zhena; Chen, Jixiang

    2017-10-01

    SiO2 supported bifunctional MoP catalysts modified with different metal promoters (Ni, Ru, Pd, Pt), where Mo/Ni and Mo/M(M = Ru, Pd and Pt) atomic ratios was respectively 10 and 40, were prepared by TPR method from the phosphate precursors. It was found that the introduction of metal promoters facilitated the reduction of phosphate precursor and enhanced the dispersion of MoP. However, the MoP catalyst acidity was scarcely influenced by the small amount of metal promoters. In the hydroconversion of methyl laurate, the promoters enhanced the MoP catalyst activity for conversion of methyl laurate and hydrogenation of alkenes (intermediate), but reduced isomerization ability. Among the promoters, Ru was an optimum to decrease selectivity to alkenes while maintain high selectivity to iso-alkanes, and Mo40RuP showed better stability than MoP. At 380 °C and 3.0 MPa, the conversion of methyl laurate, the total selectivity to C11 and C12 hydrocarbons and the selectivity to iso-alkanes maintained at 100%, ∼94% and ∼30% on Mo40RuP during 102 h, respectively. The good stability of Mo40RuP is ascribed to that the presence of Ru prevented the sintering of MoP particles and suppressed carbon deposition.

  14. RuO2 nanoparticles decorated MnOOH/C as effective bifunctional electrocatalysts for lithium-air battery cathodes with long-cycling stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gil-Pyo; Lim, Dongwook; Park, Inyeong; Park, Hyelee; Shim, Sang Eun; Baeck, Sung-Hyeon

    2016-08-01

    Manganite (MnOOH) is one of the most effective electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), and RuO2 nanoparticles exhibit high activity for oxygen evolution reaction (OER). We herein report a facile means of producing well dispersed RuO2/MnOOH on Ketjen black (RuO2/MnOOH/C) as a bifunctional catalyst for lithium-air (Li-air) batteries. RuO2/MnOOH/C was simply synthesized using a hydrothermal/precipitation based method, and was used as a cathode for a Li-air battery using a Swagelok-type cell. The importance of dispersing active catalysts on a carbon support was clearly demonstrated by textural, charge-discharge voltammetric, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) analyses, comparing results with a catalyst produced by physically mixing RuO2/MnOOH with carbon (RuO2/MnOOH + C). RuO2/MnOOH/C showed low overpotential and stable cycleability up to 170th cycles with 1000 mAh g-1 of charge-discharge capacity, which was attributed to its enhanced active surface area and low charge-transfer resistance. The results obtained suggest that this strategy can be widely applied to bifunctional electrocatalysis, such as secondary batteries and regenerative fuel cell (RFC).

  15. Orientation-Dependent Oxygen Evolution on RuO 2 without Lattice Exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Stoerzinger, Kelsey A.; Diaz-Morales, Oscar; Kolb, Manuel

    RuO2 catalysts exhibit record activities towards the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), which is crucial to enable efficient and sustainable energy storage. Here we examine the RuO2 OER kinetics on rutile (110), (100), (101), and (111) orientations, finding (100) the most active. We assess the potential involvement of lattice oxygen in the OER mechanism with online 3 electrochemical mass spectrometry, which showed no evidence of oxygen exchange on these oriented facets in acidic or basic electrolytes. Similar results were obtained for polyoriented RuO2 films and particles, in contrast to previous work, suggesting lattice oxygen is not exchanged in catalyzing OER onmore » crystalline RuO2 surfaces. This hypothesis is supported by the correlation of activity with the number of active Ru-sites calculated by DFT, where more active facets bind oxygen more weakly. This new understanding of the active sites provides a design strategy to enhance the OER activity of RuO2 nanoparticles by facet engineering.« less

  16. Improved reaction kinetics and selectivity by the TiO2-embedded carbon nanofiber support for electro-oxidation of ethanol on PtRu nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Nobuyoshi; Ito, Yudai; Tsujiguchi, Takuya; Ishitobi, Hirokazu

    2014-02-01

    The electro-oxidation of ethanol by the catalyst of PtRu nanoparticles supported on a TiO2-embedded carbon nanofiber (PtRu/TECNF), which has recently been proposed by the authors as a highly active catalyst for methanol oxidation, is investigated by cyclic voltammetry using a glassy carbon electrode and by operating a direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) with the catalyst. The mass activity obtained from the cyclic voltammogram for the ethanol oxidation is compared to that for the methanol oxidation reported in our recent paper. The mass activity for the ethanol oxidation is comparable or slightly higher than that for the methanol oxidation, and the relationship between the TECNF composition, i.e., the Ti/C mass ratio, and the activity are also similar to that for the methanol oxidation. A DEFC fabricated with the PtRu/TECNF shows a higher power output compared to that with the commercial PtRu/C catalyst. An analysis of the reaction products by a simple two-step reaction model reveals that the PtRu/TECNF increases the rate constant for the reaction steps from ethanol to acetaldehyde and subsequently to CO2, but decreases that from acetaldehyde to acetic acid. This means that the PtRu/TECNF improves not only the kinetics, but also the selectivity to acetaldehyde.

  17. Carbon deposition in the Bosch process with ruthenium and ruthenium-iron alloy catalysts. M.S. Thesis. Final Report, Jan. 1981 - Jul. 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, M. P.; Reid, R. C.; Sophonpanich, C.

    1982-01-01

    The effectiveness of ruthenium and the alloys 50Ru50Fe and 33Ru67Fe as alternatives to iron, nickel, and cobalt catalysts in recovering oxygen from metabolic carbon dioxide was investigated. Carbon deposition boundaries over the unsupported alloys are reported. Experiments were also carried out over 50Ru50Fe and 97Ru3Fe3 catalysts supported on gamma-alumina to determine their performance in the synthesis of low molecular weight olefins. High production of ethylene and propylene would be beneficial for an improvement of an overall Bosch process, as a gas phase containing high olefin content would enhance carbon deposition in a Bosch reactor.

  18. Carbon-supported, selenium-modified ruthenium-molybdenum catalysts for oxygen reduction in acidic media.

    PubMed

    Guinel, Maxime J-F; Bonakdarpour, Arman; Wang, Biao; Babu, Panakkattu K; Ernst, Frank; Ramaswamy, Nagappan; Mukerjee, Sanjeev; Wieckowski, Andrzej

    2009-07-20

    The stability and oxygen reduction activity of two carbon-supported catalyst materials are reported. The catalysts, Se/Ru and Se/(Ru-Mo), were prepared by using a chemical reduction method. The catalyst nanoparticles were evenly dispersed onto globular amorphous carbon supports, and their average size was ca. 2.4 nm. Thermal treatment at 500 °C for 2 h in an inert argon atmosphere resulted in coarsening of the nanoparticles, and also in some decrease of their activity. A gradual reduction of activity was also observed for Se/Ru during potential-cycle experiments. However, the incorporation of small amounts of Mo into the Se/Ru catalysts considerably improved the stability of the catalyst against dissolution. The Mo-containing samples showed excellent oxygen reduction activities even after cycling the potential 1000 times between 0.7 and 0.9 V. Furthermore, they showed excellent fuel-cell behavior. The performance of the Se/Ru catalysts is greatly improved by the addition of small amounts of elemental Mo. Possible mechanisms responsible for the improvement of the activity are discussed. Copyright © 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Inhibition of ammonia poisoning by addition of platinum to Ru/α-Al2 O3 for preferential CO oxidation in fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Sato, Katsutoshi; Yagi, Sho; Zaitsu, Shuhei; Kitayama, Godai; Kayada, Yuto; Teramura, Kentaro; Takita, Yusaku; Nagaoka, Katsutoshi

    2014-12-01

    In polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems, small amounts of ammonia (NH3 ) present in the reformate gas deactivate the supported ruthenium catalysts used for preferential oxidation (PROX) of carbon monoxide (CO). In this study, we investigated how the addition of a small amount of platinum to a Ru/α-Al2 O3 catalyst (Pt/Ru=1:9 w/w) affected the catalyst's PROX activity in both the absence and the presence of NH3 (130 ppm) under conditions mimicking the reformate conditions during steam reforming of natural gas. The activity of undoped Ru/α-Al2 O3 decreased sharply upon addition of NH3 , whereas Pt/Ru/α-Al2 O3 exhibited excellent PROX activity even in the presence of NH3 . Ruthenium K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra indicated that in the presence of NH3 , some of the ruthenium in the undoped catalyst was oxidized in the presence of NH3 , whereas ruthenium oxidation was not observed with Pt/Ru/α-Al2 O3 . These results suggest that ruthenium oxidation is retarded by the platinum, so that the catalyst shows high activity even in the presence of NH3 . © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. CO oxidation on Ru-Pt bimetallic nanoclusters supported on TiO2(101): The effect of charge polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Chuanyi; Zhong, Wenhui; Deng, Mingsen; Jiang, Jun

    2018-03-01

    Pt-based catalyst is widely used in CO oxidation, while its catalytic activity is often undermined because of the CO poisoning effect. Here, using density functional theory, we propose the use of a Ru-Pt bimetallic cluster supported on TiO2 for CO oxidation, to achieve both high activity and low CO poisoning effect. Excellent catalytic activity is obtained in a Ru1Pt7/TiO2(101) system, which is ascribed to strong electric fields induced by charge polarization between one Ru atom and its neighboring Pt atoms. Because of its lower electronegativity, the Ru atom donates electrons to neighboring Pt. This induces strong electric fields around the top-layered Ru, substantially promoting the adsorption of O2/CO + O2 and eliminating the CO poisoning effect. In addition, the charge polarization also drives the d-band center of the Ru1Pt7 cluster to up-shift to the Fermi level. For surface O2 activation/CO oxidation, the strong electric field and d-band center close to the Fermi level can promote the adsorption of O2 and CO as well as reduce the reaction barrier of the rate-determining step. Meanwhile, since O2 easily dissociates on Ru1Pt7/TiO2(101) resulting in unwanted oxidation of Ru and Pt, a CO-rich condition is necessary to protect the catalyst at high temperature.

  1. Effect of plasma treatments to graphite nanofibers supports on electrochemical behaviors of metal catalyst electrodes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hochun; Jung, Yongju; Kim, Seok

    2012-02-01

    In the present work, we had studied the graphite nanofibers as catalyst supports after a plasma treatment for studying the effect of surface modification. By controlling the plasma intensity, a surface functional group concentration was changed. The nanoparticle size, loading efficiency, and catalytic activity were studied, after Pt-Ru deposition by a chemical reduction. Pt-Ru catalysts deposited on the plasma-treated GNFs showed the smaller size, 3.58 nm than the pristine GNFs. The catalyst loading contents were enhanced with plasma power and duration time increase, meaning an enhanced catalyst deposition efficiency. Accordingly, cyclic voltammetry result showed that the specific current density was increased proportionally till 200 W and then the value was decreased. Enhanced activity of 40 (mA mg(-1)-catalyst) was accomplished at 200 W and 180 sec duration time. Consequently, it was found that the improved electroactivity was originated from the change of size or morphology of catalysts by controlling the plasma intensity.

  2. Study on Endurance and Performance of Impregnated Ruthenium Catalyst for Thruster System.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jincheol; Kim, Taegyu

    2018-02-01

    Performance and endurance of the Ru catalyst were studied for nitrous oxide monopropellant thruster system. The thermal decomposition of N2O requires a considerably high temperature, which make it difficult to be utilized as a thruster propellant, while the propellant decomposition temperature can be reduced by using the catalyst through the decomposition reaction with the propellant. However, the catalyst used for the thruster was frequently exposed to high temperature and high-pressure environment. Therefore, the state change of the catalyst according to the thruster operation was analyzed. Characterization of catalyst used in the operation condition of the thruster was performed using FE-SEM and EDS. As a result, performance degradation was occurred due to the volatilization of Ru catalyst and reduction of the specific surface area according to the phase change of Al2O3.

  3. Thin Film Catalyst Layers for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witham, C. K.; Chun, W.; Ruiz, R.; Valdez, T. I.; Narayanan, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    One of the primary obstacles to the widespread use of the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is the high cost of the catalyst. Therefore, reducing the catalyst loading well below the current level of 8-12 mg/cm 2 would be important to commercialization. The current methods for preparation of catalyst layers consisting of catalyst, ionomer and sometimes a hydrophobic additive are applied by either painting, spraying, decal transfer or screen printing processes. Sputter deposition is a coating technique widely used in manufacturing and therefore particularly attractive. In this study we have begun to explore sputtering as a method for catalyst deposition. Present experiments focus on Pt-Ru catalyst layers for the anode.

  4. A Synthetic Pseudo-Rh: NOx Reduction Activity and Electronic Structure of Pd-Ru Solid-solution Alloy Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Katsutoshi; Tomonaga, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Tomokazu; Matsumura, Syo; Zulkifli, Nor Diana Binti; Ishimoto, Takayoshi; Koyama, Michihisa; Kusada, Kohei; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Nagaoka, Katsutoshi

    2016-06-01

    Rh is one of the most important noble metals for industrial applications. A major fraction of Rh is used as a catalyst for emission control in automotive catalytic converters because of its unparalleled activity toward NOx reduction. However, Rh is a rare and extremely expensive element; thus, the development of Rh alternative composed of abundant elements is desirable. Pd and Ru are located at the right and left of Rh in the periodic table, respectively, nevertheless this combination of elements is immiscible in the bulk state. Here, we report a Pd-Ru solid-solution-alloy nanoparticle (PdxRu1-x NP) catalyst exhibiting better NOx reduction activity than Rh. Theoretical calculations show that the electronic structure of Pd0.5Ru0.5 is similar to that of Rh, indicating that Pd0.5Ru0.5 can be regarded as a pseudo-Rh. Pd0.5Ru0.5 exhibits better activity than natural Rh, which implies promising applications not only for exhaust-gas cleaning but also for various chemical reactions.

  5. Catalyst mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Masel, Richard I.; Rosen, Brian A.

    2017-02-14

    Catalysts that include at least one catalytically active element and one helper catalyst can be used to increase the rate or lower the overpotential of chemical reactions. The helper catalyst can simultaneously act as a director molecule, suppressing undesired reactions and thus increasing selectivity toward the desired reaction. These catalysts can be useful for a variety of chemical reactions including, in particular, the electrochemical conversion of CO.sub.2 or formic acid. The catalysts can also suppress H.sub.2 evolution, permitting electrochemical cell operation at potentials below RHE. Chemical processes and devices using the catalysts are also disclosed, including processes to produce CO, OH.sup.-, HCO.sup.-, H.sub.2CO, (HCO.sub.2).sup.-, H.sub.2CO.sub.2, CH.sub.3OH, CH.sub.4, C.sub.2H.sub.4, CH.sub.3CH.sub.2OH, CH.sub.3COO.sup.-, CH.sub.3COOH, C.sub.2H.sub.6, O.sub.2, H.sub.2, (COOH).sub.2, or (COO.sup.-).sub.2, and a specific device, namely, a CO.sub.2 sensor.

  6. Z-Selective Ruthenium Metathesis Catalysts: Comparison of Nitrate and Nitrite X-type Ligands.

    PubMed

    Pribisko, Melanie A; Ahmed, Tonia S; Grubbs, Robert H

    2014-12-14

    Two new Ru-based metathesis catalysts, 3 and 4 , have been synthesized for the purpose of comparing their catalytic properties to those of their cis -selective nitrate analogues, 1 and 2 . Although catalysts 3 and 4 exhibited slower initiation rates than 1 and 2 , they maintained high cis -selectivity in homodimerization and ring-opening metathesis polymerization reactions. Furthermore, the nitrite catalysts displayed higher cis -selectivity than 2 for ring-opening metathesis polymerizations, and 4 delivered higher yields of polymer.

  7. MnO2/CNT supported Pt and PtRu nanocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chunmei; Wang, Hongjuan; Peng, Feng; Liang, Jiahua; Yu, Hao; Yang, Jian

    2009-07-07

    Pt/MnO2/carbon nanotube (CNT) and PtRu/MnO2/CNT nanocomposites were synthesized by successively loading hydrous MnO2 and Pt (or PtRu alloy) nanoparticles on CNTs and were used as anodic catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). The existence of MnO2 on the surface of CNTs effectively increases the proton conductivity of the catalyst, which then could remarkably improve the performance of the catalyst in methanol electro-oxidation. As a result, Pt/MnO2/CNTs show higher electrochemical active surface area and better methanol electro-oxidation activity, compared with Pt/CNTs. As PtRu alloy nanoparticles were deposited on the surface of MnO2/CNTs instead of Pt, the PtRu/MnO2/CNT catalyst shows not only excellent electro-oxidation activity to methanol with forward anodic peak current density of 901 A/gPt but also good CO oxidation ability with lower preadsorbed CO oxidation onset potential (0.33 V vs Ag/AgCl) and peak potential (0.49 V vs Ag/AgCl) at room temperature.

  8. Photo-oxidation catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Pitts, J Roland [Lakewood, CO; Liu, Ping [Irvine, CA; Smith, R Davis [Golden, CO

    2009-07-14

    Photo-oxidation catalysts and methods for cleaning a metal-based catalyst are disclosed. An exemplary catalyst system implementing a photo-oxidation catalyst may comprise a metal-based catalyst, and a photo-oxidation catalyst for cleaning the metal-based catalyst in the presence of light. The exposure to light enables the photo-oxidation catalyst to substantially oxidize absorbed contaminants and reduce accumulation of the contaminants on the metal-based catalyst. Applications are also disclosed.

  9. Platinum clusters supported in zeolite LTL: Influence of catalyst morphology on performance in n-hexane reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Jentoft, R.E.; Gates, B.C.; Tsapatsis, M.

    KLTL zeolite-supported platinum catalysts were synthesized from aqueous tetraammineplatinum(II) nitrate solutions and nonacidic KLTL zeolite crystallites, including some with dimensions as little as 300 x 500 {angstrom}. The zeolite crystallites had various morphologies, some being predominantly disk-shaped particles and some predominantly mosaics of rod-like domains with a range of c-dimension lengths. The activity and selectivity of each catalyst were evaluated for dehydrocyclization of n-hexane in the presence of H{sub 2} to form predominantly benzene at conversions of typically 45--90%. The data presented here provide a detailed characterization of the deactivation of such catalysts in the absence of sulfur. EXAFS datamore » show that the platinum in each catalyst was present in clusters of about 20 atoms each, on average. Electron micrographs show that the platinum clusters were nearly evenly dispersed on the surfaces of the zeolite crystallites, including the intracrystalline and extracrystalline surfaces. The catalytic performance was virtually independent of the zeolite channel length, but activity, selectivity, and resistance to deactivation were found to be correlated with the ratio of the surface area external to the crystallite domains to that within the intracrystalline pores. The catalyst performance is dependent on this ratio (which is related to the zeolite morphology) as follows: in comparison with the others, the catalysts with the relatively low fractions of platinum outside the intracrystalline pores are more active, more selective for benzene formation, and more resistant to deactivation.« less

  10. Reactivity of O2 on Pd/Ru(0001) and PdRu/Ru(0001) surface alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farías, D.; Minniti, M.; Miranda, R.

    2017-05-01

    The reactivity of a Pd monolayer epitaxially grown on Ru(0001) toward O2 has been investigated by molecular beam techniques. O2 initial sticking coefficients were determined using the King and Wells method in the incident energy range of 40-450 meV and for sample temperatures of 100 K and 300 K, and compared to the corresponding values measured on the clean Ru(0001) and Pd(111) surfaces. In contrast to the high reactivity shown by Ru(0001) at 100 K, the Pd/Ru(0001) system exhibits a monotonic decrease in the sticking probability of O2 as a function of normal incident energy. At room temperature, the system was found to be inert. Thermal desorption measurements show that O2 is adsorbed molecularly at 100 K. A completely different behaviour has been measured for the Pd0.95Ru0.05/Ru(0001) surface alloy. On this surface, the O2 sticking probability increases with incident energy and resembles the one observed on the clean Ru(0001) surface, even at 300 K. Thermal desorption measurements point to dissociative adsorption of O2 in this system. Both the charge transfer from the Pd to the Ru substrate and the compressive strain on the Pd monolayer contribute to decrease in the reactivity of the Pd/Ru(0001) system well below those of both Ru(0001) and Pd(111).

  11. Constitution and thermodynamics of the Mo-Ru, Mo-Pd, Ru-Pd and Mo-Ru-Pd systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleykamp, H.

    1989-09-01

    The constitution of the Mo-Ru, Mo-Pd and Ru-Pd systems was reinvestigated between 800 and 2000°C. The Mo-Ru system is of the eutectic type, a σ-phase Mo 5Ru 3 exists between 1915 and 1143°C. The Mo-Pd system is characterized by an hcp phase Mo 9Pd 11 and by two peritectic reactions, β- Mo( Pd) + L = Mo9Pd11andMo9Pd11 + L = α- Pd( Mo). Mo 9Pd 11 decomposes eutectoidally at 1370°C. The Ru-Pd system is simple peritectic. The continuous series of the hcp solid solutions between Mo 9Pd 11 and ɛ-Ru(Mo, Pd) in the ternary Mo-Ru-Pd system observed at 1700°C are suppressed below 1370°C near the Mo-Pd boundary system by the formation of a narrow α + β + ɛ three-phase field. Relative partial molar Gibbs energies of Mo, Mo and Ru in the respective binary systems and of Mo in the ternary system were measured by the EMF method with a Zr(Ca)O 2 electrolyte. xsΔ ḠMo∞ quantities were evaluated at 1200 K which give -43 kJ/mol Mo in Ru and -94 kJ/mol Mo in Pd at infinite dilution. Gibbs energies of formation of the Mo-Ru and Mo-Pd systems were calculated.

  12. Experimental demonstration of radicaloid character in a RuV=O intermediate in catalytic water oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Moonshiram, Dooshaye; Alperovich, Igor; Concepcion, Javier J.; Meyer, Thomas J.; Pushkar, Yulia

    2013-01-01

    Water oxidation is the key half reaction in artificial photosynthesis. An absence of detailed mechanistic insight impedes design of new catalysts that are more reactive and more robust. A proposed paradigm leading to enhanced reactivity is the existence of oxyl radical intermediates capable of rapid water activation, but there is a dearth of experimental validation. Here, we show the radicaloid nature of an intermediate reactive toward formation of the O-O bond by assessing the spin density on the oxyl group by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). In the study, an 17O-labeled form of a highly oxidized, short-lived intermediate in the catalytic cycle of the water oxidation catalyst cis,cis-[(2,2-bipyridine)2(H2O)RuIIIORuIII(OH2)(bpy)2]4+ was investigated. It contains Ru centers in oxidation states [4,5], has at least one RuV = O unit, and shows |Axx| = 60G 17O hyperfine splittings (hfs) consistent with the high spin density of a radicaloid. Destabilization of π-bonding in the d3 RuV = O fragment is responsible for the high spin density on the oxygen and its high reactivity. PMID:23417296

  13. CuPt and CuPtRu Nanostructures for Ammonia Oxidation Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Manso, R H.; Song, L.; Liang, Z.

    Liquid fuels, such as methanol, ethanol, and ammonia, are attractive alternative to hydrogen for fuel cells due to their lower costs for storage and distribution. However, lack of sufficiently active catalysts for their oxidation reactions is a roadblock. Our previous study found that Pt 3Cu nanodendrites yielded higher activity and durability than Pt nanoparticles for methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) in acid. In this study, we synthesized two types of nanostructures of CuPt and CuPtRu catalysts via seed-mediated growth of Pt and Ru on Cu and tested their performance for ammonia oxidation reaction (AOR) in alkaline solution. Unlike for MOR, themore » nanodendrites do not promote AOR activity - CuPt performs similar to Pt and CuPtRu is less active than Pt. Interestingly, the AOR peak current is increased by 64% on CuPt nanowires and 330% on CuPtRu nanowires as compared to Pt nanoparticles. These results suggest that AOR prefers extended surface on long nanowires, distinctly differing from MOR. This can be contributed to two factors: NH 3 oxidization to N 2 involves dimerization of two N-containing intermediates to form the N-N bond and diffusion batters for adsorbed intermediates are generally lower on terrace than at low-coordination sites. This demonstrated strong effect of surface morphology will be further studied and utilized in developing advanced AOR nanocatalysts.« less

  14. CuPt and CuPtRu Nanostructures for Ammonia Oxidation Reaction

    DOE PAGES

    Manso, R H.; Song, L.; Liang, Z.; ...

    2018-04-01

    Liquid fuels, such as methanol, ethanol, and ammonia, are attractive alternative to hydrogen for fuel cells due to their lower costs for storage and distribution. However, lack of sufficiently active catalysts for their oxidation reactions is a roadblock. Our previous study found that Pt 3Cu nanodendrites yielded higher activity and durability than Pt nanoparticles for methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) in acid. In this study, we synthesized two types of nanostructures of CuPt and CuPtRu catalysts via seed-mediated growth of Pt and Ru on Cu and tested their performance for ammonia oxidation reaction (AOR) in alkaline solution. Unlike for MOR, themore » nanodendrites do not promote AOR activity - CuPt performs similar to Pt and CuPtRu is less active than Pt. Interestingly, the AOR peak current is increased by 64% on CuPt nanowires and 330% on CuPtRu nanowires as compared to Pt nanoparticles. These results suggest that AOR prefers extended surface on long nanowires, distinctly differing from MOR. This can be contributed to two factors: NH 3 oxidization to N 2 involves dimerization of two N-containing intermediates to form the N-N bond and diffusion batters for adsorbed intermediates are generally lower on terrace than at low-coordination sites. This demonstrated strong effect of surface morphology will be further studied and utilized in developing advanced AOR nanocatalysts.« less

  15. Direct synthesis of sorbitol and glycerol from cellulose over ionic Ru/magnetite nanoparticles in the absence of external hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Negoi, Alina; Trotus, Ioan Teodor; Mamula Steiner, Olimpia; Tudorache, Madalina; Kuncser, Victor; Macovei, Dan; Parvulescu, Vasile I; Coman, Simona M

    2013-11-01

    A sweet catalyst: A catalyst formed of Ru/functionalized silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles is highly efficient in the one-pot production of sorbitol and glycerol, starting from cellulose and in the absence of an external hydrogen source. The ease of recoverability of the catalyst from the solid residues, and its reuse without loss of activity or selectivity for several runs, is an important green element of the process. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Magnetization measurements of Sr2RuO4-Ru eutectic microplates using dc-SQUIDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nago, Y.; Sakuma, D.; Ishiguro, R.; Kashiwaya, S.; Nomura, S.; Kono, K.; Maeno, Y.; Takayanagi, H.

    2018-03-01

    We report magnetization measurements of Sr2RuO4-Ru eutectic microplates using micro-dc-SQUIDs. Sr2RuO4 is considered as a chiral p-wave superconductor and hence Sr2RuO4-Ru eutectic becomes in an unstable state with a superconducting phase frustration between a chiral p-wave state of Sr2RuO4 and a s-wave state of Ru. To compensate the frustration, a single quantum vortex is spontaneously formed at the center of the Ru inclusion at sufficiently low temperatures. However, such a spontaneous vortex state has not been experimentally observed yet. In this study, we prepared a micro-dc-SQUID and a Sr2RuO4-Ru eutectic microplate containing a single Ru-inclusion at the center of the microplate. We performed magnetization measurements down below the superconducting transition temperature of the Ru inclusion to investigate the spontaneous Ru-center vortex state.

  17. Highly efficient and robust molecular ruthenium catalysts for water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Duan, Lele; Araujo, Carlos Moyses; Ahlquist, Mårten S G; Sun, Licheng

    2012-09-25

    Water oxidation catalysts are essential components of light-driven water splitting systems, which could convert water to H(2) driven by solar radiation (H(2)O + hν → 1/2O(2) + H(2)). The oxidation of water (H(2)O → 1/2O(2) + 2H(+) + 2e(-)) provides protons and electrons for the production of dihydrogen (2H(+) + 2e(-) → H(2)), a clean-burning and high-capacity energy carrier. One of the obstacles now is the lack of effective and robust water oxidation catalysts. Aiming at developing robust molecular Ru-bda (H(2)bda = 2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylic acid) water oxidation catalysts, we carried out density functional theory studies, correlated the robustness of catalysts against hydration with the highest occupied molecular orbital levels of a set of ligands, and successfully directed the synthesis of robust Ru-bda water oxidation catalysts. A series of mononuclear ruthenium complexes [Ru(bda)L(2)] (L = pyridazine, pyrimidine, and phthalazine) were subsequently synthesized and shown to effectively catalyze Ce(IV)-driven [Ce(IV) = Ce(NH(4))(2)(NO(3))(6)] water oxidation with high oxygen production rates up to 286 s(-1) and high turnover numbers up to 55,400.

  18. Highly efficient and robust molecular ruthenium catalysts for water oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Lele; Araujo, Carlos Moyses; Ahlquist, Mårten S.G.; Sun, Licheng

    2012-01-01

    Water oxidation catalysts are essential components of light-driven water splitting systems, which could convert water to H2 driven by solar radiation (H2O + hν → 1/2O2 + H2). The oxidation of water (H2O → 1/2O2 + 2H+ + 2e-) provides protons and electrons for the production of dihydrogen (2H+ + 2e- → H2), a clean-burning and high-capacity energy carrier. One of the obstacles now is the lack of effective and robust water oxidation catalysts. Aiming at developing robust molecular Ru-bda (H2bda = 2,2′-bipyridine-6,6′-dicarboxylic acid) water oxidation catalysts, we carried out density functional theory studies, correlated the robustness of catalysts against hydration with the highest occupied molecular orbital levels of a set of ligands, and successfully directed the synthesis of robust Ru-bda water oxidation catalysts. A series of mononuclear ruthenium complexes [Ru(bda)L2] (L = pyridazine, pyrimidine, and phthalazine) were subsequently synthesized and shown to effectively catalyze CeIV-driven [CeIV = Ce(NH4)2(NO3)6] water oxidation with high oxygen production rates up to 286 s-1 and high turnover numbers up to 55,400. PMID:22753518

  19. Highly dispersed metal catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Xiao, Xin; West, William L.; Rhodes, William D.

    2016-11-08

    A supported catalyst having an atomic level single atom structure is provided such that substantially all the catalyst is available for catalytic function. A process of forming a single atom catalyst unto a porous catalyst support is also provided.

  20. Characterization of Deactivated Bio-oil Hydrotreating Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Huamin; Wang, Yong

    Deactivation of bio-oil hydrotreating catalysts remains a significant challenge because of the poor quality of pyrolysis bio-oil input for hydrotreating and understanding their deactivation mode is critical to developing improved catalysts and processes. In this research, we developed an understanding of the deactivation of two-step bio-oil hydrotreating catalysts (sulfided Ru/C and sulfided CoMo/C) through detailed characterization of the catalysts using various complimentary analytical techniques. Severe fouling of both catalysts by carbonaceous species was the major form of deactivation, which is consistent with the significant loss of surface area and pore volume of both deactivated catalysts and the significant increase ofmore » the bulk density. Further analysis of the carbonaceous species by thermogravimetric analysis and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that the carbonaceous species was formed by condensation reaction of active species such as sugars and sugar derivatives (aldehydes and ketones) in bio-oil feedstock during bio-oil hydrotreating under the conditions and catalysts used. Microscopy results did not show metal sintering of the Ru/C catalyst. However, X-ray diffraction indicated a probable transformation of the highly-active CoMoS phase in the sulfided CoMo/C catalyst to Co8S9 and MoS2 phase with low activity. Loss of the active site by transport of inorganic elements from the bio-oil and the reactor construction material onto the catalyst surface also might be a cause of deactivation as indicated by elemental analysis of spent catalysts.« less

  1. Photocatalytic CO2 reduction with high turnover frequency and selectivity of formic acid formation using Ru(II) multinuclear complexes.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Yusuke; Morimoto, Tatsuki; Koike, Kazuhide; Ishitani, Osamu

    2012-09-25

    Previously undescribed supramolecules constructed with various ratios of two kinds of Ru(II) complexes-a photosensitizer and a catalyst-were synthesized. These complexes can photocatalyze the reduction of CO(2) to formic acid with high selectivity and durability using a wide range of wavelengths of visible light and NADH model compounds as electron donors in a mixed solution of dimethylformamide-triethanolamine. Using a higher ratio of the photosensitizer unit to the catalyst unit led to a higher yield of formic acid. In particular, of the reported photocatalysts, a trinuclear complex with two photosensitizer units and one catalyst unit photocatalyzed CO(2) reduction (Φ(HCOOH) = 0.061, TON(HCOOH) = 671) with the fastest reaction rate (TOF(HCOOH) = 11.6 min(-1)). On the other hand, photocatalyses of a mixed system containing two kinds of model mononuclear Ru(II) complexes, and supramolecules with a higher ratio of the catalyst unit were much less efficient, and black oligomers and polymers were produced from the Ru complexes during photocatalytic reactions, which reduced the yield of formic acid. The photocatalytic formation of formic acid using the supramolecules described herein proceeds via two sequential processes: the photochemical reduction of the photosensitizer unit by NADH model compounds and intramolecular electron transfer to the catalyst unit.

  2. Process for the regeneration of metallic catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Katzer, James R.; Windawi, Hassan

    1981-01-01

    A method for the regeneration of metallic hydrogenation catalysts from the class consisting of Ni, Rh, Pd, Ir, Pt and Ru poisoned with sulfur, with or without accompanying carbon deposition, comprising subjecting the catalyst to exposure to oxygen gas in a concentration of about 1-10 ppm. intermixed with an inert gas of the group consisting of He, A, Xe, Kr, N.sub.2 and air substantially free of oxygen to an extent such that the total oxygen molecule throughout is in the range of about 10 to 20 times that of the hydrogen sulfide molecular exposure producing the catalyst poisoning while maintaining the temperature in the range of about 300.degree. to 500.degree. C.

  3. Bimetal catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Ng, K. Y. Simon; Salley, Steve O.; Wang, Huali

    2017-10-03

    A catalyst comprises a carbide or nitride of a metal and a promoter element. The metal is selected from the group consisting of Mo, W, Co, Fe, Rh or Mn, and the promoter element is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Co, Al, Si, S or P, provided that the metal and the promoter element are different. The catalyst also comprises a mesoporous support having a surface area of at least about 170 m.sup.2 g.sup.-1, wherein the carbide or nitride of the metal and the promoter element is supported by the mesoporous support, and is in a non-sulfided form and in an amorphous form.

  4. Catalyst activator

    DOEpatents

    McAdon, Mark H.; Nickias, Peter N.; Marks, Tobin J.; Schwartz, David J.

    2001-01-01

    A catalyst activator particularly adapted for use in the activation of metal complexes of metals of Group 3-10 for polymerization of ethylenically unsaturated polymerizable monomers, especially olefins, comprising two Group 13 metal or metalloid atoms and a ligand structure including at least one bridging group connecting ligands on the two Group 13 metal or metalloid atoms.

  5. High Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution Activity of an Anomalous Ruthenium Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yao; Jiao, Yan; Zhu, Yihan; Li, Lu Hua; Han, Yu; Chen, Ying; Jaroniec, Mietek; Qiao, Shi-Zhang

    2016-12-14

    Hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is a critical process due to its fundamental role in electrocatalysis. Practically, the development of high-performance electrocatalysts for HER in alkaline media is of great importance for the conversion of renewable energy to hydrogen fuel via photoelectrochemical water splitting. However, both mechanistic exploration and materials development for HER under alkaline conditions are very limited. Precious Pt metal, which still serves as the state-of-the-art catalyst for HER, is unable to guarantee a sustainable hydrogen supply. Here we report an anomalously structured Ru catalyst that shows 2.5 times higher hydrogen generation rate than Pt and is among the most active HER electrocatalysts yet reported in alkaline solutions. The identification of new face-centered cubic crystallographic structure of Ru nanoparticles was investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging, and its formation mechanism was revealed by spectroscopic characterization and theoretical analysis. For the first time, it is found that the Ru nanocatalyst showed a pronounced effect of the crystal structure on the electrocatalytic activity tested under different conditions. The combination of electrochemical reaction rate measurements and density functional theory computation shows that the high activity of anomalous Ru catalyst in alkaline solution originates from its suitable adsorption energies to some key reaction intermediates and reaction kinetics in the HER process.

  6. Catalysis on Mo(CO)/sub 6/-derived supported molybdenum catalysts: CO oxidation with N/sub 2/O

    SciTech Connect

    Kazusaka, A.; Howe, R.F.

    1988-05-01

    The catalytic nature of Mo(CO)/sub 6/ supported on ..gamma..-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, KOH-doped ..gamma..-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and HY-zeolite was investigated in CO oxidation with N/sub 2/O in comparison with that of a conventional partially reduced MoO/sub 3//..gamma..-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst. Kinetic parameters of this reaction were obtained in the range 0 to 100/sup 0/C; the rate law r = kP/sub N/sub 2/O//sup 1/P/sub CO//sup 0/ was found on all catalysts, and the activation energy was estimated to be 9.1 kcal/mol on the Mo(CO)/sub 6/-derived catalysts and 7.1 kcal/mol on the partially reduced MoO/sub 3//..gamma..-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst. Maximum catalytic activities weremore » obtained by activating the Mo(CO)/sub 6/-derived catalysts at 400/sup 0/C. To obtain similar activity on the MoO/sub 3//..gamma..-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst, it was necessary to reduce at 600/sup 0/C. The former catalysts were deactivated on repeating the reaction. On the basis of these results and those of ESR studies through the activation or deactivation process, an active site on the Mo(CO)/sub 6/-derived catalysts has been proposed. Also, clear IR absorption bands due to chemisorbed CO and N/sub 2/O species were observed on the HY-zeolite-supported catalysts. A reaction mechanism is proposed from the kinetic and IR spectroscopic results.« less

  7. Origin of Multiple Peaks in the Potentiodynamic Oxidation of CO Adlayers on Pt and Ru-Modified Pt Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hongsen; Abruña, Héctor D.

    2015-05-21

    The study of the electrooxidation mechanism of COad on Pt based catalysts is very important for designing more effective CO-tolerant electrocatalysts for fuel cells. We have studied the origin of multiple peaks in the cyclic voltammograms of CO stripping from polycrystalline Pt and Ru modified polycrystalline Pt (Pt/Ru) surfaces in both acidic and alkaline media by differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS), DFT calculations, and kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations. A new COad electrooxidation kinetic model on heterogeneous Pt and Pt/Ru catalysts is proposed to account for the multiple peaks experimentally observed. In this model, OH species prefer to adsorb atmore » low-coordination sites or Ru sites and, thus, suppress CO repopulation from high-coordination sites onto these sites. Therefore, COad oxidation occurs on different facets or regions, leading to multiplicity of CO stripping peaks. This work provides a new insight into the CO electrooxidation mechanism and kinetics on heterogeneous catalysts.« less

  8. Ruthenium indenylidene “1st generation” olefin metathesis catalysts containing triisopropyl phosphite

    PubMed Central

    Guidone, Stefano; Nahra, Fady; Slawin, Alexandra M Z

    2015-01-01

    Summary The reaction of triisopropyl phosphite with phosphine-based indenylidene pre-catalysts affords “1st generation” cis-complexes. These have been used in olefin metathesis reactions. The cis-Ru species exhibit noticeable differences with the trans-Ru parent complexes in terms of structure, thermal stability and reactivity. Experimental data underline the importance of synergistic effects between phosphites and L-type ligands. PMID:26425210

  9. Atomistic Modeling of RuAl and (RuNi) Al Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gargano, Pablo; Mosca, Hugo; Bozzolo, Guillermo; Noebe, Ronald D.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Atomistic modeling of RuAl and RuAlNi alloys, using the BFS (Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith) method for alloys is performed. The lattice parameter and energy of formation of B2 RuAl as a function of stoichiometry and the lattice parameter of (Ru(sub 50-x)Ni(sub x)Al(sub 50)) alloys as a function of Ni concentration are computed. BFS based Monte Carlo simulations indicate that compositions close to Ru25Ni25Al50 are single phase with no obvious evidence of a miscibility gap and separation of the individual B2 phases.

  10. Ferromagnetic CaRuO3

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Shivendra; Rana, Rakesh; Kumar, Sanjay; Pandey, Parul; Singh, R. S.; Rana, D. S.

    2014-01-01

    The non-magnetic and non-Fermi-liquid CaRuO3 is the iso-structural analog of the ferromagnetic (FM) and Fermi-liquid SrRuO3. We show that an FM order in the orthorhombic CaRuO3 can be established by the means of tensile epitaxial strain. The structural and magnetic property correlations in the CaRuO3 films formed on SrTiO3 (100) substrate establish a scaling relation between the FM moment and the tensile strain. The strain dependent crossover from non-magnetic to FM CaRuO3 was observed to be associated with switching of non-Fermi liquid to Fermi-liquid behavior. The intrinsic nature of this strain-induced FM order manifests in the Hall resistivity too; the anomalous Hall component realizes in FM tensile-strained CaRuO3 films on SrTiO3 (100) whereas the non-magnetic compressive-strained films on LaAlO3 (100) exhibit only the ordinary Hall effect. These observations of an elusive FM order are consistent with the theoretical predictions of scaling of the tensile epitaxial strain and the magnetic order in tensile CaRuO3. We further establish that the tensile strain is more efficient than the chemical route to induce FM order in CaRuO3. PMID:24464302

  11. Photocatalytic CO2 reduction with high turnover frequency and selectivity of formic acid formation using Ru(II) multinuclear complexes

    PubMed Central

    Tamaki, Yusuke; Morimoto, Tatsuki; Koike, Kazuhide; Ishitani, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Previously undescribed supramolecules constructed with various ratios of two kinds of Ru(II) complexes—a photosensitizer and a catalyst—were synthesized. These complexes can photocatalyze the reduction of CO2 to formic acid with high selectivity and durability using a wide range of wavelengths of visible light and NADH model compounds as electron donors in a mixed solution of dimethylformamide–triethanolamine. Using a higher ratio of the photosensitizer unit to the catalyst unit led to a higher yield of formic acid. In particular, of the reported photocatalysts, a trinuclear complex with two photosensitizer units and one catalyst unit photocatalyzed CO2 reduction (ΦHCOOH = 0.061, TONHCOOH = 671) with the fastest reaction rate (TOFHCOOH = 11.6 min-1). On the other hand, photocatalyses of a mixed system containing two kinds of model mononuclear Ru(II) complexes, and supramolecules with a higher ratio of the catalyst unit were much less efficient, and black oligomers and polymers were produced from the Ru complexes during photocatalytic reactions, which reduced the yield of formic acid. The photocatalytic formation of formic acid using the supramolecules described herein proceeds via two sequential processes: the photochemical reduction of the photosensitizer unit by NADH model compounds and intramolecular electron transfer to the catalyst unit. PMID:22908243

  12. Potential of Ni supported on KH zeolite catalysts for carbon dioxide reforming of methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaengsilalai, Athiya; Luengnaruemitchai, Apanee; Jitkarnka, Sirirat; Wongkasemjit, Sujitra

    The catalytic activity of Ni on a series of catalysts supported on the synthesized KH zeolite for the CO 2 reforming of methane has been investigated. The KH zeolite supports were previously synthesized via silatrane and alumatrane precursors using the sol-gel process and hydrothermal microwave treatment. Eight percent Ni was impregnated onto the synthesized KH zeolites, which have different morphologies: called dog-bone, flower, and disordered shapes. The prepared Ni/KH zeolites were tested for their catalytic activity at 700 °C, at atmospheric pressure, and at a CH 4/CO 2 ratio of 1. The results showed that Ni supported on dog-bone and flower-shaped KH zeolites provided better activity than that of disordered KH zeolite due to higher CH 4 and CO 2 conversions, a higher H 2 production, and a smaller amount of coke formation on the catalyst surface. Furthermore, the stability of the Ni/KH zeolite was greatly superior to that of Ni supported on alumina and clinoptiolite catalysts after 65 h on stream.

  13. Ultrathin nitrogen-doped graphitized carbon shell encapsulating CoRu bimetallic nanoparticles for enhanced electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution.

    PubMed

    Xu, You; Li, Yinghao; Yin, Shuli; Yu, Hongjie; Xue, Hairong; Li, Xiaonian; Wang, Hongjing; Wang, Liang

    2018-06-01

    Design of highly active and cost-effective electrocatalysts is very important for the generation of hydrogen by electrochemical water-splitting. Herein, we report the fabrication of ultrathin nitrogen-doped graphitized carbon shell encapsulating CoRu bimetallic nanoparticles (CoRu@NCs) and demonstrate their promising feasibility for efficiently catalyzing the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) over a wide pH range. The resultant CoRu@NC nanohybrids possess an alloy-carbon core-shell structure with encapsulated low-ruthenium-content CoRu bimetallic alloy nanoparticles (10-30 nm) as the core and ultrathin nitrogen-doped graphitized carbon layers (2-6 layers) as the shell. Remarkably, the optimized catalyst (CoRu@NC-2 sample) with a Ru content as low as 2.04 wt% shows superior catalytic activity and excellent durability for HER in acidic, neutral, and alkaline conditions. This work offers a new method for the design and synthesis of non-platium-based electrocatalysts for HER in all-pH.

  14. Light Makes a Surface Banana-Bond Split: Photodesorption of Molecular Hydrogen from RuO 2 (110)

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Michael A.; Mu, Rentao; Dahal, Arjun

    The coordination of H2 to a metal center via polarization of its bond electron density, known as a Kubas complex, is the means by which H2 chemisorbs at Ru4+ sites on the rutile RuO2(110) surface. This distortion of electron density off an interatomic axis is often described as a ‘banana-bond.’ We show that the Ru-H2 banana-bond can be destabilized, and split, using visible light. Photodesorption of H2 (or D2) is evident by mass spectrometry and scanning tunneling microscopy. From time-dependent density functional theory, the key optical excitation splitting the Ru-H2 banana-bond involves an interband transition in RuO2 which effectively diminishesmore » its Lewis acidity, and thereby weakening the Kubas complex. Such excitations are not expected to affect adsorbates on RuO2 given its metallic properties. Therefore, this common thermal co-catalyst employed in promoting water splitting is, itself, photo-active in the visible.« less

  15. Ultrathin nitrogen-doped graphitized carbon shell encapsulating CoRu bimetallic nanoparticles for enhanced electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, You; Li, Yinghao; Yin, Shuli; Yu, Hongjie; Xue, Hairong; Li, Xiaonian; Wang, Hongjing; Wang, Liang

    2018-06-01

    Design of highly active and cost-effective electrocatalysts is very important for the generation of hydrogen by electrochemical water-splitting. Herein, we report the fabrication of ultrathin nitrogen-doped graphitized carbon shell encapsulating CoRu bimetallic nanoparticles (CoRu@NCs) and demonstrate their promising feasibility for efficiently catalyzing the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) over a wide pH range. The resultant CoRu@NC nanohybrids possess an alloy–carbon core–shell structure with encapsulated low-ruthenium-content CoRu bimetallic alloy nanoparticles (10–30 nm) as the core and ultrathin nitrogen-doped graphitized carbon layers (2–6 layers) as the shell. Remarkably, the optimized catalyst (CoRu@NC-2 sample) with a Ru content as low as 2.04 wt% shows superior catalytic activity and excellent durability for HER in acidic, neutral, and alkaline conditions. This work offers a new method for the design and synthesis of non-platium-based electrocatalysts for HER in all-pH.

  16. Mild oxidation of methane to methanol or acetic acid on supported isolated rhodium catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Junjun; Li, Mengwei; Allard, Lawrence F.; Lee, Sungsik; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria

    2017-11-01

    An efficient and direct method of catalytic conversion of methane to liquid methanol and other oxygenates would be of considerable practical value. However, it remains an unsolved problem in catalysis, as typically it involves expensive or corrosive oxidants or reaction media that are not amenable to commercialization. Although methane can be directly converted to methanol using molecular oxygen under mild conditions in the gas phase, the process is either stoichiometric (and therefore requires a water extraction step) or is too slow and low-yielding to be practical. Methane could, in principle, also be transformed through direct oxidative carbonylation to acetic acid, which is commercially obtained through methane steam reforming, methanol synthesis, and subsequent methanol carbonylation on homogeneous catalysts. However, an effective catalyst for the direct carbonylation of methane to acetic acid, which might enable the economical small-scale utilization of natural gas that is currently flared or stranded, has not yet been reported. Here we show that mononuclear rhodium species, anchored on a zeolite or titanium dioxide support suspended in aqueous solution, catalyse the direct conversion of methane to methanol and acetic acid, using oxygen and carbon monoxide under mild conditions. We find that the two products form through independent pathways, which allows us to tune the conversion: three-hour-long batch-reactor tests conducted at 150 degrees Celsius, using either the zeolite-supported or the titanium-dioxide-supported catalyst, yield around 22,000 micromoles of acetic acid per gram of catalyst, or around 230 micromoles of methanol per gram of catalyst, respectively, with selectivities of 60-100 per cent. We anticipate that these unusually high activities, despite still being too low for commercial application, may guide the development of optimized catalysts and practical processes for the direct conversion of methane to methanol, acetic acid and other useful

  17. Low-Pt-Content Anode Catalyst for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Whitacre, Jay

    2008-01-01

    Combinatorial experiments have led to the discovery that a nanophase alloy of Pt, Ru, Ni, and Zr is effective as an anode catalyst material for direct methanol fuel cells. This discovery has practical significance in that the electronic current densities achievable by use of this alloy are comparable or larger than those obtained by use of prior Pt/Ru catalyst alloys containing greater amounts of Pt. Heretofore, the high cost of Pt has impeded the commercialization of direct methanol fuel cells. By making it possible to obtain a given level of performance at reduced Pt content (and, hence, lower cost), the discovery may lead to reduction of the economic impediment to commercialization.

  18. Syntheses and molecular structures of novel Ru(II) complexes with bidentate benzimidazole based ligands and their catalytic efficiency for oxidation of benzyl alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayan, Osman; Tercan, Melek; Özdemir, Namık

    2016-11-01

    Five bidentate ligands derived from quinoline-2-carboxylic acid, i.e. 2-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)quinoline (L1), 2-(1-benzyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)quinoline (L2), 2-[1-(2,3,5,6-tetramethylbenzyl)-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl]quinoline (L3), 2-[1-(4-chlorobenzyl)-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl]quinoline (L4), and 2-[1-(4-methylbenzyl)-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl]quinoline (L5) were synthesized. Treatment of L1-5 with [RuCl2(p-cymene)]2 and KPF6 afforded six-coordinate piano-stool Ru(II) complexes, namely, [RuCl(L1)(p-cymene)]PF6 (C1), [RuCl(L2)(p-cymene)]PF6 (C2), [RuCl(L3)(p-cymene)]PF6 (C3), [RuCl(L4)(p-cymene)]PF6 (C4), and [RuCl(L5)(p-cymene)]PF6 (C5). Synthesized compounds were characterized with different techniques such as 1H and 13C NMR, FT-IR, and UV-vis spectroscopy. The solid state structure of L1 and C3 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The single crystal structure of C3 verified coordination of L3 to the Ru(II) center. The Ru(II) center has a pseudo-octahedral three legged piano stool geometry. The complexes C1-5 were tested as catalysts for the catalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde in the presence of periodic acid (H5IO6) (Substrate/Catalyst/Oxidant = 1/0.01/0.5). The best result was obtained with C2 (3 h→90%).

  19. Comparison of iridium- and ruthenium-based, Pt-surface-enriched, nanosize catalysts for the oxygen-reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, D.; Goor, M.; Alon, M.; Tsizin, S.; Burstein, L.; Rosenberg, Y.; Popov, I.; Peled, E.

    2016-02-01

    Pt-surface-enriched nanosize catalysts (Pt-SENS catalysts) with ruthenium and iridium cores, supported on XC72, were synthesized and characterized. The structure and composition of the catalysts are determined by Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Electrochemical characterization tests, including oxygen-reduction-catalysis activity and durability studies of catalysts are performed with the use of cyclic-voltammetry and rotating-disk-electrode (RDE) techniques at room temperature. The ORR activity of the homemade catalysts is also compared to ORR activity of commercial 50%Pt/C catalyst. It is determined that the Ir-based catalyst (Pt/Ir/XC72) shows higher ORR activity in terms of A g-1 of Pt (at 0.85 V vs. RHE) than the Ru-based catalyst (Pt/Ru/XC72) and the commercial 50%Pt/C. The Ru-based catalyst shows similar ORR activity in terms of A g-1 of Pt, to that of the commercial 50%Pt/C, but with much lower durability.

  20. Novel Electronic Structures of Ru-pnictides RuPn (Pn = P, As, Sb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, H.; Toriyama, T.; Konishi, T.; Ohta, Y.

    Density-functional-theory-based electronic structure calculations are made to consider the novel electronic states of Ru-pnictides RuP and RuAs where the intriguing phase transitions and superconductivity under doping of Rh have been reported. We find that there appear nearly degenerate flat bands just at the Fermi level in the high-temperature metallic phase of RuP and RuAs; the flat-band states come mainly from the 4dxy orbitals of Ru ions and the Rh doping shifts the Fermi level just above the flat bands. The splitting of the flat bands caused by their electronic instability may then be responsible for the observed phase transition to the nonmagnetic insulating phase at low temperatures. We also find that the band structure calculated for RuSb resembles that of the doped RuP and RuAs, which is consistent with experiment where superconductivity occurs in RuSb without Rh doping.

  1. Investigation on the light alkanes aromatization over Zn and Ga modified HZSM-5 catalysts in the presence of methane

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Qingyin; Zhang, Fengqi; Jarvis, Jack

    The catalytic co-aromatization of methane and paraffin-rich raffinate oil was investigated along with hexane, heptane and octane as its model compounds over zinc and gallium modified ZSM-5 zeolite catalysts. The benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) components derived from light alkane aromatization were highly promoted with the assistance of methane. The co-existence of Zn and Ga metal species has a positive effect on the formation of BTX components, whereas the individual metal loaded catalyst resulted in the production of heavy aromatics, suggesting that zinc and gallium have a synergistic effect on the formation of BTX under the methane environment. When concernedmore » with gaseous analysis, the introduced methane might interact with smaller intermediates and then transform into larger hydrocarbons. From the DRIFT observation, it was witnessed that the interaction between light alkane and methane occurred on the surface of the charged Zn-Ga/ZSM-5 catalyst. According to the comprehensive catalyst characterizations, the excellent catalytic performance may be closely associated with greatly dispersed metal species on the zeolite support, improved microporous characteristic, moderate Bronsted and increased Lewis acidic sites during the paraffin-rich liquid feedstock aromatization under methane environment. This research provides a promising pathway for the highly effective and profitable utilization of petrochemical resources and natural gas.« less

  2. Investigation on the light alkanes aromatization over Zn and Ga modified HZSM-5 catalysts in the presence of methane

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Qingyin; Zhang, Fengqi; Jarvis, Jack; ...

    2018-03-16

    The catalytic co-aromatization of methane and paraffin-rich raffinate oil was investigated along with hexane, heptane and octane as its model compounds over zinc and gallium modified ZSM-5 zeolite catalysts. The benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) components derived from light alkane aromatization were highly promoted with the assistance of methane. The co-existence of Zn and Ga metal species has a positive effect on the formation of BTX components, whereas the individual metal loaded catalyst resulted in the production of heavy aromatics, suggesting that zinc and gallium have a synergistic effect on the formation of BTX under the methane environment. When concernedmore » with gaseous analysis, the introduced methane might interact with smaller intermediates and then transform into larger hydrocarbons. From the DRIFT observation, it was witnessed that the interaction between light alkane and methane occurred on the surface of the charged Zn-Ga/ZSM-5 catalyst. According to the comprehensive catalyst characterizations, the excellent catalytic performance may be closely associated with greatly dispersed metal species on the zeolite support, improved microporous characteristic, moderate Bronsted and increased Lewis acidic sites during the paraffin-rich liquid feedstock aromatization under methane environment. This research provides a promising pathway for the highly effective and profitable utilization of petrochemical resources and natural gas.« less

  3. Ultralow charge-transfer resistance with ultralow Pt loading for hydrogen evolution and oxidation using Ru@Pt core-shell nanocatalysts

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Jia X.; Zhang, Yu; Capuano, Christopher B.; ...

    2015-07-15

    We evaluated the activities of well-defined Ru@Pt core-shell nanocatalysts for hydrogen evolution and oxidation reactions (HER-HOR) using hanging strips of gas diffusion electrode (GDE) in solution cells. With gas transport limitation alleviated by micro-porous channels in the GDEs, the charge transfer resistances (CTRs) at the hydrogen reversible potential were conveniently determined from linear fit of ohmic-loss-corrected polarization curves. In 1M HClO₄ at 23°C, a CTR as low as 0.04 Ω cm² was obtained with only 20 μg cm⁻² Pt and 11 μg cm⁻² Ru using the carbon-supported Ru@Pt with 1:1 Ru:Pt atomic ratio. Derived from temperature-dependent CTRs, the activation barriermore » of the Ru@Pt catalyst for the HER-HOR in acids is 0.2 eV or 19 kJ mol⁻¹. Using the Ru@Pt catalyst with total metal loadings <50 μg cm⁻² for the HER in proton-exchange-membrane water electrolyzers, we recorded uncompromised activity and durability compared to the baseline established with 3 mg cm⁻² Pt black.« less

  4. Using surface segregation to design stable Ru-Ir oxides for the oxygen evolution reaction in acidic environments.

    DOE PAGES

    Danilovic, N.; Subbaraman, R.; Chang, K-C.; ...

    2014-10-08

    The methods used to improve catalytic activity are well-established, however elucidating the factors that simultaneously control activity and stability is still lacking, especially for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalysts. Here, by studying fundamental links between the activity and stability of well-characterized monometallic and bimetallic oxides, we found that there is generally an inverse relationship between activity and stability. To overcome this limitation, we developed a new synthesis strategy that is based on tuning the near-surface composition of Ru and Ir elements by surface segregation, thereby resulting in the formation of a nanosegregated domain that balances the stability and activity ofmore » surface atoms. We demonstrate that a Ru0.5Ir0.5 alloy synthesized by using this method exhibits four-times higher stability than the best Ru-Ir oxygen evolution reaction materials, while still preserving the same activity.« less

  5. Chemical Insights into the Design and Development of Face-Centered Cubic Ruthenium Catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Zhen; Liu, Jin-Xun; Gu, Jun; Zhou, Wu; Yao, Si-Yu; Si, Rui; Guo, Yu; Su, Hai-Yan; Yan, Chun-Hua; Li, Wei-Xue; Zhang, Ya-Wen; Ma, Ding

    2017-02-15

    Ruthenium is a promising low-temperature catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS). However, its scarcity and modest specific activity limit its widespread industrialization. We demonstrate here a strategy for tuning the crystal phase of catalysts to expose denser and active sites for a higher mass-specific activity. Density functional theory calculations show that upon CO dissociation there are a number of open facets with modest barrier available on the face-centered cubic (fcc) Ru but only a few step edges with a lower barrier on conventional hexagonal-closest packed (hcp) Ru. Guided by theoretical calculations, water-dispersible fcc Ru catalysts containing abundant open facets were synthesized and showed an unprecedented mass-specific activity in the aqueous-phase FTS, 37.8 mol CO ·mol Ru -1 ·h -1 at 433 K. The mass-specific activity of the fcc Ru catalysts with an average size of 6.8 nm is about three times larger than the previous best hcp catalyst with a smaller size of 1.9 nm and a higher specific surface area. The origin of the higher mass-specific activity of the fcc Ru catalysts is identified experimentally from the 2 orders of magnitude higher density of the active sites, despite its slightly higher apparent barrier. Experimental results are in excellent agreement with prediction of theory. The great influence of the crystal phases on site distribution and their intrinsic activities revealed here provides a rationale design of catalysts for higher mass-specific activity without decrease of the particle size.

  6. Nanoscale decomposition of Nb-Ru-O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Music, Denis; Geyer, Richard W.; Chen, Yen-Ting

    2016-11-01

    A correlative theoretical and experimental methodology has been employed to explore the decomposition of amorphous Nb-Ru-O at elevated temperatures. Density functional theory based molecular dynamics simulations reveal that amorphous Nb-Ru-O is structurally modified within 10 ps at 800 K giving rise to an increase in the planar metal - oxygen and metal - metal population and hence formation of large clusters, which signifies atomic segregation. The driving force for this atomic segregation process is 0.5 eV/atom. This is validated by diffraction experiments and transmission electron microscopy of sputter-synthesized Nb-Ru-O thin films. Room temperature samples are amorphous, while at 800 K nanoscale rutile RuO2 grains, self-organized in an amorphous Nb-O matrix, are observed, which is consistent with our theoretical predictions. This amorphous/crystalline interplay may be of importance for next generation of thermoelectric devices.

  7. Into the Modelling of RU Vir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, G.; Hron, J.; Paladini, C.; Eriksson, K.; Aringer, B.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Mečina, M.

    2015-08-01

    We present an attempt to model the atmosphere of the carbon-rich Mira star RU Vir, using different techniques including spectroscopy, photometry, and interferometry. A radiative transfer code and hydrostatic model atmospheres were used for a preliminary study. To investigate the dynamic processes happening in RU Vir, dynamic model atmospheres were compared to new MIDI/VLTI observations obtained in April 2014, and SiC opacities were added.

  8. Methane Conversion to Ethylene and Aromatics on PtSn Catalysts

    DOE PAGES

    Gerceker, Duygu; Motagamwala, Ali Hussain; Rivera-Dones, Keishla R.; ...

    2017-02-03

    Pt and PtSn catalysts supported on SiO 2 and H-ZSM-5 were studied for methane conversion under nonoxidative conditions. Addition of Sn to Pt/SiO 2 increased the turnover frequency for production of ethylene by a factor of 3, and pretreatment of the catalyst at 1123 K reduced the extent of coke formation. Pt and PtSn catalysts supported on H-ZSM-5 zeolite were prepared to improve the activity and selectivity to non-coke products. Ethylene formation rates were 20 times faster over a PtSn(1:3)/H-ZSM-5 catalyst with SiO 2:Al 2O 3 = 280 in comparison to those over PtSn(3:1)/SiO 2. H-ZSM-5-supported catalysts were also activemore » for the formation of aromatics, and the rates of benzene and naphthalene formation were increased by using more acidic H-ZSM-5 supports. These catalysts operate through a bifunctional mechanism, in which ethylene is first produced on highly dispersed PtSn nanoparticles and then is subsequently converted to benzene and naphthalene on Brønsted acid sites within the zeolite support. The most active and stable PtSn catalyst forms carbon products at a rate, 2.5 mmol of C/((mol of Pt) s), which is comparable to that of state-of-the-art Mo/H-ZSM-5 catalysts with same metal loading operated under similar conditions (1.8 mmol of C/((mol of Mo) s)). Scanning transmission electron microscopy measurements suggest the presence of smaller Pt nanoparticles on H-ZSM-5-supported catalysts, in comparison to SiO 2-supported catalysts, as a possible source of their high activity. As a result, a microkinetic model of methane conversion on Pt and PtSn surfaces, built using results from density functional theory calculations, predicts higher coupling rates on bimetallic and stepped surfaces, supporting the experimental observations that relate the high catalytic activity to small PtSn particles.« less

  9. Electrons to Reactors Multiscale Modeling: Catalytic CO Oxidation over RuO 2

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, Jonathan E.; Lorenzi, Juan M.; Krogel, Jaron T.

    First-principles kinetic Monte Carlo (1p-kMC) simulations for CO oxidation on two RuO 2 facets, RuO 2(110) and RuO 2(111), were coupled to the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations package MFIX, and reactor-scale simulations were then performed. 1p-kMC coupled with CFD has recently been shown as a feasible method for translating molecular scale mechanistic knowledge to the reactor scale, enabling comparisons to in situ and online experimental measurements. Only a few studies with such coupling have been published. This work incorporates multiple catalytic surface facets into the scale-coupled simulation, and three possibilities were investigated: the two possibilities of each facet individuallymore » being the dominant phase in the reactor, and also the possibility that both facets were present on the catalyst particles in the ratio predicted by an ab initio thermodynamics-based Wulff construction. When lateral interactions between adsorbates were included in the 1p-kMC simulations, the two surfaces, RuO 2(110) and RuO 2(111), were found to be of similar order-of-magnitude in activity for the pressure range of 1 × 10 –4 bar to 1 bar, with the RuO 2(110) surface-termination showing more simulated activity than the RuO 2(111) surface-termination. Coupling between the 1p-kMC and CFD was achieved with a lookup table generated by the error-based modified Shepard interpolation scheme. Isothermal reactor scale simulations were performed and compared to two separate experimental studies, conducted with reactant partial pressures of ≤0.1 bar. Simulations without an isothermality restriction were also conducted and showed that the simulated temperature gradient across the catalytic reactor bed is <0.5 K, which validated the use of the isothermality restriction for investigating the reactor-scale phenomenological temperature dependences. The approach with the Wulff construction based reactor simulations reproduced a trend similar to one experimental data set

  10. Electrons to Reactors Multiscale Modeling: Catalytic CO Oxidation over RuO 2

    DOE PAGES

    Sutton, Jonathan E.; Lorenzi, Juan M.; Krogel, Jaron T.; ...

    2018-04-20

    First-principles kinetic Monte Carlo (1p-kMC) simulations for CO oxidation on two RuO 2 facets, RuO 2(110) and RuO 2(111), were coupled to the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations package MFIX, and reactor-scale simulations were then performed. 1p-kMC coupled with CFD has recently been shown as a feasible method for translating molecular scale mechanistic knowledge to the reactor scale, enabling comparisons to in situ and online experimental measurements. Only a few studies with such coupling have been published. This work incorporates multiple catalytic surface facets into the scale-coupled simulation, and three possibilities were investigated: the two possibilities of each facet individuallymore » being the dominant phase in the reactor, and also the possibility that both facets were present on the catalyst particles in the ratio predicted by an ab initio thermodynamics-based Wulff construction. When lateral interactions between adsorbates were included in the 1p-kMC simulations, the two surfaces, RuO 2(110) and RuO 2(111), were found to be of similar order-of-magnitude in activity for the pressure range of 1 × 10 –4 bar to 1 bar, with the RuO 2(110) surface-termination showing more simulated activity than the RuO 2(111) surface-termination. Coupling between the 1p-kMC and CFD was achieved with a lookup table generated by the error-based modified Shepard interpolation scheme. Isothermal reactor scale simulations were performed and compared to two separate experimental studies, conducted with reactant partial pressures of ≤0.1 bar. Simulations without an isothermality restriction were also conducted and showed that the simulated temperature gradient across the catalytic reactor bed is <0.5 K, which validated the use of the isothermality restriction for investigating the reactor-scale phenomenological temperature dependences. The approach with the Wulff construction based reactor simulations reproduced a trend similar to one experimental data set

  11. Catalyst for Carbon Monoxide Oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Patricia; Brown, Kenneth; VanNorman, John; Brown, David; Upchurch, Billy; Schryer, David; Miller, Irvin

    2010-01-01

    In many applications, it is highly desirable to operate a CO2 laser in a sealed condition, for in an open system the laser requires a continuous flow of laser gas to remove the dissociation products that occur in the discharge zone of the laser, in order to maintain a stable power output. This adds to the operating cost of the laser, and in airborne or space applications, it also adds to the weight penalty of the laser. In a sealed CO2 laser, a small amount of CO2 gas is decomposed in the electrical discharge zone into corresponding quantities of CO and O2. As the laser continues to operate, the concentration of CO2 decreases, while the concentrations of CO and O2 correspondingly increase. The increasing concentration of O2 reduces laser power, because O2 scavenges electrons in the electrical discharge, thereby causing arcing in the electric discharge and a loss of the energetic electrons required to boost CO2 molecules to lasing energy levels. As a result, laser power decreases rapidly. The primary object of this invention is to provide a catalyst that, by composition of matter alone, contains chemisorbed water within and upon its structure. Such bound moisture renders the catalyst highly active and very long-lived, such that only a small quantity of it needs to be used with a CO2 laser under ambient operating conditions. This object is achieved by a catalyst that consists essentially of about 1 to 40 percent by weight of one or more platinum group metals (Pt, Pd, Rh, Ir, Ru, Os, Pt being preferred); about 1 to 90 percent by weight of one or more oxides of reducible metals having multiple valence states (such as Sn, Ti, Mn, Cu, and Ce, with SnO2 being preferred); and about 1 to 90 percent by weight of a compound that can bind water to its structure (such as silica gel, calcium chloride, magnesium sulfate, hydrated alumina, and magnesium perchlorate, with silica gel being preferred). Especially beneficial results are obtained when platinum is present in the

  12. Ru(II) -mediated hydrogen transfer from aqueous glycerol to CO2: from waste to value-added products.

    PubMed

    Dibenedetto, Angela; Stufano, Paolo; Nocito, Francesco; Aresta, Michele

    2011-09-19

    Aqueous glycerol was used as the hydrogen source for the reduction of CO(2) to the hydrogen carrier formic acid in the presence of the catalyst [RuCl(2)(PPh(3))(3)]. All intermediates were identified and characterized. Glycerol was converted into glycolic acid, HO-CH(2)-COOH, that was identified by using (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Facile Fabrication of Composition-Tuned Ru-Ni Bimetallics in Ordered Mesoporous Carbon for Levulinic Acid Hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ying; Gao, Guang; Zhang, Xin

    Bimetallic catalysts are of great importance due to their unique catalytic properties. However, their conventional synthesis requires tedious multistep procedures and prolonged synthetic time, and the resulting bimetallics usually disperse unevenly and show poor stability. It is challenging to develop a facile and step-economic synthetic methodology for highly efficient bimetallic catalysts. In this study, we report an elegant metal complex-involved multicomponent assembly route to highly efficient Ru–Ni bimetallics in ordered mesoporous carbons (OMC). The fabrication of composition-tuned Ru–Ni bimetallics in OMC (Ru xNi 1–x–OMC, x = 0.5–0.9) was facilely realized via in situ construction of CTAB-directed cubic Ia3d chitosan-ruthenium–nickel–silica mesophasemore » before pyrolysis and silica removal. The resulting Ru xNi 1–x–OMC materials are in-depth characterized with X-ray diffraction, N 2 adsorption–desorption, transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectrum, and X-ray absorption fine structure. This facile fabrication method renders homogeneously dispersed Ru–Ni bimetallics embedded in the mesoporous carbonaceous framework and creates a highly active and stable Ru 0.9Ni 0.1–OMC catalyst for the hydrogenation of levulinic acid (LA) to prepare γ-valerolactone (GVL), a biomass-derived platform molecule with wide application in the preparation of renewable chemicals and liquid transportation fuels. A high TOF (>2000 h –1) was obtained, and the Ru 0.9Ni 0.1–OMC catalyst could be used at least 15 times without obvious loss of its catalytic performance.« less

  14. Improved WO3 photocatalytic efficiency using ZrO2 and Ru for the degradation of carbofuran and ampicillin.

    PubMed

    Gar Alalm, Mohamed; Ookawara, Shinichi; Fukushi, Daisuke; Sato, Akira; Tawfik, Ahmed

    2016-01-25

    The photocatalytic degradation of carbofuran (pesticide) and ampicillin (pharmaceutical) using synthesized WO3/ZrO2 nanoparticles under simulated solar light was investigated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectra analyses were used to characterize the prepared catalysts. The optimum ratio of WO3 to ZrO2 was determined to be 1:1 for the degradation of both contaminants. The degradation of carbofuran and ampicillin by WO3/ZrO2 after 240 min of irradiation was 100% and 96%, respectively. Ruthenium (Ru) was employed as an additive to WO3/ZrO2 to enhance the photocatalytic degradation rate. Ru/WO3/ZrO2 exhibited faster degradation rates than WO3/ZrO2. Furthermore, 100% and 97% degradation of carbofuran and ampicillin, respectively, was achieved using Ru/WO3/ZrO2 after 180 min of irradiation. The durability of the catalyst was investigated by reusing the same suspended catalyst, which achieved 92% of its initial efficiency. The photocatalytic degradation of ampicillin and carbofuran followed pseudo-first order kinetics according to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mass-produced multi-walled carbon nanotubes as catalyst supports for direct methanol fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Jang, In Young; Park, Ki Chul; Jung, Yong Chae; Lee, Sun Hyung; Song, Sung Moo; Muramatsu, Hiroyuki; Kim, Yong Jung; Endo, Morinobu

    2011-01-01

    Commercially mass-produced multi-walled carbon nanotubes, i.e., VGNF (Showa Denko Co.), were applied to support materials for platinum-ruthenium (PtRu) nanoparticles as anode catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells. The original VGNFs are composed of high-crystalline graphitic shells, which hinder the favorable surface deposition of the PtRu nanoparticles that are formed via borohydride reduction. The chemical treatment of VGNFs with potassium hydroxide (KOH), however, enables highly dispersed and dense deposition of PtRu nanoparticles on the VGNF surface. This capability becomes more remarkable depending on the KOH amount. The electrochemical evaluation of the PtRu-deposited VGNF catalysts showed enhanced active surface areas and methanol oxidation, due to the high dispersion and dense deposition of the PtRu nanoparticles. The improvement of the surface deposition states of the PtRu nanoparticles was significantly due to the high surface area and mesorporous surface structure of the KOH-activated VGNFs.

  16. Design and Stereoselective Preparation of a New Class of Chiral Olefin Metathesis Catalysts and Application to Enantioselective Synthesis of Quebrachamine: Catalyst Development Inspired by Natural Product Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Sattely, Elizabeth S.; Meek, Simon J.; Malcolmson, Steven J.; Schrock, Richard R.; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2010-01-01

    A total synthesis of the Aspidosperma alkaloid quebrachamine in racemic form is first described. A key catalytic ring-closing metathesis of an achiral triene is used to establish the all-carbon quaternary stereogenic center and the tetracyclic structure of the natural product; the catalytic transformation proceeds with reasonable efficiency through the use of existing achiral Ru or Mo catalysts. Ru- or Mo-based chiral olefin metathesis catalysts have proven to be inefficient and entirely nonselective in cases where the desired product is observed. In the present study, the synthesis route thus serves as a platform for the discovery of new olefin metathesis catalysts that allow for efficient completion of an enantioselective synthesis of quebrachamine. Accordingly, on the basis of mechanistic principles, stereogenic-at-Mo complexes bearing only monodentate ligands have been designed. The new catalysts provide significantly higher levels of activity than observed with the previously reported Ru- or Mo-based complexes. Enantiomerically enriched chiral alkylidenes are generated through diastereoselective reactions involving achiral Mo-based bispyrrolides and enantiomerically pure silyl-protected binaphthols. Such chiral catalysts initiate the key enantioselective ring-closing metathesis step in the total synthesis of quebrachamine efficiently (1 mol % loading, 22 °C, 1 h, >98% conversion, 84% yield) and with high selectivity (98:2 er, 96% ee). PMID:19113867

  17. Electrochemical catalyst recovery method

    DOEpatents

    Silva, L.J.; Bray, L.A.

    1995-05-30

    A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: (a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; (b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; (c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and (d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications. 3 figs.

  18. Electrochemical catalyst recovery method

    DOEpatents

    Silva, Laura J.; Bray, Lane A.

    1995-01-01

    A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications.

  19. Catalysis of nickel ferrite for photocatalytic water oxidation using [Ru(bpy)3]2+ and S2O8(2-).

    PubMed

    Hong, Dachao; Yamada, Yusuke; Nagatomi, Takaharu; Takai, Yoshizo; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2012-12-05

    Single or mixed oxides of iron and nickel have been examined as catalysts in photocatalytic water oxidation using [Ru(bpy)(3)](2+) as a photosensitizer and S(2)O(8)(2-) as a sacrificial oxidant. The catalytic activity of nickel ferrite (NiFe(2)O(4)) is comparable to that of a catalyst containing Ir, Ru, or Co in terms of O(2) yield and O(2) evolution rate under ambient reaction conditions. NiFe(2)O(4) also possesses robustness and ferromagnetic properties, which are beneficial for easy recovery from the solution after reaction. Water oxidation catalysis achieved by a composite of earth-abundant elements will contribute to a new approach to the design of catalysts for artificial photosynthesis.

  20. Efficient cluster-based catalysts for asymmetric hydrogenation of α-unsaturated carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Moberg, Viktor; Duquesne, Robin; Contaldi, Simone; Röhrs, Oliver; Nachtigall, Jonny; Damoense, Llewellyn; Hutton, Alan T; Green, Michael; Monari, Magda; Santelia, Daniela; Haukka, Matti; Nordlander, Ebbe

    2012-09-24

    The new clusters [H(4)Ru(4)(CO)(10)(μ-1,2-P-P)], [H(4)Ru(4)(CO)(10) (1,1-P-P)] and [H(4)Ru(4)(CO)(11)(P-P)] (P-P=chiral diphosphine of the ferrocene-based Josiphos or Walphos ligand families) have been synthesised and characterised. The crystal and molecular structures of eleven clusters reveal that the coordination modes of the diphosphine in the [H(4)Ru(4)(CO)(10)(μ-1,2-P-P)] clusters are different for the Josiphos and the Walphos ligands. The Josiphos ligands bridge a metal-metal bond of the ruthenium tetrahedron in the "conventional" manner, that is, with both phosphine moieties coordinated in equatorial positions relative to a triangular face of the tetrahedron, whereas the phosphine moieties of the Walphos ligands coordinate in one axial and one equatorial position. The differences in the ligand size and the coordination mode between the two types of ligands appear to be reflected in a relative propensity for isomerisation; in solution, the [H(4)Ru(4)(CO)(10)(1,1-Walphos)] clusters isomerise to the corresponding [H(4)Ru(4)(CO)(10)(μ-1,2-Walphos)] clusters, whereas the Josiphos-containing clusters show no tendency to isomerisation in solution. The clusters have been tested as catalysts for asymmetric hydrogenation of four prochiral α-unsaturated carboxylic acids and the prochiral methyl ester (E)-methyl 2-methylbut-2-enoate. High conversion rates (>94%) and selectivities of product formation were observed for almost all catalysts/catalyst precursors. The observed enantioselectivities were low or nonexistent for the Josiphos-containing clusters and catalyst (cluster) recovery was low, suggesting that cluster fragmentation takes place. On the other hand, excellent conversion rates (99-100%), product selectivities (99-100% in most cases) and good enantioselectivities, reaching 90% enantiomeric excess (ee) in certain cases, were observed for the Walphos-containing clusters, and the clusters could be recovered in good yield after completed catalysis. Results

  1. Activity and Stability of Dispersed Multi Metallic Pt-based Catalysts for CO Tolerance in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Anodes.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Ayaz; Ticianelli, Edson A

    2018-01-01

    Studies aiming at improving the activity and stability of dispersed W and Mo containing Pt catalysts for the CO tolerance in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) anodes are revised for the following catalyst systems: (1) a carbon supported PtMo electrocatalyst submitted to heat treatments; (2) Pt and PtMo nanoparticles deposited on carbon-supported molybdenum carbides (Mo2C/C); (3) ternary and quaternary materials formed by PtMoFe/C, PtMoRu/C and PtMoRuFe/C and; (4) Pt nanoparticles supported on tungsten carbide/carbon catalysts and its parallel evaluation with carbon supported PtW catalyst. The heat-treated (600 oC) Pt-Mo/C catalyst showed higher hydrogen oxidation activity in the absence and in the presence of CO and better stability, compared to all other Mo-containing catalysts. PtMoRuFe, PtMoFe, PtMoRu supported on carbon and Pt supported on Mo2C/C exhibited similar CO tolerances but better stability, as compared to as-prepared PtMo supported on carbon. Among the tungsten-based catalysts, tungsten carbide supported Pt catalyst showed reasonable performance and reliable stability in comparison to simple carbon supported PtW catalyst, though an uneven level of catalytic activity towards H2 oxidation in presence of CO is observed for the former as compared to Mo containing catalyst. However, a small dissolution of Mo, Ru, Fe and W from the anodes and their migration toward cathodes during the cell operation is observed. These results indicate that the fuel cell performance and stability has been improved but not yet totally resolved.

  2. Anode catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells utilizing directly solar light illumination.

    PubMed

    Chu, Daobao; Wang, Shuxi; Zheng, Peng; Wang, Jian; Zha, Longwu; Hou, Yuanyuan; He, Jianguo; Xiao, Ying; Lin, Huashui; Tian, Zhaowu

    2009-01-01

    Shine a light: A PtNiRu/TiO(2) anode catalyst for direct ethanol fuel cells shows photocatalytic activity. The peak current density for ethanol oxidation under solar light illumination is 2-3 times greater than that in the absence of solar light. Ethanol is oxidized by light-generated holes, and the electrons are collected by the TiO(2) support to generate the oxidation current.Novel PtNiRu/TiO(2) anode catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) were prepared from PtNiRu nanoparticles (1:1:1 atomic ratios) and a nanoporous TiO(2) film by a sol-gel and electrodeposition method. The performances of the catalysts for ethanol oxidation were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results indicate a remarkable enhancement of activity for ethanol oxidation under solar light illumination. Under solar light illumination, the generated oxidation peak current density is 24.6 mA cm(-2), which is about 2.5 times higher than that observed without solar light (9.9 mA cm(-2)). The high catalytic activity of the PtNiRu/TiO(2) complex catalyst for the electrooxidation of ethanol may be attributed to the modified metal/nanoporous TiO(2) film, and the enhanced electrooxidation of ethanol under solar light may be due to the photogeneration of holes in the modified nanoporous TiO(2) film.

  3. Magnetically Recoverable Supported Ruthenium Catalyst for Hydrogenation of Alkynes and Transfer Hydrogenation of Carbonyl Compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    A ruthenium (Ru) catalyst supported on magnetic nanoparticles (NiFe2O4) has been successfully synthesized and used for hydrogenation of alkynes at room temperature as well as transfer hydrogenation of a number of carbonyl compounds under microwave irradiation conditions. The cata...

  4. Performance comparison of low-temperature direct alcohol fuel cells with different anode catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, W. J.; Zhou, B.; Li, W. Z.; Zhou, Z. H.; Song, S. Q.; Sun, G. Q.; Xin, Q.; Douvartzides, S.; Goula, M.; Tsiakaras, P.

    Low-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells directly fed by methanol and ethanol were investigated employing carbon supported Pt, PtSn and PtRu as anode catalysts, respectively. Employing Pt/C as anode catalyst, both direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) and direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) showed poor performances even in presence of high Pt loading on anode. It was found that the addition of Ru or Sn to the Pt dramatically enhances the electro-oxidation of both methanol and ethanol. It was also found that the single cell adopting PtRu/C as anode shows better DMFC performance, while PtSn/C catalyst shows better DEFC performance. The single fuel cell using PtSn/C as anode catalyst at 90 °C shows similar power densities whenever fueled by methanol or ethanol. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) and single fuel cell tests indicated that PtRu is more suitable for DMFC while PtSn is more suitable for DEFC.

  5. Phosphorus Nitride Imide Nanotube as Carbon-free Support to Anchor Single Ru Sites for Efficient and Robust Hydrogen Evolution.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian; Chen, Bingxu; Liu, Xiaokang; Liu, Wei; Li, Zhijun; Dong, Juncai; Chen, Wenxing; Yan, Wensheng; Yao, Tao; Duan, Xuezhi; Wu, Yuen; Li, Yadong

    2018-06-13

    Herein, we report amorphous phosphorus nitride imide nanotubes (HPN) as a novel substrate to stabilize single metal sites materials by its abundant dangling unsaturated P vacancies. The Ru single atom can be successfully anchored by the strong coordination interaction between the d orbitals of Ru and the lone pair electrons of nitrogen at the skeleton of the HPN matrix. The atomic dispersion of Ru atoms can be distinguished by the X-ray absorption fine structure measurement and spherical aberration correction electron microscopy. Importantly, we find that the Ru SAs@PN can serve as an excellent electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in 0.5 M H2SO4, delivering a low overpotential of 24 mV at 10 mA/cm2 and a Tafel slope of 38 mV/dec. Most importantly, it exhibits robust stability towards a constant current test at large current density of 162 mA/cm2 for more than 24 h and a cyclic voltammetry for more than 5,000 cycles. Additionally, it shows a turnover frequency (TOF) of 1.67 H2 s-1 at 25 mV and 4.29 H2 s-1 at 50 mV in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution, respectively, outperforming most of the reported hydrogen evolution catalyst. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations further demonstrate the Gibbs free-energy of adsorbed H* over the Ru SAs on PN is much closer to zero compared with the Ru/C and Ru SAs supported on carbon and C3N4, thus considerably facilitating the overall HER performance. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Nonaqueous electrocatalytic water oxidation by a surface-bound Ru(bda)(L)₂ complex.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Matthew V; Sherman, Benjamin D; Wee, Kyung-Ryang; Marquard, Seth L; Gold, Alexander S; Meyer, Thomas J

    2016-04-21

    The rate of electrocatalytic water oxidation by the heterogeneous water oxidation catalyst [Ru(bda)(4-O(CH2)3P(O3H2)2-pyr)2], , (pyr = pyridine; bda = 2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylate) on metal oxide surfaces is greatly enhanced relative to water as the solvent. In these experiments with propylene carbonate (PC) as the nonaqueous solvent, water is the limiting reagent. Mechanistic studies point to atom proton transfer (APT) as the rate limiting step in water oxidation catalysis.

  7. Real-time elucidation of catalytic pathways in CO hydrogenation on Ru

    DOE PAGES

    LaRue, Jerry; Krejci, Ondrej; Yu, Liang; ...

    2017-07-31

    Here, the direct elucidation of the reaction pathways in heterogeneous catalysis has been challenging due the short-lived nature of reaction intermediates. Here, we directly measured on ultrafast timescales the initial hydrogenation steps of adsorbed CO on a Ru catalyst surface, which is known as the bottleneck reaction in syngas and CO 2 reforming processes. We initiated the hydrogenation of CO with an ultrafast laser temperature jump and probed transient changes in the electronic structure using real-time x-ray spectroscopy. In combination with theoretical simulations, we verified the formation of CHO during CO hydrogenation.

  8. Catalysts for the selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur

    DOEpatents

    Srinivas, Girish; Bai, Chuansheng

    2000-08-08

    This invention provides catalysts for the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide. In particular, the invention provides catalysts for the partial oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur and water. The catalytically active component of the catalyst comprises a mixture of metal oxides containing titanium oxide and one or more metal oxides which can be selected from the group of metal oxides or mixtures of metal oxides of transition metals or lanthanide metals. Preferred metal oxides for combination with TiO.sub.2 in the catalysts of this invention include oxides of V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Hf, Ta, W, Au, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu. Catalysts which comprise a homogeneous mixture of titanium oxide and niobium (Nb) oxide are also provided. A preferred method for preparing the precursor homogenous mixture of metal hydroxides is by coprecipitation of titanium hydroxide with one or more other selected metal hydroxides. Catalysts of this invention have improved activity and/or selectivity for elemental sulfur production. Further improvements of activity and/or selectivity can be obtained by introducing relatively low amounts (up to about 5 mol %)of a promoter metal oxide (preferably of metals other than titanium and that of the selected second metal oxide) into the homogeneous metal/titanium oxide catalysts of this invention.

  9. Oxygen-Dependent Photocatalytic Water Reduction with a Ruthenium(imidazolium) Chromophore and a Cobaloxime Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Petermann, Lydia; Staehle, Robert; Pfeifer, Maxim; Reichardt, Christian; Sorsche, Dieter; Wächtler, Maria; Popp, Jürgen; Dietzek, Benjamin; Rau, Sven

    2016-06-06

    Detailed investigations of a photocatalytic system capable of producing hydrogen under pre-catalytic aerobic conditions are reported. This system consists of the NHC precursor chromophore [Ru(tbbpy)2 (RR'ip)][PF6 ]3 (abbreviated as Ru(RR'ip)[PF6 ]3 ; tbbpy=4,4'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'-bipyridine, RR'ip=1,3-disubstituted-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthrolinium), the reduction catalyst Co(dmgH)2 (dmgH=dimethylglyoximato), and the electron donor ascorbic acid (AA). Screening studies with respect to solvent, cobaloxime catalyst, electron donor, pH, and concentrations of the individual components yielded optimized photocatalytic conditions. The system shows high activity based on Ru, with turnover numbers up to 2000 under oxygen-free and pre-catalytic aerobic conditions. The turnover frequency in the latter case was even higher than that for the oxygen-free catalyst system. The Ru complexes show high photostability and their first excited state is primarily located on the RR'ip ligand. X-ray crystallographic analysis of the rigid cyclophane-type ligand dd(ip)2 (Br)2 (dd(ip)2 =1,1',3,3'-bis(2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-1,4-phenylene)bis(methylene)bis(1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthrolinium)) and the catalytic activity of its Ru complex [{(tbbpy)2 Ru}2 (μ-dd(ip)2 )][PF6 ]6 (abbreviated as Ru2 (dd(ip)2 )[PF6 ]6 ) suggest an intermolecular catalytic cycle. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Effect of the relationship between particle size, inter-particle distance, and metal loading of carbon supported fuel cell catalysts on their catalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradini, Patricia Gon; Pires, Felipe I.; Paganin, Valdecir A.; Perez, Joelma; Antolini, Ermete

    2012-09-01

    The effect of the relationship between particle size ( d), inter-particle distance ( x i ), and metal loading ( y) of carbon supported fuel cell Pt or PtRu catalysts on their catalytic activity, based on the optimum d (2.5-3 nm) and x i / d (>5) values, was evaluated. It was found that for y < 30 wt%, the optimum values of both d and x i / d can be always obtained. For y ≥ 30 wt%, instead, the positive effect of a thinner catalyst layer of the fuel cell electrode than that using catalysts with y < 30 wt% is concomitant to a decrease of the effective catalyst surface area due to an increase of d and/or a decrease of x i / d compared to their optimum values, with in turns gives rise to a decrease in the catalytic activity. The effect of the x i / d ratio has been successfully verified by experimental results on ethanol oxidation on PtRu/C catalysts with same particle size and same degree of alloying but different metal loading. Tests in direct ethanol fuel cells showed that, compared to 20 wt% PtRu/C, the negative effect of the lower x i / d on the catalytic activity of 30 and 40 wt% PtRu/C catalysts was superior to the positive effect of the thinner catalyst layer.

  11. Dynamic response performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack with Pt/C-RuO2·xH2O electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Lu; Xu, Hongfeng; Zhao, Hong; Sun, Xin; Dong, Yiming; Ren, Ruiming

    2013-11-01

    The dynamic response performance of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) significantly affects its durability and reliability. Thus, the improvement of the dynamic performance of PEMFC has become the key for prolonging the PEMFC life in fuel cell vehicle applications. In this study, RuO2·xH2O is prepared by sol-gel method, and then sprayed onto catalyst layers to promote PEMFC dynamic response performance. The prepared RuO2·xH2O is characterized by TEM, which shows that the average particle size of RuO2·xH2O is 8 nm and that the particulates are uniformly distributed. A 10-cell stack is assembled using membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with and without RuO2·xH2O. This stack is studied under various loading cycles and operating conditions, including different air stoichiometries, relative humidities, and loading degrees. Results show that the steady-state performance of the MEA with RuO2·xH2O is better than that in the MEA without RuO2·xH2O with a decreasing relative humidity from 80% to 20%. A slower and more unstable dynamic response of the MEA without RuO2·xH2O is observed as air stoichiometry and relative humidity decrease as well as the loading increase. Thus, RuO2·xH2O improves the dynamic response performance, indicating that RuO2·xH2O can buffer the voltage undershoot, improve the stability, and prolong the lifetime of the PEMFC stack.

  12. Itinerant Antiferromagnetism in RuO 2

    DOE PAGES

    Berlijn, Tom; Snijders, Paul C.; Delaire, Oliver A.; ...

    2017-02-15

    Bulk rutile RuO 2 has long been considered a Pauli paramagnet. Here, in this article, we report that RuO 2 exhibits a hitherto undetected lattice distortion below approximately 900 K. The distortion is accompanied by antiferromagnetic order up to at least 300 K with a small room temperature magnetic moment of approximately 0.05μ B as evidenced by polarized neutron diffraction. Density functional theory plus U(DFT+U) calculations indicate that antiferromagnetism is favored even for small values of the Hubbard U of the order of 1 eV. The antiferromagnetism may be traced to a Fermi surface instability, lifting the band degeneracy imposedmore » by the rutile crystal field. The combination of high Néel temperature and small itinerant moments make RuO 2 unique among ruthenate compounds and among oxide materials in general.« less

  13. Tailoring the composition of ultrathin, ternary alloy PtRuFe nanowires for the methanol oxidation reaction and formic acid oxidation reaction

    DOE PAGES

    Scofield, Megan E.; Koenigsmann, Christopher; Wang, Lei; ...

    2014-11-25

    In the search for alternatives to conventional Pt electrocatalysts, we have synthesized ultrathin, ternary PtRuFe nanowires (NW), possessing different chemical compositions in order to probe their CO tolerance as well as electrochemical activity as a function of composition for both (i) the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) and (ii) the formic acid oxidation reaction (FAOR). As-prepared ‘multifunctional’ ternary NW catalysts exhibited both higher MOR and FAOR activity as compared with binary Pt₇Ru₃ NW, monometallic Pt NW, and commercial catalyst control samples. In terms of synthetic novelty, we utilized a sustainably mild, ambient wet-synthesis method never previously applied to the fabrication ofmore » crystalline, pure ternary systems in order to fabricate ultrathin, homogeneous alloy PtRuFe NWs with a range of controlled compositions. Thus, these NWs were subsequently characterized using a suite of techniques including XRD, TEM, SAED, and EDAX in order to verify not only the incorporation of Ru and Fe into the Pt lattice but also their chemical homogeneity, morphology, as well as physical structure and integrity. Lastly, these NWs were electrochemically tested in order to deduce the appropriateness of conventional explanations such as (i) the bi-functional mechanism as well as (ii) the ligand effect to account for our MOR and FAOR reaction data. Specifically, methanol oxidation appears to be predominantly influenced by the Ru content, whereas formic acid oxidation is primarily impacted by the corresponding Fe content within the ternary metal alloy catalyst itself.« less

  14. Ru-Catalyzed Estragole Isomerization under Homogeneous and Ionic Liquid Biphasic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The isomerization of estragole to trans-anethole is an important reaction and is industrially performed using an excess of NaOH or KOH in ethanol at high temperatures with very low selectivity. Simple Ru-based transition-metal complexes, under homogeneous, ionic liquid (IL)-supported (biphasic) and “solventless” conditions, can be used for this reaction. The selectivity of this reaction is more sensitive to the solvent/support used than the ligands associated with the metal catalyst. Thus, under the optimized reaction conditions, 100% conversion can be achieved in the estragole isomerization, using as little as 4 × 10–3 mol % (40 ppm) of [RuHCl(CO)(PPh3)3] in toluene, reflecting a total turnover number (TON) of 25 000 and turnover frequencies (TOFs) of up to 500 min–1 at 80 °C. Using a dimeric Ru precursor, [RuCl(μ-Cl)(η3:η3-C10H16)]2, in ethanol associated with P(OEt)3, a TON of 10 000 and a TOF of 125 min–1 are obtained with 100% conversion and 99% selectivity. These two Ru catalytic systems can be transposed to biphasic IL systems by using ionic-tagged P-ligands such as 1-(3-(diphenylphosphanyl)propyl)-2,3-dimethylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide immobilized in 1-(3-hydroxypropyl)-2,3-dimethylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide with up to 99% selectivity and almost complete estragole conversion. However, the reaction is much slower than that performed under solventless or homogeneous conditions. The use of ionic-tagged ligands significantly reduces the Ru leaching to the organic phase, compared to that in reactions performed under homogeneous conditions, where the catalytic system loses catalytic performance after the second recycling. Detailed kinetic investigations of the reaction catalyzed by [RuHCl(CO)(PPh3)3] indicate that a simplified kinetic model (a monomolecular reversible first-order reaction) is adequate for fitting the homogeneous reaction at 80 °C and under biphasic conditions. However, the kinetics of

  15. Electronically highly cubic conditions for Ru in α -RuCl3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrestini, S.; Kuo, C.-Y.; Ko, K.-T.; Hu, Z.; Kasinathan, D.; Vasili, H. B.; Herrero-Martin, J.; Valvidares, S. M.; Pellegrin, E.; Jang, L.-Y.; Henschel, A.; Schmidt, M.; Tanaka, A.; Tjeng, L. H.

    2017-10-01

    We studied the local Ru 4 d electronic structure of α -RuCl3 by means of polarization-dependent x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Ru L2 ,3 edges. We observed a vanishingly small linear dichroism indicating that electronically the Ru 4 d local symmetry is highly cubic. Using full multiplet cluster calculations we were able to reproduce the spectra excellently and to extract that the trigonal splitting of the t2 g orbitals is -12 ±10 meV, i.e., negligible as compared to the Ru 4 d spin-orbit coupling constant. Consistent with our magnetic circular dichroism measurements, we found that the ratio of the orbital and spin moments is 2.0, the value expected for a Jeff=1/2 ground state. We have thus shown that as far as the Ru 4 d local properties are concerned, α -RuCl3 is an ideal candidate for the realization of Kitaev physics.

  16. Z-Selective Ruthenium Metathesis Catalysts: Comparison of Nitrate and Nitrite X-type Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Pribisko, Melanie A.; Ahmed, Tonia S.; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Two new Ru-based metathesis catalysts, 3 and 4, have been synthesized for the purpose of comparing their catalytic properties to those of their cis-selective nitrate analogues, 1 and 2. Although catalysts 3 and 4 exhibited slower initiation rates than 1 and 2, they maintained high cis-selectivity in homodimerization and ring-opening metathesis polymerization reactions. Furthermore, the nitrite catalysts displayed higher cis-selectivity than 2 for ring-opening metathesis polymerizations, and 4 delivered higher yields of polymer. PMID:25484484

  17. Development and Application of Operando TEM to a Ruthenium Catalyst for CO Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Benjamin Kyle

    Operando transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is an extension of in-situ TEM in which the performance of the material being observed is measured simultaneously. This is of great value, since structure-performance relationships lie at the heart of materials science. For catalyst materials, like the SiO2-supported Ru nanoparticles studied, the important performance metric, catalyst activity, is measured inside the microscope by determining the gas composition during imaging. This is accomplished by acquisition of electron energy loss spectra (EELS) of the gas in the environmental TEM while catalysis is taking place. In this work, automated methods for rapidly quantifying low-loss and core-loss EELS of gases were developed. A new sample preparation method was also established to increase catalytic conversion inside a differentially-pumped environmental TEM, and the maximum CO conversion observed was about 80%. A system for mixing gases and delivering them to the environmental TEM was designed and built, and a method for locating and imaging nanoparticles in zone axis orientations while minimizing electron dose rate was determined. After atomic resolution images of Ru nanoparticles observed during CO oxidation were obtained, the shape and surface structures of these particles was investigated. A Wulff model structure for Ru particles was compared to experimental images both by manually rotating the model, and by automatically determining a matching orientation using cross-correlation of shape signatures. From this analysis, it was determined that most Ru particles are close to Wulff-shaped during CO oxidation. While thick oxide layers were not observed to form on Ru during CO oxidation, thin RuO2 layers on the surface of Ru nanoparticles were imaged with atomic resolution for the first time. The activity of these layers is discussed in the context of the literature on the subject, which has thus far been inconclusive. We conclude that disordered oxidized ruthenium

  18. Development of Ternary and Quaternary Catalysts for the Electrooxidation of Glycerol

    PubMed Central

    Artem, L. M.; Santos, D. M.; De Andrade, A. R.; Kokoh, K. B.; Ribeiro, J.

    2012-01-01

    This work consisted in the preparation of platinum-based catalysts supported on carbon (Vulcan XC-72) and investigation of their physicochemical and electrochemical properties. Catalysts of the C/Pt-Ni-Sn-Me (Me = Ru or Ir) type were prepared by the Pechini method at temperature of 350°C. Four different compositions were homemade: C/Pt60Sn10Ni30, C/Pt60Sn10Ni20Ru10, C/Pt60Sn10Ni10Ru20, and C/Pt60Sn10Ni10Ir20. These catalysts were electrochemically and physically characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA) in the presence of glycerol 1.0 mol dm−3, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). XRD results showed the main peaks of face-centered cubic Pt. The particle sizes obtained from XRD and HRTEM experiments were close to values ranging from 3 to 8.5 nm. The CV results indicate behavior typical of Pt-based catalysts in acid medium. The CV and CA data reveal that quaternary catalysts present the highest current density for the electrooxidation of glycerol. PMID:22623905

  19. Lubiprostone: RU 0211, SPI 0211.

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    Lubiprostone [RU 0211, SPI 0211] is a bicyclic fatty acid that acts as a chloride channel opener, increasing intestinal water secretion. Lubiprostone, an orally-administered formulation, is one of a series of functional fatty acid compounds discovered by Dr Ryuji Ueno, and is currently undergoing development for the treatment of constipation, constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) and postoperative ileus with Sucampo Pharmaceutical's. Lubiprostone activates a specific chloride channel (CLC2) on cells lining the gut, thereby naturally increasing intestinal fluid secretion. The increased fluid level softens the stool, promotes spontaneous bowel movements, and reduces abdominal discomfort/pain and bloating. The chloride channel is a protein that controls cell membrane transport of chloride ion. Lubiprostone acts on the ClC-2 chloride channel, which is located in the apical intestinal membrane. In November 2004, Takeda Pharmaceuticals entered into a collaboration and licensing agreement for Lubiprostone with Sucampo Pharmaceuticals for the treatment of chronic constipation and constipation-predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome (c-IBS). Under the terms of the agreement, Takeda received the right to market the product in the US and Canada, while Sucampo reserved the co-promotion rights for these countries. Takeda's wholly-owned US subsidiary, Takeda Pharmaceuticals North America Inc., will sell lubiprostone once the product is approved by the US FDA. Takeda will also receive an option for marketing rights in other territories, including Japan and Europe. Takeda and Sucampo agreed on the exclusive manufacturing and supply of Lubiprostone by R-Tech Ueno, Ltd, a member of the Sucampo Group. Sucampo has the potential to receive up to dollar US 210 million in initial and milestone payments, some of which are contingent upon the successful achievement of several milestones. Takeda will fund a major part of development costs not only for chronic constipation

  20. Cellulose hydrogenolysis with the use of the catalysts supported on hypercrosslinked polystyrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulman, E. M.; Matveeva, V. G.; Manaenkov, O. V.; Filatova, A. E.; Kislitza, O. V.; Doluda, V. Yu.; Rebrov, E. V.; Sidorov, A. I.; Shimanskaya, E. I.

    2016-11-01

    The study presents the results of cellulose hydrolytic hydrogenation process in subcritical water in the presence of Ru-containing catalysts based on hypercrosslinked polystyrene (HPS) MN-270 and its functionalized analogues: NH2-HPS (MN-100) and SO3H-HPS (MN-500). It was shown that the replacement of the traditional support (carbon) by HPS increases the yield of the main cellulose conversion products - polyols - important intermediates for the chemical industry. The catalysts were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM, and porosity measurements. Catalytic studies demonstrated that the catalyst containing 1.0% Ru and based on MN-270 is the most active. The total yield of sorbitol and mannitol was 50% on the average at 85% cellulose conversion.

  1. Nanostructured manganese oxide on silica aerogel: a new catalyst toward water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Salimi, Saeideh; Madadkhani, Sepideh; Hołyńska, Małgorzata; Tomo, Tatsuya; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I

    2016-12-01

    Herein we report on the synthesis and characterization of nano-sized Mn oxide/silica aerogel with low density as a good catalyst toward water oxidation. The composite was synthesized by a simple and low-cost hydrothermal procedure. In the next step, we studied the composite in the presence of cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate and photo-produced Ru(bpy) 3 3+ as a water-oxidizing catalyst. The low-density composite is a good Mn-based catalyst with turnover frequencies of ~0.3 and 0.5 (mmol O 2 /(mol Mn·s)) in the presence of Ru(bpy) 3 3+ and cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate, respectively. In addition to the water-oxidizing activities of the composite under different conditions, its self-healing reaction in the presence of cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate was also studied.

  2. Origin of the Excellent Performance of Ru on Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanofibers for CO2 Hydrogenation to CH4.

    PubMed

    Roldán, Laura; Marco, Yanila; García-Bordejé, Enrique

    2017-03-22

    Carbon materials have rarely been used as support for CO 2 methanation, which is usually carried out using catalysts supported on metal oxides. Here, it is shown that Ru nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers (NCNF) provide competitive CH 4 production rate and stability compared to Al 2 O 3 -supported catalysts. Contrary to the general belief about the inert nature of carbon supports, it is demonstrated that NCNF is a non-innocent spectator in CO 2 methanation due to its ability to store a high amount of CO ad reaction intermediates. This explains the excellent catalytic behaviour afforded by this unconventional catalyst support. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Liquefaction of kraft lignin by hydrocracking with simultaneous use of a novel dual acid-base catalyst and a hydrogenation catalyst.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jindong; Li, Wenzhi; Wang, Huizhen; Ma, Qiaozhi; Li, Song; Chang, Hou-Min; Jameel, Hasan

    2017-11-01

    In this study, a novel catalyst, S 2 O 8 2- -KNO 3 /TiO 2 , which has active acidic and basic sites, was prepared and used in lignin hydrocracking with a co-catalyst, Ru/C. Ru/C is an efficient hydrogenation catalyst and S 2 O 8 2- -KNO 3 /TiO 2 is a dual catalyst, which could efficiently degrade lignin. This catalytic hydrogenation system can reduce solid products to less than 1%, while giving a high liquid product yield of 93%. Catalytic hydrocracking of kraft lignin at 320°C for 6h gave 93% liquid product with 0.5% solid product. Most of this liquid product was soluble in petroleum ether (60% of 93%), which is a clear liquid and comprises mainly of monomeric and dimeric degradation products. These results demonstrated that the combination of the two catalysts is an efficient catalyst for liquefaction of lignin, with little char formation (∼1%). This concept has the potential to produce valuable chemicals and fuels from lignin under moderate conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Technology development for cobalt F-T catalysts. Quarterly technical progress report number 10, January 1--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, A.H.

    1995-06-28

    The goal of this project is the development of a commercially-viable, cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalyst for use in a slurry bubble column reactor. The major objectives of this work are (1) to develop a cobalt-based F-T catalyst with low (< 5%) methane selectivity, (2) to develop a cobalt-based F-T catalyst with water-gas shift activity, and (3) to combine both these improvements into one catalyst. The project consists of five major tasks: catalyst development; catalyst testing; catalyst reproducibility tests; catalyst aging tests; and preliminary design and cost estimate for a demonstrate scale catalyst production facility. Technical accomplishments during this reporting periodmore » include the following. It appears that the higher activity obtained for the catalysts prepared using an organic solution and reduced directly without prior calcination was the result of higher dispersions obtained under such pretreatment. A Ru-promoted Co catalyst on alumina with 30% Co loading exhibited a 4-fold increase in dispersion and a 2-fold increase in activity in the fixed-bed reactor from that obtained with the non-promoted catalyst. Several reactor runs have again focused on pushing conversion to higher levels. The maximum conversion obtained has been 49.7% with 26g catalyst. Further investigations of the effect of reaction temperature on the performance of Co catalysts during F-T synthesis were started using a low activity catalyst and one of the most active catalysts. The three 1 kg catalyst batches prepared by Calsicat for the reproducibility and aging studies were tested in both the fixed-bed and slurry bubble column reactors under the standard reaction conditions. The effects of adding various promoters to some cobalt catalysts have also been addressed. Results are presented and discussed.« less

  5. Photocatalytic oxidation of organic compounds in a hybrid system composed of a molecular catalyst and visible light-absorbing semiconductor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xu; Li, Fei; Li, Xiaona; Li, Hua; Wang, Yong; Sun, Licheng

    2015-01-14

    Photocatalytic oxidation of organic compounds proceeded efficiently in a hybrid system with ruthenium aqua complexes as catalysts, BiVO4 as a light absorber, [Co(NH3)5Cl](2+) as a sacrificial electron acceptor and water as an oxygen source. The photogenerated holes in the semiconductor are used to oxidize molecular catalysts into the high-valent Ru(IV)=O intermediates for 2e(-) oxidation.

  6. RU 486, the FDA and free enterprise.

    PubMed

    Buc, N L

    1992-01-01

    The legal question whether RU-486 can meet the standards for US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for a drug indicated for abortion can be answered in the affirmative. Under the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, efficacy must be demonstrated by evidence consisting of adequate and well-controlled investigations to show that a drug is safe and effective for its intended use. The FDA will approve it if on the basis of the clinical trials it could be concluded that the drug will have the effect it purports as prescribed in the labeling, and if the drug is safe. In congressional hearings and in the newspapers the so-called import alert issued by the FDA to prevent the importing of RU-486 under certain circumstances has been publicized. The import alert is no bar to conducting clinical studies in the US under an investigational new drug application (IND) nor is the import alert a bar to the filing and the pursuit of a new drug application (NDA) to allow marketing in the US. The import alert is no bar to anything except importation without an IND or NDA. The real problem is that there is no seller of RU-486 in the US and no sponsor of an NDA offering clinical evidence of safety and efficacy as well as the ability to manufacture the drug and the necessary prostaglandins properly. In additions to abortion, other uses of RU-486 include contraception, breast cancer, and Cushing syndrome. Some limited research could be done under INDs with small supplies of the drug obtained elsewhere on the world market. There are only 2 solutions to this problem. One is that Roussel must change its mind or have its mind changed as the example of the AIDS community showed, which has managed to induce the development of drugs that were impossible 8 or 10 years ago. The other solution is to found a pharmaceutical company that could induce competition for manufacturing RU-486.

  7. Nano-structured noble metal catalysts based on hexametallate architecture for the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels

    DOEpatents

    Gardner, Todd H.

    2015-09-15

    Nano-structured noble metal catalysts based on hexametallate lattices, of a spinel block type, and which are resistant to carbon deposition and metal sulfide formation are provided. The catalysts are designed for the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels to synthesis gas. The hexametallate lattices are doped with noble metals (Au, Pt, Rh, Ru) which are atomically dispersed as isolated sites throughout the lattice and take the place of hexametallate metal ions such as Cr, Ga, In, and/or Nb. Mirror cations in the crystal lattice are selected from alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, and the lanthanide metals, so as to reduce the acidity of the catalyst crystal lattice and enhance the desorption of carbon deposit forming moieties such as aromatics. The catalysts can be used at temperatures as high as 1000.degree. C. and pressures up to 30 atmospheres. A method for producing these catalysts and applications of their use also is provided.

  8. Catalyst inks and method of application for direct methanol fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Zelenay, Piotr; Davey, John; Ren, Xiaoming; Gottesfeld, Shimshon; Thomas, Sharon C.

    2004-02-24

    Inks are formulated for forming anode and cathode catalyst layers and applied to anode and cathode sides of a membrane for a direct methanol fuel cell. The inks comprise a Pt catalyst for the cathode and a Pt--Ru catalyst for the anode, purified water in an amount 4 to 20 times that of the catalyst by weight, and a perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer in an amount effective to provide an ionomer content in the anode and cathode surfaces of 20% to 80% by volume. The inks are prepared in a two-step process while cooling and agitating the solutions. The final solution is placed in a cooler and continuously agitated while spraying the solution over the anode or cathode surface of the membrane as determined by the catalyst content.

  9. Light-Driven Water Splitting by a Covalently Linked Ruthenium-Based Chromophore–Catalyst Assembly

    DOE PAGES

    Sherman, Benjamin D.; Xie, Yan; Sheridan, Matthew V.; ...

    2016-12-09

    The preparation and characterization of new Ru(II) polypyridyl-based chromophore–catalyst assemblies, [(4,4'-PO 3H 2-bpy) 2Ru(4-Mebpy-4'-epic)Ru(bda)(pic)] 2+ (1, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine; 4-Mebpy-4'-epic = 4-(4-methylbipyridin-4'-yl-ethyl)-pyridine; bda = 2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylate; pic = 4-picoline), and [(bpy) 2Ru(4-Mebpy-4'-epic)Ru(bda)(pic)] 2+ (1') are described, as is the application of 1 in a dye-sensitized photoelectrosynthesis cell (DSPEC) for solar water splitting. Furthermore, on SnO 2/TiO 2 core–shell electrodes in a DSPEC configuration with a Pt cathode, the chromophore–catalyst assembly undergoes light-driven water oxidation at pH 5.7 in a 0.1 M acetate buffer, 0.5 M in NaClO 4. We observed photocurrents of ~0.85 mA cm –2, with illumination by a 100more » mW cm –2 white light source, after 30 s under a 0.1 V vs Ag/AgCl applied bias with a faradaic efficiency for O 2 production of 74% measured over a 5 min illumination period.« less

  10. Light-Driven Water Splitting by a Covalently Linked Ruthenium-Based Chromophore–Catalyst Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Benjamin D.; Xie, Yan; Sheridan, Matthew V.

    The preparation and characterization of new Ru(II) polypyridyl-based chromophore–catalyst assemblies, [(4,4'-PO 3H 2-bpy) 2Ru(4-Mebpy-4'-epic)Ru(bda)(pic)] 2+ (1, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine; 4-Mebpy-4'-epic = 4-(4-methylbipyridin-4'-yl-ethyl)-pyridine; bda = 2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylate; pic = 4-picoline), and [(bpy) 2Ru(4-Mebpy-4'-epic)Ru(bda)(pic)] 2+ (1') are described, as is the application of 1 in a dye-sensitized photoelectrosynthesis cell (DSPEC) for solar water splitting. Furthermore, on SnO 2/TiO 2 core–shell electrodes in a DSPEC configuration with a Pt cathode, the chromophore–catalyst assembly undergoes light-driven water oxidation at pH 5.7 in a 0.1 M acetate buffer, 0.5 M in NaClO 4. We observed photocurrents of ~0.85 mA cm –2, with illumination by a 100more » mW cm –2 white light source, after 30 s under a 0.1 V vs Ag/AgCl applied bias with a faradaic efficiency for O 2 production of 74% measured over a 5 min illumination period.« less

  11. Ferromagnetism and Ru-Ru distance in SrRuO3 thin film grown on SrTiO3 (111) substrate

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Epitaxial SrRuO3 thin films were grown on both (100) and (111) SrTiO3 substrates with atomically flat surfaces that are required to grow high-quality films of materials under debate. The following notable differences were observed in the (111)-oriented SrRuO3 films: (1) slightly different growth mode, (2) approximately 10 K higher ferromagnetic transition temperature, and (3) better conducting behavior with higher relative resistivity ratio, than (100)c-oriented SrRuO3 films. Together with the reported results on SrRuO3 thin films grown on (110) SrTiO3 substrate, the different physical properties were discussed newly in terms of the Ru-Ru nearest neighbor distance instead of the famous tolerance factor. PACS 75.70.Ak; 75.60.Ej; 81.15.Fg PMID:24393495

  12. Enhancement of activity of RuSex electrocatalyst by modification with nanostructured iridium towards more efficient reduction of oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dembinska, Beata; Kiliszek, Malgorzata; Elzanowska, Hanna; Pisarek, Marcin; Kulesza, Pawel J.

    2013-12-01

    Electrocatalytic activity of carbon (Vulcan XC-72) supported selenium-modified ruthenium, RuSex/C, nanoparticles for reduction of oxygen was enhanced through intentional decoration with iridium nanostructures (dimensions, 2-3 nm). The catalytic materials were characterized in oxygenated 0.5 mol dm-3 H2SO4 using cyclic and rotating ring disk voltammetric techniques as well as using transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy equipped with X-ray dispersive analyzer. Experiments utilizing gas diffusion electrode aimed at mimicking conditions existing in the low-temperature fuel cell. Upon application of our composite catalytic system, the reduction of oxygen proceeded at more positive potentials, and higher current densities were observed when compared to the behavior of the simple iridium-free system (RuSex/C) investigated under the analogous conditions. The enhancement effect was more pronounced than that one would expect from simple superposition of voltammetric responses for the oxygen reduction at RuSex/C and iridium nanostructures studied separately. Nanostructured iridium acted here as an example of a powerful catalyst for the reduction of H2O2 (rather than O2) and, when combined with such a moderate catalyst as ruthenium-selenium (for O2 reduction), it produced an integrated system of increased electrocatalytic activity in the oxygen reduction process. The proposed system retained its activity in the presence of methanol that could appear in a cathode compartment of alcohol fuel cell.

  13. Ligand effects on the hydrogenation of biomass-inspired substrates with bifunctional Ru, Ir, and Rh complexes.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Eveline; Jongbloed, Linda S; Tromp, Dorette S; Lutz, Martin; de Bruin, Bas; Elsevier, Cornelis J

    2013-09-01

    We herein report on the application and structural investigation of a new set of complexes that contain bidentate N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) and primary amine moieties of the type [M(arene)Cl(L)] [M=Ru, Ir, or Rh; arene=p-cymene or pentamethylcyclopentadienyl; L=1-(2-aminophenyl)-3-(n-alkyl)imidazol-2-ylidine]. These complexes were tested and compared in the hydrogenation of acetophenone with hydrogen. Structural variations in the chelate ring size of the heteroditopic ligand revealed that smaller chelate ring sizes in combination with ring conjugation in the ligand are beneficial for the activity of this type of catalyst, favoring an inner-sphere coordination pathway. Additionally, increasing the steric bulk of the alkyl substituent on the NHC aided the reaction, showing almost no induction period and formation of a more active catalyst for the n-butyl complex relative to complexes with smaller Me and Et substituents. As is common in hydrogenation reactions, the activity of the complexes decreases in the order Ru>Ir>Rh. The application of [Ru(p-cym)Cl(L)]PF6 , which outperforms its reported analogues, has been successfully extended to the hydrogenation of more challenging biomass-inspired substrates. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. The Role of Seven-Coordination in Ru-Catalyzed Water Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Matheu, Roc; Ertem, Mehmed Z.; Pipelier, Muriel

    A family of Ru complexes based on the pentadentate ligand t5a 3– ((2,5-bis(6-carboxylatopyridin-2-yl)pyrrol-1-ide) and pyridine (py) that includes {Ru II(Ht5a-κ-N 2O)(py) 3} (1H II(κ-N 2O)), {Ru III(t5a-κ-N 3O 1.5)(py) 2} (2 III(κ-N 3O 1.5)), and {Ru IV(t5a-κ-N 3O 2)(py) 2}+ ({2 IV(κ-N3O 2)}+) has been prepared and thoroughly characterized. Complexes 1HII(κ-N 2O), 2 III(κ-N 3O 1.5), and {2 IV(κ-N 3O 2)}+ have been investigated in solution by spectroscopic methods (NMR, UV–vis) and in the solid state by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and complemented by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The redox properties of complex 2 III(κ-N 3O 1.5) have beenmore » studied by electrochemical methods (CV and DPV), showing its easy access to high oxidation states, thanks to the trianionic nature of the t5a 3– ligand. Under neutral to basic conditions complex {2 IV(κ-N3O 2)}+ undergoes aquation, generating {Ru IV(OH)(t5a-κ-N 2O)(py) 2} (2 IV(OH)(κ-N 2O)). Further oxidation of the complex forms {Ru V(O)(t5a-κ-N 2O)(py) 2} (2 V(O)(κ-N 2O)), which is a very efficient water oxidation catalyst, reaching a TOF MAX value of 9400 s –1 at pH 7.0, as measured via foot of the wave analysis. The key to fast kinetics for the catalytic oxidation of water to dioxygen by 2 V(O)(κ-N 2O) is due not only to the easy access to high oxidation states but also to the intramolecular hydrogen bonding provided by the noncoordinated dangling carboxylate at the transition state, as corroborated by DFT calculations.« less

  15. The Role of Seven-Coordination in Ru-Catalyzed Water Oxidation

    DOE PAGES

    Matheu, Roc; Ertem, Mehmed Z.; Pipelier, Muriel; ...

    2018-01-19

    A family of Ru complexes based on the pentadentate ligand t5a 3– ((2,5-bis(6-carboxylatopyridin-2-yl)pyrrol-1-ide) and pyridine (py) that includes {Ru II(Ht5a-κ-N 2O)(py) 3} (1H II(κ-N 2O)), {Ru III(t5a-κ-N 3O 1.5)(py) 2} (2 III(κ-N 3O 1.5)), and {Ru IV(t5a-κ-N 3O 2)(py) 2}+ ({2 IV(κ-N3O 2)}+) has been prepared and thoroughly characterized. Complexes 1HII(κ-N 2O), 2 III(κ-N 3O 1.5), and {2 IV(κ-N 3O 2)}+ have been investigated in solution by spectroscopic methods (NMR, UV–vis) and in the solid state by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and complemented by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The redox properties of complex 2 III(κ-N 3O 1.5) have beenmore » studied by electrochemical methods (CV and DPV), showing its easy access to high oxidation states, thanks to the trianionic nature of the t5a 3– ligand. Under neutral to basic conditions complex {2 IV(κ-N3O 2)}+ undergoes aquation, generating {Ru IV(OH)(t5a-κ-N 2O)(py) 2} (2 IV(OH)(κ-N 2O)). Further oxidation of the complex forms {Ru V(O)(t5a-κ-N 2O)(py) 2} (2 V(O)(κ-N 2O)), which is a very efficient water oxidation catalyst, reaching a TOF MAX value of 9400 s –1 at pH 7.0, as measured via foot of the wave analysis. The key to fast kinetics for the catalytic oxidation of water to dioxygen by 2 V(O)(κ-N 2O) is due not only to the easy access to high oxidation states but also to the intramolecular hydrogen bonding provided by the noncoordinated dangling carboxylate at the transition state, as corroborated by DFT calculations.« less

  16. System for reactivating catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Thompson, David N.; Anderson, Raymond P.

    2010-03-02

    A method of reactivating a catalyst, such as a solid catalyst or a liquid catalyst is provided. The method comprises providing a catalyst that is at least partially deactivated by fouling agents. The catalyst is contacted with a fluid reactivating agent that is at or above a critical point of the fluid reactivating agent and is of sufficient density to dissolve impurities. The fluid reactivating agent reacts with at least one fouling agent, releasing the at least one fouling agent from the catalyst. The at least one fouling agent becomes dissolved in the fluid reactivating agent and is subsequently separated or removed from the fluid reactivating agent so that the fluid reactivating agent may be reused. A system for reactivating a catalyst is also disclosed.

  17. Bimetallic Nickel/Ruthenium Catalysts Synthesized by Atomic Layer Deposition for Low-Temperature Direct Methanol Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Heonjae; Kim, Jun Woo; Park, Joonsuk; An, Jihwan; Lee, Tonghun; Prinz, Fritz B; Shim, Joon Hyung

    2016-11-09

    Nickel and ruthenium bimetallic catalysts were heterogeneously synthesized via atomic layer deposition (ALD) for use as the anode of direct methanol solid oxide fuel cells (DMSOFCs) operating in a low-temperature range. The presence of highly dispersed ALD Ru islands over a porous Ni mesh was confirmed, and the Ni/ALD Ru anode microstructure was observed. Fuel cell tests were conducted using Ni-only and Ni/ALD Ru anodes with approximately 350 μm thick gadolinium-doped ceria electrolytes and platinum cathodes. The performance of fuel cells was assessed using pure methanol at operating temperatures of 300-400 °C. Micromorphological changes of the anode after cell operation were investigated, and the content of adsorbed carbon on the anode side of the operated samples was measured. The difference in the maximum power density between samples utilizing Ni/ALD Ru and Pt/ALD Ru, the latter being the best catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells, was observed to be less than 7% at 300 °C and 30% at 350 °C. The improved electrochemical activity of the Ni/ALD Ru anode compared to that of the Ni-only anode, along with the reduction of the number of catalytically active sites due to agglomeration of Ni and carbon formation on the Ni surface as compared to Pt, explains this decent performance.

  18. Catalyst patterning for nanowire devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jun (Inventor); Cassell, Alan M. (Inventor); Han, Jie (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Nanowire devices may be provided that are based on carbon nanotubes or single-crystal semiconductor nanowires. The nanowire devices may be formed on a substrate. Catalyst sites may be formed on the substrate. The catalyst sites may be formed using lithography, thin metal layers that form individual catalyst sites when heated, collapsible porous catalyst-filled microscopic spheres, microscopic spheres that serve as masks for catalyst deposition, electrochemical deposition techniques, and catalyst inks. Nanowires may be grown from the catalyst sites.

  19. Design of Heterogeneous Hoveyda-Grubbs Second-Generation Catalyst-Lipase Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Neville, Anthony; Iniesta, Javier; Palomo, Jose M

    2016-12-06

    Heterogeneous catalysts have been synthesi zed by the conjugation of Hoveyda-Grubbs second-generation catalyst with a lipase. The catalytic properties of the organometallic compound in solution were firstly optimized, evaluating the activity of Ru in the ring-closing metathesis of diethyldiallymalonate at 25 °C at different solvents and in the presence of different additives. The best result was found using tetrahydrofuran as a solvent. Some additives such as phenylboronic acid or polyetheneglycol slightly improved the activity of the Ru catalyst whereas others, such as pyridine or dipeptides affected it negatively. The organometallic compound immobilized on functionalized-surface materials activated with boronic acid or epoxy groups (around 50-60 µg per mg support) and showed 50% conversion at 24 h in the ring-closing metathesis. Cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEA's) of the Hoveyda-Grubbs second-generation catalyst with Candida antarctica lipase (CAL-B) were prepared, although low Ru catalyst was found to be translated in low conversion. Therefore, a sol-gel preparation of the Hoveyda-Grubbs second-generation and CAL-B was performed. This catalyst exhibited good activity in the metathesis of diethyldiallymalonate in toluene and in aqueous media. Finally, a new sustainable approach was used by the conjugation lipase-Grubbs in solid phase in aqueous media. Two strategies were used: one using lipase previously covalently immobilized on an epoxy-Sepharose support (hydrophilic matrix) and then conjugated with grubbs; and in the second, the free lipase was incubated with organometallic in aqueous solution and then immobilized on epoxy-Sepharose. The different catalysts showed excellent conversion values in the ring-closing metathesis of diethyldiallymalonate in aqueous media at 25 °C.

  20. Textured catalysts and methods of making textured catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Werpy, Todd [West Richland, WA; Frye, Jr., John G.; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Zacher, Alan H [Kennewick, WA

    2007-03-06

    A textured catalyst having a hydrothermally-stable support, a metal oxide and a catalyst component is described. Methods of conducting aqueous phase reactions that are catalyzed by a textured catalyst are also described. The invention also provides methods of making textured catalysts and methods of making chemical products using a textured catalyst.

  1. Relating FTS Catalyst Properties to Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Wenping; Ramana Rao Pendyala, Venkat; Gao, Pei; Jermwongratanachai, Thani; Jacobs, Gary; Davis, Burton H.

    2016-01-01

    During the reporting period June 23, 2011 to August 31, 2013, CAER researchers carried out research in two areas of fundamental importance to the topic of cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS): promoters and stability. The first area was research into possible substitute promoters that might be used to replace the expensive promoters (e.g., Pt, Re, and Ru) that are commonly used. To that end, three separate investigations were carried out. Due to the strong support interaction of ?-Al2O3 with cobalt, metal promoters are commonly added to commercial FTS catalysts to facilitate the reduction of cobalt oxides and thereby boost active surface cobalt metal sites. To date, the metal promoters examined have been those up to and including Group 11. Because two Group 11 promoters (i.e., Ag and Au) were identified to exhibit positive impacts on conversion, selectivity, or both, research was undertaken to explore metals in Groups 12 - 14. The three metals selected for this purpose were Cd, In, and Sn. At a higher loading of 25%Co on alumina, 1% addition of Cd, In, or Sn was found to-on average-facilitate reduction by promoting a heterogeneous distribution of cobalt consisting of larger lesser interacting cobalt clusters and smaller strongly interacting cobalt species. The lesser interacting species were identified in TPR profiles, where a sharp low temperature peak occurred for the reduction of larger, weakly interacting, CoO species. In XANES, the Cd, In, and Sn promoters were found to exist as oxides, whereas typical promoters (e.g., Re, Ru, Pt) were previously determined to exist in an metallic state in atomic coordination with cobalt. The larger cobalt clusters significantly decreased the active site density relative to the unpromoted 25%Co/Al2O3 catalyst. Decreasing the cobalt loading to 15%Co eliminated the large non-interacting species. The TPR peak for reduction of strongly interacting CoO in the Cd promoted catalyst occurred at a measurably lower temperature

  2. Synthesis, spectral, thermal, X-ray single crystal of new RuCl₂(dppb)diamine complexes and their application in hydrogenation of Cinnamic aldehyde.

    PubMed

    Warad, Ismail; Al-Hussain, Hanan; Al-Far, Rawhi; Mahfouz, Refaat; Hammouti, Belkheir; Hadda, Taibi Ben

    2012-09-01

    The preparation of new three trans-[RuCl(2)(dppb)(N-N)] with mixed diamine (N-N) and 1,4-bis-(diphenylphosphino)butane (dppb) ligands, starting from RuCl(2)(PPh(3))(3) as precursor is presented. The complexes are characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, IR, (1)H, (13)C and (31)P{(1)H}NMR, FAB-MS, TG/DTA and single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Complex (2L(1)) crystallizes in the monoclinic unit cells with the space group P2(1). The catalysts are evaluated for their Cinnamic aldehyde hydrogenation. The catalysts show excellent activity and selectivity for the unsaturated carbonyl compound under mild conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Laser Spectroscopy of Ruthenium Containing Diatomic Molecules: RuH/D and RuP.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Allan G.; Konder, Ricarda M.; Nickerson, Nicole M.; Linton, Colan; Tokaryk, D. W.

    2015-06-01

    In the last few years, the Cheung group in Hong Kong and the Steimle group in Arizona have successfully studied several ruthenium containing diatomic molecules, RuX (X =C, O, N, B, using the laser-ablation molecular jet technique. Based on this success, the UNB spectroscopy group decided to try and find the optical signatures of other RuX molecules. Using CH_3OH and PH_3 as reactant gases, the RuH and RuP diatomic molecules have been detected in surveys of the 420 - 675 nm spectral region. RuD has also been made using fully deuterated methanol as a reactant. Dispersed fluorescence experiments have been performed to determine ground state vibrational frequencies and the presence of any low-lying electronic states. Rotationally resolved spectra for these molecules have also been taken and the analysis is proceeding. The most recent results will be presented. F. Wang et al., Journal of Chemical Physics 139, 174318 (2013). N. Wang et al., Journal of Physical Chemistry A 117, 13279 (2013). T. Steimle et al., Journal of Chemical Physics 119, 12965 (2003). N. Wang et al., Chemical Physics Letters 547, 21 (2012).

  4. In situ formed catalytically active ruthenium nanocatalyst in room temperature dehydrogenation/dehydrocoupling of ammonia-borane from Ru(cod)(cot) precatalyst.

    PubMed

    Zahmakiran, Mehmet; Ayvalı, Tuğçe; Philippot, Karine

    2012-03-20

    The development of simply prepared and effective catalytic materials for dehydrocoupling/dehydrogenation of ammonia-borane (AB; NH(3)BH(3)) under mild conditions remains a challenge in the field of hydrogen economy and material science. Reported herein is the discovery of in situ generated ruthenium nanocatalyst as a new catalytic system for this important reaction. They are formed in situ during the dehydrogenation of AB in THF at 25 °C in the absence of any stabilizing agent starting with homogeneous Ru(cod)(cot) precatalyst (cod = 1,5-η(2)-cyclooctadiene; cot = 1,3,5-η(3)-cyclooctatriene). The preliminary characterization of the reaction solutions and the products was done by using ICP-OES, ATR-IR, TEM, XPS, ZC-TEM, GC, EA, and (11)B, (15)N, and (1)H NMR, which reveal that ruthenium nanocatalyst is generated in situ during the dehydrogenation of AB from homogeneous Ru(cod)(cot) precatalyst and B-N polymers formed at the initial stage of the catalytic reaction take part in the stabilization of this ruthenium nanocatalyst. Moreover, following the recently updated approach (Bayram, E.; et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc.2011, 133, 18889) by performing Hg(0), CS(2) poisoning experiments, nanofiltration, time-dependent TEM analyses, and kinetic investigation of active catalyst formation to distinguish single metal or in the present case subnanometer Ru(n) cluster-based catalysis from polymetallic Ru(0)(n) nanoparticle catalysis reveals that in situ formed Ru(n) clusters (not Ru(0)(n) nanoparticles) are kinetically dominant catalytically active species in our catalytic system. The resulting ruthenium catalyst provides 120 total turnovers over 5 h with an initial turnover frequency (TOF) value of 35 h(-1) at room temperature with the generation of more than 1.0 equiv H(2) at the complete conversion of AB to polyaminoborane (PAB; [NH(2)BH(2)](n)) and polyborazylene (PB; [NHBH](n)) units.

  5. High turnover in a photocatalytic system for water reduction to produce hydrogen using a Ru,  Rh,  Ru photoinitiated electron collector.

    PubMed

    Arachchige, Shamindri M; Shaw, Ryan; White, Travis A; Shenoy, Vimal; Tsui, Hei-Man; Brewer, Karen J

    2011-04-18

    Covalent coupling of Ru(II) light absorbers to a Rh(III) electron collecting site through polyazine bridging ligands affords photocatalytic production of H(2) in the presence of visible light and a sacrificial electron donor. A robust photocatalytic system displaying a high turnover of the photocatalyst has been developed using the photoinitiated electron collector [{(bpy)(2)Ru(dpp)}(2)RhBr(2)](5+) (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine; dpp=2,3-bis(2-pyridyl)pyrazine) and N,N-dimethylaniline in DMF/H(2)O. Studies have shown that increased [DMA], the headspace volume, and the use of DMF solvent improves the systems performance and stability providing mechanistic insight into the deactivation routes of the photocatalytic system. Photolysis of the system at 460 nm generates 20 mL of H(2) in 19.5 h with a maximum Φ=0.023 based on H(2) produced and an overall Φ=0.014 and 280 turnovers of the photocatalyst. The photocatalytic system also displays long-term photostability with 30 mL of H(2) generated and 420 turnovers in 50 h under the same conditions. Prolonged photolysis provides 820 mol H(2) per mole of catalyst. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Catalytic activity of Ru-Sn/Al2O3 in reduction reaction of pollutant 4-Nitrophenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rini, A. S.; Radiman, S.; Yarmo, M. A.

    2018-03-01

    Ru-Sn/Al2O3 bimetallic nanocatalysts have been synthesized by using conventional and microwave impregnation methods. Structure and morphology of the samples were characterized using XRD, XPS, and TEM. XRD and XPS measurement have confirmed the presence of Ru and Sn in the samples. According to TEM results, the morphology of the catalyst strongly depends on the preparation route and stabilizing agent (i.e. PVP). The sample with PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone) has better nanoparticles distribution over the support. A sample prepared by conventional method has an agglomeration of nanoparticles on the support. Catalytic activities of both samples were examined in the reduction reaction of pollutant, i.e. 4-nitrophenol. Catalytic examination showed that reaction rate of 4-nitrophenol reduction by using microwave-assisted sample has improved 3.5 times faster than conventional impregnation sample.

  7. Atomic layer deposition of ruthenium surface-coating on porous platinum catalysts for high-performance direct ethanol solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Heon Jae; Kim, Jun Woo; Jang, Dong Young; Shim, Joon Hyung

    2015-09-01

    Pt-Ru bi-metallic catalysts are synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Ru surface-coating on sputtered Pt mesh. The catalysts are evaluated in direct ethanol solid oxide fuel cells (DESOFCs) in the temperature range of 300-500 °C. Island-growth of the ALD Ru coating is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. The performance of the DESOFCs is evaluated based on the current-voltage output and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Genuine reduction of the polarization impedance, and enhanced power output with improved surface kinetics are achieved with the optimized ALD Ru surface-coating compared to bare Pt. The chemical composition of the Pt/ALD Ru electrode surface after fuel cell operation is analyzed via XPS. Enhanced cell performance is clearly achieved, attributed to the effective Pt/ALD Ru bi-metallic catalysis, including oxidation of Cdbnd O by Ru, and de-protonation of ethanol and cleavage of C-C bonds by Pt, as supported by surface morphology analysis which confirms formation of a large amount of carbon on bare Pt after the ethanol-fuel-cell test.

  8. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic and morphologic studies of Ru nanoparticles deposited onto highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavand, R.; Yelon, A.; Sacher, E.

    2015-11-01

    Ruthenium nanoparticles (Ru NPs) function as effective catalysts in specific reactions, such as methanation and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses. It is our purpose to physicochemically characterize their surfaces, at which catalysis occurs, by surface-sensitive X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), using the symmetric peak component anaylsis technique developed in our laboratory to reveal previously hidden components. Ru NPs were deposited by evaporation (0.25-1.5 nm nominal deposition range) onto highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). In addition to their surfaces being characterized by XPS, an indication of morphology was obtained from transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our use of symmetric peak component XPS analysis has revealed detailed information on a previously unidentified surface oxide initially formed, as well as on the valence electronic structure and its variation with NP size, information that is of potential importance in the use of these NPs in catalysis. Each of the several Ru core XPS spectra characterized (3d, 3p and 3s) was found to be composed of three symmetric components. Together with two metal oxide O1s components, these give evidence of a rather complex, previously unidentified oxide that is initially formed. The Ru valence band (4d and 5s) spectra clearly demonstrate a loss of metallicity, a simultaneous increase of the Kubo gap, and an abrupt transfer in valence electron density from the 4d to the 5s orbitals (known as electron spill-over), as the NP size decreases below 0.5 nm. TEM photomicrographs, as a function of deposition rate, show that, at a rate that gives insufficient time for the NP condensation energy to dissipate, the initially well-separated NPs are capable of diffusing laterally and aggregating. This indicates weak NP bonding to the HOPG substrate. Carbide is formed, at both high and low deposition rates, at Ru deposition thicknesses greater than 0.25 nm, its formation explained by Ru NPs reacting with residual

  9. Methods of making textured catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Werpy, Todd [West Richland, WA; Frye, Jr., John G.; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Zacher, Alan H [Kennewick, WA

    2010-08-17

    A textured catalyst having a hydrothermally-stable support, a metal oxide and a catalyst component is described. Methods of conducting aqueous phase reactions that are catalyzed by a textured catalyst are also described. The invention also provides methods of making textured catalysts and methods of making chemical products using a textured catalyst.

  10. An efficient and pH-universal ruthenium-based catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, Javeed; Li, Feng; Jung, Sun-Min; Okyay, Mahmut Sait; Ahmad, Ishfaq; Kim, Seok-Jin; Park, Noejung; Jeong, Hu Young; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2017-05-01

    The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is a crucial step in electrochemical water splitting and demands an efficient, durable and cheap catalyst if it is to succeed in real applications. For an energy-efficient HER, a catalyst must be able to trigger proton reduction with minimal overpotential and have fast kinetics. The most efficient catalysts in acidic media are platinum-based, as the strength of the Pt-H bond is associated with the fastest reaction rate for the HER. The use of platinum, however, raises issues linked to cost and stability in non-acidic media. Recently, non-precious-metal-based catalysts have been reported, but these are susceptible to acid corrosion and are typically much inferior to Pt-based catalysts, exhibiting higher overpotentials and lower stability. As a cheaper alternative to platinum, ruthenium possesses a similar bond strength with hydrogen (˜65 kcal mol-1), but has never been studied as a viable alternative for a HER catalyst. Here, we report a Ru-based catalyst for the HER that can operate both in acidic and alkaline media. Our catalyst is made of Ru nanoparticles dispersed within a nitrogenated holey two-dimensional carbon structure (Ru@C2N). The Ru@C2N electrocatalyst exhibits high turnover frequencies at 25 mV (0.67 H2 s-1 in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution; 0.75 H2 s-1 in 1.0 M KOH solution) and small overpotentials at 10 mA cm-2 (13.5 mV in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution; 17.0 mV in 1.0 M KOH solution) as well as superior stability in both acidic and alkaline media. These performances are comparable to, or even better than, the Pt/C catalyst for the HER.

  11. Substituent-directed structural and physicochemical controls of diruthenium catecholate complexes with ligand-unsupported Ru-Ru bonds.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ho-Chol; Mochizuki, Katsunori; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2005-05-30

    A family of diruthenium complexes with ligand-unsupported Ru-Ru bonds has been systematically synthesized, and their crystal structures and physical properties have been examined. A simple, useful reaction between Ru2(OAc)4Cl (OAc- = acetate) and catechol derivatives in the presence of bases afforded a variety of diruthenium complexes, generally formulated as [Na(n){Ru2(R4Cat)4}] (n = 2 or 3; R4 = -F4, -Cl4, -Br4, -H4, -3,5-di-t-Bu, and -3,6-di-t-Bu; Cat(2-) = catecholate). The most characteristic feature of the complexes is the formation of short ligand-unsupported Ru-Ru bonds (2.140-2.273 A). These comprehensive studies were carried out to evaluate the effects of the oxidation states and the substituents governing the molecular structures and physicochemical properties. The Ru-Ru bond distances, rotational conformations, and bending structures of the complexes were successfully varied. The results presented in this manuscript clearly demonstrate that the complexes with ligand-unsupported Ru-Ru bonds can sensitively respond to redox reactions and ligand substituents on the basis of the greater degree of freedom in their molecular structures.

  12. METHOD OF PURIFYING CATALYSTS

    DOEpatents

    Joris, G.G.

    1958-09-01

    It has been fuund that the presence of chlorine as an impurity adversely affects the performance of finely divided platinum catalysts such as are used in the isotopic exchange process for the production of beavy water. This chlorine impurity may be removed from these catalysts by treating the catalyst at an elevated temperature with dry hydrogen and then with wet hydrogen, having a hydrogen-water vapor volume of about 8: 1. This alternate treatment by dry hydrogen and wet hydrogen is continued until the chlorine is largely removed from the catalyst.

  13. A novel Ru/TiO2 hybrid nanocomposite catalyzed photoreduction of CO2 to methanol under visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pawan; Joshi, Chetan; Labhsetwar, Nitin; Boukherroub, Rabah; Jain, Suman L.

    2015-09-01

    A novel in situ synthesized Ru(bpy)3/TiO2 hybrid nanocomposite is developed for the photoreduction of CO2 into methanol under visible light irradiation. The prepared composite was characterized by means of SEM, TEM, XRD, DT-TGA, XPS, UV-Vis and FT-IR techniques. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized hybrid catalyst was tested for the photoreduction of CO2 under visible light using triethylamine as a sacrificial donor. The methanol yield for the Ru(bpy)3/TiO2 hybrid nanocomposite was found to be 1876 μmol g-1 cat (φMeOH 0.024 mol Einstein-1) that was much higher in comparison with the in situ synthesized TiO2, 828 μmol g-1 cat (φMeOH 0.010 mol Einstein-1) and the homogeneous Ru(bpy)3Cl2 complex, 385 μmol g-1 cat (φMeOH 0.005 mol Einstein-1).A novel in situ synthesized Ru(bpy)3/TiO2 hybrid nanocomposite is developed for the photoreduction of CO2 into methanol under visible light irradiation. The prepared composite was characterized by means of SEM, TEM, XRD, DT-TGA, XPS, UV-Vis and FT-IR techniques. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized hybrid catalyst was tested for the photoreduction of CO2 under visible light using triethylamine as a sacrificial donor. The methanol yield for the Ru(bpy)3/TiO2 hybrid nanocomposite was found to be 1876 μmol g-1 cat (φMeOH 0.024 mol Einstein-1) that was much higher in comparison with the in situ synthesized TiO2, 828 μmol g-1 cat (φMeOH 0.010 mol Einstein-1) and the homogeneous Ru(bpy)3Cl2 complex, 385 μmol g-1 cat (φMeOH 0.005 mol Einstein-1). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: GC chromatograms of reaction products and calibration curve for methanol analysis. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03712c

  14. Hydroxide catalysts for lignin depolymerization

    DOEpatents

    Beckham, Gregg T; Biddy, Mary J.; Kruger, Jacob S.; Chmely, Stephen C.; Sturgeon, Matthew

    2017-10-17

    Solid base catalysts and their use for the base-catalyzed depolymerization (BCD) of lignin to compounds such as aromatics are presented herein. Exemplary catalysts include layered double hydroxides (LDHs) as recyclable, heterogeneous catalysts for BCD of lignin.

  15. Hydroxide catalysts for lignin depolymerization

    DOEpatents

    Beckham, Gregg T.; Biddy, Mary J.; Chmely, Stephen C.; Sturgeon, Matthew

    2017-04-25

    Solid base catalysts and their use for the base-catalyzed depolymerization (BCD) of lignin to compounds such as aromatics are presented herein. Exemplary catalysts include layered double hydroxides (LDHs) as recyclable, heterogeneous catalysts for BCD of lignin.

  16. Superconductor-Insulator transition in sputtered amorphous MoRu and MoRuN thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makise, K.; Shinozaki, B.; Ichikawa, F.

    2018-03-01

    This work shows the experimental results of the superconductor-insulator (S-I) transition for amorphous molybdenum ruthenium (MoRu) and molybdenum ruthenium nitride (MoRuN) films. These amorphous films onto c-plane sapphire substrates have been interpreted to be homogeneous by XRD and AFM measurements. Electrical and superconducting properties measurements were carried out on MoRu and MoRuN thin films deposited by reactive sputtering technique. We have analysed the data on R sq (T) based on excess conductivity of superconducting films by the AL and MT term and weak localization and electron-electron interaction for the conductance. MoRu films which offer the most homogeneous film morphology, showed a critical sheet resistance of transition, Rc, of ∼ 2 kΩ. This values is smaller than those previously our reported for quench-condensed MoRu films on SiO underlayer held at liquid He temperature.

  17. In situ Generated Ruthenium Catalyst Systems Bearing Diverse N-Heterocyclic Carbene Precursors for Atom-Economic Amide Synthesis from Alcohols and Amines.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hua; Xiong, Mao-Qian; Cheng, Chuan-Xiang; Wang, Hua-Jing; Lu, Qiang; Liu, Hong-Fu; Yao, Fu-Bin; Chen, Cheng; Verpoort, Francis

    2018-02-16

    The transition-metal-catalyzed direct synthesis of amides from alcohols and amines is herein demonstrated as a highly environmentally benign and atom-economic process. Among various catalyst systems, in situ generated N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-based ruthenium (Ru) halide catalyst systems have been proven to be active for this transformation. However, these existing catalyst systems usually require an additional ligand to achieve satisfactory results. In this work, through extensive screening of a diverse variety of NHC precursors, we discovered an active in situ catalyst system for efficient amide synthesis without any additional ligand. Notably, this catalyst system was found to be insensitive to the electronic effects of the substrates, and various electron-deficient substrates, which were not highly reactive with our previous catalyst systems, could be employed to afford the corresponding amides efficiently. Furthermore, mechanistic investigations were performed to provide a rationale for the high activity of the optimized catalyst system. NMR-scale reactions indicated that the rapid formation of a Ru hydride intermediate (signal at δ=-7.8 ppm in the 1 H NMR spectrum) after the addition of the alcohol substrate should be pivotal in establishing the high catalyst activity. Besides, HRMS analysis provided possible structures of the in situ generated catalyst system. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Reducible oxide based catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Levi T.; Kim, Chang Hwan; Bej, Shyamal K.

    2010-04-06

    A catalyst is disclosed herein. The catalyst includes a reducible oxide support and at least one noble metal fixed on the reducible oxide support. The noble metal(s) is loaded on the support at a substantially constant temperature and pH.

  19. Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, James H. (Inventor); Taylor, Jesse W. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Catalyst compositions and methods for F-T synthesis which exhibit high CO conversion with minor levels (preferably less than 35% and more preferably less than 5%) or no measurable carbon dioxide generation. F-T active catalysts are prepared by reduction of certain oxygen deficient mixed metal oxides.

  20. Nanostructured catalyst supports

    DOEpatents

    Zhu, Yimin; Goldman, Jay L.; Qian, Baixin; Stefan, Ionel C.

    2012-10-02

    The present invention relates to SiC nanostructures, including SiC nanopowder, SiC nanowires, and composites of SiC nanopowder and nanowires, which can be used as catalyst supports in membrane electrode assemblies and in fuel cells. The present invention also relates to composite catalyst supports comprising nanopowder and one or more inorganic nanowires for a membrane electrode assembly.

  1. RuO 2 nanoparticles supported on MnO 2 nanorods as high efficient bifunctional electrocatalyst of lithium-oxygen battery

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yue-Feng; Chen, Yuan; Xu, Gui-Liang

    RuO2 nanoparticles supported on MnO2 nanorods (denoted as np-RuO2/nr-MnO2) were synthesized via a two-step hydrothermal reaction. SEM and TEM images both illustrated that RuO2 nanoparticles are well dispersed on the surface of MnO2 nanorods in the as-prepared np-RuO2/nr-MnO2 material. Electrochemical results demonstrated that the np-RuO2/nr-MnO2 as oxygen cathode of Li-O-2 batteries could maintain a reversible capacity of 500 mA h g(-1) within 75 cycles at a rate of 50 mA g(-1), and a higher capacity of 4000 mA h g(-1) within 20 cycles at a rate as high as 200 mA g(-1). Moreover, the cell with the np-RuO2/nr-MnO2 catalyst presentedmore » much lower voltage polarization (about 0.58 V at a rate of 50 mA g(-1)) than that measured with only MnO2 nanorods during charge/discharge processes. The catalytic property of the np-RuO2/nr-MnO2 and MnO2 nanorods were further compared by conducting studies of using rotating disk electrode (RDE), chronoamperommetry and linear sweep voltammetry. The results illustrated that the np-RuO2/nr-MnO2 exhibited excellent bifunctional electrocatalytic activities towards both oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Furthermore, in-situ high-energy X-ray diffraction was employed to trace evolution of species on the np-RuO2/nr-MnO2 cathode during the discharge processes. In-situ XRD patterns demonstrated the formation process of the discharge products that consisted of mainly Li2O2. Ex-situ SEM images were recorded to investigate the morphology and decomposition of the sphere-like Li2O2, which could be observed clearly after discharge process, while are decomposed almost after charge process. The excellent electrochemical performances of the np-RuO2/nr-MnO2 as cathode of Li-O-2 battery could be contributed to the excellent bifunctional electrocatalytic activities for both the ORR and OER, and to the one-dimensional structure which would benefit the diffusion of oxygen and the storage of Li2O2 in the discharge

  2. Nano-structured Platinum-based Catalysts for the Complete Oxidation of Ethylene Glycol and Glycerol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falase, Akinbayowa

    Direct alcohol fuel cells are a viable alternative to the traditional hydrogen PEM fuel cell. Fuel versatility, integration with existing distribution networks, and increased safety when handling these fuels increases their appeal for portable power applications. In order to maximize their utility, the liquid fuel must be fully oxidized to CO2 so as to harvest the full amount of energy. Methanol and ethanol are widely researched as potential fuels to power these devices, but methanol is a toxic substance, and ethanol has a much lower energy density than other liquids such as gasoline or glucose. Oxidation of complex fuels is difficult to realize, due to difficulty in breaking carbon-carbon bonding and poisoning of the catalysts by oxidative byproducts. In order to achieve the highest efficiency, an anode needs to be engineered in such a way as to maximize activity while minimizing poisoning effects of reaction byproducts. We have engineered an anode that uses platinum-based catalysts that is capable of completely oxidizing ethylene glycol and glycerol in neutral and alkaline media with little evidence of CO poisoning. We have constructed a hybrid anode consisting of a nano-structured PtRu electrocatayst with an NAD-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase for improved oxidation of complex molecules. A nano-structured PtRu catalyst was used to oxidize ethylene glycol and glycerol in neutral media. In situ infrared spectroscopy was used to verify complete oxidation via CO2 generation. There was no evidence of poisoning by CO species. A pH study was performed to determine the effect of pH on oxidative current. The peak currents did not trend at 60 mV/pH unit as would be expected from the Nernst equation, suggesting that adsorption of fuel to the surface of the electrode is not an electron-transfer step. We synthesized nano-structured PtRu, PtSn, and PtRuSn catalysts for oxidation of ethylene glycol and glycerol in alkaline media. The PtRu electrocatalyst the highest oxidative

  3. Investigation of the Vortex States of Sr2RuO4-Ru Eutectic Microplates Using DC-SQUIDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuma, Daisuke; Nago, Yusuke; Ishiguro, Ryosuke; Kashiwaya, Satoshi; Nomura, Shintaro; Kono, Kimitoshi; Maeno, Yoshiteru; Takayanagi, Hideaki

    2017-11-01

    We investigated the magnetic properties of a Sr2RuO4-Ru eutectic microplate containing a single Ru-inclusion using micrometer-sized DC-SQUIDs (direct-current superconducting quantum interference devices). A phase frustration at the interface between chiral p-wave superconducting Sr2RuO4 and s-wave superconducting Ru is expected to cause novel magnetic vortex states such as the spontaneous Ru-center vortex under zero magnetic field [as reported by H. Kaneyasu and M. Sigrist, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 79, 053706 (2010)]. Our experimental results show no positive evidence for such a spontaneous vortex state. However, in an applied field, an abrupt change in the magnetic flux distribution was observed at a superconducting transition of Ru. The flux distribution is clarified by comparing our experimental results with electromagnetic field simulations in our sample geometry. We discuss the transition of the vortex states and the superconducting coupling at the Sr2RuO4/Ru interface.

  4. Carbon-supported bimetallic Pd–Fe catalysts for vapor-phase hydrodeoxygenation of guaiacol

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Junming; Karim, Ayman M.; Zhang, He

    2013-10-01

    Abstract Carbon supported metal catalysts (Cu/C, Fe/C, Pd/C, Pt/C, PdFe/C and Ru/C) have been prepared, characterized and tested for vapor-phase hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of guaiacol (GUA) at atmospheric pressure. Phenol was the major intermediate on all catalysts. Over the noble metal catalysts saturation of the aromatic ring was the major pathway observed at low temperature (250 °C), forming predominantly cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol. Substantial ring opening reaction was observed on Pt/C and Ru/C at higher reaction temperatures (e.g., 350 °C). Base metal catalysts, especially Fe/C, were found to exhibit high HDO activity without ring-saturation or ring-opening with the main products being benzene,more » phenol along with small amounts of cresol, toluene and trimethylbenzene (TMB). A substantial enhancement in HDO activity was observed on the PdFe/C catalysts. Compared with Fe/C, the yield to oxygen-free aromatic products (i.e., benzene/toluene/TMB) on PdFe/C increased by a factor of four at 350 °C, and by approximately a factor of two (83.2% versus 43.3%) at 450 °C. The enhanced activity of PdFe/C is attributed to the formation of PdFe alloy as evidenced by STEM, EDS and TPR.« less

  5. Next Generation Catalyst Engineering via Support Modification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-21

    the effect of specific N functionalities on the stability of PtRu. DFT calculations show that N-defects such as pyrrolic and pyridinic N enhance the...stability of Pt in PtRu and that pyrrolic N improves the stability of PtRu by stabilizing both Pt and Ru. Hence, a balance between pyrrolic and

  6. Hydrophilic cobalt sulfide nanosheets as a bifunctional catalyst for oxygen and hydrogen evolution in electrolysis of alkaline aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mingchao; Zhang, Zhongyi; Zhang, Hu; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Lixue; Wang, Shicai

    2018-01-01

    Hydrophilic medium and precursors were used to synthesize a hydrophilic electro-catalyst for overall water splitting. The cobalt sulfide (Co 3 S 4 ) catalyst exhibits a layered nanosheet structure with a hydrophilic surface, which can facilitate the diffusion of aqueous substrates into the electrode pores and towards the active sites. The Co 3 S 4 catalyst shows excellent bifunctional catalytic activity for both the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in alkaline solution. The assembled water electrolyzer based on Co 3 S 4 exhibits better performance and stability than that of Pt/C-RuO 2 catalyst. Thereforce the hydrophilic Co 3 S 4 is a highly promising bifunctional catalyst for the overall water splitting reaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Intramolecular proton transfer boosts water oxidation catalyzed by a Ru complex

    SciTech Connect

    Matheu, Roc; Ertem, Mehmed Z.; Benet-Buchholz, J.

    We introduce a new family of complexes with the general formula [Ru n(tda)(py)2] m+ (n = 2, m = 0, 1; n = 3, m = 1, 2 +; n = 4, m = 2, 3 2+), with tda 2– being [2,2':6',2"-terpyridine]-6,6"-dicarboxylate, including complex [Ru IV(OH)(tda-κ-N 3O)(py) 2] +, 4H +, which we find to be an impressive water oxidation catalyst, formed by hydroxo coordination to 3 2+ under basic conditions. The complexes are synthesized, isolated, and thoroughly characterized by analytical, spectroscopic (UV–vis, nuclear magnetic resonance, electron paramagnetic resonance), computational, and electrochemical techniques (cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry, coulometry), includingmore » solid-state monocrystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In oxidation state IV, the Ru center is seven-coordinated and diamagnetic, whereas in oxidation state II, the complex has an unbonded dangling carboxylate and is six-coordinated while still diamagnetic. With oxidation state III, the coordination number is halfway between the coordination of oxidation states II and IV. Species generated in situ have also been characterized by spectroscopic, computational, and electrochemical techniques, together with the related species derived from a different degree of protonation and oxidation states. 4H + can be generated potentiometrically, or voltammetrically, from 3 2+, and both coexist in solution. While complex 3 2+ is not catalytically active, the catalytic performance of complex 4H + is characterized by the foot of the wave analysis, giving an impressive turnover frequency record of 8000 s –1 at pH 7.0 and 50,000 s –1 at pH 10.0. Density functional theory calculations provide a complete description of the water oxidation catalytic cycle of 4H +, manifesting the key functional role of the dangling carboxylate in lowering the activation free energies that lead to O–O bond formation.« less

  8. Intramolecular proton transfer boosts water oxidation catalyzed by a Ru complex

    DOE PAGES

    Matheu, Roc; Ertem, Mehmed Z.; Benet-Buchholz, J.; ...

    2015-07-30

    We introduce a new family of complexes with the general formula [Ru n(tda)(py)2] m+ (n = 2, m = 0, 1; n = 3, m = 1, 2 +; n = 4, m = 2, 3 2+), with tda 2– being [2,2':6',2"-terpyridine]-6,6"-dicarboxylate, including complex [Ru IV(OH)(tda-κ-N 3O)(py) 2] +, 4H +, which we find to be an impressive water oxidation catalyst, formed by hydroxo coordination to 3 2+ under basic conditions. The complexes are synthesized, isolated, and thoroughly characterized by analytical, spectroscopic (UV–vis, nuclear magnetic resonance, electron paramagnetic resonance), computational, and electrochemical techniques (cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry, coulometry), includingmore » solid-state monocrystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In oxidation state IV, the Ru center is seven-coordinated and diamagnetic, whereas in oxidation state II, the complex has an unbonded dangling carboxylate and is six-coordinated while still diamagnetic. With oxidation state III, the coordination number is halfway between the coordination of oxidation states II and IV. Species generated in situ have also been characterized by spectroscopic, computational, and electrochemical techniques, together with the related species derived from a different degree of protonation and oxidation states. 4H + can be generated potentiometrically, or voltammetrically, from 3 2+, and both coexist in solution. While complex 3 2+ is not catalytically active, the catalytic performance of complex 4H + is characterized by the foot of the wave analysis, giving an impressive turnover frequency record of 8000 s –1 at pH 7.0 and 50,000 s –1 at pH 10.0. Density functional theory calculations provide a complete description of the water oxidation catalytic cycle of 4H +, manifesting the key functional role of the dangling carboxylate in lowering the activation free energies that lead to O–O bond formation.« less

  9. Size-controllable APTS stabilized ruthenium(0) nanoparticles catalyst for the dehydrogenation of dimethylamine-borane at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Zahmakıran, Mehmet; Philippot, Karine; Özkar, Saim; Chaudret, Bruno

    2012-01-14

    Dimethylamine-borane, (CH(3))(2)NHBH(3), has been considered as one of the attractive materials for the efficient storage of hydrogen, which is still one of the key issues in the "Hydrogen Economy". In a recent communication we have reported the synthesis and characterization of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane stabilized ruthenium(0) nanoparticles with the preliminary results for their catalytic performance in the dehydrogenation of dimethylamine-borane at room temperature. Herein, we report a complete work including (i) effect of initial [APTS]/[Ru] molar ratio on both the size and the catalytic activity of ruthenium(0) nanoparticles, (ii) collection of extensive kinetic data under non-MTL conditions depending on the substrate and catalyst concentrations to define the rate law of Ru(0)/APTS-catalyzed dehydrogenation of dimethylamine-borane at room temperature, (iii) determination of activation parameters (E(a), ΔH(#) and ΔS(#)) for Ru(0)/APTS-catalyzed dehydrogenation of dimethylamine-borane; (iv) demonstration of the catalytic lifetime of Ru(0)/APTS nanoparticles in the dehydrogenation of dimethylamine-borane at room temperature, (v) testing the bottlability and reusability of Ru(0)/APTS nanocatalyst in the room-temperature dehydrogenation of dimethylamine-borane, (vi) quantitative carbon disulfide (CS(2)) poisoning experiments to find a corrected TTO and TOF values on a per-active-ruthenium-atom basis, (vii) a summary of extensive literature review for the catalysts tested in the catalytic dehydrogenation of dimethylamine-borane as part of the results and discussions.

  10. RuO2 Thermometer for Ultra-Low Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hait, Thomas; Shirron, Peter J.; DiPirro, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A small, high-resolution, low-power thermometer has been developed for use in ultra-low temperatures that uses multiple RuO2 chip resistors. The use of commercially available thick-film RuO2 chip resistors for measuring cryogenic temperatures is well known due to their low cost, long-term stability, and large resistance change.

  11. Ru nanoframes with an fcc structure and enhanced catalytic properties

    DOE PAGES

    Ye, Haihang; Wang, Qingxiao; Catalano, Massimo; ...

    2016-03-21

    Noble-metal nanoframes are of great interest to many applications due to their unique open structures. Among various noble metals, Ru has never been made into nanoframes. In this study, we report for the first time an effective method based on seeded growth and chemical etching for the facile synthesis of Ru nanoframes with high purity. The essence of this approach is to induce the preferential growth of Ru on the corners and edges of Pd truncated octahedra as the seeds by kinetic control. The resultant Pd–Ru core–frame octahedra could be easily converted to Ru octahedral nanoframes of ~2 nm inmore » thickness by selectively removing the Pd cores through chemical etching. Most importantly, in this approach the face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure of Pd seeds was faithfully replicated by Ru that usually takes an hcp structure. Furthermore, the fcc Ru nanoframes showed higher catalytic activities toward the reduction of p-nitrophenol by NaBH 4 and the dehydrogenation of ammonia borane compared with hcp Ru nanowires with roughly the same thickness.« less

  12. Carbon Dioxide Transformation in Imidazolium Salts: Hydroaminomethylation Catalyzed by Ru-Complexes.

    PubMed

    Ali, Meher; Gual, Aitor; Ebeling, Gunter; Dupont, Jairton

    2016-08-23

    The catalytic species generated by dissolving Ru3 (CO)12 in the ionic liquids 1-n-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride or 1-n-butyl-2,3-dimethyl-imidazolium chloride are efficient multifunctional catalysts for: (a) reverse water-gas shift, (b) hydroformylation of alkenes, and (c) reductive amination of aldehydes. Thus the reaction of alkenes with primary or secondary amines (alkene/amine, 1:1) under CO2 /H2 (1:1) affords the hydroaminomethylations products in high alkene conversions (up to 99 %) and selectivities (up to 96 %). The reaction proceeds under relatively mild reaction conditions (120 °C, 60 bar=6 MPa) and affords selectively secondary and tertiary amines. The presence of amine strongly reduces the alkene hydrogenation competitive pathway usually observed in the hydroformylation of terminal alkenes by Ru complexes. The catalytic system is also highly active for the reductive amination of aldehydes and ketones yielding amines in high yields (>90 %). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Enhanced thermoelectric power and electronic correlations in RuSe₂

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Kefeng; Wang, Aifeng; Tomic, A.; ...

    2015-03-03

    We report the electronic structure, electric and thermal transport properties of Ru 1-xIr xSe₂ (x ≤ 0.2). RuSe₂ is a semiconductor that crystallizes in a cubic pyrite unit cell. The Seebeck coefficient of RuSe₂ exceeds -200 μV/K around 730 K. Ir substitution results in the suppression of the resistivity and the Seebeck coefficient, suggesting the removal of the peaks in density of states near the Fermi level. Ru 0.8Ir 0.2Se₂ shows a semiconductor-metal crossover at about 30 K. The magnetic field restores the semiconducting behavior. Our results indicate the importance of the electronic correlations in enhanced thermoelectricity of RuSb₂.

  14. Mechanistic Insights on the Hydrogenation of α,β-Unsaturated Ketones and Aldehydes to Unsaturated Alcohols over Metal Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Ide, Matthew S.; Hao, Bing; Neurock, Matthew

    The selective hydrogenation of unsaturated ketones (methyl vinyl ketone and benzalacetone) and unsaturated aldehydes (crotonaldehyde and cinnamaldehyde) was carried out with H₂ at 2 bar absolute over Pd/C, Pt/C, Ru/C, Au/C, Au/TiO₂, or Au/Fe₂O₃ catalysts in ethanol or water solvent at 333 K. Comparison of the turnover frequencies revealed Pd/C to be the most active hydrogenation catalyst, but the catalyst failed to produce unsaturated alcohols, indicating hydrogenation of the C=C bond was highly preferred over the C=O bond on Pd. The Pt and Ru catalysts were able to produce unsaturated alcohols from unsaturated aldehydes, but not from unsaturated ketones. Althoughmore » Au/ Fe₂O₃ was able to partially hydrogenate unsaturated ketones to unsaturated alcohols, the overall hydrogenation rate over gold was the lowest of all of the metals examined. First-principles density functional theory calculations were therefore used to explore the reactivity trends of methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and benzalacetone (BA) hydrogenation over model Pt(111) and Ru(0001) surfaces. The observed selectivity over these metals is likely controlled by the significantly higher activation barriers to hydrogenate the C=O bond compared with those required to hydrogenate the C=C bond. Both the unsaturated alcohol and the saturated ketone, which are the primary reaction products, are strongly bound to Ru and can react further to the saturated alcohol. The lower calculated barriers for the hydrogenation steps over Pt compared with Ru account for the higher observed turnover frequencies for the hydrogenation of MVK and BA over Pt. The presence of a phenyl substituent α to the C=C bond in BA increased the barrier for C=C hydrogenation over those associated with the C=C bond in MVK; however, the increase in barriers with phenyl substitution was not adequate to reverse the selectivity trend.« less

  15. CO2 electroreduction characteristics of Pt-Ru/C powder and Pt-Ru sputtered electrodes under acidic condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Hiroto; Matsuda, Shofu; Tanaka, Shoji; Shironita, Sayoko; Umeda, Minoru

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to overcome the issue about the underpotential adsorption of the CO2 electroreductant on the surface of the Pt electrocatalyst under acidic conditions by the alloying of Pt and Ru. As evaluation parameters, the CO2 reduction onset potential and CO2-reductant reoxidation onset potential were employed. We prepared a porous microelectrode filled with Pt-Ru/C powder and a Pt-Ru sputtered electrode. For the Pt-Ru/C powder electrocatalyst, the CO2 reduction onset potential as well as the CO2-reductant reoxidation onset potential shifted in the direction of the CO2/CO2-reductant standard redox potential dependent on the Ru content, which is indicative of a decrease in the underpotential-adsorption energy of the CO2 reductant. For the Pt-Ru sputtered electrode, only the CO2 reduction onset potential shifted in the direction of the redox potential. Consequently, we demonstrated that the Pt-Ru/C powder electrode improved the reactivity of the CO2/CO2-reductant when discussing the relationship between the CO2 reduction onset potential and the CO2-reductant reoxidation onset potential. Based on our findings, the Pt-Ru/C (1:9) powder is the most effective electrocatalyst for the CO2 reduction, which could minimize the underpotential adsorption.

  16. Alternative catalysts for low-temperature CO-oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Steven D.; Hoflund, Gar B.; Schryer, David R.; Schryer, Jacqueline; Upchurch, Billy T.; Brown, David R.

    1990-01-01

    MnO sub x, Ag/MnO sub x, Cu/MnO sub x, Pt/MnO sub x, Ru/MnO sub x, Au/CeO sub x, and Au/Fe2O3 were synthesized and tested for CO oxidation activity in low concentrations of stoichiometric CO and O2 at 30 to 75 C. Catalytic activity was measured for periods as long as 18000 minutes. At 75 deg Au/MnO sub x is most active sustaining nearly 100 percent CO conversion for 10000 minutes. It also retains high activity at 50 and 30 C with negligible decay in activity. A direct comparison between an unpretreated 10 percent Au/MnO sub x catalyst and an optimized 19.5 percent Pt/SnO sub 2 (pretreated) catalyst shows that the Au/MnO sub x catalyst exhibits much higher catalytic activity and far superior decay characteristics. Other catalysts including Au/CeO sub x and Au/Fe2O3 also perform well. The Cu/MnO sub x exhibits a high initial activity which decays rapidly. After the decay period the activity remains very stable making Cu/MnO sub x a potential candidate for long-term applications such as CO2 lasers in space.

  17. Graphene-derived Fe/Co-N-C catalyst in direct methanol fuel cells: Effects of the methanol concentration and ionomer content on cell performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong Cheol; Choi, Chang Hyuck

    2017-08-01

    Non-precious metal catalysts (typically Fe(Co)-N-C catalysts) have been widely investigated for use as cost-effective cathode materials in low temperature fuel cells. Despite the high oxygen reduction activity and methanol-tolerance of graphene-based Fe(Co)-N-C catalysts in an acidic medium, their use in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) has not yet been successfully implemented, and only a few studies have investigated this topic. Herein, we synthesized a nano-sized graphene-derived Fe/Co-N-C catalyst by physical ball-milling and a subsequent chemical modification of the graphene oxide. Twelve membrane-electrode-assemblies are fabricated with various cathode compositions to determine the effects of the methanol concentration, ionomer (i.e. Nafion) content, and catalyst loading on the DMFC performance. The results show that a graphene-based catalyst is capable of tolerating a highly-concentrated methanol feed up to 10.0 M. The optimized electrode composition has an ionomer content and catalyst loading of 66.7 wt% and 5.0 mg cm-2, respectively. The highest maximum power density is ca. 32 mW cm-2 with a relatively low PtRu content (2 mgPtRu cm-2). This study overcomes the drawbacks of conventional graphene-based electrodes using a nano-sized graphene-based catalyst and further shows the feasibility of their potential applications in DMFC systems.

  18. Evaluations of catalysts for wet oxidation waste management in CELSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguchi, Mitsuo; Nitta, Keiji

    1992-11-01

    A wet oxidation method is considered to be one of the most effective methods of waste processing and recycling in CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support System). The first test using rabbit waste as raw material was conducted under a decomposition temperature of 280 °C for 30 minutes and an initial pure oxygen pressure of 4.9 MPa (50 kgf/cm2) before heating, and the following results were obtained. The value of COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) was reduced 82.5 % by the wet oxidation. And also the Kjeldahl nitrogen concentration was decreased 98.8%. However, the organic carbon compound in the residual solution was almost acetic acid and ammonia was produced. In order to activate the oxidation more strongly, the second tests using catalysts such as Pd, Ru and Ru+Rh were conducted. As the results of these tests, the effectiveness of catalysts for oxidizing raw material ws shown as follows: COD and the Kjeldahl nitrogen values were drastically decreased 99.65 % and 99.88 %, respectively. Furthermore, the quantity of acetic acid and ammonia were reduced considerably. On the other hand, nitrate was showed a value 30 times as much as without catalytic oxidation.

  19. Catalyst for microelectromechanical systems microreactors

    DOEpatents

    Morse, Jeffrey D [Martinez, CA; Sopchak, David A [Livermore, CA; Upadhye, Ravindra S [Pleasanton, CA; Reynolds, John G [San Ramon, CA; Satcher, Joseph H [Patterson, CA; Gash, Alex E [Brentwood, CA

    2010-06-29

    A microreactor comprising a silicon wafer, a multiplicity of microchannels in the silicon wafer, and a catalyst coating the microchannels. In one embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a nanostructured material. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises an aerogel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a solgel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises carbon nanotubes.

  20. Catalyst for microelectromechanical systems microreactors

    DOEpatents

    Morse, Jeffrey D [Martinez, CA; Sopchak, David A [Livermore, CA; Upadhye, Ravindra S [Pleasanton, CA; Reynolds, John G [San Ramon, CA; Satcher, Joseph H [Patterson, CA; Gash, Alex E [Brentwood, CA

    2011-11-15

    A microreactor comprising a silicon wafer, a multiplicity of microchannels in the silicon wafer, and a catalyst coating the microchannels. In one embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a nanostructured material. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises an aerogel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a solgel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises carbon nanotubes.

  1. Catalysts and method

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, Charles E.; Noceti, Richard P.

    1991-01-01

    An improved catlayst and method for the oxyhydrochlorination of methane is disclosed. The catalyst includes a pyrogenic porous support on which is layered as active material, cobalt chloride in major proportion, and minor proportions of an alkali metal chloride and of a rare earth chloride. On contact of the catalyst with a gas flow of methane, HC1 and oxygen, more than 60% of the methane is converted and of that converted more than 40% occurs as monochloromethane. Advantageously, the monochloromethane can be used to produce gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons with the recycle of HCl for further reaction. This catalyst is also of value for the production of formic acid as are analogous catalysts with lead, silver or nickel chlorides substituted for the cobalt chloride.

  2. Epoxidation catalyst and process

    DOEpatents

    Linic, Suljo; Christopher, Phillip

    2010-10-26

    Disclosed herein is a catalytic method of converting alkenes to epoxides. This method generally includes reacting alkenes with oxygen in the presence of a specific silver catalyst under conditions suitable to produce a yield of the epoxides. The specific silver catalyst is a silver nanocrystal having a plurality of surface planes, a substantial portion of which is defined by Miller indices of (100). The reaction is performed by charging a suitable reactor with this silver catalyst and then feeding the reactants to the reactor under conditions to carry out the reaction. The reaction may be performed in batch, or as a continuous process that employs a recycle of any unreacted alkenes. The specific silver catalyst has unexpectedly high selectivity for epoxide products. Consequently, this general method (and its various embodiments) will result in extraordinarily high epoxide yields heretofore unattainable.

  3. Noninnocent Proton-Responsive Ligand Facilitates Reductive Deprotonation and Hinders CO 2 Reduction Catalysis in [Ru(tpy)(6DHBP)(NCCH 3 )] 2+ (6DHBP = 6,6'-(OH) 2 bpy)

    DOE PAGES

    Duan, Lele; Manbeck, Gerald F.; Kowalczyk, Marta; ...

    2016-04-14

    Ruthenium complexes with proton-responsive ligands [Ru(tpy)(nDHBP)(NCCH 3)](CF 3SO 3) 2 (tpy = 2,2':6',2"-terpyridine; nDHBP = n,n'-dihydroxy-2,2'-bipyridine, n = 4 or 6) were examined in this study for reductive chemistry and as catalysts for CO 2 reduction. Electrochemical reduction of [Ru(tpy)(nDHBP)(NCCH 3)] 2+ generates deprotonated species through interligand electron transfer in which the initially formed tpy radical anion reacts with a proton source to produce singly and doubly deprotonated complexes that are identical to those obtained by base titration. A third reduction (i.e., reduction of [Ru(tpy)(nDHBP–2H +)] 0) triggers catalysis of CO 2 reduction; however, the catalytic efficiency is strikingly lowermore » than that of unsubstituted [Ru(tpy)(bpy)(NCCH 3)] 2+ (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine). Cyclic voltammetry, bulk electrolysis, and spectroelectrochemical infrared experiments suggest the reactivity of CO 2 at both the Ru center and the deprotonated quinone-type ligand. Lastly, the Ru carbonyl formed by the intermediacy of a metallocarboxylic acid is stable against reduction, and mass spectrometry analysis of this product indicates the presence of two carbonates formed by the reaction of DHBP–2H + with CO 2.« less

  4. Light-Induced Activation of a Molybdenum Oxotransferase Model within a Ru(II)-Mo(VI) Dyad.

    PubMed

    Ducrot, Aurélien B; Coulson, Ben A; Perutz, Robin N; Duhme-Klair, Anne-Kathrin

    2016-12-19

    Nature uses molybdenum-containing enzymes to catalyze oxygen atom transfer (OAT) from water to organic substrates. In these enzymes, the two electrons that are released during the reaction are rapidly removed, one at a time, by spatially separated electron transfer units. Inspired by this design, a Ru(II)-Mo(VI) dyad was synthesized and characterized, with the aim of accelerating the rate-determining step in the cis-dioxo molybdenum-catalyzed OAT cycle, the transfer of an oxo ligand to triphenyl phosphine, via a photo-oxidation process. The dyad consists of a photoactive bis(bipyridyl)-phenanthroline ruthenium moiety that is covalently linked to a bioinspired cis-dioxo molybdenum thiosemicarbazone complex. The quantum yield and luminescence lifetimes of the dyad [Ru(bpy) 2 (L 2 )MoO 2 (solv)] 2+ were determined. The major component of the luminescence decay in MeCN solution (τ = 1149 ± 2 ns, 67%) corresponds closely to the lifetime of excited [Ru(bpy) 2 (phen-NH 2 )] 2+ , while the minor component (τ = 320 ± 1 ns, 31%) matches that of [Ru(bpy) 2 (H 2 -L 2 )] 2+ . In addition, the (spectro)electrochemical properties of the system were investigated. Catalytic tests showed that the dyad-catalyzed OAT from dimethyl sulfoxide to triphenyl phosphine proceeds significantly faster upon irradiation with visible light than in the dark. Methylviologen acts as a mediator in the photoredox cycle, but it is regenerated and hence only required in stoichiometric amounts with respect to the catalyst rather than sacrificial amounts. It is proposed that oxidative quenching of the photoexcited Ru unit, followed by intramolecular electron transfer, leads to the production of a reactive one-electron oxidized catalyst, which is not accessible by electrochemical methods. A significant, but less pronounced, rate enhancement was observed when an analogous bimolecular system was tested, indicating that intramolecular electron transfer between the photosensitizer and the catalytic center

  5. New Wind in Old Sails: Novel Applications of Triphos-based Transition Metal Complexes as Homogeneous Catalysts for Small Molecules and Renewables Activation.

    PubMed

    Mellone, Irene; Bertini, Federica; Gonsalvi, Luca; Guerriero, Antonella; Peruzzini, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in the coordination chemistry and applications of Ru-triphos [triphos = 1,1,1-tris-(diphenylphosphinomethyl)ethane] systems are reviewed, highlighting their role as active and selective homogenous catalysts for small molecule activation, biomass conversions and in carbon dioxide utilization-related processes.

  6. Plasmatron-catalyst system

    DOEpatents

    Bromberg, Leslie; Cohn, Daniel R.; Rabinovich, Alexander; Alexeev, Nikolai

    2004-09-21

    A plasmatron-catalyst system. The system generates hydrogen-rich gas and comprises a plasmatron and at least one catalyst for receiving an output from the plasmatron to produce hydrogen-rich gas. In a preferred embodiment, the plasmatron receives as an input air, fuel and water/steam for use in the reforming process. The system increases the hydrogen yield and decreases the amount of carbon monoxide.

  7. Plasmatron-catalyst system

    DOEpatents

    Bromberg, Leslie; Cohn, Daniel R.; Rabinovich, Alexander; Alexeev, Nikolai

    2007-10-09

    A plasmatron-catalyst system. The system generates hydrogen-rich gas and comprises a plasmatron and at least one catalyst for receiving an output from the plasmatron to produce hydrogen-rich gas. In a preferred embodiment, the plasmatron receives as an input air, fuel and water/steam for use in the reforming process. The system increases the hydrogen yield and decreases the amount of carbon monoxide.

  8. Crystalline titanate catalyst supports

    DOEpatents

    Anthony, R.G.; Dosch, R.G.

    1993-01-05

    A series of new crystalline titanates (CT) are shown to have considerable potential as catalyst supports. For Pd supported catalyst, the catalytic activity for pyrene hydrogenation was substantially different depending on the type of CT, and one was substantially more active than Pd on hydrous titanium oxide (HTO). For 1-hexene hydrogenation the activities of the new CTs were approximately the same as for the hydrous metal oxide supports.

  9. Crystalline titanate catalyst supports

    DOEpatents

    Anthony, Rayford G.; Dosch, Robert G.

    1993-01-01

    A series of new crystalline titanates (CT) are shown to have considerable potential as catalyst supports. For Pd supported catalyst, the catalytic activity for pyrene hydrogenation was substantially different depending on the type of CT, and one was substantially more active than Pd on hydrous titanium oxide (HTO). For 1-hexene hydrogenation the activities of the new CTs were approximately the same as for the hydrous metal oxide supports.

  10. Catalyst system comprising a first catalyst system tethered to a supported catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Angelici, Robert J.; Gao, Hanrong

    1998-08-04

    The present invention provides new catalyst formats which comprise a supported catalyst tethered to a second and different catalyst by a suitable tethering ligand. A preferred system comprises a heterogeneous supported metal catalyst tethered to a homogeneous catalyst. This combination of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts has a sufficient lifetime and unusually high catalytic activity in arene hydrogenations, and potentially many other reactions as well, including, but not limited to hydroformylation, hydrosilation, olefin oxidation, isomerization, hydrocyanation, olefin metathesis, olefin polymerization, carbonylation, enantioselective catalysis and photoduplication. These catalysts are easily separated from the products, and can be reused repeatedly, making these systems very economical.

  11. Catalyst system comprising a first catalyst system tethered to a supported catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Angelici, R.J.; Gao, H.

    1998-08-04

    The present invention provides new catalyst formats which comprise a supported catalyst tethered to a second and different catalyst by a suitable tethering ligand. A preferred system comprises a heterogeneous supported metal catalyst tethered to a homogeneous catalyst. This combination of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts has a sufficient lifetime and unusually high catalytic activity in arene hydrogenations, and potentially many other reactions as well, including, but not limited to hydroformylation, hydrosilication, olefin oxidation, isomerization, hydrocyanidation, olefin metathesis, olefin polymerization, carbonylation, enantioselective catalysis and photoduplication. These catalysts are easily separated from the products, and can be reused repeatedly, making these systems very economical. 2 figs.

  12. Investigation of excited state, reductive quenching, and intramolecular electron transfer of Ru(II)–Re(I) supramolecular photocatalysts for CO 2 reduction using time-resolved IR measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, Kazuhide; Grills, David C.; Tamaki, Yusuke

    Supramolecular photocatalysts in which Ru(II) photosensitizer and Re(I) catalyst units are connected to each other by an ethylene linker are among the best known, most effective and durable photocatalytic systems for CO 2 reduction. In this paper we report, for the first time, time-resolved infrared (TRIR) spectra of three of these binuclear complexes to uncover why the catalysts function so efficiently. Selective excitation of the Ru unit with a 532 nm laser pulse induces slow intramolecular electron transfer from the 3MLCT excited state of the Ru unit to the Re unit, with rate constants of (1.0–1.1) × 10 4 smore » -1 as a major component and (3.5–4.3) × 10 6 s -1 as a minor component, in acetonitrile. The produced charge-separated state has a long lifetime, with charge recombination rate constants of only (6.5–8.4) × 10 4 s -1. Thus, although it has a large driving force (-ΔG 0 CR ~ 2.6 eV), this process is in the Marcus inverted region. On the other hand, in the presence of 1-benzyl-1,4-dihydronicotinamide (BNAH), reductive quenching of the excited Ru unit proceeds much faster (k q[BNAH (0.2 M)] = (3.5–3.8) × 10 6 s -1) than the abovementioned intramolecular oxidative quenching, producing the one-electron-reduced species (OERS) of the Ru unit. Nanosecond TRIR data clearly show that intramolecular electron transfer from the OERS of the Ru unit to the Re unit (k ET > 2 × 10 7 s -1) is much faster than from the excited state of the Ru unit, and that it is also faster than the reductive quenching process of the excited Ru unit by BNAH. To measure the exact value of k ET, picosecond TRIR spectroscopy and a stronger reductant were used. Thus, in the case of the binuclear complex with tri(p-fluorophenyl)phosphine ligands (RuRe(FPh)), for which intramolecular electron transfer is expected to be the fastest among the three binuclear complexes, in the presence of 1,3-dimethyl-2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzo[d]imidazole (BIH), k ET was measured as k ET = (1

  13. Investigation of excited state, reductive quenching, and intramolecular electron transfer of Ru(II)–Re(I) supramolecular photocatalysts for CO 2 reduction using time-resolved IR measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Koike, Kazuhide; Grills, David C.; Tamaki, Yusuke; ...

    2018-02-14

    Supramolecular photocatalysts in which Ru(II) photosensitizer and Re(I) catalyst units are connected to each other by an ethylene linker are among the best known, most effective and durable photocatalytic systems for CO 2 reduction. In this paper we report, for the first time, time-resolved infrared (TRIR) spectra of three of these binuclear complexes to uncover why the catalysts function so efficiently. Selective excitation of the Ru unit with a 532 nm laser pulse induces slow intramolecular electron transfer from the 3MLCT excited state of the Ru unit to the Re unit, with rate constants of (1.0–1.1) × 10 4 smore » -1 as a major component and (3.5–4.3) × 10 6 s -1 as a minor component, in acetonitrile. The produced charge-separated state has a long lifetime, with charge recombination rate constants of only (6.5–8.4) × 10 4 s -1. Thus, although it has a large driving force (-ΔG 0 CR ~ 2.6 eV), this process is in the Marcus inverted region. On the other hand, in the presence of 1-benzyl-1,4-dihydronicotinamide (BNAH), reductive quenching of the excited Ru unit proceeds much faster (k q[BNAH (0.2 M)] = (3.5–3.8) × 10 6 s -1) than the abovementioned intramolecular oxidative quenching, producing the one-electron-reduced species (OERS) of the Ru unit. Nanosecond TRIR data clearly show that intramolecular electron transfer from the OERS of the Ru unit to the Re unit (k ET > 2 × 10 7 s -1) is much faster than from the excited state of the Ru unit, and that it is also faster than the reductive quenching process of the excited Ru unit by BNAH. To measure the exact value of k ET, picosecond TRIR spectroscopy and a stronger reductant were used. Thus, in the case of the binuclear complex with tri(p-fluorophenyl)phosphine ligands (RuRe(FPh)), for which intramolecular electron transfer is expected to be the fastest among the three binuclear complexes, in the presence of 1,3-dimethyl-2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzo[d]imidazole (BIH), k ET was measured as k ET = (1

  14. Surface interaction between cubic phase NaNbO3 nanoflowers and Ru nanoparticles for enhancing visible-light driven photosensitized photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Hu, Yin; Ba, Mingwei

    2018-03-01

    Ru nanoparticles supported on perovskite NaNbO3 with cubic crystal structure and nanoflower-like morphology was prepared by a convenient solvothermal method combined with photo-deposition technique. Crystal structure, chemical component and surface valence states determined by XRD, XPS, TEM and SEM demonstrated the metastable cubic phase of perovskite NaNbO3, and its modified surface by Ru species. Optical and electrochemical analysis, such as UV-vis DRS, OTCS and EIS, indicated the excellent photoelectrochemical properties and the efficient electron transfer of the composites. Compared with naked and Ru-doped NaNbO3, the composite photocatalyst exhibited outstanding performance for the degradation of RhB under visible light irradiation due to the dye self-photosensitization and the surface interaction between Ru metal nanoparticles and semiconductor. In-situ reduction of surface Ru oxide species in the photocatalytic process assisted the further improvement of the photocatalytic activity and stability. Investigation of the main active species during the photocatalysis confirmed the efficient transfer of the photo-generated electrons and the positive effect of oxygen defects in NaNbO3. Finally, possible mechanism of the present visible-light driven photocatalysis was proposed in detail. This work provided an alternative strategy to enhance the visible-light photocatalytic efficiency of the catalyst with wide band gap on the basis of the synergistic effect of dye self-photosensitization, interaction between NaNbO3 and its surface Ru nanoparticles, and the "self-doping" of oxygen defects in NaNbO3.

  15. Low Pt content direct methanol fuel cell anode catalyst: nanophase PtRuNiZr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitacre, Jay F. (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method for the preparation of a metallic material having catalytic activity that includes synthesizing a material composition comprising a metal content with a lower Pt content than a binary alloy containing Pt but that displays at least a comparable catalytic activity on a per mole Pt basis as the binary alloy containing Pt; and evaluating a representative sample of the material composition to ensure that the material composition displays a property of at least a comparable catalytic activity on a per mole Pt basis as a representative binary alloy containing Pt. Furthermore, metallic compositions are disclosed that possess substantial resistance to corrosive acids.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of RuS2 nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Díaz, David; Castillo-Blum, Silvia E; Alvarez-Fregoso, Octavio; Rodríguez-Gattorno, Geonel; Santiago-Jacinto, Patricia; Rendon, Luis; Ortiz-Frade, Luis; León-Paredes, Yolia-Judith

    2005-12-08

    Small naked ruthenium sulfide nanoparticles (NPs) with narrow size distribution (2.5 +/- 0.4 nm of diameter) were synthesized in DMSO colloidal dispersions, under mild reaction conditions and using commercial RuCl3 as precursor. To test the chemical reactivity with soft and hard bases, fresh presynthesized RuS2 colloids were mixed with triethylamine (N(Et)3) and ammonium tetrathiomolybdate ((NH4)2MoS4) dimethyl sulfoxide solutions. Naked N(Et)3 and [MoS4](2-)-capped RuS2 nanoparticle colloids were characterized using UV-visible electronic absorption and emission spectroscopies and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). It has also been shown that capped RuS2-[MoS4]2- nanoparticles yield MoO3 crystalline matrix by means of HR-TEM experiments. The emission spectra of RuS2 and N(Et)3-RuS2 dispersions show that both nanosized materials have strong fluorescence. The existence of the ruthenium precursor species in solution was established by cyclic voltammetry. Moreover, naked RuS2 NPs were mixed with a chemical mixture with composition similar to gasoline (dibenzothiophene (Bz2S, 400 ppm), hexane, and toluene (55:45% v/v)). The reaction mixture consisted of two phases; in the polar phase, we found evidences of a strong interaction of Bz2S and toluene with the naked RuS2 NPs. We have also obtained self-organized thin films of capped N(Et)3- and RuS2-[MoS4]2- nanoparticles. In both cases, the shape and thickness of the resulting thin films were controlled by a dynamic vacuum procedure. The thin films have been characterized by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, HR-TEM, energy dispersion spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopies.

  17. Superconductivity in the Nb-Ru-Ge σ phase

    DOE PAGES

    Carnicom, Elizabeth M.; Xie, Weiwei; Sobczak, Zuzanna; ...

    2017-12-07

    Here, we show that the previously unreported ternary σ-phase material Nb 20.4Ru 5.7Ge 3.9 (Nb 0.68Ru 0.19Ge 0.13) is a superconductor with a critical temperature of 2.2 K. Temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility, resistance, and specific heat measurements were used to characterize the superconducting transition. The Sommerfeld constant γ for Nb 20.4Ru 5.7Ge 3.9 is 91 mJ mol-f.u. -1K -2 (~3 mJ mol-atom -1K -2) and the specific heat anomaly at the superconducting transition, ΔC/γT c, is approximately 1.38. The zero-temperature upper critical field (µ 0Hc 2(0)) was estimated to be 2 T by resistance data. Field-dependent magnetization data analysis estimated µmore » 0Hc 1(0) to be 5.5 mT. Thus, the characterization shows Nb 20.4Ru 5.7Ge 3.9 to be a type II BCS superconductor. This material appears to be the first reported ternary phase in the Nb-Ru-Ge system, and the fact that there are no previously reported binary Nb-Ru, Nb-Ge, or Ru-Ge σ-phases shows that all three elements are necessary to stabilize the material. An analogous σ-phase in the Ta-Ru-Ge system did not display superconductivity above 1.7 K, which suggests that electron count cannot govern the superconductivity observed. Preliminary characterization of a possible superconducting σ-phase in the Nb-Ru-Ga system is also reported.« less

  18. Characterization of electro-oxidation catalysts using scanning electrochemical and mass spectral methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jambunathan, Krishnakumar

    Low temperature fuel cells have many potential benefits, including high efficiency, high energy density and environmental friendliness. However, logistically appealing fuels for this system, such as reformed hydrocarbons or alcohols, exhibit poor performance because of catalyst poisoning that occurs during oxidation at the anode. This research focuses on the analysis of several model fuels and catalyst materials to understand the impact of catalyst poisoning on reactivity. Two novel experimental tools were developed based upon the local measurement of catalyst performance using scanning, reactivity mapping probes. The Scanning Electrochemical Microscope (SECM) was used to directly measure the rate constant for hydrogen oxidation in the presence and absence of dissolved CO. The Scanning Differential Electrochemical Mass Spectrometer (SDEMS) was exploited to measure the partial and complete oxidation products of methanol and ethanol oxidation. The reactivity of Pt and Pt/Ru catalysts towards the hydrogen oxidation reaction in the absence and presence of adsorbed CO was elucidated using the SECM. Steady state rate constant measurements in the absence of CO showed that the rate of hydrogen oxidation reaction exceeded 1 cms-1 . Steady state rate constant measurements in the presence of CO indicated that the platinum surface is completely inactive due to adsorbed CO. Addition of as little as 6% Ru to the Pt electrode was found to significantly improve the activity of the electrode towards CO removal. SDEMS was used to study the electro-oxidation of methanol on Pt xRuy electrodes at different electrode potentials and temperatures. Screening measurements performed with the SDEMS showed that PtxRu y electrodes containing 6--40% Ru had the highest activity for methanol oxidation. Current efficiencies for CO2 were also calculated under different conditions. SDEMS was also used to study the electro-oxidation of ethanol on Pt xRuy electrodes. The reaction was found to occur

  19. Understanding of catalyst deactivation caused by sulfur poisoning and carbon deposition in steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbon fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Chao

    2011-12-01

    The present work was conducted to develop a better understanding on the catalyst deactivation in steam reforming of sulfur-containing liquid hydrocarbon fuels for hydrogen production. Steam reforming of Norpar13 (a liquid hydrocarbon fuel from Exxon Mobile) without and with sulfur was performed on various metal catalysts (Rh, Ru, Pt, Pd, and Ni) supported on different materials (Al2O3, CeO2, SiO2, MgO, and CeO2- Al2O3). A number of characterization techniques were applied to study the physicochemical properties of these catalysts before and after the reactions. Especially, X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy was intensively used to investigate the nature of sulfur and carbon species in the used catalysts to reveal the catalyst deactivation mechanism. Among the tested noble metal catalysts (Rh, Ru, Pt, and Pd), Rh catalyst is the most sulfur tolerant. Al2O3 and CeO2 are much better than SiO2 and MgO as the supports for the Rh catalyst to reform sulfur-containing hydrocarbons. The good sulfur tolerance of Rh/Al2O3 can be attributed to the acidic nature of the Al2O3 support and its small Rh crystallites (1-3 nm) as these characteristics facilitate the formation of electron-deficient Rh particles with high sulfur tolerance. The good catalytic performance of Rh/CeO2 in the presence of sulfur can be ascribed to the promotion effect of CeO2 on carbon gasification, which significantly reduced the carbon deposition on the Rh/CeO2catalyst. Steam reforming of Norpar13 in the absence and presence of sulfur was further carried out over CeO2-Al2O3 supported monometallic Ni and Rh and bimetallic Rh-Ni catalysts at 550 and 800 °C. Both monometallic catalysts rapidly deactivated at 550 °C, iv and showed poor sulfur tolerance. Although ineffective for the Ni catalyst, increasing the temperature to 800 °C dramatically improved the sulfur tolerance of the Rh catalyst. Sulfur K-edge XANES revealed that metal sulfide and organic sulfide are the dominant sulfur

  20. New polymorphs of Ru IIIP 3O 9: Cyclo-hexaphosphate Ru 2P 6O 18 and metaphosphate Ru(PO 3) 3 with a novel structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Imoto, Hideo; Saito, Taro

    1995-10-01

    Two new polymorphs of ruthenium phosphate with RuP 3O 9 composition were prepared and their crystal structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. They are cyclo-hexaphosphate Ru 2P 6O 18 and metaphosphate Ru(PO 3) 3. Ru 2P 6O 18 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2 1/ c with a = 6.292(2) Å, b = 15.276(2) Å, c = 8.365(2) Å, β = 106.54(2)°, V = 770.6(3) Å 3, Z = 2, R = 0.043, RW = 0.035. The structure contains cyclo-hexaphosphate rings stacking obliquely along the [100] direction and is isotypic with B-form cyclo-phosphates. Ru(PO 3) 3 has a novel structure and crystallizes in the triclinic space group P overline1 with a = 6.957(1) Å, b = 10.324(2) Å, c = 5.030(1) Å, α = 92.45(2)°, β = 92.31(2)°, γ = 98.61(1)°, V = 356.5(1) Å 3, Z = 2, R = 0.030, RW = 0.027. It is built up of a network of infinite [PO 3-] ∞ chains and RuO 6 octahedra. The configuration of the metaphosphate chains is different from that in the C-form Ru(PO 3) 3. While the chains in the C-form consisting of PO 3OPO 3 units are condensed in nearly staggered configurations, the units in the new phosphate are eclipsed.

  1. Antiferromagnetism in Bulk Rutile RuO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlijn, T.; Snijders, P. C.; Kent, P. R. C.; Maier, T. A.; Zhou, H.-D.; Cao, H.-B.; Delaire, O.; Wang, Y.; Koehler, M.; Weitering, H. H.

    While bulk rutile RuO2 has long been considered to be a Pauli paramagnet, we conclude it to host antiferromagnetism based on our combined theoretical and experimental study. This constitutes an important finding given the large amount of applications of RuO2 in the electrochemical and electronics industry. Furthermore the high onset temperature of the antiferromagnetism around 1000K together with the high electrical conductivity makes RuO2 unique among the ruthenates and among oxide materials in general. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.

  2. Incorporation of organometallic Ru complexes into apo-ferritin cage.

    PubMed

    Takezawa, Yusuke; Böckmann, Philipp; Sugi, Naoki; Wang, Ziyue; Abe, Satoshi; Murakami, Tatsuya; Hikage, Tatsuo; Erker, Gerhard; Watanabe, Yoshihito; Kitagawa, Susumu; Ueno, Takafumi

    2011-03-14

    Spherical protein cages such as an iron storage protein, ferritin, have great potential as nanometer-scale capsules to assemble and store metal ions and complexes. We report herein the synthesis of a composite of an apo-ferritin cage and Ru(p-cymene) complexes. Ru complexes were efficiently incorporated into the ferritin cavity without degradation of its cage structure. X-Ray crystallography revealed that the Ru complexes were immobilized on the interior surface of the cage mainly by the coordination of histidine residues.

  3. MoRu/Be multilayers for extreme ultraviolet applications

    DOEpatents

    Bajt, Sasa C.; Wall, Mark A.

    2001-01-01

    High reflectance, low intrinsic roughness and low stress multilayer systems for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography comprise amorphous layers MoRu and crystalline Be layers. Reflectance greater than 70% has been demonstrated for MoRu/Be multilayers with 50 bilayer pairs. Optical throughput of MoRu/Be multilayers can be 30-40% higher than that of Mo/Be multilayer coatings. The throughput can be improved using a diffusion barrier to make sharper interfaces. A capping layer on the top surface of the multilayer improves the long-term reflectance and EUV radiation stability of the multilayer by forming a very thin native oxide that is water resistant.

  4. Adsorption and diffusion of Ru adatoms on Ru(0001)-supported graphene: Large-scale first-principles calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Yong; Evans, James W.

    2015-10-28

    Large-scale first-principles density functional theory calculations are performed to investigate the adsorption and diffusion of Ru adatoms on monolayer graphene (G) supported on Ru(0001). The G sheet exhibits a periodic moiré-cell superstructure due to lattice mismatch. Within a moiré cell, there are three distinct regions: fcc, hcp, and mound, in which the C{sub 6}-ring center is above a fcc site, a hcp site, and a surface Ru atom of Ru(0001), respectively. The adsorption energy of a Ru adatom is evaluated at specific sites in these distinct regions. We find the strongest binding at an adsorption site above a C atommore » in the fcc region, next strongest in the hcp region, then the fcc-hcp boundary (ridge) between these regions, and the weakest binding in the mound region. Behavior is similar to that observed from small-unit-cell calculations of Habenicht et al. [Top. Catal. 57, 69 (2014)], which differ from previous large-scale calculations. We determine the minimum-energy path for local diffusion near the center of the fcc region and obtain a local diffusion barrier of ∼0.48 eV. We also estimate a significantly lower local diffusion barrier in the ridge region. These barriers and information on the adsorption energy variation facilitate development of a realistic model for the global potential energy surface for Ru adatoms. This in turn enables simulation studies elucidating diffusion-mediated directed-assembly of Ru nanoclusters during deposition of Ru on G/Ru(0001)« less

  5. Adsorption and diffusion of Ru adatoms on Ru(0001)-supported graphene: Large-scale first-principles calculations

    DOE PAGES

    Han, Yong; Evans, James W.

    2015-10-27

    Large-scale first-principles density functional theory calculations are performed to investigate the adsorption and diffusion of Ru adatoms on monolayer graphene (G) supported on Ru(0001). The G sheet exhibits a periodic moiré-cell superstructure due to lattice mismatch. Within a moiré cell, there are three distinct regions: fcc, hcp, and mound, in which the C6-ring center is above a fcc site, a hcp site, and a surface Ru atom of Ru(0001), respectively. The adsorption energy of a Ru adatom is evaluated at specific sites in these distinct regions. We find the strongest binding at an adsorption site above a C atom inmore » the fcc region, next strongest in the hcp region, then the fcc-hcp boundary (ridge) between these regions, and the weakest binding in the mound region. Behavior is similar to that observed from small-unit-cell calculations of Habenicht et al. [Top. Catal. 57, 69 (2014)], which differ from previous large-scale calculations. We determine the minimum-energy path for local diffusion near the center of the fcc region and obtain a local diffusion barrier of ~0.48 eV. We also estimate a significantly lower local diffusion barrier in the ridge region. These barriers and information on the adsorption energy variation facilitate development of a realistic model for the global potential energy surface for Ru adatoms. Furthermore, this in turn enables simulation studies elucidating diffusion-mediated directed-assembly of Ru nanoclusters during deposition of Ru on G/Ru(0001).« less

  6. Large enhancement of oscillating chemiluminescence with [Ru(bpy)3 ](2+) -catalyzed Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction in the presence of tri-n-propylamine.

    PubMed

    Lan, Xiaolan; Zheng, Baozhan; Zhao, Yan; Yuan, Hongyan; Du, Juan; Xiao, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Oscillating chemiluminescence enhanced by the addition of tri-n-propylamine (TPrA) to the typical Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction system catalyzed by ruthenium(II)tris(2.2'-bipyridine)(Ru(bpy)3 (2+) ) was investigated using a luminometry method. The [Ru(bpy)3 ](2+) /TPrA system was first used as the catalyst for a BZ oscillator in a closed system, which exhibited a shorter induction period, higher amplitude and much more stable chemiluminescence (CL) oscillation. The effects of various concentrations of TPrA, oxygen and nitrogen flow rate on the oscillating behavior of this system were examined. In addition, the CL intensity of the [Ru(bpy)3 ](2+) /TPrA-BZ system was found to be inhibited by phenol, thus providing a way for use of the BZ system in the determination of phenolic compounds. Moreover, the possible mechanism of the oscillating CL reaction catalyzed by [Ru(bpy)3 ](2+) /TPrA and the inhibition effects of oxygen and phenol on this oscillating CL system were considered. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Towards a rational design of ruthenium CO2 hydrogenation catalysts by Ab initio metadynamics.

    PubMed

    Urakawa, Atsushi; Iannuzzi, Marcella; Hutter, Jürg; Baiker, Alfons

    2007-01-01

    Complete reaction pathways relevant to CO2 hydrogenation by using a homogeneous ruthenium dihydride catalyst ([Ru(dmpe)2H2], dmpe=Me2PCH2CH2PMe2) have been investigated by ab initio metadynamics. This approach has allowed reaction intermediates to be identified and free-energy profiles to be calculated, which provide new insights into the experimentally observed reaction pathway. Our simulations indicate that CO2 insertion, which leads to the formation of formate complexes, proceeds by a concerted insertion mechanism. It is a rapid and direct process with a relatively low activation barrier, which is in agreement with experimental observations. Subsequent H2 insertion into the formate--Ru complex, which leads to the formation of formic acid, instead occurs via an intermediate [Ru(eta2-H2)] complex in which the molecular hydrogen coordinates to the ruthenium center and interacts weakly with the formate group. This step has been identified as the rate-limiting step. The reaction completes by hydrogen transfer from the [Ru(eta2-H2)] complex to the formate oxygen atom, which forms a dihydrogen-bonded Ru--HHO(CHO) complex. The activation energy for the H2 insertion step is lower for the trans isomer than for the cis isomer. A simple measure of the catalytic activity was proposed based on the structure of the transition state of the identified rate-limiting step. From this measure, the relationship between catalysts with different ligands and their experimental catalytic activities can be explained.

  8. Evidence of High-Spin Ru and Universal Magnetic Anisotropy in SrRuO(3) Thin Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-17

    UNIVERSAL . . . PHYSICAL REVIEW B 85, 134429 (2012) (a) (b) FIG. 5. (Color online) (a) Ru M3,2 and (b) O K - edge x-ray absorption ( XA ) and x-ray magnetic...134429-2 EVIDENCE OF HIGH-SPIN Ru AND UNIVERSAL . . . PHYSICAL REVIEW B 85, 134429 (2012) FIG. 1. (Color online) Hysteresis loops taken at 10 K of 60...SQUID magnetometry measurements. a smaller contribution from O2− ions. Typical examples of Ru and O XA spectra can be seen in Fig. 5. As there is no

  9. SISGR-Fundamental Experimental and Theoretical Studies on a Novel Family of Oxide Catalyst Supports for Water Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kumta, Prashant

    2014-10-03

    Identification and development of non-noble metal based electro-catalysts or electro-catalysts with significant reduction of expensive noble metal contents (E.g. IrO2, Pt) with comparable electrochemical performance as the standard noble metal/metal oxide for proton exchange membrane (PEM) based water electrolysis would constitute a major breakthrough in the generation of hydrogen by water electrolysis. Accomplishing such a system would not only result reduction of the overall capital costs of PEM based water electrolyzers, but also help attain the targeted hydrogen production cost [< $ 3.0 / gallon gasoline equivalent (gge)] comparable to conventional liquid fuels. In line with these goals, it wasmore » demonstrated that fluorine doped IrO2 thin films and nanostructured high surface area powders display remarkably higher electrochemical activity, and comparable durability as pure IrO2 electro-catalyst for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in PEM based water electrolysis. Furthermore, corrosion resistant SnO2 and NbO2 support has been doped with F and coupled with IrO2 or RuO2 for use as an OER electro-catalyst. A solid solution of SnO2:F or NbO2:F with only 20 - 30 mol.% IrO2 or RuO2 yielding a rutile structure in the form of thin films and bulk nanoparticles displays similar electrochemical activity and stability as pure IrO2/RuO2. This would lead to more than 70 mol.% reduction in the noble metal oxide content. Novel nanostructured ternary (Ir,Sn,Nb)O2 thin films of different compositions FUNDAMENTAL STUDY OF NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRO-CATALYSTS WITH REDUCED NOBLE METAL CONTENT FOR PEM BASED WATER ELECTROLYSIS 4 have also been studied. It has been shown that (Ir0.40Sn0.30Nb0.30)O2 shows similar electrochemical activity and enhanced chemical robustness as compared to pure IrO2. F doping of the ternary (Ir,Sn,Nb)O2 catalyst helps in further decreasing the noble metal oxide content of the catalyst. As a result, these reduced noble metal oxide catalyst systems would

  10. Ru sub 3 (CO) sub 12 and Mo(CO) sub 6 adsorbed on Ru(001) and Au/Ru: An infrared reflection-absorption study

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, I.J.; Hrbek, J.

    1990-01-01

    The authors obtained infrared reflection absorption (IRAS) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) data for Ru{sub 3}(CO){sub 12}/Ru(001) and Mo(CO){sub 6}/Au/Ru systems for metal carbonyl coverages between submonolayer and approximately 20 monolayers. They characterized the C-O stretching mode of both systems (4cm{sup {minus}1}FWHM) and a deformation mode of Mo(CO){sub 6} at 608cm{sup {minus}1} (1 cm{sup {minus}1}FWHM). Both IRAS and TDS data suggest adsorption and desorption of metal carbonyls as molecular species with a preferential orientation in the overlayers. The IR intensity of the C-O stretch per a C-O bond projected onto the surface normal is approximately twice (five times) larger formore » Ru{sub 3}(CO){sub 12} (Mo(CO){sub 6}) at submonolayer coverages than for CO/Ru(001) at {theta}{sub CO}=0.68.« less

  11. Ru sub 3 (CO) sub 12 and Mo(CO) sub 6 adsorbed on Ru(001) and Au/Ru: An infrared reflection-absorption study

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, I.J.; Hrbek, J.

    1990-01-01

    We obtained IRAS and TDS data for Ru{sub 3}(CO){sub 12}/Ru(001) and Mo(CO){sub 6}/Au/Ru systems for metal carbonyl coverages between submonolayer and approximately 20 monolayers. We characterized the C-O stretching mode of both systems (4 cm{sup {minus}1} FWHM) and a deformation mode of Mo(CO){sub 6} at 608 cm{sup {minus}1} (1 cm{sup {minus}1} FWHM). Both IRAS and TDS data suggest adsorption and desorption of metal carbonyls as molecular species with a preferential orientation in the overlayers. The IR intensity of the C-O stretch per a C-O bond projected onto the surface normal is approximately twice (five times) larger for Ru{sub 3}(CO){sub 12}more » (Mo(CO){sub 6}) at submonolayer coverages than for CO/Ru(001) at {theta}{sub CO}=0.68. 31 refs., 4 figs.« less

  12. Bio-oil Stabilization by Hydrogenation over Reduced Metal Catalysts at Low Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Huamin; Lee, Suh-Jane; Olarte, Mariefel V.

    Biomass fast pyrolysis integrated with bio-oil upgrading represents a very attractive approach for converting biomass to hydrocarbon transportation fuels. However, the thermal and chemical instability of bio-oils presents significant problems when they are being upgraded, and development of effective approaches for stabilizing bio-oils is critical to the success of the technology. Catalytic hydrogenation to remove reactive species in bio-oil has been considered as one of the most efficient ways to stabilize bio-oil. This paper provides a fundamental understanding of hydrogenation of actual bio-oils over a Ru/TiO2 catalyst under conditions relevant to practical bio-oil hydrotreating processes. Bio-oil feed stocks, bio-oils hydrogenatedmore » to different extents, and catalysts have been characterized to provide insights into the chemical and physical properties of these samples and to understand the correlation of the properties with the composition of the bio-oil and catalysts. The results indicated hydrogenation of various components of the bio-oil, including sugars, aldehydes, ketones, alkenes, aromatics, and carboxylic acids, over the Ru/TiO2 catalyst and 120 to 160oC. Hydrogenation of these species significantly changed the chemical and physical properties of the bio-oil and overall improved its thermal stability, especially by reducing the carbonyl content, which represented the content of the most reactive species (i.e., sugar, aldehydes, and ketones). The change of content of each component in response to increasing hydrogen additions suggests the following bio-oil hydrogenation reaction sequence: sugar conversion to sugar alcohols, followed by ketone and aldehyde conversion to alcohols, followed by alkene and aromatic hydrogenation, and then followed by carboxylic acid hydrogenation to alcohols. Hydrogenation of bio-oil samples with different sulfur contents or inorganic material contents suggested that sulfur poisoning of the reduced Ru metal catalysts

  13. A Theoretical Study of Methanol Oxidation on RuO 2(110): Bridging the Pressure Gap

    SciTech Connect

    Latimer, Allegra A.; Abild-Pedersen, Frank; Norskov, Jens K.

    Partial oxidation catalysis is often fraught with selectivity problems, largely because there is a tendency of oxidation products to be more reactive than the starting material. One industrial process that has successfully overcome this problem is partial oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde. This process has become a global success, with an annual production of 30 million tons. Although ruthenium catalysts have not shown activity as high as the current molybdena or silver-based industrial standards, the study of ruthenium systems has the potential to elucidate which catalyst properties facilitate the desired partial oxidation reaction as opposed to deep combustion due tomore » a pressure-dependent selectivity “switch” that has been observed in ruthenium-based catalysts. In this work, we find that we are able to successfully rationalize this “pressure gap” using near-ab initio steady-state microkinetic modeling on RuO 2(110). We obtain molecular desorption prefactors from experiment and determine all other energetics using density functional theory. We show that, under ambient pressure conditions, formaldehyde production is favored on RuO 2(110), whereas under ultrahigh vacuum pressure conditions, full combustion to CO 2 takes place. We glean from our model several insights regarding how coverage effects, oxygen activity, and rate-determining steps influence selectivity and activity. As a result, we believe the understanding gained in this work might advise and inspire the greater partial oxidation community and be applied to other catalytic processes which have not yet found industrial success.« less

  14. A Theoretical Study of Methanol Oxidation on RuO 2(110): Bridging the Pressure Gap

    DOE PAGES

    Latimer, Allegra A.; Abild-Pedersen, Frank; Norskov, Jens K.

    2017-05-26

    Partial oxidation catalysis is often fraught with selectivity problems, largely because there is a tendency of oxidation products to be more reactive than the starting material. One industrial process that has successfully overcome this problem is partial oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde. This process has become a global success, with an annual production of 30 million tons. Although ruthenium catalysts have not shown activity as high as the current molybdena or silver-based industrial standards, the study of ruthenium systems has the potential to elucidate which catalyst properties facilitate the desired partial oxidation reaction as opposed to deep combustion due tomore » a pressure-dependent selectivity “switch” that has been observed in ruthenium-based catalysts. In this work, we find that we are able to successfully rationalize this “pressure gap” using near-ab initio steady-state microkinetic modeling on RuO 2(110). We obtain molecular desorption prefactors from experiment and determine all other energetics using density functional theory. We show that, under ambient pressure conditions, formaldehyde production is favored on RuO 2(110), whereas under ultrahigh vacuum pressure conditions, full combustion to CO 2 takes place. We glean from our model several insights regarding how coverage effects, oxygen activity, and rate-determining steps influence selectivity and activity. As a result, we believe the understanding gained in this work might advise and inspire the greater partial oxidation community and be applied to other catalytic processes which have not yet found industrial success.« less

  15. Supported organoiridium catalysts for alkane dehydrogenation

    DOEpatents

    Baker, R. Thomas; Sattelberger, Alfred P.; Li, Hongbo

    2013-09-03

    Solid supported organoiridium catalysts, a process for preparing such solid supported organoiridium catalysts, and the use of such solid supported organoiridium catalysts in dehydrogenation reactions of alkanes is provided. The catalysts can be easily recovered and recycled.

  16. Partial oxidation catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Krumpelt, Michael; Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Doshi, Rajiv

    2000-01-01

    A two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion. The dehydrogenation portion is a group VIII metal and the oxide-ion conducting portion is selected from a ceramic oxide crystallizing in the fluorite or perovskite structure. There is also disclosed a method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel in which the hydrocarbon fuel contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion at a temperature not less than about 400.degree. C. for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich gas while maintaining CO content less than about 5 volume percent. There is also disclosed a method of forming partially oxidized hydrocarbons from ethanes in which ethane gas contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form an oxide.

  17. Catalyst, method of making, and reactions using the catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y [Pasco, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Gao, Yufei [Kennewick, WA

    2009-03-03

    The present invention includes a catalyst having a layered structure with, (1) a porous support, (2) a buffer layer, (3) an interfacial layer, and optionally (4) a catalyst layer. The invention also provides a process in which a reactant is converted to a product by passing through a reaction chamber containing the catalyst.

  18. Catalyst, method of making, and reactions using the catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y [Pasco, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Gao, Yufei [Kennewick, WA

    2002-08-27

    The present invention includes a catalyst having a layered structure with, (1) a porous support, (2) a buffer layer, (3) an interfacial layer, and optionally (4) a catalyst layer. The invention also provides a process in which a reactant is converted to a product by passing through a reaction chamber containing the catalyst.

  19. Catalyst, Method Of Making, And Reactions Using The Catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y.; Wang, Yong; Gao, Yufei

    2004-07-13

    The present invention includes a catalyst having a layered structure with, (1) a porous support, (2) a buffer layer, (3) an interfacial layer, and optionally (4) a catalyst layer. The invention also provides a process in which a reactant is converted to a product by passing through a reaction chamber containing the catalyst.

  20. Process of making supported catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Schwarz, James A.; Subramanian, Somasundaram

    1992-01-01

    Oxide supported metal catalysts have an additional metal present in intimate association with the metal catalyst to enhance catalytic activity. In a preferred mode, iridium or another Group VIII metal catalyst is supported on a titania, alumina, tungsten oxide, silica, or composite oxide support. Aluminum ions are readsorbed onto the support and catalyst, and reduced during calcination. The aluminum can be added as aluminum nitrate to the iridium impregnate solution, e.g. chloroiridic acid.

  1. Selective methane chlorination to methyl chloride by zeolite Y-based catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Hyeonho; Kim, Daeho; Lim, Kwang Soo; Choi, Yong Nam; Na, Kyungsu

    2018-03-01

    The CH4 chlorination over Y zeolites was investigated to produce CH3Cl in a high yield. Three different catalytic systems based on Y zeolite were tested for enhancement of CH4 conversion and CH3Cl selectivity: (i) HY zeolites in H+-form having various Si/Al ratios, (ii) Pt/HY zeolites supporting Pt metal nanoparticles, (iii) Pt/NaY zeolites in Na+-form supporting Pt metal nanoparticles. The reaction was carried out using the gas mixture of CH4 and Cl2 with the respective flow rates of 15 and 10 mL min-1 at 300-350 °C using a fixed-bed reactor under a continuous gas flow condition (gas hourly space velocity = 3000 mL g-1 h-1). Above the reaction temperature of 300 °C, the CH4 chlorination is spontaneous even in the absence of catalyst, achieving 23.6% of CH4 conversion with 73.4% of CH3Cl selectivity. Under sufficient supplement of thermal energy, Cl2 molecules can be dissociated to two chlorine radicals, which triggered the C-H bond activation of CH4 molecule and thereby various chlorinated methane products (i.e., CH3Cl, CH2Cl2, CHCl3, CCl4) could be produced. When the catalysts were used under the same reaction condition, enhancement in the CH4 conversion was observed. The Pt-free HY zeolite series with varied Si/Al ratios gave around 27% of CH4 conversion, but there was a slight decrease in CH3Cl selectivity with about 64%. Despite the difference in acidity of HY zeolites having different Si/Al ratios, no prominent effect of the Si/Al ratios on the catalytic performance was observed. This suggests that the catalytic contribution of HY zeolites under the present reaction condition is not strong enough to overcome the spontaneous CH4 chlorination. When the Pt/HY zeolite catalysts were used, the CH4 conversion reached further up to 30% but the CH3Cl selectivity decreased to 60%. Such an enhancement of CH4 conversion could be attributed to the strong catalytic activity of HY and Pt/HY zeolite catalysts. However, both catalysts induced the radical cleavage of Cl2

  2. Catalytic decomposition of tar derived from wood waste pyrolysis using Indonesian low grade iron ore as catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Wicakso, Doni Rahmat; Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University, Jalan Grafika No. 2 Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta, 55281; Sutijan

    Low grade iron ore can be used as an alternative catalyst for bio-tar decomposition. Compared to other catalysts, such as Ni, Rd, Ru, Pd and Pt, iron ore is cheaper. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of using low grade iron ore as catalyst for tar catalytic decomposition in fixed bed reactor. Tar used in this experiment was pyrolysis product of wood waste while the catalyst was Indonesian low grade iron ore. The variables studied were temperatures between 500 – 600 °C and catalyst weight between 0 – 40 gram. The first step, tar was evaporatedmore » at 450 °C to produce tar vapor. Then, tar vapor was flowed to fixed bed reactor filled low grade iron ore. Gas and tar vapor from reactor was cooled, then the liquid and uncondensable gas were analyzed by GC/MS. The catalyst, after experiment, was weighed to calculate total carbon deposited into catalyst pores. The results showed that the tar components that were heavy and light hydrocarbon were decomposed and cracked within the iron ore pores to from gases, light hydrocarbon (bio-oil) and carbon, thus decreasing content tar in bio-oil and increasing the total gas product. In conclusion, the more low grade iron ore used as catalyst, the tar content in the liquid decrease, the H{sup 2} productivity increased and calorimetric value of bio-oil increased.« less

  3. Graphene Derivative in Magnetically Recoverable Catalyst Determines Catalytic Properties in Transfer Hydrogenation of Nitroarenes to Anilines with 2-Propanol.

    PubMed

    Das, Vijay Kumar; Mazhar, Sumaira; Gregor, Lennon; Stein, Barry D; Morgan, David Gene; Maciulis, Nicholas A; Pink, Maren; Losovyj, Yaroslav; Bronstein, Lyudmila M

    2018-06-14

    Here, we report transfer hydrogenation of nitroarenes to aminoarenes using 2-propanol as a hydrogen source and Ag-containing magnetically recoverable catalysts based on partially reduced graphene oxide (pRGO) sheets. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data demonstrated that, during the one-pot catalyst synthesis, formation of magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) is accompanied by the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) to pRGO. The formation of Ag 0 NPs on top of magnetite nanoparticles does not change the pRGO structure. At the same time, the catalyst structure is further modified during the transfer hydrogenation, leading to a noticeable increase of sp 2 carbons. These carbons are responsible for the adsorption of substrate and intermediates, facilitating a hydrogen transfer from Ag NPs and creating synergy between the components of the catalyst. The nitroarenes with electron withdrawing and electron donating substituents allow for excellent yields of aniline derivatives with high regio and chemoselectivity, indicating that the reaction is not disfavored by these functionalities. The versatility of the catalyst synthetic protocol was demonstrated by a synthesis of an Ru-containing graphene derivative based catalyst, also allowing for efficient transfer hydrogenation. Easy magnetic separation and stable catalyst performance in the transfer hydrogenation make this catalyst promising for future applications.

  4. Reduction of RuVI≡N to RuIII-NH3 by Cysteine in Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Man, Wai-Lun; Lam, William W Y; Yiu, Shek-Man; Tse, Man-Kit; Lau, Tai-Chu

    2018-05-21

    The reduction of metal nitride to ammonia is a key step in biological and chemical nitrogen fixation. We report herein the facile reduction of a ruthenium(VI) nitrido complex [(L)Ru VI (N)(OH 2 )] + (1, L = N, N'-bis(salicylidene)- o-cyclohexyldiamine dianion) to [(L)Ru III (NH 3 )(OH 2 )] + by l-cysteine (Cys), an ubiquitous biological reductant, in aqueous solution. At pH 1.0-5.3, the reaction has the following stoichiometry: [(L)Ru VI (N)(OH 2 )] + + 3HSCH 2 CH(NH 3 )CO 2 → [(L)Ru III (NH 3 )(OH 2 )] + + 1.5(SCH 2 CH(NH 3 )CO 2 ) 2 . Kinetic studies show that at pH 1 the reaction consists of two phases, while at pH 5 there are three distinct phases. For all phases the rate law is rate = k 2 [1][Cys]. Studies on the effects of acidity indicate that both HSCH 2 CH(NH 3 + )CO 2 - and - SCH 2 CH(NH 3 + )CO 2 - are kinetically active species. At pH 1, the reaction is proposed to go through [(L)Ru IV (NHSCH 2 CHNH 3 CO 2 H)(OH 2 )] 2+ (2a), [(L)Ru III (NH 2 SCH 2 CHNH 3 CO 2 H)(OH 2 )] 2+ (3), and [(L)Ru IV (NH 2 )(OH 2 )] + (4) intermediates. On the other hand, at pH around 5, the proposed intermediates are [(L)Ru IV (NHSCH 2 CHNH 3 CO 2 )(OH 2 )] + (2b) and [(L)Ru IV (NH 2 )(OH 2 )] + (4). The intermediate ruthenium(IV) sulfilamido species, [(L)Ru IV (NHSCH 2 CHNH 3 CO 2 H)(OH 2 )] 2+ (2a) and the final ruthenium(III) ammine species, [(L)Ru III (NH 3 )(MeOH)] + (5) (where H 2 O was replaced by MeOH) have been isolated and characterized by various spectroscopic methods.

  5. Electrocatalytic activity of spots of electrodeposited noble-metal catalysts on carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xingxing; Eckhard, Kathrin; Zhou, Min; Bron, Michael; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2009-09-15

    A strategy for the screening of the electrocatalytic activity of electrocatalysts for possible application in fuel cells and other devices is presented. In this approach, metal nanoclusters (Pt, Au, Ru, and Rh and their codeposits) were prepared using a capillary-based droplet-cell by pulsed electrodeposition in a diffusion-restricted viscous solution. A glassy carbon surface was modified with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by electrophoretic accumulation and was used as substrate for metal nanoparticle deposition. The formed catalyst spots on the CNT-modified glassy carbon surface were investigated toward their catalytic activity for oxygen reduction as a test reaction employing the redox competition mode of scanning electrochemical microscopy (RC-SECM). Qualitative information on the electrocatalytic activity of the catalysts was obtained by varying the potential applied to the substrate; semiquantitative evaluation was based on the determination of the electrochemically deposited catalyst loading by means of the charge transferred during the metal nanoparticle deposition. Qualitatively, Au showed the highest electrocatalytic activity toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in phosphate buffer among all investigated single metal catalysts which was attributed to the much higher loading of Au achieved during electrodeposition. Coelectrodeposited Au-Pt catalysts showed a more positive onset potential (-150 mV in RC-SECM experiments) of the ORR in phosphate buffer at pH 6.7. After normalizing the SECM image by the charge during the metal nanocluster deposition which represents the mass loading of the catalyst, Ru showed a higher electrocatalytic activity toward the ORR than Au.

  6. Electron microscope studies of nano-domain structures in Ru-based magneto-superconductors: RuSr(2)Gd(1.5)Ce(0.5)Cu(2)O(10-delta) (Ru-1222) and RuSr(2)GdCu(2)O(8) (Ru-1212).

    PubMed

    Yokosawa, Tadahiro; Awana, V P S Veer Pal Singh; Kimoto, Koji; Takayama-Muromachi, Eiji; Karppinen, Maarit; Yamauchi, Hisao; Matsui, Yoshio

    2004-01-01

    Microstructures of the RuSr(2)Gd(1.5)Ce(0.5)Cu(2)O(10-delta) (Ru-1222) and RuSr(2)GdCu(2)O(8) (Ru-1212) magneto-superconductors have been investigated by using selected-area electron diffraction, convergent-beam electron diffraction, dark-field electron microscopy and high-resolution electron microscopy at room temperature. Both Ru-1212 and Ru-1222 consist of nm-size domains stacked along the [Formula: see text] direction, where the domains are formed by two types of superstructures due to ordering of rotated RuO(6) octahedra about the c-axis. In Ru-1212, both primitive-and body-centered tetragonal superstructures (the possible space groups: P4/mbm and I4/mcm) are derived to form the corresponding nm-domains. It is of great interest that Ru-1212 consists of domains of two crystallographically different superstructures, while the similar domains observed in Ru-1222 have crystallographically identical superstructure with an orthorhombic symmetry (possible space group: Aeam), related by 90 degrees rotation around the c-axis (Yokosawa et al., 2003, submitted for publication).

  7. Methane Upgrading of Acetic Acid as a Model Compound for a Biomass-Derived Liquid over a Modified Zeolite Catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Aiguo; Austin, Danielle; Karmakar, Abhoy

    The technical feasibility of coaromatization of acetic acid derived from biomass and methane was investigated under mild reaction conditions (400 °C and 30 bar) over silver-, zinc-, and/or gallium-modified zeolite catalysts. On the basis of GC-MS, Micro-GC, and TGA analysis, more light aromatic hydrocarbons, less phenol formation, lower coke production, and higher methane conversion are observed over 5%Zn-1%Ga/ZSM-5 catalyst in comparison with catalytic performance over the other catalysts. Direct evidence of methane incorporation into aromatics over 5%Zn-1%Ga/ZSM-5 catalyst is witnessed in 1H, 2H, and 13C NMR spectra, revealing that the carbon from methane prefers to occupy the phenyl carbon sitesmore » and the benzylic carbon sites, and the hydrogen of methane favors the aromatic and benzylic substitutions of product molecules. In combination with the 13C NMR results for isotopically labeled acetic acid ( 13CH 3COOH and CH 3 13COOH), it can be seen that the methyl and carbonyl carbons of acetic acid are equally involved in the formation of ortho, meta and para carbons of the aromatics, whereas the phenyl carbons directly bonded with alkyl substituent groups and benzylic carbons are derived mainly from the carboxyl carbon of acetic acid. After various catalyst characterizations by using TEM, XRD, DRIFT, NH 3-TPD, and XPS, the excellent catalytic performance might be closely related to the highly dispersed zinc and gallium species on the zeolite support, moderate surface acidity, and an appropriate ratio of weak acidic sites to strong acidic sites as well as the fairly stable oxidation state during acetic acid conversion under a methane environment. Two mechanisms of the coaromatization of acetic acid and methane have also been proposed after consulting all the collected data in this study. In conclusion, the results reported in this paper could potentially lead to more cost-effective utilization of abundant natural gas and biomass.« less

  8. Methane Upgrading of Acetic Acid as a Model Compound for a Biomass-Derived Liquid over a Modified Zeolite Catalyst

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Aiguo; Austin, Danielle; Karmakar, Abhoy; ...

    2017-04-19

    The technical feasibility of coaromatization of acetic acid derived from biomass and methane was investigated under mild reaction conditions (400 °C and 30 bar) over silver-, zinc-, and/or gallium-modified zeolite catalysts. On the basis of GC-MS, Micro-GC, and TGA analysis, more light aromatic hydrocarbons, less phenol formation, lower coke production, and higher methane conversion are observed over 5%Zn-1%Ga/ZSM-5 catalyst in comparison with catalytic performance over the other catalysts. Direct evidence of methane incorporation into aromatics over 5%Zn-1%Ga/ZSM-5 catalyst is witnessed in 1H, 2H, and 13C NMR spectra, revealing that the carbon from methane prefers to occupy the phenyl carbon sitesmore » and the benzylic carbon sites, and the hydrogen of methane favors the aromatic and benzylic substitutions of product molecules. In combination with the 13C NMR results for isotopically labeled acetic acid ( 13CH 3COOH and CH 3 13COOH), it can be seen that the methyl and carbonyl carbons of acetic acid are equally involved in the formation of ortho, meta and para carbons of the aromatics, whereas the phenyl carbons directly bonded with alkyl substituent groups and benzylic carbons are derived mainly from the carboxyl carbon of acetic acid. After various catalyst characterizations by using TEM, XRD, DRIFT, NH 3-TPD, and XPS, the excellent catalytic performance might be closely related to the highly dispersed zinc and gallium species on the zeolite support, moderate surface acidity, and an appropriate ratio of weak acidic sites to strong acidic sites as well as the fairly stable oxidation state during acetic acid conversion under a methane environment. Two mechanisms of the coaromatization of acetic acid and methane have also been proposed after consulting all the collected data in this study. In conclusion, the results reported in this paper could potentially lead to more cost-effective utilization of abundant natural gas and biomass.« less

  9. Role of RuO2(100) in surface oxidation and CO oxidation catalysis on Ru(0001).

    PubMed

    Flege, Jan Ingo; Lachnitt, Jan; Mazur, Daniel; Sutter, Peter; Falta, Jens

    2016-01-07

    We have studied the oxidation of the Ru(0001) surface by in situ microscopy during exposure to NO2, an efficient source of atomic oxygen, at elevated temperatures. In a previous investigation [Flege et al., Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter Mater. Phys., 2008, 78, 165407], at O coverages exceeding 1 monolayer, using the combination of intensity-voltage (I(V)) low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM) and multiple scattering calculations for the (00) beam in the very-low-energy range (E≤ 50 eV) we identified three surface components during the initial Ru oxidation: a (1 × 1)-O chemisorption phase, the RuO2(110) oxide phase, and a surface oxide structure characterized by a trilayer O-Ru-O stacking. Here, we use dark-field LEEM imaging and micro-illumination low-energy electron diffraction in the range of 100 to 400 eV to show that this trilayer phase is actually a RuO2(100)-(1 × 1) phase with possibly mixed O and Ru surface terminations. This identification rationalizes the thermodynamic stability of this phase at elevated temperatures and is consistent with the observation of catalytic activity of the phase in CO oxidation.

  10. Catalyst, 2000-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Barbara E., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    "Catalyst" is a publication designed to assist higher education in developing alcohol and other drug prevention polices and programs that will foster students' academic and social development and promote campus and community safety. Issue 1 of volume 6 introduces a series of "Presidential Profiles" in which university presidents describe their…

  11. Hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Subbaraman, Ram; Stamenkovic, Vojislav; Markovic, Nenad; Tripkovic, Dusan

    2016-02-09

    Systems and methods for a hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst are provided. Electrode material includes a plurality of clusters. The electrode exhibits bifunctionality with respect to the hydrogen evolution reaction. The electrode with clusters exhibits improved performance with respect to the intrinsic material of the electrode absent the clusters.

  12. Zinc sulfide liquefaction catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Garg, Diwakar

    1984-01-01

    A process for the liquefaction of carbonaceous material, such as coal, is set forth wherein coal is liquefied in a catalytic solvent refining reaction wherein an activated zinc sulfide catalyst is utilized which is activated by hydrogenation in a coal derived process solvent in the absence of coal.

  13. Sabatier Catalyst Poisoning Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nallette, Tim; Perry, Jay; Abney, Morgan; Knox, Jim; Goldblatt, Loel

    2013-01-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the International Space Station (ISS) has been operational since 2010. The CRA uses a Sabatier reactor to produce water and methane by reaction of the metabolic CO2 scrubbed from the cabin air and the hydrogen byproduct from the water electrolysis system used for metabolic oxygen generation. Incorporating the CRA into the overall air revitalization system has facilitated life support system loop closure on the ISS reducing resupply logistics and thereby enhancing longer term missions. The CRA utilizes CO2 which has been adsorbed in a 5A molecular sieve within the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly, CDRA. There is a potential of compounds with molecular dimensions similar to, or less than CO2 to also be adsorbed. In this fashion trace contaminants may be concentrated within the CDRA and subsequently desorbed with the CO2 to the CRA. Currently, there is no provision to remove contaminants prior to entering the Sabatier catalyst bed. The risk associated with this is potential catalyst degradation due to trace organic contaminants in the CRA carbon dioxide feed acting as catalyst poisons. To better understand this risk, United Technologies Aerospace System (UTAS) has teamed with MSFC to investigate the impact of various trace contaminants on the CRA catalyst performance at relative ISS cabin air concentrations and at about 200/400 times of ISS concentrations, representative of the potential concentrating effect of the CDRA molecular sieve. This paper summarizes our initial assessment results.

  14. Electride support boosts nitrogen dissociation over ruthenium catalyst and shifts the bottleneck in ammonia synthesis

    DOE PAGES

    Kitano, Masaaki; Kanbara, Shinji; Inoue, Yasunori; ...

    2015-03-30

    We actively sough novel approaches to efficient ammonia synthesis at an ambient pressure so as to reduce the cost of ammonia production and to allow for compact production facilities. It is accepted that the key is the development of a high-performance catalyst that significantly enhances dissociation of the nitrogen-nitrogen triple bond, which is generally considered a rate-determining step. Here we examine the kinetics of nitrogen and hydrogen isotope exchange and hydrogen adsorption/desorption reactions for a recently discovered efficient catalyst for ammonia synthesis --ruthenium-loaded 12CaO∙7AI 2O 3 electride (Ru/C12A7:more » $$\\bar{e}$$ )--and find that the rate controlling step of ammonia synthesis over Ru/C12A7:$$\\bar{e}$$ is not dissociation of the nitrogen-nitrogen triple bond but the subsequent formation of N-H n species. A mechanism of ammonia synthesis involving reversible storage and release of hydrogen atoms on the Ru/C12A7:$$\\bar{e}$$ surface is proposed on the basis of observed hydrogen adsorption/desorption kinetics.« less

  15. Electride support boosts nitrogen dissociation over ruthenium catalyst and shifts the bottleneck in ammonia synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kitano, Masaaki; Kanbara, Shinji; Inoue, Yasunori

    We actively sough novel approaches to efficient ammonia synthesis at an ambient pressure so as to reduce the cost of ammonia production and to allow for compact production facilities. It is accepted that the key is the development of a high-performance catalyst that significantly enhances dissociation of the nitrogen-nitrogen triple bond, which is generally considered a rate-determining step. Here we examine the kinetics of nitrogen and hydrogen isotope exchange and hydrogen adsorption/desorption reactions for a recently discovered efficient catalyst for ammonia synthesis --ruthenium-loaded 12CaO∙7AI 2O 3 electride (Ru/C12A7:more » $$\\bar{e}$$ )--and find that the rate controlling step of ammonia synthesis over Ru/C12A7:$$\\bar{e}$$ is not dissociation of the nitrogen-nitrogen triple bond but the subsequent formation of N-H n species. A mechanism of ammonia synthesis involving reversible storage and release of hydrogen atoms on the Ru/C12A7:$$\\bar{e}$$ surface is proposed on the basis of observed hydrogen adsorption/desorption kinetics.« less

  16. Effect of different promoter precursors in a model Ru-Cs/graphite system on the catalytic selectivity for Fischer-Tropsch reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eslava, José L.; Iglesias-Juez, Ana; Fernández-García, Marcos; Guerrero-Ruiz, Antonio; Rodríguez-Ramos, Inmaculada

    2018-07-01

    The effect of using two different promoter precursors on the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis was studied over cesium promoted ruthenium catalysts supported on a high surface area graphite support. In this work we reveal significant modifications in the selectivity values for Fischer-Tropsch reaction depending on the Cs promoter precursor (CsCl vs CsNO3). Specifically the bimetallic catalyst (4Ru-4Cs), prepared from nitrates both for metal and promoter precursors, showed a high selectivity to CO2 during reaction. By modifying the cesium precursor, it was possible to inhibit the water gas shift reaction, decreasing significantly the selectivity to CO2. In order to understand the chemical origin of these modifications a careful characterization of the materials was performed including: X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy measurements, temperature programmed reduction studies, determination of the CO uptakes on the catalysts and the evolution of the CO adsorption heats as a function of surface coverages. It was found that upon reduction and under reaction atmosphere the promoter in the ex-nitrate catalyst appears as Cs2O which is considered responsible of the CO2 production, while in the catalysts prepared with Cs chloride the promoter remains as CsCl suffering a slight partial reduction.

  17. Catalyst support structure, catalyst including the structure, reactor including a catalyst, and methods of forming same

    DOEpatents

    Van Norman, Staci A.; Aston, Victoria J.; Weimer, Alan W.

    2017-05-09

    Structures, catalysts, and reactors suitable for use for a variety of applications, including gas-to-liquid and coal-to-liquid processes and methods of forming the structures, catalysts, and reactors are disclosed. The catalyst material can be deposited onto an inner wall of a microtubular reactor and/or onto porous tungsten support structures using atomic layer deposition techniques.

  18. [Population Council responsible for RU486 clinical trials in USA].

    PubMed

    Aguillaume, C J

    1993-04-01

    As a result of the sudden political change that came with the Clinton Administration, RU-486's manufacturer, Roussel-Uclaf, and the Population Council agreed on April 20, 1992, on the manufacture and distribution of RU-486 in the US. In the US, there are less than 1.6 million induced abortions annually. From now on, US women will be able to have a choice between medical and surgical abortion. The Population Council and Roussel-Uclaf have had a contract since 1982. The Council is solely responsible for the phase 2 clinical trial of RU-486 in the US and other countries. It must present to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) an amendment allowing it to begin phase 3 clinical trials. The Council will also lead the US medical facilities in this study. It will identify partners for future production of RU-486 and its distribution in the US. It will also submit to FDA a New Drug Application (NDA). FDA will review the scientific literature on RU-486 and evaluate all data submitted by the Population Council. There are still obstacles to be surmounted. The Population Council must demonstrate good judgment when selecting the criteria for choosing a pharmaceutical firm before a Technical Committee which will be part of a group of players promoting women's health, scientific experts, and other interested parties. It must find the necessary funds to conduct the clinical trials and prepare the NDA. Phase 3 clinical trials in the US must have at least 2000 women. They will test RU-486's efficacy, safety, and acceptability among women choosing medical abortion over surgical abortion. Since the Council operates in almost all countries in the world, has innovated contraceptive research and development activities, and has been endorsed by the UN, product approval of RU-486 in the US will affect policy in all countries concerned about abortion.

  19. Direct observation of sequential oxidations of a titania-bound molecular proxy catalyst generated through illumination of molecular sensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsiang-Yun; Ardo, Shane

    2018-01-01

    Natural photosynthesis uses the energy in sunlight to oxidize or reduce reaction centres multiple times, therefore preparing each reaction centre for a multiple-electron-transfer reaction that will ultimately generate stable reaction products. This process relies on multiple chromophores per reaction centre to quickly generate the active state of the reaction centre and to outcompete deleterious charge recombination. Using a similar design principle, we report spectroscopic evidence for the generation of a twice-oxidized TiO2-bound molecular proxy catalyst after low-intensity visible-light excitation of co-anchored molecular Ru(II)-polypyridyl dyes. Electron transfer from an excited dye to TiO2 generated a Ru(III) state that subsequently and repeatedly reacted with neighbouring Ru(II) dyes via self-exchange electron transfer to ultimately oxidize a distant co-anchored proxy catalyst before charge recombination. The largest yield for twice-oxidized proxy catalysts occurred when they were present at low coverage, suggesting that large dye/electrocatalyst ratios are also desired in dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells.

  20. Indirect cooperative effects leading to synergism in bimetallic homogeneous catalysts containing azolates as bridging ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Esteruelas, M.A.; Garcia, M.P.; Lopez, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The binuclear compounds (H(CO)(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}Ru({mu}-bim)Ir(COD)) (1) (bim = 2,2{prime}-biimidazolate, COD = 1,5-cyclooctadiene) and (H(CO)(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}Ru({mu}-pz){sub 2}Ir(TFB)) (2) (pz = pyrazolate, TFB = tetrafluorobenzobarrelene) are more active catalysts for the hydrogenation of cyclohexene than the mononuclear parent compounds (RuH(Hbim)(CO)(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}), (Ir(Hbim)(COD)), (RuH(pa)(CO)(Hpz)(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}), and (Ir(TFB)(Hpz){sub 2})BF{sub 4}. In the presence of 1, the reaction rate is first order with respect to the concentration of 1 and cyclohexene, second order with respect to hydrogen pressure, and inversely proportional to the concentration of added phosphine. For the reaction catalyzed by 2, the experimental data are in accordance with amore » rate expression of the form {minus}d(cyclohexene)/dt = k(2)(cyclohexene)P(H{sub 2}) (P(H{sub 2}) = hydrogen pressure). On the basis of the kinetic results and experimental evidence, the origin of the catalytic synergism is assigned to indirect cooperative effects between the metallic centers of the binuclear complexes. The kinetic investigation of the hydrogenation of cyclohexene catalyzed by (Ir({mu}-pz)(TFB)){sub 2} (3) is also reported, suggesting that the full catalytic cycle involves binuclear species.« less

  1. Regenerative Cu/La zeolite supported desulfurizing sorbents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor); Sharma, Pramod K. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Efficient, regenerable sorbents for removal of H2S from fluid hydrocarbons such as diesel fuel at moderate condition comprise a porous, high surface area aluminosilicate support, suitably a synthetic zeolite, and most preferably a zeolite having a free lattice opening of at least 6 Angstroms containing from 0.1 to 0.5 moles of copper ions, lanthanum ions or their mixtures. The sorbent removes sulfur from the hydrocarbon fuel in high efficiency and can be repetitively regenerated without loss of activity.

  2. Gas phase 1H NMR studies and kinetic modeling of dihydrogen isotope equilibration catalyzed by Ru-nanoparticles under normal conditions: dissociative vs. associative exchange.

    PubMed

    Limbach, Hans-Heinrich; Pery, Tal; Rothermel, Niels; Chaudret, Bruno; Gutmann, Torsten; Buntkowsky, Gerd

    2018-04-25

    The equilibration of H2, HD and D2 between the gas phase and surface hydrides of solid organic-ligand-stabilized Ru metal nanoparticles has been studied by gas phase 1H NMR spectroscopy using closed NMR tubes as batch reactors at room temperature and 800 mbar. When two different nanoparticle systems, Ru/PVP (PVP ≡ polyvinylpyrrolidone) and Ru/HDA (HDA ≡ hexadecylamine) were exposed to D2 gas, only the release of HD from the hydride containing surface could be detected in the initial stages of the reaction, but no H2. In the case of Ru/HDA also the reverse experiment was performed where surface deuterated nanoparticles were exposed to H2. In that case, the conversion of H2 into gaseous HD was detected. In order to analyze the experimental kinetic and spectroscopic data, we explored two different mechanisms taking into account potential kinetic and equilibrium H/D isotope effects. Firstly, we explored the dissociative exchange mechanism consisting of dissociative adsorption of dihydrogen, fast hydride surface diffusion and associative desorption of dihydrogen. It is shown that if D2 is the reaction partner, only H2 will be released in the beginning of the reaction, and HD only in later reaction stages. The second mechanism, dubbed here associative exchange consists of the binding of dihydrogen to Ru surface atoms, followed by a H-transfer to or by H-exchange with an adjacent hydride site, and finally of the associative desorption of dihydrogen. In that case, in the exchange with D2, only HD will be released in the beginning of the reaction. Our experimental results are not compatible with the dissociative exchange but can be explained in terms of the associative exchange. Whereas the former will dominate at low temperatures and pressures, the latter will prevail around room temperature and normal pressures where transition metal nanoparticles are generally used as reaction catalysts.

  3. Vibration measurements of automobile catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aatola, Seppo

    1994-09-01

    Vibration of catalyst cell, which is inside the casing of the catalyst, is difficult to measure with usual measuring instrumentation. When catalyst is in use, there is hot exhaust gas flow though the catalyst cell and temperature of the cell is approximately +900 degree(s)C. Therefore non-contact Laser- Doppler-Vibrometer was used to measure vibration velocity of the catalyst cell. The laser beam was directed towards the cell through pipe which was put through and welded to the casing of the catalyst. The outer end of the pipe was screw down with a tempered class to prevent exhaust gas flow from the pipe. The inner end of the pipe was open and few millimeters away from the measuring point. Catalyst was attached to the engine with two ways, rigidly close to the engine and flexible under the engine. The engine was running in test bench under controlled conditions. Vibration measurements were carried out during constant running speeds of the engine. Vibration signals were captured and analyzed with FFT-analyzer. Vibration of catalyst cell was strongest at running speed of 5000 rpm, from 10 to 20 g (1 g equals 9.81 ms-2), when catalyst was attached rigidly close to the engine. At running speed of 3000 rpm, vibration of catalyst cell was from 2 to 3 g in most cases, when catalyst was attached either rigidly or flexible to the engine. It is estimated that in real life, i.e. when catalyst is attached to car with same engine, vibration of catalyst cell at running speed of 5000 rpm is somewhere between 1 and 10 g. At running speed of 3000 rpm, which may be more often used when driving car (car speed approximately 100 kmh-1), vibration of catalyst cell is probably few g's.

  4. Toward Rational Design of Cu/SSZ-13 Selective Catalytic Reduction Catalysts: Implications from Atomic-Level Understanding of Hydrothermal Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Song, James; Wang, Yilin; Walter, Eric D.

    The hydrothermal stability of Cu/SSZ-13 SCR catalysts has been extensively studied, yet atomic level understanding of changes to the zeolite support and the Cu active sites during hydrothermal aging are still lacking. In this work, via the utilization of spectroscopic methods including solid-state 27Al and 29Si NMR, EPR, DRIFTS, and XPS, together with imaging and elemental mapping using STEM, detailed kinetic analyses, and theoretical calculations with DFT, various Cu species, including two types of isolated active sites and CuOx clusters, were precisely quantified for samples hydrothermally aged under varying conditions. This quantification convincingly confirms the exceptional hydrothermal stability of isolatedmore » Cu2+-2Z sites, and the gradual conversion of [Cu(OH)]+-Z to CuOx clusters with increasing aging severity. This stability difference is rationalized from the hydrolysis activation barrier difference between the two isolated sites via DFT. Discussions are provided on the nature of the CuOx clusters, and their possible detrimental roles on catalyst stability. Finally, a few rational design principles for Cu/SSZ-13 are derived rigorously from the atomic-level understanding of this catalyst obtained here. The authors gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office for the support of this work. Computing time was granted by a user proposal at the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) and by the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC). The experimental studies described in this paper were performed in the EMSL, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated for the US DOE by Battelle.« less

  5. Molecular metal catalysts on supports: organometallic chemistry meets surface science.

    PubMed

    Serna, Pedro; Gates, Bruce C

    2014-08-19

    Recent advances in the synthesis and characterization of small, essentially molecular metal complexes and metal clusters on support surfaces have brought new insights to catalysis and point the way to systematic catalyst design. We summarize recent work unraveling effects of key design variables of site-isolated catalysts: the metal, metal nuclearity, support, and other ligands on the metals, also considering catalysts with separate, complementary functions on supports. The catalysts were synthesized with the goal of structural simplicity and uniformity to facilitate incisive characterization. Thus, they are essentially molecular species bonded to porous supports chosen for their high degree of uniformity; the supports are crystalline aluminosilicates (zeolites) and MgO. The catalytic species are synthesized in reactions of organometallic precursors with the support surfaces; the precursors include M(L)2(acetylacetonate)1-2, with M = Ru, Rh, Ir, or Au and the ligands L = C2H4, CO, or CH3. Os3(CO)12 and Ir4(CO)12 are used as precursors of supported metal clusters, and some such catalysts are made by ship-in-a-bottle syntheses to trap the clusters in zeolite cages. The simplicity and uniformity of the supported catalysts facilitate precise structure determinations, even in reactive atmospheres and during catalysis. The methods of characterizing catalysts in reactive atmospheres include infrared (IR), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, and complementary methods include density functional theory and atomic-resolution aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy for imaging of individual metal atoms. IR, NMR, XANES, and microscopy data demonstrate the high degrees of uniformity of well-prepared supported species. The characterizations determine the compositions of surface metal complexes and clusters, including the ligands and the metal

  6. Biochemical characterization of predicted Precambrian RuBisCO

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Patrick M.; Occhialini, Alessandro; Cameron, Jeffrey C.; Andralojc, P John; Parry, Martin A. J.; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.

    2016-01-01

    The antiquity and global abundance of the enzyme, RuBisCO, attests to the crucial and longstanding role it has played in the biogeochemical cycles of Earth over billions of years. The counterproductive oxygenase activity of RuBisCO has persisted over billions of years of evolution, despite its competition with the carboxylase activity necessary for carbon fixation, yet hypotheses regarding the selective pressures governing RuBisCO evolution have been limited to speculation. Here we report the resurrection and biochemical characterization of ancestral RuBisCOs, dating back to over one billion years ago (Gyr ago). Our findings provide an ancient point of reference revealing divergent evolutionary paths taken by eukaryotic homologues towards improved specificity for CO2, versus the evolutionary emphasis on increased rates of carboxylation observed in bacterial homologues. Consistent with these distinctions, in vivo analysis reveals the propensity of ancestral RuBisCO to be encapsulated into modern-day carboxysomes, bacterial organelles central to the cyanobacterial CO2 concentrating mechanism. PMID:26790750

  7. Biochemical characterization of predicted Precambrian RuBisCO.

    PubMed

    Shih, Patrick M; Occhialini, Alessandro; Cameron, Jeffrey C; Andralojc, P John; Parry, Martin A J; Kerfeld, Cheryl A

    2016-01-21

    The antiquity and global abundance of the enzyme, RuBisCO, attests to the crucial and longstanding role it has played in the biogeochemical cycles of Earth over billions of years. The counterproductive oxygenase activity of RuBisCO has persisted over billions of years of evolution, despite its competition with the carboxylase activity necessary for carbon fixation, yet hypotheses regarding the selective pressures governing RuBisCO evolution have been limited to speculation. Here we report the resurrection and biochemical characterization of ancestral RuBisCOs, dating back to over one billion years ago (Gyr ago). Our findings provide an ancient point of reference revealing divergent evolutionary paths taken by eukaryotic homologues towards improved specificity for CO2, versus the evolutionary emphasis on increased rates of carboxylation observed in bacterial homologues. Consistent with these distinctions, in vivo analysis reveals the propensity of ancestral RuBisCO to be encapsulated into modern-day carboxysomes, bacterial organelles central to the cyanobacterial CO2 concentrating mechanism.

  8. Syntheses, structures, and physicochemical properties of diruthenium compounds of tetrachlorocatecholate with metal-metal bonded Ru(3+)(mu-OR)(2)Ru(3+) and Ru(3.5+)(mu-OR)(2)Ru(3.5+) cores (R = CH(3) and C(2)H(5)).

    PubMed

    Miyasaka, H; Chang, H C; Mochizuki, K; Kitagawa, S

    2001-07-02

    Metal-metal bonded Ru(3+)(mu-OR)(2)Ru(3+) and Ru(3.5+)(mu-OR)(2)Ru(3.5+) (R = CH(3) and CH(3)CH(2)) compounds with tetrachlorocatecholate (Cl(4)Cat) have been synthesized in the corresponding alcohol, MeOH and EtOH, from a nonbridged Ru(2+)-Ru(3+) compound, Na(3)[Ru(2)(Cl(4)Cat)(4)(THF)].3H(2)O.7THF (1). In alcohol solvents, compound 1 is continuously oxidized by oxygen to form Ru(3+)(mu-OR)(2)Ru(3+) and Ru(3.5+)(mu-OR)(2)Ru(3.5+) species. The presence of a characteristic countercation leads to selective isolation of either Ru(3+)(mu-OR)(2)Ru(3+) or Ru(3.5+)(mu-OR)(2)Ru(3.5+) as a stable adduct species. In methanol, Ph(4)PCl and dibenzo-18-crown-6-ether afford Ru(3+)(mu-OMe)(2)Ru(3+) species, [A](2)[Ru(2)(Cl(4)Cat)(4)(mu-OMe)(2)Na(2)(MeOH)(6)] ([A](+) = Ph(4)P(+) (2), [Na(dibenzo-18-crown-6)(H(2)O)(MeOH)](+) (3)), while benzo-15-crown-5-ether provides a Ru(3.5+)(mu-OMe)(2)Ru(3.5+) species, [Na(benzo-15-crown-5)(2)][Ru(2)(Cl(4)Cat)(4)(mu-OMe)(2)Na(2)(MeOH)(6)] (4). The air oxidation of 1 in a MeOH/EtOH mixed solvent (1:1 v/v) containing benzo-15-crown-5-ether provides a Ru(3.5+)(mu-OMe)(2)Ru(3.5+) species, [Na(benzo-15-crown-5)(H(2)O)][Ru(2)(Cl(4)Cat)(2)(mu-OMe)(2)Na(2)(EtOH)(2)(H(2)O)(2)(MeOH)(2)].(benzo-15-crown-5) (5). Similarly, the oxidation of 1 in ethanol with Ph(4)PCl provides a Ru(3.5+)(mu-OEt)(2)Ru(3.5+) species, (Ph(4)P)[Ru(2)(Cl(4)Cat)(4)(mu-OEt)(2)Na(2)(EtOH)(6)] (7). A selective formation of a Ru(3+)(mu-OEt)(2)Ru(3+) species, (Ph(4)P)(2)[Ru(2)(Cl(4)Cat)(4)(mu-OEt)(2)Na(2)(EtOH)(2)(H(2)O)(2)] (6), is found in the presence of pyrazine or 2,5-dimethylpyrazine. The crystal structures of these compounds, except 2 and 7, have been determined by X-ray crystallography, and all compounds have been characterized by several spectroscopic and magnetic investigations. The longer Ru-Ru bonds are found in the Ru(3+)(mu-OR)(2)Ru(3+) species (2.606(1) and 2.628(2) A for 3 and 6, respectively) compared with those of Ru(3.5+)(mu-OMe)(2)Ru(3.5+) species (2.5260(6) A and 2

  9. Complex of transferrin with ruthenium for medical applications. [Ru 97, Ru 103

    DOEpatents

    Richards, P.; Srivastava, S.C.; Meinken, G.E.

    1980-11-03

    A novel Ruthenium-transferrin complex, prepared by reacting iron-free human transferrin dissolved in a sodium acetate solution at pH 7 with ruthenium by heating at about 40/sup 0/C for about 2 hours, and purifying said complex by means of gel chromatography with pH 7 sodium acetate as eluent. The mono- or di-metal complex produced can be used in nuclear medicine in the diagnosis and/or treatment of tumors and abscesses. Comparitive results with Ga-67-citrate, which is the most widely used tumor-localizing agent in nuclear medicine, indicate increased sensitivity of detection and greater tumor uptake with the Ru-transferrin complex.

  10. Is [Co4(H2O)2(α-PW9O34)2](10-) a genuine molecular catalyst in photochemical water oxidation? Answers from time-resolved hole scavenging experiments.

    PubMed

    Natali, Mirco; Berardi, Serena; Sartorel, Andrea; Bonchio, Marcella; Campagna, Sebastiano; Scandola, Franco

    2012-09-11

    Water oxidation catalysts: evolution of [Co(4)(H(2)O)(2)(α-PW(9)O(34))(2)](10-) to catalytically active species is assessed by laser flash photolysis in sacrificial photocatalytic cycles with Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) as a photosensitizer.

  11. Binary ferrihydrite catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Huffman, Gerald P.; Zhao, Jianmin; Feng, Zhen

    1996-01-01

    A method of preparing a catalyst precursor comprises dissolving an iron salt and a salt of an oxoanion forming agent, in water so that a solution of the iron salt and oxoanion forming agent salt has a ratio of oxoanion/Fe of between 0.0001:1 to 0.5:1. Next is increasing the pH of the solution to 10 by adding a strong base followed by collecting of precipitate having a binary ferrihydrite structure. A binary ferrihydrite catalyst precursor is also prepared by dissolving an iron salt in water. The solution is brought to a pH of substantially 10 to obtain ferrihydrite precipitate. The precipitate is then filtered and washed with distilled water and subsequently admixed with a hydroxy carboxylic acid solution. The admixture is mixed/agitated and the binary ferrihydrite precipitate is then filtered and recovered.

  12. Binary ferrihydrite catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Huffman, G.P.; Zhao, J.; Feng, Z.

    1996-12-03

    A method of preparing a catalyst precursor comprises dissolving an iron salt and a salt of an oxoanion forming agent, in water so that a solution of the iron salt and oxoanion forming agent salt has a ratio of oxoanion/Fe of between 0.0001:1 to 0.5:1. Next is increasing the pH of the solution to 10 by adding a strong base followed by collecting of precipitate having a binary ferrihydrite structure. A binary ferrihydrite catalyst precursor is also prepared by dissolving an iron salt in water. The solution is brought to a pH of substantially 10 to obtain ferrihydrite precipitate. The precipitate is then filtered and washed with distilled water and subsequently admixed with a hydroxy carboxylic acid solution. The admixture is mixed/agitated and the binary ferrihydrite precipitate is then filtered and recovered. 3 figs.

  13. Fluorination process using catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Hochel, Robert C.; Saturday, Kathy A.

    1985-01-01

    A process for converting an actinide compound selected from the group consisting of uranium oxides, plutonium oxides, uranium tetrafluorides, plutonium tetrafluorides and mixtures of said oxides and tetrafluorides, to the corresponding volatile actinide hexafluoride by fluorination with a stoichiometric excess of fluorine gas. The improvement involves conducting the fluorination of the plutonium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF.sub.3, AgF.sub.2 and NiF.sub.2, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced. The improvement also involves conducting the fluorination of one of the uranium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF.sub.3 and AgF.sub.2, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced.

  14. Fluorination process using catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Hochel, R.C.; Saturday, K.A.

    1983-08-25

    A process is given for converting an actinide compound selected from the group consisting of uranium oxides, plutonium oxides, uranium tetrafluorides, plutonium tetrafluorides and mixtures of said oxides and tetrafluorides, to the corresponding volatile actinide hexafluoride by fluorination with a stoichiometric excess of fluorine gas. The improvement involves conducting the fluorination of the plutonium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF/sub 3/, AgF/sub 2/ and NiF/sub 2/, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced. The improvement also involves conducting the fluorination of one of the uranium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF/sub 3/ and AgF/sub 2/, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced.

  15. External Catalyst Breakup Phenomena

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-09-01

    thruster exposure. a Erosion .by a pulsed liquid stream at high velocity. * Thermal shock from liquid quench cooldovn. 9 Erosion resulting from solid...the liquid velocity. During a cold start contact with hydrazine leading to liquid wetting can lead to very high internal pressures as a result ot the...compression and final dilation, suggest benefits from reducing this variable. A . Isolating the catalyst particles from one another so as to avoid high

  16. External Catalyst Breakup Phenomena

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-06-01

    catalyst particle can cause high internal pressures which result in particle destruction. Analytical results suggest rhat erosion effects from solid...mechanisms. * Pressure Forces. High G loadings and bed pressure drops should be avoided. Bed pre-loads should be kept at a minimum value. Thruster...5.2.7.1 Failure Theories ............................ 243 5.2.7.2 Maximum Tension Stress Criterion ............ 244 5.2.7.3 Distortion Energy Approach

  17. Chemical and Photochemical Water Oxidation Mediated by an Efficient Single-Site Ruthenium Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Magied, Ahmed F; Shatskiy, Andrey; Liao, Rong-Zhen; Laine, Tanja M; Arafa, Wael A A; Siegbahn, Per E M; Kärkäs, Markus D; Åkermark, Björn; Johnston, Eric V

    2016-12-20

    Water oxidation is a fundamental step in artificial photosynthesis for solar fuels production. In this study, we report a single-site Ru-based water oxidation catalyst, housing a dicarboxylate-benzimidazole ligand, that mediates both chemical and light-driven oxidation of water efficiently under neutral conditions. The importance of the incorporation of the negatively charged ligand framework is manifested in the low redox potentials of the developed complex, which allows water oxidation to be driven by the mild one-electron oxidant [Ru(bpy) 3 ] 3+ (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine). Furthermore, combined experimental and DFT studies provide insight into the mechanistic details of the catalytic cycle. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  18. NO-binding in {Ru(NO)₂}⁸-type [Ru(NO)₂(PR₃)₂X]BF₄ compounds.

    PubMed

    Gallien, Anna K E; Schaniel, Dominik; Woike, Theo; Klüfers, Peter

    2014-09-21

    Two different structure types were found for a series of mononuclear dinitrosyl complexes of the general formula [RuL2(NO)2X]BF4 (L = monodentate phosphane, X = Cl, Br, I). The {Ru(NO)2}(8)-type target compounds were prepared by the reduction of the respective {RuNO}(6) precursors and subsequent oxidative addition of (NO)BF4. About one half of the new compounds share their molecular structure with the hitherto only representative of this class of dinitrosyls, Pierpont and Eisenberg's [RuCl(NO)2(PPh3)2]PF6·C6H6 (Inorg. Chem., 1972, 11, 1088-1094). The Cs-symmetric cations exhibit both a linear and a bent Ru-N-O fragment, in line with a formal 6 + 2 split of the {Ru(NO)2}(8) electron sum in the sense of a [Ru(II)(NO(+))((1)NO(-))](2+) bonding. The coordination entity's configuration in this subgroup is described by IUPAC's polyhedral symbol SPY-5. Continuous shape measures (CShM) as defined by Alvarez et al. (Coord. Chem. Rev., 2005, 249, 1693-1708) reveal a uniform deviation from the L-M-L angles expected for SPY-5, in a narrower sense, towards a vacant octahedron (vOC-5). DFT calculations confirmed that Enemark and Feltham's analysis (Coord. Chem. Rev., 1974, 13, 339-406) of the electronic situation of the {Ru(NO)2}(8) group remains adequate. The same holds for the second subclass of new compounds the existence of which had been predicted in the same paper by Enemark and Feltham, namely C(2v)-symmetric, TBPY-5-type cations with two almost equally bonded nitrosyl ligands. In agreement with an 8 + 0 distribution of the relevant electrons, the formal [Ru(0)(NO(+))2](2+) entities are found for L/X couples that donate more electron density on the central metal. Two solid compounds (8a/b, 12a/b) were found in both structures including the special case of the P(i)Pr3/Br couple 12a/b, which led to crystals that contained both structure types in the same solid. Conversely, four compounds showed a single form in the solid but both forms in dichloromethane solution in terms

  19. Steam reforming catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Kramarz, Kurt W.; Bloom, Ira D.; Kumar, Romesh; Ahmed, Shabbir; Wilkenhoener, Rolf; Krumpelt, Michael

    2001-01-01

    A method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel. A vapor of the hydrocarbon fuel and steam is brought in contact with a two-part catalyst having a dehydrogenation powder portion and an oxide-ion conducting powder portion at a temperature not less than about 770.degree.C. for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich. The H.sub.2 content of the hydrogen gas is greater than about 70 percent by volume. The dehydrogenation portion of the catalyst includes a group VIII metal, and the oxide-ion conducting portion is selected from a ceramic oxide from the group crystallizing in the fluorite or perovskite structure and mixtures thereof. The oxide-ion conducting portion of the catalyst is a ceramic powder of one or more of ZrO.sub.2, CeO.sub.2, Bi.sub.2 O.sub.3, (BiVO).sub.4, and LaGaO.sub.3.

  20. Dynamical spin structure factors of α-RuCl3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Takafumi; Suga, Sei-ichiro

    2018-03-01

    Honeycomb-lattice magnet α-RuCl3 is considered to be a potential candidate of realizing Kitaev spin liquid, although this material undergoes a phase transition to the zigzag magnetically ordered state at T N ∼ 7 K. Quite recently, inelastic neutron-scattering experiments using single crystal α-RuCl3 have unveiled characteristic dynamical properties. We calculate dynamical spin structure factors of three ab-initio models for α-RuCl3 with an exact numerical diagonalization method. We also calculate temperature dependences of the specific heat by employing thermal pure quantum states. We compare our numerical results with the experiments and discuss characteristics obtained by using three ab-initio models.

  1. Lability and Basicity of Bipyridine-Carboxylate-Phosphonate Ligand Accelerate Single-Site Water Oxidation by Ruthenium-Based Molecular Catalysts

    DOE PAGES

    Shaffer, David W.; Xie, Yan; Szalda, David J.; ...

    2017-09-24

    Here, a critical step in creating an artificial photosynthesis system for energy storage is designing catalysts that can thrive in an assembled device. Single-site catalysts have an advantage over bimolecular catalysts because they remain effective when immobilized. Hybrid water oxidation catalysts described here, combining the features of single-site bis-phosphonate catalysts and fast bimolecular bis-carboxylate catalysts, have reached turnover frequencies over 100 s –1, faster than both related catalysts under identical conditions. The new [(bpHc)Ru(L) 2] (bpH 2cH = 2,2'-bipyridine-6-phosphonic acid-6'-carboxylic acid, L = 4-picoline or isoquinoline) catalysts proceed through a single-site water nucleophilic attack pathway. The pendant phosphonate base mediatesmore » O–O bond formation via intramolecular atom-proton transfer with a calculated barrier of only 9.1 kcal/mol. Additionally, the labile carboxylate group allows water to bind early in the catalytic cycle, allowing intramolecular proton-coupled electron transfer to lower the potentials for oxidation steps and catalysis. That a single-site catalyst can be this fast lends credence to the possibility that the oxygen evolving complex adopts a similar mechanism.« less

  2. Lability and Basicity of Bipyridine-Carboxylate-Phosphonate Ligand Accelerate Single-Site Water Oxidation by Ruthenium-Based Molecular Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Shaffer, David W.; Xie, Yan; Szalda, David J.

    Here, a critical step in creating an artificial photosynthesis system for energy storage is designing catalysts that can thrive in an assembled device. Single-site catalysts have an advantage over bimolecular catalysts because they remain effective when immobilized. Hybrid water oxidation catalysts described here, combining the features of single-site bis-phosphonate catalysts and fast bimolecular bis-carboxylate catalysts, have reached turnover frequencies over 100 s –1, faster than both related catalysts under identical conditions. The new [(bpHc)Ru(L) 2] (bpH 2cH = 2,2'-bipyridine-6-phosphonic acid-6'-carboxylic acid, L = 4-picoline or isoquinoline) catalysts proceed through a single-site water nucleophilic attack pathway. The pendant phosphonate base mediatesmore » O–O bond formation via intramolecular atom-proton transfer with a calculated barrier of only 9.1 kcal/mol. Additionally, the labile carboxylate group allows water to bind early in the catalytic cycle, allowing intramolecular proton-coupled electron transfer to lower the potentials for oxidation steps and catalysis. That a single-site catalyst can be this fast lends credence to the possibility that the oxygen evolving complex adopts a similar mechanism.« less

  3. Electrocatalytic Water Oxidation by a Homogeneous Copper Catalyst Disfavors Single-Site Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Koepke, Sara J; Light, Kenneth M; VanNatta, Peter E; Wiley, Keaton M; Kieber-Emmons, Matthew T

    2017-06-28

    Deployment of solar fuels derived from water requires robust oxygen-evolving catalysts made from earth abundant materials. Copper has recently received much attention in this regard. Mechanistic parallels between Cu and single-site Ru/Ir/Mn water oxidation catalysts, including intermediacy of terminal Cu oxo/oxyl species, are prevalent in the literature; however, intermediacy of late transition metal oxo species would be remarkable given the high d-electron count would fill antibonding orbitals, making these species high in energy. This may suggest alternate pathways are at work in copper-based water oxidation. This report characterizes a dinuclear copper water oxidation catalyst, {[(L)Cu(II)] 2 -(μ-OH) 2 }(OTf) 2 (L = Me 2 TMPA = bis((6-methyl-2-pyridyl)methyl)(2-pyridylmethyl)amine) in which water oxidation proceeds with high Faradaic efficiency (>90%) and moderate rates (33 s -1 at ∼1 V overpotential, pH 12.5). A large kinetic isotope effect (k H /k D = 20) suggests proton coupled electron transfer in the initial oxidation as the rate-determining step. This species partially dissociates in aqueous solution at pH 12.5 to generate a mononuclear {[(L)Cu(II)(OH)]} + adduct (K eq = 0.0041). Calculations that reproduce the experimental findings reveal that oxidation of either the mononuclear or dinuclear species results in a common dinuclear intermediate, {[LCu(III)] 2 -(μ-O) 2 } 2+ , which avoids formation of terminal Cu(IV)═O/Cu(III)-O • intermediates. Calculations further reveal that both intermolecular water nucleophilic attack and redox isomerization of {[LCu(III)] 2 -(μ-O) 2 } 2+ are energetically accessible pathways for O-O bond formation. The consequences of these findings are discussed in relation to differences in water oxidation pathways between Cu catalysts and catalysts based on Ru, Ir, and Mn.

  4. Selective conversion of polyenes to monoenes by RuCl(3) -catalyzed transfer hydrogenation: the case of cashew nutshell liquid.

    PubMed

    Perdriau, Sébastien; Harder, Sjoerd; Heeres, Hero J; de Vries, Johannes G

    2012-12-01

    Cardanol, a constituent of cashew nutshell liquid (CNSL), was subjected to transfer hydrogenation catalyzed by RuCl(3) using isopropanol as a reductant. The side chain of cardanol, which is a mixture of a triene, a diene, and a monoene, was selectively reduced to the monoene. Surprisingly, it is the C8-C9 double bond that is retained with high selectivity. A similar transfer hydrogenation of linoleic acid derivatives succeeded only if the substrate contained an aromatic ring, such as a benzyl ester. TEM and a negative mercury test showed that the catalyst was homogeneous. By using ESI-MS, ruthenium complexes were identified that contained one, two, or even three molecules of substrate, most likely as allyl complexes. The interaction between ruthenium and the aromatic ring determines selectivity in the hydrogenation reaction. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Study of the Structure and Interaction Between Carbon Monoxide and Hydrogen on the Ru(0001) Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Lechner, Barbara A. J.; Feng, Xiaofeng; Feibelman, Peter J.

    Here, we use scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to investigate the spatial arrangement of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H) co-adsorbed on a model catalyst surface, Ru(0001). We find that at cryogenic temperatures CO forms small triangular islands of up to 21 molecules with hydrogen segregated outside of the islands. Furthermore, whereas for small island sizes (3-6 CO molecules) the molecules adsorb at hcp sites, a registry shift towards top sites occurs for larger islands (10-21 CO molecules). To characterize the CO structures better and to help interpret the data, we carried out density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the structuremore » and simulations of the STM images, which reveal a delicate interplay between the repulsions of the different species.« less

  6. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Study of the Structure and Interaction Between Carbon Monoxide and Hydrogen on the Ru(0001) Surface

    DOE PAGES

    Lechner, Barbara A. J.; Feng, Xiaofeng; Feibelman, Peter J.; ...

    2017-07-28

    Here, we use scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to investigate the spatial arrangement of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H) co-adsorbed on a model catalyst surface, Ru(0001). We find that at cryogenic temperatures CO forms small triangular islands of up to 21 molecules with hydrogen segregated outside of the islands. Furthermore, whereas for small island sizes (3-6 CO molecules) the molecules adsorb at hcp sites, a registry shift towards top sites occurs for larger islands (10-21 CO molecules). To characterize the CO structures better and to help interpret the data, we carried out density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the structuremore » and simulations of the STM images, which reveal a delicate interplay between the repulsions of the different species.« less

  7. Methods of reforming hydrocarbon fuels using hexaaluminate catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Gardner, Todd H [Morgantown, WV; Berry, David A [Morgantown, WV; Shekhawat, Dushyant [Morgantown, WV

    2012-03-27

    A metal substituted hexaaluminate catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuels to synthesis gas of the general formula AB.sub.yAl.sub.12-yO.sub.19-.delta., A being selected from alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and lanthanide metals or mixtures thereof. A dopant or surface modifier selected from a transitions metal, a spinel of an oxygen-ion conductor is incorporated. The dopant may be Ca, Cs, K, La, Sr, Ba, Li, Mg, Ce, Co, Fe, Ir, Rh, Ni, Ru, Cu, Pe, Os, Pd, Cr, Mn, W, Re, Sn, Gd, V, Ti, Ag, Au, and mixtures thereof. The oxygen-ion conductor may be a perovskite selected from M'RhO.sub.3, M'PtO.sub.3, M'PdO.sub.3, M'IrO.sub.3, M'RuO.sub.3 wherein M'=Mg, Sr, Ba, La, Ca; a spinel selected from MRh.sub.2O.sub.4, MPt.sub.2O.sub.4, MPd.sub.2O.sub.4, MIr.sub.2O.sub.4, MRu.sub.2O.sub.4 wherein M=Mg, Sr, Ba, La, Ca and mixtures thereof; a florite is selected from M''O.sub.2.

  8. Nuclear forward scattering of synchrotron radiation by 99Ru

    DOE PAGES

    Bessas, D.; Merkel, D. G.; Chumakov, A. I.; ...

    2014-10-03

    In this study, we measured nuclear forward scattering spectra utilizing the 99Ru transition, 89.571(3) keV, with a notably mixed E2/M1 multipolarity. The extension of the standard evaluation routines to include mixed multipolarity allows us to extract electric and magnetic hyperfine interactions from 99Ru-containing compounds. This paves the way for several other high-energy Mössbauer transitions, E~90 keV. Lastly, the high energy of such transitions allows for operando nuclear forward scattering studies in real devices.

  9. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer

    DOEpatents

    O'Brien, Dennis P [Maplewood, MN; Schmoeckel, Alison K [Stillwater, MN; Vernstrom, George D [Cottage Grove, MN; Atanasoski, Radoslav [Edina, MN; Wood, Thomas E [Stillwater, MN; Yang, Ruizhi [Halifax, CA; Easton, E Bradley [Halifax, CA; Dahn, Jeffrey R [Hubley, CA; O'Neill, David G [Lake Elmo, MN

    2011-03-22

    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  10. Development of GREET Catalyst Module

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhichao; Benavides, Pahola T.; Dunn, Jennifer B.

    2015-09-01

    In this report, we develop energy and material flows for the production of five different catalysts (tar reforming, alcohol synthesis, Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 [ZSM-5], Mo/Co/ γ-Al 2O3, and Pt/ γ-Al 2O 3) and two chemicals (olivine, dimethyl ether of polyethylene glycol [DEPG]). These compounds and catalysts are now included in the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET™) catalyst module.

  11. Catalyst systems and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Ozkan, Umit S [Worthington, OH; Holmgreen, Erik M [Columbus, OH; Yung, Matthew M [Columbus, OH

    2012-07-24

    A method of carbon monoxide (CO) removal comprises providing an oxidation catalyst comprising cobalt supported on an inorganic oxide. The method further comprises feeding a gaseous stream comprising CO, and oxygen (O.sub.2) to the catalyst system, and removing CO from the gaseous stream by oxidizing the CO to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) in the presence of the oxidation catalyst at a temperature between about 20 to about 200.degree. C.

  12. Ru-core/Cu-shell bimetallic nanoparticles with controlled size formed in one-pot synthesis.

    PubMed

    Helgadottir, I; Freychet, G; Arquillière, P; Maret, M; Gergaud, P; Haumesser, P H; Santini, C C

    2014-12-21

    Suspensions of bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) of Ru and Cu have been synthesized by simultaneous decomposition of two organometallic compounds in an ionic liquid. These suspensions have been characterized by Anomalous Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (ASAXS) at energies slightly below the Ru K-edge. It is found that the NPs adopt a Ru-core, a Cu-shell structure, with a constant Ru core diameter of 1.9 nm for all Ru : Cu compositions, while the Cu shell thickness increases with Cu content up to 0.9 nm. The formation of RuCuNPs thus proceeds through rapid decomposition of the Ru precursor into RuNPs of constant size followed by the reaction of the Cu precursor and agglomeration as a Cu shell. Thus, the different decomposition kinetics of precursors make possible the elaboration of core-shell NPs composed of two metals without chemical affinity.

  13. Ultrahigh figure-of-merit for hydrogen generation from sodium borohydride using ternary metal catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lunghao; Ceccato, R.; Raj, R.

    We report further increase in the figure-of-merit (FOM) for hydrogen generation from NaBH 4 than reported in an earlier paper [1], where a sub-nanometer layer of metal catalysts are deposited on carbon nanotube paper (CNT paper) that has been functionalized with polymer-derived silicon carbonitride (SiCN) ceramic film. Ternary, Ru-Pd-Pt, instead of the binary Pd-Pt catalyst used earlier, together with a thinner CNT paper is shown to increase the figure-of-merit by up to a factor of six, putting is above any other known catalyst for hydrogen generation from NaBH 4. The catalysts are prepared by first impregnating the functionalized CNT-paper with solutions of the metal salts, followed by reduction in a sodium borohydride solution. The reaction mechanism and the catalyst efficiency are described in terms of an electric charge transfer, whereby the negative charge on the BH 4 - ion is exchanged with hydrogen via the electronically conducting SiCN/CNT substrate [1].

  14. Production of Jet Fuel-Range Hydrocarbons from Hydrodeoxygenation of Lignin over Super Lewis Acid Combined with Metal Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongliang; Wang, Huamin; Kuhn, Eric; Tucker, Melvin P; Yang, Bin

    2018-01-10

    Super Lewis acids containing the triflate anion [e.g., Hf(OTf) 4 , Ln(OTf) 3 , In(OTf) 3 , Al(OTf) 3 ] and noble metal catalysts (e.g., Ru/C, Ru/Al 2 O 3 ) formed efficient catalytic systems to generate saturated hydrocarbons from lignin in high yields. In such catalytic systems, the metal triflates mediated rapid ether bond cleavage through selective bonding to etheric oxygens while the noble metal catalyzed subsequent hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) reactions. Near theoretical yields of hydrocarbons were produced from lignin model compounds by the combined catalysis of Hf(OTf) 4 and ruthenium-based catalysts. When a technical lignin derived from a pilot-scale biorefinery was used, more than 30 wt % of the hydrocarbons produced with this catalytic system were cyclohexane and alkylcyclohexanes in the jet fuel range. Super Lewis acids are postulated to strongly interact with lignin substrates by protonating hydroxyl groups and ether linkages, forming intermediate species that enhance hydrogenation catalysis by supported noble metal catalysts. Meanwhile, the hydrogenation of aromatic rings by the noble metal catalysts can promote deoxygenation reactions catalyzed by super Lewis acids. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Production of Jet Fuel-Range Hydrocarbons from Hydrodeoxygenation of Lignin over Super Lewis Acid Combined with Metal Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hongliang; Wang, Huamin; Kuhn, Eric

    Super Lewis acids containing the triflate anion (e.g. Hf(OTf)4, Ln(OTf)3, Al(OTf)3) and noble metal catalysts (e.g. Ru/C, Ru/Al2O3) formed efficient catalytic systems to generate saturated hydrocarbons from lignin in high yields. In such catalytic systems, the metal triflates mediated rapid ether bond cleavage via selective bonding to etheric oxygens while the noble metal catalysed subsequent hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) reactions. Near theoretical yields of hydrocarbons were produced from lignin model compounds by the combined catalysis of Hf(OTf)4 and ruthenium-based catalysts. When a technical lignin derived from a pilot-scale biorefinery was used, more than 30 wt% of the hydrocarbons produced with this catalyticmore » system were cyclohexane and alkylcyclohexanes in the jet fuel range. Super Lewis acids are postulated to strongly interact with lignin substrates via protonating hydroxyls and ether linkages, forming intermediate species that enhance hydrogenation catalysis by supported noble metal catalysts. Meanwhile, the hydrogenation of aromatic rings by the noble metal catalysts can promote oxygenation reactions catalysed by super Lewis acids.« less

  16. Production of Jet Fuel-Range Hydrocarbons from Hydrodeoxygenation of Lignin over Super Lewis Acid Combined with Metal Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hongliang; Wang, Huamin; Kuhn, Eric

    Super Lewis acids containing the triflate anion [e.g., Hf(OTf) 4, Ln(OTf) 3, In(OTf) 3, Al(OTf) 3] and noble metal catalysts (e.g., Ru/C, Ru/Al2O 3) formed efficient catalytic systems to generate saturated hydrocarbons from lignin in high yields. In such catalytic systems, the metal triflates mediated rapid ether bond cleavage through selective bonding to etheric oxygens while the noble metal catalyzed subsequent hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) reactions. Near theoretical yields of hydrocarbons were produced from lignin model compounds by the combined catalysis of Hf(OTf)4 and ruthenium-based catalysts. When a technical lignin derived from a pilot-scale biorefinery was used, more than 30 wt %more » of the hydrocarbons produced with this catalytic system were cyclohexane and alkylcyclohexanes in the jet fuel range. Super Lewis acids are postulated to strongly interact with lignin substrates by protonating hydroxyl groups and ether linkages, forming intermediate species that enhance hydrogenation catalysis by supported noble metal catalysts. Meanwhile, the hydrogenation of aromatic rings by the noble metal catalysts can promote oxygenation reactions catalyzed by super Lewis acids.« less

  17. Pt/Mo 2C/C-cp as a highly active and stable catalyst for ethanol electrooxidation

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, Lili; Sheng, Wenchao; Yao, Siyu; ...

    2017-02-09

    Here, a Pt/Mo 2C/C-cp electrocatalyst with optimized Pt-Mo 2C chemical bonding is synthesized and evaluated for the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). The chemical bonding of Mo 2C to Pt particles renders exceptional EOR activity at low potentials, which is 15 and 2.5 times higher than Pt/C and commercial 40% PtRu/C, respectively, at 0.6 V (vs. RHE). The stability of the Pt/Mo 2C/C-cp electrocatalyst is comparable to the commercial 40% PtRu/C catalyst. CO stripping test demonstrates the existence of highly active sites for CO oxidation on the Pt/Mo 2C/C-cp catalyst. In-situ infrared spectroscopic studies of EOR reveal that the excellent anti-poisoningmore » ability of the Pt/Mo 2C/C-cp catalyst is related to the relatively weak binding of carbonyl intermediates over the Pt/Mo 2C/C-cp catalysts.« less

  18. Pt/Mo 2C/C-cp as a highly active and stable catalyst for ethanol electrooxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Lili; Sheng, Wenchao; Yao, Siyu

    Here, a Pt/Mo 2C/C-cp electrocatalyst with optimized Pt-Mo 2C chemical bonding is synthesized and evaluated for the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). The chemical bonding of Mo 2C to Pt particles renders exceptional EOR activity at low potentials, which is 15 and 2.5 times higher than Pt/C and commercial 40% PtRu/C, respectively, at 0.6 V (vs. RHE). The stability of the Pt/Mo 2C/C-cp electrocatalyst is comparable to the commercial 40% PtRu/C catalyst. CO stripping test demonstrates the existence of highly active sites for CO oxidation on the Pt/Mo 2C/C-cp catalyst. In-situ infrared spectroscopic studies of EOR reveal that the excellent anti-poisoningmore » ability of the Pt/Mo 2C/C-cp catalyst is related to the relatively weak binding of carbonyl intermediates over the Pt/Mo 2C/C-cp catalysts.« less

  19. Effect of the thickness of the anode electrode catalyst layers on the performance in direct methanol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, Dean E.; Olah, George A.; Prakash, G. K. Surya

    2017-06-01

    For the large scale fuel cell manufacture, the catalyst loading and layer thickness are critical factors affecting the performance and cost of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs). The influence of catalyst layer thicknesses at the anode of a PEM based direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) has been investigated. Catalysts were applied with the drawdown method with varied thicknesses ranging from 1 mil to 8 mils (1 mil = 25.4 μm) with a Pt/Ru anode loading of 0.25 mg cm-2 to 2.0 mg cm-2. The MEAs with the thicker individual layers (8 mils and 4 mils) performed better overall compared to the those with the thinner layers (1 mil and painted). The peak power densities for the different loading levels followed an exponential decrease of Pt/Ru utilization at the higher loading levels. The highest power density achieved was 49 mW cm-2 with the 4 mil layers at 2.0 mg cm-2 catalyst loading whereas the highest normalized power density was 116 mW mg-1 with the 8 mil layers at 0.25 mg cm-2 loading. The 8 mil drawdowns displayed a 50% and 23% increase in normalized power density compared to the 1 mil drawdowns at 0.25 mg cm-2 and 0.5 mg cm-2 loadings, respectively.

  20. Production of Jet Fuel-Range Hydrocarbons from Hydrodeoxygenation of Lignin over Super Lewis Acid Combined with Metal Catalysts

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Hongliang; Wang, Huamin; Kuhn, Eric; ...

    2017-11-14

    Super Lewis acids containing the triflate anion [e.g., Hf(OTf) 4, Ln(OTf) 3, In(OTf) 3, Al(OTf) 3] and noble metal catalysts (e.g., Ru/C, Ru/Al2O 3) formed efficient catalytic systems to generate saturated hydrocarbons from lignin in high yields. In such catalytic systems, the metal triflates mediated rapid ether bond cleavage through selective bonding to etheric oxygens while the noble metal catalyzed subsequent hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) reactions. Near theoretical yields of hydrocarbons were produced from lignin model compounds by the combined catalysis of Hf(OTf)4 and ruthenium-based catalysts. When a technical lignin derived from a pilot-scale biorefinery was used, more than 30 wt %more » of the hydrocarbons produced with this catalytic system were cyclohexane and alkylcyclohexanes in the jet fuel range. Super Lewis acids are postulated to strongly interact with lignin substrates by protonating hydroxyl groups and ether linkages, forming intermediate species that enhance hydrogenation catalysis by supported noble metal catalysts. Meanwhile, the hydrogenation of aromatic rings by the noble metal catalysts can promote oxygenation reactions catalyzed by super Lewis acids.« less

  1. Versatile Photocatalytic Systems for H2 Generation in Water Based on an Efficient DuBois-Type Nickel Catalyst

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The generation of renewable H2 through an efficient photochemical route requires photoinduced electron transfer (ET) from a light harvester to an efficient electrocatalyst in water. Here, we report on a molecular H2 evolution catalyst (NiP) with a DuBois-type [Ni(P2R′N2R″)2]2+ core (P2R′N2R″ = bis(1,5-R′-diphospha-3,7-R″-diazacyclooctane), which contains an outer coordination sphere with phosphonic acid groups. The latter functionality allows for good solubility in water and immobilization on metal oxide semiconductors. Electrochemical studies confirm that NiP is a highly active electrocatalyst in aqueous electrolyte solution (overpotential of approximately 200 mV at pH 4.5 with a Faradaic yield of 85 ± 4%). Photocatalytic experiments and investigations on the ET kinetics were carried out in combination with a phosphonated Ru(II) tris(bipyridine) dye (RuP) in homogeneous and heterogeneous environments. Time-resolved luminescence and transient absorption spectroscopy studies confirmed that directed ET from RuP to NiP occurs efficiently in all systems on the nano- to microsecond time scale, through three distinct routes: reductive quenching of RuP in solution or on the surface of ZrO2 (“on particle” system) or oxidative quenching of RuP when the compounds were immobilized on TiO2 (“through particle” system). Our studies show that NiP can be used in a purely aqueous solution and on a semiconductor surface with a high degree of versatility. A high TOF of 460 ± 60 h–1 with a TON of 723 ± 171 for photocatalytic H2 generation with a molecular Ni catalyst in water and a photon-to-H2 quantum yield of approximately 10% were achieved for the homogeneous system. PMID:24320740

  2. Isonitrile-functionalized ruthenium nanoparticles: intraparticle charge delocalization through Ru=C=N interfacial bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fengqi; Huang, Lin; Zou, Jiasui; Yang, Jun; Kang, Xiongwu; Chen, Shaowei

    2017-09-01

    Ruthenium nanoparticles (2.06 ± 0.46 nm in diameter) stabilized by 1-hexyl-4-isocyanobenzene (CNBH), denoted as RuCNBH, were prepared by the self-assembly of isonitrile molecules onto the surface of "bare" Ru colloids by virtue of the formation of Ru=C=N- interfacial bonds. FTIR measurements showed that the stretching vibration of the terminal -N≡C bonds at 2119 cm-1 for the monomeric ligands disappeared and concurrently three new bands at 2115, 2043, and 1944 cm-1 emerged with RuCNBH nanoparticles, which was ascribed to the transformation of -N≡C to Ru=C=N- by back donation of Ru-d electrons to the π* orbital of the organic ligands. Metathesis reaction of RuCNBH with vinyl derivatives further corroborated the nature of the Ru=C interfacial bonds. When 1-isocyanopyrene (CNPy) was bounded onto the Ru nanoparticles surface through Ru=C=N interfacial bond (denoted as RuCNPy), the emission maximum was found to red-shift by 27 nm, as compared to that of the CNPy monomers, along with a reduced fluorescence lifetime, due to intraparticle charge delocalization that arose from the conjugated Ru=C=N- interfacial bonds. The results of this study further underline the significance of metal-organic interfacial bonds in the control of intraparticle charge-transfer dynamics and the optical and electronic properties of metal nanoparticles. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. DEHYDROGENATION CATALYST FOR PRODUCTION OF MTBE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this project were to better understand the effect of different catalyst preparation parameters, the effect of different catalyst treatment parameters, and the mechanism of deactivation. Accordingly, catalysts were made using various preparation methods and with...

  4. Multi-Paradigm Multi-Scale Simulations for Fuel Cell Catalysts and Membranes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    transfer studies on model systems. . Applying newly developed density functionals QM ( X3LYP ) for estimating the thermodynamics and kinetic energy...Density functional theory methods We have used many QM methods to probe chemical reaction mechanisms and find that the B3LYP and X3LYP [6] flavors of DFT...carried out QM calculations on the surface reactivity of the Pt and PtRu anode catalysts. This QM uses a new ab initio DFT-GGA method ( X3LYP ) [6

  5. Molecular water oxidation catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Gratzel, Michael; Munavalli, Shekhar; Pern, Fu-Jann; Frank, Arthur J.

    1993-01-01

    A dimeric composition of the formula: ##STR1## wherein L', L", L'", and L"" are each a bidentate ligand having at least one functional substituent, the ligand selected from bipyridine, phenanthroline, 2-phenylpyridine, bipyrimidine, and bipyrazyl and the functional substituent selected from carboxylic acid, ester, amide, halogenide, anhydride, acyl ketone, alkyl ketone, acid chloride, sulfonic acid, phosphonic acid, and nitro and nitroso groups. An electrochemical oxidation process for the production of the above functionally substituted bidentate ligand diaqua oxo-bridged ruthenium dimers and their use as water oxidation catalysts is described.

  6. Magnetic Excitations in α-RuCl3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagler, Stephen; Banerjee, Arnab; Bridges, Craig; Yan, Jiaqiang; Mandrus, David; Stone, Matthew; Aczel, Adam; Li, Ling; Yiu, Yuen; Lumsden, Mark; Knolle, Johannes; Moessner, Roderich; Tennant, Alan

    2015-03-01

    The layered material α-RuCl3 is composed of stacks of weakly coupled honeycomb lattices of octahedrally coordinated Ru3+ ions. The Ru ion ground state has 5 d electrons in the low spin state, with spin-orbit coupling very strong compared to other terms in the single ion Hamiltonian. The material is therefore an excellent candidate for investigating possible Heisenberg-Kitaev physics. In addition, this compound is very amenable to investigation by neutron scattering to explore the magnetic ground state and excitations in detail. Here we discuss new time-of-flight inelastic neutron scattering data on α-RuCl3. A high energy excitation near 200 meV is identified as a transition from the single ion J=1/2 ground state to the J=3/2 excited state, yielding a direct measurement of the spin orbit coupling energy. Higher resolution measurements reveal two collective modes at much lower energy scales. The results are compared with the theoretical expectations for excitations in the Heisenberg - Kitaev model on a honeycomb lattice, and show that Kitaev interactions are important. Research at SNS supported by the DOE BES Scientific User Facilities Division.

  7. Electronic structure of Fe- vs. Ru-based dye molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Phillip S.; Cook, Peter L.; Zegkinoglou, Ioannis; García-Lastra, J. M.; Rubio, Angel; Ruther, Rose E.; Hamers, Robert J.; Himpsel, F. J.

    2013-01-01

    In order to explore whether Ru can be replaced by inexpensive Fe in dye molecules for solar cells, the differences in the electronic structure of Fe- and Ru-based dyes are investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and first-principles calculations. Molecules with the metal in a sixfold, octahedral N cage, such as tris(bipyridines) and tris(phenanthrolines), exhibit a systematic downward shift of the N 1s-to-π* transition when Ru is replaced by Fe. This shift is explained by an extra transfer of negative charge from the metal to the N ligands in the case of Fe, which reduces the binding energy of the N 1s core level. The C 1s-to-π* transitions show the opposite trend, with an increase in the transition energy when replacing Ru by Fe. Molecules with the metal in a fourfold, planar N cage (porphyrins) exhibit a more complex behavior due to a subtle competition between the crystal field, axial ligands, and the 2+ vs. 3+ oxidation states.

  8. "First-principles" kinetic Monte Carlo simulations revisited: CO oxidation over RuO2 (110).

    PubMed

    Hess, Franziska; Farkas, Attila; Seitsonen, Ari P; Over, Herbert

    2012-03-15

    First principles-based kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) simulations are performed for the CO oxidation on RuO(2) (110) under steady-state reaction conditions. The simulations include a set of elementary reaction steps with activation energies taken from three different ab initio density functional theory studies. Critical comparison of the simulation results reveals that already small variations in the activation energies lead to distinctly different reaction scenarios on the surface, even to the point where the dominating elementary reaction step is substituted by another one. For a critical assessment of the chosen energy parameters, it is not sufficient to compare kMC simulations only to experimental turnover frequency (TOF) as a function of the reactant feed ratio. More appropriate benchmarks for kMC simulations are the actual distribution of reactants on the catalyst's surface during steady-state reaction, as determined by in situ infrared spectroscopy and in situ scanning tunneling microscopy, and the temperature dependence of TOF in the from of Arrhenius plots. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Monitoring of RU Peg requested for Swift observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2012-06-01

    Dr. Koji Mukai (Universities Space Research Association/NASA Goddard Space Flight Center) has requested AAVSO observers' assistance in monitoring the SS Cyg-type dwarf nova RU Peg in support of target-of-opportunity observations with the NASA Swift satellite during an outburst. His observations will be targeted during the rise to outburst and during late decline from outburst. Thus, your prompt notification to AAVSO Headquarters of activity in RU Peg will be crucial to the success of this campaign. Dr. Mukai writes: "In the famous AAVSO/EUVE/RXTE campaign on SS Cyg (Mattei et al. 2000JAVSO..28..160M), the hard X-ray flux went up (with a delay) during the rise, then suddenly dropped; there was a corresponding flux enhancement episode during the decline. We know that, during the peak of the outburst, many dwarf novae are hard X-ray fainter than in quiescence (with a few exceptions, like U Gem). However, the hard X-ray enhancement episodes seen in SS Cyg have never been obs! erved in other dwarf novae. We have proposed a hypothesis that this is related to the mass of the accreting white dwarf; only dwarf novae with a relatively massive white dwarf show the hard X-ray enhancement. If that's true, we may well see similar enhancement in RU Peg, which is thought to have a massive white dwarf. Even if this hypothesis is completely wrong, RU Peg is a good target for an SS Cyg-like campaign, since it's X-ray bright during quiescence." Visual and CCD observations (filtered preferred to unfiltered) are appropriate for this campaign. Observers are requested to monitor RU Peg duning minimum, throughout the next outburst, and after return to minimym, and report their observations in a timely manner. If RU Peg appears to be brightening from minimum, please report your observations immediately to the AAVSO. If it is brighter than magnitude 12.3, please also send an email report to Elizabeth Waagen (eowaagen@aavso.org) and Matthew Templeton (matthewt@aavso.org). Please be aware that

  10. Alkene metathesis: the search for better catalysts.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Prashant H; Blechert, Siegfried

    2007-06-28

    Alkene metathesis catalyst development has made significant progress over recent years. Research in metathesis catalyst design has endeavoured to tackle three key issues: those of (i) catalyst efficiency and activity, (ii) substrate scope and selectivity--particularly stereoselective metathesis reactions--and (iii) the minimization of metal impurities and catalyst recycling. This article describes a brief history of metathesis catalyst development, followed by a survey of more recent research, with a particular emphasis on ruthenium catalysts.

  11. Activation of H2 over the Ru-Zn Bond in the Transition Metal-Lewis Acid Heterobimetallic Species [Ru(IPr)2(CO)ZnEt](.).

    PubMed

    Riddlestone, Ian M; Rajabi, Nasir A; Lowe, John P; Mahon, Mary F; Macgregor, Stuart A; Whittlesey, Michael K

    2016-09-07

    Reaction of [Ru(IPr)2(CO)H]BAr(F)4 with ZnEt2 forms the heterobimetallic species [Ru(IPr)2(CO)ZnEt]BAr(F)4 (2), which features an unsupported Ru-Zn bond. 2 reacts with H2 to give [Ru(IPr)2(CO)(η(2)-H2)(H)2ZnEt]BAr(F)4 (3) and [Ru(IPr)2(CO)(H)2ZnEt]BAr(F)4 (4). DFT calculations indicate that H2 activation at 2 proceeds via oxidative cleavage at Ru with concomitant hydride transfer to Zn. 2 can also activate hydridic E-H bonds (E = B, Si), and computed mechanisms for the facile H/H exchange processes observed in 3 and 4 are presented.

  12. Understanding Electrocatalytic Activity Enhancement of Bimetallic Particles to Ethanol Electro-oxidation: (1) Water Adsorption and Decomposition on PtnM (n=2,3 and 9; M=Pt, Ru, Sn)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yixuan; Mi, Yunjie; Redmon, Natalie; Holiday, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    The fundamental assumption of the bi-functional mechanism for PtSn alloy to catalyze ethanol electro-oxidation reaction (EER) is that Sn facilitates water dissociation and EER occurs over Pt site of the PtSn alloy. To clarify this assumption and achieve a good understanding about the EER, H2O adsorption and dissociation over bimetallic clusters PtM (M=Pt, Sn, Ru, Rh, Pd, Cu and Re) are systematically investigated in the present work. To discuss a variety of effects, PtnM (n=2, and 3; M=Pt, Sn and Ru), one-layer Pt6M (M=Pt, Sn and Ru), and two-layer (Pt6M)Pt3 (M=Pt, Sn, Ru, Rh, Pd, Cu and Re) clusters are used to model the PtM bimetallic catalysts. Water exhibits atop adsorption on Pt and Ru sites of the optimized clusters PtnM (n=2, and 3; M=Pt and Ru), yet bridge adsorption on Sn sites of Pt2Sn as well as distorted tetrahedral Pt3Sn. However, in the cases of one-layer Pt6M and two-layer Pt9M cluster models water preferentially binds to all of investigated central atom M of surface layer in atop configuration with the dipole moment of water almost parallel to the cluster surface. Water adsorption on the Sn site of PtnSn (n=2 and 3) is weaker than those on the Pt site of Ptn (n=3 and 4) and the Ru site of PtnRu (n=2 and 3), while water adsorptions on the central Sn atom of Pt6Sn and Pt9Sn are enhanced so significantly that they are even stronger than those on the central Pt and Ru atoms of PtnM (n=6 and 9; M=Pt and Ru). For all of the three cluster models, energy barrier (Ea) for the dissociation of adsorbed water over Sn is lower than over Ru and Pt atoms (e.g., Ea: 0.78 vs 0.96 and 1.07 eV for Pt9M), which also remains as external electric fields were added. It is interesting to note that the dissociation energy on Sn site is also the lowest (Ediss: 0.44 vs 0.61 and 0.67eV). The results show that from both kinetic and thermodynamic viewpoints Sn is more active to water decomposition than pure Pt and the PtRu alloy, which well supports the assumption of the bi

  13. Brownmillerite-type Ca2 FeCoO5 as a Practicable Oxygen Evolution Reaction Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Etsushi; Motohashi, Teruki; Noda, Hiroyuki; Kowalski, Damian; Aoki, Yoshitaka; Tanida, Hajime; Niikura, Junji; Koyama, Yukinori; Mori, Masahiro; Arai, Hajime; Ioroi, Tsutomu; Fujiwara, Naoko; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Ogumi, Zempachi; Habazaki, Hiroki

    2017-07-21

    Here, we report remarkable oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalytic activity of brownmillerite (BM)-type Ca 2 FeCoO 5 . The OER activity of this oxide is comparable to or beyond those of the state-of-the-art perovskite (PV)-catalyst Ba 0.5 Sr 0.5 Co 0.8 Fe 0.2 O 3-δ (BSCF) and a precious-metal catalyst RuO 2 , emphasizing the importance of the characteristic BM structure with multiple coordination environments of transition metal (TM) species. Also, Ca 2 FeCoO 5 is clearly advantageous in terms of expense/laboriousness of the material synthesis. These facts make this oxide a promising OER catalyst used in many energy conversion technologies such as metal-air secondary batteries and hydrogen production from electrochemical/photocatalytic water splitting. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Doped palladium containing oxidation catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Mohajeri, Nahid

    2014-02-18

    A supported oxidation catalyst includes a support having a metal oxide or metal salt, and mixed metal particles thereon. The mixed metal particles include first particles including a palladium compound, and second particles including a precious metal group (PMG) metal or PMG metal compound, wherein the PMG metal is not palladium. The oxidation catalyst may also be used as a gas sensor.

  15. Catalysts for low temperature oxidation

    DOEpatents

    Toops, Todd J.; Parks, III, James E.; Bauer, John C.

    2016-03-01

    The invention provides a composite catalyst containing a first component and a second component. The first component contains nanosized gold particles. The second component contains nanosized platinum group metals. The composite catalyst is useful for catalyzing the oxidation of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen, and other pollutants at low temperatures.

  16. Supported molten-metal catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Datta, Ravindra; Singh, Ajeet; Halasz, Istvan; Serban, Manuela

    2001-01-01

    An entirely new class of catalysts called supported molten-metal catalysts, SMMC, which can replace some of the existing precious metal catalysts used in the production of fuels, commodity chemicals, and fine chemicals, as well as in combating pollution. SMMC are based on supporting ultra-thin films or micro-droplets of the relatively low-melting (<600.degree. C.), inexpensive, and abundant metals and semimetals from groups 1, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16, of the periodic table, or their alloys and intermetallic compounds, on porous refractory supports, much like supported microcrystallites of the traditional solid metal catalysts. It thus provides orders of magnitude higher surface area than is obtainable in conventional reactors containing molten metals in pool form and also avoids corrosion. These have so far been the chief stumbling blocks in the application of molten metal catalysts.

  17. Experimental evidence of {alpha}-olefin readsorption in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on ruthenium-supported ETS-10 titanium silicate catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, C.L.; Ragaini, V.

    1997-05-01

    Fischer-Tropsch synthesis seems to develop the following two consecutive paths: a primary process that involves the formation of {alpha}-olefin products and a secondary process leading to the production of branched isomers and paraffins and requiring the readsorption of primary {alpha}-olefin products. It was already shown by Iglesia et al. that such readsorption steps are of fundamental importance for Ru catalysts and that they occur due to the slow diffusive removal of {alpha}-olefins when the molecular size increases, this resulting in a long intraparticle residence time. In the present paper {alpha}-olefins readsorption was enhanced by changing the metal distribution inside themore » pores of a titanium silicate (ETS-10), modified by ion exchange with alkali metal ions, used as a support for Ru-based catalysts. 24 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  18. Catalytic water oxidation by ruthenium(II) quaterpyridine (qpy) complexes: evidence for ruthenium(III) qpy-N,N'''-dioxide as the real catalysts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingying; Ng, Siu-Mui; Yiu, Shek-Man; Lam, William W Y; Wei, Xi-Guang; Lau, Kai-Chung; Lau, Tai-Chu

    2014-12-22

    Polypyridyl and related ligands have been widely used for the development of water oxidation catalysts. Supposedly these ligands are oxidation-resistant and can stabilize high-oxidation-state intermediates. In this work a series of ruthenium(II) complexes [Ru(qpy)(L)2 ](2+) (qpy=2,2':6',2'':6'',2'''-quaterpyridine; L=substituted pyridine) have been synthesized and found to catalyze Ce(IV) -driven water oxidation, with turnover numbers of up to 2100. However, these ruthenium complexes are found to function only as precatalysts; first, they have to be oxidized to the qpy-N,N'''-dioxide (ONNO) complexes [Ru(ONNO)(L)2 ](3+) which are the real catalysts for water oxidation. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Elaboration of a Highly Porous RuII,II Analogue of HKUST-1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenhua; Freitag, Kerstin; Wannapaiboon, Suttipong; Schneider, Christian; Epp, Konstantin; Kieslich, Gregor; Fischer, Roland A

    2016-12-19

    When the dinuclear Ru II,II precursor [Ru 2 (OOCCH 3 ) 4 ] is employed under redox-inert conditions, a Ru II,II analogue of HKUST-1 was successfully prepared and characterized as a phase-pure microcrystalline powder. X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy confirms the oxidation state of the Ru centers of the paddle-wheel nodes in the framework. The porosity of 1371 m 2 /mmol of Ru II,II -HKUST-1 exceeds that of the parent compound HKUST1 (1049 m 2 / mmol).

  20. TiO2 Nanotube-Carbon (TNT-C) as Support for Pt-based Catalyst for High Methanol Oxidation Reaction in Direct Methanol Fuel Cell.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, M; Kamarudin, S K; Shyuan, L K

    2016-12-01

    In this study, TiO 2 nanotubes (TNTs) were synthesized via a hydrothermal method using highly concentrated NaOH solutions varying from 6 to 12 M at 180 °C for 48 h. The effects of the NaOH concentration and the TNT crystal structure on the performance for methanol oxidation were investigated to determine the best catalyst support for Pt-based catalysts. The results showed that TNTs produced with 10 M NaOH exhibited a length and a diameter of 550 and 70 nm, respectively; these TNTs showed the best nanotube structure and were further used as catalyst supports for a Pt-based catalyst in a direct methanol fuel cell. The synthesized TNT and Pt-based catalysts were analysed by FESEM, TEM, BET, EDX, XRD and FTIR. The electrochemical performance of the catalysts was investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometric (CA) analysis to further understand the methanol oxidation in the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). Finally, the result proves that Pt-Ru/TNT-C catalyst shows high performance in methanol oxidation as the highest current density achieved at 3.3 mA/cm 2 (normalised by electrochemically active surface area) and high catalyst tolerance towards poisoning species was established.

  1. Conversion of CO2 from Air into Methanol Using a Polyamine and a Homogeneous Ruthenium Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Kothandaraman, Jotheeswari; Goeppert, Alain; Czaun, Miklos; Olah, George A; Prakash, G K Surya

    2016-01-27

    A highly efficient homogeneous catalyst system for the production of CH3OH from CO2 using pentaethylenehexamine and Ru-Macho-BH (1) at 125-165 °C in an ethereal solvent has been developed (initial turnover frequency = 70 h(-1) at 145 °C). Ease of separation of CH3OH is demonstrated by simple distillation from the reaction mixture. The robustness of the catalytic system was shown by recycling the catalyst over five runs without significant loss of activity (turnover number > 2000). Various sources of CO2 can be used for this reaction including air, despite its low CO2 concentration (400 ppm). For the first time, we have demonstrated that CO2 captured from air can be directly converted to CH3OH in 79% yield using a homogeneous catalytic system.

  2. About the activity and selectivity of less well-known metathesis catalysts during ADMET polymerizations

    PubMed Central

    Mutlu, Hatice; Montero de Espinosa, Lucas; Türünç, Oĝuz

    2010-01-01

    Summary We report on the catalytic activity of commercially available Ru-indenylidene and “boomerang” complexes C1, C2 and C3 in acyclic diene metathesis (ADMET) polymerization of a fully renewable α,ω-diene. A high activity of these catalysts was observed for the synthesis of the desired renewable polyesters with molecular weights of up to 17000 Da, which is considerably higher than molecular weights obtained using the same monomer with previously studied catalysts. Moreover, olefin isomerization side reactions that occur during the ADMET polymerizations were studied in detail. The isomerization reactions were investigated by degradation of the prepared polyesters via transesterification with methanol, yielding diesters. These diesters, representing the repeat units of the polyesters, were then quantified by GC-MS. PMID:21160555

  3. Catalysts Based on Earth-Abundant Metals for Visible Light-Driven Water Oxidation Reaction.

    PubMed

    Lin, Junqi; Han, Qing; Ding, Yong

    2018-06-04

    Exploration of water oxidation catalyst (WOC) with excellent performance is the key for the overall water splitting reaction, which is a feasible strategy to convert solar energy to chemical energy. Although some compounds composed of noble metals, mainly Ru and Ir, have been reported to catalyze water oxidation with high efficiency, catalysts based on low-cost and earth-abundant transition metals are essential for realizing economical and large-scale light-driven water splitting. Various WOCs containing earth-abundant metals (mainly Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu) have been utilized for visible light-driven water oxidation in recent years. In this Personal Account, we summarize our recent developments in WOCs based on earth-abundant transition metals including polyoxometalates (POMs), metal oxides or bimetal oxides, and metal complexes containing multidentate ligand scaffolds for visible light-driven water oxidation reaction. © 2018 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Self-assembly of noble metal monolayers on transition metal carbide nanoparticle catalysts

    DOE PAGES

    Hunt, Sean T.; Milina, Maria; Alba-Rubio, Ana C.; ...

    2016-05-20

    Here, we demonstrated the self-assembly of transition metal carbide nanoparticles coated with atomically thin noble metal monolayers by carburizing mixtures of noble metal salts and transition metal oxides encapsulated in removable silica templates. This approach allows for control of the final core-shell architecture, including particle size, monolayer coverage, and heterometallic composition. Carbon-supported Ti 0.1W 0.9C nanoparticles coated with Pt or bimetallic PtRu monolayers exhibited enhanced resistance to sintering and CO poisoning, achieving an order of magnitude increase in specific activity over commercial catalysts for methanol electrooxidation after 10,000 cycles. These core-shell materials provide a new direction to reduce the loading,more » enhance the activity, and increase the stability of noble metal catalysts.« less

  5. Microwave irradiation for the facile synthesis of transition-metal nanoparticles (NPs) in ionic liquids (ILs) from metal-carbonyl precursors and Ru-, Rh-, and Ir-NP/IL dispersions as biphasic liquid-liquid hydrogenation nanocatalysts for cyclohexene.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Christian; Redel, Engelbert; Abu-Shandi, Khalid; Thomann, Ralf; Manyar, Haresh; Hardacre, Christopher; Janiak, Christoph

    2010-03-22

    Stable chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, manganese, rhenium, ruthenium, osmium, cobalt, rhodium, and iridium metal nanoparticles (M-NPs) have been reproducibly obtained by facile, rapid (3 min), and energy-saving 10 W microwave irradiation (MWI) under an argon atmosphere from their metal-carbonyl precursors [M(x)(CO)(y)] in the ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIm][BF(4)]). This MWI synthesis is compared to UV-photolytic (1000 W, 15 min) or conventional thermal decomposition (180-250 degrees C, 6-12 h) of [M(x)(CO)(y)] in ILs. The MWI-obtained nanoparticles have a very small (<5 nm) and uniform size and are prepared without any additional stabilizers or capping molecules as long-term stable M-NP/IL dispersions (characterization by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), transmission electron diffraction (TED), and dynamic light scattering (DLS)). The ruthenium, rhodium, or iridium nanoparticle/IL dispersions are highly active and easily recyclable catalysts for the biphasic liquid-liquid hydrogenation of cyclohexene to cyclohexane with activities of up to 522 (mol product) (mol Ru)(-1) h(-1) and 884 (mol product) (mol Rh)(-1) h(-1) and give almost quantitative conversion within 2 h at 10 bar H(2) and 90 degrees C. Catalyst poisoning experiments with CS(2) (0.05 equiv per Ru) suggest a heterogeneous surface catalysis of Ru-NPs.

  6. A highly active and stable IrO x/SrIrO 3 catalyst for the oxygen evolution reaction

    DOE PAGES

    Seitz, Linsey C.; Dickens, Colin F.; Nishio, Kazunori; ...

    2016-09-02

    Oxygen electrochemistry plays a key role in renewable energy technologies such as fuel cells and electrolyzers, but the slow kinetics of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) limit the performance and commercialization of such devices. Here we report an iridium oxide/strontium iridium oxide (IrO x/SrIrO 3) catalyst formed during electrochemical testing by strontium leaching from surface layers of thin films of SrIrO 3. This catalyst has demonstrated specific activity at 10 milliamps per square centimeter of oxide catalyst (OER current normalized to catalyst surface area), with only 270 to 290 millivolts of overpotential for 30 hours of continuous testing in acidicmore » electrolyte. Here, density functional theory calculations suggest the formation of highly active surface layers during strontium leaching with IrO 3 or anatase IrO 2 motifs. The IrO x/SrIrO 3 catalyst outperforms known IrO x and ruthenium oxide (RuO x) systems, the only other OER catalysts that have reasonable activity in acidic electrolyte.« less

  7. A highly active and stable IrOx/SrIrO3 catalyst for the oxygen evolution reaction.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Linsey C; Dickens, Colin F; Nishio, Kazunori; Hikita, Yasuyuki; Montoya, Joseph; Doyle, Andrew; Kirk, Charlotte; Vojvodic, Aleksandra; Hwang, Harold Y; Norskov, Jens K; Jaramillo, Thomas F

    2016-09-02

    Oxygen electrochemistry plays a key role in renewable energy technologies such as fuel cells and electrolyzers, but the slow kinetics of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) limit the performance and commercialization of such devices. Here we report an iridium oxide/strontium iridium oxide (IrO x /SrIrO 3 ) catalyst formed during electrochemical testing by strontium leaching from surface layers of thin films of SrIrO 3 This catalyst has demonstrated specific activity at 10 milliamps per square centimeter of oxide catalyst (OER current normalized to catalyst surface area), with only 270 to 290 millivolts of overpotential for 30 hours of continuous testing in acidic electrolyte. Density functional theory calculations suggest the formation of highly active surface layers during strontium leaching with IrO 3 or anatase IrO 2 motifs. The IrO x /SrIrO 3 catalyst outperforms known IrO x and ruthenium oxide (RuO x ) systems, the only other OER catalysts that have reasonable activity in acidic electrolyte. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. Stereospecific olefin polymerization catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Bercaw, John E.; Herzog, Timothy A.

    1998-01-01

    A metallocene catalyst system for the polymerization of .alpha.-olefins to yield stereospecific polymers including syndiotactic, and isotactic polymers. The catalyst system includes a metal and a ligand of the formula ##STR1## wherein: R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyl, 5 to 7 membered cycloalkyl, which in turn may have from 1 to 3 C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyls as a substituent, C.sub.6 to C.sub.15 aryl or arylalkyl in which two adjacent radicals may together stand for cyclic groups having 4 to 15 carbon atoms which in turn may be substituted, or Si(R.sup.8).sub.3 where R.sup.8 is selected from the group consisting of C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyl, C.sub.6 to C.sub.15 aryl or C.sub.3 to C.sub.10 cycloalkyl; R.sup.4 and R.sup.6 are substituents both having van der Waals radii larger than the van der Waals radii of groups R.sup.1 and R.sup.3 ; R.sup.5 is a substituent having a van der Waals radius less than about the van der Waals radius of a methyl group; E.sup.1, E.sup.2 are independently selected from the group consisting of Si(R.sup.9).sub.2, Si(R.sup.9).sub.2 --Si(R.sup.9).sub.2, Ge(R.sup.9).sub.2, Sn(R.sup.9).sub.2, C(R.sup.9).sub.2, C(R.sup.9).sub.2 --C(R.sup.9).sub.2, where R.sup.9 is C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyl, C.sub.6 to C.sub.15 aryl or C.sub.3 to C.sub.10 cycloalkyl; and the ligand may have C.sub.S or C.sub.1 -symmetry. Preferred metals are selected from the group consisting of group III, group IV, group V or lanthanide group elements. The catalysts are used to prepare stereoregular polymers including polypropylene from .alpha.-olefin monomers.

  9. Stereospecific olefin polymerization catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Bercaw, J.E.; Herzog, T.A.

    1998-01-13

    A metallocene catalyst system is described for the polymerization of {alpha}-olefins to yield stereospecific polymers including syndiotactic, and isotactic polymers. The catalyst system includes a metal and a ligand of the formula shown wherein: R{sup 1}, R{sup 2}, and R{sup 3} are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C{sub 1} to C{sub 10} alkyl, 5 to 7 membered cycloalkyl, which in turn may have from 1 to 3 C{sub 1} to C{sub 10} alkyls as a substituent, C{sub 6} to C{sub 15} aryl or arylalkyl in which two adjacent radicals may together stand for cyclic groups having 4 to 15 carbon atoms which in turn may be substituted, or Si(R{sup 8}){sub 3} where R{sup 8} is selected from the group consisting of C{sub 1} to C{sub 10} alkyl, C{sub 6} to C{sub 15} aryl or C{sub 3} to C{sub 10} cycloalkyl; R{sup 4} and R{sup 6} are substituents both having van der Waals radii larger than the van der Waals radii of groups R{sup 1} and R{sup 3}; R{sup 5} is a substituent having a van der Waals radius less than about the van der Waals radius of a methyl group; E{sup 1}, E{sup 2} are independently selected from the group consisting of Si(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, Si(R{sup 9}){sub 2}--Si(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, Ge(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, Sn(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, C(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, C(R{sup 9}){sub 2}--C(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, where R{sup 9} is C{sub 1} to C{sub 10} alkyl, C{sub 6} to C{sub 15} aryl or C{sub 3} to C{sub 10} cycloalkyl; and the ligand may have C{sub S} or C{sub 1}-symmetry. Preferred metals are selected from the group consisting of group III, group IV, group V or lanthanide group elements. The catalysts are used to prepare stereoregular polymers including polypropylene from {alpha}-olefin monomers.

  10. Self-Assembled Amphiphilic Water Oxidation Catalysts: Control of O-O Bond Formation Pathways by Different Aggregation Patterns.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bing; Jiang, Xin; Guo, Qing; Lei, Tao; Zhang, Li-Ping; Chen, Bin; Tung, Chen-Ho; Wu, Li-Zhu

    2016-05-17

    The oxidation of water to molecular oxygen is the key step to realize water splitting from both biological and chemical perspective. In an effort to understand how water oxidation occurs on a molecular level, a large number of molecular catalysts have been synthesized to find an easy access to higher oxidation states as well as their capacity to make O-O bond. However, most of them function in a mixture of organic solvent and water and the O-O bond formation pathway is still a subject of intense debate. Herein, we design the first amphiphilic Ru-bda (H2 bda=2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylic acid) water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) of formula [Ru(II) (bda)(4-OTEG-pyridine)2 ] (1, OTEG=OCH2 CH2 OCH2 CH2 OCH3 ) and [Ru(II) (bda)(PySO3 Na)2 ] (2, PySO3 (-) =pyridine-3-sulfonate), which possess good solubility in water. Dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), critical aggregation concentration (CAC) experiments and product analysis demonstrate that they enable to self-assemble in water and form the O-O bond through different routes even though they have the same bda(2-) backbone. This work illustrates for the first time that the O-O bond formation pathway can be regulated by the interaction of ancillary ligands at supramolecular level. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Synthesis of Pd 9Ru@Pt nanoparticles for oxygen reduction reaction in acidic electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yu; Hsieh, Yu -Chi; Chang, Li -Chung

    2014-11-22

    Nanoparticles of PdRu, Pd₃Ru, and Pd₉Ru are synthesized and impregnated on carbon black via a wet chemical reflux process. X-ray diffraction patterns of the as-synthesized samples, Pd xRu/C (x=1/3/9), suggest succesful formation of alloy without presence of individual Pd and Ru nanoparticles. Images from transmission electron microscope confirm irregularly-shaped nanoparticles with average size below 3 nm. Analysis from extended X-ray absorption fine structure on both Pd and Ru K-edge absorption profiles indicate the Ru atoms are enriched on the surface of Pd xRu/C. Among these samples, the Pd₉Ru/C exhibits the strongest electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in anmore » oxygen-saturated 0.1 M aqueous HClO₄ solution. Subsequently, the Pd₉Ru/C undegoes Cu under potential deposition, followed by a galvanic displacement reaction to deposit a Pt monolayer on the Pd₉Ru surface (Pd₉Ru@Pt). The Pd₉Ru@Pt reveals better ORR performance than that of Pt, reaching a mass activity of 0.38 mA μg⁻¹ Pt, as compared to that of commercially available Pt nanoparticles (0.107 mA μg⁻¹ Pt). Thus, the mechanisms responsible for the ORR enhancement are attributed to the combined effects of lattice strain and ligand interaction. In addition, this core-shell Pd₉Ru@Pt electrocatalyst represents a substantial reduction in the amount of Pt consumption and raw material cost.« less

  12. Synthesis of Pd9Ru@Pt nanoparticles for oxygen reduction reaction in acidic electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yu; Hsieh, Yu-Chi; Chang, Li-Chung; Wu, Pu-Wei; Lee, Jyh-Fu

    2015-03-01

    Nanoparticles of PdRu, Pd3Ru, and Pd9Ru are synthesized and impregnated on carbon black via a wet chemical reflux process. X-ray diffraction patterns of the as-synthesized samples, PdxRu/C (x = 1/3/9), suggest successful formation of alloy without presence of individual Pd and Ru nanoparticles. Images from transmission electron microscope confirm irregularly-shaped nanoparticles with average size below 3 nm. Analysis from extended X-ray absorption fine structure on both Pd and Ru K-edge absorption profiles indicate the Ru atoms are enriched on the surface of PdxRu/C. Among these samples, the Pd9Ru/C exhibits the strongest electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in an oxygen-saturated 0.1 M aqueous HClO4 solution. Subsequently, the Pd9Ru/C undergoes Cu under potential deposition, followed by a galvanic displacement reaction to deposit a Pt monolayer on the Pd9Ru surface (Pd9Ru@Pt). The Pd9Ru@Pt reveals better ORR performance than that of Pt, reaching a mass activity of 0.38 mA μg-1Pt, as compared to that of commercially available Pt nanoparticles (0.107 mA μg-1Pt). The mechanisms responsible for the ORR enhancement are attributed to the combined effects of lattice strain and ligand interaction. In addition, this core-shell Pd9Ru@Pt electrocatalyst represents a substantial reduction in the amount of Pt consumption and raw material cost.

  13. Catalyst for cracking kerosene

    SciTech Connect

    Hsie, C. H.

    1985-06-04

    A catalyst capable of cracking kerosene under lower pressure and temperature comprising kerosene; metal powder mixture of chromium powder, copper powder, lead powder, zinc powder, nickel powder, manganese powder in an amount of 12 to 13 parts by weight per 100 parts by weight of said kerosene; sulfuric acid in an amount of 15 to 30 parts by weight per 100 parts by weight of said kerosene; inorganic powder mixture of aluminum oxide powder, serpentine powder, alum powder, magnesium oxide powder, limestone powder, slake lime powder, silica powder, and granite powder in an amount of 150 to 170 parts bymore » weight per 100 parts by weight of said kerosene.« less

  14. Synthesis, characterization, and activity of Co/Fe alumina/silica supported Ft catalysts and the study of promoter effect of ruthenium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esumike, Sunday Azubike

    alumina FT catalysts showed an optimum reaction temperature of 250 °C. Hydrocarbon production and CO conversion of alumina and hybrid alumina-silica FT catalysts were investigated. Among monometallic alumina catalysts, Co(5%) showed a higher CO conversion. The incorporation of Fe to Co increased CO conversion and hydrocarbon production. Increased Fe content in the bimetallic catalysts prepared by combined method-1&2, decreased CO conversion and hydrocarbon production, and increased CO 2 production. The bimetallic nano-Co(2.5%)nano-Fe(2.5%) prepared by method-2 alone showed higher CO conversion comparable to the Co(4%)nano-Fe(l %). Hybrid alumina-silica FT catalysts showed a higher CO conversion than the alumina FT catalysts due to better surface characteristics. The monometallic catalysts showed higher selectivity to C1-C4 hydrocarbon than bimetallic. The bimetallic alumina FT catalysts prepared by method-2 showed slightly higher C5+ selectivity compared to the higher Co catalysts prepared by combined method- I &2. The Ru promotion showed a significant effect on the CO conversion and 11 product distribution of the monometallic catalysts. There was no significant effect on the CO conversion on the (Co-Fe) bimetallic catalysts, but hydrocarbon production slightly increased when promoted by 0.5 wt.% Ru.

  15. Development of GREET Catalyst Module

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhichao; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Cronauer, Donald C.

    2014-09-01

    Catalysts are critical inputs for many pathways that convert biomass into biofuels. Energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during the production of catalysts and chemical inputs influence the life-cycle energy consumption, and GHG emissions of biofuels and need to be considered in biofuel life-cycle analysis (LCA). In this report, we develop energy and material flows for the production of three different catalysts (tar reforming, alcohol synthesis, Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 [ZSM-5]) and two chemicals (olivine, dimethyl ether of polyethylene glycol [DEPG]). These compounds and catalysts are now included in the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET™)more » catalyst module. They were selected because they are consumed in existing U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) analyses of biofuel processes. For example, a thermochemical ethanol production pathway (indirect gasification and mixed alcohol synthesis) developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) uses olivine, DEPG, and tar reforming and alcohol synthesis catalysts (Dutta et al., 2011). ZSM-5 can be used in biofuel production pathways such as catalytic upgrading of sugars into hydrocarbons (Biddy and Jones, 2013). Other uses for these compounds and catalysts are certainly possible. In this report, we document the data sources and methodology we used to develop material and energy flows for the catalysts and compounds in the GREET catalyst module. In Section 2 we focus on compounds used in the model Dutta et al. (2011) developed. In Section 3, we report material and energy flows associated with ZSM-5 production. Finally, in Section 4, we report results.« less

  16. Chalcogen catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Zelenay, Piotr; Choi, Jong-Ho; Alonso-Vante, Nicolas; Wieckowski, Andrzej; Cao, Dianxue

    2010-08-24

    A methanol-tolerant cathode catalyst and a membrane electrode assembly for fuel cells that includes such a cathode catalyst. The cathode catalyst includes a support having at least one transition metal in elemental form and a chalcogen disposed on the support. Methods of making the cathode catalyst and membrane electrode assembly are also described.

  17. Chalcogen catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Alonso-Vante, Nicolas [Buxerolles, FR; Zelenay, Piotr [Los Alamos, NM; Choi, Jong-Ho [Los Alamos, NM; Wieckowski, Andrzej [Champaign, IL; Cao, Dianxue [Urbana, IL

    2009-09-15

    A methanol-tolerant cathode catalyst and a membrane electrode assembly for fuel cells that includes such a cathode catalyst. The cathode catalyst includes a support having at least one transition metal in elemental form and a chalcogen disposed on the support. Methods of making the cathode catalyst and membrane electrode assembly are also described.

  18. Adsorption and Dissociation of CO2 on Ru(0001)

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The adsorption and dissociation of carbon dioxide on a Ru(0001) single crystal surface was investigated by reflection–absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) spectroscopy for CO2 adsorbed at 85 K. RAIRS spectroscopy shows that the adsorption of CO2 on a Ru(0001) single crystal is partially dissociative, resulting in CO2 and CO. The CO vibrational mode was also observed to split into two distinct modes, indicating two general populations of CO present at the surface. Furthermore, a time-dependent blue-shift is observed, which is characteristic of increasing CO surface coverage. TPD showed that coverages of up to 0.3 ML were obtained, and no evidence for chemisorption of oxygen on ruthenium was found. PMID:28413569

  19. Textured catalysts, methods of making textured catalysts, and methods of catalyzing reactions conducted in hydrothermal conditions

    DOEpatents

    Werpy, Todd [West Richland, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2003-12-30

    A textured catalyst having a hydrothermally-stable support, a metal oxide and a catalyst component is described. Methods of conducting aqueous phase reactions that are catalyzed by a textured catalyst are also described. The invention also provides methods of making textured catalysts and methods of making chemical products using a textured catalyst.

  20. Benten v. Kessler: the RU 486 import case.

    PubMed

    Pine, R N

    1992-01-01

    On July 1, 1992, the case of Benten v. Kessler was filed in the US District Court in New York. The case arose out of an attempt by abortion rights activist Lawrence Lader to call public attention to the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) ban on importation of the abortifacient drug mifepristone known as RU-486. The ban expresses the anti abortion stance of the Reagan and Bush administrations and creates a hostile climate for the development of new drugs related to reproductive health and reproductive choice. Plaintiffs in the Benten case sought public accountability by the FDA for its adoption of a ban of a safe and effective drug for unwanted pregnancy. Although the case did not succeed in retrieving the confiscated RU-486 pills for Leona Benten, in its opinion issued on July 14, 1992, the New York district court judge concluded that the import ban did not appear to be based on concern with the safety or effectiveness of RU-486, describing the FDA's process of adopting the import ban as a sink of illegality. On July 17, 1992, 7 Justices of the Supreme Court, with justices Blackmun and Stevens dissenting, joined in a per curiam opinion denying the application and foreclosing further personal relief for Leona Benten. This was the best result possible short of an all out victory for Leona Benten. The Court ruled against plaintiffs in their argument that notice and comment were required, but left entirely open plaintiffs' claims that the import ban is arbitrary and capricious under the Administrative Procedure Act and that the ban is unconstitutional in that it unduly burdens the right to terminate pregnancy. This backdrop creates a healthy skepticism about the prospects for the introduction of RU-486 into the US in the near future as well as about the fairness of government processes in areas of concern to women. Public health considerations, not politics, should determine access to health care.

  1. Ruthenium(η⁶,η¹-arene-CH₂-NHC) Catalysts for Direct Arylation of 2-Phenylpyridine with (Hetero)Aryl Chlorides in Water.

    PubMed

    Kaloğlu, Nazan; Özdemir, İsmail; Gürbüz, Nevin; Arslan, Hakan; Dixneuf, Pierre H

    2018-03-13

    A series of new benzimidazolium halides were synthesized in good yields as unsymmetrical N -heterocyclic carbene (NHC) precursors containing the N-CH₂-arene group. The benzimidazolium halides were readily converted into ruthenium(II)-NHC complexes with the general formula [RuCl₂(η⁶,η¹-arene-CH₂-NHC)]. The structures of all new compounds were characterized by ¹H NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance), 13 C NMR, FT-IR (Fourier Transform Infrared) spectroscopy and elemental analysis techniques. The single crystal structure of one benzimidazole ruthenium complex, 2b , was determined. The complex is best thought of as containing an octahedrally coordinated Ru center with the arene residue occupying three sites, the remaining sites being occupied by a (carbene)C-Ru bond and two Ru-Cl bonds. The catalytic activity of [RuCl₂(η⁶,η ¹ -arene-CH₂-NHC)] complexes was evaluated in the direct (hetero)arylation of 2-phenylpyridine with (hetero)aryl chlorides in water as the nontoxic reaction medium. These results show that catalysts 2a and 2b were the best for monoarylation with simple phenyl and tolyl chlorides. For functional aryl chlorides, 2d , 2e , and 2c appeared to be the most efficient.

  2. Synthesis, Electrochemistry, and Excited-State Properties of Three Ru(II) Quaterpyridine Complexes

    DOE PAGES

    Rudd, Jennifer A.; Brennaman, M. Kyle; Michaux, Katherine E.; ...

    2016-03-09

    The complexes [Ru(qpy)LL']2+ (qpy = 2,2':6',2'':6'',2''-quaterpyridine), with 1: L = acetonitrile, L'= chloride; 2: L = L'= acetonitrile; and 3: L = L'= vinylpyridine, have been prepared from [Ru(qpy) (Cl)2]. Their absorption spectra in CH3CN exhibit broad metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) absorptions arising from overlapping 1A1 → 1MLCT transitions. Photoluminescence is not observed at room temperature, but all three are weakly emissive in 4:1 ethanol/methanol glasses at 77 K with broad, featureless emissions observed between 600 and 1000 nm consistent with MLCT phosphorescence. Cyclic voltammograms in CH3CN reveal the expected RuIII/II redox couples. In 0.1 M trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), 1more » and 2 undergo aquation to give [RuII(qpy)(OH2)2]2+, as evidenced by the appearance of waves for the couples [RuIII(qpy)(OH2)2]3+/[RuII(qpy)(OH2)2]2+, [RuIV(qpy)(O)(OH2)]2+/[RuIII(qpy)(OH2)2]3+, and [RuVI(qpy)(O)2]2+/[RuIV(qpy)(O)(OH2)]2+ in cyclic voltammograms.« less

  3. Synthesis, spectral and electrochemical studies of binuclear Ru(III) complexes containing dithiosemicarbazone ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanchana Devi, A.; Ramesh, R.

    2014-01-01

    Synthesis of several new octahedral binuclear ruthenium(III) complexes of the general composition [(EPh3)2(X)Ru-L-Ru(X)(EPh3)2] containing benzene dithiosemicarbazone ligands (where E = P or As; X = Cl or Br; L = binucleating ligands) is presented. All the complexes have been fully characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV-vis and EPR spectroscopy together with magnetic susceptibility measurements. IR study shows that the dithiosemicarbazone ligands behave as dianionic tridentate ligands coordinating through the oxygen atom of the deprotonated phenolic group, nitrogen atom of the azomethine group and thiolate sulphur. In DMF solution, all the complexes exhibit intense d-d transition and ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) transition in the visible region. The magnetic moment values of the complexes are in the range 1.78-1.82 BM, which reveals the presence of one unpaired electron on each metal ion. The EPR spectra of the liquid samples at LNT show the presence of three different 'g' values (gx ≠ gy ≠ gz) indicate a rhombic distortion around the ruthenium ion. All the complexes exhibit two quasi-reversible one electron oxidation responses (RuIII-RuIII/RuIII-RuIV; RuIII-RuIV/RuIV-RuIV) within the E1/2 range of 0.61-0.74 V and 0.93-0.98 V respectively, versus Ag/AgCl.

  4. Highly productive CNN pincer ruthenium catalysts for the asymmetric reduction of alkyl aryl ketones.

    PubMed

    Baratta, Walter; Chelucci, Giorgio; Magnolia, Santo; Siega, Katia; Rigo, Pierluigi

    2009-01-01

    Chiral pincer ruthenium complexes of formula [RuCl(CNN)(Josiphos)] (2-7; Josiphos = 1-[1-(dicyclohexylphosphano)ethyl]-2-(diarylphosphano)ferrocene) have been prepared by treating [RuCl(2)(PPh(3))(3)] with (S,R)-Josiphos diphosphanes and 1-substituted-1-(6-arylpyridin-2-yl)methanamines (HCNN; substituent = H (1 a), Me (1 b), and tBu (1 c)) with NEt(3). By using 1 b and 1 c as a racemic mixture, complexes 4-7 were obtained through a diastereoselective synthesis promoted by acetic acid. These pincer complexes, which display correctly matched chiral PP and CNN ligands, are remarkably active catalysts for the asymmetric reduction of alkyl aryl ketones in basic alcohol media by both transfer hydrogenation (TH) and hydrogenation (HY), achieving enantioselectivities of up to 99 %. In 2-propanol, the enantioselective TH of ketones was accomplished by using a catalyst loading as low as 0.002 mol % and afforded a turnover frequency (TOF) of 10(5)-10(6) h(-1) (60 and 82 degrees C). In methanol/ethanol mixtures, the CNN pincer complexes catalyzed the asymmetric HY of ketones with H(2) (5 atm) at 0.01 mol % relative to the complex with a TOF of approximately 10(4) h(-1) at 40 degrees C.

  5. Cationic mononuclear ruthenium carboxylates as catalyst prototypes for self-induced hydrogenation of carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Naruto, Masayuki; Saito, Susumu

    2015-08-28

    Carboxylic acids are ubiquitous in bio-renewable and petrochemical sources of carbon. Hydrogenation of carboxylic acids to yield alcohols produces water as the only byproduct, and thus represents a possible next generation, sustainable method for the production of these alternative energy carriers/platform chemicals on a large scale. Reported herein are molecular insights into cationic mononuclear ruthenium carboxylates ([Ru(OCOR)](+)) as prototypical catalysts for the hydrogenation of carboxylic acids. The substrate-derived coordinated carboxylate was found to function initially as a proton acceptor for the heterolytic cleavage of dihydrogen, and subsequently also as an acceptor for the hydride from [Ru-H](+), which was generated in the first step (self-induced catalysis). The hydrogenation proceeded selectively and at high levels of functional group tolerance, a feature that is challenging to achieve with existing heterogeneous/homogeneous catalyst systems. These fundamental insights are expected to significantly benefit the future development of metal carboxylate-catalysed hydrogenation processes of bio-renewable resources.

  6. The electron is a catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studer, Armido; Curran, Dennis P.

    2014-09-01

    The electron is an efficient catalyst for conducting various types of radical cascade reaction that proceed by way of radical and radical ion intermediates. But because electrons are omnipresent, catalysis by electrons often passes unnoticed. In this Review, a simple analogy between acid/base catalysis and redox catalysis is presented. Conceptually, the electron is a catalyst in much the same way that a proton is a catalyst. The 'electron is a catalyst' paradigm unifies mechanistically an assortment of synthetic transformations that otherwise have little or no apparent relationship. Diverse radical cascades, including unimolecular radical substitution reactions (SRN1-type chemistry), base-promoted homolytic aromatic substitutions (BHAS), radical Heck-type reactions, radical cross-dehydrogenative couplings (CDC), direct arene trifluoromethylations and radical alkoxycarbonylations, can all be viewed as electron-catalysed reactions.

  7. Activating catalysts with mechanical force.

    PubMed

    Piermattei, Alessio; Karthikeyan, S; Sijbesma, Rint P

    2009-05-01

    Homogeneously catalysed reactions can be 'switched on' by activating latent catalysts. Usually, activation is brought about by heat or an external chemical agent. However, activation of homogeneous catalysts with a mechanical trigger has not been demonstrated. Here, we introduce a general method to activate latent catalysts by mechanically breaking bonds between a metal and one of its ligands. We have found that silver(I) complexes of polymer-functionalized N-heterocyclic carbenes, which are latent organocatalysts, catalyse a transesterification reaction when exposed to ultrasound in solution. Furthermore, ultrasonic activation of a ruthenium biscarbene complex with appended polymer chains results in catalysis of olefin metathesis reactions. In each case, the catalytic activity results from ligand dissociation, brought about by transfer of mechanical forces from the polymeric substituents to the coordination bond. Mechanochemical catalyst activation has potential applications in transduction and amplification of mechanical signals, and mechanically initiated polymerizations hold promise as a novel repair mechanism in self-healing materials.

  8. Synthesis science of SrRuO3 and CaRuO3 epitaxial films with high residual resistivity ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Hari P.; Liu, Yang; Ruf, Jacob P.; Schreiber, Nathaniel J.; Shang, Shun-Li; Baek, David J.; Goodge, Berit H.; Kourkoutis, Lena F.; Liu, Zi-Kui; Shen, Kyle M.; Schlom, Darrell G.

    2018-04-01

    Epitaxial SrRuO3 and CaRuO3 films were grown under an excess flux of elemental ruthenium in an adsorption-controlled regime by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE), where the excess volatile RuOx (x = 2 or 3) desorbs from the growth front leaving behind a single-phase film. By growing in this regime, we were able to achieve SrRuO3 and CaRuO3 films with residual resistivity ratios (ρ300 K/ρ4 K) of 76 and 75, respectively. A combined phase stability diagram based on the thermodynamics of MBE (TOMBE) growth, termed a TOMBE diagram, is employed to provide improved guidance for the growth of complex materials by MBE.

  9. Catalyst for carbon monoxide oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upchurch, Billy T. (Inventor); Miller, Irvin M. (Inventor); Brown, David R. (Inventor); Davis, Patricia (Inventor); Schryer, David R. (Inventor); Brown, Kenneth G. (Inventor); Vannorman, John D. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A catalyst is disclosed for the combination of CO and O2 to form CO2, which includes a platinum group metal (e.g., platinum); a reducable metal oxide having multiple valence states (e.g., SnO2); and a compound which can bind water to its structure (e.g., silica gel). This catalyst is ideally suited for application to high-powered pulsed, CO2 lasers operating in a sealed or closed-cycle condition.

  10. Catalyst for carbon monoxide oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upchurch, Billy T. (Inventor); Miller, Irvin M. (Inventor); Brown, David R. (Inventor); Davis, Patricia P. (Inventor); Schryer, David R. (Inventor); Brown, Kenneth G. (Inventor); Vannorman, John D. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A catalyst for the combination of CO and O2 to form CO2 which includes a platinum group metal, e.g., platinum; a reducible metal oxide having mulitple valence states, e.g., SnO2; and a compound which can bind water to its structure, e.g., silica gel. This catalyst is ideally suited for application to high powered, pulsed, CO2 lasers operating in a sealed or closed cycle condition.

  11. Boycott threat forces French company to abandon RU486.

    PubMed

    Dorozynski, A

    1997-04-19

    Threatened boycotts by American anti-abortion groups have forced the French pharmaceutical company Roussel-Uclaf, a subsidiary of the German company Hoechst, to stop production and distribution of mifepristone (RU-486), which the protesters call "the abortion pill." All patent rights have been transferred, without charge, to Dr. Edouard Sarkiz, one of the pill's developers. Hoechst, which had acquired Marion Pharmaceuticals to form a new group, Hoechst-Marion-Roussel, had increased its share of the US pharmaceutical market from 1% to 4% in doing so and could not tolerate a boycott. RU-486, which was discovered by Professor Etienne Baulieu, was introduced in France in 1987 as an alternative to surgical abortion. Although Hoechst, then a majority stockholder of Roussel-Uclaf, had asked the French firm to interrupt production of the pill in 1988, the French minister of health and social affairs at that time, Claude Evin, ordered production to be continued. Approximately 25% of French women seeking abortion use RU-486; it is also used in Britain, Sweden, and China (women in China must pay for the drug, while surgical abortion is free). All American firms have refused to buy the drug from Roussel-Uclaf. An offer to the World Health Organization was ignored. The American Population Council obtained the right to use RU-486 in 1993. Dr. Sarkiz has formed Exelgyn, a small nonprofit company, to produce and distribute RU-486; research into other uses for the drug will also be conducted. There has been limited research into its use as an emergency contraceptive and as a treatment for endometriosis, uterine fibroma, and breast cancer. According to Professor Baulieu, the drug could be used in treating wounds and burns because of its antiglucocorticoid and immunosuppressive properties; preliminary research by the professor indicates the drug could also possibly be used as a reversible male contraceptive because of its action on the membranes of spermatozoa. The drug's use in

  12. Ruthenium water oxidation catalysts containing the non-planar tetradentate ligand, biisoquinoline dicarboxylic acid (biqaH2).

    PubMed

    Scherrer, Dominik; Schilling, Mauro; Luber, Sandra; Fox, Thomas; Spingler, Bernhard; Alberto, Roger; Richmond, Craig J

    2016-12-06

    Two ruthenium complexes containing the tetradentate ligand [1,1'-biisoquinoline]-3,3'-dicarboxylic acid, and 4-picoline or 6-bromoisoquinoline as axial ligands have been prepared. The complexes have been fully characterised and initial studies on their potential to function as molecular water oxidation catalysts have been performed. Both complexes catalyse the oxidation of water in acidic media with Ce IV as a stoichiometric chemical oxidant, although turnover numbers and turnover frequencies are modest when compared with the closely related Ru-bda and Ru-pda analogues. Barriers for the water nucleophilic attack and intermolecular coupling pathways were obtained from density functional theory calculations and the crucial influence of the ligand framework in determining the most favourable reaction pathway was elucidated from a combined analysis of the theoretical and experimental results.

  13. DOE Award No. DE-FC36-03GO13108 NOVEL NON-PRECIOUS METAL CATALYSTS FOR PEMFC: CATALYST SELECTION THROUGH MOLECULAR MODELING AND DURABILITY STUDIES Final Report (September 2003 – October 2008)

    SciTech Connect

    Branko N. Popov

    2009-03-03

    The objective of this project is to develop novel non-precious metal electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), and demonstrate the potential of the catalysts to perform at least as good as conventional Pt catalysts currently in use in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) with a cost at least 50 % less than a target of 0.2 g (Pt loading)/peak kW and with durability > 2,000 h operation with less than 10 % power degradation. A novel nitrogen-modified carbon-based catalyst was obtained by modifying carbon black with nitrogen-containing organic precursor in the absence of transition metal precursor. The catalyst showsmore » the onset potential of approximately 0.76 V (NHE) for ORR and the amount of H2O2 of approximately 3% at 0.5 V (NHE). Furthermore, a carbon composite catalyst was achieved through the high-temperature pyrolysis of the precursors of transition metal (Co and Fe) and nitrogen supported on the nitrogen-modified carbon-based catalyst, followed by chemical post-treatment. This catalyst showed an onset potential for ORR as high as 0.87 V (NHE), and generated less than 1 % of H2O2. The PEM fuel cell exhibited a current density of 2.3 A cm-2 at 0.2 V for a catalyst loading of 6.0 mg cm-2. No significant performance degradation was observed for 480 h continuous operation. The characterization studies indicated that the metal-nitrogen chelate complexes decompose at the temperatures above 800 oC. During the pyrolysis, the transition metals facilitate the incorporation of pyridinic and graphitic nitrogen groups into the carbon matrix, and the carbon surface modified with nitrogen is active for ORR. In order to elucidate the role of transition metal precursor played in the formation of active sites in the non-precious metal catalysts, a novel ruthenium-based chelate (RuNx) catalyst was synthesized by using RuCl3 and propylene diammine as the Ru and N precursors, respectively, followed by high-temperature pyrolysis. This catalyst exhibited

  14. DOE Award No. DE-FC36-03GO13108 NOVEL NON-PRECIOUS METAL CATALYSTS FOR PEMFC: CATALYST SELECTION THROUGH MOLECULAR MODELING AND DURABILITY STUDIES Final Report (September 2003 – October 2008)

    SciTech Connect

    Branko N. Popov

    2009-02-20

    The objective of this project is to develop novel non-precious metal electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), and demonstrate the potential of the catalysts to perform at least as good as conventional Pt catalysts currently in use in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) with a cost at least 50 % less than a target of 0.2 g (Pt loading)/peak kW and with durability > 2,000 h operation with less than 10 % power degradation. A novel nitrogen-modified carbon-based catalyst was obtained by modifying carbon black with nitrogen-containing organic precursor in the absence of transition metal precursor. The catalyst showsmore » the onset potential of approximately 0.76 V (NHE) for ORR and the amount of H2O2 of approximately 3% at 0.5 V (NHE). Furthermore, a carbon composite catalyst was achieved through the high-temperature pyrolysis of the precursors of transition metal (Co and Fe) and nitrogen supported on the nitrogen-modified carbon-based catalyst, followed by chemical post-treatment. This catalyst showed an onset potential for ORR as high as 0.87 V (NHE), and generated less than 1 % of H2O2. The PEM fuel cell exhibited a current density of 2.3 A cm-2 at 0.2 V for a catalyst loading of 6.0 mg cm-2. No significant performance degradation was observed for 480 h continuous operation. The characterization studies indicated that the metal-nitrogen chelate complexes decompose at the temperatures above 800 oC. During the pyrolysis, the transition metals facilitate the incorporation of pyridinic and graphitic nitrogen groups into the carbon matrix, and the carbon surface modified with nitrogen is active for ORR. In order to elucidate the role of transition metal precursor played in the formation of active sites in the non-precious metal catalysts, a novel ruthenium-based chelate (RuNx) catalyst was synthesized by using RuCl3 and propylene diammine as the Ru and N precursors, respectively, followed by high-temperature pyrolysis. This catalyst exhibited

  15. The innovation catalysts.

    PubMed

    Martin, Roger L

    2011-06-01

    A few years ago the software development company Intuit realized that it needed a new approach to galvanizing customers. The company's Net Promoter Score was faltering, and customer recommendations of new products were especially disappointing. Intuit decided to hold a two-day, off-site meeting for the company's top 300 managers with a focus on the role of design in innovation. One of the days was dedicated to a program called Design for Delight. The centerpiece of the day was a PowerPoint presentation by Intuit founder Scott Cook, who realized midway through that he was no Steve Jobs: The managers listened dutifully, but there was little energy in the room. By contrast, a subsequent exercise in which the participants worked through a design challenge by creating prototypes, getting feedback, iterating, and refining, had them mesmerized. The eventual result was the creation of a team of nine design-thinking coaches--"innovation catalysts"--from across Intuit who were made available to help any work group create prototypes, run experiments, and learn from customers. The process includes a "painstorm" (to determine the customer's greatest pain point), a "soljam" (to generate and then winnow possible solutions), and a "code-jam" (to write code "good enough" to take to customers within two weeks). Design for Delight has enabled employees throughout Intuit to move from satisfying customers to delighting them.

  16. Superconductivity and Competing Ordered Phase in RuPn (Pn = As, P)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Daigorou; Takayama, Tomohiro; Hashizume, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Ayako; Takagi, Hidenori

    2011-03-01

    Unconventional superconductivity likely manifests itself when some competing electronic phases are suppressed down to zero temperature such as cuprates and iron-pnictide superconductors. Therefore, the correlated metallic state neighboring a competing electronic ordering can be a promising playground for unconventional superconductivity. Here we report superconductivity emerging adjacent to electronically ordered phases of RuPn (Pn = As, P). We found that RuAs(P) exhibits phase transitions at 240 (265) K, which is discerned as a drop of magnetic susceptibility or a resistivity upturn. Such anomalies can be suppressed by substituting Rh to the Ru site. Accompanied by the disappearance of the electronic order, superconductivity was found to emerge below 1.8 K and 3.8 K for RuAs and RuP, respectively. The superconductivity in Rh substituted RuPn, which neighbors a competing electronic order, might exhibit an exotic pairing state as seen in the unconventional superconductors known to date.

  17. Study the Polyol Process of Preparing the ru Doped FePt Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chih-Hao; Hsu, Jen-Ho; Su, Hui-Chia; Huang, Tzu Wen

    The structure of Ru doped FePt nanoparticles using polyol process was studied. The particle size grown is around 5 nm, and a shell structure might be formed. By selecting the time and temperature of adding the Ru precursors into solution, three different processes to synthesize the FePtRu particles were studied resulting in different growing mechanics. The possible models during the reaction process are also discussed. The phase transition temperature for the as-grown FCC FePt nanoparticle to transform into L10 FePt nanoparticle is about 823 K which is about the same as the one without doping Ru atoms. From the XAS study of each element, the possible scenario is that: although Ru atoms with the size close to the Pt, they do not totally replace the Pt sites in the FePt alloy. Instead, most of Ru formed a shell outside the FePt nanoparticles and Fe atoms are replaced.

  18. Mars Atmospheric Conversion to Methane and Water: An Engineering Model of the Sabatier Reactor with Characterization of Ru/Al2O3 for Long Duration Use on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, Anne J.; Shah, Malay; Petersen, Elspeth; Hintze, Paul; Muscatello, Tony

    2017-01-01

    The Atmospheric Processing Module (APM) is a Mars In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) technology designed to demonstrate conversion of the Martian atmosphere into methane and water. The Martian atmosphere consists of approximately 95 carbon dioxide (CO2) and residual argon and nitrogen. APM utilizes cryocoolers for CO2 acquisition from a simulated Martian atmosphere and pressure. The captured CO2 is sublimated and pressurized as a feedstock into the Sabatier reactor, which converts CO2 and hydrogen to methane and water. The Sabatier reaction occurs over a packed bed reactor filled with Ru/Al2O3 pellets. The long duration use of the APM system and catalyst was investigated for future scaling and failure limits. Failure of the catalyst was detected by gas chromatography and temperature sensors on the system. Following this, characterization and experimentation with the catalyst was carried out with analysis including x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy with elemental dispersive spectroscopy. This paper will discuss results of the catalyst performance, the overall APM Sabatier approach, as well as intrinsic catalyst considerations of the Sabatier reactor performance incorporated into a chemical model.

  19. Phototoxicity of strained Ru(ii) complexes: is it the metal complex or the dissociating ligand?

    PubMed

    Azar, Daniel F; Audi, Hassib; Farhat, Stephanie; El-Sibai, Mirvat; Abi-Habib, Ralph J; Khnayzer, Rony S

    2017-09-12

    A photochemically dissociating ligand in Ru(bpy) 2 (dmphen)Cl 2 [bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine; dmphen = 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline] was found to be more cytotoxic on the ML-2 Acute Myeloid Leukemia cell line than Ru(bpy) 2 (H 2 O) 2 2+ and prototypical cisplatin. Our findings illustrate the potential potency of diimine ligands in photoactivatable Ru(ii) complexes.

  20. Multicomponent order parameter superconductivity of Sr2RuO4 revealed by topological junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar, M. S.; Ishiguro, R.; Nakamura, T.; Yakabe, M.; Yonezawa, S.; Takayanagi, H.; Maeno, Y.

    2017-06-01

    Single crystals of the Sr2RuO4 -Ru eutectic system are known to exhibit enhanced superconductivity at 3 K in addition to the bulk superconductivity of Sr2RuO4 at 1.5 K. The 1.5 K phase is believed to be a spin-triplet, chiral p -wave state with a multicomponent order parameter, giving rise to chiral domain structure. In contrast, the 3 K phase is attributable to enhanced superconductivity of Sr2RuO4 in the strained interface region between Ru inclusion of a few to tens of micrometers in size and the surrounding Sr2RuO4 . We investigate the dynamic behavior of a topological junction, where a superconductor is surrounded by another superconductor. Specifically, we fabricated Nb/Ru/Sr2RuO4 topological superconducting junctions, in which the difference in phase winding between the s -wave superconductivity in Ru microislands induced from Nb and the superconductivity of Sr2RuO4 mainly governs the junction behavior. Comparative results of the asymmetry, hysteresis, and noise in junctions with different sizes, shapes, and configurations of Ru inclusions are explained by the chiral domain-wall motion in these topological junctions. Furthermore, a striking difference between the 1.5 and 3 K phases is clearly revealed: the large noise in the 1.5 K phase sharply disappears in the 3 K phase. These results confirm the multicomponent order-parameter superconductivity of the bulk Sr2RuO4 , consistent with the chiral p -wave state, and the proposed nonchiral single-component superconductivity of the 3 K phase.

  1. Catalyst for coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Huibers, Derk T. A.; Kang, Chia-Chen C.

    1984-01-01

    An improved catalyst for a coal liquefaction process; e.g., the H-Coal Process, for converting coal into liquid fuels, and where the conversion is carried out in an ebullated-catalyst-bed reactor wherein the coal contacts catalyst particles and is converted, in addition to liquid fuels, to gas and residual oil which includes preasphaltenes and asphaltenes. The improvement comprises a catalyst selected from the group consisting of the oxides of nickel molybdenum, cobalt molybdenum, cobalt tungsten, and nickel tungsten on a carrier of alumina, silica, or a combination of alumina and silica. The catalyst has a total pore volume of about 0.500 to about 0.900 cc/g and the pore volume comprises micropores, intermediate pores and macropores, the surface of the intermediate pores being sufficiently large to convert the preasphaltenes to asphaltenes and lighter molecules. The conversion of the asphaltenes takes place on the surface of micropores. The macropores are for metal deposition and to prevent catalyst agglomeration. The micropores have diameters between about 50 and about 200 angstroms (.ANG.) and comprise from about 50 to about 80% of the pore volume, whereas the intermediate pores have diameters between about 200 and 2000 angstroms (.ANG.) and comprise from about 10 to about 25% of the pore volume, and the macropores have diameters between about 2000 and about 10,000 angstroms (.ANG.) and comprise from about 10 to about 25% of the pore volume. The catalysts are further improved where they contain promoters. Such promoters include the oxides of vanadium, tungsten, copper, iron and barium, tin chloride, tin fluoride and rare earth metals.

  2. Pretreatment of CO oxidation catalysts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannorman, John D.

    1988-01-01

    CO oxidation catalysts with high activity in the range of 25 C to 100 C are important for long-life, closed-cycle operation of pulsed carbon dioxide 2 lasers. A reductive pretreatment with either CO or H sub 2 was shown to significantly enhance the activity of a commerically-available platinum on tin (IV) oxide (Pt/SnO2) catalyst relative to an oxidative or inert pretreatment or no pretreatment. Pretreatment at temperatures of 175 C and above caused an initial dip in observed CO or O sub 2 loss or CO sub 2 formation in a test gas mixture of 1 percent CO and 0.5 percent O sub 2 in a He gas matrix before a steady-state yield was obtained. This dip was found to be caused by dehydration of the surface of the catalyst and was readily eliminated by humidifying the catalyst or the test gas mixture. It was also found that too much moisture resulted in a lower overall yield of CO sub 2. Under similar conditions, it is hypothesized that the effect of the humidification is to increase the concentration of OH groups on the surface of the catalyst. The effect of having high concentration of CO sub 2 in the test gas mixture upon the loss of CO and O sub 2 as well as the effect of periods of relaxation of the catalyst under non-test gas conditions was studied. The purpose of these studies was to gain an insight into the mechanism of CO oxidation on this type of catalyst.

  3. Nitrogen–doped graphitized carbon shell encapsulated NiFe nanoparticles: A highly durable oxygen evolution catalyst

    DOE PAGES

    Du, Lei; Luo, Langli; Feng, Zhenxing; ...

    2017-07-05

    Oxygen evolution reaction (OER) plays a crucial role in various energy conversion devices such as water electrolyzers and metal–air batteries. Precious metal catalysts such as Ir, Ru and their oxides are usually used for enhancing reaction kinetics but are limited by their scarcity. The challenges associated with alternative non–precious metal catalysts such as transition metal oxides and (oxy)hydroxides are their low electronic conductivity and durability. The carbon encapsulating transition metal nanoparticles are expected to address these challenges. However, the relationship between precursor compositions and catalyst properties, and the intrinsic functions of each component has been rarely studied. In this paper,more » we report a highly durable (no degradation after 20,000 cycles) and highly active (360 mV overpotential at 10 mA cm –2 GEO) OER catalyst derived from bimetallic metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) precursors. This catalyst consists of NiFe nanoparticles encapsulated by nitrogen–doped graphitized carbon shells. The electron–donation/deviation from Fe and tuned lattice and electronic structures of metal cores by Ni are revealed to be primary contributors to the enhanced OER activity, whereas N concentration contributes negligibly. Finally, we further demonstrated that the structure and morphology of encapsulating carbon shells, which are the key factors influencing the durability, are facilely controlled by the chemical state of precursors.« less

  4. Nitrogen–doped graphitized carbon shell encapsulated NiFe nanoparticles: A highly durable oxygen evolution catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Lei; Luo, Langli; Feng, Zhenxing

    Oxygen evolution reaction (OER) plays a crucial role in various energy conversion devices such as water electrolyzers and metal–air batteries. Precious metal catalysts such as Ir, Ru and their oxides are usually used for enhanced reaction kinetics but are limited by their scarce resource. The challenges associated with alternative non–precious metal catalysts such as transition metal oxides and (oxy)hydroxides etc. are their low electronic conductivity and poor durability. Here, we report OER catalysts of NiFe nanoparticles encapsulated by nitrogen–doped graphitized carbon shells derived from bimetallic metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) precursors. The optimal OER catalyst shows excellent activity (360 mV overpotential atmore » 10 mA cm–2GEO) and durability (no obvious degradation after 20 000 cycles). The electron-donation from Fe and tuned electronic structure of metal cores by Ni are revealed to be primary contributors to the enhanced OER activity. We further demonstrated that the structure and morphology of encapsulating carbon shells, which are the key factors influencing the durability, are facilely controlled by chemical state of precursors. Severe metal particle growth probably caused by oxidation of carbon shells and encapsulated nanoparticles is believed to the main mechanism for activity degradation in these catalysts.« less

  5. Nitrogen–doped graphitized carbon shell encapsulated NiFe nanoparticles: A highly durable oxygen evolution catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Lei; Luo, Langli; Feng, Zhenxing

    Oxygen evolution reaction (OER) plays a crucial role in various energy conversion devices such as water electrolyzers and metal–air batteries. Precious metal catalysts such as Ir, Ru and their oxides are usually used for enhancing reaction kinetics but are limited by their scarcity. The challenges associated with alternative non–precious metal catalysts such as transition metal oxides and (oxy)hydroxides are their low electronic conductivity and durability. The carbon encapsulating transition metal nanoparticles are expected to address these challenges. However, the relationship between precursor compositions and catalyst properties, and the intrinsic functions of each component has been rarely studied. In this paper,more » we report a highly durable (no degradation after 20,000 cycles) and highly active (360 mV overpotential at 10 mA cm –2 GEO) OER catalyst derived from bimetallic metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) precursors. This catalyst consists of NiFe nanoparticles encapsulated by nitrogen–doped graphitized carbon shells. The electron–donation/deviation from Fe and tuned lattice and electronic structures of metal cores by Ni are revealed to be primary contributors to the enhanced OER activity, whereas N concentration contributes negligibly. Finally, we further demonstrated that the structure and morphology of encapsulating carbon shells, which are the key factors influencing the durability, are facilely controlled by the chemical state of precursors.« less

  6. Mössbauer study of the Ru porcelain of Chinese Song Dynasty and Yuan Dynasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhengyao, Gao; Songhua, Chen; Xiande, Chen

    1994-12-01

    The Mössbauer spectra from the glazes of the Song Dynasty and the Yuan Dynasty Ru porcelains and the imitative ancient Ru porcelain are compared and analyzed. It is determined that the original firing atmosphere of the Yuan Dynasty Ru porcelain was reductive. The firing temperature was 1250±20 ‡C. The original firing atmosphere of the Song Dynasty Ru porcelain was also reductive; the firing temperature was above 1200 ‡C. The coloring mechanism of these glazes is discussed.

  7. Ultrathin Cr added Ru film as a seedless Cu diffusion barrier for advanced Cu interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Kuo-Chung; Perng, Dung-Ching; Yeh, Jia-Bin; Wang, Yi-Chun

    2012-07-01

    A 5 nm thick Cr added Ru film has been extensively investigated as a seedless Cu diffusion barrier. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy micrograph, X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and Fourier transform-electron diffraction pattern reveal that a Cr contained Ru (RuCr) film has a glassy microstructure and is an amorphous-like film. XRD patterns and sheet resistance data show that the RuCr film is stable up to 650 °C, which is approximately a 200 °C improvement in thermal stability as compared to that of the pure Ru film. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profiles show that the RuCr film can successfully block Cu diffusion, even after a 30-min 650 °C annealing. The leakage current of the Cu/5 nm RuCr/porous SiOCH/Si stacked structure is about two orders of magnitude lower than that of a pristine Ru sample for electric field below 1 MV/cm. The RuCr film can be a promising Cu diffusion barrier for advanced Cu metallization.

  8. PtRu nanoparticles embedded in nitrogen doped carbon with highly stable CO tolerance and durability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Ying; Yang, Zehui; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Yunfeng; Zhang, Quan; Yu, Xinxin; Cai, Weiwei

    2018-02-01

    As is well known, the lower durability and sluggish methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) of PtRu alloy electrocatalyst blocks the commercialization of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Here, we design a new PtRu electrocatalyst, with highly stable CO tolerance and durability, in which the PtRu nanoparticles are embedded in nitrogen doped carbon layers derived from carbonization of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone). The newly fabricated electrocatalyst exhibits no loss in electrochemical surface area (ECSA) and MOR activity after potential cycling from 0.6-1.0 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode, while commercial CB/PtRu retains only 50% of its initial ECSA. Meanwhile, due to the same protective layers, the Ru dissolution is decelerated, resulting in stable CO tolerance. Methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) testing indicates that the activity of newly fabricated electrocatalyst is two times higher than that of commercial CB/PtRu, and the fuel cell performance of the embedded PtRu electrocatalyst was comparable to that of commercial CB/PtRu. The embedded PtRu electrocatalyst is applicable in real DMFC operation. This study offers important and useful information for the design and fabrication of durable and CO tolerant electrocatalysts.

  9. Dimerization in honeycomb Na2RuO3 under pressure: a DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazizova, D. D.; Ushakov, A. V.; Streltsov, S. V.

    2018-04-01

    The structural properties of Na2RuO3 under pressure are studied using density functional theory within the nonmagnetic generalized gradient approximation (GGA). We found that one may expect a structural transition at ˜3 GPa. This structure at the high-pressure phase is exactly the same as the low-temperature structure of Li2RuO3 (at ambient pressure) and is characterized by the P21/m space group. Ru ions form dimers in this phase and one may expect strong modification of the electronic and magnetic properties in Na2RuO3 at pressure higher than 3 GPa.

  10. Effects of countercations on the structures and redox and spectroscopic properties of diruthenium catecholate complexes with ligand-unsupported Ru-Ru bonds.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ho-Chol; Mochizuki, Katsunori; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2005-05-30

    The molecular structures and physicochemical properties of diruthenium complexes with ligand-unsupported Ru-Ru bonds, generally formulated as [A2{Ru2(DTBCat)4}] (DTB = 3,5- or 3,6-di-tert-butyl; Cat(2-) = catecholate), were studied in detail by changing the countercations. First, the binding structures of the cations in a family of [{A(DME)n}2{Ru2(3,5-DTBCat)4}] (n = 2 for A+ = Li+ and Na+ and n = 1 for A+ = K+ and Rb+) were systematically examined to reveal the effects of the cations on the molecular structures and electrochemical properties. Second, the complex (n-Bu4N)2[Ru2(3,6-DTBCat)4] with a cation-free structure was synthesized using tetra-n-butylammonium cations. The complex clearly demonstrates first that the ligand-unsupported Ru-Ru bonds are essentially stabilized by the dianionic nature of the catecholate derivatives without any other bridging or supporting species. In contrast, the redox potentials and absorption spectra of the complexes can sensitively respond to the countercations depending upon the polarity of the solvents.

  11. Effect of RuO2 growth temperature on ferroelectric properties of RuO2/Pb(Zr, Ti)O3/RuO2/Pt capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norga, G. J.; Fè, Laura; Wouters, D. J.; Maes, H. E.

    2000-03-01

    We present a promising method for obtaining Pb(Zr, Ti)O3(PZT) layers with excellent endurance and pulse-switching properties on RuO2 electrodes using the sol-gel method. As the substrate temperature during reactive sputtering of the RuO2 bottom electrode layer is reduced, the (111) PZT texture component becomes more pronounced, an effect attributed to the change from columnar to granular RuO2 film morphology. Reducing the residual PZT (100) and (101) texture components was found to be a necessary condition for obtaining optimal pulse switching and endurance properties of the layers. Highly (111)-oriented PZT layers, obtained on RuO2 grown at 150 °C exhibit a net switched charge of >60 μC/cm2 during pulse measurement and <10% degradation after 1011 fatigue cycles.

  12. The series of carbon-chain complexes {Ru(dppe)Cp*}₂{μ-(C≡C )x} (x = 4–8, 11): Synthesis, structures, properties and some reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, Michael I.; Cole, Marcus L.; Ellis, Benjamin G.

    The construction of a series of compounds {Ru(dppe)Cp*} 2(μ-C 2x) (Ru*-C2x-Ru*, x = 4–8, 11)) is described. A direct reaction between RuCl(dppe)Cp* and Me 3Si(Ctriple bond; length of mdashC) 4SiMe 3 afforded Ru*-C8-Ru* in 89% yield. The Pd(0)/Cu(I)-catalysed coupling of Ru{Ctriple bond; length of mdashCCtriple bond; length of mdashCAu(PPh 3)}(dppe)Cp*Ru*-C4-Au (2 equiv.) with diiodoethyne gave Ru*-C10-Ru* (64%), or of 1 equiv. with I(Ctriple bond; length of mdashC) 3I gave Ru*-C14-Ru* (36%); similarly, Ru{(Ctriple bond; length of mdashC) 4Au(PPh 3)}(dppe)Cp*Ru*-C8-Au and I(Ctriple bond; length of mdashC) 3I gave Ru*-C22-Ru* (12%). Desilylation (TBAF) of Ru{(Ctriple bond; length of mdashC)xSiMe 3}(dppe)Cp*Ru*-C2x-Si (x =more » 3, 4) followed by oxidative coupling [Cu(OAc) 2/py] gave Ru*-C12-Ru* (82%) and Ru*-C16-Ru* (58%), respectively. Similar oxidative coupling of Ru(Ctriple bond; length of mdashCCtriple bond; length of mdashCH)(dppe)Cp* was a second route to Ru*-C8-Ru* (82%). Appropriate precursors are already known, or obtained by coupling of Ru*-C2x-Si (x = 2, 4) with AuCl(PPh 3)/NaOMe [Ru*-C4-Au, 95%; Ru*-C8-Au, 74%] or from Pd(0)/Cu(I) catalysed coupling of Ru*-C2x-Au (x = 2, 3) with I(Ctriple bond; length of mdashC) 2SiMe 3 (Ru*-C8-Si, 64%; Ru*-C10-Si, 2%). Reactions between Ru*-C2x-Ru* (x = 3, 4) and Fe 2(CO) 9 gave {Fe 3(CO) 9}{μ 3-CCtriple bond; length of mdashC[Ru(dppe)Cp*]} 2Fe(C 3-Ru*) 2 and {Fe 3(CO) 9}{μ 3-CCtriple bond; length of mdashC[Ru(dppe)Cp*]}{μ 3-C(Ctriple bond; length of mdashC) 2[Ru(dppe)Cp*]} Fe(C 3-Ru*)(C 5-Ru*), respectively. The redox properties of the series of complexes with 2x = 2–16 were measured and showed a diminution of the separation of the first two oxidation potentials, ΔE = E 2 - E 1, with increasing carbon chain length. The X-ray-determined molecular structures of Ru*-C8-Si, Ru*-C8-Ru*, Ru*-C14-Ru* (two C 6H 6 solvates), {Ru(PPh 3) 2Cp} 2{μ-(Ctriple bond; length of mdashC) 4}·4CHCl 3Ru-C 8-Ru·4CHCl 3 and of Fe

  13. Magnetic and Crystal Structure of α-RuCl3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, Jennifer

    The layered honeycomb material α-RuCl3 has been proposed as a candidate material to show significant bond-dependent Kitaev type interactions. This has prompted several recent studies of magnetism in this material that have found evidence for multiple magnetic transitions in the temperature range of 8-14 K. We will present elastic neutron scattering measurements collected using a co-aligned array of α-RuCl3 crystals, identifying zigzag magnetic order within the honeycomb planes with an ordering temperature of ~8 K. It has been reported that the ordering temperature depends on the c axis periodicity of the layered structure, with ordering temperatures of 8 and 14 K for three and two-layer periodicity respectively. While the in-plane magnetic order has been identified, it is clear that a complete understanding of magnetic ordering and interactions will depend on the three dimensional structure of the crystal. Evidence of a structural transition at ~150 K has been reported and questions remain about the structural details, in particular the stacking of the honeycomb layers. We will present x-ray diffraction measurements investigating the low and high temperature structures and stacking disorder in α-RuCl3. Finally, we will present inelastic neutron scattering measurements of magnetic excitations in this material. Work done in collaboration with K. W. Plumb (Johns Hopkins University), J. P. Clancy, Young-June Kim (University of Toronto), J. Britten (McMaster University), Yu-Sheng Chen (Argonne National Laboratory), Y. Qiu, Y. Zhao, D. Parshall, and J. W. Lynn (NCNR).

  14. Biochemistry of metalocenes. The organ distribution of hydroxyacetyl (/sup 103/Ru)ruthenocene and its glucuronide in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A.J.; Macha, J.; Wenzel, M.

    1980-01-01

    Hydroxyacetyl(/sup 103/Ru)ruthenocene and its o-glucuronide were prepared in vitro by incubation of acetyl(/sup 103/Ru)ruthenocene with rat-liver homogenate, NADPH, and UDP-glucuronate. The factors affecting hydroxylation and glucuronidation in vitro were optimized for acetylruthenocene. Hydroxyacetyl(/sup 103/Ru)ruthenocene glucuronide showed no affinity for the adrenal glands, but after iv administration of hydroxyacetyl(/sup 103/Ru)ruthenocene there was a distinct accumulation of Ru-103 in adrenals, similar to that found after administration of acetyl(/sup 103/Ru)ruthenocene.

  15. Electrochemical, spectroscopic, and photophysical properties of structurally diverse polyazine-bridged Ru(II),Pt(II) and Os(II),Ru(II),Pt(II) supramolecular motifs.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Jessica D; Arachchige, Shamindri M; Wang, Guangbin; Rangan, Krishnan; Miao, Ran; Higgins, Samantha L H; Okyere, Benjamin; Zhao, Meihua; Croasdale, Paul; Magruder, Katherine; Sinclair, Brian; Wall, Candace; Brewer, Karen J

    2011-09-19

    Five new tetrametallic supramolecules of the motif [{(TL)(2)M(dpp)}(2)Ru(BL)PtCl(2)](6+) and three new trimetallic light absorbers [{(TL)(2)M(dpp)}(2)Ru(BL)](6+) (TL = bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine or phen = 1,10-phenanthroline; M = Ru(II) or Os(II); BL = dpp = 2,3-bis(2-pyridyl)pyrazine, dpq = 2,3-bis(2-pyridyl)quinoxaline, or bpm = 2,2'-bipyrimidine) were synthesized and their redox, spectroscopic, and photophysical properties investigated. The tetrametallic complexes couple a Pt(II)-based reactive metal center to Ru and/or Os light absorbers through two different polyazine BL to provide structural diversity and interesting resultant properties. The redox potential of the M(II/III) couple is modulated by M variation, with the terminal Ru(II/III) occurring at 1.58-1.61 V and terminal Os(II/III) couples at 1.07-1.18 V versus Ag/AgCl. [{(TL)(2)M(dpp)}(2)Ru(BL)](PF(6))(6) display terminal M(dπ)-based highest occupied molecular orbitals (HOMOs) with the dpp(π*)-based lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy relatively unaffected by the nature of BL. The coupling of Pt to the BL results in orbital inversion with localization of the LUMO on the remote BL in the tetrametallic complexes, providing a lowest energy charge separated (CS) state with an oxidized terminal Ru or Os and spatially separated reduced BL. The complexes [{(TL)(2)M(dpp)}(2)Ru(BL)](6+) and [{(TL)(2)M(dpp)}(2)Ru(BL)PtCl(2)](6+) efficiently absorb light throughout the UV and visible regions with intense metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) transitions in the visible at about 540 nm (M = Ru) and 560 nm (M = Os) (ε ≈ 33,000-42,000 M(-1) cm(-1)) and direct excitation to the spin-forbidden (3)MLCT excited state in the Os complexes about 720 nm. All the trimetallic and tetrametallic Ru-based supramolecular systems emit from the terminal Ru(dπ)→dpp(π*) (3)MLCT state, λ(max)(em) ≈ 750 nm. The tetrametallic systems display complex excited state dynamics with quenching of the (3)MLCT emission at

  16. Direct hydrogenation of biomass-derived butyric acid to n-butanol over a ruthenium-tin bimetallic catalyst.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Min; Upare, Pravin P; Chang, Jong-San; Hwang, Young Kyu; Lee, Jeong Ho; Hwang, Dong Won; Hong, Do-Young; Lee, Seung Hwan; Jeong, Myung-Geun; Kim, Young Dok; Kwon, Young-Uk

    2014-11-01

    Catalytic hydrogenation of organic carboxylic acids and their esters, for example, cellulosic ethanol from fermentation of acetic acid and hydrogenation of ethyl acetate is a promising possibility for future biorefinery concepts. A hybrid conversion process based on selective hydrogenation of butyric acid combined with fermentation of glucose has been developed for producing biobutanol. ZnO-supported Ru-Sn bimetallic catalysts exhibits unprecedentedly superior performance in the vapor-phase hydrogenation of biomass-derived butyric acid to n-butanol (>98% yield) for 3500 h without deactivation. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Ru sub 3 (CO) sub 12 and Mo (CO) sub 6 overlayers adsorbed on Ru(001) and Au/Ru and their interaction with electrons and photons: An infrared reflection--absorption study

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, I.J.; Hrbek, J.

    1991-05-01

    We studied adsorbed Ru{sub 3}(CO){sub 12} and Mo (CO){sub 6} overlayers on Ru(001) and Au/Ru surfaces by infrared reflection--absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). We characterized the C--O stretching mode of both metal carbonyls (4 cm{sup {minus}1} FWHM) and a deformation mode of Mo (CO){sub 6} at 608 cm{sup {minus}1} with an unusually narrow FWHM of 1 cm{sup {minus}1}. Both IRAS and TDS data suggest adsorption and desorption of metal carbonyls as molecular species with a preferential orientation in the overlayers. We discuss annealing experiments of Ru{sub 3}(CO){sub 12}/Ru(001), the interaction of Ru{sub 3}(CO){sub 12} overlayers with electronsmore » of up to 100-eV energy, and the interaction of Mo (CO){sub 6} overlayers with 300-nm photons.« less

  18. Catalyst containing oxygen transport membrane

    DOEpatents

    Lane, Jonathan A.; Wilson, Jamie R.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Petigny, Nathalie; Sarantopoulos, Christos

    2017-02-07

    A composite oxygen transport membrane having a dense layer, a porous support layer and an intermediate porous layer located between the dense layer and the porous support layer. Both the dense layer and the intermediate porous layer are formed from an ionic conductive material to conduct oxygen ions and an electrically conductive material to conduct electrons. The porous support layer has a high permeability, high porosity, and a microstructure exhibiting substantially uniform pore size distribution as a result of using PMMA pore forming materials or a bi-modal particle size distribution of the porous support layer materials. Catalyst particles selected to promote oxidation of a combustible substance are located in the intermediate porous layer and in the porous support adjacent to the intermediate porous layer. The catalyst particles can be formed by wicking a solution of catalyst precursors through the porous support toward the intermediate porous layer.

  19. Catalyst containing oxygen transport membrane

    DOEpatents

    Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie Robyn; van Hassel, Bart Antonie

    2012-12-04

    A composite oxygen transport membrane having a dense layer, a porous support layer and an intermediate porous layer located between the dense layer and the porous support layer. Both the dense layer and the intermediate porous layer are formed from an ionic conductive material to conduct oxygen ions and an electrically conductive material to conduct electrons. The porous support layer has a high permeability, high porosity, and a high average pore diameter and the intermediate porous layer has a lower permeability and lower pore diameter than the porous support layer. Catalyst particles selected to promote oxidation of a combustible substance are located in the intermediate porous layer and in the porous support adjacent to the intermediate porous layer. The catalyst particles can be formed by wicking a solution of catalyst precursors through the porous support toward the intermediate porous layer.

  20. Modular Homogeneous Chromophore–Catalyst Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Mulfort, Karen L.; Utschig, Lisa M.

    2016-05-17

    supramolecular photocatalyst based on the [Ru(bpy)3]2+ (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) light-harvesting module with cobaloxime-based catalyst module are compared, with progress in stabilizing photoinduced charge separation identified. These same modules embedded in the small electron transfer protein ferredoxin exhibit much longer charge-separation, enabled by stepwise electron transfer through the native [2Fe-2S] cofactor. We anticipate that the use of interchangeable, molecular modules which can interact in different coordination geometries or within entirely different structural platforms will provide important fundamental insights into the effect of environment on parameters such as electron transfer and charge separation, and ultimately drive more efficient designs for artificial photosynthesis.« less