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Sample records for zeolitic imidazolate framework

  1. Zeolite A imidazolate frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Hideki; Côté, Adrien P.; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; O'Keeffe, Michael; Yaghi, Omar M.

    2007-07-01

    Faujasite (FAU) and zeolite A (LTA) are technologically important porous zeolites (aluminosilicates) because of their extensive use in petroleum cracking and water softening. Introducing organic units and transition metals into the backbone of these types of zeolite allows us to expand their pore structures, enhance their functionality and access new applications. The invention of metal-organic frameworks and zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) has provided materials based on simple zeolite structures where only one type of cage is present. However, so far, no metal-organic analogues based on FAU or LTA topologies exist owing to the difficulty imposed by the presence of two types of large cage (super- and β-cages for FAU, α- and β-cages for LTA). Here, we have identified a strategy to produce an LTA imidazolate framework in which both the link geometry and link-link interactions play a decisive structure-directing role. We describe the synthesis and crystal structures of three porous ZIFs that are expanded analogues of zeolite A; their cage walls are functionalized, and their metal ions can be changed without changing the underlying LTA topology. Hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide and argon gas adsorption isotherms are reported and the selectivity of this material for carbon dioxide over methane is demonstrated.

  2. Zeolite A imidazolate frameworks.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Hideki; Côté, Adrien P; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; O'Keeffe, Michael; Yaghi, Omar M

    2007-07-01

    Faujasite (FAU) and zeolite A (LTA) are technologically important porous zeolites (aluminosilicates) because of their extensive use in petroleum cracking and water softening. Introducing organic units and transition metals into the backbone of these types of zeolite allows us to expand their pore structures, enhance their functionality and access new applications. The invention of metal-organic frameworks and zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) has provided materials based on simple zeolite structures where only one type of cage is present. However, so far, no metal-organic analogues based on FAU or LTA topologies exist owing to the difficulty imposed by the presence of two types of large cage (super- and beta-cages for FAU, alpha- and beta-cages for LTA). Here, we have identified a strategy to produce an LTA imidazolate framework in which both the link geometry and link-link interactions play a decisive structure-directing role. We describe the synthesis and crystal structures of three porous ZIFs that are expanded analogues of zeolite A; their cage walls are functionalized, and their metal ions can be changed without changing the underlying LTA topology. Hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide and argon gas adsorption isotherms are reported and the selectivity of this material for carbon dioxide over methane is demonstrated.

  3. Epoxy Nanocomposites Containing Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-8.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cong; Mullins, Michael; Hawkins, Spencer; Kotaki, Masaya; Sue, Hung-Jue

    2018-01-10

    Zeolitic imidazole framework-8 (ZIF-8) is utilized as a functional filler and a curing agent in the preparation of epoxy nanocomposites. The imidazole group on the surface of the ZIF-8 initiates epoxy curing, resulting in covalent bonding between the ZIF-8 crystals and epoxy matrix. A substantial reduction in dielectric constant and increase in tensile modulus were observed. The implication of the present study for utilization of metal-organic framework to improve physical and mechanical properties of polymeric matrixes is discussed.

  4. Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks for kinetic separation of propane and propene

    DOEpatents

    Li, Jing; Li, Kunhao; Olson, David H.

    2014-08-05

    Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks (ZIFs) characterized by organic ligands consisting of imidazole ligands that are either essentially all 2-chloroimidazole ligands or essentially all 2-bromoimidazole ligands are disclosed. Methods for separating propane and propene with the ZIFs of the present invention, as well as other ZIFs, are also disclosed.

  5. Titanium-based zeolitic imidazolate framework for chemical fixation of carbon dioxide

    EPA Science Inventory

    A titanium-based zeolitic imidazolate framework (Ti-ZIF) with high surface area and porous morphology was synthesized and itsefficacy was demonstrated in the synthesis of cyclic carbonates from epoxides and carbon dioxide.

  6. Mechanistic Probes of Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework for Photocatalytic Application

    SciT

    Pattengale, Brian; Yang, Sizhuo; Lee, Sungsik

    2017-11-07

    In this work, we report a zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-67) with remarkable activity for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) of 40,500 μmol H2/g MOF, which is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest activity achieved by any MOF system. This result necessitated assessment of its atomic-scale mechanistic function for HER using advanced spectroscopy techniques including time-resolved optical (OTA) and in situ X-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopy. Through the correlation of OTA results with catalytic performance, we demonstrated that the electron transfer (ET) rather than energy transfer (ENT) pathway between photosensitizer and ZIF-67 is the key factor that controls the efficiency ofmore » HER activity, as HER activity that undergoes ET pathway is 3 orders of magnitude higher than that of ENT process. Using in situ XAS, we unraveled the spectral features for key intermediate species which are likely responsible for the rate determining process under turn over conditions. This work represents an original approach to study porous ZIF materials at the molecular level using advanced spectroscopic techniques, providing unprecedented insights into the photoactive nature of ZIF frameworks.« less

  7. Pore closure in zeolitic imidazolate frameworks under mechanical pressure.

    PubMed

    Henke, Sebastian; Wharmby, Michael T; Kieslich, Gregor; Hante, Inke; Schneemann, Andreas; Wu, Yue; Daisenberger, Dominik; Cheetham, Anthony K

    2018-02-14

    We investigate the pressure-dependent mechanical behaviour of the zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF-4 (M(im) 2 ; M 2+ = Co 2+ or Zn 2+ , im - = imidazolate) with high pressure, synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction and mercury intrusion measurements. A displacive phase transition from a highly compressible open pore ( op ) phase with continuous porosity (space group Pbca , bulk modulus ∼1.4 GPa) to a closed pore ( cp ) phase with inaccessible porosity (space group P 2 1 / c , bulk modulus ∼3.3-4.9 GPa) is triggered by the application of mechanical pressure. Over the course of the transitions, both ZIF-4 materials contract by about 20% in volume. However, the threshold pressure, the reversibility and the immediate repeatability of the phase transition depend on the metal cation. ZIF-4(Zn) undergoes the op-cp phase transition at a hydrostatic mechanical pressure of only 28 MPa, while ZIF-4(Co) requires about 50 MPa to initiate the transition. Interestingly, ZIF-4(Co) fully returns to the op phase after decompression, whereas ZIF-4(Zn) remains in the cp phase after pressure release and requires subsequent heating to switch back to the op phase. These variations in high pressure behaviour can be rationalised on the basis of the different electron configurations of the respective M 2+ ions (3d 10 for Zn 2+ and 3d 7 for Co 2+ ). Our results present the first examples of op-cp phase transitions ( i.e. breathing transitions) of ZIFs driven by mechanical pressure and suggest potential applications of these functional materials as shock absorbers, nanodampers, or in mechanocalorics.

  8. Synthesis of the zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF-4 from the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium imidazolate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovestadt, Maximilian; Schwegler, Johannes; Schulz, Peter S.; Hartmann, Martin

    2018-05-01

    A new synthesis route for the zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF-4 using imidazolium imidazolate is reported. Additionally, the ionic liquid-derived material is compared to conventional ZIF-4 with respect to the powder X-ray diffraction pattern pattern, nitrogen uptake, particle size, and separation potential for olefin/paraffin gas mixtures. Higher synthesis yields were obtained, and the different particle size affected the performance in the separation of ethane and ethylene.

  9. Amorphization of the prototypical zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF-8 by ball-milling.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shuai; Bennett, Thomas D; Keen, David A; Goodwin, Andrew L; Cheetham, Anthony K

    2012-08-14

    We report the rapid amorphization of the prototypical substituted zeolitic imidazolate framework, ZIF-8, by ball-milling. The resultant amorphous ZIF-8 (a(m)ZIF-8) possesses a continuous random network (CRN) topology with a higher density and a lower porosity than its crystalline counterpart. A decrease in thermal stability upon amorphization is also evident.

  10. CNTs grown on nanoporous carbon from zeolitic imidazolate frameworks for supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeonghun; Young, Christine; Lee, Jaewoo; Park, Min-Sik; Shahabuddin, Mohammed; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Kim, Jung Ho

    2016-10-27

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) grown on nanoporous carbon (NPC), which yields coexisting amorphous and graphitic nanoarchitectures, have been prepared on a large scale from zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) by introducing bimetallic ions (Co 2+ and Zn 2+ ). Interestingly, the hybrid Co/Zn-ZIF-derived NPC showed rich graphitic CNTs on the surface. This NPC was utilized for a coin-type supercapacitor cell with an aqueous electrolyte, which showed enhanced retention at high current density and good stability over 10 000 cycles.

  11. Multi-wall carbon nanotube@zeolite imidazolate framework composite from a nanoscale zinc oxide precursor

    DOE PAGES

    Yue, Yanfeng; Guo, Bingkun; Qiao, Zhenan; ...

    2014-07-24

    Nanocomposite of multi-walled carbon nanotube@zeolite imidazolate frameworks (MWNT@ZIF) was prepared through a nanotube-facilitated growth based on a nanosized ZnO precursor. The electrically conductive nanocomposite displays a capacity of 380 mAh/g at 0.1 °C in Li–sulfur battery, transforming electrically inactive ZIF into the active one for battery applications.

  12. Zeolitic imidazolate framework-methacrylate composite monolith characterization by inverse gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Kareem; Badjah-Hadj-Ahmed, Ahmed Yacine; Aqel, Ahmad; Aouak, Taieb; ALOthman, Zeid Abdullah

    2016-04-22

    Thermodynamic characterization of butyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate neat monolith and zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 incorporated with butyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate composite monolith were studied using inverse gas chromatography at infinite dilution under 1MPa column pressure and various column temperatures. The free energy of adsorption (ΔGA), enthalpy of adsorption (ΔHA) and entropy of adsorption (ΔSA) were determined using a series of n-alkanes. The dispersive component of surface energy (γS(D)) was estimated by Dorris-Gray and Schultz et al. The composite monolith showed a more energetic surface than the neat monolith. The acidic, KA, and basic, KD, parameters for both materials were estimated using a group of polar probes. A basic character was concluded with more basic behavior for the neat monolith. Flory-Huggins parameter, χ, was taken as a measure of miscibility between the probes with the low molecular weight and the high molecular weight monolith. Inverse gas chromatography provides a better understanding of the role of incorporated zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-8) into the polymer matrix in its monolithic form. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Polyacrylic acid@zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 nanoparticles with ultrahigh drug loading capability for pH-sensitive drug release.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hong; Zhang, Lingyu; An, Jiping; Wang, Tingting; Li, Lu; Si, Xiaoyan; He, Liu; Wu, Xiaotong; Wang, Chungang; Su, Zhongmin

    2014-01-28

    The polyacrylic acid@zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (PAA@ZIF-8) nanoparticles (NPs) were first fabricated using a facile and simple route. It is worthwhile noting that the as-fabricated PAA@ZIF-8 NPs possessed ultrahigh doxorubicin (DOX) loading capability (1.9 g DOX g(-1) NPs), which were employed as pH-dependent drug delivery vehicles.

  14. Tracking thermal-induced amorphization of a zeolitic imidazolate framework via synchrotron in situ far-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ryder, Matthew R; Bennett, Thomas D; Kelley, Chris S; Frogley, Mark D; Cinque, Gianfelice; Tan, Jin-Chong

    2017-06-27

    We present the first use of in situ far-infrared spectroscopy to analyze the thermal amorphization of a zeolitic imidazolate framework material. We explain the nature of vibrational motion changes during the amorphization process and reveal new insights into the effect that temperature has on the Zn-N tetrahedra.

  15. Exceptionally Long-Lived Charge Separated State in Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework: Implication for Photocatalytic Applications

    SciT

    Pattengale, Brian; Yang, Sizhuo; Ludwig, John

    2016-06-22

    Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks (ZIFs) have emerged as a novel class of porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) for catalysis application because of their exceptional thermal and chemical stability. Inspired by the broad absorption of ZIF-67 in UV-visible-near IR region, we explored its excited state and charge separation dynamics, properties essential for photocatalytic applications, using optical (OTA) and X-ray transient absorption (XTA) spectroscopy. OTA results show that an exceptionally long-lived excited state is formed after photoexcitation. This long-lived excited state was confirmed to be the charge separated state with ligandto-metal charge transfer character using XTA. The surprisingly long-lived charge separated state, together withmore » its intrinsic hybrid nature, all point to its potential application in heterogeneous photocatalysis and energy conversion.« less

  16. Characterization and application of zeolitic imidazolate framework-8@polyvinyl alcohol nanofibers mats prepared by electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiaoxiao; Yu, Linling; Li, Lianghao; Yang, Cao; Wen, Junjie; Ye, Xiaokun; Cheng, Jianhua; Hu, Yongyou

    2017-02-01

    In this study, Zeolitic imidazolate framework-8@polyvinyl alcohol (ZIF-8@PVA) nanofibers were creatively fabricated by electrospinning technique, and the nanofibers membranes were characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD, FTIR, TG, DSC, DTA, BET. Its thermal stability, mechanical property, water stability and adsorption nature were also performed. The optimized fabrication parameter of the ZIF-8@PVA was 10 wt% and the uniform diameters of the nanofibers has been obtained. In addition, the ZIF-8@PVA nanofibers displayed unique properties such as a water stable and flexible structure. The adsorption test for Congo red treatment revealed that the nanofibers had a great adsorption performance. The results indicated that the nonwoven fiber mats had a great potential as a new type of membrane adsorbents in wastewater purification. The possible mechanism of CR adsorption onto ZIF-8@PVA was researched.

  17. Gas Adsorption and Selectivity in Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks from First Principles Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Keith; Olmsted, David; He, Ning; Houndonougbo, Yao; Laird, Brian; Asta, Mark

    2012-02-01

    Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework (ZIFs) are excellent candidate materials for carbon capture and gas separation. Here we employ the van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) [1] in an analysis of the binding energetics for CO2, CH4 and N2 molecules in a set of ZIFs featuring different chemical functionalizations. We investigate multiple low-energy binding sites, which differ in their positions relative to functional groups on the imidazole linkers. In all cases an accurate treatment of van der Waals forces appears essential to provide reasonable binding energy magnitudes. We report results obtained from different parameterizations of the vdW-DF, providing comparisons between calculations and experimental values of the heat of adsorption [2]. This research is supported by the Energy Frontier Research Center ``Molecularly Engineered Energy Materials,'' funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-SC0001342. [1] M. Dion, H. Rydberg, E. Schroder, D. C. Langreth, B. I. Lundqvist, Phys. Rev. Let. 92, 246401 (2004) [2] W. Morris, B. Leung, H. Furukawa, O. K. Yaghi, N. He, H. Hayashi, Y. Houndonougbo, M. Asta, B. B. Laird, O. M. Yaghi, J. AM. CHEM. SOC. 2010, 132, 11006-11008

  18. A comparison of the amorphization of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) and aluminosilicate zeolites by ball-milling.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Emma F; Bennett, Thomas D; Cairns, Andrew B; Brownbill, Nick J; Goodwin, Andrew L; Keen, David A; Chater, Philip A; Blanc, Frédéric; Cheetham, Anthony K

    2016-03-14

    X-ray diffraction has been used to investigate the kinetics of amorphization through ball-milling at 20 Hz, for five zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) - ZIF-8, ZIF-4, ZIF-zni, BIF-1-Li and CdIF-1. We find that the rates of amorphization for the zinc-containing ZIFs increase with increasing solvent accessible volume (SAV) in the sequence ZIF-8 > ZIF-4 > ZIF-zni. The Li-B analogue of the dense ZIF-zni amorphizes more slowly than the corresponding zinc phase, with the behaviour showing a correlation with their relative bulk moduli and SAVs. The cadmium analogue of ZIF-8 (CdIF-1) amorphizes more rapidly than the zinc counterpart, which we ascribe primarily to its relatively weak M-N bonds as well as the higher SAV. The results for the ZIFs are compared to three classical zeolites - Na-X, Na-Y and ZSM-5 - with these taking up to four times longer to amorphize. The presence of adsorbed solvent in the pores is found to render both ZIF and zeolite frameworks more resistant to amorphization. X-ray total scattering measurements show that amorphous ZIF-zni is structurally indistinguishable from amorphous ZIF-4 with both structures retaining the same short-range order that is present in their crystalline precursors. By contrast, both X-ray total scattering measurements and (113)Cd NMR measurements point to changes in the local environment of amorphous CdIF-1 compared with its crystalline CdIF-1 precursor.

  19. Acid Gas Stability of Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks: Generalized Kinetic and Thermodynamic Characteristics

    SciT

    Bhattacharyya, Souryadeep; Han, Rebecca; Kim, Wun -Gwi

    Here, acid gases such as SO 2 and CO 2 are present in many environments in which the use of nanoporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is envisaged. Among metal-organic frameworks, zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) have been extensively explored as membranes or adsorbents. However, there is little systematic knowledge of the effects of acid gas exposure on the structure of ZIFs, in particular the mechanistic aspects of ZIF degradation by acid gases as well as the effects of ZIF crystal topology and linker composition on their stability. Here we present a generalized and quantitative investigation of the kinetic and thermodynamic acid gasmore » stability of a diverse range of ZIF materials. The stability of 16 ZIFs (of SOD, RHO, ANA, and GME topologies) under different environments – humid air, liquid water, and acid gases CO 2 and SO 2 (dry, humid, and aqueous) – are investigated by a suite of experimental and computational methods. The kinetics of ZIF degradation under exposure to humid SO 2 is studied in detail, and effective rate constants for acid gas degradation of ZIFs are reported for the first time. Remarkably, the kinetics of degradation of the diverse ZIFs correlate strongly with the linker pKa and ZIF water adsorption in a manner contrary to that expected from previous predictions in the literature. Furthermore, we find that the material ZIF-71 (RHO topology) shows much higher stability relative to the other ZIFs in humid SO 2 and CO 2 environments.« less

  20. Acid Gas Stability of Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks: Generalized Kinetic and Thermodynamic Characteristics

    DOE PAGES

    Bhattacharyya, Souryadeep; Han, Rebecca; Kim, Wun -Gwi; ...

    2018-05-29

    Here, acid gases such as SO 2 and CO 2 are present in many environments in which the use of nanoporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is envisaged. Among metal-organic frameworks, zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) have been extensively explored as membranes or adsorbents. However, there is little systematic knowledge of the effects of acid gas exposure on the structure of ZIFs, in particular the mechanistic aspects of ZIF degradation by acid gases as well as the effects of ZIF crystal topology and linker composition on their stability. Here we present a generalized and quantitative investigation of the kinetic and thermodynamic acid gasmore » stability of a diverse range of ZIF materials. The stability of 16 ZIFs (of SOD, RHO, ANA, and GME topologies) under different environments – humid air, liquid water, and acid gases CO 2 and SO 2 (dry, humid, and aqueous) – are investigated by a suite of experimental and computational methods. The kinetics of ZIF degradation under exposure to humid SO 2 is studied in detail, and effective rate constants for acid gas degradation of ZIFs are reported for the first time. Remarkably, the kinetics of degradation of the diverse ZIFs correlate strongly with the linker pKa and ZIF water adsorption in a manner contrary to that expected from previous predictions in the literature. Furthermore, we find that the material ZIF-71 (RHO topology) shows much higher stability relative to the other ZIFs in humid SO 2 and CO 2 environments.« less

  1. Novel catalytic micromotor of porous zeolitic imidazolate framework-67 for precise drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linlin; Zhu, Hongli; Shi, Ying; Ge, You; Feng, Xiaomiao; Liu, Ruiqing; Li, Yi; Ma, Yanwen; Wang, Lianhui

    2018-06-07

    Micromotors hold promise as drug carriers for targeted drug delivery owing to the characteristics of self-propulsion and directional navigation. However, several defects still exist, including high cost, short movement life, low drug loading and slow release rate. Herein, a novel catalytic micromotor based on porous zeolitic imidazolate framework-67 (ZIF-67) synthesized by a greatly simplified wet chemical method assisted with ultrasonication is described as an efficient anticancer drug carrier. These porous micromotors display effective autonomous motion in hydrogen peroxide and long durable movement life of up to 90 min. Moreover, the multifunctional micromotor ZIF-67/Fe3O4/DOX exhibits excellent performance in precise drug delivery under external magnetic field with high drug loading capacity of fluorescent anticancer drug DOX up to 682 μg mg-1 owing to its porous nature, high surface area and rapid drug release based on dual stimulus of catalytic reaction and solvent effects. Therefore, these porous ZIF-67-based catalytic micromotors combine the domains of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and micomotors, thus developing potential resources for micromotors and holding great potential as label-free and precisely controlled high-quality candidates of drug delivery systems for biomedical applications.

  2. Adsorptive removal of 1-naphthol from water with Zeolitic imidazolate framework-67

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xinlong; Hu, Xiaoyan; Chen, Tao; Zhang, Shiyu; Zhou, Min

    2017-08-01

    1-Naphthol is widely used as an intermediate in the plastics, dyes, fibers and rubbers production areas, leading to the increasing detection of 1-naphthol in the soil and water environment, which is of particular concern due to its acute toxicity and negative environmental impacts. Considering the high surface area and good stability of ZIFs (zeolitic imidazole frameworks) material, ZIF-67 (a representative cobalt-based ZIFs material) was synthesized and applied as an adsorbent for removal of 1-naphthol from aqueous solution. The obtained ZIF-67 was characterized by XRD, TEM, XPS, N2 physisorption and TG, and the adsorption isotherm, kinetics, and regeneration of the adsorbent were studied in detail. The adsorption of 1-naphthol on ZIF-67 followed a pseudo-second-order equation kinetics and fitted Langmuir adsorption model with a maximum adsorption capacity of 339 mg/g at 313 K, which is much higher than that of the common adsorbents reported such as activated carbon and carbon nanotubes et al. The solution pH was found to be an important factor influencing the adsorption process, which could be explained by the predominant mechanism controlling the process, i.e. electrostatic attraction. In addition, the ZIF-67 showed desirable reusability toward 1-naphthol removal from alkaline aqueous solution.

  3. Highly nitrogen-doped porous carbon derived from zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 for CO2 capture.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiancheng; Li, Liqing; Chen, Ruofei; Wang, Chunhao; Li, Haoyang; Li, Hailong

    2018-05-18

    CO2 adsorption capacity of nitrogen-doped porous carbon depends to a large nitrogen doping levels and high surface area in previous studies. However, it seems difficult to incorporate large amounts of nitrogen while maintaining a high surface area and pore structure. Here we have reported porous carbon having a nitrogen content of up to 25.52% and specific surface area of 948 m2 g-1, which is prepared by pyrolyzing the nitrogen-containing zeolite imidazole framework-8 and urea composite at 650 °C under a nitrogen atmosphere. ZNC650 exhibits a superior CO2 uptake of 3.7 mmol g-1 at 25 ℃ and 1 bar. Experimental and theoretical results indicate that the nitrogen-containing functional groups can enhance CO2 uptake electrostatic interactions, Lewis acid-base interactions and hydrogen-bonding interactions, which are elucidated by density functional theory calculations. As CO2 adsorbent materials, these carbons have excellent adsorption capacity. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Polyacrylonitrile nanofibers with added zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIF-7) to enhance mechanical and thermal stability

    SciT

    Lee, Min Wook; An, Seongpil; Song, Kyo Yong

    2015-12-28

    Zeolitic imidazolate framework 7/polyacrylonitrile (ZIF-7/PAN) nanofiber mat of high porosity and surface area can be used as a flexible fibrous filtration membrane that is subjected to various modes of mechanical loading resulting in stresses and strains. Therefore, the stress-strain relation of ZIF-7/PAN nanofiber mats in the elastic and plastic regimes of deformation is of significant importance for numerous practical applications, including hydrogen storage, carbon dioxide capture, and molecular sensing. Here, we demonstrated the fabrication of ZIF-7/PAN nanofiber mats via electrospinning and report their mechanical properties measured in tensile tests covering the elastic and plastic domains. The effect of the matmore » fabrication temperature on the mechanical properties is elucidated. We showed the superior mechanical strength and thermal stability of the compound ZIF-7/PAN nanofiber mats in comparison with that of pure PAN nanofiber mats. Material characterization including scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, tensile tests, differential scanning calorimetry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the enhanced chemical bonds of the ZIF-7/PAN complex.« less

  5. Importance of surface modification of γ-alumina in creating its nanostructured composites with zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF-67.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Gonçalves, Alexandre A S; Zhou, Yang; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2018-05-07

    Application of zeolitic imidazolate framework-67 (ZIF-67) as an adsorbent has been greatly hindered by slow mass transfer of adsorbate molecules due to its inherent microporosity. To address this limitation, we have developed binary nanostructures composed of ZIF-67 and γ-alumina (GA) containing respectively micropores and large mesopores. The nanostructured composites were successfully prepared by coupling ZIF-67 and GA with and without surface modification with imidazole silane that mimics the building blocks of ZIF-67 to obtain GA-Im-ZIF-67 (with imidazole silane) and GA-ZIF-67 (without imidazole silane). The sizes of ZIF-67 crystals in these composites were smaller as compared to those of pure ZIF-67, and the textural properties of these composites with and without surface modification were quite similar. However, the surface grafting of alumina with imidazole silane played an important role in improving interfacial coupling between GA and ZIF-67, which resulted in significant changes in the dispersion of ZIF-67 crystals and better adsorption properties. The presence of large mesopores in the alumina-based composites containing smaller ZIF-67 crystals improved their adsorption properties toward dyes such as Rhodamine B (RhB). The RhB adsorption capacity of GA-Im-ZIF-67 was much higher than that of GA-ZIF-67, suggesting that the imidazole silane modification of GA before its coupling with ZIF-67 and the GA mesoporosity were essential for a substantial increase in the adsorption capacity of RhB. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Zeolitic imidazolate framework-coated acoustic sensors for room temperature detection of carbon dioxide and methane.

    PubMed

    Devkota, Jagannath; Kim, Ki-Joong; Ohodnicki, Paul R; Culp, Jeffrey T; Greve, David W; Lekse, Jonathan W

    2018-05-03

    The integration of nanoporous materials such as metal organic frameworks (MOFs) with sensitive transducers can result in robust sensing platforms for monitoring gases and chemical vapors for a range of applications. Here, we report on an integration of the zeolitic imidazolate framework - 8 (ZIF-8) MOF with surface acoustic wave (SAW) and thickness shear mode quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) devices to monitor carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) under ambient conditions. The MOF was directly coated on the Y-Z LiNbO3 SAW delay lines (operating frequency, f0 = 436 MHz) and AT-cut quartz TSM resonators (resonant frequency, f0 = 9 MHz) and the devices were tested for various gases in N2 under ambient conditions. The devices were able to detect the changes in CO2 or CH4 concentrations with relatively higher sensitivity to CO2, which was due to its higher adsorption potential and heavier molecular weight. The sensors showed full reversibility and repeatability which were attributed to the physisorption of the gases into the MOF and high stability of the devices. Both types of sensors showed linear responses relative to changes in the binary gas compositions thereby allowing to construct calibration curves which correlated well with the expected mass changes in the sorbent layer based on mixed-gas gravimetric adsorption isotherms measured on bulk samples. For 200 nm thick films, the SAW sensitivities to CO2 and CH4 were 1.44 × 10-6/vol% and 8 × 10-8/vol%, respectively, against the QCM sensitivities 0.24 × 10-6/vol% and 1 × 10-8/vol%, respectively, which were evaluated as the fractional change in the signal. The SAW sensors were also evaluated for 100 nm-300 nm thick films, the sensitivities of which were found to increase with the thickness due to the increased number of pores for the adsorption of a larger amount of gases. In addition, the MOF-coated SAW delay lines had a good response in wireless mode, demonstrating their potential to operate remotely for the

  7. Developing synthesis techniques for zeolitic-imidazolate framework membranes for high resolution propylene/propane separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hyuk Taek

    Propylene/propane separation is one of the most challenging separations, currently achieved by energy-intensive cryogenic distillation. Despite the great potentials for energy-efficient membrane-based propylene/propane separation processes, no commercial membranes are available due to the limitations (i.e., low selectivity) of current polymeric materials. Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) are promising membrane materials primarily due to their well-defined ultra-micropores with controllable surface chemistry along with their relatively high thermal/chemical stabilities. In particular, ZIF-8 with the effective aperture size of ~ 4.0 A has been shown very promising for propylene/propane separation. Despite the extensive research on ZIF-8 membranes, only a few of ZIF-8 membranes have displayed good propylene/propane separation performances presumably due to the challenges of controlling the microstructures of polycrystalline membranes. Since the membrane microstructures are greatly influenced by processing techniques, it is critically important to develop new techniques. In this dissertation, three state-of-the-art ZIF membrane synthesis techniques are developed. The first is a one-step in-situ synthesis technique based on the concept of counter diffusion. The technique enabled us to obtain highly propylene selective ZIF-8 membranes in less than a couple of hours with exceptional mechanical strength. Most importantly, due to the nature of the counter-diffusion concept, the new method offered unique opportunities such as healing defective membranes (i.e., poorly-intergrown) as well as significantly reducing the consumption of costly ligands and organic solvents. The second is a microwave-assisted seeding technique. Using this new seeding technique, we were able to prepare seeded supports with a high packing density in a couple of minutes, which subsequently grown into highly propylene-selective ZIF-8 membranes with an average propylene/propane selectivity of ~40

  8. Guanidinium ionic liquid-controlled synthesis of zeolitic imidazolate framework for improving its adsorption property.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chen; Liang, You; Dong, Hongqiang; Yang, Jiale; Tang, Gang; Zhang, Wenbing; Kong, Dandan; Li, Jianqiang; Cao, Yongsong

    2018-05-30

    The massive release of rhodamine B (RhB) to water system is an emerging problem, which dramatically threaten environment and human health. The development of an adsorbent with enhanced removal efficiency for RhB is urgently needed. Herein, we report an environment-friendly synthesis of high quality zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) and functional ionic liquid@ZIF-8 in water-based system without heat treatment for improving its adsorption property. Guanidinium ionic liquids (ILs) could not only act as greener agents instead of volatile bases and toxic surfactants to efficiently control the nucleation and growth rate of ZIF-8, but also were incorporated as shell material to add specific adsorption sites. The relationship between nanoparticle structure and adsorption performance for RhB was systematically investigated. Due to high surface area (1167 m 2  g -1 ), high porosity (0.79 cm 3  g -1 ), high crystallinity, nano size (about 100 nm) and monodispersity, the as-obtained ZIF-8 showed improved adsorption capacity toward RhB (80% removal efficiency). Heteropolyanion-based guanidinium IL@meso-ZIF-8 (HPAIL@meso-ZIF-8) exhibited the high RhB uptake capacity of 278 mg g -1 (higher than most of the reported adsorbents) and effectively removed 99% of RhB within 15 min. The results showed that the adsorption process of prepared materials fitted well with pseudo-second-order kinetics and Langmuir isotherm model. The existence of mesopores in ZIF-8 facilitated the diffusion of RhB and the incorporated guanidinium IL played a significant role in enhancing the adsorption affinity. Moreover, the reusability results revealed the HPAIL@meso-ZIF-8 as a highly efficient adsorbent for RhB removal with satisfactory performance and structural stability. Therefore, HPAIL@meso-ZIF-8 is one of the most promising adsorbents for organic dye removal from water. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigating the Pressure-Induced Amorphization of Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework ZIF-8: Mechanical Instability Due to Shear Mode Softening.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Aurélie U; Boutin, Anne; Fuchs, Alain H; Coudert, François-Xavier

    2013-06-06

    We provide the first molecular dynamics study of the mechanical instability that is the cause of pressure-induced amorphization of zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF-8. By measuring the elastic constants of ZIF-8 up to the amorphization pressure, we show that the crystal-to-amorphous transition is triggered by the mechanical instability of ZIF-8 under compression, due to shear mode softening of the material. No similar softening was observed under temperature increase, explaining the absence of temperature-induced amorphization in ZIF-8. We also demonstrate the large impact of the presence of adsorbate in the pores on the mechanical stability and compressibility of the framework, increasing its shear stability. This first molecular dynamics study of ZIF mechanical properties under variations of pressure, temperature, and pore filling opens the way to a more comprehensive understanding of their mechanical stability, structural transitions, and amorphization.

  10. Probing the hydrogen equilibrium and kinetics in zeolite imidazolate frameworks via molecular dynamics and quasi-elastic neutron scattering experiments.

    PubMed

    Pantatosaki, Evangelia; Jobic, Hervé; Kolokolov, Daniil I; Karmakar, Shilpi; Biniwale, Rajesh; Papadopoulos, George K

    2013-01-21

    The problem of simulating processes involving equilibria and dynamics of guest sorbates within zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIF) by means of molecular dynamics (MD) computer experiments is of growing importance because of the promising role of ZIFs as molecular "traps" for clean energy applications. A key issue for validating such an atomistic modeling attempt is the possibility of comparing the MD results, with real experiments being able to capture analogous space and time scales to the ones pertained to the computer experiments. In the present study, this prerequisite is fulfilled through the quasi-elastic neutron scattering technique (QENS) for measuring self-diffusivity, by elaborating the incoherent scattering signal of hydrogen nuclei. QENS and MD experiments were performed in parallel to probe the hydrogen motion, for the first time in ZIF members. The predicted and measured dynamics behaviors show considerable concentration variation of the hydrogen self-diffusion coefficient in the two topologically different ZIF pore networks of this study, the ZIF-3 and ZIF-8. Modeling options such as the flexibility of the entire matrix versus a rigid framework version, the mobility of the imidazolate ligand, and the inclusion of quantum mechanical effects in the potential functions were examined in detail for the sorption thermodynamics and kinetics of hydrogen and also of deuterium, by employing MD combined with Widom averaging towards studying phase equilibria. The latter methodology ensures a rigorous and efficient way for post-processing the dynamics trajectory, thereby avoiding stochastic moves via Monte Carlo simulation, over the large number of configurational degrees of freedom a nonrigid framework encompasses.

  11. Adsorption and removal of phthalic acid and diethyl phthalate from water with zeolitic imidazolate and metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nazmul Abedin; Jung, Beom K; Hasan, Zubair; Jhung, Sung Hwa

    2015-01-23

    ZIF-8 (zinc-methylimidazolate framework-8), one of the zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs), has been used for the removal of phthalic acid (H2-PA) and diethyl phthalate (DEP) from aqueous solutions via adsorption. The adsorption capacity of the ZIF-8 for H2-PA was much higher than that of a commercial activated carbon or other typical metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Because the surface area and pore volume of the adsorbents showed no favorable effect on the adsorption of H2-PA, the remarkable adsorption with ZIF-8 suggests a specific favorable interaction (electrostatic interaction) between the positively charged surface of ZIF-8 and the negatively charged PA anions. In addition, acid-base interactions also have a favorable contribution in the adsorption of H2-PA, based on the adsorptive performances of pristine and amino-functionalized MOFs and adsorption over ZIF-8 at acidic condition (pH=3.5). The reusability of ZIF-8 was also demonstrated after simple washing with methanol. On the other hand, ZIF-8 was not effective in adsorbing DEP probably because of little charge of DEP in a water solution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Formation of Double-Shelled Zinc-Cobalt Sulfide Dodecahedral Cages from Bimetallic Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks for Hybrid Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Guan, Bu Yuan; Yu, Le; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2017-06-12

    Complex metal-organic frameworks used as precursors allow design and construction of various nanostructured functional materials which might not be accessible by other methods. Here, we develop a sequential chemical etching and sulfurization strategy to prepare well-defined double-shelled zinc-cobalt sulfide (Zn-Co-S) rhombic dodecahedral cages (RDCs). Yolk-shelled zinc/cobalt-based zeolitic imidazolate framework (Zn/Co-ZIF) RDCs are first synthesized by a controlled chemical etching process, followed by a hydrothermal sulfurization reaction to prepare double-shelled Zn-Co-S RDCs. Moreover, the strategy reported in this work enables easy control of the Zn/Co molar ratio in the obtained double-shelled Zn-Co-S RDCs. Owing to the structural and compositional benefits, the obtained double-shelled Zn-Co-S RDCs exhibit enhanced performance with high specific capacitance (1266 F g -1 at 1 A g -1 ), good rate capability and long-term cycling stability (91 % retention over 10,000 cycles) as a battery-type electrode material for hybrid supercapacitors. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Design of Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework Derived Nitrogen-Doped Nanoporous Carbons Containing Metal Species for Carbon Dioxide Fixation Reactions.

    PubMed

    Toyao, Takashi; Fujiwaki, Mika; Miyahara, Kenta; Kim, Tae-Ho; Horiuchi, Yu; Matsuoka, Masaya

    2015-11-01

    Various N-doped nanoporous carbons containing metal species were prepared by direct thermal conversion of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs; ZIF-7, -8, -9, and -67) at different temperatures (600, 800, and 1000 °C). These materials were utilized as bifunctional acid-base catalysts to promote the reaction of CO2 with epoxides to form cyclic carbonates under 0.6 MPa of CO2 at 80 °C. The catalyst generated by thermal conversion of ZIF-9 at 600 °C (C600-ZIF-9) was found to exhibit a higher catalytic activity than the other ZIFs, other conventional catalysts, and other metal-organic framework catalysts. The results of various characterization techniques including elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy show that C600-ZIF-9 contains partly oxidized Co nanoparticles and N species. Temperature-programmed desorption measurements by using CO2 and NH3 as probe molecules revealed that C600-ZIF-9 has both Lewis acid and Lewis base catalytic sites. Finally, the substrate scope was extended to seven other kinds of epoxides. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Decoding Nucleation and Growth of Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework Thin Films with Atomic Force Microscopy and Vibrational Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Zafer; Filez, Matthias; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2017-08-10

    The synthesis of metal-organic framework (MOF) thin films has garnered significant attention during the past decade. By better understanding the parameters governing the nucleation and growth of such thin films, their properties can be rationally tuned, empowering their application as (reactive) membranes. Here, a combined AFM-vibrational spectroscopy research strategy is employed to detail the chemistries governing the nucleation and growth of zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) thin films, in particular isostructural Co-ZIF-67 and Zn-ZIF-8. First, a single step direct synthesis approach is used to investigate the influence of different synthesis parameters -metal/linker ratio, temperature, and metal type- on the thin film nucleation and growth behaviour. While the metal/linker ratio has a pronounced effect on the thin film nucleation rate, the temperature mainly influences the growth kinetics of nuclei forming the thin film. In addition, the nucleation and growth of ZIF thin films is shown to be highly dependent on the electronegativity of the metal type. Thin-film thickness control can be achieved by using a multistep synthesis strategy, implying repetitive applications of single step deposition under identical synthesis conditions, for which a growth mechanism is proposed. This study provides insight into the influence of synthesis parameters on the ZIF thin film properties, using tools at hand to rationally tune MOF thin film properties. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  15. Porous CNTs/Co Composite Derived from Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework: A Lightweight, Ultrathin, and Highly Efficient Electromagnetic Wave Absorber.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yichao; Liu, Xiaofang; Wei, Xiaojun; Yu, Ronghai; Shui, Jianglan

    2016-12-21

    Porous carbon nanotubes/cobalt nanoparticles (CNTs/Co) composite with dodecahedron morphology was synthesized by in situ pyrolysis of the Co-based zeolitic imidazolate framework in a reducing atmosphere. The morphology and microstructure of the composite can be well tuned by controlling the pyrolysis conditions. At lower pyrolysis temperature, the CNTs/Co composite is composed of well-dispersed Co nanoparticles and short CNT clusters with low graphitic degree. The increase of pyrolysis temperature/time promotes the growth and graphitization of CNTs and leads to the aggregation of Co nanoparticles. The optimized CNTs/Co composite exhibits strong dielectric and magnetic losses as well as a good impedance matching property. Interestingly, the CNTs/Co composite displays extremely strong electromagnetic wave absorption with a maximum reflection loss of -60.4 dB. More importantly, the matching thickness of the absorber is as thin as 1.81 mm, and the filler loading of composite in the matrix is only 20 wt %. The highly efficient absorption is closely related to the well-designed structure and the synergistic effect between CNTs and Co nanoparticles. The excellent absorbing performance together with lightweight and ultrathin thickness endows the CNTs/Co composite with the potential for application in the electromagnetic wave absorbing field.

  16. Ultra-high adsorption capacity of zeolitic imidazole framework-67 (ZIF-67) for removal of malachite green from water.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Chang, Hsuan-Ang

    2015-11-01

    Zeolitic imidazole frameworks (ZIFs), a new class of adsorbents, are proposed to adsorb Malachite Green (MG) in water. Particularly, ZIF-67 was selected owing to its stability in water and straightforward synthesis. The as-synthesized ZIF-67 was characterized and used to adsorb MG from water. Factors affecting the adsorption capacity were investigated including mixing time, temperature, the presence of salts and pH. The kinetics, adsorption isotherm and thermodynamics of the MG adsorption to ZIF-67 were also studied. The adsorption capacity of ZIF-67 for MG could be as high as 2430mgg(-1) at 20°C, which could be improved at the higher temperatures. Such an ultra-high adsorption capacity of ZIF-67 was almost 10-times of those of conventional adsorbents, including activated carbons and biopolymers. A mechanism for the high adsorption capacity was proposed and possibly attributed to the π-π stacking interaction between MG and ZIF-67. ZIF-67 also could be conveniently regenerated by washing with ethanol and the regeneration efficiency could remain 95% up to 4 cycles of the regeneration. ZIF-67 was also able to remove MG from the aquaculture wastewater, in which MG can be typically found. These features enable ZIF-67 to be one of the most effective and promising adsorbent to remove MG from water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of the solvent in the synthesis of zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) nanocrystals at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Eugenia L; Fernández, José L; Zamaro, Juan M

    2014-06-15

    The effect of the solvent on the synthesis process and on the nanocrystal characteristics of the zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) was investigated. A synthesis protocol at room temperature employing a series of aliphatic alcohols, water, dimethylformamide and acetone was employed. The results show that the solvent modifies the evolution of the reaction, altering the crystallization rates and nanocrystal sizes. Its hydrogen bond donation ability is the main factor that governs this effect. More precisely, the solvent modulates the formation of ZIF-8 nanocrystals with sizes in the range between 15 and 42 nm. When synthesized in alcohol and acetone, these nanocrystals form globular aggregates with sizes between 130 and 420 nm. In contrast, under the same synthesis conditions, when using water or dimethylformamide the ZIF phase is not developed. In alcohols other than methanol, the crystals develop pill-shaped morphologies with poorly defined facets. Moreover, a markedly fast growing kinetics is verified in these alcohols, leading to an ultra-fast crystallization of ZIF-8 in about 60s. These findings provide new information about the role of the solvent in the synthesis process of nanoZIF-8, which can be useful for controlling the crystallization rates and nanocrystal sizes of this material. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Heteropoly acid encapsulated into zeolite imidazolate framework (ZIF-67) cage as an efficient heterogeneous catalyst for Friedel–Crafts acylation

    SciT

    Ammar, Muhammad; Jiang, Sai; Ji, Shengfu, E-mail: jisf@mail.buct.edu.cn

    2016-01-15

    A new strategy has been developed for the encapsulation of the phosphotungstic heteropoly acid (H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} denoted as PTA) into zeolite imidazolate framework (ZIF-67) cage and the PTA@ZIF-67(ec) catalysts with different PTA content were prepared. The structure of the catalysts was characterized by XRD, BET, SEM, FT-IR, ICP-AES and TG. The catalytic activity and recovery properties of the catalysts for the Friedel-Crafts acylation of anisole with benzoyl chloride were evaluated. The results showed that 14.6–31.7 wt% PTA were encapsulated in the ZIF-67 cage. The PTA@ZIF-67(ec) catalysts had good catalytic activity for Friedel-Crafts acylation. The conversion of anisole canmore » reach ~100% and the selectivity of the production can reach ~94% over 26.5 wt% PTA@ZIF-67(ec) catalyst under the reaction condition of 120 °C and 6 h. After reaction, the catalyst can be easily separated from the reaction mixture by the centrifugation. The recovered catalyst can be reused five times and the selectivity can be kept over 90%. - Graphical abstract: The PTA@ZIF-67 catalysts with different PTA content were prepared by encapsulating the PTA into ZIF-67 cage and the as-synthesized catalysts exhibited good catalytic activity for the Friedel–Craft acylation of anisole with benzoyl chloride.« less

  19. Carbon materials derived from chitosan/cellulose cryogel-supported zeolite imidazole frameworks for potential supercapacitor application.

    PubMed

    Li, Zehui; Yang, Lan; Cao, Hongbin; Chang, Yu; Tang, Kexin; Cao, Zhiqin; Chang, Junjun; Cao, Youpeng; Wang, Wenbo; Gao, Meng; Liu, Chenming; Liu, Dagang; Zhao, He; Zhang, Yi; Li, Mingjie

    2017-11-01

    In order to promote sustainable development, green and renewable clean energy technologies continue to be developed to meet the growing demand for energy, such as supercapacitor, fuel cells and lithium-ion battery. It is urgent to develop appropriate nanomaterials for these energy technologies to reduce the volume of the device, improve the efficiency of energy conversion and enlarge the energy storage capacity. Here, chitosan/cellulose carbon cryogel (CCS/CCL) were designed and synthesized. Through the introduction of zeolite imidazole frameworks (ZIFs) into the chitosan/cellulose cryogels, the obtained materials showed a microstructure of ZIF-7 (a kind of ZIFs) coated chitosan/cellulose fibers (CS/CL). After carbonizing, the as-prepared carbonized ZIF-7@cellulose cryogel (NC@CCL, NC is carbonized ZIF-7) and carbonized ZIF-7@chitosan cryogel (NC@CCS) exhibited suitable microspore contents of 34.37% and 30%, respectively, and they both showed an internal resistance lower than 2Ω. Thereby, NC@CCL and NC@CCS exhibited a high specific capacitance of 150.4Fg -1 and 173.1Fg -1 , respectively, which were much higher than those of the original materials. This approach offers a facile method for improving the strength and electronic conductivity of carbon cryogel derived from nature polymers, and also efficiently inhibits the agglomeration of cryogel during carbonization in high temperature, which opens a novel avenue for the development of carbon cryogel materials for application in energy conversion systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Water-based synthesis of zeolitic imidazolate framework-90 (ZIF-90) with a controllable particle size.

    PubMed

    Shieh, Fa-Kuen; Wang, Shao-Chun; Leo, Sin-Yen; Wu, Kevin C-W

    2013-08-19

    The ZIF code: ZIF-90 materials were successfully synthesized in an optimized water-based system. The particle size, ranging from micro- to nanoscales, could be controlled by different amounts of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), Zn/imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde ratio and alcohol. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Electrochemical study of acetaminophen oxidation by gold nanoparticles supported on a leaf-like zeolitic imidazolate framework.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Meng, Tianjiao; Fan, Yanwei; Chen, Chunxia; Guo, Ziwei; Wang, Huan; Zhang, Yufan

    2018-04-03

    Decoration of leaf-like zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-L) with Au nanoparticles (NPs) by a simple self-assembly method was described in this work. The materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectra, N 2 adsorption, and thermogravimetric analysis. Acetaminophen (AP) is most commonly referred to as an over-the-counter antipyretic and analgesic, which is a key factor in relieving fever and pain. It is particular significant to take efforts and conduct research for the development of reliable methods to detect the AP. An electrochemical sensor for AP was constructed based on the Au/ZIF-L, which exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of AP with the catalytic rate constant (k cat ) of 4.27 × 10 4  M -1  s -1 and diffusion coefficient (D) of of 8.31 × 10 -5  cm 2  s -1 . Importantly, Au/ZIF-L was developed as an effective sensing platform for the detection of AP, which showed high analytical performance, such as a linear range of 3.50 μM-0.056 mM with sensitivity of 37.28 μA mM -1 , a linear range of 0.056-0.56 mM with sensitivity of 25.10 μA mM -1 , and a low limit of detection of 1.02 μM. The successfully fabricated Au/ZIF-L device can be used to accurately measure the amount of AP in pharmaceutical samples. Results implied the potential application of functionalized MOF composite materials in the field of electrocatalysis, making it particularly suitable for electroanalytical chemistry. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficient demulsification of oil-in-water emulsions using a zeolitic imidazolate framework: Adsorptive removal of oil droplets from water.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Chen, Yu-Chien; Phattarapattamawong, Songkeart

    2016-09-15

    To demulsify oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions, a zinc-based zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-8) was employed for the first time to remove oil droplets from water. ZIF-8 exhibits a high surface area and positive surface charges, making it a suitable adsorbent to adsorb negatively-charged oil droplets. Adsorption behaviors of oil droplets to ZIF-8 were studied by analyzing the adsorption kinetics and isotherm with theoretical models. The activation energy of adsorption of oil droplets to ZIF-8 was determined as 24.1kJmol(-1). The Langmuir-Freundlich (L-F) model was found to be most applicable to interpret the isotherm data and the predicated maximum adsorption capacity of ZIF-8 can reach 6633mgg(-1), revealing a promising capability of ZIF-8 for demulsification. Factors influencing the adsorption of oil droplets to ZIF-8 were investigated including temperature, pH, salt and surfactants. The adsorption capacity of ZIF-8 for oil was improved at elevated temperatures, whereas alkaline condition was unfavorable for the adsorption of oil droplets due to the electrostatic repulsion at high pH. The adsorption capacity of ZIF-8 remained similar in the presence of NaCl but it was reduced in the presence of surfactants. ZIF-8 was regenerated by a simple ethanol-washing method; the regenerated ZIF-8 exhibited more than 85% of regeneration efficiency over six cycles. Its crystalline structure also remained intact after the regeneration. These characteristics indicate that ZIF-8 can be a promising and effective adsorbent to remove oil droplets for demulsification of O/W emulsions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Zeolitic imidazolate framework-coated acoustic sensors for room temperature detection of carbon dioxide and methane

    DOE PAGES

    Devkota, Jagannath; Kim, Ki-Joong; Ohodnicki, Paul R.; ...

    2018-01-01

    The integration of nanoporous materials such as metal organic frameworks (MOFs) with sensitive transducers can result in robust sensing platforms for monitoring gases and chemical vapors for a range of applications.

  4. Self-assembled magnetic nanoparticle supported zeolitic imidazolate framework-8: An efficient adsorbent for the enrichment of triazine herbicides from fruit, vegetables, and water.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lian; Su, Ping; Deng, Yulan; Yang, Yi

    2017-02-01

    Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks have positive surface charges and high adsorption capabilities. In this work, zeolitic imidazolate frameworks-8 and negatively charged magnetic nanoparticles were self-assembled by electrostatic attraction under sonication. The extraction performance of the synthesized hybrid material was evaluated by using it as a magnetic adsorbent for the enrichment of triazine herbicides in various sample matrices prior to analysis using ultrafast liquid chromatography. The main parameters, that is, extraction time, adsorbent dosage, salt concentration, and desorption conditions, were evaluated. Under the optimum conditions, good linear responses from 2.5 to 200 ng/mL for atrazine (simazine) and 1 to 200 ng/mL for prometryn (ametryn), with correlation coefficients (R 2 ) higher than 0.9992 were obtained. The detection limits of the method (S/N = 3) were 0.18-0.72 ng/mL. The proposed method was successfully used to determine triazine herbicides in six samples, namely, apple, pear, strawberry, pakchoi, lettuce, and water. The amounts of simazine in all the fruit and vegetable samples were 10.8-25.2 ng/mL. The recoveries of all the analytes were 88.0-101.9%, with relative standard deviations of less than 8.8%. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 for efficient adsorption and removal of Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Niknam Shahrak, Mahdi; Ghahramaninezhad, Mahboube; Eydifarash, Mohsen

    2017-04-01

    Heavy metals are emerging toxic pollutants in which the development of advanced materials for their efficient adsorption and separation is thus of great significance in environmental sciences point of view. In this study, one of the zinc-based zeolitic imidazolate framework materials, known as ZIF-8, has been synthesized and used for chromium(VI) contaminant removal from water for the first time. The as-synthesized ZIF-8 adsorbent was characterized with different methodologies such as powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermo-gravimetric analysis, FT-IR, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and UV-Vis spectra of solid state. Various factors affecting removal percentage (efficiency) are experimentally investigated including pH of solution, adsorbent dosage, contact time and initial concentration of Cr(VI) to achieve the optimal condition. The obtained results indicate that the ZIF-8 shows good performance for the Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solution so that 60 min mixing of 2 g of ZIF-8 adsorbent with the 2.5 ppm of Cr(VI) solution in a neutral environment will result in the highest separation efficiency around 70%. The time needed to reach the equilibrium (maximum separation efficiency) is only 60 min for a concentration of 5 mg L -1 . Structure stability in the presence of water is also carefully examined by XRD determination of ZIF-8 under different contact times in aqueous solution, which suggests that the structure is going to be destructed after 60 min immersed in solution. Electrostatic interaction of Cr(VI) anions by positively charged ZIF-8 is responsible for Cr(VI) adsorption and separation. Moreover, equilibrium adsorption study reveals that the Cr(VI) removal process using ZIF-8 nicely fits the Langmuir and Toth isotherm models which mean the adsorbent has low heterogeneous surface with different distributions of adsorption energies during Cr(VI) adsorption. Equilibrium adsorption capacity is observed around 0.25 for 20 mg L -1 of initial Cr

  6. Fabrication of zeolitic imidazolate framework-8-methacrylate monolith composite capillary columns for fast gas chromatographic separation of small molecules.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Kareem; Badjah-Hadj-Ahmed, Ahmed Yacine; Aqel, Ahmad; ALOthman, Zeid Abdullah

    2015-08-07

    A composite zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) with a butyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate (BuMA-co-EDMA) monolithic capillary column (33.5cm long×250μm i.d.) was fabricated to enhance the separation efficiency of methacrylate monoliths toward small molecules using conventional low-pressure gas chromatography in comparison with a neat butyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate (BuMA-co-EDMA) monolithic capillary column (33.5cm long×250μm i.d.). The addition of 10mgmL(-1) ZIF-8 micro-particles increased the BET surface area of BuMA-co-EDMA by 3.4-fold. A fast separation of five linear alkanes in 36s with high resolution (Rs≥1.3) was performed using temperature program. Isothermal separation of the same sample also showed a high efficiency (3315platesm(-1) for octane) at 0.89min. Moreover, the column was able to separate skeletal isomers, such as iso-octane/octane and 2-methyl octane/nonane. In addition, an iso-butane/iso-butylene gas mixture was separated at ambient temperature. Comparison with an open tubular TR-5MS column (30m long×250μm i.d.) revealed the superiority of the composite column in separating the five-membered linear alkane mixture with 4-5 times increase in efficiency and a total separation time of 0.89min instead of 4.67min. A paint thinner sample was fully separated using the composite column in 2.43min with a good resolution (Rs≥0.89). The perfect combination between the polymeric monolith, with its high permeability, and ZIF-8, with its high surface area and flexible 0.34nm pore openings, led to the fast separation of small molecules with high efficiency and opened a new horizon in GC applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Early stage structural development of prototypical zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) in solution

    DOE PAGES

    Terban, Maxwell W.; Banerjee, Debasis; Ghose, Sanjit; ...

    2018-02-05

    Given the wide-ranging potential applications of metal organic frameworks (MOFs), an emerging imperative is to understand their formation with atomic scale precision. This will aid in designing syntheses for next-generation MOFs with enhanced properties and functionalities. Major challenges are to characterize the early-stage seeds, and the pathways to framework growth, which require synthesis coupled with in situ structural characterization sensitive to nanoscale structures in solution. Here we report measurements of an in situ synthesis of a prototypical MOF, ZIF-8, utilizing synchrotron X-ray atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis optimized for sensitivity to dilute species, complemented by mass spectrometry, electron microscopy,more » and density functional theory calculations. We observe that despite rapid formation of the crystalline product, a high concentration of Zn(2-MeIm) 4(2-MeIm=2-methylimidazolate) initially forms and persists as stable clusters over long times. A secondary, amorphous phase also pervades during the synthesis, which has a structural similarity to the final ZIF-8 and may act as an intermediate to the final product.« less

  8. Early stage structural development of prototypical zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) in solution

    SciT

    Terban, Maxwell W.; Banerjee, Debasis; Ghose, Sanjit

    Given the wide-ranging potential applications of metal organic frameworks (MOFs), an emerging imperative is to understand their formation with atomic scale precision. This will aid in designing syntheses for next-generation MOFs with enhanced properties and functionalities. Major challenges are to characterize the early-stage seeds, and the pathways to framework growth, which require synthesis coupled with in situ structural characterization sensitive to nanoscale structures in solution. Here we report measurements of an in situ synthesis of a prototypical MOF, ZIF-8, utilizing synchrotron X-ray atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis optimized for sensitivity to dilute species, complemented by mass spectrometry, electron microscopy,more » and density functional theory calculations. We observe that despite rapid formation of the crystalline product, a high concentration of Zn(2-MeIm) 4(2-MeIm=2-methylimidazolate) initially forms and persists as stable clusters over long times. A secondary, amorphous phase also pervades during the synthesis, which has a structural similarity to the final ZIF-8 and may act as an intermediate to the final product.« less

  9. Effect of pore occupancy on the acoustic properties of zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF)-8: A Brillouin spectroscopic study at ambient and low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishnan, Dhanya; Narayana, Chandrabhas

    2015-12-01

    Brillouin spectroscopy is used to study the effect of pore occupancy on the elastic constants by incorporating various guest molecules into zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF)-8. A systematic study on the effect of mass and polarizability of the guest has been carried out by incorporating alcohols of varying chain lengths at room temperature. The interaction between the guest and host affects the elastic properties, lifetimes and guest dynamics inside the pores. The elastic anisotropy was seen to reduce upon incorporation of the guests. We have also studied the temperature dependence of the acoustic modes on gas adsorption to understand the framework flexibility. The Brillouin shift of the acoustic modes increases upon temperature dependent gas adsorption with transverse acoustic modes exhibiting a larger shift. This suggests a hardening of otherwise low shear modulus of ZIF-8. Our findings give insight into the role of guest molecules and temperature in tuning the elastic properties of ZIF-8 which is important for practical applications.

  10. Sub-micron Polymer–Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework Layered Hybrids via Controlled Chemical Transformation of Naked ZnO Nanocrystal Films

    SciT

    Meckler, Stephen M.; Li, Changyi; Queen, Wendy L.

    Here we show that sub-micron coatings of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) and even ZIF–ZIF bilayers can be grown directly on polymers of intrinsic microporosity from zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystal precursor films, yielding a new class of all-microporous layered hybrids. The ZnO-to-ZIF chemical transformation proceeded in less than 30 min under microwave conditions using a solution of the imidazole ligand in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), water, or mixtures thereof. By varying the ratio of DMF to water, it was possible to control the morphology of the ZIF-on-polymer from isolated crystallites to continuous films. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction was used to confirm the presencemore » of crystalline ZIF in the thin films, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to quantify film purity, revealing films with little to no residual ZnO. The role solvent plays in the transformation mechanism is discussed in light of these findings, which suggest the ZnO nanocrystals may be necessary to localize heterogeneous nucleation of the ZIF to the polymer surface.« less

  11. Sub-micron Polymer–Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework Layered Hybrids via Controlled Chemical Transformation of Naked ZnO Nanocrystal Films

    SciT

    Meckler, Stephen M.; Li, Changyi; Queen, Wendy L.

    2015-11-02

    Here we show that sub-micron coatings of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) and even ZIF–ZIF bilayers can be grown directly on polymers of intrinsic microporosity from zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystal precursor films, yielding a new class of all-microporous layered hybrids. The ZnO-to-ZIF chemical transformation proceeded in less than 30 min under microwave conditions using a solution of the imidazole ligand in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), water, or mixtures thereof. By varying the ratio of DMF to water, it was possible to control the morphology of the ZIF-on-polymer from isolated crystallites to continuous films. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction was used to confirm the presencemore » of crystalline ZIF in the thin films, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to quantify film purity, revealing films with little to no residual ZnO. The role solvent plays in the transformation mechanism is discussed in light of these findings, which suggest the ZnO nanocrystals may be necessary to localize heterogeneous nucleation of the ZIF to the polymer surface.« less

  12. Polydopamine-reinforced magnetization of zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF-7 for magnetic solid-phase extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the air-water environment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Suling; Yao, Weixuan; Ying, Jianbo; Zhao, Hongting

    2016-06-24

    Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) consist of metal nodes connected to imidazolate linkers, having both the properties of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and inorganic zeolites, such as controllable pore sizes, high porosity and surface areas, as well as exceptional thermal and chemical stability, thereby making them a class of attractive materials for diverse analytical applications. In this study, we reported a facile magnetization process of ZIF-7 (zinc benzimidazolate) for simultaneous magnetic extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by simply mixing ZIF-7 and polydopamine (PDA)-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles (PDA@Fe3O4) in solutions. Functional groups (-OH and -NH2), provided by PDA as a highly efficient molecular linker, could attract and anchor ZIF-7 through noncovalent adsorption and covalent cross-link interactions, thereby promoting the complete magnetization of ZIFs and enhancing their stability and reusability. The bridging ligand benzimidazolate, could be bonded with PAHs because of its high surface area, large pores, accessible coordinative unsaturated sites (π-complexation), and π-π stacking action. This ZIF-based magnetic solid-phase extraction (SPE), coupled with gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS), was further evaluated for analysis of PAHs from rainwater and air samples of particulate matter less than 2.5μm in diameter (PM2.5). The main effective parameters, including ionic strength, solution pH, extraction time, desorption solvent and desorption time, were investigated, respectively. Under optimized conditions, the developed method based on Fe3O4@PDA/ZIF-7 gave detection limits of 0.71-5.79ng/L, and quantification limits of 2.50-19.2ng/L for PAHs, respectively. The relative standard deviations for intra-day and inter-day analyses were in the range of 3.1-9.1% and 6.1-12.7%, respectively. The PAHs founded in PM2.5 were in the range of 0.40-6.79ng/m(3). Good recoveries (>82%) with low relative standard deviations

  13. Controllable Construction of Core-Shell Polymer@Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks Fiber Derived Heteroatom-Doped Carbon Nanofiber Network for Efficient Oxygen Electrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yingxuan; Lai, Qingxue; Zhu, Junjie; Zhong, Jia; Tang, Zeming; Luo, Yan; Liang, Yanyu

    2018-05-01

    Designing rational nanostructures of metal-organic frameworks based carbon materials to promote the bifunctional catalytic activity of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is highly desired but still remains a great challenge. Herein, an in situ growth method to achieve 1D structure-controllable zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) core/shell fiber (PAN@ZIFs) is developed. Subsequent pyrolysis of this precursor can obtain a heteroatom-doped carbon nanofiber network as an efficient bifunctional oxygen electrocatalyst. The electrocatalytic performance of derived carbon nanofiber is dominated by the structures of PAN@ZIFs fiber, which is facilely regulated by efficiently controlling the nucleation and growth process of ZIFs on the surface of polymer fiber as well as optimizing the components of ZIFs. Benefiting from the core-shell structures with appropriate dopants and porosity, as-prepared catalysts show brilliant bifunctional ORR/OER catalytic activity and durability. Finally, the rechargeable Zn-air battery assembled from the optimized catalyst (CNF@Zn/CoNC) displays a peak power density of 140.1 mW cm -2 , energy density of 878.9 Wh kg Zn -1 , and excellent cyclic stability over 150 h, giving a promising performance in realistic application. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Effect of Pore Topology and Accessibility on Gas Adsorption Capacity in Zeolitic-Imidazolate Frameworks: Bringing Molecular Simulation Close to Experiment

    SciT

    Babarao, Ravichandar; Dai, Sheng; Jiang, Deen

    2011-01-01

    When all cages are assumed to be accessible, popular force fields such as universal force field (UFF) and DREIDING dramatically overpredicted gas adsorption capacity in two widely studied zeolitic-imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs), ZIF-68 and -69. Instead of adjusting the force-field parameters to match the experiments, herein we show that when the pore topology and accessibility are correctly taken into account, simulations with the standard force fields agree very well with the experiments. Careful inspection shows that ZIF-68 and -69 have two one-dimensional channels, which are not interaccessible to gases. The small channel consists of alternating small (HPR) and medium (GME) cages,more » while the large channel comprises the large (KNO) cages. Our analysis indicates that the small channel is not accessible to gases such as CO{sub 2}. So when the cages in the small channel are intentionally blocked in our simulation, the predicted adsorption capacities of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2} at room temperature from standard force-field parameters for the framework show excellent agreement with the experimental results. In the case of H{sub 2}, all cages are accessible, so simulation results without cage-blocking show excellent agreement with experiment. Due to the promising potential of ZIFs in gas storage and separation, our work here shows that pore topology and accessibility should be carefully examined to understand how gases adsorb in ZIFs.« less

  15. Flexible and porous cellulose aerogels/zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-8) hybrids for adsorption removal of Cr(IV) from water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Shaoguo; Ren, Wenjing; Lei, Chao; Xie, Yuanbo; Cai, Yurong; Wang, Shunli; Gao, Junkuo; Ni, Qingqing; Yao, Juming

    2018-06-01

    The low cost of adsorption treatment of heavy metal ions in water has been extensively studied. In this paper, we have demonstrated a facile method of combining two emerging materials cellulose aerogels (CA) and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) into one highly functional aerogel to adsorption removal of heavy metal ions from water, by entrapping MOF particles into a flexible and porous CA. The resultant hybrid cellulose aerogels had a highly porous structure with zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) loadings can reach 30 wt%. The hybrid cellulose aerogels (named as ZIF-8@CA) show good adsorption capacity for Cr(Ⅵ). The adsorption process of ZIF-8@CA is better described by pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm, with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 41.8 mg g-1 for Cr(Ⅵ), whose adsorption capacity has greatly improved when compared with a single CA or ZIF-8. Thus, such a flexible and durable hybrid cellulose aerogel is a very prospective material for metal ions cleanup and industrial wastewater purification.

  16. Highly efficient removal of Malachite green from water by a magnetic reduced graphene oxide/zeolitic imidazolate framework self-assembled nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Lee, Wei-Der

    2016-01-01

    Compared to the relatively low adsorption capacities of conventional adsorbents for Malachite Green (MG) (i.e., ∼500 mg g-1), zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) appears to be a promising adsorbent considering its significantly high adsorption capacity (i.e., >2000 mg g-1). Nevertheless, using such a nano-scale ZIF material for adsorption may lead to secondary contamination from the release of nanomaterials to the environment. Thus, ZIF has to be recovered conveniently to prevent the secondary contamination and facilitate the separation of adsorbent from water after adsorption. To this end, in this study ZIF nanocrystals were loaded on the sheet-like magnetic reduced graphene oxide (MRGO) to form a self-assembled MRGO/ZIF. The self-assembly of MRGO/ZIF was achieved possibly via the electrostatic attraction and the π-π stacking interaction between MRGO and ZIF. The resultant MRGO/ZIF exhibited an ultra-high adsorption capacity for MG (∼3000 mg g-1). The adsorption kinetics, isotherm, activation and thermodynamics were also determined. Other factors affecting the adsorption were examined including temperature, pH and co-existing ions/compound. To demonstrate that MRGO/ZIF can be recovered and reused, a multiple-cycle of MG adsorption using the regenerated MRGO/ZIF was revealed and the recyclability remained highly efficient and stable. The highly-effective, recoverable and re-usable features enable MRGO/ZIF a promising adsorbent to remove MG from water.

  17. Design of a porous cobalt sulfide nanosheet array on Ni foam from zeolitic imidazolate frameworks as an advanced electrode for supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Han, Xue; Tao, Kai; Wang, Ding; Han, Lei

    2018-02-08

    Porous nanosheet-structured electrode materials are very attractive for the high efficiency storage of electrochemical energy. Herein, a porous cobalt sulfide nanosheet array on Ni foam (Co 9 S 8 -NSA/NF) is successfully fabricated by a facile method, which involves the uniform growth of 2D Co-based leaf-like zeolitic imidazole frameworks (Co-ZIF-L) on Ni foam followed by subsequent sulfurization with thioacetamide (TAA). Benefiting from the unique porous nanosheet array architecture and conductive substrate, the Co 9 S 8 -NSA/NF exhibits excellent electrochemical performance with a high capacitance (1098.8 F g -1 at 0.5 A g -1 ), good rate capacity (54.6% retention at 10 A g -1 ) and long-term stability (87.4% retention over 1000 cycles), when acted as a binder-free electrode for supercapacitors. Furthermore, an assembled asymmetric supercapacitor device using the as-fabricated Co 9 S 8 -NSA as the positive electrode and activated carbon (AC) as the negative electrode also exhibits a high energy density of 20.0 W h kg -1 at a high power density of 828.5 W kg -1 . The method developed here can be extended to the construction of other structured metal (mono or mixed) sulfide electrode materials for more efficient energy storage.

  18. Zeolitic imidazolate framework-8-derived N-doped porous carbon coated olive-shaped FeOx nanoparticles for lithium storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Qingmeng; Zhao, Kuangmin; He, Zhen; Liu, Suqin; Li, Aikui

    2018-04-01

    We propose a new strategy to uniformly coat zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) on iron oxides containing no Zn to obtain an α-Fe2O3@ZIF-8 composite. After carbonization, the α-Fe2O3@ZIF-8 transforms into iron oxides@N-doped porous carbon (FeOx@NC). The uniform N-doped porous carbon layer gives rise to a superior electrical conductivity, highly-increased specific BET surface area (179.2 m2 g-1), and abundant mesopores for the FeOx@NC composite. When served as the LIB anode, the FeOx@NC shows a high reversible capacity (of 1064 mA h g-1 at 200 mA g-1), excellent rate performance (of 198.1 mA h g-1 at 10000 mA g-1) as well as brilliant long-term cyclability (with a capacity retention of 93.3% after 800 cycles), which are much better than those of the FeOx@C and pristine FeOx anodes. Specifically, the Li-ion intercalation pseudocapacitive behavior of the FeOx@NC anode is improved by this N-doped porous carbon coating, which is beneficial for rapid Li-ion insertion/extraction processes. The excellent electrochemical performance of FeOx@NC should be ascribed to the increased electrolyte penetration areas, improved electrical conductivity, boosted lithium storage kinetics, and shortened Li-ion transport length.

  19. Zeolitic imidazolate framework-7: Novel ammonia atmosphere-assisted synthesis, thermal and chemical durability, phase reversibility and potential as highly efficient nanophotocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi, Arash; Mansournia, Mohammadreza

    2018-07-01

    This is the first representation of novel sodalite zeolitic imidazolate framework-7 (ZIF-7) which has been made in ethanolic solution at room temperature via an ammonia atmosphere. High thermal stability up to 400 °C is representative of great persistence which has been proved by XRD and TG data. Chemical durability of the as-made ZIF-7 especially at boiled DMF exhibited by XRD patterns can present it as an interesting material without structural alteration after treatment in such harsh condition. Reversible phase transformation of ZIF-7 was totally checked by immersing in ethanol and DMF indicated that the framework can maintain its structural flexibility under heat and solvent treatment. Moreover, the "gate-opening" phenomenon performed by CO2 adsorption-desorption reveals structural breathing effect of ZIF-7 framework that makes it as potential material in CO2 adsorption/separation. In the end, the sacrificial metal-doped (Mn2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Cd2+ and Ag+) ZIF-7 precursors were applied for preparation of their corresponded metal-doped ZnO as the heterogeneous catalyst to degrade Rhodamine-B (RhB) dye in water under UV-irradiation (up to 99% within 90 min by 0.5% Ag-ZnO (S15)). The recyclability experiment after 5 runs for the optimized catalyst demonstrated that the metal-doped ZnO can be operated consecutively without remarkable decreasing in its activity. These observations exhibit the excellent and beneficial properties of metal-doped ZnO can be as heterogeneous photocatalyst for the removal of organic contaminants in water.

  20. Modified zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 as solid-phase microextraction Arrow coating for sampling of amines in wastewater and food samples followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lan, Hangzhen; Rönkkö, Tuukka; Parshintsev, Jevgeni; Hartonen, Kari; Gan, Ning; Sakeye, Motolani; Sarfraz, Jawad; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa

    2017-02-24

    In this study, a novel solid phase microextration (SPME) Arrow was prepared for the sampling of volatile low molecular weight alkylamines (trimethylamine (TMA) and triethylamine (TEA)) in wastewater, salmon and mushroom samples before gas chromatographic separation with mass spectrometer as detector. Acidified zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (A-ZIF-8) was utilized as adsorbent and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) as the adhesive. The custom SPME Arrow was fabricated via a physical adhesion: (1) ZIF-8 particles were suspended in a mixture of tetrahydrofuran (THF) and PVC to form a homogeneous suspension, (2) a non-coated stainless steel SPME Arrow was dipped in the ZIF-8/PVC suspension for several times to obtain a uniform and thick coating, (3) the pore size of ZIF-8 was modified by headspace exposure to hydrochloric acid in order to increase the extraction efficiency for amines. The effect of ZIF-8 concentration in PVC solution, dipping cycles and aging temperature on extraction efficiency was investigated. In addition, sampling parameters such as NaCl concentration, sample volume, extraction time, potassium hydroxide concentration, desorption temperature and desorption time were optimized. The Arrow-to-Arrow reproducibilities (RSDs) for five ZIF-8 coated Arrows were 15.6% and 13.3% for TMA and TEA, respectively. The extraction with A-ZIF-8/PVC Arrow was highly reproducible for at least 130 cycles without noticeable decrease of performance (RSD<12.5%). Headspace SPME of 7.5mL sample solution with the fabricated ZIF-8 coated Arrow achieved linear ranges of 1-200ngmL -1 for both TMA and TEA. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 1ngmL -1 for both TMA and TEA. The method was successfully applied to the determination of TMA and TEA in wastewater, salmon and mushroom samples giving satisfactory selectivity towards the studied amines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Structure Elucidation of Mixed-Linker Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks by Solid-State (1)H CRAMPS NMR Spectroscopy and Computational Modeling.

    PubMed

    Jayachandrababu, Krishna C; Verploegh, Ross J; Leisen, Johannes; Nieuwendaal, Ryan C; Sholl, David S; Nair, Sankar

    2016-06-15

    Mixed-linker zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) are nanoporous materials that exhibit continuous and controllable tunability of properties like effective pore size, hydrophobicity, and organophilicity. The structure of mixed-linker ZIFs has been studied on macroscopic scales using gravimetric and spectroscopic techniques. However, it has so far not been possible to obtain information on unit-cell-level linker distribution, an understanding of which is key to predicting and controlling their adsorption and diffusion properties. We demonstrate the use of (1)H combined rotation and multiple pulse spectroscopy (CRAMPS) NMR spin exchange measurements in combination with computational modeling to elucidate potential structures of mixed-linker ZIFs, particularly the ZIF 8-90 series. All of the compositions studied have structures that have linkers mixed at a unit-cell-level as opposed to separated or highly clustered phases within the same crystal. Direct experimental observations of linker mixing were accomplished by measuring the proton spin exchange behavior between functional groups on the linkers. The data were then fitted to a kinetic spin exchange model using proton positions from candidate mixed-linker ZIF structures that were generated computationally using the short-range order (SRO) parameter as a measure of the ordering, clustering, or randomization of the linkers. The present method offers the advantages of sensitivity without requiring isotope enrichment, a straightforward NMR pulse sequence, and an analysis framework that allows one to relate spin diffusion behavior to proposed atomic positions. We find that structures close to equimolar composition of the two linkers show a greater tendency for linker clustering than what would be predicted based on random models. Using computational modeling we have also shown how the window-type distribution in experimentally synthesized mixed-linker ZIF-8-90 materials varies as a function of their composition. The

  2. Highly sensitive analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental water with porous cellulose/zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 composite microspheres as a novel adsorbent coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiaotong; Liu, Shengquan; Zhu, Rong; Xiao, Lixia; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2016-07-01

    In this work, novel cellulose/zeolitic imidazolate frameworks-8 composite microspheres have been successfully fabricated and utilized as sorbent for environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons efficient extraction and sensitive analysis. The composite microspheres were synthesized through the in situ hydrothermal growth of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks-8 on cellulose matrix, and exhibited favorable hierarchical structure with chemical composition as assumed through scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction patterns, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface areas characterization. A robust and highly efficient method was then successfully developed with as-prepared composite microspheres as novel solid-phase extraction sorbent with optimum extraction conditions, such as sorbent amount, sample volume, extraction time, desorption conditions, volume of organic modifier, and ionic strength. The method exhibited high sensitivity with low limit of detection down to 0.1-1.0 ng/L and satisfactory linearity with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9988 to 0.9999, as well as good recoveries of 66.7-121.2% with relative standard deviations less than 10% for environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons analysis. Thus, our method was convenient and efficient for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons extraction and detection, potential for future environmental water samples analysis. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Preparation of functionalized zeolitic frameworks

    DOEpatents

    Yaghi, Omar M; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Wang, Bo

    2013-07-09

    The disclosure provides zeolitic frameworks for gas separation, gas storage, catalysis and sensors. More particularly the disclosure provides zeolitic frameworks (ZIFs). The ZIF of the disclosure comprises any number of transition metals or a homogenous transition metal composition.

  4. Preparation of functionalized zeolitic frameworks

    DOEpatents

    Yaghi, Omar M; Hayashi, Hideki; Banerjee, Rahul; Park, Kyo Sung; Wang, Bo; Cote, Adrien P

    2012-11-20

    The disclosure provides zeolitic frameworks for gas separation, gas storage, catalysis and sensors. More particularly the disclosure provides zeolitic frameworks (ZIFs). The ZIF of the disclosure comprises any number of transition metals or a homogenous transition metal composition.

  5. Preparation of functionalized zeolitic frameworks

    DOEpatents

    Yaghi, Omar M.; Hayashi, Hideki; Banerjee, Rahul; Park, Kyo Sung; Wang, Bo; Cote, Adrien P.

    2014-08-19

    The disclosure provides zeolitic frameworks for gas separation, gas storage, catalysis and sensors. More particularly the disclosure provides zeolitic frameworks (ZIFs). The ZIF of the disclosure comprises any number of transition metals or a homogenous transition metal composition.

  6. One-pot synthesis of zeolitic imidazolate framework-8/poly (methyl methacrylate-ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate) monolith coating for stir bar sorptive extraction of phytohormones from fruit samples followed by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection.

    PubMed

    You, Linna; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin

    2017-11-17

    In this work, zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8)/poly (methyl methacrylate-ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate) (MMA-EGDMA) composite monolith was in situ synthesized on stir bar by one-pot polymerization. Compared with the neat monolith, ZIF-8/poly(MMA-EGDMA) composite monolith has larger surface area and pore volume. It also exhibits higher extraction efficiency for target phytohormones than poly(MMA-EGDMA) monolith and commercial polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated stir bar. Based on it, a method of ZIF-8/poly(MMA-EGDMA) monolith coated stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE)-high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) was established for the analysis of five phytohormones in apple and pear samples. The developed method exhibited low limits of detection (0.11-0.51μg/L), wide linear range (0.5-500μg/L) and good recoveries (82.7-111%), which demonstrated good application potential of the ZIF-8/monolith coated stir bar in trace analysis of organic compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Bimetallic Cobalt-Based Phosphide Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework: CoP x Phase-Dependent Electrical Conductivity and Hydrogen Atom Adsorption Energy for Efficient Overall Water Splitting

    SciT

    Song, Junhua; Zhu, Chengzhou; Xu, Bo Z.

    Cobalt-based bimetallic phosphide encapsulated in carbonized zeolitic imadazolate frameworks has been successfully synthesized and showed excellent activities toward both hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Density functional theory calculation and electrochemical measurements reveal that the electrical conductivity and electrochemical activity are closely associated with the Co2P/CoP mixed phase behaviors upon Cu metal doping. This relationship is found to be the decisive factor for enhanced electrocatalytic performance. Moreover, the precise control of Cu content in Co-host lattice effectively alters the Gibbs free energy for H* adsorption, which is favorable for facilitating reaction kinetics. Impressively, an optimized performance hasmore » been achieved with mild Cu doping in Cu0.3Co2.7P/nitrogen-doped carbon (NC) which exhibits an ultralow overpotential of 0.19 V at 10 mA cm–2 and satisfying stability for OER. Cu0.3Co2.7P/NC also shows excellent HER activity, affording a current density of 10 mA cm–2 at a low overpotential of 0.22 V. In addition, a homemade electrolyzer with Cu0.3Co2.7P/NC paired electrodes shows 60% larger current density than Pt/ RuO2 couple at 1.74 V, along with negligible catalytic deactivation after 50 h operation. The manipulation of electronic structure by controlled incorporation of second metal sheds light on understanding and synthesizing bimetallic transition metal phosphides for electrolysis-based energy conversion.« less

  8. A Co₃O₄-embedded porous ZnO rhombic dodecahedron prepared using zeolitic imidazolate frameworks as precursors for CO₂ photoreduction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Shi, Li; Tang, Jing; Malgras, Victor; Asahina, Shunsuke; Liu, Guigao; Zhang, Huabin; Meng, Xianguang; Chang, Kun; He, Jianping; Terasaki, Osamu; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Ye, Jinhua

    2016-03-28

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are attracting considerable attention for their use as both the precursor and the template to prepare metal oxides or carbon-based materials. For the first time in this paper, the core-shell ZIF-8@ZIF-67 crystals are thermally converted into porous ZnO@Co3O4 composites by combining a seed-mediated growth process with a two-step calcination. The designed porous ZnO@Co3O4 composites exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity with an excellent stability for the reduction of CO2 among the commonly reported composite photocatalysts. Their superior photocatalytic performance is demonstrated to be resulting from the unique porous structure of ZnO@Co3O4 and the co-catalytic function of Co3O4 which can effectively suppress the photocorrosion of ZnO.

  9. A Co3O4-embedded porous ZnO rhombic dodecahedron prepared using zeolitic imidazolate frameworks as precursors for CO2 photoreduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Shi, Li; Tang, Jing; Malgras, Victor; Asahina, Shunsuke; Liu, Guigao; Zhang, Huabin; Meng, Xianguang; Chang, Kun; He, Jianping; Terasaki, Osamu; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Ye, Jinhua

    2016-03-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are attracting considerable attention for their use as both the precursor and the template to prepare metal oxides or carbon-based materials. For the first time in this paper, the core-shell ZIF-8@ZIF-67 crystals are thermally converted into porous ZnO@Co3O4 composites by combining a seed-mediated growth process with a two-step calcination. The designed porous ZnO@Co3O4 composites exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity with an excellent stability for the reduction of CO2 among the commonly reported composite photocatalysts. Their superior photocatalytic performance is demonstrated to be resulting from the unique porous structure of ZnO@Co3O4 and the co-catalytic function of Co3O4 which can effectively suppress the photocorrosion of ZnO.Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are attracting considerable attention for their use as both the precursor and the template to prepare metal oxides or carbon-based materials. For the first time in this paper, the core-shell ZIF-8@ZIF-67 crystals are thermally converted into porous ZnO@Co3O4 composites by combining a seed-mediated growth process with a two-step calcination. The designed porous ZnO@Co3O4 composites exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity with an excellent stability for the reduction of CO2 among the commonly reported composite photocatalysts. Their superior photocatalytic performance is demonstrated to be resulting from the unique porous structure of ZnO@Co3O4 and the co-catalytic function of Co3O4 which can effectively suppress the photocorrosion of ZnO. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional TG and DTA curves, XRD patterns, SEM images, TEM images, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and GC-MS spectra of the samples. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08747c

  10. Biological applications of zinc imidazole framework through protein encapsulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pawan; Bansal, Vasudha; Paul, A. K.; Bharadwaj, Lalit M.; Deep, Akash; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2016-10-01

    The robustness of biomolecules is always a significant challenge in the application of biostorage in biotechnology or pharmaceutical research. To learn more about biostorage in porous materials, we investigated the feasibility of using zeolite imidazolate framework (ZIF-8) with respect to protein encapsulation. Here, bovine serum albumin (BSA) was selected as a model protein for encapsulation with the synthesis of ZIF-8 using water as a media. ZIF-8 exhibited excellent protein adsorption capacity through successive adsorption of free BSA with the formation of hollow crystals. The loading of protein in ZIF-8 crystals is affected by the molecular weight due to diffusion-limited permeation inside the crystals and also by the affinity of the protein to the pendent group on the ZIF-8 surface. The polar nature of BSA not only supported adsorption on the solid surface, but also enhanced the affinity of crystal spheres through weak coordination interactions with the ZIF-8 framework. The novel approach tested in this study was therefore successful in achieving protein encapsulation with porous, biocompatible, and decomposable microcrystalline ZIF-8. The presence of both BSA and FITC-BSA in ZIF-8 was confirmed consistently by spectroscopy as well as optical and electron microscopy.

  11. Predictive framework for shape-selective separations in three-dimensional zeolites and metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    First, Eric L; Gounaris, Chrysanthos E; Floudas, Christodoulos A

    2013-05-07

    With the growing number of zeolites and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) available, computational methods are needed to screen databases of structures to identify those most suitable for applications of interest. We have developed novel methods based on mathematical optimization to predict the shape selectivity of zeolites and MOFs in three dimensions by considering the energy costs of transport through possible pathways. Our approach is applied to databases of over 1800 microporous materials including zeolites, MOFs, zeolitic imidazolate frameworks, and hypothetical MOFs. New materials are identified for applications in gas separations (CO2/N2, CO2/CH4, and CO2/H2), air separation (O2/N2), and chemicals (propane/propylene, ethane/ethylene, styrene/ethylbenzene, and xylenes).

  12. Pore closure in zeolitic imidazolate frameworks under mechanical pressure† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details; synthetic procedures; supplementary data analyses; additional PXRD, thermal and elemental analyses as well as IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy data. See DOI: 10.1039/c7sc04952h

    PubMed Central

    Wharmby, Michael T.; Kieslich, Gregor; Hante, Inke; Schneemann, Andreas; Wu, Yue; Daisenberger, Dominik; Cheetham, Anthony K.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the pressure-dependent mechanical behaviour of the zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF-4 (M(im)2; M2+ = Co2+ or Zn2+, im– = imidazolate) with high pressure, synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction and mercury intrusion measurements. A displacive phase transition from a highly compressible open pore (op) phase with continuous porosity (space group Pbca, bulk modulus ∼1.4 GPa) to a closed pore (cp) phase with inaccessible porosity (space group P21/c, bulk modulus ∼3.3–4.9 GPa) is triggered by the application of mechanical pressure. Over the course of the transitions, both ZIF-4 materials contract by about 20% in volume. However, the threshold pressure, the reversibility and the immediate repeatability of the phase transition depend on the metal cation. ZIF-4(Zn) undergoes the op–cp phase transition at a hydrostatic mechanical pressure of only 28 MPa, while ZIF-4(Co) requires about 50 MPa to initiate the transition. Interestingly, ZIF-4(Co) fully returns to the op phase after decompression, whereas ZIF-4(Zn) remains in the cp phase after pressure release and requires subsequent heating to switch back to the op phase. These variations in high pressure behaviour can be rationalised on the basis of the different electron configurations of the respective M2+ ions (3d10 for Zn2+ and 3d7 for Co2+). Our results present the first examples of op–cp phase transitions (i.e. breathing transitions) of ZIFs driven by mechanical pressure and suggest potential applications of these functional materials as shock absorbers, nanodampers, or in mechanocalorics. PMID:29675212

  13. Loading Ag nanoparticles on Cd(II) boron imidazolate framework for photocatalysis

    SciT

    Liu, Min; State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002; Zhang, De-Xiang

    2016-05-15

    An amine-functionalized Cd(II) boron imidazolate framework (BIF-77) with three-dimensional open structure has been successfully synthesized, which can load Ag nanoparticles (NPs) for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB). - Graphical abstract: An amine-functionalized neutral Cd(II) boron imidazolate framework can load Ag NPs and show excellent photocatalytic degradation behavious for MB. - Highlights: • Amine-functionalization. • Neutral boron imidazolate framework. • Loading Ag nanoparticles (NPs). • Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue.

  14. Investigation of Oxygen Reduction Activity of Catalysts Derived from Co and Co/Zn Methyl-Imidazolate Frameworks in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    SciT

    Chong, Lina; Goenaga, Gabriel A.; Williams, Kia

    We demonstrated that the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity over the catalysts derived from pyrolyzed cobalt zeolitic imidazolate frameworks depends strongly on the imidazole ligand structure and cobalt content. The activity and durability of these catalysts were tested in the proton exchange membrane fuel cell for the first time. The membrane electrode assembly containing a catalyst derived from Co/Zn bimetallic ZIF at cathode achieved an open circuit voltage of 0.93 V, a current density of 28 mA cm-2 at 0.8 ViR-free and a peak power density of 374 mW cm-2.

  15. Stacking Faults and Mechanical Behavior beyond the Elastic Limit of an Imidazole-Based Metal Organic Framework: ZIF-8.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Vinay I; Tan, Jin-Chong; Waghmare, Umesh V; Cheetham, Anthony K

    2013-10-17

    We determine the nonlinear mechanical behavior of a prototypical zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-8) along two modes of mechanical failure in response to tensile and shear forces using first-principles simulations. Our generalized stacking fault energy surface reveals an intrinsic stacking fault of surprisingly low energy comparable to that in copper, though the energy barrier associated with its formation is much higher. The lack of vibrational spectroscopic evidence for such faults in experiments can be explained with the structural instability of the barrier state to form a denser and disordered state of ZIF-8 seen in our analysis, that is, large shear leads to its amorphization rather than formation of faults.

  16. Hydrogen storage in Chabazite zeolite frameworks.

    PubMed

    Regli, Laura; Zecchina, Adriano; Vitillo, Jenny G; Cocina, Donato; Spoto, Giuseppe; Lamberti, Carlo; Lillerud, Karl P; Olsbye, Unni; Bordiga, Silvia

    2005-09-07

    We have recently highlighted that H-SSZ-13, a highly siliceous zeolite (Si/Al = 11.6) with a chabazitic framework, is the most efficient zeolitic material for hydrogen storage [A. Zecchina, S. Bordiga, J. G. Vitillo, G. Ricchiardi, C. Lamberti, G. Spoto, M. Bjørgen and K. P. Lillerud, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2005, 127, 6361]. The aim of this new study is thus to clarify both the role played by the acidic strength and by the density of the polarizing centers hosted in the same framework topology in the increase of the adsorptive capabilities of the chabazitic materials towards H2. To achieve this goal, the volumetric experiments of H2 uptake (performed at 77 K) and the transmission IR experiment of H2 adsorption at 15 K have been performed on H-SSZ-13, H-SAPO-34 (the isostructural silico-aluminophosphate material with the same Brønsted site density) and H-CHA (the standard chabazite zeolite: Si/Al = 2.1) materials. We have found that a H2 uptake improvement has been obtained by increasing the acidic strength of the Brønsted sites (moving from H-SAPO-34 to H-SSZ-13). Conversely, the important increase of the Brønsted sites density (moving from H-SSZ-13 to H-CHA) has played a negative role. This unexpected behavior has been explained as follows. The additional Brønsted sites are in mutual interaction via H-bonds inside the small cages of the chabazitic framework and for most of them the energetic cost needed to displace the adjacent OH ligand is higher than the adsorption enthalpy of the OH...H2 adduct. From our work it can be concluded that proton exchanged chabazitic frameworks represent, among zeolites, the most efficient materials for hydrogen storage. We have shown that a proper balance between available space (volume accessible to hydrogen), high contact surface, and specific interaction with strong and isolated polarizing centers are the necessary characteristics requested to design better materials for molecular H2 storage.

  17. Copper(II) imidazolate frameworks as highly efficient photocatalysts for reduction of CO{sub 2} into methanol under visible light irradiation

    SciT

    Li, Jingtian; Luo, Deliang; Yang, Chengju

    2013-07-15

    Three copper(II) imidazolate frameworks were synthesized by a hydrothermal (or precipitation) reaction. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), thermogravimetry (TG). Meanwhile, the photocatalytic activities of the samples for reduction of CO{sub 2} into methanol and degradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation were also investigated. The results show that the as-prepared samples exhibit better photocatalytic activities for the reduction of carbon dioxide into methanol with water and degradation of MB under visible light irradiation. The orthorhombic copper(II) imidazolate frameworks with a bandmore » gap of 2.49 eV and green (G) color has the best photocatalytic activity for reduction of CO{sub 2} into methanol, 1712.7 μmol/g over 5 h, which is about three times as large as that of monoclinic copper(II) imidazolate frameworks with a band gap 2.70 eV and blue (J) color. The degradation kinetics of MB over three photocatalysts fitted well to the apparent first-order rate equation and the apparent rate constants for the degradation of MB over G, J and P (with pink color) are 0.0038, 0.0013 and 0.0016 min{sup −1}, respectively. The synergistic effects of smallest band gap and orthorhombic crystal phase structure are the critical factors for the better photocatalytic activities of G. Moreover, three frameworks can also be stable up to 250 °C. The investigation of Cu-based zeolitic imidazolate frameworks maybe provide a design strategy for a new class of photocatalysts applied in degradation of contaminations, reduction of CO{sub 2}, and even water splitting into hydrogen and oxygen under visible light. - Graphical abstract: Carbon dioxide was reduced into methanol with water over copper(II) imidazolate frameworks under visible light irradiation. - Highlights: • Three

  18. Porous Metal Carboxylate Boron Imidazolate Frameworks (MC-BIFs)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shoutian; Wu, Tao; Zhang, Jian; Chow, Mina; Nieto, Ruben A.

    2011-01-01

    Integrated Material for Efficient CO2 Storage A new family of porous materials with tunable gas sorption properties have been made by integrating metal carboxylates and boron imidazolates under hydro- or solvothermal conditions. One hydrothermally synthesized phase exhibits a very high volumetric CO2 storage capacity at 81 L/L (273K, 1atm). PMID:20583020

  19. The stability of copper oxo species in zeolite frameworks

    DOE PAGES

    Vilella, Laia; Studt, Felix

    2016-03-07

    Cu-exchanged zeolites are promising heterogeneous catalysts, as they provide a confined environment to carry out highly selective reactions. Furthermore, the knowledge of how the zeolite framework and the location of Al atoms therein affect the adsorption of copper species is still not well understood. In this work, DFT was used to investigate the adsorption of potential Cu oxo active species suggested in the literature [Cu(η 2-O 2), Cu(µ-O)Cu, and Cu 2O 2] into zeolites with different pore sizes and shapes (AFI, CHA, TON, MOR, and MFI). The calculations revealed that both monomeric and dimeric Cu oxo species bind strongly tomore » the O atoms of the lattice. For the monometallic species similar adsorption energies are obtained with the different zeolite frameworks, whereas an optimum Al–Al distance is required for the dimeric species.« less

  20. Zeolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Zeolites are crystalline aluminosilicates that have complex framework structures. However, there are several features of zeolite crystals that make unequivocal structure determinations difficult. The acquisition of reliable structural information on zeolites is greatly facilitated by the availability of high-quality specimens. For structure determinations by conventional diffraction techniques, large single-crystal specimens are essential. Alternatively, structural determinations by powder profile refinement methods relax the constraints on crystal size, but still require materials with a high degree of crystalline perfection. Studies conducted at CAMMP (Center for Advanced Microgravity Materials Processing) have demonstrated that microgravity processing can produce larger crystal sizes and fewer structural defects relative to terrestrial crystal growth. Principal Investigator: Dr. Albert Sacco

  1. Zeolite-templated carbons - three-dimensional microporous graphene frameworks.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, H; Kyotani, T

    2018-05-31

    Zeolite-templated carbons (ZTCs) are ordered microporous carbons synthesized by using zeolite as a sacrificial template. Unlike well-known ordered mesoporous carbons obtained by using mesoporous silica templates, ZTCs consist of curved and single-layer graphene frameworks, thereby affording uniform micropore size (ca. 1.2 nm), developed microporosity (∼1.7 cm3 g-1), very high surface area (∼4000 m2 g-1), good compatibility with chemical modification, and remarkable softness/elasticity. Thus, ZTCs have been used in many applications such as hydrogen storage, methane storage, CO2 capture, liquid-phase adsorption, catalysts, electrochemical capacitors, batteries, and fuel cells. Herein, the relevant research studies are summarized, and the properties as well as the performances of ZTCs are compared with those of other materials including metal-organic frameworks, to elucidate the intrinsic advantages of ZTCs and their future development.

  2. Template-Framework Interactions in Tetraethylammonium-Directed Zeolite Synthesis

    DOE PAGES

    Schmidt, Joel E.; Fu, Donglong; Deem, Michael W.; ...

    2016-11-22

    Zeolites, having widespread applications in chemical industries, are often synthesized using organic templates. These can be cost-prohibitive, motivating investigations into their role in promoting crystallization. Herein, the relationship between framework structure, chemical composition, synthesis conditions and the conformation of the occluded, economical template tetraethylammonium (TEA +) has been systematically examined by experimental and computational means. The results show two distinct regimes of occluded conformer tendencies: 1) In frameworks with a large stabilization energy difference, only a single conformer was found (BEA, LTA and MFI). 2) In the frameworks with small stabilization energy differences (AEI, AFI, CHA and MOR), less thanmore » the interconversion of TEA + in solution, a heteroatom-dependent (Al, B, Co, Mn, Ti, Zn) distribution of conformers was observed. Our findings demonstrate that host–guest chemistry principles, including electrostatic interactions and coordination chemistry, are as important as ideal pore-filling.« less

  3. Highly selective and sensitive trimethylamine gas sensor based on cobalt imidazolate framework material.

    PubMed

    Chen, Er-Xia; Fu, Hong-Ru; Lin, Rui; Tan, Yan-Xi; Zhang, Jian

    2014-12-24

    A cobalt imidazolate (im) framework material [Co(im)2]n was employed to use as a trimethylamine (TMA) gas sensor and the [Co(im)2]n sensor can be easily fabricated by using Ag-Pd interdigitated electrodes. Gas sensing measurement indicated that the [Co(im)2]n sensor shows excellent selectivity, high gas response and a low detection limit level of 2 ppm to TMA at 75 °C. The good selectivity and high response to TMA of the sensor based on [Co(im)2]n may be attributed to the weak interaction between the TMA molecules and the [Co(im)2]n framework. That may provide an ideal candidate for detecting freshness of fish and seafood.

  4. Fabrication of silver nanoparticles doped in the zeolite framework and antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Shameli, Kamyar; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Zargar, Mohsen; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa

    2011-01-01

    Using the chemical reduction method, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were effectively synthesized into the zeolite framework in the absence of any heat treatment. Zeolite, silver nitrate, and sodium borohydride were used as an inorganic solid support, a silver precursor, and a chemical reduction agent, respectively. Silver ions were introduced into the porous zeolite lattice by an ion-exchange path. After the reduction process, Ag NPs formed in the zeolite framework, with a mean diameter of about 2.12-3.11 nm. The most favorable experimental condition for the synthesis of Ag/zeolite nanocomposites (NCs) is described in terms of the initial concentration of AgNO(3). The Ag/zeolite NCs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, and Fourier transform infrared. The results show that Ag NPs form a spherical shape with uniform homogeneity in the particle size. The antibacterial activity of Ag NPs in zeolites was investigated against Gram-negative bacteria (ie, Escherichia coli and Shigella dysentriae) and Gram-positive bacteria (ie, Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) by disk diffusion method using Mueller-Hinton agar at different sizes of Ag NPs. All of the synthesized Ag/zeolite NCs were found to have antibacterial activity. These results show that Ag NPs in the zeolite framework can be useful in different biological research and biomedical applications.

  5. Fabrication of silver nanoparticles doped in the zeolite framework and antibacterial activity

    PubMed Central

    Shameli, Kamyar; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Zargar, Mohsen; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa

    2011-01-01

    Using the chemical reduction method, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were effectively synthesized into the zeolite framework in the absence of any heat treatment. Zeolite, silver nitrate, and sodium borohydride were used as an inorganic solid support, a silver precursor, and a chemical reduction agent, respectively. Silver ions were introduced into the porous zeolite lattice by an ion-exchange path. After the reduction process, Ag NPs formed in the zeolite framework, with a mean diameter of about 2.12–3.11 nm. The most favorable experimental condition for the synthesis of Ag/zeolite nanocomposites (NCs) is described in terms of the initial concentration of AgNO3. The Ag/zeolite NCs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, and Fourier transform infrared. The results show that Ag NPs form a spherical shape with uniform homogeneity in the particle size. The antibacterial activity of Ag NPs in zeolites was investigated against Gram-negative bacteria (ie, Escherichia coli and Shigella dysentriae) and Gram-positive bacteria (ie, Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) by disk diffusion method using Mueller–Hinton agar at different sizes of Ag NPs. All of the synthesized Ag/zeolite NCs were found to have antibacterial activity. These results show that Ag NPs in the zeolite framework can be useful in different biological research and biomedical applications. PMID:21383858

  6. Semi-quantitative estimation by IR of framework, extraframework and defect Al species of HBEA zeolites.

    PubMed

    Marques, João P; Gener, Isabelle; Ayrault, Philippe; Lopes, José M; Ribeiro, F Ramôa; Guisnet, Michel

    2004-10-21

    A simple method based on the characterization (composition, Bronsted and Lewis acidities) of acid treated HBEA zeolites was developed for estimating the concentrations of framework, extraframework and defect Al species.

  7. Synthesis of a ferrolite: A zeolitic all-iron framework

    DOE PAGES

    Latshaw, Allison M.; Chance, W. Michael; Morrison, Gregory; ...

    2016-09-21

    Here, crystals of the first sodalite-type zeolite containing an all-iron framework, a ferrolite, Ba 8(Fe 12O 24)Na y(OH)6 • xH 2O, were synthesized using the hydroflux method in nearly quantitative yield. Ba 8(Fe 12O 24)Na y(OH) 6 • xH 2O crystallizes in the cubic space group Pm3¯m with α = 10.0476(1) Å. Slightly distorted FeO 4 tetrahedra are linked to form Fe 4O 4 and Fe 6O 6 rings, which in turn yield channels and internal cavities that are characteristic of the sodalite structure. Barium, sodium, and hydroxide ions and water molecules are found in the channels and provide chargemore » balance. Magnetic measurements indicate that the ferrolite exhibits magnetic order up to at least 700 K, with the field-cooled and zero-field-cooled curves diverging. Analysis of the 57Fe Mossbauer spectra revealed two spectral components that have equal spectral areas, indicating the presence of two subsets of iron centers in the structure. Dehydrated versions of the ferrolite were also prepared by heating the sample.« less

  8. History and utility of zeolite framework-type discovery from a data-science perspective

    DOE PAGES

    Zimmermann, Nils E. R.; Haranczyk, Maciej

    2016-05-02

    Mature applications such as fluid catalytic cracking and hydrocracking rely critically on early zeolite structures. With a data-driven approach, we find that the discovery of exceptional zeolite framework types around the new millennium was spurred by exciting new utilization routes. The promising processes have yet not been successfully implemented (“valley of death” effect), mainly because of the lack of thermal stability of the crystals. As a result, this foreshadows limited deployability of recent zeolite discoveries that were achieved by novel crystal synthesis routes.

  9. Molecular interactions of alcohols with zeolite BEA and MOR frameworks.

    PubMed

    Stückenschneider, Kai; Merz, Juliane; Schembecker, Gerhard

    2013-12-01

    Zeolites can adsorb small organic molecules such as alcohols from a fermentation broth. Also in the zeolite-catalyzed conversion of alcohols to biofuels, biochemicals, or gasoline, adsorption is the first step. Several studies have investigated the adsorption of alcohols in different zeolites experimentally, but computational investigations in this field have mostly been restricted to zeolite MFI. In this study, the adsorption of C1-C4 alcohols in BEA and MOR was investigated using density functional theory (DFT). Calculated adsorption geometries and the corresponding energies of the designed cluster models were comparable to periodic calculations, and the adsorption energies were in the same range as the corresponding computational and experimental values reported in the literature for zeolite MFI. Thus, BEA and MOR may be good adsorption materials for alcohols in the field of downstream processing and catalysis. Aside from the DFT calculations, adsorption isotherms were determined experimentally in this study from aqueous solutions. For BEA, the adsorption of significant amounts of alcohol from aqueous solution was observed experimentally. In contrast, MOR was loaded with only a very small amount of alcohol. Although differences were found between the affinities obtained from gas-phase DFT calculations and those observed experimentally in aqueous solution, the computational data presented here represent molecular level information on the geometries and energies of C1-C4 alcohols adsorbed in zeolites BEA and MOR. This knowledge should prove very useful in the design of zeolite materials intended for use in adsorption and catalytic processes, as it allows adsorption behavior to be predicted via judiciously designed computational models.

  10. Carbonate-based zeolitic imidazolate framework for highly selective CO2 capture.

    PubMed

    Basnayake, Sajani A; Su, Jie; Zou, Xiadong; Balkus, Kenneth J

    2015-02-16

    In this study, we report the formation of a new crystal structure, ZIF-CO3-1, which results from the reaction of Zn(2+), 2-methylimidazole, and carbonate. ZIF-CO3-1 can be synthesized solvothermally in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF)/water (H2O) or by utilizing of CO2 gas at various temperatures in DMF/H2O or H2O. This reaction selectively consumes CO2 because CO2 is incorporated in the ZIF as carbonate. CO2 can be quantitatively released by acidifying the ZIF. Powder X-ray diffraction, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, elemental analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis were used to characterize the ZIF structure. ZIF-CO3-1 (chemical formula C9H10N4O3Zn2), crystallizes in the orthorhombic crystal system with noncentrosymmetric space group Pba2.

  11. Zeolite-imidazolate framework (ZIF-8) membrane synthesis on a mixed-matrix substrate.

    PubMed

    Barankova, Eva; Pradeep, Neelakanda; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2013-10-21

    A thin, dense, compact and hydrogen selective ZIF-8 membrane was synthesized on a polymer/metal oxide mixed-matrix support by a secondary seeding method. The new concept of incorporating ZnO particles into the support and PDMS coating of the ZIF-8 layer is introduced to improve the preparation of ZIF-polymer composite membranes.

  12. Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-8 Membrane for H2/CO2 Separation: Experimental and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, L. S.; Yeong, Y. F.; Lau, K. K.; Azmi, M. S.; Chew, T. L.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, ZIF-8 membrane synthesized through solvent evaporation secondary seeded growth was tested for single gas permeation and binary gases separation of H2 and CO2. Subsequently, a modified mathematical modeling combining the effects of membrane and support layers was applied to represent the gas transport properties of ZIF-8 membrane. Results showed that, the membrane has exhibited H2/CO2 ideal selectivity of 5.83 and separation factor of 3.28 at 100 kPa and 303 K. Besides, the experimental results were fitted well with the simulated results by demonstrating means absolute error (MAE) values ranged from 1.13 % to 3.88 % for single gas permeation and 10.81 % to 21.22 % for binary gases separation. Based on the simulated data, most of the H2 and CO2 gas molecules have transported through the molecular pores of membrane layer, which was up to 70 %. Thus, the gas transport of the gases is mainly dominated by adsorption and diffusion across the membrane.

  13. Fixation of carbon dioxide into dimethyl carbonate over titanium-based zeolitic thiophene-benzimidazolate framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    A titanium-based zeolitic thiophene-benzimidazolate framework has been designed for the direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) from methanol and carbon dioxide. The developed catalyst activates carbon dioxide and delivers over 16% yield of DMC without the use of any dehydra...

  14. Characterization of Adsorption Enthalpy of Novel Water-Stable Zeolites and Metal-Organic Frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyunho; Cho, H. Jeremy; Narayanan, Shankar; Yang, Sungwoo; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Schiffres, Scott; Li, Xiansen; Zhang, Yue-Biao; Jiang, Juncong; Yaghi, Omar M.; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2016-01-01

    Water adsorption is becoming increasingly important for many applications including thermal energy storage, desalination, and water harvesting. To develop such applications, it is essential to understand both adsorbent-adsorbate and adsorbate-adsorbate interactions, and also the energy required for adsorption/desorption processes of porous material-adsorbate systems, such as zeolites and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). In this study, we present a technique to characterize the enthalpy of adsorption/desorption of zeolites and MOF-801 with water as an adsorbate by conducting desorption experiments with conventional differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). With this method, the enthalpies of adsorption of previously uncharacterized adsorbents were estimated as a function of both uptake and temperature. Our characterizations indicate that the adsorption enthalpies of type I zeolites can increase to greater than twice the latent heat whereas adsorption enthalpies of MOF-801 are nearly constant for a wide range of vapor uptakes.

  15. Characterization of Adsorption Enthalpy of Novel Water-Stable Zeolites and Metal-Organic Frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunho; Cho, H. Jeremy; Narayanan, Shankar; Yang, Sungwoo; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Schiffres, Scott; Li, Xiansen; Zhang, Yue-Biao; Jiang, Juncong; Yaghi, Omar M.; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2016-01-01

    Water adsorption is becoming increasingly important for many applications including thermal energy storage, desalination, and water harvesting. To develop such applications, it is essential to understand both adsorbent-adsorbate and adsorbate-adsorbate interactions, and also the energy required for adsorption/desorption processes of porous material-adsorbate systems, such as zeolites and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). In this study, we present a technique to characterize the enthalpy of adsorption/desorption of zeolites and MOF-801 with water as an adsorbate by conducting desorption experiments with conventional differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). With this method, the enthalpies of adsorption of previously uncharacterized adsorbents were estimated as a function of both uptake and temperature. Our characterizations indicate that the adsorption enthalpies of type I zeolites can increase to greater than twice the latent heat whereas adsorption enthalpies of MOF-801 are nearly constant for a wide range of vapor uptakes. PMID:26796523

  16. Selective Capture of CWAs and Containment of Their Neutralization Byproducts by Porous Frameworks Presenting Self-Amplifying and Self-Regulating Reactivities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-04

    Intl. Symposium on Macrocyclic and Supramolecular Chemistry, June 2010, Nara, Japan (Plenary talk). O. M. Yaghi, Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks, 5th...International Zeolite Membrane Meeting, May 2010, Loutraki, Greece (Plenary talk). O. M. Yaghi, Reticular chemistry and its applications to clean energy

  17. Effect of vanadium contamination on the framework and micropore structure of ultra stable Y-zeolite.

    PubMed

    Etim, U J; Xu, B; Ullah, Rooh; Yan, Z

    2016-02-01

    Y-zeolites are the main component of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalyst for conversion of crude petroleum to products of high demand including transportation fuel. We investigated effects of vanadium which is present as one of the impurities in FCC feedstock on the framework and micropore structure of ultra-stable (US) Y-zeolite. The zeolite samples were prepared and characterized using standard techniques including: (1) X-ray diffraction, (2) N2 adsorption employing non local density functional theory method, NLDFT, (3) Transmittance and Pyridine FTIR, (4) Transmittance electron microscopy (TEM), and (5) (27)Al and (29)Si MAS-NMR. Results revealed that in the presence of steam, vanadium caused excessive evolution of non inter-crystalline mesopores and structural damage. The evolved mesopore size averaged about 25.0nm at 0.5wt.% vanadium loading, far larger than mesopore size in zeolitic materials with improved hydrothermal stability and performance for FCC catalyst. A mechanism of mesopore formation based on accelerated dealumination has been proposed and discussed. Vanadium immobilization experiments conducted to mitigate vanadium migration into the framework clearly showed vanadium is mobile at reaction conditions. From the results, interaction of vanadium with the passivator limits and decreases mobility and activity of vanadium into inner cavities of the zeolite capable of causing huge structure breakdown and acid sites destruction. This study therefore deepens insight into the causes of alteration in activity and selectivity of vanadium contaminated catalyst and hints on a possible mechanism of passivation in vanadium passivated FCC catalyst. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Zeolite-like metal–organic frameworks (ZMOFs): Design, synthesis, and properties

    DOE PAGES

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Sava, Dorina F.; Eubank, Jarrod F.; ...

    2015-10-24

    This study highlights various design and synthesis approaches toward the construction of ZMOFs, which are metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) with topologies and, in some cases, features akin to traditional inorganic zeolites. The interest in this unique subset of MOFs is correlated with their exceptional characteristics arising from the periodic pore systems and distinctive cage-like cavities, in conjunction with modular intra- and/or extra-framework components, which ultimately allow for tailoring of the pore size, pore shape, and properties towards specific applications.

  19. Impact of zeolite-Y framework on the geometry and reactivity of Ru (III) benzimidazole complexes - A DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvaraj, Tamilmani; Rajalingam, Renganathan; Balasubramanian, Viswanathan

    2018-03-01

    A detailed comparative Density Functional Theory (DFT) study is made to understand the structural changes of the guest complex due to steric and electronic interactions with the host framework. In this study, Ru(III) benzimidazole and 2- ethyl Ru(III) benzimidazole complexes encapsulated in a supercage of zeolite Y. The zeolitic framework integrity is not disturbed by the intrusion of the large guest complex. A blue shift in the d-d transition observed in the UV-Visible spectroscopic studies of the zeolite encapsulated complexes and they shows a higher catalytic efficiency. Encapsulation of zeolite matrix makes the metal center more viable to nucleophilic attack and favors the phenol oxidation reaction. Based on the theoretical calculations, transition states and structures of reaction intermediates involved in the catalytic cycles are derived.

  20. Extra-large pore zeolite (ITQ-40) with the lowest framework density containing double four- and double three-rings

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Cabañas, M. J.; Jiang, J.; Afeworki, M.; Dorset, D. L.; Soled, S. L.; Strohmaier, K. G.

    2010-01-01

    The first zeolite structure (ITQ-40) that contains double four (D4) and double three (D3) member ring secondary building units has been synthesized by introducing Ge and NH4F and working in concentrated synthesis gels. It is the first time that D3-Rs have been observed in a zeolite structure. As was previously analyzed [Brunner GO, Meier, WM (1989) Nature 337:146–147], such a structure has a very low framework density (10.1 T/1,000 Å3). Indeed, ITQ-40 has the lowest framework density ever achieved in oxygen-containing zeolites. Furthermore, it contains large pore openings, i.e., 15-member rings parallel to the [001] hexagonal axis and 16-member ring channels perpendicular to this axis. The results presented here push ahead the possibilities of zeolites for uses in electronics, control delivery of drugs and chemicals, as well as for catalysis. PMID:20660773

  1. Framework Stabilization of Si-Rich LTA Zeolite Prepared in Organic-Free Media

    SciT

    Conato, Marlon T.; Oleksiak, Matthew D.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2014-10-16

    Zeolite HOU-2 (LTA type) is prepared with the highest silica content (Si/Al = 2.1) reported for Na-LTA zeolites without the use of an organic structure-directing agent. The rational design of Si-rich zeolites has the potential to improve their thermal stability for applications in catalysis, gas storage, and selective separations.

  2. Metal Organic Framework-Metal Oxide Composites for Toxic Gas Adsorption and Sensing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    zeolitic imidazolate framework Zn(NO3)2 zinc nitrate ZrCl4 zirconium chloride 21 SUMMARY Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and metal oxide-MOF...performed better for the other gases and conditions. Compared to the standard adsorbents BPL carbon and zeolite 13X, the cobalt and magnesium MOF...g)24 and zeolite 5A (1.25 mmol/g),25 compared to 3.5 mmol/g for Ni-MOF-74, 4 mmol/g for Mg-MOF-74, and 6 mmol/g for Co-MOF-74. Mg-MOF-74 shows the

  3. Comparison of different zeolite framework types as carriers for the oral delivery of the poorly soluble drug indomethacin.

    PubMed

    Karavasili, Christina; Amanatiadou, Elsa P; Kontogiannidou, Eleni; Eleftheriadis, Georgios K; Bouropoulos, Nikolaos; Pavlidou, Eleni; Kontopoulou, Ioanna; Vizirianakis, Ioannis S; Fatouros, Dimitrios G

    2017-08-07

    Microporous zeolites of distinct framework types, textural properties and crystal morphologies namely BEA, ZSM and NaX, have been employed as carriers to assess their effect on modulating the dissolution behavior of a BCS II model drug (indomethacin). Preparation of the loaded carriers via the incipient wetness method induced significant drug amorphization for the BEA and NaX samples, as well as high drug payloads. The stability of the amorphous drug content was retained after stressing test evaluation of the porous carriers. The dissolution profile of loaded indomethacin was evaluated in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) and simulated intestinal fluids FaSSIF (fasted) and FeSSIF (fed state) conditions and was found to be dependent on the aluminosilicate ratio of the zeolites and the degree of crystalline drug content. The feasibility of the zeolitic particles as oral drug delivery systems was appraised with cytocompatibility and cellular toxicity studies in Caco-2 cultures in a time- and dose-dependent manner by means of the MTT assay and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. Intracellular accumulation of the zeolite particles was observed with no apparent cytotoxic effects at the lower concentrations tested, rendering such microporous zeolites pertinent candidates in oral drug delivery applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Photothermal-enhanced catalysis in core-shell plasmonic hierarchical Cu7S4 microsphere@zeolitic imidazole framework-8.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feifan; Huang, Yanjie; Chai, Zhigang; Zeng, Min; Li, Qi; Wang, Yuan; Xu, Dongsheng

    2016-12-01

    Conventional semiconductor photocatalysis based on band-edge absorption remains inefficient due to the limited harvesting of solar irradiation and the complicated surface/interface chemistry. Herein, novel photothermal-enhanced catalysis was achieved in a core-shell hierarchical Cu 7 S 4 nano-heater@ZIF-8 heterostructures via near-infrared localized surface plasmon resonance. Our results demonstrated that both the high surface temperature of the photothermal Cu 7 S 4 core and the close-adjacency of catalytic ZIF-8 shell contributed to the extremely enhanced catalytic activity. Under laser irradiation (1450 nm, 500 mW), the cyclocondensation reaction rate increased 4.5-5.4 fold compared to that of the process at room temperature, in which the 1.6-1.8 fold enhancement was due to the localized heating effect. The simulated sunlight experiments showed a photothermal activation efficiency (PTAE) of 0.07%, further indicating the validity of photothermal catalysis based on the plasmonic semiconductor nanomaterials. More generally, this approach provides a platform to improve reaction activity with efficient utilization of solar energy, which can be readily extended to other green-chemistry processes.

  5. Resolving the Framework Position of Organic Structure-Directing Agents in Hierarchical Zeolites via Polarized Stimulated Raman Scattering.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Guillaume; Steele, Julian A; Gerber, Iann C; Jolibois, F; Puech, P; Muraoka, Koki; Keoh, Sye Hoe; Chaikittisilp, Watcharop; Okubo, Tatsuya; Roeffaers, Maarten B J

    2018-04-05

    The direct synthesis of hierarchically intergrown silicalite-1 can be achieved using a specific diquaternary ammonium agent. However, the location of these molecules in the zeolite framework, which is critical to understand the formation of the material, remains unclear. Where traditional characterization tools have previously failed, herein we use polarized stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy to resolve molecular organization inside few-micron-sized crystals. Through a combination of experiment and first-principles calculations, our investigation reveals the preferential location of the templating agent inside the linear pores of the MFI framework. Besides illustrating the attractiveness of SRS microscopy in the field of material science to study and spatially resolve local molecular distribution as well as orientation, these results can be exploited in the design of new templating agents for the preparation of hierarchical zeolites.

  6. Catalytic performance of Metal-Organic-Frameworks vs. extra-large pore zeolite UTL in condensation reactions

    PubMed Central

    Shamzhy, Mariya; Opanasenko, Maksym; Shvets, Oleksiy; Čejka, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Catalytic behavior of isomorphously substituted B-, Al-, Ga-, and Fe-containing extra-large pore UTL zeolites was investigated in Knoevenagel condensation involving aldehydes, Pechmann condensation of 1-naphthol with ethylacetoacetate, and Prins reaction of β-pinene with formaldehyde and compared with large-pore aluminosilicate zeolite beta and representative Metal-Organic-Frameworks Cu3(BTC)2 and Fe(BTC). The yield of the target product over the investigated catalysts in Knoevenagel condensation increases in the following sequence: (Al)beta < (Al)UTL < (Ga)UTL < (Fe)UTL < Fe(BTC) < (B)UTL < Cu3(BTC)2 being mainly related to the improving selectivity with decreasing strength of active sites of the individual catalysts. The catalytic performance of Fe(BTC), containing the highest concentration of Lewis acid sites of the appropriate strength is superior over large-pore zeolite (Al)beta and B-, Al-, Ga-, Fe-substituted extra-large pore zeolites UTL in Prins reaction of β-pinene with formaldehyde and Pechmann condensation of 1-naphthol with ethylacetoacetate. PMID:24790940

  7. The effect of positioning cations on acidity and stability of the framework structure of Y zeolite

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Changshun; Zhang, Junji; Dong, Lihui; Huang, Meina; Bin Li; Jin, Guangzhou; Gao, Junbin; Zhang, Feiyue; Fan, Minguang; Zhang, Luoming; Gong, Yanjun

    2016-01-01

    The investigation on the modification of NaY zeolite on LaHY and AEHY (AE refers Ca and Sr and the molar ratio of Ca and Sr is 1:1) zeolites was proformed by XRD, N2-physisorption (BET), XRF, XPS, NH3-TPD, Py-IR, hydrothermal stability, and catalytic cracking test. These results indicate that HY zeolite with ultra low content Na can be obtained from NaY zeolite through four exchange four calcination method. The positioning capability of La3+ in sodalite cage is much better than that of AE2+ and about 12 La3+ can be well coordinated in sodalite cages of one unit cell of Y zeolite. Appropriate acid amount and strength favor the formation of propylene and La3+ is more suitable for the catalytic cracking of cyclohexane than that of AE2+. Our results not only elaborate the variation of the strong and weak acid sites as well as the Brönsted and Lewis acid sites with the change of exchanged ion content but also explore the influence of hydrothermal aging of LaHY and AEHY zeolites and find the optimum ion exchange content for the most reserved acid sites. At last, the coordination state and stabilization of ion exchanged Y zeolites were discussed in detail. PMID:26987306

  8. Plasma-assisted reduction of silver ions impregnated into a natural zeolite framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osonio, Airah P.; Vasquez, Magdaleno R.

    2018-02-01

    A green, dry, and energy-efficient method for the fabrication of silver-zeolite (AgZ) composite via 13.56 MHz radio-frequency plasma reduction is demonstrated. Impregnation by soaking and ion-exchange deposition were performed to load the silver ions (Ag+) into the sodium-zeolite samples. Characterization was performed by optical emission spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analyses. Results indicate the successful reduction of Ag+ to its metallic state on the surface of the zeolite with a mean diameter of 165 nm. This plasma-induced reduction technique opens possibilities in several areas including catalysis, adsorption, water treatment, and medicine.

  9. Molecular simulations for energy, environmental and pharmaceutical applications of nanoporous materials: from zeolites, metal-organic frameworks to protein crystals.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jianwen; Babarao, Ravichandar; Hu, Zhongqiao

    2011-07-01

    Nanoporous materials have widespread applications in chemical industry, but the pathway from laboratory synthesis and testing to practical utilization of nanoporous materials is substantially challenging and requires fundamental understanding from the bottom up. With ever-growing computational resources, molecular simulations have become an indispensable tool for material characterization, screening and design. This tutorial review summarizes the recent simulation studies in zeolites, metal-organic frameworks and protein crystals, and provides a molecular overview for energy, environmental and pharmaceutical applications of nanoporous materials with increasing degree of complexity in building blocks. It is demonstrated that molecular-level studies can bridge the gap between physical and engineering sciences, unravel microscopic insights that are otherwise experimentally inaccessible, and assist in the rational design of new materials. The review is concluded with major challenges in future simulation exploration of novel nanoporous materials for emerging applications.

  10. Landscape of Research Areas for Zeolites and Metal-Organic Frameworks Using Computational Classification Based on Citation Networks.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Takaya; Iyoki, Kenta; Fukushima, Tomohiro; Kajikawa, Yuya

    2017-12-14

    The field of porous materials is widely spreading nowadays, and researchers need to read tremendous numbers of papers to obtain a "bird's eye" view of a given research area. However, it is difficult for researchers to obtain an objective database based on statistical data without any relation to subjective knowledge related to individual research interests. Here, citation network analysis was applied for a comparative analysis of the research areas for zeolites and metal-organic frameworks as examples for porous materials. The statistical and objective data contributed to the analysis of: (1) the computational screening of research areas; (2) classification of research stages to a certain domain; (3) "well-cited" research areas; and (4) research area preferences of specific countries. Moreover, we proposed a methodology to assist researchers to gain potential research ideas by reviewing related research areas, which is based on the detection of unfocused ideas in one area but focused in the other area by a bibliometric approach.

  11. Landscape of Research Areas for Zeolites and Metal-Organic Frameworks Using Computational Classification Based on Citation Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Takaya; Fukushima, Tomohiro; Kajikawa, Yuya

    2017-01-01

    The field of porous materials is widely spreading nowadays, and researchers need to read tremendous numbers of papers to obtain a “bird’s eye” view of a given research area. However, it is difficult for researchers to obtain an objective database based on statistical data without any relation to subjective knowledge related to individual research interests. Here, citation network analysis was applied for a comparative analysis of the research areas for zeolites and metal-organic frameworks as examples for porous materials. The statistical and objective data contributed to the analysis of: (1) the computational screening of research areas; (2) classification of research stages to a certain domain; (3) “well-cited” research areas; and (4) research area preferences of specific countries. Moreover, we proposed a methodology to assist researchers to gain potential research ideas by reviewing related research areas, which is based on the detection of unfocused ideas in one area but focused in the other area by a bibliometric approach. PMID:29240708

  12. CO{sub 2} adsorption-based separation by metal organic framework (Cu-BTC) versus zeolite (13X)

    SciT

    Zhijian Liang; Marc Marshall; Alan L. Chaffee

    2009-05-15

    The potential for the metal organic framework (MOF) Cu-BTC to selectively adsorb and separate CO{sub 2} is considered. Isotherms for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2} were measured from 0 to 15 bar and at temperatures between 25 and 105{sup o}C. The isotherms suggest a much higher working capacity (x4) for CO{sub 2} adsorption on Cu-BTC relative to the benchmark zeolite 13X over the same pressure range. Higher CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} selectivities in the higher pressure range (1-15 bar) and with lower heats of adsorption were also demonstrated. Cu-BTC was observed to be stable inmore » O{sub 2} at 25{sup o}C, but its crystallinity was reduced in humid environments. The CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity was progressively reduced upon cyclic exposure to water vapor at low relative humidity (<30%), but leveled out at 75% of its original value after several water adsorption/desorption cycles. 27 refs., 1 fig.« less

  13. A Metal-Organic Framework Approach toward Highly Nitrogen-Doped Graphitic Carbon as a Metal-Free Photocatalyst for Hydrogen Evolution.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiuxia; Yang, Hao; Jing, Peng; Shi, Wei; Yang, Guangming; Cheng, Peng

    2017-03-01

    Zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8)-derived N-doped graphene analogous polyhedrons (ZNGs) obtained via the direct carbonation of ZIF-8 are applied to photocatalytic hydrogen evolution for the first time. The contents of different types of nitrogen atoms in ZNGs can be fine-tuned via the calcination temperature, which significantly influences the hydrogen evolution rate of the ZNGs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Cutting Materials in Half: A Graph Theory Approach for Generating Crystal Surfaces and Its Prediction of 2D Zeolites

    SciT

    Witman, Matthew; Ling, Sanliang; Boyd, Peter

    Scientific interest in two-dimensional (2D) materials, ranging from graphene and other single layer materials to atomically thin crystals, is quickly increasing for a large variety of technological applications. While in silico design approaches have made a large impact in the study of 3D crystals, algorithms designed to discover atomically thin 2D materials from their parent 3D materials are by comparison more sparse. Here, we hypothesize that determining how to cut a 3D material in half (i.e., which Miller surface is formed) by severing a minimal number of bonds or a minimal amount of total bond energy per unit area canmore » yield insight into preferred crystal faces. We answer this question by implementing a graph theory technique to mathematically formalize the enumeration of minimum cut surfaces of crystals. While the algorithm is generally applicable to different classes of materials, we focus on zeolitic materials due to their diverse structural topology and because 2D zeolites have promising catalytic and separation performance compared to their 3D counterparts. We report here a simple descriptor based only on structural information that predicts whether a zeolite is likely to be synthesizable in the 2D form and correctly identifies the expressed surface in known layered 2D zeolites. The discovery of this descriptor allows us to highlight other zeolites that may also be synthesized in the 2D form that have not been experimentally realized yet. Finally, our method is general since the mathematical formalism can be applied to find the minimum cut surfaces of other crystallographic materials such as metal-organic frameworks, covalent-organic frameworks, zeolitic-imidazolate frameworks, metal oxides, etc.« less

  15. Cutting Materials in Half: A Graph Theory Approach for Generating Crystal Surfaces and Its Prediction of 2D Zeolites

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Scientific interest in two-dimensional (2D) materials, ranging from graphene and other single layer materials to atomically thin crystals, is quickly increasing for a large variety of technological applications. While in silico design approaches have made a large impact in the study of 3D crystals, algorithms designed to discover atomically thin 2D materials from their parent 3D materials are by comparison more sparse. We hypothesize that determining how to cut a 3D material in half (i.e., which Miller surface is formed) by severing a minimal number of bonds or a minimal amount of total bond energy per unit area can yield insight into preferred crystal faces. We answer this question by implementing a graph theory technique to mathematically formalize the enumeration of minimum cut surfaces of crystals. While the algorithm is generally applicable to different classes of materials, we focus on zeolitic materials due to their diverse structural topology and because 2D zeolites have promising catalytic and separation performance compared to their 3D counterparts. We report here a simple descriptor based only on structural information that predicts whether a zeolite is likely to be synthesizable in the 2D form and correctly identifies the expressed surface in known layered 2D zeolites. The discovery of this descriptor allows us to highlight other zeolites that may also be synthesized in the 2D form that have not been experimentally realized yet. Finally, our method is general since the mathematical formalism can be applied to find the minimum cut surfaces of other crystallographic materials such as metal–organic frameworks, covalent-organic frameworks, zeolitic-imidazolate frameworks, metal oxides, etc. PMID:29532024

  16. Cutting Materials in Half: A Graph Theory Approach for Generating Crystal Surfaces and Its Prediction of 2D Zeolites.

    PubMed

    Witman, Matthew; Ling, Sanliang; Boyd, Peter; Barthel, Senja; Haranczyk, Maciej; Slater, Ben; Smit, Berend

    2018-02-28

    Scientific interest in two-dimensional (2D) materials, ranging from graphene and other single layer materials to atomically thin crystals, is quickly increasing for a large variety of technological applications. While in silico design approaches have made a large impact in the study of 3D crystals, algorithms designed to discover atomically thin 2D materials from their parent 3D materials are by comparison more sparse. We hypothesize that determining how to cut a 3D material in half (i.e., which Miller surface is formed) by severing a minimal number of bonds or a minimal amount of total bond energy per unit area can yield insight into preferred crystal faces. We answer this question by implementing a graph theory technique to mathematically formalize the enumeration of minimum cut surfaces of crystals. While the algorithm is generally applicable to different classes of materials, we focus on zeolitic materials due to their diverse structural topology and because 2D zeolites have promising catalytic and separation performance compared to their 3D counterparts. We report here a simple descriptor based only on structural information that predicts whether a zeolite is likely to be synthesizable in the 2D form and correctly identifies the expressed surface in known layered 2D zeolites. The discovery of this descriptor allows us to highlight other zeolites that may also be synthesized in the 2D form that have not been experimentally realized yet. Finally, our method is general since the mathematical formalism can be applied to find the minimum cut surfaces of other crystallographic materials such as metal-organic frameworks, covalent-organic frameworks, zeolitic-imidazolate frameworks, metal oxides, etc.

  17. Cutting Materials in Half: A Graph Theory Approach for Generating Crystal Surfaces and Its Prediction of 2D Zeolites

    DOE PAGES

    Witman, Matthew; Ling, Sanliang; Boyd, Peter; ...

    2018-02-06

    Scientific interest in two-dimensional (2D) materials, ranging from graphene and other single layer materials to atomically thin crystals, is quickly increasing for a large variety of technological applications. While in silico design approaches have made a large impact in the study of 3D crystals, algorithms designed to discover atomically thin 2D materials from their parent 3D materials are by comparison more sparse. Here, we hypothesize that determining how to cut a 3D material in half (i.e., which Miller surface is formed) by severing a minimal number of bonds or a minimal amount of total bond energy per unit area canmore » yield insight into preferred crystal faces. We answer this question by implementing a graph theory technique to mathematically formalize the enumeration of minimum cut surfaces of crystals. While the algorithm is generally applicable to different classes of materials, we focus on zeolitic materials due to their diverse structural topology and because 2D zeolites have promising catalytic and separation performance compared to their 3D counterparts. We report here a simple descriptor based only on structural information that predicts whether a zeolite is likely to be synthesizable in the 2D form and correctly identifies the expressed surface in known layered 2D zeolites. The discovery of this descriptor allows us to highlight other zeolites that may also be synthesized in the 2D form that have not been experimentally realized yet. Finally, our method is general since the mathematical formalism can be applied to find the minimum cut surfaces of other crystallographic materials such as metal-organic frameworks, covalent-organic frameworks, zeolitic-imidazolate frameworks, metal oxides, etc.« less

  18. Unprecedented zeolite-like framework topology constructed from cages with 3-rings in a barium oxonitridophosphate.

    PubMed

    Sedlmaier, Stefan J; Döblinger, Markus; Oeckler, Oliver; Weber, Johannes; auf der Günne, Jörn Schmedt; Schnick, Wolfgang

    2011-08-10

    A novel oxonitridophosphate, Ba(19)P(36)O(6+x)N(66-x)Cl(8+x) (x ≈ 4.54), has been synthesized by heating a multicomponent reactant mixture consisting of phosphoryl triamide OP(NH(2))(3), thiophosphoryl triamide SP(NH(2))(3), BaS, and NH(4)Cl enclosed in an evacuated and sealed silica glass ampule up to 750 °C. Despite the presence of side phases, the crystal structure was elucidated ab initio from high-resolution synchrotron powder diffraction data (λ = 39.998 pm) applying the charge flipping algorithm supported by independent symmetry information derived from electron diffraction (ED) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The compound crystallizes in the cubic space group Fm ̅3c (no. 226) with a = 2685.41(3) pm and Z = 8. As confirmed by Rietveld refinement, the structure comprises all-side vertex sharing P(O,N)(4) tetrahedra forming slightly distorted 3(8)4(6)8(12) cages representing a novel composite building unit (CBU). Interlinked through their 4-rings and additional 3-rings, the cages build up a 3D network with a framework density FD = 14.87 T/1000 Å(3) and a 3D 8-ring channel system. Ba(2+) and Cl(-) as extra-framework ions are located within the cages and channels of the framework. The structural model is corroborated by (31)P double-quantum (DQ) /single-quantum (SQ) and triple-quantum (TQ) /single-quantum (SQ) 2D correlation MAS NMR spectroscopy. According to (31)P{(1)H} C-REDOR NMR measurements, the H content is less than one H atom per unit cell. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  19. Liquid metal-organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillac, Romain; Pullumbi, Pluton; Beyer, Kevin A.; Chapman, Karena W.; Keen, David A.; Bennett, Thomas D.; Coudert, François-Xavier

    2017-11-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a family of chemically diverse materials, with applications in a wide range of fields, covering engineering, physics, chemistry, biology and medicine. Until recently, research has focused almost entirely on crystalline structures, yet now a clear trend is emerging, shifting the emphasis onto disordered states, including `defective by design’ crystals, as well as amorphous phases such as glasses and gels. Here we introduce a strongly associated MOF liquid, obtained by melting a zeolitic imidazolate framework. We combine in situ variable temperature X-ray, ex situ neutron pair distribution function experiments, and first-principles molecular dynamics simulations to study the melting phenomenon and the nature of the liquid obtained. We demonstrate from structural, dynamical, and thermodynamical information that the chemical configuration, coordinative bonding, and porosity of the parent crystalline framework survive upon formation of the MOF liquid.

  20. Liquid metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Gaillac, Romain; Pullumbi, Pluton; Beyer, Kevin A; Chapman, Karena W; Keen, David A; Bennett, Thomas D; Coudert, François-Xavier

    2017-11-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a family of chemically diverse materials, with applications in a wide range of fields, covering engineering, physics, chemistry, biology and medicine. Until recently, research has focused almost entirely on crystalline structures, yet now a clear trend is emerging, shifting the emphasis onto disordered states, including 'defective by design' crystals, as well as amorphous phases such as glasses and gels. Here we introduce a strongly associated MOF liquid, obtained by melting a zeolitic imidazolate framework. We combine in situ variable temperature X-ray, ex situ neutron pair distribution function experiments, and first-principles molecular dynamics simulations to study the melting phenomenon and the nature of the liquid obtained. We demonstrate from structural, dynamical, and thermodynamical information that the chemical configuration, coordinative bonding, and porosity of the parent crystalline framework survive upon formation of the MOF liquid.

  1. Liquid metal–organic frameworks

    SciT

    Gaillac, Romain; Pullumbi, Pluton; Beyer, Kevin A.

    Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) are a family of chemically diverse materials, with applications in a wide range of fields, covering engineering, physics, chemistry, biology and medicine. Until recently, research has focused almost entirely on crystalline structures, yet now a clear trend is emerging, shifting the emphasis onto disordered states, including ‘defective by design’ crystals, as well as amorphous phases such as glasses and gels. Here we introduce a strongly associated MOF liquid, obtained by melting a zeolitic imidazolate framework. We combine in situ variable temperature X-ray, ex situ neutron pair distribution function experiments, and first-principles molecular dynamics simulations to study themore » melting phenomenon and the nature of the liquid obtained. We demonstrate from structural, dynamical, and thermodynamical information that the chemical configuration, coordinative bonding, and porosity of the parent crystalline framework survive upon formation of the MOF liquid.« less

  2. Structural disorder in molecular framework materials.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Andrew B; Goodwin, Andrew L

    2013-06-21

    It is increasingly apparent that many important classes of molecular framework material exhibit a variety of interesting and useful types of structural disorder. This tutorial review summarises a number of recent efforts to understand better both the complex microscopic nature of this disorder and also how it might be implicated in useful functionalities of these materials. We draw on a number of topical examples including topologically-disordered zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs), porous aromatic frameworks (PAFs), the phenomena of temperature-, pressure- and desorption-induced amorphisation, partial interpenetration, ferroelectric transition-metal formates, negative thermal expansion in cyanide frameworks, and the mechanics and processing of layered frameworks. We outline the various uses of pair distribution function (PDF) analysis, dielectric spectroscopy, peak-shape analysis of powder diffraction data and single-crystal diffuse scattering measurements as means of characterising disorder in these systems, and we suggest a number of opportunities for future research in the field.

  3. IM-16: A new microporous germanosilicate with a novel framework topology containing d4r and mtw composite building units

    SciT

    Lorgouilloux, Yannick; Dodin, Mathias; Paillaud, Jean-Louis

    2009-03-15

    The synthesis and the structure of IM-16 a new germanosilicate with a novel zeolitic topology prepared hydrothermally with the ionic liquid 3-ethyl-1-methyl-3H-imidazol-1-ium as the organic structure-directing agent are reported. The structure of calcined and partially rehydrated IM-16 of chemical formula |(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.16}|[Si{sub 3.47}Ge{sub 2.53}O{sub 12}] was solved from powder XRD data in space group Cmcm with a=15.0861(2) A, b=17.7719(3) A, c=19.9764(3) A, V=5355.84(12) A{sup 3} (Z=16). This new zeolite framework type contains 10-MRs channels and may be described from the d4r and mtw composite building units. - Graphical abstract: The synthesis and the structure of IM-16 a new germanosilicatemore » with a novel zeolitic topology prepared hydrothermally with the ionic liquid 3-ethyl-1-methyl-3H-imidazol-1-ium as the organic structure-directing agent are reported. This new zeolite framework type contains 10-MRs channels and may be described from the d4r and mtw composite building units.« less

  4. Properties and applications of zeolites.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    Zeolites are aluminosilicate solids bearing a negatively charged honeycomb framework of micropores into which molecules may be adsorbed for environmental decontamination, and to catalyse chemical reactions. They are central to green-chemistry since the necessity for organic solvents is minimised. Proton-exchanged (H) zeolites are extensively employed in the petrochemical industry for cracking crude oil fractions into fuels and chemical feedstocks for other industrial processes. Due to their ability to perform cation-exchange, in which the cations that are originally present to counterbalance the framework negative charge may be exchanged out of the zeolite by cations present in aqueous solution, zeolites are useful as industrial water-softeners, in the removal of radioactive Cs+ and Sr2+ cations from liquid nuclear waste and in the removal of toxic heavy metal cations from groundwaters and run-off waters. Surfactant-modified zeolites (SMZ) find particular application in the co-removal of both toxic anions and organic pollutants. Toxic anions such as arsenite, arsenate, chromate, cyanide and radioactive iodide can also be removed by adsorption into zeolites that have been previously loaded with co-precipitating metal cations such as Ag+ and Pb2+ which form practically insoluble complexes that are contained within the zeolite matrix.

  5. Ethene/ethane and propene/propane separation via the olefin and paraffin selective metal-organic framework adsorbents CPO-27 and ZIF-8.

    PubMed

    Böhme, Ulrike; Barth, Benjamin; Paula, Carolin; Kuhnt, Andreas; Schwieger, Wilhelm; Mundstock, Alexander; Caro, Jürgen; Hartmann, Martin

    2013-07-09

    Two types of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been synthesized and evaluated in the separation of C2 and C3 olefins and paraffins. Whereas Co2(dhtp) (=Co-CPO-27 = Co-MOF-74) and Mg2(dhtp) show an adsorption selectivity for the olefins ethene and propene over the paraffins ethane and propane, the zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF-8 behaves in the opposite way and preferentially adsorbs the alkane. Consequently, in breakthrough experiments, the olefins or paraffins, respectively, can be separated.

  6. Identification of the silver state in the framework of Ag-containing zeolite by XRD, FTIR, photoluminescence, 109Ag NMR, EPR, DR UV-vis, TEM and XPS investigations.

    PubMed

    Popovych, Nataliia; Kyriienko, Pavlo; Soloviev, Sergiy; Baran, Rafal; Millot, Yannick; Dzwigaj, Stanislaw

    2016-10-26

    Silver has been identified in the framework of Ag x SiBEA zeolites (where x = 3-6 Ag wt%) by the combined use of XRD, 109 Ag MAS NMR, FTIR, diffuse reflectance UV-visible, EPR and XPS spectroscopy. The incorporation of Ag ions into the framework of SiBEA zeolite has been evidenced by XRD. The consumption of OH groups as a result of their reaction with the silver precursor has been monitored by FTIR and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The changes in the silver state as a function of Ag content and thermal and hydrogen treatment at 573 K have been identified by 109 Ag MAS NMR, EPR, DR UV-visible, TEM and XPS investigations. The acidity of AgSiBEA has been investigated by FTIR spectroscopy of adsorbed CO and pyridine used as probe molecules.

  7. GaN@ZIF-8: selective formation of gallium nitride quantum dots inside a zinc methylimidazolate framework.

    PubMed

    Esken, Daniel; Turner, Stuart; Wiktor, Christian; Kalidindi, Suresh Babu; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Fischer, Roland A

    2011-10-19

    The microporous zeolitic imidazolate framework [Zn(MeIM)(2); ZIF-8; MeIM = imidazolate-2-methyl] was quantitatively loaded with trimethylamine gallane [(CH(3))(3)NGaH(3)]. The obtained inclusion compound [(CH(3))(3)NGaH(3)]@ZIF-8 reveals three precursor molecules per host cavity. Treatment with ammonia selectively yields the caged cyclotrigallazane intermediate (H(2)GaNH(2))(3)@ZIF-8, and further annealing gives GaN@ZIF-8. This new composite material was characterized with FT-IR spectroscopy, solid-state NMR spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, (scanning) transmission electron microscopy combined with electron energy-loss spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and N(2) sorption measurements. The data give evidence for the presence of GaN nanoparticles (1-3 nm) embedded in the cavities of ZIF-8, including a blue-shift of the PL emission band caused by the quantum size effect.

  8. Macroscopically Oriented Porous Materials with Periodic Ordered Structures: From Zeolites and Metal-Organic Frameworks to Liquid-Crystal-Templated Mesoporous Materials.

    PubMed

    Cho, Joonil; Ishida, Yasuhiro

    2017-07-01

    Porous materials with molecular-sized periodic structures, as exemplified by zeolites, metal-organic frameworks, or mesoporous silica, have attracted increasing attention due to their range of applications in storage, sensing, separation, and transformation of small molecules. Although the components of such porous materials have a tendency to pack in unidirectionally oriented periodic structures, such ideal types of packing cannot continue indefinitely, generally ceasing when they reach a micrometer scale. Consequently, most porous materials are composed of multiple randomly oriented domains, and overall behave as isotropic materials from a macroscopic viewpoint. However, if their channels could be unidirectionally oriented over a macroscopic scale, the resultant porous materials might serve as powerful tools for manipulating molecules. Guest molecules captured in macroscopically oriented channels would have their positions and directions well-defined, so that molecular events in the channels would proceed in a highly controlled manner. To realize such an ideal situation, numerous efforts have been made to develop various porous materials with macroscopically oriented channels. An overview of recent studies on the synthesis, properties, and applications of macroscopically oriented porous materials is presented. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Catalase-like activity studies of the manganese(II) adsorbed zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ćiçek, Ekrem; Dede, Bülent

    2013-12-01

    Preparation of manganese(II) adsorbed on zeolite 3A, 4A, 5A. AW-300, ammonium Y zeolite, organophilic, molecular sieve and catalase-like enzyme activity of manganese(II) adsorbed zeolites are reported herein. Firstly zeolites are activated at 873 K for two hours before contact manganese(II) ions. In order to observe amount of adsorption, filtration process applied for the solution. The pure zeolites and manganese(II) adsorbed zeolites were analysed by FT-IR. As a result according to the FT-IR spectra, the incorporation of manganese(II) cation into the zeolite structure causes changes in the spectra. These changes are expected particularly in the pseudolattice bands connected with the presence of alumino and silicooxygen tetrahedral rings in the zeolite structure. Furthermore, the catalytic activities of the Mn(II) adsorbed zeolites for the disproportionation of hydrogen peroxide were investigated in the presence of imidazole. The Mn(II) adsorbed zeolites display efficiency in the disproportion reactions of hydrogen peroxide, producing water and dioxygen in catalase-like activity.

  10. Design and fabrication of zeolite macro- and micromembranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, Lik Hang Joseph

    2001-07-01

    The chemical nature of the support surface influences zeolite nucleation, crystal growth and elm adhesion. It had been demonstrated that chemical modification of support surface can significantly alter the zeolite film and has a good potential for large-scale applications for zeolite membrane production. The incorporation of titanium and vanadium metal ions into the structural framework of MFI zeolite imparts the material with catalytic properties. The effects of silica and metal (i.e., Ti and V) content, template concentration and temperature on the zeolite membrane growth and morphology were investigated. Single-gas permeation experiments were conducted for noble gases (He and Ar), inorganic gases (H2, N2, SF6) and hydrocarbons (methane, n-C4, i-C4) to determine the separation performance of these membranes. Using a new fabrication method based on microelectronic fabrication and zeolite thin film technologies, complex microchannel geometry and network (<5 mum), as well as zeolite arrays (<10 mum) were successfully fabricated onto highly orientated supported zeolite films. The zeolite micropatterns were stable even after repeated thermal cycling between 303 K and 873 K for prolonged periods of time. This work also demonstrates that zeolites (i.e., Sil-1, ZSM-5 and TS-1) can be employed as catalyst, membrane or structural materials in miniature chemical devices. Traditional semiconductor fabrication technology was employed in micromachining the device architecture. Four strategies for the manufacture of zeolite catalytic microreactors were discussed: zeolite powder coating, uniform zeolite film growth, localized zeolite growth, and etching of zeolite-silicon composite film growth inhibitors. Silicalite-1 was also prepared as free-standing membrane for zeolite membrane microseparators.

  11. Construction of Zeolite-Like Cluster Organic Frameworks from 3 d-4 d/3 d-3 d Heterometallic Supertetrahedral Secondary Building Units: Syntheses, Structures, and Properties.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-Dan; Deng, Chu-Chu; Zhao, D; Li, Xin-Xiong; Zheng, Shou-Tian

    2018-01-02

    Two zeolite-like cluster organic frameworks based on Cd-Cu/Mn-Cu heterometallic supertetrahedral secondary building units have been successfully constructed under solvothermal conditions, namely, Cu[Cd 4 Cu 6 (L) 4 (H 2 O) 18 ](Ac) 9 ⋅DMA⋅3 H 2 O (1), and Cu[Mn 4 Cu 6 (L) 4 (Ac) 3 (H 2 O) 12 ](Ac) 6 ⋅CH 3 CN⋅13 H 2 O (2), where H 3 L=2-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(pyridin-4-yl)-1,3-propanediol, Ac=CH 3 COO - , DMA=N,N'-dimethylacetamide. Single-crystal X-ray structural analysis reveals that both 1 and 2 exhibit 3-dimensional zeolite-like architectures with similar 4-connected components, but possess definitely different topologies of diamondoid (dia) and uncommon lonsdaleite (lon), respectively. 1 and 2 represent the first cases of zeolite-like cluster organic frameworks containing Cd-Cu/Mn-Cu heterometallic supertetrahedral secondary building units. Furthermore, the magnetic properties and porous nature of 1 and 2 were also studied. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Natural zeolite reactivity towards ozone: the role of compensating cations.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Héctor; Alejandro, Serguei; Zaror, Claudio A

    2012-08-15

    Among indoor pollutants, ozone is recognised to pose a threat to human health. Recently, low cost natural zeolites have been applied as alternative materials for ozone abatement. In this work, the effect of compensating cation content of natural zeolite on ozone removal is studied. A Chilean natural zeolite is used here as starting material. The amount of compensating cations in the zeolite framework was modified by ion exchange using an ammonium sulphate solution (0.1 mol L(-1)). Characterisation of natural and modified zeolites were performed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption at 77K, elemental analysis, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectroscopy (TGA-MS), and temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia (NH(3)-TPD). Ozone adsorption and/or decomposition on natural and modified zeolites were studied by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). Results show that the zeolite compensating cation content affects ozone interaction with zeolite active sites. Ammonium ion-exchange treatments followed by thermal out-gassing at 823 K, reduces ozone diffusion resistance inside the zeolite framework, increasing ozone abatement on zeolite surface active sites. Weak and strong Lewis acid sites of zeolite surface are identified here as the main active sites responsible of ozone removal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Early stages of zeolite growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sandeep

    Zeolites are crystalline nonporous aluminosilicates with important applications in separation, purification, and adsorption of liquid and gaseous molecules. However, an ability to tailor the zeolite microstructure, such as particle size/shape and pore-size, to make it benign for specific application requires control over nucleation and particle growth processes. But, the nucleation and crystallization mechanisms of zeolites are not fully understood. In this context, the synthesis of an all-silica zeolite with MFI-type framework has been studied extensively as a model system. Throughout chapters 2, 4 and 5, MFI growth process has been investigated by small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Of fundamental importance is the role of nanoparticles (~5 nm), which are present in the precursor sol, in MFI nucleation and crystallization. Formation of amorphous aggregates and their internal restructuring are concluded as essential steps in MFI nucleation. Early stage zeolite particles have disordered and less crystalline regions within, which indicates the role of structurally distributed population of nanoparticles in growth. Faceting occurs after the depletion of nanoparticles. The chapter 6 presents growth studies in silica sols prepared by using a dimer of tertaprpylammonium (TPA) and reports that MFI nucleation and crystallization are delayed with a more pronounced delay in crystal growth.

  14. Two zeolite-type frameworks in one metal-organic framework with Zn24 @Zn104 cube-in-sodalite architecture.

    PubMed

    Bu, Fei; Lin, Qipu; Zhai, Quanguo; Wang, Le; Wu, Tao; Zheng, Shou-Tian; Bu, Xianhui; Feng, Pingyun

    2012-08-20

    Two in one: A metal-organic framework obtained from three different inorganic building blocks (tetrameric Zn(4) O, trimeric Zn(3) OH, and monomeric Zn) posseses a nested cage-in-cage and framework-in-framework architecture. 24 Zn(4) O tetramers and eight Zn monomers form a sodalite cage into which a cubic cage made from eight Zn(3) (OH) trimers is nestled. Eight monomeric Zn(2+) centers interconnect these two cages. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Metal-Organic Framework (MOF) Nanorods, Nanotubes, and Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Arbulu, Roberto C; Jiang, Ying-Bing; Peterson, Eric J; Qin, Yang

    2018-05-14

    New mechanisms for the controlled growth of one-dimensional (1D) metal-organic framework (MOF) nano- and superstructures under size-confinement and surface-directing effects have been discovered. Through applying interfacial synthesis templated by track-etched polycarbonate (PCTE) membranes, congruent polycrystalline zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) solid nanorods and hollow nanotubes were found to form within 100 nm membrane pores, while single crystalline ZIF-8 nanowires grew inside 30 nm pores, all of which possess large aspect ratios up to 60 and show preferential crystal orientation with the {100} planes aligned parallel to the long axis of the pore. Our findings provide a generalizable method for controlling size, morphology, and lattice orientation of MOF nanomaterials. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Tailored zeolites for the removal of metal oxyanions: overcoming intrinsic limitations of zeolites.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Hugo; Quintelas, Cristina

    2014-06-15

    This review aims to present a global view of the efforts conducted to convert zeolites into efficient supports for the removal of heavy metal oxyanions. Despite lacking affinity for these species, due to inherent charge repulsion between zeolite framework and anionic species, zeolites have still received considerable attention from the scientific community, since their versatility allowed tailoring them to answer specific requirements. Different processes for the removal and recovery of toxic metals based on zeolites have been presented. These processes resort to modification of the zeolite surface to allow direct adsorption of oxyanions, or by combination with reducing agents for oxyanions that allow ion-exchange with the converted species by the zeolite itself. In order to testify zeolite versatility, as well as covering the wide array of physicochemical constraints that oxyanions offer, chromium and arsenic oxyanions were selected as model compounds for a review of treatment/remediation strategies, based on zeolite modification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. ZEOLITES: EFFECTIVE WATER PURIFIERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zeolites are known for their adsorption, ion exchange and catalytic properties. Various natural zeolites are used as odor and moisture adsorbents and water softeners. Due to their acidic nature, synthetic zeolites are commonly employed as solid acid catalysts in petrochemical ind...

  18. Functionalization of zeolitic cavities: grafting NH2 groups in framework T sites of B-SSZ-13--a way to obtain basic solids catalysts?

    PubMed

    Regli, Laura; Bordiga, Silvia; Busco, Claudia; Prestipino, Carmelo; Ugliengo, Piero; Zecchina, Adriano; Lamberti, Carlo

    2007-10-10

    Insertion of B atoms into an Al-free zeolitic framework with CHA topology results in the formation of B-SSZ-13 zeotype with Si/B = 11. B K-edge NEXAFS testifies that B forms [B(OSi)4] units in a Td-like geometry (sp3-hybridized B atoms). According to B K-edge NEXAFS and IR, template burning results in the formation of [B(OSi)3] units in a D3h-like geometry (sp2-hybridized B atoms) with a break of a B-O-Si bond and the formation of a Si-OH group. The activated material contains B(III) Lewis acid centers able to specifically coordinate bases like NH3. Such [B(OSi)3] units are reactive toward ammonia, resulting in the formation of B-NH2 surface functionality inside the pores of B-SSZ-13 already under mild conditions, i.e., 35 mbar of NH3 at 373 K for 30 min and without crystallinity degradation. A minor fraction of Si-NH2 cannot be excluded owing to the presence of two IR doublets at 3500 and 3430 cm-1 and at 1600 and 1550 cm-1. Ab initio B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) calculations on a cluster model, supported by a single-point MP2 on B3LYP/6-31+G(D,P) optimized structures, found the break by NH3 of a B-O-Si bond of the [B(OSi)3] unit with formation of [SiOH] and [H2N-B(OSi)2] species to be energetically favored. Comparison between experimental and computed frequency shifts shows them to be in semiquantitative agreement. The high stability of the B-NH2 surface functionality is probed by N K-edge NEXAFS spectra collected under UHV conditions. These findings can open a new route in the preparation of shape selective solid basic catalysts.

  19. Energetics of sodium-calcium exchanged zeolite A.

    PubMed

    Sun, H; Wu, D; Guo, X; Shen, B; Navrotsky, A

    2015-05-07

    A series of calcium-exchanged zeolite A samples with different degrees of exchange were prepared. They were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). High temperature oxide melt drop solution calorimetry measured the formation enthalpies of hydrated zeolites CaNa-A from constituent oxides. The water content is a linear function of the degree of exchange, ranging from 20.54% for Na-A to 23.77% for 97.9% CaNa-A. The enthalpies of formation (from oxides) at 25 °C are -74.50 ± 1.21 kJ mol(-1) TO2 for hydrated zeolite Na-A and -30.79 ± 1.64 kJ mol(-1) TO2 for hydrated zeolite 97.9% CaNa-A. Dehydration enthalpies obtained from differential scanning calorimetry are 32.0 kJ mol(-1) H2O for hydrated zeolite Na-A and 20.5 kJ mol(-1) H2O for hydrated zeolite 97.9% CaNa-A. Enthalpies of formation of Ca-exchanged zeolites A are less exothermic than for zeolite Na-A. A linear relationship between the formation enthalpy and the extent of calcium substitution was observed. The energetic effect of Ca-exchange on zeolite A is discussed with an emphasis on the complex interactions between the zeolite framework, cations, and water.

  20. Zeolite-like liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, Silvio; Lehmann, Anne; Scholte, Alexander; Prehm, Marko; Zeng, Xiangbing; Ungar, Goran; Tschierske, Carsten

    2015-10-01

    Zeolites represent inorganic solid-state materials with porous structures of fascinating complexity. Recently, significant progress was made by reticular synthesis of related organic solid-state materials, such as metal-organic or covalent organic frameworks. Herein we go a step further and report the first example of a fluid honeycomb mimicking a zeolitic framework. In this unique self-assembled liquid crystalline structure, transverse-lying π-conjugated rod-like molecules form pentagonal channels, encircling larger octagonal channels, a structural motif also found in some zeolites. Additional bundles of coaxial molecules penetrate the centres of the larger channels, unreachable by chains attached to the honeycomb framework. This creates a unique fluid hybrid structure combining positive and negative anisotropies, providing the potential for tuning the directionality of anisotropic optical, electrical and magnetic properties. This work also demonstrates a new approach to complex soft-matter self-assembly, by using frustration between space filling and the entropic penalty of chain extension.

  1. Atomic sites and stability of Cs+ captured within zeolitic nanocavities

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Kaname; Toyoura, Kazuaki; Matsunaga, Katsuyuki; Nakahira, Atsushi; Kurata, Hiroki; Ikuhara, Yumi H.; Sasaki, Yukichi

    2013-01-01

    Zeolites have potential application as ion-exchangers, catalysts and molecular sieves. Zeolites are once again drawing attention in Japan as stable adsorbents and solidification materials of fission products, such as 137Cs+ from damaged nuclear-power plants. Although there is a long history of scientific studies on the crystal structures and ion-exchange properties of zeolites for practical application, there are still open questions, at the atomic-level, on the physical and chemical origins of selective ion-exchange abilities of different cations and detailed atomic structures of exchanged cations inside the nanoscale cavities of zeolites. Here, the precise locations of Cs+ ions captured within A-type zeolite were analyzed using high-resolution electron microscopy. Together with theoretical calculations, the stable positions of absorbed Cs+ ions in the nanocavities are identified, and the bonding environment within the zeolitic framework is revealed to be a key factor that influences the locations of absorbed cations. PMID:23949184

  2. Imidazole modified g-C3N4 photocatalyst: Structural characterization and versatile energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lu; Liu, Qianqian; Chai, Yuanyuan; Ren, Jia; Dai, Wei-Lin

    2018-02-01

    Novel imidazole modified g-C3N4 were firstly synthesized via a facile one-pot thermo-induced co-condensation method. Characterization results showed that imidazole modification can improve the visible light harvesting, interfacial charge transfer and separation of g-C3N4, without destroying its pristine framework structure. The as-obtained imidazole modified g-C3N4 showed remarkably enhanced and rather stable photocatalytic performance in H2 evolution, photo-degradation of water contaminants and selective photo-oxidation of benzyl alcohol, demonstrating its all-round applications as a versatile photocatalyst. The weight ratio between imidazole and urea was well tuned and the optimal photocatalytic activity was obtained, which shows CNU-I50 sample (50 mg imidazole in 15 g urea) possesses the highest hydrogen evolution rate of 2150 μmol g-1 h-1, superior to most of the previous reported g-C3N4 materials. These results suggest that those imidazole modified g-C3N4 materials are potential photocatalyst when applied to solar energy conversion, water purification and selective photosynthesis reactions.

  3. Prebiotic synthesis of imidazole-4-acetaldehyde and histidine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chun; Yang, Lily; Miller, Stanley L.; Oró, J.

    1987-09-01

    The prebiotic synthesis of imidazole-4-acetaldehyde and imidazole-4-glycol from erythrose and formamidine has been demonstrated as well as the prebiotic synthesis of imidazole-4-ethanol and imidazole-4-glycol from erythrose, formaldehyde and ammonia. The products were identified by TLC, HPLC, and LC-MS by comparison with authentic samples. The maximum yields of imidazole-4-acetaldehyde, imidazole-4-ethanol, and imidazole-4-glycol obtained in these reactions are 1.6, 5.4, 6.8% respectively, based on the erythrose. Imidazole-4-acetaldehyde would have been converted to histidine on the primitive earth by a Strecker synthesis, and several prebiotic reactions would convert imidazole-4-glycol and imidazole-4-ethanol to imidazole-4-acetaldehyde.

  4. Flexibility of the zeolite RHO framework. In situ X-ray and neutron powder structural characterization of cation-exchanged BePO and BeAsORHO analogs

    SciT

    Nenoff, T.M.; Parise, J.B.; Jones, G.A.

    This is an extensive study of the non-aluminosilicate analogs of the zeolite RHO. This molecular sieve is of great interest commercially because of its catalytic properties. In the absence of rigid supporting structural subunits (smaller cages or channels), the aluminosilicate RHO exhibits atypical framework flexibility with large displacivere arrangements. The beryllophosphate and beryalloarsenate analogs are easily synthesized under very mild reaction conditions and therefore maybe of interest for inexpensive and rapid commercial production. However,t hey have decreased thermal stability. In an effort to increase thermal stability and explore framework flexibility, we have synthesized and characterized a series of analogs ofmore » the non-aluminosilicate RHO framework. All materials crystallize in the space group I23, ranging from a = 13.584-(2) A for Li-BePO RHO to a = 14.224(4) A for Ba-RbBeAsO RHO for hydrated phases. The extra framework cations are distributed over the double 8-ring, single 8-ring, and two single 6-ring sites. Partially and fully dehydrated phases were also studied for changes in framework stability. Predictive trends based on the type of cation exchanged into the framework were determined by {sup 9}Be and {sup 31}P MAS NMR. 50 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.« less

  5. Syntheses, structures, and properties of two new zinc(II) metal-organic frameworks based on flexible 1,6-bis(2-methyl-imidazole-1-yl)hexane ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jun-Cheng; Fu, Ai-Yun; Li, Dian; Chang, Wen-Gui; Wu, Ju; Yang, Mei; Xie, Cheng-Gen; Xu, Guang-Nian; Cai, An-Xing; Wu, Ai-Hua

    2014-11-01

    Two new zinc(II) metal-organic compounds of [Zn(ADC)(bimh)]n (1) and [Zn(ADA)(bimh)]n (2) (H2ADC = 1,3-adamantanedicarboxylic acid, H2ADA = 1,3-adamantanediacetic acid, bimh = 1,6-bis(2-methyl-imidazole-1-yl)-hexane, have been structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis. In compound 1, the zinc(II) ions are bridged by ADC and bimh ligands to form a 1D looped chain. In compound 2, the ADA molecules alternately bridge Zn(II) atoms to form infinite chains, and then the 1D chain is connected through the bimh ligand resulting in an undulating infinite two-dimensional (2D) polymeric network. Additionally, TG analysis, XRPD and fluorescent properties for compounds 1 and 2 are also measured and discussed.

  6. Molecular simulations and experimental studies of zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moloy, Eric C.

    Zeolites are microporous aluminosilicate tetrahedral framework materials that have symmetric cages and channels with open-diameters between 0.2 and 2.0 nm. Zeolites are used extensively in the petrochemical industries for both their microporosity and their catalytic properties. The role of water is paramount to the formation, structure, and stability of these materials. Zeolites frequently have extra-framework cations, and as a result, are important ion-exchange materials. Zeolites also play important roles as molecular sieves and catalysts. For all that is known about zeolites, much remains a mystery. How, for example, can the well established metastability of these structures be explained? What is the role of water with respect to the formation, stabilization, and dynamical properties? This dissertation addresses these questions mainly from a modeling perspective, but also with some experimental work as well. The first discussion addresses a special class of zeolites: pure-silica zeolites. Experimental enthalpy of formation data are combined with molecular modeling to address zeolitic metastability. Molecular modeling is used to calculate internal surface areas, and a linear relationship between formation enthalpy and internal surface areas is clearly established, producing an internal surface energy of approximately 93 mJ/m2. Nitrate bearing sodalite and cancrinite have formed under the caustic chemical conditions of some nuclear waste processing centers in the United States. These phases have fouled expensive process equipment, and are the primary constituents of the resilient heels in the bottom of storage tanks. Molecular modeling, including molecular mechanics, molecular dynamics, and density functional theory, is used to simulate these materials with respect to structure and dynamical properties. Some new, very interesting results are extracted from the simulation of anhydrous Na6[Si6Al 6O24] sodalite---most importantly, the identification of two distinct

  7. Imidazole catalyzes chlorination by unreactive primary chloramines

    PubMed Central

    Roemeling, Margo D.; Williams, Jared; Beckman, Joseph S.; Hurst, James K.

    2015-01-01

    Hypochlorous acid and simple chloramines (RNHCl) are stable biologically-derived chlorinating agents. In general, the chlorination potential of HOCl is much greater than that of RNHCl, allowing it to oxidize or chlorinate a much wider variety of reaction partners. However, in this study we demonstrate by kinetic analysis that the reactivity of RNHCl can be dramatically promoted by imidazole and histidyl model compounds via intermediary formation of the corresponding imidazole chloramines. Two biologically relevant reactions were investigated—loss of imidazole-catalyzed chlorinating capacity and phenolic ring chlorination using fluorescein and the tyrosine analog, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (HPA). HOCl reacted stoichiometrically with imidazole, N-acetylhistidine (NAH), or imidazoleacetic acid to generate the corresponding imidazole chloramines which subsequently decomposed. Chloramine (NH2Cl) also underwent a markedly accelerated loss in chlorinating capacity when NAH was present, although in this case NAHCl did not accumulate, indicating that the catalytic intermediate must be highly reactive. Mixing HOCl with 1-methylimidazole (MeIm) led to very rapid loss in chlorinating capacity via formation of a highly reactive chlorinium ion (MeImCl+) intermediate; this behavior suggests that the reactive forms of the analogous imidazole chloramines are their conjugate acids, e.g., the imidazolechlorinium ion (HImCl+). HOCl-generated imidazole chloramine (ImCl) reacted rapidly with fluorescein in a specific acid-catalyzed second order reaction to give 3′-monochloro and 3′,5′-dichloro products. Equilibrium constants for the transchlorination reactions: HOCl + HIm = H2O + ImCl and NH2Cl + HIm = NH3 + ImCl were estimated from the dependence of the rate constants upon [HIm]/[HOCl] and literature data. Acid catalysis again suggests that the actual chlorinating agent is HImCl+; consistent with this interpretation, MeIm markedly catalyzed fluorescein chlorination by HOCl

  8. Zeolites: Exploring Molecular Channels

    Arslan, Ilke; Derewinski, Mirek

    2018-05-16

    Synthetic zeolites contain microscopic channels, sort of like a sponge. They have many uses, such as helping laundry detergent lather, absorbing liquid in kitty litter, and as catalysts to produce fuel. Of the hundreds of types of zeolites, only about 15 are used for catalysis. PNNL catalysis scientists Ilke Arslan and Mirek Derewinksi are studying these zeolites to understand what make them special. By exploring the mystery of these microscopic channels, their fundamental findings will help design better catalysts for applications such as biofuel production.

  9. Zeolites: Exploring Molecular Channels

    SciT

    Arslan, Ilke; Derewinski, Mirek

    2015-05-22

    Synthetic zeolites contain microscopic channels, sort of like a sponge. They have many uses, such as helping laundry detergent lather, absorbing liquid in kitty litter, and as catalysts to produce fuel. Of the hundreds of types of zeolites, only about 15 are used for catalysis. PNNL catalysis scientists Ilke Arslan and Mirek Derewinksi are studying these zeolites to understand what make them special. By exploring the mystery of these microscopic channels, their fundamental findings will help design better catalysts for applications such as biofuel production.

  10. Diagram of Zeolite Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Center for Advanced Microgravity Materials Processing (CAMMP) in Cambridge, MA, a NASA-sponsored Commercial Space Center, is working to improve zeolite materials for storing hydrogen fuel. CAMMP is also applying zeolites to detergents, optical cables, gas and vapor detection for environmental monitoring and control, and chemical production techniques that significantly reduce by-products that are hazardous to the environment. Depicted here is one of the many here complex geometric shapes which make them highly absorbent. Zeolite experiments have also been conducted aboard the International Space Station

  11. Removal of Ca2+ and Zn2+ from aqueous solutions by zeolites NaP and KP.

    PubMed

    Yusof, Alias Mohd; Malek, Nik Ahmad Nizam Nik; Kamaruzaman, Nurul Asyikin; Adil, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    Zeolites P in sodium (NaP) and potassium (KP) forms were used as adsorbents for the removal of calcium (Ca2+) and zinc (Zn2+) cations from aqueous solutions. Zeolite KP was prepared by ion exchange of K+ with Na+ which neutralizes the negative charge of the zeolite P framework structure. The ion exchange capacity of K+ on zeolite NaP was determined through the Freundlich isotherm equilibrium study. Characterization of zeolite KP was determined using infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. From the characterization, the structure of zeolite KP was found to remain stable after the ion exchange process. Zeolites KP and NaP were used for the removal of Ca and Zn from solution. The amount of Ca2+ and Zn2+ in aqueous solution before and after the adsorption by zeolites was analysed using the flame atomic absorption spectroscopy method. The removal of Ca2+ and Zn2+ followed the Freundlich isotherm rather than the Langmuir isotherm model. This result also revealed that zeolite KP adsorbs Ca2+ and Zn2+ more than zeolite NaP and proved that modification of zeolite NaP with potassium leads to an increase in the adsorption efficiency of the zeolite. Therefore, the zeolites NaP and KP can be used for water softening (Ca removal) and reducing water pollution/toxicity (Zn removal).

  12. Exploitation of Unique Properties of Zeolites in the Development of Gas Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yangong; Li, Xiaogan; Dutta, Prabir K.

    2012-01-01

    The unique properties of microporous zeolites, including ion-exchange properties, adsorption, molecular sieving, catalysis, conductivity have been exploited in improving the performance of gas sensors. Zeolites have been employed as physical and chemical filters to improve the sensitivity and selectivity of gas sensors. In addition, direct interaction of gas molecules with the extraframework cations in the nanoconfined space of zeolites has been explored as a basis for developing new impedance-type gas/vapor sensors. In this review, we summarize how these properties of zeolites have been used to develop new sensing paradigms. There is a considerable breadth of transduction processes that have been used for zeolite incorporated sensors, including frequency measurements, optical and the entire gamut of electrochemical measurements. It is clear from the published literature that zeolites provide a route to enhance sensor performance, and it is expected that commercial manifestation of some of the approaches discussed here will take place. The future of zeolite-based sensors will continue to exploit its unique properties and use of other microporous frameworks, including metal organic frameworks. Zeolite composites with electronic materials, including metals will lead to new paradigms in sensing. Use of nano-sized zeolite crystals and zeolite membranes will enhance sensor properties and make possible new routes of miniaturized sensors. PMID:22666081

  13. Composite zeolite membranes

    DOEpatents

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Thoma, Steven G.; Ashley, Carol S.; Reed, Scott T.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of composite zeolite membranes and synthesis techniques therefor has been invented. These membranes are essentially defect-free, and exhibit large levels of transmembrane flux and of chemical and isotopic selectivity.

  14. Studies of anions sorption on natural zeolites.

    PubMed

    Barczyk, K; Mozgawa, W; Król, M

    2014-12-10

    This work presents results of FT-IR spectroscopic studies of anions-chromate, phosphate and arsenate - sorbed from aqueous solutions (different concentrations of anions) on zeolites. The sorption has been conducted on natural zeolites from different structural groups, i.e. chabazite, mordenite, ferrierite and clinoptilolite. The Na-forms of sorbents were exchanged with hexadecyltrimethylammonium cations (HDTMA(+)) and organo-zeolites were obtained. External cation exchange capacities (ECEC) of organo-zeolites were measured. Their values are 17mmol/100g for chabazite, 4mmol/100g for mordenite and ferrierite and 10mmol/100g for clinoptilolite. The used initial inputs of HDTMA correspond to 100% and 200% ECEC of the minerals. Organo-modificated sorbents were subsequently used for immobilization of mentioned anions. It was proven that aforementioned anions' sorption causes changes in IR spectra of the HDTMA-zeolites. These alterations are dependent on the kind of anions that were sorbed. In all cases, variations are due to bands corresponding to the characteristic Si-O(Si,Al) vibrations (occurring in alumino- and silicooxygen tetrahedra building spatial framework of zeolites). Alkylammonium surfactant vibrations have also been observed. Systematic changes in the spectra connected with the anion concentration in the initial solution have been revealed. The amounts of sorbed CrO4(2-), AsO4(3-) and PO4(3-) ions were calculated from the difference between their concentrations in solutions before (initial concentration) and after (equilibrium concentration) sorption experiments. Concentrations of anions were determined by spectrophotometric method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hydraulic conductivity of compacted zeolites.

    PubMed

    Oren, A Hakan; Ozdamar, Tuğçe

    2013-06-01

    Hydraulic conductivities of compacted zeolites were investigated as a function of compaction water content and zeolite particle size. Initially, the compaction characteristics of zeolites were determined. The compaction test results showed that maximum dry unit weight (γ(dmax)) of fine zeolite was greater than that of granular zeolites. The γ(dmax) of compacted zeolites was between 1.01 and 1.17 Mg m(-3) and optimum water content (w(opt)) was between 38% and 53%. Regardless of zeolite particle size, compacted zeolites had low γ(dmax) and high w(opt) when compared with compacted natural soils. Then, hydraulic conductivity tests were run on compacted zeolites. The hydraulic conductivity values were within the range of 2.0 × 10(-3) cm s(-1) to 1.1 × 10(-7) cm s(-1). Hydraulic conductivity of all compacted zeolites decreased almost 50 times as the water content increased. It is noteworthy that hydraulic conductivity of compacted zeolite was strongly dependent on the zeolite particle size. The hydraulic conductivity decreased almost three orders of magnitude up to 39% fine content; then, it remained almost unchanged beyond 39%. Only one report was found in the literature on the hydraulic conductivity of compacted zeolite, which is in agreement with the findings of this study.

  16. Zeolite-catalyzed hydrogenation of carbon dioxide and ethene.

    PubMed

    Chan, Bun; Radom, Leo

    2008-07-30

    Ab initio molecular orbital theory and density functional theory calculations have been used to study the three-stage zeolite-catalyzed hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol and the hydrogenation of C2H 4 to ethane, with the aim of designing an effective zeolite catalyst for these reactions. Both Brønsted acid (XH) and alkali metal (XM) sites in model zeolites (-X-Al-XH- or -X-Al-XM-) have been examined. It is found that appropriately designed zeolites can provide excellent catalysis for these reactions, particularly for the hydrogenation of CO2, HCO2H and CH2O, with uncatalyzed barriers of more than 300 kJ mol(-1) being reduced to as little as 17 kJ mol(-1) (in the case of CH2O). The reaction barrier depends on the acidity of the XH moiety or the nature of the metal cation M in the XM moiety, and the basicity of the adjacent X group in the catalyst. For a catalyst based on alkali metal zeolites (XM), the catalytic activity is relatively insensitive to the nature of X in the XM group. As a result, the catalytic activity for these types of zeolites increases as X becomes more basic. We propose that alkali metal zeolites with Ge and N incorporated into the framework could be very effective catalysts for hydrogenation processes.

  17. Rapid synthesis of beta zeolites

    DOEpatents

    Fan, Wei; Chang, Chun -Chih; Dornath, Paul; Wang, Zhuopeng

    2015-08-18

    The invention provides methods for rapidly synthesizing heteroatom containing zeolites including Sn-Beta, Si-Beta, Ti-Beta, Zr-Beta and Fe-Beta. The methods for synthesizing heteroatom zeolites include using well-crystalline zeolite crystals as seeds and using a fluoride-free, caustic medium in a seeded dry-gel conversion method. The Beta zeolite catalysts made by the methods of the invention catalyze both isomerization and dehydration reactions.

  18. Framework flexibility of ZIF-8 under liquid intrusion: discovering time-dependent mechanical response and structural relaxation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yueting; Li, Yibing; Tan, Jin-Chong

    2018-04-18

    The structural flexibility of a topical zeolitic imidazolate framework with sodalite topology, termed ZIF-8, has been elucidated through liquid intrusion under moderate pressures (i.e. tens of MPa). By tracking the evolution of water intrusion pressure under cyclic conditions, we interrogate the role of the gate-opening mechanism controlling the size variation of the pore channels of ZIF-8. Interestingly, we demonstrate that its channel deformation is recoverable through structural relaxation over time, hence revealing the viscoelastic mechanical response in ZIF-8. We propose a simple approach employing a glycerol-water solution mixture, which can significantly enhance the sensitivity of intrusion pressure for the detection of structural deformation in ZIF-8. By leveraging the time-dependent gate-opening phenomenon in ZIF-8, we achieved a notable improvement (50%) in energy dissipation during multicycle mechanical deformation experiments.

  19. Scaling Relations for Acidity and Reactivity of Zeolites

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Zeolites are widely applied as solid acid catalysts in various technological processes. In this work we have computationally investigated how catalytic reactivity scales with acidity for a range of zeolites with different topologies and chemical compositions. We found that straightforward correlations are limited to zeolites with the same topology. The adsorption energies of bases such as carbon monoxide (CO), acetonitrile (CH3CN), ammonia (NH3), trimethylamine (N(CH3)3), and pyridine (C5H5N) give the same trend of acid strength for FAU zeolites with varying composition. Crystal orbital Hamilton populations (COHP) analysis provides a detailed molecular orbital picture of adsorbed base molecules on the Brønsted acid sites (BAS). Bonding is dominated by strong σ donation from guest molecules to the BAS for the adsorbed CO and CH3CN complexes. An electronic descriptor of acid strength is constructed based on the bond order calculations, which is an intrinsic parameter rather than adsorption energy that contains additional contributions due to secondary effects such as van der Waals interactions with the zeolite walls. The bond order parameter derived for the CH3CN adsorption complex represents a useful descriptor for the intrinsic acid strength of FAU zeolites. For FAU zeolites the activation energy for the conversion of π-adsorbed isobutene into alkoxy species correlates well with the acid strength determined by the NH3 adsorption energies. Other zeolites such as MFI and CHA do not follow the scaling relations obtained for FAU; we ascribe this to the different van der Waals interactions and steric effects induced by zeolite framework topology. PMID:29142616

  20. Inhibition of palm oil oxidation by zeolite nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kok-Hou; Awala, Hussein; Mukti, Rino R; Wong, Ka-Lun; Rigaud, Baptiste; Ling, Tau Chuan; Aleksandrov, Hristiyan A; Koleva, Iskra Z; Vayssilov, Georgi N; Mintova, Svetlana; Ng, Eng-Poh

    2015-05-13

    The efficiency of zeolite X nanocrystals (FAU-type framework structure) containing different extra-framework cations (Li(+), Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+)) in slowing the thermal oxidation of palm oil is reported. The oxidation study of palm oil is conducted in the presence of zeolite nanocrystals (0.5 wt %) at 150 °C. Several characterization techniques such as visual analysis, colorimetry, rheometry, total acid number (TAN), FT-IR spectroscopy, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and Karl Fischer analyses are applied to follow the oxidative evolution of the oil. It was found that zeolite nanocrystals decelerate the oxidation of palm oil through stabilization of hydroperoxides, which are the primary oxidation product, and concurrently via adsorption of the secondary oxidation products (alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and esters). In addition to the experimental results, periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed to elucidate further the oxidation process of the palm oil in the presence of zeolite nanocrystals. The DFT calculations show that the metal complexes formed with peroxides are more stable than the complexes with alkenes with the same ions. The peroxides captured in the zeolite X nanocrystals consequently decelerate further oxidation toward formation of acids. Unlike the monovalent alkali metal cations in the zeolite X nanocrystals (K(+), Na(+), and Li(+)), Ca(2+) reduced the acidity of the oil by neutralizing the acidic carboxylate compounds to COO(-)(Ca(2+))1/2 species.

  1. Facile synthesis of hollow zeolite microspheres through dissolution–recrystallization procedure in the presence of organosilanes

    SciT

    Tao, Haixiang; Ren, Jiawen; Liu, Xiaohui

    2013-04-15

    Hollow zeolite microspheres have been hydrothermally synthesized in the presence of organosilanes via a dissolution–recrystallization procedure. In the presence of organosilanes, zeolite particles with a core/shell structure formed at the first stage of hydrothermal treatment, then the core was consumed and recrystallized into zeolite framework to form the hollow structure during the second hydrothermal process. The influence of organosilanes was discussed, and a related dissolution–recrystallization mechanism was proposed. In addition, the hollow zeolite microspheres exhibited an obvious advantage in catalytic reactions compared to conventional ZSM-5 catalysts, such as in the alkylation of toluene with benzyl chloride. - Graphical abstract: Hollowmore » zeolite spheres with aggregated zeolite nanocrystals were synthesized via a dissolution–recrystallization procedure in the presence of organosiline. Highlights: ► Hollow zeolite spheres with aggregated zeolite nanocrystals were synthesized via a dissolution–recrystallization procedure. ► Organosilane influences both the morphology and hollow structure of zeolite spheres. ► Hollow zeolite spheres showed an excellent catalytic performance in alkylation of toluene with benzyl chloride.« less

  2. Dispersible Exfoliated Zeolite Nanosheets and Their Application as a Selective Membrane

    SciT

    Varoon, Kumar; Zhang, Xueyi; Elyassi, Bahman

    2011-10-06

    Thin zeolite films are attractive for a wide range of applications, including molecular sieve membranes, catalytic membrane reactors, permeation barriers, and low-dielectric-constant materials. Synthesis of thin zeolite films using high-aspect-ratio zeolite nanosheets is desirable because of the packing and processing advantages of the nanosheets over isotropic zeolite nanoparticles. Attempts to obtain a dispersed suspension of zeolite nanosheets via exfoliation of their lamellar precursors have been hampered because of their structure deterioration and morphological damage (fragmentation, curling, and aggregation). We demonstrated the synthesis and structure determination of highly crystalline nanosheets of zeolite frameworks MWW and MFI. The purity and morphological integritymore » of these nanosheets allow them to pack well on porous supports, facilitating the fabrication of molecular sieve membranes.« less

  3. pH-Dependent Optical Properties of Synthetic Fluorescent Imidazoles

    PubMed Central

    Berezin, Mikhail Y.; Kao, Jeff; Achilefu, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    An imidazole moiety is often found as an integral part of fluorophores in a variety of fluorescent proteins and many such proteins possess pH dependent light emission. In contrast, synthetic fluorescent compounds with incorporated imidazoles are rare and have not been studied as pH probes. In this report, the richness of imidazole optical properties, including pH sensitivity, was demonstrated via a novel imidazole-based fluorophore 1H-imidazol-5-yl-vinyl-benz[e]indolium. Three species corresponding to protonated, neutral and deprotonated imidazoles were identified in the broad range of pH 1-12. The absorption and emission bands of each species were assigned by comparative spectral analysis with synthesized mono- and di-N-methylated fluorescent imidazole analogues. pKa analysis in the ground and the excited states showed photoacidic properties of the fluorescent imidazoles due to the excited state proton transfer (ESPT). This effect was negligible for substituted imidazoles. The assessment of a pH sensitive center in the imidazole ring revealed the switching of the pH sensitive centers from 1-N in the ground state to 3-N in the excited state. The effect was attributed to the unique kind of the excited state charge transfer (ESCT) resulting in a positive charge swapping between two nitrogens. PMID:19212987

  4. Advances in nanosized zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mintova, Svetlana; Gilson, Jean-Pierre; Valtchev, Valentin

    2013-07-01

    This review highlights recent developments in the synthesis of nanosized zeolites. The strategies available for their preparation (organic-template assisted, organic-template free, and alternative procedures) are discussed. Major breakthroughs achieved by the so-called zeolite crystal engineering and encompass items such as mastering and using the physicochemical properties of the precursor synthesis gel/suspension, optimizing the use of silicon and aluminium precursor sources, the rational use of organic templates and structure-directing inorganic cations, and careful adjustment of synthesis conditions (temperature, pressure, time, heating processes from conventional to microwave and sonication) are addressed. An on-going broad and deep fundamental understanding of the crystallization process, explaining the influence of all variables of this complex set of reactions, underpins an even more rational design of nanosized zeolites with exceptional properties. Finally, the advantages and limitations of these methods are addressed with particular attention to their industrial prospects and utilization in existing and advanced applications.

  5. Proton transfer from imidazole to chloranil studied by FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Amit

    2018-05-01

    Imidazole is incorporated into many important biological molecules. The most obvious is the amino acid histidine, which has an imidazole side chain. Histidine is present in many proteins and enzymes and plays a vital part in the structure and binding functions of hemoglobin. Therefore it is important to study its proton transfer property. In the present work proton transfer from imidazole to chloranil is investigated by Fourier Transform Infra red Spectroscopy.

  6. Discovery of optimal zeolites for challenging separations and chemical transformations using predictive materials modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Peng; Jeon, Mi Young; Ren, Limin; Knight, Chris; Deem, Michael W.; Tsapatsis, Michael; Siepmann, J. Ilja

    2015-01-01

    Zeolites play numerous important roles in modern petroleum refineries and have the potential to advance the production of fuels and chemical feedstocks from renewable resources. The performance of a zeolite as separation medium and catalyst depends on its framework structure. To date, 213 framework types have been synthesized and >330,000 thermodynamically accessible zeolite structures have been predicted. Hence, identification of optimal zeolites for a given application from the large pool of candidate structures is attractive for accelerating the pace of materials discovery. Here we identify, through a large-scale, multi-step computational screening process, promising zeolite structures for two energy-related applications: the purification of ethanol from fermentation broths and the hydroisomerization of alkanes with 18-30 carbon atoms encountered in petroleum refining. These results demonstrate that predictive modelling and data-driven science can now be applied to solve some of the most challenging separation problems involving highly non-ideal mixtures and highly articulated compounds.

  7. Metal-Organic-Framework-Derived Yolk-Shell-Structured Cobalt-Based Bimetallic Oxide Polyhedron with High Activity for Electrocatalytic Oxygen Evolution.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhou; Bai, Yu; Liu, Yuxuan; Zhang, Shimin; Chen, Dandan; Zhang, Naiqing; Sun, Kening

    2017-09-20

    The development of inexpensive, efficient, and environmentally friendly catalysts for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is of great significant for green energy utilization. Herein, binary metal oxides (M x Co 3-x O 4 , M = Zn, Ni, and Cu) with yolk-shell polyhedron (YSP) structure were fabricated by facile pyrolysis of bimetallic zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (MCo-ZIFs). Benefiting from the synergistic effects of metal ions and the unique yolk-shell structure, M x Co 3-x O 4 YSP displays good OER catalytic activity in alkaline media. Impressively, Zn x Co 3-x O 4 YSP shows a comparable overpotential of 337 mV at 10 mA cm -2 to commercial RuO 2 and exhibits superior long-term durability. The high activity and good stability reveals its promising application.

  8. Identifying the Role of Terahertz Vibrations in Metal-Organic Frameworks: From Gate-Opening Phenomenon to Shear-Driven Structural Destabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryder, Matthew R.; Civalleri, Bartolomeo; Bennett, Thomas D.; Henke, Sebastian; Rudić, Svemir; Cinque, Gianfelice; Fernandez-Alonso, Felix; Tan, Jin-Chong

    2014-11-01

    We present an unambiguous identification of low-frequency terahertz vibrations in the archetypal imidazole-based metal-organic framework (MOF) materials: ZIF-4, ZIF-7, and ZIF-8, all of which adopt a zeolite-like nanoporous structure. Using inelastic neutron scattering and synchrotron radiation far-infrared absorption spectroscopy, in conjunction with density functional theory (DFT), we have pinpointed all major sources of vibrational modes. Ab initio DFT calculations revealed the complex nature of the collective THz modes, which enable us to establish detailed correlations with experiments. We discover that low-energy conformational dynamics offers multiple pathways to elucidate novel physical phenomena observed in MOFs. New evidence demonstrates that THz modes are intrinsically linked, not only to anomalous elasticity underpinning gate-opening and pore-breathing mechanisms, but also to shear-induced phase transitions and the onset of structural instability.

  9. Zeolite crystal growth in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacco, Albert, Jr.; Thompson, Robert W.; Dixon, Anthony G.

    1991-01-01

    The growth of large, uniform zeolite crystals in high yield in space can have a major impact on the chemical process industry. Large zeolite crystals will be used to improve basic understanding of adsorption and catalytic mechanisms, and to make zeolite membranes. To grow large zeolites in microgravity, it is necessary to control the nucleation event and fluid motion, and to enhance nutrient transfer. Data is presented that suggests nucleation can be controlled using chemical compounds (e.g., Triethanolamine, for zeolite A), while not adversely effecting growth rate. A three-zone furnace has been designed to perform multiple syntheses concurrently. The operating range of the furnace is 295 K to 473 K. Teflon-lined autoclaves (10 ml liquid volume) have been designed to minimize contamination, reduce wall nucleation, and control mixing of pre-gel solutions on orbit. Zeolite synthesis experiments will be performed on USML-1 in 1992.

  10. Antimicrobial properties of zeolite-X and zeolite-A ion-exchanged with silver, copper, and zinc against a broad range of microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Selami; Ustaoğlu, Zeynep; Yılmazer, Gonca Altın; Sahin, Fikrettin; Baç, Nurcan

    2014-02-01

    Zeolites are nanoporous alumina silicates composed of silicon, aluminum, and oxygen in a framework with cations, water within pores. Their cation contents can be exchanged with monovalent or divalent ions. In the present study, the antimicrobial (antibacterial, anticandidal, and antifungal) properties of zeolite type X and A, with different Al/Si ratio, ion exchanged with Ag(+), Zn(2+), and Cu(2+) ions were investigated individually. The study presents the synthesis and manufacture of four different zeolite types characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The ion loading capacity of the zeolites was examined and compared with the antimicrobial characteristics against a broad range of microorganisms including bacteria, yeast, and mold. It was observed that Ag(+) ion-loaded zeolites exhibited more antibacterial activity with respect to other metal ion-embedded zeolite samples. The results clearly support that various synthetic zeolites can be ion exchanged with Ag(+), Zn(2+), and Cu(2+) ions to acquire antimicrobial properties or ion-releasing characteristics to provide prolonged or stronger activity. The current study suggested that zeolite formulations could be combined with various materials used in manufacturing medical devices, surfaces, textiles, or household items where antimicrobial properties are required.

  11. Synthesis of Zeolites Using the ADOR (Assembly-Disassembly-Organization-Reassembly) Route

    PubMed Central

    Wheatley, Paul S.; Čejka, Jiří; Morris, Russell E.

    2016-01-01

    Zeolites are an important class of materials that have wide ranging applications such as heterogeneous catalysts and adsorbents which are dependent on their framework topology. For new applications or improvements to existing ones, new zeolites with novel pore systems are desirable. We demonstrate a method for the synthesis of novel zeolites using the ADOR route. ADOR is an acronym for Assembly, Disassembly, Organization and Reassembly. This synthetic route takes advantage of the assembly of a relatively poorly stable that which can be selectively disassembled into a layered material. The resulting layered intermediate can then be organized in different manners by careful chemical manipulation and then reassembled into zeolites with new topologies. By carefully controlling the organization step of the synthetic pathway, new zeolites with never before seen topologies are capable of being synthesized. The structures of these new zeolites are confirmed using powder X-ray diffraction and further characterized by nitrogen adsorption and scanning electron microscopy. This new synthetic pathway for zeolites demonstrates its capability to produce novel frameworks that have never been prepared by traditional zeolite synthesis techniques. PMID:27078165

  12. Synthesis of Zeolites Using the ADOR (Assembly-Disassembly-Organization-Reassembly) Route.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, Paul S; Čejka, Jiří; Morris, Russell E

    2016-04-03

    Zeolites are an important class of materials that have wide ranging applications such as heterogeneous catalysts and adsorbents which are dependent on their framework topology. For new applications or improvements to existing ones, new zeolites with novel pore systems are desirable. We demonstrate a method for the synthesis of novel zeolites using the ADOR route. ADOR is an acronym for Assembly, Disassembly, Organization and Reassembly. This synthetic route takes advantage of the assembly of a relatively poorly stable that which can be selectively disassembled into a layered material. The resulting layered intermediate can then be organized in different manners by careful chemical manipulation and then reassembled into zeolites with new topologies. By carefully controlling the organization step of the synthetic pathway, new zeolites with never before seen topologies are capable of being synthesized. The structures of these new zeolites are confirmed using powder X-ray diffraction and further characterized by nitrogen adsorption and scanning electron microscopy. This new synthetic pathway for zeolites demonstrates its capability to produce novel frameworks that have never been prepared by traditional zeolite synthesis techniques.

  13. Recent Advances on Bioethanol Dehydration using Zeolite Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makertihartha, I. G. B. N.; Dharmawijaya, P. T.; Wenten, I. G.

    2017-07-01

    Renewable energy has gained increasing attention throughout the world. Bioethanol has the potential to replace existing fossil fuel usage without much modification in existing facilities. Bioethanol which generally produced from fermentation route produces low ethanol concentration. However, fuel grade ethanol requires low water content to avoid engine stall. Dehydration process has been increasingly important in fuel grade ethanol production. Among all dehydration processes, pervaporation is considered as the most promising technology. Zeolite possesses high potential in pervaporation of bioethanol into fuel grade ethanol. Zeolite membrane can either remove organic (ethanol) from aqueous mixture or water from the mixture, depending on the framework used. Hydrophilic zeolite membrane, e.g. LTA, can easily remove water from the mixture leaving high ethanol concentration. On the other hand, hydrophobic zeolite membrane, e.g. silicate-1, can remove ethanol from aqueous solution. This review presents the concept of bioethanol dehydration using zeolite membrane. Special attention is given to the performance of selected pathway related to framework selection.

  14. Asymmetric supercapacitors utilizing highly porous metal-organic framework derived Co3O4 nanosheets grown on Ni foam and polyaniline hydrogel derived N-doped nanocarbon electrode materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xin; Chen, Weiliang; Pang, Shuhua; Lu, Wei; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Zheng; Fang, Dong

    2017-12-01

    In the present work, asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) are assembled using a highly conductive N-doped nanocarbon (NDC) material derived from a polyaniline hydrogel as a cathode, and Ni foam covered with flower-like Co3O4 nanosheets (Co3O4-Ni) prepared from a zeolitic imidazolate metal-organic framework as a single precursor serves as a high gravimetric capacitance anode. At a current of 0.2 A g-1, the Co3O4-Ni electrode provides a gravimetric capacitance of 637.7 F g-1, and the NDC electrode provides a gravimetric capacitance of 359.6 F g-1. The ASC assembled with an optimal active material loading operates within a wide potential window of 0-1.1 V, and provides a high areal capacitance of 25.7 mF cm-2. The proposed ASC represents a promising strategy for designing high-performance supercapacitors.

  15. Revealing Lattice Expansion of Small-Pore Zeolite Catalysts during the Methanol-to-Olefins Process Using Combined Operando X-ray Diffraction and UV-vis Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Goetze, Joris; Yarulina, Irina; Gascon, Jorge; Kapteijn, Freek; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2018-03-02

    In small-pore zeolite catalysts, where the size of the pores is limited by eight-ring windows, aromatic hydrocarbon pool molecules that are formed inside the zeolite during the Methanol-to-Olefins (MTO) process cannot exit the pores and are retained inside the catalyst. Hydrocarbon species whose size is comparable to the size of the zeolite cage can cause the zeolite lattice to expand during the MTO process. In this work, the formation of retained hydrocarbon pool species during MTO at a reaction temperature of 400 °C was followed using operando UV-vis spectroscopy. During the same experiment, using operando X-ray Diffraction (XRD), the expansion of the zeolite framework was assessed, and the activity of the catalyst was measured using online gas chromatography (GC). Three different small-pore zeolite frameworks, i.e., CHA, DDR, and LEV, were compared. It was shown using operando XRD that the formation of retained aromatic species causes the zeolite lattice of all three frameworks to expand. Because of the differences in the zeolite framework dimensions, the nature of the retained hydrocarbons as measured by operando UV-vis spectroscopy is different for each of the three zeolite frameworks. Consequently, the magnitude and direction of the zeolite lattice expansion as measured by operando XRD also depends on the specific combination of the hydrocarbon species and the zeolite framework. The catalyst with the CHA framework, i.e., H-SSZ-13, showed the biggest expansion: 0.9% in the direction along the c -axis of the zeolite lattice. For all three zeolite frameworks, based on the combination of operando XRD and operando UV-vis spectroscopy, the hydrocarbon species that are likely to cause the expansion of the zeolite cages are presented; methylated naphthalene and pyrene in CHA, 1-methylnaphthalene and phenalene in DDR, and methylated benzene and naphthalene in LEV. Filling of the zeolite cages and, as a consequence, the zeolite lattice expansion causes the

  16. Revealing Lattice Expansion of Small-Pore Zeolite Catalysts during the Methanol-to-Olefins Process Using Combined Operando X-ray Diffraction and UV–vis Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    In small-pore zeolite catalysts, where the size of the pores is limited by eight-ring windows, aromatic hydrocarbon pool molecules that are formed inside the zeolite during the Methanol-to-Olefins (MTO) process cannot exit the pores and are retained inside the catalyst. Hydrocarbon species whose size is comparable to the size of the zeolite cage can cause the zeolite lattice to expand during the MTO process. In this work, the formation of retained hydrocarbon pool species during MTO at a reaction temperature of 400 °C was followed using operando UV–vis spectroscopy. During the same experiment, using operando X-ray Diffraction (XRD), the expansion of the zeolite framework was assessed, and the activity of the catalyst was measured using online gas chromatography (GC). Three different small-pore zeolite frameworks, i.e., CHA, DDR, and LEV, were compared. It was shown using operando XRD that the formation of retained aromatic species causes the zeolite lattice of all three frameworks to expand. Because of the differences in the zeolite framework dimensions, the nature of the retained hydrocarbons as measured by operando UV–vis spectroscopy is different for each of the three zeolite frameworks. Consequently, the magnitude and direction of the zeolite lattice expansion as measured by operando XRD also depends on the specific combination of the hydrocarbon species and the zeolite framework. The catalyst with the CHA framework, i.e., H-SSZ-13, showed the biggest expansion: 0.9% in the direction along the c-axis of the zeolite lattice. For all three zeolite frameworks, based on the combination of operando XRD and operando UV–vis spectroscopy, the hydrocarbon species that are likely to cause the expansion of the zeolite cages are presented; methylated naphthalene and pyrene in CHA, 1-methylnaphthalene and phenalene in DDR, and methylated benzene and naphthalene in LEV. Filling of the zeolite cages and, as a consequence, the zeolite lattice expansion causes the

  17. Synthesis of mesoporous zeolite single crystals with cheap porogens

    SciT

    Tao Haixiang; Li Changlin; Ren Jiawen

    2011-07-15

    Mesoporous zeolite (silicalite-1, ZSM-5, TS-1) single crystals have been successfully synthesized by adding soluble starch or sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) to a conventional zeolite synthesis system. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen sorption analysis, {sup 27}Al magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 27}Al MAS NMR), temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia (NH{sub 3}-TPD) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis). The SEM images clearly show that all zeolite crystals possess the similar morphology with particle size of about 300 nm, the TEM images reveal that irregular intracrystalmore » pores are randomly distributed in the whole crystal. {sup 27}Al MAS NMR spectra indicate that nearly all of the Al atoms are in tetrahedral co-ordination in ZSM-5, UV-vis spectra confirm that nearly all of titanium atoms are incorporated into the framework of TS-1. The catalytic activity of meso-ZSM-5 in acetalization of cyclohexanone and meso-TS-1 in hydroxylation of phenol was also studied. The synthesis method reported in this paper is cost-effective and environmental friendly, can be easily expended to prepare other hierarchical structured zeolites. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous zeolite single crystals were synthesized by using cheap porogens as template. Highlights: > Mesoporous zeolite (silicalite-1, ZSM-5, TS-1) single crystals were synthesized. > Soluble starch or sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was used as porogens. > The mesoporous zeolites had connected mesopores although closed pores existed. > Higher catalytic activities were obtained.« less

  18. Understanding reactivity of two newly synthetized imidazole derivatives by spectroscopic characterization and computational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Mossaraf; Thomas, Renjith; Mary, Y. Sheena; Resmi, K. S.; Armaković, Stevan; Armaković, Sanja J.; Nanda, Ashis Kumar; Vijayakumar, G.; Van Alsenoy, C.

    2018-04-01

    Two newly synthetized imidazole derivatives (1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4,5-dimethyl-1H-imidazole-2-yl acetate (MPDIA) and 1-(4-bromophenyl)-4,5-dimethyl-1H-imidazole-2-yl acetate (BPDIA)) have been prepared by solvent-free synthesis pathway and their specific spectroscopic and reactive properties have been discussed based on combined experimental and computational approaches. Aside of synthesis, experimental part of this work included measurements of IR, FT-Raman and NMR spectra. All of the aforementioned spectra were also obtained computationally, within the framework of density functional theory (DFT) approach. Additionally, DFT calculations have been used in order to investigate local reactivity properties based on molecular orbital theory, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), average local ionization energy (ALIE), Fukui functions and bond dissociation energy (BDE). Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been used in order to obtain radial distribution functions (RDF), which were used for identification of the atoms with pronounced interactions with water molecules. MEP showed negative regions are mainly localized over N28, O29, O35 atoms, it is represent with red colour in rainbow color scheme for MPDIA and BPDIA (which are most reactive sites for electrophilic attack). The first order hyperpolarizabilities of MPDIA and BPDIA are 20.15 and 6.10 times that of the standard NLO material urea. Potential interaction with antihypertensive protein hydrolase.

  19. Synthetic Zeolites and Other Microporous Oxide Molecular Sieves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, John D.

    1999-03-01

    Use of synthetic zeolites and other microporous oxides since 1950 has improved insulated windows, automobile air-conditioning, refrigerators, air brakes on trucks, laundry detergents, etc. Their large internal pore volumes, molecular-size pores, regularity of crystal structures, and the diverse framework chemical compositions allow "tailoring" of structure and properties. Thus, highly active and selective catalysts as well as adsorbents and ion exchangers with high capacities and selectivities were developed. In the petroleum refining and petrochemical industries, zeolites have made possible cheaper and lead-free gasoline, higher performance and lower-cost synthetic fibers and plastics, and many improvements in process efficiency and quality and in performance. Zeolites also help protect the environment by improving energy efficiency, reducing automobile exhaust and other emissions, cleaning up hazardous wastes (including the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant and other radioactive wastes), and, as specially tailored desiccants, facilitating the substitution of new refrigerants for the ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons banned by the Montreal Protocol.

  20. High-pressure alchemy on a small-pore zeolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y.

    2011-12-01

    While an ever-expanding variety of zeolites with a wide range of framework topology is available, it is desirable to have a way to tailor the chemistry of the zeolitic nanopores for a given framework topology via controlling both the coordination-inclusion chemistry and framework distortion/relaxation. This is, however, subjected to the ability of a zeolitic nanopore to allow the redistribution of cations-water assembly and/or insertion of foreign molecules into the pores and channels. Small-pore zeolites such as natrolite (Na16Al16Si24O80x16H2O), however, have been known to show very limited capacity for any changes in the confinement chemistry. We have recently shown that various cation-exchanged natrolites can be prepared under modest conditions from natural sodium natrolite and exhibit cation-dependent volume expansions by up to 18.5% via converting the elliptical channels into progressively circular ones. Here, we show that pressure can be used as a unique and clean tool to further manipulate the chemistry of the natrolite nanopores. Our recent crystallographic and spectroscopic studies of pressure-insertion of foreign molecules, trivalent-cation exchange under pressure, and pressure-induced inversion of cation-water coordination and pore geometry in various cation-exchanged natrolites will be presented.

  1. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope geochemistry of zeolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlsson, Haraldur R.; Clayton, Robert N.

    1990-01-01

    Oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios for natural samples of the zeolites analcime, chabazite, clinoptilolite, laumontite, mordenite, and natrolite have been obtained. The zeolite samples were classified into sedimentary, hydrothermal, and igneous groups. The ratios for each species of zeolite are reported. The results are used to discuss the origin of channel water, the role of zeolites in water-rock interaction, and the possibility that a calibrated zeolite could be used as a low-temperature geothermometer.

  2. Recommended nomenclature for zeolite minerals: report of the subcommittee on zeolites of the International Mineralogical Association, Commission of New Minerals and Mineral Names

    Coombs, D.S.; Alberti, A.; Armbruster, T.; Artioli, G.; Colella, C.; Galli, E.; Grice, Joel D.; Liebau, F.; Mandarino, J.A.; Minato, H.; Nickel, E.H.; Passaglia, E.; Peacor, D.R.; Quartieri, S.; Rinaldi, R.; Ross, M.; Sheppard, R.A.; Tillmanns, E.; Vezzalini, G.

    1998-01-01

    This report embodies recommendations on zeolite nomenclature approved by the International Mineralogical Association Commission of New Minerals and Mineral Names. In a working definition of a zeolite mineral used for review, interrupted tetrahedral framework structures are accepted where other zeolitic properties prevail, and complete substitution by elements other than Si and Al is allowed. Separate species are recognized in topologically distinctive compositional series in which different extra-framework cations are the most abundance in atomic proportions. To name these, the appropriate chemical symbol is attached by a hyphen to the series name as a suffix except for the names harmotome, pollucite and wairakite in the phillipsite and analcime series. Differences in space-group symmetry and in order-disorder relationships in zeolites having the same topologically distinctive framework do not in general provide adequate grounds for recognition of separate species. Zeolite species are not to be distinguished solely on Si:Al ratio except for heulandite (Si:Al < 4.0) and clinoptilolite (Si:Al ??? 4.0). Dehydration, partial hydration, and over-hydration are not sufficient grounds for the recognition of separate species of zeolites. Use of the term 'ideal formula' should be avoided in referring to a simplified or averaged formula of a zeolite. Newly recognized species in compositional series are as follows: brewsterite-Sr.-Ba: chabazite-Ca.-Na.-K; clinoptilolite-K, -Na, -Ca: dachiardite-Ca, -Na; erionite-K, -Ca: faujasite-Na, -Ca, -Na: paulingite-K. -Ca; phillipsite-Na, -Ca, -Ka; stilbite-Ca, -Na. Key references, type locality, origin of name, chemical data. IZA structure-type symbols, space-group symmetry; unit-cell dimensions, and comments on structure are listed for 13 compositional series, 82 accepted zeolite mineral species, and three of doubtful status. Herschelite, leonhardite, svetlozarite, and wellsite are discredited as mineral species names. Obsolete and

  3. Pore Topology Effects in Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy of Zeolites.

    PubMed

    Zubiaga, Asier; Warringham, Robbie; Mitchell, Sharon; Gerchow, Lars; Cooke, David; Crivelli, Paolo; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

    2017-03-03

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is a powerful method to study the size and connectivity of pores in zeolites. The lifetime of positronium within the host material is commonly described by the Tao-Eldrup model. However, one of its largest limitations arises from the simple geometries considered for the shape of the pores, which cannot describe accurately the complex topologies in zeolites. Here, an atomic model that combines the Tao potential with the crystallographic structure is introduced to calculate the distribution and lifetime of Ps intrinsic to a given framework. A parametrization of the model is undertaken for a set of widely applied zeolite framework types (*BEA, FAU, FER, MFI, MOR, UTL), before extending the model to all known structures. The results are compared to structural and topological descriptors, and to the Tao-Eldrup model adapted for zeolites, demonstrating the intricate dependence of the lifetime on the pore architecture. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Chemistry and Biology of the Pyrrole-Imidazole Alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Lindel, Thomas

    More than a decade after our last review on the chemistry of the pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids, it was time to analyze once more the developments in that field. The comprehensive article focusses on the total syntheses of pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids that have appeared since 2005. The classic monomeric pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids have all been synthesized, sometimes primarily to demonstrate the usefulness of a new method, as in the case of the related molecules agelastatin A and cyclooroidin with more than 15 syntheses altogether. The phakellin skeleton has been made more than 10 times, too, with a focus on the target structure itself. Thus, some of the pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids are now available in gram amounts, and the supply problem has been solved. The total synthesis of the dimeric pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids is still mostly in its pioneering phase with two routes to palau'amine and massadine discovered and three routes to the axinellamines and ageliferin. In addition, the review summarizes recent discoveries regarding the biological activity of the pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids. Regarding the biosynthesis of sceptrin, a pathway is proposed that starts from nagelamide I and proceeds via two electrocyclizations and reduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Copper-containing zeolite catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Price, G.L.; Kanazirev, V.

    1996-12-10

    A catalyst useful in the conversion of nitrogen oxides or in the synthesis of nitriles or imines from amines, is formed by preparing an intimate mechanical mixture of a copper (II)-containing species, such as CuO or CuCl{sub 2}, or elemental copper, with a zeolite having a pore mouth comprising 10 oxygen atoms, such as ZSM-5, converting the elemental copper or copper (II) to copper (I), and driving the copper (I) into the zeolite.

  6. Copper-containing zeolite catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Price, Geoffrey L.; Kanazirev, Vladislav

    1996-01-01

    A catalyst useful in the conversion of nitrogen oxides or in the synthesis of nitriles or imines from amines, formed by preparing an intimate mechanical mixture of a copper (II)-containing species, such as CuO or CuCl.sub.2, or elemental copper, with a zeolite having a pore mouth comprising 10 oxygen atoms, such as ZSM-5, converting the elemental copper or copper (II) to copper (I), and driving the copper (I) into the zeolite.

  7. Removal of paraquat solution onto zeolite material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirival, Rujikarn; Patdhanagul, Nopbhasinthu; Preecharram, Sutthidech; Photharin, Somkuan

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the adsorption of paraquat herbicides onto zeolite Y materials by the batch method. Three adsorbents material: Zeolite-3, Zeolite-10, and Zeolite-100 were Si/Al ratio at 3.58, 8.57 and 154.37, respectively. The factors for adsorption of paraquat as follows, adsorption time, initial concentrations of paraquat, pH and adsorption isotherm were investigated. The results showed that zeolite-10 had higher adsorption capacity than zeolite-3 and zeolite-100. The appropriate conditions for adsorption were 24 h., Zeolite 0.1 g., Initial paraquat concentration 100 ppm at pH 6. The adsorption isotherm was found to correspond with Langmuir Isotherm and the maximum paraquat adsorption is 26.38 mg/g for zeolite-10, 21.41 mg/g and 9.60 mg/g for zeolite-3 and zeolite-100, respectively. The characterization of zeolite material with XRD, XRF and BET. Furthermore, the zeolite materials applied to remove other organic and inorganic wastewater.

  8. Theoretical Investigation of Methane Hydroxylation over Isoelectronic [FeO]2+- and [MnO]+-Exchanged Zeolites Activated by N2O.

    PubMed

    Mahyuddin, M Haris; Shiota, Yoshihito; Staykov, Aleksandar; Yoshizawa, Kazunari

    2017-09-05

    While the most likely structure of the active site in iron-containing zeolites has been recently identified as [FeO] 2+ (Snyder et al. Nature 2016, 536, 317-321), the mechanism for the direct conversion of methane to methanol over this active species is still debatable between the direct-radical-rebound or nonradical (concerted) mechanism. Using density functional theory on periodic systems, we calculated the two reaction mechanisms over two d 4 isoelectronic systems, [FeO] 2+ and [MnO] + zeolites. We found that [FeO] 2+ zeolites favor the direct-radical-rebound mechanism with low CH 4 activation energies, while [MnO] + zeolites prefer the nonradical mechanism with higher CH 4 activation energies. These contrasts, despite their isoelectronic structures, are mainly due to the differences in the metal coordination number and O α (oxo) spin density. Moreover, molecular orbital analyses suggest that the zeolite steric hindrance further degrades the reactivity of [MnO] + zeolites toward methane. Two types of zeolite frameworks, i.e., medium-pore ZSM-5 (MFI framework) and small-pore SSZ-39 (AEI framework) zeolites, were evaluated, but no significant differences in the reactivity were found. The rate-determining reaction step is found to be methanol desorption instead of methane activation. Careful examination of the most stable sites hosting the active species and calculation for N 2 O decomposition over [Fe] 2+ -MFI and -AEI zeolites were also performed.

  9. Atomistic simulations of CO2 and N2 within cage-type silica zeolites.

    PubMed

    Madison, Lindsey; Heitzer, Henry; Russell, Colin; Kohen, Daniela

    2011-03-01

    The behavior of CO(2) and N(2), both as single components and as binary mixtures, in two cage-type silica zeolites was studied using atomistic simulations. The zeolites considered, ITQ-3 and paradigm cage-type zeolite ZK4 (the all-silica analog of LTA), were chosen so that the principles illustrated can be generalized to other adsorbent/adsorbate systems with similar topology and types of interactions. N(2) was chosen both because of the potential uses of N(2)/CO(2) separations and because it differs from CO(2) most significantly in the magnitude of its Coulombic interactions with zeolites. Despite similarities between N(2) and CO(2) diffusion in other materials, we show here that the diffusion of CO(2) within cage-type zeolites is dominated by an energy barrier to diffusion located at the entrance to the narrow channels connecting larger cages. This barrier originates in Coulombic interactions between zeolites and CO(2)'s quadrupole and results in well-defined orientations for the diffusing molecules. Furthermore, CO(2)'s favorable electrostatic interactions with the zeolite framework result in preferential binding in the windows between cages. N(2)'s behavior, in contrast, is more consistent with that of molecules previously studied. Our analysis suggests that CO(2)'s behavior might be common for adsorbates with quadrupoles that interact strongly with a material that has narrow windows between cages.

  10. Ultrasmall Zeolite L Crystals Prepared from Highly-Interdispersed Alkali-Silicate Precursors.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Linares, Noemi; Sutjianto, James G; Chawla, Aseem; Garcia Martinez, Javier; Rimer, Jeffrey D

    2018-06-19

    The preparation of nanosized zeolites is critical for applications where mass transport limitations within microporous networks hinder their performance. Oftentimes the ability to generate ultrasmall zeolite crystals is dependent upon the use of expensive organics with limited commercial relevance. Here, we report the generation of zeolite L crystals with uniform sizes less than 30 nm using a facile, organic-free method. Time-resolved analysis of precursor assembly and evolution during nonclassical crystallization highlights key differences among silicon sources. Our findings reveal that a homogenous dispersion of potassium ions throughout silicate precursors is critical to enhancing the rate of nucleation and facilitating the formation of ultrasmall crystals. Intimate contact between the inorganic structure-directing agent and silica leads to the formation of a metastable nonporous phase, identified as KAlSi2O6, which undergoes an intercrystalline transformation to zeolite L. The presence of highly-interdispersed alkali-silicate precursors is seemingly integral to a reduced zeolite induction time and may facilitate the development of ultrasmall crystals. Given the general difficulty of achieving nanosized crystals in zeolite synthesis, it is likely that using well-dispersed precursors does not have the same effect on all framework types; however, in select cases it may provide an alternative strategy for optimizing zeolite synthesis. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Hydrothermal fabrication of ZSM-5 zeolites: biocompatibility, drug delivery property, and bactericidal property.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ya-Ping; Long, Teng; Song, Zhen-Fu; Zhu, Zhen-An

    2014-04-01

    The bone graft-associated infection is widely considered in orthopedic surgery, which may lead to implant failure, extensive bone debridement, and increased patient morbidity. In this study, we fabricated ZSM-5 zeolites for drug delivery systems by hydrothermal method. The structure, morphology, biocompatibility, drug delivery property, and bactericidal property of the ZSM-5 zeolites were investigated. The ZSM-5 zeolites have mordenite framework inverted-type structure and exhibit the disk-like shape with the diameter of ∼350 nm and thickness of ∼165 nm. The biocompatibility tests indicate that human bone marrow stromal cells spread out well on the surfaces of the ZSM-5 zeolites and proliferate significantly with increasing culture time. As compared with the conventional hydroxyapatite particles, the ZSM-5 zeolites possess greater drug loading efficiency and drug sustained release property because of the ordered micropores, large Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas, and functional groups. For the gentamicin-loaded ZSM-5 zeolites, the sustained release of gentamicin minimizes significantly bacterial adhesion and prevents biofilm formation against Staphylococcus epidermidis. The excellent biocompatibility, drug delivery property, and bactericidal property of the ZSM-5 zeolites suggest that they have great application potentials for treating implant-associated infections. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. A Hierarchical MFI Zeolite with a Two-Dimensional Square Mesostructure.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xuefeng; Mao, Wenting; Ma, Yanhang; Xu, Dongdong; Wu, Peng; Terasaki, Osamu; Han, Lu; Che, Shunai

    2018-01-15

    A conceptual design and synthesis of ordered mesoporous zeolites is a challenging research subject in material science. Several seminal articles report that one-dimensional (1D) mesostructured lamellar zeolites are possibly directed by sheet-assembly of surfactants, which collapse after removal of intercalated surfactants. However, except for one example of two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal mesoporous zeolite, no other zeolites with ordered 2D or three-dimensional (3D) mesostructures have been reported. An ordered 2D mesoporous zeolite can be templated by a cylindrical assembly unit with specific interactions in the hydrophobic part. A template molecule with azobenzene in the hydrophobic tail and diquaternary ammonium in the hydrophilic head group directs hierarchical MFI zeolite with a 2D square mesostructure. The material has an elongated octahedral morphology, and quaternary, ordered, straight, square channels framed by MFI thin sheets expanded along the a-c planes and joined with 90° rotations. The structural matching between the cylindrical assembly unit and zeolite framework is crucial for mesostructure construction. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Three-Dimensional Networked Metal-Organic Frameworks with Conductive Polypyrrole Tubes for Flexible Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xingtao; Tang, Jing; Qian, Huayu; Hou, Shujin; Bando, Yoshio; Hossain, Md Shahriar A; Pan, Likun; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2017-11-08

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with high porosity and a regular porous structure have emerged as a promising electrode material for supercapacitors, but their poor electrical conductivity limits their utilization efficiency and capacitive performance. To increase the overall electrical conductivity as well as the efficiency of MOF particles, three-dimensional networked MOFs are developed via using preprepared conductive polypyrrole (PPy) tubes as the support for in situ growth of MOF particles. As a result, the highly conductive PPy tubes that run through the MOF particles not only increase the electron transfer between MOF particles and maintain the high effective porosity of the MOFs but also endow the MOFs with flexibility. Promoted by such elaborately designed MOF-PPy networks, the specific capacitance of MOF particles has been increased from 99.2 F g -1 for pristine zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF)-67 to 597.6 F g -1 for ZIF-PPy networks, indicating the importance of the design of the ZIF-PPy continuous microstructure. Furthermore, a flexible supercapacitor device based on ZIF-PPy networks shows an outstanding areal capacitance of 225.8 mF cm -2 , which is far above other MOFs-based supercapacitors reported up to date, confirming the significance of in situ synthetic chemistry as well as the importance of hybrid materials on the nanoscale.

  14. Direct Electrical Detection of Iodine Gas by a Novel Metal-Organic-Framework-Based Sensor.

    PubMed

    Small, Leo J; Nenoff, Tina M

    2017-12-27

    High-fidelity detection of iodine species is of utmost importance to the safety of the population in cases of nuclear accidents or advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing. Herein, we describe the success at using impedance spectroscopy to directly detect the real-time adsorption of I 2 by a metal-organic framework zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF)-8-based sensor. Methanolic suspensions of ZIF-8 were dropcast onto platinum interdigitated electrodes, dried, and exposed to gaseous I 2 at 25, 40, or 70 °C. Using an unoptimized sensor geometry, I 2 was readily detected at 25 °C in air within 720 s of exposure. The specific response is attributed to the chemical selectivity of the ZIF-8 toward I 2 . Furthermore, equivalent circuit modeling of the impedance data indicates a >10 5 × decrease in ZIF-8 resistance when 116 wt % I 2 is adsorbed by ZIF-8 at 70 °C in air. This irreversible decrease in resistance is accompanied by an irreversible loss in the long-range crystallinity, as evidenced by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. Air, argon, methanol, and water were found to produce minimal changes in ZIF-8 impedance. This report demonstrates how selective I 2 adsorption by ZIF-8 can be leveraged to create a highly selective sensor using >10 5 × changes in impedance response to enable the direct electrical detection of environmentally relevant gaseous toxins.

  15. Osteogenic activity and antibacterial effect of porous titanium modified with metal-organic framework films.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junyu; Zhang, Xin; Huang, Chao; Cai, He; Hu, Shanshan; Wan, Qianbing; Pei, Xibo; Wang, Jian

    2017-03-01

    As a new class of crystalline nanoporous materials, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have recently been used for biomedical applications due to their large surface area, high porosity, and theoretically infinite structures. To improve the biological performance of titanium, MOF films were applied to surface modification of titanium. Zn-based MOF films composed of zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) crystals with nanoscale and microscale sizes (nanoZIF-8 and microZIF-8) were prepared on porous titanium surfaces by hydrothermal and solvothermal methods, respectively. The ZIF-8 films were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The nanoZIF-8 film exhibited good biocompatibility, whereas the microZIF-8 film showed obvious cytotoxicity to MG63 cells. Compared to pure titanium and alkali- and heat-treated porous titanium, the nanoZIF-8 film not only enhanced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, extracellular matrix mineralization, and expression of osteogenic genes (ALP, Runx2) in MG63 cells but also inhibited the growth of Streptococcus mutans. These results indicate that MOF films or coatings may be promising candidates for bone tissue engineering. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 834-846, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Direct Electrical Detection of Iodine Gas by a Novel Metal–Organic-Framework-Based Sensor

    DOE PAGES

    Small, Leo J.; Nenoff, Tina M.

    2017-12-05

    High-fidelity detection of iodine species is of utmost importance to the safety of the population in cases of nuclear accidents or advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing. In this paper, we describe the success at using impedance spectroscopy to directly detect the real-time adsorption of I 2 by a metal–organic framework zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF)-8-based sensor. Methanolic suspensions of ZIF-8 were dropcast onto platinum interdigitated electrodes, dried, and exposed to gaseous I 2 at 25, 40, or 70 °C. Using an unoptimized sensor geometry, I 2 was readily detected at 25 °C in air within 720 s of exposure. The specific responsemore » is attributed to the chemical selectivity of the ZIF-8 toward I 2. Furthermore, equivalent circuit modeling of the impedance data indicates a >10 5× decrease in ZIF-8 resistance when 116 wt % I 2 is adsorbed by ZIF-8 at 70 °C in air. This irreversible decrease in resistance is accompanied by an irreversible loss in the long-range crystallinity, as evidenced by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. Air, argon, methanol, and water were found to produce minimal changes in ZIF-8 impedance. Finally, this report demonstrates how selective I 2 adsorption by ZIF-8 can be leveraged to create a highly selective sensor using >10 5× changes in impedance response to enable the direct electrical detection of environmentally relevant gaseous toxins.« less

  17. Direct Electrical Detection of Iodine Gas by a Novel Metal–Organic-Framework-Based Sensor

    SciT

    Small, Leo J.; Nenoff, Tina M.

    High-fidelity detection of iodine species is of utmost importance to the safety of the population in cases of nuclear accidents or advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing. In this paper, we describe the success at using impedance spectroscopy to directly detect the real-time adsorption of I 2 by a metal–organic framework zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF)-8-based sensor. Methanolic suspensions of ZIF-8 were dropcast onto platinum interdigitated electrodes, dried, and exposed to gaseous I 2 at 25, 40, or 70 °C. Using an unoptimized sensor geometry, I 2 was readily detected at 25 °C in air within 720 s of exposure. The specific responsemore » is attributed to the chemical selectivity of the ZIF-8 toward I 2. Furthermore, equivalent circuit modeling of the impedance data indicates a >10 5× decrease in ZIF-8 resistance when 116 wt % I 2 is adsorbed by ZIF-8 at 70 °C in air. This irreversible decrease in resistance is accompanied by an irreversible loss in the long-range crystallinity, as evidenced by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. Air, argon, methanol, and water were found to produce minimal changes in ZIF-8 impedance. Finally, this report demonstrates how selective I 2 adsorption by ZIF-8 can be leveraged to create a highly selective sensor using >10 5× changes in impedance response to enable the direct electrical detection of environmentally relevant gaseous toxins.« less

  18. Dynamical Effects in Metal-Organic Frameworks: The Microporous Materials as Shock Absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banlusan, Kiettipong; Strachan, Alejandro

    2017-06-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a class of nano-porous crystalline solids consisting of inorganic units coordinated to organic linkers. The unique molecular structures and outstanding properties with ultra-high porosity and tunable chemical functionality by various choices of metal clusters and organic ligands make this class of materials attractive for many applications. The complex and quite unique responses of these materials to mechanical loading including void collapse make them attractive for applications in energy absorption and storage. We will present using large-scale molecular dynamics simulations to investigate shock propagation in zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF-8 and MOF-5. We find that for shock strengths above a threshold a two-wave structure develops with a leading elastic precursor followed by a second wave of structural collapse to relax the stress. Structural transition of MOFs in response to shock waves corresponds to the transition between two Hugoniot curves, and results in abrupt change in temperature. The pore-collapse wave propagates at slower velocity than the leading wave and weakens it, resulting in shock attenuation. Increasing piston speed results in faster propagation of pore-collapse wave, but the leading elastic wave remains unchanged below the overdriven regime. We discuss how the molecular structure of the MOFs and shock propagation direction affect the response of the materials and their ability to weaken shocks. Office of Naval Research, MURI 2012 02341 01.

  19. Hierarchical Metal-Organic Framework-Assembled Membrane Filter for Efficient Removal of Particulate Matter.

    PubMed

    Koo, Won-Tae; Jang, Ji-Soo; Qiao, Shaopeng; Hwang, Wontae; Jha, Gaurav; Penner, Reginald M; Kim, Il-Doo

    2018-06-13

    Here, we propose heterogeneous nucleation-assisted hierarchical growth of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) for efficient particulate matter (PM) removal. The assembly of two-dimensional (2D) Zn-based zeolite imidazole frameworks (2D-ZIF-L) in deionized water over a period of time produced hierarchical ZIF-L (H-ZIF-L) on hydrophilic substrates. During the assembly, the second nucleation and growth of ZIF-L occurred on the surface of the first ZIF-L, leading to the formation of flowerlike H-ZIF-L on the substrate. The flowerlike H-ZIF-L was easily synthesized on various substrates, namely, glass, polyurethane three-dimensional foam, nylon microfibers, and nonwoven fabrics. We demonstrated H-ZIF-L-assembled polypropylene microfibers as a washable membrane filter with highly efficient PM removal property (92.5 ± 0.8% for PM 2.5 and 99.5 ± 0.2% for PM 10 ), low pressure drop (10.5 Pa at 25 L min -1 ), long-term stability, and superior recyclability. These outstanding particle filtering properties are mainly attributed to the unique structure of the 2D-shaped H-ZIF-L, which is tightly anchored on individual fibers comprising the membrane.

  20. Inorganic Nanoparticles/Metal Organic Framework Hybrid Membrane Reactors for Efficient Photocatalytic Conversion of CO2.

    PubMed

    Maina, James W; Schütz, Jürg A; Grundy, Luke; Des Ligneris, Elise; Yi, Zhifeng; Kong, Lingxue; Pozo-Gonzalo, Cristina; Ionescu, Mihail; Dumée, Ludovic F

    2017-10-11

    Photocatalytic conversion of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) to useful products has potential to address the adverse environmental impact of global warming. However, most photocatalysts used to date exhibit limited catalytic performance, due to poor CO 2 adsorption capacity, inability to efficiently generate photoexcited electrons, and/or poor transfer of the photogenerated electrons to CO 2 molecules adsorbed on the catalyst surface. The integration of inorganic semiconductor nanoparticles across metal organic framework (MOF) materials has potential to yield new hybrid materials, combining the high CO 2 adsorption capacity of MOF and the ability of the semiconductor nanoparticles to generate photoexcited electrons. Herein, controlled encapsulation of TiO 2 and Cu-TiO 2 nanoparticles within zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-8) membranes was successfully accomplished, using rapid thermal deposition (RTD), and their photocatalytic efficiency toward CO 2 conversion was investigated under UV irradiation. Methanol and carbon monoxide (CO) were found to be the only products of the CO 2 reduction, with yields strongly dependent upon the content and composition of the dopant semiconductor particles. CuTiO 2 nanoparticle doped membranes exhibited the best photocatalytic performance, with 7 μg of the semiconductor nanoparticle enhancing CO yield of the pristine ZIF-8 membrane by 233%, and methanol yield by 70%. This work opens new routes for the fabrication of hybrid membranes containing inorganic nanoparticles and MOFs, with potential application not only in catalysis but also in electrochemical, separation, and sensing applications.

  1. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-44 aluminosilicate zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Nicholas, Christopher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2014-04-29

    A new family of aluminosilicate zeolites designated UZM-44 has been synthesized. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.k+T.sub.tAl.sub.1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.sub.z where "n" is the mole ratio of Na to (Al+E), M represents a metal or metals from zinc, Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 and or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, "m" is the mole ratio of M to (Al+E), "k" is the average charge of the metal or metals M, T is the organic structure directing agent or agents, and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-44 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hydrocarbons into hydrocarbons and removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  2. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-44 aluminosilicate zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Nicholas, Christopher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2013-12-17

    A new family of aluminosilicate zeolites designated UZM-44 has been synthesized. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.k+T.sub.tAl.sub.1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.sub.z where "n" is the mole ratio of Na to (Al+E), M represents a metal or metals from zinc, Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 and or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, "m" is the mole ratio of M to (Al+E), "k" is the average charge of the metal or metals M, T is the organic structure directing agent or agents, and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-44 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hydrocarbons into hydrocarbons and removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  3. Consideration of the Aluminum Distribution in Zeolites in Theoretical and Experimental Catalysis Research

    DOE PAGES

    Knott, Brandon C.; Nimlos, Claire T.; Robichaud, David J.; ...

    2017-12-11

    Research efforts in zeolite catalysis have become increasingly cognizant of the diversity in structure and function resulting from the distribution of framework aluminum atoms, through emerging reports of catalytic phenomena that fall outside those recognizable as the shape-selective ones emblematic of its earlier history. Molecular-level descriptions of how active-site distributions affect catalysis are an aspirational goal articulated frequently in experimental and theoretical research, yet they are limited by imprecise knowledge of the structure and behavior of the zeolite materials under interrogation. In experimental research, higher precision can result from more reliable control of structure during synthesis and from more robustmore » and quantitative structural and kinetic characterization probes. In theoretical research, construction of models with specific aluminum locations and distributions seldom capture the heterogeneity inherent to the materials studied by experiment. In this Perspective, we discuss research findings that appropriately frame the challenges in developing more predictive synthesis-structure-function relations for zeolites, highlighting studies on ZSM-5 zeolites that are among the most structurally complex molecular sieve frameworks and the most widely studied because of their versatility in commercial applications. We discuss research directions to address these challenges and forge stronger connections between zeolite structure, composition, and active sites to catalytic function. Such connections promise to aid in bridging the findings of theoretical and experimental catalysis research, and transforming zeolite active site design from an empirical endeavor into a more predictable science founded on validated models.« less

  4. Consideration of the Aluminum Distribution in Zeolites in Theoretical and Experimental Catalysis Research

    SciT

    Knott, Brandon C.; Nimlos, Claire T.; Robichaud, David J.

    Research efforts in zeolite catalysis have become increasingly cognizant of the diversity in structure and function resulting from the distribution of framework aluminum atoms, through emerging reports of catalytic phenomena that fall outside those recognizable as the shape-selective ones emblematic of its earlier history. Molecular-level descriptions of how active-site distributions affect catalysis are an aspirational goal articulated frequently in experimental and theoretical research, yet they are limited by imprecise knowledge of the structure and behavior of the zeolite materials under interrogation. In experimental research, higher precision can result from more reliable control of structure during synthesis and from more robustmore » and quantitative structural and kinetic characterization probes. In theoretical research, construction of models with specific aluminum locations and distributions seldom capture the heterogeneity inherent to the materials studied by experiment. In this Perspective, we discuss research findings that appropriately frame the challenges in developing more predictive synthesis-structure-function relations for zeolites, highlighting studies on ZSM-5 zeolites that are among the most structurally complex molecular sieve frameworks and the most widely studied because of their versatility in commercial applications. We discuss research directions to address these challenges and forge stronger connections between zeolite structure, composition, and active sites to catalytic function. Such connections promise to aid in bridging the findings of theoretical and experimental catalysis research, and transforming zeolite active site design from an empirical endeavor into a more predictable science founded on validated models.« less

  5. Characterization of sonicated natural zeolite/ferric chloride hexahydrate by infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasetyo, T. A. B.; Soegijono, B.

    2018-03-01

    The characteristics of sonicated Bayah natural zeolite with and without ferric chloride hexahydrate solution using infrared method has been studied. High intensity ultrasonic waves were exposed to the samples for 40 min, 80 min and 120 min. Infra red spectra analysis was conducted to evaluate zeolite vibrational spectrum contributions, namely, the vibrations from the framework of the zeolite, from the charge-balancing cations, and from the relatively isolated groups, such as the surface OH groups and their behavior after sonication process. An addition of FeCl3.6H2O and sonication process on natural zeolite improved secondary building units link by forming oxygen bridges and also close relationship with duration of applied high intensity ultrasonic process. Longer ultrasonic process resulted in more increment of O-H absorbance.

  6. CoM(M=Fe,Cu,Ni)-embedded nitrogen-enriched porous carbon framework for efficient oxygen and hydrogen evolution reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiaogeng; Bo, Xiangjie; Guo, Liping

    2018-06-01

    Rational synthesis and development of earth-abundant materials with efficient electrocatalytic activity and stability for water splitting is a critical but challenging step for sustainable energy application. Herein, a family of bimetal (CoFe, CoCu, CoNi) embedded nitrogen-doped carbon frameworks is developed through a facile and simple thermal conversion strategy of metal-doped zeolitic imidazolate frameworks. Thanks to collaborative superiorities of abundant M-N-C species, modulation action of secondary metal, cobalt-based electroactive phases, template effect of MOFs and unique porous structure, bimetal embedded nitrogen-doped carbon frameworks materials manifest good oxygen and hydrogen evolution catalytic activity. Especially, after modulating the species and molar ratio of metal sources, optimal Co0.75Fe0.25 nitrogen-doped carbon framework catalyst just requires a low overpotential of 303 mV to achieve 10 mA cm-2 with a low Tafel slope (39.49 mV dec-1) for oxygen evolution reaction, which even surpasses that of commercial RuO2. In addition, the optimal catalyst can function as an efficient bifunctional electrocatalyst for overall water splitting with satisfying activity and stability. This development offers an attractive direction for the rational design and fabrication of porous carbon materials for electrochemical energy applications.

  7. Imidazole as a parent π-conjugated backbone in charge-transfer chromophores

    PubMed Central

    Kulhánek, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Summary Research activities in the field of imidazole-derived push–pull systems featuring intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) are reviewed. Design, synthetic pathways, linear and nonlinear optical properties, electrochemistry, structure–property relationships, and the prospective application of such D-π-A organic materials are described. This review focuses on Y-shaped imidazoles, bi- and diimidazoles, benzimidazoles, bis(benzimidazoles), imidazole-4,5-dicarbonitriles, and imidazole-derived chromophores chemically bound to a polymer chain. PMID:22423270

  8. Antibacterial properties of Ag-exchanged Philippine natural zeolite-chitosan composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taaca, Kathrina Lois M.; Olegario, Eleanor M.; Vasquez, Magdaleno R.

    2017-12-01

    Zeolites are microporous minerals composed of silicon, aluminum and oxygen. These aluminosilicates consist of tetrahedral units which produce open framework structures to generate a system of pores and cavities of molecular dimensions. Zeolites are naturally abundant and can be mined in most parts of the world. In this study, natural zeolites (NaZ) which are locally-sourced here in the Philippines were investigated to determine its properties. An ion-exchange process was utilized, using the zeolite to silver (Ag) solution ratio of 1:20 (w/v), to incorporate Ag into the zeolite framework. Characterizations such as XRD, AAS, and Agar diffusion assay were used to evaluate the properties of the synthesized Ag-exchanged zeolites (AgZ). X-ray diffraction revealed that both NaZ and AgZ have peaks mostly corresponding to the clinoptilolite structure, with some trace peaks of the mordenite and quartz. Absorption spectroscopy revealed that the ion exchange process added about 0.61188g of silver into the zeolite structure. This Ag content was seen to be enough to make the AgZ sample exhibit an antibacterial effect where clearing zones against E. coli and S. aureus were observed in the agar diffusion assay, respectively. The AgZ sample was also tested as ceramic filler to a polymer matrix-chitosan. The diffusion assay revealed presence of antibacterial activity to the polymer composite with AgZ fillers. These results indicate that the Philippine natural zeolite, incorporated with metals such as Ag, can be used as an antibacterial agent and can be developed as a ceramic filler to improve the antibacterial property of composite materials for biomedical application.

  9. Effect of zinc oxide amounts on the properties and antibacterial activities of zeolite/zinc oxide nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Alswat, Abdullah A; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Saleh, Tawfik A; Hussein, Mohd Zobir Bin; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa

    2016-11-01

    Nanocomposites of zinc oxide loaded on a zeolite (Zeolite/ZnO NCs) were prepared using co-precipitation method. The ratio effect of ZnO wt.% to the Zeolite on the antibacterial activities was investigated. Various techniques were used for the nanocomposite characterization, including UV-vis, FTIR, XRD, EDX, FESEM and TEM. XRD patterns showed that ZnO peak intensity increased while the intensities of Zeolite peaks decreased. TEM images indicated a good distribution of ZnO-NPs onto the Zeolite framework and the cubic structure of the zeolite was maintained. The average particle size of ZnO-nanoparticles loaded on the surface of the Zeolite was in the range of 1-10nm. Moreover, Zeolite/ZnO NCs showed noticeable antibacterial activities against the tested bacteria; Gram- positive and Gram- negative bacteria, under normal light. The efficiency of the antibacterial increased with increasing the wt.% from 3 to 8 of ZnO NPs, and it reached 87% against Escherichia coli E266. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Single step signal group-imidazole labeling of organic phosphate groups under aqueous conditions

    DOEpatents

    Giese, R.W.; Wang, P.

    1996-04-30

    Compounds and methods for single step, covalent labeling of the phosphate group of an organic substance under aqueous conditions are described. The labeling compound includes any kind of detectable signal group covalently bound to an imidazole moiety, which can be imidazole or a substituted imidazole. A preferred labeling compound has the formula shown in the accompanying diagram. 4 figs.

  11. Single step signal group-imidazole labeling of organic phosphate groups under aqueous conditions

    DOEpatents

    Giese, Roger W.; Wang, Poguang

    1996-01-01

    Compounds and methods for single step, covalent labeling of the phosphate group of an organic substance under aqueous conditions are described. The labeling compound includes any kind of detectable signal group covalently bound to an imidazole moiety, which can be imidazole or a substituted imidazole. A preferred labeling compound has the formula ##STR1##

  12. Zeolites with Continuously Tuneable Porosity**

    PubMed Central

    Wheatley, Paul S; Chlubná-Eliášová, Pavla; Greer, Heather; Zhou, Wuzong; Seymour, Valerie R; Dawson, Daniel M; Ashbrook, Sharon E; Pinar, Ana B; McCusker, Lynne B; Opanasenko, Maksym; Čejka, Jiří; Morris, Russell E

    2014-01-01

    Zeolites are important materials whose utility in industry depends on the nature of their porous structure. Control over microporosity is therefore a vitally important target. Unfortunately, traditional methods for controlling porosity, in particular the use of organic structure-directing agents, are relatively coarse and provide almost no opportunity to tune the porosity as required. Here we show how zeolites with a continuously tuneable surface area and micropore volume over a wide range can be prepared. This means that a particular surface area or micropore volume can be precisely tuned. The range of porosity we can target covers the whole range of useful zeolite porosity: from small pores consisting of 8-rings all the way to extra-large pores consisting of 14-rings. PMID:25284344

  13. Enhanced selectivity of zeolites by controlled carbon deposition

    DOEpatents

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Thoma, Steven G.; Kartin, Mutlu

    2006-05-09

    A method for carbonizing a zeolite comprises depositing a carbon coating on the zeolite pores by flowing an inert carrier gas stream containing isoprene through a regenerated zeolite at elevated temperature. The carbonized zeolite is useful for the separation of light hydrocarbon mixtures due to size exclusion and the differential adsorption properties of the carbonized zeolite.

  14. Photophysical properties and fluorescence quenching of 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene in zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pischel, Uwe; Galletero, Maria S.; García, Hermenegildo; Miranda, Miguel A.; Nau, Werner M.

    2002-06-01

    2,3-Diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene (DBO) was used as a long-lived fluorescent probe in zeolites (NaY, Na-mordenite, Na-ZSM-5, H-ZSM-5) and related oxide materials (all silica MCM-41, silica, silica-alumina, γ-alumina). The photophysical properties are dominated by a hydroxylic environment, caused by the inorganic framework and co-adsorbed water. The quenching of DBO by oxygen was strongly dependent on the type of zeolite. In ZSM-5 zeolites, the fluorescence decays were not monoexponential in the presence of oxygen (air).

  15. Stable Fe/ZSM-5 Nanosheet Zeolite Catalysts for the Oxidation of Benzene to Phenol

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Fe/ZSM-5 nanosheet zeolites of varying thickness were synthesized with di- and tetraquaternary ammonium structure directing agents and extensively characterized for their textural, structural, and catalytic properties. Introduction of Fe3+ ions in the framework of nanosheet zeolites was slightly less effective than in bulk ZSM-5 zeolite. Steaming was necessary to activate all catalysts for N2O decomposition and benzene oxidation. The higher the Fe content, the higher the degree of Fe aggregation was after catalyst activation. The degree of Fe aggregation was lower when the crystal domain size of the zeolite or the Fe content was decreased. These two parameters had a substantial influence on the catalytic performance. Decreasing the number of Fe sites along the b-direction strongly suppressed secondary reactions of phenol and, accordingly, catalyst deactivation. This together with the absence of diffusional limitations in nanosheet zeolites explains the much higher phenol productivity obtainable with nanostructured Fe/ZSM-5. Steamed Fe/ZSM-5 zeolite nanosheet synthesized using C22-6-3·Br2 (domain size in b-direction ∼3 nm) and containing 0.24 wt % Fe exhibited the highest catalytic performance. During the first 24 h on stream, this catalyst produced 185 mmolphenol g–1. Calcination to remove the coke deposits completely restored the initial activity. PMID:28413693

  16. Thermal conversion of an Fe₃O₄@metal-organic framework: a new method for an efficient Fe-Co/nanoporous carbon microwave absorbing material.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xingmiao; Ji, Guangbin; Liu, Wei; Quan, Bin; Liang, Xiaohui; Shang, Chaomei; Cheng, Yan; Du, Youwei

    2015-08-14

    A novel FeCo nanoparticle embedded nanoporous carbon composite (Fe-Co/NPC) was synthesized via in situ carbonization of dehydro-ascorbic acid (DHAA) coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles encapsulated in a metal-organic framework (zeolitic imidazolate framework-67, ZIF-67). The molar ratio of Fe/Co significantly depends on the encapsulated content of Fe3O4 in ZIF-67. The composites filled with 50 wt% of the Fe-Co/NPC-2.0 samples in paraffin show a maximum reflection loss (RL) of -21.7 dB at a thickness of 1.2 mm; in addition, a broad absorption bandwidth for RL < -10 dB which covers from 12.2 to 18 GHz can be obtained, and its minimum reflection loss and bandwidth (RL values exceeding -10 dB) are far greater than those of commercial carbonyl iron powder under a very low thickness (1-1.5 mm). This study not only provides a good reference for future preparation of carbon-based lightweight microwave absorbing materials but also broadens the application of such kinds of metal-organic frameworks.

  17. Positron spectroscopy studies of zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Ku-Jung

    The lineshapes of two-dimensional angular correlation of electron-positron annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR) in alumina and several zeolites were measured as a function of internal surface areas. In all cases, the lineshape parameter S from 2D-ACAR spectra were found to vary proportionally with internal surface area. In order to investigate the Bronsted acidity in NaHY zeolite, the lineshape parameter evaluation from 2D-ACAR measurements for varied acidity in NaHY zeolites by ion-exchange and thermal desorption were presented. The result from this investigation has demonstrated that the Bronsted acidity in NaHY zeolite was found to vary linearly with the lineshape parameter of the angular correlation spectrum of the sample. The lineshapes of 2D-ACAR spectra were determined for different base adsorbed HY-zeolite samples under a temperature controlled heating system in order to investigate, in-situ, the acid strength and number of Bronsted acid sites in the sample. Results have shown that the lineshape parameter of the angular correlation spectrum of the sample increases with the strength of adsorbed base and decreases with the number of Bronsted acid sites in the sample. This indicated that the lineshape parameter is sensitive to all of the strengths and concentrations of Bronsted acid sites in the HY-zeolite samples. The result from this study has also demonstrated that the large size base, pyridine, would reduce the possibility of positronium formation in the sample by filling the cage to eliminate the internal surface areas where the positroniums are likely to form. However, the small size base, ammonia, did not show any effect on the internal surface areas. Owing to the fact that this technique monitors only the Bronsted acid sites that situate on the surface which relates to the catalytic activity, there is little ambiguity about the location of the source of information obtained. The findings presented in this dissertation point out the fact that such lineshape

  18. Radical production from photosensitization of imidazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corral Arroyo, P.; Gonzalez, L.; Steimer, S.; Aellig, R.; Volkamer, R. M.; George, C.; Bartels-Rausch, T.; Ammann, M.

    2015-12-01

    Reactions promoted by light are key in atmospheric chemistry. Some of them occur in the condensed phase of aerosols containing light absorbing organic compounds (George et al., 2015). This work explores the radical reactions initiated by near-UV light in mixtures of citric acid (CA) and imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde (IC) using NO as a probe molecule for HO2, by means of coated wall flow tube experiments. Citric acid may act as H atom or electron donor in condensed phase radical cycles. IC may act as a photosensitizer. The loss of NO was measured by a chemiluminescence detector. The dependence of the NO loss on the NO concentration, the IC/CA ratio in the film, relative humidity, light intensity, oxygen molar fraction were investigated as well as the HONO and NO2 yields. We also added halide salts to investigate the effect of a competing electron donor in the system and the output of halogens to the gas phase. We found a correlation between the loss of NO above the film and the molar ratio of IC/CA and the light intensity. The variation of the NO loss with oxygen corroborates a mechanism, in which the triplet excited state of IC is reduced by citric acid, to a reduced ketyl radical that transfers an electron to molecular oxygen, which in turn leads to production of HO2 radicals. Therefore, the NO loss in the gas phase is related to the production of HO2 radicals. Relative humidity had a strong impact on the HO2 output, which shows a maximum production rate at around 30%. The addition of halide ions (X- = Cl-, Br-, I-) increases the HO2 output at low concentration and decrease it at higher concentration when X2- radical ions likely scavenge HO2. We could preliminarily quantify for the first time the contribution of these processes to the oxidative capacity in the atmosphere and conclude that their role is significant for aerosol aging and potentially a significant source of halogen compounds to the gas phase.

  19. UTILITY OF ZEOLITES IN HAZARDOUS METAL REMOVAL FROM WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zeolites are well known for their ion exchange, adsorption and acid catalysis properties. Different inorganic pollutants have been removed from water at room temperature by using synthetic zeolites. Zeolite Faujasite Y has been used to remove inorganic pollutants including arseni...

  20. Cd(II)-coordination polymers based on tetracarboxylic acid and diverse bis(imidazole) ligands: Synthesis, structural diversity and photoluminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arıcı, Mürsel; Yeşilel, Okan Zafer; Taş, Murat

    2017-01-01

    Three new Cd(II)-coordination polymers, namely, {[Cd2(μ6-ao2btc)(μ-1,5-bipe)2]·2H2O}n (1), {[Cd2(μ6-ao2btc)(μ-1,4-bix)2]n·2DMF} (2) and {[Cd2(μ8-abtc)(μ-1,4-betix)]·DMF·H2O}n (3) (ao2btc=di-oxygenated form of 3,3‧,5,5‧-azobenzenetetracarboxylate, 1,5-bipe: 1,5-bis(imidazol-1yl)pentane, 1,4-bix=1,4-bis(imidazol-1ylmethyl)benzene, 1,4-betix=1,4-bis(2-ethylimidazol-1ylmethyl)benzene) were synthesized with 3,3‧,5,5‧-azobenzenetetracarboxylic acid and flexible, semi-flexible and semi-flexible substituted bis(imidazole) linkers. They were characterized by IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffractions (PXRD) and thermal analyses (TG/DTA). Complexes 1-3 exhibited structural diversities depending on flexible, semi-flexible and semi-flexible substituted bis(imidazole) ligands. Complex 1 was 2D structure with 3,6L18 topology. Complex 2 had a 3D pillar-layered framework with the rare sqc27 topology. When semi-flexible substituted bis(imidazole) linker was used, 3D framework of complex 3 was obtained with the paddlewheel Cd2(CO2)4-type binuclear SBU. Moreover, thermal and photoluminescence properties of the complexes were determined in detailed.

  1. Cd(II)-coordination polymers based on tetracarboxylic acid and diverse bis(imidazole) ligands: Synthesis, structural diversity and photoluminescence properties

    SciT

    Arıcı, Mürsel, E-mail: marici@ogu.edu.tr; Yeşilel, Okan Zafer; Taş, Murat

    Three new Cd(II)-coordination polymers, namely, ([Cd{sub 2}(μ{sub 6}-ao{sub 2}btc)(μ-1,5-bipe){sub 2}]·2H{sub 2}O){sub n} (1), ([Cd{sub 2}(μ{sub 6}-ao{sub 2}btc)(μ-1,4-bix){sub 2}]{sub n}·2DMF) (2) and ([Cd{sub 2}(μ{sub 8}-abtc)(μ-1,4-betix)]·DMF·H{sub 2}O){sub n} (3) (ao{sub 2}btc=di-oxygenated form of 3,3′,5,5′-azobenzenetetracarboxylate, 1,5-bipe: 1,5-bis(imidazol-1yl)pentane, 1,4-bix=1,4-bis(imidazol-1ylmethyl)benzene, 1,4-betix=1,4-bis(2-ethylimidazol-1ylmethyl)benzene) were synthesized with 3,3′,5,5′-azobenzenetetracarboxylic acid and flexible, semi-flexible and semi-flexible substituted bis(imidazole) linkers. They were characterized by IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffractions (PXRD) and thermal analyses (TG/DTA). Complexes 1–3 exhibited structural diversities depending on flexible, semi-flexible and semi-flexible substituted bis(imidazole) ligands. Complex 1 was 2D structure with 3,6L18 topology. Complex 2 had a 3D pillar-layered framework with the raremore » sqc27 topology. When semi-flexible substituted bis(imidazole) linker was used, 3D framework of complex 3 was obtained with the paddlewheel Cd{sub 2}(CO{sub 2}){sub 4}-type binuclear SBU. Moreover, thermal and photoluminescence properties of the complexes were determined in detailed. - Graphical abstract: In this study, three novel Cd(II)-coordination polymers were synthesized with 3,3′,5,5′-azobenzenetetracarboxylic acid and flexible, semi-flexible and semi-flexible substituted bis(imidazole) linkers. They were characterized by IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffractions (PXRD) and thermal analyses (TG/DTA). Complexes 1–3 exhibited structural diversities depending on flexible, semi-flexible and semi-flexible substituted bis(imidazole) ligands. Complex 1 was 2D structure with 3,6L18 topology. Complex 2 had a 3D pillar-layered framework with the rare sqc27 topology

  2. Metal organic framework-derived CoPS/N-doped carbon for efficient electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuzhi; Niu, Siqi; Rakov, Dmitrii; Wang, Ying; Cabán-Acevedo, Miguel; Zheng, Shijian; Song, Bo; Xu, Ping

    2018-04-19

    Electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution has attracted a great deal of attention due to the urgent need for clean energy. Herein, we demonstrate the synthesis of ternary pyrite-type cobalt phosphosulphide (CoPS) nanoparticles supported on a nitrogen-doped carbon matrix, CoPS/N-C, through carbonization and subsequent phosphosulfurization of Co-based zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIF-67), as promising hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) electrocatalysts in both acidic and alkaline solutions. The polyhedral structure of ZIF-67 can be well maintained in the as-prepared CoPS/N-C nanocomposites. In particular, CoPS/N-C provides a geometric catalytic current density of -10 mA cm-2 at overpotentials of -80 and -148 mV vs. a reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) and a Tafel slope of 68 and 78 mV dec-1 in 0.5 M H2SO4 and 1 M KOH, respectively, which is superior to most of the transition metal phosphosulfide materials. This MOF-derived synthesis of a transition metal phosphosulfide supported heteroatom-doped carbon matrix provides a promising opportunity for the development of highly efficient electrocatalysts for renewable energy devices.

  3. Highly active non-PGM catalysts prepared from metal organic frameworks

    DOE PAGES

    Barkholtz, Heather M.; Chong, Lina; Kaiser, Zachary B.; ...

    2015-06-11

    Finding inexpensive alternatives to platinum group metals (PGMs) is essential for reducing the cost of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Numerous materials have been investigated as potential replacements of Pt, of which the transition metal and nitrogen-doped carbon composites (TM/N x/C) prepared from iron doped zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) are among the most active ones in catalyzing the oxygen reduction reaction based on recent studies. In this report, we demonstrate that the catalytic activity of ZIF-based TM/N x/C composites can be substantially improved through optimization of synthesis and post-treatment processing conditions. Ultimately, oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalytic activity mustmore » be demonstrated in membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs) of fuel cells. The process of preparing MEAs using ZIF-based non-PGM electrocatalysts involves many additional factors which may influence the overall catalytic activity at the fuel cell level. Evaluation of parameters such as catalyst loading and perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer to catalyst ratio were optimized. Our overall efforts to optimize both the catalyst and MEA construction process have yielded impressive ORR activity when tested in a fuel cell system.« less

  4. [What a physician should know about zeolites].

    PubMed

    Boranić, M

    2000-01-01

    Zeolites are natural and synthetic hydrated crystalline aluminosilicates endowed with absorptive and ion exchange properties. They have found numerous and multifarous applications--in industry as catalysts and absorbents, in water sanitation for the removal of ammonia and heavy metals, in agriculture as fertilizers, and in animal husbandry as the absorbents of excreted material and as food additives. Medical applications have included the use in filtration systems for anesthesia or dialysis and as the contrast materials in NMR imaging. Recently, zeolite powders for external use have found application as deodorants, antimycotic agents and wound dressings. Peroral use of encapsulated zeolite powders enriched with vitamins, oligoelements or other ingredients has been claimed to exert beneficial medical effects. Ingestion of zeolites may be considered analogous to the clay eating (geophagia), considered in traditional medicine as a remedy for various illnesses. Being amphoteric, zeolites are partly soluble in acid or alkaline media, but within the physiological pH range the solubility is generally low. Minimal amounts of free aluminium or silicium from the ingested zeolites are resorbed from the gut. The bulk of ingested zeolite probably remains undissolved in the gut. In view of the ion exchange properties, zeolites may be expected to change the ionic content, pH and buffering capacity of the gastrointestinal secretions and to affect the transport through the intestinal epithelium. In addition, zeolites could affect the bacterial flora and the resorption of bacterial products, vitamins and oligoelements. The contact of zeolite particles with gastrointestinal mucosa may elicit the secretion of cytokines with local and systemic actions. Reactive silicium ions might react with biomolecules of the intestinal epithelium, and if resorbed, do so in other cells. Mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of zeolite particles have been described, resembling such effects of asbestos

  5. Discovery of optimal zeolites for challenging separations and chemical conversions through predictive materials modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siepmann, J. Ilja; Bai, Peng; Tsapatsis, Michael; Knight, Chris; Deem, Michael W.

    2015-03-01

    Zeolites play numerous important roles in modern petroleum refineries and have the potential to advance the production of fuels and chemical feedstocks from renewable resources. The performance of a zeolite as separation medium and catalyst depends on its framework structure and the type or location of active sites. To date, 213 framework types have been synthesized and >330000 thermodynamically accessible zeolite structures have been predicted. Hence, identification of optimal zeolites for a given application from the large pool of candidate structures is attractive for accelerating the pace of materials discovery. Here we identify, through a large-scale, multi-step computational screening process, promising zeolite structures for two energy-related applications: the purification of ethanol beyond the ethanol/water azeotropic concentration in a single separation step from fermentation broths and the hydroisomerization of alkanes with 18-30 carbon atoms encountered in petroleum refining. These results demonstrate that predictive modeling and data-driven science can now be applied to solve some of the most challenging separation problems involving highly non-ideal mixtures and highly articulated compounds. Financial support from the Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences under Award DE-FG02-12ER16362 is gratefully acknowledged.

  6. Examination of the solventlike nature of zeolites based on a solvatochromic indicator

    SciT

    Dutta, P.K.; Turbeville, W.

    1991-05-16

    Zeolites are crystalline aluminosilicates with cages and channel systems that can host a variety of organic transformations. This intracrystalline space is akin to a solvent, and description of this space in terms of solventlike properties is appropriate. The concept of solvatochromic indicators has been successfully used to define the physicochemical properties of organic solvents. In this study, the authors have investigated the electronic and Raman spectroscopy of the molecule N-(2-hydroxybenzylidene)aniline and established a quantitative correlation between the spectral intensities of the benzenoid and zwitterionic forms of this molecule and the {alpha}-value of various hydroxylic solvents. The {alpha} value is amore » measure of the hydrogen bond donor ability of the solvent. This correlation has been used to establish an {alpha} value scale for a series of faujasitic zeolites with varying Si/Al ratios. It was found that the {alpha} value of the zeolite increased with Si/Al ratio to reach a maximum around 7.8, followed by a decrease at higher Si/Al ratios. Since Na{sup +}-exchanged zeolites were examined in all cases, the interaction of the anil molecule in its zwitterionic form with Lewis acids (Na{sup +}) and bases (oxygen of the framework) was considered to be responsible for its formation. The Si/Al ratio of the framework determines the acid-base character of the zeolite and is reflected in a quantitative manner by the {alpha} value determined in this study.« less

  7. Studying Two-Dimensional Zeolites with the Tools of Surface Science: MFI Nanosheets on Au(111)

    DOE PAGES

    J. D. Kestell; Zhong, J. Q.; Shete, M.; ...

    2016-07-26

    While surface science has provided fundamental insights into a variety a materials, the most used catalysts in the industry, namely zeolites, still remain a challenge. The recent preparation of two-dimensional versions of MFI zeolite frameworks and the possibility of their deposition on electrically conductive supports provides for the first time a viable strategy to perform detailed studies on industrially relevant zeolites using the vast toolkit of surface science. In this work we demonstrate the use of infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) and synchrotron-based x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to study these materials. Furthermore, polarization modulation IRRAS is used to study themore » adsorption of methanol and its effect in phonon vibrations of the zeolite framework. The possibility of using surface science methods, in particular under ambient pressure conditions, for the study of well-defined zeolites and other microporous structures opens new avenues to understand structural and mechanistic aspects of these materials as catalysts, adsorbents and molecular sieves.« less

  8. Studying Two-Dimensional Zeolites with the Tools of Surface Science: MFI Nanosheets on Au(111)

    SciT

    J. D. Kestell; Zhong, J. Q.; Shete, M.

    While surface science has provided fundamental insights into a variety a materials, the most used catalysts in the industry, namely zeolites, still remain a challenge. The recent preparation of two-dimensional versions of MFI zeolite frameworks and the possibility of their deposition on electrically conductive supports provides for the first time a viable strategy to perform detailed studies on industrially relevant zeolites using the vast toolkit of surface science. In this work we demonstrate the use of infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) and synchrotron-based x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to study these materials. Furthermore, polarization modulation IRRAS is used to study themore » adsorption of methanol and its effect in phonon vibrations of the zeolite framework. The possibility of using surface science methods, in particular under ambient pressure conditions, for the study of well-defined zeolites and other microporous structures opens new avenues to understand structural and mechanistic aspects of these materials as catalysts, adsorbents and molecular sieves.« less

  9. Recommended nomenclature for zeolite minerals: Report of the Subcommittee on Zeolites of the International Mineralogical Association, Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names

    Coombs, D.S.; Alberti, A.; Armbruster, T.; Artioli, G.; Colella, C.; Galli, E.; Grice, Joel D.; Liebau, F.; Mandarino, J.A.; Minato, H.; Nickel, E.H.; Passaglia, E.; Peacor, D.R.; Quartieri, S.; Rinaldi, R.; Ross, M.; Sheppard, R.A.; Tillmanns, E.; Vezzalini, G.

    1998-01-01

    This report embodies recommendations on zeolite nomenclature approved by the International Mineralogical Association Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names. In a working definition of a zeolite mineral used for this review, structures containing an interrupted containing an interrupted framework of tetrahedra are accepted where other zeolitic properties prevail, and complete substitution by elements other than Si and Al is alloowed. Separate species are recognized in topologically distinctive compositional series in which different extra-framework cations are the most abundant in atomic proportions. To name these, the appropriate chemical symbol is attached by a hyphen to the series name as a suffix, except for the names harmotome, pollucite and wairakite in the phillipsite and analcime series. Differences in space-group symmetry and in order-disorder relationships in zeolites having the same topologically distinctive framework do not in general provide adequate grounds for recognition of separate species. Zeolite species are not to be distinguished solely in Si:Al ratio except for heulandite (Si:Al < 4.0) and clinoptilolite (Si:Al ??? 4.0). Dehydration, partial hydration and over-hydration are not sufficient grounds for the recognition of separate species of zeolites. Use of the term 'ideal formula' should be avoided in referring to a simplified or averaged formula of zeolite. Newly recognized species in compositional series are as follows: brewsterite-Sr, -Ba; chabazite-Ca, -Na, -K; clinoptilolite-K, -Na, -Ca; dechiardite-Ca, -Na; erionite-Na, -K, -Ca,; faujasite-Na, -Ca, -Mg; ferrierite-Mg, -K, -Na; gmelinite-Na, -Ca, -K; heulandite-Ca, -Na, -K, -Sr; levyne-Ca, -Na; paulingite-K, -Ca; phillipsite-Na, -Ca, -K stilbite-Ca, -Na. Key references, type locality, origin of name, chemical data, IZA structure-type symbols, space-group symmetry, unit-cell dimensions, and comments on structure are listed for 13 compositional series, 82 accepted zeolite mineral

  10. Recommended nomenclature for zeolite minerals: report of the subcommittee on zeolites of the International Mineralogical Association, Commission on new Minerals and Mineral names

    Coombs, D.S.; Alberti, A.; Armbruster, T.; Artioli, G.; Colella, C.; Galli, E.; Grice, Joel D.; Liebau, F.; Mandarino, J.A.; Minato, H.; Nickel, E.H.; Passaglia, E.; Peacor, D.R.; Quartieri, S.; Rinaldi, R.; Ross, M.; Sheppard, R.A.; Tillmanns, E.; Vezzalini, G.

    1997-01-01

    This report embodies recommendations on zeolite nomenclature approved by the International Mineralogical Association, Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names. In a working definition of a zeolite mineral used for this review, structures containing an interrupted framework of tetrahedra are accepted where other zeolitic properties prevail, and complete substitution by elements other than Si and Al is allowed. Separate species are recognized in topologically distinctive compositional series in which different extra-framework cations are the most abundant in atomic proportions. To name these, the appropriate chemicalsymbol is attached by a hyphen to the series name as a suffix, except for the names harmotome, pollucite and wairakite in the phillipsite and analcime series. Differences in space-group symmetry and in order-disorder relationships in zeolites having the same topologically distinctive framework do not in general provide adequate grounds for recognition of separate species. Zeolite species are not to be distinguished solely on the ratio Si:Al except for heulandite (Si:Al < 4.0) and clinoptilolite (Si:Al ??? 4.0). Dehydration, partial hydration, and overhydration are not sufficient grounds for the recognition of separate species of zeolites. Use of the term 'ideal formula' should be avoided in referring to a simplified or averaged formula of a zeolite. newly recognized species in compositional series are as follows: brewsterite-Sr, -Ba, chabazite-Ca, -Na, -K, clinoptilolite-K, -Na, -Ca, dachiardite-Ca, -Na, erionite-Na, erionite-Na, -K, -Ca, faujasite-Na, -Ca, -Mg, ferrierite-Mg, -K, -Na, gmelinite-Na, -Ca, -K, heulandite-Ca, -Na, -K, -Sr, levyne-Ca, -Na, paulingite-K, -Ca, phillipsite-Na, -Ca, -K, and stilbite-Ca, -Na. Key references, type locality, origin of name, chemical data, IZA structure-type symbols, space-group symmetry, unit-cell dimensions, and comments on structure are listed for 13 compositional series, 82 accepted zeolite mineral species

  11. Increased thermal conductivity monolithic zeolite structures

    DOEpatents

    Klett, James; Klett, Lynn; Kaufman, Jonathan

    2008-11-25

    A monolith comprises a zeolite, a thermally conductive carbon, and a binder. The zeolite is included in the form of beads, pellets, powders and mixtures thereof. The thermally conductive carbon can be carbon nano-fibers, diamond or graphite which provide thermal conductivities in excess of about 100 W/mK to more than 1,000 W/mK. A method of preparing a zeolite monolith includes the steps of mixing a zeolite dispersion in an aqueous colloidal silica binder with a dispersion of carbon nano-fibers in water followed by dehydration and curing of the binder is given.

  12. Synthetic zeolites and other microporous oxide molecular sieves

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, John D.

    1999-01-01

    Use of synthetic zeolites and other microporous oxides since 1950 has improved insulated windows, automobile air-conditioning, refrigerators, air brakes on trucks, laundry detergents, etc. Their large internal pore volumes, molecular-size pores, regularity of crystal structures, and the diverse framework chemical compositions allow “tailoring” of structure and properties. Thus, highly active and selective catalysts as well as adsorbents and ion exchangers with high capacities and selectivities were developed. In the petroleum refining and petrochemical industries, zeolites have made possible cheaper and lead-free gasoline, higher performance and lower-cost synthetic fibers and plastics, and many improvements in process efficiency and quality and in performance. Zeolites also help protect the environment by improving energy efficiency, reducing automobile exhaust and other emissions, cleaning up hazardous wastes (including the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant and other radioactive wastes), and, as specially tailored desiccants, facilitating the substitution of new refrigerants for the ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons banned by the Montreal Protocol. PMID:10097059

  13. Zeolites Remove Sulfur From Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E.; Sharma, Pramod K.

    1991-01-01

    Zeolites remove substantial amounts of sulfur compounds from diesel fuel under relatively mild conditions - atmospheric pressure below 300 degrees C. Extracts up to 60 percent of sulfur content of high-sulfur fuel. Applicable to petroleum refineries, natural-gas processors, electric powerplants, and chemical-processing plants. Method simpler and uses considerably lower pressure than current industrial method, hydro-desulfurization. Yields cleaner emissions from combustion of petroleum fuels, and protects catalysts from poisoning by sulfur.

  14. New approach for determination of the influence of long-range order and selected ring oscillations on IR spectra in zeolites.

    PubMed

    Mikuła, Andrzej; Król, Magdalena; Mozgawa, Włodzimierz; Koleżyński, Andrzej

    2018-04-15

    Vibrational spectroscopy can be considered as one of the most important methods used for structural characterization of various porous aluminosilicate materials, including zeolites. On the other hand, vibrational spectra of zeolites are still difficult to interpret, particularly in the pseudolattice region, where bands related to ring oscillations can be observed. Using combination of theoretical and computational approach, a detailed analysis of these regions of spectra is possible; such analysis should be, however, carried out employing models with different level of complexity and simultaneously the same theory level. In this work, an attempt was made to identify ring oscillations in vibrational spectra of selected zeolite structures. A series of ab initio calculations focused on S4R, S6R, and as a novelty, 5-1 isolated clusters, as well as periodic siliceous frameworks built from those building units (ferrierite (FER), mordenite (MOR) and heulandite (HEU) type) have been carried out. Due to the hierarchical structure of zeolite frameworks it can be expected that the total envelope of the zeolite spectra should be with good accuracy a sum of the spectra of structural elements that build each zeolite framework. Based on the results of HF calculations, normal vibrations have been visualized and detailed analysis of pseudolattice range of resulting theoretical spectra have been carried out. Obtained results have been applied for interpretation of experimental spectra of selected zeolites. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. New approach for determination of the influence of long-range order and selected ring oscillations on IR spectra in zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikuła, Andrzej; Król, Magdalena; Mozgawa, Włodzimierz; Koleżyński, Andrzej

    2018-04-01

    Vibrational spectroscopy can be considered as one of the most important methods used for structural characterization of various porous aluminosilicate materials, including zeolites. On the other hand, vibrational spectra of zeolites are still difficult to interpret, particularly in the pseudolattice region, where bands related to ring oscillations can be observed. Using combination of theoretical and computational approach, a detailed analysis of these regions of spectra is possible; such analysis should be, however, carried out employing models with different level of complexity and simultaneously the same theory level. In this work, an attempt was made to identify ring oscillations in vibrational spectra of selected zeolite structures. A series of ab initio calculations focused on S4R, S6R, and as a novelty, 5-1 isolated clusters, as well as periodic siliceous frameworks built from those building units (ferrierite (FER), mordenite (MOR) and heulandite (HEU) type) have been carried out. Due to the hierarchical structure of zeolite frameworks it can be expected that the total envelope of the zeolite spectra should be with good accuracy a sum of the spectra of structural elements that build each zeolite framework. Based on the results of HF calculations, normal vibrations have been visualized and detailed analysis of pseudolattice range of resulting theoretical spectra have been carried out. Obtained results have been applied for interpretation of experimental spectra of selected zeolites.

  16. An Efficient Bifunctional Electrocatalyst for a Zinc-Air Battery Derived from Fe/N/C and Bimetallic Metal-Organic Framework Composites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengfan; Qian, Tao; Zhou, Jinqiu; Yan, Chenglin

    2017-02-15

    Efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts with desirable oxygen activities are closely related to practical applications of renewable energy systems including metal-air batteries, fuel cells, and water splitting. Here a composite material derived from a combination of bimetallic zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (denoted as BMZIFs) and Fe/N/C framework was reported as an efficient bifunctional catalyst. Although BMZIF or Fe/N/C alone exhibits undesirable oxygen reaction activity, a combination of these materials shows unprecedented ORR (half-wave potential of 0.85 V as well as comparatively superior OER activities (potential@10 mA cm -2 of 1.64 V), outperforming not only a commercial Pt/C electrocatalyst but also most reported bifunctional electrocatalysts. We then tested its practical application in Zn-air batteries. The primary batteries exhibit a high peak power density of 235 mW cm -2 , and the batteries are able to be operated smoothly for 100 cycles at a curent density of 10 mA cm -2 . The unprecedented catalytic activity can be attritued to chemical coupling effects between Fe/N/C and BMZIF and will aid the development of highly active electrocatalysts and applications for electrochemical energy devices.

  17. One-pot synthesis of multifunctional nanoscale metal-organic frameworks as an effective antibacterial agent against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhuri, Angshuman Ray; Das, Balaram; Kumar, Amit; Tripathy, Satyajit; Roy, Somenath; Sahu, Sumanta Kumar

    2017-03-01

    Drug-resistant bacteria are an increasingly serious threat to global public health. In particular, infections from multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-positive bacteria (i.e. Staphylococcus aureus) are growing global health concerns. In this work, we report the first use of nanoscale metal-organic frameworks (NMOFs) coencapsulating an antibiotic (vancomycin) and targeting ligand (folic acid) in one pot to enhance therapeutic efficacy against MDR S. aureus. Zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-8) NMOFs, which have globular morphologies coencapsulating vancomycin and folic acid, are characterized by transmission electron microscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, powder x-ray diffraction, ulltraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and dynamic light-scattering techniques. We determined that the presence of folic acid on the surface of the NMOFs is significant in the sense of effective uptake by MDR S. aureus through endocytosis. The functionalized NMOFs transport vancomycin across the cell wall of MDR S. aureus and enhance antibacterial activity, which has been confirmed from studies of the minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration, cytotoxicity of bacterial cells, and generation of reactive oxygen species. This work shows that functionalized NMOFs hold great promise for effective treatment of MDR S. aureus.

  18. High-Quality Metal–Organic Framework ZIF-8 Membrane Supported on Electrodeposited ZnO/2-methylimidazole Nanocomposite: Efficient Adsorbent for the Enrichment of Acidic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Mian; Ye, Huili; Zhao, Faqiong; Zeng, Baizhao

    2017-01-01

    Metal–organic framework (MOF) membranes have received increasing attention as adsorbents, yet the defects in most membrane structures greatly thwart their capacity performance. In this work, we fabricated a novel ZnO/2-methylimidazole nanocomposite with multiple morphology by electrochemical method. The nanocomposite provided sufficient and strong anchorages for the zeolitic imidazolate frameworks-8 (ZIF-8) membrane. Thus, a crack-free and uniform MOF membrane with high performance was successfully obtained. In this case, 2-methylimidazole was believed to react with ZnO to form uniform ZIF nuclei, which induced and guided the growth of ZIF-8 membrane. The as-prepared ZIF-8 membrane had large surface area and good thermal stability. As expected, it displayed high adsorption capacity for acidic drugs (e.g., ibuprofen, ketoprofen and acetylsalicylic acid) as they could interact through hydrophobic, hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking interaction. Accordingly, by coupling with gas chromatography the ZIF-8 membrane was successfully applied to the real-time dynamic monitoring of ibuprofen in patient’s urine. PMID:28051129

  19. Pyrrole-Imidazole Polyamides: Manual Solid-Phase Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Pauff, Steven M; Fallows, Andrew J; Mackay, Simon P; Su, Wu; Cullis, Paul M; Burley, Glenn A

    2015-12-01

    Pyrrole-imidazole polyamides (PAs) are a family of DNA-binding peptides that bind in the minor groove of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) in a sequence-selective, programmable fashion. This protocol describes a detailed manual procedure for the solid-phase synthesis of this family of compounds. The protocol entails solution-phase synthesis of the Boc-protected pyrrole (Py) and imidazole (Im) carboxylic acid building blocks. This unit also describes the importance of choosing the appropriate condensing agent to form the amide linkages between each building block. Finally, a monomeric coupling protocol and a fragment-based approach are described that delivers PAs in 13% to 30% yield in 8 days. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  20. New Imidazole-based High Nitrogen Energetic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windler, G. Kenneth; Leonard, Philip; Schulze, Maxwell; Hartline, Ernest

    2017-06-01

    Energetic materials derive their power from energy release, usually in the form of gaseous products. The type and quantity of these products contribute to performance and detonation parameters. In particular, high-nitrogen materials produce large quantities of elemental nitrogen, and can be tuned via molecular structure for suitability as propellants (gas generators) or explosives. In this work, the five-membered nitrogen heterocycle imidazole is used as a substrate for a variety of high-nitrogen materials. Substitution of the imidazole ring directly with nitro-, azido-, diazo-, and tetrazole moieties allows for tunable properties of the resultant energetic material. Properties can be further tailored by salt formation at the acidic proton(s) on the molecules. The various combinations of these derivatives are presented, along with the substitution effects on physical, chemical, and explosive properties.

  1. Phosphorus promotion and poisoning in zeolite-based materials: synthesis, characterisation and catalysis

    PubMed Central

    van der Bij, Hendrik E.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus and microporous aluminosilicates, better known as zeolites, have a unique but poorly understood relationship. For example, phosphatation of the industrially important zeolite H-ZSM-5 is a well-known, relatively inexpensive and seemingly straightforward post-synthetic modification applied by the chemical industry not only to alter its hydrothermal stability and acidity, but also to increase its selectivity towards light olefins in hydrocarbon catalysis. On the other hand, phosphorus poisoning of zeolite-based catalysts, which are used for removing nitrogen oxides from exhaust fuels, poses a problem for their use in diesel engine catalysts. Despite the wide impact of phosphorus–zeolite chemistry, the exact physicochemical processes that take place require a more profound understanding. This review article provides the reader with a comprehensive and state-of-the-art overview of the academic literature, from the first reports in the late 1970s until the most recent studies. In the first part an in-depth analysis is undertaken, which will reveal universal physicochemical and structural effects of phosphorus–zeolite chemistry on the framework structure, accessibility, and strength of acid sites. The second part discusses the hydrothermal stability of zeolites and clarifies the promotional role that phosphorus plays. The third part of the review paper links the structural and physicochemical effects of phosphorus on zeolite materials with their catalytic performance in a variety of catalytic processes, including alkylation of aromatics, catalytic cracking, methanol-to-hydrocarbon processing, dehydration of bioalcohol, and ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx. Based on these insights, we discuss potential applications and important directions for further research. PMID:26051875

  2. Phosphorus promotion and poisoning in zeolite-based materials: synthesis, characterisation and catalysis.

    PubMed

    van der Bij, Hendrik E; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2015-10-21

    Phosphorus and microporous aluminosilicates, better known as zeolites, have a unique but poorly understood relationship. For example, phosphatation of the industrially important zeolite H-ZSM-5 is a well-known, relatively inexpensive and seemingly straightforward post-synthetic modification applied by the chemical industry not only to alter its hydrothermal stability and acidity, but also to increase its selectivity towards light olefins in hydrocarbon catalysis. On the other hand, phosphorus poisoning of zeolite-based catalysts, which are used for removing nitrogen oxides from exhaust fuels, poses a problem for their use in diesel engine catalysts. Despite the wide impact of phosphorus-zeolite chemistry, the exact physicochemical processes that take place require a more profound understanding. This review article provides the reader with a comprehensive and state-of-the-art overview of the academic literature, from the first reports in the late 1970s until the most recent studies. In the first part an in-depth analysis is undertaken, which will reveal universal physicochemical and structural effects of phosphorus-zeolite chemistry on the framework structure, accessibility, and strength of acid sites. The second part discusses the hydrothermal stability of zeolites and clarifies the promotional role that phosphorus plays. The third part of the review paper links the structural and physicochemical effects of phosphorus on zeolite materials with their catalytic performance in a variety of catalytic processes, including alkylation of aromatics, catalytic cracking, methanol-to-hydrocarbon processing, dehydration of bioalcohol, and ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx. Based on these insights, we discuss potential applications and important directions for further research.

  3. UTILITY OF ZEOLITES IN ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zeolites are well known for their ion exchange and adsorption properties. So far the cation exchanger properties of zeolites have been extensively studied and utilized. The anion exchanger properties of zeolites are less studied. Zeolite Faujasite Y has been used to remove arseni...

  4. First Quantification of Imidazoles in Ambient Aerosol Particles: Potential Photosensitizers, Brown Carbon Constituents, and Hazardous Components.

    PubMed

    Teich, Monique; van Pinxteren, Dominik; Kecorius, Simonas; Wang, Zhibin; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2016-02-02

    Imidazoles are widely discussed in recent literature. They have been studied as a secondary product of the reaction of dicarbonyls with nitrogen containing compounds in a number of laboratory studies, potentially acting as photosensitizers triggering secondary organic aerosol growth and are forming constituents of light absorbing brown carbon. Despite the knowledge from laboratory studies, no quantitative information about imidazoles in ambient aerosol particles is available. Within the present study, five imidazoles (1-butylimidazole, 1-ethylimidazole, 2-ethylimidazole, imidazol-2-carboxaldehyde, and 4(5)-methylimidazole) were successfully identified and quantified for the first time in ambient aerosol samples from different environments in Europe and China. Their concentrations range between 0.2 and 14 ng/m(3). 4(5)-Methylimidazole was found to be the most abundant imidazole. The occurrence of imidazoles seems to be favored at sites with strong biomass burning influence or connected to more polluted air masses. No connection was found between aerosol particle pH and imidazole concentration. Our work corroborates the laboratory studies by showing that imidazoles are present in ambient aerosol samples in measurable amounts. Moreover, it further motivates to explore the potential photosensitizing properties of small alkyl-substituted imidazoles.

  5. Tailoring ZSM-5 Zeolites for the Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass to Aromatic Hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Thomas C; Gardner, David W; Thilakaratne, Rajeeva; Wang, Kaige; Hansen, Thomas W; Brown, Robert C; Tessonnier, Jean-Philippe

    2016-06-22

    The production of aromatic hydrocarbons from cellulose by zeolite-catalyzed fast pyrolysis involves a complex reaction network sensitive to the zeolite structure, crystallinity, elemental composition, porosity, and acidity. The interplay of these parameters under the reaction conditions represents a major roadblock that has hampered significant improvement in catalyst design for over a decade. Here, we studied commercial and laboratory-synthesized ZSM-5 zeolites and combined data from 10 complementary characterization techniques in an attempt to identify parameters common to high-performance catalysts. Crystallinity and framework aluminum site accessibility were found to be critical to achieve high aromatic yields. These findings enabled us to synthesize a ZSM-5 catalyst with enhanced activity, which offers the highest aromatic hydrocarbon yield reported to date. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Metalloenzyme-like catalyzed isomerizations of sugars by Lewis acid zeolites

    PubMed Central

    Bermejo-Deval, Ricardo; Assary, Rajeev S.; Nikolla, Eranda; Moliner, Manuel; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy; Hwang, Son-Jong; Palsdottir, Arna; Silverman, Dorothy; Lobo, Raul F.; Curtiss, Larry A.; Davis, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    Isomerization of sugars is used in a variety of industrially relevant processes and in glycolysis. Here, we show that hydrophobic zeolite beta with framework tin or titanium Lewis acid centers isomerizes sugars, e.g., glucose, via reaction pathways that are analogous to those of metalloenzymes. Specifically, experimental and theoretical investigations reveal that glucose partitions into the zeolite in the pyranose form, ring opens to the acyclic form in the presence of the Lewis acid center, isomerizes into the acyclic form of fructose, and finally ring closes to yield the furanose product. The zeolite catalysts provide processing advantages over metalloenzymes such as an ability to work at higher temperatures and in acidic conditions that allow for the isomerization reaction to be coupled with other important conversions. PMID:22665778

  7. DFT study on the standard electrode potentials of imidazole, tetrathiafulvalene, and tetrathiafulvalene-imidazole.

    PubMed

    Tugsuz, Tugba

    2010-12-30

    Extensive DFT calculations on the standard electrode potentials of imidazole (Im), tetrathiafulvalene (TTF), and 2-, 4-, and 5-TTF-Im were carried out. Geometries and Gibbs free energies of H-bonded dimer, anion, protonated cation, and neutral structures of Im, mono- and dication, and neutral structures of TTF in gas and acetonitrile solvent were computed by using 10 hybrid density functionals (B3LYP, TPSSH, PBEH1PBE, M06, M062X, X3LYP, BMK, B1B95, M05, M052X) combined with the TZVP basis set. CPCM and SMD solvation models were applied to predict the Gibbs free energies of molecules in acetonitrile solvent. Frequency calculations were carried out for all structures, and none of them has been found to exhibit any imaginary frequency. Finally, the BMK hybrid functional was selected for computation of the standard electrode potential of TTF-Im, because it gives the most accurate values in both Im and TTF, differing by 0.05 V from the experimental ones. Moreover, frequencies from the BMK functional are reasonably close to the experimental ones. The standard electrode potentials of 2-, 4-, and 5-TTF-Im predicted for two-electron oxidation are 0.946, 0.870, and 0.839 V in CPCM and 0.927, 0.866, and 0.824 V in SMD. For one-electron oxidation these are 0.491, 0.421, and 0.400 V in CPCM and 0.476, 0.377, and 0.360 V in SMD, respectively.

  8. Highly efficient nonprecious metal catalyst prepared with metal–organic framework in a continuous carbon nanofibrous network

    DOE PAGES

    Shui, Jianglan; Chen, Chen; Grabstanowicz, Lauren; ...

    2015-08-25

    Fuel cell vehicles, the only all-electric technology with a demonstrated >300 miles per fill travel range, use Pt as the electrode catalyst. The high price of Pt creates a major cost barrier for large-scale implementation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. Nonprecious metal catalysts (NPMCs) represent attractive low-cost alternatives. However, a significantly lower turnover frequency at the individual catalytic site renders the traditional carbon-supported NPMCs inadequate in reaching the desired performance afforded by Pt. Unconventional catalyst design aiming at maximizing the active site density at much improved mass and charge transports is essential for the next-generation NPMC. We report heremore » a method of preparing highly efficient, nanofibrous NPMC for cathodic oxygen reduction reaction by electrospinning a polymer solution containing ferrous organometallics and zeolitic imidazolate framework followed by thermal activation. The catalyst offers a carbon nanonetwork architecture made of microporous nanofibers decorated by uniformly distributed high-density active sites. In a single-cell test, the membrane electrode containing such a catalyst delivered unprecedented volumetric activities of 3.3 A∙cm -3 at 0.9 V or 450 A∙cm -3 extrapolated at 0.8 V, representing the highest reported value in the literature. Improved fuel cell durability was also observed.« less

  9. Highly efficient nonprecious metal catalyst prepared with metal-organic framework in a continuous carbon nanofibrous network.

    PubMed

    Shui, Jianglan; Chen, Chen; Grabstanowicz, Lauren; Zhao, Dan; Liu, Di-Jia

    2015-08-25

    Fuel cell vehicles, the only all-electric technology with a demonstrated >300 miles per fill travel range, use Pt as the electrode catalyst. The high price of Pt creates a major cost barrier for large-scale implementation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. Nonprecious metal catalysts (NPMCs) represent attractive low-cost alternatives. However, a significantly lower turnover frequency at the individual catalytic site renders the traditional carbon-supported NPMCs inadequate in reaching the desired performance afforded by Pt. Unconventional catalyst design aiming at maximizing the active site density at much improved mass and charge transports is essential for the next-generation NPMC. We report here a method of preparing highly efficient, nanofibrous NPMC for cathodic oxygen reduction reaction by electrospinning a polymer solution containing ferrous organometallics and zeolitic imidazolate framework followed by thermal activation. The catalyst offers a carbon nanonetwork architecture made of microporous nanofibers decorated by uniformly distributed high-density active sites. In a single-cell test, the membrane electrode containing such a catalyst delivered unprecedented volumetric activities of 3.3 A ⋅ cm(-3) at 0.9 V or 450 A ⋅ cm(-3) extrapolated at 0.8 V, representing the highest reported value in the literature. Improved fuel cell durability was also observed.

  10. Highly efficient nonprecious metal catalyst prepared with metal–organic framework in a continuous carbon nanofibrous network

    PubMed Central

    Shui, Jianglan; Chen, Chen; Grabstanowicz, Lauren; Zhao, Dan; Liu, Di-Jia

    2015-01-01

    Fuel cell vehicles, the only all-electric technology with a demonstrated >300 miles per fill travel range, use Pt as the electrode catalyst. The high price of Pt creates a major cost barrier for large-scale implementation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. Nonprecious metal catalysts (NPMCs) represent attractive low-cost alternatives. However, a significantly lower turnover frequency at the individual catalytic site renders the traditional carbon-supported NPMCs inadequate in reaching the desired performance afforded by Pt. Unconventional catalyst design aiming at maximizing the active site density at much improved mass and charge transports is essential for the next-generation NPMC. We report here a method of preparing highly efficient, nanofibrous NPMC for cathodic oxygen reduction reaction by electrospinning a polymer solution containing ferrous organometallics and zeolitic imidazolate framework followed by thermal activation. The catalyst offers a carbon nanonetwork architecture made of microporous nanofibers decorated by uniformly distributed high-density active sites. In a single-cell test, the membrane electrode containing such a catalyst delivered unprecedented volumetric activities of 3.3 A⋅cm−3 at 0.9 V or 450 A⋅cm−3 extrapolated at 0.8 V, representing the highest reported value in the literature. Improved fuel cell durability was also observed. PMID:26261338

  11. Deuterohemin-Peptide Enzyme Mimic-Embedded Metal-Organic Frameworks through Biomimetic Mineralization with Efficient ATRP Catalytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Wang, Xinghuo; Chen, Jiawen; Liu, Ying; Han, Haobo; Ding, Yi; Li, Quanshun; Tang, Jun

    2017-08-16

    An enzyme mimic harboring iron porphyrin (DhHP-6) embedded in zeolite imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) was constructed through a biomimetic mineralization approach to obtain composite DhHP-6@ZIF-8. The composite was then used as a catalyst in the atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA 500 ) in which poly(PEGMA 500 ) could be synthesized with monomer conversion of 76.1% and M n of 45 900 g/mol, stronger than that obtained when using free DhHP-6 as a catalyst. More importantly, it could efficiently overcome the drawbacks of free DhHP-6 and achieve the easy separation of DhHP-6 from the catalytic system and the elimination of iron residues in the synthesized polymer. In addition, it exhibited an enhanced recyclability with monomer conversion of 75.7% after five cycles and favorable stability during the ATRP reaction with <3.0% of DhHP-6 release within 100 h. Thus, the enzyme mimic-ZIF-8 composite developed through biomimetic mineralization can be potentially used as an effective catalyst for preparing well-defined polymers with biomedical applications.

  12. Nanoarchitectures for Metal-Organic Framework-Derived Nanoporous Carbons toward Supercapacitor Applications.

    PubMed

    Salunkhe, Rahul R; Kaneti, Yusuf Valentino; Kim, Jeonghun; Kim, Jung Ho; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2016-12-20

    divided into three main sections: (1) useful background on carbon materials for supercapacitor applications, (2) the importance of MOF-derived carbons, and (3) potential future developments of MOF-derived carbons for supercapacitors. This Account focuses mostly on carbons derived from two types of MOFs, namely, zeolite imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) and ZIF-67. By using examples from our previous works, we will show the uniqueness of these carbons for achieving high performance by control of the chemical reactions/conditions as well proper utilization in asymmetric/symmetric supercapacitor configurations. This Account will promote further developments of MOF-derived multifunctional carbon materials with controlled porous architectures for optimization of their electrochemical performance toward supercapacitor applications.

  13. Zeolites: Can they be synthesized by design

    SciT

    Davis, M.E.

    1994-09-01

    Zeolites and zeolite-like molecular sieves are crystalline oxides that have high surface-to-volume ratios and are able to recognize, discriminate, and organize molecules with differences of < 1 [angstrom]. The close connection between the atomic structure and macroscopic properties of these materials has led to uses in molecular recognition. For example, zeolites and zeolite-like molecular sieves can reveal marvelous molecular recognition specificity and sensitivity that can be applied to catalysis, separations technology, and chemical sensing. Additionally, they can serve as hosts to organize guest atoms and molecules that endow composite materials with optoelectric and electrochemical properties. Because of the high levelmore » of structural control necessary to create high-performance materials with zeolites or zeolite-like molecular sieves, the design and synthesis of these solids with specific architectures and properties are highly desired. Although this lofty goal is still elusive, advances have been made to allow the serious consideration of designing molecular sieves. Here, the author covers two aspects of this ongoing effort. First, he discusses the feasibility of designing pore architectures through the use of organic structure-directing agents. Second, he explores the possibility of creating zeolites through ''Lego chemistry.''« less

  14. Zeolite food supplementation reduces abundance of enterobacteria.

    PubMed

    Prasai, Tanka P; Walsh, Kerry B; Bhattarai, Surya P; Midmore, David J; Van, Thi T H; Moore, Robert J; Stanley, Dragana

    2017-01-01

    According to the World Health Organisation, antibiotics are rapidly losing potency in every country of the world. Poultry are currently perceived as a major source of pathogens and antimicrobial resistance. There is an urgent need for new and natural ways to control pathogens in poultry and humans alike. Porous, cation rich, aluminosilicate minerals, zeolites can be used as a feed additive in poultry rations, demonstrating multiple productivity benefits. Next generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA marker gene was used to phylogenetically characterize the fecal microbiota and thus investigate the ability and dose dependency of zeolite in terms of anti-pathogenic effects. A natural zeolite was used as a feed additive in laying hens at 1, 2, and 4% w/w for a 23 week period. At the end of this period cloacal swabs were collected to sample faecal microbial communities. A significant reduction in carriage of bacteria within the phylum Proteobacteria, especially in members of the pathogen-rich family Enterobacteriaceae, was noted across all three concentrations of zeolite. Zeolite supplementation of feed resulted in a reduction in the carriage of a number of poultry pathogens without disturbing beneficial bacteria. This effect was, in some phylotypes, correlated with the zeolite concentration. This result is relevant to zeolite feeding in other animal production systems, and for human pathogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Zeolites on Mars: Prospects for Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffney, E. S.; Singer, R. B.; Kunkle, T. D.

    1985-01-01

    The Martian surface composition measured by Viking can be represented by several combinations of minerals incorporating major fractions of zeolites known to occur in altered mafic rocks and polar soils on Earth. The abundant occurrence of zeolites on Mars is consistent with what is known about both the physical and chemical environment of that planet. The laboratory reflectance spectra (0.65 to 2.55 microns) of a number of relatively pure zeolite minerals and some naturally occurring zeolite-clay soils were measured. All of the spectra measured are dominated by strong absorption near 1.4 and 1.9 microns and a steep reflectance drop longward of about 2.2 microns, all of which are due to abundant H2O. Weaker water overtone bands are also apparent, and in most cases there is spectral evidence for minor Fe(3+). In these features the zeolite spectra are similar to spectra of smectite clays which have abundant interlayer water. The most diagnostic difference between clay and zeolite spectra is the total absence in the zeolites of the weak structural OH absorption.

  16. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-39 aluminosilicate zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Nicholas, Christpher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2013-12-17

    A new family of coherently grown composites of TUN and IMF zeotypes has been synthesized and show to be effective catalysts for catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.n+R.sub.rQ.sub.qAl.sub1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.s- ub.z where M represents zinc or a metal or metals from Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, R is an A,.OMEGA.-dihalosubstituted paraffin such as 1,4-dibromobutane, Q is a neutral amine containing 5 or fewer carbon atoms such as 1-methylpyrrolidine and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-39 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hyrdocarbons into hydrocarbons removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  17. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-39 aluminosilicate zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Nicholas, Christopher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2014-10-07

    A new family of coherently grown composites of TUN and IMF zeotypes has been synthesized and shown to be effective catalysts for catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.n+R.sub.rQ.sub.qAl.sub.1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.s- ub.z where M represents zinc or a metal or metals from Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, R is an A,.OMEGA.-dihalosubstituted paraffin such as 1,4-dibromobutane, Q is a neutral amine containing 5 or fewer carbon atoms such as 1-methylpyrrolidine and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-39 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hydrocarbons into hydrocarbons and removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  18. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of indium substituted nanocrystalline Mobil Five (MFI) zeolite

    SciT

    Shah, Kishor Kr.; Nandi, Mithun; Talukdar, Anup K., E-mail: anup_t@sify.com

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • In situ modification of the MFI zeolite by incorporation of indium. • The samples were characterized by XRD, FTIR, TGA, UV–vis (DRS), SAA, EDX and SEM. • The incorporation of indium was confirmed by XRD, FT-IR, UV–vis (DRS), EDX and TGA. • Hydroxylation of phenol reaction was studied on the synthesized catalysts. - Abstract: A series of indium doped Mobil Five (MFI) zeolite were synthesized hydrothermally with silicon to aluminium and indium molar ratio of 100 and with aluminium to indium molar ratios of 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1. The MFI zeolite phase was identified by XRD and FT-IRmore » analysis. In XRD analysis the prominent peaks were observed at 2θ values of around 6.5° and 23° with a few additional shoulder peaks in case of all the indium incorporated samples suggesting formation of pure phase of the MFI zeolite. All the samples under the present investigation were found to exhibit high crystallinity (∼92%). The crystallite sizes of the samples were found to vary from about 49 to 55 nm. IR results confirmed the formation of MFI zeolite in all cases showing distinct absorbance bands near 1080, 790, 540, 450 and 990 cm{sup −1}. TG analysis of In-MFI zeolites showed mass losses in three different steps which are attributed to the loss due to adsorbed water molecules and the two types TPA{sup +} cations. Further, the UV–vis (DRS) studies reflected the position of the indium metal in the zeolite framework. Surface area analysis of the synthesized samples was carried out to characterize the synthesized samples The analysis showed that the specific surface area ranged from ∼357 to ∼361 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} and the pore volume of the synthesized samples ranged from 0.177 to 0.182 cm{sup 3} g{sup −1}. The scanning electron microscopy studies showed the structure of the samples to be rectangular and twinned rectangular shaped. The EDX analysis was carried out for confirmation of Si, Al and In in zeolite frame work. The catalytic

  19. Copper-Exchanged Zeolite L Traps Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Pramod K.; Seshan, Panchalam K.

    1991-01-01

    Brief series of simple chemical treatments found to enhance ability of zeolite to remove oxygen from mixture of gases. Thermally stable up to 700 degrees C and has high specific surface area which provides high capacity for adsorption of gases. To increase ability to adsorb oxygen selectively, copper added by ion exchange, and copper-exchanged zeolite reduced with hydrogen. As result, copper dispersed atomically on inner surfaces of zeolite, making it highly reactive to oxygen, even at room temperature. Reactivity to oxygen even greater at higher temperatures.

  20. Photochemical charge separation in zeolites: Electron transfer dynamics, nanocrystals and zeolitic membranes. Final technical report

    SciT

    Dutta, Prabir K.

    2001-09-30

    Aluminosilicate zeolites provide an excellent host for photochemical charge separation. Because of the constraints provided by the zeolite, the back electron transfer from the reduced acceptor to the oxidized sensitizer is slowed down. This provides the opportunity to separate the charge and use it in a subsequent reaction for water oxidation and reduction. Zeolite-based ruthenium oxide catalysts have been found to be efficient for the water splitting process. This project has demonstrated the usefulness of zeolite hosts for photolytic splitting of water.

  1. 40 CFR 721.4468 - 1H-Imidazole, 2-ethyl-4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 1H-Imidazole, 2-ethyl-4,5-dihydro-4... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4468 1H-Imidazole, 2-ethyl-4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 1H-imidazole...

  2. Formation of supramolecular clusters at the interface of zeolite X following the adsorption of rare-earth cations and their impact on the macroscopic properties of the zeolite.

    PubMed

    Guzzinati, Roberta; Sarti, Elena; Catani, Martina; Costa, Valentina; Pagnoni, Antonella; Martucci, Annalisa; Rodeghero, Elisa; Capitani, Donatella; Pietrantonio, Massimiliana; Cavazzini, Alberto; Pasti, Luisa

    2018-05-18

    The adsorption behavior of neodymium (Nd3+) and yttrium (Y3+) cations on synthetic FAU zeolite 13X in its sodium form (Na13X) has been investigated by means of an approach based on both macroscopic (namely, adsorption isotherm determination and thermal analysis) and microscopic measurements (including solid-state NMR spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction). The multidisciplinary study has revealed some unexpected features. Firstly, adsorption constants of cations are not correlated to their ionic radii (or hydration enthalpy). The adsorption constant of Y3+ on Na13X was indeed about twice that of Nd3+, which is the opposite of what could be expected based on the size of the cations. In addition, adsorption was accompanied by partial dealumination of the zeolite framework. The extent of dealumination changed depending on exchanged cations. It was more significant on the Nd-exchanged zeolite than on the Y-exchanged one. The most interesting finding of this study, however, is the presence of supramolecular clusters composed of water, Nd3+, residual sodium ions and extraframework aluminum at the interface of Nd-exchanged zeolite. The hypothesis that these host-guest complexes are responsible of the significantly different behavior exhibited by Na13X towards the adsorption/desorption of Nd3+ and Y3+ has been formulated. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Rapid screening of the antimicrobial efficacy of Ag zeolites.

    PubMed

    Tosheva, L; Belkhair, S; Gackowski, M; Malic, S; Al-Shanti, N; Verran, J

    2017-09-01

    A semi-quantitative screening method was used to compare the killing efficacy of Ag zeolites against bacteria and yeast as a function of the zeolite type, crystal size and concentration. The method, which substantially reduced labor, consumables and waste and provided an excellent preliminary screen, was further validated by quantitative plate count experiments. Two pairs of zeolite X and zeolite beta with different sizes (ca. 200nm and 2μm for zeolite X and ca. 250 and 500nm for zeolite beta) were tested against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Candida albicans (C. albicans) at concentrations in the range 0.05-0.5mgml -1 . Reduction of the zeolite crystal size resulted in a decrease in the killing efficacy against both microorganisms. The semi-quantitative tests allowed convenient optimization of the zeolite concentrations to achieve targeted killing times. Zeolite beta samples showed higher activity compared to zeolite X despite their lower Ag content, which was attributed to the higher concentration of silver released from zeolite beta samples. Cytotoxicity measurements using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) indicated that Ag zeolite X was more toxic than Ag zeolite beta. However, the trends for the dependence of cytotoxicity on zeolite crystal size at different zeolite concentrations were different for the two zeolites and no general conclusions about zeolite cytotoxicity could be drawn from these experiments. This result indicates a complex relationship, requiring the necessity for individual cytotoxicity measurements for all antimicrobial applications based on the use of zeolites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Reversible cobalt ion binding to imidazole-modified nanopipettes

    PubMed Central

    Sa, Niya; Fu, Yaqin; Baker, Lane A.

    2010-01-01

    In this report, we demonstrate that quartz nanopipettes modified with an imidazole-terminated silane respond to metal ions (Co2+) in solution. The response of nanopipettes is evaluated through examination of the ion current rectification response. By cycling nanopipettes between solutions of different pH, adsorbed Co2+ can be released from the nanopipette surface, to regenerate binding sites of the nanopipette. These results demonstrate that rectification-based sensing strategies for nanopore sensors can benefit from selection of recognition elements with intermediate binding affinities, such that reversible responses to be attained. PMID:21090777

  5. Reversible cobalt ion binding to imidazole-modified nanopipettes.

    PubMed

    Sa, Niya; Fu, Yaqin; Baker, Lane A

    2010-12-15

    In this report, we demonstrate that quartz nanopipettes modified with an imidazole-terminated silane respond to metal ions (Co(2+)) in solution. The response of nanopipettes is evaluated through examination of the ion current rectification ratio. When nanopipettes are cycled between solutions of different pH, adsorbed Co(2+) can be released from the nanopipette surface, to regenerate binding sites of the nanopipette. These results demonstrate that rectification-based sensing strategies for nanopore sensors can benefit from selection of recognition elements with intermediate binding affinities, such that reversible responses can be attained.

  6. Chemistry and properties of new poly(arylene ether imidazoles)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.

    1990-01-01

    As part of a program to develop high-temperature high-performance structural resins for aerospace applications, the chemistry and properties of new poly(arylene ether imidazoles) were investigated. The polymers were prepared by the nucleophilic displacement reaction of aromatic bis(imidazolephenols) with activated aromatic difluoro compounds. The amorphous thermoplastic polymers exhibited glass transition temperatures from 230 to 301 C, inherent viscosities from 0.46 to 1.46 dL/g, and number-average molecular weights as high as 59,300 g/mole. The polymers exhibit good toughness, adhesive, composite, and film properties. The chemical, physical, and mechanical properties of these materials are discussed.

  7. Synthesis Strategies for Ultrastable Zeolite GIS Polymorphs as Sorbents for Selective Separations

    SciT

    Oleksiak, Matthew D.; Ghorbanpour, Arian; Conato, Marlon T.

    Designing nanoporous zeolites with tunable physicochemical properties can substantially impact their performance in commercial applications spanning diverse areas such as adsorption, separations, catalysis, and drug delivery. Zeolite synthesis typically requires the use of an organic structure-directing agent to facilitate the formation of crystals with specific pore size and topology. Attempts to remove organics from syntheses to achieve commercially-viable methods of preparing zeolites often lead to the formation of unwanted crystal polymorphs (i.e., impurities). Here, we present an organic-free synthesis of the small-pore zeolite P (GIS framework topology) that can be selectively tailored to produce two pure polymorphs: P1 and P2.more » To this end, we developed kinetic phase diagrams that identify synthesis compositions leading to the formation of GIS (P1 and P2), as well as their structural analogues MER and PHI. Using a combination of adsorption measurements and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we also show that both GIS polymorphs are highly selective adsorbents for H2O relative to other light gases (e.g,, H2, N2, CO2). These studies highlight the potential application of GIS materials for dehydration processes, while our findings also refute prior theoretical studies postulating that GIS-type zeolites are excellent materials for CO2 separation/sequestration. Moreover, there is an impetus for discovering novel small-pore zeolites that are shape-selective catalysts for the production of value-added chemicals (e.g., light olefins); thus, our discovery of more thermally-stable P2 opens new avenues for exploring the potential role of this material as a high-performance catalyst.« less

  8. High-Performance Overall Water Splitting Electrocatalysts Derived from Cobalt-Based Metal–Organic Frameworks

    SciT

    You, Bo; Jiang, Nan; Sheng, Meili

    2015-11-05

    The design of active, robust, and nonprecious electrocatalysts with both H 2 and O 2 evolution reaction (HER and OER) activities for overall water splitting is highly desirable but remains a grand challenge. Here in this article, we report a facile two-step method to synthesize porous Co-P/NC nanopolyhedrons composed of CoP x (a mixture of CoP and Co 2P) nanoparticles embedded in N-doped carbon matrices as electrocatalysts for overall water splitting. The Co-P/NC catalysts were prepared by direct carbonization of Co-based zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-67) followed by phosphidation. Benefiting from the large specific surface area, controllable pore texture, and highmore » nitrogen content of ZIF (a subclass of metal–organic frameworks), the optimal Co-P/NC showed high specific surface area of 183 m 2 g -1 and large mesopores, and exhibited remarkable catalytic performance for both HER and OER in 1.0 M KOH, affording a current density of 10 mA cm -2 at low overpotentials of -154 mV for HER and 319 mV for OER, respectively. Furthermore, a Co-P/NC-based alkaline electrolyzer approached 165 mA cm -2 at 2.0 V, superior to that of Pt/IrO 2 couple, along with strong stability. Various characterization techniques including X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) revealed that the superior activity and strong stability of Co-P/NC originated from its 3D interconnected mesoporosity with high specific surface area, high conductivity, and synergistic effect of CoP x encapsulated within N-doped carbon matrices.« less

  9. Encapsulation of lipase within metal-organic framework (MOF) with enhanced activity intensified under ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Nadar, Shamraja S; Rathod, Virendra K

    2018-01-01

    The enzyme under lower-intensity ultrasonic irradiation leads to favorable conformational changes, thereby enhancing its activity. In this study, lipase activity was augmented upto 1.6-folds after ultrasonic treatment at 22kHz and 11.38Wcm -2 for 25min. This highly activated lipase was encapsulated within zeolite imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) as a metal-organic framework (MOF) material via facile one-step biomineralization method by simply mixing aqueous solution of 2-methylimidazole (13.3mmol) and zinc acetate (1.33mmol) along with sonicated lipase within 10min at room temperature (28±2°C). The prepared lipase-MOF was characterized by using FT-IR, FT-Raman, XRD, BET, confocal scanning laser microscopy, TGA and SEM. Further, the thermal stability of lipase embedded MOF was evaluated in the range of 55-75°C on the basis of half-life which showed 3.2 folds increment as against free lipase. In Michaelis-Menten kinetics studies, sonicated lipase entrapped MOF showed nearly same K m and V max values as that of sonicated free lipase. Moreover, the immobilized lipase exhibited up to 54% of residual activity after seven successive cycles of reuse, whereas it retained 90% of residual activity till twenty-five days of storage. Finally, the conformational changes occurred in lipase after sonication treatment and encapsulation within MOF were analyzed by using FT-IR data analysis tools and fluorescent spectroscopy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Crystal structures of eight 3D molecular adducts derived from bis-imidazole, bis(benzimidazole), and organic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Aihua; Jin, Shouwen; Jin, Shide; Hu, KaiKai; Lin, Zhihao; Liu, Hui; Wang, Daqi

    2018-01-01

    , 5, and 7, salt 5 has the additional Nsbnd H⋯N H-bond, the Nsbnd H⋯S H-bond was established at 8. Further analysis of the crystal packing of the adducts indicated that a different set of additional CHsbnd O/CH2sbnd O, CHsbnd Cl, CH-π/CH2-π, Clsbnd C, Clsbnd N, Osbnd O, O-π, OH-π, and π-π associations contribute to the stabilization and expansion of the total 3D frameworks. For the coexistence of the various weak interactions these structures had homo or hetero supramolecular synthons or both. Some supramolecular synthons, such as R12(4), R22(7), and R22(8) usually found in crystals of organic acids with imidazole unit, were again shown to be appeared in constructing most of these H-bond networks.

  11. Zeolitic catalytic conversion of alochols to hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2017-01-03

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon, the method comprising contacting said alcohol with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst at a temperature of at least 100.degree. C. and up to 550.degree. C., wherein said alcohol can be produced by a fermentation process, said metal is a positively-charged metal ion, and said metal-loaded zeolite catalyst is catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon.

  12. Zeolitic catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2018-04-10

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon, the method comprising contacting said alcohol with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst at a temperature of at least 100.degree. C. and up to 550.degree. C., wherein said alcohol can be produced by a fermentation process, said metal is a positively-charged metal ion, and said metal-loaded zeolite catalyst is catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon.

  13. Location of MTBE and toluene in the channel system of the zeolite mordenite: Adsorption and host-guest interactions

    SciT

    Arletti, Rossella, E-mail: rossella.arletti@unito.it; Martucci, Annalisa; Alberti, Alberto

    This paper reports a study of the location of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) and toluene molecules adsorbed in the pores of the organophylic zeolite mordenite from an aqueous solution. The presence of these organic molecules in the zeolite channels was revealed by structure refinement performed by the Rietveld method. About 3 molecules of MTBE and 3.6 molecules of toluene per unit cell were incorporated into the cavities of mordenite, representing 75% and 80% of the total absorption capacity of this zeolite. In both cases a water molecule was localized inside the side pocket of mordenite. The saturation capacity determinedmore » by the adsorption isotherms, obtained by batch experiments, and the weight loss given by thermogravimetric (TG) analyses were in very good agreement with these values. The interatomic distances obtained after the structural refinements suggest MTBE could be connected to the framework through a water molecule, while toluene could be bonded to framework oxygen atoms. The rapid and high adsorption of these hydrocarbons into the organophylic mordenite zeolite makes this cheap and environmental friendly material a suitable candidate for the removal of these pollutants from water. - graphical abstract: Location of MTBE (a) and toluene (b) in mordenite channels (projection along the [001] direction). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated the MTBE and toluene adsorption process into an organophilic zeolite mordenite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The presence of MTBE and toluene in mordenite was determined by X-ray diffraction studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer About 3 molecules of MTBE and 3.6 molecules of toluene per unit cell were incorporated into the zeolite cavities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MTBE is connected to the framework through a water molecule. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Toluene is directly bonded to framework oxygen atoms.« less

  14. ZnS-Sb2S3@C Core-Double Shell Polyhedron Structure Derived from Metal-Organic Framework as Anodes for High Performance Sodium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shihua; Li, Caixia; Ge, Xiaoli; Li, Zhaoqiang; Miao, Xianguang; Yin, Longwei

    2017-06-27

    Taking advantage of zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-8), ZnS-Sb 2 S 3 @C core-double shell polyhedron structure is synthesized through a sulfurization reaction between Zn 2+ dissociated from ZIF-8 and S 2- from thioacetamide (TAA), and subsequently a metal cation exchange process between Zn 2+ and Sb 3+ , in which carbon layer is introduced from polymeric resorcinol-formaldehyde to prevent the collapse of the polyhedron. The polyhedron composite with a ZnS inner-core and Sb 2 S 3 /C double-shell as anode for sodium ion batteries (SIBs) shows us a significantly improved electrochemical performance with stable cycle stability, high Coulombic efficiency and specific capacity. Peculiarly, introducing a carbon shell not only acts as an important protective layer to form a rigid construction and accommodate the volume changes, but also improves the electronic conductivity to optimize the stable cycle performance and the excellent rate property. The architecture composed of ZnS inner core and a complex Sb 2 S 3 /C shell not only facilitates the facile electrolyte infiltration to reduce the Na-ion diffusion length to improve the electrochemical reaction kinetics, but also prevents the structure pulverization caused by Na-ion insertion/extraction. This approach to prepare metal sulfides based on MOFs can be further extended to design other nanostructured systems for high performance energy storage devices.

  15. Metal-Organic Framework-Derived Hollow Hierarchical Co3O4 Nanocages with Tunable Size and Morphology: Ultrasensitive and Highly Selective Detection of Methylbenzenes.

    PubMed

    Jo, Young-Moo; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Lee, Chul-Soon; Lim, Kyeorei; Na, Chan Woong; Abdel-Hady, Faissal; Wazzan, Abdulaziz A; Lee, Jong-Heun

    2018-03-14

    Nearly monodisperse hollow hierarchical Co 3 O 4 nanocages of four different sizes (∼0.3, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 μm) consisting of nanosheets were prepared by controlled precipitation of zeolitic imidazolate framework-67 (ZIF-67) rhombic dodecahedra, followed by solvothermal synthesis of Co 3 O 4 nanocages using ZIF-67 self-sacrificial templates, and subsequent heat treatment for the development of high-performance methylbenzene sensors. The sensor based on hollow hierarchical Co 3 O 4 nanocages with the size of ∼1.0 μm exhibited not only ultrahigh responses (resistance ratios) to 5 ppm p-xylene (78.6) and toluene (43.8) but also a remarkably high selectivity to methylbenzene over the interference of ubiquitous ethanol at 225 °C. The unprecedented and high response and selectivity to methylbenzenes are attributed to the highly gas-accessible hollow hierarchical morphology with thin shells, abundant mesopores, and high surface area per unit volume as well as the high catalytic activity of Co 3 O 4 . Moreover, the size, shell thickness, mesopores, and hollow/hierarchical morphology of the nanocages, the key parameters determining the gas response and selectivity, could be well-controlled by tuning the precipitation of ZIF-67 rhombic dodecahedra and solvothermal reaction. This method can pave a new pathway for the design of high-performance methylbenzene sensors for monitoring the quality of indoor air.

  16. The zeolite deposits of Greece

    Stamatakis, M.G.; Hall, A.; Hein, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Zeolites are present in altered pyroclastic rocks at many localities in Greece, and large deposits of potential economic interest are present in three areas: (1) the Evros region of the province of Thrace in the north-eastern part of the Greek mainland; (2) the islands of Kimolos and Poliegos in the western Aegean; and (3) the island of Samos in the eastern Aegean Sea. The deposits in Thrace are of Eocene-Oligocene age and are rich in heulandite and/or clinoptilolite. Those of Kimolos and Poliegos are mainly Quaternary and are rich in mordenite. Those of Samos are Miocene, and are rich in clinoptilolite and/or analcime. The deposits in Thrace are believed to have formed in an open hydrological system by the action of meteoric water, and those of the western Aegean islands in a similar way but under conditions of high heat flow, whereas the deposits in Samos were formed in a saline-alkaline lake.

  17. NO2 disproportionation for the IR characterisation of basic zeolites.

    PubMed

    Marie, Olivier; Malicki, Nicolas; Pommier, Catherine; Massiani, Pascale; Vos, Ann; Schoonheydt, Robert; Geerlings, Paul; Henriques, Carlos; Thibault-Starzyk, Fréderic

    2005-02-28

    NO2 disproportionation on alkaline zeolites is used to generate nitrosonium (NO+) and nitrate ions on the surface, and the infrared vibrations observed are very sensitive to the cation chemical hardness and to the basicity of zeolitic oxygen atoms.

  18. Sulfur tolerant zeolite supported platinum catalysts for aromatics hydrogenation

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-04-01

    An experimental study of sulfur tolerant zeolite platinum catalysts for aormatics hydrogenation. Platinum catalysts supported on Y-zeolite have been prepared and characterized in various ways, including the hydrogenation of toluene in a high pressure...

  19. Effects of Imidazole Deprotonation on Vibrational Spectra of High-Spin Iron(II) Porphyrinates

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chuanjiang; Peng, Qian; Silvernail, Nathan J.; Barabanschikov, Alexander; Zhao, Jiyong; Alp, E. Ercan; Sturhahn, Wolfgang; Sage, J. Timothy; Scheidt, W. Robert

    2013-01-01

    The effects of the deprotonation of coordinated imidazole on the dynamics of five-coordinate high-spin iron(II) porphyrinates have been investigated using nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy. Two complexes have been studied in detail with both powder and oriented single-crystal measurements. Changes in the vibrational spectra are clearly related to structural differences in the molecular structures that occur when imidazole is deprotonated. Most modes involving the simultaneous motion of iron and imidazolate are unresolved but the one mode that is resolved is found at higher frequency in the imidazolates. These out-of-plane results are in accord with earlier resonance Raman studies of heme proteins. We also show the imidazole vs. imidazolate differences in the in-plane vibrations that are not accessible to resonance Raman studies. The in-plane vibrations are at lower frequency in the imidazolate derivatives; the doming mode shifts are inconclusive. The stiffness, an experimentally determined force constant that averages the vibrational details to quantify the nearest-neighbor interactions, confirms that deprotonation inverts the relative strengths of axial and equatorial coordination. PMID:23470205

  20. Intermolecular interactions between imidazole derivatives intercalated in layered solids. Substituent group effect

    SciT

    González, M.; Lemus-Santana, A.A.; Rodríguez-Hernández, J.

    2013-08-15

    This study sheds light on the intermolecular interactions between imidazole derive molecules (2-methyl-imidazole, 2-ethyl-imidazole and benzimidazole) intercalated in T[Ni(CN){sub 4}] layers to form a solid of formula unit T(ImD){sub 2}[Ni(CN){sub 4}]. These hybrid inorganic–organic solids were prepared by soft chemical routes and their crystal structures solved and refined from X-ray powder diffraction data. The involved imidazole derivative molecules were found coordinated through the pyridinic N atom to the axial positions for the metal T in the T[Ni(CN){sub 4}] layer. In the interlayers region ligand molecules from neighboring layers remain stacked in a face-to-face configuration through dipole–dipole and quadrupole–quadrupole interactions. Thesemore » intermolecular interactions show a pronounced dependence on the substituent group and are responsible for an ImD-pillaring concatenation of adjacent layers. This is supported by the structural information and the recorded magnetic data in the 2–300 K temperature range. The samples containing Co and Ni are characterized by presence of spin–orbit coupling and pronounced temperature dependence for the effective magnetic moment except for 2-ethyl-imidazole related to the local distortion for the metal coordination environment. For this last one ligand a weak ferromagnetic ordering ascribed to a super-exchange interaction between T metals from neighboring layers through the ligands π–π interaction was detected. - Graphical abstract: In the interlayers region imidazole derivative molecules are oriented according to their dipolar and quadrupolar interactions and minimizing the steric impediment. Highlights: • Imidazole derivatives intercalation compounds. • Intermolecular interaction between intercalated imidazole derivatives. • Hybrid inorganic–organic solids. • Pi–pi interactions and ferromagnetic coupling. • Dipolar and quadrupolar interactions between intercalated imidazole derivatives.« less

  1. Molecular Simulation of Adsorption in Zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Peng

    Zeolites are a class of crystalline nanoporous materials that are widely used as catalysts, sorbents, and ion-exchangers. Zeolites have revolutionized the petroleum industry and have fueled the 20th-century automobile culture, by enabling numerous highly-efficient transformations and separations in oil refineries. They are also posed to play an important role in many processes of biomass conversion. One of the fundamental principles in the field of zeolites involves the understanding and tuning of the selectivity for different guest molecules that results from the wide variety of pore architectures. The primary goal of my dissertation research is to gain such understanding via computer simulations and eventually to reach the level of predictive modeling. The dissertation starts with a brief introduction of the applications of zeolites and computer modeling techniques useful for the study of zeolitic systems. Chapter 2 then describes an effort to improve simulation efficiency, which is essential for many challenging adsorption systems. Chapter 3 studies a model system to demonstrate the applicability and capability of the method used for the majority of this work, configurational-bias Monte Carlo simulations in the Gibbs ensemble (CBMC-GE). After these methodological developments, Chapter 4 and 5 report a systematic parametrization of a new transferable force field for all-silica zeolites, TraPPE-zeo, and a subsequent, relatively ad-hoc extension to cation-exchanged aluminosilicates. The CBMC-GE method and the TraPPE-zeo force field are then combined to investigate some complex adsorption systems, such as linear and branched C6-C 9 alkanes in a hierarchical microporous/mesoporous material (Chapter 6), the multi-component adsorption of aqueous alcohol solutions (Chapter 7) and glucose solutions (Chapter 8). Finally, Chapter 9 describes an endeavor to screen a large number of zeolites with the purpose of finding better materials for two energy-related applications

  2. Structure and nature of manganese(II) imidazole complexes in frozen aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Un, Sun

    2013-04-01

    A common feature of a large majority of the manganese metalloenzymes, as well as many synthetic biomimetic complexes, is the bonding between the manganese ion and imidazoles. This interaction was studied by examining the nature and structure of manganese(II) imidazole complexes in frozen aqueous solutions using 285 GHz high magnet-field continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance (cw-HFEPR) and 95 GHz pulsed electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) and pulsed electron-double resonance detected nuclear magnetic resonance (PELDOR-NMR). The (55)Mn hyperfine coupling and isotropic g values of Mn(II) in frozen imidazole solutions continuously decreased with increasing imidazole concentration. ENDOR and PELDOR-NMR measurements demonstrated that the structural basis for this behavior arose from the imidazole concentration-dependent distribution of three six-coordinate and two four-coordinate species: [Mn(H2O)6](2+), [Mn(imidazole)(H2O)5](2+), [Mn(imidazole)2(H2O)4](2+), [Mn(imidazole)3(H2O)](2+), and [Mn(imidazole)4](2+). The hyperfine and g values of manganese proteins were also fully consistent with this imidazole effect. Density functional theory methods were used to calculate the structures, spin and charge densities, and hyperfine couplings of a number of different manganese imidazole complexes. The use of density functional theory with large exact-exchange admixture calculations gave isotropic (55)Mn hyperfine couplings that were semiquantitative and of predictive value. The results show that the covalency of the Mn-N bonds play an important role in determining not only magnetic spin parameters but also the structure of the metal binding site. The relationship between the isotropic (55)Mn hyperfine value and the number of imidazole ligands provides a quick and easy test for determining whether a protein binds an Mn(II) ion using histidine residues and, if so, how many are involved. Application of this method shows that as much as 40% of the Mn(II) ions in

  3. Template-Based Geometric Simulation of Flexible Frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Stephen A.; Sartbaeva, Asel

    2012-01-01

    Specialised modelling and simulation methods implementing simplified physical models are valuable generators of insight. Template-based geometric simulation is a specialised method for modelling flexible framework structures made up of rigid units. We review the background, development and implementation of the method, and its applications to the study of framework materials such as zeolites and perovskites. The “flexibility window” property of zeolite frameworks is a particularly significant discovery made using geometric simulation. Software implementing geometric simulation of framework materials, “GASP”, is freely available to researchers. PMID:28817055

  4. Carbon dots in zeolites: A new class of thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials with ultralong lifetimes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiancong; Wang, Ning; Yu, Yue; Yan, Yan; Zhang, Hongyue; Li, Jiyang; Yu, Jihong

    2017-01-01

    Thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) materials are inspiring intensive research in optoelectronic applications. To date, most of the TADF materials are limited to metal-organic complexes and organic molecules with lifetimes of several microseconds/milliseconds that are sensitive to oxygen. We report a facial and general “dots-in-zeolites” strategy to in situ confine carbon dots (CDs) in zeolitic matrices during hydrothermal/solvothermal crystallization to generate high-efficient TADF materials with ultralong lifetimes. The resultant CDs@zeolite composites exhibit high quantum yields up to 52.14% and ultralong lifetimes up to 350 ms at ambient temperature and atmosphere. This intriguing TADF phenomenon is due to the fact that nanoconfined space of zeolites can efficiently stabilize the triplet states of CDs, thus enabling the reverse intersystem crossing process for TADF. Meanwhile, zeolite frameworks can also hinder oxygen quenching to present TADF behavior at air atmosphere. This design concept introduces a new perspective to develop materials with unique TADF performance and various novel delayed fluorescence–based applications. PMID:28560347

  5. A facile strategy to design zeolite L crystals with tunable morphology and surface architecture.

    PubMed

    Lupulescu, Alexandra I; Kumar, Manjesh; Rimer, Jeffrey D

    2013-05-01

    Tailoring the anisotropic growth rates of materials to achieve desired structural outcomes is a pervasive challenge in synthetic crystallization. Here we discuss a method to selectively control the growth of zeolite crystals, which are used extensively in a wide range of industrial applications. This facile method cooperatively tunes crystal properties, such as morphology and surface architecture, through the use of inexpensive, commercially available chemicals with specificity for binding to crystallographic surfaces and mediating anisotropic growth. We examined over 30 molecules as potential zeolite growth modifiers (ZGMs) of zeolite L (LTL type) crystallization. ZGM efficacy was quantified through a combination of macroscopic (bulk) and microscopic (surface) investigations that identified modifiers capable of dramatically altering the cylindrical morphology of LTL crystals. We demonstrate an ability to tailor properties critical to zeolite performance, such as external porous surface area, crystal shape, and pore length, which can enhance sorbate accessibility to LTL pores, tune the supramolecular organization of guest-host composites, and minimize the diffusion path length, respectively. We report that a synergistic combination of ZGMs and the judicious adjustment of synthesis parameters produce LTL crystals with unique surface features, and a range of length-to-diameter aspect ratios spanning 3 orders of magnitude. A systematic examination of different ZGM structures and molecular compositions (i.e., hydrophobicity and binding moieties) reveal interesting physicochemical properties governing their efficacy and specificity. Results of this study suggest this versatile strategy may prove applicable for a host of framework types to produce unrivaled materials that have eluded more conventional techniques.

  6. Catalytic Oxidation by Transition Metal Ions in Zeolites.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-28

    exotic schemes were developed. It was previously demonstrated that MoCI5 may be reacted with a HYu (here Yu denotes a steam-stabilized or...34ultrastable" zeolite) to form a MoYu zeolite and HC1 which is removed from the system.1 In this study, MoYu zeolites have been prepared by reacting HYu with Mo

  7. Photoionization and Electron Transfer of Biphenyl within the Channels of Al-ZSM-5 Zeolites.

    PubMed

    Gener, Isabelle; Buntinx, Guy; Brémard, Claude

    1999-06-14

    Evidence of the photogenerated long-lived biphenyl radical and a trapped electron in the void space of aluminated nonacidic ZSM-5 zeolites has been obtained from the time-resolved UV/Vis absorption, Raman scattering, and EPR spectra. The restoration of the ground states implicates the existence of long-lived positive holes in the framework. © 1999 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Fed. Rep. of Germany.

  8. Extinction coefficients of CC and CC bands in ethyne and ethene molecules interacting with Cu+ and Ag+ in zeolites--IR studies and quantumchemical DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Kozyra, Paweł; Góra-Marek, Kinga; Datka, Jerzy

    2015-02-05

    The values of extinction coefficients of CC and CC IR bands of ethyne and ethene interacting with Cu+ and Ag+ in zeolites were determined in quantitative IR experiments and also by quantumchemical DFT calculations with QM/MM method. Both experimental and calculated values were in very good agreement validating the reliability of calculations. The values of extinction coefficients of ethyne and ethene interacting with bare cations and cations embedded in zeolite-like clusters were calculated. The interaction of organic molecules with Cu+ and Ag+ in zeolites ZSM-5 and especially charge transfers between molecule, cation and zeolite framework was also discussed in relation to the values of extinction coefficients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Kinetic Studies of Imidazoles in Tropospheric Aqueous-Phase Chemistry: Photochemistry of Imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde and Oxidation Reaction with Hydroxyl Radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felber, T.; Otto, T.; Herrmann, H.

    2017-12-01

    The formation of imidazoles via the reaction of dicarbonyls with nitrogen containing compounds in the atmosphere and their potential to act as photosensitizers possibly initiating secondary organic aerosol (SOA) growth is a field of increasing activity. A recent field study quantified and qualified imidazoles in ambient aerosol samples from Europe and China. However, kinetic data and mechanisms of particle-phase reactions involving imidazoles are still scarce. In this study, kinetic measurements were investigated using laser flash photolysis-laser long path absorption (LFP-LLPA). Quenching rate constants for the reactions of the excited triplet state of imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde (IC) with bromide anion (kq = (1.6 ± 0.3) × 107 L mol-1 s-1), oxygen (kq = (2.5 ± 0.07) × 109 L mol-1 s-1), and formic acid (kq = (8.8 ± 0.5) × 109 L mol-1 s-1) are determined. IC is efficiently quenched by oxygen and formic acid. Furthermore, the quenching reaction of IC with isopropanol is investigated and compared to the reaction with formic acid to propose a preliminary mechanism of photosensitized reactions of IC with organic compounds. It is suggested that an electron transfer occurs, as it is the case for inorganics. Furthermore, rate constants of hydroxyl (OH) radical oxidation reactions with different imidazoles were determined. Following rate constants are obtained at a temperature of 298 K: k(imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde) = (3.3 ± 1.3) × 109 L mol-1 s-1, k(1-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate) = (2.7 ± 0.2) × 109 L mol-1 s-1, k(2-methylimidazole) = (5.4 ± 0.2) × 109 L mol-1 s-1, k(4(5)-methylimidazole) = (5.1 ± 0.3) × 109 L mol-1 s-1, k(1-ethylimidazole) = (3.0 ± 0.3) × 109 L mol-1 s-1, k(2-ethylimidazole) = (5.0 ± 0.2) × 109 L mol-1 s-1. The OH radical reaction rate constants of imidazoles are in the same range as for non-heteroaromatic compounds. Therefore, imidazoles can be expected to exist just for a limited time in the atmosphere (τ = 16 - 29 hours) after

  10. The assessment of pore connectivity in hierarchical zeolites using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy: instrumental and morphological aspects.

    PubMed

    Zubiaga, Asier; Warringham, Robbie; Boltz, Marilyne; Cooke, David; Crivelli, Paolo; Gidley, David; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier; Mitchell, Sharon

    2016-04-07

    Recent studies demonstrated the power of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) to characterise the connectivity and corresponding effectiveness of hierarchical pore networks in zeolites. This was based on the fractional escape of ortho-positronium (Ps), formed within the micropore framework, to vacuum. To further develop this technique, here we assess the impact of the positron implantation energy and of the zeolite crystal size and the particle morphology. Conventional measurements using fast positrons and beam measurements applying moderated positrons both readily distinguish purely microporous ZSM-5 zeolites comprised of single crystals or crystal aggregates. Unlike beam measurements, however, conventional measurements fail to discriminate model hierarchical zeolites with open or constricted mesopore architectures. Several steps are taken to rationalise these observations. The dominant contribution of Ps diffusion to the PALS response is confirmed by capping the external surface of the zeolite crystals with tetraethylorthosilicate, which greatly enhances the sensitivity to the micropore network. A one-dimensional model is constructed to predict the out-diffusion of Ps from a zeolite crystal, which is validated experimentally by comparing coffin-shaped single crystals of varying size. Calculation of the trends expected on the application of fast or moderated positrons indicates that the distinctions in the initial distribution of Ps at the crystal level cannot explain the limited sensitivity of the former to the mesopore architecture. Instead, we propose that the greater penetration of fast positrons within the sample increases the probability of Ps re-entry from intercrystalline voids into mesopores connected with the external surface of zeolite crystals, thereby reducing their fractional escape.

  11. Synthesis of novel perfluoroalkylglucosides on zeolite and non-zeolite catalysts.

    PubMed

    Nowicki, Janusz; Mokrzycki, Łukasz; Sulikowski, Bogdan

    2015-04-08

    Perfluoroalkylglucosides comprise a very important class of fluorine-containing surfactants. These compounds can be synthesized by using the Fisher reaction, starting directly from glucose and the required perfluoroalcohols. We wish to report on the use of zeolite catalysts of different structure and composition for the synthesis of perfluoroalkylglucosides when using glucose and 1-octafluoropentanol as substrates. Zeolites of different pore architecture have been chosen (ZSM-5, ZSM-12, MCM-22 and Beta). Zeolites were characterized by XRD, nitrogen sorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and solid-state 27Al MAS NMR spectroscopy. The activity of the zeolite catalysts in the glycosidation reaction was studied in a batch reactor at 100 °C below atmospheric pressure. The performance of zeolites was compared to other catalysts, an ion-exchange resin (Purolite) and a montmorillonite-type layered aluminosilicate. The catalytic performance of zeolite Beta was the highest among the zeolites studied and the results were comparable to those obtained over Purolite and montmorillonite type catalysts.

  12. Characterization of Zeolite in Zeolite-Geopolymer Hybrid Bulk Materials Derived from Kaolinitic Clays

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Hayami; Hashimoto, Shinobu; Yokoyama, Hiroaki; Honda, Sawao; Iwamoto, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    Zeolite-geopolymer hybrid materials have been formed when kaolin was used as a starting material. Their characteristics are of interest because they can have a wide pore size distribution with micro- and meso-pores due to the zeolite and geopolymer, respectively. In this study, Zeolite-geopolymer hybrid bulk materials were fabricated using four kinds of kaolinitic clays (a halloysite and three kinds of kaolinite). The kaolinitic clays were first calcined at 700 °C for 3 h to transform into the amorphous aluminosilicate phases. Alkali-activation treatment of the metakaolin yielded bulk materials with different amounts and types of zeolite and different compressive strength. This study investigated the effects of the initial kaolinitic clays on the amount and types of zeolite in the resultant geopolymers as well as the strength of the bulk materials. The kaolinitic clays and their metakaolin were characterized by XRD analysis, chemical composition, crystallite size, 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR analysis, and specific surface area measurements. The correlation between the amount of zeolite formed and the compressive strength of the resultant hybrid bulk materials, previously reported by other researchers was not positively observed. In the studied systems, the effects of Si/Al and crystalline size were observed. When the atomic ratio of Si/Al in the starting kaolinitic clays increased, the compressive strength of the hybrid bulk materials increased. The crystallite size of the zeolite in the hybrid bulk materials increased with decreasing compressive strength of the hybrid bulk materials. PMID:28809241

  13. Synthesis of Engineered Zeolitic Materials: From Classical Zeolites to Hierarchical Core-Shell Materials.

    PubMed

    Masoumifard, Nima; Guillet-Nicolas, Rémy; Kleitz, Freddy

    2018-04-01

    The term "engineered zeolitic materials" refers to a class of materials with a rationally designed pore system and active-sites distribution. They are primarily made of crystalline microporous zeolites as the main building blocks, which can be accompanied by other secondary components to form composite materials. These materials are of potential importance in many industrial fields like catalysis or selective adsorption. Herein, critical aspects related to the synthesis and modification of such materials are discussed. The first section provides a short introduction on classical zeolite structures and properties, and their conventional synthesis methods. Then, the motivating rationale behind the growing demand for structural alteration of these zeolitic materials is discussed, with an emphasis on the ongoing struggles regarding mass-transfer issues. The state-of-the-art techniques that are currently available for overcoming these hurdles are reviewed. Following this, the focus is set on core-shell composites as one of the promising pathways toward the creation of a new generation of highly versatile and efficient engineered zeolitic substances. The synthesis approaches developed thus far to make zeolitic core-shell materials and their analogues, yolk-shell, and hollow materials, are also examined and summarized. Finally, the last section concisely reviews the performance of novel core-shell, yolk-shell, and hollow zeolitic materials for some important industrial applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Coordination-Supported Imidazolate Networks: Water- and Heat-Stable Mesoporous Polymers for Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengfei; Yang, Shize; Chisholm, Matthew F; Jiang, Xueguang; Huang, Caili; Dai, Sheng

    2017-07-26

    The poor water stability of most porous coordination polymers (PCPs) or metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is widely recognized as a barrier hampering their practical applications. Here, a facile and scalable route to prepare metal-containing polymers with a good stability in boiling water (100 °C, 24 h) and air (up to 390 °C) is presented. The bifunctional 1-vinylimidazole (VIm) with a coordinating site and a polymerizable organic group is introduced as the building block. This core strategy includes the synthesis of a rigid monomer with four VIm branches through a coordination process at room temperature, followed by a radical polymerization. We refer to this material as coordination-supported imidazolate networks (CINs). Interestingly, CINs are composed of rich mesopores from 2-15 nm, as characterized by low-energy (60 kV) STEM-HAADF images. In particular, the stable CINs illustrate a high turnover frequency (TOF) of 779 h -1 in the catalytic oxidation of phenol with H 2 O as the green solvent. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Coordination-Supported Imidazolate Networks: Water- and Heat-Stable Mesoporous Polymers for Catalysis

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Pengfei; Yang, Shize; Chisholm, Matthew F.; ...

    2017-05-29

    The poor water stability of most porous coordination polymers (PCPs) or metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is widely recognised as a barrier hampering their practical applications. Herein, a facile and scalable route to prepare metal-containing polymers with a good stability in boiling water (100°C, 24 h) and air (up to 390°C) is presented. The bifunctional 1-vinylimidazole (VIm) with both a coordinating site and a polymerizable organic group is introduced as the building block. This core strategy includes the synthesis of a rigid monomer with four VIm branches via a coordination process at room temperature, followed by a radical polymerization. Here we callmore » this material Coordination-supported Imidazolate Networks (CINs). Interestingly, CINs are composed of rich mesopores from 2 to 15 nm, as characterized by low-energy (60 kV) STEM-HAADF images. Especially, the stable CINs illustrate a high turnover frequency (TOF) of 779 h -1 in the catalytic oxidation of phenol with H 2O as the green solvent.« less

  16. Imidazole as a pH Probe: An NMR Experiment for the General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagan, William J., Jr.; Edie, Dennis L.; Cooley, Linda B.

    2007-01-01

    The analysis describes an NMR experiment for the general chemistry laboratory, which employs an unknown imidazole solution to measure the pH values. The described mechanism can also be used for measuring the acidity within the isolated cells.

  17. Growth of zeolite crystals in the microgravity environment of space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacco, A., Jr.; Sand, L. B.; Collette, D.; Dieselman, K.; Crowley, J.; Feitelberg, A.

    1986-01-01

    Zeolites are hydrated, crystalline aluminosilicates with alkali and alkaling earth metals substituted into cation vacancies. Typically zeolite crystals are 3 to 8 microns. Larger cyrstals are desirable. Large zeolite crystals were produced (100 to 200 microns); however, they have taken restrictively long times to grow. It was proposed if the rate of nucleation or in some other way the number of nuclei can be lowered, fewer, larger crystals will be formed. The microgravity environment of space may provide an ideal condition to achieve rapid growth of large zeolite crystals. The objective of the project is to establish if large zeolite crystals can be formed rapidly in space.

  18. Asymmetric Supercapacitors Using 3D Nanoporous Carbon and Cobalt Oxide Electrodes Synthesized from a Single Metal-Organic Framework.

    PubMed

    Salunkhe, Rahul R; Tang, Jing; Kamachi, Yuichiro; Nakato, Teruyuki; Kim, Jung Ho; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2015-06-23

    Nanoporous carbon and nanoporous cobalt oxide (Co3O4) materials have been selectively prepared from a single metal-organic framework (MOF) (zeolitic imidazolate framework, ZIF-67) by optimizing the annealing conditions. The resulting ZIF-derived carbon possesses highly graphitic walls and a high specific surface area of 350 m(2)·g(-1), while the resulting ZIF-derived nanoporous Co3O4 possesses a high specific surface area of 148 m(2)·g(-1) with much less carbon content (1.7 at%). When nanoporous carbon and nanoporous Co3O4 were tested as electrode materials for supercapacitor application, they showed high capacitance values (272 and 504 F·g(-1), respectively, at a scan rate of 5 mV·s(-1)). To further demonstrate the advantages of our ZIF-derived nanoporous materials, symmetric (SSCs) and asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) were also fabricated using nanoporous carbon and nanoporous Co3O4 electrodes. Improved capacitance performance was successfully realized for the ASC (Co3O4//carbon), better than those of the SSCs based on nanoporous carbon and nanoporous Co3O4 materials (i.e., carbon//carbon and Co3O4//Co3O4). The developed ASC with an optimal mass loading can be operated within a wide potential window of 0.0-1.6 V, which leads to a high specific energy of 36 W·h·kg(-1). More interestingly, this ASC also exhibits excellent rate capability (with the highest specific power of 8000 W·kg(-1) at a specific energy of 15 W·h·kg(-1)) combined with long-term stability up to 2000 cycles.

  19. Highly Oriented Growth of Catalytically Active Zeolite ZSM-5 Films with a Broad Range of Si/Al Ratios.

    PubMed

    Fu, Donglong; Schmidt, Joel E; Ristanović, Zoran; Chowdhury, Abhishek Dutta; Meirer, Florian; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2017-09-04

    Highly b-oriented zeolite ZSM-5 films are critical for applications in catalysis and separations and may serve as models to study diffusion and catalytic properties in single zeolite channels. However, the introduction of catalytically active Al 3+ usually disrupts the orientation of zeolite films. Herein, using structure-directing agents with hydroxy groups, we demonstrate a new method to prepare highly b-oriented zeolite ZSM-5 films with a broad range of Si/Al ratios (Si/Al=45 to ∞). Fluorescence micro-(spectro)scopy was used to monitor misoriented microstructures, which are invisible to X-ray diffraction, and show Al 3+ framework incorporation and illustrate the differences between misoriented and b-oriented films. The methanol-to-hydrocarbons process was studied by operando UV/Vis diffuse reflectance micro-spectroscopy with on-line mass spectrometry, showing that the b-oriented zeolite ZSM-5 films are active and stable under realistic process conditions. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  20. Highly Oriented Growth of Catalytically Active Zeolite ZSM‐5 Films with a Broad Range of Si/Al Ratios

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Donglong; Schmidt, Joel E.; Ristanović, Zoran; Chowdhury, Abhishek Dutta; Meirer, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Highly b‐oriented zeolite ZSM‐5 films are critical for applications in catalysis and separations and may serve as models to study diffusion and catalytic properties in single zeolite channels. However, the introduction of catalytically active Al3+ usually disrupts the orientation of zeolite films. Herein, using structure‐directing agents with hydroxy groups, we demonstrate a new method to prepare highly b‐oriented zeolite ZSM‐5 films with a broad range of Si/Al ratios (Si/Al=45 to ∞). Fluorescence micro‐(spectro)scopy was used to monitor misoriented microstructures, which are invisible to X‐ray diffraction, and show Al3+ framework incorporation and illustrate the differences between misoriented and b‐oriented films. The methanol‐to‐hydrocarbons process was studied by operando UV/Vis diffuse reflectance micro‐spectroscopy with on‐line mass spectrometry, showing that the b‐oriented zeolite ZSM‐5 films are active and stable under realistic process conditions. PMID:28675590

  1. Hydrogen Purification Using Natural Zeolite Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DelValle, William

    2003-01-01

    The School of Science at Universidad del Turabo (UT) have a long-lasting investigation plan to study the hydrogen cleaning and purification technologies. We proposed a research project for the synthesis, phase analysis and porosity characterization of zeolite based ceramic perm-selective membranes for hydrogen cleaning to support NASA's commitment to achieving a broad-based research capability focusing on aerospace-related issues. The present study will focus on technology transfer by utilizing inorganic membranes for production of ultra-clean hydrogen for application in combustion. We tested three different natural zeolite membranes (different particle size at different temperatures and time of exposure). Our results show that the membranes exposured at 900 C for 1Hr has the most higher permeation capacity, indicated that our zeolite membranes has the capacity to permeate hydrogen.

  2. Dual role of imidazole as activator/inhibitor of sweet almond (Prunus dulcis) β-glucosidase.

    PubMed

    Caramia, Sara; Gatius, Angela Gala Morena; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio; Gaja, Denis; Hochkoeppler, Alejandro

    2017-07-01

    The activity of Prunus dulcis (sweet almond) β-glucosidase at the expense of p -nitrophenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside at pH 6 was determined, both under steady-state and pre-steady-state conditions. Using crude enzyme preparations, competitive inhibition by 1-5 mM imidazole was observed under both kinetic conditions tested. However, when imidazole was added to reaction mixtures at 0.125-0.250 mM, we detected a significant enzyme activation. To further inspect this effect exerted by imidazole, β-glucosidase was purified to homogeneity. Two enzyme isoforms were isolated, i.e. a full-length monomer, and a dimer containing a full-length and a truncated subunit. Dimeric β-glucosidase was found to perform much better than the monomeric enzyme, independently of the kinetic conditions used to assay enzyme activity. In addition, the sensitivity towards imidazole was found to differ between the two isoforms. While monomeric enzyme was indeed found to be relatively insensitive to imidazole, dimeric β-glucosidase was observed to be significantly activated by 0.125-0.250 mM imidazole under pre-steady-state conditions. Further, steady-state assays revealed that the addition of 0.125 mM imidazole to reaction mixtures increases the K m of dimeric enzyme from 2.3 to 6.7 mM. The activation of β-glucosidase dimer by imidazole is proposed to be exerted via a conformational transition poising the enzyme towards proficient catalysis.

  3. Solvothermal syntheses, structures, and magnetic properties of three cobalt coordination polymers constructed from naphthalene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid and bis(imidazole) linkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jun-Liang; He, Kun-Huan; Wang, Duo-Zhi; Zhang, Ying-Hui; Wang, Dan-Hong

    2018-07-01

    Three new Co(II) coordination polymers with formulas of {[Co2(L1)(1,4-NDC)2]·3H2O}n (1), [Co3(L2)2(HCOO)2(1,4-NDC)2]n (2) and [Co2(L2)(μ3-OH)(1,4-NDC)1.5]n (3) (1,4-H2NDC = Naphthalene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid, L1 = di(1H-imidazol-1-yl)methane, L2 = 1,4-di(1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzene) were solvothermal synthesized from 1,4-H2NDC with the aid of three different length-controllable auxiliary ligands and fully characterized. Their structures are determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, IR spectra, elemental analysis, powder X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. Complexes 1 and 3 display 3D framework structures, corresponding to a 6-connected (412·63) net, a 8-connected (424·5·63) net, respectively. However, it is noteworthy that the complex 1 displays a 2-fold interpenetrating framework structure, complex 3 possesses a self-interpenetrating framework structure. Complex 2 displays 2D 4-connected undulating plane net structure. Moreover, magnetic studies indicate antiferromagnetic interactions between the Co(II) ions in the four complexes.

  4. Effect of alcaline cations in zeolites on their dielectric properties.

    PubMed

    Legras, Benoît; Polaert, Isabelle; Estel, Lionel; Thomas, Michel

    2012-01-01

    The effect on dielectric properties of alkaline cations Li+, Na+ and K+ incorporated in a zeolite Faujasite structure X or Y, has been investigated. Two major phenomena have been proved to occur: ionic conductivity and rotational polarization of the water molecules adsorbed. The polarizability of the cation which is directly linked to its radius, affects ionic conductivity as well as rotational polarization. Li cations are more strongly Linked to the framework than K+ and Na+ and induce a lower ionic conductivity. K+ is weakly fixed and induces a ionic conductivity even at low solvation level. At low water content, the cation nature and number mainly control the free rotation of the water molecules and affect the relaxation frequency. Close to saturation, the water molecules are mainly linked together by H bonds: the cation nature and number do not really affect the global dielectric properties anymore.

  5. 27 Al MAS NMR Studies of HBEA Zeolite at Low to High Magnetic Fields

    SciT

    Hu, Jian Zhi; Wan, Chuan; Vjunov, Aleksei

    27Al single pulse (SP) MAS NMR spectra of HBEA zeolites with high Si/Al ratios of 71 and 75 were obtained at three magnetic field strengths of 7.05, 11.75 and 19.97 T. High field 27Al MAS NMR spectra acquired at 19.97 T show significantly improved spectral resolution, resulting in at least two well-resolved tetrahedral-Al NMR peaks. Based on the results obtained from 27Al MAS and MQMAS NMR acquired at 19.97 T, four different quadrupole peaks are used to deconvolute the 27Al SP MAS spectra acquired at vari-ous fields by using the same set of quadrupole coupling constants, asymmetric parameters and relativemore » integrated peak intensities for the tetrahedral Al peaks. The line shapes of individual peaks change from typical quadrupole line shape at low field to essentially symmetrical line shapes at high field. We demonstrate that for fully hydrated HBEA zeolites the effect of second order quadrupole interaction can be ignored and quantitative spectral analysis can be performed by directly fitting the high field spectra using mixed Gaussian/Lorentzian line shapes. Also, the analytical steps described in our work allow direct assignment of spectral intensity to individual Al tetrahedral sites (T-sites) of zeolite HBEA. Finally, the proposed concept is suggested generally applicable to other zeo-lite framework types, thus, allowing a direct probing of Al distributions by NMR spectroscopic methods in zeolites with high confi-dence.« less

  6. Structure of five molecular salts assembled from noncovalent associations between organic acids, imidazole, benzimidazole, and 1-(2-(1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)ethyl)-1H-benzimidazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xuchong; Jin, Shouwen; Zhang, Huan; Xiao, Xiao; Liu, Bin; Wang, Daqi

    2017-09-01

    Cocrystallization of the imidazole derivatives, L1-L3, with a series of organic acids gave a total of five molecular salts with the compositions: (imidazole): (DL-10-camphorsulfonic acid) [(HL1+)·(cpsa-), cpsa- = DL-10-camphorsulfonate] (1), (imidazole): (3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid) [(HL1+) · (3,5-dba-), 3,5-dba- = 3,5-dihydroxybenzoate] (2), (imidazole): (isophthalic acid): H2O [(HL1)+·(Hmpa)-·H2O, Hmpa- = hydrogenisophthalate] (3), (benzimidazole): (butane-1,2,3,4-tetracarboxylic acid) [(HL2+)·(H3bta -), H3bta- = trihydrogen butane-1,2,3,4-tetracarboxylate] (4), and (benzimidazole)2: 1-(2-(1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)ethyl)-1H-benzimidazole: (5-nitrosalicylic acid)2 [(L2)2·(H2L3)2+·(5-nsa-)2, 5-nsa- = 5-nitrosalicylate], (5). The five salts have been characterized by XRD technique, IR, and EA, and the melting points of all the salts were also reported. And their structural and supramolecular aspects are fully analyzed. The result reveals that among the five investigated crystals the ring N in the imidazole moieties are protonated when the organic acids are ionized, and the crystal packing is interpreted in terms of the strong Nsbnd H⋯O H-bond from the imidazole and the ionized acids. In addition to the Nsbnd H⋯O H-bond, the Osbnd H⋯O H-bonds were also established at the salts 2-5, compound 1 has the additional Nsbnd H⋯S H-bonds. Further analysis of the crystal packing of the salts displayed that a different family of additional CHsbnd O/CH2sbnd O/CH3sbnd O, CHsbnd S, CHsbnd π, NHsbnd π, and πsbnd π associations contribute to the stabilization and expansion of the total 3D framework structures. For the coexistence of the various weak interactions these structures had homo or hetero supramolecular synthons or both. Some classical supramolecular synthons, such as R12(4), R22(7), and R22(8) usually observed in crystals of organic acids with imidazole, were again shown to be involved in constructing most of these hydrogen bonding networks.

  7. High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy of Imidazole Clusters in Helium Droplets Using Quantum Cascade Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, Devendra; Can, Cihad; Pal, Nitish; Schwaab, Gerhard; Havenith, Martina

    2017-06-01

    Imidazole ring is a part of many biologically important molecules and drugs. Imidazole monomer, dimer and its complexes with water have earlier been studied using infrared spectroscopy in helium droplets^{1,2} and molecular beams^{3}. These studies were focussed on the N-H and O-H stretch regions, covering the spectral region of 3200-3800 \\wn. We have extended the studies on imidazole clusters into the ring vibration region. The imidazole clusters were isolated in helium droplets and were probed using a combination of infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The spectra in the region of 1000-1100 \\wn and 1300-1460 \\wn were recorded using quantum cascade lasers. Some of the observed bands could be assigned to imidazole monomer and higher order imidazole clusters, using pickup curve analysis and ab initio calculations. Work is still in progress. The results will be discussed in detail in the talk. References: 1) M.Y. Choi and R.E. Miller, J. Phys. Chem. A, 110, 9344 (2006). 2) M.Y. Choi and R.E. Miller, Chem. Phys. Lett., 477, 276 (2009). 3) J. Zischang, J. J. Lee and M. Suhm, J. Chem. Phys., 135, 061102 (2011). Note: This work was supported by the Cluster of Excellence RESOLV (Ruhr-Universitat EXC1069) funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.

  8. Impact of Zeolite Aging in Hot Liquid Water on Activity for Acid-Catalyzed Dehydration of Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Vjunov, Aleksei; Derewinski, Miroslaw A; Fulton, John L; Camaioni, Donald M; Lercher, Johannes A

    2015-08-19

    The location and stability of Brønsted acid sites catalytically active in zeolites during aqueous phase dehydration of alcohols were studied on the example of cyclohexanol. The catalytically active hydronium ions originate from Brønsted acid sites (BAS) of the zeolite that are formed by framework tetrahedral Si atom substitution by Al. Al K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and (27)Al magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies in combination with density functional theory (DFT) calculations are used to determine the distribution of tetrahedral Al sites (Al T-sites) both qualitatively and quantitatively for both parent and HBEA catalysts aged in water prior to catalytic testing. The aging procedure leads to partial degradation of the zeolite framework evidenced from the decrease of material crystallinity (XRD) as well as sorption capacity (BET). With the exception of one commercial zeolite sample, which had the highest concentration of framework silanol-defects, there is no evidence of Al coordination modification after aging in water. The catalyst weight-normalized dehydration rate correlated best with the sum of strong and weak Brønsted acidic protons both able to generate the hydrated hydronium ions. All hydronium ions were equally active for the acid-catalyzed reactions in water. Zeolite aging in hot water prior to catalysis decreased the weight normalized dehydration reaction rate compared to that of the parent HBEA, which is attributed to the reduced concentration of accessible Brønsted acid sites. Sites are hypothesized to be blocked due to reprecipitation of silica dissolved during framework hydrolysis in the aging procedure.

  9. Spectroscopic evidence of 3-hydroxyflavone sorption within MFI type zeolites: ESIPT and metal complexation.

    PubMed

    Moissette, A; Hureau, M; Kokaislova, A; Le Person, A; Cornard, J P; De Waele, I; Batonneau-Gener, I

    2015-10-21

    Due to its chemical and photochemical properties and potential applications in numerous domains as a molecular probe, 3-hydroxyflavone (3HF) is a molecule of high interest. In particular, the processes of intramolecular proton transfer in the excited state and metallic complexation are known to be dependent on the chemical environment. In this context, the particular properties of zeolites make these microporous materials an environment adapted to study the reactivity of isolated molecules adsorbed in their porous void space. Thus, this report investigates the incorporation without any solvent of 3HF into the internal volume of various channel-type MFI zeolites. Using complementary techniques (diffuse reflectance UV-vis absorption, Raman scattering, FTIR, fluorescence emission and molecular modelling), very different spectral behaviours are observed in totally dealuminated silicalite-1 and in Al rich MZSM-5 (M = H(+), Na(+), Zn(2+)). In silicalite-1, the non-polar and non-protic internal micro-environment does not induce any valuable interaction between 3HF and the channel walls. Therefore, the molecule shows easy tautomer formation upon excitation. Within HZSM-5, 3HF is adsorbed in close proximity of the acid proton of the zeolite which inhibits the intramolecular proton transfer and then, only the normal form is observed at the excited state. For NaZSM-5, the spectral data show an intermediary behaviour due to the aprotic but polar environment, in agreement with 3HF sorption in close proximity of the Na(+) extra framework cation. After mixing 3HF and ZnZSM-5, the spectral features clearly indicate metallic complexation of the guest molecule. The zeolite dependent reactivity reported here demonstrates the adsorption of the guest within the internal volume because the charge balancing cations which clearly control the reaction are principally located in the zeolite channels. The 3HF incorporation into the internal volume is proved by the decrease of the microporous

  10. Solvent-Free Synthesis of Zeolites: Mechanism and Utility.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qinming; Meng, Xiangju; Gao, Xionghou; Xiao, Feng-Shou

    2018-05-08

    Zeolites have been extensively studied for years in different areas of chemical industry, such as shape selective catalysis, ion-exchange, and gas adsorption and separation. Generally, zeolites are prepared from solvothermal synthesis in the presence of a large amounts of solvents such as water and alcohols in sealed autoclaves under autogenous pressure. Water has been regarded as essential to synthesize zeolites for fast mass transfer of reactants, but it occupies a large space in autoclaves, which greatly reduces the yield of zeolite products. Furthermore, polluted wastes and relatively high pressure due to the presence of water solvent in the synthesis also leads to environmental and safety issues. Recently, inspired by great benefits of solvent-free synthesis, including the environmental concerns, energy consumption, safety, and economic cost, researchers continually challenge the rationale of the solvent and reconsider the age-old question "Do we actually need solvents at all in zeolite synthesis?" In this Account, we briefly summarize our efforts to rationally synthesize zeolites via a solvent-free route. Our research demonstrates that a series of silica, aluminosilicate, and aluminophosphate-based zeolites can be successfully prepared by mixing, grinding, and heating starting solid materials under solvent-free conditions. Combining an organotemplate-free synthesis with a solvent-free approach maximizes the advantages resulting in a more sustainable synthetic route, which avoids using toxic and costly organic templates and the formation of harmful gases by calcination of organic templates at high temperature. Furthermore, new insights into the solvent-free crystallization process of zeolites have been provided by modern techniques such as NMR and UV-Raman spectroscopy, which should be helpful in designing new zeolite structures and developing novel routes for synthesis of zeolites. The role of water and the vital intermediates during the crystallization of

  11. Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis of Cellulose Using Nano Zeolite and Zeolite/Matrix Catalysts in a GC/Micro-Pyrolyzer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyong-Hwan

    2016-05-01

    Cellulose, as a model compound of biomass, was catalyzed over zeolite (HY,.HZSM-5) and zeolite/matrix (HY/Clay, HM/Clay) in a GC/micro-pyrolyzer at 500 degrees C, to produce the valuable products. The catalysts used were pure zeolite and zeolite/matrix including 20 wt% matrix content, which were prepared into different particle sizes (average size; 0.1 mm, 1.6 mm) to study the effect of the particle size of the catalyst for the distribution of product yields. Catalytic pyrolysis had much more volatile products as light components and less content of sugars than pyrolysis only. This phenomenon was strongly influenced by the particle size of the catalyst in catalytic fast pyrolysis. Also, in zeolite and zeolite/matrix catalysts the zeolite type gave the dominant impact on the distribution of product yields.

  12. An Extra-Large-Pore Zeolite with 24×8×8-Ring Channels Using a Structure-Directing Agent Derived from Traditional Chinese Medicine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuanqi; Kapaca, Elina; Li, Jiyang; Liu, Yunling; Yi, Xianfeng; Zheng, Anmin; Zou, Xiaodong; Jiang, Jiuxing; Yu, Jihong

    2018-03-12

    Extra-large-pore zeolites have attracted much interest because of their important applications because for processing larger molecules. Although great progress has been made in academic science and industry, it is challenging to synthesize these materials. A new extra-large-pore zeolite SYSU-3 (Sun Yat-sen University no. 3) has been synthesized by using a novel sophoridine derivative as an organic structure-directing agent (OSDA). The framework structure was solved and refined using continuous rotation electron diffraction (cRED) data from nanosized crystals. SYSU-3 exhibits a new zeolite framework topology, which has the first 24×8×8-ring extra-large-pore system and a framework density (FD) as low as 11.4 T/1000 Å 3 . The unique skeleton of the OSDA plays an essential role in the formation of the distinctive zeolite structure. This work provides a new perspective for developing new zeolitic materials by using alkaloids as cost-effective OSDAs. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Development of metal organic fromwork-199 immobilized zeolite foam for adsorption of common indoor VOCs.

    PubMed

    Saini, Vipin K; Pires, João

    2017-05-01

    Reticulated foam shaped adsorbents are more efficient for the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particularly from low VOC-concentration indoor air streams. In this study composite structure of zeolite and metal organic frameworks (MOFs), referred as ZMF, has been fabricated by immobilization of fine MOF-199 powder on foam shaped Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 (ZSM-5) Zeolitic structure, referred as ZF. The ZMF possess a uniform and well-dispersed coating of MOF-199 on the porous framework of ZF. It shows higher surface area, pore volume, and VOCs adsorption capacity, as compared to ZF-structure. Post-fabrication changes in selective adsorption properties of ZMF were studied with three common indoor VOCs (benzene, n-hexane, and cyclohexane), using gravimetric adsorption technique. The adsorption capacity of ZMF with different VOCs follow the order of benzene>n-hexane>cyclohexane. In comparison with MOF-199 and ZF, the composite structure ZMF shows improvement in selectivity for benzene from other two VOCs. Further, improvement in efficiency and stability of prepared ZMF was found to be associated with its high MOF loading capacity and unique morphological and structural properties. The developed composite structure with improved VOCs removal and recyclability could be a promising material for small to limited scale air pollution treatment units. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Syntheses and structure characterization of ten acid-base hybrid crystals based on imidazole derivatives and mineral acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Kaikai; Deng, Bowen; Jin, Shouwen; Ding, Aihua; Jin, Shide; Zhu, Jin; Zhang, Huan; Wang, Daqi

    2018-04-01

    Cocrystallization of the imidazole derivatives with a series of mineral acids gave a total of ten hybrid salts with the compositions: [(H2bzm)(Cl)2·3H2O] (1), [(H2bzm)(ClO4)2] (2), [(H2bze)(Cl)2·2H2O] (3), [(H2bze)(Br)2·2H2O] (4), [(H2bzp)(Cl)2·4H2O] (5), [(H2bzp)(Br)2·4H2O] (6), (2-(imidazol-1-yl)-1-phenylethanone): (phosphoric acid) [(Himpeta)+(H2PO4)-] (7), [(H2impd)(Br)2] (8), [(H2impd)(ClO4)2] (9), and [(Hbzml)(Cl)] (10). The ten salts have been characterised by X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, and elemental analysis, and the melting points of all the salts were also reported. And their structural and supramolecular aspects are fully analyzed. The result reveals that among the ten investigated crystals the ring N atoms of the imidazole are protonated when the acids are deprotonated, and the crystal packing is interpreted in terms of the strong charge-assisted classical H-bonds between the NH+ and deprotonated acidic groups. Further analysis of the crystal packing of the salts indicated that a different set of additional CHsbnd O, CH2sbnd O, CHsbnd Cl, CH2sbnd Cl, CHsbnd N, CHsbnd Br, CH2sbnd Br, Osbnd O, O-π, Br-π, CH-π, and π-π associations contribute to the stabilization and expansion of the total high-dimensional frameworks. For the coexistence of the various weak nonbonding interactions these structures adopted homo or hetero supramolecular synthons or both. Some classical supramolecular synthons, such as R21(7), R22(7), R22(8), and R42(8), usually observed in the organic solids, were again shown to be involved in constructing some of these H-bonding networks.

  15. Iron oxide particles in large pore zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, J. L.; López, A.; Lázaro, F. J.; Martínez, C.; Corma, A.

    1996-05-01

    The magnetic properties of iron-containing ETS-10 zeolite and its calcined variety have been studied by magnetic measurements. The results are consistent with the presence of paramagnetic ions and superparamagnetic clusters. Calcination results in a shift of the blocking temperatures, although their frequency dependence cannot be ascribed to non-interacting clusters. The hypothesis of cluster-glass like behaviour is discussed.

  16. MERCURY SEPARATION FROM POLLUTANT WATER USING ZEOLITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic is known to be a hazardous contaminant in drinking water that causes arsenical dermatitis and skin cancer. In the present work, the potential use of a variety of synthetic zeolites for removal of arsenic from water has been examined at room temperature. Experiments have...

  17. Dispersion enhanced metal/zeolite catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Sachtler, W.M.H.; Tzou, M.S.; Jiang, H.J.

    1987-03-31

    Dispersion stabilized zeolite supported metal catalysts are provided as bimetallic catalyst combinations. The catalyst metal is in a reduced zero valent form while the dispersion stabilizer metal is in an unreduced ionic form. Representative catalysts are prepared from platinum or nickel as the catalyst metal and iron or chromium dispersion stabilizer.

  18. Zeolite 5A Catalyzed Etherification of Diphenylmethanol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Jason; Henderson, Eric J.; Lightbody, Owen C.

    2009-01-01

    An experiment for the synthetic undergraduate laboratory is described in which zeolite 5A catalyzes the room temperature dehydration of diphenylmethanol, (C[subscript 6]H[subscript 5])[subscript 2]CHOH, producing 1,1,1',1'-tetraphenyldimethyl ether, (C[subscript 6]H[subscript 5])[subscript 2]CHOCH(C[subscript 6]H[subscript 5])[subscript 2]. The…

  19. Dispersion enhanced metal/zeolite catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Sachtler, Wolfgang M. H.; Tzou, Ming-Shin; Jiang, Hui-Jong

    1987-01-01

    Dispersion stabilized zeolite supported metal catalysts are provided as bimetallic catalyst combinations. The catalyst metal is in a reduced zero valent form while the dispersion stabilizer metal is in an unreduced ionic form. Representative catalysts are prepared from platinum or nickel as the catalyst metal and iron or chromium dispersion stabilizer.

  20. ARSENIC SEPARATION FROM WATER USING ZEOLITES: SYMPOSIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-ADA-01134 Shevade, S, Ford*, R., and Puls*, R.W. "Arsenic Separation from Water Using Zeolites." In: 222nd ACS National Meeting, ACS Environmental Chemistry Division Symposia, Chicago, IL, 08/26-30/2001. 2001. 04/23/2001 This...

  1. Selective synthesis of FAU-type zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Gustavo; Cabrera, Saúl; Hedlund, Jonas; Mouzon, Johanne

    2018-05-01

    In the present work, parameters influencing the selectivity of the synthesis of FAU-zeolites from diatomite were studied. The final products after varying synthesis time were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and gas adsorption. It was found that high concentrations of NaCl could completely inhibit the formation of zeolite P, which otherwise usually forms as soon as maximum FAU crystallinity is reached. In the presence of NaCl, the FAU crystals were stable for extended time after completed crystallization of FAU before formation of sodalite. It was also found that addition of NaCl barely changed the crystallization kinetics of FAU zeolite and only reduced the final FAU particle size and SiO2/Al2O3 ratio slightly. Other salts containing either Na or Cl were also investigated. Our results suggest that there is a synergistic effect between Na+ and Cl-. This is attributed to the formation of (Na4Cl)3+ clusters that stabilize the sodalite cages. This new finding may be used to increase the selectivity of syntheses leading to FAU-zeolites and avoid the formation of undesirable by-products, especially if impure natural sources of aluminosilica are used.

  2. ARSENIC SEPARATION FROM WATER USING ZEOLITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic is known to be a hazardous contaminant in drinking water. The presence of arsenic in water supplies has been linked to arsenical dermatosis and skin cancer . Zeolites are well known for their ion exchange capacities. In the present work, the potential use of a variety of ...

  3. The tert-butyl cation on zeolite Y: A theoretical and experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbach, Nilton, Jr.; dos Santos, Alex P. A.; Franco, Marcelo; Mota, Claudio J. A.

    2010-01-01

    The structure and energy of the tert-butyl cation on zeolite Y were calculated at ONIOM(MP2(FULL)/6-31G( d, p):MNDO) level. The results indicated that the tert-butyl cation is a minimum and lies between 40 and 51 kJ mol -1 above in energy to the tert-butoxide, depending on the level of calculation. Both species are stabilized through hydrogen bonding interactions with the framework oxygen atoms. Experimental data of nucleophilic substitution of tert-butylchloride and bromide over NaY impregnated with NaCl or NaBr give additional support for the formation of the tert-butyl cation as a discrete intermediate on zeolite Y, in agreement with the calculations.

  4. Zeolite Nanoparticles for Selective Sorption of Plasma Proteins.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, M; Ng, E-P; Bakhtiari, K; Vinciguerra, M; Ali Ahmad, H; Awala, H; Mintova, S; Daghighi, M; Bakhshandeh Rostami, F; de Vries, M; Motazacker, M M; Peppelenbosch, M P; Mahmoudi, M; Rezaee, F

    2015-11-30

    The affinity of zeolite nanoparticles (diameter of 8-12 nm) possessing high surface area and high pore volume towards human plasma proteins has been investigated. The protein composition (corona) of zeolite nanoparticles has been shown to be more dependent on the plasma protein concentrations and the type of zeolites than zeolite nanoparticles concentration. The number of proteins present in the corona of zeolite nanoparticles at 100% plasma (in vivo state) is less than with 10% plasma exposure. This could be due to a competition between the proteins to occupy the corona of the zeolite nanoparticles. Moreover, a high selective adsorption for apolipoprotein C-III (APOC-III) and fibrinogen on the zeolite nanoparticles at high plasma concentration (100%) was observed. While the zeolite nanoparticles exposed to low plasma concentration (10%) exhibited a high selective adsorption for immunoglobulin gamma (i.e. IGHG1, IGHG2 and IGHG4) proteins. The zeolite nanoparticles can potentially be used for selectively capture of APOC-III in order to reduce the activation of lipoprotein lipase inhibition during hypertriglyceridemia treatment. The zeolite nanoparticles can be adapted to hemophilic patients (hemophilia A (F-VIII deficient) and hemophilia B (F-IX deficient)) with a risk of bleeding, and thus might be potentially used in combination with the existing therapy.

  5. Zeolite Nanoparticles for Selective Sorption of Plasma Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, M.; Ng, E.-P.; Bakhtiari, K.; Vinciguerra, M.; Ahmad, H. Ali; Awala, H.; Mintova, S.; Daghighi, M.; Bakhshandeh Rostami, F.; de Vries, M.; Motazacker, M. M.; Peppelenbosch, M. P.; Mahmoudi, M.; Rezaee, F.

    2015-01-01

    The affinity of zeolite nanoparticles (diameter of 8–12 nm) possessing high surface area and high pore volume towards human plasma proteins has been investigated. The protein composition (corona) of zeolite nanoparticles has been shown to be more dependent on the plasma protein concentrations and the type of zeolites than zeolite nanoparticles concentration. The number of proteins present in the corona of zeolite nanoparticles at 100% plasma (in vivo state) is less than with 10% plasma exposure. This could be due to a competition between the proteins to occupy the corona of the zeolite nanoparticles. Moreover, a high selective adsorption for apolipoprotein C-III (APOC-III) and fibrinogen on the zeolite nanoparticles at high plasma concentration (100%) was observed. While the zeolite nanoparticles exposed to low plasma concentration (10%) exhibited a high selective adsorption for immunoglobulin gamma (i.e. IGHG1, IGHG2 and IGHG4) proteins. The zeolite nanoparticles can potentially be used for selectively capture of APOC-III in order to reduce the activation of lipoprotein lipase inhibition during hypertriglyceridemia treatment. The zeolite nanoparticles can be adapted to hemophilic patients (hemophilia A (F-VIII deficient) and hemophilia B (F-IX deficient)) with a risk of bleeding, and thus might be potentially used in combination with the existing therapy. PMID:26616161

  6. Zeolite Nanoparticles for Selective Sorption of Plasma Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, M.; Ng, E.-P.; Bakhtiari, K.; Vinciguerra, M.; Ahmad, H. Ali; Awala, H.; Mintova, S.; Daghighi, M.; Bakhshandeh Rostami, F.; de Vries, M.; Motazacker, M. M.; Peppelenbosch, M. P.; Mahmoudi, M.; Rezaee, F.

    2015-11-01

    The affinity of zeolite nanoparticles (diameter of 8-12 nm) possessing high surface area and high pore volume towards human plasma proteins has been investigated. The protein composition (corona) of zeolite nanoparticles has been shown to be more dependent on the plasma protein concentrations and the type of zeolites than zeolite nanoparticles concentration. The number of proteins present in the corona of zeolite nanoparticles at 100% plasma (in vivo state) is less than with 10% plasma exposure. This could be due to a competition between the proteins to occupy the corona of the zeolite nanoparticles. Moreover, a high selective adsorption for apolipoprotein C-III (APOC-III) and fibrinogen on the zeolite nanoparticles at high plasma concentration (100%) was observed. While the zeolite nanoparticles exposed to low plasma concentration (10%) exhibited a high selective adsorption for immunoglobulin gamma (i.e. IGHG1, IGHG2 and IGHG4) proteins. The zeolite nanoparticles can potentially be used for selectively capture of APOC-III in order to reduce the activation of lipoprotein lipase inhibition during hypertriglyceridemia treatment. The zeolite nanoparticles can be adapted to hemophilic patients (hemophilia A (F-VIII deficient) and hemophilia B (F-IX deficient)) with a risk of bleeding, and thus might be potentially used in combination with the existing therapy.

  7. Enhanced chromium adsorption capacity via plasma modification of natural zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagomoc, Charisse Marie D.; Vasquez, Magdaleno R., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    Natural zeolites such as mordenite are excellent adsorbents for heavy metals. To enhance the adsorption capacity of zeolite, sodium-exchanged samples were irradiated with 13.56 MHz capacitively coupled radio frequency (RF) argon gas discharge. Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] was used as the test heavy metal. Pristine and plasma-treated zeolite samples were soaked in 50 mg/L Cr solution and the amount of adsorbed Cr(VI) on the zeolites was calculated at predetermined time intervals. Compared with untreated zeolite samples, initial Cr(VI) uptake was 70% higher for plasma-treated zeolite granules (50 W 30 min) after 1 h of soaking. After 24 h, all plasma-treated zeolites showed increased Cr(VI) uptake. For a 2- to 4-month period, Cr(VI) uptake increased about 130% compared with untreated zeolite granules. X-ray diffraction analyses between untreated and treated zeolite samples revealed no major difference in terms of its crystal structure. However, for plasma-treated samples, an increase in the number of surface defects was observed from scanning electron microscopy images. This increase in the number of surface defects induced by plasma exposure played a crucial role in increasing the number of active sorption sites on the zeolite surface.

  8. UTILITY OF ZEOLITES IN REMOVAL OF INORGANIC AND ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zeolites are well known for their ion exchange, adsorption and acid catalysis properties. Different inorganic and organic pollutants have been removed from water at room temperature using various zeolites. Synthetic zeolite Faujasite Y has been used to remove inorganic pollutants...

  9. Chitosan impregnation with biologically active tryaryl imidazoles in supercritical carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Cherkasova, Anastasia V; Glagolev, Nikolay N; Shienok, Andrey I; Demina, Tatiana S; Kotova, Svetlana L; Zaichenko, Natalia L; Akopova, Tatiana A; Timashev, Peter S; Bagratashvili, Victor N; Solovieva, Anna B

    2016-09-01

    The presented paper is focused on impregnation of chitosan and its derivatives with a biologically active triaryl imidazole model compound ((2-2-hydroxyphenyl)-4.5-diphenyl-1H-imidazole) in the supercritical carbon dioxide medium. Since initial chitosan represents a polycation-exchange resin and does not swell in supercritical carbon dioxide, the impregnation was carried out in the presence of water (0.15-3.0 vol%). The maximum 2-2-hydroxyphenyl)-4.5-diphenyl-1H-imidazole concentration in a chitosan film was achieved at the ~5 × 10(-3) g/cm(3) water content in the reactor. We also used hydroxy carboxylic acid derivatives of chitosan and its copolymer with polylactide as matrices for introduction of hydrophobic 2-2-hydroxyphenyl)-4.5-diphenyl-1H-imidazole. We have shown that unmodified chitosan contains the greatest amount of 2-2-hydroxyphenyl)-4.5-diphenyl-1H-imidazole, as compared with its hydrophobic derivatives. The kinetics of 2-2-hydroxyphenyl)-4.5-diphenyl-1H-imidazole diffusion from a chitosan matrix was studied in acidified water with pH 1.6. We found that the complete release of 2-2-hydroxyphenyl)-4.5-diphenyl-1H-imidazole into the aqueous phase from unmodified chitosan films occurred in 48 h, while its complete release from chitosan modified with hydroxy carboxylic acids occurred in 5 min or less.

  10. Facile synthesis of enzyme-embedded magnetic metal-organic frameworks as a reusable mimic multi-enzyme system: mimetic peroxidase properties and colorimetric sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Chen; Wang, Yang; Ding, Qinghua; Jiang, Long; Li, Ming; Zhu, Weiwei; Pan, Duo; Zhu, Hao; Liu, Mingzhu

    2015-11-01

    This work reports a facile and easily-achieved approach for enzyme immobilization by embedding glucose oxidase (GOx) in magnetic zeolitic imidazolate framework 8 (mZIF-8) via a de novo approach. As a demonstration of the power of such materials, the resulting GOx embedded mZIF-8 (mZIF-8@GOx) was utilized as a colorimetric sensor for rapid detection of glucose. This method was constructed on the basis of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), which possessed very fascinating peroxidase-like properties, and the cascade reaction for the visual detection of glucose was combined into one step through the mZIF-8@GOx based mimic multi-enzyme system. After characterization by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, nitrogen sorption, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry, the as-prepared mZIF-8@GOx was confirmed with the robust core-shell structure, the monodisperse nanoparticle had an average diameter of about 200 nm and displayed superparamagnetism with a saturation magnetization value of 40.5 emu g-1, it also exhibited a large surface area of 396.10 m2 g-1. As a peroxidase mimic, mZIF-8 was verified to be highly stable and of low cost, and showed a strong affinity towards H2O2. Meanwhile, the mZIF-8 embedded GOx also exhibited improved activity, stability and greatly enhanced selectivity in glucose detection. Moreover, the mZIF-8@GOx had excellent recyclability with high activity (88.7% residual activity after 12 times reuse).This work reports a facile and easily-achieved approach for enzyme immobilization by embedding glucose oxidase (GOx) in magnetic zeolitic imidazolate framework 8 (mZIF-8) via a de novo approach. As a demonstration of the power of such materials, the resulting GOx embedded mZIF-8 (mZIF-8@GOx) was utilized as a colorimetric sensor for rapid detection of glucose. This method was constructed on the basis of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), which possessed very fascinating peroxidase-like properties, and the cascade

  11. Efficiency of basalt zeolite and Cuban zeolite to adsorb ammonia released from poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Nuernberg, Giselle B; Moreira, Marcelo A; Ernani, Paulo R; Almeida, Jaime A; Maciel, Tais M

    2016-12-01

    Confined poultry production is an important livestock activity, which generates large amounts of waste associated with the potential for environmental pollution and ammonia (NH 3 ) emissions. The release of ammonia negatively affects poultry production and decreases the N content of wastes that could be used as soil fertilizers. The objective of this study was to evaluate a low-cost, simple and rapid method to simulate ammonia emissions from poultry litter as well as to quantify the reduction in the ammonia emissions to the environment employing two adsorbent zeolites, a commercial Cuban zeolite (CZ) and a ground basalt Brazilian rock containing zeolite (BZ). The experiments were conducted in a laboratory, in 2012-2013. The zeolites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), physical adsorption of N 2 (BET) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Ammonia released from poultry litter and its simulation from NH 4 OH solution presented similar capture rates of 7.99 × 10 -5 and 7.35 × 10 -5  mg/h, respectively. Both zeolites contain SiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 as major constituents, with contents of 84% and 12% in the CZ, and 51% and 12% in the BZ, respectively, besides heulandite groups. Their BET surface areas were 89.4 and 11.3 m 2  g -1 , respectively, and the two zeolites had similar surface morphologies. The zeolites successfully adsorbed the ammonia released, but CZ was more efficient than BZ, since to capture all of the ammonia 5 g of CZ and 20 g of BZ were required. This difference is due to higher values for the superficial area, porosity, CEC and acid site strength of CZ relatively to BZ. The proposed methodology was shown to be an efficient method to simulate and quantify the ammonia released from poultry litter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fly ash zeolite catalyst support for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campen, Adam

    This dissertation research aimed at evaluating a fly ash zeolite (FAZ) catalyst support for use in heterogeneous catalytic processes. Gas phase Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) over a fixed-bed of the prepared catalyst/FAZ support was identified as an appropriate process for evaluation, by comparison with commercial catalyst supports (silica, alumina, and 13X). Fly ash, obtained from the Wabash River Generating Station, was first characterized using XRD, SEM/EDS, particle size, and nitrogen sorption techniques. Then, a parametric study of a two-step alkali fusion/hydrothermal treatment process for converting fly ash to zeolite frameworks was performed by varying the alkali fusion agent, agent:flyash ratio, fusion temperature, fused ash/water solution, aging time, and crystallization time. The optimal conditions for each were determined to be NaOH, 1.4 g NaOH: 1 g fly ash, 550 °C, 200 g/L, 12 hours, and 48 hours. This robust process was applied to the fly ash to obtain a faujasitic zeolite structure with increased crystallinity (40 %) and surface area (434 m2/g). Following the modification of fly ash to FAZ, ion exchange of H+ for Na+ and cobalt incipient wetness impregnation were used to prepare a FTS catalyst. FTS was performed on the catalysts at 250--300 °C, 300 psi, and with a syngas ratio H2:CO = 2. The HFAZ catalyst support loaded with 11 wt% cobalt resulted in a 75 % carbon selectivity for C5 -- C18 hydrocarbons, while methane and carbon dioxide were limited to 13 and 1 %, respectively. Catalyst characterization was performed by XRD, N2 sorption, TPR, and oxygen pulse titration to provide insight to the behavior of each catalyst. Overall, the HFAZ compared well with silica and 13X supports, and far exceeded the performance of the alumina support under the tested conditions. The successful completion of this research could add value to an underutilized waste product of coal combustion, in the form of catalyst supports in heterogeneous catalytic processes.

  13. Zeolite and swine inoculum effect on poultry manure biomethanation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kougias, P. G.; Fotidis, I. A.; Zaganas, I. D.; Kotsopoulos, T. A.; Martzopoulos, G. G.

    2013-03-01

    Poultry manure is an ammonia-rich substrate that inhibits methanogenesis, causing severe problems to the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, the effect of different natural zeolite concentrations on the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of poultry waste inoculated with well-digested swine manure was investigated. A significant increase in methane production was observed in treatments where zeolite was added, compared to the treatment without zeolite.Methane production in the treatment with 10 g dm-3 of natural zeolite was found to be 109.75% higher compared to the treatment without zeolite addition. The results appear to be influenced by the addition of zeolite, which reduces ammonia toxicity in anaerobic digestion and by the ammonia-tolerant swine inoculum.

  14. Effect of SrO content on Zeolite Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiarti, N.; Sari, U. S.; Mahatmanti, F. W.; Harjito; Kurniawan, C.; Prasetyoko, D.; Suprapto

    2018-04-01

    The aims of current studies is to investigate the effect of strontium oxide content (SrO) on synthesized zeolite. Zeolite was synthesized from Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as precursors of SiO2 and aluminum isopropoxide (AIP) precursors. The mixture was aged for 3 days and hydrothermally treated for 6 days. The SrO content was added by impregnation method. The products were then characterized using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), and Surface Area Analyzer (SAA). The diffractogram confirmed the formation of Faujasite-like zeolite. However, after the addition of SrO, the crystallinity of zeolite was deformed. The diffractograms shows the amorphous phase of zeolite were decrease as the SrO content is increase. The structural changes was also observed from FTIR spectra which shows the shifting and peak formation. The surface area analysis showed that the increasing loading of SrO/Zeolites reduced the catalyst surface area.

  15. Cation Movements during Dehydration and NO2 Desorption in a Ba-Y,FAU zeolite: an in situ Time-resolved X-ray Diffraction Study

    SciT

    Wang, Xianqin; Hanson, Jonathan C.; Kwak, Ja Hun

    2013-02-28

    Synchrotron-based in situ time-resolved X-ray diffraction and Rietveld analysis were used to probe the interactions between BaY, FAU zeolite frameworks and H2O or NO2 molecules. These results provided information about the migration of the Ba2+ cations in the zeolite framework during dehydration and during NO2 adsorption/desorption processes in a water free zeolite. In the hydrated structure water molecules form four double rings of hexagonal ice-like clusters [(H2O)6] in the 12-ring openings of the super-cage. These water rings interacted with the cations and the zeolite framework through four cation/water clusters centered over the four 6-membered rings of the super-cage (site II).more » Interpenetrating tetrahedral water clusters [(H2O)4] and tetrahedral Ba+2 cation clusters were observed in the sodalite cage. Consistent with the reported FT-IR results, three different ionic NOx species (NO+, NO+-NO2, and NO3-) were observed following NO2 adsorption by the dehydrated Ba-Y,FAU zeolite. The structure of the water and the NOx species were correlated with the interactions between the adsorbates, the cations, and the framework. The population of Ba2+ ions at different cationic positions strongly depended on the amount of bound water or NOx species. Both dehydration and NO2 adsorption/desorption resulted in facile migration of Ba2+ ions among the different cationic positions. Data obtained in this work have provided direct evidence for the Ba2+ cation migration to accommodate the binding of gas molecules. This important feature may play a pivotal role in the strong binding of NO2 to Ba-Y,FAU zeolite, a prerequisite for high catalytic activity in lean NOx reduction catalysis.« less

  16. Facile synthesis of enzyme-embedded magnetic metal-organic frameworks as a reusable mimic multi-enzyme system: mimetic peroxidase properties and colorimetric sensor.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chen; Wang, Yang; Ding, Qinghua; Jiang, Long; Li, Ming; Zhu, Weiwei; Pan, Duo; Zhu, Hao; Liu, Mingzhu

    2015-11-28

    This work reports a facile and easily-achieved approach for enzyme immobilization by embedding glucose oxidase (GOx) in magnetic zeolitic imidazolate framework 8 (mZIF-8) via a de novo approach. As a demonstration of the power of such materials, the resulting GOx embedded mZIF-8 (mZIF-8@GOx) was utilized as a colorimetric sensor for rapid detection of glucose. This method was constructed on the basis of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), which possessed very fascinating peroxidase-like properties, and the cascade reaction for the visual detection of glucose was combined into one step through the mZIF-8@GOx based mimic multi-enzyme system. After characterization by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, nitrogen sorption, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry, the as-prepared mZIF-8@GOx was confirmed with the robust core-shell structure, the monodisperse nanoparticle had an average diameter of about 200 nm and displayed superparamagnetism with a saturation magnetization value of 40.5 emu g(-1), it also exhibited a large surface area of 396.10 m(2) g(-1). As a peroxidase mimic, mZIF-8 was verified to be highly stable and of low cost, and showed a strong affinity towards H2O2. Meanwhile, the mZIF-8 embedded GOx also exhibited improved activity, stability and greatly enhanced selectivity in glucose detection. Moreover, the mZIF-8@GOx had excellent recyclability with high activity (88.7% residual activity after 12 times reuse).

  17. Metal Oxide Assisted Preparation of Core-Shell Beads with Dense Metal-Organic Framework Coatings for the Enhanced Extraction of Organic Pollutants.

    PubMed

    Del Rio, Mateo; Palomino Cabello, Carlos; Gonzalez, Veronica; Maya, Fernando; Parra, Jose B; Cerdà, Victor; Turnes Palomino, Gemma

    2016-08-08

    Dense and homogeneous metal-organic framework (MOF) coatings on functional bead surfaces are easily prepared by using intermediate sacrificial metal oxide coatings containing the metal precursor of the MOF. Polystyrene (PS) beads are coated with a ZnO layer to give ZnO@PS core-shell beads. The ZnO@PS beads are reactive in the presence of 2-methylimidazole to transform part of the ZnO coating into a porous zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) external shell positioned above the internal ZnO precursor shell. The obtained ZIF-8@ZnO@PS beads can be easily packed in column format for flow-through applications, such as the solid-phase extraction of trace priority-listed environmental pollutants. The prepared material shows an excellent permeance to flow when packed as a column to give high enrichment factors, facile regeneration, and excellent reusability for the extraction of the pollutant bisphenol A. It also shows an outstanding performance for the simultaneous enrichment of mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals (bisphenol A, 4-tert-octylphenol and 4-n-nonylphenol), facilitating their analysis when present at very low levels (<1 μg L(-1) ) in drinking waters. For the extraction of the pollutant bisphenol A, the prepared ZIF-8@ZnO@PS beads also show a superior extraction and preconcentration capacity to that of the PS beads used as precursors and the composite materials obtained by the direct growth of ZIF-8 on the surface of the PS beads in the absence of metal oxide intermediate coatings. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Large zeolites - Why and how to grow in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacco, Albert, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The growth of zeolite crystals which are considered to be the most valuable catalytic and adsorbent materials of the chemical processing industry are discussed. It is proposed to use triethanolamine as a nucleation control agent to control the time release of Al in a zeolite A solution and to increase the average and maximum crystal size by 25-50 times. Large zeolites could be utilized to make membranes for reactors/separators which will substantially increase their efficiency.

  19. In situ solid-state NMR and XRD studies of the ADOR process and the unusual structure of zeolite IPC-6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Samuel A.; Bignami, Giulia P. M.; Tian, Yuyang; Navarro, Marta; Firth, Daniel S.; Čejka, Jiří; Wheatley, Paul S.; Dawson, Daniel M.; Slawinski, Wojciech A.; Wragg, David S.; Morris, Russell E.; Ashbrook, Sharon E.

    2017-10-01

    The assembly-disassembly-organization-reassembly (ADOR) mechanism is a recent method for preparing inorganic framework materials and, in particular, zeolites. This flexible approach has enabled the synthesis of isoreticular families of zeolites with unprecedented continuous control over porosity, and the design and preparation of materials that would have been difficult—or even impossible—to obtain using traditional hydrothermal techniques. Applying the ADOR process to a parent zeolite with the UTL framework topology, for example, has led to six previously unknown zeolites (named IPC-n, where n = 2, 4, 6, 7, 9 and 10). To realize the full potential of the ADOR method, however, a further understanding of the complex mechanism at play is needed. Here, we probe the disassembly, organization and reassembly steps of the ADOR process through a combination of in situ solid-state NMR spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction experiments. We further use the insight gained to explain the formation of the unusual structure of zeolite IPC-6.

  20. Syntheses, crystal structures, and properties of four complexes based on polycarboxylate and imidazole ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Rui; Chen, Shui-Sheng; Sheng, Liang-Quan; Yang, Song; Li, Wei-Dong

    2015-08-01

    Four metal-organic coordination polymers [Zn(HL)(H2O)]·4H2O (1), [Zn(HL)(L1)]·4H2O (2), [Cu(HL)(H2O)]·3H2O (3) and [Cu(HL)(L1)]·5H2O (4) were synthesized by reactions of the corresponding metal(II) salts with semirigid polycarboxylate ligand (5-((4-carboxypiperidin-1-yl)methyl)isophthalic acid hydrochloride, H3L·HCl) or auxiliary ligand (1,4-di(1H-imidazol-4-yl)benzene, L1). The structures of the compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The use of auxiliary ligand L1 has great influence on the structures of two pairs of complexes 1, 2 and 3, 4. Complex 1 is a uninodal 3-connected rare 2-fold interpenetrating ZnSc net with a Point (Schlafli) symbol of (103) while 2 is a one-dimensional (1D) ladder structure. Compound 3 features a two-dimensional (2D) honeycomb network with typical 63-hcb topology, while 4 is 2D network with (4, 4) sql topology based on binuclear CuII subunits. The non-covalent bonding interactions such as hydrogen bonds, π···π stacking and C-H···π exist in complexes 1-4, which contributes to stabilize crystal structure and extend the low-dimensional entities into high-dimensional frameworks. And the photoluminescent property of 1 and 2 and gas sorption property of 4 have been investigated.

  1. Progress on Zeolite-membrane-aided Organic Acid Esterification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makertiharta, I. G. B. N.; Dharmawijaya, P. T.

    2017-07-01

    Esterification is a common route to produce carboxylic acid esters as important intermediates in chemical and pharmaceutical industries. However, the reaction is equilibrium limited and needs to be driven forward by selective removal one of the products. There have been some efforts to selectively remove water from reaction mixture via several separation processes (such as pervaporation and reactive distillation). Integrated pervaporation and esterification has gained increasing attention towards. Inorganic zeolite is the most popular material for pervaporation due to its high chemical resistant and separation performance towards water. Zeolite also has proven to be an effective material in removing water from organic compound. Zeolite can act not only as selective layer but also simultaneously act as a catalyst on promoting the reaction. Hence, there are many configurations in integrating zeolite membrane for esterification reaction. As a selective layer to remove water from reaction mixture, high Si/Al zeolite is preferred to enhance its hydrophilicity. However, low Si/Al zeolite is unstable in acid condition due to dealumination thus eliminate its advantages. As a catalyst, acid zeolites (e.g. H-ZSM-5) provide protons for autoprotolysis of the carboxylic acid similar to other catalyst for esterification (e.g. inorganic acid, and ion exchange resins). There are many studies related to zeolite membrane aided esterification. This paper will give brief information related to zeolite membrane role in esterification and also research trend towards it.

  2. Method for the recovery of silver from silver zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, G.A.

    1985-03-05

    High purity silver is recovered from silver exchanged zeolite used to capture radioactive iodine from nuclear reactor and nuclear fuel reprocessing environments. The silver exchanged zeolite is heated with slag formers to melt and fluidize the zeolite and release the silver, the radioactivity removing with the slag. The silver containing metallic impurities is remelted and treated with oxygen and a flux to remove the metal impurities. About 98% of the silver in the silver exchanged zeolite having a purity of 99% or better is recoverable by the method.

  3. Hydrothermal synthesis of free-template zeolite T from kaolin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshad, Sazmal E.; Yusslee, Eddy F.; Rahman, Md. Lutfor; Sarkar, Shaheen M.; Patuwan, Siti Z.

    2017-12-01

    Free-template zeolite T crystals were synthesized via hydrothermal synthesis by utilizing the activated kaolin as silica and alumina source, with the molar composition of 1 SiO2: 0.04 Al2O3: 0.26 Na2O: 0.09 K2O: 14 H2O. Observation of the formation of free-template zeolite crystals were done at temperature 90°C, 100 °C and 110 °C respectively. It was therefore determined that during the 120 h of the synthesis at 90 °C, zeolite T nucleated and formed a first competitive phase with zeolite L. As temperature increases to 100 °C, zeolite T presented itself as a major phase in the system at time 168 h. Subsequently, development of Zeolite T with second competitive phase of zeolite W was observed at temperature 110 °C. In this study, XRD and SEM instruments were used to monitor the behavior of zeolite T crystals with respect of temperature and time. By using natural resource of kaolin clay as a starting material, this paper hence aims to provide new findings in synthesis of zeolite T using low energy consumption and low production cost.

  4. Natural zeolites in diet or litter of broilers.

    PubMed

    Schneider, A F; Almeida, D S De; Yuri, F M; Zimmermann, O F; Gerber, M W; Gewehr, C E

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to analyse the influence of adding natural zeolites (clinoptilolite) to the diet or litter of broilers and their effects on growth performance, carcass yield and litter quality. Three consecutive flocks of broilers were raised on the same sawdust litter, from d 1 to d 42 of age, and distributed in three treatments (control with no added zeolites, addition of 5 g/kg zeolite to diet and addition of 100 g/kg zeolites to litter). The addition of zeolites to the diet or litter did not affect growth performance or carcass yield. The addition of zeolites to the diet did not influence moisture content of the litter, ammonia volatilisation was reduced only in the first flock and pH of litter was reduced in the second and third flock. However, the addition of zeolites to the litter reduced moisture content, litter pH and ammonia volatilisation in all flocks analysed. The addition of 5 g/kg zeolite to the diet in three consecutive flocks was not effective in maintaining litter quality, whereas the addition of 100 g/kg natural zeolites to sawdust litter reduced litter moisture and ammonia volatilisation in three consecutive flocks raised on the same litter.

  5. Method for the recovery of silver from silver zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, George A.

    1986-01-01

    High purity silver is recovered from silver exchanged zeolite used to capture radioactive iodine from nuclear reactor and nuclear fuel reprocessing environments. The silver exchanged zeolite is heated with slag formers to melt and fluidize the zeolite and release the silver, the radioactivity removing with the slag. The silver containing metallic impurities is remelted and treated with oxygen and a flux to remove the metal impurities. About 98% of the silver in the silver exchanged zeolite having a purity of 99% or better is recoverable by the method.

  6. Mineral resource of the month: natural and synthetic zeolites

    Virta, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Volcanic rocks containing natural zeolites — hydrated aluminosilicate minerals that contain alkaline and alkaline-earth metals — have been mined worldwide for more than 1,000 years for use as cements and building stone. For centuries, people thought natural zeolites occurred only in small amounts inside cavities of volcanic rock. But in the 1950s and early 1960s, large zeolite deposits were discovered in volcanic tuffs in the western United States and in marine tuffs in Italy and Japan. And since then, similar deposits have been found around the world, from Hungary to Cuba to New Zealand. The discovery of these larger deposits made commercial mining of natural zeolite possible.

  7. Dry method for recycling iodine-loaded silver zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Thomas R.; Staples, Bruce A.; Murphy, Llewellyn P.

    1978-05-09

    Fission product iodine is removed from a waste gas stream and stored by passing the gas stream through a bed of silver-exchanged zeolite until the zeolite is loaded with iodine, passing dry hydrogen gas through the bed to remove the iodine and regenerate the bed, and passing the hydrogen stream containing the hydrogen iodide thus formed through a lead-exchanged zeolite which adsorbs the radioactive iodine from the gas stream and permanently storing the lead-exchanged zeolite loaded with radioactive iodine.

  8. Zeolite Crystal Growth in Microgravity and on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Center for Advanced Microgravity Materials Processing (CAMMP), a NASA-sponsored Research Partnership Center, is working to improve zeolite materials for storing hydrogen fuel. CAMMP is also applying zeolites to detergents, optical cables, gas and vapor detection for environmental monitoring and control, and chemical production techniques that significantly reduce by-products that are hazardous to the environment. Shown here are zeolite crystals (top) grown in a ground control experiment and grown in microgravity on the USML-2 mission (bottom). Zeolite experiments have also been conducted aboard the International Space Station.

  9. Selective Catalysis in Nanoparticle Metal-Organic Framework Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, Casey Justin

    The design of highly selective catalysts are becoming increasingly important, especially as chemical and pharmaceutical industries seek to improve atom economy and minimize energy intensive separations that are often required to separate side products from the desired product. Enzymes are among the most selective of all catalysts, generally operating through molecular recognition whereby an active site analogous to a lock and the substrate is analogous to a key. The assembly of a porous, crystalline material around a catalytically active metal particle could serve as an artificial enzyme. In this vein, we first synthesized the polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coated nanoparticles of interest and then encapsulated them within zeolitic imidazolate framework 8 or ZIF-8. 2.8 nm Pt-PVP nanoparticles, which were encapsulated within ZIF-8 to form Pt ZIF-8 composite. Pt ZIF-8 was inactive for the hydrogenation of cyclic olefins such as cis-cyclooctene and cis-cyclohexene while the composite proved to be a highly selective catalyst for the hydrogenation of terminal olefins, hydrogenating trans-1,3-hexadiene to 3-hexene in 95% selectivity after 24 hours under 1 bar H2. We extended our encapsulation method to sub-2 nm Au nanoparticles to form Au ZIF-8. Au ZIF-8 served as a highly chemoselective catalyst for the hydrogenation of crotonaldehyde an alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde, to crotyl alcohol an alpha,beta-unsaturated alcohol, in 90-95% selectivity. In order to investigate nanoparticle size effects on selectivity, 6-10 nm Au nanoparticles were encapsulated within ZIF-8 to form Au6 ZIF-8. Control catalysts with nanoparticles supported on the surface of ZIF-8 were synthesized as well, Au/ZIF-8 and Au6/ZIF-8. Au6 ZIF-8 hydrogenated crotonaldehyde in 85% selectivity towards the unsaturated alcohol. Catalysts with nanoparticles supported on the exterior of ZIF-8 were far less selective towards the unsaturated alcohol. Post-catalysis transmission electron microscopy analysis of Au ZIF

  10. 40 CFR 180.426 - 2-[4,5-Dihydro-4-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-yl]-3-quinoline carboxylic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-methylethyl)-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-yl]-3-quinoline carboxylic acid; tolerance for residues. 180.426 Section 180...-Dihydro-4-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-yl]-3-quinoline carboxylic acid; tolerance for...)-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-yl]-3-quinoline carboxylic acid, in or on the raw agricultural commodity soybean...

  11. Aryl triolborates: novel reagent for copper-catalyzed N arylation of amines, anilines, and imidazoles.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Qiang; Yamamoto, Yasunori; Miyaura, Norio

    2008-09-01

    The N arylation of primary and secondary aliphatic amines, anilines, and imidazoles with novel potassium aryl triolborates was carried out in the presence of a reoxidant and a catalytic amount of Cu(OAc)(2) (10 mol %). Aryl triolborates were found to be better reagents than aryl boronic acids or potassium aryl trifluoroborates as the former achieved high yields under mild conditions. Coupling of primary and secondary aliphatic amines to give N-aryl amines in excellent yields was performed under oxygen atmosphere. The reactions of anilines and imidazoles to provide N-aryl anilines and N-aryl imidazoles in good yields proceeded smoothly when trimethylamine N-oxide was used as an oxidant.

  12. Diagnosing the Internal Architecture of Zeolite Ferrierite

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Joel E.; Hendriks, Frank C.; Lutz, Martin; Post, L. Christiaan; Fu, Donglong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Large crystals of zeolite ferrierite (FER) are important model systems for spatially resolved catalysis and diffusion studies, though there is considerable variation in crystal habit depending on the chemical composition and employed synthesis conditions. A synergistic combination of techniques has been applied, including single crystal X‐ray diffraction, high‐temperature in situ confocal fluorescence microscopy, fluorescent probe molecules, wide‐field microscopy and atomic force microscopy to unravel the internal architecture of three distinct FER zeolites. Pyrolyzed template species can be used as markers for the 8‐membered ring direction as they are trapped in the terraced roof of the FER crystals. This happens as the materials grow in a layer‐by‐layer, defect‐free manner normal to the large crystal surface, and leads to a facile method to diagnose the pore system orientation, which avoids tedious single crystal X‐ray diffraction experiments. PMID:28809081

  13. 15N Hyperpolarization of Imidazole-15N2 for Magnetic Resonance pH Sensing via SABRE-SHEATH

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    15N nuclear spins of imidazole-15N2 were hyperpolarized using NMR signal amplification by reversible exchange in shield enables alignment transfer to heteronuclei (SABRE-SHEATH). A 15N NMR signal enhancement of ∼2000-fold at 9.4 T is reported using parahydrogen gas (∼50% para-) and ∼0.1 M imidazole-15N2 in methanol:aqueous buffer (∼1:1). Proton binding to a 15N site of imidazole occurs at physiological pH (pKa ∼ 7.0), and the binding event changes the 15N isotropic chemical shift by ∼30 ppm. These properties are ideal for in vivo pH sensing. Additionally, imidazoles have low toxicity and are readily incorporated into a wide range of biomolecules. 15N-Imidazole SABRE-SHEATH hyperpolarization potentially enables pH sensing on scales ranging from peptide and protein molecules to living organisms. PMID:27379344

  14. 15N Hyperpolarization of Imidazole-15N2 for Magnetic Resonance pH Sensing via SABRE-SHEATH.

    PubMed

    Shchepin, Roman V; Barskiy, Danila A; Coffey, Aaron M; Theis, Thomas; Shi, Fan; Warren, Warren S; Goodson, Boyd M; Chekmenev, Eduard Y

    2016-06-24

    15 N nuclear spins of imidazole- 15 N 2 were hyperpolarized using NMR signal amplification by reversible exchange in shield enables alignment transfer to heteronuclei (SABRE-SHEATH). A 15 N NMR signal enhancement of ∼2000-fold at 9.4 T is reported using parahydrogen gas (∼50% para-) and ∼0.1 M imidazole- 15 N 2 in methanol:aqueous buffer (∼1:1). Proton binding to a 15 N site of imidazole occurs at physiological pH (p K a ∼ 7.0), and the binding event changes the 15 N isotropic chemical shift by ∼30 ppm. These properties are ideal for in vivo pH sensing. Additionally, imidazoles have low toxicity and are readily incorporated into a wide range of biomolecules. 15 N-Imidazole SABRE-SHEATH hyperpolarization potentially enables pH sensing on scales ranging from peptide and protein molecules to living organisms.

  15. Cation-exchanged zeolites for the selective oxidation of methane to methanol

    DOE PAGES

    Kulkarni, Ambarish R.; Zhao, Zhi-Jian; Siahrostami, Samira; ...

    2017-10-19

    Motivated by the increasing availability of cheap natural gas resources, considerable experimental and computational research efforts have focused on identifying selective catalysts for the direct conversion of methane to methanol. One promising class of catalysts are cation-exchanged zeolites, which have steadily increased in popularity over the past decade. Here, in this article, we first present a broad overview of this field from a conceptual perspective, and highlight the role of theory in developing a molecular-level understanding of the reaction. Next, by performing and analyzing a large database of density functional theory (DFT) calculations for a wide range of transition metalmore » cations, zeolite topologies and active site motifs, we present a unifying picture of the methane activation process in terms of active site stability, C–H bond activation and methanol extraction. Based on the trade-offs of active site stability and reactivity, we propose a framework for identifying new, promising active site motifs in these systems. Further, we show that the high methanol selectivity arises due to the strong binding nature of the C–H activation products. Lastly, using the atomistic and mechanistic insight obtained from these analyses, we summarize the key challenges and future strategies for improving the performance of cation-exchanged zeolites for this industrially relevant conversion.« less

  16. Fabrication of MTN-type zeolite by self-assembling of supramolecular compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Aisheng; Caro, Jürgen

    2009-10-01

    MTN-type (Zeolite Socony Mobil Thirty-Nine) zeolite was prepared at 473 K by a novel method through self-assembling of a supramolecular compound called 2,4,6-tris (4-pyridyl) triazine (TPT) in DMF (N,N-dimethylformamide). The effects of fluoride, DMF and germanium on the synthesis of MTN-type zeolite were investigated. The crystallization was facilitated by adding fluoride to the synthesis solution, resulting in the formation of highly crystalline MTN samples, while some amorphous phase was observed in fluoride-free batches. DMF was required to obtain a highly crystalline MTN sample, since TPT dissolves easier in DMF than in water, thus facilitating the self-assembling of TPT into a 3D network to structure the MTN framework. The MTN structure could be synthesized at low germanium content (Ge/Si≤0.18), while AST (AlPO 4-sixteen) as a foreign phase is formed at high germanium substitution (Ge/Si≥0.5).

  17. Cation-exchanged zeolites for the selective oxidation of methane to methanol

    SciT

    Kulkarni, Ambarish R.; Zhao, Zhi-Jian; Siahrostami, Samira

    Motivated by the increasing availability of cheap natural gas resources, considerable experimental and computational research efforts have focused on identifying selective catalysts for the direct conversion of methane to methanol. One promising class of catalysts are cation-exchanged zeolites, which have steadily increased in popularity over the past decade. Here, in this article, we first present a broad overview of this field from a conceptual perspective, and highlight the role of theory in developing a molecular-level understanding of the reaction. Next, by performing and analyzing a large database of density functional theory (DFT) calculations for a wide range of transition metalmore » cations, zeolite topologies and active site motifs, we present a unifying picture of the methane activation process in terms of active site stability, C–H bond activation and methanol extraction. Based on the trade-offs of active site stability and reactivity, we propose a framework for identifying new, promising active site motifs in these systems. Further, we show that the high methanol selectivity arises due to the strong binding nature of the C–H activation products. Lastly, using the atomistic and mechanistic insight obtained from these analyses, we summarize the key challenges and future strategies for improving the performance of cation-exchanged zeolites for this industrially relevant conversion.« less

  18. Improving Stability of Zeolites in Aqueous Phase via Selective Removal of Structural Defects

    SciT

    Prodinger, Sebastian; Derewinski, Miroslaw A.; Vjunov, Aleksei

    2016-03-13

    This work reports significant improvement in the hydrothermal stability of a well-characterized BEA zeolite via the selective removal of structural defects. Recent work suggests that the presence of silanol defects destabilizes the framework integrity of most zeolites and makes them susceptible to hydrolysis of the siloxy bonds by hot liquid water. The described approach allows for a key removal of silanols as shown with 29Si-MAS-NMR. Subsequently, the material stability in hot liquid water, measured by retention of its crystallinity with X-ray diffraction (XRD), is found to be superior to defective zeolites. In addition, N2-sorption measurements (BET) and transmission electron microscopymore » (TEM) show the formation of different types of mesoporosity for water-treated stabilized and unmodified materials. While the sorption capacity for untreated materials drops, related to re-precipitation of dissolved silica and pore blocking, the stabilized material retains its microporosity and improves its overall sorption capacity. The authors would like to thank B. W. Arey (PNNL) for HIM measurements and I. Arslan for TEM imaging. This work was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. SP and MD acknowledge support by the Materials Synthesis and Simulation Across Scales (MS3 Initiative) conducted under Laboratory Directed Research & Development Program at PNNL.« less

  19. A Novel Tetrasubstituted Imidazole as a Prototype for the Development of Anti-inflammatory Drugs.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Marcus Vinicius P S; Munhoz, Antonio C M; Theindl, Lais C; Mohr, Eduarda Talita B; Saleh, Najla; Parisotto, Eduardo B; Rossa, Thaís A; Zamoner, Ariane; Creczynski-Pasa, Tania B; Filippin-Monteiro, Fabíola B; Sá, Marcus M; Dalmarco, Eduardo Monguilhott

    2018-04-14

    Although inflammation is a biological phenomenon that exists to protect the host against infections and/or related problems, its unceasing activation results in the aggravation of several medical conditions. Imidazoles, whether natural or synthetic, are molecules related to a broad spectrum of biological effects, including anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we screened eight novel small molecules of the imidazole class synthesized by our research group for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. The effect of the selected molecules was confirmed in an in vivo inflammatory model. We also analyzed whether the effects were caused by inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) transcription factor transmigration. Of the eight imidazoles tested, methyl 1-allyl-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-phenyl-1H-imidazole-4-acetate (8) inhibited nitric oxide metabolites and pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β) secretion in J774 macrophages stimulated with LPS. It also attenuated leukocyte migration and exudate formation in the pleural cavity of mice challenged with carrageenan. Furthermore, imidazole 8 reverted the oxidative stress pattern triggered by carrageenan in the pleural cavity by diminishing myeloperoxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione S-transferase activities and reducing the production of nitric oxide metabolites and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. Finally, these effects can be attributed, at least in part, to the ability of this compound to prevent NF-κB transmigration. In this context, our results demonstrate that imidazole 8 has promising potential as a prototype for the development of a new anti-inflammatory drug to treat inflammatory conditions in which NF-κB and oxidative stress play a prominent role. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  20. Thermal Properties of Zeolite-Containing Composites

    PubMed Central

    Shimonosono, Taro; Hirata, Yoshihiro; Nishikawa, Kyohei; Sameshima, Soichiro; Sodeyama, Kenichi; Masunaga, Takuro; Yoshimura, Yukio

    2018-01-01

    A zeolite (mordenite)–pore–phenol resin composite and a zeolite–pore–shirasu glass composite were fabricated by hot-pressing. Their thermal conductivities were measured by a laser flash method to determine the thermal conductivity of the monolithic zeolite with the proposed mixing rule. The analysis using composites is useful for a zeolite powder with no sinterability to clarify its thermal properties. At a low porosity <20%, the thermal conductivity of the composite was in excellent agreement with the calculated value for the structure with phenol resin or shirasu glass continuous phase. At a higher porosity above 40%, the measured value approached the calculated value for the structure with pore continuous phase. The thermal conductivity of the monolithic mordenite was evaluated to be 3.63 W/mK and 1.70–2.07 W/mK at room temperature for the zeolite–pore–phenol resin composite and the zeolite–pore–shirasu glass composite, respectively. The analyzed thermal conductivities of monolithic mordenite showed a minimum value of 1.23 W/mK at 400 °C and increased to 2.51 W/mK at 800 °C. PMID:29534034

  1. Novel antiprotozoal products: imidazole and benzimidazole N-oxide derivatives and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Gabriela; Boiani, Mariana; Cerecetto, Hugo; Gerpe, Alejandra; González, Mercedes; Sainz, Yolanda Fernández; Denicola, Ana; De Ocáriz, Carmen Ochoa; Nogal, Juan José; Montero, David; Escario, José Antonio

    2004-05-01

    The syntheses and biological evaluation of the first anti-protozoa imidazole N-oxide and benzimidazole N-oxide and their derivatives are reported. They were tested in vitro against two different protozoa, Trypanosoma cruzi and Trichomonas vaginalis. Derivative 7c, ethyl-1-(i-butyloxycarbonyloxy)-6-nitrobenzimid-azole-2-carboxylate, displayed activity on both protozoa. Lipophilicity and redox potential were experimentally determined in order to study the relationship with activity of the compounds. These properties are well related with the observed bioactivity. Imidazole and benzimidazole N-oxide derivatives are becoming leaders for further chemical modifications and advanced biological studies.

  2. Poly(arylene ether-co-imidazole)s as toughness modifiers for epoxy resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdaniel, Patricia D. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A toughened epoxy was prepared by reacting an epoxy resin with a poly(arylene ether-co-imidazole)s (PAEI). The epoxy resin comprises N,N,N',N'tetraglycidyl-4,4'- methylenebisbenzenamine and 4-aminophenyl sulfone. The PAEI was prepared by reacting an aromatic bisphenol, a bisphenol imidazole, and an activated aromatic dihalide or dinitro compound in the presence of potassium carbonate in a polar aprotic solvent at an elevated temperature. The epoxies which were modified with these particular PAEI's showed a significant increase in toughness with only a 10 weight percent loading of the PAEI into the epoxy. These toughened epoxies were used to prepare composites and molded parts.

  3. New antiaxillary odour deodorant made with antimicrobial Ag-zeolite (silver-exchanged zeolite).

    PubMed

    Nakane, T; Gomyo, H; Sasaki, I; Kimoto, Y; Hanzawa, N; Teshima, Y; Namba, T

    2006-08-01

    The causative substances for axillary osmidrosis, which are often found in apocrine sweat, are the decomposed/denatured products of short-chain fatty acid and other biological metabolite compounds produced by axillary-resident bacteria. Conventional underarm deodorants suppress the process of odour production mostly by the following mechanism: (1) suppression of perspiration, (2) reduction in numbers of resident bacteria, (3) deodorization and (4) masking. The most important and effective method to reduce odour is to suppress the growth of resident bacteria with antimicrobials, which have several drawbacks, especially in their safety aspect. To solve these problems, we focused on Ag-zeolite (silver-exchanged zeolite) that hold stable Ag, an inorganic bactericidal agent, in its structure, and therefore, poses less risk in safety. Its bactericidal effect on skin-resident bacteria was found to be excellent and comparable with that of triclosan, a most frequently used organic antimicrobial in this product category. The dose-response study of Ag-zeolite powder spray (0-40 w/w%) using 39 volunteers revealed that 5-40 w/w% Ag-zeolite could show a sufficient antimicrobial effect against skin-resident bacteria. The comparison study using 0.2 w/w% triclosan as the control and 10 w/w% Ag-zeolite indicated that: (1) one application of the powder spray containing 10 w/w% Ag-zeolite could show a sufficient antimicrobial effect against the resident bacteria and its effect continued for 24 h, (2) a powder spray containing 0.2 w/w% triclosan was unable to show a sufficient antimicrobial effect, and (3) no adverse event was observed. These studies show that Ag-zeolite has a superior antimicrobial ability that is rarely found in conventional antimicrobials used in deodorant products and a strong antiaxillary odour deodorant ability because of its long-lasting effect. During clinical study, patch tests with humans and other clinical studies of this product showed no adverse events

  4. Spectroscopic study of 2-, 4- and 5-substituents on p Ka values of imidazole heterocycles prone to intramolecular proton-electrons transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eseola, Abiodun O.; Obi-Egbedi, Nelson O.

    2010-02-01

    New 2-(1H-imidazol-2-yl)phenols ( L1Et- L8tBuPt) bearing a phenolic proton in the vicinity of the imidazole base were prepared and characterized. Experimental studies of the dependence of their protonation/deprotonation equilibrium on substituent identities and intramolecular hydrogen bonding tendencies were carried out using electronic absorption spectroscopy at varying pH values. In order to make comparison, 2-(anthracen-10-yl)-4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazole ( L9Anthr) bearing no phenolic proton and 4,5-diphenyl-2-(4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-1H-imidazole ( L10BisIm) bearing two symmetrical imidazole base fragments were also prepared and experimentally investigated. DFT calculations were carried out to study frontier orbitals of the investigated molecules. While electron-releasing substituents produced increase in protonation-deprotonation p Kas for the hydroxyl group, values for the imidazole base were mainly affected by polarization of the imidazole ring aromaticity across the 2-imidazole carbon and the 4,5-imidazole carbons axis of the imidazole ring. It was concluded that electron-releasing substituents on the phenol ring and/or electron-withdrawing substituents on 4,5-imidazole carbons negatively affects donor strengths/coordination chemistries of 2-(1H-imidazol-2-yl)phenols, and vice versa. Change of substituents on the phenol ring significantly altered the donor strength of the imidazole base. The understanding of p Ka variation on account of electronic effects of substituents in this work should aid the understanding of biochemical properties and substituent environments of imidazole-containing biomacromolecules.

  5. ITQ-54: a multi-dimensional extra-large pore zeolite with 20 × 14 × 12-ring channels

    DOE PAGES

    Jiang, Jiuxing; Yun, Yifeng; Zou, Xiaodong; ...

    2015-01-01

    A multi-dimensional extra-large pore silicogermanate zeolite, named ITQ-54, has been synthesised by in situ decomposition of the N,N-dicyclohexylisoindolinium cation into the N-cyclohexylisoindolinium cation. Its structure was solved by 3D rotation electron diffraction (RED) from crystals of ca. 1 μm in size. The structure of ITQ-54 contains straight intersecting 20 × 14 × 12-ring channels along the three crystallographic axes and it is one of the few zeolites with extra-large channels in more than one direction. ITQ-54 has a framework density of 11.1 T atoms per 1000 Å 3, which is one of the lowest among the known zeolites. ITQ-54 wasmore » obtained together with GeO 2 as an impurity. A heavy liquid separation method was developed and successfully applied to remove this impurity from the zeolite. ITQ-54 is stable up to 600 °C and exhibits permanent porosity. The structure was further refined using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) data for both as-made and calcined samples.« less

  6. Zwitterionic versus canonical amino acids over the various defects in zeolites: A two-layer ONIOM calculation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Gang; Zhou, Lijun

    2014-01-01

    Defects are often considered as the active sites for chemical reactions. Here a variety of defects in zeolites are used to stabilize zwitterionic glycine that is not self-stable in gas phase; in addition, effects of acidic strengths and zeolite channels on zwitterionic stabilization are demonstrated. Glycine zwitterions can be stabilized by all these defects and energetically prefer to canonical structures over Al and Ga Lewis acidic sites rather than Ti Lewis acidic site, silanol and titanol hydroxyls. For titanol (Ti-OH), glycine interacts with framework Ti and hydroxyl sites competitively, and the former with Lewis acidity predominates. The transformations from canonical to zwitterionic glycine are obviously more facile over Al and Ga Lewis acidic sites than over Ti Lewis acidic site, titanol and silanol hydroxyls. Charge transfers that generally increase with adsorption energies are found to largely decide the zwitterionic stabilization effects. Zeolite channels play a significant role during the stabilization process. In absence of zeolite channels, canonical structures predominate for all defects; glycine zwitterions remain stable over Al and Ga Lewis acidic sites and only with synergy of H-bonding interactions can exist over Ti Lewis acidic site, while automatically transform to canonical structures over silanol and titanol hydroxyls. PMID:25307449

  7. Zeolite-encapsulated Co(II), Mn(II), Cu(II) and Cr(III) salen complexes as catalysts for efficient selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, F. H.; Bi, H.; Huang, D. X.; Zhang, M.; Song, Y. B.

    2018-01-01

    Co(II), Mn(II), Cu(II) and Cr(III) salen type complexes were synthesized in situ in Y zeolite by the reaction of ion-exchanged metal ions with the flexible ligand molecules that had diffused into the cavities. Data of characterization indicates the formation of metal salen complexes in the pores without affecting the zeolite framework structure, the absence of any extraneous species and the geometry of encapsulated complexes. The catalytic activity results show that Cosalcyen Y exhibited higher catalytic activity in the water phase selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol, which could be attributed to their geometry and the steric environment of the metal actives sites.

  8. Characterization and antibacterial activity of silver exchanged regenerated NaY zeolite from surfactant-modified NaY zeolite.

    PubMed

    Salim, Mashitah Mad; Malek, Nik Ahmad Nizam Nik

    2016-02-01

    The antibacterial activity of regenerated NaY zeolite (thermal treatment from cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB)-modified NaY zeolite and pretreatment with Na ions) loaded with silver ions were examined using the broth dilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method against Escherichia coli (E. coli ATCC 11229) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus ATCC 6538). X-ray diffraction (XRD), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and chemical elemental analyses were used to characterize the regenerated NaY and AgY zeolites. The XRD patterns indicated that the calcination and addition of silver ions on regenerated NaY zeolite did not affect the structure of the regenerated NaY zeolite as the characteristic peaks of the NaY zeolite were retained, and no new peaks were observed. The regenerated AgY zeolite showed good antibacterial activity against both bacteria strains in distilled water, and the antibacterial activity of the samples increased with increasing Ag loaded on the regenerated AgY zeolite; the regenerated AgY zeolite was more effective against E. coli than S. aureus. However, the antibacterial activity of the regenerated AgY was not effective in saline solution for both bacteria. The study showed that CTAB-modified NaY zeolite materials could be regenerated to NaY zeolite using thermal treatment (550°C, 5h) and this material has excellent performance as an antibacterial agent after silver ions loading. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. FUNDAMENTALS AND APPLICATIONS OF PERVAPORATION THROUGH ZEOLITE MEMBRANES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zeolite membranes are well suited for separating liquid-phase mixtures by pervaporation because of their molecular-sized pores and their hydrophilic/hydrophobic nature, and the first commercial application of zeolite membranes has been for dehydrating organics [1]. Because of ...

  10. Selective thermal and photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOEpatents

    Frei, H.; Blatter, F.; Sun, H.

    1999-06-22

    A process is described for selective thermal oxidation or photooxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions or under irradiation with visible light. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts. 19 figs.

  11. Crewmember working on the mid deck Zeolite Crystal Growth experiment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    View showing Payload Specialist Bonnie Dunbar, in the mid deck, conducting the Zeolite Crystal Growth (ZCG) Experiment in the mid deck stowage locker work area. View shows assembly of zeolite sample in the metal autoclave cylinders prior to insertion into the furnace.

  12. Selective thermal oxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOEpatents

    Frei, Heinz; Blatter, Fritz; Sun, Hai

    2000-01-01

    A process for selective thermal oxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly selective thermal oxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls is carried out in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts.

  13. Selective thermal and photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOEpatents

    Frei, Heinz; Blatter, Fritz; Sun, Hai

    2001-01-01

    A process for a combined selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly combined selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions or under irradiation with visible light. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts.

  14. Selective thermal and photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOEpatents

    Frei, Heinz; Blatter, Fritz; Sun, Hai

    1999-01-01

    A process for selective thermal oxidation or photooxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions or under irradiation with visible light. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts.

  15. Zeolites in the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota

    Raymond, William H.; Bush, Alfred L.; Gude, Arthur J.

    1982-01-01

    Zeolites of possible commercial value occur in the Brule Formation of Oligocene age and the Sharps Formation (Harksen, 1961) of Miocene age which crop out in a wide area in the northern part of the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. The thickness of the zeolite-bearing Interval and the extent of areas within the Interval which contain significant amounts of zeolites are far greater than was expected prior to this investigation. The shape of the zeolite-bearing Interval is tabular and the dimensions of Its exposure are roughly 10 ml x 200 mi x 150 ft (16 km x 160 km x 45 m) thick. Within the study area, there are tracts in which the zeolite resource potential is significant (see pl. 2). This report is intended to inform the Oglala Sioux Tribe of some of the most promising zeolite occurrences. Initial steps can then be taken by the Tribe toward possible development of the resources, should they wish to do so. The data contained herein identify areas of high zeolite potential, but are not adequate to establish economic value for the deposits. If development is recommended by the tribal government, we suggest that the tribal government contact companies involved in research and production of natural zeolites and provide them with the data in this report.

  16. Structure modification of natural zeolite for waste removal application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widayatno, W. B.

    2018-03-01

    Tremendous industrialization in the last century has led to the generation of huge amount of waste. One of the recent hot research topics is utilizing any advance materials and methods for waste removal. Natural zeolite as an inexpensive porous material with a high abundance holds a key for efficient waste removal owing to its high surface area. However, the microporous structure of natural zeolite hinders the adsorption of waste with a bigger molecular size. In addition, the recovery of natural zeolite after waste adsorption into its pores should also be considered for continuous utilization of this material. In this study, the porosity of natural zeolite from Tasikmalaya, Indonesia, was hydrothermally-modified in a Teflon-lined autoclave filled with certain pore directing agent such as distilled water, KOH, and NH4OH to obtain hierarchical pore structure. After proper drying process, the as-treated natural zeolite is impregnated with iron cation and heat-treated at specified temperature to get Fe-embedded zeolite structure. XRD observation is carried out to ensure the formation of magnetic phase within the zeolite pores. The analysis results show the formation of maghemite phase (γ-Fe2O3) within the zeolite pore structure.

  17. Oxidation of cyclohexane catalyzed by metal-ion-exchanged zeolites.

    PubMed

    Sökmen, Ilkay; Sevin, Fatma

    2003-08-01

    The ion-exchange rates and capacities of the zeolite NaY for the Cu(II), Co(II), and Pb(II) metal ions were investigated. Ion-exchange equilibria were achieved in approximately 72 h for all the metal ions. The maximum ion exchange of metal ions into the zeolite was found to be 120 mg Pb(II), 110 mg Cu(II), and 100 mg Co(II) per gram of zeolite NaY. It is observed that the exchange capacity of a zeolite varies with the exchanged metal ion and the amount of metal ions exchanged into zeolite decreases in the sequence Pb(II) > Cu(II) > Co(II). Application of the metal-ion-exchanged zeolites in oxidation of cyclohexane in liquid phase with visible light was examined and it is observed that the order of reactivity of the zeolites for the conversion of cyclohexane to cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol is CuY > CoY > PbY. It is found that conversion increases by increase of the empty active sites of a zeolite and the formation of cyclohexanol is favored initially, but the cyclohexanol is subsequently converted to cyclohexanone.

  18. Building zeolites from pre-crystallized units: nanoscale architecture.

    PubMed

    Corma, Avelino; Li, Chengeng; Moliner, Manuel

    2018-01-24

    Since the earlier descriptions by Barrer in the 40's on converting natural minerals into synthetic zeolites, the use of pre-crystallized zeolites as crucial inorganic directing agents to synthesize other crystalline zeolites with improved physico-chemical properties, has become a very intense and relevant research field, allowing the design, particularly in the last years, of new industrial catalysts. In the present review, we will highlight how the presence of some crystalline fragments in the synthesis media, such as small secondary building units (SBUs) or layered substructures, not only favors the crystallization of other zeolites presenting similar SBUs or layers, but also permits mostly controlling important parameters affecting to their catalytic activity (i.e. chemical composition, crystal size, or porosity, among others). In this sense, the recent advances on the preparation of 3-D and 2-D related zeolites through seeding and zeolite-to-zeolite transformation processes will be extensively revised, including their preparation in presence or absence of organic structure directing agents (OSDAs), with the aim of introducing general guidelines for designing more efficient future synthesis approaches for target zeolites. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Adsorption in zeolites using mechanically embedded ONIOM clusters

    DOE PAGES

    Patet, Ryan E.; Caratzoulas, Stavros; Vlachos, Dionisios G.

    2016-09-01

    Here, we have explored mechanically embedded three-layer QM/QM/MM ONIOM models for computational studies of binding in Al-substituted zeolites. In all the models considered, the high-level-theory layer consists of the adsorbate molecule and of the framework atoms within the first two coordination spheres of the Al atom and is treated at the M06-2X/6-311G(2df,p) level. For simplicity, flexibility and routine applicability, the outer, low-level-theory layer is treated with the UFF. We have modelled the intermediate-level layer quantum mechanically and investigated the performance of HF theory and of three DFT functionals, B3LYP, M06-2X and ωB97x-D, for different layer sizes and various basis sets,more » with and without BSSE corrections. We have studied the binding of sixteen probe molecules in H-MFI and compared the computed adsorption enthalpies with published experimental data. We have demonstrated that HF and B3LYP are inadequate for the description of the interactions between the probe molecules and the framework surrounding the metal site of the zeolite on account of their inability to capture dispersion forces. Both M06-2X and ωB97x-D on average converge within ca. 10% of the experimental values. We have further demonstrated transferability of the approach by computing the binding enthalpies of n-alkanes (C1–C8) in H-MFI, H-BEA and H-FAU, with very satisfactory agreement with experiment. The computed entropies of adsorption of n-alkanes in H-MFI are also found to be in good agreement with experimental data. Finally, we compare with published adsorption energies calculated by periodic-DFT for n-C3 to n-C6 alkanes, water and methanol in H-ZSM-5 and find very good agreement.« less

  20. On the Role of Acidity in Bulk and Nanosheet [T]MFI (T=Al3+ , Ga3+, Fe3+, B3+) Zeolites in the Methanol‐to‐Hydrocarbons Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Lingqian; Zhu, Xiaochun; Mezari, Brahim; Pestman, Robert; Wannapakdee, Wannaruedee

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The influence of framework substituents (Al3+, Ga3+, Fe3+ and B3+) and morphology (bulk vs. nanometer‐sized sheets) of MFI zeolites on the acidity and catalytic performance in the methanol‐to‐hydrocarbons (MTH) reaction was investigated. The Brønsted acid density and strength decreased in the order Al(OH)Si>Ga(OH)Si>Fe(OH)Si≫B(OH)Si. Pyridine 15N NMR spectra confirmed the differences in the Brønsted and Lewis acid strengths but also provided evidence for site heterogeneity in the Brønsted acid sites. Owing to the lower efficiency with which tervalent ions can be inserted into the zeolite framework, sheet‐like zeolites exhibited lower acidity than bulk zeolites. The sheet‐like Al‐containing MFI zeolite exhibited the greatest longevity as a MTH catalyst, outperforming its bulk [Al]MFI counterpart. Although the lower acidity of bulk [Ga]MFI led to a better catalytic performance than bulk [Al]MFI, the sheet‐like [Ga]MFI sample was found to be nearly inactive owing to lower and heterogeneous Brønsted acidity. All Fe‐ and B‐substituted zeolite samples displayed very low catalytic performance owing to their weak acidity. Based on the product distribution, the MTH reaction was found to be dominated by the olefins‐based catalytic cycle. The small contribution of the aromatics‐based catalytic cycle was larger for bulk zeolite than for sheet‐like zeolite, indicating that shorter residence time of aromatics can explain the lower tendency toward coking and enhanced catalyst longevity. PMID:29201243

  1. Fly ash based zeolitic pigments for application in anticorrosive paints

    SciT

    Shaw, Ruchi, E-mail: shawruchi1@gmail.com; Tiwari, Sangeeta, E-mail: stiwari2@amity.edu

    2016-04-13

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the utilization of waste fly ash in anticorrosive paints. Zeolite NaY was synthesized from waste fly ash and subsequently modified by exchanging its nominal cation Na{sup +} with Mg{sup 2+} and Ca{sup 2+} ions. The metal ion exchanged zeolite was then used as anticorrosive zeolitic pigments in paints. The prepared zeolite NaY was characterized using X-Ray diffraction technique and Scanning electron microscopy. The size, shape and density of the prepared fly ash based pigments were determined by various techniques. The paints were prepared by using fly ash based zeolitic pigments in epoxymore » resin and the percentages of pigments used in paints were 2% and 5%. These paints were applied to the mild steel panels and the anticorrosive properties of the pigments were assessed by the electrochemical spectroscopy technique (EIS).« less

  2. Preparation of a Versatile Bifunctional Zeolite for Targeted Imaging Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ndiege, Nicholas; Raidoo, Renugan; Schultz, Michael K.; Larsen, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Bifunctional zeolite Y was prepared for use in targeted in vivo molecular imaging applications. The strategy involved functionalization of the external surface of zeolite Y with chloropropyltriethoxysilane followed by reaction with sodium azide to form azide-functionalized NaY, which is amenable to copper(1) catalyzed click chemistry. In this study, a model alkyne (4-pentyn-1-ol) was attached to the azide-terminated surface via click chemistry to demonstrate feasibility for attachment of molecular targeting vectors (e.g., peptides, aptamers) to the zeolite surface. The modified particle efficiently incorporates the imaging radioisotope gallium-68 (68Ga) into the pores of the azide-functionalized NaY zeolite to form a stable bifunctional molecular targeting vector. The result is a versatile “clickable” zeolite platform that can be tailored for future in vivo molecular targeting and imaging modalities. PMID:21306141

  3. Synthesis and Structural Characterization of the Aluminosilicate LZ-135, a Zeolite Related to ZSM-10

    SciT

    McCusker, Lynne B.; Baerlocher, Christian; Wilson, Stephen T.

    2009-09-02

    The aluminosilicate LZ-135 was one of the first zeolites to be prepared in the presence of two or more organic structure-directing agents (in this case, Me{sub 4}N{sup +} (TMA) and Et{sub 4}N{sup +} (TEA)) and was patented 20 years ago. However, the material was polycrystalline, and at the time, its aluminosilicate framework structure could not be determined. In view of the fact that methods of structure determination from powder diffraction data have developed considerably in the meantime, a fresh analysis of the problem was undertaken. High-resolution synchrotron powder diffraction data were collected on a calcined sample of LZ-135 (as synthesizedmore » composition ca. |Na{sub 26}TMA{sub 6}|[Si{sub 76}Al{sub 32}O{sub 216}]), and the new powder charge-flipping structure-solution algorithm was applied. The framework structure (P6{sub 3}/mmc; a = 31.3830(2) {angstrom}, c = 7.6513(1) {angstrom}) was revealed immediately, and then the positions of the Na{sup +} ions and a few water molecules were located in a series of difference electron density maps. The [001] projection of the framework structure is identical to that of ZSM-10 (P6{sub 3}/mmm), but the (up-down) orientations of the (Si,Al) tetrahedra, and therefore their connectivities, are different, and this leads to a distinctly different topology with two 1-dimensional, 12-ring channel systems with effective pore widths of 7.2 and 6.5 {angstrom}. The new framework has been assigned the framework type code LTF by the International Zeolite Association. The framework structures of LZ-135 and ZSM-10 are related to one another in the same way as are those of mazzite and zeolite L. Approximately 27.5 Na{sup +} ions were located in six different sites, and all are coordinated to oxygen atoms of the framework. Twelve H{sub 2}O molecules per unit cell are associated with one of the Na{sup +} ion positions, where they serve to complete an octahedral coordination geometry around the ion, and 5.2 are located in the larger

  4. Oxidative regeneration of toluene-saturated natural zeolite by gaseous ozone: the influence of zeolite chemical surface characteristics.

    PubMed

    Alejandro, Serguei; Valdés, Héctor; Manéro, Marie-Hélène; Zaror, Claudio A

    2014-06-15

    In this study, the effect of zeolite chemical surface characteristics on the oxidative regeneration of toluene saturated-zeolite samples is investigated. A Chilean natural zeolite (53% clinoptilolite, 40% mordenite and 7% quartz) was chemically modified by acid treatment with hydrochloric acid and by ion-exchange with ammonium sulphate. Thermal pre-treatments at 623 and 823K were applied and six zeolite samples with different chemical surface characteristics were generated. Chemical modification of natural zeolite followed by thermal out-gassing allows distinguishing the role of acidic surface sites on the regeneration of exhausted zeolites. An increase in Brønsted acid sites on zeolite surface is observed as a result of ammonium-exchange treatment followed by thermal treatment at 623K, thus increasing the adsorption capacity toward toluene. High ozone consumption could be associated to a high content of Lewis acid sites, since these could decompose ozone into atomic active oxygen species. Then, surface oxidation reactions could take part among adsorbed toluene at Brønsted acid sites and surface atomic oxygen species, reducing the amount of adsorbed toluene after the regenerative oxidation with ozone. Experimental results show that the presence of adsorbed oxidation by-products has a negative impact on the recovery of zeolite adsorption capacity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Zeolite Na-Y and Its Conversion to the Solid Acid Zeolite H-Y

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Terence E.; Klokker, Mads Galsgaard; Nielsen, Ulla Gro

    2017-01-01

    Zeolite Y has an iconic crystal structure, but more importantly, the hydrogen modification zeolite H-Y is the classic example of a solid acid which is used extensively as a catalyst in the oil industry. This metastable compound cannot be synthesized directly, which creates an opportunity to discuss various preparative strategies with the students,…

  6. Applications of zeolites in biotechnology and medicine - a review.

    PubMed

    Bacakova, Lucie; Vandrovcova, Marta; Kopova, Ivana; Jirka, Ivan

    2018-05-01

    Zeolites are microporous tectosilicates of natural or synthetic origin, which have been extensively used in various technological applications, e.g. as catalysts and as molecular sieves, for separating and sorting various molecules, for water and air purification, including removal of radioactive contaminants, for harvesting waste heat and solar heat energy, for adsorption refrigeration, as detergents, etc. These applications of zeolites were typically related with their porous character, their high adsorption capacity, and their ion exchange properties. This review is focused on potential or already practically implemented applications of zeolites in biotechnology and medicine. Zeolites are promising for environment protection, detoxication of animal and human organisms, improvement of the nutrition status and immunity of farm animals, separation of various biomolecules and cells, construction of biosensors and detection of biomarkers of various diseases, controlled drug and gene delivery, radical scavenging, and particularly tissue engineering and biomaterial coating. As components of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering, zeolites can deliver oxygen to cells, can stimulate osteogenic cell differentiation, and can inhibit bone resorption. Zeolites can also act as oxygen reservoirs, and can improve cell performance in vascular and skin tissue engineering and wound healing. When deposited on metallic materials for bone implantation, zeolite films showed anticorrosion effects, and improved the osseointegration of these implants. In our studies, silicalite-1 films deposited on silicon or stainless steel substrates improved the adhesion, growth, viability and osteogenic differentiation of human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells. Zeolites have been clinically used as components of haemostatics, e.g. in the Advanced Clotting Sponge, as gastroprotective drugs, e.g. Absorbatox® 2.4D, or as antioxidative agents (Klinobind®). Some zeolites are highly cytotoxic and carcinogenic

  7. Synthesis and characterization of zeolite from coal fly ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong; Luo, Qiong; Wang, Guodong; Li, Xianlong; Na, Ping

    2018-05-01

    Fly ash (FA) from coal-based thermal power plant was used to synthesize zeolite in NaOH solution with hydrothermal method in this work. Firstly, the effects of calcination and acid treatment on the removal of impurities in fly ash were studied. Then based on the pretreated FA, the effects of alkali concentration, reaction temperature and Si/Al ratio on the synthesis of zeolite were studied in detail. The mineralogy, morphology, thermal behavior, infrared spectrum and specific surface for the synthetic sample were investigated. The results indicated that calcination at 750 °C for 1.5 h can basically remove unburned carbon from FA, and 4 M hydrochloric acid treatment of calcined FA at 90 °C for 2 h will reduce the quality of about 34.3%wt, which are mainly iron, calcium and sulfur elements. The concentration of NaOH, reaction temperature and Si/Al ratio have important effect on the synthesis of zeolite. In this study, 0.5 M NaOH cannot obtain any zeolite. High temperature is beneficial to zeolite synthesis from FA, but easily lead to a variety of zeolites. The synthetic sample contains three kinds of zeolites such as zeolite P, sodalite and zeolite X, when the reaction conditions are 2 M NaOH and 120 °C for 24 h. In this research, quartz always exists in the synthetic sample, but will reduce with the increase of temperature. The synthetic zeolite has the specific surface area of about 42 m2 g‑1 and better thermal stability.

  8. Effects on transport of rapidly penetrating, competing substrates: activation and inhibition of the choline carrier in erythrocytes by imidazole.

    PubMed

    Devés, R; Krupka, R M

    1987-01-01

    The properties of the choline transport system are fundamentally altered in saline solution containing 5 mM imidazole buffer instead of 5 mM phosphate: (i) The system no longer exhibits accelerated exchange. (ii) Choline in the external compartment fails to increase the rate of inactivation of the carrier by N-ethylmaleimide. (iii) Depending on the relative concentrations of choline and imidazole, transport may be activated or inhibited. The maximum rates are increased more than fivefold by imidazole, but at moderate substrate concentrations activation is observed with low concentrations of imidazole and inhibition with high concentrations. (iv) The imidazole effect is asymmetric, there being a greater tendency to activate exit than entry. All this behavior is predicted by the carrier model if imidazole is a substrate of the choline carrier having a high maximum transport rate but a relatively low affinity, and if imidazole rapidly enters the cell by simple diffusion, so that it can add to carrier sites on both sides of the membrane. Addition at the cis side inhibits, and at the trans side activates. According to the carrier model, asymmetry is a necessary consequence of the potassium ion gradient in red cells, potassium ion being another substrate of the choline system.

  9. Metal-containing Complexes of Lactams, Imidazoles, and Benzimidazoles and Their Biological Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukalenko, S. S.; Bovykin, B. A.; Shestakova, S. I.; Omel'chenko, A. M.

    1985-07-01

    The results of the latest investigations of the problem of the synthesis of metal-containing complexes of lactams, imidazoles, and benzimidazoles, their structure, and their stability in solutions are surveyed. Some data on their biological activity (pesticide and pharmacological) and the mechanism of their physiological action are presented. The bibliography includes 190 references.

  10. Synthesis and potential cytotoxic activity of some new benzoxazoles, imidazoles, benzimidazoles and tetrazoles.

    PubMed

    Arulmurugan, Subramaniyan; Kavitha, Helen P

    2013-06-01

    2 The present work deals with the synthesis of some novel heterocyclic compounds such as benzoxazoles , 7, 13 and 19, imidazoles 3, 8, 14 and 20, benzimidazoles 4, 9, 15 and 21, and tetrazoles 10, 16, and 22. The synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, 1H NMR, mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. The compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines such as MCF-7 (breast cancer) and HT-29 (colon cancer) by the MTT assay method. Among the tested compounds, 4,4'-sulfonylbis(N-(2-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol- -2-yl)ethyl)aniline (9), N-bis(2-(benzo[d]oxazol-2-yl)-ethyl)- 6-phenyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (13), N-bis(2-(1H-benzo[ d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)-6-phenyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (15) and N-tris(2-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)ethyl)- 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine (21) showed potent cytotoxicity.

  11. Interaction of dopamine beta-mono-oxygenase with substituted imidazoles and pyrazoles. Catalysis and inhibition.

    PubMed Central

    Sirimanne, S R; Herman, H H; May, S W

    1987-01-01

    The interaction of dopamine beta-mono-oxygenase (DBM) with substrate analogues possessing either imidazole or pyrazole functionalities at the alkyl chain terminus was investigated. 1-(4-Hydroxybenzyl)imidazole (4-HOBI) is an active substrate for DBM, and it exhibits the expected ascorbate- and fumarate-dependencies and normal kinetic behaviour at concentrations up to 10 mM. 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde was identified as the product formed from 4-HOBI on the basis of h.p.l.c. and g.c.-m.s. analysis, and its formation exhibits the expected 1:1 stoichiometry with O2 consumption. The 4-HOBI/DBM reaction is kinetically comparable with other DBM activities, and 4-HOBI is the first substrate analogue yet reported that exhibits substantial activity though lacking a terminal amino group. Introduction of a methyl substituent at the 2-position of the imidazole ring abolishes substrate activity, probably through a steric effect. 1-(4-Hydroxybenzyl)pyrazole, where imidazole is replaced by the isomeric pyrazole moiety, is a potent DBM inhibitor, and not a substrate. These results represent the first report of an active heterocyclic substrate or inhibitor for this enzyme, and establish the basis for the design of new classes of DBM substrates and inhibitors. PMID:3593236

  12. Structural, photophysical, and theoretical studies of imidazole-based excited-state intramolecular proton transfer molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somasundaram, Sivaraman; Kamaraj, Eswaran; Hwang, Su Jin; Park, Sanghyuk

    2018-02-01

    Imidazole-based excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) blue fluorescent molecules, 2-(1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)phenol (BHPI-Cl) and 2-(1-(4-bromophenyl)-4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)phenol (BHPI-Br) were designed and synthesized by Debus-Radziszewski method through a one-pot multicomponent reaction in high yield. The synthesized compounds were fully characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, FT-IR, FT-Raman, GC-Mass, and elemental analysis. The molecular structures in single crystal lattice were studied by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Because of the intramolecular hydrogen bonding, hydroxyphenyl group is planar to the central imidazole ring, while the other phenyl rings gave distorted conformations to the central heterocyclic ring. BHPI-Cl and BHPI-Br molecules showed intense ESIPT fluorescence at 480 nm, because the two twisted phenyl rings on 4- and 5-positions have reduced intermolecular interaction between adjacent molecules in each crystal through a head-to-tail packing manner. Quantum chemical calculations of energies were carried out by (TD-)DFT using B3LYP/6-31G(d, p) basis set to predict the electronic absorption spectra of the compounds, and they showed good agreement between the computational and the experimental values. The thermal analyses of the synthesized molecules were also carried out by TGA/DSC method.

  13. γ-Alumina Nanoparticle Catalyzed Efficient Synthesis of Highly Substituted Imidazoles.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Bandapalli Palakshi; Vijayakumar, Vijayaparthasarathi; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2015-10-21

    γ-Alumina nano particle catalyzed multi component reaction of benzil, arylaldehyde and aryl amines afforded the highly substituted 1,2,4,5-tetraaryl imidazoles with good to excellent yield in less reaction time under the sonication as well as the conventional methods. Convenient operational simplicity, mild conditions and the reusability of catalyst were the other advantages of this developed protocol.

  14. Geometry of AN Isolated Dimer of Imidazole Characterised by Rotational Spectroscopy and AB Initio Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullaney, John C.; Zaleski, Daniel P.; Tew, David Peter; Walker, Nick; Legon, Anthony

    2016-06-01

    An isolated, gas-phase dimer of imidazole is generated through laser vaporisation of a solid rod containing a 1:1 mixture of imidazole and copper in the presence of an argon buffer gas undergoing supersonic expansion. The complex is characterised through broadband rotational spectroscopy and is shown to have a twisted, hydrogen-bonded geometry. Calculations at the CCSD(T)(F12*)/cc-pVDZ-F12 level of theory confirm this to be the lowest-energy conformer of the imidazole dimer. The distance between the respective centres of mass of the imidazole monomer subunits is determined to be 5.2751(1) Å, and the twist angle γ describing rotation of one monomer with respect to the other about a line connecting the centres of mass of the monomers is determined to be 87.9(4)o. Four out of six intermolecular parameters in the model geometry are precisely determined from the experimental rotational constants and are consistent with results calculated ab initio.

  15. Effect of Fatty Acyl Group and Sterol Composition on Sensitivity of Lecithin Liposomes to Imidazole Antimycotics

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Iwata, Kazuo

    1979-01-01

    The specific affinity for membrane lipids and the membrane selectivity of three imidazole derivatives, clotrimazole, miconazole, and econazole, were studied using various types of liposomes with respect to the lecithin fatty acyl group composition and the liposome content and composition of sterol as membrane models. The sensitivity of liposomes to these drugs was primarily dependent upon the lecithin fatty acyl group composition. With sterol-free liposome systems, each imidazole induced maximum release of trapped glucose as a marker from the unsaturated dioleoyl lecithin liposomes, minimum release from the saturated dipalmitoyl lecithin liposomes, and intermediate release from egg lecithin liposomes. The sensitivity of the dipalmitoyl lecithin liposomes to any imidazole drug was not influenced by the incorporation of cholesterol or ergosterol. On the other hand, clotrimazole-induced permeability changes of liposomes prepared from unsaturated dioleoyl lecithin or egg lecithin were greatly enhanced by the incorporation of ergosterol, whereas they were suppressed by cholesterol incorporation. The sensitivity of liposomes prepared from these unsaturated lecithins to miconazole and econazole was also augmented by ergosterol incorporation, although it was scarcely altered by cholesterol incorporation. Negatively charged liposomes were more sensitive to the three imidazole drugs than positively charged liposomes. PMID:525988

  16. Effect of fatty acyl group and sterol composition on sensitivity of lecithin liposomes to imidazole antimycotics.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, H; Iwata, K

    1979-05-01

    The specific affinity for membrane lipids and the membrane selectivity of three imidazole derivatives, clotrimazole, miconazole, and econazole, were studied using various types of liposomes with respect to the lecithin fatty acyl group composition and the liposome content and composition of sterol as membrane models. The sensitivity of liposomes to these drugs was primarily dependent upon the lecithin fatty acyl group composition. With sterol-free liposome systems, each imidazole induced maximum release of trapped glucose as a marker from the unsaturated dioleoyl lecithin liposomes, minimum release from the saturated dipalmitoyl lecithin liposomes, and intermediate release from egg lecithin liposomes. The sensitivity of the dipalmitoyl lecithin liposomes to any imidazole drug was not influenced by the incorporation of cholesterol or ergosterol. On the other hand, clotrimazole-induced permeability changes of liposomes prepared from unsaturated dioleoyl lecithin or egg lecithin were greatly enhanced by the incorporation of ergosterol, whereas they were suppressed by cholesterol incorporation. The sensitivity of liposomes prepared from these unsaturated lecithins to miconazole and econazole was also augmented by ergosterol incorporation, although it was scarcely altered by cholesterol incorporation. Negatively charged liposomes were more sensitive to the three imidazole drugs than positively charged liposomes.

  17. Disrupting the PCSK9/LDLR protein-protein interaction by an imidazole-based minimalist peptidomimetic.

    PubMed

    Stucchi, Mattia; Grazioso, Giovanni; Lammi, Carmen; Manara, Silvia; Zanoni, Chiara; Arnoldi, Anna; Lesma, Giordano; Silvani, Alessandra

    2016-10-18

    Herein we report on the multicomponent synthesis of a novel imidazole-based compound, able to act efficiently as a minimalist β-strand mimic. Biological evaluation proved its ability to impair the LDLR-PCSK9 protein-protein interaction, disclosing it as the first small molecule exerting a PCSK9-mediated hypocholesterolemic effect.

  18. From average to local structure: a Rietveld and an atomic pair distribution function (PDF) study of selenium clusters in zeolite-NdY.

    PubMed

    Abeykoon, A M Milinda; Donner, Wolfgang; Brunelli, Michela; Castro-Colin, Miguel; Jacobson, Allan J; Moss, Simon C

    2009-09-23

    The structure of Se particles in the approximately 13 A diameter alpha-cages of zeolite NdY has been determined by Rietveld refinement and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of X-ray data. With the diffuse scattering subtracted an average structure comprised of an undistorted framework containing nanoclusters of 20 Se atoms is observed. The intracluster correlations and the cluster-framework correlations which give rise to diffuse scattering were modeled by using PDF analysis.

  19. Silver Clusters in Zeolites: From Self-Assembly to Ground-Breaking Luminescent Properties.

    PubMed

    Coutiño-Gonzalez, Eduardo; Baekelant, Wouter; Steele, Julian A; Kim, Cheol Woong; Roeffaers, Maarten B J; Hofkens, Johan

    2017-09-19

    Interest for functional silver clusters (Ag-CLs) has rapidly grown over years due to large advances in the field of nanoscale fabrication and materials science. The continuous development of strategies to fabricate small-scale silver clusters, together with their interesting physicochemical properties (molecule-like discrete energy levels, for example), make them very attractive for a wide variety of applied research fields, from biotechnology and the environmental sciences to fundamental chemistry and physics. Apart from useful catalytic properties, silver clusters (Ag n , n < 10) were recently shown to also exhibit exceptional optical properties. The optical properties and performance of Ag-CLs offer strong potential for their integration into appealing micro(nano)-optoelectronic devices. To date, however, the rational design and directed synthesis of Ag-CLs with specific functionalities has remained elusive. The inability for rational design stems mainly from a lack of understanding of their novel atomic-scale phenomena. This is because accurately studying silver cluster systems at such a scale is hindered by the perturbations introduced during exposure to various experimental probes. For instance, silver possesses a strong tendency to cluster and form ever-larger Ag aggregates while probed with high-energy electron beams and X-ray irradiation. As well, there exists a need to provide a stabilizing environment for which Ag n δ+ clusters can persist, setting up a complex interacting guest-host system, as isolated silver clusters are confined within a suitable hosting medium. Fundamental research into Ag n δ+ formation mechanisms and their important optical properties is paramount to establishing truly informed synthesis protocols. Over recent years, we have developed several protocols for the ship-in-a-bottle synthesis of highly luminescent Ag-CLs within the microporous interiors of zeolite frameworks. This approach has yielded materials displaying a wide

  20. Molecular Nanoparks for CWAs, TICs, and TIMs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-11

    Symposium on Macrocyclic and Supramolecular Chemistry, June 2010, Nara, Japan (Plenary talk). O. M. Yaghi, Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks, 5th...International Zeolite Membrane Meeting, May 2010, Loutraki, Greece (Plenary talk). O. M. Yaghi, Reticular chemistry and its applications to clean energy...highest uptake capacity (15 mol/kg, 298 K, 1 bar) of any porous material, including zeolite , cation exchange resin, and mesoporous silica. 4. The gas

  1. Preparation of ionic liquid modified magnetic metal-organic frameworks composites for the solid-phase extraction of α-chymotrypsin.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Yuzhi; Chen, Jing; Xu, Panli; Zhou, Yigang

    2018-05-15

    A novel magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) method based on 1-hexyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ionic liquid (IL) modified magnetic Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles, hydroxylated multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-OH) and zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) nanocomposites (Fe 3 O 4 -MWCNTs-OH@ZIF-67@IL) were proposed and applied to extract α-chymotrypsin. The magnetic materials were synthesized successfully and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and zeta potentials. Subsequently, the UV-vis spectrophotometer at about 280 nm was utilized to quantitatively analyze the α-chymotrypsin concentration in the supernatant. Furthermore, single factor experiments revealed that the extraction capacity was influenced by initial α-chymotrypsin concentration, ionic strength, extraction time, extraction temperature and pH value. The extraction capacity could reach up to about 635 mg g -1 under the optimized conditions, absolutely higher than that of extraction for Ovalbumin (OVA), Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and Bovine hemoglobin (BHb). In addition, the regeneration studies showed Fe 3 O 4 -MWCNTs-OH@ZIF-67@IL particles could be reused several times and kept a high extraction capacity. Besides, the study of enzymatic activity also indicated that the activity of the extracted α-chymotrypsin was well maintained 93% of initial activity. What's more, the proposed method was successfully applied to extract α-chymotrypsin in porcine pancreas crude extract with satisfactory results. All of above conclusions highlight the great potential of the proposed Fe 3 O 4 -MWCNTs-OH@ZIF-67@IL-MSPE method in the analysis of biomolecules. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Design and characterization of chitosan/zeolite composite films--Effect of zeolite type and zeolite dose on the film properties.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Gustavo P; Debone, Henrique S; Severino, Patrícia; Souto, Eliana B; da Silva, Classius F

    2016-03-01

    Chitosan films can be used as wound dressings for the treatment of chronic wounds and severe burns. The antimicrobial properties of these films may be enhanced by the addition of silver. Despite the antimicrobial activity of silver, several studies have reported the cytotoxicity as a factor limiting its biomedical applications. This problem may, however, be circumvented by the provision of sustained release of silver. Silver zeolites can be used as drug delivery platforms to extend the release of silver. The objective of this study was to evaluate the addition of clinoptilolite and A-type zeolites in chitosan films. Sodium zeolites were initially subjected to ion-exchange in a batch reactor. Films were prepared by casting technique using a 2% w/w chitosan solution and two zeolite doses (0.1 or 0.2% w/w). Films were characterized by thermal analysis, color analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and water vapor permeation. The results showed that films present potential for application as dressing. The water vapor permeability is one of the main properties in wound dressings, the best results were obtained for A-type zeolite/chitosan films, which presented a brief reduction of this property in relation to zeolite-free chitosan film. On the other hand, the films containing clinoptilolite showed lower water vapor permeation, which may be also explained by the best distribution of the particles into the polymer which also promoted greater thermal resistance.

  3. Structural analysis of hierarchically organized zeolites

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Sharon; Pinar, Ana B.; Kenvin, Jeffrey; Crivelli, Paolo; Kärger, Jörg; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Advances in materials synthesis bring about many opportunities for technological applications, but are often accompanied by unprecedented complexity. This is clearly illustrated by the case of hierarchically organized zeolite catalysts, a class of crystalline microporous solids that has been revolutionized by the engineering of multilevel pore architectures, which combine unique chemical functionality with efficient molecular transport. Three key attributes, the crystal, the pore and the active site structure, can be expected to dominate the design process. This review examines the adequacy of the palette of techniques applied to characterize these distinguishing features and their catalytic impact. PMID:26482337

  4. Growth of large zeolite crystals in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacco, A., Jr.; Dixon, A.; Thompson, R.; Scott, G.; Ditr, J.

    1988-01-01

    Synthesis studies performed using close analogs of triethanolamine (TEA) have shown that all three hydroxyl groups and the amine group in this molecule are necessary to provide nucleation suppression. Studies using C-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) revealed that the hydroxyl ions and the amine group are involved in the formation of an aluminum complex. It was also shown that silicate species fo not interact this way with TEA in an alkaline solution. These results suggest that successful aluminum complexation leads to nucleation in zeolite-A crystallization.

  5. Low-Temperature Pd/Zeolite Passive NO x Adsorbers: Structure, Performance, and Adsorption Chemistry

    SciT

    Zheng, Yang; Kovarik, Libor; Engelhard, Mark H.

    Pd/zeolite passive NOx adsorber (PNA) materials were prepared with solution ion-exchange between NH4/zeolites (Beta, ZSM-5 and SSZ-13) and PdCl2 solutions. The nature of Pd (dispersion, distribution and oxidation states) in these materials was characterized with Na+ ion-exchange, TEM imaging, CO titration with FTIR and in situ XPS. The NOx trapping and release properties were tested using feeds with different compositions. It is concluded that multiple Pd species coexist in these materials: atomically dispersed Pd in the cationic sites of zeolites, and PdO2 and PdO particles on the external surfaces. While Pd is largely atomically dispersed in ZSM-5, the small poremore » opening for SSZ-13 inhibits Pd diffusion such that the majority of Pd stays as external surface PdO2 clusters. NOx trapping and release are not simple chemisorption and desorption events, but involve rather complex chemical reactions. In the absence of CO in the feed, cationic Pd(II) sites with oxygen ligands and PdO2 clusters are reduced by NO to Pd(I) and PdO clusters. These reduced sites are the primary NO adsorption sites. In the presence of H2O, the as-formed NO2 desorb immediately. In the presence of CO in the feed, metallic Pd, “naked” Pd2+, and Pd+ sites are responsible for NO adsorption. For Pd adsorption sites with the same oxidation states but in different zeolite frameworks, NO binding energies are not expected to vary greatly. However, NO release temperatures do vary substantially with different zeolite structures. This indicates that NO transport within these materials play an important role in determining release temperatures. Finally, some rational design principles on efficient PNA materials are suggested. The authors gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office for the support of this work. The research described in this paper was performed in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory

  6. Preparation, Processing, and Characterization of Oriented Polycrystalline Zeolite and Aluminophosphate Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoeger, Jared Andrew

    Since the advent of zeolite membranes, speculation on their industrial applicability has been closely monitored, although widespread commercialization has been hampered by limitations in fabrication and post-synthesis processing. Economical, energy-efficient technology breakthroughs require an evaluation of a range of material candidates which show robustness and reliability. Straightforward manufacturing techniques should be devised to generate thousands of square meters of membrane area; however, this demands control of structural characteristics on the scale of nanometers. As described in this dissertation, the path forward will be forged by exploiting the intrinsic crystalline properties of zeolites or aluminophosphates for the next advancement in membrane technology. A facile method is described for the preparation of silicalite-1 (MFI zeolite type) membranes using the secondary growth technique on symmetric porous stainless steel tubes. Activation through rapid thermal processing (RTP), a lamp-based heat-treatment process used as a critical fabrication step in silicon integrated circuit manufacturing, is proven to reduce the density of non-zeolitic transport pathways which are detrimental to high-resolution molecular sieving. RTP-treated membranes are shown to have enhanced performance in the binary separation of vapor-phase isomers (p-/o-xylene), gas-phase isomers (n-/i-butane), and alcohol/water when compared to membranes activated at a much slower heating rate but otherwise similarly-prepared. The performance is discussed in the context of the market potential for industrially-attractive separations: the recovery of p-xylene from an isomeric mixture or alcohol biofuels from aqueous post-fermentation streams. Hydrothermal growth techniques for the preparation and characterization of continuous aluminophosphate (AFI zeolite type) membranes with a preferential crystallographic alignment on porous alpha-Al2O3 disc supports are demonstrated. A mechanism is

  7. 'water splitting' by titanium exchanged zeolite A. Technical report

    SciT

    Kuznicki, S.M.; Eyring, E.M.

    1978-09-01

    Visually detectable and chromatographically and mass spectrally identified hydrogen gas evolves from titanium (III) exchanged zeolite A immersed in water and illuminated with visible light. Titanium(III) exchanged zeolite X and zeolite Y do not produce this reaction. A photochemically produced, oxygenated titanium free radical (detected by electron spin resonance) not previously described is the species in the zeolite that reduces protons to molecular hydrogen. The other product of this reduction step is a nonradical, oxygenated titanium species of probable empirical formula TiO4. Heating the spent oxygenated titanium containing zeolite A under vacuum at 375 C restores over fifty percent ofmore » the free radical. Unlike previously reported systems, heating does not restore the original aquotitanium(III) species in the zeolite. Thus a means other than heating must be found to achieve a closed photochemical cycle that harnesses visible solar energy in the production of molecular hydrogen. The titanium exchanged zeolite A does, however, lend itself to a thermolysis of water previously described by Kasai and Bishop. (Author)« less

  8. Zeolite Crystal Growth (ZCG) Flight on USML-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacco, Albert, Jr.; Bac, Nurcan; Warzywoda, Juliusz; Guray, Ipek; Marceau, Michelle; Sacco, Teran L.; Whalen, Leah M.

    1997-01-01

    The extensive use of zeolites and their impact on the world's economy has resulted in many efforts to characterize their structure, and improve the knowledge base for nucleation and growth of these crystals. The zeolite crystal growth (ZCG) experiment on USML-2 aimed to enhance the understanding of nucleation and growth of zeolite crystals, while attempting to provide a means of controlling the defect concentration in microgravity. Zeolites A, X, Beta, and Silicalite were grown during the 16 day - USML-2 mission. The solutions where the nucleation event was controlled yielded larger and more uniform crystals of better morphology and purity than their terrestrial/control counterparts. The external surfaces of zeolite A, X, and Silicalite crystals grown in microgravity were smoother (lower surface roughness) than their terrestrial controls. Catalytic studies with zeolite Beta indicate that crystals grown in space exhibit a lower number of Lewis acid sites located in micropores. This suggests fewer structural defects for crystals grown in microgravity. Transmission electron micrographs (TEM) of zeolite Beta crystals also show that crystals grown in microgravity were free of line defects while terrestrial/controls had substantial defects.

  9. Fabrication of 6FDA-durene membrane incorporated with zeolite T and aminosilane grafted zeolite T for CO2/CH4 separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jusoh, Norwahyu; Fong Yeong, Yin; Keong Lau, Kok; Shariff, Azmi Mohd

    2017-08-01

    In the present work, zeolite T and aminosilane grafted zeolite T are embedded into 6FDA-durene polyimide phase for the fabrication of mixed matrix membranes (MMMs). FESEM images demonstrated that the improvement of interfacial adhesion between zeolite and polymer phases in MMM loaded with aminosilane grafted zeolite T was not significant as compared to zeolite T/6FDA-durene MMM. From the gas permeation test, CO2/CH4 selectivity up to 26.4 was achieved using MMM containing aminosilane grafted zeolite T, while MMM loaded with ungrafted zeolite T showed CO2/CH4 selectivity of 19.1. In addition, MMM incorporated with aminosilane grafted zeolite T particles successfully lies on Robeson upper bound 2008, which makes it an attractive candidate for CO2/CH4 separation.

  10. Syntheses, crystal structures, and properties of four complexes based on polycarboxylate and imidazole ligands

    SciT

    Qiao, Rui; Chen, Shui-Sheng, E-mail: chenss@fync.edu.cn; Coordination Chemistry Institute, State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093

    2015-08-15

    Four metal–organic coordination polymers [Zn(HL)(H{sub 2}O)]·4H{sub 2}O (1), [Zn(HL)(L{sub 1})]·4H{sub 2}O (2), [Cu(HL)(H{sub 2}O)]·3H{sub 2}O (3) and [Cu(HL)(L{sub 1})]·5H{sub 2}O (4) were synthesized by reactions of the corresponding metal(II) salts with semirigid polycarboxylate ligand (5-((4-carboxypiperidin-1-yl)methyl)isophthalic acid hydrochloride, H{sub 3}L·HCl) or auxiliary ligand (1,4-di(1H-imidazol-4-yl)benzene, L{sub 1}). The structures of the compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The use of auxiliary ligand L{sub 1} has great influence on the structures of two pairs of complexes 1, 2 and 3, 4. Complex 1 is a uninodal 3-connected rare 2-fold interpenetrating ZnSc net with a Point (Schlafli) symbolmore » of (10{sup 3}) while 2 is a one-dimensional (1D) ladder structure. Compound 3 features a two-dimensional (2D) honeycomb network with typical 6{sup 3}-hcb topology, while 4 is 2D network with (4, 4) sql topology based on binuclear Cu{sup II} subunits. The non-covalent bonding interactions such as hydrogen bonds, π···π stacking and C–H···π exist in complexes 1–4, which contributes to stabilize crystal structure and extend the low-dimensional entities into high-dimensional frameworks. And the photoluminescent property of 1 and 2 and gas sorption property of 4 have been investigated. - Graphical abstract: Four new coordination polymers have been obtained and their photoluminescent and gas sorption properties have also been investigated. - Highlights: • Two pairs of Zn{sup II}/ Cu{sup II} compounds have been synthesized. • Auxiliary ligand-controlled assembly of the complexes is reported. • The luminescent properties of complexes 1–2 were investigated. • The gas sorption property of 4 has been investigated.« less

  11. Syntheses, crystal structures and luminescent properties of two salts with 2-((1H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl)-1H-benzimidazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yong-Tao; Lü, Lin-Rui; Tang, Gui-Mei

    2018-03-01

    Two new benzimidazole salts, namely, [H2IBI]2+ 2X (X = NO3- (1), ClO4- (2) [IBI = 2-((1H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl)-1H-benzimidazole], were grown through reacting IBI and two different inorganic acids by slow evaporation method, respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 have been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, IR, UV-Vis, and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). In both compounds, a set of hydrogen bonds (C/Nsbnd H⋯O) can be clearly observed, through which a three-dimensional framework will be generated. The luminescent spectra show the emission peaks in compounds 1 and 2 are found at 375 and 371 nm, respectively. By comparison with the free IBI, the emission maxima of compounds 1 and 2 are obviously red-shifted about 67 and 63 nm, respectively.

  12. Hierarchical zeolites from class F coal fly ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitta, Pallavi

    Fly ash, a coal combustion byproduct is classified as types class C and class F. Class C fly ash is traditionally recycled for concrete applications and Class F fly ash often disposed in landfills. Class F poses an environmental hazard due to disposal and leaching of heavy metals into ground water and is important to be recycled in order to mitigate the environmental challenges. A major recycling option is to reuse the fly ash as a low-cost raw material for the production of crystalline zeolites, which serve as catalysts, detergents and adsorbents in the chemical industry. Most of the prior literature of fly ash conversion to zeolites does not focus on creating high zeolite surface area zeolites specifically with hierarchical pore structure, which are very important properties in developing a heterogeneous catalyst for catalysis applications. This research work aids in the development of an economical process for the synthesis of high surface area hierarchical zeolites from class F coal fly ash. In this work, synthesis of zeolites from fly ash using classic hydrothermal treatment approach and fusion pretreatment approach were examined. The fusion pretreatment method led to higher extent of dissolution of silica from quartz and mullite phases, which in turn led to higher surface area and pore size of the zeolite. A qualitative kinetic model developed here attributes the difference in silica content to Si/Al ratio of the beginning fraction of fly ash. At near ambient crystallization temperatures and longer crystallization times, the zeolite formed is a hierarchical faujasite with high surface area of at least 360 m2/g. This work enables the large scale recycling of class F coal fly ash to produce zeolites and mitigate environmental concerns. Design of experiments was used to predict surface area and pore sizes of zeolites - thus obviating the need for intense experimentation. The hierarchical zeolite catalyst supports tested for CO2 conversion, yielded hydrocarbons

  13. Engineering of Transition Metal Catalysts Confined in Zeolites

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Transition metal–zeolite composites are versatile catalytic materials for a wide range of industrial and lab-scale processes. Significant advances in fabrication and characterization of well-defined metal centers confined in zeolite matrixes have greatly expanded the library of available materials and, accordingly, their catalytic utility. In this review, we summarize recent developments in the field from the perspective of materials chemistry, focusing on synthesis, postsynthesis modification, (operando) spectroscopy characterization, and computational modeling of transition metal–zeolite catalysts. PMID:29861546

  14. Method of preparing sodalite from chloride salt occluded zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Michele A.; Pereira, Candido

    1997-01-01

    A method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal starting with a substantially dry zeolite and sufficient glass to form leach resistant sodalite with occluded radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material. The zeolite and glass are heated to a temperature up to about 1000.degree. K. to convert the zeolite to sodalite and thereafter maintained at a pressure and temperature sufficient to form a sodalite product near theoretical density. Pressure is used on the formed sodalite to produce the required density.

  15. Zeolite crystal growth in space - What has been learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacco, A., Jr.; Thompson, R. W.; Dixon, A. G.

    1993-01-01

    Three zeolite crystal growth experiments developed at WPI have been performed in space in last twelve months. One experiment, GAS-1, illustrated that to grow large, crystallographically uniform crystals in space, the precursor solutions should be mixed in microgravity. Another experiment evaluated the optimum mixing protocol for solutions that chemically interact ('gel') on contact. These results were utilized in setting the protocol for mixing nineteen zeolite solutions that were then processed and yielded zeolites A, X and mordenite. All solutions in which the nucleation event was influenced produced larger, more 'uniform' crystals than did identical solutions processed on earth.

  16. Method of preparing sodalite from chloride salt occluded zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, M.A.; Pereira, C.

    1997-03-18

    A method is described for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal starting with a substantially dry zeolite and sufficient glass to form leach resistant sodalite with occluded radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material. The zeolite and glass are heated to a temperature up to about 1000 K to convert the zeolite to sodalite and thereafter maintained at a pressure and temperature sufficient to form a sodalite product near theoretical density. Pressure is used on the formed sodalite to produce the required density.

  17. Performance Evaluations of Ion Exchanged Zeolite Membranes on Alumina Supports

    SciT

    Bhave, Ramesh R.; Jubin, Robert Thomas; Spencer, Barry B.

    2017-08-27

    This report describes the synthesis and evaluation of molecular sieve zeolite membranes to separate and concentrate tritiated water (HTO) from dilute HTO-bearing aqueous streams. In the first phase of this effort, several monovalent and divalent cation-exchanged silico alumino phosphate (SAPO-34) molecular sieve zeolite membranes were synthesized on disk supports and characterized with gas and vapor permeation measurements. In the second phase, Linde Type A (LTA) zeolite membranes were synthesized in disk and tubular supports. The pervaporation process performance was evaluated for the separation and concentration of tritiated water.

  18. Visible-light-driven Photocatalytic N-arylation of Imidazole Derivatives and Arylboronic Acids on Cu/graphene catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yan-Li; Guo, Xiao-Ning; Wang, Ying-Yong; Guo, Xiang-Yun

    2015-01-01

    N-aryl imidazoles play an important role as structural and functional units in many natural products and biologically active compounds. Herein, we report a photocatalytic route for the C-N cross-coupling reactions over a Cu/graphene catalyst, which can effectively catalyze N-arylation of imidazole and phenylboronic acid, and achieve a turnover frequency of 25.4 h−1 at 25 oC and the irradiation of visible light. The enhanced catalytic activity of the Cu/graphene under the light irradiation results from the localized surface plasmon resonance of copper nanoparticles. The Cu/graphene photocatalyst has a general applicability for photocatalytic C-N, C-O and C-S cross-coupling of arylboronic acids with imidazoles, phenols and thiophenols. This study provides a green photocatalytic route for the production of N-aryl imidazoles. PMID:26189944

  19. Visible-light-driven Photocatalytic N-arylation of Imidazole Derivatives and Arylboronic Acids on Cu/graphene catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yan-Li; Guo, Xiao-Ning; Wang, Ying-Yong; Guo, Xiang-Yun

    2015-07-01

    N-aryl imidazoles play an important role as structural and functional units in many natural products and biologically active compounds. Herein, we report a photocatalytic route for the C-N cross-coupling reactions over a Cu/graphene catalyst, which can effectively catalyze N-arylation of imidazole and phenylboronic acid, and achieve a turnover frequency of 25.4 h-1 at 25 oC and the irradiation of visible light. The enhanced catalytic activity of the Cu/graphene under the light irradiation results from the localized surface plasmon resonance of copper nanoparticles. The Cu/graphene photocatalyst has a general applicability for photocatalytic C-N, C-O and C-S cross-coupling of arylboronic acids with imidazoles, phenols and thiophenols. This study provides a green photocatalytic route for the production of N-aryl imidazoles.

  20. Alkaline hydrothermal conversion of fly ash filtrates into zeolites 2: utilization in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Somerset, Vernon; Petrik, Leslie; Iwuoha, Emmanuel

    2005-01-01

    Filtrates were collected using a codisposal reaction wherein fly ash was reacted with acid mine drainage. These codisposal filtrates were then analyzed by X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry for quantitative determination of the SiO2 and Al2O3 content. Alkaline hydrothermal zeolite synthesis was then applied to the filtrates to convert the fly ash material into zeolites. The zeolites formed under the experimental conditions were faujasite, sodalite, and zeolite A. The use of the fly ash-derived zeolites and a commercial zeolite was explored in wastewater decontamination experiments as it was applied to acid mine drainage in different dosages. The concentrations of Ni, Zn, Cd, As, and Pb metal ions in the treated wastewater were investigated. The results of the treatment of the acid mine drainage with the prepared fly ash zeolites showed that the concentrations of Ni, Zn, Cd, and Hg were decreased as the zeolite dosages of the fly ash zeolite (FAZ1) increased.

  1. Solvation and Acid Strength Effects on Catalysis by Faujasite Zeolites

    SciT

    Gounder, Rajamani P.; Jones, Andrew J.; Carr, Robert T.

    2012-02-01

    Kinetic, spectroscopic, and chemical titration data indicate that differences in monomolecular isobutane cracking and dehydrogenation and methanol dehydration turnover rates (per H+) among FAU zeolites treated thermally with steam (H-USY) and then chemically with ammonium hexafluorosilicate (CDHUSY) predominantly reflect differences in the size and solvating properties of their supercage voids rather than differences in acid strength. The number of protons on a given sample was measured consistently by titrations with Na+, with CH3 groups via reactions of dimethyl ether, and with 2,6-di-tert-butylpyridine during methanol dehydration catalysis; these titration values were also supported by commensurate changes in acidic OH infrared bandmore » areas upon exposure to titrant molecules. The number of protons, taken as the average of the three titration methods, was significantly smaller than the number of framework Al atoms (Alf) obtained from X-ray diffraction and 27Al magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy on H-USY (0.35 H+/Alf) and CD-HUSY (0.69 H+/Alf). These data demonstrate that the ubiquitous use of Alf sites as structural proxies for active H+ sites in zeolites can be imprecise, apparently because distorted Al structures that are not associated with acidic protons are sometimes detected as Alf sites. Monomolecular isobutane cracking and dehydrogenation rate constants, normalized non-rigorously by the number of Alf species, decreased with increasing Na+ content on both H-USY and CD-HUSY samples and became undetectable at sub-stoichiometric exchange levels (0.32 and 0.72 Na+/Alf ratios, respectively), an unexpected finding attributed incorrectly in previous studies to the presence of minority ‘‘super-acidic’’ sites. These rate constants, when normalized rigorously by the number of residual H+ sites were independent of Na+ content on both H-USY and CD-HUSY samples, reflecting the stoichiometric replacement of protons that are

  2. NMR crystallography of zeolites: How far can we go without diffraction data?

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Darren H; Van Huizen, Jared

    2018-05-10

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) crystallography-an approach to structure determination that seeks to integrate solid-state NMR spectroscopy, diffraction, and computation methods-has emerged as an effective strategy to determine structures of difficult-to-characterize materials, including zeolites and related network materials. This paper explores how far it is possible to go in determining the structure of a zeolite framework from a minimal amount of input information derived only from solid-state NMR spectroscopy. It is shown that the framework structure of the fluoride-containing and tetramethylammonium-templated octadecasil clathrasil material can be solved from the 1D 29 Si NMR spectrum and a single 2D 29 Si NMR correlation spectrum alone, without the space group and unit cell parameters normally obtained from diffraction data. The resulting NMR-solved structure is in excellent agreement with the structures determined previously by diffraction methods. It is anticipated that NMR crystallography strategies like this will be useful for structure determination of other materials, which cannot be solved from diffraction methods alone. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Understanding the Reactive Adsorption of H 2S and CO 2 in Sodium-Exchanged Zeolites

    DOE PAGES

    Fetisov, Evgenii O.; Shah, Mansi S; Knight, Christopher; ...

    2018-02-19

    Purifying sour natural gas streams containing hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide has been a long-standing environmental and economic challenge. In the presence of cation-exchanged zeolites, these two acid gases can react to form carbonyl sulfide and water (H 2S+CO 2H 2O+COS), but this reaction is rarely accounted for. In this work, we carry out reactive first-principles Monte Carlo (RxFPMC) simulations for mixtures of H 2S and CO 2 in all-silica and Na-exchanged forms of zeolite beta to understand the governing principles driving the enhanced conversion. The RxFPMC simulations show that the presence of Na + cations can change the equilibriummore » constant by several orders of magnitude compared to the gas phase or in all-silica beta. The shift in the reaction equilibrium is caused by very strong interactions of H 2O with Na + that reduce the reaction enthalpy by about 20 kJmol -1. The simulations also demonstrate that the siting of Al atoms in the framework plays an important role. Lastly, the RxFPMC method presented here is applicable to any chemical conversion in any confined environment, where strong interactions of guest molecules with the host framework and high activation energies limit the use of other computational approaches to study reaction equilibria.« less

  4. Phase transition behavior of novel pH-sensitive polyaspartamide derivatives grafted with 1-(3-aminopropyl)imidazole.

    PubMed

    Seo, Kwangwon; Kim, Dukjoon

    2006-09-15

    New pH-sensitive polyaspartamide derivatives were synthesized by grafting 1-(3-aminopropyl)imidazole and/or O-(2-aminoethyl)-O'-methylpoly(ethylene glycol) 5000 on polysuccinimide for application in intracellular drug delivery systems. The DS of 1-(3-aminopropyl)imidazole was adjusted by the feed molar ratio, and the structure of the prepared polymer was confirmed using FT-IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Their pH-sensitive properties were characterized by light transmittance measurements, and the particle size and its distribution were investigated by dynamic light scattering measurements at varying pH values. The pH-sensitive phase transition was clearly observed in polymer solutions with a high substitution of 1-(3-aminopropyl)imidazole. The prepared polymers showed a high buffering capacity between pH 5 and 7, and this increased with the DS of 1-(3-aminopropyl)imidazole. The pH dependence of the aggregation and de-aggregation behavior was examined using a fluorescence spectrometer. For MPEG/imidazole-g-polyaspartamides with a DS of 1-(3-aminopropyl)imidazole over 82%, self aggregates associated with the hydrophobic interactions of the unprotonated imidazole groups were observed at pH values above 7, and their mean size was over 200 nm, while the aggregates of polymers were dissociated at pH values below 7 by the protonation of imidazole groups. These pH-sensitive polyaspartamide derivatives are potential basic candidates for intracellular drug delivery carriers triggered by small pH changes.

  5. Poly[[sesqui[mu2-1,4-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene-kappa(2)N:N'](carbonato-kappa(2)O,O')copper(II)] 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene hemisolvate pentahydrate].

    PubMed

    Dai, Yu-Mei; Tang, En; Huang, Jin-Feng; Yang, Qiu-Yan

    2008-10-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, {[Cu(CO(3))(C(14)H(14)N(4))(1.5)] x 0.5 C(14)H(14)N(4) x 5 H(2)O}(n), contains one Cu(II) cation in a slightly distorted square-pyramidal coordination environment, one CO(3)(2-) anion, one full and two half 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene (bix) ligands, one half-molecule of which is uncoordinated, and five uncoordinated water molecules. One of the coordinated bix ligands and the uncoordinated bix molecule are situated about centers of symmetry, located at the centers of the benzene rings. The coordinated bix ligands link the copper(II) ions into a [Cu(bix)(1.5)](n) molecular ladder. These molecular ladders do not form interpenetrated ladders but are arranged in an ABAB parallel terrace, i.e. with the ladders arranged one above another, with sequence A translated with respect to B by 8 A. To best of our knowledge, this arrangement has not been observed in any of the molecular ladder frameworks synthesized to date. The coordination environment of the Cu(II) atom is completed by two O atoms of the CO(3)(2-) anion. The framework is further strengthened by extensive O-H...O and O-H...N hydrogen bonds involving the water molecules, the O atoms of the CO(3)(2-) anion and the N atoms of the bix ligands. This study describes the first example of a molecular ladder coordination polymer based on bix and therefore demonstrates further the usefulness of bix as a versatile multidentate ligand for constructing coordination polymers with interesting architectures.

  6. A single amino acid substitution makes ERK2 susceptible to pyridinyl imidazole inhibitors of p38 MAP kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Fox, T.; Coll, J. T.; Xie, X.; Ford, P. J.; Germann, U. A.; Porter, M. D.; Pazhanisamy, S.; Fleming, M. A.; Galullo, V.; Su, M. S.; Wilson, K. P.

    1998-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are serine/threonine kinases that mediate intracellular signal transduction pathways. Pyridinyl imidazole compounds block pro-inflammatory cytokine production and are specific p38 kinase inhibitors. ERK2 is related to p38 in sequence and structure, but is not inhibited by pyridinyl imidazole inhibitors. Crystal structures of two pyridinyl imidazoles complexed with p38 revealed these compounds bind in the ATP site. Mutagenesis data suggested a single residue difference at threonine 106 between p38 and other MAP kinases is sufficient to confer selectivity of pyridinyl imidazoles. We have changed the equivalent residue in human ERK2, Q105, into threonine and alanine, and substituted four additional ATP binding site residues. The single residue change Q105A in ERK2 enhances the binding of SB202190 at least 25,000-fold compared to wild-type ERK2. We report enzymatic analyses of wild-type ERK2 and the mutant proteins, and the crystal structure of a pyridinyl imidazole, SB203580, bound to an ERK2 pentamutant, I103L, Q105T, D106H, E109G. T110A. These ATP binding site substitutions induce low nanomolar sensitivity to pyridinyl imidazoles. Furthermore, we identified 5-iodotubercidin as a potent ERK2 inhibitor, which may help reveal the role of ERK2 in cell proliferation. PMID:9827991

  7. A database of new zeolite-like materials.

    PubMed

    Pophale, Ramdas; Cheeseman, Phillip A; Deem, Michael W

    2011-07-21

    We here describe a database of computationally predicted zeolite-like materials. These crystals were discovered by a Monte Carlo search for zeolite-like materials. Positions of Si atoms as well as unit cell, space group, density, and number of crystallographically unique atoms were explored in the construction of this database. The database contains over 2.6 M unique structures. Roughly 15% of these are within +30 kJ mol(-1) Si of α-quartz, the band in which most of the known zeolites lie. These structures have topological, geometrical, and diffraction characteristics that are similar to those of known zeolites. The database is the result of refinement by two interatomic potentials that both satisfy the Pauli exclusion principle. The database has been deposited in the publicly available PCOD database and in www.hypotheticalzeolites.net/database/deem/. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  8. Deposition of zeolite nanoparticles onto porous silica monolith

    SciT

    Gackowski, Mariusz; Bielanska, Elzbieta; Szczepanowicz, Krzysztof

    2016-06-01

    A facile and effective method of deposition of MFl zeolite nanoparticles (nanocrystals) onto macro-/mesoporous silica monolith was proposed. The electrostatic interaction between those two materials was induces by adsorption of cationic polyelectrolytes. That can be realized either by adsorption of polyelectrolyte onto silica monolith or on zeolite nanocrystals. The effect of time, concentration of zeolite nanocrystals, type of polyelectrolyte, and ultrasound treatment is scrutinized. Adsorption of polyelectrolyte onto silica monolith with subsequent deposition of nanocrystals resulted in a monolayer coverage assessed with SEM images. Infrared spectroscopy was applied as a useful method to determine the deposition effectiveness of zeolite nanocrystalsmore » onto silica. Modification of nanocrystals with polyelectrolyte resulted in a multilayer coverage due to agglomeration of particles. On the other hand, the excess of polyelectrolyte in the system resulted in a low coverage due to competition between polyelectrolyte and modified nanocrystals.« less

  9. Studying Zeolite Catalysts with a 2D Model System

    SciT

    Boscoboinik, Anibal

    2016-12-07

    Anibal Boscoboinik, a materials scientist at Brookhaven’s Center for Functional Nanomaterials, discusses the surface-science tools and 2D model system he uses to study catalysis in nanoporous zeolites, which catalyze reactions in many industrial processes.

  10. Pd/Cu-Oxide Nanoconjugate at Zeolite-Y Crystallite Crafting the Mesoporous Channels for Selective Oxidation of Benzyl-Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mukesh; Das, Biraj; Sharma, Mitu; Deka, Biplab K; Park, Young-Bin; Bhargava, Suresh K; Bania, Kusum K

    2017-10-11

    Solid-state grinding of palladium and copper salts allowed the growth of palladium/copper oxide interface at the zeolite-Y surface. The hybrid nanostructured material was used as reusable heterogeneous catalyst for selective oxidation of various benzyl alcohols. The large surface area provided by the zeolite-Y matrix highly influenced the catalytic activity, as well as the recyclability of the synthesized catalyst. Impregnation of PdO-CuO nanoparticles on zeolite crystallite leads to the generation of mesoporous channel that probably prevented the leaching of the metal-oxide nanoparticles and endorsed high mass transfer. Formation of mesoporous channel at the external surface of zeolite-Y was evident from transmission electron microscopy and surface area analysis. PdO-CuO nanoparticles were found to be within the range of 2-5 nm. The surface area of PdO-CuO-Y catalyst was found to be much lower than parent zeolite-Y. The decrease in surface area as well as the presence of hysteresis loop in the N 2 -adsoprtion isotherm further suggested successful encapsulation of PdO-CuO nanoparticles via the mesoporous channel formation. The high positive shifting in binding energy in both Pd and Cu was attributed to the influence of zeolite-Y framework on lattice contraction of metal oxides via confinement effect. PdO-CuO-Y catalyst was found to oxidize benzyl alcohol with 99% selectivity. On subjecting to microwave irradiation the same oxidation reaction was found to occur at ambient condition giving same conversion and selectivity.

  11. Commander Bowersox Tends to Zeolite Crystal Samples Aboard Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Expedition Six Commander Ken Bowersox spins Zeolite Crystal Growth sample tubes to eliminate bubbles that could affect crystal formation in preparation of a 15 day experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Zeolites are hard as rock, yet are able to absorb liquids and gases like a sponge. By using the ISS microgravity environment to grow better, larger crystals, NASA and its commercial partners hope to improve petroleum manufacturing and other processes.

  12. Metal Oxide/Zeolite Combination Absorbs H2S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E.; Sharma, Pramod K.

    1989-01-01

    Mixed copper and molybdenum oxides supported in pores of zeolite found to remove H2S from mixture of gases rich in hydrogen and steam, at temperatures from 256 to 538 degree C. Absorber of H2S needed to clean up gas streams from fuel processors that incorporate high-temperature steam reformers or hydrodesulfurizing units. Zeolites chosen as supporting materials because of their high porosity, rigidity, alumina content, and variety of both composition and form.

  13. Effect of Extra-Framework Cations of LTL Nanozeolites to Inhibit Oil Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Kok-Hou; Cham, Hooi-Ying; Awala, Hussein; Ling, Tau Chuan; Mukti, Rino R.; Wong, Ka-Lun; Mintova, Svetlana; Ng, Eng-Poh

    2015-06-01

    Lubricant oils take significant part in current health and environmental considerations since they are an integral and indispensable component of modern technology. Antioxidants are probably the most important additives used in oils because oxidative deterioration plays a major role in oil degradation. Zeolite nanoparticles (NPs) have been proven as another option as green antioxidants in oil formulation. The anti-oxidative behavior of zeolite NPs is obvious; however, the phenomenon is still under investigation. Herein, a study of the effect of extra-framework cations stabilized on Linde Type L (LTL) zeolite NPs (ca. 20 nm) on inhibition of oxidation in palm oil-based lubricant oil is reported. Hydrophilic LTL zeolites with a Si/Al ratio of 3.2 containing four different inorganic cations (Li+, Na+, K+, Ca2+) were applied. The oxidation of the lubricant oil was followed by visual observation, colorimetry, fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, 1H NMR spectroscopy, total acid number (TAN), and rheology analyses. The effect of extra-framework cations to slow down the rate of oil oxidation and to control the viscosity of oil is demonstrated. The degradation rate of the lubricant oil samples is decreased considerably as the polarizability of cation is increased with the presence of zeolite NPs. More importantly, the microporous zeolite NPs have a great influence in halting the steps that lead to the polymerization of the oils and thus increasing the lifetime of oils.

  14. Imidazole-based deep eutectic solvents for starch dissolution and plasticization.

    PubMed

    Zdanowicz, Magdalena; Spychaj, Tadeusz; Mąka, Honorata

    2016-04-20

    Potato starch and high-amylose starch were treated with imidazole-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) as dissolution and plasticization media. Beside imidazole (IM) for two-component DESs preparation choline chloride (CC), glycerol (G) or carboxylic acids (citric or malic) were used. An influence of water content in starch (as well as an extra water in the starch/DES system) on polymer dissolution and plasticization processes was investigated. Dissolution and gelatinization of starch in DESs were followed via DSC and laser scanning microscopy. A rheometric characteristics revealed an influence of starch/DES system storage time on the plasticization process. The tendency to recrystallization of compression-molded-starch films was evaluated using XRD technique. High dissolution and plasticization effectiveness of CC/IM and G/IM and a low tendency to film retrogradation of thermoplasticized starch were noted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Bromidotetra-kis-(1H-2-ethyl-5-methyl-imidazole-κN)copper(II) bromide.

    PubMed

    Godlewska, Sylwia; Baranowska, Katarzyna; Socha, Joanna; Dołęga, Anna

    2011-12-01

    The Cu(II) ion in the title compound, [CuBr(C(6)H(10)N(2))(4)]Br, is coordinated in a square-based-pyramidal geometry by the N atoms of four imidazole ligands and a bromide anion in the apical site. Both the Cu(II) and Br(-) atoms lie on a crystallographic fourfold axis. In the crystal, the [CuBr(C(6)H(10)N(2))(4)](+) complex cations are linked to the uncoordinated Br(-) anions (site symmetry [Formula: see text]) by N-H⋯Br hydrogen bonds, generating a three-dimensional network. The ethyl group of the imidazole ligand was modelled as disordered over two orientations with occupancies of 0.620 (8) and 0.380 (8).

  16. Nanosized zeolites as a perspective material for conductometric biosensors creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucherenko, Ivan; Soldatkin, Oleksandr; Kasap, Berna Ozansoy; Kirdeciler, Salih Kaan; Kurc, Burcu Akata; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole; Soldatkin, Alexei; Lagarde, Florence; Dzyadevych, Sergei

    2015-05-01

    In this work, the method of enzyme adsorption on different zeolites and mesoporous silica spheres (MSS) was investigated for the creation of conductometric biosensors. The conductometric transducers consisted of gold interdigitated electrodes were placed on the ceramic support. The transducers were modified with zeolites and MSS, and then the enzymes were adsorbed on the transducer surface. Different methods of zeolite attachment to the transducer surface were used; drop coating with heating to 200°C turned out to be the best one. Nanozeolites beta and L, zeolite L, MSS, and silicalite-1 (80 to 450 nm) were tested as the adsorbents for enzyme urease. The biosensors with all tested particles except zeolite L had good analytical characteristics. Silicalite-1 (450 nm) was also used for adsorption of glucose oxidase, acetylcholinesterase, and butyrylcholinesterase. The glucose and acetylcholine biosensors were successfully created, whereas butyrylcholinesterase was not adsorbed on silicalite-1. The enzyme adsorption on zeolites and MSS is simple, quick, well reproducible, does not require use of toxic compounds, and therefore can be recommended for the development of biosensors when these advantages are especially important.

  17. Applications of natural zeolites on agriculture and food production.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, Nazife; Emekci, Mevlut; Athanassiou, Christos G

    2017-08-01

    Zeolites are crystalline hydrated aluminosilicates with remarkable physical and chemical properties, which include losing and receiving water in a reverse way, adsorbing molecules that act as molecular sieves, and replacing their constituent cations without structural change. The commercial production of natural zeolites has accelerated during the last 50 years. The Structure Commission of the International Zeolite Association recorded more than 200 zeolites, which currently include more than 40 naturally occurring zeolites. Recent findings have supported their role in stored-pest management as inert dust applications, pesticide and fertilizer carriers, soil amendments, animal feed additives, mycotoxin binders and food packaging materials. There are many advantages of inert dust application, including low cost, non-neurotoxic action, low mammalian toxicity and safety for human consumption. The latest consumer trends and government protocols have shifted toward organic origin materials to replace synthetic chemical products. In the present review, we summarize most of the main uses of zeolites in food and agruculture, along with the with specific paradigms that illustrate their important role. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Nanocellulose-Zeolite Composite Films for Odor Elimination.

    PubMed

    Keshavarzi, Neda; Mashayekhy Rad, Farshid; Mace, Amber; Ansari, Farhan; Akhtar, Farid; Nilsson, Ulrika; Berglund, Lars; Bergström, Lennart

    2015-07-08

    Free standing and strong odor-removing composite films of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) with a high content of nanoporous zeolite adsorbents have been colloidally processed. Thermogravimetric desorption analysis (TGA) and infrared spectroscopy combined with computational simulations showed that commercially available silicalite-1 and ZSM-5 have a high affinity and uptake of volatile odors like ethanethiol and propanethiol, also in the presence of water. The simulations showed that propanethiol has a higher affinity, up to 16%, to the two zeolites compared with ethanethiol. Highly flexible and strong free-standing zeolite-CNF films with an adsorbent loading of 89 w/w% have been produced by Ca-induced gelation and vacuum filtration. The CNF-network controls the strength of the composite films and 100 μm thick zeolite-CNF films with a CNF content of less than 10 vol % displayed a tensile strength approaching 10 MPa. Headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis showed that the CNF-zeolite films can eliminate the volatile thiol-based odors to concentrations below the detection ability of the human olfactory system. Odor removing zeolite-cellulose nanofibril films could enable improved transport and storage of fruits and vegetables rich in odors, for example, onion and the tasty but foul-smelling South-East Asian Durian fruit.

  19. Removal of ammonium from municipal landfill leachate using natural zeolites.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhihong; Wang, Jiawen; Sun, Lingyu; Zhang, Daobin; Zhang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Ammonium ion-exchange performance of the natural zeolite was investigated in both batch and column studies. The effects of zeolite dosage, contact time, stirring speed and pH on ammonium removal were investigated in batch experiments. The result showed that ammonium removal efficiency increased with an increase in zeolite dosage from 25 to 150 g/L, and an increase in stirring speed from 200 to 250 r/min. But further increase in zeolite dosage and stirring speed would result in an unpronounced increase of ammonium removal. The optimal pH for the removal of ammonium was found as 7.1. In the column studies, the effect of flow rate was investigated, and the total ammonium removal percentage during 180 min operation time decreased with the flow rate though the ion-exchange capacity varied to a very small extent with the flow rate ranging from 4 to 9 mL/min. The spent zeolite was regenerated by sodium chloride solution and the ammonia removal capacity of zeolite changed little or even increased after three regeneration cycles.

  20. The Influence of Zeolites on Radical Formation During Lignin Pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Bährle, Christian; Custodis, Victoria; Jeschke, Gunnar; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A; Vogel, Frédéric

    2016-09-08

    Lignin from lignocellulosic biomass is a promising source of energy, fuels, and chemicals. The conversion of the polymeric lignin to fuels and chemicals can be achieved by catalytic and noncatalytic pyrolysis. The influence of nonporous silica and zeolite catalysts, such as silicalite, HZSM5, and HUSY, on the radical and volatile product formation during lignin pyrolysis was studied by in situ high-temperature electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (HTEPR) as well as GC-MS. Higher radical concentrations were observed in the samples containing zeolite compared to the sample containing only lignin, which suggests that there is a stabilizing effect by the inorganic surfaces on the formed radical fragments. This effect was observed for nonporous silica as well as for HUSY, HZSM5, and silicalite zeolite catalysts. However, the effect is far larger for the zeolites owing to their higher specific surface area. The zeolites also showed an effect on the volatile product yield and the product distribution within the volatile phase. Although silicalite showed no effect on the product selectivity, the acidic zeolites such as HZSM5 or HUSY increased the formation of deoxygenated products such as benzene, toluene, xylene (BTX), and naphthalene. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Moderate-temperature zeolitic alteration in a cooling pyroclastic deposit

    Levy, S.S.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The locally zeolitized Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff (13 Myr.), Yucca Mountain, Nevada, U.S.A., is part of a thick sequence of zeolitized pyroclastic units. Most of the zeolitized units are nonwelded tuffs that were altered during low-temperature diagenesis, but the distribution and textural setting of zeolite (heulandite-clinoptilolite) and smectite in the densely welded Topopah Spring tuff suggest that these hydrous minerals formed while the tuff was still cooling after pyroclastic emplacement and welding. The hydrous minerals are concentrated within a transition zone between devitrified tuff in the central part of the unit and underlying vitrophyre. Movement of liquid and convected heat along fractures from the devitrified tuff to the ritrophyre caused local devitrification and hydrous mineral crystallization. Oxygen isotope geothermometry of cogenetic quartz confirms the nondiagenetic moderate temperature origin of the hydrous minerals at temperatures of ??? 40-100??C, assuming a meteoric water source. The Topopah Spring tuff is under consideration for emplacement of a high-level nuclear waste repository. The natural rock alteration of the cooling pyroclastic deposit may be a good natural analog for repository-induced hydrothermal alteration. As a result of repository thermal loading, temperatures in the Topopah Spring vitrophyre may rise sufficiently to duplicate the inferred temperatures of natural zeolitic alteration. Heated water moving downward from the repository into the vitrophyre may contribute to new zeolitic alteration. ?? 1989.

  2. Xylenes transformation over zeolites ZSM-5 ruled by acidic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gołąbek, Kinga; Tarach, Karolina A.; Góra-Marek, Kinga

    2018-03-01

    The studies presented in this work offer an insight into xylene isomerization process, followed by 2D COS analysis, in the terms of different acidity of microporous zeolites ZSM-5. The isomerisation reaction proceeded effectively over zeolites ZSM-5 of Si/Al equal of 12 and 32. Among them, the Al-poorer zeolite (Si/Al = 32) was found to offer the highest conversion and selectivity to p-xylene with the lowest number of disproportionation products, both in ortho- and meta-xylene transformation. Further reduction of Brønsted acidity facilitated the disproportionation path (zeolites of Si/Al = 48 and 750). The formation of intermediate species induced by the diffusion constraints for m-xylene in 10-ring channels was rationalized in the terms of the methylbenzenium ions formation inside the rigid micropore environment. Finally, both microporous character of zeolite and the optimised acidity were found to be crucial for high selectivity to the most desired product i.e. p-xylene. The analysis of asynchronous maps allowed for concluding on the order of the appearance of the respective products on the zeolite surface.

  3. Activity of titania and zeolite samples dosed with triethylamine

    SciT

    Baker, Caitlin; Gole, James L.; Brauer, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Certain properties of titania and the ammonium- and proton-form of Y zeolites (silica/alumina ratio of 5.2) were explored before and after treatment by triethylamine (TEA). The effect of the triethylamine upon the physical and chemical properties of both titania and the zeolite were characterized by physical and chemical adsorption methods. BET surface area data showed enhanced surface area of the TEA-treated nanotitania over the untreated nanotitania whereas the TEA-treated zeolite showed a considerable decrease in surface area compared to the untreated zeolite. TPD of the TEA-treated Y zeolite showed that weakly adsorbed TEA left the surface between 150 and 300more » oC; strongly adsorbed TEA decomposed to ethylene and ammonia at higher temperatures. XPS, IR, and Raman spectroscopies, powder XRD, and 27Al MAS-NMR spectroscopy were used to further characterize the changes introduced by in-situ nitridation. Pre-adsorbed triethylamine decorated acid sites so as to neutralize these sites for the reaction of methanol to dimethylether. Carbon monoxide and ormaldehyde, products of the methanol probe reaction, were observed-- suggesting that basic sites are present in this treated zeolite and titania.« less

  4. Non-specific vaginitis: diagnostic features and response to imidazole therapy (metronidazole, ornidazole).

    PubMed

    Meech, R J; Loutit, J

    1985-05-22

    Detailed quantitative aerobic, anaerobic, fungal and mycoplasma flora was obtained for 43 women presenting with complaints of vaginal discharge and malodour. Clinical response was associated with eradication of the abnormal anaerobic flora, despite persistence of G vaginalis in nine (26%). Topical imidazole therapy appeared to have some advantage over oral therapy. Gram stains of vaginal swabs were found to be the most useful laboratory investigation.

  5. Sequence-specific DNA binding Pyrrole-imidazole polyamides and their applications.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Yusuke; Bando, Toshikazu; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2018-05-01

    Pyrrole-imidazole polyamides (Py-Im polyamides) are cell-permeable compounds that bind to the minor groove of double-stranded DNA in a sequence-specific manner without causing denaturation of the DNA. These compounds can be used to control gene expression and to stain specific sequences in cells. Here, we review the history, structural variations, and functional investigations of Py-Im polyamides. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bromidotetra-kis-(2-isopropyl-1H-imidazole-κN)copper(II) bromide.

    PubMed

    Godlewska, Sylwia; Socha, Joanna; Baranowska, Katarzyna; Dołęga, Anna

    2011-10-01

    The Cu(II) atom in the title salt, [CuBr(C(6)H(10)N(2))(4)]Br, is coordinated in a square-pyramidal geometry by four imidazole N atoms and one bromide anion that is located at the apex of the pyramid. The cations and the anions form a two-dimensional network parallel to (001) through N-H⋯Br hydrogen bonds.

  7. Tetracoordinate Imidazole-Based Boron Complexes for the Selective Detection of Picric Acid.

    PubMed

    Dhanunjayarao, Kunchala; Mukundam, Vanga; Venkatasubbaiah, Krishnan

    2016-11-07

    N,N-Dimethylamine and N,N-diphenylamine-decorated highly fluorescent imidazole borates have been synthesized and investigated as new fluorophores for the selective detection of trinitrophenol/picric acid (PA). Structural studies of a probe 1 and PA (1·PA) complex revealed that the adduct formed by the deprotonation of PA by the -NMe 2 group along with weak interactions is responsible for the selective detection of PA over other polynitrated organic compounds.

  8. Crystal structure of 2-diazo-imidazole-4,5-dicarbo-nitrile.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Damon A; Kramer, Stephanie; Windler, G Kenneth; Chavez, David E; Leonard, Philip W

    2015-07-01

    In the title compound, C5N6, all the atoms are approximately coplanar. In the crystal, mol-ecules are packed with short contact distances of 2.885 (2) (between the diazo N atom connected to the ring and a cyano N atom on a neighboring mol-ecule) and 3.012 (2) Å (between the terminal diazo N atom and an N atom of a neighboring imidazole ring).

  9. Self-assembly of an imidazolate-bridged Fe(III)/Cu(II) heterometallic cage.

    PubMed

    Reichel, Florian; Clegg, Jack K; Gloe, Karsten; Gloe, Kerstin; Weigand, Jan J; Reynolds, Jason K; Li, Chun-Guang; Aldrich-Wright, Janice R; Kepert, Cameron J; Lindoy, Leonard F; Yao, Hong-Chang; Li, Feng

    2014-01-21

    A rare, discrete, mixed-valent, heterometallic Fe(III)/Cu(II) cage, [Cu6Fe8L8](ClO4)12·χsolvent (H3L = tris{[2-{(imidazole-4-yl)methylidene}amino]ethyl}amine), was designed and synthesized via metal-ion-directed self-assembly with neutral tripodal metalloligands. The formation of this coordination cage was demonstrated by X-ray crystallography, ESI mass spectrometry, FT-IR, and UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy.

  10. Crystal structure of 4,5-dinitro-1 H-imidazole

    DOE PAGES

    Windler, G. Kenneth; Scott, Brian L.; Tomson, Neil C.; ...

    2015-01-01

    Here, the title compound, C 3H 2N 4O 4, forms crystals with two molecules in the asymmetric unit which are conformationally similar. With the exception of the O atoms of the nitro groups, the molecules are essentially planar. In the crystal, adjacent molecules are associated by N—H...N hydrogen bonds involving the imidazole N—H donors and N-atom acceptors of the unsaturated nitrogen of neighboring rings, forming layers parallel to (010).

  11. Effect of alkali-treatment on the characteristics of natural zeolites with different compositions.

    PubMed

    Ates, Ayten

    2018-08-01

    A series of natural zeolites with different compositions were modified by post-synthesis modification with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Natural and modified zeolites were characterized by XRD, SEM, nitrogen adsorption, FTIR, zeta potential and temperature programmed desorption of ammonia (NH 3 -TPD). The adsorption capacities of these samples were evaluated by the adsorption of manganese from aqueous solution. The treatment with NaOH led to a decrease in the surface area and microporosity of all natural zeolites as well as partly damage of the zeolite structure depending on zeolite composition. In addition, the amount of weak, medium and strong acid sites in the zeolites was changed significantly by NaOH treatment depending on zeolite composition. The NaOH treatment resulted in a four-fold improvement in adsorption capacity of natural zeolite originated from Bigadic and a twofold decrease in that of the natural zeolite originated from Manisa-Gordes. Although the improved adsorption capacity might be mainly due to modification of porosity in the zeolites and formation of hydroxysodalite, the reduced adsorption capacity of the zeolite might be mainly due to a significant deformation of the zeolite structure. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model for the adsorption of manganese on all natural and modified zeolites fits well. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Imidazoles and benzimidazoles as tubulin-modulators for anti-cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Torres, Fernando C; García-Rubiño, M Eugenia; Lozano-López, César; Kawano, Daniel F; Eifler-Lima, Vera L; von Poser, Gilsane L; Campos, Joaquín M

    2015-01-01

    Imidazoles and benzimidazoles are privileged heterocyclic bioactive compounds used with success in the clinical practice of innumerous diseases. Although there are many advancements in cancer therapy, microtubules remain as one of the few macromolecular targets validated for planning active anti-cancer compounds, and the design of drugs that modulate microtubule dynamics in unknown sites of tubulin is one of the goals of the medicinal chemistry. The discussion of the role of new and commercially available imidazole and benzimidazole derivatives as tubulin modulators is scattered throughout scientific literature, and indicates that these compounds have a tubulin modulation mechanism different from that of tubulin modulators clinically available, such as paclitaxel, docetaxel, vincristine and vinblastine. In fact, recent literature indicates that these derivatives inhibit microtubule formation binding to the colchicine site, present good pharmacokinetic properties and are capable of overcoming multidrug resistance in many cell lines. The understanding of the mechanisms involved in the imidazoles/benzimidazoles modulation of microtubule dynamics is very important to develop new strategies to overcome the resistance to anti-cancer drugs and to discover new biomarkers and targets for cancer chemotherapy.

  13. Facile synthesis, structural elucidation and spectral analysis of pyrrole 4-imidazole derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. N.; Rawat, Poonam; Baboo, Vikas

    2015-12-01

    In this work pyrrole 4-imidazole derivatives (3A-3D): benzimidazoles and pyrrole 4-imidazoline have been synthesized by condensation, cyclization and oxidation of ethyl 4-formyl-3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrrole carboxylate and phenylene diamine derivatives/ethylene diamine. The structure of these biheterocyclic compounds have been derived by elemental and spectroscopic - IR, UV, MS, 1H and 13C NMR analysis as well as theoretical study. The static first hyperpolarizability, β0 values for pyrrole 4-imidazole derivatives, (3A-3D) have been calculated as 10.901 × 10-31, 19.607 × 10-31, 40.323 × 10-31, 5.686 × 10-31 esu, respectively. The gradual increase in β0 value of synthesized pyrrole-benzimidazole derivatives from 3A to 3C is due to addition of acceptors -Cl atom in 3B to -NO2 group in 3C on benzimidazole side. The experimental absorption spectra found to be in UV region and the high β0 values show that the synthesized pyrrole-imidazoles are suitable as non-linear optical (NLO) materials.

  14. Spectral, biological screening of metal chelates of chalcone based Schiff bases of N-(3-aminopropyl) imidazole.

    PubMed

    Kalanithi, M; Rajarajan, M; Tharmaraj, P; Sheela, C D

    2012-02-15

    Tridentate chelate complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) have been synthesized from the chalcone based ligands 2-[1-(3-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)propylimino)-3-(phenylallyl)]phenol(HL(1)), 2-[1-(3-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)propylimino)-3-p-tolylallyl]phenol(HL(2)), 2-[1-(3-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)propylimino)-3-4-nitrophenylallyl]phenol(HL(3)). Microanalytical data, UV-vis spectrophotometric method, magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR, 1H NMR, Mass, and EPR techniques were used to characterize the structure of chelates. The electronic absorption spectra and magnetic susceptibility measurements suggest a distorted square planar geometry for the copper(II) ion. The other metal complexes show distorted tetrahedral geometry. The coordination of the ligands with metal(II) ions was further confirmed by solution fluorescence spectrum. The antimicrobial activity of the ligands and metal(II) complexes against the species Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albigans and Aspergillus niger has been carried out and compared. The electrochemical behavior of copper(II) complex is studied by cyclic voltammetry. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. An imidazole functionalized pentameric thiophene displays different staining patterns in normal and malignant cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Peter; Magnusson, Karin; Appelqvist, Hanna; Cieslar-Pobuda, Artur; Bäck, Marcus; Kågedal, Bertil; Jonasson, Jon; Los, Marek

    2015-10-01

    Molecular tools for fluorescent imaging of cells and their components are vital for understanding the function and activity of cells. Here, we report an imidazole functionalized pentameric oligothiophene, p-HTIm, that can be utilized for fluorescent imaging of cells. p-HTIm fluorescence in normal cells appeared in a peripheral punctate pattern partially co-localized with lysosomes, whereas a one-sided perinuclear Golgi associated localization of the dye was observed in malignant cells. The uptake of p-HTIm was temperature dependent and the intracellular target was reached within 1 h after staining. The ability of p-HTIm to stain cells was reduced when the imidazole side chain was chemically altered, verifying that specific imidazole side-chain functionalities are necessary for achieving the observed cellular staining. Our findings confirm that properly functionalized oligothiophenes can be utilized as fluorescent tools for vital staining of cells and that the selectivity towards distinct intracellular targets are highly dependent on the side-chain functionalities along the conjugated thiophene backbone.

  16. Trapped in imidazole: how to accumulate multiple photoelectrons on a black-absorbing ruthenium complex.

    PubMed

    Zedler, Linda; Kupfer, Stephan; de Moraes, Inês Rabelo; Wächtler, Maria; Beckert, Rainer; Schmitt, Michael; Popp, Jürgen; Rau, Sven; Dietzek, Benjamin

    2014-03-24

    Ruthenium dyes incorporating a 4H-imidazole chromophore as a ligand exhibit a spectrally broad absorption in the UV/Vis region. Furthermore, they show the ability to store two electrons within the 4H-imidazole ligand. These features render them promising molecular systems, for example, as inter- or intramolecular electron relays. To optimize the structures with respect to their electron-storage capability, it is crucial to understand the impact of structural changes accompanying photoinduced charge transfer in the electronic intermediates of multistep electron-transfer processes. The photophysical properties of these (reactive) intermediates might impact the function of the molecular systems quite substantially. However, the spectroscopic study of short-lived intermediates in stepwise multielectron-transfer processes is experimentally challenging. To this end, this contribution reports on the electrochemical generation of anions identical to intermediate structures and their spectroscopic characterization by in situ resonance Raman and UV/Vis spectroelectrochemistry and computational methods. Thereby, an efficient two-electron pathway to the 4H-imidazole electron-accepting ligand is identified. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Biochemical evolution. I. Polymerization On internal, organophilic silica surfaces of dealuminated zeolites and feldspars.

    PubMed

    Smith, J V

    1998-03-31

    Catalysis at mineral surfaces might generate replicating biopolymers from simple chemicals supplied by meteorites, volcanic gases, and photochemical gas reactions. Many ideas are implausible in detail because the proposed mineral surfaces strongly prefer water and other ionic species to organic ones. The molecular sieve silicalite (Union Carbide; = Al-free Mobil ZSM-5 zeolite) has a three-dimensional, 10-ring channel system whose electrically neutral Si-O surface strongly adsorbs organic species over water. Three -O-Si tetrahedral bonds lie in the surface, and the fourth Si-O points inwards. In contrast, the outward Si-OH of simple quartz and feldspar crystals generates their ionic organophobicity. The ZSM-5-type zeolite mutinaite occurs in Antarctica with boggsite and tschernichite (Al-analog of Mobil Beta). Archean mutinaite might have become de-aluminated toward silicalite during hot/cold/wet/dry cycles. Catalytic activity of silicalite increases linearly with Al-OH substitution for Si, and Al atoms tend to avoid each other. Adjacent organophilic and catalytic Al-OH regions in nanometer channels might have scavenged organic species for catalytic assembly into specific polymers protected from prompt photochemical destruction. Polymer migration along weathered silicic surfaces of micrometer-wide channels of feldspars might have led to assembly of replicating catalytic biomolecules and perhaps primitive cellular organisms. Silica-rich volcanic glasses should have been abundant on the early Earth, ready for crystallization into zeolites and feldspars, as in present continental basins. Abundant chert from weakly metamorphosed Archaean rocks might retain microscopic clues to the proposed mineral adsorbent/catalysts. Other framework silicas are possible, including ones with laevo/dextro one-dimensional channels. Organic molecules, transition-metal ions, and P occur inside modern feldspars.

  18. Biochemical evolution. I. Polymerization on internal, organophilic silica surfaces of dealuminated zeolites and feldspars

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Joseph V.

    1998-01-01

    Catalysis at mineral surfaces might generate replicating biopolymers from simple chemicals supplied by meteorites, volcanic gases, and photochemical gas reactions. Many ideas are implausible in detail because the proposed mineral surfaces strongly prefer water and other ionic species to organic ones. The molecular sieve silicalite (Union Carbide; = Al-free Mobil ZSM-5 zeolite) has a three-dimensional, 10-ring channel system whose electrically neutral Si-O surface strongly adsorbs organic species over water. Three -O-Si tetrahedral bonds lie in the surface, and the fourth Si-O points inwards. In contrast, the outward Si-OH of simple quartz and feldspar crystals generates their ionic organophobicity. The ZSM-5-type zeolite mutinaite occurs in Antarctica with boggsite and tschernichite (Al-analog of Mobil Beta). Archean mutinaite might have become de-aluminated toward silicalite during hot/cold/wet/dry cycles. Catalytic activity of silicalite increases linearly with Al-OH substitution for Si, and Al atoms tend to avoid each other. Adjacent organophilic and catalytic Al-OH regions in nanometer channels might have scavenged organic species for catalytic assembly into specific polymers protected from prompt photochemical destruction. Polymer migration along weathered silicic surfaces of micrometer-wide channels of feldspars might have led to assembly of replicating catalytic biomolecules and perhaps primitive cellular organisms. Silica-rich volcanic glasses should have been abundant on the early Earth, ready for crystallization into zeolites and feldspars, as in present continental basins. Abundant chert from weakly metamorphosed Archaean rocks might retain microscopic clues to the proposed mineral adsorbent/catalysts. Other framework silicas are possible, including ones with laevo/dextro one-dimensional channels. Organic molecules, transition-metal ions, and P occur inside modern feldspars. PMID:9520372

  19. Studies on the π-π stacking features of imidazole units present in a series of 5-amino-1-alkylimidazole-4-carboxamides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Sibdas; Das, Aniruddha

    2015-06-01

    Reaction of 2-ethoxymethyleneamino-2-cyanoacetamide with primary alkyl amines in acetonitrile solvent affords 1-substituted-5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamides. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies of these imidazole compounds show that there are both anti-parallel and syn-parallel π-π stackings between two imidazole units in parallel-displaced (PD) conformations and the distance between two π-π stacked imidazole units depends mainly on the anti/ syn-parallel nature and to some extent on the alkyl group attached to N-1 of imidazole; molecules with anti-parallel PD-stacking arrangements of the imidazole units have got vertical π-π stacking distance short enough to impart stabilization whereas the imidazole unit having syn-parallel stacking arrangement have got much larger π-π stacking distances. DFT studies on a pair of anti-parallel imidazole units of such an AICA lead to curves for 'π-π stacking stabilization energy vs. π-π stacking distance' which have got similarity with the 'Morse potential energy diagram for a diatomic molecule' and this affords to find out a minimum π-π stacking distance corresponding to the maximum stacking stabilization energy between the pair of imidazole units. On the other hand, a DFT calculation based curve for 'π-π stacking stabilization energy vs. π-π stacking distance' of a pair of syn-parallel imidazole units is shown to have an exponential nature.

  20. Imidazole derivatives as angiotensin II AT1 receptor blockers: Benchmarks, drug-like calculations and quantitative structure-activity relationships modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alloui, Mebarka; Belaidi, Salah; Othmani, Hasna; Jaidane, Nejm-Eddine; Hochlaf, Majdi

    2018-03-01

    We performed benchmark studies on the molecular geometry, electron properties and vibrational analysis of imidazole using semi-empirical, density functional theory and post Hartree-Fock methods. These studies validated the use of AM1 for the treatment of larger systems. Then, we treated the structural, physical and chemical relationships for a series of imidazole derivatives acting as angiotensin II AT1 receptor blockers using AM1. QSAR studies were done for these imidazole derivatives using a combination of various physicochemical descriptors. A multiple linear regression procedure was used to design the relationships between molecular descriptor and the activity of imidazole derivatives. Results validate the derived QSAR model.

  1. Metal-organic framework for the separation of alkane isomers

    DOEpatents

    Long, Jeffrey R.; Herm, Zoey R.; Wiers, Brian M.; Krishna, Rajamani

    2017-01-10

    A metal organic framework Fe.sub.2(bdp).sub.3 (BDP.sup.2-=1,4-benzenedipyrazolate) with triangular channels is particularly suited for C5-C7 separations of alkanes according to the number of branches in the molecule rather than by carbon number. The metal-organic framework can offer pore geometries that is unavailable in zeolites or other porous media, facilitating distinct types of shape-based molecular separations.

  2. Metal-Organic Framework-Derived Reduced Graphene Oxide-Supported ZnO/ZnCo2O4/C Hollow Nanocages as Cathode Catalysts for Aluminum-O2 Batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yisi; Jiang, Hao; Hao, Jiayu; Liu, Yulong; Shen, Haibo; Li, Wenzhang; Li, Jie

    2017-09-20

    Aluminum-air battery is a promising candidate for large-scale energy applications because of its low cost and high energy density. Remarkably, tremendous efforts have been concentrated on developing efficient and stable cathode electrocatalysts toward the oxygen reduction reaction. In this work, a hydrothermal-calcination approach was utilized to prepare novel reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-supported hollow ZnO/ZnCo 2 O 4 nanoparticle-embedded carbon nanocages (ZnO/ZnCo 2 O 4 /C@rGO) using a zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-67)/graphene oxide/zinc nitrate composite as the precursor. The ZnO/ZnCo 2 O 4 /C@rGO hybrid exhibits remarkable electrocatalytic performance for oxygen reduction reaction under alkaline conditions and superior stability and methanol tolerance to those of the commercial Pt/C catalyst. Furthermore, novel and simple Al-air coin cells were first fabricated using the hybrid materials as cathode catalysts under ambient air conditions to further investigate their catalytic performance. The coin cell with the ZnO/ZnCo 2 O 4 /C@rGO cathode catalyst displays a higher open circuit voltage and discharge voltage and more sluggish potential drop than those of the cell with the ZnO/ZnCo 2 O 4 /C cathode catalyst, which confirms that rGO can enhance the electrocatalytic activity and stability of the catalyst system. The excellent electrocatalytic performance of the ZnO/ZnCo 2 O 4 /C@rGO hybrid is attributed to the prominent conductivity and high specific surface area resulting from rGO, the more accessible catalytic active sites induced by the unique porous hollow nanocage structure, and synergic covalent coupling between rGO sheets and ZnO/ZnCo 2 O 4 /C nanocages.

  3. Effect of Annealing Temperature on Broad Luminescence of Silver-Exchanged Zeolites Y and A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui, Sa Chu Rong; Lin, H.; Bao, W.; Wang, W.

    2018-05-01

    The annealing temperature dependence of luminescence properties of silver (Ag)-exchanged zeolites Y and A was studied. It was found that the absorbance and excitation/emission bands are strongly affected by the thermal treatments. With increase in annealing temperature, the absorbance of Ag in zeolite Y increases at first and then decreases. However, the position of the excitation/emission band in zeolite Y was found to be insensitive to the annealing temperature. In contrast, the excitation/emission bands in zeolite A are particularly sensitive to the annealing temperature. The difference of such temperature dependence in zeolites Y and A may be due to the different microporous structure of the two minerals. Moreover, the fact that this dependence is not observed in Ag-exchanged zeolite Y is likely to be due to the difficulty in dehydration of zeolite Y in air or due to the weak Ag+-Ag+ interaction in zeolite Y.

  4. Adsorption of small molecules on the [Zn-Zn]2+ linkage in zeolite. A DFT study of ferrierite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benco, Lubomir

    2017-02-01

    In zeolites monovalent Zn(I) forms a sub-nano particles [Zn-Zn]2+ stabilized in rings of the zeolite framework, which exhibit interesting catalytic properties. This work reports on adsorption properties of [Zn-Zn]2+ particles in zeolite ferrierite investigated for a set of probing diatomic (N2, O2, H2, CO, NO) and triatomic (CO2, N2O, NO2, H2O) molecules using dispersion-corrected DFT. Three [Zn-Zn]2+ sites are compared differing in the location and stability. On all sites molecules form physisorbed clusters with the molecule connected on-top of the Zn-Zn linkage. In physisorbed clusters adsorption induces only slight change of bonding and the geometry of the Zn-Zn linkage. Some molecules can form stable chemisorbed clusters in which the molecule is integrated between two Zn+ cations. The sandwich-like chemisorption causes pronounced changes of bonding and can lead to the transfer of the electron density between two Zn+ cations and to a change of the oxidation state. The knowledge of bonding of small molecules can help understanding of the mechanism of conversion reactions catalyzed by sub-nano [Zn-Zn] particles.

  5. High-Throughput Synthesis and Structure of Zeolite ZSM-43 with Two-Directional 8-Ring Channels.

    PubMed

    Willhammar, Tom; Su, Jie; Yun, Yifeng; Zou, Xiaodong; Afeworki, Mobae; Weston, Simon C; Vroman, Hilda B; Lonergan, William W; Strohmaier, Karl G

    2017-08-07

    The aluminosilicate zeolite ZSM-43 (where ZSM = Zeolite Socony Mobil) was first synthesized more than 3 decades ago, but its chemical structure remained unsolved because of its poor crystallinity and small crystal size. Here we present optimization of the ZSM-43 synthesis using a high-throughput approach and subsequent structure determination by the combination of electron crystallographic methods and powder X-ray diffraction. The synthesis required the use of a combination of both inorganic (Cs + and K + ) and organic (choline) structure-directing agents. High-throughput synthesis enabled a screening of the synthesis conditions, which made it possible to optimize the synthesis, despite its complexity, in order to obtain a material with significantly improved crystallinity. When both rotation electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging techniques are applied, the structure of ZSM-43 could be determined. The structure of ZSM-43 is a new zeolite framework type and possesses a unique two-dimensional channel system limited by 8-ring channels. ZSM-43 is stable upon calcination, and sorption measurements show that the material is suitable for adsorption of carbon dioxide as well as methane.

  6. Optimizing anti-coking abilities of zeolites by ethylene diamine tetraacetie acid modification on catalytic fast pyrolysis of corn stalk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Zhong, Zhaoping; Song, Zuwei; Ding, Kuan; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2015-12-01

    In order to minimize coke yield during biomass catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) process, ethylene diamine tetraacetie acid (EDTA) chemical modification method is carried out to selectively remove the external framework aluminum of HZSM-5 catalyst. X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen (N2)-adsorption and ammonia-temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD) techniques are employed to investigate the porosity and acidity characteristics of original and modified HZSM-5 samples. Py-GC/MS and thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA) experiments are further conducted to explore the catalytic effect of modified HZSM-5 samples on biomass CFP and to verify the positive effect on coke reduction. Results show that EDTA treatment does not damage the crystal structure of HZSM-5 zeolites, but leads to a slight increase of pore volume and pore size. Meanwhile, the elimination of the strong acid peak indicates the dealumination of outer surface of HZSM-5 zeolites. Treatment time of 2 h (labeled EDTA-2H) is optimal for acid removal and hydrocarbon formation. Among all modified catalysts, EDTA-2H performs the best for deacidification and can obviously increase the yields of positive chemical compositions in pyrolysis products. Besides, EDTA modification can improve the anti-coking properties of HZSM-5 zeolites, and EDTA-2H gives rise to the lowest coke yield.

  7. Multinuclear (27Al, 29Si, 47,49Ti) solid-state NMR of titanium substituted zeolite USY.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, S; Gore, K U; Kumar, Rajiv; Amoureux, Jean-Paul

    2003-01-01

    Multinuclear solid-state NMR spectroscopy, employing 29Si MAS,27Al MAS/3Q-MAS and (47,49)Ti wide-line experiments, has been used for the structural characterization of titanium substituted ultra-stable zeolite Y (Ti-USY). 27Al MAS experiments show the presence of aluminum in four (Al(IV)), five (Al(V)), and six (Al(VI)) coordination, whereas the multiplicity within Al(IV) and Al(VI) is revealed by 27Al 3Q-MAS experiments. Two different tetrahedral and octahedral Al environments are resolved and their isotropic chemical shifts (delta(CS)) and second-order quadrupole interaction parameters (P(Q)) have been determined by a graphical analysis of the 3Q-MAS spectra. The emergence of signal with higher intensity at -101 ppm in the 29Si MAS spectrum of Ti-USY samples indicates the possible occurrence of Q4(3Si,1Ti) type silicon environments due to titanium substitution in the faujasite framework. High-field (11.74T) operation, using a probehead specially designed to handle a large sample volume, has enabled the acquisition of 47,49Ti static spectra and identification of the titanium environment in the zeolite. The chemical shielding and electric field gradient tensors for the titanium environment in the zeolite have been determined by a computer simulation of the quadrupolar broadened static 47,49Ti NMR spectra.

  8. Antifungal activities against toxigenic Fusarium specie and deoxynivalenol adsorption capacity of ion-exchanged zeolites.

    PubMed

    Savi, Geovana D; Cardoso, William A; Furtado, Bianca G; Bortolotto, Tiago; Zanoni, Elton T; Scussel, Rahisa; Rezende, Lucas F; Machado-de-Ávila, Ricardo A; Montedo, Oscar R K; Angioletto, Elidio

    2018-03-04

    Zeolites are often used as adsorbents materials and their loaded cations can be exchanged with metal ions in order to add antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to use the 4A zeolite and its derived ion-exchanged forms with Zn 2+ , Li + , Cu 2+ and Co 2+ in order to evaluate their antifungal properties against Fusarium graminearum, including their capacity in terms of metal ions release, conidia germination and the deoxynivalenol (DON) adsorption. The zeolites ion-exchanged with Li + , Cu 2+ , and Co 2+ showed an excellent antifungal activity against F. graminearum, using an agar diffusion method, with a zone of inhibition observed around the samples of 45.3 ± 0.6 mm, 25.7 ± 1.5 mm, and 24.7 ± 0.6 mm, respectively. Similar results using agar dilution method were found showing significant growth inhibition of F. graminearum for ion-exchanged zeolites with Zn 2+ , Li + , Cu 2+ , and Co 2+ . The fungi growth inhibition decreased as zeolite-Cu 2+ >zeolite-Li + >zeolite-Co 2+ >zeolite-Zn 2+ . In addition, the conidia germination was strongly affected by ion-exchanged zeolites. With regard to adsorption capacity, results indicate that only zeolite-Li + were capable of DON adsorption significantly (P < 0.001) with 37% at 2 mg mL -1 concentration. The antifungal effects of the ion-exchanged zeolites can be ascribed to the interactions of the metal ions released from the zeolite structure, especially for zeolite-Li + , which showed to be a promising agent against F. graminearum and its toxin.

  9. Cation-Exchanged Zeolitic Chalcogenides for CO2 Adsorption.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huajun; Luo, Min; Chen, Xitong; Zhao, Xiang; Lin, Jian; Hu, Dandan; Li, Dongsheng; Bu, Xianhui; Feng, Pingyun; Wu, Tao

    2017-12-18

    We report here the intrinsic advantages of a special family of porous chalcogenides for CO 2 adsorption in terms of high selectivity of CO 2 /N 2 , large uptake capacity, and robust structure due to their first-ever unique integration of the chalcogen-soft surface, high porosity, all-inorganic crystalline framework, and the tunable charge-to-volume ratio of exchangeable cations. Although tuning the CO 2 adsorption properties via the type of exchangeable cations has been well-studied in oxides and MOFs, little is known about the effects of inorganic exchangeable cations in porous chalcogenides, in part because ion exchange in chalcogenides can be very sluggish and incomplete due to their soft character. We have demonstrated that, through a methodological change to progressively tune the host-guest interactions, both facile and nearly complete ion exchange can be accomplished. Herein, a series of cation-exchanged zeolitic chalcogenides (denoted as M@RWY) were studied for the first time for CO 2 adsorption. Samples were prepared through a sequential ion-exchange strategy, and Cs + -, Rb + -, and K + -exchanged samples demonstrated excellent CO 2 adsorption performance. Particularly, K@RWY has the superior CO 2 /N 2 selectivity with the N 2 adsorption even undetected at either 298 or 273 K. It also has the large uptake of 6.3 mmol/g (141 cm 3 /g) at 273 K and 1 atm with an isosteric heat of 35-41 kJ mol -1 , the best among known porous chalcogenides. Moreover, it permits a facile regeneration and exhibits an excellent recyclability, as shown by the multicycling adsorption experiments. Notably, K@RWY also demonstrates a strong tolerance toward water.

  10. Assembly and property research on seven 0D–3D complexes derived from imidazole dicarboxylate and 1,2-bi(pyridin-4-yl)ethene

    SciT

    Mu, Bao; Li, Qian; Lv, Lei

    2015-03-15

    The hydrothermal reaction of transition metals, 1H-imidazole-4,5-dicarboxylic acid (H{sub 3}ImDC) and 1,2-bi(pyridin-4-yl)ethene (bpe) affords a series of new complexes, namely, [Mn(HImDC)(bpe)(H{sub 2}O)] (1), [M(H{sub 2}ImDC){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·(bpe) (M=Fe(2), Co(3), Zn(4), Cd(6)), [Zn{sub 3}(ImDC){sub 2}(bpe)(H{sub 2}O)]·3H{sub 2}O (5) and [Cd(H{sub 2}ImDC)(bpe)] (7), which are characterized by elemental analyses, IR, TG, XRPD and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Complex 1 exhibits a one dimensional (1D) zigzag chain with two types of irregular rings, and the 1D chains are linked to form a three dimensional (3D) supramolecular framework by the hydrogen bonding interactions (O–H∙∙∙O and O–H∙∙∙N). Complexes 2–4 and 6 are isomorphous, andmore » they display the mononuclear structures. In these complexes, the O–H∙∙∙O and O–H∙∙∙N hydrogen bonds play an important role in sustaining the whole 3D supramolecular frameworks. Complex 5 shows a (3,3)-connected 3D framework with (10{sup 3}) topology, and the lattice water molecules as guest molecules exist in the 3D framework. Complex 7 is a wave-like two dimensional (2D) structure, in which the adjacent 1D chains point at the opposite directions. Moreover, the fluorescent properties of complexes 1–7 and the magnetic property of 1 have been investigated. The water vapor adsorption for complex 5 has been researched at 298 K. - Graphical abstract: Seven new complexes based on different structural characteristics have been hydrothermally synthesized by the mixed ligands. The fluorescent properties, the magnetic property and the water vapor adsorption have been investigated. - Highlights: • The semi-rigid ligand with C=C bonds and imidazole dicarboxylates with some advantages have been used. • A series of new complexes with different structural characteristics have been discussed in detail. • The fluorescent properties, the magnetic property and the water vapor adsorption

  11. Determining the location and nearest neighbours of aluminium in zeolites with atom probe tomography

    DOE PAGES

    Perea, Daniel E.; Arslan, Ilke; Liu, Jia; ...

    2015-07-02

    Zeolite catalysis is determined by a combination of pore architecture and Brønsted acidity. As Brønsted acid sites are formed by the substitution of AlO4 for SiO4 tetrahedra, it is of utmost importance to have information on the number as well as the location and neighbouring sites of framework aluminium. Unfortunately, such detailed information has not yet been obtained, mainly due to the lack of suitable characterization methods. Here we report, using the powerful atomic-scale analysis technique known as atom probe tomography, the quantitative spatial distribution of individual aluminium atoms, including their three-dimensional extent of segregation. Ultimately, using a nearest-neighbour statisticalmore » analysis, we precisely determine the short-range distribution of aluminium over the different T-sites and determine the most probable Al–Al neighbouring distance within parent and steamed ZSM-5 crystals, as well as assess the long-range redistribution of aluminium upon zeolite steaming.« less

  12. Determining the location and nearest neighbours of aluminium in zeolites with atom probe tomography

    SciT

    Perea, Daniel E.; Arslan, Ilke; Liu, Jia

    Zeolite catalysis is determined by a combination of pore architecture and Brønsted acidity. As Brønsted acid sites are formed by the substitution of AlO4 for SiO4 tetrahedra, it is of utmost importance to have information on the number as well as the location and neighbouring sites of framework aluminium. Unfortunately, such detailed information has not yet been obtained, mainly due to the lack of suitable characterization methods. Here we report, using the powerful atomic-scale analysis technique known as atom probe tomography, the quantitative spatial distribution of individual aluminium atoms, including their three-dimensional extent of segregation. Ultimately, using a nearest-neighbour statisticalmore » analysis, we precisely determine the short-range distribution of aluminium over the different T-sites and determine the most probable Al–Al neighbouring distance within parent and steamed ZSM-5 crystals, as well as assess the long-range redistribution of aluminium upon zeolite steaming.« less

  13. Advances of zeolite based membrane for hydrogen production via water gas shift reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makertihartha, I. G. B. N.; Zunita, M.; Rizki, Z.; Dharmawijaya, P. T.

    2017-07-01

    Hydrogen is considered as a promising energy vector which can be obtained from various renewable sources. However, an efficient hydrogen production technology is still challenging. One technology to produce hydrogen with very high capacity with low cost is through water gas shift (WGS) reaction. Water gas shift reaction is an equilibrium reaction that produces hydrogen from syngas mixture by the introduction of steam. Conventional WGS reaction employs two or more reactors in series with inter-cooling to maximize conversion for a given volume of catalyst. Membrane reactor as new technology can cope several drawbacks of conventional reactor by removing reaction product and the reaction will favour towards product formation. Zeolite has properties namely high temperature, chemical resistant, and low price makes it suitable for membrane reactor applications. Moreover, it has been employed for years as hydrogen selective layer. This review paper is focusing on the development of membrane reactor for efficient water gas shift reaction to produce high purity hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Development of membrane reactor is discussed further related to its modification towards efficient reaction and separation from WGS reaction mixture. Moreover, zeolite framework suitable for WGS membrane reactor will be discussed more deeply.

  14. Histamine-binding capacities of different natural zeolites: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Selvam, Thangaraj; Schwieger, Wilhelm; Dathe, Wilfried

    2018-06-07

    Two different natural zeolites from Cuba and Mexico, which are already being used as contemporaneous drugs or dietary supplements in Germany and Mexico, respectively, are applied in a comparative study of their histamine-binding capacities as a function of their particle sizes. The zeolites are characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and N 2 -sorption measurements (BET surface areas). The Cuban zeolite contains clinoptilolite and mordenite as major phases (78% zeolite), whereas the Mexican one contains only clinoptilolite (65% zeolite). Both zeolites are apparently free from fibrous materials according to SEM. Both zeolites adsorb significant amount of histamine under the experimental conditions. Nevertheless, the results showed that the histamine-binding capacity of the Cuban zeolite is higher than the Mexican one and the smaller the particle size of zeolite, the higher the histamine-binding capacity. This difference could be due to the variation in their mineralogical compositions resulting in varied BET surface areas. Thus, the high histamine-binding capacities of Cuban zeolites seem to be due at least partly to the presence of the large-pore zeolite mordenite, providing high total pore volumes, which will be discussed in detail. For the first time, we have shown that the mineralogical compositions of natural zeolites and their particle sizes play a key role in binding histamine, which is one of the most important regulators in human physiology.

  15. ZEOLITE PERFORMANCE AS AN ANION EXCHANGER FOR ARSENIC SEQUESTRATION IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zeolites are well known for their use in ion exchange and acid catalysis reactions. The use of zeolites in anion or ligand exchange reactions is less studied. The NH4+ form of zeolite Y (NY6, Faujasite) has been tested in this work to evaluate its performance for arsenic removal...

  16. Properties of Zeolite A Obtained from Powdered Laundry Detergent: An Undergraduate Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smoot, Alison L.; Lindquist, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Presents experiments that introduce students to the myriad properties of zeolites using the sodium form of zeolite A (Na-A) from laundry detergent. Experiments include extracting Na-A from detergent, water softening properties, desiccant properties, ion-exchange properties, and Zeolite HA as a dehydration catalyst. (JRH)

  17. Regio- and Enantioselective N-Allylations of Imidazole, Benzimidazole, and Purine Heterocycles Catalyzed by Single-Component Metallacyclic Iridium Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Levi M.

    2010-01-01

    Highly regio- and enantioselective iridium-catalyzed N-allylations of benzimidazoles, imidazoles, and purines have been developed. N-Allylated benzimidazoles and imidazoles were isolated in high yields (up to 97%) with high branched-to-linear selectivity (up to 99:1) and enantioselectivity (up to 98% ee) from the reactions of benzimidazole and imidazole nucleophiles with unsymmetrical allylic carbonates in the presence of single component, ethylene-bound, metallacyclic iridium catalysts. N-Allylated purines were also obtained in high yields (up to 91%) with high N9:N7 selectivity (up to 96:4), high branched-to-linear selectivity (98:2), and high enantioselectivity (up to 98% ee) under similar conditions. The reactions encompass a range of benzimidazole, imidazole, and purine nucleophiles, as well as a variety of unsymmetrical aryl, heteroaryl, and aliphatic allylic carbonates. Competition experiments between common amine nucleophiles and the heterocyclic nitrogen nucleophiles studied in this work illustrate the effect of nucleophile pKa on the rate of iridium-catalyzed N-allylation reactions. Kinetic studies on the allylation of benzimidazole catalyzed by metallacyclic iridium-phosphoramidite complexes, in combination with studies on the deactivation of these catalysts in the presence of heterocyclic nucleophiles, provide insight into the effects of the structure of the phosphoramidite ligands on the stability of the metallacyclic catalysts. The data obtained from these studies has led to the development of N-allylations of benzimidazoles and imidazoles in the absence of an exogenous base. PMID:19480431

  18. Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of Zeolites Using Atom Probe Tomography.

    PubMed

    Weckhuysen, Bert Marc; Schmidt, Joel; Peng, Linqing; Poplawsky, Jonathan

    2018-05-02

    Understanding structure-composition-property relationships in zeolite-based materials is critical to engineering improved solid catalysts. However, this can be difficult to realize as even single zeolite crystals can exhibit heterogeneities spanning several orders of magnitude, with consequences for e.g. reactivity, diffusion as well as stability. Great progress has been made in characterizing these porous solids using tomographic techniques, though each method has an ultimate spatial resolution limitation. Atom Probe Tomography (APT) is the only technique so far capable of producing 3-D compositional reconstructions with sub-nm-scale resolution, and has only recently been applied to zeolite-based catalysts. Herein, we discuss the use of APT to study zeolites, including the critical aspects of sample preparation, data collection, assignment of mass spectral peaks including the predominant CO peak, the limitations of spatial resolution for the recovery of crystallographic information, and proper data analysis. All sections are illustrated with examples from recent literature, as well as previously unpublished data and analyses to demonstrate practical strategies to overcome potential pitfalls in applying APT to zeolites, thereby highlighting new insights gained from the APT method. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. [Adsorption of phenol chemicals by surfactant-modified zeolites].

    PubMed

    Xie, Jie; Wang, Zhe; Wu, De-Yi; Li, Chun-Jie

    2012-12-01

    Two kinds of zeolites were prepared from fly ash and modified by surfactant subsequently. Surfactant-modified zeolites were studied for adsorption of phenol chemicals (phenol, p-chlorphenol, bisphenol A). It showed that the adsorption affinity of zeolite to phenol chemicals was significantly improved after surfactant modification. The adsorption isotherms of phenol chemicals were well fitted by the Langmuir isotherm. For the two surfactant-surfactant modified zeolites, the maximum adsorption amounts of phenol, p-chlorphenol, and bisphenol A calculated from the Langmuir equation were 37.7, 52.36, 90.9 mg x g(-1) and 10.7, 22.83, 56.8 mg x g(-1), respectively. When pH values of solutions were higher than the pK(a) values of phenol chemicals, the removal efficiencies were getting higher with the increase of pH values. The octanol/water partition coefficient (K(ow)) was also found to be an important factor affecting adsorption of phenol chemicals by the modified zeolites. Higher K(ow) value, which means the greater hydrophobicity of the chemicals, resulted in a higher removal.

  20. Enhanced water transport and salt rejection through hydrophobic zeolite pores.

    PubMed

    Humplik, Thomas; Lee, Jongho; O'Hern, Sean; Laoui, Tahar; Karnik, Rohit; Wang, Evelyn N

    2017-12-15

    The potential of improvements to reverse osmosis (RO) desalination by incorporating porous nanostructured materials such as zeolites into the selective layer in the membrane has spurred substantial research efforts over the past decade. However, because of the lack of methods to probe transport across these materials, it is still unclear which pore size or internal surface chemistry is optimal for maximizing permeability and salt rejection. We developed a platform to measure the transport of water and salt across a single layer of zeolite crystals, elucidating the effects of internal wettability on water and salt transport through the ≈5.5 Å pores of MFI zeolites. MFI zeolites with a more hydrophobic (i.e., less attractive) internal surface chemistry facilitated an approximately order of magnitude increase in water permeability compared to more hydrophilic MFI zeolites, while simultaneously fully rejecting both potassium and chlorine ions. However, our results also demonstrated approximately two orders of magnitude lower permeability compared to molecular simulations. This decreased performance suggests that additional transport resistances (such as surface barriers, pore collapse or blockages due to contamination) may be limiting the performance of experimental nanostructured membranes. Nevertheless, the inclusion of hydrophobic sub-nanometer pores into the active layer of RO membranes should improve both the water permeability and salt rejection of future RO membranes (Fasano et al 2016 Nat. Commun. 7 12762).

  1. Enhanced water transport and salt rejection through hydrophobic zeolite pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humplik, Thomas; Lee, Jongho; O'Hern, Sean; Laoui, Tahar; Karnik, Rohit; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2017-12-01

    The potential of improvements to reverse osmosis (RO) desalination by incorporating porous nanostructured materials such as zeolites into the selective layer in the membrane has spurred substantial research efforts over the past decade. However, because of the lack of methods to probe transport across these materials, it is still unclear which pore size or internal surface chemistry is optimal for maximizing permeability and salt rejection. We developed a platform to measure the transport of water and salt across a single layer of zeolite crystals, elucidating the effects of internal wettability on water and salt transport through the ≈5.5 Å pores of MFI zeolites. MFI zeolites with a more hydrophobic (i.e., less attractive) internal surface chemistry facilitated an approximately order of magnitude increase in water permeability compared to more hydrophilic MFI zeolites, while simultaneously fully rejecting both potassium and chlorine ions. However, our results also demonstrated approximately two orders of magnitude lower permeability compared to molecular simulations. This decreased performance suggests that additional transport resistances (such as surface barriers, pore collapse or blockages due to contamination) may be limiting the performance of experimental nanostructured membranes. Nevertheless, the inclusion of hydrophobic sub-nanometer pores into the active layer of RO membranes should improve both the water permeability and salt rejection of future RO membranes (Fasano et al 2016 Nat. Commun. 7 12762).

  2. Ion exchangers in radioactive waste management: natural Iranian zeolites.

    PubMed

    Nilchi, A; Maalek, B; Khanchi, A; Ghanadi Maragheh, M; Bagheri, A; Savoji, K

    2006-01-01

    Five samples of natural zeolites from different parts of Iran were chosen for this study. In order to characterize and determine their structures, X-ray diffraction and infrared spectrometry were carried out for each sample. The selective absorption properties of each zeolite were found by calculating the distribution coefficient (K(d)) of various simulated wastes which were prepared by spiking the radionuclides with (131)I, (99)Mo, (153)Sm, (140)La and (147)Nd. All the zeolite samples used in this study had extremely high absorption value towards (140)La; clinoptolite from Mianeh and analsite from Ghalehkhargoshi showed good absorption for (147)Nd; clinoptolite from Semnan and clinoptolite from Firozkoh showed high absorption for (153)Sm; mesolite from Arababad Tabas showed good absorption for (99)Mo; and finally mesolite from Arababad Tabas, clinoptolite from Semnan and clinoptolite from Firozkoh could be used to selectively absorb (131)I from the stimulated waste which was prepared. The natural zeolites chosen for these studies show a similar pattern to those synthetic ion exchangers in the literature and in some cases an extremely high selectivity towards certain radioactive elements. Hence the binary separation of radioactive elements could easily be carried out. Furthermore, these zeolites, which are naturally occurring ion exchangers, are viable economically and extremely useful alternatives in this industry.

  3. Electronic Chemical Potentials of Porous Metal–Organic Frameworks

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The binding energy of an electron in a material is a fundamental characteristic, which determines a wealth of important chemical and physical properties. For metal–organic frameworks this quantity is hitherto unknown. We present a general approach for determining the vacuum level of porous metal–organic frameworks and apply it to obtain the first ionization energy for six prototype materials including zeolitic, covalent, and ionic frameworks. This approach for valence band alignment can explain observations relating to the electrochemical, optical, and electrical properties of porous frameworks. PMID:24447027

  4. 1-[(3-Aryloxy-3-aryl)propyl]-1H-imidazoles, new imidazoles with potent activity against Candida albicans and dermatophytes. Synthesis, structure-activity relationship, and molecular modeling studies.

    PubMed

    La Regina, Giuseppe; D'Auria, Felicia Diodata; Tafi, Andrea; Piscitelli, Francesco; Olla, Stefania; Caporuscio, Fabiana; Nencioni, Lucia; Cirilli, Roberto; La Torre, Francesco; De Melo, Nadja Rodrigues; Kelly, Steven L; Lamb, David C; Artico, Marino; Botta, Maurizio; Palamara, Anna Teresa; Silvestri, Romano

    2008-07-10

    New 1-[(3-aryloxy-3-aryl)propyl]-1 H-imidazoles were synthesized and evaluated against Candida albicans and dermatophytes in order to develop structure-activity relationships (SARs). Against C. albicans the new imidazoles showed minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) comparable to those of ketoconazole, miconazole, and econazole, and were more potent than fluconazole. Several derivatives ( 10, 12, 14, 18- 20, 24, 28, 29, 30, and 34) turned out to be potent inhibitors of C. albicans strains resistant to fluconazole, with MIC values less than 10 microg/mL. Against dermatophytes strains, compounds 20, 25, and 33 (MIC imidazoles 10- 44 were rationalized with reasonable accuracy by a previously developed quantitative pharmacophore for antifungal agents.

  5. An efficient synthesis of a rationally designed 1,5 disubstituted imidazole AT1 Angiotensin II receptor antagonist: reorientation of imidazole pharmacophore groups in losartan reserves high receptor affinity and confirms docking studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agelis, George; Roumelioti, Panagiota; Resvani, Amalia; Durdagi, Serdar; Androutsou, Maria-Eleni; Kelaidonis, Konstantinos; Vlahakos, Demetrios; Mavromoustakos, Thomas; Matsoukas, John

    2010-09-01

    A new 1,5 disubstituted imidazole AT1 Angiotensin II (AII) receptor antagonist related to losartan with reversion of butyl and hydroxymethyl groups at the 2-, 5-positions of the imidazole ring was synthesized and evaluated for its antagonist activity ( V8). In vitro results indicated that the reorientation of butyl and hydroxymethyl groups on the imidazole template of losartan retained high binding affinity to the AT1 receptor concluding that the spacing of the substituents at the 2,5- positions is of primary importance. The docking studies are confirmed by binding assay results which clearly show a comparable binding score of the designed compound V8 with that of the prototype losartan. An efficient, regioselective and cost effective synthesis renders the new compound as an attractive candidate for advanced toxicological evaluation and a drug against hypertension.

  6. An efficient synthesis of a rationally designed 1,5 disubstituted imidazole AT(1) angiotensin II receptor antagonist: reorientation of imidazole pharmacophore groups in losartan reserves high receptor affinity and confirms docking studies.

    PubMed

    Agelis, George; Roumelioti, Panagiota; Resvani, Amalia; Durdagi, Serdar; Androutsou, Maria-Eleni; Kelaidonis, Konstantinos; Vlahakos, Demetrios; Mavromoustakos, Thomas; Matsoukas, John

    2010-09-01

    A new 1,5 disubstituted imidazole AT(1) Angiotensin II (AII) receptor antagonist related to losartan with reversion of butyl and hydroxymethyl groups at the 2-, 5-positions of the imidazole ring was synthesized and evaluated for its antagonist activity (V8). In vitro results indicated that the reorientation of butyl and hydroxymethyl groups on the imidazole template of losartan retained high binding affinity to the AT(1) receptor concluding that the spacing of the substituents at the 2,5- positions is of primary importance. The docking studies are confirmed by binding assay results which clearly show a comparable binding score of the designed compound V8 with that of the prototype losartan. An efficient, regioselective and cost effective synthesis renders the new compound as an attractive candidate for advanced toxicological evaluation and a drug against hypertension.

  7. Polynomials for crystal frameworks and the rigid unit mode spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Power, S. C.

    2014-01-01

    To each discrete translationally periodic bar-joint framework in , we associate a matrix-valued function defined on the d-torus. The rigid unit mode (RUM) spectrum of is defined in terms of the multi-phases of phase-periodic infinitesimal flexes and is shown to correspond to the singular points of the function and also to the set of wavevectors of harmonic excitations which have vanishing energy in the long wavelength limit. To a crystal framework in Maxwell counting equilibrium, which corresponds to being square, the determinant of gives rise to a unique multi-variable polynomial . For ideal zeolites, the algebraic variety of zeros of on the d-torus coincides with the RUM spectrum. The matrix function is related to other aspects of idealized framework rigidity and flexibility, and in particular leads to an explicit formula for the number of supercell-periodic floppy modes. In the case of certain zeolite frameworks in dimensions two and three, direct proofs are given to show the maximal floppy mode property (order N). In particular, this is the case for the cubic symmetry sodalite framework and some other idealized zeolites. PMID:24379422

  8. Effect of 1-(4-phenoxyphenoxypropyl)imidazole (KS-175) on larval growth in the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Shiotsuki, T; Yukuhiro, F; Kiuchi, M; Kuwano, E

    1999-12-01

    1-(4-Phenoxyphenoxypropyl)imidazole (KS-175), which has two types of characteristic moieties of insect growth regulators (IGRs), the phenoxyphenoxyalkyl group of juvenile hormone analogs (JHAs) and imidazole of 1,5-disubstituted imidazole such as KK-42, was tested for its biological activity on the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Penultimate (4th) instar larvae topically treated with KS-175 did not molt for more than 20 days. This activity was different from that reported for any IGRs. After the treatment, ecdysteroid levels in the hemolymph did not increase and the cells of the prothoracic gland had shrunk. When the treated penultimate larvae were fed an artificial diet supplemented with 20 ppm of 20-hydroxyecdysone, the larvae molted to the ultimate (5th) instar with a timing similar to that of control larvae fed a diet with or without 20-hydroxyecdysone. These results suggest that topical application of KS-175 irreversibly damages ecdysone biosynthesis in the prothoracic glands.

  9. The removal of bacteria by modified natural zeolites.

    PubMed

    Milán, Z; de Las Pozas, C; Cruz, M; Borja, R; Sánchez, E; Ilangovan, K; Espinosa, Y; Luna, B

    2001-01-01

    The removal effect of natural and modified zeolites containing different heavy metals (Ni2+, Zn2+, Fe3+ and Cu2+) on pure cultures of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in a solid medium was evaluated in this work. These experiments were carried out in a continuous mode treating municipal wastewater. Faecal coliform species and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identified. The rate constants of heavy metal lixiviation were determined using a first order kinetic model. The removal effect of modified natural zeolites in both a solid medium and in continuous mode showed an increased elimination of the bacterial population. The results established a decreasing order of the removal effect as follows: Cu2+ > Fe3+ > Zn2+ > Ni2+. The best performance of columns was obtained for inlet bacterial concentrations below 10(6) cells/100 ml. Most of the identified bacterial species were affected by copper modified zeolites, although Serratia marcescens presented the highest sensitivity and Klebsiella pneumoniae the greatest resistance.

  10. Thermal transpiration in zeolites: A mechanism for motionless gas pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Naveen K.; Gianchandani, Yogesh B.

    2008-11-01

    We explore the use of a naturally occurring zeolite, clinoptilolite, for a chip-scale, thermal transpiration-based gas pump. The nanopores in clinoptilolite enable the required free-molecular flow, even at atmospheric pressure. The pump utilizes a foil heater located between zeolite disks in a plastic package. A 2.3mm thick zeolite disk generates a typical gas flow rate of 6.6×10-3 cc/min-cm2 with an input power of <300mW/cm2. The performance is constrained by imperfections in clinoptilolite, which provide estimated leakage apertures of 10.2-13.5μm/cm2 of flow cross section. The transient response of the pump is studied to quantify nonidealities.

  11. The energetics of mesopore formation in zeolites with surfactants.

    PubMed

    Linares, Noemi; Jardim, Erika de Oliveira; Sachse, Alexander; Serrano, Elena; Garcia-Martinez, Javier

    2018-05-02

    Mesoporosity can be conveniently introduced in zeolites by treating them in basic surfactant solutions. The apparent activation energy involved in the formation of mesopores in USY via surfactant-templating was obtained through the combination of in situ synchrotron XRD and ex situ gas adsorption. Additionally, techniques such as pH measurements and TG/DTA were employed to determine the OH- evolution and the CTA+ uptake during the development of mesoporosity, providing information about the different steps involved. By combining both in situ and ex situ techniques, we have been able, for the first time, to determine the apparent activation energies of the different processes involved in the mesostructuring of USY zeolites, which are in the same order of magnitude (30 - 65 kJ mol-1) of those involved in the crystallization of zeolites. Hence, important mechanistic insights on the surfactant-templating method were obtained. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. MIL-53 frameworks in mixed-matrix membranes and cross-linked ZIF-8/matrimidRTM mixed-matrix membranes for gas separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Josephine Ordonez

    Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) are hybrid materials consisting of two phases: an inorganic nanoscale particle as the discrete phase, and a polymeric material as the continuous phase. The incorporation of inorganic particles into a polymer can improve a membrane's overall separation performance. MMMs incorporating metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have exhibited promising gas separation performance. MOFs are inorganic-organic crystals constructed from metal ions that are linked by polydentate ligands. Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) are a sub-class of MOFs that uses imidazole analogues as ligands. In these studies, the MOF MIL-53 and ZIF-8 were successfully synthesized and characterized by a battery of analytical techniques including XRD, FTIR, TGA, N2 adsorption, and SEM, and were incorporated into MMMs with Matrimid® polymer. In chapter 1, MIL-53/Matrimid® MMMs containing MIL-53-ht (open-pore form) were fabricated, characterized and obtained permeability values higher than Matrimid®. Selectivities decreased for the gas pairs of O2/N2, H2/O2, H2/CO2, and H2/N2. However, slight enhancement of the CO2/CH4 selectivity was observed for the MIL-53-ht/Matrimid® compared to that of Matrimid ®. The MIL-53-as/Matrimid® MMM also showed an increase in permeability as well as an increase in selectivity for the gas pairs H2/O2, CO2/CH4, H 2/CH4, and H2/N2. The MIL-53-lt/Matrimid ® MMM showed that it does not retain its closed-pore form in the MMM due to chloroform solvent opening the pores and eventually polymer confinement of the MIL 53 framework in the MMM. In chapter 2, easy synthesis and fabrication of the MIL-53 MOF membrane was realized using a seeded growth method with a commercially available alumina TLC plate. The MOF membrane had a well-intergrown and dense layer of MIL-53 crystals on the surface of the alumina substrate. The MIL-53 crystals were also converted to the MIL-53-lt (closed-pore form) after heating at 330 °C and cooling to room temperature

  13. RuO2 supported NaY zeolite catalysts: Effect of preparation methods on catalytic performance during aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Dasom; Lee, Sunwoo; Na, Kyungsu

    2017-10-01

    The effects of preparation method for RuO2 supported zeolite catalysts on the catalytic consequences during the aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde were investigated. Three preparation methods, i.e., (i) simultaneous crystallization of the zeolite framework in the presence of RuCl3 (Ru(SC)/NaY), (ii) post ion-exchange with RuCl3 on the zeolite framework (Ru(IE)/NaY), and (iii) post support of preformed Ru metal nanoparticles on the zeolite surface (Ru(PS)/NaY), were used to construct three different RuO2 supported NaY zeolite catalysts. The catalyst performance was investigated as functions of the reaction time and temperature, in correlation with the structural changes of the catalysts, as analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results revealed that the catalytic consequences were dramatically affected by the preparation methods. Although similar conversion was achieved with all three catalysts, the turnover frequency (TOF) differed. The Ru(PS)/NaY catalyst exhibited the highest TOF (33-48 h-1), whereas the other catalysts produced much lower TOFs (9-12 h-1). The Ru(PS)/NaY catalyst also had the highest activation energy (Ea) of 48.39 kJ mol-1, whereas the Ru(SC)/NaY and Ru(IE)/NaY catalysts had Ea values of 18.58 and 24.11 kJ mol-1, respectively. Notably, the Ru(PS)/NaY catalyst yielded a significantly higher pre-exponential factor of 5.22 × 105 h-1, which is about 5 orders of magnitude larger than that of the Ru(SC)/NaY catalyst (7.15 × 100 h-1). This suggests that collision between benzyl alcohol and molecular oxygen was very intensive on the Ru(PS)/NaY catalyst, which explains the higher TOF of the Ru(PS)/NaY catalyst relative to the others in spite of the higher Ea value of the former. In terms of recyclability, the pristine crystallinity of the zeolite framework was maintained in the Ru(SC)/NaY catalyst and the RuO2 phase exhibited an insignificant loss of the initial activity up to three catalytic cycles, whereas Ru(PS)/NaY showed slight

  14. Synthesis of backbone P-functionalized imidazol-2-ylidene complexes: en route to novel functional ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Majhi, Paresh Kumar; Sauerbrey, Susanne; Schnakenburg, Gregor; Arduengo, Anthony J; Streubel, Rainer

    2012-10-01

    1-Alkyl-3-methyl-4-diphenylphosphoryl-imidazolium hydrogensulfate (4a,b) (a: R(1) = R(2) = Me; b: R(1) = (i)Pr, R(2) = Me) and 1-alkyl-3-methyl-4,5-bis(diphenylphosphoryl)imidazolium hydrogensulfate (6a,c) (c: R(1) = (n)Bu, R(2) = Me) were obtained selectively and in good yields by oxidative desulfurization of 1-alkyl-3-methyl-4-diphenylphosphino-imidazole-2-thiones (2a,b) and 1-n-butyl-3-methyl-4,5-bis(diphenylphosphoryl)imidazole-2-thione (3c) or 1,3-dimethyl-4-diphenylthiophosphoryl-5-diphenylphosphino-imidazole-2-thione (5a), respectively, with hydrogen peroxide. Synthesis of phosphoryl functionalized imidazol-2-ylidene complexes of group VI metal pentacarbonyls (7a-9a) and (10b-12b) and bis(phosphoryl) functionalized imidazol-2-ylidene complexes of group VI metal pentacarbonyls (13c-15c) and (16a) with low steric demand (methyl, isopropyl, n-butyl) at both N-centers was achieved through deprotonation of imidazolium salts (4a,b) and (6a,c), respectively,-having HSO(4)(-) as a counterion-with potassium tert-butoxide followed by rapid addition of metal pentacarbonyl acetonitrile complexes [M(CO)(5)(CH(3)CN)] (M = Cr, Mo, W). The products were unambiguously characterized by elemental analyses, spectroscopic and spectrometric methods, and in addition, by single-crystal X-ray structure studies in the cases of 4b, 8a, 15c, and 16a; the latter two reveal imidazole ring bond distance alternation in contrast to 8a.

  15. Influence of Crystal Expansion/Contraction on Zeolite Membrane Permeation

    SciT

    Sorenson, Stephanie G; Payzant, E Andrew; Noble, Richard D

    X-ray diffraction was used to measure the unit cell parameters of B-ZSM-5, SAPO-34, and NaA zeolite powders as a function of adsorbate loading at 303 K, and in one case, at elevated temperatures. Most adsorbates expanded the zeolite crystals below saturation loading at 303 K: n-hexane and SF6 in B-ZSM-5, methanol and CO2 in SAPO-34, and methanol in NaA zeolite. As the loadings increased, the crystals expanded more. Changes in the unit cell volumes of B-ZSM-5 and SAPO-34 zeolite powders correlated with changes in permeation through zeolite membranes defects. When the zeolite crystals expanded or contracted upon adsorption, the defectmore » sizes decreased or increased. In B-ZSM-5 membranes, the fluxes through defects decreased dramatically when n-hexane or SF6 adsorbed. In contrast, i-butane adsorption at 303 K contracted B-ZSM-5 crystals at low loadings and expanded them at higher loadings. Correspondingly, the flux through B-ZSM-5 membrane defects increased at low i-butane loadings and decreased at high loading because the defects increased in size at low loading and decreased at high loadings. At 398 K and 473 K, n-hexane expanded the B-ZSM-5 unit cell more as the temperature increased from 303 to 473 K. The silicalite-1 and B-ZSM-5 unit cell volumes expanded similarly upon n-hexane adsorption at 303 K; boron substitution had little effect on volume expansion.« less

  16. Synthesis and antimicrobial studies of some Mannich bases carrying imidazole moiety.

    PubMed

    Frank, Priya V; Manjunatha Poojary, Mahesha; Damodara, Naral; Chikkanna, Chandrashekhar

    2013-06-01

    3 Starting from 2-methyl-4-nitro-imidazole, new 5-(2-methyl- 4-nitro-1-imidazomethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thione () was synthesized and was subjected to Mannich reaction with appropriate amines to yield a new series of 3-substituted aminomethyl-5-(2-methyl-4-nitro-1-imidazomethyl)- 1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiones (4a-j). The structure of the title compounds was elucidated by elemental analysis and spectral data. The newly synthesized Mannich bases were screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activity. Many of these compounds exhibited potent antifungal activity.

  17. Bromidotetra-kis-(2-ethyl-1H-imidazole-κN (3))copper(II) bromide.

    PubMed

    Godlewska, Sylwia; Kelm, Harald; Krüger, Hans-Jörg; Dołęga, Anna

    2012-12-01

    The Cu(II) ion in the title mol-ecular salt, [CuBr(C5H8N2)4]Br, is coordinated in a square-pyramidal geometry by four N atoms of imidazole ligands and one bromide anion in the apical position. In the crystal, the ions are linked by N-H⋯Br hydrogen bonds involving both the coordinating and the free bromide species as acceptors. A C-H⋯Br inter-action is also observed. Overall, a three-dimensional network results.

  18. Selective adsorption of thiophene and 1-benzothiophene on metal-ion-exchanged zeolites in organic medium.

    PubMed

    Xue, Mei; Chitrakar, Ramesh; Sakane, Kohji; Hirotsu, Takahiro; Ooi, Kenta; Yoshimura, Yuji; Feng, Qi; Sumida, Naoto

    2005-05-15

    Adsorption of the organic sulfur compounds thiophene (TP) and 1-benzothiophene (1-BTP) in an organic model solution of hydrodesulfurizated gasoline (heptane with 1 wt% toluene and 0.156 mM (5 ppmw as sulfur) TP or 1-BTP) was studied by a batch method at 80 degrees C using metal-ion-exchanged Y-zeolites. Although NaY-zeolite or its acid-treated material rarely adsorbed the organic sulfur compounds, NaY-zeolites exchanged with Ag+, Cu2+, and Ce3+ ions and NH(4)Y-zeolites exchanged with Ce3+ ions showed markedly high adsorptive capacities for TP and 1-BTP. The sulfur uptake increased in the order CuY-zeolite(Na)(Na) for both the organic sulfur compounds. The adsorption isotherms for TP and 1-BTP followed the Langmuir's relationship and the saturation capacities by CeY-zeolite(Na) were calculated as 0.022 and 0.033 mmol/g, respectively. The mole ratios of TP/Ce and 1-BTP/Ce were 0.031 and 0.047, respectively. CeY-zeolite(NH4) which was prepared from NH4Y-zeolite showed less uptake of TP and 1-BTP than CeY-zeolite(Na), probably due to its lower cerium content.

  19. Cytokinin oxidase from Phaseolus vulgaris callus tissues. Enhanced in vitro activity of the enzyme in the presence of copper-imidazole complexes

    SciT

    Chatfield, J.M.; Armstrong, D.J.

    1987-07-01

    The effects of metal ions on cytokinin oxidase activity extracted from callus tissues of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Great Northern have been examined using an assay based on the oxidation of N/sup 6/-(..delta../sup 2/-isopentenyl)-adenine-2,8-/sup 3/H (i/sup 6/ Ade) to adenine (Ade). The addition of cupric ions to reaction mixtures containing imidazole buffer markedly enhanced cytokinin oxidase activity. In the presence of optimal concentrations of copper and imidazole, cytokinin oxidase activity was stimulated more than 20-fold. The effect was enzyme dependent, specific for copper, and observed only in the presence of imidazole. The substrate specificity of the copper-imidazole enhanced reaction, asmore » judged by substrate competition tests, was the same as that observed in the absence of copper and imidazole. Similarly, in tests involving DEAE-cellulose chromatography, elution profiles of cytokinin oxidase activity determined using a copper-imidazole enhanced assay were identical to those obtained using an assay without copper and imidazole. On the basis of these results, the addition of copper and imidazole to reaction mixtures used to assay for cytokinin oxidase activity is judged to provide a reliable and specific assay of greatly enhanced sensitivity for the enzyme. The mechanism by which copper and imidazole enhance cytokinin oxidase activity is not certain, but the reaction catalyzed by the enzyme was not inhibited by anaerobic conditions when these reagents were present. This observation suggests that copper-imidazole complexes are substituting for oxygen in the reaction mechanism by which cytokinin oxidase effects cleavage of the N/sup 6/-side chain of i/sup 6/ Ade.« less

  20. Methods of using structures including catalytic materials disposed within porous zeolite materials to synthesize hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Rollins, Harry W [Idaho Falls, ID; Petkovic, Lucia M [Idaho Falls, ID; Ginosar, Daniel M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-02-01

    Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.