pyZELDA: Python code for Zernike wavefront sensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vigan, A.; N'Diaye, M.
2018-06-01
pyZELDA analyzes data from Zernike wavefront sensors dedicated to high-contrast imaging applications. This modular software was originally designed to analyze data from the ZELDA wavefront sensor prototype installed in VLT/SPHERE; simple configuration files allow it to be extended to support several other instruments and testbeds. pyZELDA also includes simple simulation tools to measure the theoretical sensitivity of a sensor and to compare it to other sensors.
Phase-Shifting Zernike Interferometer Wavefront Sensor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wallace, J. Kent; Rao, Shanti; Jensen-Clemb, Rebecca M.; Serabyn, Gene
2011-01-01
The canonical Zernike phase-contrast technique1,2,3,4 transforms a phase object in one plane into an intensity object in the conjugate plane. This is done by applying a static pi/2 phase shift to the central core (approx. lambda/D) of the PSF which is intermediate between the input and output planes. Here we present a new architecture for this sensor. First, the optical system is simple and all reflective. Second, the phase shift in the central core of the PSF is dynamic and or arbitrary size. This common-path, all-reflective design makes it minimally sensitive to vibration, polarization and wavelength. We review the theory of operation, describe the optical system, summarize numerical simulations and sensitivities and review results from a laboratory demonstration of this novel instrument
Phase-Shifting Zernike Interferometer Wavefront Sensor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wallace, J. Kent; Rao, Shanti; Jensen-Clem, Rebecca M.
2011-01-01
The canonical Zernike phase-contrast technique transforms a phase object in one plane into an intensity object in the conjugate plane. This is done by applying a static pi/2 phase shift to the central core (approx. lambda/diameter) of the PSF which is intermediate between the input and output plane. Here we present a new architecture for this sensor. First, the optical system is simple and all reflective, and second the phase shift in the central core of the PSF is dynamic and can be made arbitrarily large. This common-path, all-reflective design makes it minimally sensitive to vibration, polarization and wavelength. We review the theory of operation, describe the optical system, summarize numerical simulations and sensitivities and review results from a laboratory demonstration of this novel instrument.
A Phase-Shifting Zernike Wavefront Sensor for the Palomar P3K Adaptive Optics System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wallace, J. Kent; Crawford, Sam; Loya, Frank; Moore, James
2012-01-01
A phase-shifting Zernike wavefront sensor has distinct advantages over other types of wavefront sensors. Chief among them are: 1) improved sensitivity to low-order aberrations and 2) efficient use of photons (hence reduced sensitivity to photon noise). We are in the process of deploying a phase-shifting Zernike wavefront sensor to be used with the realtime adaptive optics system for Palomar. Here we present the current state of the Zernike wavefront sensor to be integrated into the high-order adaptive optics system at Mount Palomar's Hale Telescope.
Precise starshade stationkeeping and pointing with a Zernike wavefront sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bottom, Michael; Martin, Stefan; Seubert, Carl; Cady, Eric; Zareh, Shannon Kian; Shaklan, Stuart
2017-09-01
Starshades, large occulters positioned tens of thousands of kilometers in front of space telescopes, offer one of the few paths to imaging and characterizing Earth-like extrasolar planets. However, for a starshade to generate a sufficiently dark shadow on the telescope, the two must be coaligned to just 1 meter laterally, even at these large separations. The principal challenge to achieving this level of control is in determining the position of the starshade with respect to the space telescope. In this paper, we present numerical simulations and laboratory results demonstrating that a Zernike wavefront sensor coupled to a WFIRST-type telescope is able to deliver the stationkeeping precision required, by measuring light outside of the science wavelengths. The sensor can determine the starshade lateral position to centimeter level in seconds of open shutter time for stars brighter than eighth magnitude, with a capture range of 10 meters. We discuss the potential for fast (ms) tip/tilt pointing control at the milli-arcsecond level by illuminating the sensor with a laser mounted on the starshade. Finally, we present early laboratory results.
Differential modal Zernike wavefront sensor employing a computer-generated hologram: a proposal.
Mishra, Sanjay K; Bhatt, Rahul; Mohan, Devendra; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Sharma, Anurag
2009-11-20
The process of Zernike mode detection with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor is computationally extensive. A holographic modal wavefront sensor has therefore evolved to process the data optically by use of the concept of equal and opposite phase bias. Recently, a multiplexed computer-generated hologram (CGH) technique was developed in which the output is in the form of bright dots that specify the presence and strength of a specific Zernike mode. We propose a wavefront sensor using the concept of phase biasing in the latter technique such that the output is a pair of bright dots for each mode to be sensed. A normalized difference signal between the intensities of the two dots is proportional to the amplitude of the sensed Zernike mode. In our method the number of holograms to be multiplexed is decreased, thereby reducing the modal cross talk significantly. We validated the proposed method through simulation studies for several cases. The simulation results demonstrate simultaneous wavefront detection of lower-order Zernike modes with a resolution better than lambda/50 for the wide measurement range of +/-3.5lambda with much reduced cross talk at high speed.
Zernike Wavefront Sensor Modeling Development for LOWFS on WFIRST-AFTA
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Xu; Wallace, J. Kent; Shi, Fang
2015-01-01
WFIRST-AFTA design makes use of an existing 2.4m telescope for direct imaging of exoplanets. To maintain the high contrast needed for the coronagraph, wavefront error (WFE) of the optical system needs to be continuously sensed and controlled. Low Order Wavefront Sensing (LOWFS) uses the rejected starlight from an immediate focal plane to sense wavefront changes (mostly thermally induced low order WFE) by combining the LOWFS mask (a phase plate located at the small center region with reflective layer) with the starlight rejection masks, i.e. Hybrid Lyot Coronagraph (HLC)'s occulter or Shaped Pupil Coronagraph (SPC)'s field stop. Zernike wavefront sensor (ZWFS) measures phase via the phase-contrast method and is known to be photon noise optimal for measuring low order aberrations. Recently, ZWFS was selected as the baseline LOWFS technology on WFIST/AFTA for its good sensitivity, accuracy, and its easy integration with the starlight rejection mask. In this paper, we review the theory of ZWFS operation, describe the ZWFS algorithm development, and summarize various numerical sensitivity studies on the sensor performance. In the end, the predicted sensor performance on SPC and HLC configurations are presented.
Zhu, Zhaoyi; Mu, Quanquan; Li, Dayu; Yang, Chengliang; Cao, Zhaoliang; Hu, Lifa; Xuan, Li
2016-10-17
The centroid-based Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWFS) treats the sampled wavefronts in the sub-apertures as planes, and the slopes of the sub-wavefronts are used to reconstruct the whole pupil wavefront. The problem is that the centroid method may fail to sense the high-order modes for strong turbulences, decreasing the precision of the whole pupil wavefront reconstruction. To solve this problem, we propose a sub-wavefront estimation method for SHWFS based on the focal plane sensing technique, by which more Zernike modes than the two slopes can be sensed in each sub-aperture. In this paper, the effects on the sub-wavefront estimation method of the related parameters, such as the spot size, the phase offset with its set amplitude and the pixels number in each sub-aperture, are analyzed and these parameters are optimized to achieve high efficiency. After the optimization, open-loop measurement is realized. For the sub-wavefront sensing, we achieve a large linearity range of 3.0 rad RMS for Zernike modes Z2 and Z3, and 2.0 rad RMS for Zernike modes Z4 to Z6 when the pixel number does not exceed 8 × 8 in each sub-aperture. The whole pupil wavefront reconstruction with the modified SHWFS is realized to analyze the improvements brought by the optimized sub-wavefront estimation method. Sixty-five Zernike modes can be reconstructed with a modified SHWFS containing only 7 × 7 sub-apertures, which could reconstruct only 35 modes by the centroid method, and the mean RMS errors of the residual phases are less than 0.2 rad^{2}, which is lower than the 0.35 rad^{2} by the centroid method.
Xu, Jingjing; Bao, Jinhua; Deng, Jun; Lu, Fan; He, Ji C
2011-07-29
To measure dynamic change characteristics of spatial and temporal variations in the post-blink tear film of normal eyes. A wavefront sensor was used to measure dynamic changes in wavefront aberrations, up to the seventh order, for 10 seconds in a group of 33 normal young adults. Tear menisci were imaged with an anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) system and tear film break-up times (TFBUTs) were determined. Systematic changes in main axis astigmatism (R(2) = 0.933, P < 0.0001), vertical coma (R(2) = 0.935, P < 0.0001) and spherical aberrations (R(2) = 0.879, P = 0.0002) occurred during the 10-second post-blink period. Both lower tear meniscus height and area increased by 10 seconds compared with the initial levels (P < 0.0001 for each). The change of vertical coma had significant correlation with the increase of lower tear meniscus areas during the 10-second post-blink period (R(2) = 0.181, P = 0.014). Subjects with TFBUTs < 15 seconds had significantly increased main axis astigmatism, vertical coma, and spherical aberrations by 10 seconds. Subjects with longer TFBUTs did not have any significant wavefront aberrations during that period. Systematic changes in some Zernike aberrations after blinking are associated with the changes in tear menisci and TFBUT. There was a substantial individual variation in dynamic changes of Zernike aberrations, suggesting the necessity to explore individual differences in tear quality and tear performance. Dynamic wavefront measurement combined with anterior segment optical coherence tomography could provide a useful tool to understand spatial and temporal processes of the tear film in clinical practice.
Broadband, Common-path, Interferometric Wavefront Sensor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wallace, James Kent (Inventor)
2015-01-01
Hybrid sensors comprising Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensor (S-HWFS) and Zernike Wavefront Sensor (Z-WFS) capabilities are presented. The hybrid sensor includes a Z-WFS optically arranged in-line with a S-HWFS such that the combined wavefront sensor operates across a wide dynamic range and noise conditions. The Z-WFS may include the ability to introduce a dynamic phase shift in both transmissive and reflective modes.
Fast Holographic Wavefront Sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andersen, G.; Ghebremichael, F.; Gurley, K.
There are several different types of wavefront sensors that can be used to measure the phase of an input beam. While they have widely varying modes of operation, they all require some computational overhead in order to deconstruct the phase from an optical measurement which greatly reduces the sensing speed. Furthermore, zonal detection methods, such as the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWFS) are not well suited to temporal changes in pupil obscuration such as can occur with scintillation. Here we present a modal detector that incorporates a multiplexed hologram to give a full description of wavefront error without the need for any calculations. The holographic wavefront sensor (HWFS) uses a hologram that is "pre-programmed" with all desired Zernike aberration components. An input beam of arbitrary phase will diffract into pairs of focused beams. Each pair represents a different aberration, and the amplitude is obtained by measuring the relative brightness of the pair of foci. This can be easily achieved by using conventional position sensing devices. In this manner, the amplitudes of each aberration components are directly sensed without the need for any calculations. As such, a complete characterization of the wavefront can be made at speeds of up to 100 kHz in a compact device and without the need for a computer or sophisticated electronics. In this talk we will detail the operation of the holographic wavefront sensor and present results of a prototype sensor as well as a modified design suitable for a closed-loop adaptive optics system. This new wavefront sensor will not only permit faster correction, but permit adaptive optics systems to work in extremely turbulent environments such as those encountered in fast-tracking systems and the Airborne Laser project.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Butts, Robert R.
1997-08-01
A low noise, high resolution Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor was included in the ABLE-ACE instrument suite to obtain direct high resolution phase measurements of the 0.53 micrometers pulsed laser beam propagated through high altitude atmospheric turbulence. The wavefront sensor employed a Fired geometry using a lenslet array which provided approximately 17 sub-apertures across the pupil. The lenslets focused the light in each sub-aperture onto a 21 by 21 array of pixels in the camera focal plane with 8 pixels in the camera focal plane with 8 pixels across the central lobe of the diffraction limited spot. The goal of the experiment was to measure the effects of the turbulence in the free atmosphere on propagation, but the wavefront sensor also detected the aberrations induced by the aircraft boundary layer and the receiver aircraft internal beam path. Data analysis methods used to extract the desired atmospheric contribution to the phase measurements from the data corrupted by non-atmospheric aberrations are described. Approaches which were used included a reconstruction of the phase as a linear combination of Zernike polynomials coupled with optical estimator sand computation of structure functions of the sub-aperture slopes. The theoretical basis for the data analysis techniques is presented. Results are described, and comparisons with theory and simulations are shown. Estimates of average turbulence strength along the propagation path from the wavefront sensor showed good agreement with other sensor. The Zernike spectra calculated from the wavefront sensor data were consistent with the standard Kolmogorov model of turbulence.
Correlator optical wavefront sensor COWS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
1991-02-01
This report documents the significant upgrades and improvements made to the correlator optical wavefront sensor (COWS) optical bench during this phase of the program. Software for the experiment was reviewed and documented. Flowcharts showing the program flow are included as well as documentation for programs which were written to calculate and display Zernike polynomials. The system was calibrated and aligned and a series of experiments to determine the optimum settings for the input and output MOSLM polarizers were conducted. In addition, design of a simple aberration generation is included.
Model wavefront sensor for adaptive confocal microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Booth, Martin J.; Neil, Mark A. A.; Wilson, Tony
2000-05-01
A confocal microscope permits 3D imaging of volume objects by the inclusion of a pinhole in the detector path which eliminates out of focus light. This configuration is however very sensitive to aberrations induced by the specimen or the optical system and would therefore benefit from an adaptive optics approach. We present a wavefront sensor capable of measuring directly the Zernike components of an aberrated wavefront and show that it is particularly applicable to the confocal microscope since only those wavefronts originating in the focal region contribute to the measured aberration.
Neal, Daniel R.
2000-01-01
A rigid mount and method of mounting for a wavefront sensor. A wavefront dissector, such as a lenslet array, is rigidly mounted at a fixed distance relative to an imager, such as a CCD camera, without need for a relay imaging lens therebetween.
Response analysis of holography-based modal wavefront sensor.
Dong, Shihao; Haist, Tobias; Osten, Wolfgang; Ruppel, Thomas; Sawodny, Oliver
2012-03-20
The crosstalk problem of holography-based modal wavefront sensing (HMWS) becomes more severe with increasing aberration. In this paper, crosstalk effects on the sensor response are analyzed statistically for typical aberrations due to atmospheric turbulence. For specific turbulence strength, we optimized the sensor by adjusting the detector radius and the encoded phase bias for each Zernike mode. Calibrated response curves of low-order Zernike modes were further utilized to improve the sensor accuracy. The simulation results validated our strategy. The number of iterations for obtaining a residual RMS wavefront error of 0.1λ is reduced from 18 to 3. © 2012 Optical Society of America
Improvements to the modal holographic wavefront sensor.
Kong, Fanpeng; Lambert, Andrew
2016-05-01
The Zernike coefficients of a light wavefront can be calculated directly by intensity ratios of pairs of spots in the reconstructed image plane of a holographic wavefront sensor (HWFS). However, the response curve of the HWFS heavily depends on the position and size of the detector for each spot and the distortions introduced by other aberrations. In this paper, we propose a method to measure the intensity of each spot by setting a threshold to select effective pixels and using the weighted average intensity within a selected window. Compared with using the integral intensity over a small window for each spot, we show through a numerical simulation that the proposed method reduces the dependency of the HWFS's response curve on the selection of the detector window. We also recorded a HWFS on a holographic plate using a blue laser and demonstrated its capability to detect the strength of encoded Zernike terms in an aberrated beam.
Myopic aberrations: Simulation based comparison of curvature and Hartmann Shack wavefront sensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Basavaraju, Roopashree M.; Akondi, Vyas; Weddell, Stephen J.; Budihal, Raghavendra Prasad
2014-02-01
In comparison with a Hartmann Shack wavefront sensor, the curvature wavefront sensor is known for its higher sensitivity and greater dynamic range. The aim of this study is to numerically investigate the merits of using a curvature wavefront sensor, in comparison with a Hartmann Shack (HS) wavefront sensor, to analyze aberrations of the myopic eye. Aberrations were statistically generated using Zernike coefficient data of 41 myopic subjects obtained from the literature. The curvature sensor is relatively simple to implement, and the processing of extra- and intra-focal images was linearly resolved using the Radon transform to provide Zernike modes corresponding to statistically generated aberrations. Simulations of the HS wavefront sensor involve the evaluation of the focal spot pattern from simulated aberrations. Optical wavefronts were reconstructed using the slope geometry of Southwell. Monte Carlo simulation was used to find critical parameters for accurate wavefront sensing and to investigate the performance of HS and curvature sensors. The performance of the HS sensor is highly dependent on the number of subapertures and the curvature sensor is largely dependent on the number of Zernike modes used to represent the aberration and the effective propagation distance. It is shown that in order to achieve high wavefront sensing accuracy while measuring aberrations of the myopic eye, a simpler and cost effective curvature wavefront sensor is a reliable alternative to a high resolution HS wavefront sensor with a large number of subapertures.
Development of a wavefront sensor for terahertz pulses.
Abraham, Emmanuel; Cahyadi, Harsono; Brossard, Mathilde; Degert, Jérôme; Freysz, Eric; Yasui, Takeshi
2016-03-07
Wavefront characterization of terahertz pulses is essential to optimize far-field intensity distribution of time-domain (imaging) spectrometers or increase the peak power of intense terahertz sources. In this paper, we report on the wavefront measurement of terahertz pulses using a Hartmann sensor associated with a 2D electro-optic imaging system composed of a ZnTe crystal and a CMOS camera. We quantitatively determined the deformations of planar and converging spherical wavefronts using the modal Zernike reconstruction least-squares method. Associated with deformable mirrors, the sensor will also open the route to terahertz adaptive optics.
Dai, Guang-ming; Campbell, Charles E; Chen, Li; Zhao, Huawei; Chernyak, Dimitri
2009-01-20
In wavefront-driven vision correction, ocular aberrations are often measured on the pupil plane and the correction is applied on a different plane. The problem with this practice is that any changes undergone by the wavefront as it propagates between planes are not currently included in devising customized vision correction. With some valid approximations, we have developed an analytical foundation based on geometric optics in which Zernike polynomials are used to characterize the propagation of the wavefront from one plane to another. Both the boundary and the magnitude of the wavefront change after the propagation. Taylor monomials were used to realize the propagation because of their simple form for this purpose. The method we developed to identify changes in low-order aberrations was verified with the classical vertex correction formula. The method we developed to identify changes in high-order aberrations was verified with ZEMAX ray-tracing software. Although the method may not be valid for highly irregular wavefronts and it was only proven for wavefronts with low-order or high-order aberrations, our analysis showed that changes in the propagating wavefront are significant and should, therefore, be included in calculating vision correction. This new approach could be of major significance in calculating wavefront-driven vision correction whether by refractive surgery, contact lenses, intraocular lenses, or spectacles.
Cui, Xiquan; Ren, Jian; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Yang, Changhuei
2010-01-01
We report the implementation of an image sensor chip, termed wavefront image sensor chip (WIS), that can measure both intensity/amplitude and phase front variations of a light wave separately and quantitatively. By monitoring the tightly confined transmitted light spots through a circular aperture grid in a high Fresnel number regime, we can measure both intensity and phase front variations with a high sampling density (11 µm) and high sensitivity (the sensitivity of normalized phase gradient measurement is 0.1 mrad under the typical working condition). By using WIS in a standard microscope, we can collect both bright-field (transmitted light intensity) and normalized phase gradient images. Our experiments further demonstrate that the normalized phase gradient images of polystyrene microspheres, unstained and stained starfish embryos, and strongly birefringent potato starch granules are improved versions of their corresponding differential interference contrast (DIC) microscope images in that they are artifact-free and quantitative. Besides phase microscopy, WIS can benefit machine recognition, object ranging, and texture assessment for a variety of applications. PMID:20721059
Beam characterization by wavefront sensor
Neal, Daniel R.; Alford, W. J.; Gruetzner, James K.
1999-01-01
An apparatus and method for characterizing an energy beam (such as a laser) with a two-dimensional wavefront sensor, such as a Shack-Hartmann lenslet array. The sensor measures wavefront slope and irradiance of the beam at a single point on the beam and calculates a space-beamwidth product. A detector array such as a charge coupled device camera is preferably employed.
Beam characterization by wavefront sensor
Neal, D.R.; Alford, W.J.; Gruetzner, J.K.
1999-08-10
An apparatus and method are disclosed for characterizing an energy beam (such as a laser) with a two-dimensional wavefront sensor, such as a Shack-Hartmann lenslet array. The sensor measures wavefront slope and irradiance of the beam at a single point on the beam and calculates a space-beamwidth product. A detector array such as a charge coupled device camera is preferably employed. 21 figs.
Wavefront sensor and wavefront corrector matching in adaptive optics.
Dubra, Alfredo
2007-03-19
Matching wavefront correctors and wavefront sensors by minimizing the condition number and mean wavefront variance is proposed. The particular cases of two continuous-sheet deformable mirrors and a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor with square packing geometry are studied in the presence of photon noise, background noise and electronics noise. Optimal number of lenslets across each actuator are obtained for both deformable mirrors, and a simple experimental procedure for optimal alignment is described. The results show that high-performance adaptive optics can be achieved even with low cost off-the-shelf Shack-Hartmann arrays with lenslet spacing that do not necessarily match those of the wavefront correcting elements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Ke; Wang, Jiannian; Wang, Hai; Li, Yanqiu
2018-07-01
For the multi-lateral shearing interferometers (multi-LSIs), the measurement accuracy can be enhanced by estimating the wavefront under test with the multidirectional phase information encoded in the shearing interferogram. Usually the multi-LSIs reconstruct the test wavefront from the phase derivatives in multiple directions using the discrete Fourier transforms (DFT) method, which is only suitable to small shear ratios and relatively sensitive to noise. To improve the accuracy of multi-LSIs, wavefront reconstruction from the multidirectional phase differences using the difference Zernike polynomials fitting (DZPF) method is proposed in this paper. For the DZPF method applied in the quadriwave LSI, difference Zernike polynomials in only two orthogonal shear directions are required to represent the phase differences in multiple shear directions. In this way, the test wavefront can be reconstructed from the phase differences in multiple shear directions using a noise-variance weighted least-squares method with almost no extra computational burden, compared with the usual recovery from the phase differences in two orthogonal directions. Numerical simulation results show that the DZPF method can maintain high reconstruction accuracy in a wider range of shear ratios and has much better anti-noise performance than the DFT method. A null test experiment of the quadriwave LSI has been conducted and the experimental results show that the measurement accuracy of the quadriwave LSI can be improved from 0.0054 λ rms to 0.0029 λ rms (λ = 632.8 nm) by substituting the DFT method with the proposed DZPF method in the wavefront reconstruction process.
Wavefront sensor and wavefront corrector matching in adaptive optics
Dubra, Alfredo
2016-01-01
Matching wavefront correctors and wavefront sensors by minimizing the condition number and mean wavefront variance is proposed. The particular cases of two continuous-sheet deformable mirrors and a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor with square packing geometry are studied in the presence of photon noise, background noise and electronics noise. Optimal number of lenslets across each actuator are obtained for both deformable mirrors, and a simple experimental procedure for optimal alignment is described. The results show that high-performance adaptive optics can be achieved even with low cost off-the-shelf Shack-Hartmann arrays with lenslet spacing that do not necessarily match those of the wavefront correcting elements. PMID:19532513
CIAO: wavefront sensors for GRAVITY
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scheithauer, Silvia; Brandner, Wolfgang; Deen, Casey; Adler, Tobias; Bonnet, Henri; Bourget, Pierre; Chemla, Fanny; Clenet, Yann; Delplancke, Francoise; Ebert, Monica; Eisenhauer, Frank; Esselborn, Michael; Finger, Gert; Gendron, Eric; Glauser, Adrian; Gonte, Frederic; Henning, Thomas; Hippler, Stefan; Huber, Armin; Hubert, Zoltan; Jakob, Gerd; Jochum, Lieselotte; Jocou, Laurent; Kendrew, Sarah; Klein, Ralf; Kolb, Johann; Kulas, Martin; Laun, Werner; Lenzen, Rainer; Mellein, Marcus; Müller, Eric; Moreno-Ventas, Javier; Neumann, Udo; Oberti, Sylvain; Ott, Jürgen; Pallanca, Laurent; Panduro, Johana; Ramos, Jose; Riquelme, Miguel; Rohloff, Ralf-Rainer; Rousset, Gérard; Schuhler, Nicolas; Suarez, Marcos; Zins, Gerard
2016-07-01
GRAVITY is a second generation near-infrared VLTI instrument that will combine the light of the four unit or four auxiliary telescopes of the ESO Paranal observatory in Chile. The major science goals are the observation of objects in close orbit around, or spiraling into the black hole in the Galactic center with unrivaled sensitivity and angular resolution as well as studies of young stellar objects and evolved stars. In order to cancel out the effect of atmospheric turbulence and to be able to see beyond dusty layers, it needs infrared wave-front sensors when operating with the unit telescopes. Therefore GRAVITY consists of the Beam Combiner Instrument (BCI) located in the VLTI laboratory and a wave-front sensor in each unit telescope Coudé room, thus aptly named Coudé Infrared Adaptive Optics (CIAO). This paper describes the CIAO design, assembly, integration and verification at the Paranal observatory.
Geometric Theory of Moving Grid Wavefront Sensor
1977-06-30
Identify by block numbot) Adaptive Optics WaVefront Sensor Geometric Optics Analysis Moving Ronchi Grid "ABSTRACT (Continue an revere sdde If nooessaY...ad Identify by block nucber)A geometric optics analysis is made for a wavefront sensor that uses a moving Ronchi grid. It is shown that by simple data... optical systems being considered or being developed -3 for imaging an object through a turbulent atmosphere. Some of these use a wavefront sensor to
Wang, Shengqian; Rao, Changhui; Xian, Hao; Zhang, Jianlin; Wang, Jianxin; Liu, Zheng
2011-04-25
The feasibility and performance of the pyramid wavefront sensor without modulation used in closed-loop adaptive optics system is investigated in this paper. The theory concepts and some simulation results are given to describe the detection trend and the linearity range of such a sensor with the aim to better understand its properties, and then a laboratory setup of the adaptive optics system based on this sensor and the liquid-crystal spatial light modulator is built. The correction results for the individual Zernike aberrations and the Kolmogorov phase screens are presented to demonstrate that the pyramid wavefront sensor without modulation can work as expected for closed-loop adaptive optics system.
Hybrid wavefront sensor for the fast detection of wavefront disturbances.
Dong, Shihao; Haist, Tobias; Osten, Wolfgang
2012-09-01
Strongly aberrated wavefronts lead to inaccuracies and nonlinearities in holography-based modal wavefront sensing (HMWS). In this contribution, a low-resolution Shack-Hartmann sensor (LRSHS) is incorporated into HMWS via a compact holographic design to extend the dynamic range of HMWS. A static binary-phase computer-generated hologram is employed to generate the desired patterns for Shack-Hartmann sensing and HMWS. The low-order aberration modes dominating the wavefront error are first sensed with the LRSHS and corrected by the wavefront modulator. The system then switches to HMWS to obtain better sensor sensitivity and accuracy. Simulated as well as experimental results are shown for validating the proposed method.
Virtual pyramid wavefront sensor for phase unwrapping.
Akondi, Vyas; Vohnsen, Brian; Marcos, Susana
2016-10-10
Noise affects wavefront reconstruction from wrapped phase data. A novel method of phase unwrapping is proposed with the help of a virtual pyramid wavefront sensor. The method was tested on noisy wrapped phase images obtained experimentally with a digital phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer. The virtuality of the pyramid wavefront sensor allows easy tuning of the pyramid apex angle and modulation amplitude. It is shown that an optimal modulation amplitude obtained by monitoring the Strehl ratio helps in achieving better accuracy. Through simulation studies and iterative estimation, it is shown that the virtual pyramid wavefront sensor is robust to random noise.
Bueno, Juan M; Acosta, Eva; Schwarz, Christina; Artal, Pablo
2010-01-20
A dual setup composed of a point diffraction interferometer (PDI) and a Hartmann-Shack (HS) wavefront sensor was built to compare the estimates of wavefront aberrations provided by the two different and complementary techniques when applied to different phase plates. Results show that under the same experimental and fitting conditions both techniques provide similar information concerning the wavefront aberration map. When taking into account all Zernike terms up to 6th order, the maximum difference in root-mean-square wavefront error was 0.08 microm, and this reduced up to 0.03 microm when excluding lower-order terms. The effects of the pupil size and the order of the Zernike expansion used to reconstruct the wavefront were evaluated. The combination of the two techniques can accurately measure complicated phase profiles, combining the robustness of the HS and the higher resolution and dynamic range of the PDI.
On-sky performance of the Zernike phase contrast sensor for the phasing of segmented telescopes.
Surdej, Isabelle; Yaitskova, Natalia; Gonte, Frederic
2010-07-20
The Zernike phase contrast method is a novel technique to phase the primary mirrors of segmented telescopes. It has been tested on-sky on a unit telescope of the Very Large Telescope with a segmented mirror conjugated to the primary mirror to emulate a segmented telescope. The theoretical background of this sensor and the algorithm used to retrieve the piston, tip, and tilt information are described. The performance of the sensor as a function of parameters such as star magnitude, seeing, and integration time is discussed. The phasing accuracy has always been below 15 nm root mean square wavefront error under normal conditions of operation and the limiting star magnitude achieved on-sky with this sensor is 15.7 in the red, which would be sufficient to phase segmented telescopes in closed-loop during observations.
Carvalho, Luis Alberto; Castro, Jarbas; Chamon, Wallace; Schor, Paulo
2006-11-01
A novel wavefront sensor has been developed. It follows the same principle of the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor in that it is based on slope information. However, it has a different symmetry, which may offer benefits in terms of application. The new wavefront sensor consists of a set of donut-shaped acrylic lenses with a charge coupled device located at the focal plane. From detection of shift in the radial direction, radial slopes are computed for 2880 points. Theoretical computations for higher order aberrations and lower order aberrations were implemented for the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and the new wavefront sensor, and practical measurements were conducted on several sphere-cylinder trial lenses. The overall mean value of root mean square error (RMSE) (in microns) for theoretical computations was 0.03 for the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and 0.02 for the new wavefront sensor. The mean value of RMSE for lower order aberrations (1-5) was 0.01 and 0.00003, and for higher order aberrations was 0.02 and 0.02, for the Shack-Hartmann and new wavefront sensors, respectively. For practical measurements (sphere, cylinder, axis), the standard deviation was 0.04 diopters (D), 0.04 D, and 4 degrees for the new wavefront sensor and 0.02 D, 0.02 D, and 5 degrees for the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. Precision of the new wavefront sensor when measuring astigmatic and spherical surfaces is compatible with the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. Centration with this new sensor is an absolute process using the center of the entrance pupil, which is where the line of site passes. This wavefront sensor, similar to the Shack-Hartmann sensor, does not eliminate the possibility of tilt. For more conclusive and statistically valid data, in vivo measurements are needed.
x-y curvature wavefront sensor.
Cagigal, Manuel P; Valle, Pedro J
2015-04-15
In this Letter, we propose a new curvature wavefront sensor based on the principles of optical differentiation. The theoretically modeled setup consists of a diffractive optical mask placed at the intermediate plane of a classical two-lens coherent optical processor. The resulting image is composed of a number of local derivatives of the entrance pupil function whose proper combination provides the wavefront curvature. In contrast to the common radial curvature sensors, this one is able to provide the x and y wavefront curvature maps simultaneously. The sensor offers other additional advantages like having high spatial resolution, adjustable dynamic range, and not being sensitive to misalignment.
Digital pyramid wavefront sensor with tunable modulation.
Akondi, Vyas; Castillo, Sara; Vohnsen, Brian
2013-07-29
The pyramid wavefront sensor is known for its high sensitivity and dynamic range that can be tuned by mechanically altering its modulation amplitude. Here, a novel modulating digital scheme employing a reflecting phase only spatial light modulator is demonstrated. The use of the modulator allows an easy reconfigurable pyramid with digital control of the apex angle and modulation geometry without the need of any mechanically moving parts. Aberrations introduced by a 140-actuator deformable mirror were simultaneously sensed with the help of a commercial Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor. The wavefronts reconstructed using the digital pyramid wavefront sensor matched very closely with those sensed by the Hartmann-Shack. It is noted that a tunable modulation is necessary to operate the wavefront sensor in the linear regime and to accurately sense aberrations. Through simulations, it is shown that the wavefront sensor can be extended to astronomical applications as well. This novel digital pyramid wavefront sensor has the potential to become an attractive option in both open and closed loop adaptive optics systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Comastri, S. A.; Perez, Liliana I.; Pérez, Gervasio D.; Bastida, K.; Martin, G.
2008-04-01
The wavefront aberration of any image forming system and, in particular, of a human eye, is often expanded in Zernike modes each mode being weighed by a coefficient that depends both on the image forming components of the system and on the contour, size and centering of the pupil. In the present article, expanding up to 7th order the wavefront aberration, an analytical method to compute a new set of Zernike coefficients corresponding to a pupil in terms of an original set evaluated via ray tracing for a dilated and transversally arbitrarily displaced pupil is developed. A transformation matrix of dimension 36×36 is attained multiplying the scaling-horizontal traslation matrix previously derived by appropriate rotation matrices. Multiplying the original coefficients by this transformation matrix, analytical formulas for each new coefficient are attained and supplied and, for the information concerning the wavefront aberration to be available, these formulas must be employed in cases in which the new pupil is contained in the original one. The use of these analytical formulas is exemplified applying them to study the effect of pupil contraction and/or decentering in 3 situations: calculation of corneal aberrations of a keratoconic subject for the natural photopic pupil size and various decenterings; coma compensation by means of pupil shift in a fictitious system solely having primary aberrations and evaluation of the amount of astigmatism and coma of a hypothetical system originally having spherical aberration alone.
Plenoptic wavefront sensor with scattering pupil.
Vdovin, Gleb; Soloviev, Oleg; Loktev, Mikhail
2014-04-21
We consider a wavefront sensor combining scattering pupil with a plenoptic imager. Such a sensor utilizes the same reconstruction principle as the Hartmann-Shack sensor, however it is free from the ambiguity of the spot location caused by the periodic structure of the sensor matrix, and allows for wider range of measured aberrations. In our study, sensor with scattering pupil has demonstrated a good match between the introduced and reconstructed aberrations, both in the simulation and experiment. The concept is expected to be applicable to optical metrology of strongly distorted wavefronts, especially for measurements through dirty, distorted, or scattering windows and pupils, such as cataract eyes.
Study of an instrument for sensing errors in a telescope wavefront
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Golden, L. J.; Shack, R. V.; Slater, D. N.
1973-01-01
Partial results are presented of theoretical and experimental investigations of different focal plane sensor configurations for determining the error in a telescope wavefront. The coarse range sensor and fine range sensors are used in the experimentation. The design of a wavefront error simulator is presented along with the Hartmann test, the shearing polarization interferometer, the Zernike test, and the Zernike polarization test.
Fourier transform-wavefront reconstruction for the pyramid wavefront sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quirós-Pacheco, Fernando; Correia, Carlos; Esposito, Simone
The application of Fourier-transform reconstruction techniques to the pyramid wavefront sensor has been investigated. A preliminary study based on end-to-end simulations of an adaptive optics system with ≈40x40 subapertures and actuators shows that the performance of the Fourier-transform reconstructor (FTR) is of the same order of magnitude than the one obtained with a conventional matrix-vector multiply (MVM) method.
Ultra-high resolution coded wavefront sensor.
Wang, Congli; Dun, Xiong; Fu, Qiang; Heidrich, Wolfgang
2017-06-12
Wavefront sensors and more general phase retrieval methods have recently attracted a lot of attention in a host of application domains, ranging from astronomy to scientific imaging and microscopy. In this paper, we introduce a new class of sensor, the Coded Wavefront Sensor, which provides high spatio-temporal resolution using a simple masked sensor under white light illumination. Specifically, we demonstrate megapixel spatial resolution and phase accuracy better than 0.1 wavelengths at reconstruction rates of 50 Hz or more, thus opening up many new applications from high-resolution adaptive optics to real-time phase retrieval in microscopy.
Haffert, S Y
2016-08-22
Current wavefront sensors for high resolution imaging have either a large dynamic range or a high sensitivity. A new kind of wavefront sensor is developed which can have both: the Generalised Optical Differentiation wavefront sensor. This new wavefront sensor is based on the principles of optical differentiation by amplitude filters. We have extended the theory behind linear optical differentiation and generalised it to nonlinear filters. We used numerical simulations and laboratory experiments to investigate the properties of the generalised wavefront sensor. With this we created a new filter that can decouple the dynamic range from the sensitivity. These properties make it suitable for adaptive optic systems where a large range of phase aberrations have to be measured with high precision.
Reconfigurable wavefront sensor for ultrashort pulses.
Bock, Martin; Das, Susanta Kumar; Fischer, Carsten; Diehl, Michael; Börner, Peter; Grunwald, Ruediger
2012-04-01
A highly flexible Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for ultrashort pulse diagnostics is presented. The temporal system performance is studied in detail. Reflective operation is enabled by programming tilt-tolerant microaxicons into a liquid-crystal-on-silicon spatial light modulator. Nearly undistorted pulse transfer is obtained by generating nondiffracting needle beams as subbeams. Reproducible wavefront analysis and spatially resolved second-order autocorrelation are demonstrated at incident angles up to 50° and pulse durations down to 6 fs.
Transmission-grating-based wavefront tilt sensor.
Iwata, Koichi; Fukuda, Hiroki; Moriwaki, Kousuke
2009-07-10
We propose a new type of tilt sensor. It consists of a grating and an image sensor. It detects the tilt of the collimated wavefront reflected from a plane mirror. Its principle is described and analyzed based on wave optics. Experimental results show its validity. Simulations of the ordinary autocollimator and the proposed tilt sensor show that the effect of noise on the measured angle is smaller for the latter. These results show a possibility of making a smaller and simpler tilt sensor.
Complex wavefront sensing with a plenoptic sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Chensheng; Ko, Jonathan; Davis, Christopher C.
2016-09-01
There are many techniques to achieve basic wavefront sensing tasks in the weak atmospheric turbulence regime. However, in strong and deep turbulence situations, the complexity of a propagating wavefront increases significantly. Typically, beam breakup will happen and various portions of the beam will randomly interfere with each other. Consequently, some conventional techniques for wavefront sensing turn out to be inaccurate and misleading. For example, a Shack-Hartmann sensor will be confused by multi-spot/zero-spot result in some cells. The curvature sensor will be affected by random interference patterns for both the image acquired before the focal plane and the image acquired after the focal plane. We propose the use of a plenoptic sensor to solve complex wavefront sensing problems. In fact, our results show that even for multiple beams (their wavelengths can be the same) passing through the same turbulent channel, the plenoptic sensor can reconstruct the turbulence-induced distortion accurately. In this paper, we will demonstrate the plenoptic mapping principle to analyze and reconstruct the complex wavefront of a distorted laser beam.
Curvature sensor for ocular wavefront measurement.
Díaz-Doutón, Fernando; Pujol, Jaume; Arjona, Montserrat; Luque, Sergio O
2006-08-01
We describe a new wavefront sensor for ocular aberration determination, based on the curvature sensing principle, which adapts the classical system used in astronomy for the living eye's measurements. The actual experimental setup is presented and designed following a process guided by computer simulations to adjust the design parameters for optimal performance. We present results for artificial and real young eyes, compared with the Hartmann-Shack estimations. Both methods show a similar performance for these cases. This system will allow for the measurement of higher order aberrations than the currently used wavefront sensors in situations in which they are supposed to be significant, such as postsurgery eyes.
A Demonstration of a Versatile Low-order Wavefront Sensor Tested on Multiple Coronographs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Garima; Lozi, Julien; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Guyon, Olivier; Baudoz, Pierre; Martinache, Frantz; Kudo, Tomoyuki
2017-09-01
Detecting faint companions in close proximity to stars is one of the major goals of current/planned ground- and space-based high-contrast imaging instruments. High-performance coronagraphs can suppress the diffraction features and gain access to companions at small angular separation. However, the uncontrolled pointing errors degrade the coronagraphic performance by leaking starlight around the coronagraphic focal-plane mask, preventing the detection of companions at small separations. A Lyot-stop low-order wavefront sensor (LLOWFS) was therefore introduced to calibrate and measure these aberrations for focal-plane phase mask coronagraphs. This sensor quantifies the variations in wavefront error decomposed into a few Zernike modes by reimaging the diffracted starlight rejected by a reflective Lyot stop. The technique was tested with several coronagraphs on the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) system at the Subaru Telescope. The wavefront was decomposed into 15 and 35 Zernike modes with an occulting and focal-plane phase mask coronagraph, respectively, which were used to drive a closed-loop correction in the laboratory. Using a 2000-actuator deformable mirror, a closed-loop pointing stability between 10-3-10-4 λ/D was achieved in the laboratory in H-band, with sub nanometer residuals for the other Zernike modes (Noll index > 4). On-sky, the low-order control of 10+ Zernike modes for the phase-induced amplitude apodization and the vector vortex coronagraphs was demonstrated, with a closed-loop pointing stability of {10}-4λ /D under good seeing and {10}-3λ /D under moderate seeing conditions readily achievable.
Simple broadband implementation of a phase contrast wavefront sensor for adaptive optics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bloemhof, E. E.; Wallace, J. K.
2004-01-01
The most critical element of an adaptive optics system is its wavefront sensor, which must measure the closed-loop difference between the corrected wavefront and an ideal template at high speed, in real time, over a dense sampling of the pupil. Most high-order systems have used Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors, but a novel approach based on Zernike's phase contrast principle appears promising. In this paper we discuss a simple way to achromatize such a phase contrast wavefront sensor, using the pi/2 phase difference between reflected and transmitted rays in a thin, symmetric beam splitter. We further model the response at a range of wavelengths to show that the required transverse dimension of the focal-plane phase-shifting spot, nominally lambda/D, may not be very sensitive to wavelength, and so in practice additional optics to introduce wavelength-dependent transverse magnification achromatizing this spot diameter may not be required. A very simple broadband implementation of the phase contrast wavefront sensor results.
Liu, Tao; Thibos, Larry; Marin, Gildas; Hernandez, Martha
2014-01-01
Conventional aberration analysis by a Shack-Hartmann aberrometer is based on the implicit assumption that an injected probe beam reflects from a single fundus layer. In fact, the biological fundus is a thick reflector and therefore conventional analysis may produce errors of unknown magnitude. We developed a novel computational method to investigate this potential failure of conventional analysis. The Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor was simulated by computer software and used to recover by two methods the known wavefront aberrations expected from a population of normally-aberrated human eyes and bi-layer fundus reflection. The conventional method determines the centroid of each spot in the SH data image, from which wavefront slopes are computed for least-squares fitting with derivatives of Zernike polynomials. The novel 'global' method iteratively adjusted the aberration coefficients derived from conventional centroid analysis until the SH image, when treated as a unitary picture, optimally matched the original data image. Both methods recovered higher order aberrations accurately and precisely, but only the global algorithm correctly recovered the defocus coefficients associated with each layer of fundus reflection. The global algorithm accurately recovered Zernike coefficients for mean defocus and bi-layer separation with maximum error <0.1%. The global algorithm was robust for bi-layer separation up to 2 dioptres for a typical SH wavefront sensor design. For 100 randomly generated test wavefronts with 0.7 D axial separation, the retrieved mean axial separation was 0.70 D with standard deviations (S.D.) of 0.002 D. Sufficient information is contained in SH data images to measure the dioptric thickness of dual-layer fundus reflection. The global algorithm is superior since it successfully recovered the focus value associated with both fundus layers even when their separation was too small to produce clearly separated spots, while the conventional analysis
Optical alignment procedure utilizing neural networks combined with Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adil, Fatime Zehra; Konukseven, Erhan İlhan; Balkan, Tuna; Adil, Ömer Faruk
2017-05-01
In the design of pilot helmets with night vision capability, to not limit or block the sight of the pilot, a transparent visor is used. The reflected image from the coated part of the visor must coincide with the physical human sight image seen through the nonreflecting regions of the visor. This makes the alignment of the visor halves critical. In essence, this is an alignment problem of two optical parts that are assembled together during the manufacturing process. Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor is commonly used for the determination of the misalignments through wavefront measurements, which are quantified in terms of the Zernike polynomials. Although the Zernike polynomials provide very useful feedback about the misalignments, the corrective actions are basically ad hoc. This stems from the fact that there exists no easy inverse relation between the misalignment measurements and the physical causes of the misalignments. This study aims to construct this inverse relation by making use of the expressive power of the neural networks in such complex relations. For this purpose, a neural network is designed and trained in MATLAB® regarding which types of misalignments result in which wavefront measurements, quantitatively given by Zernike polynomials. This way, manual and iterative alignment processes relying on trial and error will be replaced by the trained guesses of a neural network, so the alignment process is reduced to applying the counter actions based on the misalignment causes. Such a training requires data containing misalignment and measurement sets in fine detail, which is hard to obtain manually on a physical setup. For that reason, the optical setup is completely modeled in Zemax® software, and Zernike polynomials are generated for misalignments applied in small steps. The performance of the neural network is experimented and found promising in the actual physical setup.
Astigmatism and defocus wavefront correction via Zernike modes produced with fluidic lenses
Marks, Randall; Mathine, David L.; Schwiegerling, Jim; Peyman, Gholam; Peyghambarian, Nasser
2010-01-01
Fluidic lenses have been developed for ophthalmic applications with continuously varying optical powers for second order Zernike modes. Continuously varying corrections for both myopic and hyperopic defocus have been demonstrated over a range of three diopters using a fluidic lens with a circular retaining aperture. Likewise, a six diopter range of astigmatism has been continuously corrected using fluidic lenses with rectangular apertures. Imaging results have been characterized using a model eye. PMID:19571912
Determination of wavefront structure for a Hartmann wavefront sensor using a phase-retrieval method.
Polo, A; Kutchoukov, V; Bociort, F; Pereira, S F; Urbach, H P
2012-03-26
We apply a phase retrieval algorithm to the intensity pattern of a Hartmann wavefront sensor to measure with enhanced accuracy the phase structure of a Hartmann hole array. It is shown that the rms wavefront error achieved by phase reconstruction is one order of magnitude smaller than the one obtained from a typical centroid algorithm. Experimental results are consistent with a phase measurement performed independently using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor.
Phase retrieval using a modified Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor with defocus.
Li, Changwei; Li, Bangming; Zhang, Sijiong
2014-02-01
This paper proposes a modified Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for phase retrieval. The sensor is revamped by placing a detector at a defocused plane before the focal plane of the lenslet array of the Shack-Hartmann sensor. The algorithm for phase retrieval is an optimization with initial Zernike coefficients calculated by the conventional phase reconstruction of the Shack-Hartmann sensor. Numerical simulations show that the proposed sensor permits sensitive, accurate phase retrieval. Furthermore, experiments tested the feasibility of phase retrieval using the proposed sensor. The surface irregularity for a flat mirror was measured by the proposed method and a Veeco interferometer, respectively. The irregularity for the mirror measured by the proposed method is in very good agreement with that measured using the Veeco interferometer.
Detecting higher-order wavefront errors with an astigmatic hybrid wavefront sensor.
Barwick, Shane
2009-06-01
The reconstruction of wavefront errors from measurements over subapertures can be made more accurate if a fully characterized quadratic surface can be fitted to the local wavefront surface. An astigmatic hybrid wavefront sensor with added neural network postprocessing is shown to have this capability, provided that the focal image of each subaperture is sufficiently sampled. Furthermore, complete local curvature information is obtained with a single image without splitting beam power.
Bottlenecks of the wavefront sensor based on the Talbot effect.
Podanchuk, Dmytro; Kovalenko, Andrey; Kurashov, Vitalij; Kotov, Myhaylo; Goloborodko, Andrey; Danko, Volodymyr
2014-04-01
Physical constraints and peculiarities of the wavefront sensing technique, based on the Talbot effect, are discussed. The limitation on the curvature of the measurable wavefront is derived. The requirements to the Fourier spectrum of the periodic mask are formulated. Two kinds of masks are studied for their performance in the wavefront sensor. It is shown that the boundary part of the mask aperture does not contribute to the initial data for wavefront restoration. It is verified by experiment and computer simulation that the performance of the Talbot sensor, which meets established conditions, is similar to that of the Shack-Hartmann sensor.
Pyramidal Wavefront Sensor Demonstrator at INO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, Olivier; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Anctil, Geneviève; Bourqui, Pascal; Châteauneuf, François; Gauvin, Jonny; Goyette, Philippe; Lagacé, François; Turbide, Simon; Wang, Min
2014-08-01
Wavefront sensing is one of the key elements of an Adaptive Optics System. Although Shack-Hartmann WFS are the most commonly used whether for astronomical or biomedical applications, the high-sensitivity and large dynamic-range of the Pyramid-WFS (P-WFS) technology is promising and needs to be further investigated for proper justification in future Extremely Large Telescopes (ELT) applications. At INO, center for applied research in optics and technology transfer in Quebec City, Canada, we have recently set to develop a Pyramid wavefront sensor (P-WFS), an option for which no other research group in Canada had any experience. A first version had been built and tested in 2013 in collaboration with NRC-HIA Victoria. Here we present a second iteration of demonstrator with an extended spectral range, fast modulation capability and low-noise, fast-acquisition EMCCD sensor. The system has been designed with compactness and robustness in mind to allow on-sky testing at Mont Mégantic facility, in parallel with a Shack- Hartmann sensor so as to compare both options.
Post-Coronagraph Wavefront Sensor for Gemini Planet Imager
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wallace, J. Kent; Burruss, Rick; Pueyo, Laurent; Soummer, Remi; Shelton, Chris; Bartos, Randall; Fregoso, Felipe; Nemati, Bijan; Best, Paul; Angione, John
2009-01-01
The calibration wavefront system for the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) will measure the complex wavefront at the apodized pupil and provide slow phase errors to the AO system to mitigate against image plane speckles that would cause a loss in contrast. This talk describes both the low-order and high-order sensors in the calibration wavefront sensor and how the information is combined to form the wavefront estimate before the coronagraph. We will show laboratory results from our calibration testbed that demonstrate the subsystem performance at levels commensurate with those required on the final instrument.
Fast algorithm for wavefront reconstruction in XAO/SCAO with pyramid wavefront sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shatokhina, Iuliia; Obereder, Andreas; Ramlau, Ronny
2014-08-01
We present a fast wavefront reconstruction algorithm developed for an extreme adaptive optics system equipped with a pyramid wavefront sensor on a 42m telescope. The method is called the Preprocessed Cumulative Reconstructor with domain decomposition (P-CuReD). The algorithm is based on the theoretical relationship between pyramid and Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor data. The algorithm consists of two consecutive steps - a data preprocessing, and an application of the CuReD algorithm, which is a fast method for wavefront reconstruction from Shack-Hartmann sensor data. The closed loop simulation results show that the P-CuReD method provides the same reconstruction quality and is significantly faster than an MVM.
Tomographic diffractive microscopy with a wavefront sensor.
Ruan, Y; Bon, P; Mudry, E; Maire, G; Chaumet, P C; Giovannini, H; Belkebir, K; Talneau, A; Wattellier, B; Monneret, S; Sentenac, A
2012-05-15
Tomographic diffractive microscopy is a recent imaging technique that reconstructs quantitatively the three-dimensional permittivity map of a sample with a resolution better than that of conventional wide-field microscopy. Its main drawbacks lie in the complexity of the setup and in the slowness of the image recording as both the amplitude and the phase of the field scattered by the sample need to be measured for hundreds of successive illumination angles. In this Letter, we show that, using a wavefront sensor, tomographic diffractive microscopy can be implemented easily on a conventional microscope. Moreover, the number of illuminations can be dramatically decreased if a constrained reconstruction algorithm is used to recover the sample map of permittivity.
Generating Artificial Reference Images for Open Loop Correlation Wavefront Sensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Townson, M. J.; Love, G. D.; Saunter, C. D.
2018-05-01
Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors for both solar and laser guide star adaptive optics (with elongated spots) need to observe extended objects. Correlation techniques have been successfully employed to measure the wavefront gradient in solar adaptive optics systems and have been proposed for laser guide star systems. In this paper we describe a method for synthesising reference images for correlation Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors with a larger field of view than individual sub-apertures. We then show how these supersized reference images can increase the performance of correlation wavefront sensors in regimes where large relative shifts are induced between sub-apertures, such as those observed in open-loop wavefront sensors. The technique we describe requires no external knowledge outside of the wavefront-sensor images, making it available as an entirely "software" upgrade to an existing adaptive optics system. For solar adaptive optics we show the supersized reference images extend the magnitude of shifts which can be accurately measured from 12% to 50% of the field of view of a sub-aperture and in laser guide star wavefront sensors the magnitude of centroids that can be accurately measured is increased from 12% to 25% of the total field of view of the sub-aperture.
The Gemini Planet Imager Calibration Wavefront Sensor Instrument
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wallace, J. Kent; Burruss, Rick S.; Bartos, Randall D.; Trinh, Thang Q.; Pueyo, Laurent A.; Fregoso, Santos F.; Angione, John R.; Shelton, J. Chris
2010-01-01
The Gemini Planet Imager is an extreme adaptive optics system that will employ an apodized-pupil coronagraph to make direct detections of faint companions of nearby stars to a contrast level of the 10(exp -7) within a few lambda/D of the parent star. Such high contrasts from the ground require exquisite wavefront sensing and control both for the AO system as well as for the coronagraph. Un-sensed non-common path phase and amplitude errors after the wavefront sensor dichroic but before the coronagraph would lead to speckles which would ultimately limit the contrast. The calibration wavefront system for GPI will measure the complex wavefront at the system pupil before the apodizer and provide slow phase corrections to the AO system to mitigate errors that would cause a loss in contrast. The calibration wavefront sensor instrument for GPI has been built. We will describe the instrument and its performance.
Precise calibration of pupil images in pyramid wavefront sensor.
Liu, Yong; Mu, Quanquan; Cao, Zhaoliang; Hu, Lifa; Yang, Chengliang; Xuan, Li
2017-04-20
The pyramid wavefront sensor (PWFS) is a novel wavefront sensor with several inspiring advantages compared with Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors. The PWFS uses four pupil images to calculate the local tilt of the incoming wavefront. Pupil images are conjugated with a telescope pupil so that each pixel in the pupil image is diffraction-limited by the telescope pupil diameter, thus the sensing error of the PWFS is much lower than that of the Shack-Hartmann sensor and is related to the extraction and alignment accuracy of pupil images. However, precise extraction of these images is difficult to conduct in practice. Aiming at improving the sensing accuracy, we analyzed the physical model of calibration of a PWFS and put forward an extraction algorithm. The process was verified via a closed-loop correction experiment. The results showed that the sensing accuracy of the PWFS increased after applying the calibration and extraction method.
Atmospherical wavefront phases using the plenoptic sensor (real data)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodríguez-Ramos, L. F.; Montilla, I.; Lüke, J. P.; López, R.; Marichal-Hernández, J. G.; Trujillo-Sevilla, J.; Femenía, B.; López, M.; Fernández-Valdivia, J. J.; Puga, M.; Rosa, F.; Rodríguez-Ramos, J. M.
2012-06-01
Plenoptic cameras have been developed the last years as a passive method for 3d scanning, allowing focal stack capture from a single shot. But data recorded by this kind of sensors can also be used to extract the wavefront phases associated to the atmospheric turbulence in an astronomical observation. The terrestrial atmosphere degrades the telescope images due to the diffraction index changes associated to the turbulence. Na artificial Laser Guide Stars (Na-LGS, 90km high) must be used to obtain the reference wavefront phase and the Optical Transfer Function of the system, but they are affected by defocus because of the finite distance to the telescope. Using the telescope as a plenoptic camera allows us to correct the defocus and to recover the wavefront phase tomographically, taking advantage of the two principal characteristics of the plenoptic sensors at the same time: 3D scanning and wavefront sensing. Then, the plenoptic sensors can be studied and used as an alternative wavefront sensor for Adaptive Optics, particularly relevant when Extremely Large Telescopes projects are being undertaken. In this paper, we will present the first observational wavefront phases extracted from real astronomical observations, using punctual and extended objects, and we show that the restored wavefronts match the Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence.
The placido wavefront sensor and preliminary measurement on a mechanical eye.
Carvalho, Luis Alberto; Castro, Jarbas C
2006-02-01
The hardware and software of a novel wavefront sensor was developed (The sensor presented here is patent pending.). It has the same principal of the Hartmann-Shack (HS) and other sensors that are based on slope information for recovery of wavefront surface, but a different symmetry, and does not use individual microlenses. This polar symmetry might offer differences during practical measurements that may add value to current and well-established "gold standard" techniques. The sensor consists of a set of concentric "half-donut" surfaces (longitudinally sectioned toroids) molded on an acrylic surface with a CCD located at the focal plane. When illuminated with a plane wavefront, it focuses a symmetric pattern of concentric discs on the CCD plane; for a distorted wavefront, a nonsymmetric disc pattern is formed (similar to images of a placido-based videokeratographer). From detection of shift in the radial direction, radial slopes are computed for a maximum of 2880 points, and the traditional least-squares procedure is used to fit these partial derivatives to a set of 15 conventional OSA-VSIA Zernike polynomials. Theoretical computations for several synthetic surfaces containing low-order aberration (LOA) and high-order aberration (HOA) were implemented for both the HS and the new sensor. Root mean square error (RMSE) in microns when theoretical data was taken as control, for HS sensor and new sensor, was 0.02 and 0.00003 for LOA (defocus, astigmatism) and 0.07 and 0.06 for HOA (coma, spherical, and higher terms), respectively. After this, practical preliminary measurements on a mechanical eye with a 5-mm pupil and 10 different defocus aberrations ranging from -5 D to 5 D, in steps of 1 D, were compared between sensors. RMSE for difference in measurements for HS and new sensor for sphere, cylinder, and axis, was 0.13 D, 0.07 D, and 11. Measurements were taken only on defocus aberrations. Qualitative images for astigmatism are shown. Although practical in vivo tests
Holographic wavefront sensor, based on diffuse Fourier holography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorelaya, Alina; Orlov, Vyacheslav; Venediktov, Vladimir
2017-09-01
Many areas of optical science and technology require fast and accurate measurement of the radiation wavefront shape. Today there are known a lot of wavefront sensor (WFS) techniques, and their number is growing up. The last years have brought a growing interest in several schematics of WFS, employing the holography principles and holographic optical elements (HOE). Some of these devices are just the improved versions of the standard and most popular Shack-Hartman WFS, while other are based on the intrinsic features of HOE. A holographic mode wavefront sensor is proposed, which makes it possible to measure up to several tens of wavefront modes. The increase in the number of measured modes is implemented using the conversion of a light wave entering the sensor into a wide diffuse light beam, which allows one to record a large number of holograms, each intended for measuring one of the modes.
A zonal wavefront sensor with multiple detector planes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pathak, Biswajit; Boruah, Bosanta R.
2018-03-01
A conventional zonal wavefront sensor estimates the wavefront from the data captured in a single detector plane using a single camera. In this paper, we introduce a zonal wavefront sensor which comprises multiple detector planes instead of a single detector plane. The proposed sensor is based on an array of custom designed plane diffraction gratings followed by a single focusing lens. The laser beam whose wavefront is to be estimated is incident on the grating array and one of the diffracted orders from each grating is focused on the detector plane. The setup, by employing a beam splitter arrangement, facilitates focusing of the diffracted beams on multiple detector planes where multiple cameras can be placed. The use of multiple cameras in the sensor can offer several advantages in the wavefront estimation. For instance, the proposed sensor can provide superior inherent centroid detection accuracy that can not be achieved by the conventional system. It can also provide enhanced dynamic range and reduced crosstalk performance. We present here the results from a proof of principle experimental arrangement that demonstrate the advantages of the proposed wavefront sensing scheme.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hutterer, Victoria; Ramlau, Ronny
2018-03-01
The new generation of extremely large telescopes includes adaptive optics systems to correct for atmospheric blurring. In this paper, we present a new method of wavefront reconstruction from non-modulated pyramid wavefront sensor data. The approach is based on a simplified sensor model represented as the finite Hilbert transform of the incoming phase. Due to the non-compactness of the finite Hilbert transform operator the classical theory for singular systems is not applicable. Nevertheless, we can express the Moore-Penrose inverse as a singular value type expansion with weighted Chebychev polynomials.
Closed loop adaptive optics for microscopy without a wavefront sensor.
Kner, Peter; Winoto, Lukman; Agard, David A; Sedat, John W
2010-02-24
A three-dimensional wide-field image of a small fluorescent bead contains more than enough information to accurately calculate the wavefront in the microscope objective back pupil plane using the phase retrieval technique. The phase-retrieved wavefront can then be used to set a deformable mirror to correct the point-spread function (PSF) of the microscope without the use of a wavefront sensor. This technique will be useful for aligning the deformable mirror in a widefield microscope with adaptive optics and could potentially be used to correct aberrations in samples where small fluorescent beads or other point sources are used as reference beacons. Another advantage is the high resolution of the retrieved wavefont as compared with current Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors. Here we demonstrate effective correction of the PSF in 3 iterations. Starting from a severely aberrated system, we achieve a Strehl ratio of 0.78 and a greater than 10-fold increase in maximum intensity.
Shatokhina, Iuliia; Obereder, Andreas; Rosensteiner, Matthias; Ramlau, Ronny
2013-04-20
We present a fast method for the wavefront reconstruction from pyramid wavefront sensor (P-WFS) measurements. The method is based on an analytical relation between pyramid and Shack-Hartmann sensor (SH-WFS) data. The algorithm consists of two steps--a transformation of the P-WFS data to SH data, followed by the application of cumulative reconstructor with domain decomposition, a wavefront reconstructor from SH-WFS measurements. The closed loop simulations confirm that our method provides the same quality as the standard matrix vector multiplication method. A complexity analysis as well as speed tests confirm that the method is very fast. Thus, the method can be used on extremely large telescopes, e.g., for eXtreme adaptive optics systems.
Two-photon Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor.
Xia, Fei; Sinefeld, David; Li, Bo; Xu, Chris
2017-03-15
We introduce a simple wavefront sensing scheme for aberration measurement of pulsed laser beams in near-infrared wavelengths (<2200 nm), where detectors are not always available or are very expensive. The method is based on two-photon absorption in a silicon detector array for longer wavelengths detection. We demonstrate the simplicity of such implementations with a commercially available Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and discuss the detection sensitivity of this method.
One dimensional wavefront distortion sensor comprising a lens array system
Neal, D.R.; Michie, R.B.
1996-02-20
A 1-dimensional sensor for measuring wavefront distortion of a light beam as a function of time and spatial position includes a lens system which incorporates a linear array of lenses, and a detector system which incorporates a linear array of light detectors positioned from the lens system so that light passing through any of the lenses is focused on at least one of the light detectors. The 1-dimensional sensor determines the slope of the wavefront by location of the detectors illuminated by the light. The 1 dimensional sensor has much greater bandwidth that 2 dimensional systems. 8 figs.
One dimensional wavefront distortion sensor comprising a lens array system
Neal, Daniel R.; Michie, Robert B.
1996-01-01
A 1-dimensional sensor for measuring wavefront distortion of a light beam as a function of time and spatial position includes a lens system which incorporates a linear array of lenses, and a detector system which incorporates a linear array of light detectors positioned from the lens system so that light passing through any of the lenses is focused on at least one of the light detectors. The 1-dimensional sensor determines the slope of the wavefront by location of the detectors illuminated by the light. The 1 dimensional sensor has much greater bandwidth that 2 dimensional systems.
Statistical analysis of wavefront fluctuations from measurements of a wave-front sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Botygina, N. N.; Emaleev, O. N.; Konyaev, P. A.; Lukin, V. P.
2017-11-01
Measurements of the wave front aberrations at the input aperture of the Big Solar Vacuum Telescope (LSVT) were carried out by a wave-front sensor (WFS) of an adaptive optical system when the controlled deformable mirror was replaced by a plane one.
Study of an instrument for sensing errors in a telescope wavefront
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Golden, L. J.; Shack, R. V.; Slater, P. N.
1974-01-01
Focal plane sensors for determining the error in a telescope wavefront were investigated. The construction of three candidate test instruments and their evaluation in terms of small wavefront error aberration measurements are described. A laboratory wavefront simulator was designed and fabricated to evaluate the test instruments. The laboratory wavefront error simulator was used to evaluate three tests; a Hartmann test, a polarization shearing interferometer test, and an interferometric Zernike test.
Comparison of wavefront sensor models for simulation of adaptive optics.
Wu, Zhiwen; Enmark, Anita; Owner-Petersen, Mette; Andersen, Torben
2009-10-26
The new generation of extremely large telescopes will have adaptive optics. Due to the complexity and cost of such systems, it is important to simulate their performance before construction. Most systems planned will have Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors. Different mathematical models are available for simulation of such wavefront sensors. The choice of wavefront sensor model strongly influences computation time and simulation accuracy. We have studied the influence of three wavefront sensor models on performance calculations for a generic, adaptive optics (AO) system designed for K-band operation of a 42 m telescope. The performance of this AO system has been investigated both for reduced wavelengths and for reduced r(0) in the K band. The telescope AO system was designed for K-band operation, that is both the subaperture size and the actuator pitch were matched to a fixed value of r(0) in the K-band. We find that under certain conditions, such as investigating limiting guide star magnitude for large Strehl-ratios, a full model based on Fraunhofer propagation to the subimages is significantly more accurate. It does however require long computation times. The shortcomings of simpler models based on either direct use of average wavefront tilt over the subapertures for actuator control, or use of the average tilt to move a precalculated point spread function in the subimages are most pronounced for studies of system limitations to operating parameter variations. In the long run, efficient parallelization techniques may be developed to overcome the problem.
Hartmann wavefront sensors and their application at FLASH.
Keitel, Barbara; Plönjes, Elke; Kreis, Svea; Kuhlmann, Marion; Tiedtke, Kai; Mey, Tobias; Schäfer, Bernd; Mann, Klaus
2016-01-01
Different types of Hartmann wavefront sensors are presented which are usable for a variety of applications in the soft X-ray spectral region at FLASH, the free-electron laser (FEL) in Hamburg. As a typical application, online measurements of photon beam parameters during mirror alignment are reported on. A compact Hartmann sensor, operating in the wavelength range from 4 to 38 nm, was used to determine the wavefront quality as well as aberrations of individual FEL pulses during the alignment procedure. Beam characterization and alignment of the focusing optics of the FLASH beamline BL3 were performed with λ(13.5 nm)/116 accuracy for wavefront r.m.s. (w(rms)) repeatability, resulting in a reduction of w(rms) by 33% during alignment.
Phase unwrapping with a virtual Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor.
Akondi, Vyas; Falldorf, Claas; Marcos, Susana; Vohnsen, Brian
2015-10-05
The use of a spatial light modulator for implementing a digital phase-shifting (PS) point diffraction interferometer (PDI) allows tunability in fringe spacing and in achieving PS without the need for mechanically moving parts. However, a small amount of detector or scatter noise could affect the accuracy of wavefront sensing. Here, a novel method of wavefront reconstruction incorporating a virtual Hartmann-Shack (HS) wavefront sensor is proposed that allows easy tuning of several wavefront sensor parameters. The proposed method was tested and compared with a Fourier unwrapping method implemented on a digital PS PDI. The rewrapping of the Fourier reconstructed wavefronts resulted in phase maps that matched well the original wrapped phase and the performance was found to be more stable and accurate than conventional methods. Through simulation studies, the superiority of the proposed virtual HS phase unwrapping method is shown in comparison with the Fourier unwrapping method in the presence of noise. Further, combining the two methods could improve accuracy when the signal-to-noise ratio is sufficiently high.
Testing the pyramid wavefront sensor on the sky
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ragazzoni, Roberto; Ghedina, Adriano; Baruffolo, Andrea; Marchetti, Enrico; Farinato, Jacopo; Niero, Tiziano; Crimi, G.; Ghigo, Mauro
2000-07-01
The pyramid wavefront sensor is a novel concept device whose features are attractive for adaptive optics for several reasons. We show here the first loop closure of an AO system using this kind of sensor at the focal plane of a 4m-class telescope. One of the critical optical elements of our wavefront sensor is the pyramid that splits the light from the star used for the wavefront correction. This component is essentially a four faces prism having actually a full vertex angle of 7 degrees with specifications on its edges and roof of 4 - 5 microns or better. The best turned edges obtained on the prototypes already built have shown values of the order of 6 microns, with roofs of the same order, not far from the required tolerances. In this article we describe the techniques and the system used for the construction of this optical component and the improvements to the polishing procedure that we plan to adopt in order to increase the quality of its edges and optical surfaces. Pixel processing is suitable to fit with existing Shack-Hartmann systems, making this device an attractive add-on option for existing SH-based AO systems. The plans for future developments in order to firmly establish the performances of the pyramid wavefront sensor are briefed out.
Adaptive Full Aperture Wavefront Sensor Study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robinson, William G.
1997-01-01
This grant and the work described was in support of a Seven Segment Demonstrator (SSD) and review of wavefront sensing techniques proposed by the Government and Contractors for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) Program. A team developed the SSD concept. For completeness, some of the information included in this report has also been included in the final report of a follow-on contract (H-27657D) entitled "Construction of Prototype Lightweight Mirrors". The original purpose of this GTRI study was to investigate how various wavefront sensing techniques might be most effectively employed with large (greater than 10 meter) aperture space based telescopes used for commercial and scientific purposes. However, due to changes in the scope of the work performed on this grant and in light of the initial studies completed for the NGST program, only a portion of this report addresses wavefront sensing techniques. The wavefront sensing techniques proposed by the Government and Contractors for the NGST were summarized in proposals and briefing materials developed by three study teams including NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, TRW, and Lockheed-Martin. In this report, GTRI reviews these approaches and makes recommendations concerning the approaches. The objectives of the SSD were to demonstrate functionality and performance of a seven segment prototype array of hexagonal mirrors and supporting electromechanical components which address design issues critical to space optics deployed in large space based telescopes for astronomy and for optics used in spaced based optical communications systems. The SSD was intended to demonstrate technologies which can support the following capabilities: Transportation in dense packaging to existing launcher payload envelopes, then deployable on orbit to form a space telescope with large aperture. Provide very large (greater than 10 meters) primary reflectors of low mass and cost. Demonstrate the capability to form a segmented primary or
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yasuoka, Fatima M. M.; Matos, Luciana; Cremasco, Antonio; Numajiri, Mirian; Marcato, Rafael; Oliveira, Otavio G.; Sabino, Luis G.; Castro N., Jarbas C.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; Carvalho, Luis A. V.
2016-03-01
An optical system that conjugates the patient's pupil to the plane of a Hartmann-Shack (HS) wavefront sensor has been simulated using optical design software. And an optical bench prototype is mounted using mechanical eye device, beam splitter, illumination system, lenses, mirrors, mirrored prism, movable mirror, wavefront sensor and camera CCD. The mechanical eye device is used to simulate aberrations of the eye. From this device the rays are emitted and travelled by the beam splitter to the optical system. Some rays fall on the camera CCD and others pass in the optical system and finally reach the sensor. The eye models based on typical in vivo eye aberrations is constructed using the optical design software Zemax. The computer-aided outcomes of each HS images for each case are acquired, and these images are processed using customized techniques. The simulated and real images for low order aberrations are compared using centroid coordinates to assure that the optical system is constructed precisely in order to match the simulated system. Afterwards a simulated version of retinal images is constructed to show how these typical eyes would perceive an optotype positioned 20 ft away. Certain personalized corrections are allowed by eye doctors based on different Zernike polynomial values and the optical images are rendered to the new parameters. Optical images of how that eye would see with or without corrections of certain aberrations are generated in order to allow which aberrations can be corrected and in which degree. The patient can then "personalize" the correction to their own satisfaction. This new approach to wavefront sensing is a promising change in paradigm towards the betterment of the patient-physician relationship.
The plenoptic camera as a wavefront sensor for the European Solar Telescope (EST)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodríguez-Ramos, Luis F.; Martín, Yolanda; Díaz, José J.; Piqueras, J.; Rodríguez-Ramos, J. M.
2009-08-01
The plenoptic wavefront sensor combines measurements at pupil and image planes in order to obtain wavefront information from different points of view simultaneously, being capable to sample the volume above the telescope to extract the tomographic information of the atmospheric turbulence. After describing the working principle, a laboratory setup has been used for the verification of the capability of measuring the pupil plane wavefront. A comparative discussion with respect to other wavefront sensors is also included.
Closed loop adaptive optics for microscopy without a wavefront sensor
Kner, Peter; Winoto, Lukman; Agard, David A.; Sedat, John W.
2013-01-01
A three-dimensional wide-field image of a small fluorescent bead contains more than enough information to accurately calculate the wavefront in the microscope objective back pupil plane using the phase retrieval technique. The phase-retrieved wavefront can then be used to set a deformable mirror to correct the point-spread function (PSF) of the microscope without the use of a wavefront sensor. This technique will be useful for aligning the deformable mirror in a widefield microscope with adaptive optics and could potentially be used to correct aberrations in samples where small fluorescent beads or other point sources are used as reference beacons. Another advantage is the high resolution of the retrieved wavefont as compared with current Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors. Here we demonstrate effective correction of the PSF in 3 iterations. Starting from a severely aberrated system, we achieve a Strehl ratio of 0.78 and a greater than 10-fold increase in maximum intensity. PMID:24392198
Adaptive wavefront sensor based on the Talbot phenomenon.
Podanchuk, Dmytro V; Goloborodko, Andrey A; Kotov, Myhailo M; Kovalenko, Andrey V; Kurashov, Vitalij N; Dan'ko, Volodymyr P
2016-04-20
A new adaptive method of wavefront sensing is proposed and demonstrated. The method is based on the Talbot self-imaging effect, which is observed in an illuminating light beam with strong second-order aberration. Compensation of defocus and astigmatism is achieved with an appropriate choice of size of the rectangular unit cell of the diffraction grating, which is performed iteratively. A liquid-crystal spatial light modulator is used for this purpose. Self-imaging of rectangular grating in the astigmatic light beam is demonstrated experimentally. High-order aberrations are detected with respect to the compensated second-order aberration. The comparative results of wavefront sensing with a Shack-Hartmann sensor and the proposed sensor are adduced.
Optical design of infrared pyramid wavefront sensor for the MMT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Shaojie; Sivanandam, Suresh; Liu, Siqi; Veran, Jean-Pierre; Hinz, Phil; Mieda, Etsuko; Hardy, Tim; Lardiere, Olivier
2017-09-01
We report the optical design of an infrared (0.85-1.8 μm) pyramid wavefront sensor (IRPWFS) that is designed for the 6.5m MMT on telescope adaptive optics system using the latest developments in low-noise infrared avalanche photodiode arrays. The comparison between the pyramid and the double-roof prism based wavefront sensors and the evaluation of their micro pupils' quality are presented. According to our analysis, the use of two double-roof prisms with achromatic materials produces the competitive performance when compared to the traditional pyramid prism, which is difficult to manufacture. The final micro pupils on the image plane have the residual errors of pupil position, chromatism, and distortion within 1/10 pixel over the 2×2 arcsecond field of view, which meet the original design goals.
Model-based aberration correction in a closed-loop wavefront-sensor-less adaptive optics system.
Song, H; Fraanje, R; Schitter, G; Kroese, H; Vdovin, G; Verhaegen, M
2010-11-08
In many scientific and medical applications, such as laser systems and microscopes, wavefront-sensor-less (WFSless) adaptive optics (AO) systems are used to improve the laser beam quality or the image resolution by correcting the wavefront aberration in the optical path. The lack of direct wavefront measurement in WFSless AO systems imposes a challenge to achieve efficient aberration correction. This paper presents an aberration correction approach for WFSlss AO systems based on the model of the WFSless AO system and a small number of intensity measurements, where the model is identified from the input-output data of the WFSless AO system by black-box identification. This approach is validated in an experimental setup with 20 static aberrations having Kolmogorov spatial distributions. By correcting N=9 Zernike modes (N is the number of aberration modes), an intensity improvement from 49% of the maximum value to 89% has been achieved in average based on N+5=14 intensity measurements. With the worst initial intensity, an improvement from 17% of the maximum value to 86% has been achieved based on N+4=13 intensity measurements.
Development of a Pyramid Wave-front Sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El Hadi, Kacem; Vignaux, Mael; Fusco, Thierry
2013-12-01
Within the framework of the E-ELT studies, several laboratories are involved on some instruments: HARMONY with its ATLAS adaptive optics [AO] system, EAGLE or EPICS. Most of the AO systems will probably integrate one or several pyramidal wavefront sensors, PWFS (R. Ragazzoni [1]). The coupling in an AO loop and the control in laboratory (then on sky) of this type of sensor is fundamental for the continuation of the projects related to OA systems on the E-ELT. LAM (Laboratory of Astrophysics of Marseille) is involved in particular in the VLT-SPHERE, ATLAS, EPICS projects. For the last few years, our laboratory has been carrying out different R&D activities in AO instrumentation for ELTs. An experimental AO bench is designed and being developed to allow the validation of new wave-front sensing and control concepts [2]. One the objectives of this bench, is the experimental validation of a pyramid WFS. Theoretical investigations on its behavior have been already made. The world's fastest and most sensitive camera system (OCAM2) has been recently developed at LAM (J.L Gach [3], First Light Imaging). Conjugating this advantage with the pyramid concept, we plan to demonstrate a home made Pyramid sensor for Adaptive Optics whose the speed and the precision are the key points. As a joint collaboration with ONERA and Shaktiware, our work aims at the optimization (measurement process, calibration and operation) in laboratory then on the sky of a pyramid sensor dedicated to the first generation instruments for ELTs. The sensor will be implemented on the ONERA ODISSEE AO bench combining thus a pyramid and a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors. What would give the possibility to compare strictly these two WFS types and make this bench unique in France and even in Europe. Experimental work on laboratory demonstration is undergoing. The status of our development will presented at the conference.
Robert, Clélia; Michau, Vincent; Fleury, Bruno; Magli, Serge; Vial, Laurent
2012-07-02
Adaptive optics provide real-time compensation for atmospheric turbulence. The correction quality relies on a key element: the wavefront sensor. We have designed an adaptive optics system in the mid-infrared range providing high spatial resolution for ground-to-air applications, integrating a Shack-Hartmann infrared wavefront sensor operating on an extended source. This paper describes and justifies the design of the infrared wavefront sensor, while defining and characterizing the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor camera. Performance and illustration of field tests are also reported.
Wavefront sensor based on the Talbot effect with the precorrected holographic grating.
Podanchuk, Dmytro; Kurashov, Vitalij; Goloborodko, Andrey; Dan'ko, Volodymyr; Kotov, Myhaylo; Goloborodko, Natalya
2012-04-01
A holographic wavefront sensor based on the Talbot effect is proposed. Optical wavefronts are measured by sampling the light amplitude distribution with a two-dimensional (2D) precorrected holographic grating. The factors that allow changing an angular measurement range and a spatial resolution of the sensor are discussed. A comparative analysis with the Shack-Hartmann sensor is illustrated with some experimental results.
Wavefront detection method of a single-sensor based adaptive optics system.
Wang, Chongchong; Hu, Lifa; Xu, Huanyu; Wang, Yukun; Li, Dayu; Wang, Shaoxin; Mu, Quanquan; Yang, Chengliang; Cao, Zhaoliang; Lu, Xinghai; Xuan, Li
2015-08-10
In adaptive optics system (AOS) for optical telescopes, the reported wavefront sensing strategy consists of two parts: a specific sensor for tip-tilt (TT) detection and another wavefront sensor for other distortions detection. Thus, a part of incident light has to be used for TT detection, which decreases the light energy used by wavefront sensor and eventually reduces the precision of wavefront correction. In this paper, a single Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor based wavefront measurement method is presented for both large amplitude TT and other distortions' measurement. Experiments were performed for testing the presented wavefront method and validating the wavefront detection and correction ability of the single-sensor based AOS. With adaptive correction, the root-mean-square of residual TT was less than 0.2 λ, and a clear image was obtained in the lab. Equipped on a 1.23-meter optical telescope, the binary stars with angle distance of 0.6″ were clearly resolved using the AOS. This wavefront measurement method removes the separate TT sensor, which not only simplifies the AOS but also saves light energy for subsequent wavefront sensing and imaging, and eventually improves the detection and imaging capability of the AOS.
Phase imaging using shifted wavefront sensor images.
Zhang, Zhengyun; Chen, Zhi; Rehman, Shakil; Barbastathis, George
2014-11-01
We propose a new approach to the complete retrieval of a coherent field (amplitude and phase) using the same hardware configuration as a Shack-Hartmann sensor but with two modifications: first, we add a transversally shifted measurement to resolve ambiguities in the measured phase; and second, we employ factored form descent (FFD), an inverse algorithm for coherence retrieval, with a hard rank constraint. We verified the proposed approach using both numerical simulations and experiments.
Scanning Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Molebny, Vasyl V.
2004-09-01
Criss-crossing of focal images is the cause of a narrow dynamic range in Shack-Hartmann sensors. Practically, aberration range wider than +/-3 diopters can not be measured. A method has been proposed for ophthalmologic applications using a rarefied lenslet array through which a wave front is projected with the successive step-by-step changing of the global tilt. The data acquired in each step are accumulated and processed. In experimental setup, a doubled dynamic range was achieved with four steps of wave front tilting.
Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor with large dynamic range.
Xia, Mingliang; Li, Chao; Hu, Lifa; Cao, Zhaoliang; Mu, Quanquan; Xuan, Li
2010-01-01
A new spot centroid detection algorithm for a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWFS) is experimentally investigated. The algorithm is a kind of dynamic tracking algorithm that tracks and calculates the corresponding spot centroid of the current spot map based on the spot centroid of the previous spot map, according to the strong correlation of the wavefront slope and the centroid of the corresponding spot between temporally adjacent SHWFS measurements. That is, for adjacent measurements, the spot centroid movement will usually fall within some range. Using the algorithm, the dynamic range of an SHWFS can be expanded by a factor of three in the measurement of tilt aberration compared with the conventional algorithm, more than 1.3 times in the measurement of defocus aberration, and more than 2 times in the measurement of the mixture of spherical aberration plus coma aberration. The algorithm is applied in our SHWFS to measure the distorted wavefront of the human eye. The experimental results of the adaptive optics (AO) system for retina imaging are presented to prove its feasibility for highly aberrated eyes.
Wavefront sensor for the GAIA Mission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vosteen, Amir; Draaisma, Folkert; van Werkhoven, Willem; van Riel, Luud; Mol, Margreet; Gielesen, Wim
2017-11-01
TNO has developed, built and tested the Wave Front Sensor (WFS) for ESA's Gaia mission. The WFS will help Gaia create an extraordinarily precise three-dimensional map of more than one billion stars in our Galaxy. Part of ESA's Cosmic Vision programme, Gaia's build is led by EADS Astrium and is scheduled for launch in 2012. The Wave Front Sensor will be used to monitor the wave front errors of the two main telescopes mounted on the GAIA satellite. These mirrors include a 5-degree of freedom (DOF) mechanism that can be used to minimize the wave front errors during operation. The GAIA-WFS will operate over a broad wavelength (450 to 900 nm) and under cryogenic conditions (130 to 200 K operation temperature). The WFS uses an all reflective, a-thermal design and is of the type of Shack-Hartmann. The boundary condition for the design is that the focal plane of the WFS is the same plane as the focal plane of the GAIA telescopes. The spot pattern generated after a micro lens array ( MLA) by a star is compared to the pattern of one of the three calibration sources that is included in the WFS, allowing in flight calibration. We show the robust and lightweight opto mechanical design that is optimised for launch and cryogenic operation. Details are given on its alignment and commissioning. The WFS is able to measure relative wave front distortions in the order of lambda/1000, and can determine the optimum position of the focal plane with an accuracy of 50 μm
Holographic imaging with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor.
Gong, Hai; Soloviev, Oleg; Wilding, Dean; Pozzi, Paolo; Verhaegen, Michel; Vdovin, Gleb
2016-06-27
A high-resolution Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor has been used for coherent holographic imaging, by computer reconstruction and propagation of the complex field in a lensless imaging setup. The resolution of the images obtained with the experimental data is in a good agreement with the diffraction theory. Although a proper calibration with a reference beam improves the image quality, the method has a potential for reference-less holographic imaging with spatially coherent monochromatic and narrowband polychromatic sources in microscopy and imaging through turbulence.
Quantum superintegrable Zernike system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pogosyan, George S.; Salto-Alegre, Cristina; Wolf, Kurt Bernardo; Yakhno, Alexander
2017-07-01
We consider the differential equation that Zernike proposed to classify aberrations of wavefronts in a circular pupil, whose value at the boundary can be nonzero. On this account, the quantum Zernike system, where that differential equation is seen as a Schrödinger equation with a potential, is special in that it has a potential and a boundary condition that are not standard in quantum mechanics. We project the disk on a half-sphere and there we find that, in addition to polar coordinates, this system separates into two additional coordinate systems (non-orthogonal on the pupil disk), which lead to Schrödinger-type equations with Pöschl-Teller potentials, whose eigen-solutions involve Legendre, Gegenbauer, and Jacobi polynomials. This provides new expressions for separated polynomial solutions of the original Zernike system that are real. The operators which provide the separation constants are found to participate in a superintegrable cubic Higgs algebra.
Tomographic wavefront retrieval by combined use of geometric and plenoptic sensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trujillo-Sevilla, J. M.; Rodríguez-Ramos, L. F.; Fernández-Valdivia, Juan J.; Marichal-Hernández, José G.; Rodríguez-Ramos, J. M.
2014-05-01
Modern astronomic telescopes take advantage of multi-conjugate adaptive optics, in which wavefront sensors play a key role. A single sensor capable of measuring wavefront phases at any angle of observation would be helpful when improving atmospheric tomographic reconstruction. A new sensor combining both geometric and plenoptic arrangements is proposed, and a simulation demonstrating its working principle is also shown. Results show that this sensor is feasible, and also that single extended objects can be used to perform tomography of atmospheric turbulence.
Comparison between non-modulation four-sided and two-sided pyramid wavefront sensor.
Wang, Jianxin; Bai, Fuzhong; Ning, Yu; Huang, Linhai; Wang, Shengqian
2010-12-20
Based on the diffraction theory the paper analyzes non-modulation Pyramid wavefront sensor (PWFS, namely, four-sided pyramid) and two-sided pyramid wavefront sensor (TSPWFS), and expresses the detected signals as a function of the measured wavefront. The expressions of the detected signals show that non-modulation PWFS and TSPWFS hold the same properties of both slope and direct phase sensors. We compare both sensors working in slope and phase sensing by theory and numerical simulations. The results demonstrate that the performance of TSPWFS excels that of PWFS. Additionally, the influence of interference between adjacent pupils is discussed.
Low Order Wavefront Sensing and Control for WFIRST-AFTA Coronagraph
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shi, Fang; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatha; Bartos, Randall; Hien, Randall; Kern, Brian; Krist, John; Lam, Raymond; Moore, Douglas; Moore, James; Patterson, Keith;
2015-01-01
To maintain the required WFIRST Coronagraph performance in a realistic space environment, a low order wavefront sensing and control (LOWFS/C) subsystem is necessary. The LOWFS/C use s the rejected stellar light from coronagraph to sense and suppress the telescope pointing drift and jitter as well as the low order wavefront errors due to changes in thermal loading of the telescope and the rest of the observatory. In this paper we will present an overview of the low order wavefront sensing and control subsystem for the WFIRST -AFTA Coronagraph. We will describe LOWFS/C's Zernike wavefront sensor concept and WFIRST LOWFS/C control design. We will present an overview of our analysis and modeling results on the Zernike wavefront sensor, the line -of-sight jitter suppression loop performance, as well as the low order wavefront error correction with the coronagraph's deformable mirror. In this paper we will also report the LOWFS/C testbed design and the preliminary in-air test results, which show a very promising performance of the Zernike wavefront sensor and FSM feedback loop.
Random generation of the turbulence slopes of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor.
Conan, Rodolphe
2014-03-15
A method to generate the turbulence measurements of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor is presented. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the spatial and temporal statistic properties of the slopes are respected, allowing us to generate the turbulence wavefront gradient corresponding to both natural and laser guide stars, as well as time series in accordance with the frozen flow model.
Efficient, nonlinear phase estimation with the nonmodulated pyramid wavefront sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frazin, Richard A.
2018-04-01
The sensitivity of the the pyramid wavefront sensor (PyWFS) has made it a popular choice for astronomical adaptive optics (AAO) systems, and it is at its most sensitive when it is used without modulation of the input beam. In non-modulated mode, the device is highly nonlinear. Hence, all PyWFS implementations on current AAO systems employ modulation to make the device more linear. The upcoming era of 30-m class telescopes and the demand for ultra-precise wavefront control stemming from science objectives that include direct imaging of exoplanets make using the PyWFS without modulation desirable. This article argues that nonlinear estimation based on Newton's method for nonlinear optimization can be useful for mitigating the effects of nonlinearity in the non-modulated PyWFS. The proposed approach requires all optical modeling to be pre-computed, which has the advantage of avoiding real-time simulations of beam propagation. Further, the required real-time calculations are amenable to massively parallel computation. Numerical experiments simulate a currently operational PyWFS. A singular value analysis shows that the common practice of calculating two "slope" images from the four PyWFS pupil images discards critical information and is unsuitable for the non-modulated PyWFS simulated here. Instead, this article advocates estimators that use the raw pixel values not only from the four geometrical images of the pupil, but from surrounding pixels as well. The simulations indicate that nonlinear estimation can be effective when the Strehl ratio of the input beam is greater than 0.3, and the improvement relative to linear estimation tends to increase at larger Strehl ratios. At Strehl ratios less than about 0.5, the performances of both the nonlinear and linear estimators are relatively insensitive to noise, since they are dominated by nonlinearity error.
Calibrating the interaction matrix for the LINC-NIRVANA high layer wavefront sensor.
Zhang, Xianyu; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Conrad, Albert R; Herbst, Thomas M; Gaessler, Wolfgang; Bertram, Thomas; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Schreiber, Laura; Diolaiti, Emiliano; Kuerster, Martin; Bizenberger, Peter; Meschke, Daniel; Rix, Hans-Walter; Rao, Changhui; Mohr, Lars; Briegel, Florian; Kittmann, Frank; Berwein, Juergen; Trowitzsch, Jan
2012-03-26
LINC-NIRVANA is a near-infrared Fizeau interferometric imager that will operate at the Large Binocular Telescope. In preparation for the commissioning of this instrument, we conducted experiments for calibrating the high-layer wavefront sensor of the layer-oriented multi-conjugate adaptive optics system. For calibrating the multi-pyramid wavefront sensor, four light sources were used to simulate guide stars. Using this setup, we developed the push-pull method for calibrating the interaction matrix. The benefits of this method over the traditional push-only method are quantified, and also the effects of varying the number of push-pull frames over which aberrations are averaged is reported. Finally, we discuss a method for measuring mis-conjugation between the deformable mirror and the wavefront sensor, and the proper positioning of the wavefront sensor detector with respect to the four pupil positions.
Wavefront sensors for the active control of earth observation optical instruments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Velluet, Marie-Thérèse; Michau, Vincent; Rousset, Gérard
2018-04-01
This paper, "Wavefront sensors for the active control of earth observation optical instruments," was presented as part of International Conference on Space Optics—ICSO 1997, held in Toulouse, France.
Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor using a Raspberry Pi embedded system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Contreras-Martinez, Ramiro; Garduño-Mejía, Jesús; Rosete-Aguilar, Martha; Román-Moreno, Carlos J.
2017-05-01
In this work we present the design and manufacture of a compact Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor using a Raspberry Pi and a microlens array. The main goal of this sensor is to recover the wavefront of a laser beam and to characterize its spatial phase using a simple and compact Raspberry Pi and the Raspberry Pi embedded camera. The recovery algorithm is based on a modified version of the Southwell method and was written in Python as well as its user interface. Experimental results and reconstructed wavefronts are presented.
Improvement in error propagation in the Shack-Hartmann-type zonal wavefront sensors.
Pathak, Biswajit; Boruah, Bosanta R
2017-12-01
Estimation of the wavefront from measured slope values is an essential step in a Shack-Hartmann-type wavefront sensor. Using an appropriate estimation algorithm, these measured slopes are converted into wavefront phase values. Hence, accuracy in wavefront estimation lies in proper interpretation of these measured slope values using the chosen estimation algorithm. There are two important sources of errors associated with the wavefront estimation process, namely, the slope measurement error and the algorithm discretization error. The former type is due to the noise in the slope measurements or to the detector centroiding error, and the latter is a consequence of solving equations of a basic estimation algorithm adopted onto a discrete geometry. These errors deserve particular attention, because they decide the preference of a specific estimation algorithm for wavefront estimation. In this paper, we investigate these two important sources of errors associated with the wavefront estimation algorithms of Shack-Hartmann-type wavefront sensors. We consider the widely used Southwell algorithm and the recently proposed Pathak-Boruah algorithm [J. Opt.16, 055403 (2014)JOOPDB0150-536X10.1088/2040-8978/16/5/055403] and perform a comparative study between the two. We find that the latter algorithm is inherently superior to the Southwell algorithm in terms of the error propagation performance. We also conduct experiments that further establish the correctness of the comparative study between the said two estimation algorithms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Wei; Yao, Kainan; Chen, Lu; Huang, Danian; Cao, Jingtai; Gu, Haijun
2018-03-01
Based-on the previous study on the theory of the sequential pyramid wavefront sensor (SPWFS), in this paper, the SPWFS is first applied to the coherent free space optical communications (FSOC) with more flexible spatial resolution and higher sensitivity than the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, and with higher uniformity of intensity distribution and much simpler than the pyramid wavefront sensor. Then, the mixing efficiency (ME) and the bit error rate (BER) of the coherent FSOC are analyzed during the aberrations correction through numerical simulation with binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modulation. Finally, an experimental AO system based-on SPWFS is setup, and the experimental data is used to analyze the ME and BER of homodyne detection with BPSK modulation. The results show that the AO system based-on SPWFS can increase ME and decrease BER effectively. The conclusions of this paper provide a new method of wavefront sensing for designing the AO system for a coherent FSOC system.
Interferometric Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor with an array of four-hole apertures.
López, David; Ríos, Susana
2010-04-20
A modified Hartmann test based on the interference produced by a four-hole mask can be used to measure an unknown wavefront. To scan the wavefront, the interference pattern is measured for different positions of the mask. The position of the central fringe of the diamond-shaped interference pattern gives a measure of the local wavefront slopes. Using a set of four-hole apertures located behind an array of lenslets in such a way that each four-hole window is inside one lenslet area, a set of four-hole interference patterns can be obtained in the back focal plane of the lenslets without having to scan the wavefront. The central fringe area of each interference pattern is narrower than the area of the central maximum of the diffraction pattern of the lenslet, increasing the accuracy in the estimate of the lobe position as compared with the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor.
Efficient, nonlinear phase estimation with the nonmodulated pyramid wavefront sensor.
Frazin, Richard A
2018-04-01
The sensitivity of the pyramid wavefront sensor (PyWFS) has made it a popular choice for astronomical adaptive optics (AAO) systems. The PyWFS is at its most sensitive when it is used without modulation of the input beam. In nonmodulated mode, the device is highly nonlinear. Hence, all PyWFS implementations on current AAO systems employ modulation to make the device more linear. The upcoming era of 30-m class telescopes and the demand for ultra-precise wavefront control stemming from science objectives that include direct imaging of exoplanets make using the PyWFS without modulation desirable. This article argues that nonlinear estimation based on Newton's method for nonlinear optimization can be useful for mitigating the effects of nonlinearity in the nonmodulated PyWFS. The proposed approach requires all optical modeling to be pre-computed, which has the advantage of avoiding real-time simulations of beam propagation. Further, the required real-time calculations are amenable to massively parallel computation. Numerical experiments simulate a PyWFS with faces sloped 3.7° to the horizontal, operating at a wavelength of 0.85 μm, and with an index of refraction of 1.45. A singular value analysis shows that the common practice of calculating two "slope" images from the four PyWFS pupil images discards critical information and is unsuitable for the nonmodulated PyWFS simulated here. Instead, this article advocates estimators that use the raw pixel values not only from the four geometrical images of the pupil, but from surrounding pixels as well. The simulations indicate that nonlinear estimation can be effective when the Strehl ratio of the input beam is greater than 0.3, and the improvement relative to linear estimation tends to increase at larger Strehl ratios. At Strehl ratios less than about 0.5, the performances of both the nonlinear and linear estimators are relatively insensitive to noise since they are dominated by nonlinearity error.
Investigation of the confocal wavefront sensor and its application to biological microscopy.
Shaw, Michael; O'Holleran, Kevin; Paterson, Carl
2013-08-12
Wavefront sensing in the presence of background light sources is complicated by the need to restrict the effective depth of field of the wavefront sensor. This problem is particularly significant in direct wavefront sensing adaptive optic (AO) schemes for correcting imaging aberrations in biological microscopy. In this paper we investigate how a confocal pinhole can be used to reject out of focus light whilst still allowing effective wavefront sensing. Using a scaled set of phase screens with statistical properties derived from measurements of wavefront aberrations induced by C. elegans specimens, we investigate and quantify how the size of the pinhole and the aberration amplitude affect the transmitted wavefront. We suggest a lower bound for the pinhole size for a given aberration strength and quantify the optical sectioning provided by the system. For our measured aberration data we find that a pinhole of size approximately 3 Airy units represents a good compromise, allowing effective transmission of the wavefront and thin optical sections. Finally, we discuss some of the practical implications of confocal wavefront sensing for AO systems in microscopy.
A hierarchical wavefront reconstruction algorithm for gradient sensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bharmal, Nazim; Bitenc, Urban; Basden, Alastair; Myers, Richard
2013-12-01
ELT-scale extreme adaptive optics systems will require new approaches tocompute the wavefront suitably quickly, when the computational burden ofapplying a MVM is no longer practical. An approach is demonstrated here whichis hierarchical in transforming wavefront slopes from a WFS into a wavefront,and then to actuator values. First, simple integration in 1D is used to create1D-wavefront estimates with unknown starting points at the edges of independentspatial domains. Second, these starting points are estimated globally. By thesestarting points are a sub-set of the overall grid where wavefront values are tobe estimated, sparse representations are produced and numerical complexity canbe chosen by the spacing of the starting point grid relative to the overallgrid. Using a combination of algebraic expressions, sparse representation, anda conjugate gradient solver, the number of non-parallelized operations forreconstruction on a 100x100 sub-aperture sized problem is ~600,000 or O(N^3/2),which is approximately the same as for each thread of a MVM solutionparallelized over 100 threads. To reduce the effects of noise propagationwithin each domain, a noise reduction algorithm can be applied which ensuresthe continuity of the wavefront. To apply this additional step has a cost of~1,200,000 operations. We conclude by briefly discussing how the final step ofconverting from wavefront to actuator values can be achieved.
The AOLI Non-Linear Curvature Wavefront Sensor: High sensitivity reconstruction for low-order AO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crass, Jonathan; King, David; Mackay, Craig
2013-12-01
Many adaptive optics (AO) systems in use today require bright reference objects to determine the effects of atmospheric distortions on incoming wavefronts. This requirement is because Shack Hartmann wavefront sensors (SHWFS) distribute incoming light from reference objects into a large number of sub-apertures. Bright natural reference objects occur infrequently across the sky leading to the use of laser guide stars which add complexity to wavefront measurement systems. The non-linear curvature wavefront sensor as described by Guyon et al. has been shown to offer a significant increase in sensitivity when compared to a SHWFS. This facilitates much greater sky coverage using natural guide stars alone. This paper describes the current status of the non-linear curvature wavefront sensor being developed as part of an adaptive optics system for the Adaptive Optics Lucky Imager (AOLI) project. The sensor comprises two photon-counting EMCCD detectors from E2V Technologies, recording intensity at four near-pupil planes. These images are used with a reconstruction algorithm to determine the phase correction to be applied by an ALPAO 241-element deformable mirror. The overall system is intended to provide low-order correction for a Lucky Imaging based multi CCD imaging camera. We present the current optical design of the instrument including methods to minimise inherent optical effects, principally chromaticity. Wavefront reconstruction methods are discussed and strategies for their optimisation to run at the required real-time speeds are introduced. Finally, we discuss laboratory work with a demonstrator setup of the system.
Quantitative phase imaging using a programmable wavefront sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soldevila, F.; Durán, V.; Clemente, P.; Lancis, J.; Tajahuerce, E.
2018-02-01
We perform phase imaging using a non-interferometric approach to measure the complex amplitude of a wavefront. We overcome the limitations in spatial resolution, optical efficiency, and dynamic range that are found in Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing. To do so, we sample the wavefront with a high-speed spatial light modulator. A single lens forms a time-dependent light distribution on its focal plane, where a position detector is placed. Our approach is lenslet-free and does not rely on any kind of iterative or unwrap algorithm. The validity of our technique is demonstrated by performing both aberration sensing and phase imaging of transparent samples.
Zonal wavefront sensor with reduced number of rows in the detector array.
Boruah, Bosanta R; Das, Abhijit
2011-07-10
In this paper, we describe a zonal wavefront sensor in which the photodetector array can have a smaller number of rows. The test wavefront is incident on a two-dimensional array of diffraction gratings followed by a single focusing lens. The periodicity and the orientation of the grating rulings of each grating can be chosen such that the +1 order beam from the gratings forms an array of focal spots in the detector plane. We show that by using a square array of zones, it is possible to generate an array of +1 order focal spots having a smaller number of rows, thus reducing the height of the required detector array. The phase profile of the test wavefront can be estimated by measuring the displacements of the +1 order focal spots for the test wavefront relative to the +1 order focal spots for a plane reference wavefront. The narrower width of the photodetector array can offer several advantages, such as a faster frame rate of the wavefront sensor, a reduced amount of cross talk between the nearby detector zones, and a decrease in the maximum thermal noise. We also present experimental results of a proof-of-concept experimental arrangement using the proposed wavefront sensing scheme. © 2011 Optical Society of America
Wavefront-sensor-based electron density measurements for laser-plasma accelerators.
Plateau, G R; Matlis, N H; Geddes, C G R; Gonsalves, A J; Shiraishi, S; Lin, C; van Mourik, R A; Leemans, W P
2010-03-01
Characterization of the electron density in laser produced plasmas is presented using direct wavefront analysis of a probe laser beam. The performance of a laser-driven plasma-wakefield accelerator depends on the plasma wavelength and hence on the electron density. Density measurements using a conventional folded-wave interferometer and using a commercial wavefront sensor are compared for different regimes of the laser-plasma accelerator. It is shown that direct wavefront measurements agree with interferometric measurements and, because of the robustness of the compact commercial device, offer greater phase sensitivity and straightforward analysis, improving shot-to-shot plasma density diagnostics.
Atmospheric turbulence profiling with SLODAR using multiple adaptive optics wavefront sensors.
Wang, Lianqi; Schöck, Matthias; Chanan, Gary
2008-04-10
The slope detection and ranging (SLODAR) method recovers atmospheric turbulence profiles from time averaged spatial cross correlations of wavefront slopes measured by Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors. The Palomar multiple guide star unit (MGSU) was set up to test tomographic multiple guide star adaptive optics and provided an ideal test bed for SLODAR turbulence altitude profiling. We present the data reduction methods and SLODAR results from MGSU observations made in 2006. Wind profiling is also performed using delayed wavefront cross correlations along with SLODAR analysis. The wind profiling analysis is shown to improve the height resolution of the SLODAR method and in addition gives the wind velocities of the turbulent layers.
Wavefront Sensing with the Fine Guidance Sensor for James Webb Space Telescope
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, J. Scott; Aronstein, David; Dean, Bruce H.; Howard,Joe; Shiri, Ron
2008-01-01
An analysis is presented that utilizes the Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) for focal-plane wavefront sensing (WFS) for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). WFS with FGS increases the number of wavefront measurements taken in field of the telescope, but has many challenges over the other JWST instruments that make it unique, such as; less sampling of the Point Spread Function (PSF), a smaller diversity-defocus range, a smaller image detector size, and a polychromatic object or source. Additionally, presented is an analysis of sampling for wavefront sensing. Results are shown based on simulations of flight and the cryogenic optical testing at NASA Johnson Space Center.
Wavefront-sensor-based electron density measurements for laser-plasma accelerators
Plateau, Guillaume; Matlis, Nicholas; Geddes, Cameron
2010-02-20
Characterization of the electron density in laser produced plasmas is presented using direct wavefront analysis of a probe laser beam. The performance of a laser-driven plasma-wakefield accelerator depends on the plasma wavelength, hence on the electron density. Density measurements using a conventional folded-wave interferometer and using a commercial wavefront sensor are compared for different regimes of the laser-plasma accelerator. It is shown that direct wavefront measurements agree with interferometric measurements and, because of the robustness of the compact commercial device, have greater phase sensitivity, straightforward analysis, improving shot-to-shot plasma-density diagnostics.
Feasibility study of a layer-oriented wavefront sensor for solar telescopes.
Marino, Jose; Wöger, Friedrich
2014-02-01
Solar multiconjugate adaptive optics systems rely on several wavefront sensors, which measure the incoming turbulent phase along several field directions to produce a tomographic reconstruction of the turbulent phase. In this paper, we explore an alternative wavefront sensing approach that attempts to directly measure the turbulent phase present at a particular height in the atmosphere: a layer-oriented cross-correlating Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWFS). In an experiment at the Dunn Solar Telescope, we built a prototype layer-oriented cross-correlating SHWFS system conjugated to two separate atmospheric heights. We present the data obtained in the observations and complement these with ray-tracing computations to achieve a better understanding of the instrument's performance and limitations. The results obtained in this study strongly indicate that a layer-oriented cross-correlating SHWFS is not a practical design to measure the wavefront at a high layer in the atmosphere.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiang, Huazhong; Guo, Hang; Fu, Dongxiang; Zheng, Gang; Zhuang, Songlin; Chen, JiaBi; Wang, Cheng; Wu, Jie
2018-05-01
To precisely measure the whole-surface characterization of freeform progressive addition lenses (PALs), considering the multi-optical-axis conditions is becoming particularly important. Spherical power and astigmatism (cylinder) measurements for freeform PALs, using a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor (HSWFS) are proposed herein. Conversion formulas for the optical performance results were provided as HSWFS Zernike polynomial expansions. For each selected zone, the studied PALs were placed and tilted to simulate the multi-optical-axis conditions. The results of two tested PALs were analyzed using MATLAB programs and represented as contour plots of the spherical equivalent and cylinder of the whole-surface. The proposed experimental setup can provide a high accuracy as well as a possibility of choosing 12 lines and positions of 193 measurement zones on the entire surface. This approach to PAL analysis is potentially an efficient and useful method to objectively evaluate the optical performances, in which the full lens surface is defined and expressed as the contour plots of power in different regions (i.e., the distance region, progressive region, and near region) of the lens for regions of interest.
An FPGA Architecture for Extracting Real-Time Zernike Coefficients from Measured Phase Gradients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moser, Steven; Lee, Peter; Podoleanu, Adrian
2015-04-01
Zernike modes are commonly used in adaptive optics systems to represent optical wavefronts. However, real-time calculation of Zernike modes is time consuming due to two factors: the large factorial components in the radial polynomials used to define them and the large inverse matrix calculation needed for the linear fit. This paper presents an efficient parallel method for calculating Zernike coefficients from phase gradients produced by a Shack-Hartman sensor and its real-time implementation using an FPGA by pre-calculation and storage of subsections of the large inverse matrix. The architecture exploits symmetries within the Zernike modes to achieve a significant reduction in memory requirements and a speed-up of 2.9 when compared to published results utilising a 2D-FFT method for a grid size of 8×8. Analysis of processor element internal word length requirements show that 24-bit precision in precalculated values of the Zernike mode partial derivatives ensures less than 0.5% error per Zernike coefficient and an overall error of <1%. The design has been synthesized on a Xilinx Spartan-6 XC6SLX45 FPGA. The resource utilisation on this device is <3% of slice registers, <15% of slice LUTs, and approximately 48% of available DSP blocks independent of the Shack-Hartmann grid size. Block RAM usage is <16% for Shack-Hartmann grid sizes up to 32×32.
Reference-free Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor.
Zhao, Liping; Guo, Wenjiang; Li, Xiang; Chen, I-Ming
2011-08-01
The traditional Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing (SHWS) system measures the wavefront slope by calculating the centroid shift between the sample and a reference piece, and then the wavefront is reconstructed by a suitable iterative reconstruction method. Because of the necessity of a reference, many issues are brought up, which limit the system in most applications. This Letter proposes a reference-free wavefront sensing (RFWS) methodology, and an RFWS system is built up where wavefront slope changes are measured by introducing a lateral disturbance to the sampling aperture. By using Southwell reconstruction two times to process the measured data, the form of the wavefront at the sampling plane can be well reconstructed. A theoretical simulation platform of RFWS is established, and various surface forms are investigated. Practical measurements with two measurement systems-SHWS and our RFWS-are conducted, analyzed, and compared. All the simulation and measurement results prove and demonstrate the correctness and effectiveness of the method. © 2011 Optical Society of America
The CAFADIS camera: a new tomographic wavefront sensor for Adaptive Optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodríguez, J. M.; Femenía, B.; Montilla, I.; Rodríguez-Ramos, L. F.; Marichal-Hernández, J. G.; Lüke, J. P.; López, R.; Díaz, J. J.; Martín, Y.
The CAFADIS camera is a new wavefront sensor (WFS) patented by the Universidad de La Laguna. CAFADIS is a system based on the concept of plenoptic camera originally proposed by Adelson and Wang [Single lens stereo with a plenoptic camera, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 14 (1992)] and its most salient feature is its ability to simultaneously measuring wavefront maps and distances to objects [Wavefront and distance measurements using the CAFADIS camera, in Astronomical telescopes, Marseille (2008)]. This makes of CAFADIS an interesting alternative for LGS-based AO systems as it is capable of measuring from an LGS-beacon the atmospheric turbulence wavefront and simultaneously the distance to the LGS beacon thus removing the need of a NGS defocus sensor to probe changes in distance to the LGS beacon due to drifts of the mesospheric Na layer. In principle, the concept can also be employed to recover 3D profiles of the Na Layer allowing for optimizations of the measurement of the distance to the LGS-beacon. Currently we are investigating the possibility of extending the plenoptic WFS into a tomographic wavefront sensor. Simulations will be shown of a plenoptic WFS when operated within an LGS-based AO system for the recovery of wavefront maps at different heights. The preliminary results presented here show the tomographic ability of CAFADIS.
Determination of the paraxial focal length using Zernike polynomials over different apertures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Binkele, Tobias; Hilbig, David; Henning, Thomas; Fleischmann, Friedrich
2017-02-01
The paraxial focal length is still the most important parameter in the design of a lens. As presented at the SPIE Optics + Photonics 2016, the measured focal length is a function of the aperture. The paraxial focal length can be found when the aperture approaches zero. In this work, we investigate the dependency of the Zernike polynomials on the aperture size with respect to 3D space. By this, conventional wavefront measurement systems that apply Zernike polynomial fitting (e.g. Shack-Hartmann-Sensor) can be used to determine the paraxial focal length, too. Since the Zernike polynomials are orthogonal over a unit circle, the aperture used in the measurement has to be normalized. By shrinking the aperture and keeping up with the normalization, the Zernike coefficients change. The relation between these changes and the paraxial focal length are investigated. The dependency of the focal length on the aperture size is derived analytically and evaluated by simulation and measurement of a strong focusing lens. The measurements are performed using experimental ray tracing and a Shack-Hartmann-Sensor. Using experimental ray tracing for the measurements, the aperture can be chosen easily. Regarding the measurements with the Shack-Hartmann- Sensor, the aperture size is fixed. Thus, the Zernike polynomials have to be adapted to use different aperture sizes by the proposed method. By doing this, the paraxial focal length can be determined from the measurements in both cases.
Validation of a Hartmann-Moiré wavefront sensor with large dynamic range.
Wei, Xin; Van Heugten, Tony; Thibos, Larry
2009-08-03
Our goal was to validate the accuracy, repeatability, sensitivity, and dynamic range of a Hartmann-Moiré (HM) wavefront sensor (PixelOptics, Inc.) designed for ophthalmic applications. Testing apparatus injected a 4 mm diameter monochromatic (532 nm) beam of light into the wavefront sensor for measurement. Controlled amounts of defocus and astigmatism were introduced into the beam with calibrated spherical (-20D to + 18D) and cylindrical (-8D to + 8D) lenses. Repeatability was assessed with three repeated measurements within a 2-minute period. Correlation coefficients between mean wavefront measurements (n = 3) and expected wavefront vergence for both sphere and cylinder lenses were >0.999. For spherical lenses, the sensor was accurate to within 0.1D over the range from -20D to + 18D. For cylindrical lenses, the sensor was accurate to within 0.1D over the range from -8D to + 8D. The primary limitation to demonstrating an even larger dynamic range was the increasingly critical requirements for optical alignment. Sensitivity to small changes of vergence was constant over the instrument's full dynamic range. Repeatability of measurements for fixed condition was within 0.01D. The Hartmann-Moiré wavefront sensor measures defocus and astigmatism accurately and repeatedly with good sensitivity over a large dynamic range required for ophthalmic applications.
First laboratory results with the LINC-NIRVANA high layer wavefront sensor.
Zhang, Xianyu; Gaessler, Wolfgang; Conrad, Albert R; Bertram, Thomas; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Herbst, Thomas M; Kuerster, Martin; Bizenberger, Peter; Meschke, Daniel; Rix, Hans-Walter; Rao, Changhui; Mohr, Lars; Briegel, Florian; Kittmann, Frank; Berwein, Juergen; Trowitzsch, Jan; Schreiber, Laura; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Diolaiti, Emiliano
2011-08-15
In the field of adaptive optics, multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) can greatly increase the size of the corrected field of view (FoV) and also extend sky coverage. By applying layer oriented MCAO (LO-MCAO) [4], together with multiple guide stars (up to 20) and pyramid wavefront sensors [7], LINC-NIRVANA (L-N for short) [1] will provide two AO-corrected beams to a Fizeau interferometer to achieve 10 milliarcsecond angular resolution on the Large Binocular Telescope. This paper presents first laboratory results of the AO performance achieved with the high layer wavefront sensor (HWS). This sensor, together with its associated deformable mirror (a Xinetics-349), is being operated in one of the L-N laboratories. AO reference stars, spread across a 2 arc-minute FoV and with aberrations resulting from turbulence introduced at specific layers in the atmosphere, are simulated in this lab environment. This is achieved with the Multi-Atmosphere Phase screen and Stars (MAPS) [2] unit. From the wavefront data, the approximate residual wavefront error after correction has been calculated for different turbulent layer altitudes and wind speeds. Using a somewhat undersampled CCD, the FWHM of stars in the nearly 2 arc-minute FoV has also been measured. These test results demonstrate that the high layer wavefront sensor of LINC-NIRVANA will be able to achieve uniform AO correction across a large FoV. © 2011 Optical Society of America
End-To-End performance test of the LINC-NIRVANA Wavefront-Sensor system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berwein, Juergen; Bertram, Thomas; Conrad, Al; Briegel, Florian; Kittmann, Frank; Zhang, Xiangyu; Mohr, Lars
2011-09-01
LINC-NIRVANA is an imaging Fizeau interferometer, for use in near infrared wavelengths, being built for the Large Binocular Telescope. Multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) increases the sky coverage and the field of view over which diffraction limited images can be obtained. For its MCAO implementation, Linc-Nirvana utilizes four total wavefront sensors; each of the two beams is corrected by both a ground-layer wavefront sensor (GWS) and a high-layer wavefront sensor (HWS). The GWS controls the adaptive secondary deformable mirror (DM), which is based on an DSP slope computing unit. Whereas the HWS controls an internal DM via computations provided by an off-the-shelf multi-core Linux system. Using wavefront sensor data collected from a prior lab experiment, we have shown via simulation that the Linux based system is sufficient to operate at 1kHz, with jitter well below the needs of the final system. Based on that setup we tested the end-to-end performance and latency through all parts of the system which includes the camera, the wavefront controller, and the deformable mirror. We will present our loop control structure and the results of those performance tests.
Accuracy of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor using a coherent wound fibre image bundle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Jessica R.; Goodwin, Michael; Lawrence, Jon
2018-03-01
Shack-Hartmannwavefront sensors using wound fibre image bundles are desired for multi-object adaptive optical systems to provide large multiplex positioned by Starbugs. The use of a large-sized wound fibre image bundle provides the flexibility to use more sub-apertures wavefront sensor for ELTs. These compact wavefront sensors take advantage of large focal surfaces such as the Giant Magellan Telescope. The focus of this paper is to study the wound fibre image bundle structure defects effect on the centroid measurement accuracy of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. We use the first moment centroid method to estimate the centroid of a focused Gaussian beam sampled by a simulated bundle. Spot estimation accuracy with wound fibre image bundle and its structure impact on wavefront measurement accuracy statistics are addressed. Our results show that when the measurement signal-to-noise ratio is high, the centroid measurement accuracy is dominated by the wound fibre image bundle structure, e.g. tile angle and gap spacing. For the measurement with low signal-to-noise ratio, its accuracy is influenced by the read noise of the detector instead of the wound fibre image bundle structure defects. We demonstrate this both with simulation and experimentally. We provide a statistical model of the centroid and wavefront error of a wound fibre image bundle found through experiment.
Shack-Hartmann wavefront-sensor-based adaptive optics system for multiphoton microscopy
Cha, Jae Won; Ballesta, Jerome; So, Peter T.C.
2010-01-01
The imaging depth of two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy is partly limited by the inhomogeneity of the refractive index in biological specimens. This inhomogeneity results in a distortion of the wavefront of the excitation light. This wavefront distortion results in image resolution degradation and lower signal level. Using an adaptive optics system consisting of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and a deformable mirror, wavefront distortion can be measured and corrected. With adaptive optics compensation, we demonstrate that the resolution and signal level can be better preserved at greater imaging depth in a variety of ex-vivo tissue specimens including mouse tongue muscle, heart muscle, and brain. However, for these highly scattering tissues, we find signal degradation due to scattering to be a more dominant factor than aberration. PMID:20799824
Dong, Bing; Booth, Martin J
2018-01-22
In adaptive optical microscopy of thick biological tissue, strong scattering and aberrations can change the effective pupil shape by rendering some Shack-Hartmann spots unusable. The change of pupil shape leads to a change of wavefront reconstruction or control matrix that should be updated accordingly. Modified slope and modal wavefront control methods based on measurements of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor are proposed to accommodate an arbitrarily shaped pupil. Furthermore, we present partial wavefront control methods that remove specific aberration modes like tip, tilt and defocus from the control loop. The proposed control methods were investigated and compared by simulation using experimentally obtained aberration data. The performance was then tested experimentally through closed-loop aberration corrections using an obscured pupil.
End-to-end Coronagraphic Modeling Including a Low-order Wavefront Sensor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krist, John E.; Trauger, John T.; Unwin, Stephen C.; Traub, Wesley A.
2012-01-01
To evaluate space-based coronagraphic techniques, end-to-end modeling is necessary to simulate realistic fields containing speckles caused by wavefront errors. Real systems will suffer from pointing errors and thermal and motioninduced mechanical stresses that introduce time-variable wavefront aberrations that can reduce the field contrast. A loworder wavefront sensor (LOWFS) is needed to measure these changes at a sufficiently high rate to maintain the contrast level during observations. We implement here a LOWFS and corresponding low-order wavefront control subsystem (LOWFCS) in end-to-end models of a space-based coronagraph. Our goal is to be able to accurately duplicate the effect of the LOWFS+LOWFCS without explicitly evaluating the end-to-end model at numerous time steps.
Shack-Hartmann wavefront-sensor-based adaptive optics system for multiphoton microscopy.
Cha, Jae Won; Ballesta, Jerome; So, Peter T C
2010-01-01
The imaging depth of two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy is partly limited by the inhomogeneity of the refractive index in biological specimens. This inhomogeneity results in a distortion of the wavefront of the excitation light. This wavefront distortion results in image resolution degradation and lower signal level. Using an adaptive optics system consisting of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and a deformable mirror, wavefront distortion can be measured and corrected. With adaptive optics compensation, we demonstrate that the resolution and signal level can be better preserved at greater imaging depth in a variety of ex-vivo tissue specimens including mouse tongue muscle, heart muscle, and brain. However, for these highly scattering tissues, we find signal degradation due to scattering to be a more dominant factor than aberration.
Convolution- and Fourier-transform-based reconstructors for pyramid wavefront sensor.
Shatokhina, Iuliia; Ramlau, Ronny
2017-08-01
In this paper, we present two novel algorithms for wavefront reconstruction from pyramid-type wavefront sensor data. An overview of the current state-of-the-art in the application of pyramid-type wavefront sensors shows that the novel algorithms can be applied in various scientific fields such as astronomy, ophthalmology, and microscopy. Assuming a computationally very challenging setting corresponding to the extreme adaptive optics (XAO) on the European Extremely Large Telescope, we present the results of the performed end-to-end simulations and compare the achieved AO correction quality (in terms of the long-exposure Strehl ratio) to other methods, such as matrix-vector multiplication and preprocessed cumulative reconstructor with domain decomposition. Also, we provide a comparison in terms of applicability and computational complexity and closed-loop performance of our novel algorithms to other methods existing for this type of sensor.
Computational test bench and flow chart for wavefront sensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abecassis, Úrsula V.; de Lima Monteiro, Davies W.; Salles, Luciana P.; Stanigher, Rafaela; Borges, Euller
2014-05-01
The wavefront reconstruction diagram has come to supply the need in literature of an ampler vision over the many methods and optronic devices used for the reconstruction of wavefronts and to show the existing interactions between those. A computational platform has been developed using the diagram's orientation for the taking of decision over the best technique and the photo sensible and electronic structures to be implemented. This work will be directed to an ophthalmological application in the development of an instrument of help for the diagnosis of optical aberrations of the human eye.
Imaging the Gouy phase shift in photonic jets with a wavefront sensor.
Bon, Pierre; Rolly, Brice; Bonod, Nicolas; Wenger, Jérôme; Stout, Brian; Monneret, Serge; Rigneault, Hervé
2012-09-01
A wavefront sensor is used as a direct observation tool to image the Gouy phase shift in photonic nanojets created by micrometer-sized dielectric spheres. The amplitude and phase distributions of light are found in good agreement with a rigorous electromagnetic computation. Interestingly the observed phase shift when travelling through the photonic jet is a combination of the awaited π Gouy shift and a phase shift induced by the bead refraction. Such direct spatial phase shift observation using wavefront sensors would find applications in microscopy, diffractive optics, optical trapping, and point spread function engineering.
FPGA-based real time processing of the Plenoptic Wavefront Sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodríguez-Ramos, L. F.; Marín, Y.; Díaz, J. J.; Piqueras, J.; García-Jiménez, J.; Rodríguez-Ramos, J. M.
The plenoptic wavefront sensor combines measurements at pupil and image planes in order to obtain simultaneously wavefront information from different points of view, being capable to sample the volume above the telescope to extract the tomographic information of the atmospheric turbulence. The advantages of this sensor are presented elsewhere at this conference (José M. Rodríguez-Ramos et al). This paper will concentrate in the processing required for pupil plane phase recovery, and its computation in real time using FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays). This technology eases the implementation of massive parallel processing and allows tailoring the system to the requirements, maintaining flexibility, speed and cost figures.
An optical wavefront sensor based on a double layer microlens array.
Lin, Vinna; Wei, Hsiang-Chun; Hsieh, Hsin-Ta; Su, Guo-Dung John
2011-01-01
In order to determine light aberrations, Shack-Hartmann optical wavefront sensors make use of microlens arrays (MLA) to divide the incident light into small parts and focus them onto image planes. In this paper, we present the design and fabrication of long focal length MLA with various shapes and arrangements based on a double layer structure for optical wavefront sensing applications. A longer focal length MLA could provide high sensitivity in determining the average slope across each microlens under a given wavefront, and spatial resolution of a wavefront sensor is increased by numbers of microlenses across a detector. In order to extend focal length, we used polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) above MLA on a glass substrate. Because of small refractive index difference between PDMS and MLA interface (UV-resin), the incident light is less refracted and focused in further distance. Other specific focal lengths could also be realized by modifying the refractive index difference without changing the MLA size. Thus, the wavefront sensor could be improved with better sensitivity and higher spatial resolution.
An Optical Wavefront Sensor Based on a Double Layer Microlens Array
Lin, Vinna; Wei, Hsiang-Chun; Hsieh, Hsin-Ta; Su, Guo-Dung John
2011-01-01
In order to determine light aberrations, Shack-Hartmann optical wavefront sensors make use of microlens arrays (MLA) to divide the incident light into small parts and focus them onto image planes. In this paper, we present the design and fabrication of long focal length MLA with various shapes and arrangements based on a double layer structure for optical wavefront sensing applications. A longer focal length MLA could provide high sensitivity in determining the average slope across each microlens under a given wavefront, and spatial resolution of a wavefront sensor is increased by numbers of microlenses across a detector. In order to extend focal length, we used polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) above MLA on a glass substrate. Because of small refractive index difference between PDMS and MLA interface (UV-resin), the incident light is less refracted and focused in further distance. Other specific focal lengths could also be realized by modifying the refractive index difference without changing the MLA size. Thus, the wavefront sensor could be improved with better sensitivity and higher spatial resolution. PMID:22346643
The extraction of spot signal in Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor based on sparse representation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yanyan; Xu, Wentao; Chen, Suting; Ge, Junxiang; Wan, Fayu
2016-07-01
Several techniques have been used with Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors to determine the local wave-front gradient across each lenslet. While the centroid error of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor is relatively large since the skylight background and the detector noise. In this paper, we introduce a new method based on sparse representation to extract the target signal from the background and the noise. First, an over complete dictionary of the spot signal is constructed based on two-dimensional Gaussian model. Then the Shack-Hartmann image is divided into sub blocks. The corresponding coefficients of each block is computed in the over complete dictionary. Since the coefficients of the noise and the target are large different, then extract the target by setting a threshold to the coefficients. Experimental results show that the target can be well extracted and the deviation, RMS and PV of the centroid are all smaller than the method of subtracting threshold.
Testing the pyramid truth wavefront sensor for NFIRAOS in the lab
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mieda, Etsuko; Rosensteiner, Matthias; van Kooten, Maaike; Veran, Jean-Pierre; Lardiere, Olivier; Herriot, Glen
2016-07-01
For today and future adaptive optics observations, sodium laser guide stars (LGSs) are crucial; however, the LGS elongation problem due to the sodium layer has to be compensated, in particular for extremely large telescopes. In this paper, we describe the concept of truth wavefront sensing as a solution and present its design using a pyramid wavefront sensor (PWFS) to improve NFIRAOS (Narrow Field InfraRed Adaptive Optics System), the first light adaptive optics system for Thirty Meter Telescope. We simulate and test the truth wavefront sensor function under a controlled environment using the HeNOS (Herzberg NFIRAOS Optical Simulator) bench, a scaled-down NFIRAOS bench at NRC-Herzberg. We also touch on alternative pyramid component options because despite recent high demands for PWFSs, we suffer from the lack of pyramid supplies due to engineering difficulties.
Estimating stochastic noise using in situ measurements from a linear wavefront slope sensor.
Bharmal, Nazim Ali; Reeves, Andrew P
2016-01-15
It is shown how the solenoidal component of noise from the measurements of a wavefront slope sensor can be utilized to estimate the total noise: specifically, the ensemble noise variance. It is well known that solenoidal noise is orthogonal to the reconstruction of the wavefront under conditions of low scintillation (absence of wavefront vortices). Therefore, it can be retrieved even with a nonzero slope signal present. By explicitly estimating the solenoidal noise from an ensemble of slopes, it can be retrieved for any wavefront sensor configuration. Furthermore, the ensemble variance is demonstrated to be related to the total noise variance via a straightforward relationship. This relationship is revealed via the method of the explicit estimation: it consists of a small, heuristic set of four constants that do not depend on the underlying statistics of the incoming wavefront. These constants seem to apply to all situations-data from a laboratory experiment as well as many configurations of numerical simulation-so the method is concluded to be generic.
Wavefront analysis from its slope data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahajan, Virendra N.; Acosta, Eva
2017-08-01
In the aberration analysis of a wavefront over a certain domain, the polynomials that are orthogonal over and represent balanced wave aberrations for this domain are used. For example, Zernike circle polynomials are used for the analysis of a circular wavefront. Similarly, the annular polynomials are used to analyze the annular wavefronts for systems with annular pupils, as in a rotationally symmetric two-mirror system, such as the Hubble space telescope. However, when the data available for analysis are the slopes of a wavefront, as, for example, in a Shack- Hartmann sensor, we can integrate the slope data to obtain the wavefront data, and then use the orthogonal polynomials to obtain the aberration coefficients. An alternative is to find vector functions that are orthogonal to the gradients of the wavefront polynomials, and obtain the aberration coefficients directly as the inner products of these functions with the slope data. In this paper, we show that an infinite number of vector functions can be obtained in this manner. We show further that the vector functions that are irrotational are unique and propagate minimum uncorrelated additive random noise from the slope data to the aberration coefficients.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kupke, Renate; Gavel, Don; Johnson, Jess; Reinig, Marc
2008-07-01
We investigate the non-modulating pyramid wave-front sensor's (P-WFS) implementation in the context of Lick Observatory's Villages visible light AO system on the Nickel 1-meter telescope. A complete adaptive optics correction, using a non-modulated P-WFS in slope sensing mode as a boot-strap to a regime in which the P-WFS can act as a direct phase sensor is explored. An iterative approach to reconstructing the wave-front phase, given the pyramid wave-front sensor's non-linear signal, is developed. Using Monte Carlo simulations, the iterative reconstruction method's photon noise propagation behavior is compared to both the pyramid sensor used in slope-sensing mode, and the traditional Shack Hartmann sensor's theoretical performance limits. We determine that bootstrapping using the P-WFS as a slope sensor does not offer enough correction to bring the phase residuals into a regime in which the iterative algorithm can provide much improvement in phase measurement. It is found that both the iterative phase reconstructor and the slope reconstruction methods offer an advantage in noise propagation over Shack Hartmann sensors.
Concepts, laboratory, and telescope test results of the plenoptic camera as a wavefront sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodríguez-Ramos, L. F.; Montilla, I.; Fernández-Valdivia, J. J.; Trujillo-Sevilla, J. L.; Rodríguez-Ramos, J. M.
2012-07-01
The plenoptic camera has been proposed as an alternative wavefront sensor adequate for extended objects within the context of the design of the European Solar Telescope (EST), but it can also be used with point sources. Originated in the field of the Electronic Photography, the plenoptic camera directly samples the Light Field function, which is the four - dimensional representation of all the light entering a camera. Image formation can then be seen as the result of the photography operator applied to this function, and many other features of the light field can be exploited to extract information of the scene, like depths computation to extract 3D imaging or, as it will be specifically addressed in this paper, wavefront sensing. The underlying concept of the plenoptic camera can be adapted to the case of a telescope by using a lenslet array of the same f-number placed at the focal plane, thus obtaining at the detector a set of pupil images corresponding to every sampled point of view. This approach will generate a generalization of Shack-Hartmann, Curvature and Pyramid wavefront sensors in the sense that all those could be considered particular cases of the plenoptic wavefront sensor, because the information needed as the starting point for those sensors can be derived from the plenoptic image. Laboratory results obtained with extended objects, phase plates and commercial interferometers, and even telescope observations using stars and the Moon as an extended object are presented in the paper, clearly showing the capability of the plenoptic camera to behave as a wavefront sensor.
Applications of variable focus liquid lenses for curvature wave-front sensors in astronomy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fuentes-Fernández, J.; Cuevas, S.; Alvarez-Nuñez, L. C.; Watson, A. M.
2014-08-01
Curvature wavefront sensors obtain the wave-front aberrations from two defocused intensity images at each side of the pupil plane. Typically, when high modulation speeds are required, as it is the case with Adaptive Optics, that defocusing is done with a fast vibrating membrane mirror. We propose an alternative defocusing mechanism based on an electrowetting variable focus liquid lens. The use of such lenses may perform the required focus modulation without the need of extra moving parts, reducing the overall size of the system.
Feasibility study of a layer-oriented wavefront sensor for solar telescopes: reply.
Marino, Jose; Wöger, Friedrich
2014-11-10
We appreciate the thoughtful comments by Kellerer [Appl. Opt.53, 7643 (2014)10.1364/AO.53.007643] to our recent study [Appl. Opt.53, 685 (2014)10.1364/AO.53.000685] in which we evaluate the practicability of a layer-oriented wavefront sensing approach suggested for use in solar multiconjugate adaptive optics. After careful review of Kellerer's comment, we remain cautious about the feasibility of a solar-layer-oriented Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. However, we strongly encourage further analysis and proof-of-concept work that addresses the difficulties outlined in our original paper and that demonstrates the operating principles behind such an instrument.
Model-based sensor-less wavefront aberration correction in optical coherence tomography.
Verstraete, Hans R G W; Wahls, Sander; Kalkman, Jeroen; Verhaegen, Michel
2015-12-15
Several sensor-less wavefront aberration correction methods that correct nonlinear wavefront aberrations by maximizing the optical coherence tomography (OCT) signal are tested on an OCT setup. A conventional coordinate search method is compared to two model-based optimization methods. The first model-based method takes advantage of the well-known optimization algorithm (NEWUOA) and utilizes a quadratic model. The second model-based method (DONE) is new and utilizes a random multidimensional Fourier-basis expansion. The model-based algorithms achieve lower wavefront errors with up to ten times fewer measurements. Furthermore, the newly proposed DONE method outperforms the NEWUOA method significantly. The DONE algorithm is tested on OCT images and shows a significantly improved image quality.
Wavefront sensor-driven variable-geometry pupil for ground-based aperture synthesis imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tyler, David W.
2000-07-01
I describe a variable-geometry pupil (VGP) to increase image resolution for ground-based near-IR and optical imaging. In this scheme, a curvature-type wavefront sensor provides an estimate of the wavefront curvature to the controller of a high-resolution spatial light modulator (SLM) or micro- electromechanical (MEM) mirror, positioned at an image of the telescope pupil. This optical element, the VGP, passes or reflects the incident beam only where the wavefront phase is sufficiently smooth, viz., where the curvature is sufficiently low. Using a computer simulation, I show the VGP can sharpen and smooth the long-exposure PSF and increase the OTF SNR for tilt-only and low-order AO systems, allowing higher resolution and more stable deconvolution with dimmer AO guidestars.
NGS2: a focal plane array upgrade for the GeMS multiple tip-tilt wavefront sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rigaut, François; Price, Ian; d'Orgeville, Céline; Bennet, Francis; Herrald, Nick; Paulin, Nicolas; Uhlendorf, Kristina; Garrel, Vincent; Sivo, Gaetano; Montes, Vanessa; Trujillo, Chad
2016-07-01
NGS2 is an upgrade for the multi-natural guide star tip-tilt & plate scale wavefront sensor for GeMS (Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics system). It uses a single Nüvü HNü-512 Electron-Multiplied CCD array that spans the entire GeMS wavefront sensor focal plane. Multiple small regions-of-interest are used to enable frame rates up to 800Hz. This set up will improve the optical throughput with respect to the current wavefront sensor, as well as streamline acquisition and allow for distortion compensation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilby, M. J.; Keller, C. U.; Snik, F.; Korkiakoski, V.; Pietrow, A. G. M.
2017-01-01
The raw coronagraphic performance of current high-contrast imaging instruments is limited by the presence of a quasi-static speckle (QSS) background, resulting from instrumental Non-Common Path Errors (NCPEs). Rapid development of efficient speckle subtraction techniques in data reduction has enabled final contrasts of up to 10-6 to be obtained, however it remains preferable to eliminate the underlying NCPEs at the source. In this work we introduce the coronagraphic Modal Wavefront Sensor (cMWS), a new wavefront sensor suitable for real-time NCPE correction. This combines the Apodizing Phase Plate (APP) coronagraph with a holographic modal wavefront sensor to provide simultaneous coronagraphic imaging and focal-plane wavefront sensing with the science point-spread function. We first characterise the baseline performance of the cMWS via idealised closed-loop simulations, showing that the sensor is able to successfully recover diffraction-limited coronagraph performance over an effective dynamic range of ±2.5 radians root-mean-square (rms) wavefront error within 2-10 iterations, with performance independent of the specific choice of mode basis. We then present the results of initial on-sky testing at the William Herschel Telescope, which demonstrate that the sensor is capable of NCPE sensing under realistic seeing conditions via the recovery of known static aberrations to an accuracy of 10 nm (0.1 radians) rms error in the presence of a dominant atmospheric speckle foreground. We also find that the sensor is capable of real-time measurement of broadband atmospheric wavefront variance (50% bandwidth, 158 nm rms wavefront error) at a cadence of 50 Hz over an uncorrected telescope sub-aperture. When combined with a suitable closed-loop adaptive optics system, the cMWS holds the potential to deliver an improvement of up to two orders of magnitude over the uncorrected QSS floor. Such a sensor would be eminently suitable for the direct imaging and spectroscopy of
History of the Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor and its impact in ophthalmic optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwiegerling, Jim
2014-09-01
The Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor is a technology that was developed at the Optical Sciences Center at the University of Arizona in the late 1960s. It is a robust technique for measuring wavefront error that was originally developed for large telescopes to measure errors induced by atmospheric turbulence. The Shack Hartmann sensor has evolved to become a relatively common non-interferometric metrology tool in a variety of fields. Its broadest impact has been in the area of ophthalmic optics where it is used to measure ocular aberrations. The data the Shack Hartmann sensor provides enables custom LASIK treatments, often enhancing visual acuity beyond normal levels. In addition, the Shack Hartmann data coupled with adaptive optics systems enables unprecedented views of the retina. This paper traces the evolution of the technology from the early use of screen-type tests, to the incorporation of lenslet arrays and finally to one of its modern applications, measuring the human eye.
Amplitude and phase beam characterization using a two-dimensional wavefront sensor
Neal, D.R.; Alford, W.J.; Gruetzner, J.K.
1996-09-01
We have developed a two-dimensional Shack-Hartman wavefront sensor that uses binary optic lenslet arrays to directly measure the wavefront slope (phase gradient) and amplitude of the laser beam. This sensor uses an array of lenslets that dissects the beam into a number of samples. The focal spot location of each of these lenslets (measured by a CCD camera) is related to the incoming wavefront slope over the lenslet. By integrating these measurements over the laser aperture, the wavefront or phase distribution can be determined. Since the power focused by each lenslet is also easily determined, this allows a complete measurementmore » of the intensity and phase distribution of the laser beam. Furthermore, all the information is obtained in a single measurement. Knowing the complete scalar field of the beam allows the detailed prediction of the actual beam`s characteristics along its propagation path. In particular, the space- beamwidth product M{sup 2}, can be obtained in a single measurement. The intensity and phase information can be used in concert with information about other elements in the optical train to predict the beam size, shape, phase and other characteristics anywhere in the optical train. We present preliminary measurements of an Ar{sup +} laser beam and associated M{sup 2} calculations.« less
Baranec, Christoph; Dekany, Richard
2008-10-01
We introduce a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for adaptive optics that enables dynamic control of the spatial sampling of an incoming wavefront using a segmented mirror microelectrical mechanical systems (MEMS) device. Unlike a conventional lenslet array, subapertures are defined by either segments or groups of segments of a mirror array, with the ability to change spatial pupil sampling arbitrarily by redefining the segment grouping. Control over the spatial sampling of the wavefront allows for the minimization of wavefront reconstruction error for different intensities of guide source and different atmospheric conditions, which in turn maximizes an adaptive optics system's delivered Strehl ratio. Requirements for the MEMS devices needed in this Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor are also presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Jingtai; Zhao, Xiaohui; Liu, Wei; Gu, Haijun
2018-03-01
A wavefront sensor is one of most important units for an adaptive optics system. Based on our previous works, in this paper, we discuss the bit-error-rate (BER) performance of coherent free space optical communication systems with a focal-plane-based wavefront sensor. Firstly, the theory of a focal-plane-based wavefront sensor is given. Then the relationship between the BER and the mixing efficiency with a homodyne receiver is discussed on the basis of binary-phase-shift-keying (BPSK) modulation. Finally, the numerical simulation results are shown that the BER will be decreased obviously after aberrations correction with the focal-plane-based wavefront sensor. In addition, the BER will decrease along with increasing number of photons received within a single bit. These analysis results will provide a reference for the design of the coherent Free space optical communication (FSOC) system.
Duncan, Paul G.
2002-01-01
Described are the design of a rare earth iron garnet sensor element, optical methods of interrogating the sensor element, methods of coupling the optical sensor element to a waveguide, and an optical and electrical processing system for monitoring the polarization rotation of a linearly polarized wavefront undergoing external modulation due to magnetic field or electrical current fluctuation. The sensor element uses the Faraday effect, an intrinsic property of certain rare-earth iron garnet materials, to rotate the polarization state of light in the presence of a magnetic field. The sensor element may be coated with a thin-film mirror to effectively double the optical path length, providing twice the sensitivity for a given field strength or temperature change. A semiconductor sensor system using a rare earth iron garnet sensor element is described.
On-instrument wavefront sensor design for the TMT infrared imaging spectrograph (IRIS) update
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dunn, Jennifer; Reshetov, Vladimir; Atwood, Jenny; Pazder, John; Wooff, Bob; Loop, David; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Moore, Anna M.; Larkin, James E.
2014-08-01
The first light instrument on the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) project will be the InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). IRIS will be mounted on a bottom port of the facility AO instrument NFIRAOS. IRIS will report guiding information to the NFIRAOS through the On-Instrument Wavefront Sensor (OIWFS) that is part of IRIS. This will be in a self-contained compartment of IRIS and will provide three deployable wavefront sensor probe arms. This entire unit will be rotated to provide field de-rotation. Currently in our preliminary design stage our efforts have included: prototyping of the probe arm to determine the accuracy of this critical component, handling cart design and reviewing different types of glass for the atmospheric dispersion.
Comparison of optical vortex detection methods for use with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor.
Murphy, Kevin; Dainty, Chris
2012-02-27
In this paper we compare experimentally two methods of detecting optical vortices from Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWFS) data, the vortex potential and the contour sum methods. The experimental setup uses a spatial light modulator (SLM) to generate turbulent fields with vortices. In the experiment, many fields are generated and detected by a SHWFS, and data is analysed by the two vortex detection methods. We conclude that the vortex potential method is more successful in locating vortices in these fields.
Rapid and highly integrated FPGA-based Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for adaptive optics system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yi-Pin; Chang, Chia-Yuan; Chen, Shean-Jen
2018-02-01
In this study, a field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS) programmed on LabVIEW can be highly integrated into customized applications such as adaptive optics system (AOS) for performing real-time wavefront measurement. Further, a Camera Link frame grabber embedded with FPGA is adopted to enhance the sensor speed reacting to variation considering its advantage of the highest data transmission bandwidth. Instead of waiting for a frame image to be captured by the FPGA, the Shack-Hartmann algorithm are implemented in parallel processing blocks design and let the image data transmission synchronize with the wavefront reconstruction. On the other hand, we design a mechanism to control the deformable mirror in the same FPGA and verify the Shack-Hartmann sensor speed by controlling the frequency of the deformable mirror dynamic surface deformation. Currently, this FPGAbead SHWS design can achieve a 266 Hz cyclic speed limited by the camera frame rate as well as leaves 40% logic slices for additionally flexible design.
Scene-based Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for light-sheet microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lawrence, Keelan; Liu, Yang; Dale, Savannah; Ball, Rebecca; VanLeuven, Ariel J.; Sornborger, Andrew; Lauderdale, James D.; Kner, Peter
2018-02-01
Light-sheet microscopy is an ideal imaging modality for long-term live imaging in model organisms. However, significant optical aberrations can be present when imaging into an organism that is hundreds of microns or greater in size. To measure and correct optical aberrations, an adaptive optics system must be incorporated into the microscope. Many biological samples lack point sources that can be used as guide stars with conventional Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors. We have developed a scene-based Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for measuring the optical aberrations in a light-sheet microscopy system that does not require a point-source and can measure the aberrations for different parts of the image. The sensor has 280 lenslets inside the pupil, creates an image from each lenslet with a 500 micron field of view and a resolution of 8 microns, and has a resolution for the wavefront gradient of 75 milliradians per lenslet. We demonstrate the system on both fluorescent bead samples and zebrafish embryos.
Li, Zhenghan; Li, Xinyang
2018-04-30
Real time transverse wind estimation contributes to predictive correction which is used to compensate for the time delay error in the control systems of adaptive optics (AO) system. Many methods that apply Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor to wind profile measurement have been proposed. One of the obvious problems is the lack of a fundamental benchmark to compare the various methods. In this work, we present the fundamental performance limits for transverse wind estimator from Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor measurements using Cramér-Rao lower bound (CRLB). The bound provides insight into the nature of the transverse wind estimation, thereby suggesting how to design and improve the estimator in the different application scenario. We analyze the theoretical bound and find that factors such as slope measurement noise, wind velocity and atmospheric coherence length r 0 have important influence on the performance. Then, we introduced the non-iterative gradient-based transverse wind estimator. The source of the deterministic bias of the gradient-based transverse wind estimators is analyzed for the first time. Finally, we derived biased CRLB for the gradient-based transverse wind estimators from Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor measurements and the bound can predict the performance of estimator more accurately.
Zhao, Chunyu; Burge, James H
2007-12-24
Zernike polynomials provide a well known, orthogonal set of scalar functions over a circular domain, and are commonly used to represent wavefront phase or surface irregularity. A related set of orthogonal functions is given here which represent vector quantities, such as mapping distortion or wavefront gradient. These functions are generated from gradients of Zernike polynomials, made orthonormal using the Gram- Schmidt technique. This set provides a complete basis for representing vector fields that can be defined as a gradient of some scalar function. It is then efficient to transform from the coefficients of the vector functions to the scalar Zernike polynomials that represent the function whose gradient was fit. These new vector functions have immediate application for fitting data from a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor or for fitting mapping distortion for optical testing. A subsequent paper gives an additional set of vector functions consisting only of rotational terms with zero divergence. The two sets together provide a complete basis that can represent all vector distributions in a circular domain.
The AOLI low-order non-linear curvature wavefront sensor: laboratory and on-sky results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crass, Jonathan; King, David; MacKay, Craig
2014-08-01
Many adaptive optics (AO) systems in use today require the use of bright reference objects to determine the effects of atmospheric distortions. Typically these systems use Shack-Hartmann Wavefront sensors (SHWFS) to distribute incoming light from a reference object between a large number of sub-apertures. Guyon et al. evaluated the sensitivity of several different wavefront sensing techniques and proposed the non-linear Curvature Wavefront Sensor (nlCWFS) offering improved sensitivity across a range of orders of distortion. On large ground-based telescopes this can provide nearly 100% sky coverage using natural guide stars. We present work being undertaken on the nlCWFS development for the Adaptive Optics Lucky Imager (AOLI) project. The wavefront sensor is being developed as part of a low-order adaptive optics system for use in a dedicated instrument providing an AO corrected beam to a Lucky Imaging based science detector. The nlCWFS provides a total of four reference images on two photon-counting EMCCDs for use in the wavefront reconstruction process. We present results from both laboratory work using a calibration system and the first on-sky data obtained with the nlCWFS at the 4.2 metre William Herschel Telescope, La Palma. In addition, we describe the updated optical design of the wavefront sensor, strategies for minimising intrinsic effects and methods to maximise sensitivity using photon-counting detectors. We discuss on-going work to develop the high speed reconstruction algorithm required for the nlCWFS technique. This includes strategies to implement the technique on graphics processing units (GPUs) and to minimise computing overheads to obtain a prior for a rapid convergence of the wavefront reconstruction. Finally we evaluate the sensitivity of the wavefront sensor based upon both data and low-photon count strategies.
Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor with large dynamic range by adaptive spot search method.
Shinto, Hironobu; Saita, Yusuke; Nomura, Takanori
2016-07-10
A Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWFS) that consists of a microlens array and an image sensor has been used to measure the wavefront aberrations of human eyes. However, a conventional SHWFS has finite dynamic range depending on the diameter of the each microlens. The dynamic range cannot be easily expanded without a decrease of the spatial resolution. In this study, an adaptive spot search method to expand the dynamic range of an SHWFS is proposed. In the proposed method, spots are searched with the help of their approximate displacements measured with low spatial resolution and large dynamic range. By the proposed method, a wavefront can be correctly measured even if the spot is beyond the detection area. The adaptive spot search method is realized by using the special microlens array that generates both spots and discriminable patterns. The proposed method enables expanding the dynamic range of an SHWFS with a single shot and short processing time. The performance of the proposed method is compared with that of a conventional SHWFS by optical experiments. Furthermore, the dynamic range of the proposed method is quantitatively evaluated by numerical simulations.
Experimental detection of optical vortices with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor.
Murphy, Kevin; Burke, Daniel; Devaney, Nicholas; Dainty, Chris
2010-07-19
Laboratory experiments are carried out to detect optical vortices in conditions typical of those experienced when a laser beam is propagated through the atmosphere. A Spatial Light Modulator (SLM) is used to mimic atmospheric turbulence and a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor is utilised to measure the slopes of the wavefront surface. A matched filter algorithm determines the positions of the Shack-Hartmann spot centroids more robustly than a centroiding algorithm. The slope discrepancy is then obtained by taking the slopes measured by the wavefront sensor away from the slopes calculated from a least squares reconstruction of the phase. The slope discrepancy field is used as an input to the branch point potential method to find if a vortex is present, and if so to give its position and sign. The use of the slope discrepancy technique greatly improves the detection rate of the branch point potential method. This work shows the first time the branch point potential method has been used to detect optical vortices in an experimental setup.
Development of a hard x-ray wavefront sensor for the EuXFEL
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berujon, Sebastien; Ziegler, Eric; Cojocaru, Ruxandra; Martin, Thierry
2017-05-01
We present developments on a hard X-ray wavefront sensing instrument for characterizing and monitoring the beam of the European X-ray Free Electron Lasers (EuXFEL). The pulsed nature of the intense X-ray beam delivered by this new class of facility gives rise to strong challenges for the optics and their diagnostic. In the frame of the EUCALL project Work Package 7, we are developing a sensor able to observe the beam in the X-ray energy range [8-40] keV without altering it. The sensor is based on the speckle tracking principle and employs two semi-transparent optics optimized such that their X-ray absorption is reduced. Furthermore, this instrument requires a scattering object with small random features placed in the beam and two cameras to record images of the beam at two different propagation distances. The analysis of the speckle pattern and its distortion from one image to the other allows absolute or differential wavefront recovery from pulse to pulse. Herein, we introduce the stakes and challenges of wavefront sensing at an XFEL source and explain the strategies adopted to fulfil the high requirements set by such a source.
Shack-Hartmann and Interferometric Hybrid Wavefront Sensor
2011-03-24
focused spots from those measured for a reference surface [45]. In 1971 B. C. Platt and R. V. Shack proposed using a lenticular screen made with two...Shack-Hartmann WFS. Modern Shack-Hartmann sensors use a lenslet array formed from a solid piece of optical material instead of a lenticular screen [45
Nonlinear spline wavefront reconstruction through moment-based Shack-Hartmann sensor measurements.
Viegers, M; Brunner, E; Soloviev, O; de Visser, C C; Verhaegen, M
2017-05-15
We propose a spline-based aberration reconstruction method through moment measurements (SABRE-M). The method uses first and second moment information from the focal spots of the SH sensor to reconstruct the wavefront with bivariate simplex B-spline basis functions. The proposed method, since it provides higher order local wavefront estimates with quadratic and cubic basis functions can provide the same accuracy for SH arrays with a reduced number of subapertures and, correspondingly, larger lenses which can be beneficial for application in low light conditions. In numerical experiments the performance of SABRE-M is compared to that of the first moment method SABRE for aberrations of different spatial orders and for different sizes of the SH array. The results show that SABRE-M is superior to SABRE, in particular for the higher order aberrations and that SABRE-M can give equal performance as SABRE on a SH grid of halved sampling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Ping; Li, Xinyang; Luo, Xi; Li, Jianfeng
2018-02-01
The centroid method is commonly adopted to locate the spot in the sub-apertures in the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SH-WFS), in which preprocessing image is required before calculating the spot location due to that the centroid method is extremely sensitive to noises. In this paper, the SH-WFS image was simulated according to the characteristics of the noises, background and intensity distribution. The Optimal parameters of SH-WFS image preprocessing method were put forward, in different signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions, where the wavefront reconstruction error was considered as the evaluation index. Two methods of image preprocessing, thresholding method and windowing combing with thresholding method, were compared by studying the applicable range of SNR and analyzing the stability of the two methods, respectively.
Sparse aperture differential piston measurements using the pyramid wave-front sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Chen, Xinyang; Yan, Zhaojun; Zheng, Lixin; Agapito, Guido; Wang, Chaoyan; Zhu, Nenghong; Zhu, Liyun; Cai, Jianqing; Tang, Zhenghong
2016-07-01
In this paper we report on the laboratory experiment we settled in the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory (SHAO) to investigate the pyramid wave-front sensor (WFS) ability to measure the differential piston on a sparse aperture. The ultimate goal is to verify the ability of the pyramid WFS work in close loop to perform the phasing of the primary mirrors of a sparse Fizeau imaging telescope. In the experiment we installed on the optical bench we performed various test checking the ability to flat the wave-front using a deformable mirror and to measure the signal of the differential piston on a two pupils setup. These steps represent the background from which we start to perform full close loop operation on multiple apertures. These steps were also useful to characterize the achromatic double pyramids (double prisms) manufactured in the SHAO optical workshop.
Cousin, Seth L; Bueno, Juan M; Forget, Nicolas; Austin, Dane R; Biegert, J
2012-08-01
We demonstrate a simplified arrangement for spatiotemporal ultrashort pulse characterization called Hartmann-Shack assisted, multidimensional, shaper-based technique for electric-field reconstruction. It employs an acousto-optic pulse shaper in combination with a second-order nonlinear crystal and a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor. The shaper is used as a tunable bandpass filter, and the wavefronts and intensities of quasimonochromatic spectral slices of the pulse are obtained using the Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor. The wavefronts and intensities of the spectral slices are related to one another using shaper-assisted frequency-resolved optical gating measurements, performed at particular points in the beam. This enables a three-dimensional reconstruction of the amplitude and phase of the pulse. We present some example pulse measurements and discuss the operating parameters of the device.
Tong, Qing; Lei, Yu; Xin, Zhaowei; Zhang, Xinyu; Sang, Hongshi; Xie, Changsheng
2016-02-08
In this paper, we present a kind of dual-mode photosensitive arrays (DMPAs) constructed by hybrid integration a liquid crystal microlens array (LCMLA) driven electrically and a CMOS sensor array, which can be used to measure both the conventional intensity images and corresponding wavefronts of objects. We utilize liquid crystal materials to shape the microlens array with the electrically tunable focal length. Through switching the voltage signal on and off, the wavefronts and the intensity images can be acquired through the DMPAs, sequentially. We use white light to obtain the object's wavefronts for avoiding losing important wavefront information. We separate the white light wavefronts with a large number of spectral components and then experimentally compare them with single spectral wavefronts of typical red, green and blue lasers, respectively. Then we mix the red, green and blue wavefronts to a composite wavefront containing more optical information of the object.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Fang; Cady, Eric; Seo, Byoung-Joon; An, Xin; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Kern, Brian; Lam, Raymond; Marx, David; Moody, Dwight; Mejia Prada, Camilo; Patterson, Keith; Poberezhskiy, Ilya; Shields, Joel; Sidick, Erkin; Tang, Hong; Trauger, John; Truong, Tuan; White, Victor; Wilson, Daniel; Zhou, Hanying
2017-09-01
To maintain the required performance of WFIRST Coronagraph in a realistic space environment, a Low Order Wavefront Sensing and Control (LOWFS/C) subsystem is necessary. The LOWFS/C uses a Zernike wavefront sensor (ZWFS) with the phase shifting disk combined with the starlight rejecting occulting mask. For wavefront error corrections, WFIRST LOWFS/C uses a fast steering mirror (FSM) for line-of-sight (LoS) correction, a focusing mirror for focus drift correction, and one of the two deformable mirrors (DM) for other low order wavefront error (WFE) correction. As a part of technology development and demonstration for WFIRST Coronagraph, a dedicated Occulting Mask Coronagraph (OMC) testbed has been built and commissioned. With its configuration similar to the WFIRST flight coronagraph instrument the OMC testbed consists of two coronagraph modes, Shaped Pupil Coronagraph (SPC) and Hybrid Lyot Coronagraph (HLC), a low order wavefront sensor (LOWFS), and an optical telescope assembly (OTA) simulator which can generate realistic LoS drift and jitter as well as low order wavefront error that would be induced by the WFIRST telescope's vibration and thermal changes. In this paper, we will introduce the concept of WFIRST LOWFS/C, describe the OMC testbed, and present the testbed results of LOWFS sensor performance. We will also present our recent results from the dynamic coronagraph tests in which we have demonstrated of using LOWFS/C to maintain the coronagraph contrast with the presence of WFIRST-like line-of-sight and low order wavefront disturbances.
Prototype of a laser guide star wavefront sensor for the Extremely Large Telescope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patti, M.; Lombini, M.; Schreiber, L.; Bregoli, G.; Arcidiacono, C.; Cosentino, G.; Diolaiti, E.; Foppiani, I.
2018-06-01
The new class of large telescopes, like the future Extremely Large Telescope (ELT), are designed to work with a laser guide star (LGS) tuned to a resonance of atmospheric sodium atoms. This wavefront sensing technique presents complex issues when applied to big telescopes for many reasons, mainly linked to the finite distance of the LGS, the launching angle, tip-tilt indetermination and focus anisoplanatism. The implementation of a laboratory prototype for the LGS wavefront sensor (WFS) at the beginning of the phase study of MAORY (Multi-conjugate Adaptive Optics Relay) for ELT first light has been indispensable in investigating specific mitigation strategies for the LGS WFS issues. This paper presents the test results of the LGS WFS prototype under different working conditions. The accuracy within which the LGS images are generated on the Shack-Hartmann WFS has been cross-checked with the MAORY simulation code. The experiments show the effect of noise on centroiding precision, the impact of LGS image truncation on wavefront sensing accuracy as well as the temporal evolution of the sodium density profile and LGS image under-sampling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Welsh, Byron M.; Reeves, Toby D.; Roggemann, Michael C.
1997-09-01
The ability to measure atmospheric turbulence characteristics such as Fried's coherence diameter, the outer scale of turbulence, and the turbulence power law are critical for the optimized operation of adaptive optical telescopes. One approach for sensing these turbulence parameters is to use a Hartmann wavefront sensor (H-WFS) array to measure the wavefront slope structure function (SSF) . The SSF is defined as the second moment of the wavefront slope difference between any two subapertures separated in time and/or space. Accurate knowledge of the SSF allows turbulence parameters to be estimated. The H-WFS slope measurements, composed of a true slope signal corrupted by noise, are used to estimate the SSF by computing a mean square difference of slope signals from different subapertures. This computation is typically performed over a large number of H-WFS measurement frames. The quality of the SSF estimate is quantified by the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the estimator. The quality of the SSF estimate then can in turn be related to the quality of the atmospheric turbulence parameter estimates. This research develops a theoretical SNR expression for the SSF estimator. This SNR is a function of H-WFS geometry, the number of temporal measurement frames, the outer scale of turbulence, the turbulence spectrum power law, and the temporal properties of the turbulence. Results are presented for various H-WFS configurations and atmospheric turbulence properties.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niu, Chaojun; Han, Xiang'e.
2015-10-01
Adaptive optics (AO) technology is an effective way to alleviate the effect of turbulence on free space optical communication (FSO). A new adaptive compensation method can be used without a wave-front sensor. Artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC) is a population-based heuristic evolutionary algorithm inspired by the intelligent foraging behaviour of the honeybee swarm with the advantage of simple, good convergence rate, robust and less parameter setting. In this paper, we simulate the application of the improved ABC to correct the distorted wavefront and proved its effectiveness. Then we simulate the application of ABC algorithm, differential evolution (DE) algorithm and stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm to the FSO system and analyze the wavefront correction capabilities by comparison of the coupling efficiency, the error rate and the intensity fluctuation in different turbulence before and after the correction. The results show that the ABC algorithm has much faster correction speed than DE algorithm and better correct ability for strong turbulence than SPGD algorithm. Intensity fluctuation can be effectively reduced in strong turbulence, but not so effective in week turbulence.
Custom-oriented wavefront sensor for human eye properties measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galetskiy, Sergey; Letfullin, Renat; Dubinin, Alex; Cherezova, Tatyana; Belyakov, Alexey; Kudryashov, Alexis
2005-12-01
The problem of correct measurement of human eye aberrations is very important with the rising widespread of a surgical procedure for reducing refractive error in the eye, so called, LASIK (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis). In this paper we show capabilities to measure aberrations by means of the aberrometer built in our lab together with Active Optics Ltd. We discuss the calibration of the aberrometer and show invalidity to use for the ophthalmic calibration purposes the analytical equation based on thin lens formula. We show that proper analytical equation suitable for calibration should have dependence on the square of the distance increment and we illustrate this both by experiment and by Zemax Ray tracing modeling. Also the error caused by inhomogeneous intensity distribution of the beam imaged onto the aberrometer's Shack-Hartmann sensor is discussed.
Development of a pyramidal wavefront sensor test-bench at INO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turbide, Simon; Wang, Min; Gauvin, Jonny; Martin, Olivier; Savard, Maxime; Bourqui, Pascal; Veran, Jean-Pierre; Deschenes, William; Anctil, Genevieve; Chateauneuf, François
2013-12-01
The key technical element of the adaptive optics in astronomy is the wavefront sensing (WFS). One of the advantages of the pyramid wavefront sensor (P-WFS) over the widely used Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor seems to be the increased sensitivity in closed-loop applications. A high-sensitivity and large dynamic-range WFS, such as P-WFS technology, still needs to be further investigated for proper justification in future Extremely Large Telescopes application. At INO, we have recently carried out the optical design, testing and performance evaluation of a P-WFS bench setup. The optical design of the bench setup mainly consists of the super-LED fiber source, source collimator, spatial light modulator (SLM), relay lenses, tip-tilt mirror, Fourier-transforming lens, and a four-faceted glass pyramid with a large vertex angle as well as pupil re-imaged optics. The phase-only SLM has been introduced in the bench setup to generate atmospheric turbulence with a maximum phase shift of more than 2π at each pixel (256 grey levels). Like a modified Foucault knife-edge test, the refractive pyramid element is used to produce four images of the entrance pupil on a CCD camera. The Fourier-transforming lens, which is used before the pyramid prism, is designed for telecentric output to allow dynamic modulation (rotation of the beam around the pyramid-prism center) from a tip-tilt mirror. Furthermore, a P-WFS diffraction-based model has been developed. This model includes most of the system limitations such as the SLM discrete voltage steps and the CCD pixel pitch. The pyramid effects (edges and tip) are considered as well. The modal wavefront reconstruction algorithm relies on the construction of an interaction matrix (one for each modulation's amplitude). Each column of the interaction matrix represents the combination of the four pupil images for a given wavefront aberration. The nice agreement between the data and the model suggest that the limitation of the system is not the P
Sensing more modes with fewer sub-apertures: the LIFTed Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor.
Meimon, Serge; Fusco, Thierry; Michau, Vincent; Plantet, Cédric
2014-05-15
We propose here a novel way to analyze Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor images in order to retrieve more modes than the two centroid coordinates per sub-aperture. To do so, we use the linearized focal-plane technique (LIFT) phase retrieval method for each sub-aperture. We demonstrate that we can increase the number of modes sensed with the same computational burden per mode. For instance, we show the ability to control a 21×21 actuator deformable mirror using a 10×10 lenslet array.
Optical path difference microscopy with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor.
Gong, Hai; Agbana, Temitope E; Pozzi, Paolo; Soloviev, Oleg; Verhaegen, Michel; Vdovin, Gleb
2017-06-01
In this Letter, we show that a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor can be used for the quantitative measurement of the specimen optical path difference (OPD) in an ordinary incoherent optical microscope, if the spatial coherence of the illumination light in the plane of the specimen is larger than the microscope resolution. To satisfy this condition, the illumination numerical aperture should be smaller than the numerical aperture of the imaging lens. This principle has been successfully applied to build a high-resolution reference-free instrument for the characterization of the OPD of micro-optical components and microscopic biological samples.
Time-resolved quantitative-phase microscopy of laser-material interactions using a wavefront sensor.
Gallais, Laurent; Monneret, Serge
2016-07-15
We report on a simple and efficient technique based on a wavefront sensor to obtain time-resolved amplitude and phase images of laser-material interactions. The main interest of the technique is to obtain quantitative self-calibrated phase measurements in one shot at the femtosecond time-scale, with high spatial resolution. The technique is used for direct observation and quantitative measurement of the Kerr effect in a fused silica substrate and free electron generation by photo-ionization processes in an optical coating.
Sidick, Erkin
2013-09-10
An adaptive periodic-correlation (APC) algorithm was developed for use in extended-scene Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors. It provides high accuracy even when the subimages in a frame captured by a Shack-Hartmann camera are not only shifted but also distorted relative to each other. Recently we found that the shift estimate error of the APC algorithm has a component that depends on the content of the extended scene. In this paper, we assess the amount of that error and propose a method to minimize it.
Analysis on measured signal retrieval approaches in non-modulation pyramid wavefront sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jianxin; Bai, Fuzhong; Ning, Yu; Wang, Shengqian; Zhang, Lanqiang
2010-11-01
Pyramid wavefront sensor (PWFS) without modulation is prevailing over one with modulation. So far how to describe measured signals of non-modulation PWFS needs deeply research. In this paper, the theory of the non-modulation PWFS is briefly presented according to wave optics. This paper analyses the existing four approaches in theory. By numerical simulation this paper further verifies the performance of four approaches under the experiment condition. The result shows that the approach with total intensity of pixels conjugate to the same spot in the pupil as signal denominator is the best choice for the non-modulation PWFS in closed-loop correction.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sidick, Erkin
2012-01-01
Adaptive Periodic-Correlation (APC) algorithm was developed for use in extended-scene Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors. It provides high-accuracy even when the sub-images in a frame captured by a Shack-Hartmann camera are not only shifted but also distorted relative to each other. Recently we found that the shift-estimate error of the APC algorithm has a component that depends on the content of extended-scene. In this paper we assess the amount of that error and propose a method to minimize it.
Determining the phase and amplitude distortion of a wavefront using a plenoptic sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Chensheng; Ko, Jonathan; Davis, Christopher C.
2015-05-01
We have designed a plenoptic sensor to retrieve phase and amplitude changes resulting from a laser beam's propagation through atmospheric turbulence. Compared with the commonly restricted domain of (-pi, pi) in phase reconstruction by interferometers, the reconstructed phase obtained by the plenoptic sensors can be continuous up to a multiple of 2pi. When compared with conventional Shack-Hartmann sensors, ambiguities caused by interference or low intensity, such as branch points and branch cuts, are less likely to happen and can be adaptively avoided by our reconstruction algorithm. In the design of our plenoptic sensor, we modified the fundamental structure of a light field camera into a mini Keplerian telescope array by accurately cascading the back focal plane of its object lens with a microlens array's front focal plane and matching the numerical aperture of both components. Unlike light field cameras designed for incoherent imaging purposes, our plenoptic sensor operates on the complex amplitude of the incident beam and distributes it into a matrix of images that are simpler and less subject to interference than a global image of the beam. Then, with the proposed reconstruction algorithms, the plenoptic sensor is able to reconstruct the wavefront and a phase screen at an appropriate depth in the field that causes the equivalent distortion on the beam. The reconstructed results can be used to guide adaptive optics systems in directing beam propagation through atmospheric turbulence. In this paper we will show the theoretical analysis and experimental results obtained with the plenoptic sensor and its reconstruction algorithms.
Determining the phase and amplitude distortion of a wavefront using a plenoptic sensor.
Wu, Chensheng; Ko, Jonathan; Davis, Christopher C
2015-05-01
We have designed a plenoptic sensor to retrieve phase and amplitude changes resulting from a laser beam's propagation through atmospheric turbulence. Compared with the commonly restricted domain of (-π,π) in phase reconstruction by interferometers, the reconstructed phase obtained by the plenoptic sensors can be continuous up to a multiple of 2π. When compared with conventional Shack-Hartmann sensors, ambiguities caused by interference or low intensity, such as branch points and branch cuts, are less likely to happen and can be adaptively avoided by our reconstruction algorithm. In the design of our plenoptic sensor, we modified the fundamental structure of a light field camera into a mini Keplerian telescope array by accurately cascading the back focal plane of its object lens with a microlens array's front focal plane and matching the numerical aperture of both components. Unlike light field cameras designed for incoherent imaging purposes, our plenoptic sensor operates on the complex amplitude of the incident beam and distributes it into a matrix of images that are simpler and less subject to interference than a global image of the beam. Then, with the proposed reconstruction algorithms, the plenoptic sensor is able to reconstruct the wavefront and a phase screen at an appropriate depth in the field that causes the equivalent distortion on the beam. The reconstructed results can be used to guide adaptive optics systems in directing beam propagation through atmospheric turbulence. In this paper, we will show the theoretical analysis and experimental results obtained with the plenoptic sensor and its reconstruction algorithms.
Closed-loop focal plane wavefront control with the SCExAO instrument
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martinache, Frantz; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Guyon, Olivier
2016-09-01
Aims: This article describes the implementation of a focal plane based wavefront control loop on the high-contrast imaging instrument SCExAO (Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics). The sensor relies on the Fourier analysis of conventional focal-plane images acquired after an asymmetric mask is introduced in the pupil of the instrument. Methods: This absolute sensor is used here in a closed-loop to compensate for the non-common path errors that normally affects any imaging system relying on an upstream adaptive optics system.This specific implementation was used to control low-order modes corresponding to eight zernike modes (from focus to spherical). Results: This loop was successfully run on-sky at the Subaru Telescope and is used to offset the SCExAO deformable mirror shape used as a zero-point by the high-order wavefront sensor. The paper details the range of errors this wavefront-sensing approach can operate within and explores the impact of saturation of the data and how it can be bypassed, at a cost in performance. Conclusions: Beyond this application, because of its low hardware impact, the asymmetric pupil Fourier wavefront sensor (APF-WFS) can easily be ported in a wide variety of wavefront sensing contexts, for ground- as well space-borne telescopes, and for telescope pupils that can be continuous, segmented or even sparse. The technique is powerful because it measures the wavefront where it really matters, at the level of the science detector.
Guaranteeing Failsafe Operation of Extended-Scene Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensor Algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sidick, Erikin
2009-01-01
A Shack-Hartmann sensor (SHS) is an optical instrument consisting of a lenslet array and a camera. It is widely used for wavefront sensing in optical testing and astronomical adaptive optics. The camera is placed at the focal point of the lenslet array and points at a star or any other point source. The image captured is an array of spot images. When the wavefront error at the lenslet array changes, the position of each spot measurably shifts from its original position. Determining the shifts of the spot images from their reference points shows the extent of the wavefront error. An adaptive cross-correlation (ACC) algorithm has been developed to use scenes as well as point sources for wavefront error detection. Qualifying an extended scene image is often not an easy task due to changing conditions in scene content, illumination level, background, Poisson noise, read-out noise, dark current, sampling format, and field of view. The proposed new technique based on ACC algorithm analyzes the effects of these conditions on the performance of the ACC algorithm and determines the viability of an extended scene image. If it is viable, then it can be used for error correction; if it is not, the image fails and will not be further processed. By potentially testing for a wide variety of conditions, the algorithm s accuracy can be virtually guaranteed. In a typical application, the ACC algorithm finds image shifts of more than 500 Shack-Hartmann camera sub-images relative to a reference sub -image or cell when performing one wavefront sensing iteration. In the proposed new technique, a pair of test and reference cells is selected from the same frame, preferably from two well-separated locations. The test cell is shifted by an integer number of pixels, say, for example, from m= -5 to 5 along the x-direction by choosing a different area on the same sub-image, and the shifts are estimated using the ACC algorithm. The same is done in the y-direction. If the resulting shift
Tests and evaluation of a variable focus liquid lens for curvature wavefront sensors in astronomy.
Fuentes-Fernández, Jorge; Cuevas, Salvador; Álvarez-Nuñez, Luis C; Watson, Alan
2013-10-20
Curvature wavefront sensors (WFSs), which obtain the wavefront aberrations from two defocused intensity images at each side of the pupil plane, have shown to be highly efficient for astronomical applications. We propose here an alternative defocusing mechanism for curvature sensors, based on an electrowetting-based variable focus liquid lens. Typically, the sampling rates of a WFS for active optics are of the order of 0.01 Hz, and the focus modulation can be done by simply moving the detector back and forth. On the other hand, adaptive optics may require speeds of up to several hundred hertz, and the modulation is then done by using a fast vibrating membrane mirror. We believe variable focus liquid lenses may be able to perform this focus modulation, reducing the overall size of the system and without the need of extra moving parts. We have done a full characterization of the Varioptic Arctic 416 liquid lens, and we have evaluated its potential performance in different curvature configurations.
Koh, Shizuka; Tung, Cynthia; Aquavella, James; Yadav, Rahul; Zavislan, James; Yoon, Geunyoung
2010-07-01
PURPOSE. To investigate tear film dynamics using simultaneous measurements of ocular aberrations and lower tear meniscus. METHODS. Simultaneous measurements of wavefront aberration and lower tear meniscus were performed for 11 normal eyes and 7 eyes with short tear film break-up time (SBUT) dry eye, with a tear film break-up time shorter than 5 seconds, using a wavefront sensor and an anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT). During the measurement, the subjects were instructed to blink every 6 seconds for a total of 30 seconds. From the measured aberration, root mean square (RMS) wavefront error and volume modulation transfer function (vMTF) induced by changes in tear film dynamics were calculated for a 5-mm pupil. Lower tear meniscus height (TMH) and area (TMA) were estimated from the cross-sectional OCT images of lower tear meniscus. RESULTS. There was a positive correlation between RMS and tear meniscus dimensions and a negative correlation between vMTF and tear meniscus in both groups. There were moderate negative correlations between the postblink initial RMS change and baseline TMH (R = -0.61) and TMA (R = -0.54) in SBUT dry eyes that were stronger than in normal eyes (R = -0.37, R = -0.38). CONCLUSIONS. Tear meniscus dimensions increase with RMS over time, and tear quantity before blink has a significant role in maintaining initial optical integrity, especially in SBUT dry eye. Simultaneous measurement of optical quality and tear meniscus has the potential to improve understanding of tear stability in normal eyes and dry eyes.
Design of pre-optics for laser guide star wavefront sensor for the ELT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muslimov, Eduard; Dohlen, Kjetil; Neichel, Benoit; Hugot, Emmanuel
2017-12-01
In the present paper, we consider the optical design of a zoom system for the active refocusing in laser guide star wavefront sensors. The system is designed according to the specifications coming from the Extremely Large Telescope (ELT)-HARMONI instrument, the first-light, integral field spectrograph for the European (E)-ELT. The system must provide a refocusing of the laser guide as a function of telescope pointing and large decentring of the incoming beam. The system considers four moving lens groups, each of them being a doublet with one aspherical surface. The advantages and shortcomings of such a solution in terms of the component displacements and complexity of the surfaces are described in detail. It is shown that the system can provide the median value of the residual wavefront error of 13.8-94.3 nm and the maximum value <206 nm, while the exit pupil distortion is 0.26-0.36% for each of the telescope pointing directions.
Focal plane wavefront sensor achromatization: The multireference self-coherent camera
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delorme, J. R.; Galicher, R.; Baudoz, P.; Rousset, G.; Mazoyer, J.; Dupuis, O.
2016-04-01
Context. High contrast imaging and spectroscopy provide unique constraints for exoplanet formation models as well as for planetary atmosphere models. But this can be challenging because of the planet-to-star small angular separation (<1 arcsec) and high flux ratio (>105). Recently, optimized instruments like VLT/SPHERE and Gemini/GPI were installed on 8m-class telescopes. These will probe young gazeous exoplanets at large separations (≳1 au) but, because of uncalibrated phase and amplitude aberrations that induce speckles in the coronagraphic images, they are not able to detect older and fainter planets. Aims: There are always aberrations that are slowly evolving in time. They create quasi-static speckles that cannot be calibrated a posteriori with sufficient accuracy. An active correction of these speckles is thus needed to reach very high contrast levels (>106-107). This requires a focal plane wavefront sensor. Our team proposed a self coherent camera, the performance of which was demonstrated in the laboratory. As for all focal plane wavefront sensors, these are sensitive to chromatism and we propose an upgrade that mitigates the chromatism effects. Methods: First, we recall the principle of the self-coherent camera and we explain its limitations in polychromatic light. Then, we present and numerically study two upgrades to mitigate chromatism effects: the optical path difference method and the multireference self-coherent camera. Finally, we present laboratory tests of the latter solution. Results: We demonstrate in the laboratory that the multireference self-coherent camera can be used as a focal plane wavefront sensor in polychromatic light using an 80 nm bandwidth at 640 nm (bandwidth of 12.5%). We reach a performance that is close to the chromatic limitations of our bench: 1σ contrast of 4.5 × 10-8 between 5 and 17 λ0/D. Conclusions: The performance of the MRSCC is promising for future high-contrast imaging instruments that aim to actively minimize the
Wavefront measurement of plastic lenses for mobile-phone applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Li-Ting; Cheng, Yuan-Chieh; Wang, Chung-Yen; Wang, Pei-Jen
2016-08-01
In camera lenses for mobile-phone applications, all lens elements have been designed with aspheric surfaces because of the requirements in minimal total track length of the lenses. Due to the diffraction-limited optics design with precision assembly procedures, element inspection and lens performance measurement have become cumbersome in the production of mobile-phone cameras. Recently, wavefront measurements based on Shack-Hartmann sensors have been successfully implemented on injection-molded plastic lens with aspheric surfaces. However, the applications of wavefront measurement on small-sized plastic lenses have yet to be studied both theoretically and experimentally. In this paper, both an in-house-built and a commercial wavefront measurement system configured on two optics structures have been investigated with measurement of wavefront aberrations on two lens elements from a mobile-phone camera. First, the wet-cell method has been employed for verifications of aberrations due to residual birefringence in an injection-molded lens. Then, two lens elements of a mobile-phone camera with large positive and negative power have been measured with aberrations expressed in Zernike polynomial to illustrate the effectiveness in wavefront measurement for troubleshooting defects in optical performance.
Ocular wavefront aberrations in patients with macular diseases
Bessho, Kenichiro; Bartsch, Dirk-Uwe G.; Gomez, Laura; Cheng, Lingyun; Koh, Hyoung Jun; Freeman, William R.
2009-01-01
Background There have been reports that by compensating for the ocular aberrations using adaptive optical systems it may be possible to improve the resolution of clinical retinal imaging systems beyond what is now possible. In order to develop such system to observe eyes with retinal disease, understanding of the ocular wavefront aberrations in individuals with retinal disease is required. Methods 82 eyes of 66 patients with macular disease (epiretinal membrane, macular edema, macular hole etc.) and 85 eyes of 51 patients without retinal disease were studied. Using a ray-tracing wavefront device, each eye was scanned at both small and large pupil apertures and Zernike coefficients up to 6th order were acquired. Results In phakic eyes, 3rd order root mean square errors (RMS) in macular disease group were statistically greater than control, an average of 12% for 5mm and 31% for 3mm scan diameters (p<0.021). In pseudophakic eyes, there also was an elevation of 3rd order RMS, on average 57% for 5mm and 51% for 3mm scan diameters (p<0.031). Conclusion Higher order wavefront aberrations in eyes with macular disease were greater than in control eyes without disease. Our study suggests that such aberrations may result from irregular or multiple reflecting retinal surfaces. Modifications in wavefront sensor technology will be needed to accurately determine wavefront aberration and allow correction using adaptive optics in eyes with macular irregularities. PMID:19574950
Measurement of nonlinear refractive index and ionization rates in air using a wavefront sensor.
Schwarz, Jens; Rambo, Patrick; Kimmel, Mark; Atherton, Briggs
2012-04-09
A wavefront sensor has been used to measure the Kerr nonlinear focal shift of a high intensity ultrashort pulse beam in a focusing beam geometry while accounting for the effects of plasma-defocusing. It is shown that plasma-defocusing plays a major role in the nonlinear focusing dynamics and that measurements of Kerr nonlinearity and ionization are coupled. Furthermore, this coupled effect leads to a novel way that measures the laser ionization rates in air under atmospheric conditions as well as Kerr nonlinearity. The measured nonlinear index n₂ compares well with values found in the literature and the measured ionization rates could be successfully benchmarked to the model developed by Perelomov, Popov, and Terentev (PPT model) [Sov. Phys. JETP 50, 1393 (1966)].
Centroid estimation for a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor based on stream processing.
Kong, Fanpeng; Polo, Manuel Cegarra; Lambert, Andrew
2017-08-10
Using center of gravity to estimate the centroid of the spot in a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, the measurement corrupts with photon and detector noise. Parameters, like window size, often require careful optimization to balance the noise error, dynamic range, and linearity of the response coefficient under different photon flux. It also needs to be substituted by the correlation method for extended sources. We propose a centroid estimator based on stream processing, where the center of gravity calculation window floats with the incoming pixel from the detector. In comparison with conventional methods, we show that the proposed estimator simplifies the choice of optimized parameters, provides a unit linear coefficient response, and reduces the influence of background and noise. It is shown that the stream-based centroid estimator also works well for limited size extended sources. A hardware implementation of the proposed estimator is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xuxu; Li, Xinyang; wang, Caixia
2018-03-01
This paper proposes an efficient approach to decrease the computational costs of correlation-based centroiding methods used for point source Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors. Four typical similarity functions have been compared, i.e. the absolute difference function (ADF), ADF square (ADF2), square difference function (SDF), and cross-correlation function (CCF) using the Gaussian spot model. By combining them with fast search algorithms, such as three-step search (TSS), two-dimensional logarithmic search (TDL), cross search (CS), and orthogonal search (OS), computational costs can be reduced drastically without affecting the accuracy of centroid detection. Specifically, OS reduces calculation consumption by 90%. A comprehensive simulation indicates that CCF exhibits a better performance than other functions under various light-level conditions. Besides, the effectiveness of fast search algorithms has been verified.
Improving the performance of a pyramid wavefront sensor with modal sensitivity compensation.
Korkiakoski, Visa; Vérinaud, Christophe; Le Louarn, Miska
2008-01-01
We describe a solution to increase the performance of a pyramid wavefront sensor (P-WFS) under bad seeing conditions. We show that most of the issues involve a reduced sensitivity that depends on the magnitude of the high frequency atmospheric distortions. We demonstrate in end-to-end closed loop adaptive optics simulations that with a modal sensitivity compensation method a high-order system with a nonmodulated P-WFS is robust in conditions with the Fried parameter r 0 at 0.5 microm in the range of 0.05-0.10 m. We also show that the method makes it possible to use a modal predictive control system to reach a total performance improvement of 0.06-0.45 in Strehl ratio at 1.6 microm. Especially at r 0=0.05 m the gain is dramatic.
Characterization of optical turbulence in a jet engine exhaust with Shack-Hartmenn wavefront sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deron, R.; Mendez, F.
2008-10-01
Airborne laser countermeasure applications (DIRCM) are hampered by the turbulence of jet engine exhaust. The effects of this source of perturbation on optical propagation have still to be documented and analyzed in order to get a better insight into the different mechanisms of the plume perturbations and also to validate CFD/LES codes. For that purpose, wave front sensing has been used as a non-intrusive optical technique to provide unsteady and turbulent optical measurements through a plume of a jet engine installed at a fixed point on the ground. The experiment has been implemented in October 2007 along with other optical measuring techniques at Volvo Aero Corporation (Trollhättan, Sweden). This study is part of a European research programme dealing with DIRCM issues. The Shack- Hartmann (SH) wave front sensing technique was employed. It consisted of 64 x 64 lenslets coupled to a 1024x1024 pixel Dalsa CCD sensor working at a sampling rate of 40 Hz. A 15 ns pulsed laser synchronized with the SH sensor enabled "freezing" turbulence in each SH image. The ability of the technique to substract a reference permitted a simple calibration procedure to ensure accurate and reliable measurements despite vibration environment. Instantaneous phases are reconstructed using Fourier techniques so as to obtain a better spatial resolution against turbulent effects. Under any given plume condition, overall tilt aberration prevails. Phase power spectra derived from phase statistics are drawn according to the plume main axis and to normal axis. They compare favorably well to the decaying Kolmogorov power law on a useful high spatial frequency range. Averaged phases are also decomposed into Zernike polynomials to analyze optical mode behavior according to engine status and to plume abscissa. With overall tilt removed, turbulent DSP's amplitude drops by a factor of 30 to 40 and mean aberrations by a factor of 10 from an abscissa 1 meter to another 3.5 meters away from the engine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harrison, Paul; Erry, Gavin R. G.; Otten, Leonard J.; Cuevas, Desirae M.; Weaver, Lawrence D.
2004-11-01
Earlier research reported a comparison of the wavefronts recorded simultaneously by a Shack-Hartmann and a Distorted Grating Wavefront Sensor (DGWFS). In this paper we present the results of a continuation of this earlier work where we have now closed an adaptive optics loop under simulated propagation conditions using the Advanced Concept Laboratory (ACL) at Lincoln Laboratory. For these measurements only one wavefront sensor controlled the deformable mirror at a time. To make direct comparisons between the sensors we took advantage of the ACL's ability to exactly replicate a time varying propagation simulation. Time varying and static comparisons of the two sensors controlling the ACL adaptive system under conditions that ranged from a benign path, D/r0 = 2, to a propagation condition with significant scintillation, D/r0 =9, will be shown using the corrected far field spot as a measure of performance. The paper includes a description of the DGWFS used for these tests and describes the procedure used to align and calibrate the sensor.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harrison, Paul; Erry, Gavin R. G.; Otten, Leonard J., III; Cuevas, D. M.; Weaver, Lawrence D.
2004-02-01
Earlier research reported a comparison of the wavefronts recorded simultaneously by a Shack-Hartmann and a Distorted Grating Wavefront Sensor (DGWFS). In this paper we present the results of a continuation of this earlier work where we have now closed an adaptive optics loop under simulated propagation conditions using the Advanced Concept Laboratory (ACL) at Lincoln Laboratory. For these measurements only one wavefront sensor controlled the deformable mirror at a time. To make direct comparisons between the sensors we took advantage of the ACL"s ability to exactly replicate a time varying propagation simulation. Time varying and static comparisons of the two sensors controlling the ACL adaptive system under conditions that ranged from a benign path, D/r0 = 2, to a propagation condition with significant scintillation, D/r0 =9, will be shown using the corrected far field spot as a measure of performance. The paper includes a description of the DGWFS used for these tests and describes the procedure used to align and calibrate the sensor.
Terahertz wavefront assessment based on 2D electro-optic imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cahyadi, Harsono; Ichikawa, Ryuji; Degert, Jérôme; Freysz, Eric; Yasui, Takeshi; Abraham, Emmanuel
2015-03-01
Complete characterization of terahertz (THz) radiation becomes an interesting yet challenging study for many years. In visible optical region, the wavefront assessment has been proved as a powerful tool for the beam profiling and characterization, which consequently requires 2-dimension (2D) single-shot acquisition of the beam cross-section to provide the spatial profile in time- and frequency-domain. In THz region, the main problem is the lack of effective THz cameras to satisfy this need. In this communication, we propose a simple setup based on free-space collinear 2D electrooptic sampling in a ZnTe crystal for the characterization of THz wavefronts. In principle, we map the optically converted, time-resolved data of the THz pulse by changing the time delay between the probe pulse and the generated THz pulse. The temporal waveforms from different lens-ZnTe distances can clearly indicate the evolution of THz beam as it is converged, focused, or diverged. From the Fourier transform of the temporal waveforms, we can obtain the spectral profile of a broadband THz wave, which in this case within the 0.1-2 THz range. The spectral profile also provides the frequency dependency of the THz pulse amplitude. The comparison between experimental and theoretical results at certain frequencies (here we choose 0.285 and 1.035 THz) is in a good agreement suggesting that our system is capable of THz wavefront characterization. Furthermore, the implementation of Hartmann/Shack-Hartmann sensor principle enables the reconstruction of THz wavefront. We demonstrate the reconstruction of THz wavefronts which are changed from planar wave to spherical one due to the insertion of convex THz lens in the THz beam path. We apply and compare two different reconstruction methods: linear integration and Zernike polynomial. Roughly we conclude that the Zernike method provide smoother wavefront shape that can be elaborated later into quantitative-qualitative analysis about the wavefront
Mathematics of Zernike polynomials: a review.
McAlinden, Colm; McCartney, Mark; Moore, Jonathan
2011-11-01
Monochromatic aberrations of the eye principally originate from the cornea and the crystalline lens. Aberrometers operate via differing principles but function by either analysing the reflected wavefront from the retina or by analysing an image on the retina. Aberrations may be described as lower order or higher order aberrations with Zernike polynomials being the most commonly employed fitting method. The complex mathematical aspects with regards the Zernike polynomial expansion series are detailed in this review. Refractive surgery has been a key clinical application of aberrometers; however, more recently aberrometers have been used in a range of other areas ophthalmology including corneal diseases, cataract and retinal imaging. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2011 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.
Stability of corneal topography and wavefront aberrations in young Singaporeans.
Zhu, Mingxia; Collins, Michael J; Yeo, Anna C H
2013-09-01
The aim was to investigate the differences between and variations across time in corneal topography and ocular wavefront aberrations in young Singaporean myopes and emmetropes. We used a videokeratoscope and wavefront sensor to measure the ocular surface topography and wavefront aberrations of the total-eye optics in the morning, midday and late afternoon on two separate days. Topographic data were used to derive the corneal surface wavefront aberrations. Both the corneal and total wavefronts were analysed up to the fourth radial order of the Zernike polynomial expansion and were centred on the entrance pupil (5.0 mm). The participants included 12 young progressing myopes, 13 young stable myopes and 15 young age-matched emmetropes. For all subjects considered together, there were significant changes in some of the aberrations across the day, such as spherical aberration ( Z(4 0)) and vertical coma ( Z (3 - 1)) (repeated measures analysis of variance, p < 0.05). The magnitude of positive spherical aberration ( Z(4 0)) was significantly lower in the progressing myopic group than in the stable myopic (p = 0.04) and emmetropic (p = 0.02) groups. There were also significant interactions between refractive group and time of day for with and against-the-rule astigmatism ( Z(2 2)). Significantly lower fourth-order root mean square of ocular wavefront aberrations were found in the progressing myopic group compared with the stable myopes and emmetropes (p < 0.01). These differences and variations in the corneal and total aberrations may have significance for our understanding of refractive error development and for clinical applications requiring accurate wavefront measurements. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2013 Optometrists Association Australia.
Plantet, C; Meimon, S; Conan, J-M; Fusco, T
2015-11-02
Exoplanet direct imaging with large ground based telescopes requires eXtreme Adaptive Optics that couples high-order adaptive optics and coronagraphy. A key element of such systems is the high-order wavefront sensor. We study here several high-order wavefront sensing approaches, and more precisely compare their sensitivity to noise. Three techniques are considered: the classical Shack-Hartmann sensor, the pyramid sensor and the recently proposed LIFTed Shack-Hartmann sensor. They are compared in a unified framework based on precise diffractive models and on the Fisher information matrix, which conveys the information present in the data whatever the estimation method. The diagonal elements of the inverse of the Fisher information matrix, which we use as a figure of merit, are similar to noise propagation coefficients. With these diagonal elements, so called "Fisher coefficients", we show that the LIFTed Shack-Hartmann and pyramid sensors outperform the classical Shack-Hartmann sensor. In photon noise regime, the LIFTed Shack-Hartmann and modulated pyramid sensors obtain a similar overall noise propagation. The LIFTed Shack-Hartmann sensor however provides attractive noise properties on high orders.
Yin, Xiaoming; Li, Xiang; Zhao, Liping; Fang, Zhongping
2009-11-10
A Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SWHS) splits the incident wavefront into many subsections and transfers the distorted wavefront detection into the centroid measurement. The accuracy of the centroid measurement determines the accuracy of the SWHS. Many methods have been presented to improve the accuracy of the wavefront centroid measurement. However, most of these methods are discussed from the point of view of optics, based on the assumption that the spot intensity of the SHWS has a Gaussian distribution, which is not applicable to the digital SHWS. In this paper, we present a centroid measurement algorithm based on the adaptive thresholding and dynamic windowing method by utilizing image processing techniques for practical application of the digital SHWS in surface profile measurement. The method can detect the centroid of each focal spot precisely and robustly by eliminating the influence of various noises, such as diffraction of the digital SHWS, unevenness and instability of the light source, as well as deviation between the centroid of the focal spot and the center of the detection area. The experimental results demonstrate that the algorithm has better precision, repeatability, and stability compared with other commonly used centroid methods, such as the statistical averaging, thresholding, and windowing algorithms.
Correlations between corneal and total wavefront aberrations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mrochen, Michael; Jankov, Mirko; Bueeler, Michael; Seiler, Theo
2002-06-01
Purpose: Corneal topography data expressed as corneal aberrations are frequently used to report corneal laser surgery results. However, the optical image quality at the retina depends on all optical elements of the eye such as the human lens. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the correlations between the corneal and total wavefront aberrations and to discuss the importance of corneal aberrations for representing corneal laser surgery results. Methods: Thirty three eyes of 22 myopic subjects were measured with a corneal topography system and a Tschernig-type wavefront analyzer after the pupils were dilated to at least 6 mm in diameter. All measurements were centered with respect to the line of sight. Corneal and total wavefront aberrations were calculated up to the 6th Zernike order in the same reference plane. Results: Statistically significant correlations (p < 0.05) between the corneal and total wavefront aberrations were found for the astigmatism (C3,C5) and all 3rd Zernike order coefficients such as coma (C7,C8). No statistically significant correlations were found for all 4th to 6th order Zernike coefficients except for the 5th order horizontal coma C18 (p equals 0.003). On average, all Zernike coefficients for the corneal aberrations were found to be larger compared to Zernike coefficients for the total wavefront aberrations. Conclusions: Corneal aberrations are only of limited use for representing the optical quality of the human eye after corneal laser surgery. This is due to the lack of correlation between corneal and total wavefront aberrations in most of the higher order aberrations. Besides this, the data present in this study yield towards an aberration balancing between corneal aberrations and the optical elements within the eye that reduces the aberration from the cornea by a certain degree. Consequently, ideal customized ablations have to take both, corneal and total wavefront aberrations, into consideration.
Wavefront metrology for coherent hard X-rays by scanning a microsphere.
Skjønsfjell, Eirik Torbjørn Bakken; Chushkin, Yuriy; Zontone, Federico; Patil, Nilesh; Gibaud, Alain; Breiby, Dag W
2016-05-16
Characterization of the wavefront of an X-ray beam is of primary importance for all applications where coherence plays a major role. Imaging techniques based on numerically retrieving the phase from interference patterns are often relying on an a-priori assumption of the wavefront shape. In Coherent X-ray Diffraction Imaging (CXDI) a planar incoming wave field is often assumed for the inversion of the measured diffraction pattern, which allows retrieving the real space image via simple Fourier transformation. It is therefore important to know how reliable the plane wave approximation is to describe the real wavefront. Here, we demonstrate that the quantitative wavefront shape and flux distribution of an X-ray beam used for CXDI can be measured by using a micrometer size metal-coated polymer sphere serving in a similar way as the hole array in a Hartmann wavefront sensor. The method relies on monitoring the shape and center of the scattered intensity distribution in the far field using a 2D area detector while raster-scanning the microsphere with respect to the incoming beam. The reconstructed X-ray wavefront was found to have a well-defined central region of approximately 16 µm diameter and a weaker, asymmetric, intensity distribution extending 30 µm from the beam center. The phase front distortion was primarily spherical with an effective radius of 0.55 m which matches the distance to the last upstream beam-defining slit, and could be accurately represented by Zernike polynomials.
Projected Pupil Plane Pattern: an alternative LGS wavefront sensing technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Huizhe; Bharmal, Nazim A.; Myers, Richard M.
2018-04-01
We have analyzed and simulated a novel alternative LGS configuration termed Projected Pupil Plane Pattern (PPPP), including wavefront sensing and the reconstruction method. A key advantage of this method is that a collimated beam is launched through the telescope primary mirror, therefore the wavefront measurements do not suffer from the effects of focal anisoplanatism. A detailed simulation including the upward wave optics propagation, return path imaging and linearized wavefront reconstruction has been presented. The conclusions that we draw from the simulation include the optimum pixel number across the pupil N=32, the optimum number of Zernike modes (which is 78), propagation altitudes h1 = 10 km and h2 = 20 km for Rayleigh scattered returns, and the choice for the laser beam modulation (Gaussian beam). We also investigate the effects of turbulence profiles with multiple layers and find that it does not reduce PPPP performance as long as the turbulence layers are below h1. A signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) analysis has been given when photon and read noise are introduced. Finally, we compare the PPPP performance with a conventional Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensor (WFS) in open loop, using Rayleigh LGS or sodium LGS, for 4-m and 10-m telescopes respectively. For this purpose we use a full Monte-Carlo end-to-end AO simulation tool, Soapy. From these results we confirm that PPPP does not suffer from focus anisoplanatism.
Projected Pupil Plane Pattern: an alternative LGS wavefront sensing technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Huizhe; Bharmal, Nazim A.; Myers, Richard M.
2018-07-01
We have analysed and simulated a novel alternative Laser Guide Star (LGS) configuration termed Projected Pupil Plane Pattern (PPPP), including wavefront sensing and the reconstruction method. A key advantage of this method is that a collimated beam is launched through the telescope primary mirror, therefore the wavefront measurements do not suffer from the effects of focal anisoplanatism. A detailed simulation including the upward wave optics propagation, return path imaging, and linearized wavefront reconstruction has been presented. The conclusions that we draw from the simulation include the optimum pixel number across the pupilN = 32, the optimum number of Zernike modes (which is 78), propagation altitudes h1 = 10 km and h2 = 20 km for Rayleigh scattered returns, and the choice for the laser beam modulation (Gaussian beam). We also investigate the effects of turbulence profiles with multiple layers and find that it does not reduce PPPP performance as long as the turbulence layers are below h1. A signal-to-noise ratio analysis has been given when photon and read noise are introduced. Finally, we compare the PPPP performance with a conventional Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensor in an open loop, using Rayleigh LGS or sodium LGS, for 4-m and 10-m telescopes, respectively. For this purpose, we use a full Monte Carlo end-to-end AO simulation tool, Soapy. From these results, we confirm that PPPP does not suffer from focus anisoplanatism.
Mathematical construction and perturbation analysis of Zernike discrete orthogonal points.
Shi, Zhenguang; Sui, Yongxin; Liu, Zhenyu; Peng, Ji; Yang, Huaijiang
2012-06-20
Zernike functions are orthogonal within the unit circle, but they are not over the discrete points such as CCD arrays or finite element grids. This will result in reconstruction errors for loss of orthogonality. By using roots of Legendre polynomials, a set of points within the unit circle can be constructed so that Zernike functions over the set are discretely orthogonal. Besides that, the location tolerances of the points are studied by perturbation analysis, and the requirements of the positioning precision are not very strict. Computer simulations show that this approach provides a very accurate wavefront reconstruction with the proposed sampling set.
Measurement of M2-Curve for Asymmetric Beams by Self-Referencing Interferometer Wavefront Sensor
Du, Yongzhao
2016-01-01
For asymmetric laser beams, the values of beam quality factor Mx2 and My2 are inconsistent if one selects a different coordinate system or measures beam quality with different experimental conditionals, even when analyzing the same beam. To overcome this non-uniqueness, a new beam quality characterization method named as M2-curve is developed. The M2-curve not only contains the beam quality factor Mx2 and My2 in the x-direction and y-direction, respectively; but also introduces a curve of Mxα2 versus rotation angle α of coordinate axis. Moreover, we also present a real-time measurement method to demonstrate beam propagation factor M2-curve with a modified self-referencing Mach-Zehnder interferometer based-wavefront sensor (henceforth SRI-WFS). The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated with the theoretical analysis and experiment in multimode beams. The experimental results showed that the proposed measurement method is simple, fast, and a single-shot measurement procedure without movable parts. PMID:27916845
Feasibility study of a layer-oriented wavefront sensor for solar telescopes: comment.
Kellerer, Aglaé
2014-11-10
The future generation of telescopes will be equipped with multi-conjugate adaptive-optics (MCAO) systems in order to obtain high angular resolution over large fields of view. MCAO comes in two flavors: star- and layer-oriented. Existing solar MCAO systems rely exclusively on the star-oriented approach. Earlier we suggested a method to implement the layer-oriented approach, and in view of recent concerns by Marino and Wöger [Appl. Opt.53, 685 (2014)10.1364/AO.53.000685APOPAI1559-128X], we now explain the proposed scheme in further detail. We note that in any layer-oriented system one sensor is conjugated to the pupil and the others are conjugated to higher altitudes. For the latter, not all the sensing surface is illuminated by the entire field of view. The successful implementation of nighttime layer-oriented systems shows that the field reduction is no crucial limitation. In the solar approach the field reduction is directly noticeable because it causes vignetting of the Shack-Hartmann subaperture images. It can be accounted for by a suitable adjustment of the algorithms to calculate the local wavefront slopes. We discuss a further concern related to the optical layout of a layer-oriented solar system.
Measurement of M²-Curve for Asymmetric Beams by Self-Referencing Interferometer Wavefront Sensor.
Du, Yongzhao
2016-11-29
For asymmetric laser beams, the values of beam quality factor M x 2 and M y 2 are inconsistent if one selects a different coordinate system or measures beam quality with different experimental conditionals, even when analyzing the same beam. To overcome this non-uniqueness, a new beam quality characterization method named as M²-curve is developed. The M²-curve not only contains the beam quality factor M x 2 and M y 2 in the x -direction and y -direction, respectively; but also introduces a curve of M x α 2 versus rotation angle α of coordinate axis. Moreover, we also present a real-time measurement method to demonstrate beam propagation factor M²-curve with a modified self-referencing Mach-Zehnder interferometer based-wavefront sensor (henceforth SRI-WFS). The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated with the theoretical analysis and experiment in multimode beams. The experimental results showed that the proposed measurement method is simple, fast, and a single-shot measurement procedure without movable parts.
High-order optical vortex position detection using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor.
Luo, Jia; Huang, Hongxin; Matsui, Yoshinori; Toyoda, Haruyoshi; Inoue, Takashi; Bai, Jian
2015-04-06
Optical vortex (OV) beams have null-intensity singular points, and the intensities in the region surrounding the singular point are quite low. This low intensity region influences the position detection accuracy of phase singular point, especially for high-order OV beam. In this paper, we propose a new method for solving this problem, called the phase-slope-combining correlation matching method. A Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SH-WFS) is used to measure phase slope vectors at lenslet positions of the SH-WFS. Several phase slope vectors are combined into one to reduce the influence of low-intensity regions around the singular point, and the combined phase slope vectors are used to determine the OV position with the aid of correlation matching with a pre-calculated database. Experimental results showed that the proposed method works with high accuracy, even when detecting an OV beam with a topological charge larger than six. The estimated precision was about 0.15 in units of lenslet size when detecting an OV beam with a topological charge of up to 20.
Fan, Rong; He, Tao; Qiu, Yan; Di, Yu-Lan; Xu, Su-yun; Li, Yao-yu
2012-01-01
To evaluate the differences of wavefront aberrations under cycloplegic, scotopic and photopic conditions. A total of 174 eyes of 105 patients were measured using the wavefront sensor (WaveScan® 3.62) under different pupil conditions: cycloplegic 8.58 ± 0.54 mm (6.4 mm - 9.5 mm), scotopic 7.53 ± 0.69 mm (5.7 mm - 9.1 mm) and photopic 6.08 ± 1.14 mm (4.1 mm - 8.8 mm). The pupil diameter, standard Zernike coefficients, root mean square of higher-order aberrations and dominant aberrations were compared between cycloplegic and scotopic conditions, and between scotopic and photopic conditions. The pupil diameter was 7.53 ± 0.69 mm under the scotopic condition, which reached the requirement of about 6.5 mm optical zone design in the wavefront-guided surgery and prevented measurement error due to the pupil centroid shift caused by mydriatics. Pharmacological pupil dilation induced increase of standard Zernike coefficients Z(3)(-3), Z(4)(0) and Z(5)(-5). The higher-order aberrations, third-order aberration, fourth-order aberration, fifth-order aberration, sixth-order aberration, and spherical aberration increased statistically significantly, compared to the scotopic condition (P<0.010). When the scotopic condition shifted to the photopic condition, the standard Zernike coefficients Z(4)(0), Z(4)(2), Z(6)(-4), Z(6)(-2), Z(6)(2) decreased and all the higher-order aberrations decreased statistically significantly (P<0.010), demonstrating that accommodative miosis can significantly improve vision under the photopic condition. Under the three conditions, the vertical coma aberration appears the most frequently within the dominant aberrations without significant effect by pupil size variance, and the proportion of spherical aberrations decreased with the decrease of the pupil size. The wavefront aberrations are significantly different under cycloplegic, scotopic and photopic conditions. Using the wavefront sensor (VISX WaveScan) to measure scotopic wavefront aberrations is
Statistical virtual eye model based on wavefront aberration
Wang, Jie-Mei; Liu, Chun-Ling; Luo, Yi-Ning; Liu, Yi-Guang; Hu, Bing-Jie
2012-01-01
Wavefront aberration affects the quality of retinal image directly. This paper reviews the representation and reconstruction of wavefront aberration, as well as the construction of virtual eye model based on Zernike polynomial coefficients. In addition, the promising prospect of virtual eye model is emphasized. PMID:23173112
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woeger, Friedrich; Rimmele, Thomas
2009-10-01
We analyze the effect of anisoplanatic atmospheric turbulence on the measurement accuracy of an extended-source Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor (HSWFS). We have numerically simulated an extended-source HSWFS, using a scenery of the solar surface that is imaged through anisoplanatic atmospheric turbulence and imaging optics. Solar extended-source HSWFSs often use cross-correlation algorithms in combination with subpixel shift finding algorithms to estimate the wavefront gradient, two of which were tested for their effect on the measurement accuracy. We find that the measurement error of an extended-source HSWFS is governed mainly by the optical geometry of the HSWFS, employed subpixel finding algorithm, and phase anisoplanatism. Our results show that effects of scintillation anisoplanatism are negligible when cross-correlation algorithms are used.
2011-03-01
wavefront distortions in real time. Often, it is used to correct for optical fluctuations due to atmospheric turbulence and improve imaging system...propagation paths, the overall turbulence is relatively weak, with a Rytov number of only 0.045. The atmospheric parameters were then used to program a three...on an adaptive optics (AO) system, it enables further research on the effects of deep turbulence on AO systems and correlation based wavefront sensing
New separated polynomial solutions to the Zernike system on the unit disk and interbasis expansion.
Pogosyan, George S; Wolf, Kurt Bernardo; Yakhno, Alexander
2017-10-01
The differential equation proposed by Frits Zernike to obtain a basis of polynomial orthogonal solutions on the unit disk to classify wavefront aberrations in circular pupils is shown to have a set of new orthonormal solution bases involving Legendre and Gegenbauer polynomials in nonorthogonal coordinates, close to Cartesian ones. We find the overlaps between the original Zernike basis and a representative of the new set, which turn out to be Clebsch-Gordan coefficients.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilby, M. J.; Keller, C. U.; Haffert, S.; Korkiakoski, V.; Snik, F.; Pietrow, A. G. M.
2016-07-01
Non-Common Path Errors (NCPEs) are the dominant factor limiting the performance of current astronomical high-contrast imaging instruments. If uncorrected, the resulting quasi-static speckle noise floor limits coronagraph performance to a raw contrast of typically 10-4, a value which does not improve with increasing integration time. The coronagraphic Modal Wavefront Sensor (cMWS) is a hybrid phase optic which uses holographic PSF copies to supply focal-plane wavefront sensing information directly from the science camera, whilst maintaining a bias-free coronagraphic PSF. This concept has already been successfully implemented on-sky at the William Herschel Telescope (WHT), La Palma, demonstrating both real-time wavefront sensing capability and successful extraction of slowly varying wavefront errors under a dominant and rapidly changing atmospheric speckle foreground. In this work we present an overview of the development of the cMWS and recent first light results obtained using the Leiden EXoplanet Instrument (LEXI), a high-contrast imager and high-dispersion spectrograph pathfinder instrument for the WHT.
Zhou, Chuanqing; Wang, Weichao; Yang, Kun; Chai, Xinyu; Ren, Qiushi
2008-12-01
The spatially resolved wavefront aberrations of four types of ophthalmic lens are measured with a custom-built apparatus based on a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor and specially designed positioning stage. The wavefront aberrations of the progressive addition lenses (PALs) are compared. The results show that the distribution depends much on the design philosophy, although the average values of root mean square in the entire measurement areas have no significant difference. It is feasible to evaluate the optical performance through the wavefront analysis of PALs, but how to meet the customized visual needs of patients and how to minimize the unwanted aberrations in some special zones are important points that should be taken into account.
Villegas, Eloy A; Artal, Pablo
2003-02-01
To measure the wavefront aberration at different locations in progressive-power lenses (PPL's) isolated and in situ (PPL's plus eye). A Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor was used to measure progressive-power lenses and human eyes either independently or in combination. In each selected zone, the lens was placed and tilted accordingly to simulate natural viewing conditions. We measured 21 relevant locations across an isolated PPL (plano lens of power addition of 2 D). In six of the locations, the wavefront aberration of the eye plus PPL were obtained in two ways: (1) by direct measurement of the system and (2) by adding the individual wavefront aberrations of the eye and the lens for each appropriate zone. In every case, we obtained the wavefront aberration as Zernike polynomials expansions, the root mean square error, the point-spread function, and the Strehl ratio. Along the corridor of the PPL, third-order coma and trefoil, and astigmatism were the dominant aberrations. In areas of the PPL outside the corridor, astigmatism increased, whereas other aberrations remained similar to the lens center. Small differences were found between the direct and calculated methods used to obtain the wavefront aberration of the eye with the lens, and the possible sources of errors were discussed. In some lenses zones, the aberrations of the lens may be compensated by the particular aberrations of the eye, yielding improved optical performance over that present in the lens alone. We designed and built a wavefront sensor to perform spatially resolved aberration measurements in ophthalmic lenses, in particular in PPL's, either isolated or in combination with the eye. The aberrations appearing in the PPL were compared with those in normal aged eyes.
Reconstruction-free sensitive wavefront sensor based on continuous position sensitive detectors.
Godin, Thomas; Fromager, Michael; Cagniot, Emmanuel; Brunel, Marc; Aït-Ameur, Kamel
2013-12-01
We propose a new device that is able to perform highly sensitive wavefront measurements based on the use of continuous position sensitive detectors and without resorting to any reconstruction process. We demonstrate experimentally its ability to measure small wavefront distortions through the characterization of pump-induced refractive index changes in laser material. In addition, it is shown using computer-generated holograms that this device can detect phase discontinuities as well as improve the quality of sharp phase variations measurements. Results are compared to reference Shack-Hartmann measurements, and dramatic enhancements are obtained.
Wavefront sensing with a thin diffuser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berto, Pascal; Rigneault, Hervé; Guillon, Marc
2017-12-01
We propose and implement a broadband, compact, and low-cost wavefront sensing scheme by simply placing a thin diffuser in the close vicinity of a camera. The local wavefront gradient is determined from the local translation of the speckle pattern. The translation vector map is computed thanks to a fast diffeomorphic image registration algorithm and integrated to reconstruct the wavefront profile. The simple translation of speckle grains under local wavefront tip/tilt is ensured by the so-called "memory effect" of the diffuser. Quantitative wavefront measurements are experimentally demonstrated both for the few first Zernike polynomials and for phase-imaging applications requiring high resolution. We finally provided a theoretical description of the resolution limit that is supported experimentally.
Experimental Verification of Sparse Aperture Mask for Low Order Wavefront Sensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Subedi, Hari; Kasdin, N. Jeremy
2017-01-01
To directly image exoplanets, future space-based missions are equipped with coronagraphs which manipulate the diffraction of starlight and create regions of high contrast called dark holes. Theoretically, coronagraphs can be designed to achieve the high level of contrast required to image exoplanets, which are billions of times dimmer than their host stars, however the aberrations caused by optical imperfections and thermal fluctuations cause the degradation of contrast in the dark holes. Focal plane wavefront control (FPWC) algorithms using deformable mirrors (DMs) are used to mitigate the quasi-static aberrations caused by optical imperfections. Although the FPWC methods correct the quasi-static aberrations, they are blind to dynamic errors caused by telescope jitter and thermal fluctuations. At Princeton's High Contrast Imaging Lab we have developed a new technique that integrates a sparse aperture mask with the coronagraph to estimate these low-order dynamic wavefront errors. This poster shows the effectiveness of a SAM Low-Order Wavefront Sensor in estimating and correcting these errors via simulation and experiment and compares the results to other methods, such as the Zernike Wavefront Sensor planned for WFIRST.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Huizhen; Ma, Liang; Wang, Bin
2018-01-01
In contrast to the conventional adaptive optics (AO) system, the wavefront sensorless (WFSless) AO system doesn't need a WFS to measure the wavefront aberrations. It is simpler than the conventional AO in system architecture and can be applied to the complex conditions. The model-based WFSless system has a great potential in real-time correction applications because of its fast convergence. The control algorithm of the model-based WFSless system is based on an important theory result that is the linear relation between the Mean-Square Gradient (MSG) magnitude of the wavefront aberration and the second moment of the masked intensity distribution in the focal plane (also called as Masked Detector Signal-MDS). The linear dependence between MSG and MDS for the point source imaging with a CCD sensor will be discussed from theory and simulation in this paper. The theory relationship between MSG and MDS is given based on our previous work. To verify the linear relation for the point source, we set up an imaging model under atmospheric turbulence. Additionally, the value of MDS will be deviate from that of theory because of the noise of detector and further the deviation will affect the correction effect. The theory results under noise will be obtained through theoretical derivation and then the linear relation between MDS and MDS under noise will be discussed through the imaging model. Results show the linear relation between MDS and MDS under noise is also maintained well, which provides a theoretical support to applications of the model-based WFSless system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wahl, Daniel J.; Zhang, Pengfei; Jian, Yifan; Bonora, Stefano; Sarunic, Marinko V.; Zawadzki, Robert J.
2017-02-01
Adaptive optics (AO) is essential for achieving diffraction limited resolution in large numerical aperture (NA) in-vivo retinal imaging in small animals. Cellular-resolution in-vivo imaging of fluorescently labeled cells is highly desirable for studying pathophysiology in animal models of retina diseases in pre-clinical vision research. Currently, wavefront sensor-based (WFS-based) AO is widely used for retinal imaging and has demonstrated great success. However, the performance can be limited by several factors including common path errors, wavefront reconstruction errors and an ill-defined reference plane on the retina. Wavefront sensorless (WFS-less) AO has the advantage of avoiding these issues at the cost of algorithmic execution time. We have investigated WFS-less AO on a fluorescence scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (fSLO) system that was originally designed for WFS-based AO. The WFS-based AO uses a Shack-Hartmann WFS and a continuous surface deformable mirror in a closed-loop control system to measure and correct for aberrations induced by the mouse eye. The WFS-less AO performs an open-loop modal optimization with an image quality metric. After WFS-less AO aberration correction, the WFS was used as a control of the closed-loop WFS-less AO operation. We can easily switch between WFS-based and WFS-less control of the deformable mirror multiple times within an imaging session for the same mouse. This allows for a direct comparison between these two types of AO correction for fSLO. Our results demonstrate volumetric AO-fSLO imaging of mouse retinal cells labeled with GFP. Most significantly, we have analyzed and compared the aberration correction results for WFS-based and WFS-less AO imaging.
Huang, Chenxi; Huang, Hongxin; Toyoda, Haruyoshi; Inoue, Takashi; Liu, Huafeng
2012-11-19
We propose a new method for realizing high-spatial-resolution detection of singularity points in optical vortex beams. The method uses a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS) to record a Hartmanngram. A map of evaluation values related to phase slope is then calculated from the Hartmanngram. The position of an optical vortex is determined by comparing the map with reference maps that are calculated from numerically created spiral phases having various positions. Optical experiments were carried out to verify the method. We displayed various spiral phase distribution patterns on a phase-only spatial light modulator and measured the resulting singularity point using the proposed method. The results showed good linearity in detecting the position of singularity points. The RMS error of the measured position of the singularity point was approximately 0.056, in units normalized to the lens size of the lenslet array used in the SHWS.
Measuring seeing with a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor during an active-optics experiment.
Zhang, Yong; Yang, Dehua; Cui, Xiangqun
2004-02-01
We describe the measurement of atmospheric enclosure seeing along a 120-m light path by use of a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor (S-H WFS) for the first time to our knowledge in the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) outdoor active-optics experiment system, based on the differential image motion method and a S-H WFS. Seeing estimates that were gained with the S-H WFS were analyzed and found to be in close agreement with the actual seeing conditions, the estimates of refractive-index structure constant, and the thin-mirror active optics results, which usually include the shape sensing precision and the active correction precision of the experimental system. Finally, some countermeasures against poor seeing conditions were considered and adopted.
Bonora, Stefano; Jian, Yifan; Zhang, Pengfei; Zam, Azhar; Pugh, Edward N.; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Sarunic, Marinko V.
2015-01-01
Adaptive optics is rapidly transforming microscopy and high-resolution ophthalmic imaging. The adaptive elements commonly used to control optical wavefronts are liquid crystal spatial light modulators and deformable mirrors. We introduce a novel Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens that can correct aberrations to high order, and which has the potential to increase the spread of adaptive optics to many new applications by simplifying its integration with existing systems. Our method combines an adaptive lens with an imaged-based optimization control that allows the correction of images to the diffraction limit, and provides a reduction of hardware complexity with respect to existing state-of-the-art adaptive optics systems. The Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens design that we present can correct wavefront aberrations up to the 4th order of the Zernike polynomial characterization. The performance of the Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens is demonstrated in a wide field microscope, using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for closed loop control. The Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens and image-based wavefront-sensorless control were also integrated into the objective of a Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography system for in vivo imaging of mouse retinal structures. The experimental results demonstrate that the insertion of the Multi-actuator Objective Lens can generate arbitrary wavefronts to correct aberrations down to the diffraction limit, and can be easily integrated into optical systems to improve the quality of aberrated images. PMID:26368169
Bonora, Stefano; Jian, Yifan; Zhang, Pengfei; Zam, Azhar; Pugh, Edward N; Zawadzki, Robert J; Sarunic, Marinko V
2015-08-24
Adaptive optics is rapidly transforming microscopy and high-resolution ophthalmic imaging. The adaptive elements commonly used to control optical wavefronts are liquid crystal spatial light modulators and deformable mirrors. We introduce a novel Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens that can correct aberrations to high order, and which has the potential to increase the spread of adaptive optics to many new applications by simplifying its integration with existing systems. Our method combines an adaptive lens with an imaged-based optimization control that allows the correction of images to the diffraction limit, and provides a reduction of hardware complexity with respect to existing state-of-the-art adaptive optics systems. The Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens design that we present can correct wavefront aberrations up to the 4th order of the Zernike polynomial characterization. The performance of the Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens is demonstrated in a wide field microscope, using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for closed loop control. The Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens and image-based wavefront-sensorless control were also integrated into the objective of a Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography system for in vivo imaging of mouse retinal structures. The experimental results demonstrate that the insertion of the Multi-actuator Objective Lens can generate arbitrary wavefronts to correct aberrations down to the diffraction limit, and can be easily integrated into optical systems to improve the quality of aberrated images.
Zernike-like systems in polygons and polygonal facets.
Ferreira, Chelo; López, José L; Navarro, Rafael; Sinusía, Ester Pérez
2015-07-20
Zernike polynomials are commonly used to represent the wavefront phase on circular optical apertures, since they form a complete and orthonormal basis on the unit disk. In [Opt. Lett.32, 74 (2007)10.1364/OL.32.000074OPLEDP0146-9592] we introduced a new Zernike basis for elliptic and annular optical apertures based on an appropriate diffeomorphism between the unit disk and the ellipse and the annulus. Here, we present a generalization of this Zernike basis for a variety of important optical apertures, paying special attention to polygons and the polygonal facets present in segmented mirror telescopes. On the contrary to ad hoc solutions, most of them based on the Gram-Smith orthonormalization method, here we consider a piecewise diffeomorphism that transforms the unit disk into the polygon under consideration. We use this mapping to define a Zernike-like orthonormal system over the polygon. We also consider ensembles of polygonal facets that are essential in the design of segmented mirror telescopes. This generalization, based on in-plane warping of the basis functions, provides a unique solution, and what is more important, it guarantees a reasonable level of invariance of the mathematical properties and the physical meaning of the initial basis functions. Both the general form and the explicit expressions for a typical example of telescope optical aperture are provided.
Transient Ocular Wavefront Data in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.
Blendowske, Ralf; Kalb, Max
2016-07-01
We report transient ocular wavefront and blood glucose data for one patient with acute type 1 diabetes mellitus after the treatment with insulin has been initiated. The wavefront data for both eyes of a 34-year-old male patient were examined by a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor. Refraction data and higher-order aberrations were recorded during 130 days for eyes in natural conditions, without cycloplegia. At the beginning, we sampled data every 3 to 4 days and enlarged the intervals, when values settled. In total, we report 20 measurements and 1 baseline entry. Blood glucose levels were recorded at least six times a day during the complete period. For the equivalent sphere, we recorded a bilateral hyperopic shift of 5 D from -2.75 DS to +2.25 DS, followed by a reverse myopic shift of the same amount. The equivalent sphere peaked about 15 to 18 days after the treatment with insulin had begun. Cylinder values kept remarkably stable. Higher-order aberrations are dominated by the spherical aberration. The Zernike coefficient c12 for both eyes changed substantially from OD 0.036 μm and OS 0.062 μm to OD 0.24 μm and OS 0.22 μm (5 mm pupil diameter) following the time pattern of the equivalent sphere. About 60 days after they had reached their peak, all refraction values and higher-order aberrations stabilized at their baseline levels. The baseline was defined by records taken 4 years before the treatment with insulin was commenced. Wavefront aberrometry gives quantitative insights in the transient alteration and recovering of the eye's optics whilst the therapy of acute type 1 diabetes mellitus is being initiated. The data of this case support the assumption that variations in the crystalline lens, most probably the modification of its refractive gradient index, as a cause for the transient behavior. An explanation is still missing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Howe, Glenn A.; Mendillo, Christopher B.; Hewawasam, Kuravi; Martel, Jason; Finn, Susanna C.; Cook, Timothy A.; Chakrabarti, Supriya
2017-09-01
The Planetary Imaging Concept Testbed Using a Recoverable Experiment - Coronagraph (PICTURE-C) mission will directly image debris disks and exozodiacal dust around three nearby stars from a high-altitude balloon using a vector vortex coronagraph. We present experimental results of the PICTURE-C low-order wavefront control (LOWFC) system utilizing a Shack-Hartmann (SH) sensor in an instrument testbed. The SH sensor drives both the alignment of the telescope secondary mirror using a 6-axis Hexapod and a surface parallel array deformable mirror to remove residual low-order aberrations. The sensor design and actuator calibration methods are discussed and the preliminary LOWFC closed-loop performance is shown to stabilize a reference wavefront to an RMS error of 0.30 +/- 0.29 nm.
Smadja, David; Santhiago, Marcony R; Tellouck, Joy; De Castro, Tania; Lecomte, Fanny; Mello, Glauco R; Touboul, David
2015-08-01
To evaluate the safety and efficacy of wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for the correction of low to high myopia and myopic astigmatism using data derived from a new-generation Hartmann-Shack aberrometer. Refractive Surgery Unit, Bordeaux Hospital University, France. Retrospective case series. This retrospective study analyzed the initial group of eyes treated with wavefront-guided LASIK for myopia and myopic astigmatism using the Visx S4IR excimer laser and wavefront data derived from a new Hartmann-Shack aberrometer (iDesign Advanced Wavescan aberrometer). Refractive (refraction and refractive accuracy) and visual outcomes (uncorrected [UDVA] and corrected [CDVA] distance visual acuities) were recorded 3 months postoperatively. The study included 100 eyes of 50 consecutively treated patients. The mean decimal UDVA improved from 0.1 ± 0.1 (SD) preoperatively to 1.1 ± 0.15 postoperatively (P < .01). A monocular UDVA of 20/16, 20/20, and 20/25 were achieved in 76.6%, 94.4%, and 96.6% of eyes, respectively. The postoperative manifest spherical equivalent was within ±0.5 diopter in all eyes. No eye lost 2 or more lines of CDVA, and 29.2% of the eyes gained 1 or more lines of CDVA. Wavefront-guided LASIK performed using data derived from the new Hartmann-Shack aberrometer was safe, effective, and predictable for treating myopia and myopic astigmatism. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
LaBonte, Barry J.
2004-01-01
A small amount of work has been done on this project; the strategy to be adopted has been better defined, though no experimental work has been started. 1) Wavefront error signals: The best choice appears use a lenslet array at a pupil image to produce defocused image pairs for each subaperture. Then use the method proposed by Molodij et al. to produce subaperture curvature signals. Basically, this method samples a moderate number of locations in the image where the value of the image Laplacian is high, then taking the curvature signal from the difference of the Laplacians of the extrafocal images at those locations. The tip-tilt error is obtained from the temporal dependence of the first spatial derivatives of an in-focus image, at selected locations where these derivatives are significant. The wavefront tilt can be obtained from the full-aperture image. 2) Extrafocal image generation: The important aspect here is to generate symmetrically defocused images, with dynamically adjustable defocus. The adjustment is needed because larger defocus is required before the feedback loop is closed, and at times when the seeing is worse. It may be that the usual membrane mirror is the best choice, though other options should be explored. 3) Detector: Since the proposed sensor is to work on solar granulation, rather than a point source, an array detector for each subaperture is required. A fast CMOS camera such as that developed by the National Solar Observatory would be a satisfactory choice. 4) Processing: Processing requirements have not been defined in detail, though significantly fewer operations per cycle are required than for a correlation tracker.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Montmerle Bonnefois, A.; Fusco, T.; Meimon, S.; Michau, V.; Mugnier, L.; Sauvage, J.-F.; Engel, C.; Escolle, C.; Ferrari, M.; Hugot, E.; Liotard, A.; Bernot, M.; Carlavan, M.; Falzon, F.; Bret-Dibat, T.; Laubier, D.
2017-11-01
Earth-imaging or Universe Science satellites are always in need of higher spatial resolutions, in order to discern finer and finer details in images. This means that every new generation of satellites must have a larger main mirror than the previous one, because of the diffraction. Since it allows the use of larger mirrors, active optics is presently studied for the next generation of satellites. To measure the aberrations of such an active telescope, the Shack-Hartmann (SH), and the phase-diversity (PD) are the two wavefront sensors (WFS) considered preferentially because they are able to work with an extended source like the Earth's surface, as well as point sources like stars. The RASCASSE project was commissioned by the French spatial agency (CNES) to study the SH and PD sensors for high-performance wavefront sensing. It involved ONERA and Thales Alenia Space (TAS), and LAM. Papers by TAS and LAM on the same project are available in this conference, too [1,2]. The purpose of our work at ONERA was to explore what the best performance both wavefront sensors can achieve in a space optics context. So we first performed a theoretical study in order to identify the main sources of errors and quantify them - then we validated those results experimentally. The outline of this paper follows this approach: we first discuss phase diversity theoretical results, then Shack-Hartmann's, then experimental results - to finally conclude on each sensor's performance, and compare their weak and strong points.
Padmanabhan, Prema; Mrochen, Michael; Basuthkar, Subam; Viswanathan, Deepa; Joseph, Roy
2008-03-01
To compare the outcomes of wavefront-guided and wavefront-optimized treatment in fellow eyes of patients having laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for myopia. Medical and Vision Research Foundation, Tamil Nadu, India. This prospective comparative study comprised 27 patients who had wavefront-guided LASIK in 1 eye and wavefront-optimized LASIK in the fellow eye. The Hansatome (Bausch & Lomb) was used to create a superior-hinged flap and the Allegretto laser (WaveLight Laser Technologie AG), for photoablation. The Allegretto wave analyzer was used to measure ocular wavefront aberrations and the Functional Acuity Contrast Test chart, to measure contrast sensitivity before and 1 month after LASIK. The refractive and visual outcomes and the changes in aberrations and contrast sensitivity were compared between the 2 treatment modalities. One month postoperatively, 92% of eyes in the wavefront-guided group and 85% in the wavefront-optimized group had uncorrected visual acuity of 20/20 or better; 93% and 89%, respectively, had a postoperative spherical equivalent refraction of +/-0.50 diopter. The differences between groups were not statistically significant. Wavefront-guided LASIK induced less change in 18 of 22 higher-order Zernike terms than wavefront-optimized LASIK, with the change in positive spherical aberration the only statistically significant one (P= .01). Contrast sensitivity improved at the low and middle spatial frequencies (not statistically significant) and worsened significantly at high spatial frequencies after wavefront-guided LASIK; there was a statistically significant worsening at all spatial frequencies after wavefront-optimized LASIK. Although both wavefront-guided and wavefront-optimized LASIK gave excellent refractive correction results, the former induced less higher-order aberrations and was associated with better contrast sensitivity.
Tolerance analysis of optical telescopes using coherent addition of wavefront errors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davenport, J. W.
1982-01-01
A near diffraction-limited telescope requires that tolerance analysis be done on the basis of system wavefront error. One method of analyzing the wavefront error is to represent the wavefront error function in terms of its Zernike polynomial expansion. A Ramsey-Korsch ray trace package, a computer program that simulates the tracing of rays through an optical telescope system, was expanded to include the Zernike polynomial expansion up through the fifth-order spherical term. An option to determine a 3 dimensional plot of the wavefront error function was also included in the Ramsey-Korsch package. Several assimulation runs were analyzed to determine the particular set of coefficients in the Zernike expansion that are effected by various errors such as tilt, decenter and despace. A 3 dimensional plot of each error up through the fifth-order spherical term was also included in the study. Tolerance analysis data are presented.
Correction of the wavefront using the irradiance transport equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García, M.; Granados, F.; Cornejo, A.
2008-07-01
The correction of the wavefront in optical systems implies the use of wavefront sensors, software, and auxiliary optical systems. We propose evaluated the wavefront using the fact that the wavefront and its intensity are related in the mathematical expression the irradiance transport equation (ITE)
Zernike expansion of derivatives and Laplacians of the Zernike circle polynomials.
Janssen, A J E M
2014-07-01
The partial derivatives and Laplacians of the Zernike circle polynomials occur in various places in the literature on computational optics. In a number of cases, the expansion of these derivatives and Laplacians in the circle polynomials are required. For the first-order partial derivatives, analytic results are scattered in the literature. Results start as early as 1942 in Nijboer's thesis and continue until present day, with some emphasis on recursive computation schemes. A brief historic account of these results is given in the present paper. By choosing the unnormalized version of the circle polynomials, with exponential rather than trigonometric azimuthal dependence, and by a proper combination of the two partial derivatives, a concise form of the expressions emerges. This form is appropriate for the formulation and solution of a model wavefront sensing problem of reconstructing a wavefront on the level of its expansion coefficients from (measurements of the expansion coefficients of) the partial derivatives. It turns out that the least-squares estimation problem arising here decouples per azimuthal order m, and per m the generalized inverse solution assumes a concise analytic form so that singular value decompositions are avoided. The preferred version of the circle polynomials, with proper combination of the partial derivatives, also leads to a concise analytic result for the Zernike expansion of the Laplacian of the circle polynomials. From these expansions, the properties of the Laplacian as a mapping from the space of circle polynomials of maximal degree N, as required in the study of the Neumann problem associated with the transport-of-intensity equation, can be read off within a single glance. Furthermore, the inverse of the Laplacian on this space is shown to have a concise analytic form.
Kent, Stephen M.
2018-02-15
If the optical system of a telescope is perturbed from rotational symmetry, the Zernike wavefront aberration coefficients describing that system can be expressed as a function of position in the focal plane using spin-weighted Zernike polynomials. Methodologies are presented to derive these polynomials to arbitrary order. This methodology is applied to aberration patterns produced by a misaligned Ritchey Chretian telescope and to distortion patterns at the focal plane of the DESI optical corrector, where it is shown to provide a more efficient description of distortion than conventional expansions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kent, Stephen M.
2018-04-01
If the optical system of a telescope is perturbed from rotational symmetry, the Zernike wavefront aberration coefficients describing that system can be expressed as a function of position in the focal plane using spin-weighted Zernike polynomials. Methodologies are presented to derive these polynomials to arbitrary order. This methodology is applied to aberration patterns produced by a misaligned Ritchey–Chrétien telescope and to distortion patterns at the focal plane of the DESI optical corrector, where it is shown to provide a more efficient description of distortion than conventional expansions.
Zonal wavefront sensing with enhanced spatial resolution.
Pathak, Biswajit; Boruah, Bosanta R
2016-12-01
In this Letter, we introduce a scheme to enhance the spatial resolution of a zonal wavefront sensor. The zonal wavefront sensor comprises an array of binary gratings implemented by a ferroelectric spatial light modulator (FLCSLM) followed by a lens, in lieu of the array of lenses in the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. We show that the fast response of the FLCSLM device facilitates quick display of several laterally shifted binary grating patterns, and the programmability of the device enables simultaneous capturing of each focal spot array. This eventually leads to a wavefront estimation with an enhanced spatial resolution without much sacrifice on the sensor frame rate, thus making the scheme suitable for high spatial resolution measurement of transient wavefronts. We present experimental and numerical simulation results to demonstrate the importance of the proposed wavefront sensing scheme.
Frazin, Richard A., E-mail: rfrazin@umich.edu
2013-04-10
Heretofore, the literature on exoplanet detection with coronagraphic telescope systems has paid little attention to the information content of short exposures and methods of utilizing the measurements of adaptive optics wavefront sensors. This paper provides a framework for the incorporation of the wavefront sensor measurements in the context of observing modes in which the science camera takes millisecond exposures. In this formulation, the wavefront sensor measurements provide a means to jointly estimate the static speckle and the planetary signal. The ability to estimate planetary intensities in as little as a few seconds has the potential to greatly improve the efficiencymore » of exoplanet search surveys. For simplicity, the mathematical development assumes a simple optical system with an idealized Lyot coronagraph. Unlike currently used methods, in which increasing the observation time beyond a certain threshold is useless, this method produces estimates whose error covariances decrease more quickly than inversely proportional to the observation time. This is due to the fact that the estimates of the quasi-static aberrations are informed by a new random (but approximately known) wavefront every millisecond. The method can be extended to include angular (due to diurnal field rotation) and spectral diversity. Numerical experiments are performed with wavefront data from the AEOS Adaptive Optics System sensing at 850 nm. These experiments assume a science camera wavelength {lambda} of 1.1 {mu}, that the measured wavefronts are exact, and a Gaussian approximation of shot-noise. The effects of detector read-out noise and other issues are left to future investigations. A number of static aberrations are introduced, including one with a spatial frequency exactly corresponding the planet location, which was at a distance of Almost-Equal-To 3{lambda}/D from the star. Using only 4 s of simulated observation time, a planetary intensity, of Almost-Equal-To 1 photon ms
RBCs as microlenses: wavefront analysis and applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merola, Francesco; Barroso, Álvaro; Miccio, Lisa; Memmolo, Pasquale; Mugnano, Martina; Ferraro, Pietro; Denz, Cornelia
2017-06-01
Developing the recently discovered concept of RBCs as microlenses, we demonstrate further applications in wavefront analysis and diagnostics. Correlation between RBC's morphology and its behavior as a refractive optical element has been established. In fact, any deviation from the healthy RBC morphology can be seen as additional aberration in the optical wavefront passing through the cell. By this concept, accurate localization of focal spots of RBCs can become very useful in blood disorders identification. Moreover, By modelling RBC as bio-lenses through Zernike polynomials it is possible to identify a series of orthogonal parameters able to recognise RBC shapes. The main improvement concerns the possibility to combine such parameters because of their independence conversely to standard image-based analysis where morphological factors are dependent each-others. We investigate the three-dimensional positioning of such focal spots over time for samples with two different osmolarity conditions, i.e. discocytes and spherocytes. Finally, Zernike polynomials wavefront analysis allows us to study the optical behavior of RBCs under an optically-induced mechanical stress. Detailed wavefront analysis provides comprehensive information about the aberrations induced by the deformation obtained using optical tweezers. This could open new routes for analyzing cell elasticity by examining optical parameters instead of direct but with low resolution strain analysis, thanks to the high sensitivity of the interferometric tool.
FlyEyes: A CCD-Based Wavefront Sensor for PUEO, the CFHT Curvature AO System
2010-09-28
Charles Cuillandre, Kevin K.Y. Ho, Marc Baril , Tom Benedict, Jeff Ward, Jim Thomas, Derrick Salmon, Chueh-Jen Lin, Shiang-Yu Wang, Gerry Luppino...sensor for PUEO, the CFHT curvature AO system Olivier Lai, Jean-Charles Cuillandre , Kevin K.Y. Ho, lVIarc Baril , Tom Benedict, Jeff ’Varel, Jim Thomas
Testbed Demonstration of Low Order Wavefront Sensing and Control Technology for WFIRST Coronagraph
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Fang; Balasubramanian, K.; Cady, E.; Kern, B.; Lam, R.; Mandic, M.; Patterson, K.; Poberezhskiy, I.; Shields, J.; Seo, J.; Tang, H.; Truong, T.; Wilson, D.
2017-01-01
NASA’s WFIRST-AFTA Coronagraph will be capable of directly imaging and spectrally characterizing giant exoplanets similar to Neptune and Jupiter, and possibly even super-Earths, around nearby stars. To maintain the required coronagraph performance in a realistic space environment, a Low Order Wavefront Sensing and Control (LOWFS/C) subsystem is necessary. The LOWFS/C will use the rejected stellar light to sense and suppress the telescope pointing drift and jitter as well as low order wavefront errors due to the changes in thermal loading of the telescope and the rest of the observatory. The LOWFS/C uses a Zernike phase contrast wavefront sensor with the phase shifting disk combined with the stellar light rejecting occulting mask, a key concept to minimize the non-common path error. Developed as a part of the Dynamic High Contrast Imaging Testbed (DHCIT), the LOWFS/C subsystem also consists of an Optical Telescope Assembly Simulator (OTA-S) to generate the realistic line-of-sight (LoS) drift and jitter as well as low order wavefront error from WFIRST-AFTA telescope’s vibration and thermal drift. The entire LOWFS/C subsystem have been integrated, calibrated, and tested in the Dynamic High Contrast Imaging Testbed. In this presentation we will show the results of LOWFS/C performance during the dynamic coronagraph tests in which we have demonstrated that LOWFS/C is able to maintain the coronagraph contrast with the presence of WFIRST like line-of-sight drift and jitter as well as low order wavefront drifts.
Wavefront error sensing for LDR
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tubbs, Eldred F.; Glavich, T. A.
1988-01-01
Wavefront sensing is a significant aspect of the LDR control problem and requires attention at an early stage of the control system definition and design. A combination of a Hartmann test for wavefront slope measurement and an interference test for piston errors of the segments was examined and is presented as a point of departure for further discussion. The assumption is made that the wavefront sensor will be used for initial alignment and periodic alignment checks but that it will not be used during scientific observations. The Hartmann test and the interferometric test are briefly examined.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Jun Ho; Hwang, Sunglyoung; Jeong, Dohwan; Hong, Jinsuk; Kim, Youngsoo; Kim, Yeonsoo; Kim, Hyunsook
2017-09-01
We report an innovative simple alignment method for a VNIR spectrometer in the wavelength region of 400-900 nm; this device is later combined with fore-optics (a telescope) to form a f/2.5 hyperspectral imaging spectrometer with a field of view of +/-7.68°. The detector at the final image plane is a 640×480 charge-coupled device with a 24 μm pixel size. We first assembled the fore-optics and the spectrometer separately and then combined them via a slit co-located on the image plane of the fore-optics and the object plane of the spectrometer. The spectrometer was assembled in three steps. In the initial step, the optics was simply assembled with an optical axis guiding He-Ne laser. In the second step, we located a pin-hole on the slit plane and a Shack-Hartmann sensor on the detector plane. The wavefront errors over the full field were scanned simply by moving the point source along the slit direction while the Shack-Hartmann sensor was constantly conjugated to the pin-hole position by a motorized stage. Optimal alignment was then performed based on the reverse sensitivity method. In the final stage, the pin-hole and the Shack-Hartmann sensor were exchanged with an equispaced 10 pin-hole slit called a field identifier and a detector. The light source was also changed from the laser (single wavelength source) to a krypton lamp (discrete multi-wavelength source). We were then easily able to calculate the distortion and keystone on the detector plane without any scanning or moving optical components; rather, we merely calculated the spectral centroids of the 10 pin-holes on the detector. We then tuned the clocking angles of the convex grating and the detector to minimize the distortion and keystone. The final assembly was tested and found to have an RMS WFE < 90 nm over the entire field of view, a keystone of 0.08 pixels, a smile of 1.13 pixels and a spectral resolution of 4.32 nm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marcos, Susana; Diaz-Santana, Luis; Llorente, Lourdes; Dainty, Chris
2002-06-01
Ocular aberrations were measured in 71 eyes by using two reflectometric aberrometers, employing laser ray tracing (LRT) (60 eyes) and a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor (S-H) (11 eyes). In both techniques a point source is imaged on the retina (through different pupil positions in the LRT or a single position in the S-H). The aberrations are estimated by measuring the deviations of the retinal spot from the reference as the pupil is sampled (in LRT) or the deviations of a wave front as it emerges from the eye by means of a lenslet array (in the S-H). In this paper we studied the effect of different polarization configurations in the aberration measurements, including linearly polarized light and circularly polarized light in the illuminating channel and sampling light in the crossed or parallel orientations. In addition, completely depolarized light in the imaging channel was obtained from retinal lipofuscin autofluorescence. The intensity distribution of the retinal spots as a function of entry (for LRT) or exit pupil (for S-H) depends on the polarization configuration. These intensity patterns show bright corners and a dark area at the pupil center for crossed polarization, an approximately Gaussian distribution for parallel polarization and a homogeneous distribution for the autofluorescence case. However, the measured aberrations are independent of the polarization states. These results indicate that the differences in retardation across the pupil imposed by corneal birefringence do not produce significant phase delays compared with those produced by aberrations, at least within the accuracy of these techniques. In addition, differences in the recorded aerial images due to changes in polarization do not affect the aberration measurements in these reflectometric aberrometers.
López-Miguel, Alberto; Martínez-Almeida, Loreto; González-García, María J; Coco-Martín, María B; Sobrado-Calvo, Paloma; Maldonado, Miguel J
2013-02-01
To assess the intrasession and intersession precision of ocular, corneal, and internal higher-order aberrations (HOAs) measured using an integrated topographer and Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor (Topcon KR-1W) in refractive surgery candidates. IOBA-Eye Institute, Valladolid, Spain. Evaluation of diagnostic technology. To analyze intrasession repeatability, 1 experienced examiner measured eyes 9 times successively. To study intersession reproducibility, the same clinician obtained measurements from another set of eyes in 2 consecutive sessions 1 week apart. Ocular, corneal, and internal HOAs were obtained. Coma and spherical aberrations, 3rd- and 4th-order aberrations, and total HOAs were calculated for a 6.0 mm pupil diameter. For intrasession repeatability (75 eyes), excellent intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were obtained (ICC >0.87), except for internal primary coma (ICC = 0.75) and 3rd-order (ICC = 0.72) HOAs. Repeatability precision (1.96 × S(w)) values ranged from 0.03 μm (corneal primary spherical) to 0.08 μm (ocular primary coma). For intersession reproducibility (50 eyes), ICCs were good (>0.8) for ocular primary spherical, 3rd-order, and total higher-order aberrations; reproducibility precision values ranged from 0.06 μm (corneal primary spherical) to 0.21 μm (internal 3rd order), with internal HOAs having the lowest precision (≥0.12 μm). No systematic bias was found between examinations on different days. The intrasession repeatability was high; therefore, the device's ability to measure HOAs in a reliable way was excellent. Under intersession reproducibility conditions, dependable corneal primary spherical aberrations were provided. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2012 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zernike Basis to Cartesian Transformations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mathar, R. J.
2009-12-01
The radial polynomials of the 2D (circular) and 3D (spherical) Zernike functions are tabulated as powers of the radial distance. The reciprocal tabulation of powers of the radial distance in series of radial polynomials is also given, based on projections that take advantage of the orthogonality of the polynomials over the unit interval. They play a role in the expansion of products of the polynomials into sums, which is demonstrated by some examples. Multiplication of the polynomials by the angular bases (azimuth, polar angle) defines the Zernike functions, for which we derive transformations to and from the Cartesian coordinate system centered at the middle of the circle or sphere.
Advanced Wavefront Control Techniques
Olivier, S S; Brase, J M; Avicola, K
2001-02-21
year of this project, work was performed in four areas (1) advanced modeling tools for deformable mirrors (2) low-order wavefront correctors with Alvarez lenses, (3) a direct phase measuring heterdyne wavefront sensor, and (4) high-spatial-frequency wavefront control using spatial light modulators.« less
Mafusire, Cosmas; Krüger, Tjaart P J
2018-06-01
The concept of orthonormal vector circle polynomials is revisited by deriving a set from the Cartesian gradient of Zernike polynomials in a unit circle using a matrix-based approach. The heart of this model is a closed-form matrix equation of the gradient of Zernike circle polynomials expressed as a linear combination of lower-order Zernike circle polynomials related through a gradient matrix. This is a sparse matrix whose elements are two-dimensional standard basis transverse Euclidean vectors. Using the outer product form of the Cholesky decomposition, the gradient matrix is used to calculate a new matrix, which we used to express the Cartesian gradient of the Zernike circle polynomials as a linear combination of orthonormal vector circle polynomials. Since this new matrix is singular, the orthonormal vector polynomials are recovered by reducing the matrix to its row echelon form using the Gauss-Jordan elimination method. We extend the model to derive orthonormal vector general polynomials, which are orthonormal in a general pupil by performing a similarity transformation on the gradient matrix to give its equivalent in the general pupil. The outer form of the Gram-Schmidt procedure and the Gauss-Jordan elimination method are then applied to the general pupil to generate the orthonormal vector general polynomials from the gradient of the orthonormal Zernike-based polynomials. The performance of the model is demonstrated with a simulated wavefront in a square pupil inscribed in a unit circle.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moore, Lori
Plenoptic cameras and Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors are lenslet-based optical systems that do not form a conventional image. The addition of a lens array into these systems allows for the aberrations generated by the combination of the object and the optical components located prior to the lens array to be measured or corrected with post-processing. This dissertation provides a ray selection method to determine the rays that pass through each lenslet in a lenslet-based system. This first-order, ray trace method is developed for any lenslet-based system with a well-defined fore optic, where in this dissertation the fore optic is all of the optical components located prior to the lens array. For example, in a plenoptic camera the fore optic is a standard camera lens. Because a lens array at any location after the exit pupil of the fore optic is considered in this analysis, it is applicable to both plenoptic cameras and Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors. Only a generic, unaberrated fore optic is considered, but this dissertation establishes a framework for considering the effect of an aberrated fore optic in lenslet-based systems. The rays from the fore optic that pass through a lenslet placed at any location after the fore optic are determined. This collection of rays is reduced to three rays that describe the entire lenslet ray set. The lenslet ray set is determined at the object, image, and pupil planes of the fore optic. The consideration of the apertures that define the lenslet ray set for an on-axis lenslet leads to three classes of lenslet-based systems. Vignetting of the lenslet rays is considered for off-axis lenslets. Finally, the lenslet ray set is normalized into terms similar to the field and aperture vector used to describe the aberrated wavefront of the fore optic. The analysis in this dissertation is complementary to other first-order models that have been developed for a specific plenoptic camera layout or Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor application
Numerical analysis of wavefront measurement characteristics by using plenoptic camera
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lv, Yang; Ma, Haotong; Zhang, Xuanzhe; Ning, Yu; Xu, Xiaojun
2016-01-01
To take advantage of the large-diameter telescope for high-resolution imaging of extended targets, it is necessary to detect and compensate the wave-front aberrations induced by atmospheric turbulence. Data recorded by Plenoptic cameras can be used to extract the wave-front phases associated to the atmospheric turbulence in an astronomical observation. In order to recover the wave-front phase tomographically, a method of completing the large Field Of View (FOV), multi-perspective wave-front detection simultaneously is urgently demanded, and it is plenoptic camera that possesses this unique advantage. Our paper focuses more on the capability of plenoptic camera to extract the wave-front from different perspectives simultaneously. In this paper, we built up the corresponding theoretical model and simulation system to discuss wave-front measurement characteristics utilizing plenoptic camera as wave-front sensor. And we evaluated the performance of plenoptic camera with different types of wave-front aberration corresponding to the occasions of applications. In the last, we performed the multi-perspective wave-front sensing employing plenoptic camera as wave-front sensor in the simulation. Our research of wave-front measurement characteristics employing plenoptic camera is helpful to select and design the parameters of a plenoptic camera, when utilizing which as multi-perspective and large FOV wave-front sensor, which is expected to solve the problem of large FOV wave-front detection, and can be used for AO in giant telescopes.
Advanced Wavefront Sensor Concepts.
1981-01-01
internal optics (a) Characteristics (see Figure 47) - Intensification with a 256 element linear self scanned diode array - Optical input; lenticular ...34 diameter - Lenticular array input to fiber optics which spread out to tubes - Photon counting for low noise fac- tor (b) Pe r fo rmance - Bialkali...problem in making the lenslet arrays in the pupil divider rectangular. The last optical elements are the lenticular lens arrays. In this group, the first
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krappig, Reik; Schmitt, Robert
2017-02-01
Present alignment methods already have an accuracy of some microns, allowing in general the fairly precise assembly of multi element optical systems. Nevertheless, they suffer decisive drawbacks, such as the necessity of an iterative process, stepping through all optical surfaces of the system when using autocollimation telescopes. In contrast to these limitations, the wavefront based alignment offers an elegant approach to potentially reach sub-µm accuracy in the alignment within a highly efficient process, that simultaneously acquires and evaluates the best optical solution possible. However, the practical use of these capabilities in corresponding alignment devices needs to take real sensor behavior into account. This publication will especially elaborate on the influence of the sensor properties in relation to the alignment process. The first dominant requirement is a highly stable measurement, since tiny perturbations in the optical system will have an also tiny influence on the wavefront. Secondly, the lateral sampling of the measured wavefront is supposed to be as high as possible, in order to be able to extract higher order Zernike coefficients reliable. The resulting necessity of using the largest sensor area possible conflicts with the requirement to allow a certain lateral displacement of the measured spot, indicating a perturbation. A movement of the sensor with suitable stages in turn leads to additional uncertainties connected to the actuators. Further factors include the SNR-ratio of the sensor as well as multiple measurements, in order to improve data repeatability. This publication will present a procedure of dealing with these relevant influence factors. Depending on the optical system and its properties the optimal adjustment of these parameters is derived.
ARGOS wavefront sensing: from detection to correction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orban de Xivry, Gilles; Bonaglia, M.; Borelli, J.; Busoni, L.; Connot, C.; Esposito, S.; Gaessler, W.; Kulas, M.; Mazzoni, T.; Puglisi, A.; Rabien, S.; Storm, J.; Ziegleder, J.
2014-08-01
Argos is the ground-layer adaptive optics system for the Large Binocular Telescope. In order to perform its wide-field correction, Argos uses three laser guide stars which sample the atmospheric turbulence. To perform the correction, Argos has at disposal three different wavefront sensing measurements : its three laser guide stars, a NGS tip-tilt, and a third wavefront sensor. We present the wavefront sensing architecture and its individual components, in particular: the finalized Argos pnCCD camera detecting the 3 laser guide stars at 1kHz, high quantum efficiency and 4e- noise; the Argos tip-tilt sensor based on a quad-cell avalanche photo-diodes; and the Argos wavefront computer. Being in the middle of the commissioning, we present the first wavefront sensing configurations and operations performed at LBT, and discuss further improvements in the measurements of the 3 laser guide star slopes as detected by the pnCCD.
Aberrated laser beams in terms of Zernike polynomials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alda, Javier; Alonso, Jose; Bernabeu, Eusebio
1996-11-01
The characterization of light beams has devoted a lot of attention in the past decade. Several formalisms have been presented to treat the problem of parameter invariance and characterization in the propagation of light beam along ideal, ABCD, optical systems. The hard and soft apertured optical systems have been treated too. Also some aberrations have been analyzed, but it has not appeared a formalism able to treat the problem as a whole. In this contribution we use a classical approach to describe the problem of aberrated, and therefore apertured, light beams. The wavefront aberration is included in a pure phase term expanded in terms of the Zernike polynomials. Then, we can use the relation between the lower order Zernike polynomia and the Seidel or third order aberrations. We analyze the astigmatism, the spherical aberration and the coma, and we show how higher order aberrations can be taken into account. We have calculated the divergence, and the radius of curvature of such aberrated beams and the influence of these aberrations in the quality of the light beam. Some numerical simulations have been done to illustrate the method.
Plenoptic camera wavefront sensing with extended sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Pengzhi; Xu, Jieping; Liang, Yonghui; Mao, Hongjun
2016-09-01
The wavefront sensor is used in adaptive optics to detect the atmospheric distortion, which feeds back to the deformable mirror to compensate for this distortion. Different from the Shack-Hartmann sensor that has been widely used with point sources, the plenoptic camera wavefront sensor has been proposed as an alternative wavefront sensor adequate for extended objects in recent years. In this paper, the plenoptic camera wavefront sensing with extended sources is discussed systematically. Simulations are performed to investigate the wavefront measurement error and the closed-loop performance of the plenoptic sensor. The results show that there are an optimal lenslet size and an optimal number of pixels to make the best performance. The RMS of the resulting corrected wavefront in closed-loop adaptive optics system is less than 108 nm (0.2λ) when D/r0 ≤ 10 and the magnitude M ≤ 5. Our investigation indicates that the plenoptic sensor is efficient to operate on extended sources in the closed-loop adaptive optics system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roberts, William R.; Gould, Christopher J.; Smith, Adlai H.; Rebitz, Ken
2000-08-01
Several ideas have recently been presented which attempt to measure and predict lens aberrations for new low k1 imaging systems. Abbreviated sets of Zernike coefficients have been produced and used to predict Across Chip Linewidth Variation. Empirical use of the wavefront aberrations can now be used in commercially available lithography simulators to predict pattern distortion and placement errors. Measurement and Determination of Zernike coefficients has been a significant effort of many. However the use of this data has generally been limited to matching lenses or picking best fit lense pairs. We will use wavefront aberration data collected using the Litel InspecStep in-situ Interferometer as input data for Prolith/3D to model and predict pattern placement errors and intrafield overlay variation. Experiment data will be collected and compared to the simulated predictions.
Differences between wavefront and subjective refraction for infrared light.
Teel, Danielle F W; Jacobs, Robert J; Copland, James; Neal, Daniel R; Thibos, Larry N
2014-10-01
To determine the accuracy of objective wavefront refractions for predicting subjective refractions for monochromatic infrared light. Objective refractions were obtained with a commercial wavefront aberrometer (COAS, Wavefront Sciences). Subjective refractions were obtained for 30 subjects with a speckle optometer validated against objective Zernike wavefront refractions on a physical model eye (Teel et al., Design and validation of an infrared Badal optometer for laser speckle, Optom Vis Sci 2008;85:834-42). Both instruments used near-infrared (NIR) radiation (835 nm for COAS, 820 nm for the speckle optometer) to avoid correction for ocular chromatic aberration. A 3-mm artificial pupil was used to reduce complications attributed to higher-order ocular aberrations. For comparison with paraxial (Seidel) and minimum root-mean-square (Zernike) wavefront refractions, objective refractions were also determined for a battery of 29 image quality metrics by computing the correcting lens that optimizes retinal image quality. Objective Zernike refractions were more myopic than subjective refractions for 29 of 30 subjects. The population mean discrepancy was -0.26 diopters (D) (SEM = 0.03 D). Paraxial (Seidel) objective refractions tended to be hyperopically biased (mean discrepancy = +0.20 D, SEM = 0.06 D). Refractions based on retinal image quality were myopically biased for 28 of 29 metrics. The mean bias across all 31 measures was -0.24 D (SEM = 0.03). Myopic bias of objective refractions was greater for eyes with brown irises compared with eyes with blue irises. Our experimental results are consistent with the hypothesis that reflected NIR light captured by the aberrometer originates from scattering sources located posterior to the entrance apertures of cone photoreceptors, near the retinal pigment epithelium. The larger myopic bias for brown eyes suggests that a greater fraction of NIR light is reflected from choroidal melanin in brown eyes compared with blue eyes.
Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics ophthalmoscopy in the human eye
Hofer, Heidi; Sredar, Nripun; Queener, Hope; Li, Chaohong; Porter, Jason
2011-01-01
Wavefront sensor noise and fidelity place a fundamental limit on achievable image quality in current adaptive optics ophthalmoscopes. Additionally, the wavefront sensor ‘beacon’ can interfere with visual experiments. We demonstrate real-time (25 Hz), wavefront sensorless adaptive optics imaging in the living human eye with image quality rivaling that of wavefront sensor based control in the same system. A stochastic parallel gradient descent algorithm directly optimized the mean intensity in retinal image frames acquired with a confocal adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO). When imaging through natural, undilated pupils, both control methods resulted in comparable mean image intensities. However, when imaging through dilated pupils, image intensity was generally higher following wavefront sensor-based control. Despite the typically reduced intensity, image contrast was higher, on average, with sensorless control. Wavefront sensorless control is a viable option for imaging the living human eye and future refinements of this technique may result in even greater optical gains. PMID:21934779
Study of the performance of image restoration under different wavefront aberrations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xinqiu; Hu, Xinqi
2016-10-01
Image restoration is an effective way to improve the quality of images degraded by wave-front aberrations. If the wave-front aberration is too large, the performance of the image restoration will not be good. In this paper, the relationship between the performance of image restoration and the degree of wave-front aberrations is studied. A set of different wave-front aberrations is constructed by Zernike polynomials, and the corresponding PSF under white-light illumination is calculated. A set of blurred images is then obtained through convolution methods. Next we recover the images with the regularized Richardson-Lucy algorithm and use the RMS of the original image and the homologous deblurred image to evaluate the quality of restoration. Consequently, we determine the range of wave-front errors in which the recovered images are acceptable.
Frits Zernike--life and achievements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferwerda, Hedzer A.
1993-12-01
We present a review of the life and work of Frits Zernike (1888-1966), professor of mathematical and technical physics and theoretical mechanics at Groningen University, The Netherlands, inventor of phase contrast microscopy.
Wavefront Measurement in Ophthalmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Molebny, Vasyl
Wavefront sensing or aberration measurement in the eye is a key problem in refractive surgery and vision correction with laser. The accuracy of these measurements is critical for the outcome of the surgery. Practically all clinical methods use laser as a source of light. To better understand the background, we analyze the pre-laser techniques developed over centuries. They allowed new discoveries of the nature of the optical system of the eye, and many served as prototypes for laser-based wavefront sensing technologies. Hartmann's test was strengthened by Platt's lenslet matrix and the CCD two-dimensional photodetector acquired a new life as a Hartmann-Shack sensor in Heidelberg. Tscherning's aberroscope, invented in France, was transformed into a laser device known as a Dresden aberrometer, having seen its reincarnation in Germany with Seiler's help. The clinical ray tracing technique was brought to life by Molebny in Ukraine, and skiascopy was created by Fujieda in Japan. With the maturation of these technologies, new demands now arise for their wider implementation in optometry and vision correction with customized contact and intraocular lenses.
Liu, Rui; Milkie, Daniel E; Kerlin, Aaron; MacLennan, Bryan; Ji, Na
2014-01-27
In traditional zonal wavefront sensing for adaptive optics, after local wavefront gradients are obtained, the entire wavefront can be calculated by assuming that the wavefront is a continuous surface. Such an approach will lead to sub-optimal performance in reconstructing wavefronts which are either discontinuous or undersampled by the zonal wavefront sensor. Here, we report a new method to reconstruct the wavefront by directly measuring local wavefront phases in parallel using multidither coherent optical adaptive technique. This method determines the relative phases of each pupil segment independently, and thus produces an accurate wavefront for even discontinuous wavefronts. We implemented this method in an adaptive optical two-photon fluorescence microscopy and demonstrated its superior performance in correcting large or discontinuous aberrations.
Wavefront reconstruction using computer-generated holograms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schulze, Christian; Flamm, Daniel; Schmidt, Oliver A.; Duparré, Michael
2012-02-01
We propose a new method to determine the wavefront of a laser beam, based on modal decomposition using computer-generated holograms (CGHs). Thereby the beam under test illuminates the CGH with a specific, inscribed transmission function that enables the measurement of modal amplitudes and phases by evaluating the first diffraction order of the hologram. Since we use an angular multiplexing technique, our method is innately capable of real-time measurements of amplitude and phase, yielding the complete information about the optical field. A measurement of the Stokes parameters, respectively of the polarization state, provides the possibility to calculate the Poynting vector. Two wavefront reconstruction possibilities are outlined: reconstruction from the phase for scalar beams and reconstruction from the Poynting vector for inhomogeneously polarized beams. To quantify single aberrations, the reconstructed wavefront is decomposed into Zernike polynomials. Our technique is applied to beams emerging from different kinds of multimode optical fibers, such as step-index, photonic crystal and multicore fibers, whereas in this work results are exemplarily shown for a step-index fiber and compared to a Shack-Hartmann measurement that serves as a reference.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Darudi, Ahmad; Bakhshi, Hadi; Asgari, Reza
2015-05-01
In this paper we present the results of image restoration using the data taken by a Hartmann sensor. The aberration is measure by a Hartmann sensor in which the object itself is used as reference. Then the Point Spread Function (PSF) is simulated and used for image reconstruction using the Lucy-Richardson technique. A technique is presented for quantitative evaluation the Lucy-Richardson technique for deconvolution.
A First Order Wavefront Estimation Algorithm for P1640 Calibrator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhaia, C.; Vasisht, G.; Shao, M.; Lockhart, T.; Cady, E.; Oppenheimer, B.; Burruss, R.; Roberts, J.; Beichman, C.; Brenner, D.;
2012-01-01
P1640 calibrator is a wavefront sensor working with the P1640 coronagraph and the Palomar 3000 actuator adaptive optics system (P3K) at the Palomar 200 inch Hale telescope. It measures the wavefront by interfering post-coronagraph light with a reference beam formed by low-pass filtering the blocked light from the coronagraph focal plane mask. The P1640 instrument has a similar architecture to the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) and its performance is currently limited by the quasi-static speckles due to non-common path wavefront errors, which comes from the non-common path for the light to arrive at the AO wavefront sensor and the coronagraph mask. By measuring the wavefront after the coronagraph mask, the non-common path wavefront error can be estimated and corrected by feeding back the error signal to the deformable mirror (DM) of the P3K AO system. Here, we present a first order wavefront estimation algorithm and an instrument calibration scheme used in experiments done recently at Palomar observatory. We calibrate the P1640 calibrator by measuring its responses to poking DM actuators with a sparse checkerboard pattern at different amplitudes. The calibration yields a complex normalization factor for wavefront estimation and establishes the registration of the DM actuators at the pupil camera of the P1640 calibrator, necessary for wavefront correction. Improvement of imaging quality after feeding back the wavefront correction to the AO system demonstrated the efficacy of the algorithm.
A noiseless, kHz frame rate imaging detector for AO wavefront sensors based on MCPs read out with the Medipix2 CMOS pixel chip
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vallerga, J. V.; McPhate, J. B.; Tremsin, A. S.; Siegmund, O. H. W.; Mikulec, B.; Clark, A. G.
2004-12-01
Future wavefront sensors in adaptive optics (AO) systems for the next generation of large telescopes (> 30 m diameter) will require large formats (512x512) , kHz frame rates, low readout noise (<3 electrons) and high optical QE. The current generation of CCDs cannot achieve the first three of these specifications simultaneously. We present a detector scheme that can meet the first three requirements with an optical QE > 40%. This detector consists of a vacuum tube with a proximity focused GaAs photocathode whose photoelectrons are amplified by microchannel plates and the resulting output charge cloud counted by a pixelated CMOS application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) called the Medipix2 (http://medipix.web.cern.ch/MEDIPIX/). Each 55 micron square pixel of the Medipix2 chip has an amplifier, discriminator and 14 bit counter and the 256x256 array can be read out in 287 microseconds. The chip is 3 side abuttable so a 512x512 array is feasible in one vacuum tube. We will present the first results with an open-faced, demountable version of the detector where we have mounted a pair of MCPs 500 microns above a Medipix2 readout inside a vacuum chamber and illuminated it with UV light. The results include: flat field response, spatial resolution, spatial linearity on the sub-pixel level and global event counting rate. We will also discuss the vacuum tube design and the fabrication issues associated with the Medipix2 surviving the tube making process.
Du, Yongzhao; Fu, Yuqing; Zheng, Lixin
2016-12-20
A real-time complex amplitude reconstruction method for determining the dynamic beam quality M^{2} factor based on a Mach-Zehnder self-referencing interferometer wavefront sensor is developed. By using the proposed complex amplitude reconstruction method, full characterization of the laser beam, including amplitude (intensity profile) and phase information, can be reconstructed from a single interference pattern with the Fourier fringe pattern analysis method in a one-shot measurement. With the reconstructed complex amplitude, the beam fields at any position z along its propagation direction can be obtained by first utilizing the diffraction integral theory. Then the beam quality M^{2} factor of the dynamic beam is calculated according to the specified method of the Standard ISO11146. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated with the theoretical analysis and experiment, including the static and dynamic beam process. The experimental method is simple, fast, and operates without movable parts and is allowed in order to investigate the laser beam in inaccessible conditions using existing methods.
Model-Based Wavefront Control for CCAT
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Redding, David; Lou, John Z.; Kissil, Andy; Bradford, Matt; Padin, Steve; Woody, David
2011-01-01
The 25-m aperture CCAT submillimeter-wave telescope will have a primary mirror that is divided into 162 individual segments, each of which is provided with 3 positioning actuators. CCAT will be equipped with innovative Imaging Displacement Sensors (IDS) inexpensive optical edge sensors capable of accurately measuring all segment relative motions. These measurements are used in a Kalman-filter-based Optical State Estimator to estimate wavefront errors, permitting use of a minimum-wavefront controller without direct wavefront measurement. This controller corrects the optical impact of errors in 6 degrees of freedom per segment, including lateral translations of the segments, using only the 3 actuated degrees of freedom per segment. The global motions of the Primary and Secondary Mirrors are not measured by the edge sensors. These are controlled using a gravity-sag look-up table. Predicted performance is illustrated by simulated response to errors such as gravity sag.
Gilles, L; Ellerbroek, B L
2010-11-01
Real-time turbulence profiling is necessary to tune tomographic wavefront reconstruction algorithms for wide-field adaptive optics (AO) systems on large to extremely large telescopes, and to perform a variety of image post-processing tasks involving point-spread function reconstruction. This paper describes a computationally efficient and accurate numerical technique inspired by the slope detection and ranging (SLODAR) method to perform this task in real time from properly selected Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor measurements accumulated over a few hundred frames from a pair of laser guide stars, thus eliminating the need for an additional instrument. The algorithm is introduced, followed by a theoretical influence function analysis illustrating its impulse response to high-resolution turbulence profiles. Finally, its performance is assessed in the context of the Thirty Meter Telescope multi-conjugate adaptive optics system via end-to-end wave optics Monte Carlo simulations.
Correction of large amplitude wavefront aberrations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cornelissen, S. A.; Bierden, P. A.; Bifano, T. G.; Webb, R. H.; Burns, S.; Pappas, S.
2005-12-01
Recently, a number of research groups around the world have developed ophthalmic instruments capable of in vivo diffraction limited imaging of the human retina. Adaptive optics was used in these systems to compensate for the optical aberrations of the eye and provide high contrast, high resolution images. Such compensation uses a wavefront sensor and a wavefront corrector (usually a deformable mirror) coordinated in a closed- loop control system that continuously works to counteract aberrations. While those experiments produced promising results, the deformable mirrors have had insufficient range of motion to permit full correction of the large amplitude aberrations of the eye expected in a normal population of human subjects. Other retinal imaging systems developed to date with MEMS (micro-electromechanical systems) DMs suffer similar limitations. This paper describes the design, manufacture and testing of a 6um stroke polysilicon surface micromachined deformable mirror that, coupled with an new optical method to double the effective stroke of the MEMS-DM, will permit diffraction-limited retinal imaging through dilated pupils in at least 90% of the human population. A novel optical design using spherical mirrors provides a double pass of the wavefront over the deformable mirror such that a 6um mirror displacement results in 12um of wavefront compensation which could correct for 24um of wavefront error. Details of this design are discussed. Testing of the effective wavefront modification was performed using a commercial wavefront sensor. Results are presented demonstrating improvement in the amplitude of wavefront control using an existing high degree of freedom MEMS deformable mirror.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, Zhong-Ye; Zhang, Xiao-Fang
2018-01-01
The mathematical relation between the beam quality β factor of high-energy laser and the wavefront aberration of laser beam is important in beam quality control theory of the high-energy laser weapon system. In order to obtain this mathematical relation, numerical simulation is used in the research. Firstly, the Zernike representations of typically distorted atmospheric wavefront aberrations caused by the Kolmogoroff turbulence are generated. And then, the corresponding beam quality β factors of the different distorted wavefronts are calculated numerically through fast Fourier transform. Thus, the statistical distribution rule between the beam quality β factors of high-energy laser and the wavefront aberrations of the beam can be established by the calculated results. Finally, curve fitting method is chosen to establish the mathematical fitting relationship of these two parameters. And the result of the curve fitting shows that there is a quadratic curve relation between the beam quality β factor of high-energy laser and the wavefront aberration of laser beam. And in this paper, 3 fitting curves, in which the wavefront aberrations are consisted of Zernike Polynomials of 20, 36, 60 orders individually, are established to express the relationship between the beam quality β factor and atmospheric wavefront aberrations with different spatial frequency.
On soft clipping of Zernike moments for deblurring and enhancement of optical point spread functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Becherer, Nico; Jödicke, Hanna; Schlosser, Gregor; Hesser, Jürgen; Zeilfelder, Frank; Männer, Reinhard
2006-02-01
Blur and noise originating from the physical imaging processes degrade the microscope data. Accurate deblurring techniques require, however, an accurate estimation of the underlying point-spread function (PSF). A good representation of PSFs can be achieved by Zernike Polynomials since they offer a compact representation where low-order coefficients represent typical aberrations of optical wavefronts while noise is represented in higher order coefficients. A quantitative description of the noise distribution (Gaussian) over the Zernike moments of various orders is given which is the basis for the new soft clipping approach for denoising of PSFs. Instead of discarding moments beyond a certain order, those Zernike moments that are more sensitive to noise are dampened according to the measured distribution and the present noise model. Further, a new scheme to combine experimental and theoretical PSFs in Zernike space is presented. According to our experimental reconstructions, using the new improved PSF the correlation between reconstructed and original volume is raised by 15% on average cases and up to 85% in the case of thin fibre structures, compared to reconstructions where a non improved PSF was used. Finally, we demonstrate the advantages of our approach on 3D images of confocal microscopes by generating visually improved volumes. Additionally, we are presenting a method to render the reconstructed results using a new volume rendering method that is almost artifact-free. The new approach is based on a Shear-Warp technique, wavelet data encoding techniques and a recent approach to approximate the gray value distribution by a Super spline model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Sheng-Yi; Liu, Wen-Jin; Chen, Shan-Qiu; Dong, Li-Zhi; Yang, Ping; Xu, Bing
2015-08-01
Among all kinds of wavefront control algorithms in adaptive optics systems, the direct gradient wavefront control algorithm is the most widespread and common method. This control algorithm obtains the actuator voltages directly from wavefront slopes through pre-measuring the relational matrix between deformable mirror actuators and Hartmann wavefront sensor with perfect real-time characteristic and stability. However, with increasing the number of sub-apertures in wavefront sensor and deformable mirror actuators of adaptive optics systems, the matrix operation in direct gradient algorithm takes too much time, which becomes a major factor influencing control effect of adaptive optics systems. In this paper we apply an iterative wavefront control algorithm to high-resolution adaptive optics systems, in which the voltages of each actuator are obtained through iteration arithmetic, which gains great advantage in calculation and storage. For AO system with thousands of actuators, the computational complexity estimate is about O(n2) ˜ O(n3) in direct gradient wavefront control algorithm, while the computational complexity estimate in iterative wavefront control algorithm is about O(n) ˜ (O(n)3/2), in which n is the number of actuators of AO system. And the more the numbers of sub-apertures and deformable mirror actuators, the more significant advantage the iterative wavefront control algorithm exhibits. Project supported by the National Key Scientific and Research Equipment Development Project of China (Grant No. ZDYZ2013-2), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11173008), and the Sichuan Provincial Outstanding Youth Academic Technology Leaders Program, China (Grant No. 2012JQ0012).
Ye, Jingfei; Gao, Zhishan; Wang, Shuai; Cheng, Jinlong; Wang, Wei; Sun, Wenqing
2014-10-01
Four orthogonal polynomials for reconstructing a wavefront over a square aperture based on the modal method are currently available, namely, the 2D Chebyshev polynomials, 2D Legendre polynomials, Zernike square polynomials and Numerical polynomials. They are all orthogonal over the full unit square domain. 2D Chebyshev polynomials are defined by the product of Chebyshev polynomials in x and y variables, as are 2D Legendre polynomials. Zernike square polynomials are derived by the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization process, where the integration region across the full unit square is circumscribed outside the unit circle. Numerical polynomials are obtained by numerical calculation. The presented study is to compare these four orthogonal polynomials by theoretical analysis and numerical experiments from the aspects of reconstruction accuracy, remaining errors, and robustness. Results show that the Numerical orthogonal polynomial is superior to the other three polynomials because of its high accuracy and robustness even in the case of a wavefront with incomplete data.
Improving Focal Photostimulation of Cortical Neurons with Pre-derived Wavefront Correction
Choy, Julian M. C.; Sané, Sharmila S.; Lee, Woei M.; Stricker, Christian; Bachor, Hans A.; Daria, Vincent R.
2017-01-01
Recent progress in neuroscience to image and investigate brain function has been made possible by impressive developments in optogenetic and opto-molecular tools. Such research requires advances in optical techniques for the delivery of light through brain tissue with high spatial resolution. The tissue causes distortions to the wavefront of the incoming light which broadens the focus and consequently reduces the intensity and degrades the resolution. Such effects are detrimental in techniques requiring focal stimulation. Adaptive wavefront correction has been demonstrated to compensate for these distortions. However, iterative derivation of the corrective wavefront introduces time constraints that limit its applicability to probe living cells. Here, we demonstrate that we can pre-determine and generalize a small set of Zernike modes to correct for aberrations of the light propagating through specific brain regions. A priori identification of a corrective wavefront is a direct and fast technique that improves the quality of the focus without the need for iterative adaptive wavefront correction. We verify our technique by measuring the efficiency of two-photon photolysis of caged neurotransmitters along the dendrites of a whole-cell patched neuron. Our results show that encoding the selected Zernike modes on the excitation light can improve light propagation through brain slices of rats as observed by the neuron's evoked excitatory post-synaptic potential in response to localized focal uncaging at the spines of the neuron's dendrites. PMID:28507508
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marchese, Linda E.; Munger, Rejean; Priest, David
2005-08-01
Wavefront-guided laser eye surgery has been recently introduced and holds the promise of correcting not only defocus and astigmatism in patients but also higher-order aberrations. Research is just beginning on the implementation of wavefront-guided methods in optical solutions, such as phase-plate-based spectacles, as alternatives to surgery. We investigate the theoretical differences between the implementation of wavefront-guided surgical and phase plate corrections. The residual aberrations of 43 model eyes are calculated after simulated refractive surgery and also after a phase plate is placed in front of the untreated eye. In each case, the current wavefront-guided paradigm that applies a direct map of the ocular aberrations to the correction zone is used. The simulation results demonstrate that an ablation map that is a Zernike fit of a direct transform of the ocular wavefront phase error is not as efficient in correcting refractive errors of sphere, cylinder, spherical aberration, and coma as when the same Zernike coefficients are applied to a phase plate, with statistically significant improvements from 2% to 6%.
Wavefront aberration changes caused by a gradient of increasing accommodation stimuli
Zhou, X-Y; Wang, L; Zhou, X-T; Yu, Z-Q
2015-01-01
Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the wavefront aberration changes in human eyes caused by a gradient of increasing accommodation stimuli. Design This is a prospective, single-site study. Methods Healthy volunteers (n=22) aged 18–28 years whose refraction states were emmetropia or mild myopia, with astigmatism <1 diopter (D), were included in this study. After dilating the right pupil with 0.5% phenylephrine drops, the wavefront aberration of the right eye was measured continuously either without or with 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6D accommodation stimuli (WFA1000B psychophysical aberrometer). The root mean square (RMS) values of the total wavefront aberrations, higher-order aberrations, and 35 individual Zernike aberrations under different accommodation stimuli were calculated and compared. Results The average induced accommodations using 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6D accommodation stimuli were 0.848, 1.626, 2.375, 3.249, 4.181, or 5.085 D, respectively. The RMS of total wavefront aberrations, as well as higher-order aberrations, showed no significant effects with 1–3 D accommodation stimuli, but increased significantly under 4, 5, and 6 D accommodation stimuli compared with relaxed accommodation. Zernike coefficients of significantly decreased with increasing levels of accommodation. Conclusion Higher-order wavefront aberrations in human eyes changed with increased accommodation. These results are consistent with Schachar's accommodation theory. PMID:25341432
Optimization of wavefront coding imaging system using heuristic algorithms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
González-Amador, E.; Padilla-Vivanco, A.; Toxqui-Quitl, C.; Zermeño-Loreto, O.
2017-08-01
Wavefront Coding (WFC) systems make use of an aspheric Phase-Mask (PM) and digital image processing to extend the Depth of Field (EDoF) of computational imaging systems. For years, several kinds of PM have been designed to produce a point spread function (PSF) near defocus-invariant. In this paper, the optimization of the phase deviation parameter is done by means of genetic algorithms (GAs). In this, the merit function minimizes the mean square error (MSE) between the diffraction limited Modulated Transfer Function (MTF) and the MTF of the system that is wavefront coded with different misfocus. WFC systems were simulated using the cubic, trefoil, and 4 Zernike polynomials phase-masks. Numerical results show defocus invariance aberration in all cases. Nevertheless, the best results are obtained by using the trefoil phase-mask, because the decoded image is almost free of artifacts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steinbock, Michael J.; Hyde, Milo W.
2012-10-01
Adaptive optics is used in applications such as laser communication, remote sensing, and laser weapon systems to estimate and correct for atmospheric distortions of propagated light in real-time. Within an adaptive optics system, a reconstruction process interprets the raw wavefront sensor measurements and calculates an estimate for the unwrapped phase function to be sent through a control law and applied to a wavefront correction device. This research is focused on adaptive optics using a self-referencing interferometer wavefront sensor, which directly measures the wrapped wavefront phase. Therefore, its measurements must be reconstructed for use on a continuous facesheet deformable mirror. In testing and evaluating a novel class of branch-point- tolerant wavefront reconstructors based on the post-processing congruence operation technique, an increase in Strehl ratio compared to a traditional least squares reconstructor was noted even in non-scintillated fields. To investigate this further, this paper uses wave-optics simulations to eliminate many of the variables from a hardware adaptive optics system, so as to focus on the reconstruction techniques alone. The simulation results along with a discussion of the physical reasoning for this phenomenon are provided. For any applications using a self-referencing interferometer wavefront sensor with low signal levels or high localized wavefront gradients, understanding this phenomena is critical when applying a traditional least squares wavefront reconstructor.
Phase Contrast Wavefront Sensing for Adaptive Optics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bloemhof, E. E.; Wallace, J. K.; Bloemhof, E. E.
2004-01-01
Most ground-based adaptive optics systems use one of a small number of wavefront sensor technologies, notably (for relatively high-order systems) the Shack-Hartmann sensor, which provides local measurements of the phase slope (first-derivative) at a number of regularly-spaced points across the telescope pupil. The curvature sensor, with response proportional to the second derivative of the phase, is also sometimes used, but has undesirable noise propagation properties during wavefront reconstruction as the number of actuators becomes large. It is interesting to consider the use for astronomical adaptive optics of the "phase contrast" technique, originally developed for microscopy by Zemike to allow convenient viewing of phase objects. In this technique, the wavefront sensor provides a direct measurement of the local value of phase in each sub-aperture of the pupil. This approach has some obvious disadvantages compared to Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing, but has some less obvious but substantial advantages as well. Here we evaluate the relative merits in a practical ground-based adaptive optics system.
[Monochromatic aberration in accommodation. Dynamic wavefront analysis].
Fritzsch, M; Dawczynski, J; Jurkutat, S; Vollandt, R; Strobel, J
2011-06-01
Monochromatic aberrations may influence the visual acuity of the eye. They are not stable and can be affected by different factors. The subject of the following paper is the dynamic investigation of the changes in wavefront aberration with accommodation. Dynamic measurement of higher and lower order aberrations was performed with a WASCA Wavefront Analyzer (Carl-Zeiss-Meditec) and a specially constructed target device for aligning objects in far and near distances on 25 subjects aged from 15 to 27 years old. Wavefront aberrations showed some significant changes in accommodation. In addition to the characteristic sphere reaction accompanying miosis and changes in horizontal prism (Z(1) (1)) in the sense of a convergence movement of the eyeball also occurred. Furthermore defocus rose (Z(2) (0)) and astigmatism (Z(2) (-2)) changed. In higher-order aberrations a decrease in coma-like Zernike polynomials (Z(3) (-1), Z(3) (1)) was found. The most obvious change appeared in spherical aberration (Z(4) (0)) which increased and changed from positive to negative. In addition the secondary astigmatism (Z(4) (-2)) and quadrafoil (Z(4) (4)) rise also increased. The total root mean square (RMS), as well as the higher-order aberrations (RMS-HO) significantly increased in accommodation which is associated with a theoretical reduction of visual acuity. An analysis of the influence of pupil size on aberrations showed significant increases in defocus, spherical aberration, quadrafoil, RMS and RMS HO by increasing pupil diameter. By accommodation-associated miosis, the growing aberrations are partially compensated by focusing on near objects. Temporal analysis of the accommodation process with dynamic wavefront analysis revealed significant delays in pupil response and changing of prism in relation to the sphere reaction. In accommodation to near objects a discrete time ahead of third order aberrations in relation to the sphere response was found. Using dynamic wavefront measurement
Spectrally resolved single-shot wavefront sensing of broadband high-harmonic sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freisem, L.; Jansen, G. S. M.; Rudolf, D.; Eikema, K. S. E.; Witte, S.
2018-03-01
Wavefront sensors are an important tool to characterize coherent beams of extreme ultraviolet radiation. However, conventional Hartmann-type sensors do not allow for independent wavefront characterization of different spectral components that may be present in a beam, which limits their applicability for intrinsically broadband high-harmonic generation (HHG) sources. Here we introduce a wavefront sensor that measures the wavefronts of all the harmonics in a HHG beam in a single camera exposure. By replacing the mask apertures with transmission gratings at different orientations, we simultaneously detect harmonic wavefronts and spectra, and obtain sensitivity to spatiotemporal structure such as pulse front tilt as well. We demonstrate the capabilities of the sensor through a parallel measurement of the wavefronts of 9 harmonics in a wavelength range between 25 and 49 nm, with up to lambda/32 precision.
A recursive algorithm for Zernike polynomials
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davenport, J. W.
1982-01-01
The analysis of a function defined on a rotationally symmetric system, with either a circular or annular pupil is discussed. In order to numerically analyze such systems it is typical to expand the given function in terms of a class of orthogonal polynomials. Because of their particular properties, the Zernike polynomials are especially suited for numerical calculations. Developed is a recursive algorithm that can be used to generate the Zernike polynomials up to a given order. The algorithm is recursively defined over J where R(J,N) is the Zernike polynomial of degree N obtained by orthogonalizing the sequence R(J), R(J+2), ..., R(J+2N) over (epsilon, 1). The terms in the preceding row - the (J-1) row - up to the N+1 term is needed for generating the (J,N)th term. Thus, the algorith generates an upper left-triangular table. This algorithm was placed in the computer with the necessary support program also included.
Absolute color scale for improved diagnostics with wavefront error mapping.
Smolek, Michael K; Klyce, Stephen D
2007-11-01
Wavefront data are expressed in micrometers and referenced to the pupil plane, but current methods to map wavefront error lack standardization. Many use normalized or floating scales that may confuse the user by generating ambiguous, noisy, or varying information. An absolute scale that combines consistent clinical information with statistical relevance is needed for wavefront error mapping. The color contours should correspond better to current corneal topography standards to improve clinical interpretation. Retrospective analysis of wavefront error data. Historic ophthalmic medical records. Topographic modeling system topographical examinations of 120 corneas across 12 categories were used. Corneal wavefront error data in micrometers from each topography map were extracted at 8 Zernike polynomial orders and for 3 pupil diameters expressed in millimeters (3, 5, and 7 mm). Both total aberrations (orders 2 through 8) and higher-order aberrations (orders 3 through 8) were expressed in the form of frequency histograms to determine the working range of the scale across all categories. The standard deviation of the mean error of normal corneas determined the map contour resolution. Map colors were based on corneal topography color standards and on the ability to distinguish adjacent color contours through contrast. Higher-order and total wavefront error contour maps for different corneal conditions. An absolute color scale was produced that encompassed a range of +/-6.5 microm and a contour interval of 0.5 microm. All aberrations in the categorical database were plotted with no loss of clinical information necessary for classification. In the few instances where mapped information was beyond the range of the scale, the type and severity of aberration remained legible. When wavefront data are expressed in micrometers, this absolute scale facilitates the determination of the severity of aberrations present compared with a floating scale, particularly for distinguishing
Yang, Pao-Keng
2017-08-01
By using a light-emitting diode as the probing light source and a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor as the recorder for the wavefront surface to execute a relative measurement, we present a useful method for determining the small wedge angle and optical homogeneity of a nominally planar glass plate from the wavefront measurements. The measured wavefront surface from the light source was first calibrated to be a horizontal plane before the plate under test was inserted. The wedge angle of the plate can be determined from the inclining angle of the regression plane of the measured wavefront surface after the plate was inserted between the light source and the wavefront sensor. Despite the annoying time-dependent altitude fluctuation in measured wavefront topography, the optical homogeneity of the plate can be estimated from the increment on the average variance of the wavefront surface to its regression plane after the light passes through it by using the Bienaymé formula.
A wavefront compensation approach to segmented mirror figure control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Redding, David; Breckenridge, Bill; Sevaston, George; Lau, Ken
1991-01-01
We consider the 'figure-control' problem for a spaceborn sub-millimeter wave telescope, the Precision Segmented Reflector Project Focus Mission Telescope. We show that performance of any figure control system is subject to limits on the controllability and observability of the quality of the wavefront. We present a wavefront-compensation method for the Focus Mission Telescope which uses mirror-figure sensors and three-axis segment actuator to directly minimize wavefront errors due to segment position errors. This approach shows significantly better performance when compared with a panel-state-compensation approach.
MEMS deformable mirror for wavefront correction of large telescopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manhart, Sigmund; Vdovin, Gleb; Collings, Neil; Sodnik, Zoran; Nikolov, Susanne; Hupfer, Werner
2017-11-01
A 50 mm diameter membrane mirror was designed and manufactured at TU Delft. It is made from bulk silicon by micromachining - a technology primarily used for micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS). The mirror unit is equipped with 39 actuator electrodes and can be electrostatically deformed to correct wavefront errors in optical imaging systems. Performance tests on the deformable mirror were carried out at Astrium GmbH using a breadboard setup with a wavefront sensor and a closed-loop control system. It was found that the deformable membrane mirror is well suited for correction of low order wavefront errors as they must be expected in lightweighted space telescopes.
Yu, Honghao; Chang, Jun; Liu, Xin; Wu, Chuhan; He, Yifan; Zhang, Yongjian
2017-04-17
Herein, we propose a new security enhancing method that employs wavefront aberrations as optical keys to improve the resistance capabilities of conventional double-random phase encoding (DRPE) optical cryptosystems. This study has two main innovations. First, we exploit a special beam-expander afocal-reflecting to produce different types of aberrations, and the wavefront distortion can be altered by changing the shape of the afocal-reflecting system using a deformable mirror. Then, we reconstruct the wavefront aberrations via the surface fitting of Zernike polynomials and use the reconstructed aberrations as novel asymmetric vector keys. The ideal wavefront and the distorted wavefront obtained by wavefront sensing can be regarded as a pair of private and public keys. The wavelength and focal length of the Fourier lens can be used as additional keys to increase the number of degrees of freedom. This novel cryptosystem can enhance the resistance to various attacks aimed at DRPE systems. Finally, we conduct ZEMAX and MATLAB simulations to demonstrate the superiority of this method.
Simultaneous measurements of density field and wavefront distortions in high speed flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
George, Jacob; Jenkins, Thomas; Trolinger, James; Hess, Cecil; Buckner, Benjamin
2017-09-01
This paper presents results from simultaneous measurements of fluid density and the resulting wavefront distortions in a sonic underexpanded jet. The density measurements were carried out using Rayleigh scattering, and the optical distortions were measured using a wavefront sensor based on phase shifting interferometry. The measurements represent a preliminary step toward relating wavefront distortions to a specific flow structure. The measured density field is used to compute the phase distortions using a wave propagation model based on a geometric-optics approximation, and the computed phase map shows moderate agreement with that obtained using the wavefront sensor.
Wavefront sensing, control, and pointing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pitts, Thomas; Sevaston, George; Agronin, Michael; Bely, Pierre; Colavita, Mark; Clampin, Mark; Harvey, James; Idell, Paul; Sandler, Dave; Ulmer, Melville
1992-01-01
A majority of future NASA astrophysics missions from orbiting interferometers to 16-m telescopes on the Moon have, as a common requirement, the need to bring light from a large entrance aperture to the focal plane in a way that preserves the spatial coherence properties of the starlight. Only by preserving the phase of the incoming wavefront, can many scientific observations be made, observations that range from measuring the red shift of quasi-stellar objects (QSO's) to detecting the IR emission of a planet in orbit around another star. New technologies for wavefront sensing, control, and pointing hold the key to advancing our observatories of the future from those already launched or currently under development. As the size of the optical system increases, either to increase the sensitivity or angular resolution of the instrument, traditional technologies for maintaining optical wavefront accuracy become prohibitively expensive or completely impractical. For space-based instruments, the low mass requirement and the large temperature excursions further challenge existing technologies. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is probably the last large space telescope to rely on passive means to keep its primary optics stable and the optical system aligned. One needs only look to the significant developments in wavefront sensing, control, and pointing that have occurred over the past several years to appreciate the potential of this technology for transforming the capability of future space observatories. Future developments in space-borne telescopes will be based in part on developments in ground-based systems. Telescopes with rigid primary mirrors much larger than 5 m in diameter are impractical because of gravity loading. New technologies are now being introduced, such as active optics, that address the scale problem and that allow very large telescopes to be built. One approach is a segmented design such as that being pioneered by the W.M. Keck telescope now under
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Comastri, Silvia A.; Perez, Liliana I.; Pérez, Gervasio D.; Martin, Gabriel; Bastida, Karina
2007-03-01
An analytical method to convert the set of Zernike coefficients that fits the wavefront aberration for a pupil into another corresponding to a contracted and horizontally translated pupil is proposed. The underlying selection rules are provided and the resulting conversion formulae for a seventh-order expansion are given. These formulae are applied to calculate corneal aberrations referred to a given pupil centre in terms of those referred to the keratometric vertex supplied by the SN CT1000 topographer. Four typical cases are considered: a sphere and three eyes—normal, keratoconic and post-LASIK. When the pupil centre is fixed and the pupil diameter decreases from 6 mm to the photopic natural one, leaving aside piston, tilt and defocus, the difference between the root mean square wavefront error computed with the formulae and the topographer is less than 0.04 µm. When the pupil diameter is kept equal to the natural one and the pupil centre is displaced, coefficients vary according to the eye. For a 0.3 mm pupil shift, the variation of coma is at most 0.35 µm and that of spherical aberration 0.01 µm.
Eye aberration analysis with Zernike polynomials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Molebny, Vasyl V.; Chyzh, Igor H.; Sokurenko, Vyacheslav M.; Pallikaris, Ioannis G.; Naoumidis, Leonidas P.
1998-06-01
New horizons for accurate photorefractive sight correction, afforded by novel flying spot technologies, require adequate measurements of photorefractive properties of an eye. Proposed techniques of eye refraction mapping present results of measurements for finite number of points of eye aperture, requiring to approximate these data by 3D surface. A technique of wave front approximation with Zernike polynomials is described, using optimization of the number of polynomial coefficients. Criterion of optimization is the nearest proximity of the resulted continuous surface to the values calculated for given discrete points. Methodology includes statistical evaluation of minimal root mean square deviation (RMSD) of transverse aberrations, in particular, varying consecutively the values of maximal coefficient indices of Zernike polynomials, recalculating the coefficients, and computing the value of RMSD. Optimization is finished at minimal value of RMSD. Formulas are given for computing ametropia, size of the spot of light on retina, caused by spherical aberration, coma, and astigmatism. Results are illustrated by experimental data, that could be of interest for other applications, where detailed evaluation of eye parameters is needed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tubbs, Eldred F.
1986-01-01
A two-step approach to wavefront sensing for the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) was examined as part of an effort to define wavefront-sensing requirements and to determine particular areas for more detailed study. A Hartmann test for coarse alignment, particularly segment tilt, seems feasible if LDR can operate at 5 microns or less. The direct measurement of the point spread function in the diffraction limited region may be a way to determine piston error, but this can only be answered by a detailed software model of the optical system. The question of suitable astronomical sources for either test must also be addressed.
Bicubic uniform B-spline wavefront fitting technology applied in computer-generated holograms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Hui; Sun, Jun-qiang; Chen, Guo-jie
2006-02-01
This paper presented a bicubic uniform B-spline wavefront fitting technology to figure out the analytical expression for object wavefront used in Computer-Generated Holograms (CGHs). In many cases, to decrease the difficulty of optical processing, off-axis CGHs rather than complex aspherical surface elements are used in modern advanced military optical systems. In order to design and fabricate off-axis CGH, we have to fit out the analytical expression for object wavefront. Zernike Polynomial is competent for fitting wavefront of centrosymmetric optical systems, but not for axisymmetrical optical systems. Although adopting high-degree polynomials fitting method would achieve higher fitting precision in all fitting nodes, the greatest shortcoming of this method is that any departure from the fitting nodes would result in great fitting error, which is so-called pulsation phenomenon. Furthermore, high-degree polynomials fitting method would increase the calculation time in coding computer-generated hologram and solving basic equation. Basing on the basis function of cubic uniform B-spline and the character mesh of bicubic uniform B-spline wavefront, bicubic uniform B-spline wavefront are described as the product of a series of matrices. Employing standard MATLAB routines, four kinds of different analytical expressions for object wavefront are fitted out by bicubic uniform B-spline as well as high-degree polynomials. Calculation results indicate that, compared with high-degree polynomials, bicubic uniform B-spline is a more competitive method to fit out the analytical expression for object wavefront used in off-axis CGH, for its higher fitting precision and C2 continuity.
Wavefront division digital holography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Wenhui; Cao, Liangcai; Li, Rujia; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Hao; Jiang, Qiang; Jin, Guofan
2018-05-01
Digital holography (DH), mostly Mach-Zehnder configuration based, belongs to non-common path amplitude splitting interference imaging whose stability and fringe contrast are environmental sensitive. This paper presents a wavefront division DH configuration with both high stability and high-contrast fringes benefitting from quasi common path wavefront-splitting interference. In our proposal, two spherical waves with similar curvature coming from the same wavefront are used, which makes full use of the physical sampling capacity of the detectors. The interference fringe spacing can be adjusted flexibly for both in-line and off-axis mode due to the independent modulation to these two waves. Only a few optical elements, including the mirror-beam splitter interference component, are used without strict alignments, which makes it robust and easy-to-implement. The proposed wavefront division DH promotes interference imaging physics into the practical and miniaturized a step forward. The feasibility of this method is proved by the imaging of a resolution target and a water flea.
Zonal wavefront estimation using an array of hexagonal grating patterns
Pathak, Biswajit, E-mail: b.pathak@iitg.ernet.in, E-mail: brboruah@iitg.ernet.in; Boruah, Bosanta R., E-mail: b.pathak@iitg.ernet.in, E-mail: brboruah@iitg.ernet.in
2014-10-15
Accuracy of Shack-Hartmann type wavefront sensors depends on the shape and layout of the lenslet array that samples the incoming wavefront. It has been shown that an array of gratings followed by a focusing lens provide a substitution for the lensslet array. Taking advantage of the computer generated holography technique, any arbitrary diffraction grating aperture shape, size or pattern can be designed with little penalty for complexity. In the present work, such a holographic technique is implemented to design regular hexagonal grating array to have zero dead space between grating patterns, eliminating the possibility of leakage of wavefront during themore » estimation of the wavefront. Tessellation of regular hexagonal shape, unlike other commonly used shapes, also reduces the estimation error by incorporating more number of neighboring slope values at an equal separation.« less
High-resolution wavefront reconstruction using the frozen flow hypothesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xuewen; Liang, Yonghui; Liu, Jin; Xu, Jieping
2017-10-01
This paper describes an approach to reconstructing wavefronts on finer grid using the frozen flow hypothesis (FFH), which exploits spatial and temporal correlations between consecutive wavefront sensor (WFS) frames. Under the assumption of FFH, slope data from WFS can be connected to a finer, composite slope grid using translation and down sampling, and elements in transformation matrices are determined by wind information. Frames of slopes are then combined and slopes on finer grid are reconstructed by solving a sparse, large-scale, ill-posed least squares problem. By using reconstructed finer slope data and adopting Fried geometry of WFS, high-resolution wavefronts are then reconstructed. The results show that this method is robust even with detector noise and wind information inaccuracy, and under bad seeing conditions, high-frequency information in wavefronts can be recovered more accurately compared with when correlations in WFS frames are ignored.
Zonal wavefront estimation using an array of hexagonal grating patterns
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pathak, Biswajit; Boruah, Bosanta R.
2014-10-01
Accuracy of Shack-Hartmann type wavefront sensors depends on the shape and layout of the lenslet array that samples the incoming wavefront. It has been shown that an array of gratings followed by a focusing lens provide a substitution for the lensslet array. Taking advantage of the computer generated holography technique, any arbitrary diffraction grating aperture shape, size or pattern can be designed with little penalty for complexity. In the present work, such a holographic technique is implemented to design regular hexagonal grating array to have zero dead space between grating patterns, eliminating the possibility of leakage of wavefront during the estimation of the wavefront. Tessellation of regular hexagonal shape, unlike other commonly used shapes, also reduces the estimation error by incorporating more number of neighboring slope values at an equal separation.
Interbasis expansions in the Zernike system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atakishiyev, Natig M.; Pogosyan, George S.; Wolf, Kurt Bernardo; Yakhno, Alexander
2017-10-01
The differential equation with free boundary conditions on the unit disk that was proposed by Frits Zernike in 1934 to find Jacobi polynomial solutions (indicated as I) serves to define a classical system and a quantum system which have been found to be superintegrable. We have determined two new orthogonal polynomial solutions (indicated as II and III) that are separable and involve Legendre and Gegenbauer polynomials. Here we report on their three interbasis expansion coefficients: between the I-II and I-III bases, they are given by F32(⋯|1 ) polynomials that are also special su(2) Clebsch-Gordan coefficients and Hahn polynomials. Between the II-III bases, we find an expansion expressed by F43(⋯|1 ) 's and Racah polynomials that are related to the Wigner 6j coefficients.
Interocular high-order corneal wavefront aberration symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lombardo, Marco; Lombardo, Giuseppe; Serrao, Sebastiano
2006-04-01
The interocular symmetry of the high-order corneal wavefront aberration (WA) in a population of myopic eyes was analyzed before and after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). The preoperative and one-year postoperative corneal aberration data (from third to seventh Zernike orders) for 4- and 7-mm pupils from right and left eyes were averaged after correcting for the effects of enantiomorphism to test for mirror symmetry. Also, the mean corneal point-spread function (PSF) for right and left eyes was calculated. Preoperatively, a moderate and high degree of correlation in the high-order corneal WA between eyes was found for 4- and 7-mm pupils, respectively. Myopic PRK did not significantly change the interocular symmetry of corneal high-order aberrations. No discernible differences in the orientation PSF between eyes were observed one year after surgery in comparison with the preoperative state over the two analyzed pupils.
Smolek, Michael K.
2011-01-01
Purpose The significance of ocular or corneal aberrations may be subject to misinterpretation whenever eyes with different pupil sizes or the application of different Zernike expansion orders are compared. A method is shown that uses simple mathematical interpolation techniques based on normal data to rapidly determine the clinical significance of aberrations, without concern for pupil and expansion order. Methods Corneal topography (Tomey, Inc.; Nagoya, Japan) from 30 normal corneas was collected and the corneal wavefront error analyzed by Zernike polynomial decomposition into specific aberration types for pupil diameters of 3, 5, 7, and 10 mm and Zernike expansion orders of 6, 8, 10 and 12. Using this 4×4 matrix of pupil sizes and fitting orders, best-fitting 3-dimensional functions were determined for the mean and standard deviation of the RMS error for specific aberrations. The functions were encoded into software to determine the significance of data acquired from non-normal cases. Results The best-fitting functions for 6 types of aberrations were determined: defocus, astigmatism, prism, coma, spherical aberration, and all higher-order aberrations. A clinical screening method of color-coding the significance of aberrations in normal, postoperative LASIK, and keratoconus cases having different pupil sizes and different expansion orders is demonstrated. Conclusions A method to calibrate wavefront aberrometry devices by using a standard sample of normal cases was devised. This method could be potentially useful in clinical studies involving patients with uncontrolled pupil sizes or in studies that compare data from aberrometers that use different Zernike fitting-order algorithms. PMID:22157570
SAPHIRA detector for infrared wavefront sensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finger, Gert; Baker, Ian; Alvarez, Domingo; Ives, Derek; Mehrgan, Leander; Meyer, Manfred; Stegmeier, Jörg; Weller, Harald J.
2014-08-01
The only way to overcome the CMOS noise barrier of near infrared sensors used for wavefront sensing and fringe tracking is the amplification of the photoelectron signal inside the infrared pixel by means of the avalanche gain. In 2007 ESO started a program at Selex to develop near infrared electron avalanche photodiode arrays (eAPD) for wavefront sensing and fringe tracking. In a first step the cutoff wavelength was reduced from 4.5 micron to 2.5 micron in order to verify that the dark current scales with the bandgap and can be reduced to less than one electron/ms, the value required for wavefront sensing. The growth technology was liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) with annular diodes based on the loophole interconnect technology. The arrays required deep cooling to 40K to achieve acceptable cosmetic performance at high APD gain. The second step was to develop a multiplexer tailored to the specific application of the GRAVITY instrument wavefront sensors and the fringe tracker. The pixel format is 320x256 pixels. The array has 32 parallel video outputs which are arranged in such a way that the full multiplex advantage is available also for small subwindows. Nondestructive readout schemes with subpixel sampling are possible. This reduces the readout noise at high APD gain well below the subelectron level at frame rates of 1 KHz. The third step was the change of the growth technology from liquid phase epitaxy to metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE). This growth technology allows the band structure and doping to be controlled on a 0.1μm scale and provides more flexibility for the design of diode structures. The bandgap can be varied for different layers of Hg(1-x)CdxTe. It is possible to make heterojunctions and apply solid state engineering techniques. The change to MOVPE resulted in a dramatic improvement in the cosmetic quality with 99.97 % operable pixels at an operating temperature of 85K. Currently this sensor is deployed in the 4 wavefront sensors and in the
Advanced Wavefront Sensing and Control Testbed (AWCT)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shi, Fang; Basinger, Scott A.; Diaz, Rosemary T.; Gappinger, Robert O.; Tang, Hong; Lam, Raymond K.; Sidick, Erkin; Hein, Randall C.; Rud, Mayer; Troy, Mitchell
2010-01-01
The Advanced Wavefront Sensing and Control Testbed (AWCT) is built as a versatile facility for developing and demonstrating, in hardware, the future technologies of wave front sensing and control algorithms for active optical systems. The testbed includes a source projector for a broadband point-source and a suite of extended scene targets, a dispersed fringe sensor, a Shack-Hartmann camera, and an imaging camera capable of phase retrieval wavefront sensing. The testbed also provides two easily accessible conjugated pupil planes which can accommodate the active optical devices such as fast steering mirror, deformable mirror, and segmented mirrors. In this paper, we describe the testbed optical design, testbed configurations and capabilities, as well as the initial results from the testbed hardware integrations and tests.
Wavefront Compensation Segmented Mirror Sensing and Control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Redding, David C.; Lou, John Z.; Kissil, Andrew; Bradford, Charles M.; Woody, David; Padin, Stephen
2012-01-01
The primary mirror of very large submillimeter-wave telescopes will necessarily be segmented into many separate mirror panels. These panels must be continuously co-phased to keep the telescope wavefront error less than a small fraction of a wavelength, to ten microns RMS (root mean square) or less. This performance must be maintained continuously across the full aperture of the telescope, in all pointing conditions, and in a variable thermal environment. A wavefront compensation segmented mirror sensing and control system, consisting of optical edge sensors, Wavefront Compensation Estimator/Controller Soft ware, and segment position actuators is proposed. Optical edge sensors are placed two per each segment-to-segment edge to continuously measure changes in segment state. Segment position actuators (three per segment) are used to move the panels. A computer control system uses the edge sensor measurements to estimate the state of all of the segments and to predict the wavefront error; segment actuator commands are computed that minimize the wavefront error. Translational or rotational motions of one segment relative to the other cause lateral displacement of the light beam, which is measured by the imaging sensor. For high accuracy, the collimator uses a shaped mask, such as one or more slits, so that the light beam forms a pattern on the sensor that permits sensing accuracy of better than 0.1 micron in two axes: in the z or local surface normal direction, and in the y direction parallel to the mirror surface and perpendicular to the beam direction. Using a co-aligned pair of sensors, with the location of the detector and collimated light source interchanged, four degrees of freedom can be sensed: transverse x and y displacements, as well as two bending angles (pitch and yaw). In this approach, each optical edge sensor head has a collimator and an imager, placing one sensor head on each side of a segment gap, with two parallel light beams crossing the gap. Two sets
Framework to trade optimality for local processing in large-scale wavefront reconstruction problems.
Haber, Aleksandar; Verhaegen, Michel
2016-11-15
We show that the minimum variance wavefront estimation problems permit localized approximate solutions, in the sense that the wavefront value at a point (excluding unobservable modes, such as the piston mode) can be approximated by a linear combination of the wavefront slope measurements in the point's neighborhood. This enables us to efficiently compute a wavefront estimate by performing a single sparse matrix-vector multiplication. Moreover, our results open the possibility for the development of wavefront estimators that can be easily implemented in a decentralized/distributed manner, and in which the estimate optimality can be easily traded for computational efficiency. We numerically validate our approach on Hudgin wavefront sensor geometries, and the results can be easily generalized to Fried geometries.
Low-order wavefront sensing for coronagraphic telescopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Subedi, Hari; Kasdin, Jeremy; Peter Varnai
2018-01-01
Space telescopes equipped with a coronagraph to detect and characterize exoplanets must have the ability to sense and control low-order wavefront aberrations. Most concepts for low-order wavefront sensing use the starlight rejected by the coronagraph to sense these aberrations. The sensor must be able to make precise estimates and be robust to photon and read noise. A thorough study of various differential low-order wavefront sensors (LOWFSs) would be beneficial for future space-based observatories designed for exoplanet detection and characterization. In this talk, we will expand on the comparison of different LOWFSs that use the rejected starlight either from the coronagraphic focal plane or the Lyot plane to estimate these aberrations. We will also present the experimental results of the sparse aperture mask (SAM) LOWFS that we have designed at the Princeton High Contrast Imaging Lab (PHCIL).
Modified plenoptic camera for phase and amplitude wavefront sensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Chensheng; Davis, Christopher C.
2013-09-01
Shack-Hartmann sensors have been widely applied in wavefront sensing. However, they are limited to measuring slightly distorted wavefronts whose local tilt doesn't surpass the numerical aperture of its micro-lens array and cross talk of incident waves on the mrcro-lens array should be strictly avoided. In medium to strong turbulence cases of optic communication, where large jitter in angle of arrival and local interference caused by break-up of beam are common phenomena, Shack-Hartmann sensors no longer serve as effective tools in revealing distortions in a signal wave. Our design of a modified Plenoptic Camera shows great potential in observing and extracting useful information from severely disturbed wavefronts. Furthermore, by separating complex interference patterns into several minor interference cases, it may also be capable of telling regional phase difference of coherently illuminated objects.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Dongming; Zhang, Lijuan; Wang, Ting; Liu, Huan; Yang, Jinhua; Chen, Guifen
2016-11-01
To improve the adaptive optics (AO) image's quality, we study the AO image restoration algorithm based on wavefront reconstruction technology and adaptive total variation (TV) method in this paper. Firstly, the wavefront reconstruction using Zernike polynomial is used for initial estimated for the point spread function (PSF). Then, we develop our proposed iterative solutions for AO images restoration, addressing the joint deconvolution issue. The image restoration experiments are performed to verify the image restoration effect of our proposed algorithm. The experimental results show that, compared with the RL-IBD algorithm and Wiener-IBD algorithm, we can see that GMG measures (for real AO image) from our algorithm are increased by 36.92%, and 27.44% respectively, and the computation time are decreased by 7.2%, and 3.4% respectively, and its estimation accuracy is significantly improved.
Maximum-likelihood methods in wavefront sensing: stochastic models and likelihood functions
Barrett, Harrison H.; Dainty, Christopher; Lara, David
2008-01-01
Maximum-likelihood (ML) estimation in wavefront sensing requires careful attention to all noise sources and all factors that influence the sensor data. We present detailed probability density functions for the output of the image detector in a wavefront sensor, conditional not only on wavefront parameters but also on various nuisance parameters. Practical ways of dealing with nuisance parameters are described, and final expressions for likelihoods and Fisher information matrices are derived. The theory is illustrated by discussing Shack–Hartmann sensors, and computational requirements are discussed. Simulation results show that ML estimation can significantly increase the dynamic range of a Shack–Hartmann sensor with four detectors and that it can reduce the residual wavefront error when compared with traditional methods. PMID:17206255
Direct-Solve Image-Based Wavefront Sensing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lyon, Richard G.
2009-01-01
A method of wavefront sensing (more precisely characterized as a method of determining the deviation of a wavefront from a nominal figure) has been invented as an improved means of assessing the performance of an optical system as affected by such imperfections as misalignments, design errors, and fabrication errors. The method is implemented by software running on a single-processor computer that is connected, via a suitable interface, to the image sensor (typically, a charge-coupled device) in the system under test. The software collects a digitized single image from the image sensor. The image is displayed on a computer monitor. The software directly solves for the wavefront in a time interval of a fraction of a second. A picture of the wavefront is displayed. The solution process involves, among other things, fast Fourier transforms. It has been reported to the effect that some measure of the wavefront is decomposed into modes of the optical system under test, but it has not been reported whether this decomposition is postprocessing of the solution or part of the solution process.
Laboratory MCAO Test-Bed for Developing Wavefront Sensing Concepts.
Goncharov, A V; Dainty, J C; Esposito, S; Puglisi, A
2005-07-11
An experimental optical bench test-bed for developing new wavefront sensing concepts for Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO) systems is described. The main objective is to resolve imaging problems associated with wavefront sensing of the atmospheric turbulence for future MCAO systems on Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs). The test-bed incorporates five reference sources, two deformable mirrors (DMs) and atmospheric phase screens to simulate a scaled version of a 10-m adaptive telescope operating at the K band. A recently proposed compact tomographic wavefront sensor is employed for star-oriented DMs control in the MCAO system. The MCAO test-bed is used to verify the feasibility of the wavefront sensing concept utilizing a field lenslet array for multi-pupil imaging on a single detector. First experimental results of MCAO correction with the proposed tomographic wavefront sensor are presented and compared to the theoretical prediction based on the characteristics of the phase screens, actuator density of the DMs and the guide star configuration.
Coletta, Nancy J.; Marcos, Susana; Troilo, David
2012-01-01
The common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus, is a primate model for emmetropization studies. The refractive development of the marmoset eye depends on visual experience, so knowledge of the optical quality of the eye is valuable. We report on the wavefront aberrations of the marmoset eye, measured with a clinical Hartmann-Shack aberrometer (COAS, AMO Wavefront Sciences). Aberrations were measured on both eyes of 23 marmosets whose ages ranged from 18 to 452 days. Twenty-one of the subjects were members of studies of emmetropization and accommodation, and two were untreated normal subjects. Eleven of the 21 experimental subjects had worn monocular diffusers or occluders and ten had worn binocular spectacle lenses of equal power. Monocular deprivation or lens rearing began at about 45 days of age and ended at about 108 days of age. All refractions and aberration measures were performed while the eyes were cyclopleged; most aberration measures were made while subjects were awake, but some control measurements were performed under anesthesia. Wavefront error was expressed as a seventh-order Zernike polynomial expansion, using the Optical Society of America’s naming convention. Aberrations in young marmosets decreased up to about 100 days of age, after which the higher-order RMS aberration leveled off to about 0.10 micron over a 3 mm diameter pupil. Higher-order aberrations were 1.8 times greater when the subjects were under general anesthesia than when they were awake. Young marmoset eyes were characterized by negative spherical aberration. Visually deprived eyes of the monocular deprivation animals had greater wavefront aberrations than their fellow untreated eyes, particularly for asymmetric aberrations in the odd-numbered Zernike orders. Both lens-treated and deprived eyes showed similar significant increases in Z3-3 trefoil aberration, suggesting the increase in trefoil may be related to factors that do not involve visual feedback. PMID:20800078
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Bin; Wei, Yin; Chen, Xinhua; Tang, Minxue
2014-11-01
Membrane mirror with flexible polymer film substrate is a new-concept ultra lightweight mirror for space applications. Compared with traditional mirrors, membrane mirror has the advantages of lightweight, folding and deployable, low cost and etc. Due to the surface shape of flexible membrane mirror is easy to deviate from the design surface shape, it will bring wavefront aberration to the optical system. In order to solve this problem, a method of membrane mirror wavefront aberration correction based on the liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LCSLM) will be studied in this paper. The wavefront aberration correction principle of LCSLM is described and the phase modulation property of a LCSLM is measured and analyzed firstly. Then the membrane mirror wavefront aberration correction system is designed and established according to the optical properties of a membrane mirror. The LCSLM and a Hartmann-Shack sensor are used as a wavefront corrector and a wavefront detector, respectively. The detected wavefront aberration is calculated and converted into voltage value on LCSLM for the mirror wavefront aberration correction by programming in Matlab. When in experiment, the wavefront aberration of a glass plane mirror with a diameter of 70 mm is measured and corrected for verifying the feasibility of the experiment system and the correctness of the program. The PV value and RMS value of distorted wavefront are reduced and near diffraction limited optical performance is achieved. On this basis, the wavefront aberration of the aperture center Φ25 mm in a membrane mirror with a diameter of 200 mm is corrected and the errors are analyzed. It provides a means of correcting the wavefront aberration of membrane mirror.
Common-Path Interferometric Wavefront Sensing for Space Telescopes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wallace, James Kent
2011-01-01
This paper presents an optical configuration for a common-path phase-shifting interferometric wavefront sensor.1 2 This sensor has a host of attractive features which make it well suited for space-based adaptive optics. First, it is strictly reflective and therefore operates broadband, second it is common mode and therefore does not suffer from systematic errors (like vibration) that are typical in other interferometers, third it is a phase-shifting interferometer and therefore benefits from both the sensitivity of interferometric sensors as well as the noise rejection afforded by synchronous detection. Unlike the Shack-Hartman wavefront sensor, it has nearly uniform sensitivity to all pupil modes. Optical configuration, theory and simulations for such a system will be discussed along with predicted performance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zhixiang; Xing, Tingwen; Jiang, Yadong; Lv, Baobin
2018-02-01
A two-dimensional (2-D) shearing interferometer based on an amplitude chessboard grating was designed to measure the wavefront aberration of a high numerical-aperture (NA) objective. Chessboard gratings offer better diffraction efficiencies and fewer disturbing diffraction orders than traditional cross gratings. The wavefront aberration of the tested objective was retrieved from the shearing interferogram using the Fourier transform and differential Zernike polynomial-fitting methods. Grating manufacturing errors, including the duty-cycle and pattern-deviation errors, were analyzed with the Fourier transform method. Then, according to the relation between the spherical pupil and planar detector coordinates, the influence of the distortion of the pupil coordinates was simulated. Finally, the systematic error attributable to grating alignment errors was deduced through the geometrical ray-tracing method. Experimental results indicate that the measuring repeatability (3σ) of the wavefront aberration of an objective with NA 0.4 was 3.4 mλ. The systematic-error results were consistent with previous analyses. Thus, the correct wavefront aberration can be obtained after calibration.
Power maps and wavefront for progressive addition lenses in eyeglass frames.
Mejía, Yobani; Mora, David A; Díaz, Daniel E
2014-10-01
To evaluate a method for measuring the cylinder, sphere, and wavefront of progressive addition lenses (PALs) in eyeglass frames. We examine the contour maps of cylinder, sphere, and wavefront of a PAL assembled in an eyeglass frame using an optical system based on a Hartmann test. To reduce the data noise, particularly in the border of the eyeglass frame, we implement a method based on the Fourier analysis to extrapolate spots outside the eyeglass frame. The spots are extrapolated up to a circular pupil that circumscribes the eyeglass frame and compared with data obtained from a circular uncut PAL. By using the Fourier analysis to extrapolate spots outside the eyeglass frame, we can remove the edge artifacts of the PAL within its frame and implement the modal method to fit wavefront data with Zernike polynomials within a circular aperture that circumscribes the frame. The extrapolated modal maps from framed PALs accurately reflect maps obtained from uncut PALs and provide smoothed maps for the cylinder and sphere inside the eyeglass frame. The proposed method for extrapolating spots outside the eyeglass frame removes edge artifacts of the contour maps (wavefront, cylinder, and sphere), which may be useful to facilitate measurements such as the length and width of the progressive corridor for a PAL in its frame. The method can be applied to any shape of eyeglass frame.
New Objective Refraction Metric Based on Sphere Fitting to the Wavefront
Martínez-Finkelshtein, Andreí
2017-01-01
Purpose To develop an objective refraction formula based on the ocular wavefront error (WFE) expressed in terms of Zernike coefficients and pupil radius, which would be an accurate predictor of subjective spherical equivalent (SE) for different pupil sizes. Methods A sphere is fitted to the ocular wavefront at the center and at a variable distance, t. The optimal fitting distance, topt, is obtained empirically from a dataset of 308 eyes as a function of objective refraction pupil radius, r0, and used to define the formula of a new wavefront refraction metric (MTR). The metric is tested in another, independent dataset of 200 eyes. Results For pupil radii r0 ≤ 2 mm, the new metric predicts the equivalent sphere with similar accuracy (<0.1D), however, for r0 > 2 mm, the mean error of traditional metrics can increase beyond 0.25D, and the MTR remains accurate. The proposed metric allows clinicians to obtain an accurate clinical spherical equivalent value without rescaling/refitting of the wavefront coefficients. It has the potential to be developed into a metric which will be able to predict full spherocylindrical refraction for the desired illumination conditions and corresponding pupil size. PMID:29104804
New Objective Refraction Metric Based on Sphere Fitting to the Wavefront.
Jaskulski, Mateusz; Martínez-Finkelshtein, Andreí; López-Gil, Norberto
2017-01-01
To develop an objective refraction formula based on the ocular wavefront error (WFE) expressed in terms of Zernike coefficients and pupil radius, which would be an accurate predictor of subjective spherical equivalent (SE) for different pupil sizes. A sphere is fitted to the ocular wavefront at the center and at a variable distance, t . The optimal fitting distance, t opt , is obtained empirically from a dataset of 308 eyes as a function of objective refraction pupil radius, r 0 , and used to define the formula of a new wavefront refraction metric (MTR). The metric is tested in another, independent dataset of 200 eyes. For pupil radii r 0 ≤ 2 mm, the new metric predicts the equivalent sphere with similar accuracy (<0.1D), however, for r 0 > 2 mm, the mean error of traditional metrics can increase beyond 0.25D, and the MTR remains accurate. The proposed metric allows clinicians to obtain an accurate clinical spherical equivalent value without rescaling/refitting of the wavefront coefficients. It has the potential to be developed into a metric which will be able to predict full spherocylindrical refraction for the desired illumination conditions and corresponding pupil size.
Bimorph deformable mirror: an appropriate wavefront corrector for retinal imaging?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laut, Sophie; Jones, Steve; Park, Hyunkyu; Horsley, David A.; Olivier, Scot; Werner, John S.
2005-11-01
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of a bimorph deformable mirror from AOptix, inserted into an adaptive optics system designed for in-vivo retinal imaging at high resolution. We wanted to determine its suitability as a wavefront corrector for vision science and ophthalmological instrumentation. We presented results obtained in a closed-loop system, and compared them with previous open-loop performance measurements. Our goal was to obtain precise wavefront reconstruction with rapid convergence of the control algorithm. The quality of the reconstruction was expressed in terms of root-mean-squared wavefront residual error (RMS), and number of frames required to perform compensation. Our instrument used a Hartmann-Shack sensor for the wavefront measurements. We also determined the precision and ability of the deformable mirror to compensate the most common types of aberrations present in the human eye (defocus, cylinder, astigmatism and coma), and the quality of its correction, in terms of maximum amplitude of the corrected wavefront. In addition to wavefront correction, we had also used the closed-loop system to generate an arbitrary aberration pattern by entering the desired Hartmann-Shack centroid locations as input to the AO controller. These centroid locations were computed in Matlab for a user-defined aberration pattern, allowing us to test the ability of the DM to generate and compensate for various aberrations. We conclude that this device, in combination with another DM based on Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology, may provide better compensation of the higher-order ocular wavefront aberrations of the human eye
Multiple Spatial Frequencies Pyramid WaveFront Sensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ragazzoni, Roberto; Vassallo, Daniele; Dima, Marco; Portaluri, Elisa; Bergomi, Maria; Greggio, Davide; Viotto, Valentina; Gullieuszik, Marco; Biondi, Federico; Carolo, Elena; Chinellato, Simonetta; Farinato, Jacopo; Magrin, Demetrio; Marafatto, Luca
2017-11-01
A modification of the pyramid wavefront sensor is described. In this conceptually new class of devices, the perturbations are split at the level of the focal plane depending upon their spatial frequencies, and then measured separately. The aim of this approach is to increase the accuracy in the determination of some range of spatial frequency perturbations, or a certain classes of modes, disentangling them from the noise associated to the Poissonian fluctuations of the light coming from the perturbations outside of the range of interest or from the background in the pupil planes; the latter case specifically when the pyramid wavefront sensor is used with a large modulation. While the limits and the effectiveness of this approach should be further investigated, a number of variations on the concept are shown, including a generalization of the spatial filtering in the point-diffraction wavefront sensor. The simplest application, a generalization to the pyramid of the well-known spatially filtering in wavefront sensing, is showing promise as a significant limiting magnitude advance. Applications are further speculated in the area of extreme adaptive optics and when serving spectroscopic instrumentation where “light in the bucket” rather than Strehl performance is required.
FPGA-accelerated adaptive optics wavefront control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mauch, S.; Reger, J.; Reinlein, C.; Appelfelder, M.; Goy, M.; Beckert, E.; Tünnermann, A.
2014-03-01
The speed of real-time adaptive optical systems is primarily restricted by the data processing hardware and computational aspects. Furthermore, the application of mirror layouts with increasing numbers of actuators reduces the bandwidth (speed) of the system and, thus, the number of applicable control algorithms. This burden turns out a key-impediment for deformable mirrors with continuous mirror surface and highly coupled actuator influence functions. In this regard, specialized hardware is necessary for high performance real-time control applications. Our approach to overcome this challenge is an adaptive optics system based on a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWFS) with a CameraLink interface. The data processing is based on a high performance Intel Core i7 Quadcore hard real-time Linux system. Employing a Xilinx Kintex-7 FPGA, an own developed PCie card is outlined in order to accelerate the analysis of a Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensor. A recently developed real-time capable spot detection algorithm evaluates the wavefront. The main features of the presented system are the reduction of latency and the acceleration of computation For example, matrix multiplications which in general are of complexity O(n3 are accelerated by using the DSP48 slices of the field-programmable gate array (FPGA) as well as a novel hardware implementation of the SHWFS algorithm. Further benefits are the Streaming SIMD Extensions (SSE) which intensively use the parallelization capability of the processor for further reducing the latency and increasing the bandwidth of the closed-loop. Due to this approach, up to 64 actuators of a deformable mirror can be handled and controlled without noticeable restriction from computational burdens.
Wavefront optimized nonlinear microscopy of ex vivo human retinas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gualda, Emilio J.; Bueno, Juan M.; Artal, Pablo
2010-03-01
A multiphoton microscope incorporating a Hartmann-Shack (HS) wavefront sensor to control the ultrafast laser beam's wavefront aberrations has been developed. This instrument allowed us to investigate the impact of the laser beam aberrations on two-photon autofluorescence imaging of human retinal tissues. We demonstrated that nonlinear microscopy images are improved when laser beam aberrations are minimized by realigning the laser system cavity while wavefront controlling. Nonlinear signals from several human retinal anatomical features have been detected for the first time, without the need of fixation or staining procedures. Beyond the improved image quality, this approach reduces the required excitation power levels, minimizing the side effects of phototoxicity within the imaged sample. In particular, this may be important to study the physiology and function of the healthy and diseased retina.
Wavefront sensing with all-digital Stokes measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dudley, Angela; Milione, Giovanni; Alfano, Robert R.; Forbes, Andrew
2014-09-01
A long-standing question in optics has been to efficiently measure the phase (or wavefront) of an optical field. This has led to numerous publications and commercial devices such as phase shift interferometry, wavefront reconstruction via modal decomposition and Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors. In this work we develop a new technique to extract the phase which in contrast to previously mentioned methods is based on polarization (or Stokes) measurements. We outline a simple, all-digital approach using only a spatial light modulator and a polarization grating to exploit the amplitude and phase relationship between the orthogonal states of polarization to determine the phase of an optical field. We implement this technique to reconstruct the phase of static and propagating optical vortices.
JWST Wavefront Control Toolbox
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shin, Shahram Ron; Aronstein, David L.
2011-01-01
A Matlab-based toolbox has been developed for the wavefront control and optimization of segmented optical surfaces to correct for possible misalignments of James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) using influence functions. The toolbox employs both iterative and non-iterative methods to converge to an optimal solution by minimizing the cost function. The toolbox could be used in either of constrained and unconstrained optimizations. The control process involves 1 to 7 degrees-of-freedom perturbations per segment of primary mirror in addition to the 5 degrees of freedom of secondary mirror. The toolbox consists of a series of Matlab/Simulink functions and modules, developed based on a "wrapper" approach, that handles the interface and data flow between existing commercial optical modeling software packages such as Zemax and Code V. The limitations of the algorithm are dictated by the constraints of the moving parts in the mirrors.
Influence of wave-front sampling in adaptive optics retinal imaging
Laslandes, Marie; Salas, Matthias; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.; Pircher, Michael
2017-01-01
A wide range of sampling densities of the wave-front has been used in retinal adaptive optics (AO) instruments, compared to the number of corrector elements. We developed a model in order to characterize the link between number of actuators, number of wave-front sampling points and AO correction performance. Based on available data from aberration measurements in the human eye, 1000 wave-fronts were generated for the simulations. The AO correction performance in the presence of these representative aberrations was simulated for different deformable mirror and Shack Hartmann wave-front sensor combinations. Predictions of the model were experimentally tested through in vivo measurements in 10 eyes including retinal imaging with an AO scanning laser ophthalmoscope. According to our study, a ratio between wavefront sampling points and actuator elements of 2 is sufficient to achieve high resolution in vivo images of photoreceptors. PMID:28271004
Wavefront attributes in anisotropic media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanelle, C.; Abakumov, I.; Gajewski, D.
2018-07-01
Surface-measured wavefront attributes are the key ingredient to multiparameter methods, which are nowadays standard tools in seismic data processing. However, most operators are restricted to application to isotropic media. Whereas application of an isotropic operator will still lead to satisfactory stack results, further processing steps that interpret isotropic stacking parameters in terms of wavefront attributes will lead to erroneous results if anisotropy is present but not accounted for. In this paper, we derive relationships between the stacking parameters and anisotropic wavefront attributes that allow us to apply the common reflection surface type operator to 3-D media with arbitrary anisotropy for the zero-offset and finite-offset configurations including converted waves. The operator itself is expressed in terms of wavefront attributes that are measured in the acquisition surface, that is, no model assumptions are made. Numerical results confirm that the accuracy of the new anisotropic operator is of the same magnitude as that of its isotropic counterpart.
Initial Demonstration of Mercury Wavefront Correction System
Liao, Z M
2006-02-01
High average power operation of the Mercury Laser induces dynamic aberrations to the laser beam wavefront. Analysis of recent data indicates that up to 4 waves of low order aberration (mainly focus error or power, with spatial resolution < 0.5 cm{sup -1}) could be expected at each pass. Because of the magnitude of the wavefront error, the logical position is to place a deformable mirror (DM) at the M11 position, where the DM will correct the beam between passes 1 & 2 and 3 & 4. Currently, there are only two established commercial vendors offering complete adaptive optic (AO) systemsmore » that can accommodate the Mercury beam size (45 x 75 mm) which are compatible with high damage threshold coatings. Xinetics (MA, USA) offers a complete AO system along with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. The Xinetics DM is based on lead magnesium niobate (PMN) technology. A number of US aerospace firms as well as NIF use Xinetics PMN technology for their DMs. Phasics (Paris, France) offers a complete AO solution with its proprietary SID-4, a four-way shearing interferometric wavefront sensor capable of high resolution (over 100 x 100 sampling points). The Phasics system includes a bimorph deformable mirror from Night-n-Opt (Moscow, Russia) that uses lead zirconate titanate (PZT) technology. Various high power laser laboratories around the world such as LULI (France), HELEN (UK), and GEKKO (Japan) are using the PZT-based bimorph DM in their system. While both DM technologies are equivalent and have been deployed in high-energy laser systems, the PZT based bimorph DM offers two distinct features that makes it more attractive for high average power laser systems. The bimorph DM uses two layers of PZT actuators with the outer layer acting as power correctors, capable of correcting up to 20 waves of power. The Xinetics DM offers a maximum stroke of 4 waves. In addition, Night-N-Opt has also designed a water-cooled DM with a silicon based substrate (as opposed to a glass substrate
A parallel implementation of 3D Zernike moment analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berjón, Daniel; Arnaldo, Sergio; Morán, Francisco
2011-01-01
Zernike polynomials are a well known set of functions that find many applications in image or pattern characterization because they allow to construct shape descriptors that are invariant against translations, rotations or scale changes. The concepts behind them can be extended to higher dimension spaces, making them also fit to describe volumetric data. They have been less used than their properties might suggest due to their high computational cost. We present a parallel implementation of 3D Zernike moments analysis, written in C with CUDA extensions, which makes it practical to employ Zernike descriptors in interactive applications, yielding a performance of several frames per second in voxel datasets about 2003 in size. In our contribution, we describe the challenges of implementing 3D Zernike analysis in a general-purpose GPU. These include how to deal with numerical inaccuracies, due to the high precision demands of the algorithm, or how to deal with the high volume of input data so that it does not become a bottleneck for the system.
Weighted spline based integration for reconstruction of freeform wavefront.
Pant, Kamal K; Burada, Dali R; Bichra, Mohamed; Ghosh, Amitava; Khan, Gufran S; Sinzinger, Stefan; Shakher, Chandra
2018-02-10
In the present work, a spline-based integration technique for the reconstruction of a freeform wavefront from the slope data has been implemented. The slope data of a freeform surface contain noise due to their machining process and that introduces reconstruction error. We have proposed a weighted cubic spline based least square integration method (WCSLI) for the faithful reconstruction of a wavefront from noisy slope data. In the proposed method, the measured slope data are fitted into a piecewise polynomial. The fitted coefficients are determined by using a smoothing cubic spline fitting method. The smoothing parameter locally assigns relative weight to the fitted slope data. The fitted slope data are then integrated using the standard least squares technique to reconstruct the freeform wavefront. Simulation studies show the improved result using the proposed technique as compared to the existing cubic spline-based integration (CSLI) and the Southwell methods. The proposed reconstruction method has been experimentally implemented to a subaperture stitching-based measurement of a freeform wavefront using a scanning Shack-Hartmann sensor. The boundary artifacts are minimal in WCSLI which improves the subaperture stitching accuracy and demonstrates an improved Shack-Hartmann sensor for freeform metrology application.
Iterative wave-front reconstruction in the Fourier domain.
Bond, Charlotte Z; Correia, Carlos M; Sauvage, Jean-François; Neichel, Benoit; Fusco, Thierry
2017-05-15
The use of Fourier methods in wave-front reconstruction can significantly reduce the computation time for large telescopes with a high number of degrees of freedom. However, Fourier algorithms for discrete data require a rectangular data set which conform to specific boundary requirements, whereas wave-front sensor data is typically defined over a circular domain (the telescope pupil). Here we present an iterative Gerchberg routine modified for the purposes of discrete wave-front reconstruction which adapts the measurement data (wave-front sensor slopes) for Fourier analysis, fulfilling the requirements of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and providing accurate reconstruction. The routine is used in the adaptation step only and can be coupled to any other Wiener-like or least-squares method. We compare simulations using this method with previous Fourier methods and show an increase in performance in terms of Strehl ratio and a reduction in noise propagation for a 40×40 SPHERE-like adaptive optics system. For closed loop operation with minimal iterations the Gerchberg method provides an improvement in Strehl, from 95.4% to 96.9% in K-band. This corresponds to ~ 40 nm improvement in rms, and avoids the high spatial frequency errors present in other methods, providing an increase in contrast towards the edge of the correctable band.
Wavefront Derived Refraction and Full Eye Biometry in Pseudophakic Eyes
Mao, Xinjie; Banta, James T.; Ke, Bilian; Jiang, Hong; He, Jichang; Liu, Che; Wang, Jianhua
2016-01-01
Purpose To assess wavefront derived refraction and full eye biometry including ciliary muscle dimension and full eye axial geometry in pseudophakic eyes using spectral domain OCT equipped with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. Methods Twenty-eight adult subjects (32 pseudophakic eyes) having recently undergone cataract surgery were enrolled in this study. A custom system combining two optical coherence tomography systems with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor was constructed to image and monitor changes in whole eye biometry, the ciliary muscle and ocular aberration in the pseudophakic eye. A Badal optical channel and a visual target aligning with the wavefront sensor were incorporated into the system for measuring the wavefront-derived refraction. The imaging acquisition was performed twice. The coefficients of repeatability (CoR) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated. Results Images were acquired and processed successfully in all patients. No significant difference was detected between repeated measurements of ciliary muscle dimension, full-eye biometry or defocus aberration. The CoR of full-eye biometry ranged from 0.36% to 3.04% and the ICC ranged from 0.981 to 0.999. The CoR for ciliary muscle dimensions ranged from 12.2% to 41.6% and the ICC ranged from 0.767 to 0.919. The defocus aberrations of the two measurements were 0.443 ± 0.534 D and 0.447 ± 0.586 D and the ICC was 0.951. Conclusions The combined system is capable of measuring full eye biometry and refraction with good repeatability. The system is suitable for future investigation of pseudoaccommodation in the pseudophakic eye. PMID:27010674
Wavefront Derived Refraction and Full Eye Biometry in Pseudophakic Eyes.
Mao, Xinjie; Banta, James T; Ke, Bilian; Jiang, Hong; He, Jichang; Liu, Che; Wang, Jianhua
2016-01-01
To assess wavefront derived refraction and full eye biometry including ciliary muscle dimension and full eye axial geometry in pseudophakic eyes using spectral domain OCT equipped with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. Twenty-eight adult subjects (32 pseudophakic eyes) having recently undergone cataract surgery were enrolled in this study. A custom system combining two optical coherence tomography systems with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor was constructed to image and monitor changes in whole eye biometry, the ciliary muscle and ocular aberration in the pseudophakic eye. A Badal optical channel and a visual target aligning with the wavefront sensor were incorporated into the system for measuring the wavefront-derived refraction. The imaging acquisition was performed twice. The coefficients of repeatability (CoR) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated. Images were acquired and processed successfully in all patients. No significant difference was detected between repeated measurements of ciliary muscle dimension, full-eye biometry or defocus aberration. The CoR of full-eye biometry ranged from 0.36% to 3.04% and the ICC ranged from 0.981 to 0.999. The CoR for ciliary muscle dimensions ranged from 12.2% to 41.6% and the ICC ranged from 0.767 to 0.919. The defocus aberrations of the two measurements were 0.443 ± 0.534 D and 0.447 ± 0.586 D and the ICC was 0.951. The combined system is capable of measuring full eye biometry and refraction with good repeatability. The system is suitable for future investigation of pseudoaccommodation in the pseudophakic eye.
Sequential deconvolution from wave-front sensing using bivariate simplex splines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Shiping; Zhang, Rongzhi; Li, Jisheng; Zou, Jianhua; Xu, Rong; Liu, Changhai
2015-05-01
Deconvolution from wave-front sensing (DWFS) is an imaging compensation technique for turbulence degraded images based on simultaneous recording of short exposure images and wave-front sensor data. This paper employs the multivariate splines method for the sequential DWFS: a bivariate simplex splines based average slopes measurement model is built firstly for Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor; next, a well-conditioned least squares estimator for the spline coefficients is constructed using multiple Shack-Hartmann measurements; then, the distorted wave-front is uniquely determined by the estimated spline coefficients; the object image is finally obtained by non-blind deconvolution processing. Simulated experiments in different turbulence strength show that our method performs superior image restoration results and noise rejection capability especially when extracting the multidirectional phase derivatives.
Wavefront correction by target-phase-locking technology in a 500 TW laser facility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, D. E.; Dai, W. J.; Zhou, K. N.; Su, J. Q.; Xue, Q.; Yuan, Q.; Zhang, X.; Deng, X. W.; Yang, Y.; Wang, Y. C.; Xie, N.; Sun, L.; Hu, D. X.; Zhu, Q. H.
2017-03-01
We demonstrate a novel approach termed target-phase-locking that could improve the entire beam wavefront quality of a 500 TW Nd3+:phosphate glass laser facility. The thermal and static wavefront from front-end to target is corrected by using one deformable mirror that receives feedback from both the focal-spot sensor and wavefront sensor, and only the main laser of the laser system is employed in the correction process, with auxiliary calibration light no longer necessary. As a result, a static focal spot with full width at half maximum of 8.87 × 5.74 µm is achieved, the thermal wavefront induced by flash-lamp-pumped Nd3+:phosphate glass is compensated with PV from 3.54-0.43 µm, and a dynamic focal spot with intensity exceeding 1020 W cm-2 is precisely predicted at the target with such an approach.
Wavefront cellular learning automata.
Moradabadi, Behnaz; Meybodi, Mohammad Reza
2018-02-01
This paper proposes a new cellular learning automaton, called a wavefront cellular learning automaton (WCLA). The proposed WCLA has a set of learning automata mapped to a connected structure and uses this structure to propagate the state changes of the learning automata over the structure using waves. In the WCLA, after one learning automaton chooses its action, if this chosen action is different from the previous action, it can send a wave to its neighbors and activate them. Each neighbor receiving the wave is activated and must choose a new action. This structure for the WCLA is necessary in many dynamic areas such as social networks, computer networks, grid computing, and web mining. In this paper, we introduce the WCLA framework as an optimization tool with diffusion capability, study its behavior over time using ordinary differential equation solutions, and present its accuracy using expediency analysis. To show the superiority of the proposed WCLA, we compare the proposed method with some other types of cellular learning automata using two benchmark problems.
Wavefront cellular learning automata
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moradabadi, Behnaz; Meybodi, Mohammad Reza
2018-02-01
This paper proposes a new cellular learning automaton, called a wavefront cellular learning automaton (WCLA). The proposed WCLA has a set of learning automata mapped to a connected structure and uses this structure to propagate the state changes of the learning automata over the structure using waves. In the WCLA, after one learning automaton chooses its action, if this chosen action is different from the previous action, it can send a wave to its neighbors and activate them. Each neighbor receiving the wave is activated and must choose a new action. This structure for the WCLA is necessary in many dynamic areas such as social networks, computer networks, grid computing, and web mining. In this paper, we introduce the WCLA framework as an optimization tool with diffusion capability, study its behavior over time using ordinary differential equation solutions, and present its accuracy using expediency analysis. To show the superiority of the proposed WCLA, we compare the proposed method with some other types of cellular learning automata using two benchmark problems.
Hybrid Architecture Active Wavefront Sensing and Control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Feinberg, Lee; Dean, Bruce; Hyde, Tupper
2010-01-01
A method was developed for performing relatively high-speed wavefront sensing and control to overcome thermal instabilities in a segmented primary mirror telescope [e.g., James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) at L2], by using the onboard fine guidance sensor (FGS) to minimize expense and complexity. This FGS performs centroiding on a bright star to feed the information to the pointing and control system. The proposed concept is to beam split the image of the guide star (or use a single defocused guide star image) to perform wavefront sensing using phase retrieval techniques. Using the fine guidance sensor star image for guiding and fine phasing eliminates the need for other, more complex ways of achieving very accurate sensing and control that is needed for UV-optical applications. The phase retrieval occurs nearly constantly, so passive thermal stability over fourteen days is not required. Using the FGS as the sensor, one can feed segment update information to actuators on the primary mirror that can update the primary mirror segment fine phasing with this frequency. Because the thermal time constants of the primary mirror are very slow compared to this duration, the mirror will appear extremely stable during observations (to the level of accuracy of the sensing and control). The sensing can use the same phase retrieval techniques as the JWST by employing an additional beam splitter, and having each channel go through a weak lens (one positive and one negative). The channels can use common or separate detectors. Phase retrieval can be performed onboard. The actuation scheme would include a coarse stage able to achieve initial alignment of several millimeters of range (similar to JWST and can use a JWST heritage sensing approach in the science camera) and a fine stage capable of continual updates.
Estimate Low and High Order Wavefront Using P1640 Calibrator Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhai, C.; Vasisht, G.; Shao, M.; Lockhart, T.; Cady, E.; Oppenheimer, B.; Burruss, R.; Roberts, J.; Beichman, C.; Brenner, D.;
2013-01-01
P1640 high contrast imaging system on the Palomar 200 inch Telescope consists of an apodized-pupil Lyot coronagraph, the PALM-3000 adaptive optics (P3K-AO), and P1640 Calibrator (CAL). Science images are recorded by an integral field spectrograph covering J-H bands for detecting and characterizing stellar companions. With aberrations from atmosphere corrected by the P3K-AO, instrument performance is limited mainly by the quasi-static speckles due to noncommon path wavefront aberrations for the light to propagate to the P3K-AO wavefront sensor and to the coronagraph mask. The non-common path wavefront aberrations are sensed by CAL, which measures the post-coronagraph E-field using interferometry, and can be effectively corrected by offsetting the P3K-AO deformable mirror target position accordingly. Previously, we have demonstrated using CAL measurements to correct high order wavefront aberrations, which is directly connected to the static speckles in the image plane. Low order wavefront, on the other hand, usually of larger amplitudes, causes light to leak through the coronagraph making the whole image plane brighter. Knowledge error in low order wavefront aberrations can also affect the estimation of the high order wavefront. Even though, CAL is designed to sense efficiently high order wavefront aberrations, the low order wavefront front can be inferred with less sensitivity. Here, we describe our method for estimating both low and high order wavefront aberrations using CAL measurements by propagating the post-coronagraph E-field to a pupil before the coronagraph. We present the results from applying this method to both simulated and experiment data.
Zonal wavefront sensing using a grating array printed on a polyester film
Pathak, Biswajit; Boruah, Bosanta R., E-mail: brboruah@iitg.ernet.in; Kumar, Suraj
2015-12-15
In this paper, we describe the development of a zonal wavefront sensor that comprises an array of binary diffraction gratings realized on a transparent sheet (i.e., polyester film) followed by a focusing lens and a camera. The sensor works in a manner similar to that of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. The fabrication of the array of gratings is immune to certain issues associated with the fabrication of the lenslet array which is commonly used in zonal wavefront sensing. Besides the sensing method offers several important advantages such as flexible dynamic range, easy configurability, and option to enhance the sensing framemore » rate. Here, we have demonstrated the working of the proposed sensor using a proof-of-principle experimental arrangement.« less
Zonal wavefront sensing using a grating array printed on a polyester film
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pathak, Biswajit; Kumar, Suraj; Boruah, Bosanta R.
2015-12-01
In this paper, we describe the development of a zonal wavefront sensor that comprises an array of binary diffraction gratings realized on a transparent sheet (i.e., polyester film) followed by a focusing lens and a camera. The sensor works in a manner similar to that of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. The fabrication of the array of gratings is immune to certain issues associated with the fabrication of the lenslet array which is commonly used in zonal wavefront sensing. Besides the sensing method offers several important advantages such as flexible dynamic range, easy configurability, and option to enhance the sensing frame rate. Here, we have demonstrated the working of the proposed sensor using a proof-of-principle experimental arrangement.
Experimental study of an off-axis three mirror anastigmatic system with wavefront coding technology.
Yan, Feng; Tao, Xiaoping
2012-04-10
Wavefront coding (WFC) is a kind of computational imaging technique that controls defocus and defocus related aberrations of optical systems by introducing a specially designed phase distribution to the pupil function. This technology has been applied in many imaging systems to improve performance and/or reduce cost. The application of WFC technology in an off-axis three mirror anastigmatic (TMA) system has been proposed, and the design and optimization of optics, the restoration of degraded images, and the manufacturing of wavefront coded elements have been researched in our previous work. In this paper, we describe the alignment, the imaging experiment, and the image restoration of the off-axis TMA system with WFC technology. The ideal wavefront map is set to be the system error of the interferometer to simplify the assembly, and the coefficients of certain Zernike polynomials are monitored to verify the result in the alignment process. A pinhole of 20 μm diameter and the third plate of WT1005-62 resolution patterns are selected as the targets in the imaging experiment. The comparison of the tail lengths of point spread functions is represented to show the invariance of the image quality in the extended depth of focus. The structure similarity is applied to estimate the relationship among the captured images with varying defocus. We conclude that the experiment results agree with the earlier theoretical analysis.
Zernike analysis of all-sky night brightness maps.
Bará, Salvador; Nievas, Miguel; Sánchez de Miguel, Alejandro; Zamorano, Jaime
2014-04-20
All-sky night brightness maps (calibrated images of the night sky with hemispherical field-of-view (FOV) taken at standard photometric bands) provide useful data to assess the light pollution levels at any ground site. We show that these maps can be efficiently described and analyzed using Zernike circle polynomials. The relevant image information can be compressed into a low-dimensional coefficients vector, giving an analytical expression for the sky brightness and alleviating the effects of noise. Moreover, the Zernike expansions allow us to quantify in a straightforward way the average and zenithal sky brightness and its variation across the FOV, providing a convenient framework to study the time course of these magnitudes. We apply this framework to analyze the results of a one-year campaign of night sky brightness measurements made at the UCM observatory in Madrid.
Detection of Copy-Rotate-Move Forgery Using Zernike Moments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryu, Seung-Jin; Lee, Min-Jeong; Lee, Heung-Kyu
As forgeries have become popular, the importance of forgery detection is much increased. Copy-move forgery, one of the most commonly used methods, copies a part of the image and pastes it into another part of the the image. In this paper, we propose a detection method of copy-move forgery that localizes duplicated regions using Zernike moments. Since the magnitude of Zernike moments is algebraically invariant against rotation, the proposed method can detect a forged region even though it is rotated. Our scheme is also resilient to the intentional distortions such as additive white Gaussian noise, JPEG compression, and blurring. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme is appropriate to identify the forged region by copy-rotate-move forgery.
Ligand Electron Density Shape Recognition Using 3D Zernike Descriptors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gunasekaran, Prasad; Grandison, Scott; Cowtan, Kevin; Mak, Lora; Lawson, David M.; Morris, Richard J.
We present a novel approach to crystallographic ligand density interpretation based on Zernike shape descriptors. Electron density for a bound ligand is expanded in an orthogonal polynomial series (3D Zernike polynomials) and the coefficients from this expansion are employed to construct rotation-invariant descriptors. These descriptors can be compared highly efficiently against large databases of descriptors computed from other molecules. In this manuscript we describe this process and show initial results from an electron density interpretation study on a dataset containing over a hundred OMIT maps. We could identify the correct ligand as the first hit in about 30 % of the cases, within the top five in a further 30 % of the cases, and giving rise to an 80 % probability of getting the correct ligand within the top ten matches. In all but a few examples, the top hit was highly similar to the correct ligand in both shape and chemistry. Further extensions and intrinsic limitations of the method are discussed.
Parallel Implementation of a Frozen Flow Based Wavefront Reconstructor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagy, J.; Kelly, K.
2013-09-01
Obtaining high resolution images of space objects from ground based telescopes is challenging, often requiring the use of a multi-frame blind deconvolution (MFBD) algorithm to remove blur caused by atmospheric turbulence. In order for an MFBD algorithm to be effective, it is necessary to obtain a good initial estimate of the wavefront phase. Although wavefront sensors work well in low turbulence situations, they are less effective in high turbulence, such as when imaging in daylight, or when imaging objects that are close to the Earth's horizon. One promising approach, which has been shown to work very well in high turbulence settings, uses a frozen flow assumption on the atmosphere to capture the inherent temporal correlations present in consecutive frames of wavefront data. Exploiting these correlations can lead to more accurate estimation of the wavefront phase, and the associated PSF, which leads to more effective MFBD algorithms. However, with the current serial implementation, the approach can be prohibitively expensive in situations when it is necessary to use a large number of frames. In this poster we describe a parallel implementation that overcomes this constraint. The parallel implementation exploits sparse matrix computations, and uses the Trilinos package developed at Sandia National Laboratories. Trilinos provides a variety of core mathematical software for parallel architectures that have been designed using high quality software engineering practices, The package is open source, and portable to a variety of high-performance computing architectures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Dai; Hao, Shiqi; Zhao, Qingsong; Zhao, Qi; Wang, Lei; Wan, Xiongfeng
2018-03-01
Existing wavefront reconstruction methods are usually low in resolution, restricted by structure characteristics of the Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor (SH WFS) and the deformable mirror (DM) in the adaptive optics (AO) system, thus, resulting in weak homodyne detection efficiency for free space optical (FSO) communication. In order to solve this problem, we firstly validate the feasibility of liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LC SLM) using in an AO system. Then, wavefront reconstruction method based on wavelet fractal interpolation is proposed after self-similarity analysis of wavefront distortion caused by atmospheric turbulence. Fast wavelet decomposition is operated to multiresolution analyze the wavefront phase spectrum, during which soft threshold denoising is carried out. The resolution of estimated wavefront phase is then improved by fractal interpolation. Finally, fast wavelet reconstruction is taken to recover wavefront phase. Simulation results reflect the superiority of our method in homodyne detection. Compared with minimum variance estimation (MVE) method based on interpolation techniques, the proposed method could obtain superior homodyne detection efficiency with lower operation complexity. Our research findings have theoretical significance in the design of coherent FSO communication system.
Wavefront aberrations of x-ray dynamical diffraction beams.
Liao, Keliang; Hong, Youli; Sheng, Weifan
2014-10-01
The effects of dynamical diffraction in x-ray diffractive optics with large numerical aperture render the wavefront aberrations difficult to describe using the aberration polynomials, yet knowledge of them plays an important role in a vast variety of scientific problems ranging from optical testing to adaptive optics. Although the diffraction theory of optical aberrations was established decades ago, its application in the area of x-ray dynamical diffraction theory (DDT) is still lacking. Here, we conduct a theoretical study on the aberration properties of x-ray dynamical diffraction beams. By treating the modulus of the complex envelope as the amplitude weight function in the orthogonalization procedure, we generalize the nonrecursive matrix method for the determination of orthonormal aberration polynomials, wherein Zernike DDT and Legendre DDT polynomials are proposed. As an example, we investigate the aberration evolution inside a tilted multilayer Laue lens. The corresponding Legendre DDT polynomials are obtained numerically, which represent balanced aberrations yielding minimum variance of the classical aberrations of an anamorphic optical system. The balancing of classical aberrations and their standard deviations are discussed. We also present the Strehl ratio of the primary and secondary balanced aberrations.
Wavefront control of large optical systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meinel, Aden B.; Meinel, Marjorie P.; Breckinridge, J. B.
1990-01-01
Several levels of wavefront control are necessary for the optimum performance of very large telescopes, especially segmented ones like the Large Deployable Reflector. In general, the major contributors to wavefront error are the segments of the large primary mirror. Wavefront control at the largest optical surface may not be the optimum choice because of the mass and inaccessibility of the elements of this surface that require upgrading. The concept of two-stage optics was developed to permit a poor wavefront from the large optics to be upgraded by means of a wavefront corrector at a small exit pupil of the system.
Precipitate shape fitting and reconstruction by means of 3D Zernike functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Callahan, P. G.; De Graef, M.
2012-01-01
3D Zernike functions are defined and used for the reconstruction of precipitate shapes. These functions are orthogonal over the unit ball and allow for an arbitrary shape, scaled to fit inside an embedding sphere, to be decomposed into 3D harmonics. Explicit expressions are given for the general Zernike moments, correcting typographical errors in the literature. Explicit expressions of the Zernike moments for the ellipsoid and the cube are given. The 3D Zernike functions and moments are applied to the reconstruction of γ' precipitate shapes in two Ni-based superalloys, one with nearly cuboidal precipitate shapes, and one with more complex dendritic shapes.
Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing based on binary-aberration-mode filtering.
Wang, Shuai; Yang, Ping; Xu, Bing; Dong, Lizhi; Ao, Mingwu
2015-02-23
Spot centroid detection is required by Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing since the technique was first proposed. For a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, the standard structure is to place a camera behind a lenslet array to record the image of spots. We proposed a new Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing technique without using spot centroid detection. Based on the principle of binary-aberration-mode filtering, for each subaperture, only one light-detecting unit is used to measure the local wavefront slopes. It is possible to adopt single detectors in Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. Thereby, the method is able to gain noise benefits from using singe detectors behind each subaperture when used for sensing rapid varying wavefront in weak light. Moreover, due to non-discrete pixel imaging, this method is a potential solution for high measurement precision with fewer detecting units. Our simulations demonstrate the validity of the theoretical model. In addition, the results also indicate the advantage in measurement accuracy.
Single-Grating Talbot Imaging for Wavefront Sensing and X-Ray Metrology
Grizolli, Walan; Shi, Xianbo; Kolodziej, Tomasz
2017-01-01
Single-grating Talbot imaging relies on high-spatial-resolution detectors to perform accurate measurements of X-ray beam wavefronts. The wavefront can be retrieved with a single image, and a typical measurement and data analysis can be performed in few seconds. These qualities make it an ideal tool for synchrotron beamline diagnostics and in-situ metrology. The wavefront measurement can be used both to obtain a phase contrast image of an object and to characterize an X-ray beam. In this work, we explore the concept in two cases: at-wavelength metrology of 2D parabolic beryllium lenses and a wavefront sensor using a diamond crystal beam splitter.
Extended use of two crossed Babinet compensators for wavefront sensing in adaptive optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paul, Lancelot; Kumar Saxena, Ajay
2010-12-01
An extended use of two crossed Babinet compensators as a wavefront sensor for adaptive optics applications is proposed. This method is based on the lateral shearing interferometry technique in two directions. A single record of the fringes in a pupil plane provides the information about the wavefront. The theoretical simulations based on this approach for various atmospheric conditions and other errors of optical surfaces are provided for better understanding of this method. Derivation of the results from a laboratory experiment using simulated atmospheric conditions demonstrates the steps involved in data analysis and wavefront evaluation. It is shown that this method has a higher degree of freedom in terms of subapertures and on the choice of detectors, and can be suitably adopted for real-time wavefront sensing for adaptive optics.
He, Ji C; Wang, Jianhua
2014-04-21
To quantitatively approach the relationship between optical changes in an accommodated eye and the geometrical deformation of its crystalline lens, a long scan-depth anterior segment OCT equipped wavefront sensor was developed and integrated with a Badal system. With this system, accommodation was stimulated up to 6.0D in the left eye and also measured in the same eye for three subjects. High correlations between the accommodative responses of refractive power and the radius of the anterior lens surface were found for the three subjects (r>0.98). The change in spherical aberration was also highly correlated with the change in lens thickness (r>0.98). The measurement was very well repeated at a 2nd measurement session on the same day for the three subjects and after two weeks for one subject. The novelty of incorporating the Badal system into the OCT equipped wavefront sensor eliminated axial misalignment of the measurement system with the test eye due to accommodative vergence, as in the contralateral paradigm. The design also allowed the wavefront sensor to capture conjugated sharp Hartmann-Shack images in accommodated eyes to accurately analyze wavefront aberrations. In addition, this design extended the accommodation range up to 10.0D. By using this system, for the first time, we demonstrated linear relationships of the changes between the refractive power and the lens curvature and also between the spherical aberration and the lens thickness during accommodation in vivo. This new system provides an accurate and useful technique to quantitatively study accommodation.
He, Ji C.; Wang, Jianhua
2014-01-01
To quantitatively approach the relationship between optical changes in an accommodated eye and the geometrical deformation of its crystalline lens, a long scan-depth anterior segment OCT equipped wavefront sensor was developed and integrated with a Badal system. With this system, accommodation was stimulated up to 6.0D in the left eye and also measured in the same eye for three subjects. High correlations between the accommodative responses of refractive power and the radius of the anterior lens surface were found for the three subjects (r>0.98). The change in spherical aberration was also highly correlated with the change in lens thickness (r>0.98). The measurement was very well repeated at a 2nd measurement session on the same day for the three subjects and after two weeks for one subject. The novelty of incorporating the Badal system into the OCT equipped wavefront sensor eliminated axial misalignment of the measurement system with the test eye due to accommodative vergence, as in the contralateral paradigm. The design also allowed the wavefront sensor to capture conjugated sharp Hartmann-Shack images in accommodated eyes to accurately analyze wavefront aberrations. In addition, this design extended the accommodation range up to 10.0D. By using this system, for the first time, we demonstrated linear relationships of the changes between the refractive power and the lens curvature and also between the spherical aberration and the lens thickness during accommodation in vivo. This new system provides an accurate and useful technique to quantitatively study accommodation. PMID:24787861
A high speed model-based approach for wavefront sensorless adaptive optics systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lianghua, Wen; Yang, Ping; Shuai, Wang; Wenjing, Liu; Shanqiu, Chen; Xu, Bing
2018-02-01
To improve temporal-frequency property of wavefront sensorless adaptive optics (AO) systems, a fast general model-based aberration correction algorithm is presented. The fast general model-based approach is based on the approximately linear relation between the mean square of the aberration gradients and the second moment of far-field intensity distribution. The presented model-based method is capable of completing a mode aberration effective correction just applying one disturbing onto the deformable mirror(one correction by one disturbing), which is reconstructed by the singular value decomposing the correlation matrix of the Zernike functions' gradients. Numerical simulations of AO corrections under the various random and dynamic aberrations are implemented. The simulation results indicate that the equivalent control bandwidth is 2-3 times than that of the previous method with one aberration correction after applying N times disturbing onto the deformable mirror (one correction by N disturbing).
Correlation between Post-LASIK Starburst Symptom and Ocular Wavefront Aberrations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yong-Ji; Mu, Guo-Guang; Wang, Zhao-Qi; Wang-Yan
2006-06-01
Monochromatic aberrations in post laser in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK) eyes are measured. The data are categorized into reference group and starburst group according to the visual symptoms. Statistic analysis has been made to find the correlation between the ocular wavefront aberrations and the starburst symptom. The rms aberrations of the 3rd and 4th orders for the starburst group are significantly larger than those for the reference group. The starburst symptom shows a strong correlation with vertical coma, total coma, spherical aberrations. For 3-mm pupil size and 5.8-mm pupil size, the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the starburst group are lower than those of the reference group, but their visual acuities are close. MTF and PSF analyses are made for two groups, and the results are consistent with the statistical analysis, which means the difference between the two groups is mainly due to the third- and fourth-order Zernike aberrations.
Simple wavefront correction framework for two-photon microscopy of in-vivo brain
Galwaduge, P. T.; Kim, S. H.; Grosberg, L. E.; Hillman, E. M. C.
2015-01-01
We present an easily implemented wavefront correction scheme that has been specifically designed for in-vivo brain imaging. The system can be implemented with a single liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LCSLM), which makes it compatible with existing patterned illumination setups, and provides measurable signal improvements even after a few seconds of optimization. The optimization scheme is signal-based and does not require exogenous guide-stars, repeated image acquisition or beam constraint. The unconstrained beam approach allows the use of Zernike functions for aberration correction and Hadamard functions for scattering correction. Low order corrections performed in mouse brain were found to be valid up to hundreds of microns away from the correction location. PMID:26309763
Wavefront-Guided Scleral Lens Prosthetic Device for Keratoconus
Sabesan, Ramkumar; Johns, Lynette; Tomashevskaya, Olga; Jacobs, Deborah S.; Rosenthal, Perry; Yoon, Geunyoung
2016-01-01
Purpose To investigate the feasibility of correcting ocular higher order aberrations (HOA) in keratoconus (KC) using wavefront-guided optics in a scleral lens prosthetic device (SLPD). Methods Six advanced keratoconus patients (11 eyes) were fitted with a SLPD with conventional spherical optics. A custom-made Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor was used to measure aberrations through a dilated pupil wearing the SLPD. The position of SLPD, i.e. horizontal and vertical decentration relative to the pupil and rotation were measured and incorporated into the design of the wavefront-guided optics for the customized SLPD. A submicron-precision lathe created the designed irregular profile on the front surface of the device. The residual aberrations of the same eyes wearing the SLPD with wavefront-guided optics were subsequently measured. Visual performance with natural mesopic pupil was compared between SLPDs having conventional spherical and wavefront-guided optics by measuring best-corrected high-contrast visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. Results Root-mean-square of HOA(RMS) in the 11 eyes wearing conventional SLPD with spherical optics was 1.17±0.57μm for a 6 mm pupil. HOA were effectively corrected by the customized SLPD with wavefront-guided optics and RMS was reduced 3.1 times on average to 0.37±0.19μm for the same pupil. This correction resulted in significant improvement of 1.9 lines in mean visual acuity (p<0.05). Contrast sensitivity was also significantly improved by a factor of 2.4, 1.8 and 1.4 on average for 4, 8 and 12 cycles/degree, respectively (p<0.05 for all frequencies). Although the residual aberration was comparable to that of normal eyes, the average visual acuity in logMAR with the customized SLPD was 0.21, substantially worse than normal acuity. Conclusions The customized SLPD with wavefront-guided optics corrected the HOA of advanced KC patients to normal levels and improved their vision significantly. PMID:23478630
Scintillation and phase anisoplanatism in Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing.
Robert, Clélia; Conan, Jean-Marc; Michau, Vincent; Fusco, Thierry; Vedrenne, Nicolas
2006-03-01
Adaptive optics provides a real-time compensation for atmospheric turbulence that severely limits the resolution of ground-based observation systems. The correction quality relies on a key component, that is, the wavefront sensor (WFS). When observing extended sources, WFS precision is limited by anisoplanatism effects. Anisoplanatism induces a variation of the turbulent phase and of the collected flux in the field of view. We study the effect of this phase and scintillation anisoplanatism on wavefront analysis. An analytical expression of the error induced is given in the Rytov regime. The formalism is applied to a solar and an endoatmospheric observation. Scintillation effects are generally disregarded, especially in astronomical conditions. We shall prove that this approximation is not valid with extended objects.
Atmospheric turbulence temperature on the laser wavefront properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Contreras López, J. C.; Ballesteros Díaz, A.; Tíjaro Rojas, O. J.; Torres Moreno, Y.
2017-06-01
Temperature is a physical magnitude that if is higher, the refractive index presents more important random fluctuations, which produce a greater distortion in the wavefront and thus a displacement in its centroid. To observe the effect produced by the turbulent medium strongly influenced by temperature on propagation laser beam, we experimented with two variable and controllable temperature systems designed as optical turbulence generators (OTG): a Turbulator and a Parallelepiped glass container. The experimental setup use three CMOS cameras and four temperature sensors spatially distributed to acquire synchronously information of the laser beam wavefront and turbulence temperature, respectively. The acquired information was analyzed with MATLAB® software tool, that it allows to compute the position, in terms of the evolution time, of the laser beam center of mass and their deviations produced by different turbulent conditions generated inside the two manufactured systems. The results were reflected in the statistical analysis of the centroid shifting.
Smoothing optimization of supporting quadratic surfaces with Zernike polynomials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Hang; Lu, Jiandong; Liu, Rui; Ma, Peifu
2018-03-01
A new optimization method to get a smooth freeform optical surface from an initial surface generated by the supporting quadratic method (SQM) is proposed. To smooth the initial surface, a 9-vertex system from the neighbor quadratic surface and the Zernike polynomials are employed to establish a linear equation system. A local optimized surface to the 9-vertex system can be build by solving the equations. Finally, a continuous smooth optimization surface is constructed by stitching the above algorithm on the whole initial surface. The spot corresponding to the optimized surface is no longer discrete pixels but a continuous distribution.
Model-based multi-fringe interferometry using Zernike polynomials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Wei; Song, Weihong; Wu, Gaofeng; Quan, Haiyang; Wu, Yongqian; Zhao, Wenchuan
2018-06-01
In this paper, a general phase retrieval method is proposed, which is based on one single interferogram with a small amount of fringes (either tilt or power). Zernike polynomials are used to characterize the phase to be measured; the phase distribution is reconstructed by a non-linear least squares method. Experiments show that the proposed method can obtain satisfactory results compared to the standard phase-shifting interferometry technique. Additionally, the retrace errors of proposed method can be neglected because of the few fringes; it does not need any auxiliary phase shifting facilities (low cost) and it is easy to implement without the process of phase unwrapping.
FOCAL PLANE WAVEFRONT SENSING USING RESIDUAL ADAPTIVE OPTICS SPECKLES
Codona, Johanan L.; Kenworthy, Matthew, E-mail: jlcodona@gmail.com
2013-04-20
Optical imperfections, misalignments, aberrations, and even dust can significantly limit sensitivity in high-contrast imaging systems such as coronagraphs. An upstream deformable mirror (DM) in the pupil can be used to correct or compensate for these flaws, either to enhance the Strehl ratio or suppress the residual coronagraphic halo. Measurement of the phase and amplitude of the starlight halo at the science camera is essential for determining the DM shape that compensates for any non-common-path (NCP) wavefront errors. Using DM displacement ripples to create a series of probe and anti-halo speckles in the focal plane has been proposed for space-based coronagraphsmore » and successfully demonstrated in the lab. We present the theory and first on-sky demonstration of a technique to measure the complex halo using the rapidly changing residual atmospheric speckles at the 6.5 m MMT telescope using the Clio mid-IR camera. The AO system's wavefront sensor measurements are used to estimate the residual wavefront, allowing us to approximately compute the rapidly evolving phase and amplitude of speckle halo. When combined with relatively short, synchronized science camera images, the complex speckle estimates can be used to interferometrically analyze the images, leading to an estimate of the static diffraction halo with NCP effects included. In an operational system, this information could be collected continuously and used to iteratively correct quasi-static NCP errors or suppress imperfect coronagraphic halos.« less
Common-Path Wavefront Sensing for Advanced Coronagraphs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wallace, J. Kent; Serabyn, Eugene; Mawet, Dimitri
2012-01-01
Imaging of faint companions around nearby stars is not limited by either intrinsic resolution of a coronagraph/telescope system, nor is it strictly photon limited. Typically, it is both the magnitude and temporal variation of small phase and amplitude errors imparted to the electric field by elements in the optical system which will limit ultimate performance. Adaptive optics systems, particularly those with multiple deformable mirrors, can remove these errors, but they need to be sensed in the final image plane. If the sensing system is before the final image plane, which is typical for most systems, then the non-common path optics between the wavefront sensor and science image plane will lead to un-sensed errors. However, a new generation of high-performance coronagraphs naturally lend themselves to wavefront sensing in the final image plane. These coronagraphs and the wavefront sensing will be discussed, as well as plans for demonstrating this with a high-contrast system on the ground. Such a system will be a key system-level proof for a future space-based coronagraph mission, which will also be discussed.
3D imaging and wavefront sensing with a plenoptic objective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodríguez-Ramos, J. M.; Lüke, J. P.; López, R.; Marichal-Hernández, J. G.; Montilla, I.; Trujillo-Sevilla, J.; Femenía, B.; Puga, M.; López, M.; Fernández-Valdivia, J. J.; Rosa, F.; Dominguez-Conde, C.; Sanluis, J. C.; Rodríguez-Ramos, L. F.
2011-06-01
Plenoptic cameras have been developed over the last years as a passive method for 3d scanning. Several superresolution algorithms have been proposed in order to increase the resolution decrease associated with lightfield acquisition with a microlenses array. A number of multiview stereo algorithms have also been applied in order to extract depth information from plenoptic frames. Real time systems have been implemented using specialized hardware as Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) and Field Programmable Gates Arrays (FPGAs). In this paper, we will present our own implementations related with the aforementioned aspects but also two new developments consisting of a portable plenoptic objective to transform every conventional 2d camera in a 3D CAFADIS plenoptic camera, and the novel use of a plenoptic camera as a wavefront phase sensor for adaptive optics (OA). The terrestrial atmosphere degrades the telescope images due to the diffraction index changes associated with the turbulence. These changes require a high speed processing that justify the use of GPUs and FPGAs. Na artificial Laser Guide Stars (Na-LGS, 90km high) must be used to obtain the reference wavefront phase and the Optical Transfer Function of the system, but they are affected by defocus because of the finite distance to the telescope. Using the telescope as a plenoptic camera allows us to correct the defocus and to recover the wavefront phase tomographically. These advances significantly increase the versatility of the plenoptic camera, and provides a new contribution to relate the wave optics and computer vision fields, as many authors claim.
Comparison of laser ray-tracing and skiascopic ocular wavefront-sensing devices
Bartsch, D-UG; Bessho, K; Gomez, L; Freeman, WR
2009-01-01
Purpose To compare two wavefront-sensing devices based on different principles. Methods Thirty-eight healthy eyes of 19 patients were measured five times in the reproducibility study. Twenty eyes of 10 patients were measured in the comparison study. The Tracey Visual Function Analyzer (VFA), based on the ray-tracing principle and the Nidek optical pathway difference (OPD)-Scan, based on the dynamic skiascopy principle were compared. Standard deviation (SD) of root mean square (RMS) errors was compared to verify the reproducibility. We evaluated RMS errors, Zernike terms and conventional refractive indexes (Sph, Cyl, Ax, and spherical equivalent). Results In RMS errors reading, both devices showed similar ratios of SD to the mean measurement value (VFA: 57.5±11.7%, OPD-Scan: 53.9±10.9%). Comparison on the same eye showed that almost all terms were significantly greater using the VFA than using the OPD-Scan. However, certain high spatial frequency aberrations (tetrafoil, pentafoil, and hexafoil) were consistently measured near zero with the OPD-Scan. Conclusion Both devices showed similar level of reproducibility; however, there was considerable difference in the wavefront reading between machines when measuring the same eye. Differences in the number of sample points, centration, and measurement algorithms between the two instruments may explain our results. PMID:17571088
Single particle analysis based on Zernike phase contrast transmission electron microscopy.
Danev, Radostin; Nagayama, Kuniaki
2008-02-01
We present the first application of Zernike phase-contrast transmission electron microscopy to single-particle 3D reconstruction of a protein, using GroEL chaperonin as the test specimen. We evaluated the performance of the technique by comparing 3D models derived from Zernike phase contrast imaging, with models from conventional underfocus phase contrast imaging. The same resolution, about 12A, was achieved by both imaging methods. The reconstruction based on Zernike phase contrast data required about 30% fewer particles. The advantages and prospects of each technique are discussed.
Predicting crystalline lens fall caused by accommodation from changes in wavefront error
He, Lin; Applegate, Raymond A.
2011-01-01
PURPOSE To illustrate and develop a method for estimating crystalline lens decentration as a function of accommodative response using changes in wavefront error and show the method and limitations using previously published data (2004) from 2 iridectomized monkey eyes so that clinicians understand how spherical aberration can induce coma, in particular in intraocular lens surgery. SETTINGS College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, USA. DESIGN Evaluation of diagnostic test or technology. METHODS Lens decentration was estimated by displacing downward the wavefront error of the lens with respect to the limiting aperture (7.0 mm) and ocular first surface wavefront error for each accommodative response (0.00 to 11.00 diopters) until measured values of vertical coma matched previously published experimental data (2007). Lens decentration was also calculated using an approximation formula that only included spherical aberration and vertical coma. RESULTS The change in calculated vertical coma was consistent with downward lens decentration. Calculated downward lens decentration peaked at approximately 0.48 mm of vertical decentration in the right eye and approximately 0.31 mm of decentration in the left eye using all Zernike modes through the 7th radial order. Calculated lens decentration using only coma and spherical aberration formulas was peaked at approximately 0.45 mm in the right eye and approximately 0.23 mm in the left eye. CONCLUSIONS Lens fall as a function of accommodation was quantified noninvasively using changes in vertical coma driven principally by the accommodation-induced changes in spherical aberration. The newly developed method was valid for a large pupil only. PMID:21700108
High stability wavefront reference source
Feldman, M.; Mockler, D.J.
1994-05-03
A thermally and mechanically stable wavefront reference source which produces a collimated output laser beam is disclosed. The output beam comprises substantially planar reference wavefronts which are useful for aligning and testing optical interferometers. The invention receives coherent radiation from an input optical fiber, directs a diverging input beam of the coherent radiation to a beam folding mirror (to produce a reflected diverging beam), and collimates the reflected diverging beam using a collimating lens. In a class of preferred embodiments, the invention includes a thermally and mechanically stable frame comprising rod members connected between a front end plate and a back end plate. The beam folding mirror is mounted on the back end plate, and the collimating lens mounted to the rods between the end plates. The end plates and rods are preferably made of thermally stable metal alloy. Preferably, the input optical fiber is a single mode fiber coupled to an input end of a second single mode optical fiber that is wound around a mandrel fixedly attached to the frame of the apparatus. The output end of the second fiber is cleaved so as to be optically flat, so that the input beam emerging therefrom is a nearly perfect diverging spherical wave. 7 figures.
High stability wavefront reference source
Feldman, Mark; Mockler, Daniel J.
1994-01-01
A thermally and mechanically stable wavefront reference source which produces a collimated output laser beam. The output beam comprises substantially planar reference wavefronts which are useful for aligning and testing optical interferometers. The invention receives coherent radiation from an input optical fiber, directs a diverging input beam of the coherent radiation to a beam folding mirror (to produce a reflected diverging beam), and collimates the reflected diverging beam using a collimating lens. In a class of preferred embodiments, the invention includes a thermally and mechanically stable frame comprising rod members connected between a front end plate and a back end plate. The beam folding mirror is mounted on the back end plate, and the collimating lens mounted to the rods between the end plates. The end plates and rods are preferably made of thermally stable metal alloy. Preferably, the input optical fiber is a single mode fiber coupled to an input end of a second single mode optical fiber that is wound around a mandrel fixedly attached to the frame of the apparatus. The output end of the second fiber is cleaved so as to be optically flat, so that the input beam emerging therefrom is a nearly perfect diverging spherical wave.
Zhu, Mingxia; Collins, Michael J; Iskander, D Robert
2006-09-01
We have used videokeratoscopy and wavefront sensing to investigate the contribution of the ocular surface and the effect of stimulus vergence on the microfluctuations of the wavefront aberrations of the eye. The fluctuations of the wavefront aberrations were quantified by their variations around the mean and by using power spectrum analysis. Integrated power was determined in two regions: 0.1-0.7 Hz (low frequencies) and 0.8-1.8 Hz (high frequencies). Changes in the ocular surface topography were measured using high-speed videokeratoscopy and variations in the ocular wavefront aberrations were measured with a wavefront sensor. The microfluctuations of wavefront aberrations of the ocular surface were found to be considerably smaller than the microfluctuations of the wavefront aberrations of the total eye. The fluctuations in defocus while viewing a closer target at 2 or 4 D were found to be significantly greater than fluctuations in defocus when viewing a far target. This increase in defocus fluctuations (p < or = 0.001) occurred in both the low- and high-frequency regions of the power spectra.
Multigrid preconditioned conjugate-gradient method for large-scale wave-front reconstruction.
Gilles, Luc; Vogel, Curtis R; Ellerbroek, Brent L
2002-09-01
We introduce a multigrid preconditioned conjugate-gradient (MGCG) iterative scheme for computing open-loop wave-front reconstructors for extreme adaptive optics systems. We present numerical simulations for a 17-m class telescope with n = 48756 sensor measurement grid points within the aperture, which indicate that our MGCG method has a rapid convergence rate for a wide range of subaperture average slope measurement signal-to-noise ratios. The total computational cost is of order n log n. Hence our scheme provides for fast wave-front simulation and control in large-scale adaptive optics systems.
Wavefront sensing and adaptive control in phased array of fiber collimators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lachinova, Svetlana L.; Vorontsov, Mikhail A.
2011-03-01
A new wavefront control approach for mitigation of atmospheric turbulence-induced wavefront phase aberrations in coherent fiber-array-based laser beam projection systems is introduced and analyzed. This approach is based on integration of wavefront sensing capabilities directly into the fiber-array transmitter aperture. In the coherent fiber array considered, we assume that each fiber collimator (subaperture) of the array is capable of precompensation of local (onsubaperture) wavefront phase tip and tilt aberrations using controllable rapid displacement of the tip of the delivery fiber at the collimating lens focal plane. In the technique proposed, this tip and tilt phase aberration control is based on maximization of the optical power received through the same fiber collimator using the stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) technique. The coordinates of the fiber tip after the local tip and tilt aberrations are mitigated correspond to the coordinates of the focal-spot centroid of the optical wave backscattered off the target. Similar to a conventional Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, phase function over the entire fiber-array aperture can then be retrieved using the coordinates obtained. The piston phases that are required for coherent combining (phase locking) of the outgoing beams at the target plane can be further calculated from the reconstructed wavefront phase. Results of analysis and numerical simulations are presented. Performance of adaptive precompensation of phase aberrations in this laser beam projection system type is compared for various system configurations characterized by the number of fiber collimators and atmospheric turbulence conditions. The wavefront control concept presented can be effectively applied for long-range laser beam projection scenarios for which the time delay related with the double-pass laser beam propagation to the target and back is compared or even exceeds the characteristic time of the atmospheric turbulence change
Analysis of wave propagation and wavefront sensing in target-in-the-loop beam control systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vorontsov, Mikhail A.; Kolosov, Valeri V.
2004-10-01
Target-in-the-loop (TIL) wave propagation geometry represents perhaps the most challenging case for adaptive optics applications that are related with maximization of irradiance power density on extended remotely located surfaces in the presence of dynamically changing refractive index inhomogeneities in the propagation medium. We introduce a TIL propagation model that uses a combination of the parabolic equation describing outgoing wave propagation, and the equation describing evolution of the mutual intensity function (MIF) for the backscattered (returned) wave. The resulting evolution equation for the MIF is further simplified by the use of the smooth refractive index approximation. This approximation enables derivation of the transport equation for the returned wave brightness function, analyzed here using method characteristics (brightness function trajectories). The equations for the brightness function trajectories (ray equations) can be efficiently integrated numerically. We also consider wavefront sensors that perform sensing of speckle-averaged characteristics of the wavefront phase (TIL sensors). Analysis of the wavefront phase reconstructed from Shack-Hartmann TIL sensor measurements shows that an extended target introduces a phase modulation (target-induced phase) that cannot be easily separated from the atmospheric turbulence-related phase aberrations. We also show that wavefront sensing results depend on the extended target shape, surface roughness, and the outgoing beam intensity distribution on the target surface.
Gousset, Silvère; Petit, Cyril; Michau, Vincent; Fusco, Thierry; Robert, Clelia
2015-12-01
Near-infrared wavefront sensing allows for the enhancement of sky coverage with adaptive optics. The recently developed HgCdTe avalanche photodiode arrays are promising due to their very low detector noise, but still present an imperfect cosmetic that may directly impact real-time wavefront measurements for adaptive optics and thus degrade performance in astronomical applications. We propose here a model of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront measurement in the presence of residual fixed pattern noise and defective pixels. To adjust our models, a fine characterization of such an HgCdTe array, the RAPID sensor, is proposed. The impact of the cosmetic defects on the Shack-Hartmann measurement is assessed through numerical simulations. This study provides both a new insight on the applicability of cadmium mercury telluride (CMT) avalanche photodiodes detectors for astronomical applications and criteria to specify the cosmetic qualities of future arrays.
On distributed wavefront reconstruction for large-scale adaptive optics systems.
de Visser, Cornelis C; Brunner, Elisabeth; Verhaegen, Michel
2016-05-01
The distributed-spline-based aberration reconstruction (D-SABRE) method is proposed for distributed wavefront reconstruction with applications to large-scale adaptive optics systems. D-SABRE decomposes the wavefront sensor domain into any number of partitions and solves a local wavefront reconstruction problem on each partition using multivariate splines. D-SABRE accuracy is within 1% of a global approach with a speedup that scales quadratically with the number of partitions. The D-SABRE is compared to the distributed cumulative reconstruction (CuRe-D) method in open-loop and closed-loop simulations using the YAO adaptive optics simulation tool. D-SABRE accuracy exceeds CuRe-D for low levels of decomposition, and D-SABRE proved to be more robust to variations in the loop gain.
Real-Time Wavefront Control for the PALM-3000 High Order Adaptive Optics System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Truong, Tuan N.; Bouchez, Antonin H.; Dekany, Richard G.; Guiwits, Stephen R.; Roberts, Jennifer E.; Troy, Mitchell
2008-01-01
We present a cost-effective scalable real-time wavefront control architecture based on off-the-shelf graphics processing units hosted in an ultra-low latency, high-bandwidth interconnect PC cluster environment composed of modules written in the component-oriented language of nesC. The architecture enables full-matrix reconstruction of the wavefront at up to 2 KHz with latency under 250 us for the PALM-3000 adaptive optics systems, a state-of-the-art upgrade on the 5.1 meter Hale Telescope that consists of a 64 x 64 subaperture Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and a 3368 active actuator high order deformable mirror in series with a 241 active actuator tweeter DM. The architecture can easily scale up to support much larger AO systems at higher rates and lower latency.
A Polarimetric Extension of the van Cittert-Zernike Theorem for Use with Microwave Interferometers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Piepmeier, J. R.; Simon, N. K.
2004-01-01
The van Cittert-Zernike theorem describes the Fourier-transform relationship between an extended source and its visibility function. Developments in classical optics texts use scalar field formulations for the theorem. Here, we develop a polarimetric extension to the van Cittert-Zernike theorem with applications to passive microwave Earth remote sensing. The development provides insight into the mechanics of two-dimensional interferometric imaging, particularly the effects of polarization basis differences between the scene and the observer.
Advances in detector technologies for visible and infrared wavefront sensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feautrier, Philippe; Gach, Jean-Luc; Downing, Mark; Jorden, Paul; Kolb, Johann; Rothman, Johan; Fusco, Thierry; Balard, Philippe; Stadler, Eric; Guillaume, Christian; Boutolleau, David; Destefanis, Gérard; Lhermet, Nicolas; Pacaud, Olivier; Vuillermet, Michel; Kerlain, Alexandre; Hubin, Norbert; Reyes, Javier; Kasper, Markus; Ivert, Olaf; Suske, Wolfgang; Walker, Andrew; Skegg, Michael; Derelle, Sophie; Deschamps, Joel; Robert, Clélia; Vedrenne, Nicolas; Chazalet, Frédéric; Tanchon, Julien; Trollier, Thierry; Ravex, Alain; Zins, Gérard; Kern, Pierre; Moulin, Thibaut; Preis, Olivier
2012-07-01
The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the state of the art wavefront sensor detectors developments held in Europe for the last decade. The success of the next generation of instruments for 8 to 40-m class telescopes will depend on the ability of Adaptive Optics (AO) systems to provide excellent image quality and stability. This will be achieved by increasing the sampling, wavelength range and correction quality of the wave front error in both spatial and time domains. The modern generation of AO wavefront sensor detectors development started in the late nineties with the CCD50 detector fabricated by e2v technologies under ESO contract for the ESO NACO AO system. With a 128x128 pixels format, this 8 outputs CCD offered a 500 Hz frame rate with a readout noise of 7e-. A major breakthrough has been achieved with the recent development by e2v technologies of the CCD220. This 240x240 pixels 8 outputs EMCCD (CCD with internal multiplication) has been jointly funded by ESO and Europe under the FP6 programme. The CCD220 and the OCAM2 camera that operates the detector are now the most sensitive system in the world for advanced adaptive optics systems, offering less than 0.2 e readout noise at a frame rate of 1500 Hz with negligible dark current. Extremely easy to operate, OCAM2 only needs a 24 V power supply and a modest water cooling circuit. This system, commercialized by First Light Imaging, is extensively described in this paper. An upgrade of OCAM2 is foreseen to boost its frame rate to 2 kHz, opening the window of XAO wavefront sensing for the ELT using 4 synchronized cameras and pyramid wavefront sensing. Since this major success, new developments started in Europe. One is fully dedicated to Natural and Laser Guide Star AO for the E-ELT with ESO involvement. The spot elongation from a LGS Shack Hartman wavefront sensor necessitates an increase of the pixel format. Two detectors are currently developed by e2v. The NGSD will be a 880x840 pixels CMOS
Advanced Imaging Optics Utilizing Wavefront Coding.
Scrymgeour, David; Boye, Robert; Adelsberger, Kathleen
2015-06-01
Image processing offers a potential to simplify an optical system by shifting some of the imaging burden from lenses to the more cost effective electronics. Wavefront coding using a cubic phase plate combined with image processing can extend the system's depth of focus, reducing many of the focus-related aberrations as well as material related chromatic aberrations. However, the optimal design process and physical limitations of wavefront coding systems with respect to first-order optical parameters and noise are not well documented. We examined image quality of simulated and experimental wavefront coded images before and after reconstruction in the presence of noise.more » Challenges in the implementation of cubic phase in an optical system are discussed. In particular, we found that limitations must be placed on system noise, aperture, field of view and bandwidth to develop a robust wavefront coded system.« less
Optimal wavefront control for adaptive segmented mirrors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Downie, John D.; Goodman, Joseph W.
1989-01-01
A ground-based astronomical telescope with a segmented primary mirror will suffer image-degrading wavefront aberrations from at least two sources: (1) atmospheric turbulence and (2) segment misalignment or figure errors of the mirror itself. This paper describes the derivation of a mirror control feedback matrix that assumes the presence of both types of aberration and is optimum in the sense that it minimizes the mean-squared residual wavefront error. Assumptions of the statistical nature of the wavefront measurement errors, atmospheric phase aberrations, and segment misalignment errors are made in the process of derivation. Examples of the degree of correlation are presented for three different types of wavefront measurement data and compared to results of simple corrections.
Wavefront control system for the Keck telescope
Brase, J. M., LLNL
1998-03-01
The laser guide star adaptive optics system currently being developed for the Keck 2 telescope consists of several major subsystems: the optical bench, wavefront control, user interface and supervisory control, and the laser system. The paper describes the design and implementation of the wavefront control subsystem that controls a 349 actuator deformable mirror for high order correction and tip-tilt mirrors for stabilizing the image and laser positions.
Atmospheric simulation using a liquid crystal wavefront-controlling device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brooks, Matthew R.; Goda, Matthew E.
2004-10-01
Test and evaluation of laser warning devices is important due to the increased use of laser devices in aerial applications. This research consists of an atmospheric aberrating system to enable in-lab testing of various detectors and sensors. This system employs laser light at 632.8nm from a Helium-Neon source and a spatial light modulator (SLM) to cause phase changes using a birefringent liquid crystal material. Measuring outgoing radiation from the SLM using a CCD targetboard and Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor reveals an acceptable resemblance of system output to expected atmospheric theory. Over three turbulence scenarios, an error analysis reveals that turbulence data matches theory. A wave optics computer simulation is created analogous to the lab-bench design. Phase data, intensity data, and a computer simulation affirm lab-bench results so that the aberrating SLM system can be operated confidently.
The design of wavefront coded imaging system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lan, Shun; Cen, Zhaofeng; Li, Xiaotong
2016-10-01
Wavefront Coding is a new method to extend the depth of field, which combines optical design and signal processing together. By using optical design software ZEMAX ,we designed a practical wavefront coded imaging system based on a conventional Cooke triplet system .Unlike conventional optical system, the wavefront of this new system is modulated by a specially designed phase mask, which makes the point spread function (PSF)of optical system not sensitive to defocus. Therefore, a series of same blurred images obtained at the image plane. In addition, the optical transfer function (OTF) of the wavefront coded imaging system is independent of focus, which is nearly constant with misfocus and has no regions of zeros. All object information can be completely recovered through digital filtering at different defocus positions. The focus invariance of MTF is selected as merit function in this design. And the coefficients of phase mask are set as optimization goals. Compared to conventional optical system, wavefront coded imaging system obtains better quality images under different object distances. Some deficiencies appear in the restored images due to the influence of digital filtering algorithm, which are also analyzed in this paper. The depth of field of the designed wavefront coded imaging system is about 28 times larger than initial optical system, while keeping higher optical power and resolution at the image plane.
Compliant deformable mirror approach for wavefront improvement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clark, James H.; Penado, F. Ernesto
2016-04-01
We describe a compliant static deformable mirror approach to reduce the wavefront concavity at the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer (NPOI). A single actuator pressing on the back surface of just one of the relay mirrors deforms the front surface in a correcting convex shape. Our design uses the mechanical advantage gained from a force actuator sandwiched between a rear flexure plate and the back surface of the mirror. We superimpose wavefront contour measurements with our finite element deformed mirror model. An example analysis showed improvement from 210-nm concave-concave wavefront to 51-nm concave-concave wavefront. With our present model, a 100-nm actuator increment displaces the mirror surface by 1.1 nm. We describe the need for wavefront improvement that arises from the NPOI reconfigurable array, offer a practical design approach, and analyze the support structure and compliant deformable mirror using the finite element method. We conclude that a 20.3-cm-diameter, 1.9-cm-thick Zerodur® mirror shows that it is possible to deform the reflective surface and cancel out three-fourths of the wavefront deformation without overstressing the material.
Wali, Upender K.; Bialasiewicz, Alexander A.; Al-Kharousi, Nadia; Rizvi, Syed G.; Baloushi, Habiba
2009-01-01
Purpose: To measure, quantify and compare Ocular Aberrations due to nuclear cataracts. Setting: Department of ophthalmology and school for ophthalmic technicians, college of medicine and health sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman. Design: Retrospective case controlled study. Methods: 113 eyes of 77 patients with nuclear cataract (NC) were recruited from outpatient clinic of a major tertiary referral center for Ophthalmology. Patients having NC with no co-existing ocular pathologies were selected. All patients were subjected to wavefront aberrometry (make) using Hartmann-Shack (HS) aberrometer. Consents were taken from all patients. Higher order Aberrations (HOA) were calculated with Zernike polynomials up to the fourth order. For comparison 28 eyes of 15 subjects with no lenticular opacities (control group) were recruited and evaluated in an identical manner. No pupillary mydriasis was done in both groups. Results: Total aberrations were almost six times higher in NC group compared to control (normal) subjects. The HOA were 21 times higher in NC group, and coma was significantly higher in NC eyes compared to normal (control) group. The pupillary diameter was significantly larger in control group (5.48mm ± 1.0024, p<.001) compared to NC (3.05mm ± 1.9145) subjects (probably due to younger control age group). Amongst Zernike coefficients up to fourth order, two polynomials, defocus (Z20) and spherical aberration (Z42) were found to be significantly greater amongst NC group, compared to normal control group. Conclusion: Nuclear cataracts predominantly produce increased defocus and spherical aberrations. This could explain visual symptoms like image deterioration in spite of normal Visual acuity. PMID:20142953
Imaging characteristics of Zernike and annular polynomial aberrations.
Mahajan, Virendra N; Díaz, José Antonio
2013-04-01
The general equations for the point-spread function (PSF) and optical transfer function (OTF) are given for any pupil shape, and they are applied to optical imaging systems with circular and annular pupils. The symmetry properties of the PSF, the real and imaginary parts of the OTF, and the modulation transfer function (MTF) of a system with a circular pupil aberrated by a Zernike circle polynomial aberration are derived. The interferograms and PSFs are illustrated for some typical polynomial aberrations with a sigma value of one wave, and 3D PSFs and MTFs are shown for 0.1 wave. The Strehl ratio is also calculated for polynomial aberrations with a sigma value of 0.1 wave, and shown to be well estimated from the sigma value. The numerical results are compared with the corresponding results in the literature. Because of the same angular dependence of the corresponding annular and circle polynomial aberrations, the symmetry properties of systems with annular pupils aberrated by an annular polynomial aberration are the same as those for a circular pupil aberrated by a corresponding circle polynomial aberration. They are also illustrated with numerical examples.
Fast human pose estimation using 3D Zernike descriptors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berjón, Daniel; Morán, Francisco
2012-03-01
Markerless video-based human pose estimation algorithms face a high-dimensional problem that is frequently broken down into several lower-dimensional ones by estimating the pose of each limb separately. However, in order to do so they need to reliably locate the torso, for which they typically rely on time coherence and tracking algorithms. Their losing track usually results in catastrophic failure of the process, requiring human intervention and thus precluding their usage in real-time applications. We propose a very fast rough pose estimation scheme based on global shape descriptors built on 3D Zernike moments. Using an articulated model that we configure in many poses, a large database of descriptor/pose pairs can be computed off-line. Thus, the only steps that must be done on-line are the extraction of the descriptors for each input volume and a search against the database to get the most likely poses. While the result of such process is not a fine pose estimation, it can be useful to help more sophisticated algorithms to regain track or make more educated guesses when creating new particles in particle-filter-based tracking schemes. We have achieved a performance of about ten fps on a single computer using a database of about one million entries.
Analysis on the misalignment errors between Hartmann-Shack sensor and 45-element deformable mirror
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Lihui; Zhang, Yi; Tao, Jianjun; Cao, Fen; Long, Yin; Tian, Pingchuan; Chen, Shangwu
2017-02-01
Aiming at 45-element adaptive optics system, the model of 45-element deformable mirror is truly built by COMSOL Multiphysics, and every actuator's influence function is acquired by finite element method. The process of this system correcting optical aberration is simulated by making use of procedure, and aiming for Strehl ratio of corrected diffraction facula, in the condition of existing different translation and rotation error between Hartmann-Shack sensor and deformable mirror, the system's correction ability for 3-20 Zernike polynomial wave aberration is analyzed. The computed result shows: the system's correction ability for 3-9 Zernike polynomial wave aberration is higher than that of 10-20 Zernike polynomial wave aberration. The correction ability for 3-20 Zernike polynomial wave aberration does not change with misalignment error changing. With rotation error between Hartmann-Shack sensor and deformable mirror increasing, the correction ability for 3-20 Zernike polynomial wave aberration gradually goes down, and with translation error increasing, the correction ability for 3-9 Zernike polynomial wave aberration gradually goes down, but the correction ability for 10-20 Zernike polynomial wave aberration behave up-and-down depression.
Distributed wavefront reconstruction with SABRE for real-time large scale adaptive optics control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brunner, Elisabeth; de Visser, Cornelis C.; Verhaegen, Michel
2014-08-01
We present advances on Spline based ABerration REconstruction (SABRE) from (Shack-)Hartmann (SH) wavefront measurements for large-scale adaptive optics systems. SABRE locally models the wavefront with simplex B-spline basis functions on triangular partitions which are defined on the SH subaperture array. This approach allows high accuracy through the possible use of nonlinear basis functions and great adaptability to any wavefront sensor and pupil geometry. The main contribution of this paper is a distributed wavefront reconstruction method, D-SABRE, which is a 2 stage procedure based on decomposing the sensor domain into sub-domains each supporting a local SABRE model. D-SABRE greatly decreases the computational complexity of the method and removes the need for centralized reconstruction while obtaining a reconstruction accuracy for simulated E-ELT turbulences within 1% of the global method's accuracy. Further, a generalization of the methodology is proposed making direct use of SH intensity measurements which leads to an improved accuracy of the reconstruction compared to centroid algorithms using spatial gradients.
Wavefront Curvature Sensing from Image Projections
2006-09-01
entrance pupil. The generalized pupil function, denoted P, provides a basic 1-7 mathematical model for the optical �eld at the system pupil: P(x; y...pupil or aperture radius, RP , may be included in Zernike functions and windowing functions to give the notation more generality . Given some ...promises a much faster read out time from the CCD along with some amount of information useful for estimating pupil phase. A General Image Projection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leboeuf, Claudia M.; Davila, Pamela S.; Redding, David C.; Morell, Armando; Lowman, Andrew E.; Wilson, Mark E.; Young, Eric W.; Pacini, Linda K.; Coulter, Dan R.
1998-01-01
As part of the technology validation strategy of the next generation space telescope (NGST), a system testbed is being developed at GSFC, in partnership with JPL and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), which will include all of the component functions envisioned in an NGST active optical system. The system will include an actively controlled, segmented primary mirror, actively controlled secondary, deformable, and fast steering mirrors, wavefront sensing optics, wavefront control algorithms, a telescope simulator module, and an interferometric wavefront sensor for use in comparing final obtained wavefronts from different tests. The developmental. cryogenic active telescope testbed (DCATT) will be implemented in three phases. Phase 1 will focus on operating the testbed at ambient temperature. During Phase 2, a cryocapable segmented telescope will be developed and cooled to cryogenic temperature to investigate the impact on the ability to correct the wavefront and stabilize the image. In Phase 3, it is planned to incorporate industry developed flight-like components, such as figure controlled mirror segments, cryogenic, low hold power actuators, or different wavefront sensing and control hardware or software. A very important element of the program is the development and subsequent validation of the integrated multidisciplinary models. The Phase 1 testbed objectives, plans, configuration, and design will be discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maguen, Ezra I.; Salz, James J.; McDonald, Marguerite B.; Pettit, George H.; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Grundfest, Warren S.
2002-06-01
A study was undertaken to assess whether results of laser vision correction with the LADARVISION 193-nm excimer laser (Alcon-Autonomous technologies) can be improved with the use of wavefront analysis generated by a proprietary system including a Hartman-Schack sensor and expressed using Zernicke polynomials. A total of 82 eyes underwent LASIK in several centers with an improved algorithm, using the CustomCornea system. A subgroup of 48 eyes of 24 patients was randomized so that one eye undergoes conventional treatment and one eye undergoes treatment based on wavefront analysis. Treatment parameters were equal for each type of refractive error. 83% of all eyes had uncorrected vision of 20/20 or better and 95% were 20/25 or better. In all groups, uncorrected visual acuities did not improve significantly in eyes treated with wavefront analysis compared to conventional treatments. Higher order aberrations were consistently better corrected in eyes undergoing treatment based on wavefront analysis for LASIK at 6 months postop. In addition, the number of eyes with reduced RMS was significantly higher in the subset of eyes treated with a wavefront algorithm (38% vs. 5%). Wavefront technology may improve the outcomes of laser vision correction with the LADARVISION excimer laser. Further refinements of the technology and clinical trials will contribute to this goal.
Non-contact XUV metrology of Ru/B4C multilayer optics by means of Hartmann wavefront analysis.
Ruiz-Lopez, Mabel; Dacasa, Hugo; Mahieu, Benoit; Lozano, Magali; Li, Lu; Zeitoun, Philippe; Bleiner, Davide
2018-02-20
Short-wavelength imaging, spectroscopy, and lithography scale down the characteristic length-scale to nanometers. This poses tight constraints on the optics finishing tolerances, which is often difficult to characterize. Indeed, even a tiny surface defect degrades the reflectivity and spatial projection of such optics. In this study, we demonstrate experimentally that a Hartmann wavefront sensor for extreme ultraviolet (XUV) wavelengths is an effective non-contact analytical method for inspecting the surface of multilayer optics. The experiment was carried out in a tabletop laboratory using a high-order harmonic generation as an XUV source. The wavefront sensor was used to measure the wavefront errors after the reflection of the XUV beam on a spherical Ru/B 4 C multilayer mirror, scanning a large surface of approximately 40 mm in diameter. The results showed that the technique detects the aberrations in the nanometer range.
Generalized recursive solutions to Ornstein-Zernike integral equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rossky, Peter J.; Dale, William D. T.
1980-09-01
Recursive procedures for the solution of a class of integral equations based on the Ornstein-Zernike equation are developed; the hypernetted chain and Percus-Yevick equations are two special cases of the class considered. It is shown that certain variants of the new procedures developed here are formally equivalent to those recently developed by Dale and Friedman, if the new recursive expressions are initialized in the same way as theirs. However, the computational solution of the new equations is significantly more efficient. Further, the present analysis leads to the identification of various graphical quantities arising in the earlier study with more familiar quantities related to pair correlation functions. The analysis is greatly facilitated by the use of several identities relating simple chain sums whose graphical elements can be written as a sum of two or more parts. In particular, the use of these identities permits renormalization of the equivalent series solution to the integral equation to be directly incorporated into the recursive solution in a straightforward manner. Formulas appropriate to renormalization with respect to long and short range parts of the pair potential, as well as more general components of the direct correlation function, are obtained. To further illustrate the utility of this approach, we show that a simple generalization of the hypernetted chain closure relation for the direct correlation function leads directly to the reference hypernetted chain (RHNC) equation due to Lado. The form of the correlation function used in the exponential approximation of Andersen and Chandler is then seen to be equivalent to the first estimate obtained from a renormalized RHNC equation.
Implementation of a rapid correction algorithm for adaptive optics using a plenoptic sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ko, Jonathan; Wu, Chensheng; Davis, Christopher C.
2016-09-01
Adaptive optics relies on the accuracy and speed of a wavefront sensor in order to provide quick corrections to distortions in the optical system. In weaker cases of atmospheric turbulence often encountered in astronomical fields, a traditional Shack-Hartmann sensor has proved to be very effective. However, in cases of stronger atmospheric turbulence often encountered near the surface of the Earth, atmospheric turbulence no longer solely causes small tilts in the wavefront. Instead, lasers passing through strong or "deep" atmospheric turbulence encounter beam breakup, which results in interference effects and discontinuities in the incoming wavefront. In these situations, a Shack-Hartmann sensor can no longer effectively determine the shape of the incoming wavefront. We propose a wavefront reconstruction and correction algorithm based around the plenoptic sensor. The plenoptic sensor's design allows it to match and exceed the wavefront sensing capabilities of a Shack-Hartmann sensor for our application. Novel wavefront reconstruction algorithms can take advantage of the plenoptic sensor to provide a rapid wavefront reconstruction necessary for real time turbulence. To test the integrity of the plenoptic sensor and its reconstruction algorithms, we use artificially generated turbulence in a lab scale environment to simulate the structure and speed of outdoor atmospheric turbulence. By analyzing the performance of our system with and without the closed-loop plenoptic sensor adaptive optics system, we can show that the plenoptic sensor is effective in mitigating real time lab generated atmospheric turbulence.
In-vivo digital wavefront sensing using swept source OCT
Kumar, Abhishek; Wurster, Lara M.; Salas, Matthias; Ginner, Laurin; Drexler, Wolfgang; Leitgeb, Rainer A.
2017-01-01
Sub-aperture based digital adaptive optics is demonstrated in a fiber based point scanning optical coherence tomography system using a 1060 nm swept source laser. To detect optical aberrations in-vivo, a small lateral field of view of ~150×150 μm2 is scanned on the sample at a high volume rate of 17 Hz (~1.3 kHz B-scan rate) to avoid any significant lateral and axial motion of the sample, and is used as a “guide star” for the sub-aperture based DAO. The proof of principle is demonstrated using a micro-beads phantom sample, wherein a significant root mean square wavefront error (RMS WFE) of 1.48 waves (> 1μm) is detected. In-vivo aberration measurement with a RMS WFE of 0.33 waves, which is ~5 times higher than the Marechal’s criterion of 1/14 waves for the diffraction limited performance, is shown for a human retinal OCT. Attempt has been made to validate the experimental results with the conventional Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor within reasonable limitations. PMID:28717573
Optimal wavefront estimation of incoherent sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riggs, A. J. Eldorado; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Groff, Tyler
2014-08-01
Direct imaging is in general necessary to characterize exoplanets and disks. A coronagraph is an instrument used to create a dim (high-contrast) region in a star's PSF where faint companions can be detected. All coronagraphic high-contrast imaging systems use one or more deformable mirrors (DMs) to correct quasi-static aberrations and recover contrast in the focal plane. Simulations show that existing wavefront control algorithms can correct for diffracted starlight in just a few iterations, but in practice tens or hundreds of control iterations are needed to achieve high contrast. The discrepancy largely arises from the fact that simulations have perfect knowledge of the wavefront and DM actuation. Thus, wavefront correction algorithms are currently limited by the quality and speed of wavefront estimates. Exposures in space will take orders of magnitude more time than any calculations, so a nonlinear estimation method that needs fewer images but more computational time would be advantageous. In addition, current wavefront correction routines seek only to reduce diffracted starlight. Here we present nonlinear estimation algorithms that include optimal estimation of sources incoherent with a star such as exoplanets and debris disks.
Improving Zernike moments comparison for optimal similarity and rotation angle retrieval.
Revaud, Jérôme; Lavoué, Guillaume; Baskurt, Atilla
2009-04-01
Zernike moments constitute a powerful shape descriptor in terms of robustness and description capability. However the classical way of comparing two Zernike descriptors only takes into account the magnitude of the moments and loses the phase information. The novelty of our approach is to take advantage of the phase information in the comparison process while still preserving the invariance to rotation. This new Zernike comparator provides a more accurate similarity measure together with the optimal rotation angle between the patterns, while keeping the same complexity as the classical approach. This angle information is particularly of interest for many applications, including 3D scene understanding through images. Experiments demonstrate that our comparator outperforms the classical one in terms of similarity measure. In particular the robustness of the retrieval against noise and geometric deformation is greatly improved. Moreover, the rotation angle estimation is also more accurate than state-of-the-art algorithms.
Asymmetric cryptography based on wavefront sensing.
Peng, Xiang; Wei, Hengzheng; Zhang, Peng
2006-12-15
A system of asymmetric cryptography based on wavefront sensing (ACWS) is proposed for the first time to our knowledge. One of the most significant features of the asymmetric cryptography is that a trapdoor one-way function is required and constructed by analogy to wavefront sensing, in which the public key may be derived from optical parameters, such as the wavelength or the focal length, while the private key may be obtained from a kind of regular point array. The ciphertext is generated by the encoded wavefront and represented with an irregular array. In such an ACWS system, the encryption key is not identical to the decryption key, which is another important feature of an asymmetric cryptographic system. The processes of asymmetric encryption and decryption are formulized mathematically and demonstrated with a set of numerical experiments.
Feedback controlled optics with wavefront compensation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Breckenridge, William G. (Inventor); Redding, David C. (Inventor)
1993-01-01
The sensitivity model of a complex optical system obtained by linear ray tracing is used to compute a control gain matrix by imposing the mathematical condition for minimizing the total wavefront error at the optical system's exit pupil. The most recent deformations or error states of the controlled segments or optical surfaces of the system are then assembled as an error vector, and the error vector is transformed by the control gain matrix to produce the exact control variables which will minimize the total wavefront error at the exit pupil of the optical system. These exact control variables are then applied to the actuators controlling the various optical surfaces in the system causing the immediate reduction in total wavefront error observed at the exit pupil of the optical system.
Cao, Zhaoliang; Mu, Quanquan; Hu, Lifa; Lu, Xinghai; Xuan, Li
2009-09-28
A simple method for evaluating the wavefront compensation error of diffractive liquid-crystal wavefront correctors (DLCWFCs) for atmospheric turbulence correction is reported. A simple formula which describes the relationship between pixel number, DLCWFC aperture, quantization level, and atmospheric coherence length was derived based on the calculated atmospheric turbulence wavefronts using Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence theory. It was found that the pixel number across the DLCWFC aperture is a linear function of the telescope aperture and the quantization level, and it is an exponential function of the atmosphere coherence length. These results are useful for people using DLCWFCs in atmospheric turbulence correction for large-aperture telescopes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Zhen-Yu; Li, Lin; Huang, Yi-Fan
2009-07-01
The segmented mirror telescope is widely used. The aberrations of segmented mirror systems are different from single mirror systems. This paper uses the Fourier optics theory to analyse the Zernike aberrations of segmented mirror systems. It concludes that the Zernike aberrations of segmented mirror systems obey the linearity theorem. The design of a segmented space telescope and segmented schemes are discussed, and its optical model is constructed. The computer simulation experiment is performed with this optical model to verify the suppositions. The experimental results confirm the correctness of the model.
Wavefront Control Testbed (WCT) Experiment Results
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burns, Laura A.; Basinger, Scott A.; Campion, Scott D.; Faust, Jessica A.; Feinberg, Lee D.; Hayden, William L.; Lowman, Andrew E.; Ohara, Catherine M.; Petrone, Peter P., III
2004-01-01
The Wavefront Control Testbed (WCT) was created to develop and test wavefront sensing and control algorithms and software for the segmented James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Last year, we changed the system configuration from three sparse aperture segments to a filled aperture with three pie shaped segments. With this upgrade we have performed experiments on fine phasing with line-of-sight and segment-to-segment jitter, dispersed fringe visibility and grism angle;. high dynamic range tilt sensing; coarse phasing with large aberrations, and sampled sub-aperture testing. This paper reviews the results of these experiments.
Method and apparatus for wavefront sensing
Bahk, Seung-Whan
2016-08-23
A method of measuring characteristics of a wavefront of an incident beam includes obtaining an interferogram associated with the incident beam passing through a transmission mask and Fourier transforming the interferogram to provide a frequency domain interferogram. The method also includes selecting a subset of harmonics from the frequency domain interferogram, individually inverse Fourier transforming each of the subset of harmonics to provide a set of spatial domain harmonics, and extracting a phase profile from each of the set of spatial domain harmonics. The method further includes removing phase discontinuities in the phase profile, rotating the phase profile, and reconstructing a phase front of the wavefront of the incident beam.
Fast and robust estimation of ophthalmic wavefront aberrations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dillon, Keith
2016-12-01
Rapidly rising levels of myopia, particularly in the developing world, have led to an increased need for inexpensive and automated approaches to optometry. A simple and robust technique is provided for estimating major ophthalmic aberrations using a gradient-based wavefront sensor. The approach is based on the use of numerical calculations to produce diverse combinations of phase components, followed by Fourier transforms to calculate the coefficients. The approach does not utilize phase unwrapping nor iterative solution of inverse problems. This makes the method very fast and tolerant to image artifacts, which do not need to be detected and masked or interpolated as is needed in other techniques. These features make it a promising algorithm on which to base low-cost devices for applications that may have limited access to expert maintenance and operation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gilles, Luc; Wang, Lianqi; Ellerbroek, Brent
2008-07-01
This paper describes the modeling effort undertaken to derive the wavefront error (WFE) budget for the Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS), which is the facility, laser guide star (LGS), dual-conjugate adaptive optics (AO) system for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). The budget describes the expected performance of NFIRAOS at zenith, and has been decomposed into (i) first-order turbulence compensation terms (120 nm on-axis), (ii) opto-mechanical implementation errors (84 nm), (iii) AO component errors and higher-order effects (74 nm) and (iv) tip/tilt (TT) wavefront errors at 50% sky coverage at the galactic pole (61 nm) with natural guide star (NGS) tip/tilt/focus/astigmatism (TTFA) sensing in J band. A contingency of about 66 nm now exists to meet the observatory requirement document (ORD) total on-axis wavefront error of 187 nm, mainly on account of reduced TT errors due to updated windshake modeling and a low read-noise NGS wavefront sensor (WFS) detector. A detailed breakdown of each of these top-level terms is presented, together with a discussion on its evaluation using a mix of high-order zonal and low-order modal Monte Carlo simulations.
Wavefront sensing in space: flight demonstration II of the PICTURE sounding rocket payload
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Douglas, Ewan S.; Mendillo, Christopher B.; Cook, Timothy A.; Cahoy, Kerri L.; Chakrabarti, Supriya
2018-01-01
A NASA sounding rocket for high-contrast imaging with a visible nulling coronagraph, the Planet Imaging Concept Testbed Using a Rocket Experiment (PICTURE) payload, has made two suborbital attempts to observe the warm dust disk inferred around Epsilon Eridani. The first flight in 2011 demonstrated a 5 mas fine pointing system in space. The reduced flight data from the second launch, on November 25, 2015, presented herein, demonstrate active sensing of wavefront phase in space. Despite several anomalies in flight, postfacto reduction phase stepping interferometer data provide insight into the wavefront sensing precision and the system stability for a portion of the pupil. These measurements show the actuation of a 32 × 32-actuator microelectromechanical system deformable mirror. The wavefront sensor reached a median precision of 1.4 nm per pixel, with 95% of samples between 0.8 and 12.0 nm per pixel. The median system stability, including telescope and coronagraph wavefront errors other than tip, tilt, and piston, was 3.6 nm per pixel, with 95% of samples between 1.2 and 23.7 nm per pixel.
Schindlbeck, Christopher; Pape, Christian; Reithmeier, Eduard
2018-04-16
Alignment of optical components is crucial for the assembly of optical systems to ensure their full functionality. In this paper we present a novel predictor-corrector framework for the sequential assembly of serial optical systems. Therein, we use a hybrid optical simulation model that comprises virtual and identified component positions. The hybrid model is constantly adapted throughout the assembly process with the help of nonlinear identification techniques and wavefront measurements. This enables prediction of the future wavefront at the detector plane and therefore allows for taking corrective measures accordingly during the assembly process if a user-defined tolerance on the wavefront error is violated. We present a novel notation for the so-called hybrid model and outline the work flow of the presented predictor-corrector framework. A beam expander is assembled as demonstrator for experimental verification of the framework. The optical setup consists of a laser, two bi-convex spherical lenses each mounted to a five degree-of-freedom stage to misalign and correct components, and a Shack-Hartmann sensor for wavefront measurements.
Quantitative absorption data from thermally induced wavefront distortions on UV, Vis, and NIR optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mann, Klaus; Schäfer, Bernd; Leinhos, Uwe; Lübbecke, Maik
2017-11-01
A photothermal absorption measurement system was set up, deploying a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor with extreme sensitivity to accomplish spatially resolved monitoring of thermally induced wavefront distortions. Photothermal absorption measurements in the near-infrared and deep ultra-violet spectral range are performed for the characterization of optical materials, utilizing a Yb fiber laser (λ = 1070 nm) and an excimer laser (193nm, 248nm) to induce thermal load. Wavefront deformations as low as 50pm (rms) can be registered, allowing for a rapid assessment of material quality. Absolute calibration of the absorption data is achieved by comparison with a thermal calculation. The method accomplishes not only to measure absorptances of plane optical elements, but also wavefront deformations and focal shifts in lenses as well as in complex optical systems, such as e.g. F-Theta objectives used in industrial high power laser applications. Along with a description of the technique we present results from absorption measurements on coated and uncoated optics at various laser wavelengths ranging from deep UV to near IR.
Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Yue-Hua; Li, Rui; Tian, Lei
2013-01-01
AIM To compare visual performance of wavefront-guided laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) with iris-registration (Wg-LASIK group) and conventional LASIK (LASIK group) one year after surgery and analyze the correlation between wavefront aberrations and visual performance. METHODS Eight hundred and fifty-two myopic eyes of 430 patients were enrolled in this prospective study and divided into two groups: Wg-LASIK group (436 eyes) and LASIK group (416 eyes). A Wavescan Wavefront aberrometer was used to analyze Zernike coefficients and the root-mean-square (RMS) of higher order aberrations, and Optec 6500 visual function instrument was used to measure contrast sensitivity (CS) before and 3, 6, 12 months after surgery. RESULTS The mean spherical equivalent (SE) in Wg-LASIK group was significantly better than those in LASIK group one year after surgery (P=0.024). Wg-LASIK eyes showed better CS values than LASIK eyes at all spatial frequencies with and without glare after surgery (P all<0.01). Moreover, the increase of higher RMS (RMSh), coma, RMS3, RMS4, RMS5 in Wg-LASIK group were significantly lower than those in LASIK group 1 year after surgery (P all<0.05). The increase of coma, spherical aberration (SA), RMS3 and RMS4 in Wg-LASIK and coma and RMS3 in LASIK group were negatively correlated with reduction of contrast sensitivity 1 year after surgery. CONCLUSION A significant better visual performance is got in Wg-LASIK group compared with LASIK group 1 year after surgery, and the Wg-LASIK is particularly suitable for eyes with high-magnitude RMSh. PMID:23991386
Clinical Applications of Wavefront Refraction
Bruce, Adrian S.; Catania, Louis J.
2014-01-01
ABSTRACT Purpose To determine normative reference ranges for higher-order wavefront error (HO-WFE), compare these values with those in common ocular pathologies, and evaluate treatments. Methods A review of 17 major studies on HO-WFE was made, involving data for a total of 31,605 subjects. The upper limit of the 95% confidence interval (CI) for HO-WFE was calculated from the most comprehensive of these studies using normal healthy patients aged 20 to 80 years. There were no studies identified using the natural pupil size for subjects, and for this reason, the HO-WFE was tabulated for pupil diameters of 3 to 7 mm. Effects of keratoconus, pterygium, cataract, and dry eye on HO-WFE were reviewed and treatment efficacy was considered. Results The calculated upper limit of the 95% CI for HO-WFE in a healthy normal 35-year-old patient with a mesopic pupil diameter of 6 mm would be 0.471 μm (471 nm) root-mean-square or less. Although the normal HO-WFE increases with age for a given pupil size, it is not yet completely clear how the concurrent influence of age-related pupillary miosis affects these findings. Abnormal ocular conditions such as keratoconus can induce a large HO-WFE, often in excess of 3.0 μm, particularly attributed to coma. For pterygium or cortical cataract, a combination of coma and trefoil was more commonly induced. Nuclear cataract can induce a negative spherical HO-WFE, usually in excess of 1.0 μm. Conclusions The upper limit of the 95% CI for HO-WFE root-mean-square is about 0.5 μm with normal physiological pupil sizes. With ocular pathologies, HO-WFE can be in excess of 1.0 μm, although many devices and therapeutic and surgical treatments are reported to be highly effective at minimizing HO-WFE. More accurate normative reference ranges for HO-WFE will require future studies using the subjects’ natural pupil size. PMID:25216319
Implementation of a Wavefront-Sensing Algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Jeffrey S.; Dean, Bruce; Aronstein, David
2013-01-01
A computer program has been written as a unique implementation of an image-based wavefront-sensing algorithm reported in "Iterative-Transform Phase Retrieval Using Adaptive Diversity" (GSC-14879-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 4 (April 2007), page 32. This software was originally intended for application to the James Webb Space Telescope, but is also applicable to other segmented-mirror telescopes. The software is capable of determining optical-wavefront information using, as input, a variable number of irradiance measurements collected in defocus planes about the best focal position. The software also uses input of the geometrical definition of the telescope exit pupil (otherwise denoted the pupil mask) to identify the locations of the segments of the primary telescope mirror. From the irradiance data and mask information, the software calculates an estimate of the optical wavefront (a measure of performance) of the telescope generally and across each primary mirror segment specifically. The software is capable of generating irradiance data, wavefront estimates, and basis functions for the full telescope and for each primary-mirror segment. Optionally, each of these pieces of information can be measured or computed outside of the software and incorporated during execution of the software.
Method and apparatus for holographic wavefront diagnostics
Toeppen, J.S.
1995-04-25
A wavefront diagnostic apparatus has an optic and a measuring system. The optic forms a holographic image in response to a beam of light striking a hologram formed on a surface of the optic. The measuring system detects the position of the array of holographic images and compares the positions of the array of holographic images to a reference holographic image. 3 figs.
Method and apparatus for holographic wavefront diagnostics
Toeppen, John S.
1995-01-01
A wavefront diagnostic apparatus has an optic and a measuring system. The optic forms a holographic image in response to a beam of light striking a hologram formed on a surface of the optic. The measuring system detects the position of the array of holographic images and compares the positions of the array of holographic images to a reference holographic image.
Wavefront Correction for Large, Flexible Antenna Reflector
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Imbriale, William A.; Jammejad, Vahraz; Rajagopalan, Harish; Xu, Shenheng
2010-01-01
A wavefront-correction system has been proposed as part of an outer-space radio communication system that would include a large, somewhat flexible main reflector antenna, a smaller subreflector antenna, and a small array feed at the focal plane of these two reflector antennas. Part of the wavefront-correction system would reside in the subreflector, which would be a planar patch-element reflectarray antenna in which the phase shifts of the patch antenna elements would be controlled via microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) radio -frequency (RF) switches. The system would include the following sensing-and-computing subsystems: a) An optical photogrammetric subsystem built around two cameras would estimate geometric distortions of the main reflector; b) A second subsystem would estimate wavefront distortions from amplitudes and phases of signals received by the array feed elements; and c) A third subsystem, built around small probes on the subreflector plane, would estimate wavefront distortions from differences among phases of signals received by the probes. The distortion estimates from the three subsystems would be processed to generate control signals to be fed to the MEMS RF switches to correct for the distortions, thereby enabling collimation and aiming of the received or transmitted radio beam to the required precision.
Smoldering wave-front velocity in fiberboard
John J. Brenden; Erwin L. Schaffer
1980-01-01
In fiberboard, the phenomena of smoldering can be visualized as decomposition resulting from the motion of a thermal wave-front through the material. The tendency to smolder is then directly proportional to the velocity of the front. Velocity measurements were made on four fiberboards and were compared to values given in the literature for several substances....
Target-in-the-loop beam control: basic considerations for analysis and wave-front sensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vorontsov, Mikhail A.; Kolosov, Valeriy
2005-01-01
Target-in-the-loop (TIL) wave propagation geometry represents perhaps the most challenging case for adaptive optics applications that are related to maximization of irradiance power density on extended remotely located surfaces in the presence of dynamically changing refractive-index inhomogeneities in the propagation medium. We introduce a TIL propagation model that uses a combination of the parabolic equation describing coherent outgoing-wave propagation, and the equation describing evolution of the mutual correlation function (MCF) for the backscattered wave (return wave). The resulting evolution equation for the MCF is further simplified by use of the smooth-refractive-index approximation. This approximation permits derivation of the transport equation for the return-wave brightness function, analyzed here by the method of characteristics (brightness function trajectories). The equations for the brightness function trajectories (ray equations) can be efficiently integrated numerically. We also consider wave-front sensors that perform sensing of speckle-averaged characteristics of the wave-front phase (TIL sensors). Analysis of the wave-front phase reconstructed from Shack-Hartmann TIL sensor measurements shows that an extended target introduces a phase modulation (target-induced phase) that cannot be easily separated from the atmospheric-turbulence-related phase aberrations. We also show that wave-front sensing results depend on the extended target shape, surface roughness, and outgoing-beam intensity distribution on the target surface. For targets with smooth surfaces and nonflat shapes, the target-induced phase can contain aberrations. The presence of target-induced aberrations in the conjugated phase may result in a deterioration of adaptive system performance.
Target-in-the-loop beam control: basic considerations for analysis and wave-front sensing.
Vorontsov, Mikhail A; Kolosov, Valeriy
2005-01-01
Target-in-the-loop (TIL) wave propagation geometry represents perhaps the most challenging case for adaptive optics applications that are related to maximization of irradiance power density on extended remotely located surfaces in the presence of dynamically changing refractive-index inhomogeneities in the propagation medium. We introduce a TIL propagation model that uses a combination of the parabolic equation describing coherent outgoing-wave propagation, and the equation describing evolution of the mutual correlation function (MCF) for the backscattered wave (return wave). The resulting evolution equation for the MCF is further simplified by use of the smooth-refractive-index approximation. This approximation permits derivation of the transport equation for the return-wave brightness function, analyzed here by the method of characteristics (brightness function trajectories). The equations for the brightness function trajectories (ray equations) can be efficiently integrated numerically. We also consider wave-front sensors that perform sensing of speckle-averaged characteristics of the wave-front phase (TIL sensors). Analysis of the wave-front phase reconstructed from Shack-Hartmann TIL sensor measurements shows that an extended target introduces a phase modulation (target-induced phase) that cannot be easily separated from the atmospheric-turbulence-related phase aberrations. We also show that wave-front sensing results depend on the extended target shape, surface roughness, and outgoing-beam intensity distribution on the target surface. For targets with smooth surfaces and nonflat shapes, the target-induced phase can contain aberrations. The presence of target-induced aberrations in the conjugated phase may result in a deterioration of adaptive system performance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azarian, Adrian; Gladysz, Szymon
2014-10-01
We study the influence of each Zernike mode on the propagation of a laser beam through the atmosphere by two different numerical methods. In the first method, an idealized adaptive optics system is modeled to subtract a certain number of Zernike modes from the beam. The effect of each aberration is quantified using the Strehl ratio of the longterm exposure in target/receiver plane. In the second method, the strength of each Zernike mode is varied using a numerical space-filling design during the generation of the phase screens. The resulting central intensity for each point of the design is then studied by a linear discriminant analysis, which yields to the importance of each Zernike mode. The results of the two methods are consistent. They indicate that, for a focused Gaussian beam and for certain geometries and turbulence strengths, the hypothesis of diminishing gains with correction of each new mode is not true. For such cases, we observe jumps in the calculated criteria, which indicate an increased importance of some particular modes, especially coma. The implications of these results for the design of adaptive optics systems are discussed.
Influence of surface error on electromagnetic performance of reflectors based on Zernike polynomials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Tuanjie; Shi, Jiachen; Tang, Yaqiong
2018-04-01
This paper investigates the influence of surface error distribution on the electromagnetic performance of antennas. The normalized Zernike polynomials are used to describe a smooth and continuous deformation surface. Based on the geometrical optics and piecewise linear fitting method, the electrical performance of reflector described by the Zernike polynomials is derived to reveal the relationship between surface error distribution and electromagnetic performance. Then the relation database between surface figure and electric performance is built for ideal and deformed surfaces to realize rapidly calculation of far-field electric performances. The simulation analysis of the influence of Zernike polynomials on the electrical properties for the axis-symmetrical reflector with the axial mode helical antenna as feed is further conducted to verify the correctness of the proposed method. Finally, the influence rules of surface error distribution on electromagnetic performance are summarized. The simulation results show that some terms of Zernike polynomials may decrease the amplitude of main lobe of antenna pattern, and some may reduce the pointing accuracy. This work extracts a new concept for reflector's shape adjustment in manufacturing process.
Partial null astigmatism-compensated interferometry for a concave freeform Zernike mirror
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dou, Yimeng; Yuan, Qun; Gao, Zhishan; Yin, Huimin; Chen, Lu; Yao, Yanxia; Cheng, Jinlong
2018-06-01
Partial null interferometry without using any null optics is proposed to measure a concave freeform Zernike mirror. Oblique incidence on the freeform mirror is used to compensate for astigmatism as the main component in its figure, and to constrain the divergence of the test beam as well. The phase demodulated from the partial nulled interferograms is divided into low-frequency phase and high-frequency phase by Zernike polynomial fitting. The low-frequency surface figure error of the freeform mirror represented by the coefficients of Zernike polynomials is reconstructed from the low-frequency phase, applying the reverse optimization reconstruction technology in the accurate model of the interferometric system. The high-frequency surface figure error of the freeform mirror is retrieved from the high-frequency phase adopting back propagating technology, according to the updated model in which the low-frequency surface figure error has been superimposed on the sag of the freeform mirror. Simulations verified that this method is capable of testing a wide variety of astigmatism-dominated freeform mirrors due to the high dynamic range. The experimental result using our proposed method for a concave freeform Zernike mirror is consistent with the null test result employing the computer-generated hologram.
The clock and wavefront model revisited.
Murray, Philip J; Maini, Philip K; Baker, Ruth E
2011-08-21
The currently accepted interpretation of the clock and wavefront model of somitogenesis is that a posteriorly moving molecular gradient sequentially slows the rate of clock oscillations, resulting in a spatial readout of temporal oscillations. However, while molecular components of the clocks and wavefronts have now been identified in the pre-somitic mesoderm (PSM), there is not yet conclusive evidence demonstrating that the observed molecular wavefronts act to slow clock oscillations. Here we present an alternative formulation of the clock and wavefront model in which oscillator coupling, already known to play a key role in oscillator synchronisation, plays a fundamentally important role in the slowing of oscillations along the anterior-posterior (AP) axis. Our model has three parameters which can be determined, in any given species, by the measurement of three quantities: the clock period in the posterior PSM, somite length and the length of the PSM. A travelling wavefront, which slows oscillations along the AP axis, is an emergent feature of the model. Using the model we predict: (a) the distance between moving stripes of gene expression; (b) the number of moving stripes of gene expression and (c) the oscillator period profile along the AP axis. Predictions regarding the stripe data are verified using existing zebrafish data. We simulate a range of experimental perturbations and demonstrate how the model can be used to unambiguously define a reference frame along the AP axis. Comparing data from zebrafish, chick, mouse and snake, we demonstrate that: (a) variation in patterning profiles is accounted for by a single nondimensional parameter; the ratio of coupling strengths; and (b) the period profile along the AP axis is conserved across species. Thus the model is consistent with the idea that, although the genes involved in pattern propagation in the PSM vary, there is a conserved patterning mechanism across species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
Wong, Kevin S K; Jian, Yifan; Cua, Michelle; Bonora, Stefano; Zawadzki, Robert J; Sarunic, Marinko V
2015-02-01
Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics optical coherence tomography (WSAO-OCT) is a novel imaging technique for in vivo high-resolution depth-resolved imaging that mitigates some of the challenges encountered with the use of sensor-based adaptive optics designs. This technique replaces the Hartmann Shack wavefront sensor used to measure aberrations with a depth-resolved image-driven optimization algorithm, with the metric based on the OCT volumes acquired in real-time. The custom-built ultrahigh-speed GPU processing platform and fast modal optimization algorithm presented in this paper was essential in enabling real-time, in vivo imaging of human retinas with wavefront sensorless AO correction. WSAO-OCT is especially advantageous for developing a clinical high-resolution retinal imaging system as it enables the use of a compact, low-cost and robust lens-based adaptive optics design. In this report, we describe our WSAO-OCT system for imaging the human photoreceptor mosaic in vivo. We validated our system performance by imaging the retina at several eccentricities, and demonstrated the improvement in photoreceptor visibility with WSAO compensation.
Comparison of different 3D wavefront sensing and reconstruction techniques for MCAO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bello, Dolores; Vérinaud, Christophe; Conan, Jean-Marc; Fusco, Thierry; Carbillet, Marcel; Esposito, Simone
2003-02-01
The vertical distribution of the turbulence limits the field of view of classical adaptive optics due to the anisoplanatism. Multiconjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) uses several deformable mirrors conjugated to different layers in the atmosphere to overcome this effect. In the last few years, many studies and developments have been done regarding the analysis of the turbulence volume, and the choice of the wavefront reconstruction techniques.An extensive study of MCAO modelisation and performance estimation has been done at OAA and ONERA. The developed Monte Carlo codes allow to simulate and investigate many aspects: comparison of turbulence analysis strategies (tomography or layer oriented) and comparison of different reconstruction approaches. For instance in the layer oriented approach, the control for a given deformable mirror can be either deduced from the whole set of wavefront sensor measurements or only using the associated wavefront sensor. Numerical simulations are presented showing the advantages and disadvantages of these different options for several cases depending on the number, geometry and magnitude of the guide stars.
An Efficient Pipeline Wavefront Phase Recovery for the CAFADIS Camera for Extremely Large Telescopes
Magdaleno, Eduardo; Rodríguez, Manuel; Rodríguez-Ramos, José Manuel
2010-01-01
In this paper we show a fast, specialized hardware implementation of the wavefront phase recovery algorithm using the CAFADIS camera. The CAFADIS camera is a new plenoptic sensor patented by the Universidad de La Laguna (Canary Islands, Spain): international patent PCT/ES2007/000046 (WIPO publication number WO/2007/082975). It can simultaneously measure the wavefront phase and the distance to the light source in a real-time process. The pipeline algorithm is implemented using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA). These devices present architecture capable of handling the sensor output stream using a massively parallel approach and they are efficient enough to resolve several Adaptive Optics (AO) problems in Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) in terms of processing time requirements. The FPGA implementation of the wavefront phase recovery algorithm using the CAFADIS camera is based on the very fast computation of two dimensional fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs). Thus we have carried out a comparison between our very novel FPGA 2D-FFTa and other implementations. PMID:22315523
Hybrid wavefront sensing and image correction algorithm for imaging through turbulent media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Chensheng; Robertson Rzasa, John; Ko, Jonathan; Davis, Christopher C.
2017-09-01
It is well known that passive image correction of turbulence distortions often involves using geometry-dependent deconvolution algorithms. On the other hand, active imaging techniques using adaptive optic correction should use the distorted wavefront information for guidance. Our work shows that a hybrid hardware-software approach is possible to obtain accurate and highly detailed images through turbulent media. The processing algorithm also takes much fewer iteration steps in comparison with conventional image processing algorithms. In our proposed approach, a plenoptic sensor is used as a wavefront sensor to guide post-stage image correction on a high-definition zoomable camera. Conversely, we show that given the ground truth of the highly detailed image and the plenoptic imaging result, we can generate an accurate prediction of the blurred image on a traditional zoomable camera. Similarly, the ground truth combined with the blurred image from the zoomable camera would provide the wavefront conditions. In application, our hybrid approach can be used as an effective way to conduct object recognition in a turbulent environment where the target has been significantly distorted or is even unrecognizable.
Magdaleno, Eduardo; Rodríguez, Manuel; Rodríguez-Ramos, José Manuel
2010-01-01
In this paper we show a fast, specialized hardware implementation of the wavefront phase recovery algorithm using the CAFADIS camera. The CAFADIS camera is a new plenoptic sensor patented by the Universidad de La Laguna (Canary Islands, Spain): international patent PCT/ES2007/000046 (WIPO publication number WO/2007/082975). It can simultaneously measure the wavefront phase and the distance to the light source in a real-time process. The pipeline algorithm is implemented using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA). These devices present architecture capable of handling the sensor output stream using a massively parallel approach and they are efficient enough to resolve several Adaptive Optics (AO) problems in Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) in terms of processing time requirements. The FPGA implementation of the wavefront phase recovery algorithm using the CAFADIS camera is based on the very fast computation of two dimensional fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs). Thus we have carried out a comparison between our very novel FPGA 2D-FFTa and other implementations.
Study of optimal wavefront sensing with elongated laser guide stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, S. J.; Adkins, S.; Gavel, D.; Fusco, T.; Michau, V.
2008-06-01
Over the past decade, adaptive optics (AO) has become an established method for overcoming the effects of atmospheric turbulence on both astronomical imaging and spectroscopic observations. These systems are now beginning to make extensive use of laser guide star (LGS) techniques to improve performance and provide increased sky coverage. Sodium LGS AO employs one or more lasers at 589-nm wavelength to produce an artificial guide star through excitation of sodium atoms in the mesosphere (90 km altitude). Because of its dependence on the abundance and distribution of sodium atoms in the mesosphere, this approach has its own unique set of difficulties not seen with natural stars. The sodium layer exhibits time-dependent variations in density and altitude, and since it is at a finite range, the LGS images become elongated due to the thickness of the layer and the offset between the laser projection point and the subapertures of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWFS). Elongation causes the LGS image to be spread out resulting in a decrease in the signal-to-noise ratio which, in turn, leads to an increase in SHWFS measurement error and therefore an increased error in wavefront phase reconstruction. To address the problem of elongation, and also to provide a higher level of readout performance and reduced readout noise, a new type of charge-coupled device (CCD) is now under development for Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing called the polar coordinate CCD. In this device, discrete imaging arrays are provided in each SHWFS subaperture and the size, shape and orientation of each discrete imaging array are adjusted to optimally sample the LGS image. The device is referred to as the polar coordinate CCD because the location of each imager is defined by a polar coordinate system centred on the laser guide star projection point. This concept is especially suited to Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) where the effect of perspective elongation is a significant factor. In this
Using a plenoptic camera to measure distortions in wavefronts affected by atmospheric turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eslami, Mohammed; Wu, Chensheng; Rzasa, John; Davis, Christopher C.
2012-10-01
Ideally, as planar wave fronts travel through an imaging system, all rays, or vectors pointing in the direction of the propagation of energy are parallel, and thus the wave front is focused to a particular point. If the wave front arrives at an imaging system with energy vectors that point in different directions, each part of the wave front will be focused at a slightly different point on the sensor plane and result in a distorted image. The Hartmann test, which involves the insertion of a series of pinholes between the imaging system and the sensor plane, was developed to sample the wavefront at different locations and measure the distortion angles at different points in the wave front. An adaptive optic system, such as a deformable mirror, is then used to correct for these distortions and allow the planar wave front to focus at the point desired on the sensor plane, thereby correcting the distorted image. The apertures of a pinhole array limit the amount of light that reaches the sensor plane. By replacing the pinholes with a microlens array each bundle of rays is focused to brighten the image. Microlens arrays are making their way into newer imaging technologies, such as "light field" or "plenoptic" cameras. In these cameras, the microlens array is used to recover the ray information of the incoming light by using post processing techniques to focus on objects at different depths. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the use of these plenoptic cameras to recover the distortions in wavefronts. Taking advantage of the microlens array within the plenoptic camera, CODE-V simulations show that its performance can provide more information than a Shack-Hartmann sensor. Using the microlens array to retrieve the ray information and then backstepping through the imaging system provides information about distortions in the arriving wavefront.
Manuel, Anastacia M; Phillion, Donald W; Olivier, Scot S; Baker, Kevin L; Cannon, Brice
2010-01-18
The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) uses a novel, three-mirror, modified Paul-Baker design, with an 8.4-meter primary mirror, a 3.4-m secondary, and a 5.0-m tertiary, along with three refractive corrector lenses to produce a flat focal plane with a field of view of 9.6 square degrees. In order to maintain image quality during operation, the deformations and rigid body motions of the three large mirrors must be actively controlled to minimize optical aberrations, which arise primarily from forces due to gravity and thermal expansion. We describe the methodology for measuring the telescope aberrations using a set of curvature wavefront sensors located in the four corners of the LSST camera focal plane. We present a comprehensive analysis of the wavefront sensing system, including the availability of reference stars, demonstrating that this system will perform to the specifications required to meet the LSST performance goals.
Fast wavefront optimization for focusing through biological tissue (Conference Presentation)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blochet, Baptiste; Bourdieu, Laurent; Gigan, Sylvain
2017-02-01
The propagation of light in biological tissues is rapidly dominated by multiple scattering: ballistic light is exponentially attenuated, which limits the penetration depth of conventional microscopy techniques. For coherent light, the recombination of the different scattered paths creates a complex interference: speckle. Recently, different wavefront shaping techniques have been developed to coherently manipulate the speckle. It opens the possibility to focus light through complex media and ultimately to image in them, provided however that the medium can be considered as stationary. We have studied the possibility to focus in and through time-varying biological tissues. Their intrinsic temporal dynamics creates a fast decorrelation of the speckle pattern. Therefore, focusing through biological tissues requires fast wavefront shaping devices, sensors and algorithms. We have investigated the use of a MEMS-based spatial light modulator (SLM) and a fast photodetector, combined with FPGA electronics to implement a closed-loop optimization. Our optimization process is just limited by the temporal dynamics of the SLM (200µs) and the computation time (45µs), thus corresponding to a rate of 4 kHz. To our knowledge, it's the fastest closed loop optimization using phase modulators. We have studied the focusing through colloidal solutions of TiO2 particles in glycerol, allowing tunable temporal stability, and scattering properties similar to biological tissues. We have shown that our set-up fulfills the required characteristics (speed, enhancement) to focus through biological tissues. We are currently investigating the focusing through acute rat brain slices and the memory effect in dynamic scattering media.
Adaptable Diffraction Gratings With Wavefront Transformation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Iazikov, Dmitri; Mossberg, Thomas W.; Greiner, Christoph M.
2010-01-01
Diffraction gratings are optical components with regular patterns of grooves, which angularly disperse incoming light by wavelength. Traditional diffraction gratings have static planar, concave, or convex surfaces. However, if they could be made so that they can change the surface curvature at will, then they would be able to focus on particular segments, self-calibrate, or perform fine adjustments. This innovation creates a diffraction grating on a deformable surface. This surface could be bent at will, resulting in a dynamic wavefront transformation. This allows for self-calibration, compensation for aberrations, enhancing image resolution in a particular area, or performing multiple scans using different wavelengths. A dynamic grating gives scientists a new ability to explore wavefronts from a variety of viewpoints.
THz wavefront manipulation based on metal waveguides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Mengru; Lang, Tingting; Shen, Changyu; Shi, Guohua; Han, Zhanghua
2018-07-01
In this paper, two waveguiding structures for arbitrary wavefront manipulation in the terahertz spectral region were proposed, designed and characterized. The first structure consists of parallel stack copper plates forming an array of parallel-plate waveguides (PPWGs). The second structure is three-dimensional metal rectangular waveguides array. The phase delay of the input wave after passing through the waveguide array is mainly determined by the effective index of the waveguides. Therefore, the waveguide array can be engineered using different core width distribution to generate any desired light beam. Examples, working at the frequency of 0.3 THz show that good focusing phenomenon with different focus lengths and spot sizes were observed, as well as arbitrarily tilted propagation of incident plane waves. The structure introduces a new method to perform wavefront manipulation, and can be utilized in many important applications in terahertz imaging and communication systems.
Dynamic wavefront creation for processing units using a hybrid compactor
Puthoor, Sooraj; Beckmann, Bradford M.; Yudanov, Dmitri
A method, a non-transitory computer readable medium, and a processor for repacking dynamic wavefronts during program code execution on a processing unit, each dynamic wavefront including multiple threads are presented. If a branch instruction is detected, a determination is made whether all wavefronts following a same control path in the program code have reached a compaction point, which is the branch instruction. If no branch instruction is detected in executing the program code, a determination is made whether all wavefronts following the same control path have reached a reconvergence point, which is a beginning of a program code segment tomore » be executed by both a taken branch and a not taken branch from a previous branch instruction. The dynamic wavefronts are repacked with all threads that follow the same control path, if all wavefronts following the same control path have reached the branch instruction or the reconvergence point.« less
Wavefront shaping to correct intraocular scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Artal, Pablo; Arias, Augusto; Fernández, Enrique
2018-02-01
Cataracts is a common ocular pathology that increases the amount of intraocular scattering. It degrades the quality of vision by both blur and contrast reduction of the retinal images. In this work, we propose a non-invasive method, based on wavefront shaping (WS), to minimize cataract effects. For the experimental demonstration of the method, a liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) spatial light modulator was used for both reproduction and reduction of the realistic cataracts effects. The LCoS area was separated in two halves conjugated with the eye's pupil by a telescope with unitary magnification. Thus, while the phase maps that induced programmable amounts of intraocular scattering (related to cataract severity) were displayed in a one half of the LCoS, sequentially testing wavefronts were displayed in the second one. Results of the imaging improvements were visually evaluated by subjects with no known ocular pathology seeing through the instrument. The diffracted intensity of exit pupil is analyzed for the feedback of the implemented algorithms in search for the optimum wavefront. Numerical and experimental results of the imaging improvements are presented and discussed.
Wavefront shaping with disorder-engineered metasurfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jang, Mooseok; Horie, Yu; Shibukawa, Atsushi; Brake, Joshua; Liu, Yan; Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa; Arbabi, Amir; Ruan, Haowen; Faraon, Andrei; Yang, Changhuei
2018-02-01
Recently, wavefront shaping with disordered media has demonstrated optical manipulation capabilities beyond those of conventional optics, including extended volume, aberration-free focusing and subwavelength focusing. However, translating these capabilities to useful applications has remained challenging as the input-output characteristics of the disordered media (P variables) need to be exhaustively determined via O(P) measurements. Here, we propose a paradigm shift where the disorder is specifically designed so its exact input-output characteristics are known a priori and can be used with only a few alignment steps. We implement this concept with a disorder-engineered metasurface, which exhibits additional unique features for wavefront shaping such as a large optical memory effect range in combination with a wide angular scattering range, excellent stability, and a tailorable angular scattering profile. Using this designed metasurface with wavefront shaping, we demonstrate high numerical aperture (NA > 0.5) focusing and fluorescence imaging with an estimated 2.2 × 108 addressable points in an 8 mm field of view.
Accommodation to wavefront vergence and chromatic aberration.
Wang, Yinan; Kruger, Philip B; Li, James S; Lin, Peter L; Stark, Lawrence R
2011-05-01
Longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) provides a cue to accommodation with small pupils. However, large pupils increase monochromatic aberrations, which may obscure chromatic blur. In this study, we examined the effect of pupil size and LCA on accommodation. Accommodation was recorded by infrared optometer while observers (nine normal trichromats) viewed a sinusoidally moving Maltese cross target in a Badal stimulus system. There were two illumination conditions: white (3000 K; 20 cd/m) and monochromatic (550 nm with 10 nm bandwidth; 20 cd/m) and two artificial pupil conditions (3 and 5.7 mm). Separately, static measurements of wavefront aberration were made with the eye accommodating to targets between 0 and 4 D (COAS, Wavefront Sciences). Large individual differences in accommodation to wavefront vergence and to LCA are a hallmark of accommodation. LCA continues to provide a signal at large pupil sizes despite higher levels of monochromatic aberrations. Monochromatic aberrations may defend against chromatic blur at high spatial frequencies, but accommodation responds best to optical vergence and to LCA at 3 c/deg where blur from higher order aberrations is less.
Accommodation to Wavefront Vergence and Chromatic Aberration
Wang, Yinan; Kruger, Philip B.; Li, James S.; Lin, Peter L.; Stark, Lawrence R.
2011-01-01
Purpose Longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) provides a cue to accommodation with small pupils. However, large pupils increase monochromatic aberrations, which may obscure chromatic blur. In the present study, we examined the effect of pupil size and LCA on accommodation. Methods Accommodation was recorded by infrared optometer while observers (nine normal trichromats) viewed a sinusoidally moving Maltese cross target in a Badal stimulus system. There were two illumination conditions: white (3000 K; 20 cd/m2) and monochromatic (550 nm with 10 nm bandwidth; 20 cd/m2) and two artificial pupil conditions (3 mm and 5.7 mm). Separately, static measurements of wavefront aberration were made with the eye accommodating to targets between 0 and 4 D (COAS, Wavefront Sciences). Results Large individual differences in accommodation to wavefront vergence and to LCA are a hallmark of accommodation. LCA continues to provide a signal at large pupil sizes despite higher levels of monochromatic aberrations. Conclusions Monochromatic aberrations may defend against chromatic blur at high spatial frequencies, but accommodation responds best to optical vergence and to LCA at 3 c/deg where blur from higher order aberrations is less. PMID:21317666
Analyzing spatial coherence using a single mobile field sensor.
Fridman, Peter
2007-04-01
According to the Van Cittert-Zernike theorem, the intensity distribution of a spatially incoherent source and the mutual coherence function of the light impinging on two wave sensors are related. It is the comparable relationship using a single mobile sensor moving at a certain velocity relative to the source that is calculated in this paper. The auto-corelation function of the electric field at the sensor contains information about the intensity distribution. This expression could be employed in aperture synthesis.
Mastropasqua, L; Toto, L; Zuppardi, E; Nubile, M; Carpineto, P; Di Nicola, M; Ballone, E
2006-01-01
To evaluate the refractive and aberrometric outcome of wavefront-guided photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) compared to standard PRK in myopic patients. Fifty-six eyes of 56 patients were included in the study and were randomly divided into two groups. The study group consisted of 28 eyes with a mean spherical equivalent (SE) of -2.25+/-0.76 diopters (D) (range: -1.5 to -3.5 D) treated with wavefront-guided PRK using the Zywave ablation profile and the Bausch & Lomb Technolas 217z excimer laser (Zyoptix system) and the control group included 28 eyes with a SE of -2.35+/-1.01 D (range: -1.5 to -3.5 D) treated with standard PRK (PlanoScan ablation) using the same laser. A Zywave aberrometer was used to analyze and calculate the root-mean-square (RMS) of total high order aberrations (HOA) and Zernike coefficients of third and fourth order before and after (over a 6-month follow-up period) surgery in both groups. Preoperative and postoperative SE, un-corrected visual acuity (UCVA), and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were evaluated in all cases. There was a high correlation between achieved and intended correction. The differences between the two treatment groups were not statistically significant for UCVA, BCVA, or SE cycloplegic refraction . Postoperatively the RMS value of high order aberrations was raised in both groups. At 6-month control, on average it increased by a factor of 1.17 in the Zyoptix PRK group and 1.54 in the PlanoScan PRK group (p=0.22). In the Zyoptix group there was a decrease of coma aberration, while in the PlanoScan group this third order aberration increased. The difference between postoperative and preoperative values between the two groups was statistically significant for coma aberration (p=0.013). No statistically significant difference was observed for spherical-like aberration between the two groups. In the study group eyes with a low amount of preoperative aberrations (HOA RMS lower than the median value; <0.28 microm) showed an
Comparison of Modal to Nodal Approaches for Wavefront Correction,
1986-02-01
the influence function of the wavefront corrector. (Implicit here is the assumption that the influence function is the same for every node, which is...To implement a nodal correction, the wavefront to be corrected is -. .. decomposed using a basis which is determined by the nodal (actuator) influence ... function of the wavefront corrector. This decomposition results in a set of coefficients which correspond to the drive signal required at the
Sub-pixel spatial resolution wavefront phase imaging
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stahl, H. Philip (Inventor); Mooney, James T. (Inventor)
2012-01-01
A phase imaging method for an optical wavefront acquires a plurality of phase images of the optical wavefront using a phase imager. Each phase image is unique and is shifted with respect to another of the phase images by a known/controlled amount that is less than the size of the phase imager's pixels. The phase images are then combined to generate a single high-spatial resolution phase image of the optical wavefront.
JWFront: Wavefronts and Light Cones for Kerr Spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frutos Alfaro, Francisco; Grave, Frank; Müller, Thomas; Adis, Daria
2015-04-01
JWFront visualizes wavefronts and light cones in general relativity. The interactive front-end allows users to enter the initial position values and choose the values for mass and angular momentum per unit mass. The wavefront animations are available in 2D and 3D; the light cones are visualized using the coordinate systems (t, x, y) or (t, z, x). JWFront can be easily modified to simulate wavefronts and light cones for other spacetime by providing the Christoffel symbols in the program.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mao, Heng; Wang, Xiao; Zhao, Dazun
2009-05-01
As a wavefront sensing (WFS) tool, Baseline algorithm, which is classified as the iterative-transform algorithm of phase retrieval, estimates the phase distribution at pupil from some known PSFs at defocus planes. By using multiple phase diversities and appropriate phase unwrapping methods, this algorithm can accomplish reliable unique solution and high dynamic phase measurement. In the paper, a Baseline algorithm based wavefront sensing experiment with modification of phase unwrapping has been implemented, and corresponding Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) software has also been given. The adaptability and repeatability of Baseline algorithm have been validated in experiments. Moreover, referring to the ZYGO interferometric results, the WFS accuracy of this algorithm has been exactly calibrated.
Range image segmentation using Zernike moment-based generalized edge detector
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ghosal, S.; Mehrotra, R.
1992-01-01
The authors proposed a novel Zernike moment-based generalized step edge detection method which can be used for segmenting range and intensity images. A generalized step edge detector is developed to identify different kinds of edges in range images. These edge maps are thinned and linked to provide final segmentation. A generalized edge is modeled in terms of five parameters: orientation, two slopes, one step jump at the location of the edge, and the background gray level. Two complex and two real Zernike moment-based masks are required to determine all these parameters of the edge model. Theoretical noise analysis is performed to show that these operators are quite noise tolerant. Experimental results are included to demonstrate edge-based segmentation technique.
Dai, Wei; Fu, Caroline; Khant, Htet A.; Ludtke, Steven J.; Schmid, Michael F.; Chiu, Wah
2015-01-01
Advances in electron cryo-tomography have provided a new opportunity to visualize the internal 3D structures of a bacterium. An electron microscope equipped with Zernike phase contrast optics produces images with dramatically increased contrast compared to images obtained by conventional electron microscopy. Here we describe a protocol to apply Zernike phase plate technology for acquiring electron tomographic tilt series of cyanophage-infected cyanobacterial cells embedded in ice, without staining or chemical fixation. We detail the procedures for aligning and assessing phase plates for data collection, and methods to obtain 3D structures of cyanophage assembly intermediates in the host, by subtomogram alignment, classification and averaging. Acquiring three to four tomographic tilt series takes approximately 12 h on a JEM2200FS electron microscope. We expect this time requirement to decrease substantially as the technique matures. Time required for annotation and subtomogram averaging varies widely depending on the project goals and data volume. PMID:25321408
Combined invariants to similarity transformation and to blur using orthogonal Zernike moments
Beijing, Chen; Shu, Huazhong; Zhang, Hui; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Luo, Limin; Coatrieux, Jean-Louis
2011-01-01
The derivation of moment invariants has been extensively investigated in the past decades. In this paper, we construct a set of invariants derived from Zernike moments which is simultaneously invariant to similarity transformation and to convolution with circularly symmetric point spread function (PSF). Two main contributions are provided: the theoretical framework for deriving the Zernike moments of a blurred image and the way to construct the combined geometric-blur invariants. The performance of the proposed descriptors is evaluated with various PSFs and similarity transformations. The comparison of the proposed method with the existing ones is also provided in terms of pattern recognition accuracy, template matching and robustness to noise. Experimental results show that the proposed descriptors perform on the overall better. PMID:20679028
Dai, Wei; Fu, Caroline; Khant, Htet A; Ludtke, Steven J; Schmid, Michael F; Chiu, Wah
2014-11-01
Advances in electron cryotomography have provided new opportunities to visualize the internal 3D structures of a bacterium. An electron microscope equipped with Zernike phase-contrast optics produces images with markedly increased contrast compared with images obtained by conventional electron microscopy. Here we describe a protocol to apply Zernike phase plate technology for acquiring electron tomographic tilt series of cyanophage-infected cyanobacterial cells embedded in ice, without staining or chemical fixation. We detail the procedures for aligning and assessing phase plates for data collection, and methods for obtaining 3D structures of cyanophage assembly intermediates in the host by subtomogram alignment, classification and averaging. Acquiring three or four tomographic tilt series takes ∼12 h on a JEM2200FS electron microscope. We expect this time requirement to decrease substantially as the technique matures. The time required for annotation and subtomogram averaging varies widely depending on the project goals and data volume.
Wavefront sensing and control aspects in a high energy laser optical train
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartosewcz, M.; Bareket, N.
1981-01-01
In this paper we review the major elements of a HEL (high energy laser) wavefront sensing and control system with particular emphasis on experimental demonstrations and hardware components developed at Lockheed Missiles & Space Company, Inc. The review concentrates on three important elements of wavefront control: wavefront sampling, wavefront sensing and active mirrors. Methods of wavefront sampling by diffraction gratings are described. Some new developments in wavefront sensing are explored. Hardware development efforts of fast steering mirrors and edge controlled deformable mirrors are described.
Braaf, Boy; van de Watering, Thomas Christiaan; Spruijt, Kees; van der Heijde, Rob G.L.; Sicam, Victor Arni D.P.
2010-01-01
Purpose To develop a method to calculate the angle λ of the human eye using Zernike tilt measurements in specular reflection corneal topography. Methods The meaning of Zernike tilt in specular reflection corneal topography is demonstrated by measurements on translated artificial surfaces using the VU Topographer. The relationship derived from the translation experiments is used to determine the angle λ. Corneal surfaces are measured for a set of eight different fixation points, for which tilt angles ρ are obtained from the Zernike tilt coefficients. The angles ρ are used with respect to the fixation target angles to determine angle λ by fitting a geometrical model. This method is validated with Orbscan II's angle-κ measurements in 9 eyes. Results The translation experiments show that the Zernike tilt coefficient is directly related to an angle ρ, which describes a tilt orientation of the cornea and can therefore be used to derive a value for angle λ. A significant correlation exists between measured values for angle λ with the VU Topographer and the angle κ with the Orbscan II (r=0.95, P<0.001). A Bland-Altman plot indicates a mean difference of -0.52 degrees between the two instruments, but this is not statistically significant as indicated by a matched-pairs Wilcoxon signed-rank test (P≤0.1748). The mean precision for measuring angle λ using the VU topographer is 0.6±0.3 degrees. Conclusion The method described above to determine angle λ is sufficiently repeatable and performs similarly to the angle-κ measurements made with the Orbscan II.
PIZZA: a phase-induced zonal Zernike apodization designed for stellar coronagraphy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martinache, Frantz
2004-08-01
I explore here the possibilities offered by the general formalism of coronagraphy for the very special case of phase contrast. This technique, invented by Zernike, is commonly used in microscopy, to see phase objects such as micro-organisms, and in strioscopy, to control the quality of optics polishing. It may find application in telescope pupil apodization with significant advantages over classical pupil apodization techniques, including high throughput and no off-axis resolution loss, which is essential for exoplanet imaging.
Application of overlay modeling and control with Zernike polynomials in an HVM environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ju, JaeWuk; Kim, MinGyu; Lee, JuHan; Nabeth, Jeremy; Jeon, Sanghuck; Heo, Hoyoung; Robinson, John C.; Pierson, Bill
2016-03-01
Shrinking technology nodes and smaller process margins require improved photolithography overlay control. Generally, overlay measurement results are modeled with Cartesian polynomial functions for both intra-field and inter-field models and the model coefficients are sent to an advanced process control (APC) system operating in an XY Cartesian basis. Dampened overlay corrections, typically via exponentially or linearly weighted moving average in time, are then retrieved from the APC system to apply on the scanner in XY Cartesian form for subsequent lot exposure. The goal of the above method is to process lots with corrections that target the least possible overlay misregistration in steady state as well as in change point situations. In this study, we model overlay errors on product using Zernike polynomials with same fitting capability as the process of reference (POR) to represent the wafer-level terms, and use the standard Cartesian polynomials to represent the field-level terms. APC calculations for wafer-level correction are performed in Zernike basis while field-level calculations use standard XY Cartesian basis. Finally, weighted wafer-level correction terms are converted to XY Cartesian space in order to be applied on the scanner, along with field-level corrections, for future wafer exposures. Since Zernike polynomials have the property of being orthogonal in the unit disk we are able to reduce the amount of collinearity between terms and improve overlay stability. Our real time Zernike modeling and feedback evaluation was performed on a 20-lot dataset in a high volume manufacturing (HVM) environment. The measured on-product results were compared to POR and showed a 7% reduction in overlay variation including a 22% terms variation. This led to an on-product raw overlay Mean + 3Sigma X&Y improvement of 5% and resulted in 0.1% yield improvement.
Computer-aided diagnosis of malignant mammograms using Zernike moments and SVM.
Sharma, Shubhi; Khanna, Pritee
2015-02-01
This work is directed toward the development of a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system to detect abnormalities or suspicious areas in digital mammograms and classify them as malignant or nonmalignant. Original mammogram is preprocessed to separate the breast region from its background. To work on the suspicious area of the breast, region of interest (ROI) patches of a fixed size of 128×128 are extracted from the original large-sized digital mammograms. For training, patches are extracted manually from a preprocessed mammogram. For testing, patches are extracted from a highly dense area identified by clustering technique. For all extracted patches corresponding to a mammogram, Zernike moments of different orders are computed and stored as a feature vector. A support vector machine (SVM) is used to classify extracted ROI patches. The experimental study shows that the use of Zernike moments with order 20 and SVM classifier gives better results among other studies. The proposed system is tested on Image Retrieval In Medical Application (IRMA) reference dataset and Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM) mammogram database. On IRMA reference dataset, it attains 99% sensitivity and 99% specificity, and on DDSM mammogram database, it obtained 97% sensitivity and 96% specificity. To verify the applicability of Zernike moments as a fitting texture descriptor, the performance of the proposed CAD system is compared with the other well-known texture descriptors namely gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and discrete cosine transform (DCT).
Besic, Nikola; Vasile, Gabriel; Anghel, Andrei; Petrut, Teodor-Ion; Ioana, Cornel; Stankovic, Srdjan; Girard, Alexandre; d'Urso, Guy
2014-11-01
In this paper, we propose a novel ultrasonic tomography method for pipeline flow field imaging, based on the Zernike polynomial series. Having intrusive multipath time-offlight ultrasonic measurements (difference in flight time and speed of ultrasound) at the input, we provide at the output tomograms of the fluid velocity components (axial, radial, and orthoradial velocity). Principally, by representing these velocities as Zernike polynomial series, we reduce the tomography problem to an ill-posed problem of finding the coefficients of the series, relying on the acquired ultrasonic measurements. Thereupon, this problem is treated by applying and comparing Tikhonov regularization and quadratically constrained ℓ1 minimization. To enhance the comparative analysis, we additionally introduce sparsity, by employing SVD-based filtering in selecting Zernike polynomials which are to be included in the series. The first approach-Tikhonov regularization without filtering, is used because it is the most suitable method. The performances are quantitatively tested by considering a residual norm and by estimating the flow using the axial velocity tomogram. Finally, the obtained results show the relative residual norm and the error in flow estimation, respectively, ~0.3% and ~1.6% for the less turbulent flow and ~0.5% and ~1.8% for the turbulent flow. Additionally, a qualitative validation is performed by proximate matching of the derived tomograms with a flow physical model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tehrani, Kayvan Forouhesh; Pendleton, Emily G.; Leitmann, Bobby; Barrow, Ruth; Mortensen, Luke J.
2018-02-01
Bone growth and strength is severely impacted by Hypophosphatasia (HPP). It is a genetic disease that affects the mineralization of the bone. We hypothesize that it impacts overall organization, density, and porosity of collagen fibers. Lower density of fibers and higher porosity cause less absorption and scattering of light, and therefore a different regime of transport mean free path. To find a cure for this disease, a metric for the evaluation of bone is required. Here we present an evaluation method based on our Phase Accumulation Ray Tracing (PART) method. This method uses second harmonic generation (SHG) in bone collagen fiber to model bone indices of refraction, which is used to calculate phase retardation on the propagation path of light in bone. The calculated phase is then expanded using Zernike polynomials up to 15th order, to make a quantitative analysis of tissue anomalies. Because the Zernike modes are a complete set of orthogonal polynomials, we can compare low and high order modes in HPP, compare them with healthy wild type mice, to identify the differences between their geometry and structure. Larger coefficients of low order modes show more uniform fiber density and less porosity, whereas the opposite is shown with larger coefficients of higher order modes. Our analyses show significant difference between Zernike modes in different types of bone evidenced by Principal Components Analysis (PCA).
Wavefront correction with Kalman filtering for the WFIRST-AFTA coronagraph instrument
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riggs, A. J. Eldorado; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Groff, Tyler D.
2015-09-01
The only way to characterize most exoplanets spectrally is via direct imaging. For example, the Coronagraph Instrument (CGI) on the proposed Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) mission plans to image and characterize several cool gas giants around nearby stars. The integration time on these faint exoplanets will be many hours to days. A crucial assumption for mission planning is that the time required to dig a dark hole (a region of high star-to-planet contrast) with deformable mirrors is small compared to science integration time. The science camera must be used as the wavefront sensor to avoid non-common path aberrations, but this approach can be quite time intensive. Several estimation images are required to build an estimate of the starlight electric field before it can be partially corrected, and this process is repeated iteratively until high contrast is reached. Here we present simulated results of batch process and recursive wavefront estimation schemes. In particular, we test a Kalman filter and an iterative extended Kalman filter (IEKF) to reduce the total exposure time and improve the robustness of wavefront correction for the WFIRST-AFTA CGI. An IEKF or other nonlinear filter also allows recursive, real-time estimation of sources incoherent with the star, such as exoplanets and disks, and may therefore reduce detection uncertainty.
Kaye, Elena A; Hertzberg, Yoni; Marx, Michael; Werner, Beat; Navon, Gil; Levoy, Marc; Pauly, Kim Butts
2012-10-01
To study the phase aberrations produced by human skulls during transcranial magnetic resonance imaging guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS), to demonstrate the potential of Zernike polynomials (ZPs) to accelerate the adaptive focusing process, and to investigate the benefits of using phase corrections obtained in previous studies to provide the initial guess for correction of a new data set. The five phase aberration data sets, analyzed here, were calculated based on preoperative computerized tomography (CT) images of the head obtained during previous transcranial MRgFUS treatments performed using a clinical prototype hemispherical transducer. The noniterative adaptive focusing algorithm [Larrat et al., "MR-guided adaptive focusing of ultrasound," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57(8), 1734-1747 (2010)] was modified by replacing Hadamard encoding with Zernike encoding. The algorithm was tested in simulations to correct the patients' phase aberrations. MR acoustic radiation force imaging (MR-ARFI) was used to visualize the effect of the phase aberration correction on the focusing of a hemispherical transducer. In addition, two methods for constructing initial phase correction estimate based on previous patient's data were investigated. The benefits of the initial estimates in the Zernike-based algorithm were analyzed by measuring their effect on the ultrasound intensity at the focus and on the number of ZP modes necessary to achieve 90% of the intensity of the nonaberrated case. Covariance of the pairs of the phase aberrations data sets showed high correlation between aberration data of several patients and suggested that subgroups can be based on level of correlation. Simulation of the Zernike-based algorithm demonstrated the overall greater correction effectiveness of the low modes of ZPs. The focal intensity achieves 90% of nonaberrated intensity using fewer than 170 modes of ZPs. The initial estimates based on using the average of the
Carvalho, Luis Alberto
2005-02-01
Our main goal in this work was to develop an artificial neural network (NN) that could classify specific types of corneal shapes using Zernike coefficients as input. Other authors have implemented successful NN systems in the past and have demonstrated their efficiency using different parameters. Our claim is that, given the increasing popularity of Zernike polynomials among the eye care community, this may be an interesting choice to add complementing value and precision to existing methods. By using a simple and well-documented corneal surface representation scheme, which relies on corneal elevation information, one can generate simple NN input parameters that are independent of curvature definition and that are also efficient. We have used the Matlab Neural Network Toolbox (MathWorks, Natick, MA) to implement a three-layer feed-forward NN with 15 inputs and 5 outputs. A database from an EyeSys System 2000 (EyeSys Vision, Houston, TX) videokeratograph installed at the Escola Paulista de Medicina-Sao Paulo was used. This database contained an unknown number of corneal types. From this database, two specialists selected 80 corneas that could be clearly classified into five distinct categories: (1) normal, (2) with-the-rule astigmatism, (3) against-the-rule astigmatism, (4) keratoconus, and (5) post-laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis. The corneal height (SAG) information of the 80 data files was fit with the first 15 Vision Science and it Applications (VSIA) standard Zernike coefficients, which were individually used to feed the 15 neurons of the input layer. The five output neurons were associated with the five typical corneal shapes. A group of 40 cases was randomly selected from the larger group of 80 corneas and used as the training set. The NN responses were statistically analyzed in terms of sensitivity [true positive/(true positive + false negative)], specificity [true negative/(true negative + false positive)], and precision [(true positive + true
Kaye, Elena A.; Hertzberg, Yoni; Marx, Michael; Werner, Beat; Navon, Gil; Levoy, Marc; Pauly, Kim Butts
2012-01-01
Purpose: To study the phase aberrations produced by human skulls during transcranial magnetic resonance imaging guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS), to demonstrate the potential of Zernike polynomials (ZPs) to accelerate the adaptive focusing process, and to investigate the benefits of using phase corrections obtained in previous studies to provide the initial guess for correction of a new data set. Methods: The five phase aberration data sets, analyzed here, were calculated based on preoperative computerized tomography (CT) images of the head obtained during previous transcranial MRgFUS treatments performed using a clinical prototype hemispherical transducer. The noniterative adaptive focusing algorithm [Larrat , “MR-guided adaptive focusing of ultrasound,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57(8), 1734–1747 (2010)]10.1109/TUFFC.2010.1612 was modified by replacing Hadamard encoding with Zernike encoding. The algorithm was tested in simulations to correct the patients’ phase aberrations. MR acoustic radiation force imaging (MR-ARFI) was used to visualize the effect of the phase aberration correction on the focusing of a hemispherical transducer. In addition, two methods for constructing initial phase correction estimate based on previous patient's data were investigated. The benefits of the initial estimates in the Zernike-based algorithm were analyzed by measuring their effect on the ultrasound intensity at the focus and on the number of ZP modes necessary to achieve 90% of the intensity of the nonaberrated case. Results: Covariance of the pairs of the phase aberrations data sets showed high correlation between aberration data of several patients and suggested that subgroups can be based on level of correlation. Simulation of the Zernike-based algorithm demonstrated the overall greater correction effectiveness of the low modes of ZPs. The focal intensity achieves 90% of nonaberrated intensity using fewer than 170 modes of ZPs. The
Liquid Crystal on Silicon Wavefront Corrector
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pouch, John; Miranda, Felix; Wang, Xinghua; Bos, Philip, J.
2004-01-01
A low cost, high resolution, liquid crystal on silicon, spatial light modulator has been developed for the correction of huge aberrations in an optical system where the polarization dependence and the chromatic nature are tolerated. However, the overall system performance suggests that this device is also suitable for real time correction of aberration in human eyes. This device has a resolution of 1024 x 768, and is driven by an XGA display driver. The effective stroke length of the device is 700 nm and 2000 nm for the visible and IR regions of the device, respectively. The response speeds are 50 Hz and 5 Hz, respectively, which are fast enough for real time adaptive optics for aberrations in human eyes. By modulating a wavefront of 2 pi, this device can correct for arbitrary high order wavefront aberrations since the 2-D pixel array is independently controlled by the driver. The high resolution and high accuracy of the device allow for diffraction limited correction of the tip and tilt or defocus without an additional correction loop. We have shown that for every wave of aberration, an 8 step blazed grating is required to achieve high diffraction efficiency around 80%. In light of this, up to 125 waves peak to valley of tip and tilt can be corrected if we choose the simplest aberration. Corrections of 34 waves of aberration, including high order Zernicke terms in a high magnification telescope, to diffraction limited performance (residual wavefront aberration less than 1/30 lambda at 632.8 nm) have been observed at high efficiency.
Lenses that provide the transformation between two given wavefronts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Criado, C.; Alamo, N.
2016-12-01
We give an original method to design four types of lenses solving the following problems: focusing a given wavefront in a given point, and performing the transformation between two arbitrary incoming and outgoing wavefronts. The method to design the lenses profiles is based on the optical properties of the envelopes of certain families of Cartesian ovals of revolution.
Wavefront Reconstruction and Mirror Surface Optimizationfor Adaptive Optics
2014-06-01
TERMS Wavefront reconstruction, Adaptive optics , Wavelets, Atmospheric turbulence , Branch points, Mirror surface optimization, Space telescope, Segmented...contribution adapts the proposed algorithm to work when branch points are present from significant atmospheric turbulence . An analysis of vector spaces...estimate the distortion of the collected light caused by the atmosphere and corrected by adaptive optics . A generalized orthogonal wavelet wavefront
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dunn, Jennifer; Andersen, David; Chapin, Edward; Reshetov, Vlad; Wierzbicki, Ramunas; Herriot, Glen; Chalmer, Dean; Isbrucker, Victor; Larkin, James E.; Moore, Anna M.; Suzuki, Ryuji
2016-08-01
The InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) will be the first light adaptive optics instrument on the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). IRIS is being built by a collaboration between Caltech, the University of California, NAOJ and NRC Herzberg. In this paper we present novel aspects of the Support Structure, Rotator and On-Instrument Wavefront Sensor systems being developed at NRC Herzberg. IRIS is suspended from the bottom port of the Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS), and provides its own image de-rotation to compensate for sidereal rotation of the focal plane. This arrangement is a challenge because NFIRAOS is designed to host two other science instruments, which imposes strict mass requirements on IRIS. As the mechanical design of all elements has progressed, we have been tasked with keeping the instrument mass under seven tonnes. This requirement has resulted in a mass reduction of 30 percent for the support structure and rotator compared to the most recent IRIS designs. To accomplish this goal, while still being able to withstand earthquakes, we developed a new design with composite materials. As IRIS is a client instrument of NFIRAOS, it benefits from NFIRAOS's superior AO correction. IRIS plays an important role in providing this correction by sensing low-order aberrations with three On-Instrument Wavefront Sensors (OIWFS). The OIWFS consists of three independently positioned natural guide star wavefront sensor probe arms that patrol a 2-arcminute field of view. We expect tip-tilt measurements from faint stars within the IRIS imager focal plane will further stabilize the delivered image quality. We describe how the use of On-Detector Guide Windows (ODGWs) in the IRIS imaging detector can be incorporated into the AO correction. In this paper, we present our strategies for acquiring and tracking sources with this complex AO system, and for mitigating and measuring the various potential sources of image blur and misalignment due to properties of
Filter Function for Wavefront Sensing Over a Field of View
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dean, Bruce H.
2007-01-01
A filter function has been derived as a means of optimally weighting the wavefront estimates obtained in image-based phase retrieval performed at multiple points distributed over the field of view of a telescope or other optical system. When the data obtained in wavefront sensing and, more specifically, image-based phase retrieval, are used for controlling the shape of a deformable mirror or other optic used to correct the wavefront, the control law obtained by use of the filter function gives a more balanced optical performance over the field of view than does a wavefront-control law obtained by use of a wavefront estimate obtained from a single point in the field of view.
Mitotic wavefronts mediated by mechanical signaling in early Drosophila embryos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Louis; Idema, Timon; Liu, Andrea; Lubensky, Tom
2013-03-01
Mitosis in the early Drosophila embryo demonstrates spatial and temporal correlations in the form of wavefronts that travel across the embryo in each cell cycle. This coordinated phenomenon requires a signaling mechanism, which we suggest is mechanical in origin. We have constructed a theoretical model that supports nonlinear wavefront propagation in a mechanically-excitable medium. Previously, we have shown that this model captures quantitatively the wavefront speed as it varies with cell cycle number, for reasonable values of the elastic moduli and damping coefficient of the medium. Now we show that our model also captures the displacements of cell nuclei in the embryo in response to the traveling wavefront. This new result further supports that mechanical signaling may play an important role in mediating mitotic wavefronts.
Two dimensional wavefront retrieval using lateral shearing interferometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mancilla-Escobar, B.; Malacara-Hernández, Z.; Malacara-Hernández, D.
2018-06-01
A new zonal two-dimensional method for wavefront retrieval from a surface under test using lateral shearing interferometry is presented. A modified Saunders method and phase shifting techniques are combined to generate a method for wavefront reconstruction. The result is a wavefront with an error below 0.7 λ and without any global high frequency filtering. A zonal analysis over square cells along the surfaces is made, obtaining a polynomial expression for the wavefront deformations over each cell. The main advantage of this method over previously published methods is that a global filtering of high spatial frequencies is not present. Thus, a global smoothing of the wavefront deformations is avoided, allowing the detection of deformations with relatively small extensions, that is, with high spatial frequencies. Additionally, local curvature and low order aberration coefficients are obtained in each cell.
Underwater Turbulence Detection Using Gated Wavefront Sensing Technique
Bi, Ying; Xu, Xiping; Chow, Eddy Mun Tik
2018-01-01
Laser sensing has been applied in various underwater applications, ranging from underwater detection to laser underwater communications. However, there are several great challenges when profiling underwater turbulence effects. Underwater detection is greatly affected by the turbulence effect, where the acquired image suffers excessive noise, blurring, and deformation. In this paper, we propose a novel underwater turbulence detection method based on a gated wavefront sensing technique. First, we elaborate on the operating principle of gated wavefront sensing and wavefront reconstruction. We then setup an experimental system in order to validate the feasibility of our proposed method. The effect of underwater turbulence on detection is examined at different distances, and under different turbulence levels. The experimental results obtained from our gated wavefront sensing system indicate that underwater turbulence can be detected and analyzed. The proposed gated wavefront sensing system has the advantage of a simple structure and high detection efficiency for underwater environments. PMID:29518889
An Improved Wavefront Control Algorithm for Large Space Telescopes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sidick, Erkin; Basinger, Scott A.; Redding, David C.
2008-01-01
Wavefront sensing and control is required throughout the mission lifecycle of large space telescopes such as James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). When an optic of such a telescope is controlled with both surface-deforming and rigid-body actuators, the sensitivity-matrix obtained from the exit pupil wavefront vector divided by the corresponding actuator command value can sometimes become singular due to difference in actuator types and in actuator command values. In this paper, we propose a simple approach for preventing a sensitivity-matrix from singularity. We also introduce a new "minimum-wavefront and optimal control compensator". It uses an optimal control gain matrix obtained by feeding back the actuator commands along with the measured or estimated wavefront phase information to the estimator, thus eliminating the actuator modes that are not observable in the wavefront sensing process.
An Adaptive Cross-Correlation Algorithm for Extended-Scene Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sidick, Erkin; Green, Joseph J.; Ohara, Catherine M.; Redding, David C.
2007-01-01
This viewgraph presentation reviews the Adaptive Cross-Correlation (ACC) Algorithm for extended scene-Shack Hartmann wavefront (WF) sensing. A Shack-Hartmann sensor places a lenslet array at a plane conjugate to the WF error source. Each sub-aperture lenslet samples the WF in the corresponding patch of the WF. A description of the ACC algorithm is included. The ACC has several benefits; amongst them are: ACC requires only about 4 image-shifting iterations to achieve 0.01 pixel accuracy and ACC is insensitive to both background light and noise much more robust than centroiding,
Target identification using Zernike moments and neural networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azimi-Sadjadi, Mahmood R.; Jamshidi, Arta A.; Nevis, Andrew J.
2001-10-01
The development of an underwater target identification algorithm capable of identifying various types of underwater targets, such as mines, under different environmental conditions pose many technical problems. Some of the contributing factors are: targets have diverse sizes, shapes and reflectivity properties. Target emplacement environment is variable; targets may be proud or partially buried. Environmental properties vary significantly from one location to another. Bottom features such as sand, rocks, corals, and vegetation can conceal a target whether it is partially buried or proud. Competing clutter with responses that closely resemble those of the targets may lead to false positives. All the problems mentioned above contribute to overly difficult and challenging conditions that could lead to unreliable algorithm performance with existing methods. In this paper, we developed and tested a shape-dependent feature extraction scheme that provides features invariant to rotation, size scaling and translation; properties that are extremely useful for any target classification problem. The developed schemes were tested on an electro-optical imagery data set collected under different environmental conditions with variable background, range and target types. The electro-optic data set was collected using a Laser Line Scan (LLS) sensor by the Coastal Systems Station (CSS), located in Panama City, Florida. The performance of the developed scheme and its robustness to distortion, rotation, scaling and translation was also studied.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Y.; Park, S.; Baik, S.; Jung, J.; Lee, S.; Yoo, J.
A small scale laboratory adaptive optics system using a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor (WFS) and a membrane deformable mirror (DM) has been built for robust image acquisition. In this study, an adaptive limited control technique is adopted to maintain the long-term correction stability of an adaptive optics system. To prevent the waste of dynamic correction range for correcting small residual wave-front distortions which are inefficient to correct, the built system tries to limit wave-front correction when a similar small difference wave-front pattern is repeatedly generated. Also, the effect of mechanical distortion in an adaptive optics system is studied and a pre-recognition method for the distortion is devised to prevent low-performance system operation. A confirmation process for a balanced work assignment among deformable mirror (DM) actuators is adopted for the pre-recognition. The corrected experimental results obtained by using a built small scale adaptive optics system are described in this paper.
Suppressing Anomalous Localized Waffle Behavior in Least Squares Wavefront Reconstructors
Gavel, D
2002-10-08
A major difficulty with wavefront slope sensors is their insensitivity to certain phase aberration patterns, the classic example being the waffle pattern in the Fried sampling geometry. As the number of degrees of freedom in AO systems grows larger, the possibility of troublesome waffle-like behavior over localized portions of the aperture is becoming evident. Reconstructor matrices have associated with them, either explicitly or implicitly, an orthogonal mode space over which they operate, called the singular mode space. If not properly preconditioned, the reconstructor's mode set can consist almost entirely of modes that each have some localized waffle-like behavior. In thismore » paper we analyze the behavior of least-squares reconstructors with regard to their mode spaces. We introduce a new technique that is successful in producing a mode space that segregates the waffle-like behavior into a few ''high order'' modes, which can then be projected out of the reconstructor matrix. This technique can be adapted so as to remove any specific modes that are undesirable in the final reconstructor (such as piston, tip, and tilt for example) as well as suppress (the more nebulously defined) localized waffle behavior.« less
Propagation and wavefront ambiguity of linear nondiffracting beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grunwald, R.; Bock, M.
2014-02-01
Ultrashort-pulsed Bessel and Airy beams in free space are often interpreted as "linear light bullets". Usually, interconnected intensity profiles are considered a "propagation" along arbitrary pathways which can even follow curved trajectories. A more detailed analysis, however, shows that this picture gives an adequate description only in situations which do not require to consider the transport of optical signals or causality. To also cover these special cases, a generalization of the terms "beam" and "propagation" is necessary. The problem becomes clearer by representing the angular spectra of the propagating wave fields by rays or Poynting vectors. It is known that quasi-nondiffracting beams can be described as caustics of ray bundles. Their decomposition into Poynting vectors by Shack-Hartmann sensors indicates that, in the frame of their classical definition, the corresponding local wavefronts are ambiguous and concepts based on energy density are not appropriate to describe the propagation completely. For this reason, quantitative parameters like the beam propagation factor have to be treated with caution as well. For applications like communication or optical computing, alternative descriptions are required. A heuristic approach based on vector field based information transport and Fourier analysis is proposed here. Continuity and discontinuity of far field distributions in space and time are discussed. Quantum aspects of propagation are briefly addressed.
Applegate, Raymond A.; Donnelly, William J.; Marsack, Jason D.; Koenig, Darren E.; Pesudovs, Konrad
2007-01-01
We report root-mean-square (RMS) wavefront error (WFE) for individual aberrations and cumulative high-order (HO) RMS WFE for the normal human eye as a function of age by decade and pupil diameter in 1 mm steps from 3 to 7 mm and determine the relationship among HO RMS WFE, mean age for each decade of life, and luminance for physiologic pupil diameters. Subjects included 146 healthy individuals from 20 to 80 years of age. Ocular aberration was measured on the preferred eye of each subject (for a total of 146 eyes through dilated pupils; computed for 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 mm pupils; and described with a tenth-radial-order normalized Zernike expansion. We found that HO RMS WFE increases faster with increasing pupil diameter for any given age and pupil diameter than it does with increasing age alone. A planar function accounts for 99% of the variance in the 3-D space defined by mean log HO RMS WFE, mean age for each decade of life, and pupil diameter. When physiologic pupil diameters are used to estimate HO RMS WFE as a function of luminance and age, at low luminance (9 cd/m2) HO RMS WFE decreases with increasing age. This normative data set details (1) the 3-D relationship between HO RMS WFE and age for fixed pupil diameters and (2) the 3-D relationship among HO RMS WFE, age, and luminance for physiologic pupil diameters. PMID:17301847
Nisius, Britta; Gohlke, Holger
2012-09-24
Analyzing protein binding sites provides detailed insights into the biological processes proteins are involved in, e.g., into drug-target interactions, and so is of crucial importance in drug discovery. Herein, we present novel alignment-independent binding site descriptors based on DrugScore potential fields. The potential fields are transformed to a set of information-rich descriptors using a series expansion in 3D Zernike polynomials. The resulting Zernike descriptors show a promising performance in detecting similarities among proteins with low pairwise sequence identities that bind identical ligands, as well as within subfamilies of one target class. Furthermore, the Zernike descriptors are robust against structural variations among protein binding sites. Finally, the Zernike descriptors show a high data compression power, and computing similarities between binding sites based on these descriptors is highly efficient. Consequently, the Zernike descriptors are a useful tool for computational binding site analysis, e.g., to predict the function of novel proteins, off-targets for drug candidates, or novel targets for known drugs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carozzi, T. D.; Woan, G.
2009-05-01
We derive a generalized van Cittert-Zernike (vC-Z) theorem for radio astronomy that is valid for partially polarized sources over an arbitrarily wide field of view (FoV). The classical vC-Z theorem is the theoretical foundation of radio astronomical interferometry, and its application is the basis of interferometric imaging. Existing generalized vC-Z theorems in radio astronomy assume, however, either paraxiality (narrow FoV) or scalar (unpolarized) sources. Our theorem uses neither of these assumptions, which are seldom fulfiled in practice in radio astronomy, and treats the full electromagnetic field. To handle wide, partially polarized fields, we extend the two-dimensional (2D) electric field (Jones vector) formalism of the standard `Measurement Equation' (ME) of radio astronomical interferometry to the full three-dimensional (3D) formalism developed in optical coherence theory. The resulting vC-Z theorem enables full-sky imaging in a single telescope pointing, and imaging based not only on standard dual-polarized interferometers (that measure 2D electric fields) but also electric tripoles and electromagnetic vector-sensor interferometers. We show that the standard 2D ME is easily obtained from our formalism in the case of dual-polarized antenna element interferometers. We also exploit an extended 2D ME to determine that dual-polarized interferometers can have polarimetric aberrations at the edges of a wide FoV. Our vC-Z theorem is particularly relevant to proposed, and recently developed, wide FoV interferometers such as Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) and Square Kilometer Array (SKA), for which direction-dependent effects will be important.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peters, W. N.
1973-01-01
A compilation of analytical and experimental data is presented concerning the stellar figure sensor. The sensor is an interferometric device which is located in the focal plane of an orbiting large space telescope (LST). The device was designed to perform interferometry on the optical wavefront of a single star after it has propagated through the LST. An analytical model of the device was developed and its accuracy was verified by an operating laboratory breadboard. A series of linear independent control equations were derived which define the operations required for utilizing a focal plane figure sensor in the control loop for the secondary mirror position and for active control of the primary mirror.
Algorithm for Wavefront Sensing Using an Extended Scene
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sidick, Erkin; Green, Joseph; Ohara, Catherine
2008-01-01
A recently conceived algorithm for processing image data acquired by a Shack-Hartmann (SH) wavefront sensor is not subject to the restriction, previously applicable in SH wavefront sensing, that the image be formed from a distant star or other equivalent of a point light source. That is to say, the image could be of an extended scene. (One still has the option of using a point source.) The algorithm can be implemented in commercially available software on ordinary computers. The steps of the algorithm are the following: 1. Suppose that the image comprises M sub-images. Determine the x,y Cartesian coordinates of the centers of these sub-images and store them in a 2xM matrix. 2. Within each sub-image, choose an NxN-pixel cell centered at the coordinates determined in step 1. For the ith sub-image, let this cell be denoted as si(x,y). Let the cell of another subimage (preferably near the center of the whole extended-scene image) be designated a reference cell, denoted r(x,y). 3. Calculate the fast Fourier transforms of the sub-sub-images in the central NxN portions (where N < N and both are preferably powers of 2) of r(x,y) and si(x,y). 4. Multiply the two transforms to obtain a cross-correlation function Ci(u,v), in the Fourier domain. Then let the phase of Ci(u, v) constitute a phase function, phi(u,v). 5. Fit u and v slopes to phi (u,v) over a small u,v subdomain. 6. Compute the fast Fourier transform, Si(u,v) of the full NxN cell si(x,y). Multiply this transform by the u and phase slopes obtained in step 4. Then compute the inverse fast Fourier transform of the product. 7. Repeat steps 4 through 6 in an iteration loop, cumulating the u and slopes, until a maximum iteration number is reached or the change in image shift becomes smaller than a predetermined tolerance. 8. Repeat steps 4 through 7 for the cells of all other sub-images.
Whole eye wavefront aberrations in Mexican male subjects.
Cantú, Roberto; Rosales, Marco A; Tepichín, Eduardo; Curioca, Andrée; Montes, Victor; Bonilla, Julio
2004-01-01
To analyze the characteristics, incidence, and appearance of wavefront aberrations in undilated, normal, unoperated eyes. Eighty-eight eyes of 44 healthy male Mexican subjects (mean age 25.32 years, range 18 to 36 yr) were divided into three groups based on uncorrected visual acuity of greater than or equal to 20/20, 20/30, or 20/40. UCVA measurements were obtained using an Acuity Max computer screen chart. Wavefront aberrations were measured with the Nidek OPD-Scan ARK 10000, Ver. 1.11b. All measurements were carried out at the same center by the same technician during a single session, following manufacturer instructions. Background illumination was 3 Lux. Wavefront aberration measurements for each group were statistically analyzed using StatView; an average eye was characterized and the resulting aberrations were simulated using MATLAB. We obtained wavefront aberration maps for the 20/20 undilated normal unoperated eyes for total, low, and high order aberration coefficients. Wavefront maps for right eyes were practically the same as those for left eyes. Higher aberrations did not contribute substantially to total wavefront analysis. Average aberrations of this "normal eye" will be used as criteria to decide the necessity of wavefront-guided ablation in our facilities. We will focus on the nearly zero average of high order aberrations in this normal whole eye as a reference to be matched.
Advantages of intermediate X-ray energies in Zernike phase contrast X-ray microscopy.
Wang, Zhili; Gao, Kun; Chen, Jian; Hong, Youli; Ge, Xin; Wang, Dajiang; Pan, Zhiyun; Zhu, Peiping; Yun, Wenbing; Jacobsen, Chris; Wu, Ziyu
2013-01-01
Understanding the hierarchical organizations of molecules and organelles within the interior of large eukaryotic cells is a challenge of fundamental interest in cell biology. Light microscopy is a powerful tool for observations of the dynamics of live cells, its resolution attainable is limited and insufficient. While electron microscopy can produce images with astonishing resolution and clarity of ultra-thin (<1 μm thick) sections of biological specimens, many questions involve the three-dimensional organization of a cell or the interconnectivity of cells. X-ray microscopy offers superior imaging resolution compared to light microscopy, and unique capability of nondestructive three-dimensional imaging of hydrated unstained biological cells, complementary to existing light and electron microscopy. Until now, X-ray microscopes operating in the "water window" energy range between carbon and oxygen k-shell absorption edges have produced outstanding 3D images of cryo-preserved cells. The relatively low X-ray energy (<540 eV) of the water window imposes two important limitations: limited penetration (<10 μm) not suitable for imaging larger cells or tissues, and small depth of focus (DoF) for high resolution 3D imaging (e.g., ~1 μm DoF for 20 nm resolution). An X-ray microscope operating at intermediate energy around 2.5 keV using Zernike phase contrast can overcome the above limitations and reduces radiation dose to the specimen. Using a hydrated model cell with an average chemical composition reported in literature, we calculated the image contrast and the radiation dose for absorption and Zernike phase contrast, respectively. The results show that an X-ray microscope operating at ~2.5 keV using Zernike phase contrast offers substantial advantages in terms of specimen size, radiation dose and depth-of-focus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Protein-protein docking using region-based 3D Zernike descriptors.
Venkatraman, Vishwesh; Yang, Yifeng D; Sael, Lee; Kihara, Daisuke
2009-12-09
Protein-protein interactions are a pivotal component of many biological processes and mediate a variety of functions. Knowing the tertiary structure of a protein complex is therefore essential for understanding the interaction mechanism. However, experimental techniques to solve the structure of the complex are often found to be difficult. To this end, computational protein-protein docking approaches can provide a useful alternative to address this issue. Prediction of docking conformations relies on methods that effectively capture shape features of the participating proteins while giving due consideration to conformational changes that may occur. We present a novel protein docking algorithm based on the use of 3D Zernike descriptors as regional features of molecular shape. The key motivation of using these descriptors is their invariance to transformation, in addition to a compact representation of local surface shape characteristics. Docking decoys are generated using geometric hashing, which are then ranked by a scoring function that incorporates a buried surface area and a novel geometric complementarity term based on normals associated with the 3D Zernike shape description. Our docking algorithm was tested on both bound and unbound cases in the ZDOCK benchmark 2.0 dataset. In 74% of the bound docking predictions, our method was able to find a near-native solution (interface C-alphaRMSD < or = 2.5 A) within the top 1000 ranks. For unbound docking, among the 60 complexes for which our algorithm returned at least one hit, 60% of the cases were ranked within the top 2000. Comparison with existing shape-based docking algorithms shows that our method has a better performance than the others in unbound docking while remaining competitive for bound docking cases. We show for the first time that the 3D Zernike descriptors are adept in capturing shape complementarity at the protein-protein interface and useful for protein docking prediction. Rigorous benchmark studies
Online estimation of the wavefront outer scale profile from adaptive optics telemetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guesalaga, A.; Neichel, B.; Correia, C. M.; Butterley, T.; Osborn, J.; Masciadri, E.; Fusco, T.; Sauvage, J.-F.
2017-02-01
We describe an online method to estimate the wavefront outer scale profile, L0(h), for very large and future extremely large telescopes. The stratified information on this parameter impacts the estimation of the main turbulence parameters [turbulence strength, Cn2(h); Fried's parameter, r0; isoplanatic angle, θ0; and coherence time, τ0) and determines the performance of wide-field adaptive optics (AO) systems. This technique estimates L0(h) using data from the AO loop available at the facility instruments by constructing the cross-correlation functions of the slopes between two or more wavefront sensors, which are later fitted to a linear combination of the simulated theoretical layers having different altitudes and outer scale values. We analyse some limitations found in the estimation process: (I) its insensitivity to large values of L0(h) as the telescope becomes blind to outer scales larger than its diameter; (II) the maximum number of observable layers given the limited number of independent inputs that the cross-correlation functions provide and (III) the minimum length of data required for a satisfactory convergence of the turbulence parameters without breaking the assumption of statistical stationarity of the turbulence. The method is applied to the Gemini South multiconjugate AO system that comprises five wavefront sensors and two deformable mirrors. Statistics of L0(h) at Cerro Pachón from data acquired during 3 yr of campaigns show interesting resemblance to other independent results in the literature. A final analysis suggests that the impact of error sources will be substantially reduced in instruments of the next generation of giant telescopes.
Corridor of existence of thermodynamically consistent solution of the Ornstein-Zernike equation.
Vorob'ev, V S; Martynov, G A
2007-07-14
We obtain the exact equation for a correction to the Ornstein-Zernike (OZ) equation based on the assumption of the uniqueness of thermodynamical functions. We show that this equation is reduced to a differential equation with one arbitrary parameter for the hard sphere model. The compressibility factor within narrow limits of this parameter variation can either coincide with one of the formulas obtained on the basis of analytical solutions of the OZ equation or assume all intermediate values lying in a corridor between these solutions. In particular, we find the value of this parameter when the thermodynamically consistent compressibility factor corresponds to the Carnahan-Stirling formula.
Image object recognition based on the Zernike moment and neural networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wan, Jianwei; Wang, Ling; Huang, Fukan; Zhou, Liangzhu
1998-03-01
This paper first give a comprehensive discussion about the concept of artificial neural network its research methods and the relations with information processing. On the basis of such a discussion, we expound the mathematical similarity of artificial neural network and information processing. Then, the paper presents a new method of image recognition based on invariant features and neural network by using image Zernike transform. The method not only has the invariant properties for rotation, shift and scale of image object, but also has good fault tolerance and robustness. Meanwhile, it is also compared with statistical classifier and invariant moments recognition method.
The development of a revised version of multi-center molecular Ornstein-Zernike equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kido, Kentaro; Yokogawa, Daisuke; Sato, Hirofumi
2012-04-01
Ornstein-Zernike (OZ)-type theory is a powerful tool to obtain 3-dimensional solvent distribution around solute molecule. Recently, we proposed multi-center molecular OZ method, which is suitable for parallel computing of 3D solvation structure. The distribution function in this method consists of two components, namely reference and residue parts. Several types of the function were examined as the reference part to investigate the numerical robustness of the method. As the benchmark, the method is applied to water, benzene in aqueous solution and single-walled carbon nanotube in chloroform solution. The results indicate that fully-parallelization is achieved by utilizing the newly proposed reference functions.
Beam wavefront and farfield control for ICF laser driver
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, Wanjun; Deng, Wu; Zhang, Xin; Jiang, Xuejun; Zhang, Kun; Zhou, Wei; Zhao, Junpu; Hu, Dongxia
2010-10-01
Five main problems of beam wavefront and farfield control in ICF laser driver are synthetically discussed, including control requirements, beam propagation principle, distortions source control, system design and adjustment optimization, active wavefront correction technology. We demonstrate that beam can be propagated well and the divergence angle of the TIL pulses can be improved to less than 60μrad with solving these problems, which meets the requirements of TIL. The results can provide theoretical and experimental support for wavefront and farfield control designing requirements of the next large scale ICF driver.
Telescope Multi-Field Wavefront Control with a Kalman Filter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lou, John Z.; Redding, David; Sigrist, Norbert; Basinger, Scott
2008-01-01
An effective multi-field wavefront control (WFC) approach is demonstrated for an actuated, segmented space telescope using wavefront measurements at the exit pupil, and the optical and computational implications of this approach are discussed. The integration of a Kalman Filter as an optical state estimator into the wavefront control process to further improve the robustness of the optical alignment of the telescope will also be discussed. Through a comparison of WFC performances between on-orbit and ground-test optical system configurations, the connection (and a possible disconnection) between WFC and optical system alignment under these circumstances are analyzed. Our MACOS-based computer simulation results will be presented and discussed.
High resolution imaging and wavefront aberration correction in plenoptic systems.
Trujillo-Sevilla, J M; Rodríguez-Ramos, L F; Montilla, I; Rodríguez-Ramos, J M
2014-09-01
Plenoptic imaging systems are becoming more common since they provide capabilities unattainable in conventional imaging systems, but one of their main limitations is the poor bidimensional resolution. Combining the wavefront phase measurement and the plenoptic image deconvolution, we propose a system capable of improving the resolution when a wavefront aberration is present and the image is blurred. In this work, a plenoptic system is simulated using Fourier optics, and the results show that an improved resolution is achieved, even in the presence of strong wavefront aberrations.
Decomposition of the optical transfer function: wavefront coding imaging systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muyo, Gonzalo; Harvey, Andy R.
2005-10-01
We describe the mapping of the optical transfer function (OTF) of an incoherent imaging system into a geometrical representation. We show that for defocused traditional and wavefront-coded systems the OTF can be represented as a generalized Cornu spiral. This representation provides a physical insight into the way in which wavefront coding can increase the depth of field of an imaging system and permits analytical quantification of salient OTF parameters, such as the depth of focus, the location of nulls, and amplitude and phase modulation of the wavefront-coding OTF.
Manipulation of wavefront using helical metamaterials.
Yang, Zhenyu; Wang, Zhaokun; Tao, Huan; Zhao, Ming
2016-08-08
Helical metamaterials, a kind of 3-dimensional structure, has relatively strong coupling effect among the helical nano-wires. Therefore, it is expected to be a good candidate for generating phase shift and controlling wavefront with high efficiency. In this paper, using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, we studied the phase shift properties in the helical metamaterials. It is found that the phase shift occurs for both transmitted and reflected light waves. And the maximum of reflection coefficients can reach over 60%. In addition, the phase shift (φ) is dispersionless in the range of 600 nm to 860 nm, that is, it is only dominated by the initial angle (θ) of the helix. The relationship between them is φ = ± 2θ. Using Jones calculus we give a further explanation for these properties. Finally, by arranging the helixes in an array with a constant phase gradient, the phenomenon of anomalous refraction was also observed in a broad wavelength range.
Wavefront measurement using computational adaptive optics.
South, Fredrick A; Liu, Yuan-Zhi; Bower, Andrew J; Xu, Yang; Carney, P Scott; Boppart, Stephen A
2018-03-01
In many optical imaging applications, it is necessary to correct for aberrations to obtain high quality images. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides access to the amplitude and phase of the backscattered optical field for three-dimensional (3D) imaging samples. Computational adaptive optics (CAO) modifies the phase of the OCT data in the spatial frequency domain to correct optical aberrations without using a deformable mirror, as is commonly done in hardware-based adaptive optics (AO). This provides improvement of image quality throughout the 3D volume, enabling imaging across greater depth ranges and in highly aberrated samples. However, the CAO aberration correction has a complicated relation to the imaging pupil and is not a direct measurement of the pupil aberrations. Here we present new methods for recovering the wavefront aberrations directly from the OCT data without the use of hardware adaptive optics. This enables both computational measurement and correction of optical aberrations.
Method and apparatus for wavefront sensing
Bahk, Seung-Whan
A method for performing optical wavefront sensing includes providing an amplitude transmission mask having a light input side, a light output side, and an optical transmission axis passing from the light input side to the light output side. The amplitude transmission mask is characterized by a checkerboard pattern having a square unit cell of size .LAMBDA.. The method also includes directing an incident light field having a wavelengthmore » $$ \\lamda $$ to be incident on the light input side and propagating the incident light field through the amplitude transmission mask. The method further includes producing a plurality of diffracted light fields on the light output side and detecting, at a detector disposed a distance L from the amplitude transmission mask, an interferogram associated with the plurality of diffracted light fields.« less
Authentication via wavefront-shaped optical responses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eilers, Hergen; Anderson, Benjamin R.; Gunawidjaja, Ray
2018-02-01
Authentication/tamper-indication is required in a wide range of applications, including nuclear materials management and product counterfeit detection. State-of-the-art techniques include reflective particle tags, laser speckle authentication, and birefringent seals. Each of these passive techniques has its own advantages and disadvantages, including the need for complex image comparisons, limited flexibility, sensitivity to environmental conditions, limited functionality, etc. We have developed a new active approach to address some of these short-comings. The use of an active characterization technique adds more flexibility and additional layers of security over current techniques. Our approach uses randomly-distributed nanoparticles embedded in a polymer matrix (tag/seal) which is attached to the item to be secured. A spatial light modulator is used to adjust the wavefront of a laser which interacts with the tag/seal, and a detector is used to monitor this interaction. The interaction can occur in various ways, including transmittance, reflectance, fluorescence, random lasing, etc. For example, at the time of origination, the wavefront-shaped reflectance from a tag/seal can be adjusted to result in a specific pattern (symbol, words, etc.) Any tampering with the tag/seal would results in a disturbance of the random orientation of the nanoparticles and thus distort the reflectance pattern. A holographic waveplate could be inserted into the laser beam for verification. The absence/distortion of the original pattern would then indicate that tampering has occurred. We have tested the tag/seal's and authentication method's tamper-indicating ability using various attack methods, including mechanical, thermal, and chemical attacks, and have verified our material/method's robust tamper-indicating ability.
Wavefront instabilities in thin glass mirrors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouillet, Stéphane; Lanternier, Thomas; Lavastre, Eric; Chappuis, Christian; Macias, François
2011-10-01
LMJ and LIL are two French high power lasers dedicated to fusion and plasma experiments. These laser beams involve hundreds of rather large optical components, the clear aperture of the beams being 400×400 mm2. Among these components, an adaptative mirror is used to correct wavefront distortions in the amplification section. A simple design has been chosen with push/pull actuators glued on the backside of a thin glass plate (9 mm). To ensure the bonding mechanical steadiness, we need enough roughness on this backside. That is why it is ground. We noticed figure instabilities on several of these ground backside substrates. Those wavefront distortions can be of several hundreds of nanometers. We designed a specific mount to avoid the possibility of measurement discrepancies due to mechanical mounting. We noticed then significant evolutions over a time-scale of a few months. The possibility of slow stress variations in the ground backside has then been considered. It has been known for a long time that a ground surface is in a compressive state and consequently tends to take a convex shape, this effect being named Twyman effect after its discoverer. Anyway, as far as we know, there is still doubt on the physical mechanisms involved and no publication has been made on the fluctuations of this effect. We wish to expose here results that led us to believe that instabilities are also linked to the external stress which is seen during transport or storage. Finally, we present the experiments we put in place on samples to improve our knowledge on this phenomenon and to test potential solutions.