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Sample records for zero gravity

  1. Zero gravity liquid mixer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, F. W.; Bruce, R. A. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An apparatus for mixing liquids under conditions of zero gravity is disclosed. The apparatus is comprised of a closed reservoir for the liquids, with a means for maintaining a positive pressure on the liquids in the reservoir. A valved liquid supply line is connected to the reservoir for supplying the reservoir with the liquids to be mixed in the reservoir. The portion of the reservoir containing the liquids to be mixed is in communication with a pump which alternately causes a portion of the liquids to flow out of the pump and into the reservoir to mix the liquids. The fluids in the reservoir are in communication through a conduit with the pump which alternately causes a portion of the fluids to flow out of the pump and into the sphere. The conduit connecting the pump and sphere may contain a nozzle or other jet-forming structure such as a venturi for further mixing the fluids.

  2. Zero-gravity movement studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badler, N. I.; Fishwick, P.; Taft, N.; Agrawala, M.

    1985-01-01

    The use of computer graphics to simulate the movement of articulated animals and mechanisms has a number of uses ranging over many fields. Human motion simulation systems can be useful in education, medicine, anatomy, physiology, and dance. In biomechanics, computer displays help to understand and analyze performance. Simulations can be used to help understand the effect of external or internal forces. Similarly, zero-gravity simulation systems should provide a means of designing and exploring the capabilities of hypothetical zero-gravity situations before actually carrying out such actions. The advantage of using a simulation of the motion is that one can experiment with variations of a maneuver before attempting to teach it to an individual. The zero-gravity motion simulation problem can be divided into two broad areas: human movement and behavior in zero-gravity, and simulation of articulated mechanisms.

  3. Space truss zero gravity dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Andy

    1989-01-01

    The Structural Dynamics Branch of the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory in cooperation with the Reduced Gravity Office of the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) plans to perform zero-gravity dynamic tests of a 12-meter truss structure. This presentation describes the program and presents all results obtained to date.

  4. Zero-gravity cloud physics.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollinden, A. B.; Eaton, L. R.; Vaughan, W. W.

    1972-01-01

    The first results of an ongoing preliminary-concept and detailed-feasibility study of a zero-gravity earth-orbital cloud physics research facility are reviewed. Current planning and thinking are being shaped by two major conclusions of this study: (1) there is a strong requirement for and it is feasible to achieve important and significant research in a zero-gravity cloud physics facility; and (2) some very important experiments can be accomplished with 'off-the-shelf' type hardware by astronauts who have no cloud-physics background; the most complicated experiments may require sophisticated observation and motion subsystems and the astronaut may need graduate level cloud physics training; there is a large number of experiments whose complexity varies between these two extremes.

  5. Zero-gravity aerosol behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, H. W.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility and scientific benefits of a zero gravity aerosol study in an orbiting laboratory were examined. A macroscopic model was devised to deal with the simultaneous effects of diffusion and coagulation of particles in the confined aerosol. An analytical solution was found by treating the particle coagulation and diffusion constants as ensemble parameters and employing a transformation of variables. The solution was used to carry out simulated zero gravity aerosol decay experiments in a compact cylindrical chamber. The results demonstrate that the limitations of physical space and time imposed by the orbital situation are not prohibitive in terms of observing the history of an aerosol confined under zero gravity conditions. While the absence of convective effects would be a definite benefit for the experiment, the mathematical complexity of the problem is not greatly reduced when the gravitational term drops out of the equation. Since the model does not deal directly with the evolution of the particle size distribution, it may be desirable to develop more detailed models before undertaking an orbital experiment.

  6. Tribology experiment in zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pan, C. H. T.; Gause, R. L.; Whitaker, A. F.

    1984-01-01

    A tribology experiment in zero gravity was performed during the orbital flight of Spacelab 1 to study the motion of liquid lubricants over solid surfaces. The absence of a significant gravitational force facilitates studies of the motion of liquid lubricants over solid surfaces as controlled by interfacial and capillary forces. Observations were made of phenomena associated with the liquid on one solid surface and also with the liquid between a pair of closely spaced surfaces. Typical photographic records obtained on Spacelab 1 are described.

  7. Modeling of zero gravity venting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merte, H., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The venting of cylindrical containers partially filled with initially saturated liquids was conducted under zero gravity conditions and compared with an analytical model which determined the effect of interfacial mass transfer on the ullage pressure response during venting. A model is proposed to improve the estimation of the interfacial mass transfer. Duhammel's superposition integral is incorporated in this analysis to approximate the transient temperature response of the interface, treating the liquid as a semiinfinite solid with conduction heat transfer. This approach to estimating interfacial mass transfer gives improved response when compared to previous models. The model still predicts a pressure decrease greater than those in the experiments reported.

  8. Gravity and Zero Point Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massie, U. W.

    When Planck introduced the 1/2 hv term to his 1911 black body equation he showed that there is a residual energy remaining at zero degree K after all thermal energy ceased. Other investigators, including Lamb, Casimir, and Dirac added to this information. Today zero point energy (ZPE) is accepted as an established condition. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the density of the ZPE is given by the gravity constant (G) and the characteristics of its particles are revealed by the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Eddies of ZPE particles created by flow around mass bodies reduce the pressure normal to the eddy flow and are responsible for the force of gravity. Helium atoms resonate with ZPE particles at low temperature to produce superfluid helium. High velocity micro vortices of ZPE particles about a basic particle or particles are responsible for electromagnetic forces. The speed of light is the speed of the wave front in the ZPE and its value is a function of the temperature and density of the ZPE.

  9. Tribology Experiment in Zero Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pan, C. H. T.; Gause, R. L.; Whitaker, A. F.; Finckenor, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    A tribology experiment in zero gravity was performed during the orbital flight of Spacelab 1 to study the motion of liquid lubricants over solid surfaces. The absence of a significant gravitational force facilitates observation of such motions as controlled by interfacial and capillary forces. Two experimental configurations were used. One deals with the liquid on one solid surface, and the other with the liquid between a pair of closed spaced surfaces. Time sequence photographs of fluid motion on a solid surface yielded spreading rate data of several fluid-surface combinations. In general, a slow spreading process as governed by the tertiary junction can be distinguished from a more rapid process which is driven by surface tension controlled internal fluid pressure. Photographs were also taken through the transparent bushings of several experimental journal bearings. Morphology of incomplete fluid films and its fluctuation with time suggest the presence or absence of unsteady phenomena of the bearing-rotor system in various arrangements.

  10. Zero-gravity quantity gaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Zero-Gravity Quantity Gaging System program is a technology development effort funded by NASA-LeRC and contracted by NASA-JSC to develop and evaluate zero-gravity quantity gaging system concepts suitable for application to large, on-orbit cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen tankage. The contract effective date was 28 May 1985. During performance of the program, 18 potential quantity gaging approaches were investigated for their merit and suitability for gaging two-phase cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen in zero-gravity conditions. These approaches were subjected to a comprehensive trade study and selection process, which found that the RF modal quantity gaging approach was the most suitable for both liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen applications. This selection was made with NASA-JSC concurrence.

  11. Induced gravity and Planck zeros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khuri, N. N.

    1982-11-01

    Starting with an asymptotically free gauge theory with dynamical symmetry breaking and a mass hierarchy, we investigate the Adler-Zee formula for the induced gravitational constant. We study the two-point function ψ(q2), constructed with the trace of the energy-momentum tensor. First, we show that if the zeros of ψ are at a mass scale significantly below the leading scale, then Gind-1=O(mzero2) making it impossible to get a realistic Gind from the Adler-Zee formula with low-mass zeros. Next we use the Jensen formula to derive a sum rule for |mzero|. The analysis of this sum rule coupled with the result above leads to a dilemma with only one reasonable resolution. To get a realistic Gind from the Adler-Zee formula, ψ(q2) must have a pair of complex-conjugate zeros at q2=M02+/-2iγM0, where M0 is large and of the maximal scale and γM0<<1. The presence of this zero essentially determines Gind-1. It gives a lower bound, which with our previously derived general upper bound gives [π24(ln10)288]CψM02<=(16πG)-1<=[5π2288]CψM02, where Cψ is the anomaly coefficient, a number easily determined by low-order perturbation theory for any group.

  12. Zero-gravity transient thermal mixing simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lands, J. F., Jr.; Ried, R. C., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    The experimental program described is an outgrowth of independent investigations into alternate redesign concepts for the Apollo SM cryogenic oxygen storage system. The experiments were continued, after the redesign was established, to provide physical insight into transient thermal mixing in zero-gravity and to aid in the characterization of the system performance in flight. Zero-gravity heat transfer and fluid mixing were simulated experimentally through an analogy between unsteady heat conduction and species diffusion. To further support numerical analyses of the cryogenic oxygen storage system, the experimental investigation was extended to include a cubical tank geometry, representative of existing numerical models. In general, the transient flow patterns in the cubical tank are far more complex than those of the spherical tank and the extent of fluid mixing is significantly greater but less repeatable.

  13. Containments for liquids at zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smedley, G.

    1990-01-01

    A theory proposed by Concus and Finn (1974) and recently developed by Finn (1983 and 1984) yields explicit geometrical criteria for the position of the free surface of a liquid at zero gravity in a cylindrical container of specified cross section. These criteria were applied by Concus and Finn to three container geometries: the bathtub, the trapezoid, and the keyhole. It is possible to find geometrical criteria that promise a liquid interface of finite height, with the base still covered with liquid, or a liquid interface of infinite height, with the liquid wetting a well defined portion of the wall. In the present work, calculations are presented for a fourth geometry, the non-concentric cylinders. In addition, the earlier calculations of Concus and Finn are extended, and a unified graphical presentation of all four geometries is given that can be used directly for the design of containments for liquids at zero gravity.

  14. Containing Hair During Cutting In Zero Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed device collects loose hair during barbering and shaving in zero gravity to prevent hair clippings from contaminating cabin of spacecraft. Folds for storage, opens into clear, bubblelike plastic dome surrounding user's head, tray fits around user's throat, and fanlike ring surrounds back of neck. Device fits snugly but comfortably around neck, preventing hair from escaping to outside. Flow of air into hose connected to suction pump removes hair from bubble as cut. Filter at end of hose collects hair.

  15. Zero Gravity Research Facility User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Dennis M.

    1999-01-01

    The Zero Gravity Research Facility (ZGF) is operated by the Space Experiments Division of the NASA John H. Glenn Research Center (GRC) for investigators sponsored by the Microgravity Science and Applications Division of NASA Headquarters. This unique facility has been utilized by scientists and engineers for reduced gravity experimentation since 1966. The ZGF has provided fundamental scientific information, has been used as an important test facility in the space flight hardware design, development, and test process, and has also been a valuable source of data in the flight experiment definition process. The purpose of this document is to provide information and guidance to prospective researchers regarding the design, buildup, and testing of microgravity experiments.

  16. Zero-gravity open-type urine receptacle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Girala, A. S.

    1972-01-01

    The development of the zero-gravity open-type urine receptacle used in the Apollo command module is described. This type receptacle eliminates the need for a cuff-type urine collector or for the penis to circumferentially contact the receptacle in order to urinate. This device may be used in a gravity environment, varying from zero gravity to earth gravity, such as may be experienced in a space station or space base.

  17. Damping performance of bean bag dampers in zero gravity environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chao; Chen, Tianning; Wang, Xiaopeng

    2016-06-01

    Bean bag dampers (BBDs), developed from impact damping technology, have been widely applied in engineering field to attenuate the vibration of a structural system. The damping effect of a BBD on vibration control in ground gravity environments is good, but its performance in zero gravity environments is not clear, and there are few studies on it. Therefore, the damping effect of BBDs in zero gravity environments was investigated based on the discrete element method (DEM) in this paper. Firstly, a three-dimensional DEM model of a BBD was established, and the damping effects of the single degree of freedom (SDOF) systems with BBDs and non-obstructive particle dampers (NOPDs) in zero gravity environments were compared. Moreover, the influences of the diameter of the inner ball, the tightness of BBD, the vibration frequency of SDOF system and the gap between BBD and cavity on the vibration reduction effect of BBD in zero gravity environments were also studied, and the results were compared with the system with BBD in ground gravity environments. There are optimum ranges of the diameter of the inner ball, tightness and gap for BBD, and the effects of these parameters on the damping performances of BBD in gravity and zero gravity environments are similar in evolving trends, and the values are without big differences in the optimum ranges. Thereby the parameter selection in BBD design in zero gravity environments is similar to that in gravity environments. However, the diameter of BBD should be a slightly larger than the size of the cavity when the structures with BBD work in zero gravity environments. The BBD is supposed to be picked tightly when the vibration frequency is high, and the BBD has better to be picked more tightly in zero gravity environments. These results can be used as a guide in the design of BBDs in zero gravity environments.

  18. Marangoni bubble motion in zero gravity. [Lewis zero gravity drop tower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, R. L.; Dewitt, K. J.

    1979-01-01

    It was shown experimentally that the Marangoni phenomenon is a primary mechanism for the movement of a gas bubble in a nonisothermal liquid in a low gravity environment. A mathematical model consisting of the Navier-Stokes and thermal energy equations, together with the appropriate boundary conditions for both media, is presented. Parameter perturbation theory is used to solve this boundary value problem; the expansion parameter is the Marangoni number. The zeroth, first, and second order approximations for the velocity, temperature and pressure distributions in the liquid and in the bubble, and the deformation and terminal velocity of the bubble are determined. Experimental zero gravity data for a nitrogen bubble in ethylene glycol, ethanol, and silicone oil subjected to a linear temperature gradient were obtained using the NASA Lewis zero gravity drop tower. Comparison of the zeroth order analytical results for the bubble terminal velocity showed good agreement with the experimental measurements. The first and second order solutions for the bubble deformation and bubble terminal velocity are valid for liquids having Prandtl numbers on the order of one, but there is a lack of appropriate data to test the theory fully.

  19. Experiments with the Skylab fire detectors in zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linford, R. M. F.

    1972-01-01

    The Skylab fire detector was evaluated in a zero gravity environment. To conduct the test, small samples of spacecraft materials were ignited in a 5 psi oxygen-rich atmosphere inside a combustion chamber. The chamber free-floated in the cabin of a C-135 aircraft, as the aircraft executed a Keplerian parabola. Up to 10 seconds of zero-gravity combustion were achieved. The Skylab fire-detector tubes viewed the flames from a simulated distance of 3m, and color movies were taken to record the nature of the fire. The experiments established the unique form of zero-gravity fires for a wide range of materials. From the tube-output data, the alarm threshold and detector time constant were verified for the Skylab Fire Detection System.

  20. The response of single human cells to zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, P. O., Jr.; Cook, J. E.; Reynolds, R. C.; Paul, J. S.; Hayflick, L.; Stock, D.; Schulz, W. W.; Kimzey, S. L.; Thirolf, R. G.; Rogers, T.

    1974-01-01

    The SO15 experiment was designed to extend observations of the effects of zero-gravity to living human cells during and subsequent to a 59-day flight on Skylab 3. A strain of diploid human embryonic lung cells, WI-38, was chosen for this purpose. The studies were concerned with observations designed to detect the effects of zero-gravity on cell growth rates and on cell structure as observed by light microscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy and histochemistry. Studies of the effects of zero-gravity on the cell function and the cell cycle were performed by time lapse motion picture photography and microspectrophotometry. Subsequent study of the returned living cells included karotyping, G- and C-banding, and analyses of the culture media used. Some of the living cells returned were banked by deep freeze techniques for possible future experiments.

  1. The International Heat Pipe Experiment. [ten experiments in zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintosh, R.; Ollendorf, S.; Harwell, W.

    1975-01-01

    On October 4, 1974 the International Heat Pipe Experiment was launched aboard a Black Brant Sounding Rocket from White Sands, New Mexico. The flight provided six minutes of near zero gravity during which a total of ten separate heat pipe experiments were performed. The fifteen heat pipes which were tested represent some of the latest American and European technology. This flight provided the first reported zero gravity data on cryogenic and flat plate vapor chamber heat pipes. Additionally, valuable design and engineering data was obtained on several other heat pipe configurations. This paper will discuss the payload and four of the individual experiments.

  2. Passive zero-gravity leg restraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Christopher R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A passive zero or microgravity leg restraint is described which includes a central support post with a top and a bottom. Extending from the central support post are a calf pad tab, to which calf pad is attached, and a foot pad tab, to which foot tab is attached. Also extending from central support post are knee pads. When the restraint is in use the user's legs are forced between pads by a user imposed scissors action of the legs. The user's body is then supported in a zero or microgravity neutral body posture by the leg restraint. The calf pad has semi-ridig elastic padding material covering structural stiffener. The foot pad has padding material and a structural stiffener. Knee pads have s structural tube stiffener at their core.

  3. Planar zeros in gauge theories and gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Diego Medrano; Vera, Agustín Sabio; Vázquez-Mozo, Miguel Á.

    2016-09-01

    Planar zeros are studied in the context of the five-point scattering amplitude for gauge bosons and gravitons. In the case of gauge theories, it is found that planar zeros are determined by an algebraic curve in the projective plane spanned by the three stereographic coordinates labelling the direction of the outgoing momenta. This curve depends on the values of six independent color structures. Considering the gauge group SU( N) with N = 2 , 3 , 5 and fixed color indices, the class of curves obtained gets broader by increasing the rank of the group. For the five-graviton scattering, on the other hand, we show that the amplitude vanishes whenever the process is planar, without imposing further kinematic conditions. A rationale for this result is provided using color-kinematics duality.

  4. Glass fining experiments in zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, H. D.

    1977-01-01

    Ground based experiments were conducted to demonstrate that thermal migration actually operated in glass melts. Thermal migration consistent with the theory was found in one experiment on a borax melt, i.e., there was an approximately linear relation between the bubble diameter and bubble velocity for a given temperature and temperature gradient. It also appeared that nearby bubbles were attracted to one another, which could greatly aid fining. Interpretation of these results was not possible because of complications arising from gravity, i.e., floating of the bubbles, circulation currents due to buoyancy-driven natural connection, and flow of the melt out from the cell.

  5. Magnetic fluid readily controlled in zero gravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papell, S. S.

    1965-01-01

    Colloid composed of finely ground iron oxide in a fluid such as heptane, is controlled and directed magnetically in a zero gravity environment. It will not separate on standing for long periods or after exposure to magnetic or centrifugal forces. Because of its low density and low viscosity, it is easily pumped.

  6. Zero-Gravity Fuel-Cell Product-Water Accumulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrera, Thomas P.

    1989-01-01

    Assortment of documents describes simple, passive system that removes water formed from reaction of hydrogen and oxygen in proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell. Designed for use in zero gravity, system does not require any machinery or external source of power. Works by capillary action and differential pressure.

  7. The response of single human cells to zero-gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, P. O., Jr.; Cook, J. E.; Reynolds, R. C.; Paul, J. S.; Hayflick, L.; Stock, D.; Shulz, W. W.; Kimzey, S. L.; Thirolf, R. G.; Rogers, T.

    1977-01-01

    Microscopic and histochemical evaluations of human embrionic lung cells after exposure to zero-gravity are reported. Growth curves, DNA microspectrophotometry, phase microscopy, and ultrastructural studies of fixed cells revealed no effects on the cultures. Minor unexplained differences have been found in biochemical constituents of the samples.

  8. Acceleration display system for aircraft zero-gravity research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, Marc G.

    1987-01-01

    The features, design, calibration, and testing of Lewis Research Center's acceleration display system for aircraft zero-gravity research are described. Specific circuit schematics and system specifications are included as well as representative data traces from flown trajectories. Other observations learned from developing and using this system are mentioned where appropriate. The system, now a permanent part of the Lewis Learjet zero-gravity program, provides legible, concise, and necessary guidance information enabling pilots to routinely fly accurate zero-gravity trajectories. Regular use of this system resulted in improvements of the Learjet zero-gravity flight techniques, including a technique to minimize later accelerations. Lewis Gates Learjet trajectory data show that accelerations can be reliably sustained within 0.01 g for 5 consecutive seconds, within 0.02 g for 7 consecutive seconds, and within 0.04 g for up to 20 second. Lewis followed the past practices of acceleration measurement, yet focussed on the acceleration displays. Refinements based on flight experience included evolving the ranges, resolutions, and frequency responses to fit the pilot and the Learjet responses.

  9. The response of single human cells to zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, P. O., Jr.; Cook, J. E.; Reynolds, R. C.; Paul, J. S.; Hayflick, L.; Schulz, W. W.; Stock, D.; Kinzey, S.; Rogers, T.; Campbell, D.

    1975-01-01

    Twenty separate cultures of Wistar-38 human embryonic lung cells were exposed to a zero-gravity environment on Skylab for periods of time ranging from one to 59 days. Duplicate cultures were run concurrently as ground controls. Ten cultures were fixed on board the satellite during the first 12 days of flight. Growth curves, DNA microspectrophotometry, phase microscopy, and ultrastructural studies of the fixed cells revealed no effects of a zero-gravity environment on the ten cultures. Two cultures were photographed with phase time lapse cinematography during the first 27 days of flight. No differences were found in mitotic index, cell cycle, and migration between the flight and control cells. Eight cultures were returned to earth in an incubated state. Karyotyping and chromosome banding tests show no differences between the flight and control cells.

  10. Development of a compact dilution refrigerator for zero gravity operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roach, Pat R.; Helvensteijn, Ben

    1990-01-01

    A compact dilution refrigerator design based on internal charcoal adsorption is being tested for operation in zero gravity. This refrigerator is self-contained with no external pumps or gas handling system and provides reliable operation since it has no moving parts. All operations are performed with heaters and are completely computer controlled. The refrigerator is capable of providing many hours of operation at very low temperature before the charcoal pumps must be recycled.

  11. Fluid management system for a zero gravity cryogenic storage system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lak, Tibor I. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The fluid management system comprises a mixing/recirculation system including an external recirculation pump for receiving fluid from a zero gravity storage system and returning an output flow of the fluid to the storage system. An internal axial spray injection system is provided for receiving a portion of the output flow from the recirculation pump. The spray injection system thermally de-stratifies liquid and gaseous cryogenic fluid stored in the storage system.

  12. Muscle and the physiology of locomotion. [in zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rambaut, P. C.; Nicogossian, A. E.; Pool, S. L.

    1983-01-01

    NASA's past, current, and planned research on muscle deterioration at zero gravity and development of countermeasures are reviewed; Soviet studies are discussed as well. A definition of muscle mass and strength regulation factors, and improved measurement methods of muscle atrophy are needed. Investigations of tissue growth factors and their receptors, endogenous and exogenous anabolic protein synthesis stimulation, and a potential neurotropic factor are among the projects in progress or planned. At present, vigorous physical exercise during spaceflight is recommended as the most effective countermeasure against skeletal muscle atrophy.

  13. Development of coatings to control electroosmosis in zero gravity electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krupnick, A. C.

    1974-01-01

    A major problem confronting the operation of free fluid electrophoresis in zero gravity is the control of electrokinetic phenomena and, in particular, electroosmosis. Due to the severity of counter flow as a result of electroosmosis, the electrical potential developed at the surface of shear must be maintained at near, or as close, to zero millivolts as possible. Based upon this investigation, it has been found that the amount of bound water or the degree of hydroxylation plays a major role in the control of this phenomenon. Based upon tests employing microcapillary electrophoresis, it has been found that gamma amino propyl trihydroxysilane produced a coating which provides the lowest potential (about 3.86 mV) at the surface of shear between the stationary and mobile layers.

  14. Zero-gravity cloud physics laboratory: Experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, L. R.; Greco, E. V.

    1973-01-01

    The experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies on the zero G cloud physics laboratory are reported. This program involves the definition and development of an atmospheric cloud physics laboratory and the selection and delineations of a set of candidate experiments that must utilize the unique environment of zero gravity or near zero gravity.

  15. Ball Lightning in Zero Gravity in the Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeff, Igor; Parameswaran, Sriram; Grace, Michael

    2004-11-01

    We have created balls of orange plasma in atmospheric - pressure air that survive for over 1/2 second without power input. The technique used was to create a pulsed horizontal electric arc in a zero - gravity environment using 6 neon - sign transformers in parallel, each producing 16,000 V at 60 mA. The zero - gravity environment reduces heat losses by reducing thermal convection, creating a larger ball. Previous work (1) suggests that the ball lifetime scales as the square of the ball radius. The balls were photographed after power turnoff with a high - speed 16 mm movie camera. Movies of the balls being formed and decaying will be shown. We suggest that there are several other forms of ball lightning (2). 1.Igor Alexeff et. al. International Conference On Plasma Science, Jeju, Korea, June 2-5, 2003, Conference Record, p 254. 2. Igor Alexeff and Mark Rader, IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, Vol. 20, No. 6, Dec. 1992, pp.669-671. Igor Alexeff and Mark Rader, Fusion Technology, Vol. 27, May 1995, p. 271.

  16. Combustion of solid carbon rods in zero and normal gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spuckler, C. M.

    1981-05-01

    In order to investigate the mechanism of carbon combustion and to assess the importance of gravitational induced convection on the process, zero and normal gravity experiments were conducted in which spectroscopic carbon rods were resistance ignitied and burned in dry oxygen environments. In the zero-gravity drop tower tests, a blue flame surrounded the rod, showing that a gas phase reaction in which carbon monoxide was oxidized to carbon dioxide was taking place. The ratio of flame diameter to rod diameter was obtained as a function of time. It was found that this ratio was inversely proportional to both the oxygen pressure and the rod diameter. In the normal gravity tests, direct mass spectrometric sampling was used to measure gas phase concentrations. The gas sampling probe was positioned near the circumference of a horizontally mounted 0.615 cm diameter carbon rod, either at the top or at angles of 45 deg to 90 deg from the top, and yielded concentration profiles of CO2, CO, and O2 as a function of distance from the surface. The mechanism controlling the combustion process was found to change from chemical process control at the 90 deg and 45 deg probe positions to mass transfer control at the 0 deg probe position at the top of the rod. Under the experimental conditions used, carbon combustion was characterized by two surface reactions, 2C + O2 yields 2CO and CO2 + C yields 2CO, and a gas phase reaction, 2CO + O2 yields 2CO2.

  17. Ocular Blood Flow Measured Noninvasively in Zero Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Manuel, Francis K.; Geiser, Martial; Moret, Fabrice; Messer, Russell K.; King, James F.; Suh, Kwang I.

    2003-01-01

    In spaceflight or a reduced-gravity environment, bodily fluids shift to the upper extremities of the body. The pressure inside the eye, or intraocular pressure, changes significantly. A significant number of astronauts report changes in visual acuity during orbital flight. To date this remains of unknown etiology. Could choroidal engorgement be the primary mechanism and a change in the curvature or shape of the cornea or lens be the secondary mechanism for this change in visual acuity? Perfused blood flow in the dense meshwork of capillaries of the choroidal tissue (see the preceding illustration) provides necessary nutrients to the outer layers of the retina (photoreceptors) to keep it healthy and maintain good vision. Unlike the vascular system, the choroid has no baroreceptors to autoregulate fluid shifts, so it can remain engorged, pushing the macula forward and causing a hyperopic (farsighted) shift of the eye. Experiments by researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center could help answer this question and facilitate planning for long-duration missions. We are investigating the effects of zero gravity on the choroidal blood flow of volunteer subjects. This pilot project plans to determine if choroidal blood flow is autoregulated in a reduced-gravity environment.

  18. Cool flames at terrestrial, partial, and near-zero gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, Michael; Pearlman, Howard

    2006-10-15

    Natural convection plays an important role in all terrestrial, Lunar, and Martian-based, unstirred, static reactor cool flame and low-temperature autoignitions, since the Rayleigh number (Ra) associated with the self-heating of the reaction exceeds the critical Ra (approximately 600) for onset of convection. At near-zero gravity, Ra<600 can be achieved and the effects of convection suppressed. To systematically vary the Ra without varying the mixture stoichiometry, reactor pressure, or vessel size, cool flames are studied experimentally in a closed, unstirred, static reactor subject to different gravitational accelerations (terrestrial, 1g; Martian, 0.38g; Lunar, 0.16g; and reduced gravity, {approx}10{sup -2}g). Representative results show the evolution of the visible light emission using an equimolar n-butane:oxygen premixture at temperatures ranging from 320 to 350? deg C (593-623 K) at subatmospheric pressures. For representative reduced-gravity, spherically propagating cool flames, the flame radius based on the peak light intensity is plotted as a function of time and the flame radius (and speed) is calculated from a polynomial fit to data. A skeletal chemical kinetic Gray-Yang model developed previously for a one-dimensional, reactive-diffusive system by Fairlie and co-workers is extended to a two-dimensional axisymmetric, spherical geometry. The coupled species, energy, and momentum equations are solved numerically and the spatio-temporal variations in the temperature profiles are presented. A qualitative comparison is made with the experimental results. (author)

  19. Zero-Gravity Vortex Vent and PVT Gaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downey, M. G.; Trevathan, J. T.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station and satellite reservicing will require the ability to vent gas on orbit from liquid supply or storage tanks and to gage liquid quantity under microgravity conditions. In zero gravity, (zero-g) the vortex vent is capable of venting gas from a tank of liquid containing gas randomly distributed as bubbles. The concept uses a spinning impeller to create centrifugal force inside a vortex tube within a tank. This creates a gas pocket and forces the liquid through a venturi and back into the tank. Gas is then vented from the gas pocket through a liquid detector and then out through an exhaust port. If the liquid detector senses liquid in the vent line, the fluid is directed to the low-pressure port on the venturi and is returned to the tank. The advantages of this system is that it has no rotating seals and is compatible with most corrosive and cryogenic fluids. A prototype was designed and built at the NASA Johnson Space Center and flown on the KC-135 zero-g aircraft. During these test flights, where microgravity conditions are obtained for up to 30 sec, the prototype demonstrated that less than 0.10 percent of the volume of fluid vented was liquid when the tank was half full of liquid. The pressure volume temperature (PVT) gaging system is used in conjunction with the vortex vent to calculate the amount of liquid remaining in a tank under microgravity conditions. The PVT gaging system is used in conjunction with the vortex vent to gage liquid quantity in zero or low gravity. The system consists of a gas compressor, accumulator, and temperature and pressure instrumentation. To measure the liquid in a tank a small amount of gas is vented from the tank to the compressor and compressed into the accumulator. Pressure and temperature in the tank and accumulator are measured before and after the gas transfer occurs. Knowing the total volume of the tank, the volume of the accumulator, the volume of the intermediate lines, and initial and final pressures and

  20. Sediment-transport experiments in zero-gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iversen, J. D.; Greeley, R.

    1986-01-01

    One of the important parameters in the analysis of sediment entrainment and transport is gravitational attraction. The availability of a laboratory in Earth orbit would afford an opportunity to conduct experiments in zero and variable gravity environments. Elimination of gravitational attraction as a factor in such experiments would enable other critical parameters (such as particle cohesion and aerodynamic forces) to be evaluated much more accurately. A Carousel Wind Tunnel (CWT) is proposed for use in conducting experiments concerning sediment particle entrainment and transport in a space station. In order to test the concept of this wind tunnel design a one third scale model CWT was constructed and calibrated. Experiments were conducted in the prototype to determine the feasibility of studying various aeolian processes and the results were compared with various numerical analysis. Several types of experiments appear to be feasible utilizing the proposed apparatus.

  1. Sediment-transport experiments in zero-gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iversen, James D.; Greeley, Ronald

    1987-01-01

    One of the important parameters in the analysis of sediment entrainment and transport is gravitational attraction. The availability of a laboratory in earth orbit would afford an opportunity to conduct experiments in zero and variable gravity environments. Elimination of gravitational attraction as a factor in such experiments would enable other critical parameters (such as particle cohesion and aerodynamic forces) to be evaluated much more accurately. A Carousel Wind Tunnel (CWT) is proposed for use in conducting experiments concerning sediment particle entrainment and transport in a space station. In order to test the concept of this wind tunnel design a one third scale model CWT was constructed and calibrated. Experiments were conducted in the prototype to determine the feasibility of studying various aeolian processes and the results were compared with various numerical analysis. Several types of experiments appear to be feasible utilizing the proposed apparatus.

  2. Zero Gravity Cryogenic Vent System Concepts for Upper Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flachbart, Robin H.; Holt, James B.; Hastings, Leon J.

    2001-01-01

    The capability to vent in zero gravity without resettling is a technology need that involves practically all uses of sub-critical cryogenics in space, and would extend cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle capabilities. However, the lack of definition regarding liquid/ullage orientation coupled with the somewhat random nature of the thermal stratification and resulting pressure rise rates, lead to significant technical challenges. Typically a zero gravity vent concept, termed a thermodynamic vent system (TVS), consists of a tank mixer to destratify the propellant, combined with a Joule-Thomson (J-T) valve to extract thermal energy from the propellant. Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) was used to test both spray-bar and axial jet TVS concepts. The axial jet system consists of a recirculation pump heat exchanger unit. The spray-bar system consists of a recirculation pump, a parallel flow concentric tube heat exchanger, and a spray-bar positioned close to the longitudinal axis of the tank. The operation of both concepts is similar. In the mixing mode, the recirculation pump withdraws liquid from the tank and sprays it into the tank liquid, ullage, and exposed tank surfaces. When energy extraction is required, a small portion of the recirculated liquid is passed sequentially through the J-T expansion valve, the heat exchanger, and is vented overboard. The vented vapor cools the circulated bulk fluid, thereby removing thermal energy and reducing tank pressure. The pump operates alone, cycling on and off, to destratify the tank liquid and ullage until the liquid vapor pressure reaches the lower set point. At that point, the J-T valve begins to cycle on and off with the pump. Thus, for short duration missions, only the mixer may operate, thus minimizing or even eliminating boil-off losses.

  3. Zero Gravity Cryogenic Vent System Concepts for Upper Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flachbart, Robin H.; Holt, James B.; Hastings, Leon J.

    1999-01-01

    The capability to vent in zero gravity without resettling is a technology need that involves practically all uses of sub-critical cryogenics in space. Venting without resettling would extend cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle capabilities. However, the lack of definition regarding liquid/ullage orientation coupled with the somewhat random nature of the thermal stratification and resulting pressure rise rates, lead to significant technical challenges. Typically a zero gravity vent concept, termed a thermodynamic vent system (TVS), consists of a tank mixer to destratify the propellant, combined with a Joule-Thomson (J-T) valve to extract thermal energy from the propellant. Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) was used to test both spray bar and axial jet TVS concepts. The axial jet system consists of a recirculation pump heat exchanger unit. The spray bar system consists of a recirculation pump, a parallel flow concentric tube, heat exchanger, and a spray bar positioned close to the longitudinal axis of the tank. The operation of both concepts is similar. In the mixing mode, the recirculation pump withdraws liquid from the tank and sprays it into the tank liquid, ullage, and exposed tank surfaces. When energy is required. a small portion of the recirculated liquid is passed sequentially through the J-T expansion valve, the heat exchanger, and is vented overboard. The vented vapor cools the circulated bulk fluid, thereby removing thermal energy and reducing tank pressure. The pump operates alone, cycling on and off, to destratify the tank liquid and ullage until the liquid vapor pressure reaches the lower set point. At that point. the J-T valve begins to cycle on and off with the pump. Thus, for short duration missions, only the mixer may operate, thus minimizing or even eliminating, boil-off losses.

  4. Development of coatings to control electroosmosis in zero gravity electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krupnick, A. C.

    1974-01-01

    A major problem confronting the operation of free fluid electrophoresis in zero gravity is the control of electrokinetic phenomena and, in particular, electroosmosis. Due to the severity of counter flow, as a result of electroosmosis, the electrical potential developed at the surface of shear must be maintained at near, or as close to, zero millivolts as possible. Based upon this investigation, it has been found that the amount of bound water or the degree of hydroxylation plays a major role in the control of this phenomena. Of necessity, factors, such as adhesion, biocompatibility, protein adsorption, and insolubility were considered in this investigation because of the long buffer-coating exposure times required by present space operations. Based upon tests employing microcapillary electrophoresis, it has been found that gamma amino propyl trihydroxysilane produced a coating which provides the lowest potential (minus 3.86 mv) at the surface of shear between the stationary and mobile layers. This coating has been soaked in both borate and saline buffers, up to three months, in a pH range of 6.5 to 10 without deleterious effects or a change in its ability to control electrokinetic effects.

  5. Precise Determination of the Zero-Gravity Surface Figure of a Mirror without Gravity-Sag Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloemhof, Eric E.; Lam, Jonathan C.; Feria, V. Alfonso; Chang, Zensheu

    2007-01-01

    The zero-gravity surface figure of optics used in spaceborne astronomical instruments must be known to high accuracy, but earthbound metrology is typically corrupted by gravity sag. Generally, inference of the zero-gravity surface figure from a measurement made under normal gravity requires finite-element analysis (FEA), and for accurate results the mount forces must be well characterized. We describe how to infer the zero-gravity surface figure very precisely using the alternative classical technique of averaging pairs of measurements made with the direction of gravity reversed. We show that mount forces as well as gravity must be reversed between the two measurements and discuss how the St. Venant principle determines when a reversed mount force may be considered to be applied at the same place in the two orientations. Our approach requires no finite-element modeling and no detailed knowledge of mount forces other than the fact that they reverse and are applied at the same point in each orientation. If mount schemes are suitably chosen, zero-gravity optical surfaces may be inferred much more simply and more accurately than with FEA.

  6. Adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator for use in zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dingus, Michael L.

    1988-01-01

    In this effort, a new design concept for an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) that is capable of operation in zero gravity has been developed. The design uses a vortex precooler to lower the initial temperature of magnetic salt from the initial space superfluid helium dewar of 1.8 K to 1.1 K. This reduces the required maximum magnetic field from 4 Tesla to 2 Tesla. The laboratory prototype vortex precooler reached a minimum temperature of 0.78 K, and had a cooling power of 1 mW at 1.1 K. A study was conducted to determine the dependence of vortex cooler performance on system element configuration. A superfluid filled capillary heat switch was used in the design. The laboratory prototype ADR reached a minimum temperature of 0.107 K, and maintained temperatures below 0.125 K for 90 minutes. Demagnetization was carried out from a maximum field of 2 T. A soft iron shield was developed that reduced the radial central field to 1 gauss at 0.25 meters.

  7. A helium-3/helium-4 dilution cryocooler for operation in zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, John B.

    1988-01-01

    This research effort covered the development of He-3/He-4 dilution cryocooler cycles for use in zero gravity. The dilution cryocooler is currently the method of choice for producing temperatures below 0.3 Kelvin in the laboratory. However, the current dilution cryocooler depends on gravity for their operation, so some modification is required for zero gravity operation. In this effort, we have demonstrated, by analysis, that the zero gravity dilution cryocooler is feasible. We have developed a cycle that uses He-3 circulation, and an alternate cycle that uses superfluid He-4 circulation. The key elements of both cycles were demonstrated experimentally. The development of a true 'zero-gravity' dilution cryocooler is now possible, and should be undertaken in a follow-on effort.

  8. Zero Gravity Cryogenic Vent System Concepts for Upper Stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravex, Alain; Flachbart, Robin; Holt, Barney

    The capability to vent in zero gravity without resettling is a technology need that involves practically all uses of sub-critical cryogenics in space. Venting without resettling would extend cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle capabilities. However, the lack of definition regarding liquid/ullage orientation coupled with the somewhat random nature of the thermal stratification and resulting pressure rise rates, lead to significant technical challenges. Typically a zero gravity vent concept, termed a thermodynamic vent system (TVS), consists of a tank mixer to destratify the propellant, combined with a Joule-Thomson (J-T) valve to extract thermal energy from the propellant. Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) was used to test both spray bar and axial jet TVS concepts. The axial jet system consists of a recirculation pump heat exchanger unit. The spray bar system consists of a recirculation pump, a parallel flow concentric tube, heat exchanger, and a spray bar positioned close to the longitudinal axis of the tank. The operation of both concepts is similar. In the mixing mode, the recirculation pump withdraws liquid from the tank and sprays it into the tank liquid, ullage, and exposed tank surfaces. When energy extraction is required, a small portion of the recirculated liquid is passed sequentially through the J-T expansion valve, the heat exchanger, and is vented overboard. The vented vapor cools the circulated bulk fluid, thereby removing thermal energy and reducing tank pressure. The pump operates alone, cycling on and off, to destratify the tank liquid and ullage until the liquid vapor pressure reaches the lower set point. At that point, the J-T valve begins to cycle on and off with the pump. Thus, for short duration missions, only the mixer may operate, thus minimizing or even eliminating boil-off losses. TVS performance testing demonstrated that the spray bar was effective in providing tank pressure control within a 6

  9. Vortex motion phase separator for zero gravity liquid transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Frank S. (Inventor); Fraser, Wilson M., Jr. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A vortex motion phase separator is disclosed for transferring a liquid in a zero gravity environment while at the same time separating the liquid from vapors found within either the sender or the receiving tanks. The separator comprises a rigid sender tank having a circular cross-section and rigid receiver tank having a circular cross-section. A plurality of ducts connects the sender tank and the receiver tank. Disposed within the ducts connecting the receiver tank and the sender tank is a pump and a plurality of valves. The pump is powered by an electric motor and is adapted to draw either the liquid or a mixture of the liquid and the vapor from the sender tank. Initially, the mixture drawn from the sender tank is directed through a portion of the ductwork and back into the sender tank at a tangent to the inside surface of the sender tank, thereby creating a swirling vortex of the mixture within the sender tank. As the pumping action increases, the speed of the swirling action within the sender tank increases creating an increase in the centrifugal force operating on the mixture. The effect of the centrifugal force is to cause the heavier liquid to migrate to the inside surface of the sender tank and to separate from the vapor. When this separation reaches a predetermined degree, control means is activated to direct the liquid conveyed by the pump directly into the receiver tank. At the same time, the vapor within the receiver tank is directed from the receiver tank back into the sender tank. This flow continues until substantially all of the liquid is transferred from the sender tank to the receiver tank.

  10. An experimental and analytical investigation of thermoacoustic convection heat transfer in gravity and zero-gravity environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parang, Masood

    1986-01-01

    An experimental and analytical study of Thermoacoustic Convection heat transfer in gravity and zero-gravity environments is presented. The experimental apparatus consisted of a cylinder containing air as a fluid. The side wall of the cylinder was insulated while the bottom wall was allowed to remain at the ambient temperature. The enclosed air was rapidly heated by the top surface which consisted of a thin stainless steel foil connected to a battery pack as the power source. Thermocouples were used to measure the transient temperature of the air on the axis of the cylinder. The ouput of the thermocouples was displayed on digital thermometers and the temperature displays were recorded on film using a high-speed movie camera. Temperature measurements were obtained in the zero-gravity environment by dropping the apparatus in the 2-Seconds Zero-Gravity Drop Tower Facilities of NASA Lewis Research Center. In addition, experiments were also performed in the gravity environment and the results are compared in detail with those obtained under zero-gravity conditions.

  11. The solidification under zero gravity conditions of binary alloys exhibiting solid state immiscibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, A. A.; Anantatmula, R. P.; Horylev, R. J.; Gupta, S. P.; Vatne, R. S.

    1975-01-01

    The solidification behavior of gold-silicon alloys containing up to 25 at. % silicon was studied, and a mathematical model of gravity segregation during solidification was developed. A background of knowledge is provided which can be used in the design of zero gravity solidification experiments to be carried out in the 300-ft drop tower, in Aerobee rockets and in future space missions. Such experiments are needed to develop the basic scientific knowledge required for the design of economically viable space manufacturing processes. Some preliminary zero gravity experiments were carried out on a gold-25 at. % silicon alloy using the drop tower facility.

  12. Feasibility study of a zero-gravity (orbital) atmospheric cloud physics experiments laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollinden, A. B.; Eaton, L. R.

    1972-01-01

    A feasibility and concepts study for a zero-gravity (orbital) atmospheric cloud physics experiment laboratory is discussed. The primary objective was to define a set of cloud physics experiments which will benefit from the near zero-gravity environment of an orbiting spacecraft, identify merits of this environment relative to those of groundbased laboratory facilities, and identify conceptual approaches for the accomplishment of the experiments in an orbiting spacecraft. Solicitation, classification and review of cloud physics experiments for which the advantages of a near zero-gravity environment are evident are described. Identification of experiments for potential early flight opportunities is provided. Several significant accomplishments achieved during the course of this study are presented.

  13. Future utilization of space: Silverton Conference on material science and phase transformations in zero-gravity, summary of proceeding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisner, M. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    The importance of zero gravity environment in the development and production of new and improved materials is considered along with the gravitational effects on phase changes or critical behavior in a variety of materials. Specific experiments discussed include: fine scale phase separation in zero gravity; glass formation in zero gravity; effects of gravitational perturbations on determination of critical exponents; and light scattering from long wave fluctuations in liquids in zero gravity. It is concluded that the space shuttle/spacelab system is applicable to various fields of interest.

  14. Middeck zero-gravity dynamics experiment - Comparison of ground and flight test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawley, Edward F.; Barlow, Mark S.; Van Schoor, Marthinus C.; Masters, Brett; Bicos, Andrew S.

    1992-01-01

    An analytic and experimental study of the changes in the modal parameters of space structural test articles from one- to zero-gravity is presented. Deployable, erectable, and rotary modules was assembled to form three one- and two-dimensional structures, in which variations in bracing wire and rotary joint preload could be introduced. The structures were modeled as if hanging from a suspension system in one gravity, and unconstrained, as if free floating in zero-gravity. The analysis is compared with ground experimental measurements, made on a spring/wire suspension system with a nominal plunge frequency of one Hertz, and with measurements made on the Shuttle middeck. The degree of change in linear modal parameters as well as the change in nonlinear nature of the response is examined. Trends in modal parameters are presented as a function of force amplitude, joint preload, and ambient gravity level.

  15. Development of a large support surface for an air-bearing type zero-gravity simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, K. E.

    1976-01-01

    The methods used in producing a large, flat surface to serve as the supporting surface for an air-bearing type zero-gravity simulator using low clearance, thrust-pad type air bearings are described. Major problems encountered in the use of self-leveled epoxy coatings in this surface are discussed and techniques are recommended which proved effective in overcoming these problems. Performance requirements of the zero-gravity simulator vehicle which were pertinent to the specification of the air-bearing support surface are also discussed.

  16. The International Heat Pipe Experiment. [Black Brant sounding rocket payload zero gravity experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintosh, R.; Ollendorf, S.; Sherman, A.; Harwell, W.

    1976-01-01

    On October 4, 1974, the International Heat Pipe Experiment was launched aboard a Black Brant sounding rocket from White Sands, New Mexico. The flight provided six min of near zero gravity during which a total of ten separate heat pipe experiments was performed. The fifteen heat pipes tested represent some of the latest American and European technology. This flight provided the first reported zero gravity data on cryogenic and flat plate vapor chamber heat pipes. Additionally, valuable design and engineering data were obtained on several other heat pipe configurations. The payload and several of its experiments are discussed.

  17. On Calculating the Zero-Gravity Surface Figure of a Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloemhof, Eric E.

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of the classical method of calculating the zero-gravity surface figure of a mirror from surface-figure measurements in the presence of gravity has led to improved understanding of conditions under which the calculations are valid. In this method, one measures the surface figure in two or more gravity- reversed configurations, then calculates the zero-gravity surface figure as the average of the surface figures determined from these measurements. It is now understood that gravity reversal is not, by itself, sufficient to ensure validity of the calculations: It is also necessary to reverse mounting forces, for which purpose one must ensure that mountingfixture/ mirror contacts are located either at the same places or else sufficiently close to the same places in both gravity-reversed configurations. It is usually not practical to locate the contacts at the same places, raising the question of how close is sufficiently close. The criterion for sufficient closeness is embodied in the St. Venant principle, which, in the present context, translates to a requirement that the distance between corresponding gravity-reversed mounting positions be small in comparison to their distances to the optical surface of the mirror. The necessity of reversing mount forces is apparent in the behavior of the equations familiar from finite element analysis (FEA) that govern deformation of the mirror.

  18. An Experimental Study of Boiling in Reduced and Zero Gravity Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usiskin, C. M.; Siegel, R.

    1961-01-01

    A pool boiling apparatus was mounted on a counterweighted platform which could be dropped a distance of nine feet. By varying the size of the counterweight, the effective gravity field on the equipment was adjusted between zero and unity. A study of boiling burnout in water indicated that a variation in the critical heat flux according to the one quarter power of gravity was reasonable. A consideration of the transient burnout process was necessary in order to properly interpret the data. A photographic study of nucleate boiling showed how the velocity of freely rising vapor bubbles decreased as gravity was reduced. The bubble diameters at the time of breakoff from the heated surface were found to vary inversely as gravity to the 1/3.5 power. Motion pictures were taken to illustrate both nucleate and film boiling in the low gravity range.

  19. Extracting Zero-Gravity Surface Figure of a Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloemhof, Eric E.; Lam, Jonathan C.; Feria, Alfonso; Chang, Zensheu

    2011-01-01

    The technical innovation involves refinement of the classic optical technique of averaging surface measurements made in different orientations with respect to gravity, so the effects of gravity cancel in the averaged image. Particularly for large, thin mirrors subject to substantial deformation, the further requirement is that mount forces must also cancel when averaged over measurement orientations. The zerogravity surface figure of a mirror in a hexapod mount is obtained by analyzing the summation of mount forces in the frame of the optic as surface metrology is averaged over multiple clockings. This is illustrated with measurements taken from the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) PT-Ml mirror for both twofold and threefold clocking. The positive results of these measurements and analyses indicate that, from this perspective, a lighter mirror could be used; that is, one might place less reliance on the damping effects of the elliptic partial differential equations that describe the propagation of forces through glass. The advantage over prior art is relaxing the need for an otherwise substantial thickness of glass that might be needed to ensure accurate metrology in the absence of a detailed understanding and analysis of the mount forces. The general insights developed here are new, and provide the basic design principles on which mirror mount geometry may be chosen.

  20. Sediment-transport (wind) experiments in zero-gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, J.; Gillette, D.; Greeley, R.; Lee, J.; Mackinnon, I.; Marshall, J.; Nickling, W.; Werner, B.; White, B.; Williams, S.

    1986-01-01

    The carousel wind tunnel (CWT) can be a significant tool for the determination of the nature and magnitude of interparticlar forces at threshold of motion. By altering particle and drum surface electrical properties and/or by applying electric potential difference across the inner and outer drums, it should be possible to separate electrostatic effects from other forces of cohesion. Besides particle trajectory and bedform analyses, suggestions for research include particle aggregation in zero and subgravity environments, effect of suspension-saltation ratio on soil abrasion, and the effects of shear and shearfree turbulence on particle aggregation as applied to evolution of solar nebula.

  1. Study on processing immiscible materials in zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reger, J. L.; Mendelson, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to evaluate mixing immiscible metal combinations under several process conditions. Under one-gravity, these included thermal processing, thermal plus electromagnetic mixing, and thermal plus acoustic mixing. The same process methods were applied during free fall on the MSFC drop tower facility. The design is included of drop tower apparatus to provide the electromagnetic and acoustic mixing equipment, and a thermal model was prepared to design the specimen and cooling procedure. Materials systems studied were Ca-La, Cd-Ga and Al-Bi; evaluation of the processed samples included the morphology and electronic property measurements. The morphology was developed using optical and scanning electron microscopy and microprobe analyses. Electronic property characterization of the superconducting transition temperatures were made using an impedance change-tuned coil method.

  2. Investigation of crystal growth in zero gravity environment and investigation of metallic whiskers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. H.; Lal, R. B.; Walter, H. U.; Castle, J. G., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental work reported relates to the effects of near-zero gravity on growths of crystals and metallic whiskers during Skylab and Apollo flight experiments. Studies on growth and characterization of candidate materials for flight experiments cover indium-bismuth compounds, bismuth single crystals, gallium arsenide films and single crystals, and cadmium whiskers.

  3. Statistical support for the ATL program. [microbial growth in zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkelmann, K.; Myers, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    Statistical experimental designs are presented for various numbers of organisms and agar solutions pertinent to the experiment, ""colony growth in zero gravity''. Missions lasting 7 and 30 days are considered. For the designs listed, the statistical analysis of the observations obtained on the space shuttle are outlined.

  4. Vacuum/Zero Net-Gravity Application for On-Orbit TPS Tile Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Gale A.; Humes, Donald H.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2004-01-01

    The Orbiter Columbia catastrophically failed during reentry February 1, 2003. All Space Shuttle flights were suspended, including logistics support for the International Space Station. NASA Langley Research Center s (LaRC) Structures and Materials Competency is performing characterizations of candidate materials for on-orbit repair of orbiter Thermal Protection System (TPS) tiles to support Return-to-Flight activities led by Johnson Space Center (JSC). At least ten materials properties or attributes (adhesion to damage site, thermal protection, char/ash strength, thermal expansion, blistering, flaming, mixing ease, application in vacuum and zero gravity, cure time, shelf or storage life, and short-term outgassing and foaming) of candidate materials are of interest for on-orbit repair. This paper reports application in vacuum and zero net-gravity (for viscous flow repair materials). A description of the test apparatus and preliminary results of several candidate materials are presented. The filling of damage cavities is different for some candidate repair materials in combined vacuum and zero net-gravity than in either vacuum or zero net-gravity alone.

  5. Vacuum/Zero Net-Gravity Application for On-Orbit TPS Tile Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Gale A.; Humes, Donald H.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2004-01-01

    The Orbiter Columbia catastrophically failed during reentry February 1, 2003. All space Shuttle flights were suspended, including logistics support for the International Space Station. NASA LaRC s Structures and Materials Competency is performing characterizations of candidate materials for on-orbit repair of orbiter Thermal Protection System (TPS) tiles to support Return-to-Flight activities led by JSC. At least ten materials properties or attributes (adhesion to damage site, thermal protection, char/ash strength, thermal expansion, blistering, flaming, mixing ease, application in vacuum and zero gravity, cure time, shelf or storage life, and short-term outgassing and foaming) of candidate materials are of interest for on-orbit repair. This paper reports application in vacuum and zero net-gravity (for viscous flow repair materials). A description of the test apparatus and preliminary results of several candidate materials are presented. The filling of damage cavities is different for some candidate repair materials in combined vacuum and zero net-gravity than in either vacuum or zero net- gravity alone.

  6. Silverton Conference on Applications of the Zero Gravity Space Shuttle Environment to Problems in Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisner, M. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    The possible utilization of the zero gravity resource for studies in a variety of fluid dynamics and fluid-dynamic related problems was investigated. A group of experiments are discussed and described in detail; these include experiments in the areas of geophysical fluid models, fluid dynamics, mass transfer processes, electrokinetic separation of large particles, and biophysical and physiological areas.

  7. Fixed contact line helical interfaces in zero gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, Brian J.; Thiessen, David B.

    2007-02-01

    Fluid interfaces supported in microgravity by a helical structure are shown to have a more robust stability than more common structures such as liquid bridges. In particular, helical interfaces can take the form of infinite right circular cylinders over a broad range of configurations. In the case of a single fixed contact line support, the infinite cylinder is stable for all cases in which the pitch to diameter ratio is less than π /√3 (more tightly coiled interfaces). When there are two or more equally spaced fixed contact line supports, the infinite cylinder is stable for all configurations. Furthermore, in the two support case (the double helix), stability persists for all volumes from the cylinder to zero volume, when the pitch to diameter ratio is greater than 2.082 (more loosely coiled interfaces). The equivalent to the axisymmetric Young-Laplace equation is derived for helical interfaces. Interfacial stability is determined from equilibrium branch structure following the application of Maddocks' method by Lowry and Steen [Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 449, 411 (1995)]. Perturbations to finite wavelength disturbances are considered for the case of a single helical support. Overall stability envelopes are presented for single and multiple support cases. Limited experimental results verify the infinite length stability limit for the single helical support case.

  8. Criticality in the slowed-down boiling crisis at zero gravity.

    PubMed

    Charignon, T; Lloveras, P; Chatain, D; Truskinovsky, L; Vives, E; Beysens, D; Nikolayev, V S

    2015-05-01

    Boiling crisis is a transition between nucleate and film boiling. It occurs at a threshold value of the heat flux from the heater called CHF (critical heat flux). Usually, boiling crisis studies are hindered by the high CHF and short transition duration (below 1 ms). Here we report on experiments in hydrogen near its liquid-vapor critical point, in which the CHF is low and the dynamics slow enough to be resolved. As under such conditions the surface tension is very small, the experiments are carried out in the reduced gravity to preserve the conventional bubble geometry. Weightlessness is created artificially in two-phase hydrogen by compensating gravity with magnetic forces. We were able to reveal the fractal structure of the contour of the percolating cluster of the dry areas at the heater that precedes the boiling crisis. We provide a direct statistical analysis of dry spot areas that confirms the boiling crisis at zero gravity as a scale-free phenomenon. It was observed that, in agreement with theoretical predictions, saturated boiling CHF tends to zero (within the precision of our thermal control system) in zero gravity, which suggests that the boiling crisis may be observed at any heat flux provided the experiment lasts long enough. PMID:26066249

  9. Criticality in the slowed-down boiling crisis at zero gravity.

    PubMed

    Charignon, T; Lloveras, P; Chatain, D; Truskinovsky, L; Vives, E; Beysens, D; Nikolayev, V S

    2015-05-01

    Boiling crisis is a transition between nucleate and film boiling. It occurs at a threshold value of the heat flux from the heater called CHF (critical heat flux). Usually, boiling crisis studies are hindered by the high CHF and short transition duration (below 1 ms). Here we report on experiments in hydrogen near its liquid-vapor critical point, in which the CHF is low and the dynamics slow enough to be resolved. As under such conditions the surface tension is very small, the experiments are carried out in the reduced gravity to preserve the conventional bubble geometry. Weightlessness is created artificially in two-phase hydrogen by compensating gravity with magnetic forces. We were able to reveal the fractal structure of the contour of the percolating cluster of the dry areas at the heater that precedes the boiling crisis. We provide a direct statistical analysis of dry spot areas that confirms the boiling crisis at zero gravity as a scale-free phenomenon. It was observed that, in agreement with theoretical predictions, saturated boiling CHF tends to zero (within the precision of our thermal control system) in zero gravity, which suggests that the boiling crisis may be observed at any heat flux provided the experiment lasts long enough.

  10. Criticality in the slowed-down boiling crisis at zero gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charignon, T.; Lloveras, P.; Chatain, D.; Truskinovsky, L.; Vives, E.; Beysens, D.; Nikolayev, V. S.

    2015-05-01

    Boiling crisis is a transition between nucleate and film boiling. It occurs at a threshold value of the heat flux from the heater called CHF (critical heat flux). Usually, boiling crisis studies are hindered by the high CHF and short transition duration (below 1 ms). Here we report on experiments in hydrogen near its liquid-vapor critical point, in which the CHF is low and the dynamics slow enough to be resolved. As under such conditions the surface tension is very small, the experiments are carried out in the reduced gravity to preserve the conventional bubble geometry. Weightlessness is created artificially in two-phase hydrogen by compensating gravity with magnetic forces. We were able to reveal the fractal structure of the contour of the percolating cluster of the dry areas at the heater that precedes the boiling crisis. We provide a direct statistical analysis of dry spot areas that confirms the boiling crisis at zero gravity as a scale-free phenomenon. It was observed that, in agreement with theoretical predictions, saturated boiling CHF tends to zero (within the precision of our thermal control system) in zero gravity, which suggests that the boiling crisis may be observed at any heat flux provided the experiment lasts long enough.

  11. Laboratory outreach: student assessment of flow cytometer fluidics in zero gravity.

    PubMed

    Crucian, B; Norman, J; Brentz, J; Pietrzyk, R; Sams, C

    2000-10-01

    Due to the the clinical utility of the flow cytometer, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is interested in the design of a space flight-compatible cytometer for use on long-duration space missions. Because fluid behavior is altered dramatically during space flight, it was deemed necessary to validate the principles of hydrodynamic focusing and laminar flow (cytometer fluidics) in a true microgravity environment. An experiment to validate these properties was conducted by 12 students from Sweetwater High School (Sweetwater, TX) participating in the NASA Reduced Gravity Student Flight Opportunity, Class of 2000. This program allows high school students to gain scientific experience by conducting an experiment on the NASA KC-135 zero gravity laboratory aircraft. The KC-135 creates actual zero-gravity conditions in 30-second intervals by flying a highly inclined parabolic flight path. The experiment was designed by their mentor in the program, the Johnson Space Center's flow cytometrist Brian Crucian, PhD, MT(ASCP). The students performed the experiment, with the mentor, onboard the NASA zero-gravity research aircraft in April 2000.

  12. Separation of biogenic materials by electrophoresis under zero gravity (L-3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuroda, Masao

    1993-01-01

    Electrophoresis separates electrically charged materials by imposing a voltage between electrodes. Though free-flow electrophoresis is used without carriers such as colloids to separate and purify biogenic materials including biogenic cells and proteins in blood, its resolving power and separation efficiency is very low on Earth due to sedimentation, flotation, and thermal convection caused by the specific gravity differences between separated materials and buffer solutions. The objective of this experiment is to make a comparative study of various electrophoresis conditions on the ground and in zero-gravity in order to ultimately develop a method for separating various important 'vial' components which are difficult to separate on the ground.

  13. Some physiological effects of alternation between zero gravity and one gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybiel, A.

    1977-01-01

    The anatomy and physiology of the healthy vestibular system and the history of its study, maintenance of muskuloskeletal fitness under low-gravity conditions, tests of motion sickness, and data and techniques on testing subjects in a slow rotation room, are covered. Components of the inner ear labyrinth and their behavior in relation to equilibrium, gravity and inertial forces, motion sickness, and dizziness are discussed. Preventive medicine, the biologically effective force environment, weightlessness per se, activity in a weightless spacecraft, exercizing required to maintain musculoskeletal function, and ataxia problems are dealt with.

  14. Liquid jet impingement normal to a disk in zero gravity. Ph.D. Thesis Toledo Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labus, T. L.

    1977-01-01

    The free surface shapes of circular liquid jets impinging normal to sharp-edged disks in zero gravity are determined. Zero gravity drop tower experiments yielded three distinct flow patterns that were classified in terms of the relative effects of surface tension and inertial forces. An order of magnitude analysis was conducted that indicated regions where viscous forces were not significant in the computation of free surface shapes. The free surface analysis was simplified by transforming the governing potential flow equations and boundary conditions into the inverse plane, where the stream function and velocity potential became the coordinates. The resulting nonlinear equations were solved by standard finite difference methods, and comparisons were made with the experimental data for the inertia dominated regime.

  15. Zero-Gravity Atmospheric Cloud Physics Experiment Laboratory engineering concepts/design tradeoffs. Volume 1: Study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greco, R. V.; Eaton, L. R.; Wilkinson, H. C.

    1974-01-01

    The work is summarized which was accomplished from January 1974 to October 1974 for the Zero-Gravity Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory. The definition and development of an atmospheric cloud physics laboratory and the selection and delineation of candidate experiments that require the unique environment of zero gravity or near zero gravity are reported. The experiment program and the laboratory concept for a Spacelab payload to perform cloud microphysics research are defined. This multimission laboratory is planned to be available to the entire scientific community to utilize in furthering the basic understanding of cloud microphysical processes and phenomenon, thereby contributing to improved weather prediction and ultimately to provide beneficial weather control and modification.

  16. The study of single crystals for space processing and the effect of zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lal, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    A study was undertaken to analyze different growth techniques affected by a space environment. Literature on crystal growth from melt, vapor phase and float zone was reviewed and the physical phenomena important for crystal growth in zero-gravity environment was analyzed. Recommendations for potential areas of crystal growth feasible for space missions are presented and a bibliography of articles in the area of crystal growth in general is listed.

  17. The Marshall Space Flight Center KC-135 zero gravity test program for FY 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shurney, R. E. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    During FY-82, researchers and experimenters from Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) conducted 11 separate investigations during 26.3 hr of testing aboard the KC-135 zero-gravity aircraft, based at Ellington Air force Base, Texas. Although this represented fewer hours than initially projected, all experiment and test objectives were met or exceeded. This Technical Memorandum compiles all results achieved by MSFC users during FY-82, a year considered to be highly productive.

  18. Liquid jet impingement normal to a disk in zero gravity. Ph.D. Thesis - Toledo Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labus, T. L.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental and analytical investigation was conducted to determine the free surface shapes of circular liquid jets impinging normal to sharp-edged disks under both normal and zero gravity conditions. An order of magnitude analysis was conducted indicating regions where viscous forces were not significant when computing free surface shapes. The demarcation between the viscous and inviscid region was found to depend upon the flow Reynolds number and the ratio between the jet and disk radius.

  19. Keyhole and weld shapes for plasma arc welding under normal and zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keanini, R. G.; Rubinsky, B.

    1990-01-01

    A first order study of the interfacial (keyhole) shape between a penetrating argon plasma arc jet and a stationary liquid metal weld pool is presented. The interface is determined using the Young-Laplace equation by assuming that the plasma jet behaves as a one-dimensional ideal gas flow and by neglecting flow within the weld pool. The solution for the keyhole shape allows an approximate determination of the liquid-solid metal phase boundary location based on the assumption that the liquid melt is a stagnant thermal boundary layer. Parametric studies examine the effect of plasma mass flow rate, initial plasma enthalpy, liquid metal surface tension, and jet shear on weldment shape under both normal and zero gravity. Among the more important findings of this study is that keyhole and weld geometries are minimally affected by gravity, suggesting that data gathered under gravity can be used in planning in-space welding.

  20. Internal model of gravity for hand interception: parametric adaptation to zero-gravity visual targets on Earth.

    PubMed

    Zago, Myrka; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2005-08-01

    Internal model is a neural mechanism that mimics the dynamics of an object for sensory motor or cognitive functions. Recent research focuses on the issue of whether multiple internal models are learned and switched to cope with a variety of conditions, or single general models are adapted by tuning the parameters. Here we addressed this issue by investigating how the manual interception of a moving target changes with changes of the visual environment. In our paradigm, a virtual target moves vertically downward on a screen with different laws of motion. Subjects are asked to punch a hidden ball that arrives in synchrony with the visual target. By using several different protocols, we systematically found that subjects do not develop a new internal model appropriate for constant speed targets, but they use the default gravity model and reduce the central processing time. The results imply that adaptation to zero-gravity targets involves a compression of temporal processing through the cortical and subcortical regions interconnected with the vestibular cortex, which has previously been shown to be the site of storage of the internal model of gravity. PMID:15817649

  1. Equilibrium shape of 4He crystal under zero gravity below 200 mK

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Takuya; Ohuchi, Haruka; Nomura, Ryuji; Okuda, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    Equilibrium crystal shape is the lowest energy crystal shape that is hardly realized in ordinary crystals because of their slow relaxation. 4He quantum crystals in a superfluid have been expected as unique exceptions that grow extremely fast at very low temperatures. However, on the ground, gravity considerably deforms the crystals and conceals the equilibrium crystal shape, and thus, gravity-free environment is needed to observe the equilibrium shape of 4He. We report the relaxation processes of macroscopic 4He crystals in a superfluid below 200 mK under zero gravity using a parabolic flight of a jet plane. When gravity was removed from a gravity-flattened 4He crystal, the crystal rapidly transformed into a shape with flat surfaces. Although the relaxation processes were highly dependent on the initial condition, the crystals relaxed to a nearly homothetic shape in the end, indicating that they were truly in an equilibrium shape minimizing the interfacial free energy. Thanks to the equilibrium shape, we were able to determine the Wulff’s origin and the size of the c-facet together with the vicinal surface profile next to the c-facet. The c-facet size was extremely small in the quantum crystals, and the facet-like flat surfaces were found to be the vicinal surfaces. At the same time, the interfacial free energy of the a-facet and s-facet was also obtained. PMID:26601315

  2. Equilibrium shape of (4)He crystal under zero gravity below 200 mK.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Takuya; Ohuchi, Haruka; Nomura, Ryuji; Okuda, Yuichi

    2015-10-01

    Equilibrium crystal shape is the lowest energy crystal shape that is hardly realized in ordinary crystals because of their slow relaxation. (4)He quantum crystals in a superfluid have been expected as unique exceptions that grow extremely fast at very low temperatures. However, on the ground, gravity considerably deforms the crystals and conceals the equilibrium crystal shape, and thus, gravity-free environment is needed to observe the equilibrium shape of (4)He. We report the relaxation processes of macroscopic (4)He crystals in a superfluid below 200 mK under zero gravity using a parabolic flight of a jet plane. When gravity was removed from a gravity-flattened (4)He crystal, the crystal rapidly transformed into a shape with flat surfaces. Although the relaxation processes were highly dependent on the initial condition, the crystals relaxed to a nearly homothetic shape in the end, indicating that they were truly in an equilibrium shape minimizing the interfacial free energy. Thanks to the equilibrium shape, we were able to determine the Wulff's origin and the size of the c-facet together with the vicinal surface profile next to the c-facet. The c-facet size was extremely small in the quantum crystals, and the facet-like flat surfaces were found to be the vicinal surfaces. At the same time, the interfacial free energy of the a-facet and s-facet was also obtained.

  3. Behavior of the lean methane-air flame at zero-gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noe, K. A.; Strehlow, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    A special rig was designed and constructed to be compatible with the NASA Lewis Research Center Airborne Research Laboratory to allow the study of the effect of gravity on the behavior of lean limit in a standard 50.4 mm (2 in.) internal diameter tube when the mixtures are ignited at the open end and propagate towards the closed end of the tube. The lean limit at zero gravity was found to be 5.10% methane and the flame was found to extenguish in a manner previously observed for downward propagating flames at one g. It was observed that g-jitter could be maintained at less than + or 0.04 g on most zero g trajectories. All of propagating lean limit flames were found to be sporadically cellularly unstable at zero g. There was no observable correlation between the occurrence of g-jitter and the lean limit, average propagation speed of the flame through the tube or the occurrence of cellular instability.

  4. Subject Load-Harness Interaction During Zero-Gravity Treadmill Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCrory, Jean L.; Baron, Heidi A.; Derr, Janice A.; Davis, Brian L.; Cavanagh, Peter R.

    1996-01-01

    When astronauts exercise on orbit, a subject load device (SLD) must be used to return the subject back to the supporting surface. The load in the SLD needs to be transferred the body by a harness which typically distributes this load between the pelvis and We shoulders. Through the use of a zero-gravity simulator, this research compared subject comfort and ground reaction forces during treadmill running at three levels of subject load (60%,80%, and 100% of body weight) in two harness designs ("shoulder only" and "waist "and shoulder ").

  5. Zero-Gravity Locomotion Simulators: New Ground-Based Analogs for Microgravity Exercise Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perusek, Gail P.; DeWitt, John K.; Cavanagh, Peter R.; Grodsinsky, Carlos M.; Gilkey, Kelly M.

    2007-01-01

    Maintaining health and fitness in crewmembers during space missions is essential for preserving performance for mission-critical tasks. NASA's Exercise Countermeasures Project (ECP) provides space exploration exercise hardware and monitoring requirements that lead to devices that are reliable, meet medical, vehicle, and habitat constraints, and use minimal vehicle and crew resources. ECP will also develop and validate efficient exercise prescriptions that minimize daily time needed for completion of exercise yet maximize performance for mission activities. In meeting these mission goals, NASA Glenn Research Center (Cleveland, OH, USA), in collaboration with the Cleveland Clinic (Cleveland, Ohio, USA), has developed a suite of zero-gravity locomotion simulators and associated technologies to address the need for ground-based test analog capability for simulating in-flight (microgravity) and surface (partial-gravity) exercise to advance the health and safety of astronaut crews and the next generation of space explorers. Various research areas can be explored. These include improving crew comfort during exercise, and understanding joint kinematics and muscle activation pattern differences relative to external loading mechanisms. In addition, exercise protocol and hardware optimization can be investigated, along with characterizing system dynamic response and the physiological demand associated with advanced exercise device concepts and performance of critical mission tasks for Exploration class missions. Three zero-gravity locomotion simulators are currently in use and the research focus for each will be presented. All of the devices are based on a supine subject suspension system, which simulates a reduced gravity environment by completely or partially offloading the weight of the exercising test subject s body. A platform for mounting treadmill is positioned perpendicularly to the test subject. The Cleveland Clinic Zero-g Locomotion Simulator (ZLS) utilizes a

  6. The bricycle: a bicycle in zero gravity can be balanced or steered but not both

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, O.; Graham, C.; Grewal, A.; Parrucci, C.; Ruina, A.

    2014-12-01

    A bicycle or inverted pendulum can be balanced, that is kept nearly upright, by accelerating the base. This balance is achieved by steering on a bicycle. Simultaneously one can also control the lateral position of the base: changing of the track line of a bike or the position of hand under a balanced stick. We show here with theory and experiment that if the balance problem is removed, by making the system neutrally stable for balance, one cannot simultaneously maintain balance and control the position of the base. We made a bricycle, essentially a bicycle with springy training wheels. The stiffness of the training wheel suspension can be varied from near infinite, making the bricycle into a tricycle, to zero, making it effectively a bicycle. The springy training wheels effectively reduce or even negate gravity, at least for balance purposes. One might expect a smooth transition from tricycle to bicycle as the stiffness is varied, in terms of handling, balance and feel. Not so. At an intermediate stiffness, when gravity is effectively zeroed, riders can balance easily but no longer turn. Small turns cause an intolerable leaning. Thus there is a qualitative difference between bicycles and tricycles, a difference that cannot be met halfway.

  7. A Biomechanical Comparison of 1-G and Fully-Loaded Simulated Zero-Gravity Locomotion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCrory, Jean L.

    1997-01-01

    Exercise will almost certainly play an integral part in minimizing the bone mineral loss and muscular atrophy that occur during spaceflight. It has been hypothesized that an effective exercise regimen can be developed to elicit loads on the lower extremities and require muscle actions which resemble those encountered on Earth. The Penn State Zero-Gravity Simulator (PSZS) is a device which suspends subjects horizontally from multiple latex cords, with each cord negating the weight of a limb segment. A treadmill mounted on the wall under the PSZS enables subjects to run in simulated 0G. Subjects wear a harness to which a number of springs, which provide a gravity replacement load, are connected. The opposite end of each spring is connected to the side of the treadmill. During exercise, astronauts currently wear a similar harness in which the spring tethering load pulls at both the waist and shoulders. Ground reaction forces, muscular activations, and joint angles of the left leg during overground, treadmill, and fully-loaded zero-gravity simulated (ZLS) locomotion were assessed in order to gain insight into the effectiveness of the exercise regimen used by NASA to prevent the muscular atrophy and bone demineralization which occur in weightlessness. There were three hypotheses to this research. It was hypothesized that there will be no differences in peak ground reaction forces and peak loading rates between overground gait and gait in the full body weight loaded conditions in the ZLS. A second hypothesis was that that there will be no differences in hip, knee, and ankle joint positions between walking or running overground, on a standard treadmill, and in full bodyweight loaded conditions in the ZLS. The third hypothesis was that the muscular activations, as a percentage of maximal voluntary contraction, will be similar between walking or running overground, on a standard treadmill, and in full body-weight loaded conditions in the ZLS.

  8. Assessment of zero gravity effects on space worker health and safety

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    One objective of the study is to assess the effects of all currently known deviations from normal of medical, physiological, and biochemical parameters which appear to be due to zero gravity (zero-g) environment and to acceleration and deceleration to be experienced, as outlined in the reference Solar Power Satellite (SPS) design, by space worker. Study results include identification of possible health or safety effects on space workers - either immediate or delayed - due to the zero gravity environment and acceleration and deceleration; estimation of the probability that an individual will be adversely affected; description of the possible consequence to work efficiently in persons adversely affected; and description of the possible/probable consequences to immediate and future health of individuals exposed to this environment. A research plan, which addresses the uncertainties in current knowledge regarding the health and safety hazards to exposed SPS space workers, is presented. Although most adverse affects experienced during space flight soon disappeared upon return to the Earth's environment, there remains a definite concern for the long-term effects to SPS space workers who might spend as much as half their time in space during a possible five-year career period. The proposed 90-day up/90 day down cycle, coupled with the fact that most of the effects of weightlessness may persist throughout the flight along with the realization that recovery may occupy much of the terrestrial stay, may keep the SPS workers in a deviant physical condition or state of flux for 60 to 100% of their five-year career. (JGB)

  9. Assessment of zero gravity effects on space worker health and safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    One objective of the study is to assess the effects of all currently known deviations from normal of medical, physiological, and biochemical parameters which appear to be due to zero gravity (zero-g) environment and to acceleration and deceleration to be experienced, as outlined in the references Solar Power Satellites (SPS) design, by space worker. Study results include identification of possible health or safety effects on space workers either immediate or delayed due to the zero gravity environment and acceleration and deceleration; estimation of the probability that an individual will be adversely affected; description of the possible consequence to work efficiency in persons adversely affected; and description of the possible/probable consequences to immediate and future health of individuals exposed to this environment. A research plan, which addresses the uncertainties in current knowledge regarding the health and safety hazards to exposed SPS space workers, is presented. Although most adverse affects experienced during space flight soon disappeared upon return to the Earth's environment, there remains a definite concern for the long-term effects to SPS space workers who might spend as much as half their time in space during a possible five year career period. The proposed 90 day up/90 day down cycle, coupled with the fact that most of the effects of weightlessness may persist throughout the flight along with the realization that recovery may occupy much of the terrestrial stay, may keep the SPS workers in a deviant physical condition or state of flux for 60 to 100% of their five year career.

  10. Testing of a Spray-Bar Zero Gravity Cryogenic Vent System for Upper Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lak, Tibor; Flachbart, Robin; Nguyen, Han; Martin, James

    1999-01-01

    The capability to vent in zero gravity without resettling is a fundamental technology need that involves practically all uses of subcritical cryogenics in space. Venting without resettling would extend cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle capabilities. However, the lack of definition regarding liquid/ullage orientation coupled with the somewhat random nature of the thermal stratification and resulting pressure rise rates, lead to significant technical challenges. Typically a zero gravity vent concept, termed a thermodynamic vent system (TVS), consists of a tank mixer to destratify the propellant, combined with a Joule- Thomson (J-T) valve to extract then-nal energy from the propellant. In a cooperative effort, Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (N4HTB) was used to test a unique "spray bar" TVS system developed by Boeing. A schematic of this system is included in Figure 1. The system consists of a recirculation pump, a parallel flow concentric tube, heat exchanger, and a spray bar positioned close to the longitudinal axis of the tank. In the mixing mode, the recirculation pump withdraws liquid from the tank and sprays it radially into the tank liquid, ullage, and exposed tank surfaces. When energy extraction is required, a small portion of the recirculated liquid is passed sequentially through the J-T expansion valve, the spray bar heat exchanger element, and is vented overboard. The vented vapor cools the circulated bulk fluid, thereby removing thermal energy and reducing tank pressure. Figure 2 is a plot of ullage pressure (P4) and liquid vapor pressure (PSAI) versus time. The pump operates alone, cycling on and off, to destratify the tank liquid and ullage until the liquid vapor pressure reaches the lower set point. At that point, the J-T valve begins to cycle on and off with the pump. Thus, for short duration missions, only the mixer may operate, thus minimizing or even eliminating boil-off losses. The primary advantage of the

  11. Design, fabrication and acceptance testing of a zero gravity whole body shower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumacher, E. A.; Lenda, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    Recent research and development programs have established the ability of the zero gravity whole body shower to maintain a comfortable environment in which the crewman can safely cleanse and dry the body. The purpose of this program was to further advance the technology of whole body bathing and to demonstrate technological readiness including in-flight maintenance by component replacement for flight applications. Three task efforts of this program are discussed. Conceptual designs and system tradeoffs were accomplished in task 1. Task 2 involved the formulation of preliminary and final designs for the shower, while task 3 included the fabrication and test of the shower assembly. Particular attention is paid to the evaluation and correction of test anomalies during the final phase of the program.

  12. Pressure drop in fully developed, turbulent, liquid-vapor annular flows in zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, K. R.; Chao, B. T.; Soo, S. L.

    1992-01-01

    The prediction of frictional pressure drop in fully developed, turbulent, annular liquid-vapor flows in zero gravity using simulation experiments conducted on earth is described. The scheme extends the authors' earlier work on dispersed flows. The simulation experiments used two immiscible liquids of identical density, namely, water and n-butyl benzoate. Because of the lack of rigorous analytical models for turbulent, annular flows, the proposed scheme resorts to existing semiempirical correlations. Results based on two different correlations are presented and compared. Others may be used. It was shown that, for both dispersed and annular flow regimes, the predicted frictional pressure gradients in 0-g are lower than those in 1-g under otherwise identical conditions. The physical basis for this finding is given.

  13. Stratification calculations in a heated cryogenic oxygen storage tank at zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuttles, J. T.; Smith, G. L.

    1971-01-01

    A cylindrical one-dimensional model of the Apollo cyrogenic oxygen storage tank has been developed to study the effect of stratification in the tank. Zero gravity was assumed, and only the thermally induced motions were considered. The governing equations were derived from conservation laws and solved on a digital computer. Realistic thermodynamic and transport properties were used. Calculations were made for a wide range of conditions. The results show the fluid behavior to be dependent on the quantity in the tank or equivalently the bulk fluid temperature. For high quantities (low temperatures) the tank pressure rose rapidly with heat addition, the heater temperature remained low, and significant pressure drop potentials accrued. For low quantities the tank pressure rose more slowly with heat addition and the heater temperature became high. A high degree of stratification resulted for all conditions; however, the stratified region extended appreciably into the tank only for the lowest tank quantity.

  14. Human physiological problems in zero gravity - An attempt at understanding through systems analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, R. J.; Croston, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    When the experimental situation is that of man exposed to a gravitationless environment for varying periods of time, the possible importance and value of a related modeling effort is readily apparent. One of the main objectives of the Skylab Program, with its missions of 28, 59, and 85 day duration concerned biomedical investigations of various types, and large amounts of relevant experimental data have been gathered and are in the process of being sorted and interpreted. In order to be of eventual usefulness in forming and testing consistent physiological hypotheses concerning the effect of zero gravity on man, a modeling effort was established in 1972 through the General Electric Company, Space Division, Houston, Texas. An account is given of some of the developments completed or in progress as part of this modeling effort. A long-term cardiovascular model and a large model of the systemic circulation are discussed.

  15. Myosin heavy chain expression in rodent skeletal muscle: effects of exposure to zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, F.; Herrick, R. E.; Adams, G. R.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1993-01-01

    This study ascertained the effects of 9 days of zero gravity on the relative (percentage of total) and calculated absolute (mg/muscle) content of isomyosin expressed in both antigravity and locomotor skeletal muscle of ground control (CON) and flight-exposed (FL) rats. Results showed that although there were no differences in body weight between FL and CON animals, a significant reduction in muscle mass occurred in the vastus intermedius (VI) (P < 0.05) but not in the vastus lateralis (VL) or the tibialis anterior. Both total muscle protein and myofibril protein content were not different between the muscle regions examined in the FL and CON groups. In the VI, there were trends for reductions in the relative content of type I and IIa myosin heavy chains (MHCs) that were offset by increases in the relative content of both type IIb and possibly type IIx MHC protein (P > 0.05). mRNA levels were consistent with this pattern (P < 0.05). The same pattern held true for the red region of the VL as examined at both the protein and mRNA level (P < 0.05). When the atrophy process was examined, there were net reductions in the absolute content of both type I and IIa MHCs that were offset by calculated increases in type IIb MHC in both VI and red VL. Collectively, these findings suggest that there are both absolute and relative changes occurring in MHC expression in the "red" regions of antigravity skeletal muscle during exposure to zero gravity that could affect muscle function.

  16. A zero-gravity instrument to study low velocity collisions of fragile particles at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salter, D. M.; Heißelmann, D.; Chaparro, G.; van der Wolk, G.; Reißaus, P.; Borst, A. G.; Dawson, R. W.; de Kuyper, E.; Drinkwater, G.; Gebauer, K.; Hutcheon, M.; Linnartz, H.; Molster, F. J.; Stoll, B.; van der Tuijn, P. C.; Fraser, H. J.; Blum, J.

    2009-07-01

    We discuss the design, operation, and performance of a vacuum setup constructed for use in zero (or reduced) gravity conditions to initiate collisions of fragile millimeter-sized particles at low velocity and temperature. Such particles are typically found in many astronomical settings and in regions of planet formation. The instrument has participated in four parabolic flight campaigns to date, operating for a total of 2.4 h in reduced-gravity conditions and successfully recording over 300 separate collisions of loosely packed dust aggregates and ice samples. The imparted particle velocities achieved range from 0.03 to 0.28 m s-1 and a high-speed, high-resolution camera captures the events at 107 frames/s from two viewing angles separated by either 48.8° or 60.0°. The particles can be stored inside the experiment vacuum chamber at temperatures of 80-300 K for several uninterrupted hours using a built-in thermal accumulation system. The copper structure allows cooling down to cryogenic temperatures before commencement of the experiments. Throughout the parabolic flight campaigns, add-ons and modifications have been made, illustrating the instrument flexibility in the study of small particle collisions.

  17. Transient boiling heat transfer in saturated liquid nitrogen and F113 at standard and zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oker, E.; Merte, H., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Transient and steady state nucleate boiling in saturated LN2 and F113 at standard and near zero gravity conditions were investigated for the horizontal up, vertical and horizontal down orientations of the heating surface. Two distinct regimes of heat transfer mechanisms were observed during the interval from the step increase of power input to the onset of nucleate boiling: the conduction and convection dominated regimes. The time duration in each regime was considerably shorter with LN2 than with F113, and decreased as heat flux increased, as gravity was reduced, and as the orientation was changed from horizontal up to horizontal down. In transient boiling, boiling initiates at a single point following the step increase in power, and then spreads over the surface. The delay time for the inception of boiling at the first site, and the velocity of spread of boiling varies depending upon the heat flux, orientation, body force, surface roughness and liquid properties, and are a consequence of changes in boundary layer temperature levels associated with changes in natural convection. Following the step increase in power input, surface temperature overshoot and undershoot occur before the steady state boiling temperature level is established.

  18. Strength capabilities and load requirements while performing torquing tasks in zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poliner, Jeffrey; Wilmington, Robert P.; Klute, Glenn K.

    1993-01-01

    A generic examination of the loads produced by individuals performing maximal efforts with a torquing tool in zero gravity, to determine operator strength when performing torquing tasks; quantify the loads placed on foot restraints while performing these tasks; and examine effects of orientation and direction of tool rotation on strength effectiveness was conducted. The experiment was conducted aboard NASA's KC-135 reduced-gravity aircraft, using two force plates attached to a test stand, one with a foot restraint. Subjects used a wrench to apply maximum torques to various fittings, in different positions, in clockwise and counterclockwise directions. It was seen that these subjects could produce approximately 400 to 750 N of force, depending on the orientation of the tool and the direction of effort. The most force could be produced when pushing the tool upwards. A force effectiveness ratio (FER) defined as an indication of how much of the subjects' total effort actually went into performing the desired task. Values of FER ranged from 0.55 to 0.90, with the greatest FER occurring with UP and DOWN efforts, and the lowest with AWAY and LEFT efforts. Designers can use these results to set specifications for craft structures; tools can be developed based on the known strength of the tool users; and tasks can be developed to not exceed the crewmembers' capabilities.

  19. Digital holographic microscopy long-term and real-time monitoring of cell division and changes under simulated zero gravity.

    PubMed

    Pan, Feng; Liu, Shuo; Wang, Zhe; Shang, Peng; Xiao, Wen

    2012-05-01

    The long-term and real-time monitoring the cell division and changes of osteoblasts under simulated zero gravity condition were succeed by combing a digital holographic microscopy (DHM) with a superconducting magnet (SM). The SM could generate different magnetic force fields in a cylindrical cavity, where the gravitational force of biological samples could be canceled at a special gravity position by a high magnetic force. Therefore the specimens were levitated and in a simulated zero gravity environment. The DHM was modified to fit with SM by using single mode optical fibers and a vertically-configured jig designed to hold specimens and integrate optical device in the magnet's bore. The results presented the first-phase images of living cells undergoing dynamic divisions and changes under simulated zero gravity environment for a period of 10 hours. The experiments demonstrated that the SM-compatible DHM setup could provide a highly efficient and versatile method for research on the effects of microgravity on biological samples.

  20. One Possible Mechanism to Sustain Combustion inside a Closed Region under Zero Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glushko, G. S.; Kryukov, I. A.

    2001-03-01

    An experimental study carried out aboard the Mirstation showed that a stearin candle can burn for a long time even inside a closed volume without a forced circulation. Such experiments imply that there is some mechanism for a permanent transport of the oxidizer to the flame zone. It can be assumed that a jet of combustion products outflowing along a normal direction with respect to the flame surface produces a vortex motion in the environmental space, which delivers oxygen to the flame zone. To verify the feasibility of combustion to be sustained by such a mechanism, a mathematical statement of the problem of combustion inside a closed region under zero gravity without a forced circulation was formulated. A simplified model was put forward to simulate the combustion of solid and liquid substances, which allowed the effects of chemical reactions to be reduced to boundary conditions. The computations showed that the proposed mechanism of oxygen transport to the flame zone really can sustain an almost stationary regime of combustion.

  1. Spray Bar Zero-Gravity Vent System for On-Orbit Liquid Hydrogen Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, L. J.; Flachbart, R. H.; Martin, J. J.; Hedayat, A.; Fazah, M.; Lak, T.; Nguyen, H.; Bailey, J. W.

    2003-01-01

    During zero-gravity orbital cryogenic propulsion operations, a thermodynamic vent system (TVS) concept is expected to maintain tank pressure control without propellant resettling. In this case, a longitudinal spray bar mixer system, coupled with a Joule-Thompson (J-T) valve and heat exchanger, was evaluated in a series of TVS tests using the 18 cu m multipurpose hydrogen test bed. Tests performed at fill levels of 90, 50, and 25 percent, coupled with heat tank leaks of about 20 and 50 W, successfully demonstrated tank pressure control within a 7-kPa band. Based on limited testing, the presence of helium constrained the energy exchange between the gaseous and liquid hydrogen (LH2) during the mixing cycles. A transient analytical model, formulated to characterize TVS performance, was used to correlate the test data. During self-pressurization cycles following tank lockup, the model predicted faster pressure rise rates than were measured; however, once the system entered the cyclic self-pressurization/mixing/venting operational mode, the modeled and measured data were quite similar. During a special test at the 25-percent fill level, the J-T valve was allowed to remain open and successfully reduced the bulk LH2 saturation pressure from 133 to 70 kPa in 188 min.

  2. A study of orientation in a zero gravity environment by means of virtual reality simulation.

    PubMed

    Aoki, H; Yamaguchi, T; Ohno, R

    2000-07-01

    When the International Space Station (ISS) is completed and starts its operation, crew members will be stationed for three months or more in orbit aboard the ISS. As they stay longer in the space environment, "habitability" for them will become most important in the design of the interior space. One of the problems about habitability in a zero gravity (0 G) environment is disorientation. Crew members have difficulty in discriminating between "up" and "down" and more serious disorientations may cause space motion sickness. Crew members rely on visual perception to orient themselves because they can't use their sense of equilibrium in a 0 G environment. Although color and the direction of equipment of Space Shuttles or modules has been considered, no systematic study has been conducted on interior space. This study intended to clarify how people acquire visual information and recognize their orientation in a 0 G environment by an experiment in which a subject wears a head-mounted display (HMD) and enters a virtual weightless state represented by computer graphics (CG). Visual information of a room and the degree-of-freedom of motion were varied to examine the influence of the conditions on such a simple task as movement through several connected modules, and the performance and the behavior of each subject were investigated.

  3. Stress, temperature, heart rate, and hibernating factors in hamsters. [pathophysiological conditions resulting from exposure to zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musacchia, X. J.

    1974-01-01

    Pathophysiological conditions resulting from prolonged exposure to zero gravity, cabin constraint, altered ambient environment, whether it be noise, vibrations, high temperatures, or combinations of such factors, are studied in laboratory animals and applied to manned space flight. Results and plans for further study are presented. Specific topics covered include: thermoregulation and its role in reflecting stress and adaptation to the gravity free environment and cabin confinement with its altered circadian forcings; renal function and its measurement in electrolyte distribution and blood flow dynamics; gastronintestinal function and an assessment of altered absorptive capacity in the intestinal mucosa; and catecholamine metabolism in terms of distribution and turnover rates in specific tissues.

  4. Binding of alpha-fetoprotein by immobilized monoclonal antibodies during episodes of zero-gravity obtained by parabolic flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spooner, Brian S.; Guikema, James A.; Barnes, Grady

    1990-01-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), a single-chain polypeptide which is synthesized by the liver and yolk sac of the human fetus, provided a model ligand for assessing the effects of microgravity on ligand binding to surface-immobilized model receptor molecules. Monoclonal antibodies, used as receptors for AFP, were immobilized by covalent attachment to latex microparticles. Zero gravity environment was obtained by parabolic flight aboard NASA 930, a modified KC-135 aircraft. Buring the onset of an episode of zero gravity, ligand and receptor were mixed. Timed incubation (20 s) was terminated by centrifugation, the supernatant removed, and microparticies were assessed for bound AFP by immunochemical methods. The extent of binding was not influenced by microgravity, when compared with 1-G controls, which suggests that aberrant cellular activities observed in microgravity are not the simple expression of altered macromolecular interactions.

  5. A Study of Blood Flow and of Aggregation of Blood Cells Under Conditions of Zero Gravity: Its Relevance to the Occlusive Diseases and Cancer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dintenfass, L.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of this program are: (1) to determine whether the size of red cell aggregates, kinetics and morphology of these aggregates are influenced by near-zero gravity; (2) whether viscosity, especially at low shear rate, is afflicted by near-zero gravity (the latter preventing sedimentation of red cells); (3) whether the actual shape of red cells changes; and (4) whether blood samples obtained from different donors (normal and patients suffering from different disorders) react in the same manner to near-zero gravity.

  6. Processing yttrium-barium-copper oxide superconductor zero gravity using a double float zone surface

    SciTech Connect

    Pettit, D.R.; Peterson, D.E.; Kubat-Martin, K.A.; Petrovic, J.J.; Sheinberg, H.; Coulter, Y.; Day, D.E.

    1997-04-01

    The effects of processing YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (Y123) superconductor in the near-zero gravity (0g) environment provided by the NASA KC-135 airplane flying on parabolic trajectories were studied. A new sheet float zone furnace, designed for this study, enabled fast temperature ramps. Up to an 18-gram sample was processed with each parabola. Samples of Y123 were processed as bulk sheets, composites containing Ag and Pd, and films deposited on single crystal Si and MgO substrates. The 0g-processed samples were multi-phase yet retained a localized Y123 stoichiometry where a single ground-based (1g) oxygen anneal at temperatures of 800 C recovered nearly 100-volume percent superconducting Y123. The 1g processed control samples remained multi-phase after the same ground-based anneal with less than 45 volume percent as superconducting Y123. The superconducting transition temperature was 91 K for both 0g and 1g processed samples. A 29 wt.% Ag/Y123 composite had a transition temperature of 93 K. Melt texturing of bulk Y123 in 0g produced aligned grains about a factor of three larger than in analogous 1g samples. Transport critical current densities were at or below 18 A/cm{sup 2}, due to the formation of cracks caused by the rapid heating rates required by the short time at 0g. Y123 deposited on single crystal Si and MgO in 0g was 30 vol.% y123 without an anneal. A weak superconducting transition at 80 K on MgO showed that substrate interactions occurred.

  7. Effects of zero gravity on myofibril content and isomyosin distribution in rodent skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, K. M.; Herrick, R. E.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E.; Oganov, V. S.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the effects of 12.5 days of zero gravity (0 g) exposure (Cosmos 1887 Biosputnik) on the enzymatic properties, protein content, and isomyosin distribution of the myofibril fraction of the slow-twitch vastus intermedius (VI) and the fast-twitch vastus lateralis (VL) muscles of adult male rats. Measurements were obtained on three experimental groups (n = 5 each group) designated as flight group (FG), vivarium control (VC), and synchronous control (SC). Body weight of the FG was significantly lower than that of the two control groups (P less than 0.05). Compared with the two control groups, VI weight was lower by 23% (P less than 0.10), whereas no such pattern was apparent for the VL muscle. Myofibril yields (mg protein/g muscle) in the VI were 35% lower in the FG than in controls (P less than 0.05), whereas no such pattern was apparent for the VL muscle. When myofibril yields were expressed on a muscle basis (mg/g x muscle weight), the loss of myofibril protein was more exaggerated and suggests that myofibril protein degradation is an early event in the muscle atrophy response to 0 g. Analysis of myosin isoforms indicated that slow myosin (Sm) was the primary isoform lost in the calculated degradation of total myosin. No evidence of loss of the fast isomyosins was apparent for either muscle following spaceflight. Myofibril ATPase activity of the VI was increased in the FG compared with controls, which is consistent with the observation of preferential Sm degradation. These data suggest that muscles containing a high percentage of slow-twitch fibers undergo greater degrees of myofibril protein degradation than muscles containing predominantly fast-twitch fibers in response to a relatively short period of 0 g exposure, and the primary target appears to be the Sm molecule.

  8. Equilibrium fluid interface behavior under low- and zero-gravity conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Concus, Paul; Finn, Robert

    1994-01-01

    We describe here some of our recent mathematical work, which forms a basis for the Interface Configuration Experiment scheduled for USML-2. The work relates to the design of apparatus that exploits microgravity conditions for accurate determination of contact angle. The underlying motivation for the procedures rests on a discontinuous dependence of the capillary free surface interface S on the contact angle gamma, in a cylindrical capillary tube whose section (base) omega contains a protruding corner with opening angle 2 alpha. Specifically, in a gravity-free environment, omega can be chosen so that, for all sufficiently large fluid volume, the height of S is uniquely determined as a (single-valued) function mu(x,y) entirely covering the base; the height mu is bounded over omega uniformly in gamma throughout the range absolute value of (gamma -(pion/2)) less than or equal to alpha, while for absolute value of (gamma - (pion/2)) greater than alpha fluid will necessarily move to the corner and uncover the base, rising to infinity (or falling to negative infinity) at the vertex, regardless of volume. We mention here only that procedures based on the phenomenon promise excellent accuracy when gamma is close pion/2 but may be subject to experimental error when gamma is close to zero (orpion), as the 'singular' part of the domain over which the fluid accumulates (or disappears) when a critical angle gamma theta is crossed then becomes very small and may be difficult to observe. We ignore the trivial case gamma is equal to pion/2 (planar free surface), to simplify the discussion.

  9. Thermocapillary migration of an isolated droplet and interaction of two droplets in zero gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhendal, Yousuf; Turan, Ali; Kalendar, Abdulrahim

    2016-09-01

    Fluid transfer within a stagnant liquid presents a significant challenge in zero-gravity conditions due to the lack of buoyancy effects. This challenge can be overcome by the utilisation of the Marangoni effect, or more specifically thermocapillary migration. The thermocapillary migration of droplets is driven by temperature gradients within the multiphase system which bring about a surface tension gradient driving the flow from the cold to the hot region. The migration speed of the droplet is significantly impacted by the heat transfer both inside the droplet and in its surroundings. This paper presents the analysis of drop movement in a stagnant liquid using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The commercial software package Ansys-Fluent v.13 [1] is used to solve the governing continuum conservation equations for two-phase flow using the Volume of Fluid (VOF) method to track the liquid/liquid interface in 2D domain. This approach has been shown to be a valuable tool for studying the phenomena of liquid-liquid interaction. A strong agreement has been found with experimental observations conducted in microgravity. The inherent velocity of drops has been found to decrease with increasing Marangoni number. This finding is in line with the previous space experiments of Xie et al. (2005) [2] and in contrast to the numerical results of Ma (1999) [3] using the same liquid for the droplet and the host liquid. Data obtained in the present numerical study has been used to derive an expression predicting the scaled droplet velocity as a function of Marangoni number. A numerical study of the interaction of two spherical droplets undergoing thermocapillary migration in microgravity is also presented. The temperature thrust from the leading droplet towards the trailing droplet was found to disturb its migration velocity, but the trailing droplet was found to have no influence on the migration of the leading droplet.

  10. Substrate oxidation capacity in rodent skeletal muscle: effects of exposure to zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, K. M.; Herrick, R. E.; McCue, S. A.

    1993-01-01

    A study was conducted, as part of the integrated National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Life Sciences 1 mission flown in June of 1991, to ascertain the effects of 9 days of exposure to zero gravity on the capacity of rodent skeletal muscle fiber types to oxidize either [14C]pyruvate or [14C]palmitate under state 3 metabolic conditions, i.e., nonlimiting amounts of substrate and cofactors. In addition, activity levels of marker enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, malate shuttle, and beta-oxidation were measured. Results showed that significant differences in muscle weight occurred in both the predominantly slow vastus intermedius and predominantly fast vastus lateralis of flight vs. control groups (P < 0.05). Total protein content of the muscle samples was similar between groups. Both pyruvate oxidation capacity and the marker oxidative enzymes were not altered in the flight relative to control animals. However, the capacity to oxidize long-chain fatty acids was significantly reduced by 37% in both the high- and low-oxidative regions of the vastus muscle (P < 0.05). Although these findings of a selective reduction in fatty acid oxidation capacity in response to spaceflight are surprising, they are consistent with previous findings showing 1) an increased capacity to take up glucose and upregulate glucose transporter proteins and 2) a marked accumulation of triglycerides in the skeletal muscles of rats subjected to states of unloading. Thus, skeletal muscle of animals exposed to non-weight-bearing environments undergo subcellular transformations that may preferentially bias energy utilization to carbohydrates.

  11. Effect of magnetically simulated zero-gravity and enhanced gravity on the walk of the common fruitfly.

    PubMed

    Hill, Richard J A; Larkin, Oliver J; Dijkstra, Camelia E; Manzano, Ana I; de Juan, Emilio; Davey, Michael R; Anthony, Paul; Eaves, Laurence; Medina, F Javier; Marco, Roberto; Herranz, Raul

    2012-07-01

    Understanding the effects of gravity on biological organisms is vital to the success of future space missions. Previous studies in Earth orbit have shown that the common fruitfly (Drosophila melanogaster) walks more quickly and more frequently in microgravity, compared with its motion on Earth. However, flight preparation procedures and forces endured on launch made it difficult to implement on the Earth's surface a control that exposed flies to the same sequence of major physical and environmental changes. To address the uncertainties concerning these behavioural anomalies, we have studied the walking paths of D. melanogaster in a pseudo-weightless environment (0g*) in our Earth-based laboratory. We used a strong magnetic field, produced by a superconducting solenoid, to induce a diamagnetic force on the flies that balanced the force of gravity. Simultaneously, two other groups of flies were exposed to a pseudo-hypergravity environment (2g*) and a normal gravity environment (1g*) within the spatially varying field. The flies had a larger mean speed in 0g* than in 1g*, and smaller in 2g*. The mean square distance travelled by the flies grew more rapidly with time in 0g* than in 1g*, and slower in 2g*. We observed no other clear effects of the magnetic field, up to 16.5 T, on the walks of the flies. We compare the effect of diamagnetically simulated weightlessness with that of weightlessness in an orbiting spacecraft, and identify the cause of the anomalous behaviour as the altered effective gravity.

  12. Rat head direction cell responses in zero-gravity parabolic flight.

    PubMed

    Taube, Jeffrey S; Stackman, Robert W; Calton, Jeffrey L; Oman, Charles M

    2004-11-01

    Astronauts working in zero-gravity (0-G) often experience visual reorientation illusions (VRIs). For example, when floating upside down, they commonly misperceive the spacecraft floor as a ceiling and have a reversed sense of direction. Previous studies have identified a population of neurons in the rat's brain that discharge as a function of the rat's head direction (HD) in a gravitationally horizontal plane and is dependent on an intact vestibular system. Our goal was to characterize HD cell discharge under conditions of acute weightlessness. Seven HD cells in the anterior dorsal thalamus were monitored from rats aboard an aircraft in 0-G parabolic flight. Unrestrained rats locomoted in a clear plexiglas rectangular chamber that had wire mesh covering the floor, ceiling, and one wall. The chamber and surrounding visual environment were relatively up-down symmetrical. Each HD cell was recorded across forty 20-s episodes of 0-G. All HD cells maintained a significant direction-specific discharge when the rat was on the chamber floor during the 0-G and also during the hypergravity pull-out periods. Three of five cells also showed direction-specific responses on the wall in 1-G. In contrast, direction-specific discharge was usually not maintained when the rat locomoted on the vertical wall or ceiling in 0-G. The loss of direction-specific firing was accompanied by an overall increase in background firing. However, while the rat was on the ceiling, some cells showed occasional bursts of firing when the rat's head was oriented in directions that were flipped relative to the long axis of symmetry of the chamber compared with the cell's preferred firing direction on the floor. This finding is consistent with what might be expected if the rat had experienced a VRI. These responses indicate that rats maintain a normal allocentric frame of reference in 0-G and 1-G when on the floor, but may lose their sense of directional heading when placed on a wall or ceiling during acute

  13. In-shoe force measurements from locomotion in simulated zero gravity during parabolic flight.

    PubMed

    McCrory, JL; Schwass, JP; Connell, RB; Cavanagh, PR

    1997-04-01

    INTRODUCTION:: No effective countermeasure for space-induced bone loss has yet been identified. It has been hypothesized that an effective exercise regimen would elicit loads on the lower extremity which resemble those encountered on Earth. Although a treadmill has been used on shuttle flights, the loads to which the lower extremity was exposed have not yet been quantified. It is believed that these loads are much less than the loads experienced in 1G. The purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude of lower extremity loading during tethered treadmill exercise in a 0G environment. METHODS:: Data were collected on five subjects (avg. ht. 177.3+/-10.1 cm, avg. mass 78.3+/-18.0 kg) onboard the KC-135, a NASA airplane used to simulate periods of zero gravity through parabolic flight. Subjects ambulated at 4 speeds: a walk (1.56m/sec), fast walk (2.0m/sec) slow jog (2.75m/sec), and jog (3.35m/sec) on the NASA treadmill operated in either a passive or motorized mode. Each subject wore a harness connected to the Subject Load Device (SLD) to tether them to the treadmill. The tension in the SLD was subjectively adjusted for comfort by each subject. Force data were collected at 60 Hz using Pedar insoles. The number of parabolas per subject was variable due to motion sickness and hardware problems. RESULTS:: Analysis of the insole data showed that the average SLD load was only 35.2% BW, although the values ranged from 20.1% to 56.6%. Maximum ground reaction force values increased with increasing speed and were not affected by treadmill mode. The impulse was higher during walking with the treadmill in the passive mode than in the active mode, but this difference diminished with increasing speed. Subjects tended to run on their forefeet, as shown from the extremely small heel impulse values. At higher speeds, heel contact was absent, while forefoot impulse became more pronounced. DISCUSSION:: All force values were lower than those reported from 1G studies, where

  14. Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Variability under Moon, Mars and Zero Gravity Conditions During Parabolic Flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aerts, Wouter; Joosen, Pieter; Widjaja, Devy; Varon, Carolina; Vandeput, Steven; Van Huffel, Sabine; Aubert, Andre E.

    2013-02-01

    Gravity changes during partial-G parabolic flights (0g -0.16g - 0.38g) lead to changes in modulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), studied via the heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV). HRV and BPV were assessed via classical time and frequency domain measures. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure show both increasing trends towards higher gravity levels. The parasympathetic and sympathetic modulation show both an increasing trend with decreasing gravity, although the modulation is sympathetic predominant during reduced gravity. For the mean heart rate, a non-monotonic relation was found, which can be explained by the increased influence of stress on the heart rate. This study shows that there is a relation between changes in gravity and modulations in the ANS. With this in mind, countermeasures can be developed to reduce postflight orthostatic intolerance.

  15. Effect of magnetically simulated zero-gravity and enhanced gravity on the walk of the common fruitfly.

    PubMed

    Hill, Richard J A; Larkin, Oliver J; Dijkstra, Camelia E; Manzano, Ana I; de Juan, Emilio; Davey, Michael R; Anthony, Paul; Eaves, Laurence; Medina, F Javier; Marco, Roberto; Herranz, Raul

    2012-07-01

    Understanding the effects of gravity on biological organisms is vital to the success of future space missions. Previous studies in Earth orbit have shown that the common fruitfly (Drosophila melanogaster) walks more quickly and more frequently in microgravity, compared with its motion on Earth. However, flight preparation procedures and forces endured on launch made it difficult to implement on the Earth's surface a control that exposed flies to the same sequence of major physical and environmental changes. To address the uncertainties concerning these behavioural anomalies, we have studied the walking paths of D. melanogaster in a pseudo-weightless environment (0g*) in our Earth-based laboratory. We used a strong magnetic field, produced by a superconducting solenoid, to induce a diamagnetic force on the flies that balanced the force of gravity. Simultaneously, two other groups of flies were exposed to a pseudo-hypergravity environment (2g*) and a normal gravity environment (1g*) within the spatially varying field. The flies had a larger mean speed in 0g* than in 1g*, and smaller in 2g*. The mean square distance travelled by the flies grew more rapidly with time in 0g* than in 1g*, and slower in 2g*. We observed no other clear effects of the magnetic field, up to 16.5 T, on the walks of the flies. We compare the effect of diamagnetically simulated weightlessness with that of weightlessness in an orbiting spacecraft, and identify the cause of the anomalous behaviour as the altered effective gravity. PMID:22219396

  16. Effect of magnetically simulated zero-gravity and enhanced gravity on the walk of the common fruitfly†

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Richard J. A.; Larkin, Oliver J.; Dijkstra, Camelia E.; Manzano, Ana I.; de Juan, Emilio; Davey, Michael R.; Anthony, Paul; Eaves, Laurence; Medina, F. Javier; Marco, Roberto; Herranz, Raul

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the effects of gravity on biological organisms is vital to the success of future space missions. Previous studies in Earth orbit have shown that the common fruitfly (Drosophila melanogaster) walks more quickly and more frequently in microgravity, compared with its motion on Earth. However, flight preparation procedures and forces endured on launch made it difficult to implement on the Earth's surface a control that exposed flies to the same sequence of major physical and environmental changes. To address the uncertainties concerning these behavioural anomalies, we have studied the walking paths of D. melanogaster in a pseudo-weightless environment (0g*) in our Earth-based laboratory. We used a strong magnetic field, produced by a superconducting solenoid, to induce a diamagnetic force on the flies that balanced the force of gravity. Simultaneously, two other groups of flies were exposed to a pseudo-hypergravity environment (2g*) and a normal gravity environment (1g*) within the spatially varying field. The flies had a larger mean speed in 0g* than in 1g*, and smaller in 2g*. The mean square distance travelled by the flies grew more rapidly with time in 0g* than in 1g*, and slower in 2g*. We observed no other clear effects of the magnetic field, up to 16.5 T, on the walks of the flies. We compare the effect of diamagnetically simulated weightlessness with that of weightlessness in an orbiting spacecraft, and identify the cause of the anomalous behaviour as the altered effective gravity. PMID:22219396

  17. Quantitative determination of zero-gravity effects on crystal growth from the melt (experiment MA-060). [germanium crystal growth experiment during ASTP mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Herman, C. J.; Lichtensteiger, M.; Witt, A. F.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of experiment MA-060 was to investigate quantitatively the effects of near-zero gravity conditions on crystal growth and dopant segregation during directional solidification from the melt. Gallium-doped germanium single crystals were successfully grown from the melt with simultaneous interface demarcation during the Apollo Soyuz Test Project mission. The analysis of the experimental data indicates striking differences of dopant segregation and growth behavior in the presence and absence of gravity. The results obtained are believed to have far-reaching implications on materials processing under zero-gravity conditions and on the theory of crystal growth and segregation in general.

  18. Preliminary drop-tower experiments on liquid-interface geometry in partially filled containers at zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smedley, G.

    1990-01-01

    Plexiglass containers with rounded trapezoidal cross sections were designed and built to test the validity of Concus and Finn's existence theorem (1974, 1983) for a bounded free liquid surface at zero gravity. Experiments were carried out at the NASA Lewis two-second drop tower. Dyed ethanol-water solutions and three immiscible liquid pairs, with one liquid dyed, were tested. High-speed movies were used to record the liquid motion. Liquid rose to the top of the smaller end of the containers when the contact angle was small enough, in agreement with the theory. Liquid interface motion demonstrated a strong dependence on physical properties, including surface roughness and contamination.

  19. A Human Factors Evaluation of a Methodology for Pressurized Crew Module Acceptability for Zero-Gravity Ingress of Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanchez, Merri J.

    2000-01-01

    This project aimed to develop a methodology for evaluating performance and acceptability characteristics of the pressurized crew module volume suitability for zero-gravity (g) ingress of a spacecraft and to evaluate the operational acceptability of the NASA crew return vehicle (CRV) for zero-g ingress of astronaut crew, volume for crew tasks, and general crew module and seat layout. No standard or methodology has been established for evaluating volume acceptability in human spaceflight vehicles. Volume affects astronauts'ability to ingress and egress the vehicle, and to maneuver in and perform critical operational tasks inside the vehicle. Much research has been conducted on aircraft ingress, egress, and rescue in order to establish military and civil aircraft standards. However, due to the extremely limited number of human-rated spacecraft, this topic has been un-addressed. The NASA CRV was used for this study. The prototype vehicle can return a 7-member crew from the International Space Station in an emergency. The vehicle's internal arrangement must be designed to facilitate rapid zero-g ingress, zero-g maneuverability, ease of one-g egress and rescue, and ease of operational tasks in multiple acceleration environments. A full-scale crew module mockup was built and outfitted with representative adjustable seats, crew equipment, and a volumetrically equivalent hatch. Human factors testing was conducted in three acceleration environments using ground-based facilities and the KC-135 aircraft. Performance and acceptability measurements were collected. Data analysis was conducted using analysis of variance and nonparametric techniques.

  20. Combustion of solid carbon rods in zero and normal gravity. Ph.D. Thesis - Toledo Univ., Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spuckler, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanism of carbon combustion and to assess the importance of gravitational induced convection on the process, zero and normal gravity experiments were conducted in which spectroscopic carbon rods were resistance ignitied and burned in dry oxygen environments. In the zero-gravity drop tower tests, a blue flame surrounded the rod, showing that a gas phase reaction in which carbon monoxide was oxidized to carbon dioxide was taking place. The ratio of flame diameter to rod diameter was obtained as a function of time. It was found that this ratio was inversely proportional to both the oxygen pressure and the rod diameter. In the normal gravity tests, direct mass spectrometric sampling was used to measure gas phase concentrations. The gas sampling probe was positioned near the circumference of a horizontally mounted 0.615 cm diameter carbon rod, either at the top or at angles of 45 deg to 90 deg from the top, and yielded concentration profiles of CO2, CO, and O2 as a function of distance from the surface. The mechanism controlling the combustion process was found to change from chemical process control at the 90 deg and 45 deg probe positions to mass transfer control at the 0 deg probe position at the top of the rod. Under the experimental conditions used, carbon combustion was characterized by two surface reactions, 2C + O2 yields 2CO and CO2 + C yields 2CO, and a gas phase reaction, 2CO + O2 yields 2CO2.

  1. Simulation of the effects of microtubules in the cortical rotation of amphibian embryos in normal and zero gravity.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Comron; Tuszynski, Jack A; Wiebe, Mark W; Gordon, Richard

    2012-09-01

    This paper reports the results of computer modeling of microtubules that end up in the cortical region of a one-cell amphibian embryo, prior to the first cell division. Microtubules are modeled as initially randomly oriented semi-flexible rods, represented by several lines of point-masses interacting with one another like masses on springs with longitudinal and transverse stiffness. They are also considered to be space-filling rods floating in a viscous fluid (cytoplasm) experiencing drag forces and buoyancy from the fluid under a variable gravity field to test gravitational effects. Their randomly distributed interactions with the surrounding spherical container (the cell membrane) have a statistical nonzero average that creates a torque causing a rotational displacement between the cytoplasm and the rigid cortex. The simulation has been done for zero and normal gravity and it validates the observation that cortical rotation occurs in microgravity as well as on Earth. The speed of rotation depends on gravity, but is still substantial in microgravity.

  2. The Dirac point electron in zero-gravity Kerr–Newman spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    Kiessling, M. K.-H.; Tahvildar-Zadeh, A. S.

    2015-04-15

    Dirac’s wave equation for a point electron in the topologically nontrivial maximal analytically extended electromagnetic Kerr–Newman spacetime is studied in a limit G → 0, where G is Newton’s constant of universal gravitation. The following results are obtained: the formal Dirac Hamiltonian on the static spacelike slices is essentially self-adjoint and the spectrum of the self-adjoint extension is symmetric about zero, featuring a continuum with a gap about zero that, under two smallness conditions, contains a point spectrum. The symmetry result extends to the Dirac operator on a generalization of the zero-G Kerr–Newman spacetime with different electric-monopole/magnetic-dipole-moment ratios.

  3. The Awful Truth About Zero-Gravity: Space Acceleration Measurement System; Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Earth's gravity holds the Shuttle in orbit, as it does satellites and the Moon. The apparent weightlessness experienced by astronauts and experiments on the Shuttle is a balancing act, the result of free-fall, or continuously falling around Earth. An easy way to visualize what is happening is with a thought experiment that Sir Isaac Newton did in 1686. Newton envisioned a mountain extending above Earth's atmosphere so that friction with the air would be eliminated. He imagined a cannon atop the mountain and aimed parallel to the ground. Firing the cannon propels the cannonball forward. At the same time, Earth's gravity pulls the cannonball down to the surface and eventual impact. Newton visualized using enough powder to just balance gravity so the cannonball would circle the Earth. Like the cannonball, objects orbiting Earth are in continuous free-fall, and it appears that gravity has been eliminated. Yet, that appearance is deceiving. Activities aboard the Shuttle generate a range of accelerations that have effects similar to those of gravity. The crew works and exercises. The main data relay antenna quivers 17 times per second to prevent 'stiction,' where parts stick then release with a jerk. Cooling pumps, air fans, and other systems add vibration. And traces of Earth's atmosphere, even 200 miles up, drag on the Shuttle. While imperceptible to us, these vibrations can have a profound impact on the commercial research and scientific experiments aboard the Shuttle. Measuring these forces is necessary so that researchers and scientists can see what may have affected their experiments when analyzing data. On STS-107 this service is provided by the Space Acceleration Measurement System for Free Flyers (SAMS-FF) and the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE). Precision data from these two instruments will help scientists analyze data from their experiments and eliminate outside influences from the phenomena they are studying during the mission.

  4. Estimating zero strain states of very soft tissue under gravity loading using digital image correlation⋆,⋆⋆,★

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhan; Desai, Jaydev P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents several experimental techniques and concepts in the process of measuring mechanical properties of very soft tissue in an ex vivo tensile test. Gravitational body force on very soft tissue causes pre-compression and results in a non-uniform initial deformation. The global Digital Image Correlation technique is used to measure the full field deformation behavior of liver tissue in uniaxial tension testing. A maximum stretching band is observed in the incremental strain field when a region of tissue passes from compression and enters a state of tension. A new method for estimating the zero strain state is proposed: the zero strain position is close to, but ahead of the position of the maximum stretching band, or in other words, the tangent of a nominal stress-stretch curve reaches minimum at λ ≳ 1. The approach, to identify zero strain by using maximum incremental strain, can be implemented in other types of image-based soft tissue analysis. The experimental results of ten samples from seven porcine livers are presented and material parameters for the Ogden model fit are obtained. The finite element simulation based on the fitted model confirms the effect of gravity on the deformation of very soft tissue and validates our approach. PMID:20015676

  5. A preliminary analysis of the data from experiment 77-13 and final report on glass fining experiments in zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, W. R.; Subramanian, R. S.; Meyyappan, M.; Smith, H. D.; Mattox, D. M.; Partlow, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal fining, thermal migration of bubbles under reduced gravity conditions, and data to verify current theoretical models of bubble location and temperatures as a function of time are discussed. A sample, sodium borate glass, was tested during 5 to 6 minutes of zero gravity during rocket flight. The test cell contained a heater strip; thermocouples were in the sample. At present quantitative data are insufficient to confirm results of theoretical calculations.

  6. NSTA-NASA Shuttle Student Involvement Project. Experiment Results: Insect Flight Observation at Zero Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, T. E.; Peterson, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The flight responses of common houseflies, velvetbean caterpillar moths, and worker honeybees were observed and filmed for a period of about 25 minutes in a zero-g environment during the third flight of the Space Shuttle Vehicle (flight number STS-3; March 22-30, 1982). Twelve fly puparia, 24 adult moths, 24 moth pupae, and 14 adult bees were loaded into an insect flight box, which was then stowed aboard the Shuttle Orbiter, the night before the STS-3 launch at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The main purpose of the experiment was to observe and compare the flight responses of the three species of insects, which have somewhat different flight control mechanisms, under zero-g conditions.

  7. Solidification under zero gravity: A Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) experiment for an early space shuttle mission. [project planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Project planning for two series of simple experiments on the effect of zero gravity on the melting and freezing of metals and nonmetals is described. The experiments will be performed in the Long Duration Exposure Facility, and their purpose will be to study: (1) the general morphology of metals and nonmetals during solidification, (2) the location of ullage space (liquid-vapor interfaces), and (3) the magnitude of surface tension driven convection during solidification of metals and nonmetals. The preliminary design of the experiments is presented. Details of the investigative approach, experimental procedure, experimental hardware, data reduction and analysis, and anticipated results are given. In addition a work plan and cost analysis are provided.

  8. Manual control in space research on perceptual-motor functions under zero gravity conditions (L-10)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tada, Akira

    1993-01-01

    Are human abilities to control vehicles and other machines the same in space as those on Earth? The L-10 Manual Control Experiment of the First Materials Processing Tests (FMPT) started from this question. Suppose a pilot has the task to align the head of a space vehicle toward a target. His actions are to look at the target, to determine the vehicle movement, and to operate the manipulator. If the activity of the nervous system were the same as on Earth, the movements, of the eye and hand would become excessive because the muscles do not have to oppose gravity. The timing and amount of movement must be arranged for appropriate actions. The sensation of motion would also be affected by the loss of gravity because the mechanism of the otolith, the major acceleration sensor, depends on gravity. The possible instability of the sensation of direction may cause mistakes in the direction of control of manipulator movement. Thus, the experimental data can be used for designing man-machine systems in space, as well as for investigation of physiological mechanisms. In this experiment, the direction of vehicle heading is expressed by a light spot on an array of light emitting diodes and the manipulator is of a finger stick type. As the light spot moves up and down, the Japanese Payload Specialist, and the subject, must move the manipulator forward and backward to keep the movement of the light spot within the neighborhood of the central point of the display. The position of the light spot is computed in such a manner that when the stick is kept at the neutral position, a motion whose acceleration is proportional to the angle of deflection is added to the movement of the light spot. The Operator Describing Function, which is an expression of human control characteristics, can be calculated from 2 minutes of raw data of the light spot position and stick deflection. The 2 minutes of operation is called a run, and 8 runs with resting periods composes a session. The on

  9. Zero-gravity cloud physics laboratory: Candidate experiments definition and preliminary concept studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, L. R.; Greco, R. V.; Hollinden, A. B.

    1973-01-01

    The candidate definition studies on the zero-g cloud physics laboratory are covered. This laboratory will be an independent self-contained shuttle sortie payload. Several critical technology areas have been identified and studied to assure proper consideration in terms of engineering requirements for the final design. Areas include chambers, gas and particle generators, environmental controls, motion controls, change controls, observational techniques, and composition controls. This unique laboratory will allow studies to be performed without mechanical, aerodynamics, electrical, or other type techniques to support the object under study. This report also covers the candidate experiment definitions, chambers and experiment classes, laboratory concepts and plans, special supporting studies, early flight opportunities and payload planning data for overall shuttle payload requirements assessments.

  10. Mechanistic studies on reduced exercise performance and cardiac deconditioning with simulated zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tipton, Charles M.

    1991-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research is to study the physiological mechanisms associated with the exercise performance of rats subjected to conditions of simulated weightlessness. A secondary purpose is to study related physiological changes associated with other systems. To facilitate these goals, a rodent suspension model was developed (Overton-Tipton) and a VO2 max testing procedure was perfected. Three methodological developments occurred during this past year deserving of mention. The first was the refinement of the tail suspension model so that (1) the heat dissipation functions of the caudal artery can be better utilized, and (2) the blood flow distribution to the tail would have less external constriction. The second was the development on a one-leg weight bearing model for use in simulated weightlessness studies concerned with change in muscle mass, muscle enzyme activity, and hind limb blood flow. The chemical body composition of 30 rats was determined and used to develop a prediction equation for percent fat using underwater weighing procedures to measure carcass specific gravity and to calculate body density, body fat, and fat free mass.

  11. A zero-gravity demonstration of the collision and coalescence of water droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Vaughan, O. H.; Smith, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    The mechanics of the collision and coalescence of liquid droplets is one of the main research areas in the fields of nuclear physics, astrophysics, meteorology and fluid mechanics. The crew members on the Skylab 3 and 4 missions were requested to perform demonstrations of the collision and coalescence of water droplets under the low gravity environment at orbital altitude. In Skylab 4 two water droplets with equal volumes, 30 cu cm each, were used. A dark colored droplet (contaminated with grape drink) moving with a velocity of 3.14 cm/sec collided with a stationary pink colored droplet (contaminated with strawberry drink) and coalescence occurred. Theoretical models are proposed to study the various stages of the collision-coalescence processes. Special considerations are concentrated in the investigation of the bounce-coalescence and coalescence-instability processes. The surface tension of the coalesced droplets was calculated to be 52 dynes/cm in perfect agreement with laboratory measurements made after the flight using a reproduction of the liquids.

  12. Strategy For Implementing The UN "Zero-Gravity Instrument Project" To Promote Space Science Among School Children In Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alabi, O.; Agbaje, G.; Akinyede, J.

    2015-12-01

    The United Nations "Zero Gravity Instrument Project" (ZGIP) is one of the activities coordinated under the Space Education Outreach Program (SEOP) of the African Regional Centre for Space Science and Technology Education in English (ARCSSTE-E) to popularize space science among pre-collegiate youths in Nigeria. The vision of ZGIP is to promote space education and research in microgravity. This paper will deliberate on the strategy used to implement the ZGIP to introduce school children to authentic scientific data and inquiry. The paper highlights how the students learned to collect scientific data in a laboratory environment, analyzed the data with specialized software, obtained results, interpreted and presented the results of their study in a standard format to the scientific community. About 100 school children, aged between 7 and 21 years, from ten public and private schools located in Osun State, Nigeria participated in the pilot phase of the ZGIP which commenced with a 1-day workshop in March 2014. During the inauguration workshop, the participants were introduced to the environment of outer space, with special emphasis on the concept of microgravity. They were also taught the basic principle of operation of the Clinostat, a Zero-Gravity Instrument donated to ARCSSTE-E by the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UN-OOSA), Vienna, under the Human Space Technology Initiative (UN-HSTI). At the end of the workshop, each school designed a project, and had a period of 1 week, on a planned time-table, to work in the laboratory of ARCSSTE-E where they utilized the clinostat to examine the germination of indigenous plant seeds in simulated microgravity conditions. The paper also documents the post-laboratory investigation activities, which included presentation of the results in a poster competition and an evaluation of the project. The enthusiasm displayed by the students, coupled with the favorable responses recorded during an oral interview conducted to

  13. Test Data Analysis of a Spray Bar Zero-Gravity Liquid Hydrogen Vent System for Upper Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedayat, A.; Bailey, J. W.; Hastings, L. J.; Flachbart, R. H.

    2003-01-01

    To support development of a zero-gravity pressure control capability for liquid hydrogen (LH2), a series of thermodynamic venting system (TVS) tests was conducted in 1996 and 1998 using the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) multipurpose hydrogen test bed (MHTB). These tests were performed with ambient heat leaks =20 and 50 W for tank fill levels of 90%, 50%, and 25%. TVS performance testing revealed that the spray bar was highly effective in providing tank pressure control within a 7-kPa band (131-138 Wa), and complete destratification of the liquid and the ullage was achieved with all test conditions. Seven of the MHTB tests were correlated with the TVS performance analytical model. The tests were selected to encompass the range of tank fill levels, ambient heat leaks, operational modes, and ullage pressurants. The TVS model predicted ullage pressure and temperature and bulk liquid saturation pressure and temperature obtained from the TVS model were compared with the test data. During extended self-pressurization periods, following tank lockup, the model predicted faster pressure rise rates than were measured. However, once the system entered the cyclic mixing/venting operational mode, the modeled and measured data were quite similar.

  14. Automatic robotic arm operations and sampling in near zero gravity environment - functional tests results from Phobos-Grunt mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlova, Tatiana; Karol Seweryn, D..; Grygorczuk, Jerzy; Kozlov, Oleg

    sampling; (ii) technical characteristics of both devices, i.e. progress cycles of CHOMIK device in different materials and torque in the manipulator joints during sampling operations; (iii) confirmation of applicability of both devices to perform such type of tasks. The phases in operational scenario were prepared to meet mission and system requirements mainly connected with: (i) environment (near zero gravity, vacuum, dust), (ii) safety and (iii) to avoid common operation of both devices at the same time.

  15. Experiment K-6-10. Effects of zero gravity on myofibril protein content and isomyosin distribution in rodent skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, K.; Herrick, R.; Oganov, V.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the effects of 12 days of zero gravity (0G) exposure (Cosmos 1887 Biosputnik) on the enzymatic properties, protein content, and isomyosin distribution of the myofibril fraction of the slow-twitch vastus intermedius (VI) and the fast-twitch vastus lateralis (VL) muscles of adult male rats. Measurements were obtained on three experimental groups (n=5 each group) designated as flight-group (FG), vivarium-control (VC), and synchronous-control (SC). Body weight of the FG was significantly lower than the two control groups (p less than 0.05). Compared to the two control groups, VI weight was lower by 23 percent (p less than 0.10); whereas no such reduction was observed for the VL muscle. Myofibril yields (mg protein/g of muscle) in the VI were 35 percent lower in the FG compared to the controls (p less than 0.05); whereas, no such pattern was apparent for the VL muscle. When myofibril yields were expressed on a muscle basis (mg/g x muscle weight), the loss of myofibril protein was more exaggerated and suggests that myofibril protein degradation is an early event in the muscle atrophy response to 0G. Analysis of myosin isoforms indicated that slow-myosin was the primary isoform lost in the calculated degradation of total myosin. No evidence of loss of the fast isomyosins was apparent for either muscle following space flight. Myofibril ATPase activity of the VI was increased in the FG compared to controls, which is consistent with the observation of preferential slow-myosin degradation. These data suggest that muscles containing a high percent of slow-twitch fibers undergo greater degrees of myofibril protein degradation than do muscles containing predominantly fast-twitch fibers in response to a relatively short period of 0G exposure, and the primary target appears to be the slow-myosin molecule.

  16. Quantitative determination of zero-gravity effects on electronic materials processing germanium crystal growth with simultaneous interface demarcation experiment MA-060, section 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Witt, A. F.; Lichtensteiger, M.; Herman, C. J.

    1982-01-01

    The crystal growth and segregation characteristics of a melt in a directional solidification configuration under near zero g conditions were investigated. The germanium (doped with gallium) system was selected because it was extensively studied on Earth and because it lends itself to a very detailed macroscopic and microscopic characterization. An extensive study was performed of the germanium crystals grown during the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project mission. It was found that single crystal growth was achieved and that the interface demarcation functioned successfully. On the basis of the results obtained to date, there is no indication that convection driven by thermal or surface tension gradients was present in the melt. The gallium segregation, in the absence of gravity, was found to be fundamentally different in its initial and its subsequent stages from that of the ground based tests. None of the existing theoretical models for growth and segregation can account for the observed segregation behavior in the absence of gravity.

  17. Out-reach in-space technology experiments program: Control of flexible robot manipulators in zero gravity, experiment definition phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Warren F.

    1989-01-01

    The results obtained show that it is possible to control light-weight robots with flexible links in a manner that produces good response time and does not induce unacceptable link vibrations. However, deflections induced by gravity cause large static position errors with such a control system. For this reason, it is not possible to use this control system for controlling motion in the direction of gravity. The control system does, on the other hand, have potential for use in space. However, in-space experiments will be needed to verify its applicability to robots moving in three dimensions.

  18. Analysis of gravity-induced particle motion and fluid perfusion flow in the NASA-designed rotating zero-head-space tissue culture vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, David A.; Schwarz, Ray P.

    1991-01-01

    The gravity induced motions, through the culture media, is calculated of living tissue segments cultured in the NASA rotating zero head space culture vessels. This is then compared with the media perfusion speed which is independent of gravity. The results may be interpreted as a change in the physical environment which will occur by operating the NASA tissue culture systems in actual microgravity (versus unit gravity). The equations governing particle motions which induce flows at the surface of tissues contain g terms. This allows calculation of the fluid flow speed, with respect to a cultured particle, as a function of the external gravitational field strength. The analysis is approached from a flow field perspective. Flow is proportional to the shear exerted on a structure which maintains position within the field. The equations are solved for the deviation of a particle from its original position in a circular streamline as a function of time. The radial deviation is important for defining the operating limits and dimensions of the vessel because of the finite radius at which particles necessarily intercept the wall. This analysis uses a rotating reference frame concept.

  19. Solidification under zero gravity: A Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) experiment for an early space shuttle mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, J. A.; Whitfield, J. K.

    1976-01-01

    The preliminary design of two series of simple experiments the objectives of which are to determine the effect of an absence of gravity on (1) the general morphology of the structure, (2) location of ullage space, and (3) magnitude of surface tension driven convection, during the solidification of several metallic and nonmetallic systems is described. Details of the investigative approach, experimental procedure, experimental hardware, data reduction and analysis, and anticipated results are given.

  20. N-Decane Droplet Combustion in the NASA-Lewis 5 Second Zero-Gravity Facility - Results in Test Gas Environments Other than Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggard, John B.; Borowski, Brian A.; Dryer, Frederick L.; Choi, Mun Y.; Williams, Forman A.

    1991-01-01

    The burning rate of single droplets of n-decane in a microgravity environment of the NASA-Lewis 5 Second Zero-Gravity Facility was investigated as a function of time, together with the flame diameter/droplet diameter ratio, for a wide range of test environments other than normal air conditions, using an engineering model of the flight experiment. Oxygen mole fractions were varied from 18 to 50 percent, the total test chamber pressure was varied from 0.5 to 2 atmospheres, and the initial droplet diameter was varied from 0.98 to 2.41 mm. Measurements showed that the average burning rates for n-decane droplets exhibited the same qualitative trends as are found in two current models. Temporal analysis of the local burning rates showed variable rates of change in local burning as the droplet combustion progressed. The causes and implications of these findings are discussed.

  1. Quantitative determination of zero-gravity effects on electronic materials processing germanium crystal growth with simultaneous interface demarcation. Experiment MA-060

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Witt, A. F.

    1977-01-01

    Experiment MA-060 was designed to establish the crystal growth and segregation characteristics of a melt in a directional solidification configuration under near zero-g conditions. The interface demarcation technique was incorporated into the experiment since it constitutes a unique tool for recording the morphology of the growth rate throughout solidification, and for establishing an absolute time reference framework for all stages of the solidification process. An extensive study was performed of the germanium crystals grown during the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project mission. It was found that single crystal growth was achieved and that the interface demarcation functioned successfully. There was no indication that convection driven by thermal or surface tension gradients was present in the melt. The gallium segregation, in the absence of gravity, was found to be fundamentally different in its initial and its subsequent stages from that of the ground-based tests. None of the existing theoretical models for growth and segregation can account for the observed segregation behavior in the absence of gravity.

  2. A large motion zero-gravity suspension system for experimental simulation of orbital construction and deployment. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straube, Timothy Milton

    1993-01-01

    The design and implementation of a vertical degree of freedom suspension system is described which provides a constant force off-load condition to counter gravity over large displacements. By accommodating motions up to one meter for structures weighing up to 100 pounds, the system is useful for experiments which simulate orbital construction events such as docking, multiple component assembly, or structural deployment. A unique aspect of this device is the combination of a large stroke passive off-load device augmented by electromotive torque actuated force feedback. The active force feedback has the effect of reducing break-away friction by a factor of twenty over the passive system alone. The thesis describes the development of the suspension hardware and the control algorithm. Experiments were performed to verify the suspensions system's effectiveness in providing a gravity off-load and simulating the motion of a structure in orbit. Additionally, a three dimensional system concept is presented as an extension of the one dimensional suspension system which was implemented.

  3. The Hubble diagram for a system within dark energy: the location of the zero-gravity radius and the global Hubble rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teerikorpi, P.; Chernin, A. D.

    2010-06-01

    Aims: Here we continue to discuss the principle of the local measurement of dark energy using the normalized Hubble diagram describing the environment of a system of galaxies. Methods: We calculate the present locus of test particles injected a fixed time ago (~the age of the universe), in the standard Λ cosmology and for different values of the system parameters (the model includes a central point mass M and a local dark energy density ρloc) and discuss the position of the zero-gravity distance Rv in the Hubble diagram. Results: Our main conclusion are: 1) when the local DE density ρloc is equal to the global DE density ρv, the outflow reaches the global Hubble rate at the distance R2 = (1+zv)Rv, where zv is the global zero-acceleration redshift (≈0.7 for the standard model). This is also the radius of the ideal Einstein-Straus vacuole, 2) for a wide range of the local-to-global dark energy ratio ρloc/ρv, the local flow reaches the known global rate (the Hubble constant) at a distance R2 ⪆ 1.5 × Rv. Hence, Rv will be between R2/2 and R2, giving upper and lower limits to ρloc/M. For the Local Group, this supports the view that the local density is near the global one.

  4. An example of branching in a variational problem. [shape of liquid suspended from wire in zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darbro, W.

    1978-01-01

    In an experiment in space it was found that when a cubical frame was slowly withdrawn from a soap solution, the wire frame retained practically a full cube of liquid. Removed from the frame (by shaking), the faces of the cube became progressively more concave, until adjacent faces became tangential. In the present paper a mathematical model describing the shape a liquid takes due to its surface tension while suspended on a wire frame in zero-g is solved by use of Lagrange multipliers. It is shown how the configuration of soap films so bounded is dependent upon the volume of liquid trapped in the films. A special case of the solution is a soap film naturally formed on a cubical wire frame.

  5. Zero-gravity Mean Free Surface Curvature of a Confined Liquid in a Radially-Vaned Container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yongkang; Callahan, Michael; Weislogel, Mark

    2013-01-01

    A variety of increasingly intricate container geometries are under consideration for the passive manipulation of liquids aboard spacecraft where the impact of gravity may be neglected. In this study we examine the mean curvature of a liquid volume confined within a radial array of disconnected vanes of infinite extent. This particular geometry possesses a number of desirable characteristics relevant to waste water treatment aboard spacecraft for life support. It is observed that under certain conditions the slender shape of the free surface approaches an asymptote, which can be predicted analytically using new hybrid boundary conditions proposed herein. This contribution represents possibly the final extension of what has been referred to as the method of de Lazzer et al. (1996). The method enables the integration of the Young-Laplace equation over a domain with its boundaries, including the wetted portion of the solid boundaries, symmetry planes, and circular arcs representing free surfaces at the center plane of the liquid body. Asymptotic solutions at several limits are obtained and the analysis is confirmed with numerical computations.

  6. Experimental investigations of stability of static liquid fillets and liquid-gas interface in capillary passages for gas-free liquid acquisition in zero gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purohit, Ghanshyam Purshottamdas

    surface tension propellant management device (PMD) that uses photo-chemically etched disk stacks as capillary elements is examined. These PMDs are used in gas pressurized liquid propellant tanks to supply gas-free propellant to rocket engines in near zero-gravity environment. The experimentally validated models are integrated to perform key analyses for predicting PMD performance in zero gravity.

  7. Analysis of changes in leg volume parameters, and orthostatic tolerance in response to lower body negative pressure during 59 days exposure to zero gravity Skylab 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, R. D.; Gowen, R. J.; Carroll, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    The cardiovascular responses of the Apollo crewmen associated with postflight evaluations indicate varying decrements of orthostatic tolerance. The postflight changes indicate a slightly diminished ability to the cardiovascular system to function effectively against gravity following exposure to weightlessness. The objective of the Skylab LBNP experiments (M092) was to provide information about the magnitude and time course of the cardiovascular changes associated with prolonged periods of exposure to weightlessness. This report details the equipment, signal processing and analysis of the leg volume data obtained from the M092 experiment of the Skylab 3 Mission.

  8. Project Fog Drops 5. Task 1: A numerical model of advection fog. Task 2: Recommendations for simplified individual zero-gravity cloud physics experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, C. W.; Eadie, W. J.; Katz, U.; Kocmond, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    A two-dimensional numerical model was used to investigate the formation of marine advection fog. The model predicts the evolution of potential temperature, horizontal wind, water vapor content, and liquid water content in a vertical cross section of the atmosphere as determined by vertical turbulent transfer and horizontal advection, as well as radiative cooling and drop sedimentation. The model is designed to simulate the formation, development, or dissipation of advection fog in response to transfer of heat and moisture between the atmosphere and the surface as driven by advection over horizontal discontinuities in the surface temperature. Results from numerical simulations of advection fog formation are discussed with reference to observations of marine fog. A survey of candidate fog or cloud microphysics experiments which might be performed in the low gravity environment of a shuttle-type spacecraft in presented. Recommendations are given for relatively simple experiments which are relevent to fog modification problems.

  9. Analysis of changes in leg volume parameters, and orthostatic tolerance in response to lower body negative pressure during 28-days exposure to zero gravity Skylab 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, R. D.; Gowen, R. J.; Carroll, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    The design of the leg volume measuring system employed for the M092 portion of the Skylab missions required the development of a system sensitive to large and small volume changes at the calf of the leg. These changes in volume were produced in response to the orthostatic stress of a Lower Body Negative Pressure Device (LBNPD) or by venous occlusion. The cardiovascular responses of the Apollo crewman associated with the postflight evaluations indicate varying decrements of orthostatic tolerance. The postflight changes indicate a slightly diminished ability of the cardiovascular system to function effectively against gravity following exposure to weightlessness. The objective of the Skylab LBNP experiments (M092) was to provide information about the magnitude and time course of the cardiovascular changes associated with prolonged periods of exposure to weightlessness. The equipment, signal processing, and analysis of the leg volume data obtained from the M092 experiment of the Skylab 2 Mission are described.

  10. Zero Quotatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathis, Terrie; Yule, George

    1994-01-01

    Finds that zero quotatives (where direct speech is reported with neither a reporting verb nor an attributed speaker) are found when a speaker is clearly constructing attitude; where the omission of a quotative may serve some dramatic effect; and at sights where conversational partners are displaying strongly convergent behavior. (SR)

  11. APOLLO 8: It's Christmas in zero gravity...

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Astronauts and ground control consider how Santa is going to gain access to the command module... From the film documentary 'APOLLO 8:'Debrief': part of a documentary series made in the early 70's on the APOLLO missions, and narrated by Burgess Meredith. (Actual date created is not known at this time) First manned Saturn V flight with Frank Borman, James A. Lovell, Jr.,and william A. Anders. First manned lunar orbit mission; provided a close-up look at the moon during 10 lunar orbits. Mission Duration 147hrs 0m 42s

  12. GAS-611 firefly in zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Tony

    1988-01-01

    The Get Away Special 611 (GAS-611) project will carry a small, self-contained biological experiment into a microgravity environment for a period of 120 hours. The payload will be a colony of Lampyridae (fireflies). The ability of this beetle to produce light with an efficiency of 98 pct will be evaluated in the micro-G environment. The chemical process that occurs could be assisted by the earth's gravitational pull and the very complex tracheae system found within this species of beetle. The effects of microgravity on mating and beetle larvae will also be studied.

  13. Experiments in a zero-gravity environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogelei, Alexander

    Microgravity facilities for the second German Spacelab D-2 mission which is planned for January 1993 as part of the U.S. Space Shuttle Colombia are reviewed. The hardware for microgravity experiments includes a gradient furnace with a quenching device for materials-science facilities, a paraboloid-ellipsoid mirror furnace, a fluid physics laboratory, a robot technology experiment, and significant Biolabor elements.

  14. Brane worlds in critical gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feng-Wei; Liu, Yu-Xiao; Zhong, Yuan; Wang, Yong-Qiang; Wu, Shao-Feng

    2013-11-01

    Recently, Lü and Pope proposed critical gravities in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 181302 (2011)]. In this paper we construct analytic brane solutions in critical gravity with matter. The Gibbons-Hawking surface term and junction condition are investigated, and the thin and thick brane solutions are obtained. All these branes are embedded in five-dimensional anti-de Sitter spacetimes. Our solutions are stable against scalar perturbations, and the zero modes of scalar perturbations cannot be localized on the branes.

  15. Gravity Waves

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  Gravity Waves Ripple over Marine Stratocumulus Clouds ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), a fingerprint-like gravity wave feature occurs over a deck of marine stratocumulus clouds. Similar ... that occur when a pebble is thrown into a still pond, such "gravity waves" sometimes appear when the relatively stable and stratified air ...

  16. Baby universes with induced gravity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yihong; Gao, Hongbo

    1989-12-01

    Some quantum effects of baby universes with induced gravity are discussed. The authors prove that the interactions between the baby-parent universes are non-local, and argue that the induced low-energy cosmological constant is zero. This argument does not depend on the detail of the induced potential.

  17. The Trouble with Zero

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The history of the number zero is an interesting one. In early times, zero was not used as a number at all, but instead was used as a place holder to indicate the position of hundreds and tens. This article briefly discusses the history of zero and challenges the thinking where divisions using zero are used.

  18. Venus gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reasenberg, Robert D.

    1993-01-01

    The anomalous gravity field of Venus shows high correlation with surface features revealed by radar. We extract gravity models from the Doppler tracking data from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) by means of a two-step process. In the first step, we solve the nonlinear spacecraft state estimation problem using a Kalman filter-smoother. The Kalman filter was evaluated through simulations. This evaluation and some unusual features of the filter are discussed. In the second step, we perform a geophysical inversion using a linear Bayesian estimator. To allow an unbiased comparison between gravity and topography, we use a simulation technique to smooth and distort the radar topographic data so as to yield maps having the same characteristics as our gravity maps. The maps presented cover 2/3 of the surface of Venus and display the strong topography-gravity correlation previously reported. The topography-gravity scatter plots show two distinct trends.

  19. Cosmological perturbations in unimodular gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Caixia; Brandenberger, Robert H.; Cai, Yifu; Chen, Pisin E-mail: rhb@hep.physics.mcgill.ca E-mail: chen@slac.stanford.edu

    2014-09-01

    We study cosmological perturbation theory within the framework of unimodular gravity. We show that the Lagrangian constraint on the determinant of the metric required by unimodular gravity leads to an extra constraint on the gauge freedom of the metric perturbations. Although the main equation of motion for the gravitational potential remains the same, the shift variable, which is gauge artifact in General Relativity, cannot be set to zero in unimodular gravity. This non-vanishing shift variable affects the propagation of photons throughout the cosmological evolution and therefore modifies the Sachs-Wolfe relation between the relativistic gravitational potential and the microwave temperature anisotropies. However, for adiabatic fluctuations the difference between the result in General Relativity and unimodular gravity is suppressed on large angular scales. Thus, no strong constraints on the theory can be derived.

  20. Keeping the Zero in Zero Discharge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muldoon, Paul; Jackson, John

    1994-01-01

    This article focuses on Great Lakes pollution as it describes the evolution of the zero discharge concept, outlines the major areas of debate, and explores facets of a developing strategy to ensure the ultimate success of the zero discharge approach. (46 references) (LZ)

  1. Gravity investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Healey, D.L.

    1983-12-31

    A large density contrast exists between the Paleozoic rocks (including the rocks of Climax stock) and less dense, Tertiary volcanic rocks and alluvium. This density contrast ranges widely, and herein for interpretive purposes, is assumed to average 0.85 Mg/m{sup 3} (megagrams per cubic meter). The large density contrast makes the gravity method a useful tool with which to study the interface between these rock types. However, little or no density contrast is discernible between the sedimentary Paleozoic rocks that surround the Climax stock and the intrusive rocks of the stock itself. Therefore the gravity method can not be used to define the configuration of the stock. Gravity highs coincide with outcrops of the dense Paleozoic rocks, and gravity lows overlie less-dense Tertiary volcanic rocks and Quaternary alluvium. The positions of three major faults (Boundary, Yucca, and Butte faults) are defined by steep gravity gradients. West of the Climax stock, the Tippinip fault has juxtaposed Paleozoic rocks of similar density, and consequently, has no expression in the gravity data in that area. The gravity station spacing, across Oak Spring Butte, is not sufficient to adequately define any gravity expression of the Tippinip fault. 18 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Multiple zeros of polynomials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    For polynomials of higher degree, iterative numerical methods must be used. Four iterative methods are presented for approximating the zeros of a polynomial using a digital computer. Newton's method and Muller's method are two well known iterative methods which are presented. They extract the zeros of a polynomial by generating a sequence of approximations converging to each zero. However, both of these methods are very unstable when used on a polynomial which has multiple zeros. That is, either they fail to converge to some or all of the zeros, or they converge to very bad approximations of the polynomial's zeros. This material introduces two new methods, the greatest common divisor (G.C.D.) method and the repeated greatest common divisor (repeated G.C.D.) method, which are superior methods for numerically approximating the zeros of a polynomial having multiple zeros. These methods were programmed in FORTRAN 4 and comparisons in time and accuracy are given.

  3. Gravity's overdrive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichhardt, Tony

    1994-03-01

    Mariner 10 traveled to Mercury by using Venus' gravity to bend its course in toward the sun, a correction that would otherwise required vast amounts of rocket fuel. For the first time, an interplanetary spacecraft changed course not with rocket fuel but by using a planet's gravitational field. That maneuver stands, along with the development of the rocket engine, as one of the keys that opened the solar system for exploration. The Pioneer, Voyager, and Galileo missions all used gravity assist, and in fact would not have been possible otherwise. Gravity assist is the most efficient form of space propulsion known. Various aspects of the developmental history of the gravity assist technique and the dispute over who should receive credit for inventing the technique are discussed.

  4. Gravity brake

    DOEpatents

    Lujan, Richard E.

    2001-01-01

    A mechanical gravity brake that prevents hoisted loads within a shaft from free-falling when a loss of hoisting force occurs. A loss of hoist lifting force may occur in a number of situations, for example if a hoist cable were to break, the brakes were to fail on a winch, or the hoist mechanism itself were to fail. Under normal hoisting conditions, the gravity brake of the invention is subject to an upward lifting force from the hoist and a downward pulling force from a suspended load. If the lifting force should suddenly cease, the loss of differential forces on the gravity brake in free-fall is translated to extend a set of brakes against the walls of the shaft to stop the free fall descent of the gravity brake and attached load.

  5. Droplet burning at zero G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, F. A.

    1978-01-01

    Questions of the importance and feasibility of performing experiments on droplet burning at zero gravity in Spacelab were studied. Information on the physics and chemistry of droplet combustion, with attention directed specifically to the chemical kinetics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid mechanics of the phenomena involved, are presented. The work was divided into three phases, the justification, the feasibility, and the conceptual development of a preliminary design. Results from the experiments performed revealed a few new facts concerning droplet burning, notably burning rates in excess of theoretical prediction and a phenomenon of flash extinction, both likely traceable to accumulation of carbon produced by gas-phase pyrolysis in the fuel-rich zone enclosed by the reaction surface. These experiments also showed that they were primarily due to timing difficulties.

  6. Gravity waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritts, David

    1987-01-01

    Gravity waves contributed to the establishment of the thermal structure, small scale (80 to 100 km) fluctuations in velocity (50 to 80 m/sec) and density (20 to 30%, 0 to peak). Dominant gravity wave spectrum in the middle atmosphere: x-scale, less than 100 km; z-scale, greater than 10 km; t-scale, less than 2 hr. Theorists are beginning to understand middle atmosphere motions. There are two classes: Planetary waves and equatorial motions, gravity waves and tidal motions. The former give rise to variability at large scales, which may alter apparent mean structure. Effects include density and velocity fluctuations, induced mean motions, and stratospheric warmings which lead to the breakup of the polar vortex and cooling of the mesosphere. On this scale are also equatorial quasi-biennial and semi-annual oscillations. Gravity wave and tidal motions produce large rms fluctuations in density and velocity. The magnitude of the density fluctuations compared to the mean density is of the order of the vertical wavelength, which grows with height. Relative density fluctuations are less than, or of the order of 30% below the mesopause. Such motions may cause significant and variable convection, and wind shear. There is a strong seasonal variation in gravity wave amplitude. Additional observations are needed to address and quantify mean and fluctuation statistics of both density and mean velocity, variability of the mean and fluctuations, and to identify dominant gravity wave scales and sources as well as causes of variability, both temporal and geographic.

  7. Improved Airborne Gravity Results Using New Relative Gravity Sensor Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, N.

    2013-12-01

    Airborne gravity data has contributed greatly to our knowledge of subsurface geophysics particularly in rugged and otherwise inaccessible areas such as Antarctica. Reliable high quality GPS data has renewed interest in improving the accuracy of airborne gravity systems and recent improvements in the electronic control of the sensor have increased the accuracy and ability of the classic Lacoste and Romberg zero length spring gravity meters to operate in turbulent air conditions. Lacoste and Romberg type gravity meters provide increased sensitivity over other relative gravity meters by utilizing a mass attached to a horizontal beam which is balanced by a ';zero length spring'. This type of dynamic gravity sensor is capable of measuring gravity changes on the order of 0.05 milliGals in laboratory conditions but more commonly 0.7 to 1 milliGal in survey use. The sensor may have errors induced by the electronics used to read the beam position as well as noise induced by unwanted accelerations, commonly turbulence, which moves the beam away from its ideal balance position otherwise known as the reading line. The sensor relies on a measuring screw controlled by a computer which attempts to bring the beam back to the reading line position. The beam is also heavily damped so that it does not react to most unwanted high frequency accelerations. However this heavily damped system is slow to react, particularly in turns where there are very high Eotvos effects. New sensor technology utilizes magnetic damping of the beam coupled with an active feedback system which acts to effectively keep the beam locked at the reading line position. The feedback system operates over the entire range of the system so there is now no requirement for a measuring screw. The feedback system operates at very high speed so that even large turbulent events have minimal impact on data quality and very little, if any, survey line data is lost because of large beam displacement errors. Airborne testing

  8. BF gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celada, Mariano; González, Diego; Montesinos, Merced

    2016-11-01

    BF gravity comprises all the formulations of gravity that are based on deformations of BF theory. Such deformations consist of either constraints or potential terms added to the topological BF action that turn some of the gauge degrees of freedom into physical ones, particularly giving rise to general relativity. The BF formulations have provided new and deep insights into many classical and quantum aspects of the gravitational field, setting the foundations for the approach to quantum gravity known as spinfoam models. In this review, we present a self-contained and unified treatment of the BF formulations of D-dimensional general relativity and other related models, focusing on the classical aspects of them and including some new results.

  9. Zero Energy Use School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Brian, Ed.; And Others

    The economic and physical realities of an energy shortage have caused many educators to consider alternative sources of energy when constructing their schools. This book contains studies and designs by fifth-year architecture students concerning the proposed construction of a zero energy-use elementary school in Albany, Oregon. "Zero energy use"…

  10. Repeated measures with zeros.

    PubMed

    Berk, K N; Lachenbruch, P A

    2002-08-01

    Consider repeated measures data with many zeros. For the case with one grouping factor and one repeated measure, we examine several models, assuming that the nonzero data are roughly lognormal. One of the simplest approaches is to model the zeros as left-censored observations from the lognormal distribution. A random effect is assumed for subjects. The censored model makes a strong assumption about the relationship between the zeros and the nonzero values. To check on this, you can instead assume that some of the zeros are 'true' zeros and model them as Bernoulli. Then the other values are modeled with a censored lognormal. A logistic model is used for the Bernoulli p, the probability of a true nonzero. The fit of the pure left-censored lognormal can be assessed by testing the hypothesis that p is 1, as described by Moulton and Halsey. The model can also be simplified by omitting the censoring, leaving a logistic model for the zeros and a lognormal model for the nonzero values. This is approximately equivalent to modeling the zero and nonzero values separately, a two-part model. In contrast to the censored model, this model assumes only a slight relationship (a covariance component) between the occurrence of zeros and the size of the nonzero values. The models are compared in terms of an example with data from children's private speech. PMID:12197298

  11. Tolerating Zero Tolerance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Brian N.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of zero tolerance dates back to the mid-1990s when New Jersey was creating laws to address nuisance crimes in communities. The main goal of these neighborhood crime policies was to have zero tolerance for petty crime such as graffiti or littering so as to keep more serious crimes from occurring. Next came the war on drugs. In federal…

  12. The Zero Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roland, Erling; Midthassel, Unni Vere

    2012-01-01

    Zero is a schoolwide antibullying program developed by the Centre for Behavioural Research at the University of Stavanger, Norway. It is based on three main principles: a zero vision of bullying, collective commitment among all employees at the school using the program, and continuing work. Based on these principles, the program aims to reduce…

  13. Gravity settling

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Hyman R.; Long, R. H.; Simone, A. A.

    1979-01-01

    Solids are separated from a liquid in a gravity settler provided with inclined solid intercepting surfaces to intercept the solid settling path to coalesce the solids and increase the settling rate. The intercepting surfaces are inverted V-shaped plates, each formed from first and second downwardly inclined upwardly curved intersecting conical sections having their apices at the vessel wall.

  14. Simulating Gravity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pipinos, Savas

    2010-01-01

    This article describes one classroom activity in which the author simulates the Newtonian gravity, and employs the Euclidean Geometry with the use of new technologies (NT). The prerequisites for this activity were some knowledge of the formulae for a particle free fall in Physics and most certainly, a good understanding of the notion of similarity…

  15. Quantum Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goradia, Shantilal

    2009-11-01

    The continuing search for quantum gravity and never ending attempts to unify gravity with other forces of nature represent tremendous waste of public and private funds directing students' energy towards non-creative manipulative work instead of learning from the scientific creativity in Einstein's 1919 paper that unifies gravity with nuclear force. It reflects Einstein's 1919 jump beyond his own 1915 theory of gravity, including that of Newton as implicitly demanded by Newton in 1686. Einstein corrected and retracted his 1917 introduction of cosmological constant in 1919. Dislike of the fact that Einstein did not use quantum mechanics to prove his point has no real value now, because we will use key ingredients (Planck scale and probabilistic aspect) of quantum mechanics and show that they reach the same conclusion. Newton explained the solar system known after Kepler. Likewise, our quantum mechanical approach explains the strong coupling as well the solar system and shows new horizons, otherwise unexplained. Explanation of unexplained observations need no prediction per Hawking, and obviously otherwise.

  16. Zero-mode waveguides

    DOEpatents

    Levene, Michael J.; Korlach, Jonas; Turner, Stephen W.; Craighead, Harold G.; Webb, Watt W.

    2007-02-20

    The present invention is directed to a method and an apparatus for analysis of an analyte. The method involves providing a zero-mode waveguide which includes a cladding surrounding a core where the cladding is configured to preclude propagation of electromagnetic energy of a frequency less than a cutoff frequency longitudinally through the core of the zero-mode waveguide. The analyte is positioned in the core of the zero-mode waveguide and is then subjected, in the core of the zero-mode waveguide, to activating electromagnetic radiation of a frequency less than the cut-off frequency under conditions effective to permit analysis of the analyte in an effective observation volume which is more compact than if the analysis were carried out in the absence of the zero-mode waveguide.

  17. Massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukohyama, Shinji

    2013-09-01

    The concept of mass has been central in many areas of physics. Gravitation is not an exception, and it has been one of the long-standing questions whether the graviton, a spin-2 particle that mediates gravity, can have a non-vanishing mass or not. This question is relevant from not only theoretical but also phenomenological viewpoints, since a nonzero graviton mass may lead to late-time acceleration of the universe and thus may be considered as an alternative to dark energy. In 2010, de Rham, Gabadadze and Tolley proposed the first example of a fully nonlinear massive gravity theory and showed that the so called Boulware-Deser ghost, which had been one of the major obstacles against a stable nonlinear theory of massive gravity since 1972, can be removed by construction. Since then, nonlinear massive gravity has been attracting significant interest among physicists and cosmologists. The nonlinear theory of massive gravity provides a theoretical framework in which properties of the remaining five physical degrees of freedom of massive gravity can be studied. As always with any low-energy effective theories, one of the first tasks would be to identify good and bad backgrounds. Depending on the choice of backgrounds, some of the five degrees of freedom may become strongly coupled, may exhibit instantaneous propagation, or may lead to ghost/gradient instabilities. A related subject is to seek interesting solutions such as those relevant for astrophysical objects and those describing self-accelerating cosmology. Those solutions will allow us to study phenomenological and cosmological implications of the theory. Yet another important task would be to seek a possible (partial) UV completion that can be applied beyond the regime of validity of the low-energy effective theory that we currently know of. We invited articles to cover those important subjects in massive gravity. Given the recent rapid developments in the field, however, it must be noted that this focus issue

  18. Zero-point length from string fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontanini, Michele; Spallucci, Euro; Padmanabhan, T.

    2006-02-01

    One of the leading candidates for quantum gravity, viz. string theory, has the following features incorporated in it. (i) The full spacetime is higher-dimensional, with (possibly) compact extra-dimensions; (ii) there is a natural minimal length below which the concept of continuum spacetime needs to be modified by some deeper concept. On the other hand, the existence of a minimal length (zero-point length) in four-dimensional spacetime, with obvious implications as UV regulator, has been often conjectured as a natural aftermath of any correct quantum theory of gravity. We show that one can incorporate the apparently unrelated pieces of information-zero-point length, extra-dimensions, string T-duality-in a consistent framework. This is done in terms of a modified Kaluza-Klein theory that interpolates between (high-energy) string theory and (low-energy) quantum field theory. In this model, the zero-point length in four dimensions is a "virtual memory" of the length scale of compact extra-dimensions. Such a scale turns out to be determined by T-duality inherited from the underlying fundamental string theory. From a low energy perspective short distance infinities are cutoff by a minimal length which is proportional to the square root of the string slope, i.e., √{α‧}. Thus, we bridge the gap between the string theory domain and the low energy arena of point-particle quantum field theory.

  19. Zeroing in on Supersymmetric Radiation Amplitude Zeros

    SciTech Connect

    Hewett, JoAnne L.; Ismail, Ahmed; Rizzo, Thomas G.; /SLAC

    2012-02-15

    Radiation amplitude zeros have long been used to test the Standard Model. Here, we consider the supersymmetric radiation amplitude zero in chargino-neutralino associated production, which can be observed at the luminosity upgraded LHC. Such an amplitude zero only occurs if the neutralino has a large wino fraction and hence this observable can be used to determine the neutralino eigenstate content. We find that this observable can be measured by comparing the p{sub T} spectrum of the softest lepton in the trilepton {tilde {chi}}{sub 1}{sup {+-}} {tilde {chi}}{sub 2}{sup 0} decay channel to that of a control process such as {tilde {chi}}{sub 1}{sup +} {tilde {chi}}{sub 1}{sup -} or {tilde {chi}}{sub 2}{sup 0} {tilde {chi}}{sub 2}{sup 0}. We test this technique on a previously generated model sample of the 19 dimensional parameter space of the phenomenological MSSM, and find that it is effective in determining the wino content of the neutralino.

  20. Zero-G Condensing Heat Exchanger with Integral Disinfection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The system that operates in a zero gravity environment and has an integral ozone generating capability is disclosed. The system contributes to the control of metabolic water vapors in the air, and also provided disinfection of any resulting condensate within the system, as well as disinfection of the air stream that flows throughout the disclosed system.

  1. Expanding Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aisenberg, Sol

    2005-04-01

    Newton's gravitational constant Gn and Laws of Gravity are based upon observations in our solar system. Mysteries appear when they are used far outside our solar system Apparently, Newton's gravitational constant can not be applied at large distances. Dark matter was needed to explain the observed flat rotational velocity curves of spiral galaxies (Rubin), and of groups of remote galaxies (Zwicky). Our expansion of Newton's gravitational constant Gn as a power series in distance r, is sufficient to explain these observations without using dark matter. This is different from the MOND theory of Milgrom involving acceleration. Also, our Expanded Gravitational Constant (EGC) can show the correct use of the red shift. In addition to the Doppler contribution, there are three other contributions and these depend only upon gravity. Thus, velocity observations only based on the red shift can not be used to support the concept of the expanding universe, the accelerating expansion, or dark energy. Our expanded gravity constant can predict and explain Olbers' paradox (dark sky), and the temperature of the CMB (cosmic microwave background). Thus, CMB may not support the big bang and inflation.

  2. Is nonrelativistic gravity possible?

    SciTech Connect

    Kocharyan, A. A.

    2009-07-15

    We study nonrelativistic gravity using the Hamiltonian formalism. For the dynamics of general relativity (relativistic gravity) the formalism is well known and called the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) formalism. We show that if the lapse function is constrained correctly, then nonrelativistic gravity is described by a consistent Hamiltonian system. Surprisingly, nonrelativistic gravity can have solutions identical to relativistic gravity ones. In particular, (anti-)de Sitter black holes of Einstein gravity and IR limit of Horava gravity are locally identical.

  3. Cosmological perturbations in mimetic Horndeski gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arroja, Frederico; Bartolo, Nicola; Karmakar, Purnendu; Matarrese, Sabino

    2016-04-01

    We study linear scalar perturbations around a flat FLRW background in mimetic Horndeski gravity. In the absence of matter, we show that the Newtonian potential satisfies a second-order differential equation with no spatial derivatives. This implies that the sound speed for scalar perturbations is exactly zero on this background. We also show that in mimetic G3 theories the sound speed is equally zero. We obtain the equation of motion for the comoving curvature perturbation (first order differential equation) and solve it to find that the comoving curvature perturbation is constant on all scales in mimetic Horndeski gravity. We find solutions for the Newtonian potential evolution equation in two simple models. Finally we show that the sound speed is zero on all backgrounds and therefore the system does not have any wave-like scalar degrees of freedom.

  4. Gravity and positional homeostasis of the cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nace, George W.

    Normally bilateralization takes place in the presence of the Earth's gravity which produces torque, shear, tension and compression acting upon the naked aggregates of cytoplasm in the zygote which is only stabilized by a weak cytoskeleton. In an initial examination of the effects of these quantities on development, an expression is derived to describe the tendency of torque to rotate the egg and reorganize its constituents. This expression yields the net torque resulting from buoyancy and gravity acting upon a dumbbell shaped cell with heavy and light masses at either end and ``floating'' in a medium. Using crude values for the variables, torques of 2.5 × 10-13 to 8.5 × 10-1 dyne-cm are found to act upon cells ranging from 6.4 μm to 31 mm (chicken egg). By way of comparison six microtubules can exert a torque of 5 × 10-9 dyne-cm. (1) Gravity imparts torque to cells; (2) torque is reduced to zero as gravity approaches zero; and (3) torque is sensitive to cell size and particulate distribution. Cells must expend energy to maintain positional homeostasis against gravity. Although not previously recognized, Skylab 3 results support this hypothesis: tissue cultures used 58% more glucose on Earth than in space. The implications for developmental biology, physiology, genetics, and evolution are considered. At the cellular and tissue level the concept of ``gravity receptors'' may be unnecessary.

  5. Behavioral responses to partial-gravity conditions in rats.

    PubMed

    Zeredo, Jorge L; Toda, Kazuo; Matsuura, Masaaki; Kumei, Yasuhiro

    2012-11-01

    The effects of microgravity or hypergravity on living organisms have been studied extensively; however, thus far no studies have addressed the effects of "partial-gravity", that is, the low-gravity levels between the unit gravity (1G) on Earth and zero gravity (0 G) in space. The purpose of the present study was to examine behavioral responses in rats under partial-gravity conditions. Rat behavior was monitored by video cameras during parabolic flights. The flight trajectory was customized in order to generate graded levels of partial gravity. Gravity-dependent behavior patterns were observed in rats. In the conditions of 0.4 G through 0.2G, rats showed startle and crouching. Hindlimb stretching emerged at 0.15 G and was more frequently observed toward 0.01 G. Different thresholds may exist for emotional and balance/posture-related behaviors. PMID:23036524

  6. A Zero-Gravity Cup for Drinking Beverages in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Donald R.; Weislogel, Mark; Concus, Paul; Finn, Robert

    2011-01-01

    To date, the method for astronauts to drink liquids in microgravity or weightless environments is to suck the liquid from a bag or pouch through a straw. A new beverage cup works in microgravity and allows astronauts to drink liquids from a cup in a manner consistent with that on Earth. The cup is capable of holding beverages with an angled channel running along the wall from the bottom to the lip. In microgravity, a beverage is placed into the cup using the galley dispenser. The angled channel acts as an open passage that contains only two sides where capillary forces move the liquid along the channel until it reaches the top lip where the forces reach an equilibrium and the flow stops. When one sips the liquid at the lip of the channel, the capillary force equilibrium is upset and more liquid flows to the lip from the reservoir at the bottom to re-establish the equilibrium. This sipping process can continue until the total liquid contents of the cup is consumed, leaving only a few residual drops about the same quantity as in a ceramic cup when it is drunk dry on Earth.

  7. Neural-Thyroid Interaction on Skeletal Isomyosin in Zero Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Kenneth M.

    2000-01-01

    The primary goal of the project was to develop a ground based model to first study the role of the nerve and of thyroid hormone (T3) in the regulation of body growth and skeletal muscle growth and differentiation in rodents. A primary objective was to test the hypothesis that normal weight bearing activity is essential for the development of antigravity, slow twitch skeletal muscle and the corresponding slow myosin heavy chain (MHC) gene; whereas, T3 was obligatory for general body and muscle growth and the establishment of fast MHC phenotype in typically fast locomoter muscles. These ground based experiments would provide both the efficacy and background for a spaceflight experiment (referred to as the Neurolab Mission) jointly sponsored by the NIH and NASA.

  8. Venipuncture and intravenous infusion access during zero-gravity flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krupa, Debra T.; Gosbee, John; Billica, Roger; Bechtle, Perry; Creager, Gerald J.; Boyce, Joey B.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to establish the difficulty associated with securing an intravenous (IV) catheter in place in microgravity flight and the techniques applicable in training the Crew Medical Officer (CMO) for Space Station Freedom, as well as aiding in the selection of appropriate hardware and supplies for the Health Maintenance Facility (HMF). The objectives are the following: (1) to determine the difficulties associated with venipuncture in a microgravity environment; (2) to evaluate the various methods of securing an IV catheter and attached tubing for infusion with regard to the unique environment; (3) to evaluate the various materials available for securing an intravenous catheter in place; and (4) to evaluate the fluid therapy administration system when functioning in a complete system. The inflight test procedures and other aspects of the KC-135 parabolic flight test to simulate microgravity are presented.

  9. Intravenous fluid flow meter concept for zero gravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.

    1972-01-01

    Measuring chamber, included in infusion-set tubing, and peristaltic flow meter concept can be incorporated into flow meter that measures fluid flow rates between 100 and 600 cu cm per hour and at the same time maintains sterilization.

  10. Fluid mass sensor for a zero gravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A sensor for measuring the mass of fluids, is described which includes a housing having an inlet and outlet for receiving and dumping the fluid, a rotary impeller within the housing for imparting centrifugal motion to the fluid and a pressure sensitive transducer attached to the housing to sense the rotating fluid pressure. The fluid may be drawn into the housing by entrainment within a gas stream. The resulting mixture is then separated into two phases: gas and liquid. The gas is removed from the housing and the pressure of the liquid, under centrifugal motion, is sensed and correlated with the mass of the fluid.

  11. Dental equipment test during zero-gravity flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, John; Gosbee, John; Billica, Roger

    1991-01-01

    The overall objectives of this program were to establish performance criteria and develop prototype equipment for use in the Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) in meeting the needs of dental emergencies during space missions. The primary efforts during this flight test were to test patient-operator relationships, patent (manikin) restraint and positioning, task lighting systems, use and operation of dental rotary instruments, suction and particle containment system, dental hand instrument delivery and control procedures, and the use of dental treatment materials. The initial efforts during the flight focused on verification of the efficiency of the particle containment system. An absorptive barrier was also tested in lieu of the suction collector. To test the instrument delivery system, teeth in the manikin were prepared with the dental drill to receive restorations, some with temporary filling materials and another with definitive filling material (composite resin). The best particle containment came from the combination use of the laminar-air/suction collector in concert with immediate area suction from a surgical high-volume suction tip. Lighting in the treatment area was provided by a flexible fiberoptic probe. This system is quite effective for small areas, but for general tasks ambient illumination is required. The instrument containment system (elastic cord network) was extremely effective and easy to use. The most serious problem with instrument delivey and actual treatment was lack of time during the microgravity sequences. The restorative materials handled and finished well.

  12. Zero-gravity atmospheric Cloud Physics Experiment Laboratory; Programmatics report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The programmatics effort included comprehensive analyses in four major areas: (1) work breakdown structure, (2) schedules, (3) costs, and (4) supporting research and technology. These analyses are discussed in detail in the following sections which identify and define the laboratory project development schedule, cost estimates, funding distributions and supporting research and technology requirements. All programmatics analyses are correlated among themselves and with the technical analyses by means of the work breakdown structure which serves as a common framework for program definition. In addition, the programmatic analyses reflect the results of analyses and plans for reliability, safety, test, and maintenance and refurbishment.

  13. Design, development, and operation of a zero gravity shower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, R. L.; Krupnick, A. C.; Reily, J. C.; Schrick, B. J.

    1974-01-01

    The high mission penalty associated with water and electrical power usage constrained the shower configuration concept for the Skylab project to a procedure in which water is sprayed on the body to wet down and soaping is accomplished without water flow. The soap is then finally rinsed off. Initial concept confirmation tests are discussed along with details of the flight shower configuration, the shower water bottle, the shower stall assembly, the liquid-gas separator, the collection box and bag assembly, the hydrophobic filter assembly, and the soap dispenser. Aspects of microbial evaluation of flight qualification hardware are also considered.

  14. Separation Of Liquid And Gas In Zero Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Frank S.; Fraser, Wilson S.

    1991-01-01

    Pair of reports describe scheme for separating liquid from gas so liquid could be pumped. Designed to operate in absence of gravitation. Jet of liquid, gas, or liquid/gas mixture fed circumferentially into cylindrical tank filled with liquid/gas mixture. Jet starts liquid swirling. Swirling motion centrifugally separates liquid from gas. Liquid then pumped from tank at point approximately diametrically opposite point of injection of jet. Vortex phase separator replaces such devices as bladders and screens. Requires no components inside tank. Pumps for gas and liquid outside tank and easily accessible for maintenance and repairs.

  15. Electrophoretic separation of human kidney cells at zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, G. H.; Lazer, S. L.; Rueter, A.; Allen, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    Electrophoretic isolation of cells results in a loss of resolution power caused by the sedimentation of the cells in the media. The results of an experiment to extract urokinase from human embryos during the Apollo Soyuz mission are presented and discussed.

  16. The spinning artificial gravity environment: A design project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pignataro, Robert; Crymes, Jeff; Marzec, Tom; Seibert, Joe; Walker, Gary

    1987-01-01

    The SAGE, or Spinning Artificial Gravity Environment, design was carried out to develop an artificial gravity space station which could be used as a platform for the performance of medical research to determine the benefits of various, fractional gravity levels for astronauts normally subject to zero gravity. Desirable both for its medical research mission and a mission for the study of closed loop life-support and other factors in prolonged space flight, SAGE was designed as a low Earth orbiting, solar powered, manned space station.

  17. The Zero program.

    PubMed

    Roland, Erling; Midthassel, Unni Vere

    2012-01-01

    Zero is a schoolwide antibullying program developed by the Centre for Behavioural Research at the University of Stavanger, Norway. It is based on three main principles: a zero vision of bullying, collective commitment among all employees at the school using the program, and continuing work. Based on these principles, the program aims to reduce student bullying by increasing the school's ability to uncover and stop bullying, and eventually to prevent it. The Zero program was launched in 2003, but the work that led to it goes back to the first national steps against bullying in 1983. The program extends over sixteen months as teachers develop their awareness of bullying and their competence in addressing it. Students and parents are involved in the program as well. The role of the school leadership is very important. More than 360 Norwegian schools have carried out the program.

  18. Those Elusive Imaginary Zeros.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travers, Robert; Kim, David

    1982-01-01

    A method for finding the complex roots of a graph is detailed. A conjecture is made regarding the nature of zero points of fourth-degree polynomial functions, but it is not proven in general. Mathematical induction is viewed as a promising tool to prove the conjecture that turned out unproductive. (MP)

  19. Shadow of ground zero

    SciTech Connect

    Haaland, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The history of the development of nuclear weapons starting with the detonation of the A-bombs on Japan is reviewed. An overview of nuclear weapon effects is presented. The effects of electromagnetic pulse (EMP), initial nuclear radiation, thermal radiation and blast are discussed with reference to how people outside can survive when ground zero is only a few miles away. 8 references. (ACR)

  20. Parrot "Understands" Zero

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The walnut sized brain of the African grey parrot may actually be capable of comprehending abstract mathematical concepts. The bird seems to understand a numerical concept akin to zero--an abstract notion that humans don't typically understand until they are three or four years old. Alex, the 28-year-old parrot who lives in a Brandeis University…

  1. Echoes at Ground Zero

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    An excerpt from the opening piece in "Everything That Rises: A Book of Convergences" by Lawrence Weschler is presented where the author is talking with Joel Meyerowitz, the only photographer granted unimpeded access to the clean-up operations at ground zero after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. The two discuss the parallels between…

  2. Zero Tolerance versus Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    2000-01-01

    In a case involving questionable canine search-and-seizure practices, a circuit court upheld a school board's decision to terminate a teacher's contract. While touting zero tolerance, the board fired an honored teacher 3 years from retirement who may not have known about the marijuana cigarette in her car. (MLH)

  3. Technology at Ground Zero.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the robots used to aid in rescue and recovery at Ground Zero after the September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center. The robots were developed as a result of national Science Foundation Quick Response Research Awards. Describes several awards that were made following the attack. (JOW)

  4. Artificial gravity.

    PubMed

    Scott, William B

    2005-04-25

    NASA's Artificial Gravity program consists of a team of researchers from Wyle Laboratories, NASA Johnson Space Center, and the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB). The short-radius centrifuge (SRC), built by Wyle Laboratories, will be integrated with UTMB's conducted bedrest studies, which mimic the detrimental effects of weightlessness (or microgravity). Bedrest subjects will be spun on the SRC at various accelerations and for various time periods, while being monitored medically. Parameters such as bone loss, muscle atrophy, balance control, and oxygen consumption will then be compared in order to research ways of mitigating the impact on astronauts' physiology. Other potential benefits from these studies extend to population groups on Earth, such as bedridden patients. PMID:15852559

  5. Gravity and tectonic patterns of Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuyama, I.; Nimmo, F.

    2008-12-01

    We consider the effect of tidal deformation, spin-orbit resonance, non-zero eccentricity, despinning, and reorientation on the global-scale gravity, shape, and tectonic patterns of planetary bodies. Large variations of the gravity and shape coefficients from the synchronous rotation and zero eccentricity values, J2/C22=10/3 and (b-c)/(a-c)=1/4, arise due to non-synchronous rotation and non-zero eccentricity even in the absence of reorientation or despinning. Reorientation or despinning induce additional variations. As an illustration of this theory, we consider the specific example of Mercury. The large gravity coefficients estimated from the Mariner 10 flybys cannot be attributed to the Caloris basin alone since the required mass excess in this case would have caused Caloris to migrate to one of Mercury's hot poles. Similarly, a large remnant bulge due to a smaller semimajor axis and spin-orbit resonance can be dismissed since the required semimajor axis is unphysically small (< 0.1 AU). Reorientation of a large remnant bulge recording an epoch of faster rotation (without significant semimajor axis variations) can explain the large gravity coefficients. This requires initial rotation rates > 20 times the present value and a positive gravity anomaly associated with Caloris capable of driving 10-45° equatorward reorientation. The required gravity anomaly can be explained by infilling of the basin with material of thicknesses > 7 km, or an annulus of volcanic plains emplaced around the basin with annulus width ~ 1200 km and fill thicknesses > 2 km. The predicted tectonic pattern due to these despinning and reorientation scenarios and radial contraction is in good agreement with the observed lobate scarp pattern.

  6. How Much Gravity Is Needed to Establish the Perceptual Upright?

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Laurence R.; Herpers, Rainer; Hofhammer, Thomas; Jenkin, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Might the gravity levels found on other planets and on the moon be sufficient to provide an adequate perception of upright for astronauts? Can the amount of gravity required be predicted from the physiological threshold for linear acceleration? The perception of upright is determined not only by gravity but also visual information when available and assumptions about the orientation of the body. Here, we used a human centrifuge to simulate gravity levels from zero to earth gravity along the long-axis of the body and measured observers' perception of upright using the Oriented Character Recognition Test (OCHART) with and without visual cues arranged to indicate a direction of gravity that differed from the body's long axis. This procedure allowed us to assess the relative contribution of the added gravity in determining the perceptual upright. Control experiments off the centrifuge allowed us to measure the relative contributions of normal gravity, vision, and body orientation for each participant. We found that the influence of 1 g in determining the perceptual upright did not depend on whether the acceleration was created by lying on the centrifuge or by normal gravity. The 50% threshold for centrifuge-simulated gravity's ability to influence the perceptual upright was at around 0.15 g, close to the level of moon gravity but much higher than the threshold for detecting linear acceleration along the long axis of the body. This observation may partially explain the instability of moonwalkers but is good news for future missions to Mars. PMID:25184481

  7. How much gravity is needed to establish the perceptual upright?

    PubMed

    Harris, Laurence R; Herpers, Rainer; Hofhammer, Thomas; Jenkin, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Might the gravity levels found on other planets and on the moon be sufficient to provide an adequate perception of upright for astronauts? Can the amount of gravity required be predicted from the physiological threshold for linear acceleration? The perception of upright is determined not only by gravity but also visual information when available and assumptions about the orientation of the body. Here, we used a human centrifuge to simulate gravity levels from zero to earth gravity along the long-axis of the body and measured observers' perception of upright using the Oriented Character Recognition Test (OCHART) with and without visual cues arranged to indicate a direction of gravity that differed from the body's long axis. This procedure allowed us to assess the relative contribution of the added gravity in determining the perceptual upright. Control experiments off the centrifuge allowed us to measure the relative contributions of normal gravity, vision, and body orientation for each participant. We found that the influence of 1 g in determining the perceptual upright did not depend on whether the acceleration was created by lying on the centrifuge or by normal gravity. The 50% threshold for centrifuge-simulated gravity's ability to influence the perceptual upright was at around 0.15 g, close to the level of moon gravity but much higher than the threshold for detecting linear acceleration along the long axis of the body. This observation may partially explain the instability of moonwalkers but is good news for future missions to Mars.

  8. Effect of a zero g environment on flammability limits as determined using a standard flammability tube apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strehlow, R. A.; Reuss, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    Flammability limits in a zero gravity environment were defined. Key aspects of a possible spacelab experiment were investigated analytically, experimentally on the bench, and in drop tower facilities. A conceptual design for a spacelab experiment was developed.

  9. Holographic zero sound at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davison, Richard A.; Starinets, Andrei O.

    2012-01-01

    We use gauge-gravity duality to study the temperature dependence of the zero sound mode and the fundamental matter diffusion mode in the strongly coupled N=4 SU(Nc) supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with Nf N=2 hypermultiplets in the Nc≫1, Nc≫Nf limit, which is holographically realized via the D3/D7 brane system. In the high density limit μ≫T, three regimes can be identified in the behavior of these modes, analogous to the collisionless quantum, collisionless thermal, and hydrodynamic regimes of a Landau Fermi liquid. The transitions between the three regimes are characterized by the parameters T/μ and (T/μ)2, respectively, and in each of these regimes the modes have a distinctively different temperature and momentum dependence. The collisionless-hydrodynamic transition occurs when the zero sound poles of the density-density correlator in the complex frequency plane collide on the imaginary axis to produce a hydrodynamic diffusion pole. We observe that the properties characteristic of a Landau Fermi-liquid zero sound mode are present in the D3/D7 system despite the atypical T6/μ3 temperature scaling of the specific heat and an apparent lack of a directly identifiable Fermi surface.

  10. Gravity Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzandt, T. E.

    1985-01-01

    Atmospheric parameters fluctuate on all scales. In the mesoscale these fluctuations are occasionally sinusoidal so that they can be interpreted as gravity waves. Usually, however, the fluctuations are noise like, so that their cause is not immediately evident. Results of mesoscale observations in the 20 to 120 m altitude range that are suitable for incorporation into a model atmosphere are very limited. In the stratosphere and lower mesosphere observations are sparse and very little data has been summarized into appropriate form. There is much more data in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere, but again very little of it has been summarized. The available mesoscale spectra of horizontal wind u versus vertical wave number m in the 20 to 120 km altitude range are shown together with a spectrum from the lower atmosphere for comparison. Further information about these spectra is given. In spite of the large range of altitudes and latitudes, the spectra from the lower atmosphere (NASA, 1971 and DEWAN, 1984) are remarkably similar in both shape and amplitude. The mean slopes of -2.38 for the NASA spectrum and -2.7 for the Dewan spectra are supported by the mean slope of -2.75 found by ROSENBERG et al. (1974). The mesospheric spectrum is too short to establish a shape. Its amplitude is about an order of magnitude larger than the NASA spectrum in the same wave number range. The NASA and Dewan spectra suggest that the mesoscale spectra in the lower atmosphere are insensitive to meteorological conditions.

  11. Gravity wave transmission diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomikawa, Yoshihiro

    2016-07-01

    A possibility of gravity wave propagation from a source region to the airglow layer around the mesopause has been discussed based on the gravity wave blocking diagram taking into account the critical level filtering alone. This paper proposes a new gravity wave transmission diagram in which both the critical level filtering and turning level reflection of gravity waves are considered. It shows a significantly different distribution of gravity wave transmissivity from the blocking diagram.

  12. Inertial waste separation system for zero G WMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The design, operation, and flight test are presented for an inertial waste separation system. Training personnel to use this system under simulated conditions is also discussed. Conclusions indicate that before the system is usable in zero gravity environments, a mirror for the user's guidance should be installed, the bounce cycle and bag changing system should be redesigned, and flange clips should be added to improve the user's balance.

  13. Zero Tolerance Policies. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Mike

    2004-01-01

    Much of this brief comes from the ERIC Digest on Zero Tolerance Policies (ERIC #: ED451579). State legislatures and school boards are adopting a growing number of zero-tolerance polices toward weapons, guns, and violence. Zero-tolerance polices are rules intended to address specific school-safety issues. Despite the controversies that it has…

  14. Cautionary tales for reduced-gravity particle research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, John R.; Greeley, Ronald; Tucker, D. W.

    1987-01-01

    Failure of experiments conducted on the KC-135 aircraft in zero gravity are discussed. Tests that were a total failure are reported. Why the failure occurred and the sort of questions that potential researchers should ask in order to avoid the appearance of abstracts such as this are discussed. Many types of aggregation studies were proposed for the Space Station, and it is hoped that the following synopsis of events will add a touch of reality to experimentation proposed for this zero-gravity environment.

  15. Minimum length, extra dimensions, modified gravity and black hole remnants

    SciTech Connect

    Maziashvili, Michael

    2013-03-01

    We construct a Hilbert space representation of minimum-length deformed uncertainty relation in presence of extra dimensions. Following this construction, we study corrections to the gravitational potential (back reaction on gravity) with the use of correspondingly modified propagator in presence of two (spatial) extra dimensions. Interestingly enough, for r→0 the gravitational force approaches zero and the horizon for modified Schwarzschild-Tangherlini space-time disappears when the mass approaches quantum-gravity energy scale. This result points out to the existence of zero-temperature black hole remnants in ADD brane-world model.

  16. Chiral gravity, log gravity, and extremal CFT

    SciTech Connect

    Maloney, Alexander; Song Wei; Strominger, Andrew

    2010-03-15

    We show that the linearization of all exact solutions of classical chiral gravity around the AdS{sub 3} vacuum have positive energy. Nonchiral and negative-energy solutions of the linearized equations are infrared divergent at second order, and so are removed from the spectrum. In other words, chirality is confined and the equations of motion have linearization instabilities. We prove that the only stationary, axially symmetric solutions of chiral gravity are BTZ black holes, which have positive energy. It is further shown that classical log gravity--the theory with logarithmically relaxed boundary conditions--has finite asymptotic symmetry generators but is not chiral and hence may be dual at the quantum level to a logarithmic conformal field theories (CFT). Moreover we show that log gravity contains chiral gravity within it as a decoupled charge superselection sector. We formally evaluate the Euclidean sum over geometries of chiral gravity and show that it gives precisely the holomorphic extremal CFT partition function. The modular invariance and integrality of the expansion coefficients of this partition function are consistent with the existence of an exact quantum theory of chiral gravity. We argue that the problem of quantizing chiral gravity is the holographic dual of the problem of constructing an extremal CFT, while quantizing log gravity is dual to the problem of constructing a logarithmic extremal CFT.

  17. Feeling Gravity's Pull: Gravity Modeling. The Gravity Field of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, Frank; Smith, David; Rowlands, David; Zuber, Maria; Neumann, G.; Chinn, Douglas; Pavlis, D.

    2000-01-01

    Most people take the constant presence of gravitys pull for granted. However, the Earth's gravitational strength actually varies from location to location. This variation occurs because mass, which influences an object's gravitational pull, is not evenly distributed within the planet. Changes in topography, such as glacial movement, an earthquake, or a rise in the ocean level, can subtly affect the gravity field. An accurate measurement of the Earth's gravity field helps us understand the distribution of mass beneath the surface. This insight can assist us in locating petroleum, mineral deposits, ground water, and other valuable substances. Gravity mapping can also help notice or verify changes in sea surface height and other ocean characteristics. Such changes may indicate climate change from polar ice melting and other phenomena. In addition, gravity mapping can indicate how land moves under the surface after earthquakes and other plate tectonic processes. Finally, changes in the Earth's gravity field might indicate a shift in water distribution that could affect agriculture, water supplies for population centers, and long-term weather prediction. Scientists can map out the Earth's gravity field by watching satellite orbits. When a satellite shifts in vertical position, it might be passing over an area where gravity changes in strength. Gravity is only one factor that may shape a satellite's orbital path. To derive a gravity measurement from satellite movement, scientists must remove other factors that might affect a satellite's position: 1. Drag from atmospheric friction. 2. Pressure from solar radiation as it heads toward Earth and. as it is reflected off the surface of the Earth 3. Gravitational pull from the Sun, the Moon, and other planets in the Solar System. 4. The effect of tides. 5. Relativistic effects. Scientists must also correct for the satellite tracking process. For example, the tracking signal must be corrected for refraction through the

  18. Feeling Gravity's Pull: Gravity Modeling. The Gravity Field of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, Frank; Smith, David; Rowlands, David; Zuber, Maria; Neumann, G.; Chinn, Douglas; Pavlis, D.

    2000-01-01

    Most people take the constant presence of gravitys pull for granted. However, the Earth's gravitational strength actually varies from location to location. This variation occurs because mass, which influences an object's gravitational pull, is not evenly distributed within the planet. Changes in topography, such as glacial movement, an earthquake, or a rise in the ocean level, can subtly affect the gravity field. An accurate measurement of the Earth's gravity field helps us understand the distribution of mass beneath the surface. This insight can assist us in locating petroleum, mineral deposits, ground water, and other valuable substances. Gravity mapping can also help notice or verify changes in sea surface height and other ocean characteristics. Such changes may indicate climate change from polar ice melting and other phenomena. In addition, gravity mapping can indicate how land moves under the surface after earthquakes and other plate tectonic processes. Finally, changes in the Earth's gravity field might indicate a shift in water distribution that could affect agriculture, water supplies for population centers, and long-term weather prediction. Scientists can map out the Earth's gravity field by watching satellite orbits. When a satellite shifts in vertical position, it might be passing over an area where gravity changes in strength. Gravity is only one factor that may shape a satellite's orbital path. To derive a gravity measurement from satellite movement, scientists must remove other factors that might affect a satellite's position: 1. Drag from atmospheric friction. 2. Pressure from solar radiation as it heads toward Earth and. as it is reflected off the surface of the Earth 3. Gravitational pull from the Sun, the Moon, and other planets in the Solar System. 4. The effect of tides. 5. Relativistic effects. Scientists must also correct for the satellite tracking process. For example, the tracking signal must be corrected for refraction through the

  19. Gravity-induced stresses in finite slopes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, W.Z.

    1994-01-01

    An exact solution for gravity-induced stresses in finite elastic slopes is presented. This solution, which is applied for gravity-induced stresses in 15, 30, 45 and 90?? finite slopes, has application in pit-slope design, compares favorably with published finite element results for this problem and satisfies the conditions that shear and normal stresses vanish on the ground surface. The solution predicts that horizontal stresses are compressive along the top of the slopes (zero in the case of the 90?? slope) and tensile away from the bottom of the slopes, effects which are caused by downward movement and near-surface horizontal extension in front of the slope in response to gravity loading caused by the additional material associated with the finite slope. ?? 1994.

  20. Entropic force, noncommutative gravity, and ungravity

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolini, Piero

    2010-08-15

    After recalling the basic concepts of gravity as an emergent phenomenon, we analyze the recent derivation of Newton's law in terms of entropic force proposed by Verlinde. By reviewing some points of the procedure, we extend it to the case of a generic quantum gravity entropic correction to get compelling deviations to the Newton's law. More specifically, we study: (1) noncommutative geometry deviations and (2) ungraviton corrections. As a special result in the noncommutative case, we find that the noncommutative character of the manifold would be equivalent to the temperature of a thermodynamic system. Therefore, in analogy to the zero temperature configuration, the description of spacetime in terms of a differential manifold could be obtained only asymptotically. Finally, we extend the Verlinde's derivation to a general case, which includes all possible effects, noncommutativity, ungravity, asymptotically safe gravity, electrostatic energy, and extra dimensions, showing that the procedure is solid versus such modifications.

  1. Observational bounds on modified gravity models

    SciTech Connect

    De Felice, Antonio; Mukherjee, Pia; Wang Yun

    2008-01-15

    Modified gravity provides a possible explanation for the currently observed cosmic acceleration. In this paper, we study general classes of modified gravity models. The Einstein-Hilbert action is modified by using general functions of the Ricci and the Gauss-Bonnet scalars, both in the metric and in the Palatini formalisms. We do not use an explicit form for the functions, but a general form with a valid Taylor expansion up to second order about redshift zero in the Riemann-scalars. The coefficients of this expansion are then reconstructed via the cosmic expansion history measured using current cosmological observations. These are the quantities of interest for theoretical considerations relating to ghosts and instabilities. We find that current data provide interesting constraints on the coefficients. The next-generation dark energy surveys should shrink the allowed parameter space for modified gravity models quite dramatically.

  2. Entropic force, noncommutative gravity, and ungravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolini, Piero

    2010-08-01

    After recalling the basic concepts of gravity as an emergent phenomenon, we analyze the recent derivation of Newton’s law in terms of entropic force proposed by Verlinde. By reviewing some points of the procedure, we extend it to the case of a generic quantum gravity entropic correction to get compelling deviations to the Newton’s law. More specifically, we study: (1) noncommutative geometry deviations and (2) ungraviton corrections. As a special result in the noncommutative case, we find that the noncommutative character of the manifold would be equivalent to the temperature of a thermodynamic system. Therefore, in analogy to the zero temperature configuration, the description of spacetime in terms of a differential manifold could be obtained only asymptotically. Finally, we extend the Verlinde’s derivation to a general case, which includes all possible effects, noncommutativity, ungravity, asymptotically safe gravity, electrostatic energy, and extra dimensions, showing that the procedure is solid versus such modifications.

  3. Multiphase Flow: The Gravity of the Situation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewitt, Geoffrey F.

    1996-01-01

    A brief survey is presented of flow patterns in two-phase, gas-liquid flows at normal and microgravity, the differences between them being explored. It seems that the flow patterns in zero gravity are in general much simpler than those in normal gravity with only three main regimes (namely bubbly, slug and annular flows) being observed. Each of these three regimes is then reviewed, with particular reference to identification of areas of study where investigation of flows at microgravity might not only be interesting in themselves, but also throw light on mechanisms at normal earth gravity. In bubbly flow, the main area of interest seems to be that of bubble coalescence. In slug flow, the extension of simple displacement experiments to the zero gravity case would appear to be a useful option, supplemented by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies. For annular flow, the most interesting area appears to be the study of the mechanisms of disturbance waves; it should be possible to extend the region of investigation of the onset and behavior of these waves to much low gas velocities where measurements are clearly much easier.

  4. Survival of scalar zero modes in warped extra dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    George, Damien P.

    2011-05-15

    Models with an extra dimension generally contain background scalar fields in a nontrivial configuration, whose stability must be ensured. With gravity present, the extra dimension is warped by the scalars, and the spin-0 degrees of freedom in the metric mix with the scalar perturbations. Where possible, we formally solve the coupled Schroedinger equations for the zero modes of these spin-0 perturbations. When specializing to the case of two scalars with a potential generated by a superpotential, we are able to fully solve the system. We show how these zero modes can be used to construct a solution matrix, whose eigenvalues tell whether a normalizable zero mode exists, and how many negative mass modes exist. These facts are crucial in determining stability of the corresponding background configuration. We provide examples of the general analysis for domain-wall models of an infinite extra dimension and domain-wall soft-wall models. For five-dimensional models with two scalars constructed using a superpotential, we show that a normalizable zero mode survives, even in the presence of warped gravity. Such models, which are widely used in the literature, are therefore phenomenologically unacceptable.

  5. Analytical Study of Gravity Effects on Laminar Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelman, R. B.; Fortune, O.; Weilerstein, G.

    1972-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented for the description of axisymmetric laminar-jet diffusion flames. The analysis includes the effects of inertia, viscosity, diffusion, gravity and combustion. These mechanisms are coupled in a boundary layer type formulation and solutions are obtained by an explicit finite difference technique. A dimensional analysis shows that the maximum flame width radius, velocity and thermodynamic state characterize the flame structure. Comparisons with experimental data showed excellent agreement for normal gravity flames and fair agreement for steady state low Reynolds number zero gravity flames. Kinetics effects and radiation are shown to be the primary mechanisms responsible for this discrepancy. Additional factors are discussed including elipticity and transient effects.

  6. The mass, gravity field, and ephemeris of Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, John D.; Esposito, Pasquale B.; Lau, Eunice L.; Trager, Gayle B.; Colombo, Giuseppe

    1987-01-01

    In the present gravity analysis of Mariner 10/Deep Space Network radio Doppler and range data for Mercury encounters in March 1974 and March 1975, a combined least-squares fit to the Doppler data has determined two second-degree gravity harmonics that are referred to a 2439-km equatorial radius. It is noted that the 1-sigma error limits on the gravity results encompass the possibility that harmonics other than J2 and C22 significantly differ from zero. The Deep Space Network radio range data obtained with Mariner 10 are primarily applicable to such improvements of Mercury's ephemeris as the more precise determination of perihelion precession.

  7. Zero Temperature Hope Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Rozsnyai, B F

    2002-07-26

    The primary purpose of the HOPE code is to calculate opacities over a wide temperature and density range. It can also produce equation of state (EOS) data. Since the experimental data at the high temperature region are scarce, comparisons of predictions with the ample zero temperature data provide a valuable physics check of the code. In this report we show a selected few examples across the periodic table. Below we give a brief general information about the physics of the HOPE code. The HOPE code is an ''average atom'' (AA) Dirac-Slater self-consistent code. The AA label in the case of finite temperature means that the one-electron levels are populated according to the Fermi statistics, at zero temperature it means that the ''aufbau'' principle works, i.e. no a priory electronic configuration is set, although it can be done. As such, it is a one-particle model (any Hartree-Fock model is a one particle model). The code is an ''ion-sphere'' model, meaning that the atom under investigation is neutral within the ion-sphere radius. Furthermore, the boundary conditions for the bound states are also set at the ion-sphere radius, which distinguishes the code from the INFERNO, OPAL and STA codes. Once the self-consistent AA state is obtained, the code proceeds to generate many-electron configurations and proceeds to calculate photoabsorption in the ''detailed configuration accounting'' (DCA) scheme. However, this last feature is meaningless at zero temperature. There is one important feature in the HOPE code which should be noted; any self-consistent model is self-consistent in the space of the occupied orbitals. The unoccupied orbitals, where electrons are lifted via photoexcitation, are unphysical. The rigorous way to deal with that problem is to carry out complete self-consistent calculations both in the initial and final states connecting photoexcitations, an enormous computational task. The Amaldi correction is an attempt to address this problem by distorting the

  8. ZERO SUPPRESSION FOR RECORDERS

    DOEpatents

    Fort, W.G.S.

    1958-12-30

    A zero-suppression circuit for self-balancing recorder instruments is presented. The essential elements of the circuit include a converter-amplifier having two inputs, one for a reference voltage and the other for the signal voltage under analysis, and a servomotor with two control windings, one coupled to the a-c output of the converter-amplifier and the other receiving a reference input. Each input circuit to the converter-amplifier has a variable potentiometer and the sliders of the potentiometer are ganged together for movement by the servoinotor. The particular noveity of the circuit resides in the selection of resistance values for the potentiometer and a resistor in series with the potentiometer of the signal circuit to ensure the full value of signal voltage variation is impressed on a recorder mechanism driven by servomotor.

  9. Physics of Artificial Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bukley, Angie; Paloski, William; Clement, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    This chapter discusses potential technologies for achieving artificial gravity in a space vehicle. We begin with a series of definitions and a general description of the rotational dynamics behind the forces ultimately exerted on the human body during centrifugation, such as gravity level, gravity gradient, and Coriolis force. Human factors considerations and comfort limits associated with a rotating environment are then discussed. Finally, engineering options for designing space vehicles with artificial gravity are presented.

  10. Terrestrial Gravity Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harms, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Different forms of fluctuations of the terrestrial gravity field are observed by gravity experiments. For example, atmospheric pressure fluctuations generate a gravity-noise foreground in measurements with super-conducting gravimeters. Gravity changes caused by high-magnitude earthquakes have been detected with the satellite gravity experiment GRACE, and we expect high-frequency terrestrial gravity fluctuations produced by ambient seismic fields to limit the sensitivity of ground-based gravitational-wave (GW) detectors. Accordingly, terrestrial gravity fluctuations are considered noise and signal depending on the experiment. Here, we will focus on ground-based gravimetry. This field is rapidly progressing through the development of GW detectors. The technology is pushed to its current limits in the advanced generation of the LIGO and Virgo detectors, targeting gravity strain sensitivities better than 10‑23 Hz‑1/2 above a few tens of a Hz. Alternative designs for GW detectors evolving from traditional gravity gradiometers such as torsion bars, atom interferometers, and superconducting gradiometers are currently being developed to extend the detection band to frequencies below 1 Hz. The goal of this article is to provide the analytical framework to describe terrestrial gravity perturbations in these experiments. Models of terrestrial gravity perturbations related to seismic fields, atmospheric disturbances, and vibrating, rotating or moving objects, are derived and analyzed. The models are then used to evaluate passive and active gravity noise mitigation strategies in GW detectors, or alternatively, to describe their potential use in geophysics. The article reviews the current state of the field, and also presents new analyses especially with respect to the impact of seismic scattering on gravity perturbations, active gravity noise cancellation, and time-domain models of gravity perturbations from atmospheric and seismic point sources. Our understanding of

  11. Gravity is Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKeown, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    Clarifies two concepts of gravity--those of a fictitious force and those of how space and time may have geometry. Reviews the position of Newton's theory of gravity in the context of special relativity and considers why gravity (as distinct from electromagnetics) lends itself to Einstein's revolutionary interpretation. (JN)

  12. Challenging Entropic Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roveto, Jonathan

    2011-11-01

    A recent proposal by Erik Verlinde claims that gravity should be viewed not as a fundamental force, but an emergent thermodynamic phenomenon due to some yet undetermined microscopic theory. We present a challenge to this reformulation of gravity. Our claim is that a detailed derivation using Verlinde's proposed theory fails to correctly give Newton's laws or Einstein gravity.

  13. Aerosol bolus dispersion in acinar airways--influence of gravity and airway asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Ma, Baoshun; Darquenne, Chantal

    2012-08-01

    The aerosol bolus technique can be used to estimate the degree of convective mixing in the lung; however, contributions of different lung compartments to measured dispersion cannot be differentiated unambiguously. To estimate dispersion in the distal lung, we studied the effect of gravity and airway asymmetry on the dispersion of 1 μm-diameter particle boluses in three-dimensional computational models of the lung periphery, ranging from a single alveolar sac to four-generation (g4) structures of bifurcating airways that deformed homogeneously during breathing. Boluses were introduced at the beginning of a 2-s inhalation, immediately followed by a 3-s exhalation. Dispersion was estimated by the half-width of the exhaled bolus. Dispersion was significantly affected by the spatial orientation of the models in normal gravity and was less in zero gravity than in normal gravity. Dispersion was strongly correlated with model volume in both normal and zero gravity. Predicted pulmonary dispersion based on a symmetric g4 acinar model was 391 ml and 238 ml under normal and zero gravity, respectively. These results accounted for a significant amount of dispersion measured experimentally. In zero gravity, predicted dispersion in a highly asymmetric model accounted for ∼20% of that obtained in a symmetric model with comparable volume and number of alveolated branches, whereas normal gravity dispersions were comparable in both models. These results suggest that gravitational sedimentation and not geometrical asymmetry is the dominant factor in aerosol dispersion in the lung periphery.

  14. Measurement of absolute gravity acceleration in Firenze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angelis, M.; Greco, F.; Pistorio, A.; Poli, N.; Prevedelli, M.; Saccorotti, G.; Sorrentino, F.; Tino, G. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results from the accurate measurement of the acceleration of gravity g taken at two separate premises in the Polo Scientifico of the University of Firenze (Italy). In these laboratories, two separate experiments aiming at measuring the Newtonian constant and testing the Newtonian law at short distances are in progress. Both experiments require an independent knowledge on the local value of g. The only available datum, pertaining to the italian zero-order gravity network, was taken more than 20 years ago at a distance of more than 60 km from the study site. Gravity measurements were conducted using an FG5 absolute gravimeter, and accompanied by seismic recordings for evaluating the noise condition at the site. The absolute accelerations of gravity at the two laboratories are (980 492 160.6 ± 4.0) μGal and (980 492 048.3 ± 3.0) μGal for the European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS) and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, respectively. Other than for the two referenced experiments, the data here presented will serve as a benchmark for any future study requiring an accurate knowledge of the absolute value of the acceleration of gravity in the study region.

  15. NUT-charged black holes in Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Dehghani, M.H.; Mann, R.B.

    2005-12-15

    We investigate the existence of Taub-NUT (Newman-Unti-Tamburino) and Taub-bolt solutions in Gauss-Bonnet gravity and obtain the general form of these solutions in d dimensions. We find that for all nonextremal NUT solutions of Einstein gravity having no curvature singularity at r=N, there exist NUT solutions in Gauss-Bonnet gravity that contain these solutions in the limit that the Gauss-Bonnet parameter {alpha} goes to zero. Furthermore there are no NUT solutions in Gauss-Bonnet gravity that yield nonextremal NUT solutions to Einstein gravity having a curvature singularity at r=N in the limit {alpha}{yields}0. Indeed, we have nonextreme NUT solutions in 2+2k dimensions with nontrivial fibration only when the 2k-dimensional base space is chosen to be CP{sup 2k}. We also find that the Gauss-Bonnet gravity has extremal NUT solutions whenever the base space is a product of 2-torii with at most a two-dimensional factor space of positive curvature. Indeed, when the base space has at most one positively curved two-dimensional space as one of its factor spaces, then Gauss-Bonnet gravity admits extreme NUT solutions, even though there a curvature singularity exists at r=N. We also find that one can have bolt solutions in Gauss-Bonnet gravity with any base space with factor spaces of zero or positive constant curvature. The only case for which one does not have bolt solutions is in the absence of a cosmological term with zero curvature base space.

  16. The behavior of surface tension on steady-state rotating fluids in the low gravity environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Leslie, Fred W.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of surface tension on steady-state rotating fluids in a low gravity environment is studied. All the values of the physical parameters used in these calculations, except in the low gravity environments, are based on the measurements carried out by Leslie (1985) in the low gravity environment of a free-falling aircraft. The profile of the interface of two fluids is derived from Laplace's equation relating the pressure drop across an interface to the radii of curvature which has been applied to a low gravity rotating bubble that contacts the container boundary. The interface shape depends on the ratio of gravity to surface tension forces, the ratio of centrifugal to surface tension forces, the contact radius of the interface to the boundary, and the contact angle. The shape of the bubble is symmetric about its equator in a zero-gravity environment. This symmetry disappears and gradually shifts to parabolic profiles as the gravity environment becomes non-zero. The location of the maximum radius of the bubble moves upward from the center of the depth toward the top boundary of the cylinder as gravity increases. The contact radius of interface to the boundary r0 at the top side of cylinder increases and r0 at the bottom side of the cylinder decreases as the gravity environment increases from zero to 1 g.

  17. Zero emission coal

    SciTech Connect

    Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

    2000-08-01

    We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

  18. Density-metric unimodular gravity: Vacuum maximal symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Abbassi, A.H.; Abbassi, A.M.

    2011-05-15

    We have investigated the vacuum maximally symmetric solutions of recently proposed density-metric unimodular gravity theory. The results are widely different from inflationary scenario. The exponential dependence on time in deSitter space is substituted by a power law. Open space-times with non-zero cosmological constant are excluded.

  19. A Demonstration of Einstein's Equivalence of Gravity and Acceleration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newburgh, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    In 1907, Einstein described a "Gedankenexperiment" in which he showed that free fall in a gravitational field is indistinguishable from a body at rest in an elevator accelerated upwards in zero gravity. This paper describes an apparatus, which is simple to make and simple to operate, that acts as an observable footnote to Einstein's example. It…

  20. Precision zero-home locator

    DOEpatents

    Stone, William J.

    1986-01-01

    A zero-home locator includes a fixed phototransistor switch and a moveable actuator including two symmetrical, opposed wedges, each wedge defining a point at which switching occurs. The zero-home location is the average of the positions of the points defined by the wedges.

  1. Apollo-Soyuz pamphlet no. 8: Zero-g technology. [experimental designispace processing and aerospace engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, L. W.; From, T. P.

    1977-01-01

    The behavior of liquids in zero gravity environments is discussed with emphasis on foams, wetting, and wicks. A multipurpose electric furnace (MA-010) for the high temperature processing of metals and salts in zero-g is described. Experiments discussed include: monolectic and synthetic alloys (MA-041); multiple material melting point (MA-150); zero-g processing of metals (MA-070); surface tension induced convection (MA-041); halide eutectic growth; interface markings in crystals (MA-060); crystal growth from the vapor phase (MA-085); and photography of crystal growth (MA-028).

  2. From gravity and the organism to gravity and the cell.

    PubMed

    Brown, A H

    1991-07-01

    This workshop on Gravity and the Cell was modeled on a 1968 conference on Gravity and the Organism. Each conference tried to identify the most salient scientific questions about how gravity is important to living systems. In the roughly two decades between the conferences there have been impressive advances in experimental methods, but the major scientific questions that have driven their applications to problems of gravitational biology, i.e., our broad research goals, remain much the same. In the case of plant research, improvements and extensions of biochemical techniques for investigating the ways organisms use environmental (g-force) information in salubrious ways has kept pace with progress in plant biochemistry. We now know much more about the roles of organic and inorganic substances that plants employ for information transfer and growth regulation and about the avenues and mechanisms for transport of those key substances within organisms. We have seen the acceptance of a "local control" concept that regulation of g-responses depends critically on plasmodesmata and gap junctions which allow plants and animals to throttle the transport of growth regulators across tissue boundaries often, especially in the case of plants, far removed from the morphological regions of concentration of statocytes that were once thought to be the exclusive bioaccelerometers used by plants. NASA's sponsorship of ground-based research in gravitational biology has served as important underpinning for orbital flight programs in space biology. The currently most noteworthy research area of ignorance is the mechanism by which the physical event of g-force susception becomes the biological process of g-force perception. Only rarely has it been possible to perform a definitive test of a theory of mechanism of gravity perception. Therefore, experimental research efforts in gravitational physiology still are essentially dependent on exploratory studies for which stimulus

  3. Zero/zero rotorcraft certification issues. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    This report analyzes the Zero/Zero Rotorcraft Certification Issues from the perspectives of manufacturers, operators, researchers and the FAA. The basic premise behind this analysis is the zero/zero, or at least extremely low visibility, rotorcraft operations are feasible today from both a technological and an operational standpoint. The questions and issues that need to be resolved are: What certification requirements do we need to ensure safety. Can we develop procedures which capitalize on the performance and maneuvering capabilities unique to rotorcraft. Will exptremely low visibility operations be economically feasible. This is Volume 1 of three. It provides an overview of the Certification Issues Forum held in Phoenix, Arizona in August of 1987. It presents a consensus of 48 experts from government, manufacturer, and research communities on 50 specific Certification Issues. The topics of Operational Requirements, Procedures, Airworthiness, and Engineering Capabilities are discussed.

  4. D-Zero Calorimeter Multiplan

    SciTech Connect

    Wintercorn, S.J.; /Fermilab

    1987-06-15

    This short report explains the parameters, and their basis, of the D-Zero calorimeter multiplan spread sheet Macintosh Multiplan worksheets have been found to be a valuable asset to the D-Zero design effort. The spread sheet contains parameters (constants) and results that come from the parameters. The full effect of changes in D-Zero calorimeter parameters can be calculated quite easily with Multiplan. When a change in a parameter is made, any results that pertain to that parameter automatically change also. This report will explain how some of the unobvious results were obtained.

  5. A research of 3D gravity inversion based on the recovery of sparse underdetermined linear equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhaohai, M.

    2014-12-01

    Because of the properties of gravity data, it is made difficult to solve the problem of multiple solutions. There are two main types of 3D gravity inversion methods:One of two methods is based on the improvement of the instability of the sensitive matrix, solving the problem of multiple solutions and instability in 3D gravity inversion. Another is to join weight function into the 3D gravity inversion iteration. Through constant iteration, it can renewal density values and weight function to achieve the purpose to solve the multiple solutions and instability of the 3D gravity data inversion. Thanks to the sparse nature of the solutions of 3D gravity data inversions, we can transform it into a sparse equation. Then, through solving the sparse equations, we can get perfect 3D gravity inversion results. The main principle is based on zero norm of sparse matrix solution of the equation. Zero norm is mainly to solve the nonzero solution of the sparse matrix. However, the method of this article adopted is same as the principle of zero norm. But the method is the opposite of zero norm to obtain zero value solution. Through the form of a Gaussian fitting solution of the zero norm, we can find the solution by using regularization principle. Moreover, this method has been proved that it had a certain resistance to random noise in the mathematics, and it was more suitable than zero norm for the solution of the geophysical data. 3D gravity which is adopted in this article can well identify abnormal body density distribution characteristics, and it can also recognize the space position of abnormal distribution very well. We can take advantage of the density of the upper and lower limit penalty function to make each rectangular residual density within a reasonable range. Finally, this 3D gravity inversion is applied to a variety of combination model test, such as a single straight three-dimensional model, the adjacent straight three-dimensional model and Y three

  6. Low-gravity facilities for Space Station planetology experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penzo, Paul A.

    1987-01-01

    For experimentation, space offers an environment which is unobtainable on earth. One characteristic is a gravity force less than 1 g, where g is the mean earth gravity acceleration of 9.8 m/sq s. The production of uniform gravity levels above zero g in space is discussed in relationship to experimental needs. For planetology experiments, providing gravity in space will make it possible to more nearly simulate conditions on natural bodies. The g-level is but one parameter involved in the design of a specific experiment. Other requirements may be: g-level range; g-level tolerance value; Coriolis tolerance value; volume requirement g-level duration; power and materials for the experiment; and automated or man-tended operations. These requirements, and certainly others, will dictate the type of facility which should be considered. The use of the Space Station of the Tethered Satellite System configurations is discussed.

  7. Shear waves in inhomogeneous, compressible fluids in a gravity field.

    PubMed

    Godin, Oleg A

    2014-03-01

    While elastic solids support compressional and shear waves, waves in ideal compressible fluids are usually thought of as compressional waves. Here, a class of acoustic-gravity waves is studied in which the dilatation is identically zero, and the pressure and density remain constant in each fluid particle. These shear waves are described by an exact analytic solution of linearized hydrodynamics equations in inhomogeneous, quiescent, inviscid, compressible fluids with piecewise continuous parameters in a uniform gravity field. It is demonstrated that the shear acoustic-gravity waves also can be supported by moving fluids as well as quiescent, viscous fluids with and without thermal conductivity. Excitation of a shear-wave normal mode by a point source and the normal mode distortion in realistic environmental models are considered. The shear acoustic-gravity waves are likely to play a significant role in coupling wave processes in the ocean and atmosphere.

  8. Shear waves in inhomogeneous, compressible fluids in a gravity field.

    PubMed

    Godin, Oleg A

    2014-03-01

    While elastic solids support compressional and shear waves, waves in ideal compressible fluids are usually thought of as compressional waves. Here, a class of acoustic-gravity waves is studied in which the dilatation is identically zero, and the pressure and density remain constant in each fluid particle. These shear waves are described by an exact analytic solution of linearized hydrodynamics equations in inhomogeneous, quiescent, inviscid, compressible fluids with piecewise continuous parameters in a uniform gravity field. It is demonstrated that the shear acoustic-gravity waves also can be supported by moving fluids as well as quiescent, viscous fluids with and without thermal conductivity. Excitation of a shear-wave normal mode by a point source and the normal mode distortion in realistic environmental models are considered. The shear acoustic-gravity waves are likely to play a significant role in coupling wave processes in the ocean and atmosphere. PMID:24606251

  9. Unified theory of nonlinear electrodynamics and gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Torres-Gomez, Alexander; Krasnov, Kirill; Scarinci, Carlos

    2011-01-15

    We describe a class of unified theories of electromagnetism and gravity. The Lagrangian is of the BF type, with a potential for the B field, the gauge group is U(2) (complexified). Given a choice of the potential function the theory is a deformation of (complex) general relativity and electromagnetism, and describes just two propagating polarizations of the graviton and two of the photon. When gravity is switched off the theory becomes the usual nonlinear electrodynamics with a general structure function. The Einstein-Maxwell theory can be recovered by sending some of the parameters of the defining potential to zero, but for any generic choice of the potential the theory is indistinguishable from Einstein-Maxwell at low energies. A real theory is obtained by imposing suitable reality conditions. We also study the spherically-symmetric solution and show how the usual Reissner-Nordstrom solution is recovered.

  10. Improvements to zero discharge systems

    SciTech Connect

    Van Wyk, J.E.; Hall, R.

    1995-10-01

    Zero liquid discharge systems are favored by state regulatory agencies. The major reasons are: (1) the licensing is rather straight-forward and less time consuming, and (2) the minimization and/or total elimination of pollutants to both the receiving steam and air is a positive environmental step. Waste water minimization and zero liquid discharge options have been discussed in other papers. To achieve a zero liquid discharge, the treatment of a liquid brine stream by evaporation, crystallization, dewatering, and decanting of crystallized solids becomes necessary. These unit operations are well-known and constitute a conventional zero liquid discharge system. For the authors purposes they will identify it as CZD. Another method of zero liquid discharge is a somewhat different concept that is a patented system of staged evaporation. This system has also been discussed and is known in the industry. This paper presents improvements to the staged evaporation system which utilizes all of the benefits of the staged evaporation system while incorporating features which address issues such as air quality, integration into the main power plant, and disposal of the solid material in an acceptable environmental form. This system will be referred to as IZD (Improved Zero Discharge). The improvements to the system will not only take advantage of the lower capital and operating costs inherent in the system, but provide the advantages as stated above.

  11. Warped brane worlds in critical gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Yi; Chen, Feng-Wei; Xie, Qun-Ying; Liu, Yu-Xiao

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the brane models in arbitrary dimensional critical gravity presented in Lu and Pope (Phys Rev Lett 106:181302, 2011). For the models of the thin branes with codimension one, the Gibbons-Hawking surface term and the junction conditions are derived, with which the analytical solutions for the flat, AdS, and dS branes are obtained at the critical point of the critical gravity. It is found that all these branes are embedded in an AdS spacetime, but, in general, the effective cosmological constant of the AdS spacetime is not equal to the naked one in the critical gravity, which can be positive, zero, and negative. Another interesting result is that the brane tension can also be positive, zero, or negative, depending on the symmetry of the thin brane and the values of the parameters of the theory, which is very different from the case in general relativity. It is shown that the mass hierarchy problem can be solved in the braneworld model in the higher-derivative critical gravity. We also study the thick brane model and find analytical and numerical solutions of the flat, AdS, and dS branes. It is found that some branes will have inner structure when some parameters of the theory are larger than their critical values, which may result in resonant KK modes for some bulk matter fields. The flat branes with positive energy density and AdS branes with negative energy density are embedded in an -dimensional AdS spacetime, while the dS branes with positive energy density are embedded in an -dimensional Minkowski one.

  12. Gauge/Gravity Duality (Gauge Gravity Duality)

    SciTech Connect

    Polchinski, Joseph

    2010-02-24

    Gauge theories, which describe the particle interactions, are well understood, while quantum gravity leads to many puzzles. Remarkably, in recent years we have learned that these are actually dual, the same system written in different variables. On the one hand, this provides our most precise description of quantum gravity, resolves some long-standing paradoxes, and points to new principles. On the other, it gives a new perspective on strong interactions, with surprising connections to other areas of physics. I describe these ideas, and discuss current and future directions.

  13. Gravity Driven Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Roy

    2010-03-01

    Flowing global gravitation initially produced space without time or mass. Space-time and mass are properties of flowing global gravitation. From its fabric, primal mass spins spontaneously giving rise to local gravitational space-time curvatures. Global gravity is the unifying background field. Gravity began flowing from its singularity with a big whoosh. It curves with angular rotational precession, creating a spatial geometry similar to the windings of a ball of string. Three-dimensional global gravity swirls locally into massive densities. Concurrently with these densities, local gravity curvatures of space-time arise. The expanse between celestial objects is not completely empty, void space as generally believed; it is antecedent gravity, a prerequisite associated field necessary for originating the first quantum particles. Gravity is dark energy; gravity's spin, as the second fundamental force, is electromagnetic dark matter. Electromagnetic masses attract then gravity compresses hot, dense and small---then bang, the first hydrogen star of which there are many. There may have been many big bangs, but no Big Bang that ultimately created the universe.

  14. Tethered gravity laboratories study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchetti, F.

    1989-01-01

    The use is studied of tether systems to improve the lowest possible steady gravity level on the Space Station. Particular emphasis is placed by the microgravity community on the achievement of high quality microgravity conditions. The tether capability is explored for active control of the center of gravity and the analysis of possible tethered configurations.

  15. Demonstrating Reduced Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Howard; Stocker, Dennis; Gotti, Daniel; Urban, David; Ross, Howard; Sours, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    A miniature drop tower, Reduced-Gravity Demonstrator is developed to illustrate the effects of gravity on a variety of phenomena including the way fluids flow, flames burn, and mechanical systems (such as pendulum) behave. A schematic and description of the demonstrator and payloads are given, followed by suggestions for how one can build his (her) own.

  16. Tethered gravity laboratories study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchetti, F.

    1989-01-01

    Information on the Tethered Gravity Laboratory on the International Space Station is given in viewgraph form. Topics covered include active control, low gravity processes identification, systems analysis, tether interfaces with the Laboratory, elevator and payload configurations, elevator subsystems, and accelerometer technology requirements.

  17. Hybrid theory of gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, Nahomi; Maki, Takuya; Shiraishi, Kiyoshi

    2016-10-01

    We propose a model of gravity in which a General Relativity metric tensor and an effective metric generated from a single scalar formulated in geometric scalar gravity are mixed. We show that the model yields the exact Schwarzschild solution, along with accelerating behavior of scale factors in cosmological solutions.

  18. Grasping objects autonomously in simulated KC-135 zero-g

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norsworthy, Robert S.

    1994-01-01

    The KC-135 aircraft was chosen for simulated zero gravity testing of the Extravehicular Activity Helper/retriever (EVAHR). A software simulation of the EVAHR hardware, KC-135 flight dynamics, collision detection and grasp inpact dynamics has been developed to integrate and test the EVAHR software prior to flight testing on the KC-135. The EVAHR software will perform target pose estimation, tracking, and motion estimation for rigid, freely rotating, polyhedral objects. Manipulator grasp planning and trajectory control software has also been developed to grasp targets while avoiding collisions.

  19. Particle cloud combustion in reduced gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berlad, A. L.

    1988-01-01

    The prinicipal objectives of this microgravity experiment program are to obtain flame propagation rate and flame extinction limit data for several important premixed, quiescent particle cloud combustion systems under near zero-gravity conditions. The data resulting from these experiments are needed for utilization with currently available and tractable flame propagation and extinction theory. These data are also expected to provide standards for the evaluation of fire hazards in particle suspensions in both Earth-based and space-based applications. Both terrestrial and space-based fire safety criteria require the identification of the critical concentrations of particulate fuels and inerts at the flame extinction conditions.

  20. Anti-gravity device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palsingh, S. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    An educational toy useful in demonstrating fundamental concepts regarding the laws of gravity is described. The device comprises a sphere 10 of radius r resting on top of sphere 12 of radius R. The center of gravity of sphere 10 is displaced from its geometrical center by distance D. The dimensions are so related that D((R+r)/r) is greater than r. With the center of gravity of sphere 10 lying on a vertical line, the device is in equilibrium. When sphere 10 is rolled on the surface of sphere 12 it will return to its equilibrium position upon release. This creates an illusion that sphere 10 is defying the laws of gravity. In reality, due to the above noted relationship of D, R, and r, the center of gravity of sphere 10 rises from its equilibrium position as it rolls a short distance up or down the surface of sphere 12.

  1. Nonstationary Gravity Wave Forcing of the Stratospheric Zonal Mean Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, M. J.; Rosenlof, K. H.

    1996-01-01

    The role of gravity wave forcing in the zonal mean circulation of the stratosphere is discussed. Starting from some very simple assumptions about the momentum flux spectrum of nonstationary (non-zero phase speed) waves at forcing levels in the troposphere, a linear model is used to calculate wave propagation through climatological zonal mean winds at solstice seasons. As the wave amplitudes exceed their stable limits, a saturation criterion is imposed to account for nonlinear wave breakdown effects, and the resulting vertical gradient in the wave momentum flux is then used to estimate the mean flow forcing per unit mass. Evidence from global, assimilated data sets are used to constrain these forcing estimates. The results suggest the gravity-wave-driven force is accelerative (has the same sign as the mean wind) throughout most of the stratosphere above 20 km. The sense of the gravity wave forcing in the stratosphere is thus opposite to that in the mesosphere, where gravity wave drag is widely believed to play a principal role in decelerating the mesospheric jets. The forcing estimates are further compared to existing gravity wave parameterizations for the same climatological zonal mean conditions. Substantial disagreement is evident in the stratosphere, and we discuss the reasons for the disagreement. The results suggest limits on typical gravity wave amplitudes near source levels in the troposphere at solstice seasons. The gravity wave forcing in the stratosphere appears to have a substantial effect on lower stratospheric temperatures during southern hemisphere summer and thus may be relevant to climate.

  2. Gribov ambiguity in asymptotically AdS three-dimensional gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Anabalon, Andres; Canfora, Fabrizio; Giacomini, Alex; Oliva, Julio

    2011-03-15

    In this paper the zero modes of the de Donder gauge Faddeev-Popov operator for three-dimensional gravity with negative cosmological constant are analyzed. It is found that the AdS{sub 3} vacuum produces (infinitely many) normalizable smooth zero modes of the Faddeev-Popov operator. On the other hand, it is found that the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole (including the zero mass black hole) does not generate zero modes. This differs from the usual Gribov problem in QCD where, close to the maximally symmetric vacuum, the Faddeev-Popov determinant is positive definite while 'far enough' from the vacuum it can vanish. This suggests that the zero mass Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole could be a suitable ground state of three-dimensional gravity with negative cosmological constant. Because of the kinematic origin of this result, it also applies for other covariant gravity theories in three dimensions with AdS{sub 3} as maximally symmetric solution, such as new massive gravity and topologically massive gravity. The relevance of these results for supersymmetry breaking is pointed out.

  3. [Aiming for zero blindness].

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Toru

    2015-03-01

    comprehensive expression analyses or imaging data. This is an important area of research, since it promises to enable the exploration of targets for drug discovery and the identification of new biomarkers to efficiently detect glaucoma progression by applying new analysis strategies to the complex mass data. The project not only depends on the collaborative efforts of various types of clinical settings including private practices, medical centers and university hospitals, but also contributions of the pharmaceutical and the medical device industries. Thus, uniting a wide range of Japanese interests and resources is the key for success. In summary, in order to aim for ZERO BLINDNESS, a drastic improvement in the quality of our patient care, drug development research for unmet medical demands, and a strategic collaboration of various professionals in the ophthalmic industry are essential. With the deep appreciation we fell towards the selfless support extended during the earthquake disaster, we wish to translate our "gratitude" into "power" from Tohoku. In doing so, we as academicians are determined to keep on contributing to the society by making progress in the medicine. PMID:25854109

  4. [Aiming for zero blindness].

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Toru

    2015-03-01

    comprehensive expression analyses or imaging data. This is an important area of research, since it promises to enable the exploration of targets for drug discovery and the identification of new biomarkers to efficiently detect glaucoma progression by applying new analysis strategies to the complex mass data. The project not only depends on the collaborative efforts of various types of clinical settings including private practices, medical centers and university hospitals, but also contributions of the pharmaceutical and the medical device industries. Thus, uniting a wide range of Japanese interests and resources is the key for success. In summary, in order to aim for ZERO BLINDNESS, a drastic improvement in the quality of our patient care, drug development research for unmet medical demands, and a strategic collaboration of various professionals in the ophthalmic industry are essential. With the deep appreciation we fell towards the selfless support extended during the earthquake disaster, we wish to translate our "gratitude" into "power" from Tohoku. In doing so, we as academicians are determined to keep on contributing to the society by making progress in the medicine.

  5. Gravity-induced cellular and molecular processes in plants studied under altered gravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vagt, Nicole; Braun, Markus

    With the ability to sense gravity plants possess a powerful tool to adapt to a great variety of environmental conditions and to respond to environmental changes in a most beneficial way. Gravity is the only constant factor that provides organisms with reliable information for their orientation since billions of years. Any deviation of the genetically determined set-point angle of the plants organs from the vector of gravity is sensed by specialized cells, the statocytes of roots and shoots in higher plants. Dense particles, so-called statoliths, sediment in the direction of gravity and activate membrane-bound gravireceptors. A physiological signalling-cascade is initiated that eventually results in the gravitropic curvature response, namely, the readjust-ment of the growth direction. Experiments under microgravity conditions have significantly contributed to our understanding of plant gravity-sensing and gravitropic reorientation. For a gravity-sensing lower plant cell type, the rhizoid of the green alga Chara, and for statocytes of higher plant roots, it was shown that the interactions between statoliths and the actomyosin system consisting of the actin cytoskeleton and motor proteins (myosins) are the basis for highly efficient gravity-sensing processes. In Chara rhizoids, the actomyosin represents a guid-ing system that directs sedimenting statoliths to a specific graviperception site. Parabolic flight experiments aboard the airbus A300 Zero-G have provided evidence that lower and higher plant cells use principally the same statolith-mediated gravireceptor-activation mechanism. Graviper-ception is not dependent on mechanical pressure mediated through the weight of the sedimented statoliths, but on direct interactions between the statoliths's surface and yet unknown gravire-ceptor molecules. In contrast to Chara rhizoids, in the gravity-sensing cells of higher plants, the actin cytoskeleton is not essentially involved in the early phases of gravity sensing. Dis

  6. Influence of gravity level and interfacial energies on dispersion-forming tendencies in hypermonotectic Cu-Pb-Al alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, J. B.; Curreri, P. A.; Sandlin, A. C.

    1988-01-01

    Results on the nondirectional solidification of several hypermonotectic Cu-Pb-Al alloys were obtained aboard NASA's KC-135 zero-gravity aircraft in order to determine the influence of interfacial energies and gravity levels on dispersion-forming tendencies. The Al content was systematially varied in the alloys. The dispersion-forming ability is correlated with gravity level during solidification, the interfacial energy between the immiscible phases, and the tendency for the minority immiscible phase to wet the walls of the crucible.

  7. World gravity standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uotila, U. A.

    1978-01-01

    In order to use gravity anomalies in geodetic computations and geophysical interpretations, the observed gravity values from which anomalies are derived should be referred to one consistent world wide system. The International Gravity Standardization Net 1971 was adapted by the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics at Moscow in 1971, the network was result of extensive cooperation by many organizations and individuals around the world. The network contains more than 1800 stations around the world. The data used in the adjustment included more than 25,000 gravimetry, pendulum and absolute measurements.

  8. Zero-G Workstation Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gundersen, R. T.; Bond, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    Zero-g workstations were designed throughout manned spaceflight, based on different criteria and requirements for different programs. The history of design of these workstations is presented along with a thorough evaluation of selected Skylab workstations (the best zero-g experience available on the subject). The results were applied to on-going and future programs, with special emphasis on the correlation of neutral body posture in zero-g to workstation design. Where selected samples of shuttle orbiter workstations are shown as currently designed and compared to experience gained during prior programs in terms of man machine interface design, the evaluations were done in a generic sense to show the methods of applying evaluative techniques.

  9. Effects of background gravity stimuli on gravity-controlled behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccoy, D. F.

    1976-01-01

    Physiological and developmental effects of altered gravity were researched. The stimulus properties of gravity have been found to possess reinforcing and aversive properties. Experimental approaches taken, used animals placed into fields of artificial gravity, in the form of parabolic or spiral centrifuges. Gravity preferences were noted and it was concluded that the psychophysics of gravity and background factors which support these behaviors should be further explored.

  10. Superconducting tensor gravity gradiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paik, H. J.

    1981-01-01

    The employment of superconductivity and other material properties at cryogenic temperatures to fabricate sensitive, low-drift, gravity gradiometer is described. The device yields a reduction of noise of four orders of magnitude over room temperature gradiometers, and direct summation and subtraction of signals from accelerometers in varying orientations are possible with superconducting circuitry. Additional circuits permit determination of the linear and angular acceleration vectors independent of the measurement of the gravity gradient tensor. A dewar flask capable of maintaining helium in a liquid state for a year's duration is under development by NASA, and a superconducting tensor gravity gradiometer for the NASA Geodynamics Program is intended for a LEO polar trajectory to measure the harmonic expansion coefficients of the earth's gravity field up to order 300.

  11. Tethered gravity laboratories study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchetti, F.

    1989-01-01

    Variable Gravity Laboratory studies are discussed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) conceptual design and engineering analysis; (2) control strategies (fast crawling maneuvers, main perturbations and their effect upon the acceleration level); and (3) technology requirements.

  12. How emergent is gravity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Swastik; Shankaranarayanan, S.

    2015-10-01

    General theory of relativity (or Lovelock extensions) is a dynamical theory; given an initial configuration on a spacelike hypersurface, it makes a definite prediction of the final configuration. Recent developments suggest that gravity may be described in terms of macroscopic parameters. It finds a concrete manifestation in the fluid-gravity correspondence. Most of the efforts till date has been to relate equilibrium configurations in gravity with fluid variables. In order for the emergent paradigm to be truly successful, it has to provide a statistical mechanical derivation of how a given initial static configuration evolves into another. In this paper, we show that the energy transport equation governed by the fluctuations of the horizon-fluid is similar to Raychaudhuri equation and hence gravity is truly emergent.

  13. Perturbative QUANTUM GRAVITY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    't Hooft, Gerard

    2003-12-01

    A good understanding of Perturbative Quantum Gravity is essential for anyone who wishes to proceed towards any kind of non-perturbative approach. This lecture is a brief resumé of the main features of the perturbative regime.

  14. Tethered gravity laboratories study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchetti, F.

    1989-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: (1) thermal control issues; (2) attitude control sybsystem; (3) configuration constraints; (4) payload; (5) acceleration requirements on Variable Gravity Laboratory (VGL); and (6) VGL configuration highlights.

  15. What Is Gravity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, George

    2004-01-01

    Gravity is the name given to the phenomenon that any two masses, like you and the Earth, attract each other. One pulls on the Earth and the Earth pulls on one the same amount. And one does not have to be touching. Gravity acts over vast distances, like the 150 million kilometers (93 million miles) between the Earth and the Sun or the billions of…

  16. Gravity data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sjogren, William L.

    1987-01-01

    Work on three different efforts related to gravity data analysis is discussed. The reduction of raw Doppler data from the Apollo 15 subsatellite to produce acceleration profiles as a function of latitude, longitude and altitude; an investigation related to fitting long arcs of Pioneer Venus Orbiter tracking data; and a study of gravity/topography ratios which were found to have a linear trend with longitude are discussed.

  17. Gravity Before Einstein and Schwinger Before Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Virginia L.

    2012-05-01

    Julian Schwinger was a child prodigy, and Albert Einstein distinctly not; Schwinger had something like 73 graduate students, and Einstein very few. But both thought gravity was important. They were not, of course, the first, nor is the disagreement on how one should think about gravity that is being highlighted here the first such dispute. The talk will explore, first, several of the earlier dichotomies: was gravity capable of action at a distance (Newton), or was a transmitting ether required (many others). Did it act on everything or only on solids (an odd idea of the Herschels that fed into their ideas of solar structure and sunspots)? Did gravitational information require time for its transmission? Is the exponent of r precisely 2, or 2 plus a smidgeon (a suggestion by Simon Newcomb among others)? And so forth. Second, I will try to say something about Scwinger's lesser known early work and how it might have prefigured his "source theory," beginning with "On the Interaction of Several Electrons (the unpublished, 1934 "zeroth paper," whose title somewhat reminds one of "On the Dynamics of an Asteroid," through his days at Berkeley with Oppenheimer, Gerjuoy, and others, to his application of ideas from nuclear physics to radar and of radar engineering techniques to problems in nuclear physics. And folks who think good jobs are difficult to come by now might want to contemplate the couple of years Schwinger spent teaching elementary physics at Purdue before moving on to the MIT Rad Lab for war work.

  18. A Zero-Reject System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Jo Anne

    The handbook describes the Project FIND Zero-Reject Model for identifying and serving handicapped children in Texas's Gregory-Portland Independent School District. A Flow Chart of the system is provided, and the following components are discussed (sample subtopics in parentheses): needs assessment, staffing patterns (responsibilities of directors,…

  19. "Zero Tolerance" for Free Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hils, Lynda

    2001-01-01

    Argues that school policies of "zero tolerance" of threatening speech may violate a student's First Amendment right to freedom of expression if speech is less than a "true threat." Suggests a two-step analysis to determine if student speech is a "true threat." (PKP)

  20. Graphs and Zero-Divisors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axtell, M.; Stickles, J.

    2010-01-01

    The last ten years have seen an explosion of research in the zero-divisor graphs of commutative rings--by professional mathematicians "and" undergraduates. The objective is to find algebraic information within the geometry of these graphs. This topic is approachable by anyone with one or two semesters of abstract algebra. This article gives the…

  1. Improved Zero-Crossing Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, G. John; Kuhnle, Paul F.

    1992-01-01

    Improved zero-crossing-detector circuit designed for precisely measuring difference between frequencies of two frequency-standard signal sources. Contains low-bandwidth first-stage amplifier and three limiting amplifiers, each "squares" signal bit more. Crosstalk eliminated and jitter reduced to about 10 to the negative 7th power microseconds.

  2. Stepping Back from Zero Tolerance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne-Dianis, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Schools' use of zero tolerance policies has been increasing since the 1980s as part of a societal movement to crack down on drug abuse and violence among youth. But far from making schools safer, this harsh, inflexible approach to discipline has been eroding the culture of schools and creating devastating consequences for children, writes…

  3. A synthetic zero air standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Ruth

    2016-04-01

    A Synthetic Zero Air Standard R. E. Hill-Pearce, K. V. Resner, D. R. Worton, P. J. Brewer The National Physical Laboratory Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW UK We present work towards providing traceability for measurements of high impact greenhouse gases identified by the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) as critical for global monitoring. Standards for these components are required with challengingly low uncertainties to improve the quality assurance and control processes used for the global networks to better assess climate trends. Currently the WMO compatibility goals require reference standards with uncertainties of < 100 nmolmol-1 for CO2 (northern hemisphere) and < 2 nmolmol-1 for CH4 and CO. High purity zero gas is required for both the balance gas in the preparation of reference standards and for baseline calibrations of instrumentation. Quantification of the amount fraction of the target components in the zero gas is a significant contributor to the uncertainty and is challenging due to limited availability of reference standard at the amount fraction of the measurand and limited analytical techniques with sufficient detection limits. A novel dilutor was used to blend NPL Primary Reference Gas Mixtures containing CO2, CH4 and CO at atmospheric amount fractions with a zero gas under test. Several mixtures were generated with nominal dilution ratios ranging from 2000:1 to 350:1. The baseline of two cavity ring down spectrometers was calibrated using the zero gas under test after purification by oxidative removal of CO and hydrocarbons to < 1 nmolmol-1 (SAES PS15-GC50) followed by the removal of CO2 and water vapour to < 100 pmolmol-1 (SAES MC190). Using the standard addition method.[1] we have quantified the amount fraction of CO, CO2, and CH4 in scrubbed whole air (Scott Marrin) and NPL synthetic zero air. This is the first synthetic zero air standard with a matrix of N2, O2 and Ar closely matching ambient composition with gravimetrically assigned

  4. Modeling Candle Flame Behavior In Variable Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alsairafi, A.; Tien, J. S.; Lee, S. T.; Dietrich, D. L.; Ross, H. D.

    2003-01-01

    The burning of a candle, as typical non-propagating diffusion flame, has been used by a number of researchers to study the effects of electric fields on flame, spontaneous flame oscillation and flickering phenomena, and flame extinction. In normal gravity, the heat released from combustion creates buoyant convection that draws oxygen into the flame. The strength of the buoyant flow depends on the gravitational level and it is expected that the flame shape, size and candle burning rate will vary with gravity. Experimentally, there exist studies of candle burning in enhanced gravity (i.e. higher than normal earth gravity, g(sub e)), and in microgravity in drop towers and space-based facilities. There are, however, no reported experimental data on candle burning in partial gravity (g < g(sub e)). In a previous numerical model of the candle flame, buoyant forces were neglected. The treatment of momentum equation was simplified using a potential flow approximation. Although the predicted flame characteristics agreed well with the experimental results, the model cannot be extended to cases with buoyant flows. In addition, because of the use of potential flow, no-slip boundary condition is not satisfied on the wick surface. So there is some uncertainty on the accuracy of the predicted flow field. In the present modeling effort, the full Navier-Stokes momentum equations with body force term is included. This enables us to study the effect of gravity on candle flames (with zero gravity as the limiting case). In addition, we consider radiation effects in more detail by solving the radiation transfer equation. In the previous study, flame radiation is treated as a simple loss term in the energy equation. Emphasis of the present model is on the gas-phase processes. Therefore, the detailed heat and mass transfer phenomena inside the porous wick are not treated. Instead, it is assumed that a thin layer of liquid fuel coated the entire wick surface during the burning process

  5. Experimental concept for examination of biological effects of magnetic field concealed by gravity.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, M; Tomita-Yokotani, K; Hashimoto, H; Takai, M; Tsushima, M; Nakamura, T

    2004-01-01

    Space is not only a place to study biological effects of gravity, but also provides unique opportunities to examine other environmental factors, where the biological actions are masked by gravity on the ground. Even the earth's magnetic field is steadily acting on living systems, and is known to influence many biological processes. A systematic survey and assessment of its action are difficult to conduct in the presence of dominant factors, such as gravity. Investigation of responses of biological systems against the combined environment of zero-gravity and zero-magnetic field might establish the baseline for the analysis of biological effects of magnetic factors. We propose, in this paper, an experimental concept in this context, together with a practical approach of the experiments, both in orbit and on the ground, with a thin magnetic shielding film. Plant epicotyl growth was taken as an exemplar index to evaluate technical and scientific feasibility of the proposed system concept.

  6. Entropy density of spacetime from the zero point length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothawala, Dawood; Padmanabhan, T.

    2015-09-01

    It is possible to obtain gravitational field equations in a large class of theories from a thermodynamic variational principle which uses the gravitational heat density Sg associated with null surfaces. This heat density is related to the structure of spacetime at Planck scale, LP2 = (Għ /c3), which assigns A⊥ /LP2 degrees of freedom to any area A⊥. On the other hand, it is also known that the surface term K√{ h} in the gravitational action correctly reproduces the heat density of the null surfaces. We provide a link between these ideas by obtaining Sg, used in emergent gravity paradigm, from the surface term in the Einstein-Hilbert action. This is done using the notion of a nonlocal qmetric - introduced recently [arxiv:arXiv:1307.5618, arxiv:arXiv:1405.4967] - which allows us to study the effects of zero-point-length of spacetime at the transition scale between quantum and classical gravity. Computing K√{ h} for the qmetric in the appropriate limit directly reproduces the entropy density Sg used in the emergent gravity paradigm.

  7. Dirac particle, gravity, and inertial effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Justin C.

    Dirac's equation with gravity for a noninertial observer is derived using local coordinate methods. Calculations for the equation are carried out to second order in the local coordinates. For easy application to interference experiments, the Schrödinger form of the Dirac equation with a well defined Hamiltonian in the local coordinates is presented. The presence of gravitational weighting factors in the scalar product lead to hermitian and antihermitian sectors for the Hamiltonian. The antihermitian part depends directly on the curvature and vanishes for zero curvature. The hermitian part which is important for the determination of phases is studied in detail and the nonrelativistic case is obtained by the application of three successive Foldy-Wouthuysen transformations. The results also give local currents and interactions which have pure inertial, pure gravity and mixed sectors. The pure inertial terms are the ones obtained by Hehl and Ni. The pure gravity and mixed sectors have contributions which are electric, magnetic and double magnetic in character. The focus is on the curvature contributions. Some are well within reach of the anticipated accuracy of atomic interferometers currently under consideration and other terms may follow if improvements can be made.

  8. Dissipative superfluid dynamics from gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Jyotirmoy; Bhattacharyya, Sayantani; Minwalla, Shiraz

    2011-04-01

    Charged asymptotically AdS 5 black branes are sometimes unstable to the condensation of charged scalar fields. For fields of infinite charge and squared mass -4 Herzog was able to analytically determine the phase transition temperature and compute the endpoint of this instability in the neighborhood of the phase transition. We generalize Herzog's construction by perturbing away from infinite charge in an expansion in inverse charge and use the solutions so obtained as input for the fluid gravity map. Our tube wise construction of patched up locally hairy black brane solutions yields a one to one map from the space of solutions of superfluid dynamics to the long wavelength solutions of the Einstein Maxwell system. We obtain explicit expressions for the metric, gauge field and scalar field dual to an arbitrary superfluid flow at first order in the derivative expansion. Our construction allows us to read off the the leading dissipative corrections to the perfect superfluid stress tensor, current and Josephson equations. A general framework for dissipative superfluid dynamics was worked out by Landau and Lifshitz for zero superfluid velocity and generalized to nonzero fluid velocity by Clark and Putterman. Our gravitational results do not fit into the 13 parameter Clark-Putterman framework. Purely within fluid dynamics we present a consistent new generalization of Clark and Putterman's equations to a set of superfluid equations parameterized by 14 dissipative parameters. The results of our gravitational calculation fit perfectly into this enlarged framework. In particular we compute all the dissipative constants for the gravitational superfluid.

  9. Gravity localization on hybrid branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veras, D. F. S.; Cruz, W. T.; Maluf, R. V.; Almeida, C. A. S.

    2016-03-01

    This work deals with gravity localization on codimension-1 brane worlds engendered by compacton-like kinks, the so-called hybrid branes. In such scenarios, the thin brane behavior is manifested when the extra dimension is outside the compact domain, where the energy density is non-trivial, instead of asymptotically as in the usual thick brane models. The zero mode is trapped in the brane, as required. The massive modes, although not localized in the brane, have important phenomenological implications such as corrections to the Newton's law. We study such corrections in the usual thick domain wall and in the hybrid brane scenarios. By means of suitable numerical methods, we attain the mass spectrum for the graviton and the corresponding wavefunctions. The spectra possess the usual linearly increasing behavior from the Kaluza-Klein theories. Further, we show that the 4D gravitational force is slightly increased at short distances. The first eigenstate contributes highly for the correction to the Newton's law. The subsequent normalized solutions have diminishing contributions. Moreover, we find out that the phenomenology of the hybrid brane is not different from the usual thick domain wall. The use of numerical techniques for solving the equations of the massive modes is useful for matching possible phenomenological measurements in the gravitational law as a probe to warped extra dimensions.

  10. Cosmological stability bound in massive gravity and bigravity

    SciTech Connect

    Fasiello, Matteo; Tolley, Andrew J. E-mail: andrew.j.tolley@case.edu

    2013-12-01

    We give a simple derivation of a cosmological bound on the graviton mass for spatially flat FRW solutions in massive gravity with an FRW reference metric and for bigravity theories. This bound comes from the requirement that the kinetic term of the helicity zero mode of the graviton is positive definite. The bound is dependent only on the parameters in the massive gravity potential and the Hubble expansion rate for the two metrics. We derive the decoupling limit of bigravity and FRW massive gravity, and use this to give an independent derivation of the cosmological bound. We recover our previous results that the tension between satisfying the Friedmann equation and the cosmological bound is sufficient to rule out all observationally relevant FRW solutions for massive gravity with an FRW reference metric. In contrast, in bigravity this tension is resolved due to different nature of the Vainshtein mechanism. We find that in bigravity theories there exists an FRW solution with late-time self-acceleration for which the kinetic terms for the helicity-2, helicity-1 and helicity-0 are generically nonzero and positive making this a compelling candidate for a model of cosmic acceleration. We confirm that the generalized bound is saturated for the candidate partially massless (bi)gravity theories but the existence of helicity-1/helicity-0 interactions implies the absence of the conjectured partially massless symmetry for both massive gravity and bigravity.

  11. The Vibrations of a ``STIFF '' Gravity Pendulum with a Particle Bob

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naguleswaran, S.

    1996-03-01

    A gravity pendulum is modelled as a vertical uniform Euler-Bernoulli beam with a particle bob. To study the effect of the type of support, ideally clamped, pinned, sliding or free boundary conditions are addressed. The vibrations of the four types of pendulums in "hanging " and in "inverted " positions are considered. The first three dimensionless non-zero natural frequencies Ω 1, Ω 2and Ω 3for various combinations of the gravity parameter γ and the end mass parameter δ are presented. Asymptotic solutions when γ mass parameter for which a natural frequency of an "inverted " pendulum is zero (i.e., buckling conditions) are presented.

  12. Gravity and Biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey-Holton, Emily R.

    1996-01-01

    Gravity has been the most constant environmental factor throughout the evolution of biological species on Earth. Organisms are rarely exposed to other gravity levels, either increased or decreased, for prolonged periods. Thus, evolution in a constant 1G field has historically prevented us from appreciating the potential biological consequences of a multi-G universe. To answer the question 'Can terrestrial life be sustained and thrive beyond our planet?' we need to understand the importance of gravity on living systems, and we need to develop a multi-G, rather than a 1G, mentality. The science of gravitational biology took a giant step with the advent of the space program, which provided the first opportunity to examine living organisms in gravity environments lower than could be sustained on Earth. Previously, virtually nothing was known about the effects of extremely low gravity on living organisms, and most of the initial expectations were proven wrong. All species that have flown in space survive in microgravity, although no higher organism has ever completed a life cycle in space. It has been found, however, that many systems change, transiently or permanently, as a result of prolonged exposure to microgravity.

  13. Tethered gravity laboratories study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchetti, F.

    1990-01-01

    The scope of the study is to investigate ways of controlling the microgravity environment of the International Space Station by means of a tethered system. Four main study tasks were performed. First, researchers analyzed the utilization of the tether systems to improve the lowest possible steady gravity level on the Space Station and the tether capability to actively control the center of gravity position in order to compensate for activities that would upset the mass distribution of the Station. The purpose of the second task was to evaluate the whole of the experiments performable in a variable gravity environment and the related beneficial residual accelerations, both for pure and applied research in the fields of fluid, materials, and life science, so as to assess the relevance of a variable g-level laboratory. The third task involves the Tethered Variable Gravity Laboratory. The use of the facility that would crawl along a deployed tether and expose experiments to varying intensities of reduced gravity is discussed. Last, a study performed on the Attitude Tether Stabilizer concept is discussed. The stabilization effect of ballast masses tethered to the Space Station was investigated as a means of assisting the attitude control system of the Station.

  14. Venus Gravity Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konopliv, Alexander S.; Sjogren, William L.

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the Venus gravity methods and results to date (model MGNP90LSAAP). It is called a handbook in that it contains many useful plots (such as geometry and orbit behavior) that are useful in evaluating the tracking data. We discuss the models that are used in processing the Doppler data and the estimation method for determining the gravity field. With Pioneer Venus Orbiter and Magellan tracking data, the Venus gravity field was determined complete to degree and order 90 with the use of the JPL Cray T3D Supercomputer. The gravity field shows unprecedented high correlation with topography and resolution of features to the 2OOkm resolution. In the procedure for solving the gravity field, other information is gained as well, and, for example, we discuss results for the Venus ephemeris, Love number, pole orientation of Venus, and atmospheric densities. Of significance is the Love number solution which indicates a liquid core for Venus. The ephemeris of Venus is determined to an accuracy of 0.02 mm/s (tens of meters in position), and the rotation period to 243.0194 +/- 0.0002 days.

  15. New massive gravity and AdS(4) counterterms.

    PubMed

    Jatkar, Dileep P; Sinha, Aninda

    2011-04-29

    We show that the recently proposed Dirac-Born-Infeld extension of new massive gravity emerges naturally as a counterterm in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS(4)). The resulting on-shell Euclidean action is independent of the cutoff at zero temperature. We also find that the same choice of counterterm gives the usual area law for the AdS(4) Schwarzschild black hole entropy in a cutoff-independent manner. The parameter values of the resulting counterterm action correspond to a c=0 theory in the context of the duality between AdS(3) gravity and two-dimensional conformal field theory. We rewrite this theory in terms of the gauge field that is used to recast 3D gravity as a Chern-Simons theory. PMID:21635026

  16. Approaches to Validation of Models for Low Gravity Fluid Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.; Marchetta, Jeffery; Hochstein, John I.; Kassemi, Mohammad

    2005-01-01

    This paper details the author experiences with the validation of computer models to predict low gravity fluid behavior. It reviews the literature of low gravity fluid behavior as a starting point for developing a baseline set of test cases. It examines authors attempts to validate their models against these cases and the issues they encountered. The main issues seem to be that: Most of the data is described by empirical correlation rather than fundamental relation; Detailed measurements of the flow field have not been made; Free surface shapes are observed but through thick plastic cylinders, and therefore subject to a great deal of optical distortion; and Heat transfer process time constants are on the order of minutes to days but the zero-gravity time available has been only seconds.

  17. New Massive Gravity and AdS{sub 4} Counterterms

    SciTech Connect

    Jatkar, Dileep P.; Sinha, Aninda

    2011-04-29

    We show that the recently proposed Dirac-Born-Infeld extension of new massive gravity emerges naturally as a counterterm in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS{sub 4}). The resulting on-shell Euclidean action is independent of the cutoff at zero temperature. We also find that the same choice of counterterm gives the usual area law for the AdS{sub 4} Schwarzschild black hole entropy in a cutoff-independent manner. The parameter values of the resulting counterterm action correspond to a c=0 theory in the context of the duality between AdS{sub 3} gravity and two-dimensional conformal field theory. We rewrite this theory in terms of the gauge field that is used to recast 3D gravity as a Chern-Simons theory.

  18. Disposable remote zero headspace extractor

    DOEpatents

    Hand, Julie J.; Roberts, Mark P.

    2006-03-21

    The remote zero headspace extractor uses a sampling container inside a stainless steel vessel to perform toxicity characteristics leaching procedure to analyze volatile organic compounds. The system uses an in line filter for ease of replacement. This eliminates cleaning and disassembly of the extractor. All connections are made with quick connect fittings which can be easily replaced. After use, the bag can be removed and disposed of, and a new sampling container is inserted for the next extraction.

  19. Results from the Middeck 0-gravity Dynamics Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Schoor, M. C.; Crawley, E. F.; Miller, D. W.

    1993-01-01

    The experimental results of the Middick Zero-gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE) are presented. MODE investigated the dynamics of two key spacecraft components; contained fluids and jointed truss structures. The change in the lateral slosh behavior of contained fluids and the changes in the modal parameters of space structural test articles from one- to zero-gravity were studied. The experimental apparatus used to determine the dynamic characteristics is described. For the MODE fluid experiments, the forced response characteristics of silicone oil and distilled water in cylinder tanks with either a flat or spherical bottom are reported and discussed. A comparison of the measured earth and space results identifies and highlights the effects of gravity on the linear and nonlinear slosh behavior of these fluids. For the MODE structural experiments, an analytic and experimental study is presented. Deployable, erectable, and rotary modules were assembled to form three one- and two-dimensional structures in which variations in bracing wire and rotary joint preload could be introduced. Analysis is compared with ground experimental measurements made on a spring/wire suspension system with a nominal plunge frequency of one Hertz, and with measurements made on the Shuttle middeck. The degree of change in linear modal parameters as well as the change in nonlinear nature of the response is examined. Trends in modal parameters are presented as a function of force amplitude, joint preload, and ambient gravity level.

  20. Majorana Zero Modes in Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San-Jose, P.; Lado, J. L.; Aguado, R.; Guinea, F.; Fernández-Rossier, J.

    2015-10-01

    A clear demonstration of topological superconductivity (TS) and Majorana zero modes remains one of the major pending goals in the field of topological materials. One common strategy to generate TS is through the coupling of an s -wave superconductor to a helical half-metallic system. Numerous proposals for the latter have been put forward in the literature, most of them based on semiconductors or topological insulators with strong spin-orbit coupling. Here, we demonstrate an alternative approach for the creation of TS in graphene-superconductor junctions without the need for spin-orbit coupling. Our prediction stems from the helicity of graphene's zero-Landau-level edge states in the presence of interactions and from the possibility, experimentally demonstrated, of tuning their magnetic properties with in-plane magnetic fields. We show how canted antiferromagnetic ordering in the graphene bulk close to neutrality induces TS along the junction and gives rise to isolated, topologically protected Majorana bound states at either end. We also discuss possible strategies to detect their presence in graphene Josephson junctions through Fraunhofer pattern anomalies and Andreev spectroscopy. The latter, in particular, exhibits strong unambiguous signatures of the presence of the Majorana states in the form of universal zero-bias anomalies. Remarkable progress has recently been reported in the fabrication of the proposed type of junctions, which offers a promising outlook for Majorana physics in graphene systems.

  1. Zero-Copy Objects System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Zero-Copy Objects System software enables application data to be encapsulated in layers of communication protocol without being copied. Indirect referencing enables application source data, either in memory or in a file, to be encapsulated in place within an unlimited number of protocol headers and/or trailers. Zero-copy objects (ZCOs) are abstract data access representations designed to minimize I/O (input/output) in the encapsulation of application source data within one or more layers of communication protocol structure. They are constructed within the heap space of a Simple Data Recorder (SDR) data store to which all participating layers of the stack must have access. Each ZCO contains general information enabling access to the core source data object (an item of application data), together with (a) a linked list of zero or more specific extents that reference portions of this source data object, and (b) linked lists of protocol header and trailer capsules. The concatenation of the headers (in ascending stack sequence), the source data object extents, and the trailers (in descending stack sequence) constitute the transmitted data object constructed from the ZCO. This scheme enables a source data object to be encapsulated in a succession of protocol layers without ever having to be copied from a buffer at one layer of the protocol stack to an encapsulating buffer at a lower layer of the stack. For large source data objects, the savings in copy time and reduction in memory consumption may be considerable.

  2. Relativistic Dipole Matrix Element Zeros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lajohn, L. A.; Pratt, R. H.

    2002-05-01

    There is a special class of relativistic high energy dipole matrix element zeros (RZ), whose positions with respect to photon energy ω , only depend on the bound state l quantum number according to ω^0=mc^2/(l_b+1) (independent of primary quantum number n, nuclear charge Z, central potential V and dipole retardation). These RZ only occur in (n,l_b,j_b)arrow (ɛ , l_b+1,j_b) transitions such as ns_1/2arrow ɛ p_1/2; np_3/2arrow ɛ d_3/2: nd_5/2arrow ɛ f_5/2 etc. The nonrelativistic limit of these matrix elements can be established explicitly in the Coulomb case. Within the general matrix element formalism (such as that in [1]); when |κ | is substituted for γ in analytic expressions for matrix elements, the zeros remain, but ω^0 now becomes dependent on n and Z. When the reduction to nonrelativistic form is completed by application of the low energy approximation ω mc^2 mc^2, the zeros disappear. This nonzero behavior was noted in nonrelativistic dipole Coulomb matrix elements by Fano and Cooper [2] and later proven by Oh and Pratt[3]. (J. H. Scofield, Phys. Rev. A 40), 3054 (1989 (U. Fano and J. W. Cooper, Rev. Mod. Phys. 40), 441 (1968). (D. Oh and R. H. Pratt, Phys. Rev. A 34), 2486 (1986); 37, 1524 (1988); 45, 1583 (1992).

  3. Responsibility ascriptions and Vision Zero.

    PubMed

    Fahlquist, Jessica Nihlén

    2006-11-01

    Vision Zero is a traffic safety policy that was adopted by the Swedish Parliament in 1997. Similar policies have been adopted in Norway and Denmark. In essence, Vision Zero states that it is unacceptable for anyone to die while using the road transport system. The policy also introduces an explicit distribution of responsibility for traffic safety, in which the system designers are ultimately responsible. In this article, it is argued that the proposed new distribution of responsibility can be better understood if we distinguish between two general types of responsibility ascriptions, namely backward-looking and forward-looking responsibility ascriptions. Both types include some kind of causal responsibility and whereas backward-looking responsibility implies an element of blame, forward-looking responsibility implies potential blame, meaning that in cases where the agent who was ascribed responsibility did not achieve the expected result, we are likely to blame her. Vision Zero still ascribes backward-looking responsibility and to some degree forward-looking responsibility to individuals, but adds the explicit forward-looking responsibility of the system designers.

  4. Localized (super)gravity and cosmological constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakushadze, Zurab

    2000-11-01

    We consider localization of gravity in domain wall solutions of Einstein's gravity coupled to a scalar field with a generic potential. We discuss conditions on the scalar potential such that domain wall solutions are non-singular. Such solutions even exist for appropriate potentials which have no minima at all and are unbounded below. Domain walls of this type have infinite tension, while usual kink type of solutions interpolating between two AdS minima have finite tension. In the latter case the cosmological constant on the domain wall is necessarily vanishing, while in the former case it can be zero or negative. Positive cosmological constant is allowed for singular domain walls. We discuss non-trivial conditions for physically allowed singularities arising from the requirement that truncating the space at the singularities be consistent. Non-singular domain walls with infinite tension might a priori avoid recent "no-go" theorems indicating impossibility of supersymmetric embedding of kink type of domain walls in gauged supergravity. We argue that (non-singular) domain walls are stable even if they have infinite tension. This is essentially due to the fact that localization of gravity in smooth domain walls is a Higgs mechanism corresponding to a spontaneous breakdown of translational invariance. As to discontinuous domain walls arising in the presence of δ-function "brane" sources, they explicitly break translational invariance. Such solutions cannot therefore be thought of as limits of smooth domain walls. We point out that if the scalar potential has no minima and approaches finite negative values at infinity, then higher derivative terms are under control, and do not affect the cosmological constant which is vanishing for such backgrounds. Nonetheless, we also point out that higher curvature terms generically delocalize gravity, so that the desired lower-dimensional Newton's law is no longer reproduced.

  5. Relativistic Gravity Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlers, Jürgen; Schäfer, Gerhard

    17 readable articles give a thorough and self-contained overview of recent developments in relativistic gravity research. The subjects covered are: gravitational lensing, the general relativistic n-body problem, observable effects in the solar system, gravitational waves and their interferometric detection, very-long-baseline interferometry, international atomic time, lunar laserranging measurements, measurement of the gravitomagnetic field of the Earth, fermion and boson stars and black holes with hair, rapidly rotating neutron stars, matter wave interferometry, and the laboratory test of Newton's law of gravity. Any scientist interested in experimentally or observatio- nally oriented relativistic gravity will read the book with profit. In addition, it is perfectly suited as a complementary text for courses on general relativity and relativistic astrophysics.

  6. Artificial gravity experiment satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Tadashi

    1992-07-01

    An overview of the conceptual study of an artificial gravity experiment satellite based on the assumption of a launch by the H-2 launch vehicle with a target launch date in the Year 2000 is presented. While many satellites provided with artificial gravity have been reported in relation to a manned Mars exploration spacecraft mission, the review has been conducted on missions and test subjects only for experimental purposes. Mission requirements were determined based on the results of reviews on the mission, test subjects, and model missions. The system baseline and development plan were based on the results of a study on conceptual structure and scale of the system, including measures to generate artificial gravity. Approximate scale of the system and arm length, mission orbit, visibility of the operation orbit from ground stations in Japan, and satellite attitude on the mission orbit are outlined.

  7. Newberry Combined Gravity 2016

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kelly Rose

    2016-01-22

    Newberry combined gravity from Zonge Int'l, processed for the EGS stimulation project at well 55-29. Includes data from both Davenport 2006 collection and for OSU/4D EGS monitoring 2012 collection. Locations are NAD83, UTM Zone 10 North, meters. Elevation is NAVD88. Gravity in milligals. Free air and observed gravity are included, along with simple Bouguer anomaly and terrain corrected Bouguer anomaly. SBA230 means simple Bouguer anomaly computed at 2.30 g/cc. CBA230 means terrain corrected Bouguer anomaly at 2.30 g/cc. This suite of densities are included (g/cc): 2.00, 2.10, 2.20, 2.30, 2.40, 2.50, 2.67.

  8. Role of Gravity Waves in Determining Cirrus Cloud Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OCStarr, David; Singleton, Tamara; Lin, Ruei-Fong

    2008-01-01

    Cirrus clouds are important in the Earth's radiation budget. They typically exhibit variable physical properties within a given cloud system and from system to system. Ambient vertical motion is a key factor in determining the cloud properties in most cases. The obvious exception is convectively generated cirrus (anvils), but even in this case, the subsequent cloud evolution is strongly influenced by the ambient vertical motion field. It is well know that gravity waves are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and occur over a wide range of scales and amplitudes. Moreover, researchers have found that inclusion of statistical account of gravity wave effects can markedly improve the realism of simulations of persisting large-scale cirrus cloud features. Here, we use a 1 -dimensional (z) cirrus cloud model, to systematically examine the effects of gravity waves on cirrus cloud properties. The model includes a detailed representation of cloud microphysical processes (bin microphysics and aerosols) and is run at relatively fine vertical resolution so as to adequately resolve nucleation events, and over an extended time span so as to incorporate the passage of multiple gravity waves. The prescribed gravity waves "propagate" at 15 m s (sup -1), with wavelengths from 5 to 100 km, amplitudes range up to 1 m s (sup -1)'. Despite the fact that the net gravity wave vertical motion forcing is zero, it will be shown that the bulk cloud properties, e.g., vertically-integrated ice water path, can differ quite significantly from simulations without gravity waves and that the effects do depend on the wave characteristics. We conclude that account of gravity wave effects is important if large-scale models are to generate realistic cirrus cloud property climatology (statistics).

  9. Gravity and Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blencowe, Miles

    The emergence of the macroscopic classical world from the microscopic quantum world is commonly understood to be a consequence of the fact that any given quantum system is open, unavoidably interacting with unobserved environmental degrees of freedom that will cause initial quantum superposition states of the system to decohere, resulting in classical mixtures of either-or alternatives. A fundamental question concerns how large a macroscopic object can be placed in a manifest quantum state, such as a center of mass quantum superposition state, under conditions where the effects of the interacting environmental degrees of freedom are reduced (i.e. in ultrahigh vacuum and at ultralow temperatures). Recent experiments have in fact demonstrated manifest quantum behavior in nano-to-micron-scale mechanical systems. Gravity has been invoked in various ways as playing a possible fundamental role in enforcing classicality of matter systems beyond a certain scale. Adopting the viewpoint that the standard perturbative quantization of general relativity provides an effective description of quantum gravity that is valid at ordinary energies, we show that it is possible to describe quantitatively how gravity as an environment can induce the decoherence of matter superposition states. The justification for such an approach follows from the fact that we are considering laboratory scale systems, where the matter is localized to regions of small curvature. As with other low energy effects, such as the quantum gravity correction to the Newtonian potential between two ordinary masses, it should be possible to quantitatively evaluate gravitationally induced decoherence rates by employing standard perturbative quantum gravity as an effective field theory; whatever the final form the eventual correct quantum theory of gravity takes, it must converge in its predictions with the effective field theory description at low energies. Research supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF

  10. The Grip of Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gondhalekar, Prabhakar

    2001-09-01

    Gravity is one of the most inexplicable forces of nature, controlling everything, from the expansion of the Universe to the ebb and flow of ocean tides. The search for the laws of motion and gravitation began more than two thousand years ago, a quest that Prabhakar Gondhalekar recounts in The Grip of Gravity. Beginning with Aristotle and concluding with Planck, Gondhalekar outlines a 'genealogy' of gravity and lucidly explains how previous explanations have shaped the most recent development in the field, string theory. In this work, physicist and astronomer Gondhalekar describes experiments, both planned and proposed, and clearly explains natural phenomena like ocean tides, seasons, ice ages, the formation of planets, stars, and exotic objects like black holes and neutron stars, which are all controlled by gravity. Including anecdotes and thumb-nail sketches of the personalities involved, The Grip of Gravity provides an introduction to the foundation of modern physics and shows how the current developments in string theory may lead to a new and radical interpretation of gravity. Prabhakar Gondhalekar is an Honorary Fellow in the Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College, London. Until his retirement in 1998, he was the head of the Space Astronomy Group at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, where he had been a researcher for 18 years. His research has included a number of topics in galactic and extragalactic astronomy, with his major work focusing on the interstellar medium and active galactic nuclei. Gondhalekar has been awarded Royal Society, Leverhulme Trust, and NATO Research Fellowships to do research in universities in the United States and Israel.

  11. Seeking the Light: Gravity Without the Influence of Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sack, Fred; Kern, Volker; Reed, Dave; Etheridge, Guy (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    All living things sense gravity like humans might sense light or sound. The Biological Research In Canisters (BRIC-14) experiment, explores how moss cells sense and respond to gravity and light. This experiment studies how gravity influences the internal structure of moss cells and seeks to understand the influences of the spaceflight environment on cell growth. This knowledge will help researchers understand the role of gravity in the evolution of cells and life on earth.

  12. Terrestrial gravity data analysis for interim gravity model improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This is the first status report for the Interim Gravity Model research effort that was started on June 30, 1986. The basic theme of this study is to develop appropriate models and adjustment procedures for estimating potential coefficients from terrestrial gravity data. The plan is to use the latest gravity data sets to produce coefficient estimates as well as to provide normal equations to NASA for use in the TOPEX/POSEIDON gravity field modeling program.

  13. Asymptotically Safe Lorentzian Gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Manrique, Elisa; Rechenberger, Stefan; Saueressig, Frank

    2011-06-24

    The gravitational asymptotic safety program strives for a consistent and predictive quantum theory of gravity based on a nontrivial ultraviolet fixed point of the renormalization group (RG) flow. We investigate this scenario by employing a novel functional renormalization group equation which takes the causal structure of space-time into account and connects the RG flows for Euclidean and Lorentzian signature by a Wick rotation. Within the Einstein-Hilbert approximation, the {beta} functions of both signatures exhibit ultraviolet fixed points in agreement with asymptotic safety. Surprisingly, the two fixed points have strikingly similar characteristics, suggesting that Euclidean and Lorentzian quantum gravity belong to the same universality class at high energies.

  14. Position from gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    Procedures for obtaining position from surface gravity observations are reviewed and their relevance assessed in the context of the application of modern geodetic techniques to programs of Earth and ocean physics. Solutions based on the use of surface layer techniques, the discrete value approach, and the development from Green's theorem are stated in summary, the latter being extended to order e cubed in the height anomaly. The representation of the surface gravity field which is required in order that this accuracy may be achieved is discussed. Interim techniques which could be used in the absence of such a representation are also outlined.

  15. Resummation of Massive Gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Rham, Claudia de; Gabadadze, Gregory; Tolley, Andrew J.

    2011-06-10

    We construct four-dimensional covariant nonlinear theories of massive gravity which are ghost-free in the decoupling limit to all orders. These theories resume explicitly all the nonlinear terms of an effective field theory of massive gravity. We show that away from the decoupling limit the Hamiltonian constraint is maintained at least up to and including quartic order in nonlinearities, hence excluding the possibility of the Boulware-Deser ghost up to this order. We also show that the same remains true to all orders in a similar toy model.

  16. Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics from gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, James; Kraus, Per

    2009-04-01

    We apply the recently established connection between nonlinear fluid dynamics and AdS gravity to the case of the dyonic black brane in AdS4. This yields the equations of fluid dynamics for a 2+1 dimensional charged fluid in a background magnetic field. We construct the gravity solution to second order in the derivative expansion. From this we find the fluid dynamical stress tensor and charge current to second and third order in derivatives respectively, along with values for the associated transport coefficients.

  17. Asymptotically safe Lorentzian gravity.

    PubMed

    Manrique, Elisa; Rechenberger, Stefan; Saueressig, Frank

    2011-06-24

    The gravitational asymptotic safety program strives for a consistent and predictive quantum theory of gravity based on a nontrivial ultraviolet fixed point of the renormalization group (RG) flow. We investigate this scenario by employing a novel functional renormalization group equation which takes the causal structure of space-time into account and connects the RG flows for Euclidean and Lorentzian signature by a Wick rotation. Within the Einstein-Hilbert approximation, the β functions of both signatures exhibit ultraviolet fixed points in agreement with asymptotic safety. Surprisingly, the two fixed points have strikingly similar characteristics, suggesting that Euclidean and Lorentzian quantum gravity belong to the same universality class at high energies. PMID:21770628

  18. Gauge/Gravity Duality

    ScienceCinema

    Polchinski, Joseph [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics

    2016-07-12

    Gauge theories, which describe the particle interactions, are well understood, while quantum gravity leads to many puzzles. Remarkably, in recent years we have learned that these are actually dual, the same system written in different variables. On the one hand, this provides our most precise description of quantum gravity, resolves some long-standing paradoxes, and points to new principles. On the other, it gives a new perspective on strong interactions, with surprising connections to other areas of physics. I describe these ideas, and discuss current and future directions.

  19. Loop quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiou, Dah-Wei

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an "in-a-nutshell" yet self-contained introductory review on loop quantum gravity (LQG) — a background-independent, nonperturbative approach to a consistent quantum theory of gravity. Instead of rigorous and systematic derivations, it aims to provide a general picture of LQG, placing emphasis on the fundamental ideas and their significance. The canonical formulation of LQG, as the central topic of the paper, is presented in a logically orderly fashion with moderate details, while the spin foam theory, black hole thermodynamics, and loop quantum cosmology are covered briefly. Current directions and open issues are also summarized.

  20. Asymptotically safe Lorentzian gravity.

    PubMed

    Manrique, Elisa; Rechenberger, Stefan; Saueressig, Frank

    2011-06-24

    The gravitational asymptotic safety program strives for a consistent and predictive quantum theory of gravity based on a nontrivial ultraviolet fixed point of the renormalization group (RG) flow. We investigate this scenario by employing a novel functional renormalization group equation which takes the causal structure of space-time into account and connects the RG flows for Euclidean and Lorentzian signature by a Wick rotation. Within the Einstein-Hilbert approximation, the β functions of both signatures exhibit ultraviolet fixed points in agreement with asymptotic safety. Surprisingly, the two fixed points have strikingly similar characteristics, suggesting that Euclidean and Lorentzian quantum gravity belong to the same universality class at high energies.

  1. Maglev Facility for Simulating Variable Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yuanming; Strayer, Donald M.; Israelsson, Ulf E.

    2010-01-01

    An improved magnetic levitation apparatus ("Maglev Facility") has been built for use in experiments in which there are requirements to impose variable gravity (including zero gravity) in order to assess the effects of gravity or the absence thereof on physical and physiological processes. The apparatus is expected to be especially useful for experiments on the effects of gravity on convection, boiling, and heat transfer in fluids and for experiments on mice to gain understanding of bone loss induced in human astronauts by prolonged exposure to reduced gravity in space flight. The maglev principle employed by the apparatus is well established. Diamagnetic cryogenic fluids such as liquid helium have been magnetically levitated for studying their phase transitions and critical behaviors. Biological entities consist mostly of diamagnetic molecules (e.g., water molecules) and thus can be levitated by use of sufficiently strong magnetic fields having sufficiently strong vertical gradients. The heart of the present maglev apparatus is a vertically oriented superconducting solenoid electromagnet (see figure) that generates a static magnetic field of about 16 T with a vertical gradient sufficient for levitation of water in normal Earth gravity. The electromagnet is enclosed in a Dewar flask having a volume of 100 L that contains liquid helium to maintain superconductivity. The Dewar flask features a 66-mm-diameter warm bore, lying within the bore of the magnet, wherein experiments can be performed at room temperature. The warm bore is accessible from its top and bottom ends. The superconducting electromagnet is run in the persistent mode, in which the supercurrent and the magnetic field can be maintained for weeks with little decay, making this apparatus extremely cost and energy efficient to operate. In addition to water, this apparatus can levitate several common fluids: liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen, methane, ammonia, sodium, and lithium, all of which are useful

  2. OFO experimental techniques and preliminary conclusions - Is artificial gravity needed during prolonged weightlessness.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gualtierotti, T.; Bracchi, F.

    1972-01-01

    The technique of single unit recording from body systems generating electrical pulses coherent with their basic function (CNS, muscles, sense organs) has been proved feasible during the OFO A orbital flight, an automatic physiological experiment. The results of recording 155 hours of orbital flight of pulses from the nerve fibres of four vestibular gravity sensors in two bull frogs indicate that the vestibular organ adjusts to zero g. As all the other biological changes observed during orbit are due to lack of exercise, it is concluded that artificial gravity might not be necessary during prolonged space missions or on low gravity celestial bodies.

  3. Our World: Gravity in Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    What is gravity? Find out about the balance between gravity and inertia that keeps the International Space Station in orbit. Learn why astronauts "float" in space and how the space shuttle has to s...

  4. The measurement of surface gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, J. C.; Lacoste, L. J. B.

    1978-01-01

    LaCoste and Romberg G and D gravity meters are normally employed when attempting high precision measurement of gravity differences on land. The capabilities and limitations of these instruments are discussed.

  5. Maximum privacy without coherence, zero-error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Debbie; Yu, Nengkun

    2016-09-01

    We study the possible difference between the quantum and the private capacities of a quantum channel in the zero-error setting. For a family of channels introduced by Leung et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 030512 (2014)], we demonstrate an extreme difference: the zero-error quantum capacity is zero, whereas the zero-error private capacity is maximum given the quantum output dimension.

  6. Gravity-Off-loading System for Large-Displacement Ground Testing of Spacecraft Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Olyvia; Kienholz, David; Janzen, Paul; Kidney, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Gravity-off-loading of deployable spacecraft mechanisms during ground testing is a long-standing problem. Deployable structures which are usually too weak to support their own weight under gravity require a means of gravity-off-loading as they unfurl. Conventional solutions to this problem have been helium-filled balloons or mechanical pulley/counterweight systems. These approaches, however, suffer from the deleterious effects of added inertia or friction forces. The changing form factor of the deployable structure itself and the need to track the trajectory of the center of gravity also pose a challenge to these conventional technologies. This paper presents a novel testing apparatus for high-fidelity zero-gravity simulation for special application to deployable space structures such as solar arrays, magnetometer booms, and robotic arms in class 100,000 clean room environments

  7. Propulsion Investigation for Zero and Near-Zero Emissions Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Christopher A.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Brown, Gerald v.; Dolce, James L.; Dravid, Marayan V.; Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Freeh, Joshua E.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Jones, Scott M.; Kundu, Krishna P.; Marek, Cecil J.; Millis, Marc G.; Murthy, Pappu L.; Roach, Timothy M.; Smith, Timothy D.; Stefko, George L.; Sullivan, Roy M.; Tornabene, Robert T.; Geiselhat, Karl A.; Kascak, Albert F.

    2009-01-01

    As world emissions are further scrutinized to identify areas for improvement, aviation s contribution to the problem can no longer be ignored. Previous studies for zero or near-zero emissions aircraft suggest aircraft and propulsion system sizes that would perform propulsion system and subsystems layout and propellant tankage analyses to verify the weight-scaling relationships. These efforts could be used to identify and guide subsequent work on systems and subsystems to achieve viable aircraft system emissions goals. Previous work quickly focused these efforts on propulsion systems for 70- and 100-passenger aircraft. Propulsion systems modeled included hydrogen-fueled gas turbines and fuel cells; some preliminary estimates combined these two systems. Hydrogen gas-turbine engines, with advanced combustor technology, could realize significant reductions in nitrogen emissions. Hydrogen fuel cell propulsion systems were further laid out, and more detailed analysis identified systems needed and weight goals for a viable overall system weight. Results show significant, necessary reductions in overall weight, predominantly on the fuel cell stack, and power management and distribution subsystems to achieve reasonable overall aircraft sizes and weights. Preliminary conceptual analyses for a combination of gas-turbine and fuel cell systems were also performed, and further studies were recommended. Using gas-turbine engines combined with fuel cell systems can reduce the fuel cell propulsion system weight, but at higher fuel usage than using the fuel cell only.

  8. 40 CFR 180.5 - Zero tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Definitions and Interpretative Regulations § 180.5 Zero tolerances. A zero tolerance means that no amount of the pesticide chemical may remain on the raw agricultural commodity when it is offered for shipment. A zero tolerance for a pesticide chemical in or on...

  9. 40 CFR 180.5 - Zero tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Definitions and Interpretative Regulations § 180.5 Zero tolerances. A zero tolerance means that no amount of the pesticide chemical may remain on the raw agricultural commodity when it is offered for shipment. A zero tolerance for a pesticide chemical in or on...

  10. 40 CFR 180.5 - Zero tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Definitions and Interpretative Regulations § 180.5 Zero tolerances. A zero tolerance means that no amount of the pesticide chemical may remain on the raw agricultural commodity when it is offered for shipment. A zero tolerance for a pesticide chemical in or on...

  11. 40 CFR 180.5 - Zero tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Definitions and Interpretative Regulations § 180.5 Zero tolerances. A zero tolerance means that no amount of the pesticide chemical may remain on the raw agricultural commodity when it is offered for shipment. A zero tolerance for a pesticide chemical in or on...

  12. 40 CFR 180.5 - Zero tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Definitions and Interpretative Regulations § 180.5 Zero tolerances. A zero tolerance means that no amount of the pesticide chemical may remain on the raw agricultural commodity when it is offered for shipment. A zero tolerance for a pesticide chemical in or on...

  13. Loop Quantum Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piguet, O.

    2014-09-01

    In this talk, I give a short general introduction to Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG), beginning with some motivations for quantizing General Relativity, listing various attempts and then focusing on the case of LQG. Work supported in part by the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico - CNPq (Brazil).

  14. Quantum theory of gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, S.M.

    1984-01-01

    The book of essay entitled Quantum Theory of Gravity, edited by Steven M. Christensen is reviewed. The book contains over thirty papers dealing with the subject of the unification of quantum field theory and general relativity theory. Contributions include discussions of non-Abelian gauge theories, supersymmetry, issues in renormalization and quantization and matters related to the interpretation of theories.

  15. A Trick of Gravity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newburgh, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    It's both surprising and rewarding when an old, standard problem reveals a subtlety that expands its pedagogic value. I realized recently that the role of gravity in the range equation for a projectile is not so simple as first appears. This realization may be completely obvious to others but was quite new to me.

  16. Artificial Gravity Research Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Charlene

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the forward working plan to identify what countermeasure resources are needed for a vehicle with an artificial gravity module (intermittent centrifugation) and what Countermeasure Resources are needed for a rotating transit vehicle (continuous centrifugation) to minimize the effects of microgravity to Mars Exploration crewmembers.

  17. Variable gravity research facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allan, Sean; Ancheta, Stan; Beine, Donna; Cink, Brian; Eagon, Mark; Eckstein, Brett; Luhman, Dan; Mccowan, Daniel; Nations, James; Nordtvedt, Todd

    1988-01-01

    Spin and despin requirements; sequence of activities required to assemble the Variable Gravity Research Facility (VGRF); power systems technology; life support; thermal control systems; emergencies; communication systems; space station applications; experimental activities; computer modeling and simulation of tether vibration; cost analysis; configuration of the crew compartments; and tether lengths and rotation speeds are discussed.

  18. Revamped braneworld gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Bao Ruoyu; Park, Minjoon; Carena, Marcela; Santiago, Jose; Lykken, Joseph

    2006-03-15

    Gravity in five-dimensional braneworld backgrounds often exhibits problematic features, including kinetic ghosts, strong coupling, and the van Dam-Veltman-Zakharov (vDVZ) discontinuity. These problems are an obstacle to producing and analyzing braneworld models with interesting and potentially observable modifications of 4d gravity. We examine these problems in a general AdS{sub 5}/AdS{sub 4} setup with two branes and localized curvature from arbitrary brane kinetic terms. We use the interval approach and an explicit straight gauge-fixing. We compute the complete quadratic gauge-fixed effective 4d action, as well as the leading cubic order corrections. We compute the exact Green's function for gravity as seen on the brane. In the full parameter space, we exhibit the regions which avoid kinetic ghosts and tachyons. We give a general formula for the strong coupling scale, i.e., the energy scale at which the linearized treatment of gravity breaks down, for relevant regions of the parameter space. We show how the vDVZ discontinuity can be naturally but nontrivially avoided by ultralight graviton modes. We present a direct comparison of warping versus localized curvature in terms of their effects on graviton mode couplings. We exhibit the first example of Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (DGP)-like crossover behavior in a general warped setup.

  19. Revamped braneworld gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Ruoyu; Carena, Marcela; Lykken, Joseph; Park, Minjoon; Santiago, Jose; /Fermilab

    2005-11-01

    Gravity in five-dimensional braneworld backgrounds often exhibits problematic features, including kinetic ghosts, strong coupling, and the vDVZ discontinuity. These problems are an obstacle to producing and analyzing braneworld models with interesting and potentially observable modifications of 4d gravity. We examine these problems in a general AdS{sub 5}/AdS{sub 4} setup with two branes and localized curvature from arbitrary brane kinetic terms. We use the interval approach and an explicit ''straight'' gauge-fixing. We compute the complete quadratic gauge-fixed effective 4d action, as well as the leading cubic order corrections. We compute the exact Green's function for gravity as seen on the brane. In the full parameter space, we exhibit the regions which avoid kinetic ghosts and tachyons. We give a general formula for the strong coupling scale, i.e. the energy scale at which the linearized treatment of gravity breaks down, for relevant regions of the parameter space. We show how the vDVZ discontinuity can be naturally but nontrivially avoided by ultralight graviton modes. We present a direct comparison of warping versus localized curvature in terms of their effects on graviton mode couplings. We exhibit the first example of DGP-like crossover behavior in a general warped setup.

  20. Cubesat Gravity Field Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burla, Santoshkumar; Mueller, Vitali; Flury, Jakob; Jovanovic, Nemanja

    2016-04-01

    CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE missions have been successful in the field of satellite geodesy (especially to improve Earth's gravity field models) and have established the necessity towards the next generation gravity field missions. Especially, GRACE has shown its capabilities beyond any other gravity field missions. GRACE Follow-On mission is going to continue GRACE's legacy which is almost identical to GRACE mission with addition of laser interferometry. But these missions are not only quite expensive but also takes quite an effort to plan and to execute. Still there are few drawbacks such as under-sampling and incapability of exploring new ideas within a single mission (ex: to perform different orbit configurations with multi satellite mission(s) at different altitudes). The budget is the major limiting factor to build multi satellite mission(s). Here, we offer a solution to overcome these drawbacks using cubesat/ nanosatellite mission. Cubesats are widely used in research because they are cheaper, smaller in size and building them is easy and faster than bigger satellites. Here, we design a 3D model of GRACE like mission with available sensors and explain how the Attitude and Orbit Control System (AOCS) works. The expected accuracies on final results of gravity field are also explained here.

  1. Gravity and crustal structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowin, C. O.

    1976-01-01

    Lunar gravitational properties were analyzed along with the development of flat moon and curved moon computer models. Gravity anomalies and mascons were given particular attention. Geophysical and geological considerations were included, and comparisons were made between the gravitional fields of the Earth, Mars, and the Moon.

  2. Hawaii Gravity Model

    SciTech Connect

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-12-15

    Gravity model for the state of Hawaii. Data is from the following source: Flinders, A.F., Ito, G., Garcia, M.O., Sinton, J.M., Kauahikaua, J.P., and Taylor, B., 2013, Intrusive dike complexes, cumulate cores, and the extrusive growth of Hawaiian volcanoes: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 40, p. 3367–3373, doi:10.1002/grl.50633.

  3. Spaceborne Gravity Gradiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, W. C. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    The current status of gravity gradiometers and technology that could be available in the 1990's for the GRAVSAT-B mission are assessed. Problems associated with sensors, testing, spacecraft, and data processing are explored as well as critical steps, schedule, and cost factors in the development plan.

  4. Singularities and Quantum Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojowald, Martin

    2007-06-01

    Although there is general agreement that a removal of classical gravitational singularities is not only a crucial conceptual test of any approach to quantum gravity but also a prerequisite for any fundamental theory, the precise criteria for non-singular behavior are often unclear or controversial. Often, only special types of singularities such as the curvature singularities found in isotropic cosmological models are discussed and it is far from clear what this implies for the very general singularities that arise according to the singularity theorems of general relativity. In these lectures we present an overview of the current status of singularities in classical and quantum gravity, starting with a review and interpretation of the classical singularity theorems. This suggests possible routes for quantum gravity to evade the devastating conclusion of the theorems by different means, including modified dynamics or modified geometrical structures underlying quantum gravity. The latter is most clearly present in canonical quantizations which are discussed in more detail. Finally, the results are used to propose a general scheme of singularity removal, quantum hyperbolicity, to show cases where it is realized and to derive intuitive semiclassical pictures of cosmological bounces.

  5. Cosmological tests of gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Bhuvnesh; Khoury, Justin

    2010-07-15

    Modifications of general relativity provide an alternative explanation to dark energy for the observed acceleration of the universe. We review recent developments in modified gravity theories, focusing on higher-dimensional approaches and chameleon/f(R) theories. We classify these models in terms of the screening mechanisms that enable such theories to approach general relativity on small scales (and thus satisfy solar system constraints). We describe general features of the modified Friedman equation in such theories. The second half of this review describes experimental tests of gravity in light of the new theoretical approaches. We summarize the high precision tests of gravity on laboratory and solar system scales. We describe in some detail tests on astrophysical scales ranging from {approx} kpc (galaxy scales) to {approx} Gpc (large-scale structure). These tests rely on the growth and inter-relationship of perturbations in the metric potentials, density and velocity fields which can be measured using gravitational lensing, galaxy cluster abundances, galaxy clustering and the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect. A robust way to interpret observations is by constraining effective parameters, such as the ratio of the two metric potentials. Currently tests of gravity on astrophysical scales are in the early stages - we summarize these tests and discuss the interesting prospects for new tests in the coming decade.

  6. A study of two-phase flow in a reduced gravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, D.; Downing, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    A test loop was designed and fabricated for observing and measuring pressure drops of two-phase flow in reduced gravity. The portable flow test loop was then tested aboard the NASA-JSC KC135 reduced gravity aircraft. The test loop employed the Sundstrand Two-Phase Thermal Management System (TPTMS) concept which was specially fitted with a clear two-phase return line and condenser cover for flow observation. A two-phase (liquid/vapor) mixture was produced by pumping nearly saturated liquid through an evaporator and adding heat via electric heaters. The quality of the two-phase flow was varied by changing the evaporator heat load. The test loop was operated on the ground before and after the KC135 flight tests to create a one-gravity data base. The ground testing included all the test points run during the reduced gravity testing. Two days of reduced gravity tests aboard the KC135 were performed. During the flight tests, reduced-gravity, one-gravity, and nearly two-gravity accelerations were experienced. Data was taken during the entire flight which provided flow regime and pressure drop data for the three operating conditions. The test results show that two-phase pressure drops and flow regimes can be accurately predicted in zero-gravity.

  7. The influence of simulated low-gravity environments on growth, development and metabolism of plants.

    PubMed

    Dedolph, R R

    1967-01-01

    Low-gravity environments may be simulated through appropriate horizontal clinostat rotation. This simulation is accomplished through a biological nullification of the directional component of gravitational force. Measuring biologically effective gravity force by organ response, it is readily demonstrated that biologically active gravitational force may be treated as a two-dimensional vector. Though the magnitude dimension of this vector remains virtually constant anywhere on earth, the biologically effective direction dimension may be quantitatively altered by clinostat rotation, provided appropriate angular velocities and angles of inclination of clinostat axes are employed. Using oat seedlings, a rotation rate of 2 rpm, and a horizontal axis clinostat, a 'zero g' environment may be simulated. This simulated 'zero g' condition is attested by the inability of plants to perceive unidirectional gravitational force of sufficient magnitude to elicit directional growth. Under such conditions, plants will grow in the direction imparted by the initial orientation of the plants in the system. Geotropic curvature responses to subsequent geostimulation are, however, greater in seedlings grown under these conditions, nullifying the direction dimension of gravitational force, than in seedlings grown with rotation but with normal unidirectional gravity loads. Root growth under simulated 'zero' gravity conditions is likewise enhanced as compared to plants grown with rotation but normal unidirectional gravity. These differences in magnitude of growth and response to subsequent geostimulation are inexplicable on bases of modified auxin economy or production. Respiration rates are, however, materially enhanced by the simulated 'zero g' environments. This enhancement of respiration, as well as growth, quantitatively diminishes as the unidirectional gravity load is increased. These results imply that the primary effect of low-gravity environments is likely that of modifying the

  8. Zero-G experiments in two-phase fluids flow regimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, D. B.; King, C. D.; Littles, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    The two-phase flows studied were liquid and gas mixtures in a straight flow channel of circular cross-section. Boundaries between flow regimes have been defined for normogravity on coordinates of gas quality and total mass velocity; and, when combined with boundary expressions having a Froude number term, an analytical model was derived predicting boundary shifts with changes in gravity level. Experiments with air and water were performed, first in the normogravity environment of a ground laboratory and then in 'zero gravity' aboard a KC-135 aircraft flying parabolic trajectories. Data reduction confirmed regime boundary shifts in the direction predicted, although the magnitude was a little less than predicted. Pressure drop measurements showed significant increases for the low gravity condition.

  9. Membrane Potentials at Zero Current

    PubMed Central

    Sandblom, John P.; Eisenman, George

    1967-01-01

    The possibility has been examined that the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation for V0, the total membrane potential at zero current, can be derived with constant permeability ratios from a thermodynamic treatment. The flux equations have been integrated under zero current conditions subject only to the restriction that the total membrane potential should be independent of internal concentration profiles, which is the requirement for the premeability ratios to be phenomenological constants, independent of solution conditions. No assumptions have been made concerning the electric potential profile. It was found that a constant permeability ratio can only be characteristic of systems satisfying certain relationships between ionic conductances and chemical potentials. From these relationships it was possible to define the permeability ratio in terms of the thermodynamic properties of the membrane quite generally and to identify the permeability ratio as the product of mobility ratio and ratio of partition coefficients. Moreover, the ionic conductance ratio at any point in the membrane has been shown to be expressable explicitly in terms of the permeability ratio and the activities of an external solution which would be in equilibrium with the point under consideration. Lastly, a number of conclusions have been reached regarding the range of applicability of the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation with constant permeability ratios. PMID:6035122

  10. Majorana Zero Modes in Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San-Jose, Pablo; Lado, Jose L.; Aguado, Ramón; Guinea, Francisco; Fernández-Rossier, Joaquín

    A clear demonstration of topological superconductivity (TS) and Majorana zero modes remains one of the major pending goal in the field of topological materials. One common strategy to generate TS is through the coupling of an s-wave superconductor to a helical half-metallic system. Numerous proposals for the latter have been put forward in the literature, most of them based on semiconductors or topological insulators with strong spin-orbit coupling. Here we demonstrate an alternative approach for the creation of TS in graphene/superconductor junctions without the need of spin-orbit coupling. Our prediction stems from the helicity of graphene's zero Landau level edge states in the presence of interactions, and on the possibility, experimentally demonstrated, to tune their magnetic properties with in-plane magnetic fields. We show how canted antiferromagnetic ordering in the graphene bulk close to neutrality induces TS along the junction, and gives rise to isolated, topologically protected Majorana bound states at either end. We also discuss possible strategies to detect their presence. Remarkable progress has recently been reported in the fabrication of the proposed type of junctions, which offers a promising outlook for Majorana physics in graphene systems.

  11. Towards zero-power ICT.

    PubMed

    Gammaitoni, Luca; Chiuchiú, D; Madami, M; Carlotti, G

    2015-06-01

    Is it possible to operate a computing device with zero energy expenditure? This question, once considered just an academic dilemma, has recently become strategic for the future of information and communication technology. In fact, in the last forty years the semiconductor industry has been driven by its ability to scale down the size of the complementary metal-oxide semiconductor-field-effect transistor, the building block of present computing devices, and to increase computing capability density up to a point where the power dissipated in heat during computation has become a serious limitation. To overcome such a limitation, since 2004 the Nanoelectronics Research Initiative has launched a grand challenge to address the fundamental limits of the physics of switches. In Europe, the European Commission has recently funded a set of projects with the aim of minimizing the energy consumption of computing. In this article we briefly review state-of-the-art zero-power computing, with special attention paid to the aspects of energy dissipation at the micro- and nanoscales. PMID:25961656

  12. Towards zero-power ICT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gammaitoni, Luca; Chiuchiú, D.; Madami, M.; Carlotti, G.

    2015-06-01

    Is it possible to operate a computing device with zero energy expenditure? This question, once considered just an academic dilemma, has recently become strategic for the future of information and communication technology. In fact, in the last forty years the semiconductor industry has been driven by its ability to scale down the size of the complementary metal-oxide semiconductor-field-effect transistor, the building block of present computing devices, and to increase computing capability density up to a point where the power dissipated in heat during computation has become a serious limitation. To overcome such a limitation, since 2004 the Nanoelectronics Research Initiative has launched a grand challenge to address the fundamental limits of the physics of switches. In Europe, the European Commission has recently funded a set of projects with the aim of minimizing the energy consumption of computing. In this article we briefly review state-of-the-art zero-power computing, with special attention paid to the aspects of energy dissipation at the micro- and nanoscales.

  13. Industrial processes influenced by gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrach, Simon

    1988-01-01

    In considering new directions for low gravity research with particular regard to broadening the number and types of industrial involvements, it is noted that transport phenomena play a vital role in diverse processes in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, and biotech industries. Relatively little attention has been given to the role of gravity in such processes. Accordingly, numerous industrial processes and phenomena are identified which involve gravity and/or surface tension forces. Phase separations and mixing are examples that will be significantly different in low gravity conditions. A basis is presented for expanding the scope of the low gravity research program and the potential benefits of such research is indicated.

  14. Constraints on texture zero and cofactor zero models for neutrino mass

    SciTech Connect

    Whisnant, K.; Liao, Jiajun; Marfatia, D.

    2014-06-24

    Imposing a texture or cofactor zero on the neutrino mass matrix reduces the number of independent parameters from nine to seven. Since five parameters have been measured, only two independent parameters would remain in such models. We find the allowed regions for single texture zero and single cofactor zero models. We also find strong similarities between single texture zero models with one mass hierarchy and single cofactor zero models with the opposite mass hierarchy. We show that this correspondence can be generalized to texture-zero and cofactor-zero models with the same homogeneous costraints on the elements and cofactors.

  15. Constraints on texture zero and cofactor zero models for neutrino mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whisnant, K.; Liao, Jiajun; Marfatia, D.

    2014-06-01

    Imposing a texture or cofactor zero on the neutrino mass matrix reduces the number of independent parameters from nine to seven. Since five parameters have been measured, only two independent parameters would remain in such models. We find the allowed regions for single texture zero and single cofactor zero models. We also find strong similarities between single texture zero models with one mass hierarchy and single cofactor zero models with the opposite mass hierarchy. We show that this correspondence can be generalized to texture-zero and cofactor-zero models with the same homogeneous costraints on the elements and cofactors.

  16. f(R)-gravity from Killing tensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paliathanasis, Andronikos

    2016-04-01

    We consider f(R)-gravity in a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker spacetime with zero spatial curvature. We apply the Killing tensors of the minisuperspace in order to specify the functional form of f(R) and for the field equations to be invariant under Lie-Bäcklund transformations, which are linear in momentum (contact symmetries). Consequently, the field equations to admit quadratic conservation laws given by Noether’s theorem. We find three new integrable f(R)-models, for which, with the application of the conservation laws, we reduce the field equations to a system of two first-order ordinary differential equations. For each model we study the evolution of the cosmological fluid. We find that for each integrable model the cosmological fluid has an equation of state parameter, in which there is linear behavior in terms of the scale factor which describes the Chevallier, Polarski and Linder parametric dark energy model.

  17. Hardware development for Gravity Probe-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardas, D.; Cheung, W. S.; Gill, D.; Hacker, R.; Keiser, G. M.

    1986-01-01

    Gravity Probe-B (GP-B), also known as the Stanford Relativity Gyroscope Experiment, will test two fundamental predictions of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity by precise measurement of the precessions of nearly perfect gyroscopes in earth orbit. This endeavor embodies state-of-the-art technologies in many fields, including gyroscope fabrication and readout, cryogenics, superconductivity, magnetic shielding, precision optics and alignment methods, and satellite control systems. These technologies are necessary to enable measurement of the predicted precession rates to the milliarcsecond/year level, and to reduce to 'near zero' all non-General Relativistic torques on the gyroscopes. This paper provides a brief overview of the experiment followed by descriptions of several specific hardware items with highlights on progress to date and plans for future development and tests.

  18. Black hole remnant from gravity's rainbow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farag Ali, Ahmed

    2014-05-01

    In this work, we investigate black hole (BH) physics in the context of the gravity rainbow. We investigate this through rainbow functions that have been proposed by Amelino-Camelia [Living Rev. Relativity 16, 5 (2013)] and Amelino-Camelia et al. in [Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 12, 607 (1997)]. This modification will give corrections to both the temperature and the entropy of BHs, and hence it changes the picture of Hawking radiation greatly when the size of the BH approaches the Planck scale. It prevents the BH from total evaporation, predicting the existence of a BH remnant, which may resolve the catastrophic behavior of Hawking radiation as the BH mass approaches zero.

  19. Recent Advances in Conformal Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, James; Chaykov, Spasen

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, significant advances have been made in alternative gravitational theories. Although MOND remains the leading candidate among the alternative models, Conformal Gravity has been studied by Mannheim and O'Brien to solve the rotation curve problem without the need for dark matter. Recently, Mannheim, O'Brien and Chaykov have begun solving other gravitational questions in Conformal Gravity. In this presentation, we highlight the new work of Conformal Gravity's application to random motions of clusters (the original Zwicky problem), gravitational bending of light, gravitational lensing and a very recent survey of dwarf galaxy rotation curves. We will show in each case that Conformal Gravity can provide an accurate explanation and prediction of the data without the need for dark matter. Coupled with the fact that Conformal Gravity is a fully re-normalizable metric theory of gravity, these results help to push Conformal Gravity onto a competitive stage against other alternative models.

  20. Plant gravity sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sack, F. D.

    1991-01-01

    This review of plant gravity sensing examines sensing in organ gravitropism, sensing in single-cell gravitropism, and nongravitropic sensing. Topics related to sensing in organ gravitropism are (1) identification of the gravitropic susceptors, including intracellular asymmetry in equilibrium position and after reorientation, susceptor signal-to-noise ratio, signal integration over threshold stimulation periods, intracellular asymmetry and gravitropic competence, and starch deficiency and gravitropic competence; (2) possible root statocytes and receptors, including identification of presumptive statocytes, cytology, and possible receptors and models of sensing; and (3) negatively gravitropic organs, including identification and distribution of presumptive statocytes and cytology and possible receptors. Topics related to nongravitropic sensing include gravitaxis, reaction wood, gravimorphogenesis, other gravity-influenced organ movements, and cytoplasmic streaming.

  1. It's All Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murad, P. A.

    2003-01-01

    Newtonian gravitation adequately predicts planet and satellite motion. Gravitational anomalies and the wish to travel at relativistic speeds, however, imply that gravity should be integrated within a unification framework that may include electricity and magnetism. Thus, new theories are needed that predict currently accepted phenomenon as well as anomalies to prepare the necessary groundwork for experimental validation needed for advanced technology propulsion schemes and far-term missions. A primary deficiency is that we are obviously limited within the confines of our own solar system and a different gravity model may be applicable elsewhere in the cosmos. The model proposed here follows previous ideas proposed by Murad, Dyatlov, and Jefimenko for a universal gravitation model with an intrinsic radial force term coupled with angular momentum. Including angular momentum may explain several spin symmetries seen in some anomalous gyroscopic experiments and throughout the universe regarding planets that orbit around the sun: moons that orbit larger planetary bodies: and the rotation about each planetary axis.

  2. Local quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, N.; Knorr, B.; Meibohm, J.; Pawlowski, J. M.; Reichert, M.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the ultraviolet behavior of quantum gravity within a functional renormalization group approach. The present setup includes the full ghost and graviton propagators and, for the first time, the dynamical graviton three-point function. The latter gives access to the coupling of dynamical gravitons and makes the system minimally self-consistent. The resulting phase diagram confirms the asymptotic safety scenario in quantum gravity with a nontrivial UV fixed point. A well-defined Wilsonian block spinning requires locality of the flow in momentum space. This property is discussed in the context of functional renormalization group flows. We show that momentum locality of graviton correlation functions is nontrivially linked to diffeomorphism invariance, and is realized in the present setup.

  3. Gravity wave initiated convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    The vertical velocity of convection initiated by gravity waves was investigated. In one particular case, the convective motion-initiated and supported by the gravity wave-induced activity (excluding contributions made by other mechanisms) reached its maximum value about one hour before the production of the funnel clouds. In another case, both rawinsonde and geosynchronous satellite imagery were used to study the life cycles of severe convective storms. Cloud modelling with input sounding data and rapid-scan imagery from GOES were used to investigate storm cloud formation, development and dissipation in terms of growth and collapse of cloud tops, as well as, the life cycles of the penetration of overshooting turrets above the tropopause. The results based on these two approaches are presented and discussed.

  4. Antimatter gravity experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.E.; Camp, J.B.; Darling, T.W.

    1990-01-01

    An experiment is being developed to measure the acceleration of the antiproton in the gravitational field of the earth. Antiprotons of a few MeV from the LEAR facility at CERN will be slowed, captured, cooled to a temperature of about 10 K, and subsequently launched a few at a time into a drift tube where the effect of gravity on their motion will be determined by a time-of-flight method. Development of the experiment is proceeding at Los Alamos using normal matter. The fabrication of a drift tube that will produce a region of space in which gravity is the dominant force on moving ions is of major difficulty. This involves a study of methods of minimizing the electric fields produced by spatially varying work functions on conducting surfaces. Progress in a number of areas is described, with stress on the drift-tube development.

  5. Observables in effective gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Giddings, Steven B.; Marolf, Donald; Hartle, James B.

    2006-09-15

    We address the construction and interpretation of diffeomorphism-invariant observables in a low-energy effective theory of quantum gravity. The observables we consider are constructed as integrals over the space of coordinates, in analogy to the construction of gauge-invariant observables in Yang-Mills theory via traces. As such, they are explicitly nonlocal. Nevertheless we describe how, in suitable quantum states and in a suitable limit, the familiar physics of local quantum field theory can be recovered from appropriate such observables, which we term ''pseudolocal.'' We consider measurement of pseudolocal observables, and describe how such measurements are limited by both quantum effects and gravitational interactions. These limitations support suggestions that theories of quantum gravity associated with finite regions of spacetime contain far fewer degrees of freedom than do local field theories.

  6. Gravity gradient study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, C. C.

    1971-01-01

    The results of the noise and drift test, and the comparison of the experimental simulation tests with the theoretical predictions, confirm that the rotating gravity gradiometer is capable of extracting information about mascon distributions from lunar orbit, and that the sensitivity of the sensor is adequate for lunar orbital selenodesy. The experimental work also verified analytical and computer models for the directional and time response of the sensor.

  7. Gravity in Greenland

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.J.; Goldman, T.; Nieto, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary results of the test of the Newtonian Law of Gravitation conducted by Ander et al., in a borehole in the Greenland ice-cap were reported at this meeting. In this paper we consider the interpretations of these results in terms of a non-Newtonian component of gravity, and compare them with the results of other geophysical inverse-square law tests. 8 refs.

  8. Covariant Loop Quantum Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovelli, Carlo; Vidotto, Francesca

    2014-11-01

    Preface; Part I. Foundations: 1. Spacetime as a quantum object; 2. Physics without time; 3. Gravity; 4. Classical discretization; Part II. The 3D Theory: 5. 3D Euclidean theory; 6. Bubbles and cosmological constant; Part III. The Real World: 7. The real world: 4D Lorentzian theory; 8. Classical limit; 9. Matter; Part IV. Physical Applications: 10. Black holes; 11. Cosmology; 12. Scattering; 13. Final remarks; References; Index.

  9. Gravity, Time, and Lagrangians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Elisha

    2010-01-01

    Feynman mentioned to us that he understood a topic in physics if he could explain it to a college freshman, a high school student, or a dinner guest. Here we will discuss two topics that took us a while to get to that level. One is the relationship between gravity and time. The other is the minus sign that appears in the Lagrangian. (Why would one…

  10. New improved massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dereli, T.; Yetişmişoğlu, C.

    2016-06-01

    We derive the field equations for topologically massive gravity coupled with the most general quadratic curvature terms using the language of exterior differential forms and a first-order constrained variational principle. We find variational field equations both in the presence and absence of torsion. We then show that spaces of constant negative curvature (i.e. the anti de-Sitter space AdS 3) and constant torsion provide exact solutions.

  11. Landau levels and Riemann zeros.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Germán; Townsend, Paul K

    2008-09-12

    The number N(E) of complex zeros of the Riemann zeta function with positive imaginary part less than E is the sum of a "smooth" function N[over ](E) and a "fluctuation." Berry and Keating have shown that the asymptotic expansion of N[over ](E) counts states of positive energy less than E in a "regularized" semiclassical model with classical Hamiltonian H=xp. For a different regularization, Connes has shown that it counts states "missing" from a continuum. Here we show how the "absorption spectrum" model of Connes emerges as the lowest Landau level limit of a specific quantum-mechanical model for a charged particle on a planar surface in an electric potential and uniform magnetic field. We suggest a role for the higher Landau levels in the fluctuation part of N(E).

  12. D-Zero Vacuum System

    SciTech Connect

    Wintercorn, S.J.; /Fermilab

    1986-04-07

    The system pumping speed was calculated by taking the reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocal pump speed and the reciprocal line conductances. The conductances of the pipe were calculated from the following formulas taken from the Varian vacuum manual. This report updates the original to reflect the pumping curves and basic vacuum system characteristics for the purchased components and installed piping of the D-Zero vacuum system. The system consists of two Edward's E2M275 two stage mechanical pumps, a Leybold-Heraeus WSU2000 Blower and three Varian 4' diffusion pumps (one for each cryostat). Individual pump and system pumping speed curves and a diagram of the system is included.

  13. Magnetic bearings with zero bias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.; Grodsinsky, Carlos M.

    1991-01-01

    A magnetic bearing operating without a bias field has supported a shaft rotating at speeds up to 12,000 rpm with the usual four power supplies and with only two. A magnetic bearing is commonly operated with a bias current equal to half of the maximum current allowable in its coils. This linearizes the relation between net force and control current and improves the force slewing rate and hence the band width. The steady bias current dissipates power, even when no force is required from the bearing. The power wasted is equal to two-thirds of the power at maximum force output. Examined here is the zero bias idea. The advantages and disadvantages are noted.

  14. Branes in Gravity's Rainbow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashour, Amani; Faizal, Mir; Ali, Ahmed Farag; Hammad, Fayçal

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we investigate the thermodynamics of black p-branes (BB) in the context of Gravity's Rainbow. We investigate this using rainbow functions that have been motivated from loop quantum gravity and κ -Minkowski non-commutative spacetime. Then for the sake of comparison, we examine a couple of other rainbow functions that have also appeared in the literature. We show that, for consistency, Gravity's Rainbow imposes a constraint on the minimum mass of the BB, a constraint that we interpret here as implying the existence of a black p-brane remnant. This interpretation is supported by the computation of the black p-brane's heat capacity that shows that the latter vanishes when the Schwarzschild radius takes on a value that is bigger than its extremal limit. We found that the same conclusion is reached for the third version of rainbow functions treated here but not with the second one for which only standard black p-brane thermodynamics is recovered.

  15. Granular Superconductors and Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David; Koczor, Ron

    1999-01-01

    As a Bose condensate, superconductors provide novel conditions for revisiting previously proposed couplings between electromagnetism and gravity. Strong variations in Cooper pair density, large conductivity and low magnetic permeability define superconductive and degenerate condensates without the traditional density limits imposed by the Fermi energy (approx. 10(exp -6) g cu cm). Recent experiments have reported anomalous weight loss for a test mass suspended above a rotating Type II, YBCO superconductor, with a relatively high percentage change (0.05-2.1%) independent of the test mass' chemical composition and diamagnetic properties. A variation of 5 parts per 104 was reported above a stationary (non-rotating) superconductor. In experiments using a sensitive gravimeter, bulk YBCO superconductors were stably levitated in a DC magnetic field and exposed without levitation to low-field strength AC magnetic fields. Changes in observed gravity signals were measured to be less than 2 parts in 108 of the normal gravitational acceleration. Given the high sensitivity of the test, future work will examine variants on the basic magnetic behavior of granular superconductors, with particular focus on quantifying their proposed importance to gravity.

  16. Variable gravity research facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Eight fourth-year engineering design students formed two teams to study methods of varying the perceived gravity level in a variable gravity research facility. A tether system and an arm system were the chosen topics. Both teams have produced and built scale models of their design. In addition, a three-credit Special Topics Course (Aviation 370) was formed, as the project offers an excellent opportunity to build a multi-disciplinary program around the initial conceptualization process. Fifty students were registered in the Special Topics course. Each week during a three hour class, a guest lecturer covered one or more of the many areas associated with the concept of a variable-gravity facility. The students formed small groups organized on a multi-disciplinary basis (there were twelve separate disciplines represented by one or more students) where they discussed among themselves the various issues involved. These groups also met outside class for three or more hours each week. During class each group presented oral reports on their findings during a one-hour general question and answer period.

  17. Quantum gravity and renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anselmi, Damiano

    2015-01-01

    The properties of quantum gravity are reviewed from the point of view of renormalization. Various attempts to overcome the problem of non-renormalizability are presented, and the reasons why most of them fail for quantum gravity are discussed. Interesting possibilities come from relaxing the locality assumption, which also can inspire the investigation of a largely unexplored sector of quantum field theory. Another possibility is to work with infinitely many independent couplings, and search for physical quantities that only depend on a finite subset of them. In this spirit, it is useful to organize the classical action of quantum gravity, determined by renormalization, in a convenient way. Taking advantage of perturbative local field redefinitions, we write the action as the sum of the Hilbert term, the cosmological term, a peculiar scalar that is important only in higher dimensions, plus invariants constructed with at least three Weyl tensors. We show that the FRLW configurations, and many other locally conformally flat metrics, are exact solutions of the field equations in arbitrary dimensions d>3. If the metric is expanded around such configurations the quadratic part of the action is free of higher-time derivatives. Other well-known metrics, such as those of black holes, are instead affected in nontrivial ways by the classical corrections of quantum origin.

  18. Spherically symmetric conformal gravity and ''gravitational bubbles''

    SciTech Connect

    Berezin, V.A.; Dokuchaev, V.I.; Eroshenko, Yu.N. E-mail: dokuchaev@inr.ac.ru

    2016-01-01

    The general structure of the spherically symmetric solutions in the Weyl conformal gravity is described. The corresponding Bach equations are derived for the special type of metrics, which can be considered as the representative of the general class. The complete set of the pure vacuum solutions is found. It consists of two classes. The first one contains the solutions with constant two-dimensional curvature scalar of our specific metrics, and the representatives are the famous Robertson-Walker metrics. One of them we called the ''gravitational bubbles'', which is compact and with zero Weyl tensor. Thus, we obtained the pure vacuum curved space-times (without any material sources, including the cosmological constant) what is absolutely impossible in General Relativity. Such a phenomenon makes it easier to create the universe from ''nothing''. The second class consists of the solutions with varying curvature scalar. We found its representative as the one-parameter family. It appears that it can be conformally covered by the thee-parameter Mannheim-Kazanas solution. We also investigated the general structure of the energy-momentum tensor in the spherical conformal gravity and constructed the vectorial equation that reveals clearly some features of non-vacuum solutions. Two of them are explicitly written, namely, the metrics à la Vaidya, and the electrovacuum space-time metrics.

  19. Locomotion in simulated microgravity: gravity replacement loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCrory, Jean L.; Baron, Heidi A.; Balkin, Sandy; Cavanagh, Peter R.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: When an astronaut walks or runs on a treadmill in microgravity, a subject load device (SLD) is used to return him or her back to the treadmill belt. The gravity replacement load (GRL) in the SLD is transferred, via a harness, to the pelvis and/or the shoulders. This research compared comfort and ground reaction forces during treadmill running in a microgravity locomotion simulator at GRLs of 60%, 80%, and 100% of body weight (BW). Two harness designs (shoulder springs only (SSO) and waist and shoulder springs (WSS)) were used. HYPOTHESES: 1) The 100% BW gravity replacement load conditions would be comfortably tolerated and would result in larger ground reaction forces and loading rates than the lower load conditions, and 2) the WSS harness would be more comfortable than the SSO harness. METHODS: Using the Penn State Zero Gravity Locomotion Simulator (ZLS), 8 subjects ran at 2.0 m x s(-1) (4.5 mph) for 3 min at each GRL setting in each harness. Subjective ratings of harness comfort, ground reaction forces, and GRL data were collected during the final minute of exercise. RESULTS: The 100% BW loading conditions were comfortably tolerated (2.3 on a scale of 0-10), although discomfort increased as the GRL increased. There were no overall differences in perceived comfort between the two harnesses. The loading rates (27.1, 33.8, 39.1 BW x s(-1)) and the magnitudes of the first (1.0, 1.4, 1.6 BW) and second (1.3, 1.7, 1.9 BW) peaks of the ground reaction force increased with increasing levels (60, 80, 100% BW respectively) of GRL. CONCLUSIONS: Subjects were able to tolerate a GRL of 100% BW well. The magnitude of the ground reaction force peaks and the loading rate is directly related to the magnitude of the GRL.

  20. Phenomenology in minimal theory of massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Felice, Antonio; Mukohyama, Shinji

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the minimal theory of massive gravity (MTMG) recently introduced. After reviewing the original construction based on its Hamiltonian in the vielbein formalism, we reformulate it in terms of its Lagrangian in both the vielbein and the metric formalisms. It then becomes obvious that, unlike previous attempts in the literature of Lorentz-violating massive gravity, not only the potential but also the kinetic structure of the action is modified from the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity theory. We confirm that the number of physical degrees of freedom in MTMG is two at fully nonlinear level. This proves the absence of various possible pathologies such as superluminality, acausality and strong coupling. Afterwards, we discuss the phenomenology of MTMG in the presence of a dust fluid. We find that on a flat homogeneous and isotropic background we have two branches. One of them (self-accelerating branch) naturally leads to acceleration without the genuine cosmological constant or dark energy. For this branch both the scalar and the vector modes behave exactly as in general relativity (GR). The phenomenology of this branch differs from GR in the tensor modes sector, as the tensor modes acquire a non-zero mass. Hence, MTMG serves as a stable nonlinear completion of the self-accelerating cosmological solution found originally in dRGT theory. The other branch (normal branch) has a dynamics which depends on the time-dependent fiducial metric. For the normal branch, the scalar mode sector, even though as in GR only one scalar mode is present (due to the dust fluid), differs from the one in GR, and, in general, structure formation will follow a different phenomenology. The tensor modes will be massive, whereas the vector modes, for both branches, will have the same phenomenology as in GR.

  1. Algebraic quantum gravity (AQG): I. Conceptual setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giesel, K.; Thiemann, T.

    2007-05-01

    We introduce a new top down approach to canonical quantum gravity, called algebraic quantum gravity (AQG). The quantum kinematics of AQG is determined by an abstract *-algebra generated by a countable set of elementary operators labelled by an algebraic graph. The quantum dynamics of AQG is governed by a single master constraint operator. While AQG is inspired by loop quantum gravity (LQG), it differs drastically from it because in AQG there is fundamentally no topology or differential structure. A natural Hilbert space representation acquires the structure of an infinite tensor product (ITP) whose separable strong equivalence class Hilbert subspaces (sectors) are left invariant by the quantum dynamics. The missing information about the topology and differential structure of the spacetime manifold as well as about the background metric to be approximated is supplied by coherent states. Given such data, the corresponding coherent state defines a sector in the ITP which can be identified with a usual QFT on the given manifold and background. Thus, AQG contains QFT on all curved spacetimes at once, possibly has something to say about topology change and provides the contact with the familiar low energy physics. In particular, in two companion papers we develop semiclassical perturbation theory for AQG and LQG and thereby show that the theory admits a semiclassical limit whose infinitesimal gauge symmetry agrees with that of general relativity. In AQG everything is computable with sufficient precision and no UV divergences arise due to the background independence of the fundamental combinatorial structure. Hence, in contrast to lattice gauge theory on a background metric, no continuum limit has to be taken. There simply is no lattice regulator that must be sent to zero.

  2. Perturbations of nested branes with induced gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Sbisà, Fulvio; Koyama, Kazuya E-mail: kazuya.koyama@port.ac.uk

    2014-06-01

    We study the behaviour of weak gravitational fields in models where a 4D brane is embedded inside a 5D brane equipped with induced gravity, which in turn is embedded in a 6D spacetime. We consider a specific regularization of the branes internal structures where the 5D brane can be considered thin with respect to the 4D one. We find exact solutions corresponding to pure tension source configurations on the thick 4D brane, and study perturbations at first order around these background solutions. To perform the perturbative analysis, we adopt a bulk-based approach and we express the equations in terms of gauge invariant and master variables using a 4D scalar-vector-tensor decomposition. We then propose an ansatz on the behaviour of the perturbation fields when the thickness of the 4D brane goes to zero, which corresponds to configurations where gravity remains finite everywhere in the thin limit of the 4D brane. We study the equations of motion using this ansatz, and show that they give rise to a consistent set of differential equations in the thin limit, from which the details of the internal structure of the 4D brane disappear. We conclude that the thin limit of the ''ribbon'' 4D brane inside the (already thin) 5D brane is well defined (at least when considering first order perturbations around pure tension configurations), and that the gravitational field on the 4D brane remains finite in the thin limit. We comment on the crucial role of the induced gravity term on the 5D brane.

  3. Gravity field information from Gravity Probe-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. E.; Lerch, F. J.; Colombo, O. L.; Everitt, C. W. F.

    1989-01-01

    The Gravity Probe-B Mission will carry the Stanford Gyroscope relativity experiment into orbit in the mid 1990's, as well as a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver whose tracking data will be used to study the earth gravity field. Estimates of the likely quality of a gravity field model to be derived from the GPS data are presented, and the significance of this experiment to geodesy and geophysics are discussed.

  4. Rotating gravity currents. Part 1. Energy loss theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, J. R.; Lane-Serff, G. F.

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive energy loss theory for gravity currents in rotating rectangular channels is presented. The model is an extension of the non-rotating energy loss theory of Benjamin (J. Fluid Mech. vol. 31, 1968, p. 209) and the steady-state dissipationless theory of rotating gravity currents of Hacker (PhD thesis, 1996). The theory assumes the fluid is inviscid, there is no shear within the current, and the Boussinesq approximation is made. Dissipation is introduced using a simple method. A head loss term is introduced into the Bernoulli equation and it is assumed that the energy loss is uniform across the stream. Conservation of momentum, volume flux and potential vorticity between upstream and downstream locations is then considered. By allowing for energy dissipation, results are obtained for channels of arbitrary depth and width (relative to the current). The results match those from earlier workers in the two limits of (i) zero rotation (but including dissipation) and (ii) zero dissipation (but including rotation). Three types of flow are identified as the effect of rotation increases, characterized in terms of the location of the outcropping interface between the gravity current and the ambient fluid on the channel boundaries. The parameters for transitions between these cases are quantified, as is the detailed behaviour of the flow in all cases. In particular, the speed of the current can be predicted for any given channel depth and width. As the channel depth increases, the predicted Froude number tends to surd 2, as for non-rotating flows.

  5. Gravity-dependent estimates of object mass underlie the generation of motor commands for horizontal limb movements.

    PubMed

    Crevecoeur, F; McIntyre, J; Thonnard, J-L; Lefèvre, P

    2014-07-15

    Moving requires handling gravitational and inertial constraints pulling on our body and on the objects that we manipulate. Although previous work emphasized that the brain uses internal models of each type of mechanical load, little is known about their interaction during motor planning and execution. In this report, we examine visually guided reaching movements in the horizontal plane performed by naive participants exposed to changes in gravity during parabolic flight. This approach allowed us to isolate the effect of gravity because the environmental dynamics along the horizontal axis remained unchanged. We show that gravity has a direct effect on movement kinematics, with faster movements observed after transitions from normal gravity to hypergravity (1.8g), followed by significant movement slowing after the transition from hypergravity to zero gravity. We recorded finger forces applied on an object held in precision grip and found that the coupling between grip force and inertial loads displayed a similar effect, with an increase in grip force modulation gain under hypergravity followed by a reduction of modulation gain after entering the zero-gravity environment. We present a computational model to illustrate that these effects are compatible with the hypothesis that participants partially attribute changes in weight to changes in mass and scale incorrectly their motor commands with changes in gravity. These results highlight a rather direct internal mapping between the force generated during stationary holding against gravity and the estimation of inertial loads that limb and hand motor commands must overcome.

  6. Mars gravity and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bills, B. G.; Mischna, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    How accurately do we need to measure seasonal variations in Mars gravity, in order to significantly contribute to an understanding of the seasonal climate cycle? It has long been understood that seasonal cycles of volatile mass transport on Mars, mainly involving CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and the polar caps, will change the gravitational field by measurable amounts. In recent years, the gravitational field models, which are obtained from measured Doppler shifts in the tracking data for Mars-orbiting satellites, have become accurate enough that they can resolve some seasonal variations. However, the present models only resolve seasonal cycles for two parameters, nominally J2 and J3, which are zonal components of degree 2 and 3, respectively. In fact, what is actually observed is an unresolved linear combination of even degree zonals, in the guise of J2, and a similar combination of odd degree zonals for J3. Mars climate models are currently constrained mainly by the surface atmospheric pressure measurements made at the two Viking Lander sites. Wood and Paige (1992) showed that the observed seasonal pressure cycles at these two locations can be very well simulated by a simple one-dimensional surface thermal balance model, when its 6 free parameters (separate values for albedo and emissivity for each polar cap, and a soil thermal inertia for each hemisphere ) are properly chosen. However, it also emerged that the preferred values for albedo and emissivity are quite different from those obtained via optical remote sensing. It thus appears that the 1-D climate model yields aliased estimates of these parameters. It seems clear that, if we had sufficiently accurate gravity measurements, it would be equivalent to having a global grid of effective Viking Lander pressure measurements, with the number of grid points related to the spatial resolution of the gravity measurements. For example, if the seasonal variations were seen in a full Nth degree and order gravity

  7. Zero-Cost Estimation of Zero-Point Energies.

    PubMed

    Császár, Attila G; Furtenbacher, Tibor

    2015-10-01

    An additive, linear, atom-type-based (ATB) scheme is developed allowing no-cost estimation of zero-point vibrational energies (ZPVE) of neutral, closed-shell molecules in their ground electronic states. The atom types employed correspond to those defined within the MM2 molecular mechanics force field approach. The reference training set of 156 molecules cover chained and branched alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes and cycloalkenes, alkynes, alcohols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, amines, amides, ethers, esters, ketones, benzene derivatives, heterocycles, nucleobases, all the natural amino acids, some dipeptides and sugars, as well as further simple molecules and ones containing several structural units, including several vitamins. A weighted linear least-squares fit of atom-type-based ZPVE increments results in recommended values for the following atoms, with the number of atom types defined in parentheses: H(8), D(1), B(1), C(6), N(7), O(3), F(1), Si(1), P(2), S(3), and Cl(1). The average accuracy of the ATB ZPVEs is considerably better than 1 kcal mol(-1), that is, better than chemical accuracy. The proposed ATB scheme could be extended to many more atoms and atom types, following a careful validation procedure; deviation from the MM2 atom types seems to be necessary, especially for third-row elements. PMID:26398318

  8. Effect of gravity on the stability and structure of lean hydrogen-air flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, G.; Kailasanath, K.

    1991-01-01

    Detailed, time-dependent, 2D numerical simulations with full hydrogen-oxygen chemistry are used to investigate the effects of gravity on the stability and structure of laminar flames in lean, premixed hydrogen-air mixtures. The calculations show that the effects of gravity becomes more important as the lean flammability limit is approached. In a 12 percent hydrogen-air mixture, gravity plays only a secondary role in determining the multidimensional structure of the flame with the stability and structure of the flame controlled primarily by the thermo-diffusive instability mechanism. However, in leaner hydrogen-air mixtures gravity becomes more important. Upward-propagating flames are highly curved and evolve into a bubble rising upwards in the tube. Downward-propagating flames are flat or even oscillate between structures with concave and convex curvatures. The zero-gravity flame shows only cellular structures. Cellular structures which are present in zero gravity can be suppressed by the effect of buoyancy for mixtures leaner than 11 percent hydrogen. These observations are explained on the basis of an interaction between the processes leading to buoyancy-induced Rayleigh-Taylor instability and the thermo-diffusive instability.

  9. Zero sound in dipolar Fermi gases

    SciTech Connect

    Ronen, Shai; Bohn, John L.

    2010-03-15

    We study the propagation of sound in a homogeneous dipolar gas at zero temperature, which is known as zero sound. We find that undamped zero sound propagation is possible only in a range of solid angles around the direction of polarization of the dipoles. Above a critical dipole moment, we find an unstable mode, by which the gas collapses locally perpendicular to the dipoles' direction.

  10. Collected Calculations in Quantum Gravity and QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawhill, Bruce Kean

    In the first part of this thesis, I present a calculation of the helicity amplitudes of electron-positron double bremsstrahlung in the massless limit. Using a representation for free photon polarizations developed by a group of European physicists, helicity amplitudes for double bremsstrahlung in the massless limit are calculated for all possible combinations of helicities in the two incoming and four outgoing particle states. The calculation is made possible by the vast simplification which occurs at the amplitude level because of the gauge cancellations caused by expressing the photon polarizations in terms of the fermion momenta to which they are attached. The results of the calculation are discussed in terms of possible use as a polarization monitor for future generations of colliding beam machines in which the beams could be polarized. It is found that, although the total cross-section is easily measured experimentally, the polarization asymmetry is very difficult to measure unless the flux is very high. The possibility of using double bremsstrahlung as a means of analyzing the zed-zero is discussed. The applications for this purpose are very promising, as the shape and amplitude of the cross-section are very dependent on the chiral structure of the mediating particle. In the second part of this work, I present a calculation of the cosmological constant to two loops in matterless quantum gravity. A quantization method originally developed by 't Hooft and Veltman and later modified by M. Mueller is used. This is the standard path integral formulation of gravity modified such that it takes into account the dependence of the action functional on the fluctuating metric, an effect which is normally discarded because dimensional regularization nullifies its contributions. The purpose of the calculation was to explore more fully an intriguing result found by Mark Mueller while performing the same calculation to one-loop order; namely, the quantum corrections to the

  11. Geometric scalar theory of gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Novello, M.; Bittencourt, E.; Goulart, E.; Salim, J.M.; Toniato, J.D.; Moschella, U. E-mail: eduhsb@cbpf.br E-mail: egoulart@cbpf.br E-mail: toniato@cbpf.br

    2013-06-01

    We present a geometric scalar theory of gravity. Our proposal will be described using the ''background field method'' introduced by Gupta, Feynman, Deser and others as a field theory formulation of general relativity. We analyze previous criticisms against scalar gravity and show how the present proposal avoids these difficulties. This concerns not only the theoretical complaints but also those related to observations. In particular, we show that the widespread belief of the conjecture that the source of scalar gravity must be the trace of the energy-momentum tensor — which is one of the main difficulties to couple gravity with electromagnetic phenomenon in previous models — does not apply to our geometric scalar theory. From the very beginning this is not a special relativistic scalar gravity. The adjective ''geometric'' pinpoints its similarity with general relativity: this is a metric theory of gravity. Some consequences of this new scalar theory are explored.

  12. NASA Net Zero Energy Buildings Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Pless, S.; Scheib, J.; Torcellini, P.; Hendron, B.; Slovensky, M.

    2014-10-01

    In preparation for the time-phased net zero energy requirement for new federal buildings starting in 2020, set forth in Executive Order 13514, NASA requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a roadmap for NASA's compliance. NASA detailed a Statement of Work that requested information on strategic, organizational, and tactical aspects of net zero energy buildings. In response, this document presents a high-level approach to net zero energy planning, design, construction, and operations, based on NREL's first-hand experience procuring net zero energy construction, and based on NREL and other industry research on net zero energy feasibility. The strategic approach to net zero energy starts with an interpretation of the executive order language relating to net zero energy. Specifically, this roadmap defines a net zero energy acquisition process as one that sets an aggressive energy use intensity goal for the building in project planning, meets the reduced demand goal through energy efficiency strategies and technologies, then adds renewable energy in a prioritized manner, using building-associated, emission- free sources first, to offset the annual energy use required at the building; the net zero energy process extends through the life of the building, requiring a balance of energy use and production in each calendar year.

  13. Zero-distortion lossless data embedding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraj, Nithin; Mullick, Rakesh

    2004-05-01

    All known methods of lossless or reversible data embedding that exist today suffer from two major disadvantages: 1) The embedded image suffers from distortion, however small it may be by the very process of embedding and 2) The requirement of a special parser (decoder), which is necessary for the client to remove the embedded data in order to obtain the original image (lossless). We propose a novel lossless data embedding method where both these disadvantages are circumvented. Zero-distortion lossless data embedding (ZeroD-LDE) claims 'zero-distortion' of the embedded image for all viewing purposes and further maintaining that clients without any specialized parser can still recover the original image losslessly but would not have direct access to the embedded data. The fact that not all gray levels are used by most images is exploited to embed data by selective lossless compression of run-lengths of zeros (or any compressible pattern). Contiguous runs of zeros are changed such that the leading zero is made equal to the maximum original intensity plus the run-length and the succeeding zeros are converted to the embedded data (plus maximum original intensity) thus achieving extremely high embedding capacities. This way, the histograms of the host-data and the embedded data do not overlap and hence we can obtain zero-distortion by using the window-level setting of standard DICOM viewers. The embedded image is thus not only DICOM compatible but also zero-distortion visually and requires no clinical validation.

  14. Materials analogue of zero-stiffness structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Arun; Subramaniam, Anandh

    2011-04-01

    Anglepoise lamps and certain tensegrities are examples of zero-stiffness structures. These structures are in a state of neutral equilibrium with respect to changes in configuration of the system. Using Eshelby's example of an edge dislocation in a thin plate that can bend, we report the discovery of a non-trivial new class of material structures as an analogue to zero-stiffness structures. For extended positions of the edge dislocation in these structures, the dislocation experiences a zero image force. Salient features of these material structures along with the key differences from conventional zero-stiffness structures are pointed out.

  15. Module theoretic zero structures for system matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyman, Bostwick F.; Sain, Michael K.

    1987-01-01

    The coordinate-free module-theoretic treatment of transmission zeros for MIMO transfer functions developed by Wyman and Sain (1981) is generalized to include noncontrollable and nonobservable linear dynamical systems. Rational, finitely-generated-modular, and torsion-divisible interpretations of the Rosenbrock system matrix are presented; Gamma-zero and Omega-zero modules are defined and shown to contain the output-decoupling and input-decoupling zero modules, respectively, as submodules; and the cases of left and right invertible transfer functions are considered.

  16. Cascading gravity is ghost free

    SciTech Connect

    Rham, Claudia de; Khoury, Justin; Tolley, Andrew J.

    2010-06-15

    We perform a full perturbative stability analysis of the 6D cascading gravity model in the presence of 3-brane tension. We demonstrate that for sufficiently large tension on the (flat) 3-brane, there are no ghosts at the perturbative level, consistent with results that had previously only been obtained in a specific 5D decoupling limit. These results establish the cascading gravity framework as a consistent infrared modification of gravity.

  17. Cosmological tests of modified gravity.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Kazuya

    2016-04-01

    We review recent progress in the construction of modified gravity models as alternatives to dark energy as well as the development of cosmological tests of gravity. Einstein's theory of general relativity (GR) has been tested accurately within the local universe i.e. the Solar System, but this leaves the possibility open that it is not a good description of gravity at the largest scales in the Universe. This being said, the standard model of cosmology assumes GR on all scales. In 1998, astronomers made the surprising discovery that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, not slowing down. This late-time acceleration of the Universe has become the most challenging problem in theoretical physics. Within the framework of GR, the acceleration would originate from an unknown dark energy. Alternatively, it could be that there is no dark energy and GR itself is in error on cosmological scales. In this review, we first give an overview of recent developments in modified gravity theories including f(R) gravity, braneworld gravity, Horndeski theory and massive/bigravity theory. We then focus on common properties these models share, such as screening mechanisms they use to evade the stringent Solar System tests. Once armed with a theoretical knowledge of modified gravity models, we move on to discuss how we can test modifications of gravity on cosmological scales. We present tests of gravity using linear cosmological perturbations and review the latest constraints on deviations from the standard [Formula: see text]CDM model. Since screening mechanisms leave distinct signatures in the non-linear structure formation, we also review novel astrophysical tests of gravity using clusters, dwarf galaxies and stars. The last decade has seen a number of new constraints placed on gravity from astrophysical to cosmological scales. Thanks to on-going and future surveys, cosmological tests of gravity will enjoy another, possibly even more, exciting ten years. PMID:27007681

  18. Astrophysical aspects of Weyl gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, Demosthenes

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the astrophysical implications and applications of Weyl gravity, which is the theory resulting from the unique action allowed under the principle of local scale invariance in Einstein gravity. These applications include galactic dynamics, the mass-radius relation, the cosmological constant, and the 'Modified Newtonian Dynamics' proposed by Milgrom (1983). The relation of Weyl gravity to other scale-invariant theories is addressed.

  19. Cosmological tests of modified gravity.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Kazuya

    2016-04-01

    We review recent progress in the construction of modified gravity models as alternatives to dark energy as well as the development of cosmological tests of gravity. Einstein's theory of general relativity (GR) has been tested accurately within the local universe i.e. the Solar System, but this leaves the possibility open that it is not a good description of gravity at the largest scales in the Universe. This being said, the standard model of cosmology assumes GR on all scales. In 1998, astronomers made the surprising discovery that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, not slowing down. This late-time acceleration of the Universe has become the most challenging problem in theoretical physics. Within the framework of GR, the acceleration would originate from an unknown dark energy. Alternatively, it could be that there is no dark energy and GR itself is in error on cosmological scales. In this review, we first give an overview of recent developments in modified gravity theories including f(R) gravity, braneworld gravity, Horndeski theory and massive/bigravity theory. We then focus on common properties these models share, such as screening mechanisms they use to evade the stringent Solar System tests. Once armed with a theoretical knowledge of modified gravity models, we move on to discuss how we can test modifications of gravity on cosmological scales. We present tests of gravity using linear cosmological perturbations and review the latest constraints on deviations from the standard [Formula: see text]CDM model. Since screening mechanisms leave distinct signatures in the non-linear structure formation, we also review novel astrophysical tests of gravity using clusters, dwarf galaxies and stars. The last decade has seen a number of new constraints placed on gravity from astrophysical to cosmological scales. Thanks to on-going and future surveys, cosmological tests of gravity will enjoy another, possibly even more, exciting ten years.

  20. Cosmological tests of modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Kazuya

    2016-04-01

    We review recent progress in the construction of modified gravity models as alternatives to dark energy as well as the development of cosmological tests of gravity. Einstein’s theory of general relativity (GR) has been tested accurately within the local universe i.e. the Solar System, but this leaves the possibility open that it is not a good description of gravity at the largest scales in the Universe. This being said, the standard model of cosmology assumes GR on all scales. In 1998, astronomers made the surprising discovery that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, not slowing down. This late-time acceleration of the Universe has become the most challenging problem in theoretical physics. Within the framework of GR, the acceleration would originate from an unknown dark energy. Alternatively, it could be that there is no dark energy and GR itself is in error on cosmological scales. In this review, we first give an overview of recent developments in modified gravity theories including f(R) gravity, braneworld gravity, Horndeski theory and massive/bigravity theory. We then focus on common properties these models share, such as screening mechanisms they use to evade the stringent Solar System tests. Once armed with a theoretical knowledge of modified gravity models, we move on to discuss how we can test modifications of gravity on cosmological scales. We present tests of gravity using linear cosmological perturbations and review the latest constraints on deviations from the standard Λ CDM model. Since screening mechanisms leave distinct signatures in the non-linear structure formation, we also review novel astrophysical tests of gravity using clusters, dwarf galaxies and stars. The last decade has seen a number of new constraints placed on gravity from astrophysical to cosmological scales. Thanks to on-going and future surveys, cosmological tests of gravity will enjoy another, possibly even more, exciting ten years.

  1. An inverse dynamic analysis on the influence of upper limb gravity compensation during reaching.

    PubMed

    Essers, J M N Hans; Meijer, Kenneth; Murgia, Alessio; Bergsma, Arjen; Verstegen, Paul

    2013-06-01

    Muscular dystrophies (MDs) are characterized by progressive muscle wasting and weakness. Several studies have been conducted to investigate the influence of arm supports in an attempt to restore arm function. Lowering the load allows the user to employ the residual muscle force for movement as well as for posture stabilization. In this pilot study three conditions were investigated during a reaching task performed by three healthy subjects and three MD subjects: a control condition involving reaching; a similar movement with gravity compensation using braces to support the forearm; an identical reaching movement in simulated zero-gravity. In the control condition the highest values of shoulder moments were present, with a maximum of about 6 Nm for shoulder flexion and abduction. In the gravity compensation and zero gravity conditions the maximum shoulder moments were decreased by more than 70% and instead of increasing during reaching, they remained almost unvaried, fluctuating around an offset value less than 1 Nm. Similarly, the elbow moments in the control condition were the highest with a peak around 3.3 Nm for elbow flexion, while the moments were substantially reduced in the remaining two conditions, fluctuating around offset values between 0 to 0.5 Nm. In conclusion, gravity compensation by lower arm support is effective in healthy subjects and MD subjects and lowers the amount of shoulder and elbow moments by an amount comparable to a zero gravity environment. However the influence of gravity compensation still needs to be investigated on more people with MDs in order to quantify any beneficial effect on this population.

  2. Gravity: Simple Experiments for Young Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Larry

    This book contains 12 simple experiments through which students can learn about gravity and its implications. Some of the topics included are weight, weightlessness, artificial gravity, the pull of gravity on different shapes, center of gravity, the universal law of gravity, and balancing. Experiments include: finding the balancing point; weighing…

  3. Teleparallel equivalent of Lovelock gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, P. A.; Vásquez, Yerko

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing interest in modified gravity theories based on torsion, as these theories exhibit interesting cosmological implications. In this work inspired by the teleparallel formulation of general relativity, we present its extension to Lovelock gravity known as the most natural extension of general relativity in higher-dimensional space-times. First, we review the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity and Gauss-Bonnet gravity, and then we construct the teleparallel equivalent of Lovelock gravity. In order to achieve this goal, we use the vielbein and the connection without imposing the Weitzenböck connection. Then, we extract the teleparallel formulation of the theory by setting the curvature to null.

  4. [Biology of size and gravity].

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Masamichi; Baba, Shoji A

    2004-03-01

    Gravity is a force that acts on mass. Biological effects of gravity and their magnitude depend on scale of mass and difference in density. One significant contribution of space biology is confirmation of direct action of gravity even at the cellular level. Since cell is the elementary unit of life, existence of primary effects of gravity on cells leads to establish the firm basis of gravitational biology. However, gravity is not limited to produce its biological effects on molecules and their reaction networks that compose living cells. Biological system has hierarchical structure with layers of organism, group, and ecological system, which emerge from the system one layer down. Influence of gravity is higher at larger mass. In addition to this, actions of gravity in each layer are caused by process and mechanism that is subjected and different in each layer of the hierarchy. Because of this feature, summing up gravitational action on cells does not explain gravity for biological system at upper layers. Gravity at ecological system or organismal level can not reduced to cellular mechanism. Size of cells and organisms is one of fundamental characters of them and a determinant in their design of form and function. Size closely relates to other physical quantities, such as mass, volume, and surface area. Gravity produces weight of mass. Organisms are required to equip components to support weight and to resist against force that arise at movement of body or a part of it. Volume and surface area associate with mass and heat transport process at body. Gravity dominates those processes by inducing natural convection around organisms. This review covers various elements and process, with which gravity make influence on living systems, chosen on the basis of biology of size. Cells and biochemical networks are under the control of organism to integrate a consolidated form. How cells adjust metabolic rate to meet to the size of the composed organism, whether is gravity

  5. Active Response Gravity Offload System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valle, Paul; Dungan, Larry; Cunningham, Thomas; Lieberman, Asher; Poncia, Dina

    2011-01-01

    The Active Response Gravity Offload System (ARGOS) provides the ability to simulate with one system the gravity effect of planets, moons, comets, asteroids, and microgravity, where the gravity is less than Earth fs gravity. The system works by providing a constant force offload through an overhead hoist system and horizontal motion through a rail and trolley system. The facility covers a 20 by 40-ft (approximately equals 6.1 by 12.2m) horizontal area with 15 ft (approximately equals4.6 m) of lifting vertical range.

  6. A Challenge to Entropic Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roveto, Jonathan; Munoz, Gerardo

    2012-03-01

    In a recent publication, Erik Verlinde attempts to show that gravity should be viewed not as a fundamental force, but rather as an emergent thermodynamic phenomenon arising from an unspecified microscopic theory via equipartition and holography. We present a challenge to his reformulation of gravity. A detailed examination of Verlinde's derivation leads to a number of questions that severely weaken the claim that such a theory correctly reproduces Newton's laws or Einstein gravity. In particular, we find that neither Newtonian gravity nor the Einstein equations are uniquely determined using Verlinde's postulates.

  7. Dynamics of Superfluid Helium in Low-Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, David J.

    1997-01-01

    sensitive to quasi-steady changes in the mass distribution of the liquid. The CFD codes were used to model the fluid's dynamic motion. Tests in one-g were performed with the main emphasis on being able to compute the actual damping of the fluid. A series of flights on the NASA Lewis reduced gravity DC-9 aircraft were performed with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Low Temperature Flight Facility and a superfluid Test Cell. The data at approximately 0.04g, lg and 2g were used to determine if correct fundamental frequencies can be predicted based on the acceleration field. Tests in zero gravity were performed to evaluate zero gravity motion.

  8. Bringing Gravity to Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norsk, P.; Shelhamer, M.

    2016-01-01

    This panel will present NASA's plans for ongoing and future research to define the requirements for Artificial Gravity (AG) as a countermeasure against the negative health effects of long-duration weightlessness. AG could mitigate the gravity-sensitive effects of spaceflight across a host of physiological systems. Bringing gravity to space could mitigate the sensorimotor and neuro-vestibular disturbances induced by G-transitions upon reaching a planetary body, and the cardiovascular deconditioning and musculoskeletal weakness induced by weightlessness. Of particular interest for AG during deep-space missions is mitigation of the Visual Impairment Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome that the majority of astronauts exhibit in space to varying degrees, and which presumably is associated with weightlessness-induced fluid shift from lower to upper body segments. AG could be very effective for reversing the fluid shift and thus help prevent VIIP. The first presentation by Dr. Charles will summarize some of the ground-based and (very little) space-based research that has been conducted on AG by the various space programs. Dr. Paloski will address the use of AG during deep-space exploration-class missions and describe the different AG scenarios such as intra-vehicular, part-of-vehicle, or whole-vehicle centrifugations. Dr. Clement will discuss currently planned NASA research as well as how to coordinate future activities among NASA's international partners. Dr. Barr will describe some possible future plans for using space- and ground-based partial-G analogs to define the relationship between physiological responses and G levels between 0 and 1. Finally, Dr. Stenger will summarize how the human cardiovascular system could benefit from intermittent short-radius centrifugations during long-duration missions.

  9. Massive gravity acausality redux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deser, S.; Izumi, K.; Ong, Y. C.; Waldron, A.

    2013-10-01

    Massive gravity (mGR) is a 5(=2s+1) degree of freedom, finite range extension of GR. However, amongst other problems, it is plagued by superluminal propagation, first uncovered via a second order shock analysis. First order mGR shock structures have also been studied, but the existence of superluminal propagation in that context was left open. We present here a concordance of these methods, by an explicit (first order) characteristic matrix computation, which confirms mGR's superluminal propagation as well as acausality.

  10. The gravity apple tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa Aldama, Mariana

    2015-04-01

    The gravity apple tree is a genealogical tree of the gravitation theories developed during the past century. The graphic representation is full of information such as guides in heuristic principles, names of main proponents, dates and references for original articles (See under Supplementary Data for the graphic representation). This visual presentation and its particular classification allows a quick synthetic view for a plurality of theories, many of them well validated in the Solar System domain. Its diachronic structure organizes information in a shape of a tree following similarities through a formal concept analysis. It can be used for educational purposes or as a tool for philosophical discussion.

  11. Gravity from quantum information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Weon; Kim, Hyeong-Chan; Lee, Jungjai

    2013-09-01

    We suggest that the Einstein equation can be derived from Landauer's principle applied to an information erasing process at a local Rindler horizon and Jacobson's idea linking the Einstein equation with thermodynamics. When matter crosses the horizon, information on the matter disappears, and the horizon entanglement entropy increases to compensate for the entropy reduction. The Einstein equation describes an information-energy relation during this process, which implies that entropic gravity is related to the quantum entanglement of the vacuum and has a quantuminformation theoretic origin.

  12. Gravity and Granular Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behringer, R. P.; Hovell, Daniel; Kondic, Lou; Tennakoon, Sarath; Veje, Christian

    1999-01-01

    We describe experiments that probe a number of different types of granular flow where either gravity is effectively eliminated or it is modulated in time. These experiments include the shaking of granular materials both vertically and horizontally, and the shearing of a 2D granular material. For the shaken system, we identify interesting dynamical phenomena and relate them to standard simple friction models. An interesting application of this set of experiments is to the mixing of dissimilar materials. For the sheared system we identify a new kind of dynamical phase transition.

  13. Fast gravity, gravity partials, normalized gravity, gravity gradient torque and magnetic field: Derivation, code and data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottlieb, Robert G.

    1993-01-01

    Derivation of first and second partials of the gravitational potential is given in both normalized and unnormalized form. Two different recursion formulas are considered. Derivation of a general gravity gradient torque algorithm which uses the second partial of the gravitational potential is given. Derivation of the geomagnetic field vector is given in a form that closely mimics the gravitational algorithm. Ada code for all algorithms that precomputes all possible data is given. Test cases comparing the new algorithms with previous data are given, as well as speed comparisons showing the relative efficiencies of the new algorithms.

  14. Hormones and the growth of plants in response to gravity.

    PubMed

    Osborne, D J

    1976-01-01

    Plants are remarkable amongst living things in that all their parts (leaves, stems, roots and flowers) can orientate their position in response to gravity. Roots normally grow downwards towards the stimulus, shoots upwards away from the stimulus, while leaves and special kinds of stems like underground rhizomes or aerial runners have adaptations to grow horizontally, approximately at right angles to the gravitational field. This directional positioning of the organ in relation to gravity is achieved by a regulation of the growth of enlarging cells below the meristems or within the organ. Mature tissues in which further cell growth is precluded are therefore unable to reorientate if their position in the field is changed. Under conditions of zero gravity, roots and shoots continue to grow in opposite directions and the orientation of laterals with respect to the apex is essentially normal. This demonstrates the inherent polarity of plant cells and the internal correlative growth regulation that each organ exerts upon its neighbours. The perception of gravity, involving statoliths, membranes and "wound" ethylene, is discussed, together with the mechanisms by which the subsequent growth responses can be mediated by changes in endogenous hormones. Evidence for how such hormonal changes can lead to modifications of the rate, extent and reorientation of cell growth is reviewed for several geotropically responding systems.

  15. The lunar environment as a fractional-gravity biological laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garshnek, V.

    A quarter of a century ago men stepped upon the lunar surface and established the possibility of human expansion beyond Earth. When humans return to the moon to occupy it with greater permanency, an applied lunar biological laboratory would provide a means of conducting experiments on the long-term effects of fractional gravity in animals and plants and provide necessary data to enhance the health, safety and well-being of lunar workers and inhabitants. In-depth studies can go beyond zero-g observations, on-orbit centrifuge studies, and ground-based research providing important insight into continuous 1/6- g effects on biological systems. Studies concentrating on development, gravity sensing, and adaptation/readaptation would provide preliminary data on whether long-term fractional gravity is detrimental or compromising to fundamental biological function. Food production research in 1/6- g would provide important information for on site application to improve the yield and quality of food (animal and plant) produced in the unique lunar environment. The purpose of this paper is to discuss some examples of the major gravitational biology areas that could be studied on the moon and applied to lunar population needs utilizing lunar biological facilities and continuous fractional gravity.

  16. Holographic entanglement entropy for the most general higher derivative gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Rong-Xin; Guo, Wu-zhong

    2015-08-01

    The holographic entanglement entropy for the most general higher derivative gravity is investigated. We find a new type of Wald entropy, which appears on entangling surface without the rotational symmetry and reduces to usual Wald entropy on Killing horizon. Furthermore, we obtain a formal formula of HEE for the most general higher derivative gravity and work it out exactly for some squashed cones. As an important application, we derive HEE for gravitational action with one derivative of the curvature when the extrinsic curvature vanishes. We also study some toy models with non-zero extrinsic curvature. We prove that our formula yields the correct universal term of entanglement entropy for 4d CFTs. Furthermore, we solve the puzzle raised by Hung, Myers and Smolkin that the logarithmic term of entanglement entropy derived from Weyl anomaly of CFTs does not match the holographic result even if the extrinsic curvature vanishes. We find that such mismatch comes from the `anomaly of entropy' of the derivative of curvature. After considering such contributions carefully, we resolve the puzzle successfully. In general, we need to fix the splitting problem for the conical metrics in order to derive the holographic entanglement entropy. We find that, at least for Einstein gravity, the splitting problem can be fixed by using equations of motion. How to derive the splittings for higher derivative gravity is a non-trivial and open question. For simplicity, we ignore the splitting problem in this paper and find that it does not affect our main results.

  17. Simulation of gaseous diffusion in partially saturated porous media under variable gravity with lattice Boltzmann methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chau, Jessica Furrer; Or, Dani; Sukop, Michael C.; Steinberg, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2005-01-01

    Liquid distributions in unsaturated porous media under different gravitational accelerations and corresponding macroscopic gaseous diffusion coefficients were investigated to enhance understanding of plant growth conditions in microgravity. We used a single-component, multiphase lattice Boltzmann code to simulate liquid configurations in two-dimensional porous media at varying water contents for different gravity conditions and measured gas diffusion through the media using a multicomponent lattice Boltzmann code. The relative diffusion coefficients (D rel) for simulations with and without gravity as functions of air-filled porosity were in good agreement with measured data and established models. We found significant differences in liquid configuration in porous media, leading to reductions in D rel of up to 25% under zero gravity. The study highlights potential applications of the lattice Boltzmann method for rapid and cost-effective evaluation of alternative plant growth media designs under variable gravity.

  18. New observational constraints on f(T) gravity from cosmic chronometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, Rafael C.; Pan, Supriya; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.

    2016-08-01

    We use the local value of the Hubble constant recently measured with 2.4% precision, as well as the latest compilation of cosmic chronometers data, together with standard probes such as Supernovae Type Ia and Baryon Acoustic Oscillation distance measurements, in order to impose constraints on the viable and most used f(T) gravity models, where T is the torsion scalar in teleparallel gravity. In particular, we consider three f(T) models with two parameters, out of which one is independent, and we quantify their deviation from ΛCDM cosmology through a sole parameter. Our analysis reveals that for one of the models a small but non-zero deviation from ΛCDM cosmology is slightly favored, while for the other models the best fit is very close to ΛCDM scenario. Clearly, f(T) gravity is consistent with observations, and it can serve as a candidate for modified gravity.

  19. Simulation of gaseous diffusion in partially saturated porous media under variable gravity with lattice Boltzmann methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, Jessica Furrer; Or, Dani; Sukop, Michael C.

    2005-08-01

    Liquid distributions in unsaturated porous media under different gravitational accelerations and corresponding macroscopic gaseous diffusion coefficients were investigated to enhance understanding of plant growth conditions in microgravity. We used a single-component, multiphase lattice Boltzmann code to simulate liquid configurations in two-dimensional porous media at varying water contents for different gravity conditions and measured gas diffusion through the media using a multicomponent lattice Boltzmann code. The relative diffusion coefficients (Drel) for simulations with and without gravity as functions of air-filled porosity were in good agreement with measured data and established models. We found significant differences in liquid configuration in porous media, leading to reductions in Drel of up to 25% under zero gravity. The study highlights potential applications of the lattice Boltzmann method for rapid and cost-effective evaluation of alternative plant growth media designs under variable gravity.

  20. Utilization of Low Gravity Environment for Measuring Liquid Viscosity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.; Ethridge, Edwin

    1998-01-01

    The method of drop coalescence is used for determining the viscosity of highly viscous undercooled liquids. Low gravity environment is necessary in order to allow for examining large volumes affording much higher accuracy for the viscosity calculations than possible for smaller volumes available under 1 - g conditions. The drop coalescence method is preferred over the drop oscillation technique since the latter method can only be applied for liquids with vanishingly small viscosities. The technique developed relies on both the highly accurate solution of the Navier-Stokes equations as well as on data from experiments conducted in near zero gravity environment. Results are presented for method validation experiments recently performed on board the NASA/KC-135 aircraft. While the numerical solution was produced using the Boundary Element Method. In these tests the viscosity of a highly viscous liquid, glycerine at room temperature, was determined using the liquid coalescence method. The results from these experiments will be discussed.

  1. Crustal structure beneath the southern Appalachians: nonuniqueness of gravity modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Grow, John A.; Klitgord, Kim D.

    1983-01-01

    Gravity models computed for a profile across the long-wavelength paired negative-positive Bouguer anomalies of the southern Appalachian Mountains show that the large negative anomaly can be explained by a crustal root zone, whereas the steep gradient and positive anomaly east of the root may be explained equally well by three different geometries: a suture zone, a mantle upwarp, or a shallow body. Seismic data support the existence of a mountain root but are inadequate to resolve differences among the three possible geometries for the positive anomaly. The presence of outcropping mafic and ultramafic rocks in the southern Appalachians and the inferred tectonic history of the Appalachian orogen are most consistent with the suture-zone model. Crust similar to continental crust probably exists beneath the Coastal Plain and inner continental shelf where the gravity anomalies return to near-zero values.

  2. Cosmological perturbations in massive gravity and the Higuchi bound

    SciTech Connect

    Fasiello, Matteo; Tolley, Andrew J. E-mail: andrew.j.tolley@case.edu

    2012-11-01

    In de Sitter spacetime there exists an absolute minimum for the mass of a spin-2 field set by the Higuchi bound m{sup 2} ≥ 2H{sup 2}. We generalize this bound to arbitrary spatially flat FRW geometries in the context of the recently proposed ghost-free models of Massive Gravity with an FRW reference metric, by performing a Hamiltonian analysis for cosmological perturbations. We find that the bound generically indicates that spatially flat FRW solutions in FRW massive gravity, which exhibit a Vainshtein mechanism in the background as required by consistency with observations, imply that the helicity zero mode is a ghost. In contradistinction to previous works, the tension between the Higuchi bound and the Vainshtein mechanism is equally strong regardless of the equation of state for matter.

  3. Wormholes, the weak energy condition, and scalar-tensor gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaikh, Rajibul; Kar, Sayan

    2016-07-01

    We obtain a large class of Lorentzian wormhole spacetimes in scalar-tensor gravity, for which the matter stress energy does satisfy the weak energy condition. Our constructions have zero Ricci scalar and an everywhere finite, nonzero scalar field profile. Interpreting the scalar-tensor gravity as an effective on-brane theory resulting from a two-brane Randall-Sundrum model of warped extra dimensions, it is possible to link wormhole existence with that of extra dimensions. We study the geometry, matter content, gravitational redshift and circular orbits in such wormholes and argue that our examples are perhaps among those which may have some observational relevance in astrophysics in the future. We also study traversability and find that our wormholes are indeed traversable for values of the metric parameters satisfying the weak energy condition.

  4. The International Space University's variable gravity research facility design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1991-01-01

    A manned mission to Mars will require long travel times between Earth and Mars. However, exposure to long-duration zero gravity is known to be harmful to the human body. Some of the harmful effects are loss of heart and lung capacity, inability to stand upright, muscular weakness and loss of bone calcium. A variable gravity research facility (VGRF) that would be placed in low Earth orbit (LEO) was designed by students of the International Space University 1989 Summer Session held in Strasbourg, France, to provide a testbed for conducting experiments in the life and physical sciences in preparation for a mission to Mars. This design exercise was unique because it addressed all aspects concerning a large space project. The VGRF design was described which was developed by international participants specializing in the following areas: the politics of international cooperation, engineering, architecture, in-space physiology, material and life science experimentation, data communications, business, and management.

  5. Determining Absolute Zero Using a Tuning Fork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldader, Jeffrey D.

    2008-01-01

    The Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales, we tell our students, are related. We explain that a change in temperature of 1 degree C corresponds to a change of 1 Kelvin and that atoms and molecules have zero kinetic energy at zero Kelvin, -273 degrees C. In this paper, we will show how students can derive the relationship between the Celsius and…

  6. ON THE GRENANDER ESTIMATOR AT ZERO

    PubMed Central

    Balabdaoui, Fadoua; Jankowski, Hanna; Pavlides, Marios; Seregin, Arseni; Wellner, Jon

    2011-01-01

    We establish limit theory for the Grenander estimator of a monotone density near zero. In particular we consider the situation when the true density f0 is unbounded at zero, with different rates of growth to infinity. In the course of our study we develop new switching relations using tools from convex analysis. The theory is applied to a problem involving mixtures. PMID:21686086

  7. Workshop: Promoting Sustainability Through Net Zero Strategies

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2011, EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD) signed an MOU with the U.S. Army to support the Army’s Net Zero initiative. The 17 Net Zero pilot installations aim to produce as much energy as used; limit freshwater use and increase water reuse; and reduce the generation ...

  8. Modifications of gravity.

    PubMed

    Skordis, Constantinos

    2011-12-28

    General relativity (GR) is a phenomenologically successful theory that rests on firm foundations, but has not been tested on cosmological scales. The deep mystery of dark energy (and possibly even the requirement of cold dark matter (CDM)) has increased the need for testing modifications to GR, as the inference of such otherwise undetected fluids depends crucially on the theory of gravity. Here, I discuss a general scheme for constructing consistent and covariant modifications to the Einstein equations. This framework is such that there is a clear connection between the modification and the underlying field content that produces it. I argue that this is mandatory for distinguishing modifications of gravity from conventional fluids. I give a non-trivial example, a simple metric-based modification of the fluctuation equations for which the background is exact ΛCDM, but differs from it in the perturbations. I show how this can be generalized and solved in terms of two arbitrary functions. Finally, I discuss future prospects and directions of research.

  9. Hypersonic Interplanetary Flight: Aero Gravity Assist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Al; Banks, Dan; Randolph, Jim

    2006-01-01

    The use of aero-gravity assist during hypersonic interplanetary flights is highlighted. Specifically, the use of large versus small planet for gravity asssist maneuvers, aero-gravity assist trajectories, launch opportunities and planetary waverider performance are addressed.

  10. Is There Gravity in Space?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar, Varda; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Investigates students' ideas about gravity beyond the earth's surface. Presents a lesson plan designed to help students understand that gravity can act beyond Earth's atmosphere. Also helps students gain a more adequate intuitive understanding of how natural and artificial satellites stay in orbit. Reports that this strategy changed some students'…

  11. Quantum Corrections to Entropic Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Pisin; Wang, Chiao-Hsuan

    2013-12-01

    The entropic gravity scenario recently proposed by Erik Verlinde reproduced Newton's law of purely classical gravity yet the key assumptions of this approach all have quantum mechanical origins. As is typical for emergent phenomena in physics, the underlying, more fundamental physics often reveals itself as corrections to the leading classical behavior. So one naturally wonders: where is ħ hiding in entropic gravity? To address this question, we first revisit the idea of holographic screen as well as entropy and its variation law in order to obtain a self-consistent approach to the problem. Next we argue that as the concept of minimal length has been invoked in the Bekenstein entropic derivation, the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), which is a direct consequence of the minimal length, should be taken into consideration in the entropic interpretation of gravity. Indeed based on GUP it has been demonstrated that the black hole Bekenstein entropy area law must be modified not only in the strong but also in the weak gravity regime where in the weak gravity limit the GUP modified entropy exhibits a logarithmic correction. When applying it to the entropic interpretation, we demonstrate that the resulting gravity force law does include sub-leading order correction terms that depend on ħ. Such deviation from the classical Newton's law may serve as a probe to the validity of entropic gravity.

  12. Quantum Corrections to Entropic Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Pisin; Wang, Chiao-Hsuan

    2013-01-01

    The entropic gravity scenario recently proposed by Erik Verlinde reproduced Newton's law of purely classical gravity yet the key assumptions of this approach all have quantum mechanical origins. As is typical for emergent phenomena in physics, the underlying, more fundamental physics often reveals itself as corrections to the leading classical behavior. So one naturally wonders: where is ℏ hiding in entropic gravity? To address this question, we first revisit the idea of holographic screen as well as entropy and its variation law in order to obtain a self-consistent approach to the problem. Next we argue that since the concept of minimal length has been invoked in the Bekenstein entropic derivation, the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), which is a direct consequence of the minimal length, should be taken into consideration in the entropic interpretation of gravity. Indeed based on GUP it has been demonstrated that the black hole Bekenstein entropy area law must be modified not only in the strong but also in the weak gravity regime where in the weak gravity limit the GUP modified entropy exhibits a logarithmic correction. When applying it to the entropic interpretation, we demonstrate that the resulting gravity force law does include sub-leading order correction terms that depend on ℏ. Such deviation from the classical Newton's law may serve as a probe to the validity of entropic gravity.

  13. Gravity...It's So Attractive!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Carol

    1992-01-01

    Describes six simple experiments that can enable students to better understand gravity and the role it plays in the universe. Includes discussions of Newton's experiments, weight and mass, center of gravity, center of mass, and the velocity of falling objects. (JJK)

  14. Fixed points of quantum gravity.

    PubMed

    Litim, Daniel F

    2004-05-21

    Euclidean quantum gravity is studied with renormalization group methods. Analytical results for a nontrivial ultraviolet fixed point are found for arbitrary dimensions and gauge fixing parameters in the Einstein-Hilbert truncation. Implications for quantum gravity in four dimensions are discussed.

  15. Diffraction patterns in ferrofluids: Effect of magnetic field and gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radha, S.; Mohan, Shalini; Pai, Chintamani

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we report the experimental observation of diffraction patterns in a ferrofluid comprising of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in hexane by a 10 mW He-Ne laser beam. An external dc magnetic field (0-2 kG) was applied perpendicular to the beam. The diffraction pattern showed a variation at different depths of the sample in both zero and applied magnetic field. The patterns also exhibit a change in shape and size as the external field is varied. This effect arises due to thermally induced self-diffraction under the influence of gravity and external magnetic field.

  16. Conceptualization and design of a variable-gravity research facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The goal is to provide facilities for the study of the effects of variable-gravity levels in reducing the physiological stresses upon the humans of long-term stay time in zero-g. The designs studied include: twin-tethered two module system with a central despun module with docking port and winch gear; and rigid arm tube facility using shuttle external tanks. Topics examined included: despun central capsule configuration, docking clearances, EVA requirements, crew selection, crew scheduling, food supply and preparation, waste handling, leisure use, biomedical issues, and psycho-social issues.

  17. Analog model for quantum gravity effects: phonons in random fluids.

    PubMed

    Krein, G; Menezes, G; Svaiter, N F

    2010-09-24

    We describe an analog model for quantum gravity effects in condensed matter physics. The situation discussed is that of phonons propagating in a fluid with a random velocity wave equation. We consider that there are random fluctuations in the reciprocal of the bulk modulus of the system and study free phonons in the presence of Gaussian colored noise with zero mean. We show that, in this model, after performing the random averages over the noise function a free conventional scalar quantum field theory describing free phonons becomes a self-interacting model.

  18. Unimodular F(R) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nojiri, S.; Odintsov, S. D.; Oikonomou, V. K.

    2016-05-01

    We extend the formalism of the Einstein-Hilbert unimodular gravity in the context of modified F(R) gravity. After appropriately modifying the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric in a way that it becomes compatible to the unimodular condition of having a constant metric determinant, we derive the equations of motion of the unimodular F(R) gravity by using the metric formalism of modified gravity with Lagrange multiplier constraint. The resulting equations are studied in frames of reconstruction method, which enables us to realize various cosmological scenarios, which was impossible to realize in the standard Einstein-Hilbert unimodular gravity. Several unimodular F(R) inflationary scenarios are presented, and in some cases, concordance with Planck and BICEP2 observational data can be achieved.

  19. Foam formation in low gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessling, Francis C.; Mcmanus, Samuel P.; Matthews, John; Patel, Darayas

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus that produced the first polyurethane foam in low gravity has been described. The chemicals were mixed together in an apparatus designed for operation in low gravity. Mixing was by means of stirring the chemicals with an electric motor and propeller in a mixing chamber. The apparatus was flown on Consort 1, the first low-gravity materials payload launched by a commercial rocket launch team. The sounding rocket flight produced over 7 min of low gravity during which a polyurethane spheroidal foam of approximately 2300 cu cm was formed. Photographs of the formation of the foam during the flight show the development of the spheroidal form. This begins as a small sphere and grows to approximately a 17-cm-diam spheroid. The apparatus will be flown again on subsequent low-gravity flights.

  20. QCD analogy for quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdom, Bob; Ren, Jing

    2016-06-01

    Quadratic gravity presents us with a renormalizable, asymptotically free theory of quantum gravity. When its couplings grow strong at some scale, as in QCD, then this strong scale sets the Planck mass. QCD has a gluon that does not appear in the physical spectrum. Quadratic gravity has a spin-2 ghost that we conjecture does not appear in the physical spectrum. We discuss how the QCD analogy leads to this conjecture and to the possible emergence of general relativity. Certain aspects of the QCD path integral and its measure are also similar for quadratic gravity. With the addition of the Einstein-Hilbert term, quadratic gravity has a dimensionful parameter that seems to control a quantum phase transition and the size of a mass gap in the strong phase.

  1. Superconducting gravity gradiometer for sensitive gravity measurements. I. Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, H.A.; Paik, H.J.

    1987-06-15

    Because of the equivalence principle, a global measurement is necessary to distinguish gravity from acceleration of the reference frame. A gravity gradiometer is therefore an essential instrument needed for precision tests of gravity laws and for applications in gravity survey and inertial navigation. Superconductivity and SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) technology can be used to obtain a gravity gradiometer with very high sensitivity and stability. A superconducting gravity gradiometer has been developed for a null test of the gravitational inverse-square law and space-borne geodesy. Here we present a complete theoretical model of this instrument. Starting from dynamical equations for the device, we derive transfer functions, a common mode rejection characteristic, and an error model of the superconducting instrument. Since a gradiometer must detect a very weak differential gravity signal in the midst of large platform accelerations and other environmental disturbances, the scale factor and common mode rejection stability of the instrument are extremely important in addition to its immunity to temperature and electromagnetic fluctuations. We show how flux quantization, the Meissner effect, and properties of liquid helium can be utilized to meet these challenges.

  2. Gravity Estimation from a Simulated GRACE Mission: Short vs. Long Arcs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlands, David D.; Ray, Richard D.; Chinn, D. S.; Lemoine, F. G.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present simulations of gravity estimation from a GRACE-like satellite mission: low-low intersatellite tracking with a precision of order 1 micron s(exp -1) yielding gravity fields of degree and order 120. We employ a unique parameterization of the intersatellite baseline vector which allows the gravity estimation to be performed (relatively) independently of the GPS (global positioning system) tracking data once sufficiently accurate orbits are obtained. This considerably simplifies data processing during the gravity estimation. During that process only certain components of the baseline parameterization need be adjusted; other components are uncorrelated with gravity and may be adopted unchanged from the initial GPS orbits. The technique is also amenable to very short arcs of data. We present comparisons of gravity estimation from 30 days of observations with arcs of length 15 minutes vs. arcs of one day. Our 'truth' field is the EGM96 (Earth Gravitational Model) model; our prior field is a degree-70 clone of EGM96, perturbed from it by amounts comparable to the standard errors of EGM96 (and identically zero for degrees 71-120). For a high inclination orbit, the short-arc analysis recovers low order gravity coefficients remarkably well, although higher order terms, especially sectorial terms, are understandably less accurate. The simulations suggest that either long or short arcs of GRACE data are likely to improve parts of the geopotential spectrum by several orders of magnitude. This is especially so for low order coefficients, which are markedly improved for all degrees through 120.

  3. Vorticity in analog gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cropp, Bethan; Liberati, Stefano; Turcati, Rodrigo

    2016-06-01

    In the analog gravity framework, the acoustic disturbances in a moving fluid can be described by an equation of motion identical to a relativistic scalar massless field propagating in curved space-time. This description is possible only when the fluid under consideration is barotropic, inviscid, and irrotational. In this case, the propagation of the perturbations is governed by an acoustic metric that depends algebrically on the local speed of sound, density, and the background flow velocity, the latter assumed to be vorticity-free. In this work we provide a straightforward extension in order to go beyond the irrotational constraint. Using a charged—relativistic and nonrelativistic—Bose-Einstein condensate as a physical system, we show that in the low-momentum limit and performing the eikonal approximation we can derive a d’Alembertian equation of motion for the charged phonons where the emergent acoustic metric depends on flow velocity in the presence of vorticity.

  4. Supersymmetrizing massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaeb, O.

    2013-07-01

    When four scalar fields with global Lorentz symmetry are coupled to gravity and take a vacuum expectation value, breaking diffeomorphism invariance spontaneously, the graviton becomes massive. This model is supersymmetrized by considering four N=1 chiral superfields with global Lorentz symmetry. The global supersymmetry is promoted to a local one using the rules of tensor calculus of coupling the N=1 supergravity Lagrangian to the four chiral multiplets. When the scalar components of the chiral multiplets zA acquire a vacuum expectation value, both diffeomorphism invariance and local supersymmetry are broken spontaneously. The global Lorentz index A becomes identified with the space-time Lorentz index, making the scalar fields zA vectors and the chiral spinors ψA spin-3/2 Rarita-Schwinger fields. We show that the spectrum of the model in the broken phase consists of a massive spin-2 field, two massive spin-3/2 fields with different mass and a massive vector.

  5. Semiclassical Supersymmetric Quantum Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefer, Claus; Lück, Tobias; Vargas Moniz, Paulo

    2008-09-01

    We develop a semiclassical approximation scheme for the constraint equations of supersymmetric canonical quantum gravity. This is achieved by a Born-Oppenheimer type of expansion, in analogy to the case of the usual Wheeler-DeWitt equation. We recover at consecutive orders the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, the functional Schrödinger equation, and quantum gravitational correction terms to this Schrödinger equation. In particular, our work has the following implications: (i) the Hamilton-Jacobi equation and therefore the background spacetime must involve the gravitino, (ii) a (many fingered) local time parameter has to be present on Super Riem Σ (the space of all possible tetrad and gravitino fields), (iii) quantum supersymmetric gravitational corrections affect the evolution of the very early universe.

  6. Phantom Crossing DGP Gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Koichi; Komiya, Zen

    2010-08-12

    We propose a phantom crossing Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (DGP) model. In our model, the effective equation of state of the DGP gravity crosses the phantom divide line. We demonstrate crossing of the phantom divide does not occur within the framework of the original DGP model or the DGP model developed by Dvali and Turner. By extending their model, we construct a model that realizes crossing of the phantom divide. DGP models can account for late-time acceleration of the universe without dark energy. Phantom Crossing DGP model is more compatible with recent observational data from Type Ia Supernovae (SNIa), Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies, and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) than the original DGP model or the DGP model developed by Dvali and Turner.

  7. Gravity quantized: Loop quantum gravity with a scalar field

    SciTech Connect

    Domagala, Marcin; Kaminski, Wojciech; Giesel, Kristina; Lewandowski, Jerzy

    2010-11-15

    ...''but we do not have quantum gravity.'' This phrase is often used when analysis of a physical problem enters the regime in which quantum gravity effects should be taken into account. In fact, there are several models of the gravitational field coupled to (scalar) fields for which the quantization procedure can be completed using loop quantum gravity techniques. The model we present in this paper consists of the gravitational field coupled to a scalar field. The result has similar structure to the loop quantum cosmology models, except that it involves all the local degrees of freedom of the gravitational field because no symmetry reduction has been performed at the classical level.

  8. Gravity Probe B Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The space vehicle Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. In this photograph, engineer Gary Reynolds is inspecting the inside of the probe neck during probe thermal repairs. GP-B is scheduled for launch in April 2004 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Leese, Gravity Probe B, Stanford University)

  9. On the structure of the topological phase of two-dimensional gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witten, Edward

    1990-08-01

    The topological phase of two-dimensional gravity is re-examined. The correlation functions of the naturally occuring operators in the minimal topological model are computed, using topological methods, in genus zero and genus one. The genus-zero results agree with recent results obtained in exact solutions of "matrix models", suggesting that the two approaches to two-dimensional gravity are equivalent. The coupling of two-dimensional topological gravity to topological sigma models is investigated. The CP 1 model appears to be almost as simple as the pure topological gravity theory. General, model-independent properties of the correlation functions are obtained which hold in coupling to arbitrary topological field theories and can serve as a qualitative definition of the topological phase of two-dimensional gravity. A number of facts that are familiar in the usual phase of string theory, such as the relation between vanishing of the canonical line bundle of a Kähler manifold and scale invariance of the corresponding field theory, have simpler echoes in the topological phase.

  10. Progress in the Determination of the Earth's Gravity Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, Richard H. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Topics addressed include: global gravity model development; methods for approximation of the gravity field; gravity field measuring techniques; global gravity field applications and requirements in geophysics and oceanography; and future gravity missions.

  11. Lovelock gravity from entropic force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheykhi, A.; Moradpour, H.; Riazi, N.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we first generalize the formulation of entropic gravity to (n+1)-dimensional spacetime and derive Newton's law of gravity and Friedmann equation in arbitrary dimensions. Then, we extend the discussion to higher order gravity theories and propose an entropic origin for Gauss-Bonnet gravity and more general Lovelock gravity in arbitrary dimensions. As a result, we are able to derive Newton's law of gravitation as well as the corresponding Friedmann equations in these gravity theories. This procedure naturally leads to a derivation of the higher dimensional gravitational coupling constant of Friedmann/Einstein equation which is in complete agreement with the results obtained by comparing the weak field limit of Einstein equation with Poisson equation in higher dimensions. Our strategy is to start from first principles and assuming the entropy associated with the apparent horizon given by the expression previously known via black hole thermodynamics, but replacing the horizon radius r_+ with the apparent horizon radius R. Our study shows that the approach presented here is powerful enough to derive the gravitational field equations in any gravity theory and further supports the viability of Verlinde's proposal.

  12. Radiation and zero-gravity effects on human leukocytes and Neurospora crassa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, M. A.; Deserres, F. J.; Gooch, P. C.; Miller, I. R.; Smith, D. B.; Kondo, S.

    1971-01-01

    The two parts of this experiment have resulted in proof that neither orbital space flight nor any of the stresses connected with it produced significant, unpredicted genetic damage, at least insofar as chromosomal-aberration production is a valid measure of this general type of effect. Furthermore, the Gemini 11 results lead to the conclusion that no synergistic effect exists between radiation and factors that are associated with space flight. No significant difference was found between dose-effect curves for survival or mutation induction of the inflight and ground-based samples irradiated on filters. Thus, like the blood experiment, this part of the experiment failed to result in data that were appropriate for confirmation of the apparent synergism that was observed in the Gemini 3 blood experiment. Also, the Nuerospora crassa experiment provided conclusive data that there is no difference in the genetic effects of irradiation during space flight and the genetic effects obtained in ground-based experiments. Both the Gemini 11 blood experiment and the Neurospora crassa experiment thus have failed to result in data confirmatory of the apparent synergism observed on the Gemini 3 mission.

  13. Preliminary design for a Zero Gravity Test Facility (ZGTF). Volume 1: Technical

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Germain, A.

    1981-01-01

    The functional requirements and best conceptual design of a test facility that simulates weightless operating conditions for a high gain antenna systems (HGAS), that will broadcast to the Tracking Data Relay Satellites were defined. The typical HGAS defined is mounted on a low Earth orbiting satellite, and consists of an antenna with a double gimbal pointing system mounted on a 13 foot long mast. Typically, the gimbals are driven by pulse modulated dc motors or stepper motors. These drivers produce torques on the mast, with jitter that excites the satellite and may cause disturbances to sensitive experiments. The dynamic properties of the antenna support structure (mast), including flexible mode characteristics were defined. The torque profile induced on the spacecraft by motion of the high gain antenna was estimated. Gain and phase margins of the servo control loop of the gimbal drive electronics was also verified.

  14. Design, fabrication and acceptance testing of a zero gravity whole body shower, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The effort to design whole body shower for the space station prototype is reported. Clothes and dish washer/dryer concepts were formulated with consideration given to integrating such a system with the overall shower design. Water recycling methods to effect vehicle weight savings were investigated and it was concluded that reusing wash and/or rinse water resulted in weight savings which were not sufficient to outweigh the added degree of hardware complexity. The formulation of preliminary and final designs for the shower are described. A detailed comparison of the air drag vs. vacuum pickup method was prepared that indicated the air drag concept results in more severe space station weight penalties; therefore, the preliminary system design was based on utilizing the vacuum pickup method. Tests were performed to determine the optimum methods of storing, heating and sterilizing the cleansing agent utilized in the shower; it was concluded that individual packages of pre-sterilized cleansing agent should be used. Integration features with the space station prototype system were defined and incorporated into the shower design as necessary.

  15. Options for transpiration water removal in a crop growth system under zero gravity conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, C. C.; Kliss, M.; Yendler, B.; Borchers, B.; Yendler, Boris S.; Nguyen, Thoi K.; Waleh, Ahmad

    1991-01-01

    The operation of a microgravity crop-growth system is a critical feature of NASA's Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) development program. Transpiration-evolved water must be removed from the air that is recirculated in such a system, perhaps supplying potable water in the process. The present consideration of candidate systems for CELSS water removal gives attention to energy considerations and to a mechanical, inertial-operation water-separation system that was chosen due to the depth of current understanding of its operation.

  16. Proposal for a zero-gravity toilet facility for the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleri, Edgar L., Jr.; Galliano, Paul A.; Harrison, Mark E.; Johnson, William B.; Meyer, Gregory J.

    1989-01-01

    This proposed toilet facility has a straightforward design. It has few moving parts and is easily maintained. Air and water flow provide sanitary movement of the waste. The toilet's chambers are coated with Teflon which, along with the water flow, makes it self-cleaning. An added disinfectant called Betadiene kills any bacteria that may form on the chamber walls. The chair is contoured to take into account the neutral body position and the necessary strain position for defecation. Restraints at the ankles, knees, and midsection hold the body in the chair. The waste is stored in discs of Gortex material which are inside a replaceable storage chamber. This chamber can be removed, capped and stored until eventual return to earth.

  17. Application and use of spinal immobilization devices in zero-gravity flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krupa, Debra T.; Gosbee, John; Billica, Roger; Boyce, Joey B.

    1991-01-01

    A KC-135 parabolic flight was performed for the purpose of evaluation of spinal immobilization techniques in microgravity. The flight followed the standard 40 parabola profile with four NASA/KRUG experimenters involved. One performed as coordinator/recorder, one as test subject, and two as the Crew Medical Officers (CMO). The flight was to evaluate the application of spinal immobilization devices and techniques in microgravity as are performed during initial stabilization or patient transport scenarios. The sequence of detail for examination of the following objectives included: attempted cervical spine immobilization with all free floating, the patient restrained to the floor, various hand positioning techniques; c-collar placement; Kendrick Extrication Device (KED) application with various restraints for patient and CMO; patient immobilization and transport using the KED; patient transported on KED and spine board. Observations for each task are included. Major conclusions and issues are also included.

  18. Morphogenetic responses of cultured totipotent cells of carrot /Daucus carota var. carota/ at zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krikorian, A. D.; Steward, F. C.

    1978-01-01

    An experiment designed to test whether embryos capable of developing from isolated somatic carrot cells could do so under conditions of weightlessness in space was performed aboard the unmanned Soviet biosatellite Kosmos 782 under the auspices of the joint United States-Soviet Biological Satellite Mission. Space flight and weightlessness seem to have had no adverse effects on the induction of embryoids or on the development of their organs. A portion of the crop of carrot plantlets originated in space and grown to maturity were not morphologically different from controls.

  19. Zero-gravity growth of NaF-NaCl eutectics in the NASA Skylab program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, A. S.; Allen, F. G.; Yu, J. G.

    1976-01-01

    Continuous and discontinuous NaF fibers, embedded in a NaCl matrix, were produced in space and on earth. The production of continuous fibers in a eutectic mixture is attributed to the absence of convection current in the liquid during solidification in space. Image transmission and optical transmittance measurements of transverse sections of the space-grown and earth-grown ingots were made with a light microscope and a spectrometer. It is shown that better optical properties were obtained from samples grown in space. This was attributed to a better alignment of NaF fibers along the ingot axis. A new concept is advanced to explain the phenomenon of transmittance versus far infrared wavelength of the directionally solidified NaCl-NaF eutectic in terms of the two-dimensional Bragg Scattering and the polarization effect of Rayleigh scattering. This concept can be applied to other eutectic systems as long as the index of refraction of the matrix over a range of wavelengths is known. Experimental data are in agreement with the theoretical prediction.

  20. Zero-gravity growth of a sodium chloride-lithium fluoride eutectic mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, A. S.; Yeh, C. W.; Yue, B. K.

    1982-01-01

    Continuous and discontinuous lithium fluoride fibers embedded in a sodium chloride matrix were produced in space and on Earth, respectively. The production of continuous fibers in a eutectic mixture was attributed to the absence of convective current in the liquid during solidification in space. Image transmission and optical transmittance measurements of transverse sections of the space-grown and Earth-grown ingots were made with a light microscope and a spectrometer. It was found that better optical properties were obtained from samples grown in space. This was attributed to a better alignment of lithium fluoride fibers along the growth direction.

  1. Proposal for the design of a zero gravity tool storage device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuckwisch, Sue; Carrion, Carlos A.; Phillips, Lee; Laughlin, Julia; Francois, Jason

    1994-04-01

    Astronauts frequently use a variety of hand tools during space missions, especially on repair missions. A toolbox is needed to allow storage and retrieval of tools with minimal difficulties. The toolbox must contain tools during launch, landing, and on-orbit operations. The toolbox will be used in the Shuttle Bay and therefore must withstand the hazardous space environment. The three main functions of the toolbox in space are: to protect the tools from the space environment and from damaging one another, to allow for quick, one-handed access to the tools; and to minimize the heat transfer between the astronaut's hand and the tools. This proposal explores the primary design issues associated with the design of the toolbox. Included are the customer and design specifications, global and refined function structures, possible solution principles, concept variants, and finally design recommendations.

  2. Growth of single crystals by vapor transport in zero-gravity environment, ground-based experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedemeier, H.

    1978-01-01

    Mass and heat transfer phenomena associated with the growth of single crystals by chemical vapor transport reactions were investigated. In this technique, a gaseous transport agent reacts with the solid source material to form exclusively gaseous products. The gas phase species migrate from the source to the condensation zone of the closed reaction ampoule where the reverse reaction occurs with formation of single crystals. The necessary concentration gradient is achieved by means of a temperature gradient.

  3. The Complete Book of Spaceflight: From Apollo 1 to Zero Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darling, David

    2002-11-01

    A commanding encyclopedia of the history and principles of spaceflight-from earliest conceptions to faster-than-light galaxy-hopping Here is the first truly comprehensive guide to space exploration and propulsion, from the first musings of the Greeks to current scientific speculation about interstellar travel using "warp drives" and wormholes. Space buffs will delight in its in-depth coverage of all key manned and unmanned missions and space vehicles-past, present, and projected-and its clear explanations of the technologies involved. Over the course of more than 2,000 extensively cross-referenced entries, astronomer David Darling also provides fascinating insights into the cultural development of spaceflight. In vivid accounts of the major characters and historical events involved, he provides fascinating tales of early innovators, the cross-pollination that has long existed between science fiction and science fact, and the sometimes obscure links between geopolitics, warfare, and advances in rocketry.

  4. Separation of lymphocytes by electrophoresis under terrestrial conditions and at zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, A. L.

    1977-01-01

    Electrophoretic mobility (EPM) of human peripheral lymphocytes were examined with the following objectives: To determine differences in EPM of lymphocytes under immuno-stimulated and immuno-suppressed states. To define the conditions necessary for the separation of lymphocyte sub-populations in normal and pathological conditions; To investigate immunological active, charged chemical groups on lymphocyte surfaces; and to investigate pathophysiological mechanisms of immune responsiveness, as reflected by alterations in EPM. To evaluate the potential of lymphocyte electrophoresis as: (1) a means of monitoring the immune status of kidney transplant recipients, (2) in predicting the outcome of kidney transplants, and (3) as a method for separation of lymphocyte sub-populations, the EPM was studied for unfractionated human peripheral lymphocytes and of populations enriched with T and "B" cells from normal adults, hemodialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients.

  5. Evaluation of AAFE apparatus to measure residual and transient convection in zero-gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, R. C.; Facemire, B. R.; Witherow, W. K.

    1978-01-01

    An evaluation apparatus which photographs convective and diffusive flows in crystal growth experiments is presented. Results in the following catagories are reported: (1) Human factors; (2) Electrical and mechanical; (3) Optical performance; and (4) Thermal performance.

  6. Space stations: Living in zero gravity, developmental task for psychologists and space environmental experts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, E.

    1984-01-01

    The recent advances in the psychological aspects of space station design are discussed, including the impact of the increase in awareness of both the public in general as well as space environmental experts of the importance of psychological factors when designing space stations and training astronauts.

  7. Free-surface phenomena under low- and zero-gravity conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coles, D.

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus to measure contact angle was constructed to exploit the proposed internal-corner criterion. If 2 alfa is the internal angle between two intersecting vertical planes and gamma is the contact angle, a meniscus at the corner rises to a finite height if alfa + gamma pi/2 and to an infinite height if alfa + gamma pi/2. The apparatus operates by decreasing the angle alfa from pi/2 until the meniscus height changes abruptly. A number of liquids are tested on glass and plexiglas.

  8. Feasibility study for the manufacture of zero gravity pharmaceuticles, immunological, and viral agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility of extracting, isolating, purifying, separating, or preparing medical and biological products of high socio-economic value in space was studied. In particular, the study was designed to concentrate on the isolation or purification of virals, pharmaceutical and immunological agents by means of electrophoresis, as the Apollo 16 flight demonstrated that a mixed population of latex spheres (.2 and .8 microns) could be successfully separated by electrophoresis in space and without sedimentation with minimal convection. This prompted NASA scientists to look into the possibility of carrying out types of biochemical experiments that would utilize space for medical purposes.

  9. Separation of lymphocytes by electrophoresis under terrestrial conditions and at zero gravity, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, A. L.; Stenzel, K. H.; Cheigh, J. S.; Seaman, G. V. F.; Novogrodsky, A.

    1977-01-01

    Electrophoretic mobilities (EPM) of peripheral lymphocytes were studied from normal subjects, chronic hemodialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients. A technique to separate B lymphocytes and null cells from non-T lymphocyte preparation was developed. The experiments were designed to determine which subpopulation of the non-T lymphocytes is primarily affected and shows a decreased EPM in chronic hemodialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients.

  10. Equilibrium Fluid Interface Behavior Under Low- and Zero-Gravity Conditions. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Concus, Paul; Finn, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The mathematical basis for the forthcoming Angular Liquid Bridge investigation on board Mir is described. Our mathematical work is based on the classical Young-Laplace-Gauss formulation for an equilibrium free surface of liquid partly filling a container or otherwise in contact with solid support surfaces. The anticipated liquid behavior used in the apparatus design is also illustrated.

  11. Zero gravity and cardiovascular homeostasis. The relationship between endogenous hyperprolactinemia and plasma aldosterone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haber, E.; Re, R. N.; Kourides, I. A.; Weihl, A. C.; Maloof, F.

    1978-01-01

    Prolactin, thyrotropin and aldosterone were measured by radioimmunoassay and plasma renin activity by the radioimmunoassay of angiotensin I in normal women before and after the intravenous injection of 200 micrograms of thyrotropin releasing hormone. Prolactin increased at 15 minutes following thyrotropin releasing hormone. Plasma renin activity was not different from control levels during the first hour following the administration of thyrotropin releasing hormone, nor did the plasma aldosterone concentration differ significantly from the control levels during this period. However, with upright posture, an increase in aldosterone and in plasma renin activity was noted, demonstrating a normal capacity to secrete aldosterone. Similarly, no change in aldosterone was seen in 9 patients with primary hypothyroidism given thyrotropin releasing hormone, despite the fact that the increase in prolactin was greater than normal. These data demonstrate that acutely or chronically elevated serum prolactin levels do not result in increased plasma aldosterone levels in humans.

  12. Pressure drop in fully developed, duct flow of dispersed liquid-vapor mixture at zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, K. R.; Chao, B. T.; Soo, S. L.

    1990-01-01

    The dynamics of steady, fully developed dispersed liquid-vapor flow in a straight duct at 0-g is simulated by flowing water containing n-butyl benzoate droplets. Water and benzoate are immiscible and have identical density at room temperature. The theoretical basis of the simulation is given. Experiments showed that, for a fixed combined flow rate of water and benzoate, the frictional pressure drop is unaffected by large changes in the volume fraction of benzoate drops and their size distribution. Measured power spectra of the static wall pressure fluctuations induced by the turbulent water-benzoate flow also revealed that their dynamics is essentially unaltered by the presence of the droplets. These experimental findings, together with the theoretical analysis, led to the conclusion that the pressure drop in fully developed, dispersed liquid-vapor flow in straight ducts of constant cross section at 0-g is identical to that due to liquid flowing alone at the same total volumetric flow rate of the liquid-vapor mixture and, therefore, can be readily determined.

  13. Instability of ocular torsion in zero gravity - Possible implications for space motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diamond, Shirley G.; Markham, Charles H.; Money, Ken E.

    1990-01-01

    It is proposed that study of the eye torsion reflex and its behavior under novel gravitational states may possibly provide the basis for a long-sought test to predict space motion sickness (SMS). Measures of eye torsion such as ocular counterrolling and spontaneous eye torsion, were examined during hypo- and hypergravity in parabolic flight on the NASA KC-135 aircraft. Ten subjects, including two astronauts, one who had experienced SMS and one who had not, were ranked according to scores of torsional inability at 0 G and divided into two equal groups of high and low susceptibility to SMS. At 1.8 G the groups were significantly different in both the instability measure and the measure of torsional ability. No differences were detected in eye torsion in either 0 G or 1.8 G and none of the tests were significantly different in 1 G. Results suggest that tests of eye torsion on the KC-135 might differentiate those who would experience SMS from those who would not, although it is noted that this is not yet proven.

  14. Development of a laboratory prototype water quality monitoring system suitable for use in zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misselhorn, J. E.; Witz, S.; Hartung, W. H.

    1973-01-01

    The development of a laboratory prototype water quality monitoring system for use in the evaluation of candidate water recovery systems and for study of techniques for measuring potability parameters is reported. Sensing techniques for monitoring of the most desirable parameters are reviewed in terms of their sensitivities and complexities, and their recommendations for sensing techniques are presented. Rationale for selection of those parameters to be monitored (pH, specific conductivity, Cr(+6), I2, total carbon, and bacteria) in a next generation water monitor is presented along with an estimate of flight system specifications. A master water monitor development schedule is included.

  15. Mobile work station concept for assembly of large space structures (zero gravity simulation tests)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heard, W. L., Jr.; Bush, H. G.; Wallsom, R. E.; Jensen, J. K.

    1982-03-01

    The concept presented is intended to enhance astronaut assembly of truss structure that is either too large or complex to fold for efficient Shuttle delivery to orbit. The potential of augmented astronaut assembly is illustrated by applying the result of the tests to a barebones assembly of a truss structure. If this structure were assembled from the same nestable struts that were used in the Mobile Work Station assembly tests, the spacecraft would be 55 meters in diameter and consist of about 500 struts. The struts could be packaged in less than 1/2% of the Shuttle cargo bay volume and would take up approximately 3% of the mass lift capability. They could be assembled in approximately four hours. This assembly concept for erectable structures is not only feasible, but could be used to significant economic advantage by permitting the superior packaging feature of erectable structures to be exploited and thereby reduce expensive Shuttle delivery flights.

  16. Proposal for the design of a zero gravity tool storage device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckwisch, Sue; Carrion, Carlos A.; Phillips, Lee; Laughlin, Julia; Francois, Jason

    1994-01-01

    Astronauts frequently use a variety of hand tools during space missions, especially on repair missions. A toolbox is needed to allow storage and retrieval of tools with minimal difficulties. The toolbox must contain tools during launch, landing, and on-orbit operations. The toolbox will be used in the Shuttle Bay and therefore must withstand the hazardous space environment. The three main functions of the toolbox in space are: to protect the tools from the space environment and from damaging one another, to allow for quick, one-handed access to the tools; and to minimize the heat transfer between the astronaut's hand and the tools. This proposal explores the primary design issues associated with the design of the toolbox. Included are the customer and design specifications, global and refined function structures, possible solution principles, concept variants, and finally design recommendations.

  17. Zero-Valent Metal Emulsion for Reductive Dehalogenation of DNAPLs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Debra R. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian (Inventor); Gelger, Cherie L. (Inventor); Quinn, Jacqueline (Inventor); Brooks, Kathleen (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A zero-valent metal emulsion is used to dehalogenate solvents, such as pooled dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), including trichloroethylene (TCE). The zero-valent metal emulsion contains zero-valent metal particles, a surfactant, oil and water, The preferred zero-valent metal particles are nanoscale and microscale zero-valent iron particles.

  18. Zero-Valent Metal Emulsion for Reductive Dehalogenation of DNAPLS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Debra R. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian (Inventor); Geiger, Cherie L. (Inventor); Quinn, Jacqueline (Inventor); Brooks, Kathleen (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A zero-valent metal emulsion is used to dehalogenate solvents, such as pooled dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), including trichloroethylene (TCE). The zero-valent metal emulsion contains zero-valent metal particles, a surfactant, oil and water. The preferred zero-valent metal particles are nanoscale and microscale zero-valent iron particles

  19. The Gravity Probe B Flight Dewar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. This photograph is of the Gravity Probe B flight dewar, a metal container made like a vacuum bottle that is used especially for storing liquefied gases, that will maintain the experiment at a temperature just above absolute zero, staying cold for two years. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies -- technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched in 2004 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center, development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University, with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Photo Credit: Lockheed Martin Corporation/R. Underwood)

  20. Natural inflation and quantum gravity.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, Anton; Saraswat, Prashant; Sundrum, Raman

    2015-04-17

    Cosmic inflation provides an attractive framework for understanding the early Universe and the cosmic microwave background. It can readily involve energies close to the scale at which quantum gravity effects become important. General considerations of black hole quantum mechanics suggest nontrivial constraints on any effective field theory model of inflation that emerges as a low-energy limit of quantum gravity, in particular, the constraint of the weak gravity conjecture. We show that higher-dimensional gauge and gravitational dynamics can elegantly satisfy these constraints and lead to a viable, theoretically controlled and predictive class of natural inflation models. PMID:25933305

  1. Ocean gravity and geoid determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, W. D.; Siry, J. W.; Brown, R. D.; Wells, W. T.

    1977-01-01

    Gravity anomalies have been recovered in the North Atlantic and the Indian Ocean regions. Comparisons of 63 2 deg x 2 deg mean free air gravity anomalies recovered in the North Atlantic area and 24 5 deg x 5 deg mean free air gravity anomalies in the Indian Ocean area with surface gravimetric measurements have shown agreement to + or - 8 mgals for both solutions. Geoids derived from the altimeter solutions are consistent with altimetric sea surface height data to within the precision of the data, about + or - 2 meters.

  2. Higher dimensional nonlinear massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Tuan Q.

    2016-05-01

    Inspired by a recent ghost-free nonlinear massive gravity in four-dimensional spacetime, we study its higher dimensional scenarios. As a result, we are able to show the constantlike behavior of massive graviton terms for some well-known metrics such as the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker, Bianchi type I, and Schwarzschild-Tangherlini (anti-) de Sitter metrics in a specific five-dimensional nonlinear massive gravity under an assumption that its fiducial metrics are compatible with physical ones. In addition, some simple cosmological solutions of the five-dimensional massive gravity are figured out consistently.

  3. Compact objects in Horndeski gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Hector O.; Maselli, Andrea; Minamitsuji, Masato; Berti, Emanuele

    2016-04-01

    Horndeski gravity holds a special position as the most general extension of Einstein’s theory of general relativity (GR) with a single scalar degree of freedom and second-order field equations. Because of these features, Horndeski gravity is an attractive phenomenological playground to investigate the consequences of modifications of GR in cosmology and astrophysics. We present a review of the progress made so far in the study of compact objects (black holes (BHs) and neutron stars (NSs)) within Horndeski gravity. In particular, we review our recent work on slowly rotating BHs and present some new results on slowly rotating NSs.

  4. Natural inflation and quantum gravity.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, Anton; Saraswat, Prashant; Sundrum, Raman

    2015-04-17

    Cosmic inflation provides an attractive framework for understanding the early Universe and the cosmic microwave background. It can readily involve energies close to the scale at which quantum gravity effects become important. General considerations of black hole quantum mechanics suggest nontrivial constraints on any effective field theory model of inflation that emerges as a low-energy limit of quantum gravity, in particular, the constraint of the weak gravity conjecture. We show that higher-dimensional gauge and gravitational dynamics can elegantly satisfy these constraints and lead to a viable, theoretically controlled and predictive class of natural inflation models.

  5. The influence of gravity level during directional solidification of immiscible alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, J. B.; Schmale, A. L.; Sandlin, A. C.

    1992-01-01

    During directional solidification of immiscible (hypermonotectic) alloys it is theoretically possible to establish a stable macroscopically-planar solidification front, and thus avoid sedimentation. Unfortunately, convective instabilities often occur which interfere with the directional solidification process. In this paper, stability conditions are discussed and results presented from directional solidification studies carried out aboard NASA's KC-135 zero-g aircraft. Samples were directionally solidified while the effective gravity level was varied from approximately 0.01 g for 25 s to 1.8 g for 45 s. Dramatic variations in microstructure were observed with gravity level during solidification.

  6. Simulated null-gravity environments as applied to electrophoretic separations of biological species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giannovario, J. A.; Griffin, R. N.

    1978-01-01

    The scale-up of electrophoretic separations to provide preparative quantities of materials has been hampered by gravity induced convection and sedimentation. The separation of biologically important species may be significantly enhanced by electrophoretic space processing. Simple demonstrations on past space flights have proven some principles. Several techniques have been evolved to study electrophoretic separations where the effects of gravity have been nullified or significantly reduced. These techniques employ mechanical design, density gradients and computer modeling. Utilization of these techniques for ground based studies will yield clues as to which biological species can be considered prime candidates for electrophoretic processing in zero-G.

  7. Effects of Gravity on Wing Extension of Insects at Adult Eclosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Fumio; Kishimoto, Naoko; Moriya, Hirofumi

    2008-06-01

    We compared the wing extensions of adult moths, Eterusia aedea, that emerged in either a horizontal plane, a vertical plane, or a vertical plane with centrifugal force generated by a rotating turntable. These studies were conducted to examine the relative importance of changes in fluid pressure from the body to the wings and gravitational force on the wings. The wings were generally crumpled when the insect emerged on the horizontal plane and became narrower when centrifugal acceleration was applied. In the future, observations of insect emergence in space at zero gravity are necessary to clarify the effects of gravity on wing extension.

  8. On the equilibrium of a cylindrical plasma supported horizontally by magnetic fields in uniform gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerche, I.; Low, B. C.

    1980-01-01

    The mechanical equilibrium of a cylinder of plasma suspended horizontally by magnetic fields in uniform gravity is examined. A set of exact solutions describing the equilibrium is derived assuming the plasma distribution to be cylindrically symmetric to obtain an exact force balance between plasma pressure, the Lorentz pressure, and gravity in space. The set of solutions considers a case of uniform temperature and cases where the temperature rises from zero at the center of the plasma cylinder to reach a constant asymptotic value outside the cylinder.

  9. Zero-Based Budgeting in Nursing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Marie; Eckert, Joseph

    1979-01-01

    Zero-based budgeting (ZBB) refers to a system whereby the entire nursing program is reevaluated yearly and justification for all programs and expenditures must be made. ZBB is compared to the governmental sunset law. (JOW)

  10. Near-Zero-Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledbetter, M. P.; Theis, T.; Blanchard, J. W.; Ring, H.; Ganssle, P.; Appelt, S.; Blümich, B.; Pines, A.; Budker, D.

    2011-09-01

    We investigate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in near zero field, where the Zeeman interaction can be treated as a perturbation to the electron mediated scalar interaction (J coupling). This is in stark contrast to the high-field case, where heteronuclear J couplings are normally treated as a small perturbation. We show that the presence of very small magnetic fields results in splitting of the zero-field NMR lines, imparting considerable additional information to the pure zero-field spectra. Experimental results are in good agreement with first-order perturbation theory and with full numerical simulation when perturbation theory breaks down. We present simple rules for understanding the splitting patterns in near-zero-field NMR, which can be applied to molecules with nontrivial spectra.

  11. Quantity Cognition: Numbers, Numerosity, Zero and Mathematics.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Ben M

    2016-05-23

    Physical quantities differ from abstract numbers and mathematics, but recent results are revealing the neural representation of both: a new study demonstrates how an absence of quantity is transformed into a representation of zero as a number.

  12. The Effect of Gravity on the Combustion of Bulk Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branch, Melvyn C.; Abbud-Madrid, Angel; Daily, John W.

    1997-01-01

    In recent years, metal combustion studies at the University of Colorado have focused on the effects of gravity (g) on the ignition and burning behavior of bulk metals. The impetus behind this effort is the understanding of the ignition conditions and flammability properties of structural metals found in oxygen (O2) systems for space applications. Since spacecraft are subjected to higher-than-1g loads during launch and reentry and to a zero-gravity environment while in orbit, the study of ignition and combustion of bulk metals at different gravitational accelerations is of great practical concern. From the scientific standpoint, studies conducted under low gravity conditions provide simplified boundary conditions, since buoyancy is removed, and make possible the identification of fundamental ignition and combustion mechanisms. This investigation is intended to provide experimental verification of the influence of natural convection on the burning behavior of metals. In addition, the study offers the first findings of the influence of gravity on ignition of bulk metals and on the combustion mechanism and structure of metal-oxygen, vapor-phase diffusion flames in a buoyancy-free environment. Titanium (Ti) and magnesium (Mg) metals were chosen because of their importance as elements of structural materials and their simple chemical composition-pure metals instead of multicomponent alloys to simplify chemical and spectroscopic analyses. In addition, these elements present the two different combustion modes observed in metals: heterogeneous or surface burning (for Ti) and homogeneous or gas-phase reaction (for Mg). Finally, Mg, Ti, and their oxides exhibit a wide range of thermophysical and chemical properties. Metal surface temperature profiles, critical and ignition temperatures, propagation rates, burning times, and spectroscopic measurements are obtained under normal and reduced gravity. Visual evidence of all phenomena is provided by high-speed photography.

  13. Cutoff for extensions of massive gravity and bi-gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matas, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Recently there has been interest in extending ghost-free massive gravity, bi-gravity, and multi-gravity by including non-standard kinetic terms and matter couplings. We first review recent proposals for this class of extensions, emphasizing how modifications of the kinetic and potential structure of the graviton and modifications of the coupling to matter are related. We then generalize existing no-go arguments in the metric language to the vielbein language in second-order form. We give an ADM argument to show that the most promising extensions to the kinetic term and matter coupling contain a Boulware-Deser ghost. However, as recently emphasized, we may still be able to view these extensions as effective field theories below some cutoff scale. To address this possibility, we show that there is a decoupling limit where a ghost appears for a wide class of matter couplings and kinetic terms. In particular, we show that there is a decoupling limit where the linear effective vielbein matter coupling contains a ghost. Using the insight we gain from this decoupling limit analysis, we place an upper bound on the cutoff for the linear effective vielbein coupling. This result can be generalized to new kinetic interactions in the vielbein language in second-order form. Combined with recent results, this provides a strong uniqueness argument on the form of ghost-free massive gravity, bi-gravity, and multi-gravity.

  14. Artificial Gravity Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamman, Michelle R.; Paloski, William H.

    2005-01-01

    Protecting the health, safety, and performance of exploration-class mission crews against the physiological deconditioning resulting from long-term weightlessness during transit and long-term hypogravity during surface operations will require effective, multi-system countermeasures. Artificial gravity (AG), which would replace terrestrial gravity with inertial forces generated by rotating the transit vehicle or by a human centrifuge device within the transit vehicle or surface habitat, has long been considered a potential solution. However, despite its attractiveness as an efficient, multi-system countermeasure and its potential for improving the environment and simplifying operational activities (e.g., WCS, galley, etc.), much still needs to be learned regarding the human response to rotating environments before AG can be successfully implemented. This paper will describe our approach for developing and implementing a rigorous AG Research Project to address the key biomedical research questions that must be answered before developing effective AG countermeasure implementation strategies for exploration-class missions. The AG Research Project will be performed at JSC, ARC, extramural academic and government research venues, and international partner facilities maintained by DLR and IMBP. The Project includes three major ground-based human research subprojects that will lead to flight testing of intermittent short-radius AG in ISS crewmembers after 201 0, continuous long-radius AG in CEV crews transiting to and from the Moon, and intermittent short-radius AG plus exercise in lunar habitats. These human ground-based subprojects include: 1) a directed, managed international short-radius project to investigate the multi-system effectiveness of intermittent AG in human subjects deconditioned by bed rest, 2) a directed, managed long-radius project to investigate the capacity of humans to live and work for extended periods in rotating environments, and 3) a focused

  15. Zero-point energy of ultracold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salasnich, Luca; Toigo, Flavio

    2016-06-01

    We analyze the divergent zero-point energy of a dilute and ultracold gas of atoms in D spatial dimensions. For bosonic atoms we explicitly show how to regularize this divergent contribution, which appears in the Gaussian fluctuations of the functional integration, by using three different regularization approaches: dimensional regularization, momentum-cutoff regularization and convergence-factor regularization. In the case of the ideal Bose gas the divergent zero-point fluctuations are completely removed, while in the case of the interacting Bose gas these zero-point fluctuations give rise to a finite correction to the equation of state. The final convergent equation of state is independent of the regularization procedure but depends on the dimensionality of the system and the two-dimensional case is highly nontrivial. We also discuss very recent theoretical results on the divergent zero-point energy of the D-dimensional superfluid Fermi gas in the BCS-BEC crossover. In this case the zero-point energy is due to both fermionic single-particle excitations and bosonic collective excitations, and its regularization gives remarkable analytical results in the BEC regime of composite bosons. We compare the beyond-mean-field equations of state of both bosons and fermions with relevant experimental data on dilute and ultracold atoms quantitatively confirming the contribution of zero-point-energy quantum fluctuations to the thermodynamics of ultracold atoms at very low temperatures.

  16. Do cosmological perturbations have zero mean?

    SciTech Connect

    Armendariz-Picon, Cristian

    2011-03-01

    A central assumption in our analysis of cosmic structure is that cosmological perturbations have a constant ensemble mean, which can be set to zero by appropriate choice of the background. This property is one of the consequences of statistical homogeneity, the invariance of correlation functions under spatial translations. In this article we explore whether cosmological perturbations indeed have zero mean, and thus test one aspect of statistical homogeneity. We carry out a classical test of the zero mean hypothesis against a class of alternatives in which primordial perturbations have inhomogeneous non-vanishing means, but homogeneous and isotropic covariances. Apart from Gaussianity, our test does not make any additional assumptions about the nature of the perturbations and is thus rather generic and model-independent. The test statistic we employ is essentially Student's t statistic, applied to appropriately masked, foreground-cleaned cosmic microwave background anisotropy maps produced by the WMAP mission. We find evidence for a non-zero mean in a particular range of multipoles, but the evidence against the zero mean hypothesis goes away when we correct for multiple testing. We also place constraints on the mean of the temperature multipoles as a function of angular scale. On angular scales smaller than four degrees, a non-zero mean has to be at least an order of magnitude smaller than the standard deviation of the temperature anisotropies.

  17. The Earth's Gravity and Its Geological Significance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, A. H.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the earth's gravity and its geological significance. Variations of gravity around the earth can be produced by a great variety of possible distributions of density within the earth. Topics discussed include isostasy, local structures, geological exploration, change of gravity in time, and gravity on the moon and planets. (DS)

  18. Accuracy of mapping the Earth's gravity field fine structure with a spaceborne gravity gradiometer mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    The spaceborne gravity gradiometer is a potential sensor for mapping the fine structure of the Earth's gravity field. Error analyses were performed to investigate the accuracy of the determination of the Earth's gravity field from a gravity field satellite mission. The orbital height of the spacecraft is the dominating parameter as far as gravity field resolution and accuracies are concerned.

  19. Critical gravity in four dimensions.

    PubMed

    Lü, H; Pope, C N

    2011-05-01

    We study four-dimensional gravity theories that are rendered renormalizable by the inclusion of curvature-squared terms to the usual Einstein action with a cosmological constant. By choosing the parameters appropriately, the massive scalar mode can be eliminated and the massive spin-2 mode can become massless. This "critical" theory may be viewed as a four-dimensional analogue of chiral topologically massive gravity, or of critical "new massive gravity" with a cosmological constant, in three dimensions. We find that the on-shell energy for the remaining massless gravitons vanishes. There are also logarithmic spin-2 modes, which have positive energy. The mass and entropy of standard Schwarzschild-type black holes vanish. The critical theory might provide a consistent toy model for quantum gravity in four dimensions. PMID:21635082

  20. Combined magnetic and gravity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinze, W. J.; Braile, L. W.; Chandler, V. W.; Mazella, F. E.

    1975-01-01

    Efforts are made to identify methods of decreasing magnetic interpretation ambiguity by combined gravity and magnetic analysis, to evaluate these techniques in a preliminary manner, to consider the geologic and geophysical implications of correlation, and to recommend a course of action to evaluate methods of correlating gravity and magnetic anomalies. The major thrust of the study was a search and review of the literature. The literature of geophysics, geology, geography, and statistics was searched for articles dealing with spatial correlation of independent variables. An annotated bibliography referencing the Germane articles and books is presented. The methods of combined gravity and magnetic analysis techniques are identified and reviewed. A more comprehensive evaluation of two types of techniques is presented. Internal correspondence of anomaly amplitudes is examined and a combined analysis is done utilizing Poisson's theorem. The geologic and geophysical implications of gravity and magnetic correlation based on both theoretical and empirical relationships are discussed.